RECORD: Wafer, Lionel. 1699. A new voyage and description of the isthmus of America. London: James Knapton.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 01.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


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A NEW

VOYAGE

AND

DESCRIPTION

OF THE

Isthmus of America,

Giving an Account of the

AUTHOR'S Abode there,

The Form and Make of the Country, the Coasts, Hills, Rivers, &c. Woods, Soil, Weather, &c. Trees, Fruit, Beasts, Birds, Fish, &c.

The Indian Inhabitants, their Features, Complexion, &c. their Manners, Customs, Employments, Marriages, Feasts, Hunting, Computation, Language, &c.

With Remarkable Occurrences in the South Sea, and elsewhere.

By LIONEL WAFER.

Illustrated with General Copper-Plates.

LONDON:

Printed for James Knapton, at the Crown in
St. Paul's Church yard, 1699.

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To his Excellency, the Right Honourable

HENRY Earl of ROMNEY,

Viscount Sidney of Sheppey, and Baron of Milton in the County of Kent, Lord Lieutenant of the same, and of the City of Canterbury, Vice-Admiral of the same, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Constable of Dover Castle, Master of the Ordinance, Lieutenant-General of His Majesty's Forces, Collonel of His Majesty's own Regiment of Foot Guards, One of the Lords of His Majesty's Bed-Chamber, One of the Lords of His Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council; and One of the Lords Justices of England, during the Absence of His Majesty.

This Relation of his TRAVELS,

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And Description of the ISTHUMS of AMERICA, is humbly Dedicated by

His Excellency's

Most Devoted

Humble Servant,

LIONEL WAFER.

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TO THE

READER.

THO' this Book bears partly the Name Cop ages, yet I shall here acquaint you before-hand, as I have hinted in the Book it self, That you are not to expect any Thing like a Compleat Journal, or Historical Account of all Occurrences in the Scene of my Travels. My principal Design was to give what Description I could of the Isthums of Darien, where I was left among the wild

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Indians: And as for the preceding and subsequent Relations, I have, in them, only briefly represented the Course of my Voyages; without particularizing, any further, than to speak of a few Things I thought more especially remarkable. I cannot pretend to so great an Exactness, but that I may have fail'd in some Circumstances, especially in the Descriptional Part; which l leave to be made up by the longer Experience, and more accurate Observations of Others. But I have been as careful as I could: And tho there are some Matters of Fact that will seem strange, yet I have been more especially careful in these, to say nothing but what, according to the best of my Knowledge, is the very Truth. I

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was but Young when I was abroad, and I kept no Journal; so that I may be dispenc'd with as to Defects and Failings of less moment. Yet I have not trusted altogether to my own Memory; but some Things I committed to Writing, long before I return'd to England; and have since been frequently comparing and rectifying my Notices, by Discoursing such of my Fellow-Travellers as I have met with in London. And 'tis even my Desire that the Reader, as he has Opportunity, would consult any of them, as to these Particulars; being not fond of having him take them upon my single Word. He will do both himself and me a Kindness in it; if he will be so Candid, withal, as to make me such Allowance

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as the Premises call for: He will ease me of the Odium of Singularity; and himself of Doubt, or a Knowledge, it may be, too detective.

ERRATA.

PAge 4. 1. 27. read 4th.

p. 44. 1. 21. r. Chapters. There, p. 223.

p. 181. 1. 23. for Capital, r. Cardinal..

p. 195. 1. 16. r. Guaura.

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Mr. WAFER's Voyages; and Description of the Isthmus of America.

The A.s first Voyage.

Bantam.

lihor.

Malacca.

Jamby.

MY first going abroad was in the Great Ann of London, Capt. Zachary Browne Commander, bound for Bantam in the lsle of Java, in the East-Indies, in the Year 1677. I was in the Service of the Surgeon of the Ship; but being then very young, I made no great Observations in that Voyage. My Stay at Bantam was not above a Month, we being sent from thence to Jamby in the Isle of Sumatra. At that time there was a War between the Malayans of lihor on the Promontory of Malacca, and those of Jamby; and a Fleet of Proe's from lihore block'd up the Mouth of the River of Jamby. The Town of Jamby, is about 100 Mile up the River:

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Quolla.

Barcadero.

But within 4 or 5 Mile of the Sea, it hath a Port Town on the River, consisting of about 15 or 20 Houses, built on Posts, as the Fashion of that Country is: The Name of this Port is Quolla; though this seems rather an Appellative than a proper Name, for they generally call a Port Quolla: And 'tis usual with our English Seamen in those Parts, when they have been at a Landing-place, to say they have been at the Quolla, calling it so in imitation of the Natives; as the Portuguese call their Landing-places, Barcadero's. This War was some hindrance to our Trade there; and we were forc'd to stay about 4 Months in the Road, before we could get in our Lading of Pepper: And thence we return'd to Bantam, to take in the rest of our Lading. While I was ashore there, the Ship sail'd for England: So I got a Passage home in another Ship, The Bombay, Capt. White Commander; who being Chief Mate, succeeded Capt. Bennet, who dy'd in the Voyage.

The A.'s 2d Voyage.

Jamaica.

Capt. Buckenham's hard Fortune.

I arrived in England again in the Year 1679 and after about a Months stay, I entred my self on a Second

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Voyage, in a Vessel commanded by Capt. Buckenham, bound for the West-Indies. I was there also in the Service of the Surgeon of the Ship: But when we came to Jamaica, the Season of Sugars being not yet come, the Captain was willing to make a short Voyage, in the mean while, to the Bay of Campeachy, to fetch Logwood: But having no mind to go further with him, I staid in Jamaica. It proved well for me that I did so; for in that Expedition, the Captain was taken by the Spaniards, and carried Prisoner to Mexico: Where one Russel saw him, who was then also a Prisoner there, and after made his Escape. He told me he saw Capt. Buckenham, with a Log chain'd to his Leg, and a Basket at his Back, crying Bread about the Streets for a Baker his Master. The Spaniards would never consent to the Ransoming him, tho' he was a Gentleman who had Friends of a considerable Fortune, and would have given them a very large Sum of Mony.

The Angels Plantation.

Port Royal.

Cartagena

Golden-I.

Bastimento's.

Portobel.

Mr.Dampier.

Isthmus.

Santa Maria.

S. Seas.

Hist of the Buc.

I had a Brother in Jamaica, who was imployed under Sir Thomas Muddiford, in his Plantation at the Angels:

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And my chief Inducement in undertaking this Voyage was to see him. I staid some time with him, and he settled me in a House at Port-Royal, where I followed my Business of Surgery for some Months. But in a while I met with Capt. Cook, and Capt. Linch, two Privateers, who were going out from Port-Royal, toward the Coast of Cartagena, and took me along with them. We met other Privateers on that Coast; but being parted from them by stress of Weather about Golden-Island, in the Samballoe's, we stood away to the Bastimento's, where we met them again, and several others, who had been at the taking of Portobel, and were Rendesvouzed there. Here I first met with Mr. Dampier, and was with him in the Expedition into the S. Seas. For in short, having muster'd up our Forces at Golden-Island, and landed on the Isthmus, we march'd over Land, and took Santa Maria; and made those Excursions into the S. Seas, which Mr. Ringrose relates in the 44th part of the History of the Buccaniers.

Mr.Dampier.

Capt. Sharp.

Isthmus.

Mr. Dampier has told, in his Introduction to his Voyage round the World,

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in what manner the Company divided with reference to Capt. Sharp. I was of Mr. Dampier's side in that Matter, and of the number of those who chose rather to return in Boats to the Isthmus, and go back again a toilsom Journey over Land, than stay under a Captain in whom we experienc'd neither Courage nor Conduct. He hath given also an Account of what besel us in that Return, till such time as by the Carlesness of our Company, my Knee was so scorch'd with Gun-powder, that after a few Days further March, I was left behind among the Wild-Indians, in the Isthmus of Darien.

The A. left in the Isthmus.

His Knee burnt.

It was the 5th Day of our Journey when this Accident befel me; being also the 5th of May, in the Year 1681. I was fitting on the Ground near one of our Men, who was drying of Gun-powder in a Silver Plate: But not managing it as he should, it blew up, and scorch'd my Knee to that degree, that the Bone was left bare, the Flesh being torn away, and my Thigh burnt for a great way above it. I applied to it immediately such Remedies as I had in my Knapsack: And being unwilling to be left behind my

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Companions, I made hard shift to jog on, and bear them Company for a few Days; during which our Slaves ran away from us, and among them a Negro whom the Company had allow'd me for my particular Attendant, to carry my Medicines. He took them away with him, together with the rest of my Things, and thereby left me depriv'd of wherewithal to dress my Sore; insomuch that my Pain increasing upon me, and being not able to trudge it further through Rivers and Woods, I took leave of my Company, and set up my Rest among the Darien Indians.

R. Gobson.

J. Hingson.

This was on the 10th Day; and there staid with me Mr. Richard Gopson, who had served an Apprenticeship to a Druggist in London. He was an ingenious Man, and a good Scholar; and had with him a Greek Testament which he frequently read, and would translate extempore into English to such of the Company as were dispos'd to hear him. Another who staid behind with me was John Hingson, Mariner: They were both so fatigued with the Journey, that they could go no further. There had been an Or-

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der made among us at our first Landing, to kill any who should flag in the Journey: But this was made only to terrify any from loitering, and being taken by the Spaniards; who by Tortures might extort from them a Discovery of our March. But this rigorous Order was not executed; but the Company took a very kind Leave both of these, and of me. Before this we had lost the Company of two more of our Men, Robert Spratlin and William Bowman, who parted with us at the River Congo, the Day after my being scorch'd with Gun-powder. The Passage of that River was very deep, and the Stream violent; by which means I was born down the Current, for several Paces, to an Eddy in the bending of the River. Yet I got over; but these two being the hindmost, and feeing with what difficulty I cross'd the River, which was still rising, they were discourag'd from attempting it, and chose rather to stay where they were. These two came to me; and the other two soon after the Company's departure for the North-Sea, as I shall have occasion to mention; so that there were five of

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us in all who were left behind among the Indians.

The Indians cure the A.

A kind Indian.

Being now forc'd to stay among them, and having no means to alleviate the Anguish of my Wound, the Indians undertook to cure me; and apply'd to my Knee some Herbs, which they first chew'd in their Mouths to the consistency of a Paste, and putting it on a Plantain-Leaf, laid it upon the Sore. This prov'd so effectual, that in about 20 Days use of this Poultess, which they applied fresh every Day, I was perfectly cured; except only a Weakness in that Knee, which remain'd long after, and a Benummedness which I sometimes find in it to this Day. Yet they were not altogether so kind in other respects; for some of them look'd on us very scurvily, throwing green Plantains to us, as we sat cringing and shivering, as you would Bones to a Dog. This was but sorry Food; yet we were forc'd to be contented with it: But to mend our Commons, the young Indian, at whose House we were left, would often give us some ripe Plantains, unknown to his Neighbours; and these were a great Re-

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freshment to us. This Indian, in his Childhood, was taken a Prisoner by the Spaniards; and having liv'd some time among them, he had learn'd a pretty deal of their Language, under the Bishop of Panama, whom he ferv'd there; till finding means to escape, he was got again among his own Country-men. This was of good use to us; for we having a smattering of Spanish, and a little of the Indian's Tongue also, by passing their Country before, between both these, and with the additional use of Signs, we found it no very difficult Matter to understand one another. He was truly generous and hospitable toward us; and so careful of us, that if in the Day-time we had no other Provision than a few sorry green Plantains, he would rise in the Night, and go out by stealth to the Neighbouring Plantain-walk, and fetch a Bundle of ripe ones from thence, which he would distribute among us unknown to his Country-men. Not that they were naturally inclin'd to use us thus roughly, for they are generally a kind and free-hearted People; but they had taken some particular Offence, upon

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the account of our Friends who left us, who had in a manner awed the Indian Guides they took with them for the remainder of their Journey, and made them go with them very much against their Wills; the Severity of the Rainy Season being then so great, that even the Indians themselves had no mind for Travelling, tho' they are little curious either as to the Weather or Ways.

R. Spratlin, W. Bowman.

G. Gainy's drowning.

A Consult to destroy the A. and his Companions.

When Gopson, Hingson, and I had lived 3 or 4 Days in this manner, the other two, Spratlin and Bowman, whom we left behind at the River Congo, on the 6th Day of our Journey, found their way to us; being exceedingly fatigued with rambling so long among the wild Woods and Rivers without Guides, and having no other Sustenance but a few Plantains they found here and there. They told us of George Gainy's Disaster, whose Drowning Mr. Dampier relates p. 17. They saw him lie dead on the Shore which the Floods were gone off from, with the Rope twisted about him, and his Mony at his Neck; but they were so fatigued, they car'd not to meddle with it. These, after their coming

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up to us, continued with us for about a Fortnight longer, at the same Plantation where the main Body of our Company had left us; and our Provision was still at the same Rate, and the Countenances of the Indians as stern towards us as ever, having yet no News of their Friends whom our Men had taken as their Guides. Yet notwithstanding their Disgust, they still took care of my Wound; which by this time was pretty well healed, and I was enabled to walk about. But at length not finding their Men return as they expected, they were out of Patience, and seem'd resolved to revenge on us the Injuries which they suppos'd our Friends had done to theirs. To this end they held frequent Consultations how they should dispose of us: Some were for killing us, others for keeping us among them, and others for carrying us to the Spaniards, thereby to ingratiate themselves with them. But the greatest part of them mortally hating the Spaniards, this last Project was soon laid aside; and they came to this Resolution, To forbear doing any thing to us, till so much Time were expir'd as

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they thought might reasonably be allow'd for the return of their Friends, whom our Men had taken with them as Guides to the North Sea-Coast; and this, as they computed, would be 10 Days, reckoning it up to us on their Fingers.

Preparations to kill them.

The Time was now almost expir'd, and having no News of the Guides, the Indians began to suspect that our Men had either murder'd them, or carried them away with them; and seem'd resolv'd thereupon to destroy us. To this end they prepared a great Pile of Wood to burn us, on the 10th Day; and told us what we must trust to when the Sun went down; for they would not execute us till then.

Lacenta saves them;

and sends them away.

But it so hapned that Lacenta, their Chief, passing that way, dissuaded them from that Cruelty, and proposed to them to send us down towards the North-side, and two Indians with us, who might inform themselves from the Indians near the Coast, what was become of the Guides. They readily hearken'd to this Proposal, and immediately chose two Me to conduct us to the North-side. One

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of these had been all along an inveterate Enemy to us; but the other was that kind Indian, who was so much our Friend, as to rise in the Night and get us ripe Plantains.

Bad Travelling.

The next Day therefore we were dismissed with our two Guides, and marched Joyfully for 3 Days; being well assur'd we should not find that our Men had done any hurt to their Guides. The first three Days we march'd thro' nothing but Swamps, having great Rains, with much Thunder and Lightning; and lodg'd every Night under the dropping Trees, upon the cold Ground. The third Night we lodg'd on a small Hill, which by the next Morning was become an Island: For those great Rains had made such a Flood, that all the low Land about it was cover'd deep with Water. All this while we had no Provision, except a handful of dry Maiz our Indian Guides gave us the first two Days: But this being spent, they return'd home again, and left us to shift for our selves.

At this Hill we remained the fourth Day; and on the fifth the Waters being abated, we set forward,

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steering North by a Pocket Compass, and marched till 6 a Clock at Night: At which time, we arrived at a River about 40 foot wide, and very deep. Here we found a Tree fallen cross the River, and so we believed our Men had past that way; therefore here we fat down, and consulted what course we should take.

They are bewilder'd.

Bowman like to be drown'd.

And having debated the Matter, it was concluded upon to cross the River, and seek the Path in which they had travelled: For this River running somewhat Northward in this place, we perswaded our selves we were past the main Ridge of Land that divided the North part of the Isthmus from the South; and consequently that we were not very far from the North Sea. Besides, we did not consider that the great Rains were the only cause of the sudden rising and falling of the River; but thought the Tide might contribute to it, and that we were not very far from the Sea. We went therefore over the River by the help of the Tree: But the Rain had made it so slippery, that 'twas with great difficulty that we could get over it astride, for there was no

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walking on it: And tho' four of us got pretty well over, yet Bowman, who was the last, slipt off, and the Stream hurried him out of sight in a moment, so that we concluded he was Drown'd. To add to our Affliction for the loss of our Consort, we sought about for a Path, but found none; for the late Flood had fill'd all the Land with Mud and Oaze, and therefore since we could not find a Path, we returned again, and passed over the River on the same Tree by which we cross'd it at first; intending to pass down by the side of this River, which we still thought discharged it self into the North Sea. But when we were over, and had gone down with the Stream a quarter of a Mile, we espy'd our Companion sitting on the Bank of the River; who, when we came to him, told us, that the violence of the Stream hurry'd him thither, and that there being in an Eddy, he had time to consider where he was; and that by the help of some Boughs that hung in the Water, he had got out. This Man had at this time 400 pieces of Eight at his Back: He was a weakly Man, a Taylor by Trade.

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Great Hardships.

Maccaw-berries.

Here we lay all Night; and the next Day, being the 5th of our present Journey, we march'd further down by the side of the River, thro' thickets of hollow Bamboes and Brambles, being also very weak for want of Food: But Providence susser'd us not to Perish, tho' Hunger and Weariness had brought us even to Death's door: For we found there a Maccaw Tree, which afforded us Berries, of which we eat greedily; and having therewith somewhat satisfied our Hunger, we carried a Bundle of them away with us, and continued our March till Night.

They are besetwith Rivers.

They mistake theirway.

The next Day being the 6th, we marched till 4 in the Afternoon, when we arrived at another River, which join'd with that we had hither to Coasted; and we were now inclos'd between them, on a little Hill at the Conflux of them. This last River was as wide and deep as the former; so that here we were put to a Nonplus, not being able to find means to Ford either of them, and they being here too wide for a Tree to go across, unless a greater Tree than we were able to cut down; having no Tool

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with us but a Macheat or long Knife. This last River also we set by the Compass, and found it run due North: Which confirmed us in oun Mistake, that we were on the North side of the main Ridge of Mountains; and therefore we resolv'd upon making two Bark-logs, to float us down the River, which we unanimously concluded would bring us to the North Sea Coast. The Woods afforded us hollow Bamboes fit for our purpose; and we cut them into proper lengths, and tied them together with Twigs of a Shrub like a Vine, a great many on the top of one another.

Violent Rains.

By that time we had finished our Bark-logs it was Night, and we took up our Lodging on a small Hill, where we gathered about a Cart-load of Wood, and made a Fire, intending to set out with our Bark-logs the next Morning. But not long after Sun-set, it fell a Raining as if Heaven and Earth would meet; which Storm was accompanied with horrid Claps of Thunder, and such flashes of Lightning, of a Sulpherous smell, that we were almost stifled in the open Air.

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Great Floods.

Thus it continued till 12 a Clock at Night; when to our great Terror, we could hear the Rivers roaring on both sides us; but 'twas so dark, that we could see nothing but the Fire we had made, except when a flash of Lightning came. Then we could see all over the Hill, and perceive the Water approaching us; which in less than half an hour carried away our Fire. This drove us all to our shifts, every Man seeking some means to save himself from the threatning Deluge. We also sought for small Trees to climb: For the place abounded with great Cotton Trees, of a prodigious bigness from the Root upward, and at least 40 or 50 foot clear without Branches, so that there was no climbing up them.

The A. climbs a Tree.

For my own part, I was in a great Consternation, and running to save my Life, I very opportunely met with a large Cotton Tree, which by some accident, or thro' Age, was become rotten, and hollow on one side; having a hole in it at about the height of 4 foot from the ground. I immediately got up into it as well as I could: And in the Cavity I found

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a knob, which served me for a Stool; and there I sat down almost Head and Heels together, not having room enough to stand or sit upright. In this Condition I sat wishing for Day: But being fatigued with Travel, though very hungry withal, and cold, I fell asleep: But was soon awakned by the noise of great Trees which were brought down by the Flood; and came with such force against the Tree, that they made it shake.

He is beset with the Waters.

The Floods go off.

When I awoke, I found my Knees in the Water, though the lowest part of my hollow Trunk was, as I said, 4 foot above the ground; and the Water was running as swift, as if 'twere in the middle of the River. The Night was still very dark, but only when the flashes of Lightning came: Which made it so dreadful and terrible, that I forgot my Hunger, and was wholly taken up with praying to God to spare my Life. While I was Praying and Meditating thus on my sad Condition, I saw the Morning Star appear, by which I knew that Day was at hand: This cheared my drooping Spirits, and in

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less than half an hour the Day began to dawn, the Rain and Lightning ceas'd, and the Waters abated, insomuch that by that time the Sun was up, the Water was gone off from my Tree.

Then I ventured out of my cold Lodging; but being stiff and the Ground slippery, I could scarce stand: Yet I made a shift ro ramble to the Place where we had made our Fire, but found no Body there. Then I call'd out aloud, but was answer'd only with my own Eccho; which struck such Terror into me, that I fell down as dead, being oppress'd both with Grief and Hunger; this being the 7th Day of our Fast, save only the Maccaw-berries before related.

He meets again with his Companions.

Being in this Condition, despairing of Comfort for want of my Consorts, I lay some time on the wet Ground, till at last I heard a Voice hard by me, which in some sort revived me; but especially when I saw it was Mr. Hingson, one of my Companions, and the rest found us presently after: Having all sav'd themselves by climbing small Trees. We greeted each o-

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ther with Tears in our Eyes, and returned Thanks to God for our Deliverance.

The first thing we did in the Morning was to look after our Bark-logs or Rafts, which we had left tied to a Tree, in order to prosecute our Voyage down the River; but coming to the Place where we left them, we found them sunk and full of Water, which had got into the hollow of the Bamboes, contrary to our Expectation; for we thought they would not have admitted so much as Air, but have been like large Bladders full blown: But it seems there were Cracks in them which we did not perceive, and perhaps made in them by our Carelesness in working them; for the Vessels made of these Hollow Bamboe's, are wont to hold Water very well.

In danger of going among their Enemies.

River of Cheapo.

This was a new Vexation to us, and how to proceed farther we knew not; but Providence still directed all for the better: For if we had gone down this River, which we afterwards understood to be a River that runs into the River of Cheapo, and so towards the Bay of Panama and the South Sea, it would have carried us

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into the midst of our Enemies the Spaniards, from whom we could expect no Mercy.

The Neighbourhood of the Mountains, and steepness of the Descent, is the cause that the Rivers rise thus suddenly after these violent Rains; but for the same reason they as suddenly fall again.

They are forc'd to return.

But to return to my Story, being thus frustrate of our Design of going down the Stream, or of crossing either of these Rivers, by reason of the sinking of our Bark-logs, we were glad to think of returning back to the Indian Settlement, and Coasted up the River side in the same Track we came down by. As our Hunger was ready to carry our Eyes to any Object that might afford us some Relief, it hapned that we espied a Deer fast asleep: Which we designed if possible to get, and in order to it we came so very near, that we might almost have thrown our selves on him: But one of our Men putting the Muzle of his Gun close to him, and the Shot not being wadded, tumbled out, just before the Gun went off, and did the Deer no hurt; but starting up at the noise,

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he took the River and swam over. As long as our way lay by the River side, we made a shift to keep it well enough: But being now to take leave of the River, in order to seek for the Indians Habitation, we were much at a loss. This was the Eighth Day, and we had no Sustinence beside the Maccaw-Berries we had got, and the Pith of a Bibby-Tree we met with, which we split and eat very favourly.

They are in fear of the Indians.

The Indians receive them Kindly.

After a little Consideration what course to steer next, we concluded it best to follow the Track of a Pecary or Wild-Hog, hoping it might bring us to some old Plantain Walk or Potato Piece, which these Creatures often resort to, to look for Food: This brought us, according to our Expectation, to an old Plantation, and in fight of a new one. But here again Fear overwhelmed us, being between two straits, either to starve or venture up to the Houses of the Indians, whom being so near, we were now afraid of again, not knowing how they would receive us. But since there was no avoiding it, it was concluded that one should go up to the House, while the rest staid behind to

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see the Issue. In conclusion I went to the Plantation, and it proved the same that we came from. The Indians were all amazed to see me, and began to ask many Questions: But I prevented them by falling into a Swoon, occasion'd by the heat of the House, and the scent of Meat that was boyling over the Fire. The Indians were very officious to help me in this Extremity, and when I revived, they gave me a little to eat. Then they enquired of me for the other four Men, for whom they presently sent, and brought all but Gobson, who was left a little further off, and treated us all very kindly: For our long expected Guides were now returned from the North side, and gave large Commendations of the kindness and generosity of our Men; by which means all the Indians were become now again our very good Friends. The Indian, who was so particularly kind to us, preceiving Mr. Gobson was not yet arrived at the Plantation, carried out Victuals to him, and after he was a little refresh'd with that, brought him up to us. So that now we were all together again, and had a great deal of care taken of us.

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They setout again.

Here we stayed seven Days to refresh our selves, and then took our March again: For we were desirous to get to the North Seas as soon as we could, and they were now more willing to guide us than ever before; since the Guides our Party took with them, had not only been dismiss'd civilly, but with Presents also of Axes, Beads, &c. The Indians therefore of the Village where we now were, order'd four lusty young Men to conduct us down again to the River, over which the Tree was fallen, who going now with a good will, carried us thither in one Day; whereas we were three Days the first time in going thither. When we came thither, we marched about a Mile up the River, where lay a Canoa, into which we all Imbarked, and the Indians guided us up the same River which we before, thro' mistake, had strove to go down. The Indians padled stoutly against the Stream till Night, and then we Lodged at a House, where these Men gave such large Commendations of our Men, who were gone to the North Sea, that the Master of the House treated

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us after the best manner. The next Day we set out again, with two Indians more, who made fix in all, to Row or Paddle us; and our Condition now was well altered.

In fix Days time after this, they brought us to Lacenta's House, who had before saved our Lives.

Lacenta's Palace.

Large Cotton Trees.

This House is situated on a fine little Hill, on which grows the statelieft Grove of Cotton Trees that ever I saw. The Bodies of these Trees were generally six foot in Diameter, nay, some eight, nine, ten, eleven; for four Indians and my self took hand in hand round a Tree, and could not fathom it by three foot. Here was likewise a stately Plantain Walk, and a Grove of other small Trees, that would make a pleasant artificial Wilderness, if Industry and Art were bestowed on it.

The Circumference of this pleasant little Hill, contains at least 100 Acres of Land; and is a Peninsula of an Oval form, almost surrounded with two great Rivers, one coming from the East, the other from the West; which approaching within 40 foot at each other, at the front of the Penin-

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sula, separate again, embracing tin Hill, and meet on the other side, making there one pretty large River, which runs very swift. There is therefore but one way to come in toward this Seat; which, as I before observed, is not above 40 foot wide, between the Rivers on each side: and 'tis senced with hollow Bamboes, Popes-heads and Prickle pears, so thick set from one side the Neck of Land to the other, that 'tis impossible for an Enemy to approach it.

