RECORD: Vancouver, George. 1798. A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the world. 3 vols. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, vol. 1.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 4.2013. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


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A

VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY

TO THE

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,

AND

ROUND THE WORLD.

VOL. I.

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A

VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY

TO THE

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,

AND

ROUND THE WORLD:

IN WHICH THE COAST OF NORTH-WEST AMERICA HAS BEEN CAREFULLY
EXAMINED AND ACCURATELY SURVEYED.

Undertaken by HIS MAJESTY'S Command,

PRINCIPALLY WITH A VIEW TO ASCERTAIN THE EXISTENCE OF ANY
NAVIGABLE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE

North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans;

AND PERFORMED IN THE YEARS
1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795,

IN THE
DISCOVERY SLOOP OF WAR, AND ARMED TENDER CHATHAM,

UNDER THE COMMAND OF

CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR G. G. AND J. ROBINSON, PATERNOSTER-ROW;
AND J. EDWARDS, PALL-MALL.

1798.

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TO THE KING.

SIR,

YOUR MAJESTY having been graciously pleased to permit my late brother CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER, to present to YOUR MAJESTY the Narrative of his labours during the execution of your commands in the Pacific Ocean, I presume to hope, that, since it has pleased the Divine Providence to withdraw him from YOUR MAJESTY'S service, and from the society of his friends, before he could avail himself of that condescension, YOUR MAJESTY will, with

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the same benignity, vouchsafe to accept it from my hands, in discharge of the melancholy duty which has devolved upon me by that unfortunate event.

I cannot but indulge the hope that the following pages will prove to YOUR MAJESTY, that CAPTAIN VANCOUVER was not undeserving the honour of the trust reposed in him; and that he has fulfilled the object of his commission from YOUR MAJESTY with diligence and fidelity.

Under the auspices of YOUR MAJESTY, the late indefatigable CAPTAIN COOK had already shewn that a southern continent did not exist, and had ascertained the important fact of the near approximation of the northern shores of Asia to those of America. To those great discoveries the exertions of CAPTAIN VANCOUVER will, I trust, be found to have added the complete certainty, that, within the limits of his researches on the continental shore of North-West America,

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NO INTERNAL SEA, OR OTHER NAVIGABLE COMMUNICATION whatever exists, uniting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

I have the honour to be,

SIR,

With the most profound respect,

YOUR MAJESTY'S

Most faithful and devoted

Subject and servant,

JOHN VANCOUVER.

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INTRODUCTION.

IN contemplating the rapid progress of improvement in the sciences, and the general diffusion of knowledge, since the commencement of the eighteenth century, we are unavoidably led to observe, with admiration, that active spirit of discovery, by means of which the remotest regions of the earth have been explored; a friendly communication opened with their inhabitants; and various commodities, of a most valuable nature, contributing either to relieve their necessities, or augment their comforts, introduced among the less-enlightened part of our species. A mutual intercourse has been also established, in many instances, on the solid basis of a reciprocity of benefits; and the productive labour of the civilized world has found new markets for the disposal of its manufactures. Nor has the balance of trade been wholly against the people of the newly-discovered countries; for, whilst some have been enabled to supply their visitors with an abundance of food, and the most valuable refreshments, in exchange for iron, copper, useful implements, and articles of ornament; the industry of others has been stimulated to procure the skins of animals, and other articles of a commercial nature; which they have found to be eagerly fought for by the traders who now resort to their shores from Europe, Asia, and the eastern side of North America.

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The great naval powers of Europe, inspired with a desire not only of acquiring, but also of communicating, knowledge, had extended their researches, in the 16th and 17th centuries, as far into the pacific ocean as their limited information of the geography of the earth, at that time, enabled them to penetrate. Some few attempts had also been made by this country towards the conclusion of each of those centuries; but it was not until the year 1764 that Great-Britain, benefiting by the experience of former enterprizes, laid the foundation for that vast accession of geographical knowledge, which she has since obtained by the persevering spirit of her successive distinguished circumnavigators.

By the introduction of nautical astronomy into marine education, we are taught to sail on the hypothenuse, instead of traversing two sides of a triangle, which was the usage in earlier times; by this means, the circuitous course of all voyages from place to place is considerably shortened; and it is now become evident, that sea officers of the most common-rate abilities, who will take the trouble of making themselves acquainted with the principles of this science, will, on all suitable occasions, with proper and correct instruments, be enabled to acquire a knowledge of their situation in the atlantic, indian, or pacific oceans, with a degree of accuracy sufficient to steer on a meridional or diagonal line, to any known spot; provided it be sufficiently conspicuous to be visible at any distance from five to ten leagues.

This great improvement, by which the most remote parts of the terrestrial globe are brought so easily within our reach, would, nevertheless, have been, comparatively, of little utility, had not those happy means been discovered, for preserving the lives and health of the officers and seamen engaged in such distant and perilous undertakings; which

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were so successfully practised by Captain Cook the first great discoverer of this salutary system, in all his latter voyages round the globe. But in none have the effects of his wise regulations regimen, and discipline, been more manifest, than in the course of the expedition of which the following pages are designed to treat. To an unremitting attention, not only to food, cleanliness, ventilation, and an early administration of antiseptic provisions and medicines, but also to prevent, as much as possible, the chance of indisposition, by prohibiting individuals from carelessly exposing themselves to the influence of climate, or unhealthy indulgences in times of relaxation, and by relieving them from fatigue and the inclemency of the weather the moment the nature of their duty would permit them to retire; is to be ascribed the preservation of the health and lives of sea-faring people on long voyages. Instead of vessels returning from parts, by no means very remote, with the loss of one half, and sometimes two thirds, of their crews, in consequence of scorbutic, and other contagious disorders; instances are now not wanting of laborious services having been performed in the most distant regions, in which, after an absence of more than three or four years, during which time the vessels had been subjected to all the vicissitudes of climate, from the scorching heat of the torrid zone to the freezing blasts of the arctic or antarctic circles, the crews have returned in perfect health, and consisting nearly of every individual they had carried out; whilst those who unfortunately had not survived, either from accident or disease, did not exceed in number the mortality that might reasonably have been expected, during the same period of time, in the most healthy situations of this country. To these valuable improvements, Great-Britain is, at this time, in a great measure indebted, for her present exalted station amongst

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the nations of the earth; and it should seem, that the reign of George the Third had been reserved, by the Great Disposer of all things, for the glorious task of establishing the grand key-stone to that expansive arch, over which the arts and sciences should pass to the furthermost corners of the earth, for the instruction and happiness of the most lowly children of nature. Advantages so highly beneficial to the untutored parts of the human race, and so extremely important to that large proportion of the subjects of this empire who are brought up to the sea service, deserve to be justly appreciated; and it becomes of very little importance to the bulk of our society, whose enlightened humanity teaches them to entertain a lively regard for the welfare and interest of those who engage in such adventurous undertakings for the advancement of science, or for the extension of commerce, what may be the animadversions or sarcasms of those few unenlightened minds that may peevishly demand, "what beneficial consequences, if any, have followed, or are likely to follow, to the discoverers, or to the discovered, to the common interests of humanity, or to the increase of useful knowledge, from all our boasted attempts to explore the distant recesses of the globe?" The learned editor*, who has so justly anticipated this injudicious remark, has, in his very comprehensive introduction to Captain Cook's last Voyage, from whence the above quotation is extracted, given to the public, not only a complete and satisfactory answer to that question, but has treated every other part of the subject of Discovery so ably, as to render any further observations on former voyages of this description totally unnecessary, for the purpose of bringing the reader acquainted with what

* Dr. Douglas, now Bishop of Salisbury.

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had been accomplished, previously to my being honored with His Majesty's commands to follow up the labours of that illustrious navigator Captain James Cook; to whose steady, uniform, indefatigable, and undiverted attention to the several objects on which the success of his enterprizes ultimately depended, the world is indebted for such eminent and important benefits.

Those benefits did not long remain unnoticed by the commercial part of the British nation. Remote and distant voyages being now no longer objects of terror, enterprizes were projected. and carried into execution, for the purpose of establishing new and lucrative branches of commerce between North West America and China; and parts of the coast of the former that had not been minutely examined by Captain Cook, became now the general resort of the persons thus engaged.

Unprovided as these adventurers were with proper astronomical and nautical instruments, and having their views directed almost intirely to the object of their employers, they had neither the means, nor the leisure, that were indispensably requisite for amassing any certain geographical information. This became evident, from the accounts of their several voyages given to the public; in which, notwithstanding that they positively contradicted each other, as well in geographical and nautical facts as in those of a commercial nature, they yet agreed in filling up the blanks in the charts of Captain Cook with extensive islands, and a coast apparently much broken by numberless inlets, which they had left almost intirely unexplored.

The charts accompanying the accounts of their voyages, representing the North West coast of America to be so much broken by the waters of the pacific, gave encouragement once more to hypotheses;

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and the favorite opinion that had slept since the publication of Captain Cook's last voyage of a north-eastern communication between the waters of the pacific and atlantic oceans, was again roused from its slate of slumber, and brought forward with renovated vigour. Once more the archipelago of St. Lazarus was called forth into being, and its existence almost assumed, upon the authority of a Spanish admiral named De Fonte, De Fonta, or De Fuentes; and of a Mr. Nicholas Shapely, from Boston in America, who was stated to have penetrated through this archipelago, by failing through a mediterranean sea, on the coast of North-West America, within a few leagues of the oceanic shores of that archipelago; where he is said to have met the Admiral. The straits said to have been navigated by Juan De Fuca were also brought forward in support of this opinion; and, although the existence or extent of these discoveries remained still to be proved by an authenticated survey of the countries which had been thus stated to have been seen and passed through, yet the enthusiasm of modern closet philosophy, eager to revenge itself for the refutation of its former fallacious speculations, ventured to accuse Captain Cook of "hastily exploding" its systems; and, ranking him amongst the pursuers of peltry, dared even to drag him forward himself in support of its visionary conjectures.

With what reason, or with what justice, such animadversions have been cast upon one, who, unhappily for the world, does not survive to enforce his own judicious opinions; influenced as they were, by no prejudice, nor biassed by any pre-conceived theory or hypothesis, but founded on the solid principles of experience, and of ocular demonstration; it is not my province to decide: let it suffice to say, that the labours of that distinguished character will remain a monument of his pre-eminent

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abilities, and dispassionate investigation of the truth, as long as science shall be respected in the civilized world; or as long as succeeding travellers, who shall unite in bearing testimony to the profundity of his judgment, shall continue to obtain credit with the public.

Although the ardour of the present age, to discover and delineate the true geography of the earth, had been rewarded with uncommon and unexpected success, particularly by the persevering exertions of this great man, yet all was not completed; and though, subsequent to his last visit to the coast of North-West America, no expedition had been projected by Government, for the purpose of acquiring a more exact knowledge of that extensive and interesting country; yet a voyage was planned by His Majesty for exploring some of the Southern regions; and in the autumn of the year 1789 directions were given for carrying it into effect.

Captain Henry Roberts, of known and tried abilities, who had served under Captain Cook during his two last voyages, and whose attention to the scientific part of his profession had afforded that great navigator frequent opportunities of naming him with much respect, was called upon to take charge of, and to command, the proposed expedition.

At that period, I had just returned from a flation at Jamaica under the command of Commodore (now Vice-Admiral) Sir Alan Gardner, who mentioned me to Lord Chatham and the Board of Admiralty; and I was solicited to accompany Captain Roberts as his second. In this proposal I acquiesced, and found myself very pleasantly situated, in being thus connected with a fellow-traveller for whose abilities I bore the greatest, respect, and in whose friendship and good opinion I was proud to pos-

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sess a place. And as we had failed together with Captain Cook on his voyage towards the south pole, and as both had afterwards accompanied him with Captain Clerke in the Discovery during his last voyage, I had no doubt that we were engaged in an expedition, which would prove no less interesting to my friend than agreeable to my wishes.

A ship, proper for the service under contemplation, was ordered to be provided. In the yard of Messrs. Randall and Brent, on the banks of the Thames, a vessel of 340 tons burthen was nearly finished; and as she would demand but few alterations to make her in every respect fit for the purpose, the was purchased; and, on her being launched, was named the Discovery.

The first day of the year 1790 the Discovery was commissioned by Captain Roberts; some of the other officers were also appointed, and the ship was conducted to His Majesty's dock-yard at Deptford, where the was put into a state of equipment; which was ordered to be executed, with all the dispatch that the nature of the service required.

For some time previous to this period the Spaniards, roused by the successful efforts of the British nation, to obtain a more extended knowledge of the earth, had awoke, as it were, from a slate of lethargy, and had not only ventured to visit some of the newly-discovered islands in the tropical regions of the pacific ocean, but had also, in the year 1775, with a spirit somewhat analogous to that which prompted their first discovery of America, extended their researches to the northward, along the coast of North-West America. But this undertaking did not seem to have reached beyond the acquirement of a very superficial knowledge of the shores; and though these were found to be extremely broken, and divided by the waters of the pacific, yet it does

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not appear that any measures were pursued by them for ascertaining the extent, to which those waters penetrated into the interior of the American continent.

This apparent indifference in exploring new countries, ought not, however, to be attributed to a deficiency in skill, or to a want of spirit for enterprize, in the commander* of that expedition; because there is great reason to believe, that the extreme caution which has so long and so rigidly governed the court of Madrid, to prevent, as much as possible, not only their American, but likewise their Indian, establishments from being visited by any Europeans, (unless they were subjects of the crown of Spain, and liable to a military tribunal) had greatly conspired, with other considerations of a political nature, to repress that desire of adding to the fund of geographical knowledge, which has so eminently distinguished this country. And hence it is not extraordinary, that the discovery of a north-western navigable communication between the atlantic and pacific oceans, should not have been considered as an object much to be desired by the Spanish court. Since that expedition, however, the Spaniards seem to have considered their former national character as in some measure at stake; and they have certainly become more acquainted than they were with the extensive countries immediately adjoining to their immense empire in the new world; yet the measures that they adopted, in order to obtain that information, were executed in so defective a manner, that all the important questions to geography still remained undecided, and in the same state of uncertainty.

Towards the end of april, the Discovery was, in most respects, in a condition to proceed down the river, when intelligence was received

* Senr. Quadra.