On this Hill live Fifty Principal Men of the Country, all under Lacenta's Command, who is as a Prince over all the South part of the Isthmus of Darien; the Indians both there and on the North side also, paying him great respect: but the South side is his Country, and this Hill his Seat Or Palace. There is only one Canoa belonging to it, which serves to ferry over Lacenta and the rest of them.

Lacenta keeps them with him.

When we were arrived at this; Place, Lacenta discharged our Guides, and sent them back again, telling us, That 'twas not possible for us to Travel to the North side at this Season; for the Rainy Season was now in

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its height, and Travelling very bad; but told us we should stay with him, and he would take care of us: And we were forc'd to comply with him.

We had not been long here before an Occurrence happen'd, which tended much to the increasing the good Opinion Lacenta and his People had conceiv'd of us, and brought me into particular Esteem with them.

The Indians way of letting Blood.

It so happen'd, that one of Lacenta's Wives being indisposed, was to be let Blood; which the Indians perform in this manner: The Patient is seated on a Stone in the River, and one with a small Bow shoots little Arrows into the naked Body of the Patient, up and down; shooting them as fast as he can, and not missing any part. But the Arrows are gaged, so that they penetrate no farther than we generally thrust our Lancets: And if by chance they hit a Vein which is full of Wind, and the Blood spurts out a little, they will leap and skip about, shewing many Antick Gestures, by way of rejoycing and triumph.

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The A. bleeds Lacenta's Queen.

The A. much reputed for this.

I was by while this was performing on Lacenta's Lady: And perceiving their Ignorance, told Lacenta, That if he pleased, I would shew him a better way, without putting the Patient to so much Torment. Let me see, says he; and at his Command, I bound up her Arm with a piece of Bark, and with my Lancet breathed a Vein: But this rash attempt had like to have cost me my Life. For Lacenta seeing the Blood issue out in a Stream, which us'd to come only drop by drop, got hold of his Lance, and swore by his Tooth, that if the did otherwise than well, he would have my Heart's Blood. I was not moved, but desired him to be patient, and I drew off about 12 Ounces, and bound up her Arm, and desired the might rest till the next Day: By which means the Fever abated, and the had not another Fit. This gained me so much Reputation, that Lacenta, came to me, and before all his Attendants, bowed, and kiss'd my Hand. Then the rest came thick about me, and some kissed my Hand, others my Knee, and some my Foot: After which I was taken up into a Ham-

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mock, and carried on Men's Shoulders, Lacenta himself making a Speech in my Praise, and commending me as much Superiour to any of their Doctors. Thus I was carried from Plantation to Plantation, and lived in great Splendor and Repute, administring both Physick and Phlebotomy to those that wanted. For tho' I lost my Salves and Plaisters, when the Negro ran away with my Knapsack, yet I preserv'd a Box of Instruments, and a few Medicaments wrapt up in an Oil Cloth, by having them in my Pocket, where I generally carried them.

I lived thus some Months among the Indians who in a manner ador'd me. Some of these Indians had been Slaves to the Spaniards, and had made their Escapes; which I suppose was the cause of their expressing a desire of Baptism: but more to have a European Name given them, than for any thing they know of Christianity.

He goes on Hunting with Lacenta.

Gold River.

The way of gathering Gold.

Santa Maria.

The Gold carried to Santa Maria.

During my abode with Lacenta, I often accompanied him a Hunting, wherein he took great delight, here being good Game. I was one time, about the beginning of the dry Season,

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accompanying him toward the South-East part of the Country, and we pass'd by a River where the Spaniards were gathering Gold. I took this River to be one of those which comes from the South-East, and runs into the Gulph of St. Michael. When we came near the Place where they wrought, we stole softly through the Woods, and placing our selves behind the great Trees, looked on them a good while, they not seeing us. The manner of their getting Gold it is as follows. They have little Wooden Dishes, which they dip softly into the Water, and take it up half full of Sand, which they draw gently out of the Water; and at every dipping they take up Gold mix'd with the Sand and Water, more or less. This they shake and the Sand riseth, and goes over the Brims of the Dish with the Water; but the Gold settles to the bottom. This done, they bring it out and dry it in the Sun, and then pound it in a Mortar. Then they take it out and spread it on Paper, and having a Load-stone they move that over it, which draws all the Iron, &c. from it, and then leaves the Gold

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clean from Ore or Filth; and this they bottle up in Gourds or Calabashes. In this manner they work during the dry Season, which is three Months; for in the wet time the Gold is washed from the Mountains by violent Rains, and then commonly the Rivers are very deep; but now in the gathering Season, when they are fallen again, they are not above a Foot deep. Having spent the dry Season in gathering, they imbark in small Vessels for Santa Maria Town; and if they meet with good Success and a favourable Time, they carry with them, by Report, (for I learnt these Particulars of a Spaniard whom we took at Santa Maria under Captain Sharp) 18 or 20 thousand Pound o weight of Gold: But whether they gather more or less, 'tis incredible to report the store of Gold which is yearly wash'd down out of these Rivers.

During these Progresses l made with Lacenta, my four Companions staid behind at his Seat; but I had by this time so far ingratiated my self with Lacenta, that he would never go any where without me, and I plainly

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perceiv'd he intended to keep me in this Country all the days of my Life; which raised some anxious Thoughts in me, but I conceal'd them as well as I could.

Pursuing our Sport one Day, it hapned we started a Pecary, which held the Indians and their Dogs in play the greatest part of the Day; till Lacenta was almost spent for want of Victuals, and was so troubled at his ill Success, that he impatiently wished for some better way of managing this sort of Game.

The A. moves for Leave to depart;

and 'tis granted.

I now understood their Language indifferent well, and finding what troubled him, I took this opportunity to attempt the getting my Liberty to depart, by commending to him our, English Dogs, and making an Offer of bringing him a few of them from England, if he would suffer me to go thither for a short time. He demurr'd at this Motion a while; but at length he swore by his Tooth, laying his Fingers on it, That I should have my Liberty, and for my Sake the other four with me; provided I would promise and swear by my Tooth, That I would return and marry among

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them; for he had made me a Promise of his Daughter in Marriage, but she was not then marriageable. I accepted of the Conditions: And he further promised, that at my return he would do for me beyond my Expectation.

He returns towards Lacenta's House;

I returned him Thanks, and was the next Day dismissed under the Convoy of seven lusty Fellows; and we had four Women to carry our Provision, and my Cloaths, which were only a Linnen Frock and pair of Breeches. These I saved to cover my Nakedness, if ever I should come among Christians again; for at this time I went naked as the Salvages, and was painted by their Women; but I would not suffer them to prick my Skin, to rub the Paint in, as they use to do, but only to lay it on in little Specks.

and arrives there.

Thus we departed from the Neighbourhood of the South Seas, where Lacenta was Hunting, to his Seat or Palace, where I arrived in about 15 Days, to the great Joy of my Consorts; who had staid there, during this Hunting Expedition I made with Lacenta to the South-East.

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After many Salutations on both sides, and some joyful Tears, I told them how I got my Liberty of Lacenta, and what I promised at my return: And they were very glad at the hopes of getting away, after so long a stay in a Savage Country.

He and the rest set out again for the N.Sea

I stayed here some few Days till I was refreshed, and then with my Companions, marched away for the North Seas; having a strong Convoy of armed Indians for our Guides.

The main Ridge of Hills.

We travelled over many very high Mountains; at last we came to one far surpassing the rest in height, to which we were four Days gradually ascending, tho' now and then with some Descent between whiles. Being on the top, I perceived a strange Giddiness in my Head; and enquiring both of my Companions, and the Indians, they all assured me they were in the like Condition; which I can only impute to the height of the Mountains, and the clearness of the Air. I take this part of the Mountains to have been higher than either that which we cross'd with Captain Sharp, or that which Mr. Dampier and the rest of our Party cross'd in their

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return: For from this Eminence, the tops of the Mountains over which we passed before, seem'd very much below us, and sometimes we could not see them for the Clouds between; but when the Clouds flew over the tops of the Hill, they would break, and then we could discern them, looking as it were thro' so many Loop-holes.

I desired two Men to lie on my Legs, while I laid my Head over that side of the Mountain which was most perpendicular; but could see no Ground for the Clouds that were between. The Indians carried us over a Ridge so narrow that we were forced to straddle over on our Britches; and the Indians took the same Care of themselves, handing their Bows, Arrows, and Luggage, from one to another. As we descended, we were all cured of our Giddiness.

Indian Settlements.

When we came to the foot of the Mountain we found a River that ran into the North Seas, and near the side of it were a few Indian Houses, which afforded us indifferent good Entertainment. Here we lay one Night, it being the first House I had feen for

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six Days; my Lodging, by the way, being in a Hammock made fast to two Trees, and my Covering a Plantain-Leaf.

They come to the Sea-side.

Indians in their Gowns.

The next Morning we set forward, and in two Days time arrived at the sea-side, and were met by 40 of the best sort of Indians in the Country who congratuled our coming, and welcom'd us to their Houses. They were all in their finest Robes, which are long white Gowns, reaching to their Ancles, with Fringes at the bottom, and in their Hands they had Half Pikes. But of these Things, and such other Particulars as I observ'd during my Abode in this Country, I shall say more when I come to describe it.

The Indians fall to Conjuring

Pawawing.

The Answer made to the Conjuring.

We presently enquired of these Indians, when they expected any Ships? They told us they knew not, but would enquire; and therefore they sent for one of their Conjurers, who immediately went to work to raise the Devil, to enquire of him at what time a Ship would arrive here; for they are very expert and skilful in their sort of Diabolical Conjurations. We were in the House with them, and they

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first began to work with making a Partition with Hammocks, that the pawawers, for so they call these Conjurers, might be by themselves. They continued some time at their Exercise, and we could hear them make most hideous Yellings and Shrieks; imitating the Voices of all their kind of Birds and Beasts. With their own Noise, they join'd that of several Stones struck together, and of Conch-shells, and of a sorry sort of Drums made of hollow Bamboes, which they beat upon; making a jarring Noise also with Strings fasten'd to the larger Bones of Beasts: And every now and then they would make a dreadful Exclamation, and clattering all of a sudden, would as suddenly make a Pause and a profound Silence. But finding that after a considerable Time no Answer was made them, they concluded that 'twas because we were in the House, and so turn'd us out, and went to Work again. But still finding no return, after an Hour or more, they made a new Search in our Apartment; and finding some of our Cloaths hanging up in a Basket against the Wall, they threw them out of Doors in great

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Disdain. Then they fell once more to their Pawawing; and after a little time, they came out with their Answer, but all in a Muck-sweat; so that they first went down to the River and wash'd themselves, and then came and deliver'd the Oracle to us, which was to this Effect: That the 10th Day from that time there would arrive two Ships; and that in the Morning of the 10th Day we should hear first one Gun, and sometime after that another: That one of us should die soon after; and that going aboard we should lose one of our Guns: All which fell out exactly according to the Prediction.

2 Ships arriv'd

For on the 10th Day in the Morning we heard the Guns, first one, and then another, in that manner that was told us; and one of our Guns Fusees was lost in going aboard the Ships: For we five, and three of the Indians went off to the Ships in a Canoa; but as we cross'd the Bar of the River, it overset; where Mr. Gopson, one of my Consorts, was like to be drowned; and tho' we recover'd him out of the Water, yet he lost his Gun according to the Prediction.

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I know not how this happen'd as to his Gun; but ours were all lash'd down to the side of the Canoa: And in the West-Indies we never go into a Canoa, which a little matter oversets, but we make fast our Guns to the Sides or Seats: And I suppose Mr. Gopson, who was a very careful and sensible Man, had lash'd down his also, tho' not fast enough.

They go off to the Ships.

Being overset, and our Canoa turn'd up-side down, we got to Shore as well as we could, and drag'd Mr. Gopson with us, tho' with difficulty. Then we put off again, and kept more along the Shore, and at length stood over to La Sounds Key, where the Ships lay, an English Sloop, and a Spanish Tartan, which the English had taken but two or three Days before. We knew by the make of this last that it was a Spanish Vessel, before we came up with it: But seeing it in Company with an English one, we thought they must be Consorts; and whether the Spanish Vessel should prove to be under the English one, or the English under that, we were resolv'd to put it to the venture, and get aboard, being quite tir'd with our

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stay among the wild Indians. The Indians were more afraid of its being a Vessel of Spaniards, their Enemies as well as ours: For this was another Particular they told us 10 Days before, when they were Pawawing, that when their Oracle inform'd them that two Vessels would arrive at this time, they understood by their Dæmons Answer that one of them would be an English one; but as to the other, he spake so dubiously, that they were much afraid it would be a Spanish one, and 'twas not without great difficulty that we now persuaded them to go aboard with us: Which was another remarkable Circumstance; since this Vessel was not only a Spanish one, but actually under the Command of the Spaniards at the time of the Pawawing, and some Days after, till taken by the English.

They and the Indians receiv'd aboard.

The A. washes off his Paint.

Mr. Gopson dies.

The Indians return ashore.

They set Sail towards Cartagene

We went aboard the English Sloop, and our Indian Friends with us, and were received with a very hearty welcome. The four English Men with me were presently known and caress'd by the Ships Crew; but I sat a while cringing upon my Hams among the Indians, after their Fashi-

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on, painted as they were, and all naked but only about the Waist, and with my Nose-piece (of which more hereafter) hanging over my Mouth. I was willing to try if they would know me in this Disguise; and 'twas the better part of an Hour before one of the Crew, looking more narrowly upon me, cry'd out, Here's our Doctor; and immediately they all congratulated my Arrival among them. I did what I could presently to wash off my Paint, but 'twas near a Month before I could get tolerably rid of it, having had my Skin so long stain'd with it, and the Pigment dried on in the Sun: And when it did come off, 'twas usually with the peeling off of Skin and all. As for Mr. Gopson, tho' we brought him alive to the Ship, yet he did not recover his Fatigues, and his drenching in the Water, but having languish'd aboard about three Days, he died there at La Sound's Key; and his Death verified another, part of the Pawawer's Prediction. Our Indians, having been kindly entertain'd aboard for about 6 or 7 Days; and many others of them, who went to and fro with their Wives and

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Children, and Lacenta among the rest, visiting us about a Fortnight or three Weeks, we at length took leave of them, except 2 or 3 of them who would needs go with us to Windward; and weset Sail, with the Tartan in our Company, first to the more Eastern Isles of the Sambaloe's, and then towards the Coast of Cartagene.

The A.s Coasting about the W. Indies with Mr. Dampier.

and with Capt. Yanky. I. of Ash.

His Arrival in Virginia.

He goes into the S. Seas with Mr. Dampier;

and parts with him there.

This Relation discontinued, to describe the Isthmus.

But I shall not enter into the Discourse of our Voyage after this, Mr. Dampier, who was in the same Vessel, having done it particularly. It may suffice just to intimate, That I was cruising with him up and down the West-India Coast and Islands, partly under Capt. Wright, and partly under Capt. Yanky; till such time as Capt. Yanky left Mr. Dampier and the rest under Capt. Wright, at the Isle of Salt Tortuga, as Mr. Dampier relates in the 3d Chapter of his Voyage round the World, p. 58. I went then away and with Capt. Yanky; first to the Isle of Ash, where the French took us, as he relates occasionally, Chap. 4. p. 68. as also their turning us there ashore; our being taken in by Capt. Tristian, another French Man; his carrying us

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with him almost to Petit-Guaves; our Men seizing the Ship when he was gone ashore, carrying it back to the Isle of Ash, and there taking in the rest of our Crew: The taking the French Ship with Wines, and the other in which Capt. Cook, who was then of our Crew, went afterwards to the South Seas, after having first been at Virginia: So that we arrived in Virginia with these Prizes about 8 or 9 Months after Mr. Dampier came thither. I set out with him also in that new Expedition to the South Seas under Capt. Cook, tho' he forgot to mention me in that part of his Voyages. We went round Terra del Fuego, and so up the South-Sea Coast, along Chili, Peru and Mexico, as he relates at large in his 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th Chapters, p. 223. There he tells how Capt. Davis, who had succeeded Capt. Cook at his Death, broke off Consortship with Capt. Swan, whom we had met with in the South Seas. That himself being desirous to stand over to the East-Indies, went aboard Capt. Swan: But I remain'd aboard the same Ship, now under Capt. Davis, and return'd with

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him the way I came. Some few Particulars that I observ'd in that Return, I shall speak of at the Conclusion of this Book: In the mean while having given this Summary Account of the Course of my Travels, from my first parting with Mr. Dampier in the Isthmus, till my last leaving him in the South Seas, I shall now go on with the particular Description of the lsthmus of America, which was the main Thing I intended in publishing these Relations.

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Mr. WAFER's Description of the Isthmus of America.

Isthmus Darien.

River of Darien.

Extent of the Isthmus.

Breadth.

Length.

THE Country I am going to describe is the narrowest part of the Isthmus of America, which is more peculiarly call'd the Isthmus of Darien; probably, from the great River of that Name, wherewith its Northern Coast is bounded to the East: For beyond this River the Land spreads so to the East and North-East, as that on the other Coast does to the South and South-Eaft, that it can no further be call'd an Isthmus. It is mostly comprehended between the Latitudes of 8 and 10 N. but its breadth, in the narrowest part, is much about one Degree. How far it reaches in length Westward under the Name of the Isthmus of Darien; whether as far as Honduras, or Nicaragua, or no further than the River Chagre, or the Towns of Portobel and Panama, I cannot say.

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This last is the Boundary of what I mean to describe; and I shall be most particular as to the middle part even of this, as being the Scene of my Abode and Ramble in that Country: Tho' what I shall have occasion to say as to this part of the Isthmus, will be in some measure applicable to the Country even beyond Panama.

Bounds of what is strictly the Isthmus.

Its Situation.

Were I to fix particular Limits to this narrowest part of the American Isthmus, I would assign for its Western Term, a Line which should run from the Mouth of the River Chagre, where it falls into the North Sea, to the nearest part of the South Sea, Westward of Panama; including thereby that City, and Portobel, with the Rivers of Cheapo and Chagre. And I should draw a Line also from Point Garachina, or the South part of the Gulph of St. Michael, directly East, to the nearest part of the great River of Darien, for the Eastern Boundary, so as to take Caret Bay into the Isthmus. On the North and South it is sufficiently bounded by each of those vast Oceans: And considering that this is the narrowest Land that dif-

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joins them, and how exceeding great the Compass is that must be fetch'd from one Shore to the other by Sea, since it has the North and South America, for each Extreme, 'tis of a very singular Situation, very pleasant and agreeable.

Islands on each side.

Bay of Panama.

Nor doth either of these Oceans fall in at once upon the Shore, but is intercepted by a great many valuable Islands, that lie scatter'd along each Coast: The Bastimento's and others, but especially the long Range of the Sambaloe's, on the North side; and the Kings or Pearl Islands, Perica and others in the Bay of Panama, on the South-side. This Bay is caus'd by the bending of the Isthmus: And for the bigness of it, there is not, it may be, a more pleasant and advantageous one any where to be found.

The Face of the Land.

Hills and vales.

Waters.

Main Ridge of Hills.

The Land of this Continent is almost every where of an unequal Surface, distinguish'd with Hills and Valleys, of great variety for heigth, depth, and extent. The Valleys are generally water'd with Rivers, Brooks, and Perennial Springs, with which the Country very much abounds. They fall some into the North, and

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others into the South Sea; and do most of them take their Rise from a Ridge or Chain of higher Hills than the rest, running the length of the Isthmus, and in a manner parallel to the Shore; which for distinction's sake, I shall call the Main Ridge.

Fine Prospect.

Hills to the S. of the main Ridge.

This Ridge is of an unequal Breadth, and trends along bending as the Isthmus it self doth. 'Tis in most parts nearest the Edge of the North Sea, seldom above 10 or 15 Miles distant. We had always a fair and clear View of the North Sea from thence, and the various makings of the Shore, together with the adjacent Islands, render'd it a very agreeable Prospect; but the South Sea I could not see from any part of the Ridge. Not that the distance of it from the South Sea is so great, as that the Eye could not reach so far, especially from such an Eminence, were the Country between a Level or Champian: But tho' there are here and there Plains and Valleys of a considerable Extent, and some open Places, yet do they lie intermix'd with considerable Hills; and those too so cloath'd with tall Woods, that they

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much hinder the Prospect there would the otherwise be. Neither on the other side is the main Ridge discern'd from that side, by reason of those Hills that lie between it and the South Sea; upon ascending each of which in our Return from the South Sea, we expected to have been upon the main Ridge, and to have seen the North Sea. And tho' still the further we went that way, the Hills we cross'd seemed the larger; yet, by this means, we were less sensible of the heigth of the main Ridge, than if we had climb'd up to it next way out of a low Country.

N. side all a Forrest.

On the North side of the main Ridge, there are either no Hills at all, or such as are rather gentle Declivities or gradual Subsidings of the Ridge, than Hills distinct from it: And tho' this side of the Country is every where covered with Woods, and more universally too, for it is all one continued Forrest, yet the Eye from that heigth commands the less distant Northern Shore with much Ease and Pleasure.

Breaks in the main Ridge.

R. Charge

Nor is the main Ridge it self carried on every where with a continued

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Top; but is rather a Row or Chain of distinct Hills, than one prolonged: And accordingly hath frequent and large Valleys disjoining the several Eminencies that compose its length: And these Valleys, as they make even the Ridge it self the more useful and habitable, so are they some of them so deep in their Descent, as even to admit a Passage for Rivers. For thus the River Chagre, which rises from some Hills near the South Sea, runs along in an oblique North Westerly Course, till it finds it self a Passage into the North Sea; tho' the Chain of Hills, if I mistake not, is extended much farther to the West, even to the Lake of Nicaragua.

The Rivers, Brooks & Springs of the N. Coast.

R. of Darien.

River of Conception.

R. Charge.

The Rivers that water this Country are some of them indifferent large; tho' but few Navigable, as having Bars and Sholes at the Mouths. On the North Sea Coast the Rivers are for the most part very small; for rising generally from the main Ridge, which lies near that Shore, their Course is very short. The River of Darien is indeed a very large one; but the depth at the Entrance is not answerable to the wideness of its

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Mouth, tho' 'tis deep enough further in: But from thence to Chagre, the whole length of this Coast, they are little better than Brooks: Nor is the River of Conception any other, which comes out over against La Sound's Key in the Sambaloe's. The River of Chagre is pretty considerable; for it has a long bending Coast, rising as it does from the South and East-part of the Isthmus, and at such a distance from its Outlet. But in general, the North Coast is plentifully water'd; yet is it chiefly with Springs and Rivulets trickling down from the Neighbouring Hills.

The Soil on this North Coast is various; generally 'tis good Land, rising in Hills; but to the Sea there are here and there Swamps, yet seldom above half a Mile broad.

The Soil by Caret Bay.

Inclusively from Caret Bay, which lies in the River of Darien, and is the only Harbour in it, to the Promontory near Golden lsland, the Shore of the Isthmus is indifferently fruitful, partly Sandy Bay; but part of it is drowned, swampy, Mangrove Land, where there is no goinga shore but up to the middle in Mud. The Shore of

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this Coast rises in Hills presently; and the main Ridge is about 5 or 6 Miles distant. Caret Bay hath 2 or 3 Rivulets of fresh Water falling into it, as I am inform'd, for I have not been there. It is a little Bay, and two small Islands lying before it, make it an indifferent good Harbour, and hath clear Anchoring Ground, without any Rocks. These Islands are pretty high Land, cloathed with variety of Trees.

Bay near the Entrance of the R. of Darien.

I. in the Cod of the Bay.

Golden I.

Good Harbour.

To the Westward of the Cape at the Entrance of the River Darien, is another fine Sandy Bay. In the Cod of it lies a little, low, swampy Island; about which 'tis Shole-water and dirty Ground, not fit for Shipping; and the Shore of the Isthmus behind and about it, is swampy Land overgrown with Mangroves; till after three or four Mile the Land ascends up to the main Ridge. But though the Cod of this Bay be so bad, yet the Entrance of it is deep Water, and hard sandy bottom, excellent for anchoring; and has three Islands lying before it, which make it an extraordinary good Harbour. The Eastermost of those three is Golden Island,

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a small one, with a fair deep Channel between it and the Main. It is rocky and steep all round to the Sea, (and thereby naturally fortified) except only the Landing-place, which is a small Sandy Bay on the South side, towards the Harbour, from whence it gently rises. It is moderately high, and cover'd with small Trees or Shrubs. The Land of the Isthmus opposite to it, to the South East, is excellent fruitful Land, of a black Mold, with Sand intermix'd; and is pretty level for 4 or 5 Mile, till you come to the foot of the Hills. At this Place we landed at our going into the South Seas with Capt. Sharp. I have been ashore at this Golden Island, and was lying in the Harbour near it for about a Fortnight together, before I went into the South Seas. Near the Eastern Point of the Bay, which is not above three or four Furlongs distant from Golden Island, there is a Rivulet of very good Water.

Another Island.

West of Golden Island lies the biggest of the three that face the Bay; it is, as a large low swampy Island, so beset with Mongroves, that it is difficult to go ashore; nor did any of us

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care to attempt it, having no business in such bad Ground. It lies very near a Point of the Isthmus, which is such a sort of Ground too, for a Mile or two further Westward; and such also is the Ground on the other side, quite into the Cod of the Bay. This Island is scarce parted from the Isthmus but at High-water; and even then Ships cannot pass between.

Island of Pines.

The Island of Pines is a small Island to the North of the other two, making a kind of Triangle with them. It rises in two Hills, and is a very remarkable Land off at Sea. It is cover'd all over with good tall Trees, fit for any use; and has a fine Rivulet of fresh Water. The North of it is Rocky, as is the opposite Shore of the Isthmus. On the South side you go ashore on the Island at a curious Sand-bay, inclosed between two Points like a Half-moon; and there is very good Riding. You may sail quite round the Island of Pines; but to go to Golden Island Harbour, you must enter by the East-end of Golden Islands, between that and the Main; for there is no passing between it and the great low Island.

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The Shore to Point Sanballas.

Tickle me quickly Harbour.

From these Islands, and the low swampy Point opposite to them, the shore runs North Westerly to Point Sanballas; and for the first 3 Leagues 'tis guarded with a Riffe of Rocks, some above, and some under Water, where a Boat cannot go ashore: The Rocks lie scatter'd unequally in breadth, for a Mile in some Places, in others two from the Shore. At the North West end of these Rocks, is a fine little Sandy Bay, with good anchoring and going ashore, as is reported by several Privateers: And the end of the Rocks on the one side, and some of the Sambaloes Islands (the Range of which begins from hence) on the other side, guard it from the Sea, and make it a very good Harbour. This, as well as the rest, is much frequented by Privateers; and is by those of our Country call'd Tickle me quickly Harbour.

Sambaloes Isles.

La Sound's key.

Springer's Key.

Trees in the Sambaloe's.