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that the Spaniards had committed depredations on different branches of the British commerce on the coast of North-West America, and that they had seized on the English vessels and factories in Nootka sound. This intelligence gave rise to disputes between the courts of London and Madrid, which had the threatening appearance of being terminated by no other means than those of reprizal. In consequence of this an armament took place, and the further pacific equipment of the Discovery was suspended; her stores and provisions were returned to the respective offices, and her officers and men were engaged in more active service. On this occasion I resumed my profession under my highly-esteemed friend Sir Alan Gardner, then captain of the Courageux, where I remained until the 17th of the november following; when I was ordered to repair to town for the purpose of attending to the commands of the Board of Admiralty.

The uncommon celerity, and unparalleled dispatch, which attended the equipment of one of the noblest fleets that Great-Britain ever saw, had probably its due influence upon the court of Madrid, for, in the Spanish convention, which was consequent on that armament, restitution was offered to this country for the captures and aggressions made by the subjects of His Catholic Majesty; together with an acknowledgment of an equal right with Spain to the exercise and prosecution of all commercial undertakings in those seas, reputed before to belong only to the Spanish crown. The extensive branches of the fisheries, and the fur trade to China, being considered as objects of very material importance to this country, it was deemed expedient, that an officer should be sent to Nootka to receive back, in form, a restitution of the territories on which the Spaniards had seized, and also to make an accurate

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survey of the coast, from the 30th degree of north latitude north-west ward toward Cook's river; and further, to obtain every possible information that could be collected respecting the natural and political state of that country.

The outline of this intended expedition was communicated to me, and I had the honor of being appointed to the command of it. At this juncture it appeared to be of importance, that all possible exertion should be made in its equipment; and as the Discovery, which had been selected on the former occasion, was now rigged, some of her stores provided, and she herself considered, in most respects, as a vessel well calculated for the voyage under contemplation, she was accordingly directed to be got ready for that service; and the Chatham armed tender, of 135 tons burthen, built at Dover, having been destined to accompany the Discovery in the voyage which had been abandoned, she was ordered to be equipped to attend on the voyage now to be undertaken, and was sent to Woolwich to receive such necessary repairs and alterations as were deemed requisite for the occasion.

The Discovery was copper-fastened, sheathed with plank, and coppered over; the Chatham only sheathed with copper. The former mounted ten four-pounders, and ten swivels; the latter, four three-pounders and six swivels. The following list will exhibit the establishment of the officers and men in the two vessels.

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An account of the number of officers and men on board the Discovery sloop of war, in december, 1790.

OFFICERS. NO. NAMES.
Captain, 1 George Vancouver.
Lieutenants 3 Zachariah Mudge,
Peter Puget,
Joseph Baker.
Master 1 Joseph Whidbey.
Boatswain 1
Carpenter 1
Gunner 1
Surgeon 1
Midshipmen 6
Master's mates 3
Boatswain's mates 3
Carpenter's mates 3
Gunner's mates 2
Surgeon's mates 2
Carpenter's crew 4
Master at arms 1
Corporal 1
Sail-maker 1
Sail-maker's mate 1
Armourer 1
Cook 1
Cook's mate 1
Clerk 1
Quartermasters 6
Able seamen 38
Serjeant 1 Marines.
Corporal 1
Privates 14
Total 100

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An account of the number of officers and men on board the Chatham armed tender, in december, 1790.

OFFICERS. NO. NAMES.
Commander 1 Lieutenant W.R. Broughton.
Lieutenant 1 James Hanfon.
Master 1 James Johnstone.
Boatswain 1
Carpenter 1
Gunner 1
Surgeon 1
Midshipmen 4
Master's mates 2
Boatswain's mates 2
Carpenter's mates 2
Gunner's mates 2
Surgeon's mate 1
Sail-maker 1
Armourer 1
Clerk 1
Quartermasters 4
Able seamen 10
Serjeant 1 Marines.
Privates 7
Total 45

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I had great reason to be satisfied with these arrangements: the second and third lieutenants, and the master of the Discovery, whom I had the honor of being allowed to name for this service, had all served some years with me, under the command of Sir Alan Gardner, both at home, and in the West-Indies; the other officers were men of known character, possessing good abilities, and excellent dispositions, which their subsequent conduct and zeal, exhibited on all occasions, sufficiently demonstrated.

In the former equipment of the Discovery, Captain Roberts and myself had undertaken to make all such astronomical and nautical observations, as the circumstances occurring in the voyage might demand. This talk now devolped upon me alone; but with the assistance of Mr. Whidbey, I entertained little doubt of accomplishing the proposed object, at least in an useful manner; for which purpose we were supplied by the Navy Board with such an assortment of instruments as I considered to be necessary.

It was with infinite satisfaction that I saw, amongst the officers and young gentlemen of the quarter-deck, some who, with little instruction, would soon be enabled to construct charts, take plans of bays and harbours, draw landscapes, and make faithful portraits of the several headlands, coasts, and countries, which we might discover; thus, by the united efforts of our little community, the whole of our proceedings, and the information we might obtain in the course of the voyage, would be rendered profitable to those who might succeed us in traversing the remote parts of the globe that we were destined to explore, without the assistance of professional persons, as astronomers or draftsmen.

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Botany, however, was an object of scientific inquiry with which no one of us was much acquainted; but as, in expeditions of a similar nature, the most valuable opportunities had been afforded for adding to the geral stock of botanical information, Mr. Archibald Menzies, a surgeon in the royal navy, who had before visited the pacific ocean in one of the vessels employed in the fur trade, was appointed for the specific purpose of making such researches; and had, doubtless, given sufficient proof of his abilities, to qualify him for the station it was intended he should sill. For the purpose of preserving such new or uncommon plants as he might deem worthy of a place amongst His Majesty's very valuable collection of exotics at Kew, a glazed frame was erected on the after part of the quarter-deck, for the reception of those he might have an opportunity of collecting.

The Board of Admiralty, greatly attentive to our personal comforts, gave directions that the Discovery and Chatham should each be supplied with all such articles as might be considered in any way likely to become necessary, during the execution of the long and arduous service in which we were about to engage. Our stores, from the naval arsenals, were ordered to be selected of the very best forts, and to be made with materials of the best quality. In addition to the ordinary establishment, we were supplied with a large assortment of seines and other useful fishing geer of various kinds. The provisions were furnished at the victualling-office with the greatest care, all of which proved to be excellent, and manifested the judgment which had been exercised in the selection and preparation of the several articles. To these were added a large proportion of sour-krout, portable soup, wheat instead of the usual supply of oatmeal for breakfast, the essence of malt

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and spruce, malt, hops, dried yeast, flour, and seed mustard; which may all be considered as articles of food. Those of a medicinal nature, with which we were amply supplied, were Dr. James's powders; vitriolic elixir; the rob of lemons and oranges, in such quantities and proportions as the surgeon thought requisite; together with an augmentation to the usual allowance, amounting to a hundred weight, of the best peruvian bark.

To render our visits as acceptable as possible to the inhabitants of the islands or continent in the pacific ocean, and to establish on a firm basis a friendly intercourse with the several tribes we might occasionally meet with, Lord Grenville directed that a liberal assortment of various European commodities, both of a useful and ornamental nature, should be sent on board from the Secretary of State's office. From the Board of Ordnance the vessels were supplied with every thing necessary for our defence, and amongst other articles were four well-contrived three pound field pieces, for the protection of our little encampment against any hostile attempts of the native Indians, amongst whom we should necessarily have frequent occasion to reside on shore; and for the amusement and entertainment of such as were peaceably and friendly disposed towards us, we were furnished with a most excellent assortment of well-prepared fireworks. So that nothing seemed to have been forgotten, or omitted, that might render our equipment as complete, as the nature of the service we were about to execute could be considered to demand. But as I have hitherto only pointed out in general terms the outline of the intended expedition; the various objects it proposed to embrace, and the end it was expected to answer, will be more clearly perceived by the perusal of the instructions under which I was to sail, and by which I

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was to govern my conduct; which will enable the reader to form a judgment, how far His Majesty's commands, during this voyage, have been properly carried into execution.

"By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great-Britain and Ireland, &c.

The KING having judged it expedient, that an expedition should be immediately undertaken for acquiring a more complete knowledge, than has yet been obtained, of the north-west coast of America; and, the sloop you command, together with the Chatham armed tender, (the Lieutenant commanding which, has been directed to follow your orders) having been equipped for that service; you are, in pursuance of His Majesty's pleasure, signified to us by Lord Grenville, one of His principal Secretaries of State, hereby required and directed, to proceed, without loss of time, with the said sloop and tender, to the Sandwich islands in the north pacific ocean, where you are to remain during the next winter; employing yourself very diligently in the examination and survey of the said islands; and, as soon as the weather shall be favorable, (which may be expected to be in february, or at latest in march, 1792) you are to repair to the north-west coast of America, for the purpose of acquiring a more complete knowledge of it, as above mentioned.

It having been agreed, by the late convention between His Majesty and the Catholic King, (a printed copy of which you will receive herewith) that the buildings and tracts of land, situated on the north-west coast above mentioned, or on islands adjacent thereto, of which the subjects of His Britannic Majesty were dispossessed about the month of april, 1789, by a Spanish officer, shall be restored to the said British

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subjects, the court of Spain has agreed to send orders, for that purpose, to its officers in that part of the world; but, as the particular specification of the parts to be restored may still require some further time, it is intended that the King's orders, for this purpose, shall be sent out to the Sandwich islands, by a vessel to be employed to carry thither a further store of provisions for the sloop and armed tender above mentioned, which it is meant shall sail from this country in time to reach those islands in the course of next winter.

If, therefore, in consequence of the arrangement to be made with the court of Spain, it should hereafter be determined that you should proceed, in the first instance, to Nootka, or elsewhere, in order to receive, from the Spanish officers, such lands or buildings as are to be restored to the British subjects; orders, to that effect, will be sent out by the vessel above mentioned. But, if no such orders should be received by you previous to the end of january, 1792, you are not to wait for them at the Sandwich islands, but to proceed, in such course as you may judge most expedient for the examination of the coast above mentioned, comprized between latitude 60° north and 30° north.

In which examination the principal objects which you are to keep in view, are,

1st, The acquiring accurate information with respect to the nature and extent of any water-communication which may tend, in any considerable degree, to facilitate an intercourse, for the purposes of commerce, between the north-west coast, and the country upon the opposite side of the continent, which are inhabited or occupied by His Majesty's subjects.

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2dly, The ascertaining, with as much precision as possible, then umber, extent, and situation of any settlements which have been made within the limits above mentioned, by any European nation, and the time when such settlement was first made.

With respect to the first object, it would be of great importance if it should be found that, by means of any considerable inlets of the sea, or even of large rivers, communicating with the lakes in the interior of the continent, such an intercourse, as hath been already mentioned, could be established; it will therefore be necessary, for the purpose of ascertaining this point, that the survey should be so conducted, as not only to ascertain the general line of the sea coast, but also the direction and extent of all such considerable inlets, whether made by arms of the sea, or by the mouths of large rivers, as may be likely to lead to, or facilitate, such communication as is above described.

This being the principal object of the examination, so far as relates to that part of the subject, it necessarily follows, that a considerable degree of discretion must be left, and is therefore left to you, as to the means of executing the service which His Majesty has in view; but, as far as any general instructions can here be given on the subject, it seems desirable that, in order to avoid any unnecessary loss of time, you should not, and are therefore hereby required and directed not to pursue any inlet or river further than it shall appear to be navigable by vessels of such burthen as might safely navigate the pacific ocean: but, as the navigation of such inlets or rivers, to the extent here stated, may possibly require that you should proceed up them further than it might be safe for the sloop you command to go, you are, in such case,

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to take the command of the armed tender in person, at all such times, and in such situations as you shall judge it necessary and expedient.

The particular course of the survey must depend on the different circumstances which may arise in the execution of a service of this nature; it is, however, proper that you should, and you are therefore hereby required and directed to pay a particular attention to the examination of the supposed straits of Juan de Fuca, said to be situated between 48° and 49° north latitude, and to lead to an opening through which the sloop Washington is reported to have passed in 1789, and to have come out again to the northward of Nootka. The discovery of a near communication between any such sea or strait, and any river running into, or from the lake of the woods, would be particularly useful.

If you should fail of discovering any such inlet, as is above mentioned, to the southward of Cook's river, there is the greatest probability that it will be sound that the said river rises in some of the lakes already known to the Canadian traders, and to the servants of the Hudson's bay company; which point it would, in that case, be material to ascertain; and you are, therefore, to endeavour to ascertain accordingly, with as much precision as the circumstances existing at the time may allow: but the discovery of any similar communication more to the southward (should any such exist) would be much more advantageous for the purposes of commerce, and should, therefore, be preferably attended to, and you are, therefore, to give it a preferable attention accordingly.

With respect to the second object above mentioned, it is probable that more particular instructions will be given you by the vessel to be

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sent to the Sandwich islands as aforesaid; but, if not, you are to be particularly careful in the execution of that, and every other part of the service with which you are entrusted, to avoid, with the utmost caution, the giving any ground of jealousy or complaint to the subjects of His Catholic Majesty; and, if you should fall in with any Spanish ships employed on any service similar to that which is hereby committed to you, you are to afford to the officer commanding such ships every possible degree of assistance and information, and to offer to him, that you, and he, should make to each other, reciprocally, a free and unreserved communication of all plans and charts of discoveries made by you and him in your respective voyages.

If, in the course of any part of this service, you, or the officers or the people under your command, should meet with the subjects or vessels of any other power or state, you and they are to treat them in the most friendly manner, and to be careful not to do any thing which may give occasion to any interruption of that peace which now happily subsists between His Majesty and all other powers.

The whole of the survey above mentioned (if carried on with a view to the objects before stated, without too minute and particular an examination of the detail of the different parts of the coast laid down by it) may, as it is understood, probably be completed in the summers of 1792 and 1793; and, in the intermediate winter, it will be proper for you to repair, and you are hereby required and directed to repair accordingly, to the Sandwich islands; and, during your stay there, you are to endeavour to complete any part which may be unfinished of your examination of those islands.

[page] xxii

After the conclusion of your survey in the summer of 1793, you are, if the state and circumstances of the sloop and tender under your command will admit of it, to return to England by Cape Horn, (for which the season will then probably be favorable;) repairing to Spithead, where you are to remain until you receive further order; and sending to our secretary an account of your arrival and proceedings.

It seems doubtful, at present, how far the time may admit of your making any particular examination of the western coast of South America; but, if it should be practicable, you are to begin such examination from the south point of the island of Chiloe, which is in about 44° south latitude; and you are, in that case, to direct your attention to ascertaining what is the most southern Spanish settlement on that coast, and what harbours there are south of that settlement.