All along from hence to Point Sambaloes, ly the Sambaloes's Islands, a great multitude of them scattering in a Row, and collaterally too, at very unequal Distances, some of one, some two, or two Mile and an half, from the Shore, and from one another;

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which, with the adjacent Shore, its Hills and perpetual Woods, make a lovely Landschape off at Sea. There are a great many more of these Islands than could well be represented in the Map; some of them also being very small. They seem to lie parcell'd out in Clusters, as it were; between which, generally, there are Navigable Channels, by which you may enter within them; and the Sea between the whole Range and the Isthmus is Navigable from end to end, and affords every where good anchoring, in hard Sandy Ground, and good Landing on the Islands and Main. In this long Channel, on the Inside of some or other of those little Keys or Islands, be the Winds how they will, you never fail of a good Place for any number of Ships to ride at; so that this was the greatest Rendezvous of the Privateers on this Coast; but chiefly La Sound's Key, or Springer's Key, especially if they stay'd any time here; as well because these two Islands afford a good Shelter for Careening, as because they yield Wells of fresh Water upon digging, which few of the rest do. The Sambaloe's

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are generally low, flat, sandy Islands, cover'd with variety of Trees; [especially with Mammees, Sapadilloes, and Manchineel, &c. beside the Shellfish, and other Refreshments they afford the Privateers]. The outermost Keys toward the main Sea, are rocky on that side (and are called the Riffe Keys); tho' their opposite Sides are Sandy, as the innermost Keys or Islands are. And there is a Ridge also of Rocks lying off at Sea on the outside, which appear above Water at some half a Mile distance, and extend in length as far as La Sounds Key, if not further; and even the Sea between, and the Shore of the Sambaloes it self on that side, is all rocky.

Channel of the Sambaloes

R. of Conception and adjacent Coast.

Good Landing.

The long Channel between the Sambaloes and the Isthmus is of two, three, and four Miles breadth; and the Shore of the Isthmus is partly Sandy Bays, and partly Mangrove Land, quite to Point Sanballas. The Mountains are much at the same distance of 6 or 7 Miles from the Shore; but about the River of conception, which comes out about a Mile or two to the Eastward of La Sound's Key, the main Ridge

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is somewhat further distant. Many little Brooks fall into the Sea on either side of that River, and the Outlets are some of them into the Sandy Bay, and some of them among the Mangrove Land; the Swamps of which Mangroves are (on this Coast) made by the Salt Water, so that the Brooks which come out there are brackish; but those in the Sandy Bay yield very sweet Water. None of those Outlets, not the River of Conception it self, are deep enough to admit any Vessel but Canoas, the Rivers on this part of the Coast being numerous but shallow; but the fine Riding in the Channel makes any other Harbour needless. I have been up and down most parts of it, and upon many of the Islands, and there the going ashore is always easy. But a Sea-wind makes a great Sea sometimes fall in upon the Isthmus, especially where a Channel opens between the Islands; so that I have been overset in a Canoa going ashore in one River, and in putting off to Sea from another. The Ground hereabouts is an excellent Soil within Land, rifing up gently to the main Ridge, and is a continued Forest of stately Timber-Trees.

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Point Sanballas.

point Sanballas is a Rocky Point, pretty long and low, and is also so guarded with Rocks for a Mile off at Sea, that it is dangerous coming near it. From hence the Shore runs West, and a little Northerly, quite to Portobel. About three Leagues Westward from this Point lies Port Scrivan. The Coast between them is all Rocky, and the Country within Land all Woody, as in other Parts.

Port Scrivan.

Red Mangroves.

Port Scrivan is a good Harbour, when you are got into it; but the Entrance of it, which is scarce a Furlong over, is so beset with Rocks on each side, but especially to the East, that it is very dangerous, going in: Nor doth there seem to be a depth of Water sufficient to admit Vessels of any Bulk, there being in most Places but eight or nine Foot Water. The Inside of the Harbour goes pretty deep within the Land; and as there is good Riding, in a Sandy bottom, especially at the Cod of it, which is also fruitful Land, and has good fresh Water, so there is good Landing too on the East and South, where the Country is low for two or three Miles, and very firm Land; but the West-side is a Swamp

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of Red Mangroves. It was here at this Swamp, as bad a Passage as it is, that Capt. Coxon, La Sound, and the other Privateers landed in the Year, 1679. when they went to take Portobel. They had by this means a very tedious and wearisome March; but they chose to land at this distance from the Town, rather than at the Bastimento's or any nearer Place, that they might avoid being discover'd by the Scouts which the Spaniards always keep in their Neighbourhood, and so might surprize them. And they did, indeed, by this means avoid being discern'd, till they came within an Hours march of the Town; tho' they travelled along the Country for five or six Days. The Spaniards make no use of this Port Scrivan; and unless a Privateer, or a rambling Sloop put in here by chance, no Vessel visits it in many Years.

Nombre de Dios.

From Port Scrivan to the Place where stood formerly the City of Nombre de Dios, 'tis further Westward about 7 or 8 Leagues. The Land between is very uneven, with small Hills, steep against the Sea; the Valleys between them water'd

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with sorry little Rivers. The Soil of the Hills is Rocky, producing but small shrubby Trees; the Valleys are some of good Land, some of Swamps and Mangroves. The main Ridge here seems to lie at a good distance from the Sea; for it was not discernible in this March of the Privateers along the Shore to Portobel. The place where Nombre de Dios stood is the bottom of a Bay, close by the Sea, all over-grown with a sort of Wild-Canes, like those us'd by our Anglers in England. There is no Sign of a Town remaining, it is all so over-run with these Canes. The Situation of it seems to have been but very indifferent, the Bay before it lying open to the Sea, and affording little Shelter for Shipping; which I have heard was one Reason why the Spaniards forsook it: And another, probably, was the Unhealthiness of the Country it self, it being such low swampy Land, and very sickly; yet there is a little Rivulet of very sweet Water which runs close by the East-side of the Town. The Mouth of the Harbour is very wide; and tho' I have heard that there lie before it two

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or three little Keys, or Rocks, yet they afforded no great Security to it. So that the Spaniards were certainly much in the right, for quitting this Place to settle at Portobel; which tho' it be also an unhealthy Place, yet has it the advantage of a very good and defensible Harbour.

I. Bastimento's.

2 other Isles.

About a Mile or two to the West-ward of these small Islands, at the Mouth of the Bay of Nombre de Dios, and about half a Mile or more from the Shore, lie a few Islands called the Bastimento's, for the most part pretty high, and one peeked, and all cloathed with Woods. On one of them, (part of which also was a Sandy Bay, and a good Riding and Landing place) there is a Spring of very good Water. I was ashore at this Island, and up and down among the rest of them; and all of them together make a very good Harbour between them and the Isthmus. The Bottom affords good Anchoring; and there is good coming in with the Sea-wind between the Eastermost Island and the next to it, and going out with the Land-wind the same way, this being the chief Passage. Further West, before you come to

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Portobel, lie two small Islands, flat and without Wood or Water. They are pretty close together; and one of them I have been ashore upon. The Soil is sandy, and they are environ'd with Rocks towards the Sea; and they lie so near the Isthmus that there is but a very narrow Channel between, not fit for Ships to come into.

The Neighbouring Shore of the Isthmus.

Spanish Indians.

The Shore of the Isthmus hereabouts consists mostly of Sandy Bays, after you are past a Ridge of Rocks that run out from the Bay of Nombre de Dios, pointing towards the Bastimento's. Beyond the Bastimento's to Portabel, the Coast is generally Rocky. Within Land the Country is full of high and steep Hills, very good Land; most Woody, unless where clear'd for Plantations by Spanifh Indians, tributary to Portobel, whither they go to Church. And these are the first Settlements on this Coast under the Spanish Government, and lie scattering in lone Houses or little Villages, from hence to Portobel and beyond; with some Look-outs or Watches kept towards the Sea, for the Safety of the Town. In all the rest of the North-

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side of the Isthmus, which I have describ'd hitherto, the Spaniards had neither Command over the Indians, nor Commerce with them while I was there, though there are Indians inhabiting all along the Continent; yet one has told me since, that the Spaniards have won them over to them.

Portobel.

The Harbour.

The Forts.

The Town.

Road to Panama.

The K'.s Stable.

The Governours House.

Rivulet.

Bad Air.

Portobel is a very fair, large and commodious Harbour, affording good Anchoring and good Shelter for Ships, having a narrow Mouth, and spreading wider within. The Galleons from Spain find good Riding here during the time of their Business at Portobel, for from hence they take in such of the Treasures of Peru as are brought thither over Land from Panama. The Entrance of this Harbour is fecur'd by a Fort upon the left Hand going in; it is a very strong one, and the Passage is made more secure by a Block-house on the other side, opposite to it. At the bottom of the Harbour lies the Town, bending along the Shore like a Half-moon: In the middle of which upon the Sea, is another small low Fort, environ'd with Houses except only to the Sea: And

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at the West end of the Town, about a Furlong from the Shore, upon a gentle Rising, lies another Fort, pretty large and very strong, yet overlook'd by a Neighbouring Hill further up the Country, which Sir Henry Morgan made use of to take the Fort. In all these Forts there may be about 2 or 300 Spanish Souldiers in Garison. The Town is long and narrow, having two principal Streets besides those that go across; with a small Parade about the middle of it, surrounded with pretty fair Houses. The other Houses also and Churches are pretty handsome, after the Spanish make. The Town lies open to the Country without either Wall or Works; and at the East-side of it, where the Road to Panama goes out, (because of Hills, that lie to the Southward of the Town, and obstruct the direct Passage) there lies a long Stable, running North and South from the Town, to which it joins. This is the King's Stable for the Mules that are imployed in the Road betwixt this and Panama. The Governours House is close by the great Fort, on the same Rising, at the West of the Town.

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Between the Parade in the middle of the Town, and the Governours House, is a little Creek or Brook, with a Bridge over it; and at the East-end, by the Stable, is a small Rivulet; of fresh Water. I have already said that it is an unhealthy Place. The East-side is low and swampy; and the Sea at low Water leaves the Shore within the Harbour bare, a great way from the Houses; which having a black filthy Mud, it stinks very much, and breeds noisome Vapours, thro' the Heat of the Climate. From the South and the East-sides the Country rises gently in Hills, which are partly Woodland and partly Savannah; but there is not any great Store either of Fruit-trees or Plantations near the Town. This Account I have had from several Privateers just as they return'd from Portobel; but I have not been there my self.

The Coast hence to R. Chagre.

The Country beyond this West-ward, to the Mouth of the River Chagre, I have seen off at Sea: But not having been ashore there, I can give no other Account of it, but only that it is partly Hilly, and near the Sea very much Swampy; and I have

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heard by several that there is no Communication between Portobel and the Mouth of that River.

Bocca Toro & Bocca Drago.

I have been yet further Westward on this Coast, before I went over the Isthmus with Capt. Sharp, ranging up and down and careening at Bocca Toro and Bocca Drago; but this is with out the Verge of those Bounds I have set my self.

The S. Sea Coast of the Isthmus.

Having thus Survey'd the North-Coast of the lsthmus, I shall take a light View of the South also: But I shall the less need to be particular in it, because Mr. Dampier hath in some measure describ'd this part of it in his Voyage round the World.

Point Garachina.

Cape st. Lorenzo.

To begin therefore from Point Garachina, which makes the West-side of the Mouth of the River of Sambo, this Point is pretty high fast Land; but within, towards the River, it is low, drowned Mangrove, and so are all the Points of Land to Cape Saint Lorenzo.

R.Sambo.

Gulph of S. Michael

Gold R.

The River of Sambo I have not seen; but it is said to be a pretty large River. Its Mouth opens to the North; and from thence the Coast bears North East to the Gulph of St. Michael.

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This Gulph is made by the Outlets of several Rivers, the most noted of which are the River of Santa Maria, and the River of Congo; tho' there are others of a considerable bigness. Of these Rivers, to the Southward of Santa Maria, one is called the Gold River, affording Gold Dust in great plenty: For hither the Spaniards of Panama and Santa Maria Town bring up their Slaves to gather up the Gold Dust.

R.Santa Maria.

Santa Maria Town.

The Country about.

Scuchadero V.

The next to the Gold River is that of Santa Maria, so called from the Town of that Name seated on the South-side of it, at a good distance from the Sea. It was along this River we came, when we first entred the South Seas with Captain Sharp, standing over it, from the Bay by Golden Island, where we landed. We then took the Town of Santa Maria in our way; which was garrison'd with about 200 Spanish Soldiers, but was not very strong, having no Walls and the Fort it self was secur'd with Stockadoes only, or Palisadoes. This is but a new Town, being built by the Spaniards of Panama, partly for a Garison and Magazine of Provision,

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and partly for Quarters of Refreshment, and a retiring Place for their Workmen in the Gold River. The Country all about here is Woody and Low, and very unhealthy; the Rivers being so Oazy, that the stinking Mud infects the Air: But the little Village of Scuchadero, which lies on the right side of the River of Santa Maria, near the Mouth of it, is seated on fast rising Ground, open to the Gulph of St.Michael, and admitting fresh Breezes from the Sea; so that this is pretty healthy, and serves as a Place of Refreshment for the Mines; and has a fine Rivulet of very sweet Water; whereas those Rivers are brackish for a considerable way up the Country.

R. Congo.

Gulph of S Michael

Between Scuchadero and Cape St.Lorenzo, which makes the North-side of the Gulph of St.Michael, the River of Congo falls into the Gulph; which River is made up of many Rivulets, that fall from the Neighbouring Hills, and join into one Stream. The Mouth of it is muddy, and bare for a great way at low Water, unless just in the depth of the Channel; and it affords little Entertainment for Ship-

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ping. But further in, the River is deep enough; so that Ships coming in at high Water might find it a very good Harbour, if they had any Business here. The Gulph it self has several Islands in it; and up and down in and about them, there is in many Places very good Riding; for the most part in Oazy Ground. The Islands also, especially those towards the Mouth, make a good Shelter; and the Gulph hath room enough for a multitude of Ships. The Sides are every where surrounded with Mangroves, growing in wet swampy Land.

The Land to the N. of the Gulph.

Sholes.

North of this Gulph is a small Creek, where we landed at our Return out of the Seas; and the Land between these is partly such Mangrove Land as the other, and partly Sandy Bays. From thence the Land runs further on North, but gently bending to the West: And this Coast also is much such a mixture of Mangrove Land and Sandy Bay, quite to the River Cheapo; and in many Places there are Sholes, for a Mile or half a Mile off at Sea. In several parts of this Coast, at about five or six Miles

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distance from the Shore there are small Hills; and the whole Country is covered with Woods. I know but one River worth observing between Congo and Cheapo: Yet there are many Creeks and Outlets; but no fresh Water, that I know of, in any part of this Coast, in the dry Season; for the Stagnancies and Declivities of the Ground, and the very droppings of the Trees, in the wet Season, afford Water enough.

R. Cheapo

The Land here.

Cheapo T.

Cheapo is a considerable River, but has no good entring into it for Sholes. Its Course is long, rising near the North Sea, and pretty far from towards the East. About this River the Country something changes its Face, being Savannah on the West-side; though the East-side is Wood-land, as the other. Cheapo Town stands on the West-side, at some distance from the Sea; but is small, and of no great Consequence. Its chief Support is from the Pasturage of black Cattle in the Savannah's.

Sayanah's.

R. chagre.

Venta de Cruzes.

Carriage Portobel.

These Savannah's are not level, but consist of small Hills and Valleys, with fine Spots of Woods intermix'd; and from some of these Hills not far

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from Cheapo, the River of Chagre, which runs into the North Sea, takes its rise. It runs West for a while; and on the South-side of it, at no great distance from Panama, is Venta de Cruzes, a small Village of Inns and Store-houses; whither Merchandises that are to be sent down the River Chagre are carried from Panama by Mules, and there embark'd in Canoa's and Pereagoe's; but the Plate is carried all the way by Land on Mules to Portobel. The Country here also is Savannah and Woodland intermix'd; with thick short Hills, especially towards Panama.

3 Rivers.

Old panama.

R. of Panama.

Between the River of Cheapo and Panama, further West, are three Rivers, of no great Consequence, lying open to the Sea. The Land between is low even Land, most of it dry, and cover'd here and there by the Sea, with short Bushes. Near the most Westerly of these Old Panama was seated, once a large City; but nothing now remains of it, besides Rubbish, and a few Houses of poor People. The Spaniards were weary of it, having no good Port or Landing-place; and had a design to have left

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it, before it was burnt by Sir Henry Morgan. But then they no longer deliberated about the Matter; but instead of rebuilding it, raised another Town to the Westward, which is the present City of Panama. The River of Old Panama runs between them; but rather nearer the new Town than the Old; and into this River small Barks may enter.

New Panama.

The Harbour.

Isles of perica.

Shole.

Fine Prospect of Panama.

Estantion's.

The great resort to Panama.

Its Jurisdiction.

Bad Air.

The chief Advantage which New Panama hath above the Old, is an excellent Road for small Ships, as good as a Harbour; for which it is beholden to the Shelter of the Neighbouring Isles of Perica, which lie before it, three in number, in a Row parallel to the Shore. There is very good Anchoring between, at a good distance from the Town; but between the Road and the Town is a Shole or Spit of Land; so that Ships cannot come near the Town, but lie nearest to Perica; but by this means the Town has them less under Command. Panama stands on a level Ground, and is surrounded with a high Wall, especially towards the Sea. It hath no Fort besides the Town-Walls; upon which the Sea,

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which washes it every Tide, beats so strongly, sometimes, as to throw down a part of them. It makes a very beautiful Prospest off at Sea, the Churches and chief Houses appearing above the rest. The Building appears white; especially the Walls, which are of Stone; and the Covering of the Houses red, for probably they are Pan-tile, which is much used by the Spaniards all over the West-lndies. The Town is surrounded with Savannahs, gentle flat Hills, and Copses of Wood, which add much to the Beauty of the Prospest; and among these are scatter'd here and there some Estantion's or Farm-houses for the managing their Cattel; which are Beeves, Horses and Mules. This Town is the great Rendezvous of this part of the South-sea Coast; being the Receptacle of the Treasures from Lima, and other Sea-ports of Peru; trading also towards Mexico, though very little beyond the Gulph of Nicaragua. The King of Spain hath a President here, who acts in Concert with his Council; and the Governour of Portobel is under him. His Jurisdiction comprehends Nata, Lavelia, Leon,

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Realeja, &c. till he meets with the Government of Guatimala; and East-ward he commands over as much of the Isthmus, on both Seas, as is under the Spaniards. The Place is very sickly, though it lies in a Country good enough; but possibly 'tis only so to those who come hither from the dry pure Air of Lima and Truxillio, and other Parts of Peru; who grow indispos'd presently, and are forc'd to cut off their Hair. Yet is it very healthy in comparison of Portobel.

Rio Grande.

About a League to the West of Panama is another River, which is pretty large, and is called by some Rio Grande. It is Shole at entrance, and runs very swift; and so is not fit for Shipping. On the West-banks of it are Estantion's and Plantations of Sugar; but the Shore from hence beginning to trend away to the Southward, again, I shall here fix my Western Boundary to the South-sea Coast of the Isthmus, and go no further in the Description of it.

Bay of Panama.

The Shore between Point Garachina and this River, and so on further to Punta Mala, makes a very regular

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and more than Semi-circular Bay, called by the name of the Bay of Panama. In this are several as fine Islands as are any where to be found, the King's or Pearl Islands, Pacheque, Chepelio, Perica, &c. with great variety of good Riding for Ships: Of all which Mr. Dampier hath given a particular Account in the 7th Chapter of his Voyage round the World; so that I shall forbear to say any thing more of them. 'Tis a very noble delightful Bay; and as it affords good anchoring and shelter, so the Islands also yield plenty of Wood, Water, Fruits, Fowls and Hoggs, for the accommodation of Shipping.

The Soil.

The Soil of the Inland part of the Country is generally very good, for the most part, of a black fruitful Mould. From the Gulph of St. Michael, to the Ridge of Hills lying off Caret Bay, it is a Vale Country, well water'd with the Rivers that fall into that Gulph: But near the Gulph 'tis very swampy and broken, so as that it is scarce possible to travel along the Shore thereabouts. Westward of the River of Congo, the Country grows more Hilly and Dry, with pleasant

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and rich Vales intermix'd, till you are past the River Cheapo; and thus far the whole Country is all, as it were, one continued Wood. The Savannah Country commences here, dry and grassy; with small Hills and Woods intermix'd: And the Hills are every where fertile to the top (tho' more fruitful nearer the bottom) and even the tops of the main Ridge are cover'd with very flourishing Trees. Yet the Hills from which the Gold Rivers fall, near Santa Maria, are more barren towards the top, and bear short Shrubs scatter'd here and there. The Soil seems capable of any Productions proper to the Climate: I believe we have nothing that grows in Jamaica but what would thrive here also; and grow very luxuriantly, considering the exceeding richness of the Soil.

The Woods.

Swampy Thickets.

The Woods of this Country are not the same on the tops or sides of the Hills in the Inland Country, as they are near the Sea. For in the drier and more rising Inland Country, the Woods are rather a large Forest of Timber-trees, or a Delightful Grove of Trees of several kinds, very large

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and tall, with little or no Underwood: And the Trees are plac'd at such a distance from each other, as that a Horse might gallop among them for a great way, and decline them with ease. The tops of these Trees are generally very large and spreading; and I presume, 'tis the shade and dropping of these which hinders any thing else from growing in the rich Ground among them: For in the open Savannahs, or where the Ground is clear'd by Industry for Plantations, there grow smaller Vegetables in great abundance. But on the Sea-Coast, where the Soil is often swampy drown'd Land, especially near the Mouths of Rivers, the Trees are not tall but shrubby, as Mangroves, Brambles, Bamboe's, &c. Not growing in the manner of Groves or Arbours, scattering at convenient distances; but in a continued Thicket, so close set, that 'tis a very difficult matter to work ones way through these Morasses.

The Weather.

Season of the Rains.

Thunder and Lightning.

Moskito's.

Land Floods.

The Weather is much the same here as in other places of the Torrid Zone in this Latitude; but inclining rather to the Wet Extreme. The

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Season of Rains begins in April or May; and during the Months of June, July and August, the Rains are very violent. It is very hot also about this time, where-ever the Sun breaks out of a Cloud: For the Air is then very sultry, because then usually there are no Breezes to fan and cool it, but 'tis all glowing hot. About September, the Rains begin to abate: But 'tis November or December, and it may be, part of January e're they are quite gone: So that 'tis a very wet Country, and has Rains for Two Thirds, if not Three Quarters of a Year. Their first coming is after the manner of our suddain April Showers, or hasty Thunder Showers, one in a Day at first. After this, two or three in a Day; at length, a Shower almost every Hour: and frequently accompanied with violent Thunder and Lightning: During which time, the Air has often a faint Sulphureous Smell, where pent up among the Woods. After this variable Weather, for about four or six Weeks, there will be settled continued Rains of several Days and Nights, without Thunder and Lightning, but exceeding vehement,

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considering the length of them. Yet at certain Intervals between these, even in the wettest of the Season, there will be several fair Days intermix'd, with only Tornado's or Thunder-Showers; and that sometimes for a Week together. These Thunder-Showers cause usually a sensible Wind, by the Clouds pressing the Atmosphere, which is very refreshing, and moderates the Heat: But then this Wind shaking the Trees of this continued Forest, their dropping is as troublesome as the Rain it self. When the Shower is over, you shall hear for a great way together the Croaking of Frogs and Toads, the humming of Moskito's or Gnats, and the hissing or shrieking of Snakes and other Insects, loud and unpleasant; some like the quacking of Ducks. The Moskito's chiefly infest the low swampy or Mangrove Lands, near the Rivers or Seas: But however, this Country is not so pester'd with that uneasie Vermin, as many other of the warm Countries are. When the Rains fall among the Woods, they make a hollow or ratling found: But the Floods caus'd by them often bear down the

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Trees; as I observ'd in relating my Passage over Land. These will often Barricado or Dam up the River, till 'tis clear'd by another Flood that shall set the Trees afloat again. Sometimes also the Floods run over a broad Plain; and for the time, make it all like one great Lake. The coolest time here is about our Christmas, when the fair Weather is coming on.

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Of the Trees, Fruits, &c. in the Isthmus of America.

AS this Country is very Woody, so it contains great variety of Trees, of several Kinds unknown to us in Europe, as well Fruit-Trees as others.

Cotton-tree.

The Cotton-tree is the largest of any, and grows in great plenty in most parts of the Isthmus; but I do not remember that I have seen it in the Samballoes, or any other of the adjacent Islands. It bears a Cod about as big as a Nutmeg, full of short Wool or Down, which when ripe bursts out of the Cod, and is blown about by the Wind, and is of little use. The chief Advantage that is made of these Trees, is by forming them into Canoa's and Periago's; which last differ from the other, as Lighters and small Barges do from Wherries. The Indians burn the Trees hollow; but the Spaniards hew and chizzel them; and the Wood is very soft and easy

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to work upon, being softer than Willow.

Cedar.

The Cedars of this Country are valuable for their heighth and largeness; there are very slately ones on the Continent, but I remember not any in the Islands. They grow towards each of the Sea Coasts, but especially towards the North. The Wood is very red, of a curious fine Grain, and very fragant. But these are put to no better use than the Cotton-trees, serving only to make Canoa's and Periago's: And their plenty you may judge of by this, that if the Indians want to cut one for a Canoa, they will not trouble themselves about any a Furlong off, tho' never so fine; having enough usually to sell by the side of the River into which they intend to Launch it.

Macaw-tree.

There are on the Continent several Trees of the Palm-kind, of which sort we may reckon the Macaw-tree. It grows in great plenty in swampy or moist Grounds; and I remember not that I saw them any where but on the South-side of the Isthmus, which is mostly of such a Soil. It is not very tall, the Body rising streight up

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to about ten Foot or more, surrounded with protuberant Rings at certain distances, and those thick set with long Prickles. The middle of the Tree is a Pith like Elder, taking up above half the Diameter of the Body. The Body is naked without Branches till towards the top; but there it puts out Leaves or Branches 12 or 14 Foot long, and a Foot and an half wide, lessening gradually toward the Extremity. The Rib or Seam of this Leaf is beset all along with Prickles, on the out-side; and the Leaf it self is jagged about the Edges and as thick as ones Hand, at the broader end of it. At the top of the Tree, and amidst the Roots of these Leaves grows the Fruit, a sort of Berries sprouting up in Clusters, each about the size of a small Pear, but many score of them together. They incline to an oval Figure, and are of a yellow or reddish Colour when ripe. There is a Stone in the middle, and the outside is stringy, and slimy when ripe; of a tart Tast, harsh in the Mouth, yet not unpleasant: And the way of eating the Fruit is to bite the Fleshy part from the Stone, and having chew'd it,

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to spit out the remaining stringy Substance. The Indians frequently cut down the Tree only to get the Berries; but such of them as are more low and slender, you may bend down to your Hand. The Wood of the Tree is very hard, black, and ponderous, and is of great use. It splits very casily, and the Indians make of it many Conveniences for their Building and other Occasions, splitting the Tree into small Planks or Rafters which they use about their Houses. The Men make Arrowheads of this Wood; the Women Needle-Shuttles to weave their Cotton, &c.

Bibby-tree.

Nut-Oil.