In the execution of every part of this service, it is very material that you should use, and you are therefore hereby strictly charged to use every possible care to avoid disputes with the natives of any of the parts where you may touch, and to be particularly attentive to endeavour, by a judicious distribution of the presents, (which have been put on board the sloop and tender under your command, by order of Lord Grenville) and by all other means, to conciliate their friendship and confidence. Given under our hands the 8th of March, 1791."

"To

George Vancouver, Esq. commander of His Majesty's sloop the Discovery,

At Falmouth.

By command of their Lordships.

Ph. Stephens."

"Chatham.

Rd. Hopkins.

Hood.

J. T. Townshend."

[page] xxiii

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS.

"By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great-Britain and Ireland, &c.

Lieutenant Hergeft, commanding the Dædalus transport, (by whom you will receive this) being directed to put himself under your command, and to follow your orders for his further proceedings; you are hereby required and directed, to take him, and the said transport, under your command accordingly; receiving from her the provisions and stores intended for the use of the sloop you command, and the Chatham armed tender, or such part thereof as the said ship and tender shall be able to flow.

And whereas you will receive herewith a duplicate of a letter from Count Florida Blanca, to the Spanish officer commanding at Nootka, (together with a translation thereof) signifying His Catholic Majesty's orders to cause such officer as may be appointed on the part of His Britannic Majesty, to be put in possession of the buildings, and districts, or parcels of lands therein described, which were occupied by His Majesty's subjects in the month of april, 1789, agreeable to the first article of the late convention, (a copy of which has been sent to you) and to deliver up any persons in the service of British subjects who may have been detained in those parts; in case, therefore, you shall receive this at Nootka, you are to deliver to the Spanish officer, commanding at that port, the above-mentioned letter from Count Florida Blanca, and to receive from him, conformably thereto, on the part of His Britannic Majesty, possession of the buildings and districts, and parcels

3

[page] xxiv

of land, of which His Majesty's subjects were possessed at the above-mentioned period.

In case, however, this shall not find you at Nootka, when Lieutenant Hergest arrives there, but be delivered to you at the Sandwich islands, or elsewhere, and the said lieutenant shall not have then carried into execution the service above mentioned, (which in the event of his not falling in with you he is directed to do) you are immediately to proceed to Nootka, and to carry that service into execution as above directed, taking the said lieutenant and transport with you if you shall judge it necessary. But as they are intended afterwards to proceed to New South Wales, to be employed there, under the orders of Commodore Phillip, you are not to detain them at Nootka, the Sandwich islands, or elsewhere, longer than may be absolutely necessary, but to direct Lieutenant Hergest: to repair with the said transport to port Jackson, with such live stock, and other refreshments, as may be likely to be of use in the settlements there; and to touch at New Zealand in his way, from whence he is to use his best endeavours to take with him one or two flax-dressers, in order that the new settlers at port Jackson may, if possible, be properly instructed in the management of that valuable plant.

Previous, however, to your dispatching him to port Jackson, you are to consider whether, in case of your not being able to take on board the whole of the transport's cargo, any future supply of the articles of which it is composed, will be necessary to enable you to continue your intended survey; and, if so, you are to be careful to send notice thereof to Commodore Phillip, who will have directions, on the receipt of your application, to re-dispatch the transport, or to send such other ves-

[page] xxv

sel to you with the remainder of those supplies (as well as any others he may be able to furnish) to such rendezvous as you shall appoint.

And whereas Mr. Dundas has transmitted to us a sketch of the coast of North America, extending from Nootka down to the latitude of 47° 30", including the inlet or gulph of Juan de Fuca; and as from the declarations which have lately been made, there appears to be the strongest disposition, on the part of the Spanish court, that every assistance and information should be given to His Britannic Majesty's officers employed on that coast, with a view to the enabling them to carry their orders into execution; we send you the said sketch herewith, for your information and use, and do hereby require and direct you, to do every thing in your power to cultivate a good understanding with the officers and subjects of His Catholic Majesty who may fall in your way, in order that you may reap the good effects of this disposition of the Spanish court.

You are to take the utmost care in your power, on no account whatever, to touch at any port on the continent of America, to the southward of the latitude of 30° north, nor to the north of that part of South America, where, on your return home, you are directed to commence your intended survey; unless, from any accident, you shall find it absolutely necessary, for your immediate safety, to take shelter there: and, in case of such an event, to continue there no longer than your necessities require, in order that any complaint on the part of Spain on this point may, if possible, be prevented.

If, during your continuance on the American coast, you should meet with any of the Chinese who were employed by Mr. Meares and

VOL. I. d

[page] xxvi

his associates, or any of His Majesty's subjects. who may have been in captivity, you are to receive them on board the sloop you command, and to accommodate them in the best manner you may be able, until such time as opportunities may be found of sending them to the different places to which they may be desirous of being conveyed; victualling them during their continuance on board, in the same manner as the other persons on board the said sloop are victualled.

Given under our hands the 20th of august, 1791."

"To

George Vancouver, Esq. commander of His Majesty's sloop the Discovery.

By command of their Lordships.

Ph. Stephens."

"Chatham.

J. T. Townshend.

A. Gardner."

[page] xxvii

LETTER from COUNT FLORIDA BLANCA.

(Translated from the Spanish.)

"IN conformity to the first article of the convention of 28th october, 1790, between our court and that of London, (printed copies of which you will have already received, and of which another copy is here inclosed, in case the first have not come to hand) you will give directions that His Britannic Majesty's officer, who will deliver this letter, shall immediately be put into possession of the buildings and districts, or parcels of land, which were occupied by the subjects of that sovereign in april, 1789, as well in the port of Nootka, or of Saint Lawrence, as in the other, said to be called port Cox, and to be situated about sixteen leagues distant from the former to the southward; and that such parcels or districts of land, of which the English subjects were dispossessed, be restored to the said officer, in case the Spaniards should not have given them up.

You will also give orders, that if any individual in the service of British subjects, whether a Chinese, or of any other nation, should have been carried away and detained in those parts, such person shall be immediately delivered up to the above-mentioned officer.

I also communicate all this to the viceroy of New Spain by His Majesty's command, and by the same royal command I charge you with the most punctual and precise execution of this order.

May God preserve you many years.

(Signed)

Aranjuez, 12th may, 1791.

To the governor or commander of the port at Saint Lawrence".

"The Count Florida Blanca."

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[page] xxviii

"By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great-Britain and Ireland, &c.

IN addition to former orders, you are hereby required and directed, by all proper conveyances, to send to our secretary, for our information, accounts of your proceedings, and copies of the surveys and drawings you shall have made; and, upon your arrival in England, you are immediately to repair to this office, in order to lay before us a full account of your proceedings in the whole course of your voyage; taking care, before you leave the sloop, to demand from the officers, and petty-officers, the log-books, journals, drawings, &c. they may have kept, and to seal them up for our inspection; and enjoining them, and the whole crew, not to divulge where they have been until they shall have permission so to do: and you are to direct the lieutenant commanding the Chatham armed tender to do the same, with respect to the officers, petty-officers, and crew of that tender.

Given under our hands the 10th of august, 1791."

"To

George Vancouver, Esq. commander of His Majesty's sloop the Discovery.

By command of their Lordships.

Ph. Stephens,"

"Chatham.

J. T. Townshend.

A. Gardner."

[page] xxix

Amongst other objects demanding my attention, whilst engaged in carrying these orders into execution, no opportunity was neglected to remove, as far as I was capable, all such errors as had crept into the science of navigation, and to establish, in their place, such facts as would tend to facilitate the grand object of finding the longitude at sea; which now seems to be brought nearly to a certainty, by pursuing the lunar method, assisted by a good chronometer. On this, as well as some other subjects, it is highly probable, that great prolixity and repetition will be found in the following pages; it will, however, readily appear to the candid perusers of this voyage, that, as the primary design of the undertaking was to obtain useful knowledge, so it became an indispensable duty, on my part, to use my utmost exertions and abilities in doing justice to the original intention, by detailing the information that arose in the execution of it, in a way calculated to instruct, even though it should fail to entertain. And when the writer alleges, that from the age of thirteen, his whole life, to the commencement of this expedition, (fifteen months only excepted) has been devoted to constant employment in His Majesty's naval service, he feels, and with all possible humility, that he has some claims to the indulgence of a generous public; who, under such circumstances, will not expect to find elegance of diction, purity of style, or unexceptionable grammatical accuracy: but will be satisfied with "a plain unvarnished" relation, given with a rigid attention to the truth of such transactions and circumstances as appeared to be worthy of recording by a naval officer, whose greatest pride is to deserve the appellation of being zealous in the service of his king and country.

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Advertisement from the Editor.

AS a considerable delay has necessarily taken place in the publication of this work, in consequence of the decease of the late Captain Vancouver, it becomes of absolute necessity to give an accurate account of the state of the work at the period when his last fatal indisposition rendered him incapable of attending any more to business; left the melancholy event which has retarded its completion should tend to affect its authenticity in the public opinion.

The two first volumes, excepting the introduction, and as far as page 288 of the third and last volume, were printed; and Captain Vancouver had finished a laborious examination of the impression, and had compared it with the engraved charts and headlands of his discoveries, from the commencement of his survey in the year 1791, to the conclusion of it at the port of Valparaiso, on his return to England in the year 1795. He had also prepared the introduction, and a further part of the journal as far as page 408 of the last volume. The whole, therefore, of the important part of the work, which comprehends his geographical discoveries and improvements, is now presented to the public, exactly as it would have been had Captain Vancouver been still living. The notes which he had made on his journey from the port of Valparaiso to his arrival at St. Jago de Chili, the capital of that kingdom, were unfortunately lost; and I am indebted to Captain Puget for having assisted me with his observations on that occasion.

Ever since Captain Vancouver's last return to England, his health had been in a very debilitated state, and his constitution was evidently so much impaired by the arduous services in which, from his earliest youth, he had been constantly engaged*, that his friends dared to indulge but little hope that he would continue many years amongst them. Notwithstanding that it pleased the Divine Providence to spare his life until he had been able to revise and complete the account of the geographical part of his late Voyage of Discovery, a cir-

* The late Captain Vancouver was appointed to the Resolution by Captain Cook in the autumn of the year 1771, and on his return from that voyage round the world, he undertook to assist in the outfit and equipment of the Discovery, destined to accompany Captain Cook on his last voyage to the North pole, which was concluded in october, 1780. On the 9th of december following he was made a lieutenant into the Martin sloop; in this vessel he continued until he was removed into the Fame, one of Lord Rodney's fleet in the West-Indies, where he remained until the middle of the year 1783. In the year 1784 he was appointed to, and failed in the Europa to Jamaica, on which station he continued until her return to England in September 1789. On the 1 st of January, 1790, he was appointed to the Discovery, but soon afterwards was removed to the Courageux: here he remained until december, 1790, when he was made master and commander, and appointed to the Discovery. In august, 179, he: was, without solicitation, promoted to the rank of post captain, and was paid off on the conclusion of his last voyage in november, 1795. After this period he was constantly employed, until within a few weeks of his decease, in may, 1798, in preparing the following journal for publication.

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cumstance which must ever be regarded as most fortunate by all the friends of science, and especially by those professional persons who may hereafter be likely to follow him, through the intricate labyrinth which he has so minutely explored; yet it will ever be a consideration of much regret, that he did not survive to perfect the narrative of his labours. He had made many curious observations on the natural history of the several countries he had visited, and on the manners, customs, laws and religion, of the various people with whom he had met, or amongst whom he had occasionally resided; but had been induced to postpone these miscellaneous matters, left the regular diary of the voyage should be interrupted by the introduction of such desultory observations. These he had intended to present in the form of a supplementary or concluding chapter, but was prevented from so doing by the unfortunate event of his illness.

Most of the papers, which contain these interesting particulars, are too concise and too unconnected for me to attempt any arrangement of them, or to submit them to the reader without hazarding Captain Vancouver's judgment as an observer, or his reputation as a narrator, rigidly devoted to the truth. But as some of the notes, which he made upon the spot, are of too valuable a nature to be intirely lost, I shall venture to subjoin them to the History of the Voyage, as nearly as possible in his own words, without attempting any such arrangement of them, as might tend to diminish their authenticity, or bring into doubt that scrupulous veracity from which Captain Vancouver never departed.

The whole narrative of the Voyage of Discovery having been brought to its conclusion at Valparaiso, by Captain Vancouver himself, there only remains for me to add, that in preparing for the press the small remainder of his journal, comprehending the passage round Cape Horn to St. Helena, and from thence to England, I have strictly adhered to the rough documents before me; but as no new incidents occurred in this part of the voyage, and as the insertion of log-book minutes, over a space which is now so frequently traversed, cannot either be useful or entertaining, I have endeavoured to compress this portion of the journal into as few pages as possible.

In performing this painful task, I have had severe and ample cause to lament the melancholy office to which I have been compelled, by the loss of him whose early departure from this life has deprived His Majesty of an active and able officer, truth and science of a steady supporter, society of an uniformly valuable member, and in addition to the feelings of many who live to regret the loss of a sincere friend, I have to deplore that of a most affectionate brother.

JOHN VANCOUVER.

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CONTENTS

OF THE

FIRST VOLUME.

INTRODUCTION.

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

BOOK THE FIRST.

TRANSACTIONS FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE EXPEDITION, UNTIL OUR DEPARTURE FROM OTAHEITE.

CHAPTER I.
Equipment of the DISCOVERY and the CHATHAM—Departure from Falmouth—Visit and transactions at Teneriffe—Occurrences and observations during the passage to the Cape of Good Hope—Transactions there, and departure thence, Page 1
CHAPTER II.
Departure from False Bay—Death of Neil Coil by the flux—Proceed towards the coast of New Holland—Discover King George the Third's Sound—Transactions there—Leave King George the Third's Sound—Departure from the south-west coast of New Holland, 21

A

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CHAPTER III.
Remarks on the country and productions on part of the south-west coast of New Holland—Extraordinary devastation by fire—Astronomical and nautical observations, 45
CHAPTER IV.
Passage from the south-west coast of New Holland—Pass Van Dieman's land—Arrival in Dusky bay, New Zealand—Violent storms—Leave Dusky bay—A violent storm—Much water found in the ship—Part company with the Chatham—Discover the Snares—Proceed towards Otaheite—Arrive and join the Chatham there, 58
CHAPTER V.
Mr. Broughton's narrative, from the time of his separation, to his being joined by the Discovery at Otaheite; with some account of Chatham Island, and other islands discovered on his passage, 82
CHAPTER VI.
Visit Otoo—Arrival of Pomurrey and Matooara Mahow—Arrival of Taow, Pomurrey's father—Interview between Taow and his sons—Submission of Taow to Otoo—Entertainments at the encampment—Visit of Poatatow—Death of Mahow—Excursion to Oparre, 98
CHAPTER VII.
Two natives punished for theft—Obsequies of Mahow—Several articles stolen—Measures for their recovery—Towereroo the Sandwich islander absconds—Brought back by Pomurrey—Sail for Malavai bay—Character of Pomurrey—His wives—Changes in the government of Otaheite—Astronomical and nautical observations, 123

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BOOK THE SECOND.