The Bibby

Upon the Main also grows the Bibby Tree, so called from a Liquor which distills from it, and which our English call Bibby. The Tree hath a streight slender Body no thicker than ones Thigh, but grows to a great heighth, 6o or 70 Foot. The Body is naked of Leaves or Branches, but prickly. The Branches put out at the top, and among them grow the Berries abundantly, like a Garland round about the Root of each of the Branches. The Tree hath all along the inside of

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it a narrow Pith; the Wood is very hard, and black as Ink. The Indians do not cut, but burn down the Tree to get at the Berries. These are of a whitish Colour, and about the size of a Nutmeg. They are very Oily; and the Indians beat them in hollow Mortars or Troughs, then boil and strain them; and as the Liquor cools, they skim off a clear Oil from the top. This Oil is extraordinary bitter: The Indians use it for anointing themselves, and to mix with the Colours wherewith they paint themselves. When the Tree is young they Tap it, and put a Leaf into the Bore; from whence the Bibby trickles down in great quantity. It is a wheyish Liquor, of a pleasant tart Taste; and they drink it after it hath been kept a Day or two.

Coca.

There are Coco-trees in the Islands, but none on the Isthmus that I remember; and no Cacao-trees on either.

Anonymous.

On the Main grows a Tree that bears a Fruit like a Cherry; but full of Stones, and never soft.

Plantains

On the Main also are Plantains in great abundance, which have a Body consisting of several Leaves or Coats,

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that grow one from under another, spiring upwards into an oblong Fruit at the top; the Coats or Leaves, which are very long and large, spreading off from the Body, and making a Plume all round. None of them grow wild, unless when some are brought down the Rivers in the Season of the Rains, and being left aground, sow themselves. The Indians set them in Rows or Walks, without under-wood; and they make very delightful Groves. They cut them down to get at the Fruit; and the Bodies being green and sappy, they are cut down with one Stroke of an Axe.

Bonano's

The Bonano's also grow on the Isthmus very plentifully. They are a sort of Plantains. The Fruit is short and thick, sweet and mealy. This eats best raw, and the Plantain boil'd.

Mammee.

On the Islands there are a great many Mammee-trees, which grow with a clear, streight Body, to 60 Foot high, or upwards. The Fruit is very wholesome and delicious; shap'd somewhat like a Pound-pear, but much larger, with a small Stone or two in the middle.

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Mammee Sappota.

The Mammee-Sappota differs some thing from the other, and is a smaller and firmer Fruit, of a fine beautiful Colour when ripe. It is very scarce on the Islands; and neither of these grow on the Continent.

Sapadillo's

So neither are Sapadillo's found growing on the Isthmus, though there is great plenty of them in the islands. The Tree is not so high as those last; it grows without Branches to the top, where it spreads out in Limbs like an Oak. The Fruit is very pleasant to tue Tast. It is small as a Bergamasco Pear, and is coated like a Ruffet-Pip-pin.

Pine-Apple

On the Isthmus grows that delicious Fruit which we call the Pine-Apple, in shape not much unlike an Artichoke, and as big as a Mans Head. It grows like a Crown on the top of a Stalk about as big as ones Arm, and a Foot and a half high. The Fruit is ordinarily about fix Pound weight; and is inclos'd with short prickly Leaves like an Artichoke. They do not strip, but pare off these Leaves to get at the Fruit; which hath no Stone or Kernel in it. 'Tis very juicy; and some fancy it to resemble the

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Tast of all the most delicious Fruits one can imagine mix'd together. It ripens at all times of the Year, and is rais'd from new Plants. The Leaves of the Plant are broad, about a Foot long, and grow from the Root.

Prickle Pear.

On the Main also grows the Prickle Pear, which is a thick-leav'd Plant about four Foot high, full of Prickles all over. That which they call the Pear grows at the Extremity of the Leaf. It's a good Fruit, much eaten by the Indians and others.

Popes Heads.

There are Popes Heads, as we call them, on the Main. They are a Plant or Shrub growing like a Mole-hill, and full of Spurs a Span long, sharp, thick and hard, with a black Point. They make a very good Fence, galling the Feet and Legs of any who come among them.

Sugar-Canes.

They have Sugar-Canes on the Isthmus; but the Indians make no other use of them, than to chew them and suck out the Juice.

Manchinel.

There is on the Islands, a Tree which is called Manchinel, and its Fruit the Manchinel, Apple. 'Tis in Smell and Colour like a lovely pleasant Apple, small and fragrant, but of a poisonous

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Nature; for if any eat of any Living Creature that has happen'd to feed on that Fruit, they are poisoned thereby, tho' perhaps not mortally. The Trees grow in green Spots; they are low, with a large Body, spreading out and full of Leaves. I have heard that the Wood hath been us'd in fine carv'd or inlay'd Works; for it is delicately grain'd. But there is danger in cutting it, the very Sap being so poisonous, as to blister the part which any of the Chips strike upon as they fly off. A French-man of our Company lying under one of these Trees, in one of the Samballoes, to refresh himself, the Rain-water trickling down thence on his Head and Breast, blistered him all over, as if he had been bestrewed with Cantharides. His Life was saved with much difficulty; and even when cured, there remained Scars, like those after the Small-Pox.

Maho Tree.

The Maho Tree, which grows here is about as big as an Ash. Another sort of Maho, which is more common is smaller, and grows in moist swampy Places, by the sides of Rivers, or near the Sea. Its Bark is

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ragged like tattered Canvass; if you lay hold on a piece of it, 'twill rip off in Strings to the top of the Tree; the Strings are of a great length, slender, and very strong. Ropes are made of it for Cables, and Rigging for small Vessels. The way the Indians order it, is thus: They strip off the Bark in great flakes: Out of them they draw greater or lesser Strings as they please. These they beat and clean, and twist into Threads and Cords, by rolling them between the Palm of the Hand, and the top of the Knee or Thigh, as our Shoo-makers twist their Ends, but much quicker. Of these they make Nets for Fishing, but only for great Fish as Tarpoms, or die like.

Calabash Tree.

The Tree which bears the Calabash is short and thick, the Calabash grows up and down among the Boughs, as our Apples do. It is of a Globular figure, the out-side of it an hard Shell, holding the quantity of 2, 3, 4, or 5 Quarts. These Shells the Indians use as Vessels for many occasions. There are two sorts of these Trees, but the difference is chiefly in the Fruit; that of the one being sweet,

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the other bitter. The Substance of both is Spongy and Juicy. That of the sweeter sort does yet incline to a tart, fourish Tast. The Indians, however, eat them frequently in a March, tho' they are not very delightful. They only suck out the Juice, and spit out the rest. The bitter sort is not eatable, but is very Medicinal. They are good in Tertian's; and a Decoction of them in a Clyster is an admirable Specifick in the Tortions of the Guts or dry Gripes. The Calabash Shells are almost as hard as those of the Coco-nuts, but not half so thick. The Darien Calabash is painted, and much esteem'd by the Spaniards.

Gourds.

There are Gourds also which grow creeping along the Ground, or climbing up Trees in great quantities, like Pompions or Vines. Of these also there are two Sorts, a Sweet and a Bitter: The Sweet eatable, but not desirable; the Bitter medicinal in the Passio Iliaca, Tertian's, Costiveness, &c. taken in a Clyster. But the Indians value both sorts chiefly for their Shells; and the larger sort of these serve them by way of Pails and Buck-

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ets, as Calabafhes do for Dishes, Cups and Drinking-Vessels.

Silk-Grass.

They have a Plant also which is of good use to them, call'd by us Silk-Grass; tho' 'tis indeed a kind of Flag. It grows in great quantities in moist Places on the sides of Hills. The Roots are knobbed, and shoot out into Leaves like a Sword-blade, as thick as ones Hand in the middle of the Leaf towards the Root, thinner towards the Edges and the top; where it ends in a sharp Point, altogether like our Flags, save that the Leaf is much broader, and a yard or two in length, and jagged at the Edges like a Saw or some Reap-hooks. The Indians cut these Leaves when of a convenient Growth, and having dried them well in the Sun, they beat them into Strings like fine Flax, extraordinary strong, beyond any of our Flax or Hemp: For the Leaf it self seems to be nothing but a Congeries of Strings inclos'd with a Skin on each side. They twist these Strings as they do those of the Maho-tree, and make of them Ropes for Hammocks, Cordage of all forts, but especially a finer kind of Nets for small Fish. In Jamaica

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the Shoomakers use this for Thread to sew with, as being stronger than any other. The Spanish Women make Stockins of it, which are call'd Silk-grass Stockins, and are fold very dear. They make of it also a kind of yelldwish Lace, which is much bought and worn by the Mostesa women in the West-Indian Plantations.

Lightwood.

There grows here a Tree about the bigness of an Elm, the Wood of which is very light, and we therefore call it Light-wood. The Tree is streight and well-bodied, and has a great Leaf like a Wall-nut. A Man may carry on his Back a great quantity of the Wood when cut down: Its Substance resembles Cork, and is of a whitish Colour; but the Grain of it is rougher than Fir, or courser yet, like that of the Cotton-tree. I know not whether it has that spongy Elasticity that Cork has; yet I should think it an excellent Wood for making Tomkins, or Stopples for the Muzzles of great Guns. 'Tis so very light in Water that three or four Logs of it, about as thick as ones Thigh and about four Foot long, shall make a Rafter on which two or

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three Men may go out to Sea. The Indians make large Rafters of it upon occasion, after this manner: They tane Logs of this Wood not very big, and bind them together collaterally with Maho-Cords, making of them a kind of Floor. Then they lay another Range of Logs across these, at some distance from each other, and peg them down to the former with long Pins of Macan-wood; and the Wood of the Float is so soft, and tenacious withal, that it easily gives admittance to the Peg upon driving, and closes fast about it. The Floats, were they boarded, Woud resemble our Dyers-floats in the Thames at London; and the Indians use them chiefly for Passage cross a great River where Canoa's or other Trees are wanting; or for Fishing.

Whitewood.

Another Tree they have which we call White-wood. The Body of it grows in heighth about 18 or 20 Foot, like a large Willow, and about as thick as ones Thigh. The Leaf is like Senna, very small. The Wood is very hard, close and ponderous, and exceeding White, beyond any European Wood that ever I saw, and of a

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Very fine Grain: So that I cannot but think it would be very good for inlaying, or other Cabinet-work. I never saw this Tree any where but in this Isthmus.

Tamarind.

They have Tamarinds here of the brown sort, and good, but not well Manur'd. The Tree is a fair spreading one, and very large of the kind. The Tree grows usually in a sandy Soil, near a River.

Locust-Tree

The Tree also that bears the Locust-fruit, grows here. The Wild sort is found in great abundance, 'tis not much unlike the Tamarind.

Bastard-Cinnamon

They have a Bastard-Cinnamon also, bearing a Cod shorter than a Beancod, but thicker, it grows only on the Main.

Bamboes.

Bamboes grow here but too pleritifully, like a Briar, whole Copses of them. The Branches or Canes grow in clusters 20 or 30 or more of them from one Root, and guarded with Prickles. They render the Places where they grow almost impassable, which are generally swampy Grounds, or the sides of Rivers. They are found mostly on the Main, the Islands having only some few of them.

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Hollow Bamboes

The Hollow Bamboes are on the Main only. They grow twenty or thirty Foot in heighth, and as thick as ones Thigh. They have Knots all along at the distance of about a Foot and an half. All the Space from Knot to Knot is hollow, and of the Capacity usually of a Gallon or more, and these are serviceable on many Occasions. The Leaves of this Shrub are like Eldern-leaves, in a Cluster at the top of each Cane, and these also grow thick together in Copses.

Mangrove.

Mangrove.-Trees grow out of the Water, both in the Islands and the Main, rising from several Roots like Stilts entangled one among another. The Roots or Stumps appear some Feet above Water, rising from a pretty depth also from under the Surface of it, and at length they unite all together, Arbour-wise, into the Body of a lusty tall Tree, of a Foot or two Diameter. There is scarce any passing along where these Trees grow, the Roots of them are so blended together. The Bark of the Mangroves that grows in Salt Water is of a red Colour, and is us'd for tanning of Leather. I have some Reason to

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think that the Tree from whence the the Peruvian or Jesuits Bark is fetcht is of the Mangrove kind; for when I was last at Arica in Peru, I saw a Caravan of about 20 Mules with this Bark just come in, and then unlading at a Store-house. One of our Company, who spake Spanish, ask'd a Spaniard who guided the Drove, from whence he fetch'd that Bark? He answered, from a great fresh Water Lake behind a Mountain a great way within Land; at the same time pointing at a very high Ridge of Hills we saw at a great distance from us, and the Sea. Being further examined as to the Tree it grew on, he so describ'd it, by these intangled Stilts, and other Particulars, that our Interpreter said to him, Sure it must be a Mangrove-Tree! The Spaniard answer'd, Yes, a fresh-Water Mangrove: Yet he said it was a very small Tree, which the Mangrove is not, unless this should be a Dwars kind of it. We brought away with us several Bundles of this Bark, and I found it to be the right sort, by the frequent use I made of it in Virginia and elsewhere; and I have some of it now by me.

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Pepper.

They have two sorts of Pepper, the one called Bell-Pepper the other Bird-Pepper, and great quantities of each, much used by the Indians: Each sort grows on a Weed, or Shrubby Bush about a Yard high. The Bird-pepper has the smaller Leaf, and is by the Indians better esteemed than the other, for they eat a great deal of it.

RedWood.

There is on the Main a Red sort of Wood that might be of good use for Dyers. It grows mostly towards the North-Sea Coast, upon a River that runs towards the Samballoes, about two Miles from the Sea-shore. I saw there great quantities of these Trees: They are thirty or forty Foot high, about as big as ones Thigh, and the out-side is all along full of Cavities or Notches in the Bark. When the Wood is cut, it appears of a Yellowish Red. With this, and a kind of Earth which they have up the Country, the Indians die Cottons for their Hammocks and Gowns. I tried a little of it, which upon boiling two Hours in fair Water, turn'd it Red as Blood. I dipt therein a piece of Cotton, which it died of a good Red; and when I wash'd it, it turn'd

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but a little paler, which I imputed to the want only of something to fix the Colour; for no washing could fetch out the Tincture. 'Twas a bright and glossy Red, very lively.

Potato's.

The Indians have several Roots which they plant; especially Potato's which they roast and eat.

Yams.

They do the same also by Yams, of which they have two sorts, a White and a Purple.

Cassava.

They have a Root call'd Cassava, not much unlike a Parsnip. There are two sorts also of these, a Sweet and a Poisonous. The Sweet sort they roast and eat as they do potato's or Yams. Of the Poisonous they make Bread, having first press'd out the Juice, which is noxious. Part of the remaining Substance they grate to a Powder; and having a Baking-stone or Trivet set over a Fire, they strew the Flower over the hot Stone gradually, which bakes it all to a Cake, the bottom hard-bak'd and brown, the rest rough and white, like our Oat-cakes; they use to hang them on the Houses or Hedges, where they dry and grow crisp. In Jamaica they use them fre-

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quently instead of Bread; and so in other of the West-Indian Islands.

Tobacco.

Indian way of Smoaking.

These Indians have Tobacco among them. It grows as the Tobacco in Virginia, but is not so strong: Perhaps for want of transplanting and manuring, which the Indians don't well understand; for they only raise it from the Seed in their Plantations. When 'tis dried and cured they strip it from the Stalks; and laying two or three Leaves upon one another, they roll up all together side-ways into a long Roll, yet leaving a little hollow. Round this they roll other Leaves one after another, in the same manner but close and hard, till the Roll be as big as ones Wrist, and two or three Feet in length. Their way of Smoaking, when they are in Company together is thus: A Boy lights one end of a Roll and burns it to a Coal, wetting the part next it to keep it from wasting too fast. The End so lighted be puts into his Mouth, and blows the Smoak through the whole length of the Roll into the Face of every one of the Company or Council, tho' there be 2 or 300 of them. Then they, fitting in their usual Posture Upon

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Forms, make, with their Hands held hollow together, a kind of Funnel round their Mouths and Noses. Into this they receive the Smoak as 'tis blown upon them, snuffing it up greedily and strongly as long as ever they are able to hold their Breath, and seeming to bless themselves, as it were, with the Refreshment it gives them.

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Of the ANIMALS; and first of Beasts and Reptiles.

THE Variety of Beasts in this Country is not very great; but the Land is so fertile, that upon clearing any considerable part of the Woods it would doubtless afford excellent Pasture, for the maintaining black Cattle, Swine, or whatever other Beasts 'tis usual to bring out of Europe into these Climates.

Pecary.

The Country has of its own a kind of Hog, which is call'd Pecary, not much unlike a Virginia Hog. 'Tis black, and has little short Legs, yet is pretty nimble. It has one thing very strange, that the Navel is not upon the Belly, but the Back: And what is more still, if upon killing a Pecary the Navel be not cut away from the Carkass within three or four Hours after at farthest, 'twill so taint all the Flesh, as not only to render it

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unfit to be eaten, but make'it stink insufferably. Else 'twill keep fresh several Days, and is very good wholesome Meat, nourishing and well-tasted. The Indians barbecue it, when they would keep any of it longer: The manner in which they do it I shall describe elsewhere. These Creatures usually herd together, and range about in Droves; and the Indians either hunt them down with their Dogs, and so strike them with their Lances, or else shoot them with their Arrows, as they have opportunity.

Warree

The Warree is another kind of Wild-Hog they have, which is also very good Meat. It has little Ears, but very great Tusks; and the Hair or Bristles 'tis cover'd with, are long, strong and thickset, like a course Furr all over its Body. The Warree is fierce, and fights with the Pecary, or any other Creature that comes in his way. The Indians hunt these also as the other, and manage their Flesh the same way, except only as to what concerns the Navel; the singularity of which is peculiar to the Pecary.

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Deer.

They have considerable store of Deer also, resembling most our Red Deer; but these they never hunt nor kill; nor will they ever eat of their Flesh, tho' 'tis very good; but we were not shy of it. Whether it be out of Superstition, or for any other Reason that they forbear them, I know not: But when they saw some of our Men killing and eating of them, they not only refus'd to eat with them, but seem'd displeas'd with them for it. Yet they preserve the Horns of these Deer, setting them up in their Houses; but they are such only as they shed, for I never saw among them so much as the Skin or Head of any of them, that might shew they had been kill'd by the Indians; and they are too nimble for the Warree, if not a Match for him.

Dogs.

The Dogs they have are small, not well-shap'd, their Hair rough and stragling, like our Mungrels. They serve only to bark and start the Game, or by their barking give notice to the Hunters to shoot their Arrows. They will run about in this manner from Morning to Night; but are such meer whiffling Curs, that of 2 or 300

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Beasts started in a Day, they shall seldom kill above two or three; and these not by running them down, but by getting them at a Bay and besetting them, till the Hunters can come up with them. Large strong Dogs would make better Work here; and it might be a very acceptable Thing to the Indians to transport hither a Breed of such: But then they must keep to their Houses, or they would be in danger of running Wild, in this Country.

Rabbits.

Here are Rabbits, call'd by our English, Indian Conies. They are as large as our Hares; but I know not that this Country has any Hares. These Rabbits have no Tails, and but little short Ears; and the Claws of their Feet are long. They lodge in the Roots of Trees, making no Burrows; and the Indians hunt them, but there is no great plenty of them. They are very good Meat, and eat rather moister than ours.

Monkeys.

There are great Droves of Monkeys, some of them white, but most of them black; some have Beards, others are beardless. They are of a middle Size, yet extraordinary fat at the

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dry Season, when the Fruits are ripe; and they are very good Meat, for we ate of them very plentifully. The Indians were shy of eating them for a while; but they soon were persuaded to it, by seeing us feed on them so heartily. In the Rainy Season they have often Worms in their Bowels. I have taken a handful of them out of one Monkey we cut open; and some of them 7 or 8 Foot long. They are a very waggish kind of Monkey, and plaid a thousand antick Tricks as we march'd at any time through the Woods, skipping from Bough to Bough, with the young ones hanging at the old ones Back, making Faces at us, chattering, and, if they had opportunity, pissing down purposely on our Heads. To pass from top to top of high Trees, whose Branches are a little too far asunder for their Leaping, they will sometimes hang down by one anothers Tails in a Chain; and swinging in that manner, the lowermost catches hold of a Bough of the other Tree, and draws up the rest of them.

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No European Cattel.

Rats and Mice.

Cats much esteem'd

Here are no Bullocks, Horses, Asses, Sheep, Goats, or other such Beasts as we have for Food or Service. They are exceedingly pester'd with Mice and Rats, which are mostly Grey; and a Brood of Cats therefore to destroy these, might be as acceptable a Present to them as better Dogs for their Hunting. When I left the Isthmus, 2 of the Indians who came aboard the same Vessel at the Samballoe's, went a Cruising with us towards the Corn-Islands and Carta-gene: And when they were dispos'd to return, and we were studying to oblige 'em with some Present, one of them spied a Cat we had aboard, and beg'd it: Which we had no sooner given him, but he and his Consort, without staying for any other Gift, went immediately into their Canoa, and padled off with abundance of Joy. They had learnt the use of Cats while they were aboard.

Insects and Vermin.

They have Snakes, but of what kind I don't well remember; nor did I see or hear any Rattle-Snakes. Spiders they have many, very large, but not poisonous. They have Lice in their Heads; which they feel out

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with their Fingers, and eat as they catch them.

Soldier-Insect.

Delicious Meat.

Sand-bag

Poisonous if fed with Manchineel

The Oil an excellent Salve

There is a sort of Insect like a Snail in great plenty among the Samballoe's, which is call'd the Soldier-Insect; but I don't remember I saw any of them upon the Main. The reason of the Name, is because of the Colour; for one third part of his Body, about his Head, which is out of the Shell, is in Shape and Colour like a boil'd Shrimp, with little Claws, and 2 larger like those of a Crab. That part within the Shell, the Tail especially, is eatable, and is good Food, very well tasted and delicious, like Marrow. We thrust a Skuer through this part, and roast a pretty many of them in a row. The forepart is bony, and useless. They feed upon the Ground, eating what falls from Trees: And they have under the Chin a little Bag, into which they put a reserve of Food. Beside this, they have in them a little Sand Bag, which must always be taken out when they are to be eaten. This Bag is commonly pretty full of Sand: And Conchs and Welks, and other Shell-fish, have usually Sand in a Ves-

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sel that runs the length of the Body, in manner of a Gut; which we are forc'd to take out, for else they would be gritty in ones Teeth. If these Soldiers eat of any of the Manchineel-Apples which drop from the Trees, their Flesh becomes so insected with that virulent Juice, as to poison in a manner those who eat of it: And we have had some of our Company very sick by eating such as had fed on Manchineel; but after a while't would wear off again, without further damage. The Oil of these Insects is a most Soveraign Remedy for any Sprain or Contusion. I have found it so, as many others have done frequently: The Indians use it that way very successfully, and many of the Privateers in the West-Indies: And our Men sought them as much for the Oil, as for the sake of eating them. The Oil is of a yellow Colour, like Wax, but of the Consistency of Palm-Oil.

Land-Crabs,

where.

Anguilla.

Crab-Island.

Good Meat,

fatten'd with Potato's.

On the Samballoe's I think there are also Land-Crabs, tho' but few: But in the Caribbee-Islands, among which I have been Cruising, and especially on Anguilla, they are very numerous, and some very large, as big, as the

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largest Sea-Crabs that are sold at London. They have them also in other of the West-India Islands; but on Anguilla they swarm; and a little Island near it has such multitudes of them, that 'tis call'd Crab-Island. They are excellent good Meat, and are the main Support of the Inhabitants, who range about a Crabbing, as they call it. After a Shower of Rain they will come abroad; and then is the best time to look out for them. They live in Holes or Burrows like Rabbits, which they dig for themselves with their Claws. When they are upon the March they never go about, nor turn their Backs, but crawl over any thing that lies in their way, guarding with their great Claws, while they creep with the small ones; and whatever they lay hold of they pinch very feverely. The Inhabitants of some of these Isles, when they take any of them, put them for three or four Days into a piece of Potato-ground, to fatten them; for which they are said to; eat much the better.

Alligators.

Guano's

Lizards.

Alligator's and Guano's, which are also very good Meat, especially the Tail of the Alligator, I have eaten in

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several Parts of the West-Indies; but I don't remember my seeing either of them in the Isthmus. The Guano is all over very good Meat, prefer'd to a Pullet or Chicken, either for the Meat or Broth. Their Eggs also are very good; but those of the Alligator have too much of a musky Flavour, and sometimes smell very strong of it. There are up and down the Isthmus a great many Lizards, green, and red-speckled; but those in the Swampy Land and Thickets look more black or rusty. They are none, of them large; generally less than a Span. I never saw the Indians eat of them. They are pretty innocent familiar Creatures, and the Indians suffer them to creep up and down their Houses.

They have Frogs and Toads, and other smaller Insects; but I took no particular Notice of them.

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The Birds, and flying Insects.

THEY have several sorts of Birds, some of Kinds unknown to us; and remarkable both for their Beauty, and the good Relish of their Flesh.

Chicaly-Chicaly.

There is one stately kind of Landbird, pretty common among the Woods on the Isthmus, which is call'd by the Indians Chicaly-Chicaly. Its Noise is somewhat like a Cuckow's, but sharper and quicker. 'Tis a large and long Bird, and has a long Tail, which he carries upright like a Dunghill Cock. His Feathers are of great variety of fine lively Colours, red, blue, &c. The Indians make a sort of Aprons, sometimes, of the Feathers which grow on his Back; but these they seldom wear. This Bird keeps mostly on the Trees, flying from one to another, and but rarely to the Ground. He feeds on Fruit. His Flesh is blackish, and of a course Grain, yet pretty good Meat.

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Quam.

The Quam is also a large and long Land-bird. He feeds also upon Fruits, and flies up and down the Trees. His Wings are of a Dun Colour, but his Tail is very dark, short, stumpy, and upright. This Bird is much better Meat than the other.

Anonymous

There is also a Russet-colour'd Land-bird, shap'd not unlike a Partridge; but has a longer Neck and Legs, yet a short Tail. He runs most on the Ground, and seldom flies. His Flesh is very good Meat.

Corrofou.

The Corrofou is a large, black Land-bird, heavy and big as a Turkey-hen; but the Hen is not so black as the Cock. The Cock has on his Head a fine Crown or Comb of yellow Feathers, which he moves to and fro as he pleases: He has Gills also like a Turkey; but the Hen has neither Plume nor Gills. They live on the Trees, and feed on Fruits. They Sing or make a Noise big and gross, yet very sweet and delightful; especially to the Indians, who indeavour to imitate them: And the Indians and they will sometimes answer one another this way, and the Indians discover their Haunts by it. The old

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ones also call their young ones by this Sound. The Flesh is somewhat tough, but otherwise very good and well-tasted Meat. The Indians either throw the Bones of the Corrofou into the River, or make a Hole and bury them, to keep them from their Dogs, being thought unwholsome for the Dogs to eat; and the Indians say they will make the Dogs run mad: Neither do the English in the West-Indies let the Dogs eat of them. The Indians shoot down all these Birds with their Arrows.

Parrots.

They have Parrots good store, some blue and some green, for Shape and Size like the generality of the Parrots we have from Famaica. There is here great variety of them, and they are very good Meat.

Parakites

They have also many Parakites, most of them Green; generally much the same as in other Places. They don't sort with the Parrots, but go in large Flights by themselves.

Macaw-birds.

Macaw-birds are here also in good plenty.'Tis shap'd not much unlike a Parrot, but is as large again as the biggest of them. It has a Bill like a Hawk's; and a bushy Tail, with

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two or three long stragling Feathers, all Red or Blue: The Feathers all over the Body are of several very bright and lovely Colours, Blue, Green and Red. The Pinions of the Wings of some of them are all Red, of others all Blue, and the Beaks yellow. They make a great Noise in a Morning, very hoarse and deep, like Men who speak much in the Throat. The Indians keep these Birds tame, as we do Parrots, or Mag-pies: But after they have kept them close some time, and taught them to speak some Words in their Language, they suffer them to go abroad in the Day-time into the Woods, among the wild ones; from whence they will on their own accord return in the Evening to the Indians Houses or Plantations, and give notice of their arrival by their fluttering and prating. They will exactly imitate the Indians Voices, and their way of Singing, and they will call the Chicaly-Chicaly in its own Note, as exactly as the Indians themselves, whom I have observ'd to be very expert at it. 'Tis the most beautiful and pleasant Bird that ever I

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saw; and the Flesh is sweet-tasted enough, but black and tough.

Wood-pecker.

There is also a sort of Wood-pecker, with such a long slender Bill as that kind of Birds have. These have strong Claws, wherewith they climb up and down the Bodies of Trees, and stick very close to them. They are pied like our Mag-pies, white and black; but more finely, being a smaller Bird. The Flesh is of an earthy unpleasant Tast. I tasted of them as I was travelling with my Companions, for Hunger then made us glad of any thing of Food; but the Indians don't eat of them.

Dunghil Fowl.

They have great plenty of Poultry tame about the Houses, of 2 sorts, a greater and a less. The larger sort are much like ours, of different Colours and Breed, as Copple-crown'd, the common Dunghil Cock and Hen, and of the Game kind; tho' these Indians don't delight in Cock-fighting as those of Fava do. The smaller sort are feather'd about the Legs like Carrier-pigeons, and have very bushy Tails, which they carry upright; and the tips of the Wings are generally black. This small sort keep a-

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part from the other. They all keep the same Crowing Season, before Day, as our Cocks do. They are constantly about the Houses, not ranging far into the Woods; and both their Flesh and their Eggs are as well-tasted as any we have in England; and they are generally fatter; for the Indians give them Maiz good store, which is very fattening.

Small Birds.

These are all the kinds of Land-birds I noted among them: Though there are many small ones which I did not so particularly observe; and these generally very pretty and musical.

Sea-fowl.

Pelican.

About the Sambaloes and other the Islands, and the Sea-Coast, on the North-side especially, there are great numbers of Sea-fowl. The South-Sea Coast, more to Windward, has many of them too; but whether it be that the Bay of Panama does not afford so many Fish to invite them, for 'tis not near so well-stock'd with Fish as the Coast about the Samballoes, there are but very few Sea-fowl on the South-Sea Coast of the Isthmus, to what there are on the North-Coast; and as to Pelicans particularly, which

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are very frequent among the Sambal-loes, and all along the West-lndia Coasts, I don't remember that I ever faw one of them any where in the South Seas.

The Pelican is a large Bird, with a great Beak, short legg'd like a Goose; and has a long Neck, which it holds upright like a Swan. The Feathers are of dark Grey; 'tis Web-sooted. Under the Throat hangs a Bag or Pouch, which, when fill'd, is as large as both ones Fists. The Substance of it is a thin Membrane, of a fine, grey, ashy Colour. The Seamen kill them for the Sake of these Bags, to make Tobacco-pouches of them; for, when dry, they will hold a Pound of Tobacco; and by a Bullet hung in them, they are soon brought in to Shape. The Pelican flies heavy and low; we find nothing but Fish in his Maw, for that is his Food. His Pouch, as well as Stomach, has Fish found in it: So that it seems likely that the Pouch is a Bag intended to keep a Reserve of Food. I have never seen any of the old Pelicans eaten; but the young ones are said to be Meat good enough, but I have never eaten of any of them.

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Cormorants.

There are Cormorants also among the Samballoes, which for Size and Shape are like Ducks, but rather less. They are black, but have a white Spot on the Breast. Tho' they are Web-footed, as other Water-fowl are, yet they pitch on Trees and Shrubs by the Water-side. I have never heard of any one's eating of these, for their Flesh is thought to be too course and rank.

Sea-Gulls and Sea-Pies.

There are a great many Sea-Gulls also and Sea-Pies, on that Coast; both of them much like ours, but rather smaller. The Flesh of both these is eaten commonly enough, and 'tis tolerable good Meat, but of a Fishy Tast, as Sea-fowl usually are. Yet to correct this Tast, when we kill'd any Sea-Gulls, Sea-Pies, Boobies, or the like, on any Shore, we us'd to make a Hole in the hot Sand, and there bury them for eight or ten Hours, with their Feathers on, and Guts in them: And upon dressing them afterwards, we found the Flesh tenderer, and the Tast not so rank nor fishy.

Bats.

There are Bats, on the Isthmus, the Bodies of which are as large as

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Pigeons, and their Wings extended to a proportionable length and breadth; with Claws at the Joints of the Wings, by which they cling to any thing. They much haunt old Houses and deserted Plantations.

Flying Insects.

Shining Fly.

Of Flying Insects, beside the Moskito's or Gnats before-mention'd, there are up and down the Isthmus Wasps and Beetles, and Flies of several kinds: particularly the Shining Fly, which shines in the Night like a Glow-worm; and where there are many of them in a Thicket, they appear in the Night like so many Sparks of Fire.

Bees.

Hony.

Wax.

They have Bees also, and consequently Hony and Wax. The Bees are of two sorts; the one short and thick, and its Colour inclining to Red; the other blackish, long and slender. They nest on the tops and in the holes of Trees; which the Indians climb, and thrust their Arms into their Nest, to get the Combs. Their Arms will be cover'd with Bees, upon their drawing them back; yet I never perceiv'd they were stung by them: And I have had many of them at a time upon my naked Body, with-

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out being stung; so that I have been inclin'd to think they have no Stings: But that's a thing I never examin'd. The Indians sometimes burn down the Trees to get at the Combs, especially if they be high and difficult to climb. The Hony they mix with Water, and drink it: But they make no use of the Wax, that ever I saw; using for Candles a sort of light Wood, which they keep in their Houses for that purpose.

Ants.

They have Ants with Wings, large and long, as well as those which are Reptile only. They raise Hillocks like ours: They sting, and are very troublesome; especially when they get into the Houses, as they frequently do. They swarm up and down the Samballoes and the other Neighbouring Isles, as well as on the Isthmus it self; and there is no lying down to Rest on any piece of Ground where they are. Neither do the Indians care to tie their Hammocks to any Trees near the Ant-hills; for the Ants would climb up such Trees, and soon get into their Hammocks.

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Of the FISH.

Sea-fish.

THE North-Sea Coast, as I intimated, abounds in Fish, and has great variety of them. Those which I have had the opportunity of seeing, are chiefly these:

Tarpom.

The Tarpom, which is a large and firm Fish, eating in Flakes like Salmon or Cod. They are some of 50 or 60 Pound weight and upwards. One of them afforded a good Dinner once to about ten of us, as we were cruising towards the Coast of Carta-gene; beside a good quantity of Oil we got out of the Fat.

Sharks.

Sharks are also found in these Seas; tho' not so commonly about the Samballoes, as on other of the West-India Coasts.

Dog-fish.

There is a Fish there like the Shark, but much smaller and sweeter Meat. Its Mouth is also longer and narrower than the Sharks; neither has he more than one Row of Teeth. Our Seamen us'd to call this the Dog-fish.

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Cavally.

The Cavally is found among the Samballoes. 'Tis a small Fish, clean, long and slender, much about the size of a Macarel; a very fine lively Fish, with a bright, large Eye; and 'tis very good Meat, moist and welltasted.

Old-wives

Old-wives, which is a flat kind of Fish, and good Meat, are there also.

Paracoods

They have Paracoods also, which are a long and round Fish, about as large as a well-grown Pike, but usually much longer. They are generally very good Meat; and here especially: But there are some particular Banks off at Sea, where you can take no Paracoods but what are poisonons. Whether it be from some particular Feed they have there, or from what other Cause, I know not; but I have known several Men poison'd with them, to that degree as to have their Hair and Nails come off; and some have died with eating them. The Antidote for this is said to be the Backbone of the Fish, dried and beaten to a Powder, and given in any Liquor. I can't vouch for the Success of this my self; but several have told me, That they have us'd it themselves,

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when they have found themselves sick with eating any Paracood; but that upon taking the Bone thus powder'd, they have found no other ill Effect, but only a Nummedness in their Limbs, and a Weakness for some time after. Some will pretend to distinguish a poisonous Paracood from a wholesome one, by the Liver; which as soon as they have taken the Fish, they pull put and tast. If it tast sweet, they dress and eat the Fish without any Fear; but if the Liver be bitter, or bite the Tongue like Pepper, they conclude the Fish to be naught, and throw it away.

Gar-fish.

There is another sort of Fish on the North-Sea Coast, which our Sea-men call Gar-fish: Some of them are near two Foot long. They have a long Bone on the Snout, of about a 3d part the length of the Body; and 'tis very sharp at the end. They will glide along the Surface of the Water as swift as a Swallow, gliding thus on the Surface, and leaping out of the Water, alternately, 30 or 40 times together. They move with such a Force, that, as I have been inform'd, they will run their Snout through the

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side of a Canoa; and 'tis dangerous for a Man who is Swimming to meet with them, left they strike through him. The Back-bone looks blewish, of a Colour towards a Saphire. The Flesh is very good Meat.

Sculpins.

There are Sculpins also, a Fish about a Foot long, with Prickles all about him: They strip them of their prickly Skin, and then dress them. They are very good Meat.

Sting-rays Parrot-Fish, snooks, conger-Eels, &c.

There are in the North-Sea many other Fish beside these, as Sting-rays, Parrot-fish, Snooks, Conger-Eels, &c. and many others, probably, that have neither seen nor heard of; for 'tis a Sea very well stor'd with Fish.

Shell-Fish. Conchs.

Of Shell-fish, there are Conchs all along the Samballoes in abundance. Their Shells are very large, winding within like a Snail-shell; the Mouth of the Shell is flat, and very wide, pro-portionably to the bigness of the Shell. The Colour of it within is like Mother of Pearl; but without, 'tis course and rugged. The Fish is slimy, the out-parts of it especially, and must therefore be scour'd with Sand before 'tis dress'd for Eating. But within, the Substance is hard and tough; for

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which Reason they beat them after they have scour'd the out-side: But when they have been thus managed, they are a very sweet and good Fish.

Periwinkles.

There are Periwinkle's; good store among the Rocks; which are also good Meat. We pick them out of the Shells with Pins.

Limpits.

The Limpits also stick to the Rocks hereabouts; and are rather better Meat than the other.

Sea-Crabs

Craw-Fish.

There are no Oysters nor Lobsters on the Coast of the Isthmus; but a few Crabs: and a sort of Craw-fish among the Rocks of the Samballoes, as large as small Lobsters, but wanting the two great Claws. These last are very delicious Meat; but the Sea-Crabs are not very good.

Fresh-Water Fish.

There are Fish in the Rivers also of the Isthmus; but I am not acquainted with many of the kinds of them.

Anonymous.

There is one sort like our Roach, blackish and very bony, in length about a Foot, very sweet, firm, and well-tasted.

There is another Fish in shape like the Paracood, but much smaller, and a very good Fish.

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There is a Fish like our Pike or Jack for Shape; but not above 8 or 10 Inches long. His Mouth is somewhat like a Rabbits, his Teeth a little way within: His Lips are Cartilaginous. 'Tis a very good Fish.

What other Fish their Rivers yield, I know not; for I took no very particular notice even of these.

Manner of Fishing.

But I was more observing of the Indians manner of Fishing at which they are very expert, and manage it differently, according to the Place where they Fish. In the Rivers Mouths, and upon the Sea-Coasts, in Sandy-bays where there are no Rocks, they use Nets like our Drag-nets, made of Maho-bark or Silk-grass; which they carry out in their Canoa's. But in the Hill-Country, where the Streams are clear, and the Banks in many places Rocky, they go along the Banks up the River, looking narrowly into the Water to view the Fish. When they spy any to their Mind, they leap into the Water, and wade or swim up and down after them; and if the Fish, through the Fright, betake themselves into the holes in the Banks for Shelter, as they

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frequently do, the Indians feel them out with their Hands and take them thence, as we do Chubs or Craw-fish in our Rivers. By Night they bring with them Torches of Light-wood, and with these they spy out the Fish, and so jump in, and pursue them into their Holes.

Dressing their Fish.

For dressing their Fish; their First gut them, and then either boil them in an Earthen Pot, or else barbecue or broil them.

Salt, how made.

For Salt, they have it out of the Sea-water; which they boil up and evaporate in Earthen Pots, till the Salt is left in a Cake at the bottom, which they take out and break in pieces for use: But as this is a tedious way, so they have but little, and are very choice and sparing of it. They don't salt their Fish for keeping; but when they eat it, they boil abundance of Pepper with it, as they do with every thing else. But their Cookery I shall speak of elsewhere.

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Of the Indian INHABITANTS; their Manners, Customs, &c.

Indian Inhabitants.

THE Indian Inhabitants of the Isthmus are not very numerous, but they live thickest on the North-side, especially along the sides of Rivers. The wild Indians of the South-side live most towards Peru: But there are Indians scatter'd up and down all parts of the Isthmus.

Their Stature. shape.

Features.

The size of the Men is usually about 5 or 6 foot. They are streight and clean-limb'd, big'd-bon'd, full-breasted, and handsomly shap'd. I never saw among them a crooked or deformed Person. They are very nimble and active, running very well. But the Women are short and thick, and not so lively as the Men. The young Women are very plump and fat, well-shap'd; and have a brisk Eye. The elder Women are very ordinary; their Bellies and Breasts

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being pensile and wrinkled. Both Men and Women are of a round Visage, with short bottle Noses, their Eyes large, generally grey, yet lively and sparking when young. They have a high Forehead, white even Teeth, thin Lips, and Mouth moderately large. Their Cheeks and Chin are well proportion'd; and in general they are handsomly featur'd, but the Men more than the Women.

Hair.

Combs of Macaw-sticks.

Both Sexes have streight, long, black Hair, lank, course and strong, which they wear usually down to the middle of the Back, or lower, hanging loose at its full length; only the Women, tie it together with a String just behind the Head, below which it flows loose as the Mens. Both Men and Women pride themselves much in the length of the Hair of the Head; and they frequently part it with their Fingers, to keep it disentangled; or comb it out with a sort of Combs they make of Macaw-wood. This Comb is made of several small Sticks, of about 5 or 6 Inches long, and tapering to a point at each end like our Glovers Sticks. These being tied 10 or 12 of them together about

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the middle where they are thick, the Extremities of them both ways open from each other, and serve at either end for a Comb: which does well enough to part the Hair; but they are forc'd to use their Fingers to fetch the Lice out of their Heads. They take great delight in Combing their Hair, and will do it for an Hour together. All other Hair, except that of their Eye-brows and Eye-lids, they eradicate: For tho' the Men have Beards if they would let them grow, yet they always have them rooted out: And the Women are the Operators for all this Works; using two little Sticks for that purpose, between which they pinch the Hair, and pluck it up. But the Men upon some occasions cut off the Hair even of their Heads, it being a Custom they have to do so by way of Triumph, and as a distinguishing Mark of Honour to him who has kill'd a Spaniard, or other Enemy. He also then paints himself black (which is not usual up on any other occasion) continuing painted of this Colour till the first New-moon (as I remember) after the Fact is done.

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Complexion

Anointing themselves

Their Natural Complexion is a Copper-colour, or Orange-tawney; and their Eye-brows are naturally black as Jet. They use no Art to deepen the Colour either of their Eye-brows, or the Hair of their Head; but they daub it with Oil to make it shine; for like other Indians they anoint themselves all over, whether for Beauty to make the Skin smooth and sleek, or to supple it and keep it from parching, or to hinder too much Perspiration in this hot Country, I know not.

White Indians.

There is one Complexion so singular, among a sort of People of this Country, that I never saw nor heard of any like them in any part of the World. The Account will seem strange, but any Privateers who have gone over the Ifthmus must have seen them, and can attest the main of what I am going to relate; tho' few have had the opportunity of so particular an Information about these People as I have had.

Milk-white Skins,

They are White, and there are of them of both Sexes; yet there are but few of them in comparison of the Copper-colour'd, possibly but one to

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two or three hundred. They differ from the other Indians chiefly in respect of Colour, tho' not in that only. Their Skins are not of such a White as those of fair People among Europeans, with some tincture of a Blush or Sanguine Complexion; neither yet is their Complexion like that of our paler People, but 'tis rather a Milk-white, lighter than the Colour of any Europeans, and much like that of a white Horse.

Down,

and Hair.

For there is this further remarkable in them, that their Bodies are beset all over, more or less, with a fine short Milk-white Down, which adds to the whiteness of their Skins: For they are not so thick set with this Down, especially on the Cheeks and Forehead, but that the Skin appears distinct from it. The Men would probably have white Bristles for Beards, did they not prevent them by their Custom of plucking the young Beard up by the Roots continually: But for the Down all over their Bodies, they never try to get rid of it. Their Eye-brows are Milk-white also, and so is the Hair of their Heads, and very fine Withal, about the length of fix or

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eight Inches, and inclining to a Curl.

Smaller than the other Indians.

Moon-ey'd

Active by Moon shine.

They are not so big as the other Indians; and what is yet more strange, their Eye-lids bend and open in an oblong Figure, pointing downward at the Corners, and forming an Arch of Figure of a Crescent with the Points downwards. From hence, and from their feeing so clear as they do in a Moon-shiny night, we us'd to call them Moon-ey'd. For they see not very well in the Sun, poring in the clearest Day; their Eyes being but weak, and running with Water if the Sun shine towards them; so that in the Day-time they care not to go abroad, unless it be a cloudy dark Day. Besides they are but a weak People in comparison of the other, and not very fit for Hunting or other laborious Exercise, nor do they delight in any such. But notwithstanding their being thus sluggish and dull and restive in the Day-time, yet when Moon-shiny nights come, they are all Life and Activity, running abroad, and into the Woods, skipping about like Wild-Bucks; and running as fast by Moon-light, even in the Gloom

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and Shade of the Woods, as the other Indians by Day, being as nimble as they, tho' not so strong and lusty.

Of Copper-colour'd Parents,

The Copper-colour'd Indians seem not to respect these so much as those of their own Complexion, looking on them as somewhat monstrous. They are not a distinct Race by themselves, but now and then one is bred of a Copper-colour'd Father and Mother; and I have seen a Child of less than a Year old of this sort. Some would be apt to suspect they might be the Offspring of some European Father: But besides that the Europeans come little here, and have little Commerce with the Indian-women when they do come, these white People are as different from the Europeans in some respects, as from the Copper-colour'd Indians in others. And besides, where an European lies with an Indian-woman, the Child is always a Mostese, or Tawney, as is well known to all who have been in the West-Indies: where there are Mostesa's, Mulatto's, &c. of several Gradations between the White, and the Black or Copper-colour'd, according as the Parents are; even to Decompounds, as a Mu-

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latto-Fina, the Child of a Mulatto- man, and Mostesa-woman, &c.

and Parents of such.

But neither is the Child of a Man and Woman of these white Indians, white like the Parents, but Copper-colour'd as their Parents were. For so Lacenta told me, and gave me this as his Conjecture how these came to be White, That 'twas through the force of the Mother's Imagination, looking on the Moon at the time of Conception; but this I leave others to judge of. He told me withal, that they were but short-liv'd.

Painting their Bodies and Faces.

Both these and the Copper-colour'd Indians use painting their Bodies, even of the Sucking Children sometimes. They make Figures of Birds, Beasts, Men, Trees, or the like, up and down in every part of the Body, more especially the Face: But the Figures are not extraordinary like what they represent, and are of differing Dimensions, as their Fancies lead them.

Women-Painters.

The Women are the Painters, and take a great delight in it. The Colours they like and use most are Red, Yellow and Blue, very bright and lovely. They temper them with some

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kind of Oil, and keep them in Calabashes for use; and ordinarily lay them on the Surface of the Skin with Pencils of Wood, gnaw'd at the end to the softness of a Brush. So laid on, they will last some Weeks, and are renew'd continually. This way they painted me.

Pricking the Skin.

But finer Figures, especially by their greater Artists, are imprinted deeper, after this manner. They first with the Brush and Colour make a rough Draught of the Figure they design; then they prick all over with a sharp Thorn till the Blood gushes out; then they rub the place with their Hands, first dipp'd in the Colour they design; and the Picture so made is indelible: But scarce one in forty of them is painted this way.

One of my Companions desired me once to get out of his Cheek one of these imprinted Pictures, which was made by the Negroes, his Name was Bullman; which yet I could not effectually do, after much scarifying and fetching off a great part of the Skin. The Men, when they go to War paint the Faces all over with Red; and the Shouldiers, Breast, and the

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rest of the Bodies, here with Black, and there with Yellow, or any other Colour at pleasure, in large Spots; all which they wash off at Night in the River before they go to sleep.

Womens Garb.

They wear no Cloaths, ordinarily; but only the Women have a Clout or piece of Cloth about their middle, tied behind with a Thread, and hanging down to their Knees; or Ankles, if they can get one large enough. They make these of Cotton; but sometimes they meet with some old Cloaths got by trucking with their Neighbour Indians subject to the Spaniards; and these they are very proud of. Mr. Dampier relates how we prevail'd with a morose Indian, by presenting his Wife with a Sky-colour'd Petticoat: And nothing will oblige the Women more than to give them Cloaths, especially of Gaudy Colours.

Men naked

Conick Vessel

Modesty of both Sexes.

The Men go ordinarily quite naked, without so much as a Clout about them, which few other Indians are without. But these have only a small Vessel of Gold or Silver, if they are able, or at least a piece of Plantain-Leaf, of a Conick Figure, like the

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Extinguisher of a Candle. They forceably bear back the Penis within its own Tegument, close to the Pubes; and they keep it there with this Funnel tied hard upon it, with a String coming from it, and going about their Waists. They leave the Scrotum expos'd, having no Sense of Shame with reference to that, as they have with respect to the Penis, which they never shew uncover'd: But the Men will turn away their Faces even from one another, if by any accident it be uncover'd; and when they would make Water, they turn their Backs to their Companions, and squatting down, slip off the Funnel with one Hand, and having done, put it on again very nimbly. When they would go to Stool, they choose always to go into the River, both Men and Women; having a great Sense of Shame as to that particular: And in general, they are both a modest and a cleanly People.

The Men's Robes, on particular Occasions

Yet the Men also have a value for Cloaths; and if any of them had an old Shirt given him by any of us, he would be sure to wear it, and strut about at no ordinary rate. Besides

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this, they have a sort of long Cotton Garments of their own, some white, others of a rusty black, shap'd like our Carter's Frocks, hanging down to their Heels, with a Fringe of the same of Cotton about a Span long, and short, wide, open Sleeves, reaching but to the middle of their Arms. These Garments they put on over their Heads; but they are worn only on some great Occasions, as attending the King or Chief, either at a Feast, a Wedding especially; or fitting in Council, or the like. They don't march in them: But the Women carry these and their other Ornaments in Baskets after them; which they put on when they come to the Place of Assembly, and there make themselves as fine as they can. When they are thus assembled, they will sometimes walk about the Place or Plantation where they are, with these their Robes on: And I once saw Lacenta thus walking about with 2 or 300 of these attending him, as if he was mustering them: And I took notice that those in the black Gowns walk'd before him, and the white after him, each having their Launces of the same colour with their Robes.

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Plates hanging over the Mouth.

For an Ornament to the Face, beside their general painting and daubing their Cheeks with Red when they go to War, the Men wear at all times a piece of Plate hanging over their Mouths, generally of Silver, but the principal Men have it of Gold. 'Tis of an Oval Figure, covering the Mouth from corner to corner; and this is the length of it. It reaches so low as to ly upon the Under-lip with its lowest side; and there is a piece cut out of the upper side, near the Extremity of it; which Edge being cut asunder, the whole Plate is like the Figure of a Half-moon, only inclining more to an Oval; and gently pinching the Bridle of the Nose with its Points, it hangs dangling from thence. It is in the middle of about the thickness of a Guinea; but grows thinner gradually towards the Edge. The Plates of this size are such as they use when they go to a Feast or Council: But that which they wear abroad upon a long March, Hunting, or at ordinary times, is of the same Shape, but much smaller, and does not cover their Lips. Such an one I wore among them of Gold.

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The Women's Nose-rings.

Instead of this Plate, the Women wear a Ring hanging down in the same manner; and the Metal and Size also differing according to their Rank, and the Occasion. The larger sort is of the thickness of a Goose-quill; and not Oval, as the Mens Plates, but Circular. It goes through the Bridle of the Nose; which many times, by its weight and long use, especially in Elder Women, it brings down to the Mouth.

None of them Left-handed.

Both Men and Women, at solemn Meals or Feasts, when they, wear their larger Plates or Rings, take them out, and lay them aside till they have done Eating; when rubbing them very clean and bright, they put them in again. At other times, when they eat or drink, they content themselves with lifting up with the left Hand, if need be, the small Plates or Rings they then wear, (and the Womens Rings are seldom so small but they lie upon the Lips) while they use their right Hand in taking up the Cup or feeding themselves. And by the way, they always make the chief use of their Right Hands: And I never perceiv'd a Left-handed

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Person among them. Neither the Plates nor Rings hinder much their Speaking, tho' they lie bobbing upon their Lips.

Ear-pendants.

The King or Chief, and some few of the great ones, at extraordinary times, wear in each Ear, fastned to a Ring there, two large Gold Plates, one hanging before to the Breast, and the other behind on the Shoulder. They are about a Span long, of an Heart fashion (as that is commonly painted ) with the Point downward; having on the upper part a narrow Plate or Label, about three or four Inches long, by an hole in which it hangs to the Ring in the Ear. It wears great holes in the Ears by frequent use.

Diadems of Gold.

and of Canes & Freshers.

I once saw Lacenta, in a great Council, wear a Diadem of Gold-plate, like a Band about his Head, eight or nine Inches broad, jagged at top like the Teeth of a Saw, and lined on the inside with a Net-work of small Canes. And all the armed Men, who then attended him in Council, wore on their Heads such a Band, but like a Basket of Canes, and so jagged; wrought fine, and painted very hand-

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somely, for the most part red; but not cover'd over with a Gold-plate as Lacenta's was. The top of these was set round with long Feathers, of several of the most beautiful Birds, stuck upright in a Ring or Crown: But Lacenta had no Feathers on his Diadem.

Chains of Beads, &c.

their great Mens.

Tygers-teeth.