VISIT THE SANDWICH ISLANDS; PROCEED TO SURVEY THE COAST OF NEW ALBION; PASS THROUGH AN INLAND NAVIGATION; TRANSACTIONS AT NOOTKA; ARRIVE AT PORT ST. FRANCISCO.

CHAPTER I.
Passage to the Sandwich Islands—Arrive off Owhyhee—Visit from Tianna and other chiefs—Leave Towereroo at Owhyhee—Proceed to leeward—Anchor in Whyteete bay in Woahoo—Arrival at Attowai, 151
CHAPTER II.
Transactions at Attowai—The prince and regent visit the ships—Fidelity of the natives—Observations on the changes in the several governments of the Sandwich islands—Commercial pursuits of the Americans, 169
CHAPTER III.
Passage to the coast of America—Find the main-mast sprung—See the land of New Albion—Proceed along the coast—Fall in with an American vessel—Enter the supposed straits of De Fuca—Anchor there, 191
CHAPTER IV.
Proceed up the Straits—Anchor under New Dungeness—Remarks on the coast of New Albion—Arrive in port Discovery—Transactions there—Boat excursion—Quit port Discovery—Astronomical and nautical observations, 220
CHAPTER V.
Description of port Discovery and the adjacent country—Its inhabitants—Method of depositing the dead—Conjectures relative to the apparent depopulation of the country, 248

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CHAPTER VI.
Enter Admiralty inlet—Anchor off Restoration point—Visit an Indian village—Account of several boat excursions—Proceed to another part of inlet—Take possession of the country, 258
CHAPTER VII.
Quit Admiralty inlet and proceed to the northward—Anchor in Birch bay—Prosecute the survey in the boats—Meet two Spanish vessels—Astronomical and nautical observations, 290
CHAPTER VIII.
The vessels continue their route to the northward—Anchor in Desolation sound—The boats dispatched on surveying parties—Discover a passage to sea—Quit Desolation sound—Pass through Johnstone's straits, 317
CHAPTER IX.
Pass through Broughton's archipelago, to pursue the continental shore—The vessels get aground—Enter Fitzhugh's sound—Reasons for quitting the coast, and proceeding to Nootka, 352
CHAPTER X.
Passage from Fitzhugh's sound to Nootka—Arrival in Friendly Cove—Transactions there, particularly those respecting the cession of Nootka—Remarks on the commerce of North-west America—Astronomical observations, 382
CHAPTER XI.
Depart from Nootka sound—Proceed to the southward along the coast—The Dædalus enters Gray's harbour—The Chatham enters Columbia river—Arrival of the Discovery at port St. Francisco, 414

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A

LIST OF

THE PLATES

CONTAINED IN THE FIRST VOLUME.

WITH

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.

Plate To face Page
I. A Deserted Indian village in King George the Third's sound, New Holland, 54
II. Four remarkable supported poles, in port Townshend, in the gulf of Georgia, 234
III. Mount Rainier, from the south part of Admiralty inlet, bearing S. 55 E. 268
IV. Village of the friendly Indians, at the entrance of Bute's canal, 326
V. Cheslakees village, in Johnstone's straits, 346
VI. The Discovery on the rocks in Queen Charlotte's sound, 364
VII. Friendly cove, Nootka sound. The line A, B, C, containing the districts and territories offered on the part of His Catholic Majesty to be ceded to the crown of Great Britain. 467

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A LIST OF

THE PLATES

CONTAINED IN THE FOLIO VOLUME.

No.
1. A SURVEY of part of the south west coast of New Holland, &c.
2. Views of parts of the south west coast of New Holland, with the islands of Oparre and the Snares.
3. Survey of part of the north west coast of America, from latitude 38° 15′ north, longitude 24° 0′ east, to latitude 45° 45′ north, longitude 232° east.
4. Views of parts of the coast of North West America.
5. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 45° 30′ north, longitude 238° 30′ east, to latitude 52° 15′ north, longitude 230° 30′ east.
6. Views of parts of the coast of North West America.
7. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 51° 45′ north, longitude 233° 30′ east, to latitude 57° 30′ north, longitude 225° 30′ east.
8. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 38° 30′ north, longitude 237° 0′ east, to latitude 30° 0′ north, longitude 245° 0′ east.
9. Views of parts of the coast of North West America.
10. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 56° 15′ north, longitude 204° 30′ east, to latitude 61° 30′ north, longitude 211° 30′ east.
11. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 58° 30′ north, longitude 219° 30′ east, to latitude 62° 0′ north, longitude 210° 0′ east.
12. Survey of part of the coast of North West America, from latitude 56° 0′ north, longitude 227° 0′ east, to latitude 61° 0′ north, longitude 219° 0′ east.
13. Views of headlands and islands on the coasts of North West and South America.
14. A general chart of part of the coast of North West America.
15. A survey of the Sandwich islands.
16. Views of the Sandwich and other islands.

[page 1]

A

VOYAGE

TO

THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,

AND

ROUND THE WORLD.

BOOK THE FIRST.

Transactions from the commencement of the expedition, until our departure from Otaheite.

CHAPTER I.

Equipment of the DISCOVERY and the CHATHAM—Departure from Falmouth—Visit and transactions at Teneriffe—Occurrences and observations during the passage to the Cape of Good Hope—Transactions there and departure thence.

1790. December. Wednes.15. Thursday 16.

ON the 15th of December, 1790, I had the honor of receiving my commission as commander of His Majesty's sloop the Discovery, then lying at Deptford, where, the next morning, I joined her, and began entering men.

1791. January, Thursday 6.

Lieutenant William Robert Broughton having been selected as a proper officer to command the Chatham, he was accordingly appointed; but the repairs she demanded prevented her equipment keeping pace with that of the Discovery; which in most respects being completed by thursday the 6th of january, 1791, the fails were bent, and the ship got in readiness to

VOL. I. B

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1791, January. Friday 7. Wednes. 26.

proceed down the river. With a favorable wind on the following day we failed, and anchored in Long Reach about five in the evening. Although this trial of the ship may appear very insignificant, yet as she had never been under fail, it was not made without some anxiety. The construction of her upper works, for the sake of adding to the comfort of the accommodations, differing materially from the general fashion, produced an unsightly appearance; and gave rise to various opinions unfavorable to her qualities as a sea-boat; for which reason it was natural to pay the minutest attention to her steering, and other properties when in motion; and we obtained in the course of this short expedition, the pleasing prospect of her proving handy, and in all other respects a very comfortable vessel. Various necessary occupations detained us in Long Reach until the 26th, when, having taken on board all our ordnance stores, and such things as were wanted from Deptford dock yard, we proceeded down the river on our way to Portsmouth. My orders for this purpose were accompanied by another, to receive on board and convey to his native country Towraro, an Indian, from one of the Sandwich Islands, who had been brought from thence by some of the north west American traders in july 1789. This man had lived, whilst in England, in great obscurity, and did hot seem in the least to have benefited by his residence in this country.

Sunday 30. February. Thursday 3. Saturday 5.

Unfavorable winds prevented our reaching the Downs until the 30th; where they still continued, and, being attended with very boisterous weather, detained us until the 3d of february; when, with a strong gale from the northward, we proceeded down channel. About noon we passed the South Foreland, and had the misfortune to lose John Brown, who fell overboard, and was drowned. He was one of the Carpenter's mates, an exceedingly good man, and very much regretted. About noon on the 5th we anchored at Spithead, where Rear-Admiral Goodall's flag was flying on board His Majesty's ship Vanguard, in company with twelve sail of the line, and several frigates.

Some defects in the ship's head were already evident, as the bumkins, and a considerable part of the head were now washed away. These repairs, with such other duties as were necessary, I gave orders to have executed; and my presence being required in London, I repaired

[page] 3

1791. February. Sunday 27.

thither; where I remained until the 27th, when I returned to Portsmouth, with orders to proceed to Falmouth.

On former voyages of this description, it had been customary to pay the officers and ship's company, the wages that had become due whilst they had been employed in the equipment of the vessels, which in general had occupied six months or upwards; enabling them by such means more effectually to provide themselves with those comforts which such long and remote services ever demand. But as a similar payment to the crews of the Discovery and Chatham, (whose complements were now complete) for the short time they had been in pay, would have been of little assistance; the Lords of the Admiralty, at my solicitation, had the goodness to grant them three months pay in advance; which was accordingly received free of all deductions.

March. Tuesday 1.

I have already mentioned that the Navy Board had supplied me with an assortment of mathematical instruments; and the Board of Longitude, in compliance with the wishes of the Admiralty, provided in addition two chronometers; one made by the late eminent Mr. Kendall, (the excellence of which had been manifested on board the Discovery during Captain Cook's last voyage, and which had lately been cleaned and put into order by its very worthy and ingenious maker, a short time before his decease;) the other lately made by Mr. Arnold. These had both been deposited at the observatory of the Portsmouth academy, for the purpose of finding their respective errors, and for ascertaining their rate of going. The former was delivered to me, with such observations as had been made to that effect: whence it appeared to be fast of mean time at Greenwich, on the 1st of March at noon, 1′ 30″ 18″, and to be gaining on mean time at the rate of 6″ 12″ per day. The latter was directed to be put on board the Chatham, which vessel had now arrived from the river.

Thursday 3. Friday 4. Saturday 12.

Having completely finished our business with the dock-yard on thursday evening, we dropped down to St. Helen's, and the next morning proceeded down channel, leaving the Chatham behind, not as yet quite ready to accompany us; in our way we stopped at Guernsey, and on the 12th arrived at Falmouth, where I was to wait the arrival of the Chatham, and to receive my final instructions for the prosecution of the

B 2

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1791. March. Sunday 20. Thursday 31.

voyage. An Admiralty messenger presented me with the latter on sunday the 20th; but the Chatham did not arrive until the 31st, when Lieutenant Broughton, who had orders to put himself under my command, received such signals and instructions as were necessary on this occasion. He informed me, that they had experienced a very boisterous passage from Spithead, and that the Chatham had proved so very crank, as, in some instances, to occasion considerable alarm. The length of time I had already waited for her arrival rendered this intelligence very unpleasant; as, demanding immediate attention, it would cause further delay, which I much wished to avoid; especially as a favorable gale for clearing the channel now prevailed. The apprehension of further detention by contrary winds, should we lose the present opportunity by breaking up the Chatham's hold for the reception of more ballast, induced me to resort to another expedient, that of lending her all our shot, which when stowed amidships as low down as possible, and every weight removed from above, we flattered ourselves would be the means of affording a temporary relief to this inconvenience.

April. Friday 1. Saturday 2.

A gentle breeze from the N.E. at day dawn on friday the 1st: of april, enabled us to sail out of Carrack road, in company with the Chatham; and at midnight we took a long farewell of our native shores. The Lizard lights bore by compass N.N.W.½ w. about eight leagues distant; and the wind being in the western quarter, we stood to the southward. Towards the morning of the 2d, on the wind's shifting to the south, we stood to the westward, clear of the English channel; with minds, it may easily be conceived, not entirely free from serious and contemplative reflections. The remote and barbarous regions, which were now destined, for some years, to be our transitory places of abode, were not likely to afford us any means of communicating with our native soil, our families, our friends or favorites, whom we were now leaving far behind; and to augment these painful reflections, His Majesty's proclamation had arrived at Falmouth, the evening prior to our departure, offering bounties for manning the fleet; several sail of the line were put into commission, and flag officers appointed to different commands: these were circumstances similar to those under which, in august, 1776, I had failed

[page] 5

1701. April.

from England in the Discovery, commanded by Captain Clerke, on a voyage which in its object nearly resembled the expedition we were now about to undertake. This very unexpected armament could not be regarded without causing various opinions in those who, from day to day, would have opportunities of noticing the several measures inclining to war or peace; but to us, destined, as it were, to a long and remote exile, and precluded, for an indefinite period of time, from all chance of becoming acquainted with its result, it was the source of inexpressible solicitude, and our feelings on the occasion may be better conceived than described.

Sunday 3.

Having no particular route to the pacific ocean pointed out in my instructions, and being left at perfect liberty to pursue that which appeared the most eligible, I did not hesitate to prefer the passage by way of the cape of Good Hope, intending to visit the Madeiras, for the purpose of procuring wine and refreshments. Our course was accordingly so directed against winds very unfavorable to our wishes. At noon on the 3d we reached the latitude of 48° 48′ north, longitude, by the chronometer, 6° 55′ west; where the cloudy weather preventing our making the necessary observations on the sun eclipsed produced no small degree of concern; as with the late improvement of applying deep magnifying powers to the telescopes of sextants, the observations on solar eclipses are rendered very easy to be made at sea; and although we were not fortunate enough on this occasion to procure such, at the interesting periods of the eclipse, as would have put this improvement fully to the test, yet it was evident that these observations to persons not much accustomed to astronomical pursuits would be rendered plain and easy, by the reflected image of the sun being brought down to the horizon; so that the beginning and the end of the eclipse would be ascertained by the help of these deep magnifying telescopes with great precision; and probably it may not be unworthy the attention of the Board of Longitude to contrive, and cause such calculations to be published, as would tend to render these observations generally useful in the various parts of the globe, without the tedious process of calculating eclipses. The wind, continuing in the southern quarter, rendered our progress slow; the weather, however,

[page] 6

1791. April. Tuesday 12.

being clear, afforded us employment in taking some good lunar observations; which, reduced to the 12th at noon, gave the mean result of four sets, taken by me, 12° 24′ west longitude; four sets taken by Mr. Whidbey, 12° 30′; the chronometer at the same time shewing 12° 9′; and as I considered the latter to be nearest the truth, the lunar observations appeared to be 15′ to 21′ too far to the westward. The longitude, by dead reckoning, 13° 22′, and the latitude 44° 22′ north. The error in reckoning amounting almost to a degree, seemed most likely to have been occasioned by our not having made sufficient allowance for the variation of the compass on our first sailing, as, instead of allowing from 22° to 25°, which was what we esteemed the variation, our observations for ascertaining this fact, when the ship was sufficiently steady, shewed the variation to be 28° and 29° ½ westwardly. These opportunities, however, had not occurred so frequently as I could have wished, owing to a constant irregular swell that had accompanied us since leaving the land, and caused so much motion and pitching, that the whole head railings, bumkins, &c. were again washed away.