Tygers on the Isthmus

Beside these particular Ornaments there are yet other general ones, which they all wear, Men, Women, and Children of seven or eight Years old, in proportion to their Age. These are several Strings or Chains of Teeth, Shells, Beads, or the like, hanging from the Neck down upon the Breast, and to the pit of the Stomach. The Teeth-chains are curiously made with Teeth jagged like a Saw in several Rows, so contriv'd as that the Prominencies of the one Row may lie in the Notches of the other and look like one solid Mass of Bone. This was worn only by Lacenta, and some few of the principal Men, on particular Occasions; and they put them on over the rest of their Beads. We us'd to call these, Tygers-teeth though I know not for what Reason for I never saw any such Creature

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there: Yet I have been inform'd there are Tygers on this Continent. Some of our Men who cross'd the Isthmus, told me, they kill'd one there; and at another time, when we went over with Capt.Sharp, some of the Men said they saw a Tyger, who stood at a small distance, and star'd upon them. I have heard also that there is a small sort, but very fierce, in the Bay of Campechy.

The Chains how made:

Their great Weight;

But for tne rest of them, both Men and Women, they wear not any Teeth, but only a few scattering sometimes here and there in the Chains, among the rest of the Baubles. Each of them has, it may be, about the Neck 3 or 400 Strings of Beads, Shells, or the like, but these divided into 7 or 8 Ranks; and the Strings of each, by being turn'd a little about one another, make, as it were, so many Ropes of them. These hang usually one below another, yet in no great order; and the Women generally have theirs hanging all on a Heap or Cluster. Whatever Bugles or other such Toys they get, they find a place for them among their Chains; which the heavier they be, the more

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ornamental. She is a poor Woman who has not fifteen or twenty Pound weight upon her; some have thirty or more; and the Men have commonly near twice as much in weight as the Women, according as their Strength is, and their Ability to compass them.

When worn.

When they are in the House, or on Hunting, or going to War, they wear none of these Chains; but only when they would appear in State, upon occasion of a Feast, Wedding, Council, or the like. As they go to the place of Rendezvous, the Women carry them for them, as they do their other, Trinkets, in Baskets; one at each end of a Pole laid across the Shoulder. When they come to the place, they put them on, and walk about; and sometimes will dance in them; till with the Motion and Weight they Sweat extreamly. When they sit down to eat, they take them off till they have done.

Womens Bracelets of the same.

The Children have only a few small Chains; and a String or two of Beads or Bugles they will put upon their very Infants. And the Women, besides these Chains, have sometimes

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Bracelets about their Arms, of a small quantity of the same Materials twifted several times aboute. Both Men and Women, when painted, and set out with all these Fineries, make no ordinary Figure.

Their Houses;

and how seated,

Their Houses lie mostly thin and scattering, especially in New Plantations, and always by a River-side. But in some Places there are a pretty many together, so as to make a Town or Village; yet not standing close or orderly, in Rows or Streets, but dispers'd here and there, like our Villages on Commons, or in Woodlands. They have Plantations lying about them, some at a nearer, others at a greater distance, reserving still a Place to build the common War-house on. They change not their Seats or Houses, unless either for fear of the Neighbouring Spaniards, if they think them too much acquainted with the place of their Abode; or to mend their Commons, when the Ground is worn out of Heart; for they never manure not.

and built.

In building, they lay no Foundations, only dig Holes two or three Feet asunder; in which they set small

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Posts upright, of an equal heighth, of 6, 7, or 8 Foot high. The Walls are walled up with Sticks, and daub'd over with Earth: And from these Walls the Roof runs up in small Rasters, meeting in a Ridge, and cover'd with Leaves of some Trees of the Palm kind.

The Building is all irregular. The Length is about 24 or 25 Foot; the Breadth proportionable. There is no Chimney, but the Fire is made in the middle of the House, on the Ground; the Smoke going out at a hole on the top, or at Crevises in the Thatch. The House is not so much parted into Rooms, as all of it a Cluster of Hovels, joining together into one House. No Stories, no Doors, nor Shelves; nor other Seats, than Logs of Wood. Every one of the Family has a Hammock tied up, hanging from end to end of the Hovel or Room.

The War houses or Forts.

Several Houses in a Village or Neighbourhood, have one War-house or Fort in common to them; which is generally at least 120 or 130 Foot long, about 25 broad, the Wall about 9 or 10 Foot high; and in all to the top of the Ridge about 20 Foot;

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and cover'd with Leaves as their other Houses. The Materials and Method of Building are also much the same as in the other Houses; but there are no Partitions. The Sides and Ends of these War-houses are full of Holes, each about as wide as ones Fist; but made here and there at Random, in no regular Figure or Order. Out of these they view an approaching Enemy, and shoot their Arrows. They have no way of flanking an Enemy. These Houses are always seated on a Level, on the Nap or Edge of a gentle Hill; and they clear the Coast of Woods and Shrubs, for a Bows-shoot quite round it. There is a Door-way at each end; and to Barricado it, a sort of Door made of Macaw-wood and Bamboes, both split and bound together with Withs; 'tis about a Foot thick: This they have ready to set up against an Enemies entrance; and two or three Posts in the Ground to support it. 'Tis a great Inconvenience of these Forts that they are easily set a Fire; and the Spaniards shoot into the Thatch Arrows with long Shanks made red hot, for that purpose. There is usually a Family

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of Indians living in the War-house, as a Guard to it, and to keep it clean: And they are always kept pretty neat, as their private Houses also are. The War-houses serve them also to hold their Councils, or other general Meetings.

Plantations and Husbandry.

Maiz- flower.

In the Plantations, among their Houses, they set so much of Plantains, Maiz, or the like, as serves their Occasions. The Country being all a Forest, the first thing of their Husbandry is usually to cut down the Trees, and clear a piece of Ground. They often let the Trees lie along on the Place 3 or 4 Years after they are cut down; and then set fire to them and the Underwood or Stumps, burning all together. Yet in the mean time they plant Maiz among the Trees as they lie. So much of the Roots of the Trees as are under Ground, they suffer to lie there and rot, having no way to grub them up. When the Ground is pretty clear, they how it up into little Ridges and Hillocks; but in no very good Form nor regular Distance. In each these Hillocks they make a hole with their Fingers, and throw in 2 or 3 Grains

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of Maiz, as we do Garden-beans; covering it up with Earth. The Seed-time is about April; the Harvest about September or October. They pluck off the Ears of the Maiz with their Hands, as is usual also elsewhere: And tho' I was not there in their Harvest-time, yet I faw the Maiz of the preceding Harvest laid up in the Husk in their Houses. Instead of Threshing, they rub off the Grain. They make no Bread of it, nor Cakes, but use the Flower on many Occasions; parching the Corn, and grinding it between two Stones, as Chocolate is made. One use they put the Flower to is to mix it with Water in a Calabash, and so drink it off; which they do frequently when they Travel, and have not leisure to get other Provisions. This mixture they call Chicha, which I think signifies Maiz.

Corn-Drink;

how fermented.

They make a Drink also of their Maiz, which they call Chichah Co-pab; for Co-pab signifies Drink. They steep in a Trough of Water a quantity of Maiz bruised, about 20 or 30 Bushels, if it be against a Feast or Wedding; letting it lie so long till the

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Water is impregnated with the Corn, and begins to turn four. Then the Women, usually some old Women, who have little else to do, come together, and chew Grains of Muiz in their Mouths, which they spit out each into a Gourd or Calabash: And when they think they have a sufficient quantity of this Spittle and Maiz in the Calabashes, they empty them into the Trough of Water, after having first taken out the Maiz that was infus'd in it; and this serves instead of Barm or Yeast, setting all the Trough of Liquor in a small Ferment. When it has done working, they draw it off clean from the Sediment into another Trough, and then 'tis ready for use. It tasts like four small Beer, yet 'tis very intoxicating. They drink large Quantities of it, and are very fond of it: It makes them belch very much. This is their choice Drink; for ordinarily they drink plain Water or Mislaw.

Mislaw of Plantains.

Mislaw is a Drink made or ripe Plantains: There is of two sorts, one made of Plantains fresh-gather'd, the other of dry ones. The former they roast in its Cod, which peeling off,

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they put the Plantain into a Calabash of Water, and mash it with their Hands, till 'tis all dissolved; and then they drink it up with the Water. The other is made of Cakes or Lumps of Plantain dried; for the Plantains when ripe and gather'd, will not keep, but quickly grow rotten if left in the Cod. To preserve them therefore, they make a Mass of the Pulp of a great many ripe Plantains, which they dry with a gentle Fire upon a Barbecue or Grate of Sticks, made like a Grid-iron. This Lump they keep for use, breaking off a piece of it when they please, and mashing it in Water for Mislaw. They carry a Lump of Plantain with them for this end whenever they travel; especially into Places where they can't hope to get ripe Plantains, tho' they prefer the dried ones. Green and half ripe ones they eat instead of Bread with Flesh; but they boil them first. They do the same with their Yams and Potato's, which they sometimes roast; as also the Cassava-root: And their Plantations are never without some or other of these, and usually in good plenty; especially the old Plantations.

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I saw no Herbs or Sallading in their Plantations, neither did I ever see them eat any kind of Herbs. But they never forget to have in their Plantations some of their beloved Pepper; and they usually are pretty well storm with Pine-Apples, which they have very plentiful, and eat of them every Day.

Women, Planters.

The Men first clear the Plantations, and bring them into order, but the Women have all the trouble of them afterwards; the digging, howing, planting, plucking the Maiz, and setting Yams, and every thing of Husbandry, is left to them, but only the cutting down Trees, or such Work that requires greater Strength. The Women also have the managing Affairs within Door, for they are in general the Drudges of the Family; especially the old Women, for such Works as they are able to do, as Cooking, Washing, and the like. And abroad also the Women are to attend their Husbands, and do all their Servile Work. Nay, they are little better than their Pack-horse, carrying all the Luggage of their Houshold-Utensils, Victuals, &c. and when they

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Come to the place where they are to lodge, the Wife dresses Supper, while the Man hangs up the Hammocks; for each of them lies in their own Hammock.

The Womens Drudgery voluntary.

Their good conditions;

and their Husbands.

But notwithstanding the Women are put thus to all manner of Drudgery about the House and Plantations, and in Travelling abroad, and are little better than Slaves to their Husbands; yet they do their Work so readily and cheerfully, that it appears to be rather their own Choice than any Necessity laid upon them. They are in general very good condition'd, pitiful and courteous to one another, but especially to Strangers; ready to give any just attendance or assistance they can. They observe their Husbands with a profound Respect and Duty upon all occasions; and on the other side their Husbands are very kind and loving to them. I never knew an Indian beat his Wife, or give her any hard Words: Nor even in the Quarrels which they are wont to have in their Cups, do they shew any Roughness toward their Women who attend them.

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Care of their Children.

Lying-in.

Nursing.

Beside these Cares, the Women have that which more immediately belongs to them, the Care of their Children. When a Woman is deliver'd of a Child, another. Woman takes it in her Arms within half an hour or less after 'tis born, and takes the lying-in Woman upon her Back, and goes with both of them into the River and washes them there. The Child for the first Month is tied upon a Board, or piece of Macaw-wood split (for that serves them usually for Boards, having no Saws) and this piece of Wood is swathed to the Back of the Child; and their Children generally grow very streight. When there is occasion to clean the Child, they take it off from the Board, and wash it with cold Water; and then wash it on again. The Mother takes up the Child to give it Suck, Board and all, and lays it down again in a little Hammock made for that purpose; the upper part of which is kept open with short Sticks.

Education of the Boys:

Their Dexterity.

As the Children grow up, the Boys are bred to their Fathers Exercises; especially shooting with the Bow and Arrow, and throwing the

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Lance; at both which they are very expert. I have seen Things perform'd by them with a Dexterity almost incredible: For Instance, a little Boy of about eight Years old, would set a Cane up on end, and going about twenty Paces from it, would split it with a Bow and Arrow, and not miss once in several Essays. This I have seen, and this is the chief of their Exercise: And as they generally accompany their Fathers on Hunting, (especially when about 10 or 12 years old, and big enough to carry their own Provision, and a Calabash of Corn-drink) so they will shoot little Birds they meet with, and strike in with the Hunt. Their young Children they never carry abroad with them on a Journey, or on a hunting or fighting Expedition. The Boys, when grown somewhat big, always go abroad with the Father and Mother, and do what little Services they can; but the Girls stay at home with the old Women.

Indulgence.

They seem very fond of their Children, both Fathers and Mothers, and I have scarce seen them use any Severity towards them. And the

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Children are suffer'd to divert themselves which way they will. Swimming in the Rivers and catching Fish, is a great Exercise even for the small Boys and Girls; and the Parents also use that Refreshment. They go quite naked, both Boys and Girls, till the Age of Puberty; when the Girls put on their Clout, and the Boys the Funnel.

Girls Employments.

The Womens Weaving

The Girls are bred up by their Mothers to their Domestick Employments. They make them help to dress the Victuals, and set them to draw Strings out of Maho bark, and to beat Silk-grass, for Thread, Cordage, and Nets. They pick the Cotton also, and spin it for their Mothers Weaving. For Weaving, the Women make a Roller of Wood, about three Foot long, turning easily about between two Posts. About this they place Strings of Cotton, of 3 or 4 yards long, at most, but oftner less, according to the use the Cloth is to be put to, whether for a Hammock, or to tie about their Waists, or for Gowns, or for Blankets to cover them in their Hammocks, as they lie in them in their Houses; which are all

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the Uses they have for Cloth; And they never weave a piece of Cotton with a design to cut it, but of a size that shall just serve for the particular use. The Threads thus coming from the Roller are the Warp; and for the Woof, they twist Cotton-yarn about a small piece of Macaw-wood, notch'd at each end; and taking up every other Thread of the Warp with the Fingers of one Hand, they put the Woof through with the other Hand, and receive it out on the other side: And to make the Threads of the Woof lie close in the Cloth, they strike them at every turn with a long and thin piece of Macaw-wood like a Ruler, which lies across between the Threads of the Warp for that purpose.

The Mens Basker making

Woven Cups.

The Girls also twist Cotton-yarn for Fringes, and prepare Canes, Reeds or Palmeto-Leaves, as the Boys also do, for Basket-making. But the making up the Baskets is the Mens Work; who first die the Materials of several curious lively Colours, and then mix and weave them very prertily. They weave little Baskets like Cups also very neat; with the Twigs

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wrought so very fine and close, as to hold any Liquor, without any more ado, having no Lacker or Varnish: And they as ordinarily drink out of these woven Cups, as out of their Calabashes, which they paint very curiously. They make Baskets of several sizes, for carrying their Cloths, or other uses, with great variety of Work; and so firm, that you may crush them or throw them about, how you will almost, with little or no damage to them.

Modesty of the young Maids.

The young Maids are shut up in private by their Parents at the time of Puberty, and will not be seen by any, but put a piece of Cotton as a Vail over their Faces, if any one should come accidentally into the Place where they are, tho' it be their Father. This Confinement lasts not long, but they soon go abroad again. They are very modest; and tho' they will lay hold on any part of a Man, yet they do it with great Simplicity and Innocence.

Plurality of Wives.

Lacenta had several Wives, as others of them also had. Lacenta's were Seven ia number. When he went a Progress or long Journey,

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'twas so contriv'd, that he still sound one of his Wives at every new Stage he came to.

Punishment of Adultery,

Theft,

Adultery is punished among them with the Death of both Parties. Yet if the Woman consesses the Fact to her Husband, and swears the was forc'd, the finds Favour: But if the conceals it, and it be prov'd against her, the is burn'd. Their Laws are severe also in other respects; for a Thief dies without Mercy.

and deflouring Virgins.

If a Man debauchcs a Virgin, they thrust a fort of Bryer up the passage of his Penis, and then turn it round ten or a dozen times: Which is not only a great Torment, but commonly mortisies the part; and the Person dies of it; but he has liberty to cure himself if he can. These Facts must be proved by Oath; which is by their Tooth.

Their Marriage

When they marry, the Father of the Bride, or the next Man of Kin, keeps her privately in the same Apartment with himself the first leven Nights; whether to express an unwillingnefs to part with her, or for what other Reason I know not; and the is then deliver'd to her Husband.

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Presents brought.

When a Man disposes of his Daughter, he invites all the Indians within 20 Miles round, to a great Feast, which he provides for them. The Men who come to the Wedding bring their Axes along with them, to work with: The Women bring about half a Bushel of Maiz: The Boys bring Fruit and Roots; The Girls Fowls and Eggs; for none come empty-handed. They set their Presents at the door of the House, and go away again, till all the rest of the Guests have brought theirs; which are all receiv'd in, and dispos'd of by rhe People of the House.

Marriage Ceremonies.

Then the Men return first to the Wedding, and the Bridegroom presents each Man with a Calabash of strong Drink, and conducts them through the House one by one, into some open place behind it. The Women come next, who likewife receive a Calabash of Liquor, and march through the House. Then come the Boys, and last of all the Girls; who all drink at the Door, and go after the rest.

Then come the Fathers of the young Couple, with their Son and

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Daughter: The Father of the Bridegroom leads his Son, and the Father of the Bride leads his Daughter, The former makes a Speech to the Company; and then dances about, with many Antick Gestures, till he is all on a Sweat. Then kneeling down he gives his Son to the Bride; whose Father is kneeling also and holds her, having danc'd himself into a Sweat, as the other. Then the young Couple take each other by the Hand, and the Bridegroom returns the Bride to her Father; and thus ends the Ceremony.

Working for the new Couple.

Then all the Men take up their Axes, and run Shouting and hollowing to a Tract of Wood-land, which is before laid out for a Plantation for the young Couple. There they fall to work, cutting down the Woods, and clearing the Ground as fast as they can; Thus they continue about Seven Days, working with the greatest Vigour imaginable: And all the Ground which they clear, the Women and Children plant with Maiz, or whatever else is agreeable to the Season. They also build a House for the new-married Couple to live in.

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The Marriage Feast.

The Seven Days being ended, and the young Man setled with his Wife in his, new House, the Company make merry there with Chicha-Co-pah, the Corn-drink before describ'd, of which they are sure to provide good store. They also make Provision for Feasting; and the Guests fall to very heartily.

Hard Drinking

Care to prevent Quarrelling.

When their Eating is over, the Men fall to hard Drinking: But before they begin, the Bridgeroom takes all their Arms, and hangs them to the Ridge-pole of the House, where none can come at them but himself: For they are very quarrelsome in their Drink. They continue drinking Night and Day, till all the Liquor is spent; which lasts usually 3 or 4 Days. During which some are always drinking, while others are drunk and sleeping: And when all the Drink is out, and they have recover'd their Senses, they all return to their own Homes.

Other Feasts & Meals.

They have Feasting on other Occasions also, as after a great Council held, or any other Meeting; which they have sometimes only for Merriment. The Men constantly drink to

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one another at Meals, speaking some Word, and reaching out the Cup towards the Person they drink to. They never drink to their Women; but these constantly stand by and attend them while they are eating; take the Cup of any one who has drank, throw out the remainder of the Liquor, rinse it, and give it full to another. The Women at all Feasts, and in their own Houses, wait on their Husbands till they have done; and then go and Eat by themselves or with one another.

The Mens Employments.

The Men, when they are at home, trouble themselves little with any Business; but that they may not be quite idle, they will often be making their Cups and Baskets, Arrows and Heads for them, Lances, Nets, and the like.

Their Recreation.

The Men make also a fort of Pipes of small hollow Bamboes, and sometimes of a single Reed. They cut Notches in it, and blow it strongly, making a whining Noise, but without any diftinct Notes: And they frequently entertain themselves with such Instruments, as they us'd in their Pawawing. They will do any thing

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to make a Noise, which they love much; and they keep every one a Humming at the same time to themselves.

Dancing.

They Hum also when they Dance, which they do many times 30 or 40 in a ring, Men only together. They stretch out their Hands, laying them on one anothers Shoulders. Then they move gently sideways round in the same Circle; and shake all the Joints of their Bodies with a wrigling Antick Gesture, as they move along the Ring.

They pipe and drum often, even at working times; but their dancing they use chiefly when they get together to make merry. When they have danc'd some time, one or other of the Company goes out of the Ring, jumps about, and plays Antick Tricks, throwing and catching his Lance, bending back towards the Ground and springing forward again, with many other Motions like our Tumblers; but with more Activity than Art: And when one is tired with his Tricks, another steps our, and sometimes 2 or 3 together. As soon as ever 'tis over, they jump into the

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River, all in a violent Sweat as they are, and there wash themselves clean; and when they come out of the Water, they stroke it off from their Hair and Bodies with their Hands. A Dancing-bout, if the meeting be large, lasts sometimes a whole Day, seldom less than 5 or 6 Hours; and 'tis usually after having a short drinking Bout: But they dont dance after they have drank very hard.

The Womens Diversions.

These, and the huntings and shooting at a Mark, are their chief Divertisements; for both Men and Boys will be letting fly at any thing they see, tho' for nothing but exercise or trial of Skill. The Women have Dancings and Merriments by themselves, when their Husbands Pastimes are over; for they never feast nor play together with the Men: But they will drink by themselves till they are suddled.

Their care of their drunken Husbands.

The Women take great care of their Husbands when they have made themselves drunk. For when they perceive him in such a Condition that he can bear up no longer, they get one or two more Women to assist them to take him up, and put him

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into his Hammock; where as he lies Snoring, they stand by and sprinkle Water on his Body to cool him, washing his Hands, Feet and Face; stroking off that Water with their Hands, as it grows warm, and throwing on fresh. I have seen 10 or 12 or more, lying thus in their Hammocks after a Feast, and the Women standing by to look after them.

Hunting-Expeditions.

The Men never stir abroad upon the most ordinary Occasions, if it be but just without the door to make Water, but they take with them some or other of their Weapons, their Bow and Arrow, Lance, Hatchet, or Macheat or Long-knife. Their most frequent Expeditions, in time of Peace, are to go a Hunting. For this is their way of supplying themselves with Flesh; and they go out as often as it fails at home. They sometimes go out a Family or two only by themselves; but they have often larger and more solemn Huntings, of a great many in company together: And there is seldom a Council held, or Feast, but there is some Hunting-Match concluded on before they part; and a time set for every one to ap-

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pear with their several Necessaries, at the general Rendezvous.

A Hunting-Expedition lasts sometimes 3 or 4, sometimes 10, 12, 17 or 18 Days, according as they meet with the Game, and as the Course is which they steer to find it: For sometimes they will range to the Borders, to visit or traffick with their Neighbouring Indians; and they will hunt all the way as they go and return. They hunt more or less at all Seasons of the Year; never regarding whether their Venison be in Season or not. They take with them one or two Dogs apiece, to beat about; and there go as well Women as Men. When I went with them a Hunting, a young Woman was appointed me to wait on me, and carry my Basket of Provisions.

Provisions.

The Game.

The Women carry in their Baskets, Plantains, Bonanoes, Yams, Potatoes and Cassava-roots, ready roasted; but in the Woods, among the ruin'd Plantations, they often meet with green Plantains which they dress there, and with these Roots: So that if they go designedly among such Plantations, they carry the less with them.

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They carry also some parch'd Maiz in Meal or Flower, and some ripe Plantains raw, to make Mislaw with. This is all their Provision. Every Woman carries a Calabash; and there are one or two Pipkins among them all. The Men carry Bows and Arrows, and Lances, a Tamahock or little Axe, and a Machete. All go barefoot, and are often scratch'd in the Woods, but matter it not. They hunt Pecary, Warree, Quaums, Chicaly-Chicalees, Corrofou's, or any other Beast or Bird they meet with, except Monkeys and Deer. The Fowls, and what will not be to easily preserv'd, they eat presently. They lodge all Night at any place where they happen to be at Sun-set, so it be near a Brook or River, and on the Nap of a Hill. They hang up their Hammocks between two Trees, and cover themselves with a Plantain-Leaf, for Shelter from Rain, Wind, &c. with a Fire all Night by the Hammock. They never hunt after Sun-set; and begin not again till Sun-rise. Their chief Game are the Pecary and Warree; neither of which are swift of foot. They go in Droves, often 200

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or 300; so that if the Indians come upon them unawares, they usually kill some by random Shot among them. But else, they are many times a whole Day without getting any; or so few, considering how many they start, that it seems a great Toil to little purpose. I have seen about 1000 started in a Day, in several Droves, when I was hunting with them; of which we kill'd but two, as I remember. Sometimes when they are shot, they carry away the Arrows quite. When the Beast is tir'd, it will stand at a Bay with the Dogs; which Will set him round, lying close, not daring to seize, but snapping at the Buttocks; and when they see their Master behind a Tree ready to shoot, they all withdraw to avoid the Arrow. As soon as an Indian hath shot a Pecary or Warree, he runs in and lances them; then he unbowels them, throwing away the Guts, and cuts them in two across the middle. Then he cuts a piece of Wood sharp at both ends; sticks the forepart of the Beast at one end, and the hinder part at the other. So each laying his Stick across his Shoulder, they go to the Rendez-

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vous, where they appointed the Women to be; after which they carry their Meat home, first Barbecuing it that Night.

Curing the Meat.

When they take a Beast or Bird, they pierce it with the Lances, or shoot Arrows into it, to let out the Blood. Then they quarter it (first cutting off the Head); and if it be a Pecary they scald off the Hair with hot Water; if a Warree, they flea it. From some of the Birds they strip the Feathers only, from others the Skin also: And this not regularly, while the Carkass is whole, but piece-meal, after they have dismember'd it; especially in their Journies.

If they intend to preserve any, having little Salt, they erect four forked Sticks 8 or 9 Foot asunder, on which they lay two parallel Staves that shall be above a Foot from the Ground, and so make a Barbecue. Across these Staves they lay the pieces of the Beasts or Birds; and spread underneath a few live Coals, to make which they burn a parcel of Wood on purpose; and turn the same pieces, and renew this small Fire for three or four Days, or a Week, till the Meat be as dry as

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a Chip, or like our smoak'd Beef. This they do abroad if they kill a great many Pecary, Birds, &c. and bring the pieces home ready dried: And if there be much of it, the Men help the Women to carry home the Venison. These pieces will keep a great while; and when the Stock is almost out, they go again a hunting. They make a Barbecue at home also, heaping up these dried pieces across, and often putting some Embers underneath, to keep them from giving, or growing musty, in that moist Country. From these pieces they cut off bits for use as they want them.

Their Cookery;

and manner of Eating.