Saturday 16.

In làtitude 42° 34′ north, longitude 12° 31′ west, the variation of the compass, by the mean result of six sets of observations taken by three compasses differing from 25° 57′ to 27° 35′, was observed to be 26° 29′ westwardly. The current was found to set in a direction F.N.E.. at the rate of a quarter of a mile per hour. The whole of the day being perfectly calm, with remarkably fine weather, induced me to embrace the opportunity of unbending all our sails which wanted alteration, and to bend an entire new suit; these I caused to be soaked over board for some hours, that the sea water might dissolve the size used in making the canvass, and by that means act as a preventive against the mildew in hot rainy weather. This process might probably be sound useful in the operation of bleaching.

21.

On our departure from England, I did not intend using any antiseptic provisions, until the refreshments which we might be enabled to procure at the Madeiras should be exhausted: but light baffling winds, together with the crank situation and bad sailing of the Chatham, having so retarded our progress, that, by the 21st, we were advanced no further

[page] 7

1791. April.

than the latitude of 35° 7′ north, longitude 14° 40′ west: four krout and portable broth had, for some days, been served on board each of the vessels; the store rooms had been cleared, cleaned, and washed with vinegar, and the ship had been smoked with gunpowder mixed with vinegar. As I had ever considered fire the most likely and efficacious means to keep up a constant circulation of fresh and pure air throughout a ship; in the sore part of every day good fires were burning between decks, and in the well. Both decks were kept clean, and as dry as possible, and not withstanding the weather was hot, and the smoke and heat thence arising was considered as inconvenient and disagreeable, yet I was confident that a due attention to this particular, and not washing too frequently below, were indispensable precautions, and would be productive of the most salubrious and happy effects in preserving the health and lives of our people. These preventive measures becoming the standing orders of the Discovery, it will be unnecessary hereafter to repeat that they were regularly enforced, as they were observed throughout the voyage with the strictest attention. It may not, however, on this subject, be improper to remark that if instead of biscuit, seamen were provided with fresh soft bread, which can easily be made very good at sea, and a large proportion of wholesome water, where the nature of the services will admit of such a supply, they would add greatly to the preservation of that most valuable of all blessings, health.

Saturday 23. Sunday 24. Monday 25.

The evening of the 23d, being remarkably fine and serene, brought us in sight of the island Porto Sancto, bearing by compass S.W.½W. 20 leagues distant: the next afternoon we passed its meridian, when the chronometer shewing its longitude to be 16° 24′ 15″, varying only one minute to the westward of the true longitude of that island, proved itself to be going very well. As Madeira was our object, every effort was exerted to gain Funchal Road, until the evening of the 25th, when the wind becoming excessively variable, and the weather gloomy and unsettled, that station seemed ineligible for executing the service of which the Chatham stood in need; namely, the breaking up her hold, for the purpose of receiving a large portion of ballast. Considering therefore the roadstead of Sta Cruz as better calculated for this business,

[page] 8

1791. April. Tuesday 26.

we proceeded towards Teneriffe. The wind which had been generally from the west, veered round by the north, as we advanced to the southward, and settled in the N.E. trade, accompanied with fine pleasant weather, which, on the 26th, in latitude 30° 54′ north, afforded me an opportunity of obtaining several sets of lunar distances with the different sextants in the ship. These were twelve in number, of the following eminent makers in London, (viz.) Ramsden, Dollond, Troughton, Adams, and Gilbert, though the greater number were made by Mr. Ramsden. They all agreed exceedingly well together, and their mean result shewed the longitude to be 16° 21′ 32″; the chronometer made the longitude 16° 31′ 15″ west; and as there could be no doubt of the latter being nearest the truth, the result of the lunar observations, by the several sextants, appeared to be 9′ 43″ too far to the eastward. On the other side of the moon, my lunar observations were 15′ to the west of the true, or nearly the true, longitude, as was proved on our making the Madeiras. This evinces the accuracy with which these observations are in general capable of being made with good instruments, and by a careful observer.

Thursday 28.

In the morning of the 28th, the pie of Teneriffe was seen bearing by compass S.W. about sixteen leagues distant; and, in the evening, as we approached the roadstead of Sta Cruz, we were met by the master attendant, who placed the ship in what, he said, he conceived the best birth in the roadstead, and the Chatham in our immediate neighbourhood.

When the ship was secured, an officer was sent to inform the governor of our arrival, and to solicit his permission to take on board such wine, and refreshments as we required; but having understood that he had waved a return of salute to some of His Majesty's ships that had lately visited Teneriffe; I did not choose to risk a resusal, however polite, to comply with this compliment. The officer was civilly received; and the contractor was, the next morning, directed to supply the different articles of which we stood in need.

Friday 29.

Accompanied by Mr. Broughton, Mr. Menzies, and some of the other officers, on friday forenoon, I waited on his excellency Sen Don Antonio Guitierres, the governor general of the Canaries, who then resided

[page] 9

1791. May. Sunday 1.

in the city of Sta Cruz. His excellency received us with the politeness usual on these occasions, and assured us of his readiness to afford us every assistance; but apologized that the poverty of the country prevented his inviting us to his table. Attended by the same party, on sunday I visited the city of Lagoona, and after satisfying our curiosity with its external appearance, we returned to Sta Cruz, and dined with Mr. Rhoney, an Irish gentleman, to whose hospitality we were greatly indebted. Had we not fortunately met with him immediately on our landing, we should have been much inconvenienced, as there did not appear another person on the island who was inclinable to offer us shelter from the scorching rays of the sun, or to afford us the smallest refreshment.

Thursday 5.

We had the mortification, this morning, of finding the small bower cable cut through nearly in the middle, which seemed to have been occasioned by an anchor lying at the bottom. The loss of an anchor in a situation where no other could be procured, was a matter of serious concern; no pains were spared to regain it until the afternoon of the 5th, when all our exertions proved ineffectual; and being apprehensive that other lost anchors might, be in its vicinity, we weighed, went further out, and again anchored in 30 fathoms water on a soft dark oozy bottom intermixed with small white shells, having the northernmost church steeple in a line with the center of the jetty, bearing by compass N. 48 w. and the southernmost sort s. 71 w. about three quarters of a mile from the town. This anchorage appeared to be far preferable to our former situation, being nearly as convenient to the landing place, without the hazard of damaging the cables by anchors which small vessels might have lost nearer in shore; and which is the only danger to be apprehended here, as the bottom is good holding ground, and, to all appearance, perfectly free from rocks.

Saturday 7.

The surf that had beaten with great violence on the shores for some days past, and for sheltering against which the pier of Sta Cruz is but ill contrived, had much retarded the Chatham's business of taking on board shingle ballast, and prevented the completion of that object until late on saturday night, when we put to sea, and directed our course to the southward.

The ballast which the Chatham had now taken on board certainly pre-

VOL. I. C

[page] 10

1791. May.

vented her being so very crank, but it did not seem to have contributed to her sailing, as the Discovery still preserved a great superiority in that respect.

Not having supposed we should have been so long detained at Teneriffe, I took no steps for making astronomical observations on shore; those taken on board shewed the longitude by the chronometer to be 16° 17′ 5″, only 50″ to the westward of the true longitude, as laid down in the requisite tables: the latitude by our observations was 28° 28′ 38″, and the variation, by the mean result of all our cards and compasses, was 16° 38′, differing from 15° 58′ to 17° 17′ westwardly.

For the information of those who may be induced to visit Teneriffe at this season of the year with the hope of procuring refreshments, I must remark, that we found the wine, water, and beef exceedingly good, and were induced to take some days supply of the latter to sea; but fruit, vegetables, poultry, and all kinds of live stock were very indifferent, and most extravagantly expensive.

Sunday 8.

Towards noon of the 8th, we lost sight of the Canaries. The trade wind blew a pleasant gale, the sea was smooth, and the weather, being sine, enabled us to make some excellent lunar observations; those I took shewed the longitude to be 16° 52′ 36″: those taken by Mr. Whidbey 16° 52′ 30″; and the chronometer shewed 16° 47′ 45″. The latitude, at this time, was 27° 5′ north; and the variation, by three compasses differing from 15° 10′ to 18° 51′, was 17° 33′ 40″ westwardly.

Saturday 14. Wednesday 18.

Our course from the Canaries was directed to the westward of the cape De Verds, which we gained sight of and passed on the sorenoon of the 14th. The N.W. extremity of the stand of St. Antonio appeared, by our observations, to be situated in 17° 10′ north latitude, and 25° 3′ 22″ west longitude; the variation of the compass 12° 32′ 15″ westwardly. The fresh beef that we had brought from Teneriffe being exhausted, on the 18th, portable broth and four krout were again served to the ship's crews; at this time we had reached the latitude of 9° 35′ north, longitude 23° 27′ west, when the weather, which had been pleasant and attended with a fresh gale from the N. E. very materially altered: the wind slackened and veered round to the north, and the atmosphere, though not cloudy, was encumbered with a bright haze nearly approaching to a fog but without

[page] 11

1791. May. Saturday 21. Tuesday 24. Friday 27.

the least dampness or humidity. Through this medium the heavenly bodies were sufficiently visible whilst terrestrial objects were only discernible at small distances. This very singular appearance continued a few days until the 21st, when, in latitude 6° 20′ north, and longitude 22° 40′ west, the northerly breeze died away. the dense atmosphere disappeared, and they were succeeded by calm, cloudy, hot weather, the thermometer standing from 80° to 83°, attended with some heavy showers of rain and gusts of wind in various directions, though generally from the eastern quarter between N.E. and south. Our progress, with this kind of weather, was slow until the 24th, when, in latitude 4° 25′ north, longitude 21° 36′ west, we seemed to have passed the line of those unpleasant and frequently unhealthy regions. The steadiness of the gentle gale, and the serenity of the weather indicated our having reached the S.E. trade; these conjectures were soon established by the wind gradually increasing, so that, about midnight on the 27th, we crossed the equator in 25° 15′ west longitude. The variation to this point had gradually, though not very regularly, decreased to about 9° westwardly; and the lunar observations, lately taken, had corresponded within a few minutes with the longitude shewn by the chronometer.

Crossing the equator so far to the westward has been frequently objected to, as being liable to entangle ships with the coast of Brazil. I am, however, of a different opinion, and conceive many advantages are derived by thus crossing the line such as, pursuing a track destitute of those calms and heavy rains, which are ever attendant on a more eastwardly route. By every information I have been enabled to collect, it does not appear that much is to be gained in point of distance by crossing the equator in a more eastwardly longitude; since it seems that vessels which have pursued their southerly course to cross the line under the 10th, 15th, or 20th meridian of west longitude, have, by the trade wind blowing there in a more southerly direction, been driven equally as sar west, to the 25th, 26th, and 27th degrees of west longitude before they have been enabled to gain the variable winds, without the benefit of a constant breeze and fair weather, which with the very little interruption between the 21st and 24th, was experienced during this passage.

C 2

[page] 12

1791. June. Thursday 9.

From the equator, with a brisk trade wind, we steered with a full sail and flowing sheet; which by the 1st of june brought us to the latitude of 7° 52′ south, longitude 29° 7′ west; whence we ceased stretching further to the westward, and made a course good a few degrees to the eastward of south; so that on the 9th we had reached the latitude of 19° 47′ south, longitude 27° 27′ west, approaching to the parallel of the islands Trinadada and Martin Vas. The wind now permitted our sheering well to the eastward of south; but lestan error should have existed in our longitude, or in that of those islands, I directed the Chatham to increase her distance from us by holding a south course, for the purpose of gaining a view of that land; by sun-set we were in the latitude of 20′ 9′ south, the parallel of those islands, but saw nothing of them. The longitude of the former is stated to be 28° 50′, that of the latter 28°,34′ west; allowing their longitude, and that of the ship, to have been accurately ascertained, we passed them at the distance of 24 and 19 leagues.

Sunday 12. Tuesday 28.

On the 12th we crossed the southern tropic in 25° 18′ west longitude: the variation of the compass had now gradually decreased to 4° 30′ westwardly, and having lately taken many very good lunar distances of the sun and stars on different sides of the moon, I assumed their mean result as the true longitude, or nearly so; by which, the observations for the longitude, according to the chronometer, appeared to be 14′ 25″ too far to the eastward; whence it should appear, that it was not gaining quite so much as had been allowed in consequence of its rate, as ascertained at Portsmouth. After crossing the tropic of Cancer, the wind became very variable, as well in point of strength as in direction, so that on the 28th we had only advanced to the latitude of 31° 56′ south, longitude 4° 18′ west.

The weather was in general very pleasant: and the Chatham, to our great mortification, continued to fail equally slow in light as in fresh gales, which materially affected the progress of our voyage; the object of which was of such a nature that it would allow of no opportunity being passed by, that, with propriety, could be embraced for the advancement of geography and navigation; and as Captain Cook's chart of the Sandwich islands presented little field for any improvement that could occupy the several winters we were likely to pass in their vicinity, I resolved in our

[page] 13

1791. July.

way to the pacific ocean to visit the S.W. part of New Holland, and endeavour to acquire some information of that unknown, though interesting country. Having much business to perform at the cape of Good Hope in the carpenter's department, it became expedient, for the carrying into execution the whole of my plan, that no time should be lost: particularly as our passage from England had already exceeded the limits of my expectations These reasons induced me to make the best of our way in the Discovery to the cape of Good Hope, and should the Chatham be able to keep up with us, she was directed so to do; if otherways, Mr. Broughton was provided with sufficient instructions.

Friday 14. Tuesday 5. Thursday 7. Friday 8.