If they take any parcels of their dried Flesh, or any newly kill'd, they cut it into small pieces, and throw them into the Pipkin; putting into it some of the Roots and green Plantains or Bonano's, or any other Eatable, and a great deal of Pepper; stewing all together by a simmering, gentle Heat, never boiling it. The Vessel stands thus close covered for seven or eight Hours, for 'tis fet on very early in the Morning, and they stay till all be brought to Pulp or Mash. This is for set Meals; for

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Plantains and Bonanoes they eat all Day; but this set Meal of Flesh they eat but once, about Mid-day only. The Mash they pour out into a large Earthen Dish or Calabash, setting it on the great Block which is in every House as a Table, sitting round on little Blocks as on Stools. But at great Feasts, for large Companies, they make a great Barbecue 10, 12, or 20 Foot long, or more, as the Company is, and broad proportionably: They spread on it 3 or 4 Breadths of Plantain leaves for a Table-Cloth. Every one has a Calabash of Water standing by him at his Right Hand, on the Ground. In Eating, they dip the two fore Fingers of the Right Hand, bent hook-wife, and take up therewith out of the Dish, as with a Spoon, as much as they can, stroking it across into their Mouths. At evcry Mouthful they dip their Fingers into the Calabash of Water by their Side, whether for Cleanliness or Cooling, I know not; for they eat their Meat excessive hot, as well as violently pepper'd. They eat nothing with it as Bread; but when they have a lump of Salt (which is rare) at every three

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or four Mouthfuls they stroke it over their Tongue, to give a Relish, and then lay it down again.

Their Travelling.

The Indians, when they Travel, guide themselves either by the Sun, when it shines, or by steering towards such a determinate Point, observing the bending of the Trees, according as the Wind is. If they are at a loss this way, they notch the Barks of Trees, to see which side is thickest; which is always the South, Or Sunny side; and their way lies generally through Woods. They go also through Swamps, Boggs, Rivers, &c. where there is no sign of a Path, and are often forc'd to turn aside; yet will keep their way pretty direct for several Days together; clearing their way through Thickets with their Macheats, especially if of hollow Bamboes, for there is no getting through without it. They swim over Rivers, Men, Women and Children, without felling Trees as we did there. But down the River they use either their Canoas, or Bark-Logs made of Light-Wood.

Shewing the Way and Time by Signs.

When any enquire the Way of them, as we had several times occason

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to do in passing and repassing the Isthmus, their usual Method of in forming them as to the Bearing of the Place they enquire after, is by pointing towards it; and as to the Time in which they may hope to arrive there, by pointing to some part of the Arc the Sun describes in their Hemisphere: For according as they point higher or lower, either to the East or West of the Meridian, they suggest the time of the Day, Morning or Afternoon, in which you may hope to arrive at the River, Plantations, or whatever 'tis you enquire after. So the middle distance between the Eastern-Limb of the Horizon, and the Meridian, signifies 9 a Clock in the Morning; 4/6ths of the South-west Arc of the Suns Diurnal Course denotes 4 in the Afternoon, &c. If the Time they would intimate be not of Hours but Days, they turn their Faces Southward, and describing with their Hand the Arc of the Suns Diurnal Course from East to West, when they have brought their Hand to point to the Western Horizon, they then bring it to the side of their Head; and laying down their Head on that

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side upon it, and shutting their Eyes, counterfeit for a moment their being asleep. Then repeating the Motion with their Hand, and the intervening sleeping times, they make you under-stand that there will be so many sleeping Times or Nights before you arrive at the Place you seek.

Computation of Time.

I observ'd among them no distinction of Weeks or particular Days; no parting the Day into Hours, or any Portions, otherwise than by this Pointing: And when they use this, or any other Sign, yet they speak at the same time, and express their Meaning in their own Language, tho' to Europeans who understand it not. They reckon Times past by no Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, but the Moons: For Lacenta speaking of the Havock the Spaniards had made to the Westward, intimated 'twas a great many Moons ago.

Numbers and Calculations.

Their Computation is by Unites and Tens, and Scores, to an Hundred; beyond which I have not heard them reckon. To express a Number above this, they take a Lock of their Hair, little or great, (in proportion to the Number they would

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intimate) and hold it up in their Hands, sorting it gradually with their Fingers, and shaking it. To express a Thing innumerable, they take up all the Hair on one side of the Head, and shake it.

When we went into the South Seas under Captain Sharp, we were in number about 336, as I remember; and a pretty many of the Indians of the Isthmus bore us Company in our March. They were willing to take an Account of our Number as we march'd; so one of the Indians fat in the Path, and having a little heap of Maiz-grains by him, for every Man of ours that pass'd by him he put one Grain into his Basket. When he had thus taken a great part of our Number, one of our Men, in passing by, gave his Basket purposely a Toss, and threw out his Corn, and so spoil'd his Account. This seem'd to displease them: Yet one of them got a little before, and sitting close in the Wood, at a small distance from the narrow Path, which we were to pass one by one, he there took our Number in Grains of Maiz. But when he had taken his Account, they were put

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to it to cast it up: For two or three Days after, in the progress of our March, coming among some of the Southern Indians, we saw some 20 or 30 of the graver Men got together, and trying their Skill to compute the Grains in the Basket; which when they had laid upon a Plantain-Leaf, several of them indeavour'd to tell one after another: But when they could tell no further, (the Number, probably, exceeding their Arithmetick) and seem'd to grow very hot, and earnst in their Debates about it; one of them started up, and sorting out a Lock of his Hair with his Fingers, and shaking it, seem'd to intimate the Number to be great and unknown; and so put an end to the Dispute. But one of them came after us, and enquir'd our Number in broken spanish.

Their Capital Numbers, One, Two, Three, they name thus:

Numeral Names

1. Conjugo.

2. Poquah.

3. Pauquah.

4. Pakequah.

5. Eterrah.

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6. Indricah.

7. Coogolah.

8. Paukopah.

9. Pakekopah.

10. Anivego.

11. Anivego Conjugo.

12. Anivego Poquah.

13. Anivego Pauqua, &c,

20. Toola Boguah.

40. Toola Guannah.

And so on to 100.

Under 10 they content themselves with naming the particular Number at once; which they do readily. But at the same time that they name Anivego, or 10, they clap together their expanded Hands. And for 11, 12, 13, &c. to 20. they clap together their Hands, and say Anivego; and then separating them, they strike in order the Fingers of the left Hand, one by one, with the Fore-finger of the right, saying, Anivego Conjugo, Anivego Poqua, Anivego Pauqua, &c. to the Number they would express, if under 20.

When they would express 20, they clap their Hands twice, (once at every 10) and say Toola Boguah. Toola

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seems to signifie the same with them, as Score with us. For 21, they say Toola boguah Conjugo; 22, Toola boguah Poquah, &c. To express 30, they clap their Hands thrice, and say Toola boguah Anivego, (Twenty and Ten); for 31, Toola boguah Anivego Conjugo, (Twenty and Eleven), and so on to 40; when again they clap their Hands four times, and say, Toolaguannah, implying another Score; 41, Toola guannah Conjugo, &c. 50, Toola guannah Anivego, (Two Score and Ten); 51, Toola guannah Anivego Conjugo, (Two Score and Eleven), &c. The Name of the other Scores to 100, I know not; and there are few of them can reckon so far: For while I was among them, I was industrious to learn their Numbers, and 'twas a Diversion I had with them; for they liked well my trying to imitate them, and would be very merry upon it: But 'twas not every one could readily carry me much farther than I have now reckon'd, or set me right if I was out.

Reckoning by scores.

Their way of Reckoning thus from Score to Score, is no more than what our old English way was: But their Scores.

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saying instead of 31, 32. One Score and Eleven, One Score and Twelve, &c. is much like the High-Landers of Scotland and Ireland, reckoning Eleven and Twenty, Twelve and Twenty, &c. so for 53, the High-Landers say Thirteen and Twoscore, as the Darien Indians would, Two Score and Thirteen, only changing the Place. In my Youth I was well acquainted with the High-Land, or Primitive Irish Language; both as it is spoken in the North of Ireland, particularly at the Navan upon the Boyne, and about the Town of Virgini upon Lough Rammer in the Barony of Castle Raghen, in the County of Cavan; and also in the High-Lands of Scotland, where I have been up and down in several Places. Their way of Reckoning may be a Curiosity to some; for which Reason I have here inserted a Table of it; spelt, not according to the Orthography, but the Pronunciation.

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Irish and Scotch Highlanders Numbers.

1. Hean.

2. Dw.

3. Tree.

4. Caher.

5. Cooig.

6. Shae.

7. Shaucht.

8. Oacht.

9. Nnye.

10. Deh.

11. Heanegg.

12. Dweegg.

13. Treedeegg.

14. Caherdeeg.

15. Cooigdeegg.

16. Shaedeegg.

17. Shauchtdeegg.

18. Oacht deegg.

19. Nnyedeegg.

20. Feh. A Score.

21. Hean agus feh. Briefly ausfeh; augus signifies and.

22. Dw augus feh. Two and a Score.

23. Tree augus feh. Three, &c.

30. Deh aguus feh. Ten and a Score.

31. Heanegg augus feh. Eleven and a Score.

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32. Dweegg augus feh.

40. Yoyiht.

41. Hean augus th' yoyiht.

42. Dw augus th' yoyiht.

50. Deh augus th' yoyiht.

51. Heanegg augus th' yoyiht.

52. Dweegg augus th' yoyiht.

60. Tree feht.

61. Hean augus Tree feht.

70. Deh augus Tree feht.

80. Careh-fehth.

90. Deh augus Careh-fehth.

100. Cooig fehth; or Caed, a Hundred.

200. Oychead.

1000. Meelah.

1000000. Meelioon.

Indian Pronunciation compar'd with theirs.

My Knowledge of the High-Lana Language made me the more capable of learning the Darien Indians Language, when I was among them. For there is some Affinity, not in the Signification of the Words of each Language, but in the Pronunciation, which I could easily imitate; both being spoken pretty much in the Throat, with frequent Aspirates, and much the same sharp or circumflex Tang or Cant. I learn'd a great deal

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of the Darien Language in a Months Conversation with them; for I was always asking what they call'd this and that: And Lacenta was continually talking with me; who spake also a few Words of broken Spanish. I took no care to retain any of the Indians Language; but some few Words that I still remember, I have here put as a Specimen.

Indian Words.

Tautah, Father.

Naunah, Mother.

Poonah, Woman.

Roopah, Brother.

Bidama soquah Roopoh? How do you
Brother?

Neenah, a Girl.

Nee, the Moon.

Chaunah, Go.

Chaunah Weemacah; Make hast, run.

Shennorung; big, a great Thing.

Eechah, ugly.

Paeecha; foh! ugly!

Eechah Malooquab, (an Expression of great dislike).

Cotchah, sleep.

Caupah, a Hammock.

Cotchah Caupah? Will you go sleep in the Hammock?

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Pa poonah eetah Caupah? Woman, have you got the Hammock?

Doolah, Water.

Doolah Copah? Will you drink Water?

Chicha-Copah, Maiz-drink.

Mamaubah, Fine.

Cah, Pepper.

Aupah eenah? What do you call this?

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Mr. Wafer's Voyages, &c.

The Relation of the Voyage continued.

See p. 44.

Harbour of Rea-leja.

HAving thus gone over the Isthmus, and made such Observations about it as occurr'd to me, I shall now resume the Thread of my Voyage, which I broke in the South Sea, at Realeja on the Coast of Mexico, where I parted with Mr. Dampier, after my second being with him in those Seas. Captain Swan, in the Cygnet, was going to the Westward; and Mr. Dampier chose to go with him. I staid with Captain Davis, in the Batchelors Delight and he was for going again to the Southward.

See Dampier's Voyages, Vol. 1. p. 223.

Gulph of Amapalla.

So we left them in the Harbour of Realeja, when we fet out Aug. 27. 1685. with three other Vessels in our Company. But our Men growing very sick when we were got out to Sea, we soon put into the Gulph of Amapalla. There we lay several Weeks at a small Island, on which we built Huts for our sick Men, whom we put ashore. In our 4 small Ships, we had then above 130 sick

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of the Spotted Fever, many of whom died: Yet tho' I attended them every Day, I thank God I escap'd the Infection. But 'tis not my Intention to particularize as to all the Places or Occurrences we met with; for I kept no Journal: But some such Things as I took more particular Notice of, and thought worth remarking, I shall briefly speak of as I go along.

Hot River.

Fierce Wolves

Being in great want of Provision while we lay here, we went ashore, in order to supply our Necessities at a Beef-Estantion on the Continent, at the South of the Cod of the Bay, which lay from the Landing-place about three Miles. In our way we were forced to pass a hot River in an open Savannah, altho' we made some difficulty at it by reason of its Heat. This River issued out from under a Hill: But it was no Vulcan, tho' there are several on this Coast. I had the Curiosity to wade up the Stream as far as I had Day-light to guide me: The Water was clear and shallow, but the Steams under the Hill were like those of a boiling Pot, and my Hair was wet with them. The

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River without the Hill reek'd for a great way. Many of our Men who had the Itch bath'd themselves here, and growing well soon after, they imputed it to the Sulphurousness, or other Virtue of this Water. In this place are a multitude of Wolves, which are the boldest that ever I met with; for they would come so near, as to be almost ready to pull the Flesh out of our Hands: Yet we durst not shoot them for fear the noise of our Guns should call more to their Assistance, and we went but stragling up and down.

I. Cocos,

a pleasant Place.

Arched Cataracts

Our Men being tolerably well recover'd, we stood away to the Southward, and came to the Island Cocos, in 5 Deg. 15 Min. N. Lat. 'Tis fo call'd from its Coco-Nuts, where with 'tis plentifully stor'd. 'Tis but a small Island, yet a very pleasant one: For the middle of the Island is a steep Hill, furrounded all about with a Plain, declining to the Sea. This Plain, and particularly the Valley where you go ashore, is thick fet with Coco-nut Trees, which flourish here very finely, it being a rich and fruitful Soil. They grow also on the

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Skirts of the hilly Ground in the middle of the Isle, and scattering in Spots upon the sides of it, very pleasantly. But that which contributes most to the Pleasure of the Place is, that a great many Springs of clear and sweet Water rising to the top of the Hill, are there gather'd as in a deep large Bason or Pond, the Top subsiding inwards quite round; and the Water having by this means no Channel whereby to flow along, as in a Brook or River, it overflows the Verge of its Bason in several Places, and runs trickling down in many pretty Streams. In some Places of its overflowing, the Rocky Sides of the Hill being more than perpendicular, and hanging over the Plain beneath, the Water pours down in a Cataract, as out of a Bucket, so as to leave a Space dry under the Spout, and form a kind of Arch of Water; which, together with the advantage of the Prospect, the near adjoining Coco-nut Trees, and the freshness which the falling Water gives the Air in this hot Climate, makes it a very charming Place, and delightful to several of the Senses at once.

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Our Men were very much pleas'd with the Entertainment this Island afforded them: And they also fill'd here all their Water-Casks; for here excellent fresh Water in the Rivulet, which those little Cataracts form below in the Plain; and the Ship lay just at its Outlet into the Sea, where there was very good Riding: So that 'tis as Commodious a Watering-Place as any I have met with.

Numbedness with drinking Coco-milk.

Nor did we spare the Coco-nuts, eating what we would, and drinking the Milk, and carry several Hundreds of them on board. Some of other of our Men went ashore every Day: And one Day among the rest, being minded to make themselves Very merry, they went ashore and cut down a great many Coco-trees; from which they gather'd the Fruit, and drew about 20 Gallons of the Milk. Then they all sat down and drank Healths to the King, Queen, &c. They drank an excessive quantity; yet it did not end in Drunkenness: But however, that sort of Liquor had so chilled and benumb'd their Nerves, that they could neither go nor stand: Nor could they return on board the

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Ship, without the Help of those who had not been Partakers in the Frolick: Nor did they recover it under 4 or 5 Days time.

I. Galla-pago's.

Land-Tortoise, &c.

From hence we stood on still to the South, and came to one of the Galla-pago-Islands, lying under the Line. Upon one of these Islands we found a great many very large Lannd-Tortoise, of that fort which we us'd to call Hecatee. Upon this Island is no Water to be found, but in one place, whither I observ'd these Animals frequently go to drink; but they go not into the Water.

Guano's.

Flower left there.

At this Island there was but one Watering-place, and there we Careen'd our Ship. Hither many Turtle-Doves and other Birds resorted for Water; which were at first so familiar with us, that they would light upon our Heads and Arms; insomuch that for several Days we maintained the Ships Company with them: But in a little time they began to be so shy, that we could kill none, but what we shot. Here are also Guano's very plentiful, which are very good Food. There grows a fort of Wood in this Isle very sweet in smell.

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'Tis but a low Tree, not shrubby, but like a Pear-tree, tho' thicker; and full of very sweet Gum. While we lay here at the Gallapago's, we took in at one of the Islands there 500 Packs of Flower, which we had formerly left there upon the Rocks; but the Turtle-Doves had devour'd a great deal of the Flower, for the Bags Jay expos'd to the Air.

Cruising on the Coast of Peru.

When we left the Gallapago's we went cruising upon and down about several of the Islands and Coasts of Peru; the Particulars of which I shall not trouble the Reader with. We had Engagements at Guvra, Guacha and Pisca; and the two last Towns. There was with us then in Company Captain Knight only; for the other two Vessels that came with us from Amapalla, had left us at the Island Cocos. 'Twas July 1686. when we were at Pisca, and Capt. Knight and we kept Company almost all that Year.

Monkeys and Oysters at Gorgonid.

Among other Places we were at the Island Gorgonia, where we clean'd; and I took notice of several Monkeys there who liv'd partly upon Oysters,

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which they got out of the Sea at low Water. Their was to take up an Oyster, and lay it upon a Stone; and with another Stone to keep beating of it, till they had broke the Shell to pieces.

La Nasca Wine.

We were together also at La Nasca, which is a small Port, in the Lat. of 15 S. It affords abundance of rich, strong Wine, (as Pisca and other Plates on that Coast also do) tasted much like that of Madera. 'Tis brought down out of the Country to this Port, to be shipt for Lima Panama, or other Places. It lies here sometimes many Years stopt up in Jars of about eight Gallons apiece: But the Jars are under no Shelter, but stand expos'd to the hot scorching Sun; being plac'd along the Bay, and between the Rocks, every Merchant having his own Mark'd. We took in store of this Wine.

Coquimbo

Its Gold River.

We were also together at Coquimbo a large Town with nine Churches in it, lying in about 29 S. Lat. Here we landed upon a deep Sand, in a large Bay, which had a small River that ran through the Country, and made its way out three Mile below the

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Town. In this River the Spaniards get Gold higher up in the Country; and the Sands of the River by the Sea, as well as the whole Bay, are all bespangled with Particles of Gold; insomuch that as we travelled along the Sandy Bays, our People were covered with a fine Gold-dust; but too fine for any thing else; for 'twould be an endless Work to pick it up. This Observation I have made in some ther Places along the Coast, where any of those Gold-rivers make their way into the Sea thro' Sandy Bays; for there the Sand is in a manner guilded by them: But all that is worth looking after is up near the Rivers Heads, or towards the Mountains they fall from, where the weightier Grains lodge; for none but this meer Dust of it is wash'd down to the Sea.

I. John Fernando.

We went after this to the Island of John Fernando, where we Careen'd; and there Captain Knight left us, making the best of his Way round Terra del Fuego to the West-Indies. But we were for Coasting it back again toward the Line; having with Us a Bark we had taken off Pisca.

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I. Mocha.

Its Sheep.

Going off therefore from John Fernando's, we stood yet further South in going over to the Continent, to the Latitude of 39 S. as well to gain a Wind as to have the more of the Coast before us. We fell in first with the Island of Mocha, which lies in about 38 Deg. 20 Min. S. and wanting Water and Provision we came to an Anchor, and put ashore there, about the middle of December, 1686. and stay'd 5 or 6 Days. Here we were very well relieved, for the Island afforded both Water and fresh Provision for our Men, all the time we stay'd. The Land is very low and flat, and upon the Sea-coast sandy; but the middleGround is good Mould, and produces Maiz and other Wheat, Barly, with variety of Fruits, &c. Here were several Houses belonging to the Spanish Indians, which were very well stored with Dunghil-Fowl. They have here also several Horses: But that which is most worthy of Note, is a short of Sheep they have, which the Inhabitants call Cornera de Terra. This Creature is about four Foot and an half high at the Back, and a very stately Beast. These Sheep

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are so Tame, that we frequently used to bridle one of them, upon whose Back two of the lustiest Men would ride at once round the Island, to drive the rest to the Fold. His ordinary Pace is either an Amble or a a good Hand-gallop; nor does he care for going any other Pace, during the time his Rider is upon his Back. His Mouth is like that of a Hare; and the Hair-lip above opens as well as the Main-lips, when he bites the Grass, which he does very near. His Head is much like an Antelope, but they had no Horns when we were there; yet we found very large Horns, much twisted, in the form of a Snailshell, which we suppos'd they had shed: They lay many of them seattering upon the Sandy-bays. His Ears resemble those of an Ass, his Neck small, and resembling a Cammels. He carries his Head bending, and very stately, like a Swan; is fullchested like a Horse, and has his Loyns much like a well-shap'd Greyhound. His Buttocks resemble those of a full-grown Deer, and he has much such a Tail. He is Cloven-sooted like a Sheep, but on the inside

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of each Foot has a large Claw, bigger than ones Finger, but sharp and resembling those of an Eagle. These Claws stand about two Inches above the Division of the Hoof; and they serve him in climbing Rocks, holding fast by whatever they bear against. His Flesh eats as like Mutton as can be: He bears Wool of 12 or 14 Inches long upon the Belly; but 'tis shorter on the Back, shaggy, and but inclining to a Curl. 'Tis an innocent and very serviceable Beast, fit for any Drudgery. Of these we killed forty three; out of the Maw of one of which I took thirteen Bezoar-stones, of which some were ragged, and of several Forms; some long, resembling Coral; some round, and some oval; but all Green when taken out of the Maw: Yet by long keeping they turn'd of an Ash-colour; and I have some of them now by me.

The Spaniards told us, That these Creatures are extraordinarily serviceable to them at the Mines of Potosi, (which lie a great way up in the Country) in bringing the Silver from thence to the Cities that lie toward

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the Sea; between which Cities and the Mines are such cragged Ways and dangerous Precipices, that it were almost impossible for any Man, or any other Beast to carry it. But these Sheep being laden, and led to the Precipices, their Master leaves them there to themselves for above sixteen Leagues; and never meets them, till he himself has also fetch'd a Compass about 57 Leagues round. This their sureness of Foot consists solely in their aforesaid Claws, by which they hold themselves so fast upon the least Footing, that they can go where no other Beast can. The Spaniards also inform'd us, That at a City they named, which has no Water within a League of it, these Beasts, being bred up to it, were wont to be laden with two Jars, like Panniers, upon their Backs, and away they would go, without Guide or Driver; and when they came to the River, would lie down, and rowle themselves in the Water until both the Jars were full; and then, of their own accord, would return home with their Water. The Spaniards added, That this Creature will not nor can be forc'd

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to work after Day-light: And we found them obstinate enough; for when once lain down, no Beating should make them rise; but they would lie and make a whining or groaning, tho' they were not tir'd, being but newly taken up.

R. of Copayapo.

Sea-shells on the top of Hills: No Shell-fish on the coast

No Rain on th coast.

Barren Land.

We went from Mocha to the Continent, and kept sailing and touching along the Coast of Chili, often fending our Canoas ashore, till we came to Copayapo, in the Lat. of about 26 S. We wanted Water, and so put ashore to see if we could find the River that bears the Name of the River of Copayapo. As soon as we came ashore we ascended a Hill, in hopes to descry that River from the top thereof; but contrary to our Expectation, when we came to the top, we had yet another steep and very high Hill to climb, and another after that; insomuch that before we reach'd the utmost heighth, I fainted for want of Water: But refreshing my self with that of my own, I at last came to the top of the third Mountain, where we sat down and rested our selves under the Shade of a vast craggy Rock. The Place where we sat was cover'd with Sand and Sea-shells of

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divers Shapes and Forms; tho' in deed, which I wonder'd at, there were no Shell-fish on the Shores all along this whole Coast. I have landed at many Places of it, but could never find any. When we had rested our Selves in this Place, which was, as near as we could compute, 8 Miles from the Sea, and at least a Mile in perpendicular above it, we looked round us, to see for the River; but to our great Grief could discover none. All this Land, as well high as low Ground, is cover'd with Sand and Sea-shells, many of which are of the shape of a Scallop-shell; and these in vast quantities, in some Places, especially at the Feet of the Rocks, from whence they are crumbled and driven down by the Winds: For in the very Mass of the Stones of Rocks there were, as I remember, of the very same sorts of Shells. We were told by the Spaniards, That at one time of the Year, the Sun melting the Snow that lies upon the top of the Mountains that are a great way up in the Country, makes the River that we looked for overflow. It may as well possibly be from Rains falling on

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these Mountains far within Land; for I never knew it Rain on all the Sea-Coast of Chili and Peru; but we could see Clouds hovering over the Tops of the Mountains within Land, as we sail'd along the Coast: And once at Arica we could not see the Mountains peeked Top for Clouds that hung about it; tho' at another time we saw it plain enough; the Rains then probably, being gone off from the Hill-Country: But as for Arica it self and its Neighbouring Sea-Coast, we were told by old Spaniards, Inhabitants there, that they never had any Rain. I have also been at one time of the Year ashore at the River of Ylo, but could find little or no Water: Yet at another time of the Year there was Water enough, although I never knew of any Rain on that Cost, and the Spaniards told us it never rain'd there, unless far within Lands: Yet they have very great Dews. At Copayapo the Coast is barren and desolate, and so on each side all along both Chili and Peru; nothing is to be seen but bare Sands, and naked Rocks, unless in a Valley now and then: No Trees,

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Herbs, or other green Thing. Nor did we see any sort of Fowl, nor Beast, or other living Creature: No People, nor Sign of any; unless here and there a poor Town or Village, at as sorry a Port, with scarce Water enough, at most of them, to admit a Cock-boat, unless at a Flood: Else, little or no Water, nor any Thing for Accommodation or Use.

Arica,

the port for the Mines of potosi.

The Andes.

Getting no Water at Copayapo, we were forc'd to put to Sea again, and stood along the Coast to Arica, which is a Town of Peru, handsomely seated in the bending of that Coast, in the Lat. of between 18 and 19 S. Hither the Silver of Potosi is brought down to be shipt off for Panama, the Harbour is tolerably good, having a Road made with a little Island lying before it, breaking the Swell of the Sea, which is here very great and continually rowling in upon the Shore; though smooth as the Surface of a River, here being little or no Wind to curl the Waves. It dashes so violent against the Shore, which is all along a high bold Coast, tho' nothing so high as the Mountains, far within Land, that there is scarce any Land-

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ing hereabouts but just at Arica it self. There is a little River which Arica stands upon, and We would have taken in Water there; but there was no getting at any fresh, for its Outlet was among little craggyRocks, and the Sea-water dash'd in among it. We landed here, and ransack'd the Place, meeting with little or no Resistance; we got a few Hogs and Poultry, Sugar and Wine; and saw a whole House full of Jesuits Bark, as I have said already, p. 99. I was here also formerly with Capt. Sharp; when we had so smart an Engagement that we lost a great number of our Men; and every one of our Surgeons was kill'd beside my Self, who was then left to guard the Canoas.

R. Ylo.

A fine Valley.

We went hence a little further to Lee-ward, and water'd at the River Ylo, where we got Oil-Olive, Figs, and Sugar, with several Fruits; all which grow there very plentiful. There is an Oil-work, and two or three Sugar-works. There are extraordinary good Oranges, of the China sort. 'Tis the finest Valley I have seen on all the Coast of Peru; very fertile and well furnish'd with

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a multitude of Vegetables: Tho' it has no Moisture but that of the little River, (which they carry winding up and down among their Grounds in Artificial Channels) and the great Dew which falls every Night. The Valley is the pleasanter, and so are all those of Peru and Chili, for the dismal barren Mountains that lie all about, and serve as Foil to them: They are mostly sandy or black Rocks, like Cinders or Iron-Stones, for Colour.

Course Diet.

In sailing along upon this Coast we were sometimes put to it for Food as well as Water; and once were so Hunger-pinch'd, that meeting with some Sea-Crabs on the Coast, one of our Men, Mr. Smallbones, eat them raw, and even Sea-weeds: But others of us, whose Stomachs would not serve for that Food, looking about, found a lean gall'd Horse grasing in a little Spot at the foot of the Hill; which we presently kill'd, cut in pieces, and making a Fire with Seaweeds, eat the Flesh while 'twas hardly warm, leaving none, but carrying the very Guts aboard.

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Vermejo.

Dead Bodies in great Numbers

I shall not pursue all my Coasting along this Shore with Captain Davis, but two Particulars more I must not omit: The one is, That we put a shore at Vermejo, in 10 Deg. S. Lat. There we landed about 30 Men (of whom I was one) to see for Water, or any other Refreshment that we wanted. After we were landed, we marched about four Miles up a Sandy Bay; all which we found covered with the Bodies of Men, Women and Children; which lay so thick, that a Man might, if he would, have walked half a Mile, and never trod a Step off a dead human Body. These Bodies, to appearance, seem'd as if they had not been above a Week dead; but if you handled them, they prov'd as dry and light as a Spunge or piece of Cork. After we had been some time ashore, we espyed a Smoak; and making up to it, found an old Man, a Spanish Indian, who was ranging along the Sea-side, to find some driedSea-weeds, to dress some Fish Which his Company had caugt; for he belong'd to a Fishing boat hard by. We asked him many Questions, in Spanish, about the Place, and how

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those dead Bodies came there? To which he returned for Answer, That in his Fathers time the Soil there, which now yielded nothing, was green, well cultivated and fruitful: That the City of Wormia had been Well inhabited with Indians: And that they were so numerous, that they could have handed a Fish, from Hand to Hand, 20 Leagues from the Sea, until it had come to the Kings or Ynca's Hand: That the River was very deep, and the Current strong: And that the reason of those dead Bodies was, That when the Spaniards came, and block'd up and lay'd Siege to the City, the Indians, rather than lie at the Spaniards Mercy, dug Holes in the Sand, and buried themselves alive. The Men as they now lie, have with them their broken Bows; and the Women their Spinning-wheels, and Distaffs with Cotton-yarn upon them. Of these dead Bodies I brought on board a Boy of about 9 or 10 Years of Age, with an intent to bring him home for England: But was frustrated of my purpose by the Sailors; who having a foolish Conceit, that the Compass would not

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traverse aright, so long as any dead Body was on board, threw him overboard, to my great Vexation.

This Place is a deep sandy Ground, of little Hills and Valleys of Sand. 'Tis like the rest of this part of Peru, Without Rain: But it has Dews, and there was the Channel of a small River; yet 'twas dry when we were there.

Santa.

Ships cast far ashore by an Earth-quake.

The other Particular I would speak of, is of our touching at a Place called Santa, a small Town in the Lat. of 8 Deg. 40 Min. S. Here I went ashore and so up to the Town, which was three Miles or thereabouts from the Sea. In our way to the Town we cross'd a small Hill; and in a Valley between the Hill and the Town we saw three small Ships of about 60 or 100 Tuns apiece, lodg'd there, and very ruinous. It caused in us great Admiration, and we were puzzled to think how those Ships could come there: But proceeding toward the Town, we saw an Indian, whom we called, and he at the first Motion came to us. We ask'd him several Questions, and among the rest, how those Ships came there? He told

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us, That about 9 Years before, these 3 Ships were riding at Anchor in the Bay, which is an open Place, about 5 or 6 Leagues from Point to Point; and that an Earthquake came, and carried the Water out of sight; which stayed away 24 Hours, and then came in again, tumbling and rowling with such Violence, that it carried these Ships over the Town, Which then stood on the Hill which We came over, and lodged them there; and that it destroyed the Country for a considerable way along the Coast. This Report, when we camd to the Town, was confirmed to us by the Parish-Priest, and many other Inhabitants of the Town.

I. Gallapago's

We continued thus Rambling about to little purpose, sometimes at Sea, and sometimes ashore; till having spent much time, and visited many Places, we were got again to the Gallapago's, under the Line; and were then resolv'd to make the best of our Way out of these Seas.

Earth-quake felt at sea.

Earth-quake at callao by Lima.

Accordingly we went thence again for the Southward, intending to touch no where till we came to the Island of John Fernando. In our way

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thither, about four a Clock in the Morning, when we were in the Lat. of 12 Deg. 30 Min. S. and about 150 Leagues from the Main of America, our Ship and Bark felt a terrible Shock; which put our Men into such a Consternation, that they could hardly tell where they were, or what to think; but every one began to prepare for Death. And indeed the Shock was so sudden and violent, that we took it for granted the Ship had struck upon a Rock: But when the Amazement was a little over, we cast the Lead, and founded, but found no Ground; so that after Consultation, we concluded it must certainly be some Earthquake. The suddenness of this Shock made the Guns of the Ship leap in their Carriages, and several of the Men were shaken out of their Hammocks. Captain Davis, who lay with his Head over a Gun, was thrown out of his Cabbin. The Sea, which ordinarily looks Green, seemed then of a Whitish Colour; and the Water which we took up in our Buckets for the Ships use, we found to be a little mixed with Sand. This at first made us think there was

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some Spit of Sand; but when we had founded, it confirmed our Opinion of the Earthquake. some time after we heard News, That at that very time there was an Earthquake at Callao, which is the Road for Lima; and that the Sea ebbed so far from the Shore, that on a sudden there was no Water to be seen: And that after it had been away a considerable time, it return'd in rowling Mountains of Water, which carried the Ships in the Road of Callao a League up into the Country, overflowed the City of Callao, though it stood upon a Hill, together with the Fort, and drowned Man and Beast for 50 Leagues along Shore; doing Mischief even at Lima, though fix Miles within Land from the Town of Callao. This seems to have been much such another Earthquake as that, the Effects of which we saw at Santa.

New Land discover'd.

Having recover'd our Fright, we kept on to the Southward. We steer'd South and by East, half Easterly, until we came to the Latitude of 27 Deg. 20 Min. S. when about two Hours before Day, we fell in with a small, low, sandy Island, and-

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heard a great roaring Noise, like that of the Sea beating upon the Shore, right a Head of the Ship. Where upon the Sailors, fearing to fall foul upon the Shore before Day, desired the Captain to put the Ship about, and to stand off till Day appeared; to which the Captain gave his consent. So we plied off till Day, and then stood in again with the Land; which proved to be a small flat Island, without the guard of any Rocks. We stood in within a quarter of a Mile of the Shore, and could see it plainly; for 'twas a clear Morning, not foggy nor hazy. To the Westward, about 12 Leagues by Judgment, we saw a range of high Land, which we took to be Islands, for there were several Partitions in the Prospect. This Land seem'd to reach about 14 or 16 Leagues in a Range, and there came thence great Flocks of Fowls. I, and many more of our Men would have made this Land, and have gone ashore at it; but the Captain would not permit us. The small Island bears from Copayapo almost due E. 500 Leagues; and from the Galla-pago's under the Line, 600 Leagues.

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I. Mocha laid waste;

I. Santa Maria also,

and John Fernando's.

When we were again arriv'd at John Fernando's, which was at the latter End of the Year, 1687. we clean'd our Ship there, having quitted our Bark, and stood over to the Main; intending to get some of the Sheep of Mocha, for our Voyage round Terra del Fuego. But when we came there, the Spaniards had wholly destroyed or carried away the Sheep, Horses, and all other living Creatures. We went then to Santa Maria, an Island in 37 Deg. S. in expectation of fresh Provision; but this Island was likewise destroy'd: So we were forc'd to content our selves with such Provision as we had brought from the Gallapago's; which were chiefly Flower, Maiz, Hecatee or Land-Tortoise salted, and the Fat of it tried, or made into Lard or Oil, of which we got there 60 Jars. The Spaniardsh had fet Dogs ashore at John Fernando's also, to destroy the Goats there, that we might fail of Provision; But we were content with killing there no more than we eat presently; not doubting but we should have found Sheep enough at Mocha, to victual the Ship.

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Somestay ashore at John Fernando's.

Three or Four of our Men, having lost what Mony they had at Play, and being unwilling to return out of these seas as poor as they came, would needs stay behind at John Fernando's, in expectation of some other Privateers coming thither. We gave them a small Canoa, a Porridge-pot, Axes, Macheats, Maiz, and other Necessaries. I heard since that they planted some of the Maiz, and tam'd some of the Goats, and liv'd on Fish and Fowls; of which there is one sort Grey, and about the size of a small Pullet, that makes Burrows in the Ground like a Rabbit; lodging there in the Night, and going out to catch Fish in the day: For 'tis a Water-Fowl, and eats a little fishy, yet pretty well tasted after a little burying. I heard also that these Men were taken by a Privateer-Vessel which came thither a Year or two after; and that one of them is since come to England.

Terra del Fuego.

A Storm.

C. Horn.

Islands of Ice.

We were now standing out to Sea again, to double Terra del Fuego: We were in a terrible Storm for about three Weeks before we came off Cape Horn: We did not see Cape Horn,

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being a great way to the South of it, and in the Lat. of 62 Deg. 45 Min. S. nor did we well know what Course to steer, having but very indifferent Seamen aboard. It was now about the heighth of Summer here; for I remember that upon Christmas day, 1687. we were just clear of the Storm, and in the Latitude we mention'd, off Cape Horn. Running hence to the Northward again, being now got out of the South Sea, we met several Islands of Ice; which at first seemed to be real Land. Some of them seemed a League or two in length, and some not above half a Mile. The biggest seemed, as we sail'd by them, which we did before the Wind for several Days, to be about 4 or 500 Foot high. We founded near them, but found no Ground; so that it may reasonably be concluded they were asloat; and perhaps reach'd as deep into the Water, as their heighth was above it. We saw no such Islands of Ice as I went into the South Sea with Mr. Dampier; neither did I ever hear that Captain Sharp met with any in his return out of that Sea. These Islands

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appear'd to us so plain at Night, that we could easily see how to steer clear of them: But there were some which lay under Water, which we could not possibly shun, but sometimes they would shake our Ship: Yet they never did us much Dammage. From these Hills of Ice came very cold Blasts of Wind; insomuch that our Men, newly coming out of a hot Country, could hardly endure the Deck.

Misreckoning the Variation

In all our Passage round Terra del Fuego the Weather was so stormy, for 3 Weeks that we lay to the Southward of Cape Horn, and the Sun and Stars so obscur'd, that we could take no Observation of our Lat. yet, by our Reckoning, we were in very near 63 Deg. S. Lat. which is the farthest to the South that any European, probably, ever yet was, and perhaps any Man. When we were in Lat. 62. Deg. 30 Min. we began to think of shifting our Course to the Northward again, toward the Æthiopick and Atlantick Seas; and we soon brought our selves to stand E. N. E. and E. and by N. and kept much those Courses for a great way. In our Pas-

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sage we had allow'd for three Points Westerly Variation: But when we came to have a good Observation, we found that we had gone to the Eastward, making our way E. and by S. We found therefore that we had mistaken the Variation of the Compass, so that we concluded the Variation to be Easterly, and steer'd away N.N.E. and N.E. and by N.

A seasonable Rain

Deliverance from a Danger of perishing at Sea.

By this means, when we came into the Latitude of the River of Plate, along which we intended to run, we reckon'd our selves to be about 100 Leagues off Land; and stood in directly for the Shore not doubting but we should find it at that distance. But we were then really 500 Leagues off; and having run some hundreds of Leagues to the West in the same Latitude, and yet finding no Land, our Men were out of Heart, fearing we were still in a wrong Course, and being all in danger of perishing at Sea, through want of Provisions; having little Food, and less Water. It pleas'd God, during this Exigence, to send us a Days Rain, which fell very plentiful; and we sav'd of it several Casks of Water,

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which was a great Refreshment to us, and made our Men pluck up their Hearts for some time. But having run 450 Leagues in this Latitude, and still finding no Land, which they had expected to have seen in 100, this bred a fresh Commotion, and we had like to have been all together by the Ears upon it. The greatest part were for changing the Course, which they thought must needs be wrong: But Captain Davis, and Mr. Knott the Master, begg'd of them for God's sake to keep the same Course two Days longer, which they did, though we had but a small Wind: And in that time a Flight of Locusts and other Insects coming off with a Flurry of Wind from the West, assur'd us there was Land there, not far off. Had not this providentially hapned, we should have chang'd our Course, for the Men would not have been persuaded to the contrary; for a great many of them were so ignorant, that they would not be persuaded but they were still in the South Sea: And had we chang'd this Course, we should have stood out to Sea again, and must have perish'd there.

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Coast by the R. of Plate.

Sea-Swine.

The Land we made, following the direaion of the Flurry and the Locusts, and setting the Point they come from by the Compass, was a little to the North of the Mouth of the River of Plate. We put ashore here to get Water and fresh Provisions, of which this Country assorded plenty: And here our Men having with them their Fusees, spy'd a Herd of Sea-Swine, as we call them, upon a Point a Land; and were thereupon resolved to kill some of them to bring on board. In order thereunto they contrived, that some Men should stop the Pass that led up to the Mountain, whilst others went in among them, and with their Cutlasses did what Execution they could. But still as the Men came near them, the Herd walked toward the Sea, contrary to our Mens expectation; for they hitherto took them to be Land-Swine. There they stood on the Shore, staring at and admiring our People: But when the Men came near enough, and were just going to strike among them, the whole Herd jump'd into the Sea, leaving the Men in amazement, and sorely vex'd at

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their Disappointment. But at another time they shot brought on Board two of them, which eat like Land-pork, except some Fishy taste it had. They were shap'd much like Swine, and had short Hair more bristly than that of Seals; and like them had sinny Stumps to swim with, and were of a Black Colour. The Country hereabouts is well Watered, but without any Inhabitants. Here is notwithstanding abundance of black Cattle, of which for several Scores of Leagues we observed many Herds; with Deer also, and Estridges.

Estridges.

We saw a great many of these Estridges, and found abundance of their Eggs on the Sand: For there she drops her Eggs upon the Ground, and 'tis said she never takes any farther Care of them; but that they are hatched by the Sun, and the young one so soon as hatched follows me first Creature it meets With. I my self had sometimes a great many young Estridges following me. They are a foolish Bird; they will follow Deer or any Creature. The old Birds are here very large: I measur'd the Thigh of one of them, and

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thought it little less than my own. We have had several of them on board, and some we eat; but the old ones were very rank, course Food. Some fancy that the Estridge eats Iron: I believe just as truly as Poultry eat Pebble-Stones, not as Food but for Digestion, and to serve as MillStones, or Grinders, to macerate their Food in the Maw. The Estridge will indeed swallow Nails or Stones, or any thing you throw to it; but they pass through the Body as whole as they went in.

Brasil.

The A. arrives in Pensilvania.

Putting off to Sea again, we Coasted along Brasil, and thence toward the Caribbe-Islands; where meeting with one Mr. Edwin Carter, in a Barbadoes Sloop, I and some others went aboard him, and had of him the News of King James's Proclamation to pardon and call in the Buccaniers. So we went in his Ship to the River de la Ware, and up into Pensilvania, to the City of Philadelphia; where I arriv'd in May, 1688.

and Viginia.

Conclusion.

There I stayed some time; after which I came down the River de la Ware as far as Apokunnumy-creek, with Capt. Davis, and John Hingson who

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was left with me on the Isthmus. There we carted our Chests, with other Goods, over a small Neck of Land into Bohemia River, which leads down the great Bay of Chisapeek to Point-Comfort in James-River in Virginia. There I thought to settle: But meeting with some Troubles, after a three Years residence there, I came home for England in the Year, 1690.

FINIS.

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INDEX.

A.

A Dultery; how punished, Pag. 163.

Air at Portobel, 67.

at Panama, 76.

Alligators, 112.

Amapalla Gulph, 189.

Anguilla; its Land-Crabs, 112.

Animals of the Isthmus, 104.

Ants, 123.

Arica, 205.

Ash-Isle, 143.

Author's first Voyage, 1. Second Voyage, 3. first meets Mr. Dampier, 4. Misfortune in Passing the Isthmus, 5. great Hardships, 5, to 24. narrowly escapes Drowning 18. his fear of the Indians, 23. sets out for the North Sea a second time, 25. bleeds Lacenta's Lady, 29. his repute among the Indians, 30. gets leave of Lacents to

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depart, 33. sets out a third time for the North Seas, 35. arrives at the Sea-side, 37. meets with the Privateers, 41. his coasting about the West-Indies with Mr. Dampier, 43. arrival at Virginia, 44. goes a second time with Mr. Dampier into the South Sea, and parts with him there, 45. Voyage continued, 189. arrives at Pensilvania, 223. and Virginia again, 224.

B.

Bamboes, 27, 97.

Bantam, 1.

Barcaderoes, or Landing-places, 2.

Bastimento's Isle, 4, 48, 61, 63.

Bats, 121.

Bees, 122.

Bezoar-stones in Mocha Sheep, 200.

Bibby-tree and Fruit, 23, 86. and Oil, 87.

Birds of the Isthmus, 114, 119.

Blood-letting, 28.

Bocca-Drago, 68.

——Toro, 68.

Bonano's, Tree and Fruit, 88.

Bowman (William) his narrow Escape, 15.

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Brasil, 223.

Buckenham (Capt.) taken Prisoner, 8. hard Usage, 3.

C.

Calabash-tree, 92.

Canes, 63.

Caret-Bay, 47, 52.

Cartagena, 4.

Cassava Roots and Bread, 101.

Cats; much esteem'd by the Indians, 109.

Cavally-fish, 125.

Cedars, 84.

Chagre-River, 47, 51, 52, 73.

Chains; ornamental, 146.

Cheapo-River, 21, 47, 72.

Chepelio-Isle, 77.

Chicaly Chicaly; Bird, 114.

Cinamon, 97.

Coco-Isle, 191.

——Nut-Tree, 87, 192.

Combs us'd by the Indians, 132.

Conception-River, 52, 58.

Congo-River, 70, 77.

Conjuring, 37.

Cookery, 175.

Copayapo-River, 202.

Coquimbo, 196.

Cormorants, 121.

Q 2

[page 228]

Corosou-Bird, 115.

Cotton-tree, 26, 83.

Conchs, 127.

Crabs; Land, 111.

——Sea, 128.

Crab-Island 112.

Craw-fish, 128.

Cups, 162.

D.

Dancing, 168.

Dead Bodies found in abundance, 208.

Deer, 106.

Dexterity of the Indians, 159.

Diadems of Gold, &c. 145.

Diet, 207.

Diversion, 169.

Dogs, 106.

Dog-fish, 124.

Drink, 153.

E.

Earthquake felt at Sea, 212. Ships cast far on Land by them, 210, 213.

Eating, 176.

Education, 158.

Eels, 127.

Employments, 161, 167.

Estridges, 222.

[page 229]

F.

Feasts, 166.

John Fernando Isle, 197, 217.

Figs, 206.

Fish of the Isthmus, 124, 128.

Fishing, 129.

Fly; shining, 122.

Floods, 18, 81.

Forts, or War-houses, 150.

Fowl of the Isthmus, 119.

Fruits of the Isthmus, 83.

G.

Gainy (George) drowned, 10.

Gallapago's Isles, 194, 211.

Gar-fish, 126.

Garachina, 47, 68, 76.

Guatimala Government, 76.

Gopson (Richard) dies, 42.

Gold, 31.

Golden Island, 4, 53.

Gold River, 31, 69, 197.

Gorgonia, 195.

Gourds, 93.

Guacha, 195.

Guanoes, 113, 194.

Guavra, 195.

Sea-Gulls, 121.

Q 3

[page 230]

H.

Habits of the chief Indians, 37, 141, 146. of the other Men and Women, 138, 140, &c.

Hair, 132, 135.

Hills, 34, 48, 50.

Hogs, 104.

Hony, 123.

Horn, Cape, 216.

Horses, 198.

Houses, 149.

Hunting, 170.

Husbandry, 152.

I.

Jamaica, 3.

Jamby Town, 1.

Ice-Islands, 217.

Jesuits-Bark, 99, 206.

Iihor, 1.

Indians cure the Author, 8. are displeas'd, 8. Consult to kill the Author and his Company, 11. afterwards receive them kindly, and why, 24. Conjuring, 37. their Stature, Features, &c. 131. cutting off their Hair on killing an Enemy, 133. white Indians,

[page 231]

134. painting themselves, 138. other Ornaments of both Sexes, 140, 143, &c. Houses, 149, &c. Plantations and Husbandry, 152. Womens Employments, 157, 160. Lying-in, 158. Education of Children, 158, 160, &c. Mens Employments, 161, 167, 170. Punishments, 163. Marriages and Feasts, 163, 166. Recreations, 167. Hunting and Cookery, 170, 174. Travelling, 177. Numbers and Calculation, 178, 179, &c. Language and Pronuntiation, 186. Good Qualities, 8, 9, 24, 141, 157, 162, 165, 169. Bad 166, 170.

Insects, 109, 122.

Islands on each side the Isthmus, 48, 54.

Isthmus of Darien; its breadth, &c. 46. Situation, 47. Hills, &c. 48. Rivers, 51. North-Sea Coast describ'd, 52, &c. South-Sea Coast, 68, &c. Soil 77. Woods, 50, 78. Air and Weather, 79. Floods, 18, 81. Vegetables, 83. Beasts and Reptiles, 104. Birds and Flying Insects, 114. Inhabitants, 131.

L.

Lacenta his Civility, 12. Palace, 26. detains the Author, &c. 27. Respect

Q 4

[page 232]

to the Author, 32, 34. gives him leave to depart, 33. his Wives, 162.

Land, barren, 204.

——Floods, 18, 81.

——new discover'd, call'd by Mr. Dampier, Davis's Land, 214.

Language, 187.

Lavelia, 75.

Leon, 75.

Lightning, 80.

Limpits, 128.

Lizards, 113.

Locust-tree, 97.

Lorenzo, Cape, 68.

M.

Macaw-berries and Tree, 16, 84.

Macaw-birds, 116.

Maho-tree, 91.

Maiz, Flower and Drink, 153, 166.

Malacca, 1.

Mammee-tree and Fruit, 88.

Mammee-Sappota, 89.

Manchinel-tree and Fruit, poisonous, 90.

Mangrove-trees, 61, 98.

Marriages, 163.

Mice, 109.

[page 233]

St. Michael's Gulph, 47, 68, 71.

Mislaw of Plantains, 154.

Mocha-Isle, 195, 215.

Modesty of the Indians, 141, 162.

Monkeys, 107, 195.

Moon-ey'd Indians, 136.

Moskito's, or Gnats, 81.

N.

La Nasca, 196.

Nata, 75.

Nicaragua-Lake, 51.

Nombre de Dios, 62.

North-Sea Coast of the Isthmus, 52.

Nose-rings, 144.

Numbering and Numeral Names, 181.

Numbedness with drinking Coco-milk, 193.

O.

Oil of Bibby-berries, 87.

—— Olive, 206.

—— of the Soldier-Insects; its Virtues, 111.

Old Wives, a Fish, 125.

Oranges, 206.

Oysters, 195.

[page 234]

P.

Pacheque Island, 77.

Panama, 48, 74, 77.

Paracoods, Fish, 135.

Parakites, 116.

Parrots, 116.

Parrot-fish, 127.

Pawawing, or Conjuring, 38.

Pearl-Islands, 48, 77.

Pecary Beast, 104.

Pelican, 119.

Pendants, 145.

Pensilvania, 223.

Pepper, 100.

Perica, Isle, 48, 74, 77.

Periwinkles, 128.

Sea-Pies, 121.

Pine-apples, Fruit, 89.

Pines, Island, 55.

Pisca, 195.

Plantains, 87.

Plantations, 152.

Plates of Gold, &c. ornamental, 143.

Popes-heads, a Shrub, 27, 90.

Portobel, 4, 47, 65.

Port-Royal, 4.

Potato's, 101.

Prickle-pear, Fruit, 27, 90.

[page 235]

Privateers, make an order to kill those that flag, 7, four left on the Isthmus with the Author, 7. leave the Isthmus, and cruise in the W. Indies, 43. cruise on the Coast of Peru, 195.

Provisions, 171.

Punta mala, 76.

Q.

Quolla, or Landing-place, 2.

Quam, Bird, 115.

R.

Rabbits, 107.

Rain, 17, 80.

Rats, 109.

Realeja, 76.

Recreations, 167.

Rio Grande, 76.

Rivers, 46, 51.

——hot, 190.

S.

Salt, how made, 130.

Sambo-River, 68.

Sambaloes Channel, 58.

Sambaloes, Isles, 48, 56.

[page 236]

Sanballas, Point, 56, 60.

Santa, Ships cast a-ground there, 210.

Santa Maria, 4, 69, 215.

Sappadilloes, Tree and Fruit, 89.

Savannahs, 72.

Scrivan, Port, 60.

Sculpins, Fish, 127.

Sea-Gulls, 121.

Sea-pies, 121.

Sea-swine, 221.

Scuchadero, 70.

Sharks, 124.

Sheep, 198.

shell-fish, 127.

Ships cast some miles un the shore, 210.

Shining Fly, 122.

Sholes, 71.

Silk-grass, 94.

Smoaking, 102.

Snakes, 109.

Snooks, Fish, 127.

Soil of the Isthmus, 52, 77.

Soldier Insect, 110.

La Sounds Key, 57.

South sea Coast of the Isthmus, 68.

Spanish Indians, 64.

Spaniards destroy Mocha, &c. 215.

Spiders, 109.

Springer's Key, 57.

Stingrays, Fish, 127.

[page 237]

Storms, 216.

Sugar, 206.

Sugar-Canes, 90.

T.

Tamarinds, 97.

Tarpom, Fish, 104.

Terra del Fuego, 216.

Theft, 163.

Thunder, 80.

Tigers, 147.

——Teeth, 147.

Time, the Indians computation of it, 179.

Tobacco, 102.

Tortoise, 194.

Travelling, 13, 177.

Trees, 58, 83.

V.

Valleys, 48.

Venta de Cruzes, 73.

Vermin, 109.

Vermejo, dead Bodies there, 208.

W.

Warree, Beast, 105.

Wars, 1.

[page 238]

Water, 48.

Wax, 123.

Weather, 79.

Weaving, 160.

Wine, La Nasca, Pisca, &c. 196.

Women, 138, 140, 156, 162.

Woods, 78.

Wood-pecker, 118.

Wood, light, 95.

—— red, 100.

—— white, 96.

Y.

Yams, 101.

Ylo River, 206.

[page 239]

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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