The wind was light and variable, until the 1st july, in latitude 33° 54′ south, longitude 58′ 40″ west, it blew a sine gale from the N.N.E. attended with pleasant weather; the Chatham until this evening remained in sight, but in the morning was not within the limits of our horizon. As we approached the African shore the weather became very unsettled, with sudden transitions from calms to heavy gales, attended with much thunder, lightning, and a heavy swell from the westward and S.W. One of these gales, on the 5th, reduced us for a few hours to our courses. The wind became southwardly with pleasant weather on the 7th, when a strange sail was descried to the N. E. holding a course, as if intending to pass the Cape, and some of us thinking the sea was discoloured, we tried for soundings, but sound no bottom with 140 fathoms of line. After passing the 27° of south latitude, many oceanic birds were our constant companions, consisting of three kinds of albatrosses, the quebrantahuessos, pintadoes, the sooty, the black, and small blue petrels, with some few other small birds of the same tribe; amongst which were but few of the storm petrel, which in these regions are generally numerous. Most of these, by the 7th, had disappeared, and, in their place, were seen the blue petrel of the larger sort, though comparatively in small numbers; at noon the observed latitude was 35° 13′ south, longitude 14° east. The wind blew a strong gale from W. S. W. in the afternoon of the 8th, when judging the cape of Good Hope to bear from us N. 66 E. true, distant 18 leagues, we experienced, for the space of about seven miles, a most extraordinary agitation in the sea, comparable only to a large cauldron of

[page] 14

1791. July. Saturday 9.

boiling water; this was supposed to be the effect of two contending currents, and for that reason I did not try soundings. I was also particularly anxious to gain sight of the land, which, in the event of the chronometer proving correct, there was great probability of doing before dark; but not seeing it we stood on till ten in the evening; when, by our lunar observations, supposing the Cape land to be about eight leagues distant, we hauled to the wind, and plied in order to preserve our then situation until morning. At day light the Cape was in sight, bearing cast by compass, eight leagues distant. This instance will, I trust, be not the only one I shall be able to adduce, to prove the utility of the lunar method of sinding the longitude, and the very great importance that such information must be of to every sea officer.

At this season of the year, the boisterous weather and the prevailing winds from the N.W. rendering Table Bay not only excessively unpleasant but insecure, our course was directed to False Bay. At noon, the observed latitude was 34° 26′ south, the cape of Good Hope then bearing E.N.E. 5 or 6 miles distant. This promontory, and the dangerous rocks that lie in its neighbourhood, we passed and stood into False Bay, where in the evening, the weather salling calm, we anchored in 40 sathoms water; the Cape bearing west by compass, 10 miles distant; Simon's Bay N.N.W. and the False Cape S.E. in this situation the chronometer shewed the longitude to be 18° 52′ 45″, making an error, or variation in its rate of going, as ascertained at Portsmouth, of 18′ 30″ equal to 1′ 14″ of time since the first day of March; which will, without doubt, be received and considered as being very correct; it also corresponded with my observations, and what on that subject I had noticed on the 12th of june.

Our passage through the atlantic ocean being thus accomplished, it becomes requisite, in compliance with the method proposed in the introduction for correcting the errors of navigation, to have some retrospect to this passage, especially since passing the Cape de Verd islands.

From the island of St. Antonio, until we had crossed the latitude of cape St. Augustine, we were materially affected by currents; and between the latitude of 6° north and the equator, strong riplings were conspicuous on the surface of the sea. These currents, contrary to the

[page] 15

1791. July.

general opinion, seem to possess no regularity, as we found ourselves, day after day, driven in directions very contrary to our expectations from the impulse we had experienced on the former day, and by no means attended with that periodical uniformity, pointed out by Mr. Nicholson in his lately revised and corrected Indian directory, published in the year 1787. On the contrary, instead of the currents at this season of the year, agreeably to his hypothesis, setting to the northward, the most prevailing stream we experienced set to the south, and more in a south eastern than a south western direction. This very able mariner, still wedded to formerly adopted opinions, strongly recommends the variation of the compass, as a means for ascertaining the longitude at sea: yet, had we been no better provided, we might have searched for the cape of Good Hope agreeably with his propositions, to little effect: for when we were in latitude 35°7′ south, with 20° 16′ west variation, we had only reached the longitude of 6° 30′ east: and again, when in latitude 35° 22′ south. with 22° 7′ west variation, we had only advanced to the longitude of 11° 25′ east, instead of being, according to Mr. Nicholson's hypothesis, in the first instance nearly under the meridian of the cape of Good Hope, and in the second, under that of cape Aguilas; and it was not until we had near 26° of west variation, that we approached the meridian of the cape of Good Hope. The observations for the variation were made with the greatest care and attention; and though generally considered as very correct, they differed from one to three, and sometimes four degrees, not only when made by different compasses placed in different situations on board, and the ship on different tacks, but by the same compass in the same situation, made at moderate intervals of time; the difference in the results of such observations, at the same time, not preserving the least degree of uniformity. Hence the assertion amounts nearly to an absurdity, which states, "that with 20° to 20°10′, or 20° 30′ westwardly variation, you will be certain" of such and such longitude; and it is greatly to be apprehended, that navigators who rely on such means for ascertaining their situation in the ocean, will render themselves liable to errors that may be attended with the most fatal consequences. Other methods are, I trust, in a fair train for accomplishing this desirable

[page] 16

1791. July.

object; and I yet hope to see the period arrive, when every seasaring person capable of using a quadrant, will, on due instruction, be enabled by lunar observations to determine his longitude at sea. It has been already observed, that such information may be acquired with ease, and without laborious study or tedious application; this was further warranted by our example on board the Discovery; where, on our departure from England, Mr. Whidbey and myself could be considered as the only prosicients in this branch of science; but now, amongst the officers and gentlemen of the quarter deck, there were several capable of ascertaining their situation in the ocean, with every degree of accuracy necessary for all the important purposes of navigation.

Sunday 10.

With a light southwardly breeze in the morning of the 10 we weighed anchor, and with the assistance of our boats a-head, towing the ship, we reached Simon's Bay at about seven in the evening, where we anchored in 12 fathoms water; False Cape bearing by compass in a line with the south point of the bay s. 37 E.; Noah's ark s. 51 E. the Roman rocks s. 86 E. and the slag-staff on the battery S. 89 w. about a quarter of a mile from the shore.

The day before a brig was seen in shore of us, which was supposed to be the Chatham; but as the private signal was not acknowledged by her, we concluded ourselves mistaken. Our first conjectures, however, proved to be right, as Mr. Broughton now informed me the signal had escaped their attention. Since we had separated, the Discovery had out-failed her consort only the night's run; the Chatham not having hauled her wind or shortened sail on friday night, she was the next morning within the same distance of the land as the Discovery. Nothing had occurred during this separation worthy of notice. I was made excessively happy to understand from Mr. Broughton, that the officers and crew of the Chatham, like those of the Discovery, were in general very healthy. Beside the Chatham, we found here His Majesty's ship the Gorgon; the Warren Hastings, and Earl Fitzwilliam Indiamen, from Bengal; two port Jackson transports from China bound home; three with convicts bound to port Jackson; two American, and some Dutch and Danish merchant ships; the total amounting to seventeen sail in the bay.

[page] 17

1791.July. Monday 11 Monday 18.

In the morning, an officer was sent on shore to acquaint the resident commandant of the port, Mr. Brandt, of our arrival, and to request his permission to procure such refreshments and stores as our wants now demanded, and to erect our observatory and such tents on shore as might be requisite for carrying into execution the necessary refitment of the vessels: with all which Mr. Brandt very politely complied; and, on the return of the officer, the garrison was saluted with eleven guns; which compliment being equally returned, attended by Mr. Broughton and some of the officers I waited on Mr. Brandt, who received us with the greatest politeness and hospitality; the well known characteristics of that gentleman. Having, on a former occasion, benefited by his good offices in the excellency of the supplies provided for the Resolution and Discovery, I concerted measures with him, on the present, for the like purpose. Mr. Brandt undertook, in conjunction with Mr. De Wit of Cape Town, to see all our necessities provided for with the best of the several commodities the country afforded. The Discovery's bowsprit, being found infinitely too weak, was taken out in order to be strengthened by one of the fishes we had on board; the whole of the head railing, having been washed away, was to be replaced; the vessels wanted caulking fore and aft: the rigging, overhauling; casks to be set up for receiving provisions and water; the fails repairing, and several materially altering; the powder airing: and the skids and booms raising, for the better enabling of the people to work upon deck; the ship proving sufficiently stiff to admit of such accommodation. Artificers were hired to assist our own in these several duties; which being in a state of forwardness by the 14th. Mr. Broughton and myself paid our respects to Mr. Rhenias, the acting governor at Cape Town, with the further view of inspecting the stores and provisions, the major part of which were to come from thence. Four of our seamen, whose constitutions seemed unequal to the service in which they had engaged, and whom I had now an opportunity of replacing were sent on board the Warren Hastings; and, with her, on the 18th, failed for England.

August. Friday 5.

All our stores and provisions being forwarded from Cape Town by the 5th, we took leave of the governor and our Cape friends, from whom we had experienced the most attentive civility; and having

VOL. I D

[page] 18

1791. August. Tuesday 9. Thursday 11.

completed such observations as were wanted, the observatory with the instruments were, on the 9th, sent on board.

Friday 12.

By the 11th all our transactions were finished with the shore; having obtained for each vessel a supply of provisions, which completed our stock for eighteen months at full allowance, and a due proportion of stores for the like period. I took on board also seven ewes and six rams; an assortment of garden seeds, vine cuttings, and other plants that were likely to grow, and prove valuable acquisitions to our friends in the South-Sea islands. As I intended putting to sea the next day, we were busily employed in preparing the ship for that purpose, which on the morning of the 12th we attempted; but the wind shifting to the S.S.E. permitted our taking only a more outside birth for the better convenience of sailing when the wind should prove more favorable.

It is customary at the cape of Good Hope for so many of the officers as can conveniently be spared, to take up their residence on shore. In this respect I had conformed to old practices, but was excessively mortified, at my return on board, to find that several of our people had within a few days become indisposed with a dysentery, which at first seemed of little importance, but had now put on a very serious appearance; and some of the patients were extremely ill. The cause of this unfortunate malady it was hard to ascertain: the crew had not been subject 10 inebriety; their provisions had been of the best quality, and most wholesome nature; and every precaution had been taken to prevent their sleeping on deck, or exposing themselves to the dew or night air. No neglect of the salutary measures generally observed, or individual indiscretion of any sort seemed to have produced this lamentable visitation, whose contagious influence suffered no one to escape unattacked; although myself and officers did not feel its effects so violently as they were experienced by the people. The same disorder had not only appeared on board the Chatham, and the transports bound to port Jackson, but on shore; and at length it was attributed to a large Dutch ship lately arrived from Batavia, from which many men had been sent on shore to the hospital very ill, and dying with that and other infectious disorders. The surgeon of the Discovery was seized in a very sudden and singular manner, and reduced to an extreme slate of delirium, without any other symptoms which indicated fever.

[page] 19

1791 August. Wednes 17.

To persons, situated as we were, on the eve of quitting the civilized world, and destitute of all help and resources, but such as we carried with us, such a calamity was of the most serious and distressing nature; and was not only severely felt at the moment, but tended to destroy the good effects we had every reason to expect from the very excellent and abundant supply of refreshments the Cape had afforded. I now became excessively anxious to get to sea, left the Batavian ship should communicate any other disorder, or a worse species of that with which we were already attacked. This earnest desire, a S.E. wind and calms prevented our accomplishing until the 17th, when, about noon, a light breeze springing up from the N.W. we failed, in company with the Chatham, out of Simon's Bay, and saluted the garrison with eleven guns which were equally returned.

Few of our transactions, whilst at our last stati appeared worthy of recording excepting the occurrences at the observatory, where I did not think any observations were at all necessary for ascertaining the longitude; as that must have been accurately determined long ago by persons of greater information and superior abilities. The latitude; the rate and error of the chronometer, and the variation and dip of the magnetic needle were the principal objects that occupied our attention. The former would not have attracted much of my notice had it not appeared by the first day's observations, that a very material difference existed between the latitude shewn by my observations, and the latitude of Simon's Bay as stated by Captain King in the 3d vol. of Cook's Voyage to the northern hemisphere, where, in page 484, it is said that "the latitude of the anchorage place in Simon's Bay is, by observation, 34° 20′ south." This however is, most probably, an error of the press, since, immediately afterwards, we find the Cape point is said to be in 34° 23′ south; which point is at least 12 or 13 miles to the southward of Simon's Bay. Our observatory was situated near the south point of this bay, and its latitude, deduced from 26 meridional altitudes of the sun and stars, was 34° 11′ 40″; this, on allowing the distance to the Cape point, will be nearly found to agree with its latitude; which was further confirmed by our observations on passing it the day we entered False Bay.

D 2

[page] 20

1791. August.

By the first observations, made on shore, the chronometer shewed the longitude to be 18° 39′ 45″, which was 17′ 45″ to the eastward of the truth, and corresponded with what has been stated before, that it was not gaining at the rate we had allowed: further observations however demonstrated that, although it might have been gaining less during the passage, it was now evidently gaining on its Portsmouth rate, and was found on the 8th of august at noon, to be fast of mean time at Greenwich 17′ 49″ 6‴ and gaining on mean time at the rate of 9″ 28‴ per day. Mr. Arnold's chronometer was found to have gone but indifferently on board the Chatham; and, at the observatory, it was fast of mean time at Greenwich 1h 18′ 48″ 6‴, and gaining on mean time at the rate of 16″ 11‴ 8″″ per day. The variation of the magnetic needle, taken at the observatory by our different compasses and cards, in twenty sets of azimuths, varied from 24° 3 to 27° 48′; the mean result being 25° 40′ west variation.

The vertical inclination of the south point of the magnetic needle was observed to be

Marked end North, face East, 48 30
Ditto North, face West, 48 20
Ditto South, face East, 48 40
Ditto South, face West, 48 30
Mean inclination of the south point of the dipping needle 48 30

N. B. The longitude throughout the voyage, and until our arrival at St. Helena on our return to Europe, will be reckoned eastward.

The latitude inserted in the following chapters, and until the 13th of february, 1792, when it will be otherwise distinguished, is to be received and considered as south latitude.

The positive or relative situations of all Coasts, Capes, Promontories, Islands, Rocks, Sands, Breakers, Bays, Ports, &c. &c. will hereafter be stated as true, or by the world; and those bearings which will be taken from any local situation, whether on board the vessels, or in the boats, will be inserted according to compass, and be so expressed.

[page] 21

CHAPTER II.

Departure from False Bay—Death of Neil Coil by the flux—Proceed towards the coast of New Holland—Discover King George the Third's Sound—Transactions there—Leave King George the Third's Sound—Departure from the south west coast of New Holland.

1791. August.

THE nature of our voyage rendering every precaution necessary to prevent, as far as was possible, a separation of the vessels, Mr. Broughton, in case of parting company, was provided with a list of rendezvous; and, the better to insure our rejoining, I now deemed it expedient that he should be furnished with a copy of my instructions, and the route I intended to pursue; together with ample directions, that, in the event of a total separation, he might be enabled to carry the objects of the expedition into execution.

Although our stay at the Cape had far exceeded my expectations, yet I did not abandon the design of visiting the S.W. part of New Holland. The season would probably be too far advanced for acquiring so much information as I could have wished, yet there still remained a fair prospect of obtaining some intelligence, which would render the talk less difficult to those, whose particular object it might hereafter be to explore that country. I therefore on failing out of False Bay, appointed our next rendezvous off, what in the charts is called, Lyon's Land, in about the 35th degree of south latitude—in case of separation to cruise there two days; and, not meeting with the Discovery, then to proceed agreeably to other instructions.

The Albemarle, Admiral Barrington, and Britannia transports bound to port Jackson, followed us out of the bay: of these ships, as. well as

[page] 22

1791. August. Saturday 20. Sunday 21. Monday 22. Tuesday 23.

of the African coast, we took leave in the evening, and directed our course to the southward. During the night, the wind veered to the N. W. and blew so hard a gale that we were obliged to double reave the topsails and take in the foresail, as the Chatham was a great distance astern; and not being in sight at day-break, we hauled to the wind: about seven she was seen to the westward, and, having joined company, we steered to the S.S.E. together. The N.W. wind gradually increased, attended with violent squalls and heavy rain, until the 20th; when it became a perfect storm, obliging us to strike the top gallant masts, and reducing us to the foresail, which we were necessitated to carry, though under great apprehension of its being blown to pieces, in order that we might reach a more temperate region. The sea ran excessively high, and the wind in violent slurries raised the spray into a kind of fog, or mist, which, at intervals, was quite salt when not mixed with the showers of rain, which were frequent, and very heavy: in one of these we again lost sight of the Chatham, and seeing nothing of her on its clearing away, the foresail was furled, and the ship brought to, under the storm staysails. In this situation, the Discovery proved much easier and drier than we had reason to expect, as she was now extremely deep with stores and provisions. At this time, we were visited by many albatrosses, and an innumerable variety of birds of the petrel tribe. About noon our consort was again in sight, and, on her joining company, we resumed our course to the S.E. under the foresail. This very boisterous weather, accompanied with much thunder and lightning, continued with intermissions sufficient only to tempt our spreading some additional canvas, (which was scarcely unfurled before it was again necessary to take it in) until the 22d; when it so far moderated as to permit the close reaved topsails to be kept set. In the afternoon, we passed the Albemarle and Admiral Barrington. The sight of these vessels was very grateful to our feelings, particularly of the latter, which we had understood was an old debilitated ship, for whose safety during the late violent stormy weather we had been greatly apprehensive. The wind, in the morning of the 23d, being moderate, the top-gallant, and studding-sails were set; the weather, however, was unsettled, with showers of hail and rain; and a heavy irregular swell rolled

[page] 23

1791. August.

at the same time from the northward and south west. In the intervals of fine weather, I got some lunar observations which shewed the longitude at noon to be 31° 55′: the chronometer by the Portsmouth rate 31° 29′; by the Cape rate 31° 42′; the latitude 39° 8′. Many whales were now playing about the ship, but a less number of oceanic birds attended us than usual.

Wednes. 24.

The weather being tolerably fair on the 24th, enabled me to make some further lunar observations. The mean result of these, and those taken the preceding day brought forward by the chronometer, shewed the longitude at noon to be 34° 13′. By this expression is to be understood the space east or west, which the ship may have passed over in the interval of time between the taking one set of lunar observations and that of another; the extent of which space is ascertained, not according to the vague mode of the ship's run, as appears by the log, but from the distance shewn by the chronometer; where by the result of many observations made in different situations are reduced to any one particular point. The chronometer at this time, by the Portsmouth rate, shewed 33° 5′, by the Cape rate 34° 5′, the latitude 39° 28′, and the longitude by account 36° 17′. The weather continued very changeable; but the wind being gentle in the northern quarter afforded an opportunity of sending on board the Chatham, whence we understood that, in consequence of a violent sea having stove in the midship stern window on the morning of the 20th, it had been necessary to bring to until that damage was repaired.

Friday 26.

The wind freshened, attended with frequent squalls, on the 26th; when, having reached latitude 39° 45′, longitude 37° 53′, we were able for the first time since our departure from the Cape to observe the variation; which, by the mean result of two compasses, differing from 32° 53′ to 35° 5′, was found to be 32° 59′ westwardly. In the space we were now approaching, namely, between the meridians of 38° 33′ and43° 47′ east longitude, and the parallels of 34° 24′, and 38° 20′ south latitude, seven different shoals are said to exist. To acquire some information respecting a circumstance so interesting to navigation, I had held this southerly course; but the very stormy weather we had lately contended

[page] 24

1791 August. Sunday 28. Monday 29.

with, and the appearance of its again returning, rendered a search for these shoals not altogether prudent. To attempt the examination of the whole space I considered as not more necessary than discreet; but since in the event of their existence, it was highly probable they would be found connected, I was induced to shape a course so as to fall in with the south easternmost, said to lie in latitude 38° 20′, longitude 43° 43′, which had been reported to have been seen by several Dutch vessels. On the 28th, in latitude 38° 56′, longitude 42° 30′, the wind at W.S.W. increasing with great violence obliged me to desist from this enquiry, and for our own safety, in the event of these shoals having existence, to hawl to the S.E. The gale soon became a storm, attended with heavy squalls, hail, rain, and a most tremendous sea, from the westward and S.W. which made it necessary to strike the top-gallant masts, and reduced us to the foresail; which, with great apprehension of losing it, we were obliged to carry in order to pass clear of the space assigned to these hidden dangers. It is, however, worthy of remark, that, notwithstanding our course was directed so wide of the allotted spot, we certainly passed it at no great distance in the night, as by our observations the next day, instead of making fourteen miles southing, which the reckoning gave, we found ourselves twelve miles to the north of the latitude we were in the preceding day, the longitude 45° 4′. Whether this difference is to be ascribed to any current produced by the interruption these shoals may give to the oceanic waters, when pressed eastwardly by the prevailing westwardly winds, or to the bad steerage of the ship, cannot be positively determined; but as the Chatham steered precisely the same course, the inference seems rather favorable to our having been influenced by a current occasioned probably by the existence of such shoals. On the violence of the storm abating, we made sail and resumed our eastwardly course, intending to pass in sight of the islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam. During the gale we were visited by a great number of the various kinds of oceanic birds; yet these by no means seemed to indicate the vicinity of land or shoals, since they are constantly met with throughout the southern ocean.

The weather that succeeded this storm being delightfully pleasant, attended with a smooth sea, and a gentle gale between the north and N.E.

[page] 25

1791. August.

made me regret that we had not experienced this favorable change somewhat earlier, as it would probably have enabled us to acquire some satisfactory information as to the existence of the shoals in question; but having now no isure for this enquiry, I was obliged to rest contented with having exerted our fruitless endeavours in the attempt, and embraced this valuable opportunity of getting ourselves and ship clean, dry, and comfortable; which since our leaving the land had been very ill effected.

September. Thursday .

The flux still continued amongst us, and some of our patients were yet very much indisposed; we however were in hopes that the present fair weather would soon restore to us the blessings of health. Some good observations were procured in the course of this and of the preceding day with our different compasses: those taken on the 31st differed from 30°45′ to 35° 45′; and those on the 1st of september from 30° 58′ to 35° 7′; the mean result of seven sets of azimuths was 32° 47′ westwardly variation; the latitude at noon 38° 19′, and the longitude 51° 21′. We were not long indulged with a continuance of the fine weather: the wind gradually veered to the N.W. and westward, and increased to a fresh gale; which, however, did not reduce us below the top-sails; although the weather bore a very threatening appearance; the sky was obscured with dark gloomy clouds, from which some rain fell; yet the sea was smooth, and the weather altogether was infinitely more pleasant than we had lately experienced.

Sunday 4.

At noon on the 4th, in latitude 38° 6′, longitude 61° 36′, the first seal we had seen since our departure from the Cape amused itself in playing about the ship for some time; but our companions, the oceanic birds, had not lately been very numerous; these visitors were mostly pintadoes, and other small birds of the petrel tribe.

Monday 5. Wednes. 7.

Four sets of lunar observations were obtained on the 5th, which shewed the longitude to be 64° 14′ 40″; the chronometer by the Portsmouth rate 63° 46′, and by the Cape rate 64° 10′, the latitude 37° 52′. The variation on the 7th, in latitude 38° 15′ and longitude 69° 33′, was observed to be 25° 52′ westwardly. The same gloomy weather continued with a fresh gale at N.N.W. In the night we had the misfortune to lose Neil Coil, one of the marines, who sell a sacrifice to the baneful effects of the flux caught at the Cape, which attacked him with much greater violence than

VOL. I. E

[page] 26

1791. September.

any other person on board. He was an exceedingly good man, and his loss was sensibly felt, and much regretted. In addition to this calamity, disasters of the same nature seemed not likely to terminate: another of our people, who had suffered very severely by this dreadful contagion, but who was so much recovered as to be nearly equal to his duty, was so affected by his poor fellow's dissolution, that he relapsed with very unfavorable symptoms. Our convalescents were still numerous; and the work of death having commenced, we knew not where it might end, or where we could recruit the strength which we might thus lose; our whole complement being scarcely equal, when in the highest health, to the service we had to perform. One reflection was, however, highly satisfactory; that, in point of comfort, and professional assistance, no one thing within our power to supply, had been omitted for the present relief of the distress, or for the prevention of any melancholy consequences in future; and we trusted, with the Divine blessing, and a steady adherence to the conduct, which we had observed, finally to subdue and extirpate this dreadful malady.

Thursday 8.

In the evening of the 8th I took some lunar distances with the star Antares, which, with those taken on the 5th, shewed the longitude by their mean result, to be 73° 44′; the chronometer by the Portsmouth rate 73° 1′, and by the Cape rate 73°27′, the latitude 38° 45′, and the variation 23° 36′ westwardly.

Friday 9.

The next evening, agreeably to our reckoning, we were passing between the islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, distant from the latter about five or six leagues. The weather was thick and rainy, yet I continued to hope that a favorable interval would enable us to see one of both of these islands, having steered this eastwardly course with a with to correct an error that appears in captain Cook's charts of the southern hemisphere. In these the island of St. Paul is laid down in the latitude of 37° 50′, corresponding with the situation assigned to it in the requisite tables; and to the north of this island, in about the latitude of 30° 40′ is placed another called the island of Amsterdam: now the island which Mr. Cox in the Mercury stopped at, and called Amsterdam, is in fight of and situated 17 leagues to the south of the, island of St. Paul.

[page] 27

1791. September. Sunday 18.

Captain Bligh, in the Bounty, also saw the same island, and allots to it nearly the same situation as does Mr. Cox. For these reasons, if there be an island to the north of St. Paul, in latitude 36° 40′, there must be three instead of two of these islands, which I believe has never been understood to be the fact. The weather, however, precluded my forming a just opinion as to this point, which I fully intended to ascertain, could we have seen either of the islands; but the rain and haze continuing to obscure every object at the distance of two leagues, we perceived no indication of the vicinity of land, notwithstanding the immense number of whales and seals which are said to frequent these islands. Of the latter we did not see any, and of the former but one; which was the only whale we had observed since that mentioned on the 23d of last month. From hence towards the coast of New Holland, our course was directed between the tracks of Dampier and M. Marion, over a space, I believe, hitherto unfrequented. In this route, assisted by a fine gale between north and W.N.W. we made great progress, so that our observed latitude on the 18th was 36° 49′, longitude 103° 48′: for some days past we had experienced a very heavy swell from the S.W. though the wind prevailed from the northward.

Monday 19.

The situation of that part of New Holland for which we were now steering, being ill defined, and a probability existing that banks might extend a considerable distance into the ocean, we tried, but gained no soundings with 180 fathoms of line. On the 19th, in latitude 36° 45′, longitude. 105° 47′, the variation was observed to be 14° 10′ westwardly. The wind at N.N.E. attended with heavy squalls and rain, increased with such violence, as to oblige us to strike the top-gallant masts, and to furl the topsails. The pintado birds that, for some days past, had nearly disappeared, again visited the ship, accompanied by a great variety of the petrel tribe, with some albatrosses; and it now seemed evident, that the appearance of these inhabitants of the ocean, was increased in point of numbers and in variety, in proportion to the violence of the wind; as in moderate weather few only were visible. We continued to try for soundings at certain intervals, but did not reach bottom at the depth of 180 fathoms. The wind at W.S.W. blew a strong gale, and the night

E 2

[page] 28

1791. September. Tuesday 20.

of the 20th being dark and squally, we hauled to the wind, and plied; left the land, which is represented as very low, or shoals, might be nearer than we expected; at day break we again resumed our eastwardly course, observing every night the like precautions.

Friday 23. Saturday 24.

In the morning of the 23d, conceiving that the land could not be at any great distance, and that the coast might lie to the north of the course we were steering, the Chatham's signal was made to look out on the larboard beam. The wind from the westward blew a strong gale, accompanied with a very heavy sea; but the sky being clear, permitted me to obtain some good lunar observations, which, with those taken on the 21st, shewed the longitude at noon to be 114° 14′; the chronometer, by the Portsmouth rate 113° 32′, by the Cape rate 113° 55′, the latitude 35°7′. Soon after mid-day, the wind at W.S.W. increased to a very heavy gale; and not choosing, under such circumstances, to make too free with a coast entirely unexplored; we hauled the wind to the southward, under the foresail and storm staysails. Towards sun-set, land was said to be seen from the mast-head to the E.N.E. and, although this was not absolutely certain, yet it was extremely probable, as we had passed several leagues over the space assigned to Lyon's Land in most of the maps. A press of sail was now carried in order to keep to the windward, having no bottom at the depth of 120 fathoms; in consequence of which, and a very heavy sea, the larboard side of the head, with the bumkin, &c. was entirely torn away. On the gale's moderating the next morning, we stood to the north, in quest of the land; but some of the officers conceiving they saw land to the S.E. we hauled our wind again in that direction until noon, in latitude 35° 28', longitude 115° 10′, when, being disappointed, we again stood to the north, under double reefed topsails, until eight in the evening: we then tacked to spend the night, which bore a very threatening appearance, over a space we were already acquainted with, and found bottom at 70 fathoms depth, composed of white sand, and broken shells; the latitude at this time was 34° 51′, the longitude 115° 12′. The very gloomy appearance of the night rendered our carrying a press of sail indispensably necessary to preserve an offing, as the soundings strongly indicated the land not to be distant. During the night we did not reach the bottom with 100 fathoms of line;

[page] 29

1791. September. Sunday 25. Monday 26.

and the morning evinced our conjectures respecting the weather not to be ill founded; as, about 4 o'clock, the flings of the main yard were carried away: to replace which, we were compelled to furl all the sails on the main-mast; but, before this could be accomplished, the increased violence of the storm obliged us to take in all our canvas but the foresail, to strike the top gallant-masts, and to get in the jib-boom and sprit-sail yard. In this situation we continued until towards sun-set, when having no bottom with 110 fathoms of line, we flood to the N.W. under close-reefed topsails, in the full assurance of meeting the land in that direction. In the course of the night, the gale gradually abated, and in the forenoon of the next day, the wind became perfectly calm, and an opportunity was afforded us of repairing the many damages which our rigging had sustained in the late boisterous weather. At noon the observed latitude was 35° 23′, the longitude 115° 52′; in this situation, soundings could not be gained at the depth of 220 fathoms. In the afternoon a light breeze sprang up from the northward, with which we steered to the north-eastward, and soon discovered land from the mast-head, bearing by compass N.E. to N. 27 E. It seemed of a moderate height, resembling in appearance the land in the British Channel, and was supposed to be about ten or twelve leagues distant—No soundings with 120 fathoms of line. The wind veering to the N.W. enabled us to steer for the land, and having neared it about three leagues, it was seen from the deck bearing N. 7 E. to N. 73 E. by compass; at which time, bottom was found at the depth of 65 fathoms, composed of coarse sand, and broken coral. The depth of water had, at eight in the evening, gradually decreased to 50 fathoms; when, having advanced about four miles nearer, we tacked and plied in order to preserve our situation with the land until morning.

By the result of our soundings during the night, 70 fathoms would seem to be the edge of a bank about 9 leagues from the shore, consisting of fine sand, and broken shells, corresponding with the soundings we had found on the 24th; for had that depth of water been nearer in shore, we could hardly have avoided seeing the land before dark on that evening.

[page] 30

1791. September.

At the dawning of day on the 27th, we made all sail for the land, having a gentle gale from the N.W. with a smooth sea and pleasant weather. The depth of water, as we proceeded, gradually decreased to 24 fathoms, with a bottom of coral, coarse sand, and shells: about nine we were well in with the land, and bore away along the coast, keeping within a league or two of the shores; which by the compass stretched from N. 41 W. to N.81 E. and appeared nearly straight and compact, consisting of steep rocky cliffs to the water's edge, interspersed with, here and there, some small open sandy bays, and a few islets and rocks, which extended near a mile from the main. The westernmost land now in sight, (being the northernmost seen the preceding night) is remarkable for its high cliffs, falling perpendicularly into the sea; and if it be detached, which is by no means certain, is about a league in circuit. It forms a conspicuous promontory, to which I gave the name of CAPE CHATHAM; in honor of that noble earl, who presided at the Board of Admiralty on our departure from England. The land to the westward takes a direction from cape Chatham N. 59 W. and the land to the eastward S. 81 E. This Cape, by our observations is situated in latitude 35° 3′, and in 116° 35′ 30″ of longitude.

The flux still continued to affect; the health of some in both vessels; and although the patients were daily assisted with fresh provisions, and might be considered in a state of recovery, yet they remained in a very debilitated and reduced condition. In the hope that a little recreation, from change of scene and what the soil of this country might afford, would prove salutary to their enfeebled constitutions, I determined to put into the first port we should be so fortunate as to discover; and, that an eligible situation might not escape our vigilance, we ranged the coast within three or four miles of its shores, which are of moderate elevation, and may in general be deemed steep and bold. The verdure on all the projecting points is removed to a considerable height on the rocks, whose naked bases sufficiently prove how excessively they are beaten by a turbulent ocean. The country, immediately along the sea side, consists of a range of dreary hills, producing little herbage, of a brownish green hue, from a soil that seems principally composed of white sand; through

[page] 31

1791. September.

which protrude large masses of white rock of various sizes and forms: these singular protuberances on the summits of many of the hills strongly resembled the remains of losty edifices in ruin. The interior country afforded a more agreeable appearance, being pleasantly interspersed with hills and dales, and covered with losty forest trees of considerable magnitude, which our glasses plainly distinguished; though we could nowhere perceive any smoke or other indication of the country being inhabited. Towards noon, the Chatham made the signal for having discovered a port to the northward; into which they were directed to lead; but finding it only a shallow bay, we soon bore away along the coast. Our observed latitude was 35° 8′, longitude 117° 6′ 30″. In this situation, the coast, by compass, extended from N.68 W. to S. 83 E. the nearest shore bearing N. 6 W. about a league distant; in the morning the variation by our surveying compass was observed to be 6° 30′ westwardly. The coast we passed along in the afternoon differed little from that noticed in the morning, but the inland country was not sufficiently elevated to be seen beyond the hills near the sea side. At fix in the evening, a small detached islet bore, by compass, S. 87 E. the easternmost part of the main in sight N. 86 E. a projecting point whence extends westward a long range of white cliffs N. 76 E. the nearest shore N. 24 E. distant 5 miles; and the westernmost land in sight, the same which formed the eastern extreme at noon, N. 45 W. The wind was very gentle with alternate calms, and the weather, during the night, was mild and pleasant. In the morning of the 28th, we found our progress had been very flow along the coast, although our distance from the shore had increased, with soundings from 40 to 50 fathoms. We had again an opportunity of observing the sun eclipsed, but were not so fortunate as to notice its commencement, or greatest obscuration; the end was however observed by Mr. Whidbey to be at 19h 43′ 53″, and by myself 19h 43′ 46″ apparent time; this was ascertained by our sextant telescope, as recommended on a former occasion. I much regretted that we had not gained a port on this coast, where, on shore, we might have compared such observations with the results from better instruments, which would have tended to establish the utility of the process. The

[page] 32

1791. September.

latitude at this juncture was 35° 25′. It was now proved, that the white cliffs seen the preceding night, formed the southernmost point of this part of the coast, which I distinguished by the name of CAPE HOWE, in honor of that noble earl. It is situated in latitude 35° 17′, longitude 117° 52′. The small detached islet lies from cape Howe S.68 E. distant 3 leagues. The land considered on tuesday night as the easternmost part of the main now appeared to be an island, beyond which were seen a high rocky bluff point, and a high mountain forming the easternmost land in sight. A light breeze from the N.N.W. permitted us to draw in with the coast; which at noon bore by compass from N.50 W. to N. 37 E. the high mountain N. 35 E. to the eastward of which, a round hummock, seemingly detached N. 52 E. the land appearing like an island, N. 16 W. to N. 24 W. was now seen to comprehend a cluster of barren rocky isles, which being the nearest land was about 10 miles distant; and the high rocky bluff point N. 8 E. In this situation, the observed latitude was 35° 22′, longitude 118° 16′; which was 8 miles further south, and 11 miles further east than the log shewed. Many whales were playing about the ship during the morning. The high mountain conspicuously remarkable for its superior elevation above the neighbouring hills, I distinguished, after my highly esteemed friend Sir Alan Gardner, by the name of MOUNT GARDNER; and the barren rocky cluster of isles, by the name of ECLIPSE ISLANDS. The weather was pleasant; and aided by a gentle breeze, a port, round the high rocky bluff point, soon presented itself, into which the Chatham was directed to lead, and, by four, was sufficiently advanced to determine on its eligibility. The weather by this time had become thick and rainy, with much thunder and lightning; but as the soundings continued regular, we stood into the port, and passed the high rocky bluff point in 30 fathoms water; directing our course close along its shore, which is a high and nearly perpendicular cliff; the sounding suddenly shoaled to 12 fathoms, and gradually decreased afterwards, until abreast of the second white sandy beach; where we anchored in 6 fathoms water, having a clear bottom of fine white sand.

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1791. September Thurs. 29.

A continuation of the thick weather prevented our seeing about us until the morning of the 29th; which being delightfully serene and pleasant, discovered our situation to be very snug and secure in a spacious sound, open 13° of the compass only to the sea. The high rocky bluff pointsorming the S.W. extremity of the sound, which, from its smooth appearance, and being destitute of verdure, obtained the name BALD-HEAD, bore by compass S. 85 E.: a high rocky island in the entrance, which, from its beaten appearance by its opposition to the sea, and S.W. wind, obtained the name of BREAK-SEA ISLAND, N. 82 E. to N. 69 E.; Mount Gardner N. 70 E.; another high island named MICHAELMAS ISLAND N. 62 E.; a small high island called SEAL ISLAND, being a great resort of those animals, north; a low slat rock S. 75 W. and to the N.W. was an extensive while sandy beach; which promising success to the seine, a boat was dispatched with Lieutenant Puget on a fishing party. After breakfast, accompanied by Mr. Broughton in the Chatham's cutter, Mr. Menzies, Mr. Whidbey, and myself, proceeded in the yawl, first to attend the success of the fishermen, and then to examine if the sound would afford a more eligible situation than that which we now occupied. The seine was hauled on the third sandy beach from Bald-Head with little success. A stream of fresh water drained there through the beach, which, although nearly of the colour of brandy, was exceedingly well tasted; by this stream was a clump of trees, sufficient to answer our present want of fuel. At the borders of this clump was found the most miserable human habitation my eyes ever beheld, which had not long been deserted by its proprietor, as on its top was lying a fresh skin of a fish, commonly called leather jacket, and by its side, was the excrement of some carnivorous animal, apparently a dog. The shape of the dwelling was that of half a beehive, or a hive vertically divided into two equal parts, one of which formed the hut, in height about three feet, and in diameter about four feet and an half; it was however constructed with some degree of uniformity, with slight twigs, of no greater substance than those used for large baker's baskets: the horizontal and vertical twigs formed intervals from four to six inches square, and the latter sticking a few inches into the earth, were its security and fixed it to the ground.

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1791. September.

This kind of basket hut was covered with the bark of trees, and small green boughs; its back was opposed to the N.W. whence we concluded those to be the most prevailing winds; just within its front, which was open the whole of its diameter, a fire had been made, but excepting the skin of the fifth before mentioned, there were neither bones, shells, nor other indication on what its poor inhabitant had subsisted. The reflections which naturally arose on seeing so miserable a contrivance for shelter against the inclemency of seasons, were humiliating in the highest degree: as they suggested in the strongest manner the lowly condition of some of our fellow creatures, rendered yet more pitiable by the apparent solitude and the melancholy aspect of the surrounding country, which presented little less than famine and distress.

The shores consisted either of sleep naked rocks, or a milk-white barren sand, beyond which dreary boundary, the surface of the ground seemed covered by a deadly green herbage, with, here and there, a few groveling shrubs or dwarf trees scattered at a great distance from each other. This very unfavorable appearance may not, however, originate from the general sterility of the soil, since it was evident, so far as we traversed the sides of the hills that the vegetation had recently undergone the action of fire; the largest of the trees had been burnt, though slightly; every shrub had some of its branches completely charred; and the plants lying close to the ground had not escaped without injury. Thus entertaining no very high opinion of the country, but in the hope of meeting with some of the wretched inhabitants, we proceeded along the shores of the sound, to the northward, to a high rocky point that obtained the name of POINT POSSESSION; and, on reaching its summit, we gained an excellent view of the found in all directions. When on board, we had supposed that the sound branched into three arms, but it now became evident that there were only two. One, immediately behind this point which is also its southern point of entrance, extended in a circular form, about a league across, bounded by a country much resembling that before described, though producing more trees, and with verdure of a livelier hue, and approaching more nearly to the water's edge. The other, lying about 3 miles to the M.E. seemed almost as spacious, though its entrance

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1791, September.

appeared very narrow. The surrounding country in its neighbourhood presented a far more fertile and pleasing aspect. Nearly in the center of that harbour, was an island covered with the most beautiful herbage; and instead of the naked rocks and barren sands that compose the coast of the found, the cliffs which bounded these shores seemed of a reddish clay, and the general texture or character of the soil, appeared to be more favorable to the vegetable kingdom, as from the summits of the hills to the water side was seen a stately and luxuriant forest.

The necessary observations being made at this station, the British colours were displayed, and having drank His Majesty's health, accompanied by the usual formalities on such occasions, we took possession of the country from the land we saw north-westward of Cape Chatham, so far as we might explore its coasts, in the name of His present Majesty, for him and for his heirs and successors. This port, the first which we had discovered, I honored with the name of KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUNDS; and this day being the anniversary of Her Royal Highness Princess Charlotte Augusta Matilda's birth, the harbour behind Point Possession I called PRINCESS ROYAL HARBOUR; which with the found formed Point Possession into a peninsula, united to the main by a very narrow barren sandy beach. Here although we could not discover the least trace of its having at any time been the resort of the natives, yet in every part where we strayed, were seen the same effects of fire on all the vegetable productions.

The ceremony of taking possession being finished, we found a passage, narrow and shoal for some distance, into the north-eastern harbour; where a bar was found to extend across its entrance, on which there was only three fathoms water. Within the harbour, the deep water seemed to occupy some space to the N.E. and N.W.; but the day was too far advanced to permit our making any particular examination. The verdant island covered with luxuriant grass and other vegetables terminated the extent of our researches; and as the situation of the vessels seemed as convenient as any other for procuring what the found might afford, I determined to return on board, and lose no time in availing myself of the benefits it presented. In our way out of this harbour, the boats

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1791, September.

grounded on a bank we had not before perceived; this was covered with oysters of a most delicious flavour, on which we sumptuously regaled; and, loading in about half an hour, the boats for our friends on board, we commemorated the discovery by calling it OYSTER HARBOUR.

Friday 30. October Saturday 1 Sunday 2.

In the morning of the 30th, we began cutting wood and providing water, which sufficiently employed all our healthy men; whilst those who were still indisposed were directed to amuse themselves on shore. Finding it practicable to place the ship much nearer to the spot whence the wood and water were procured, the next day the was removed; and, by sunday, we had made such progress, that the yawl could be spared for the further examination of the found. In her I proceeded to Princess Royal harbour, where, near a rocky cliff, on the S.W. side, was found a small shallow dream of excellent water. On tracing its meanders through a copse it brought us to a deserted village of the natives, amidst the trees, on nearly a level spot of ground, consisting of about two dozen miserable huts mostly of the same fashion and dimensions, with that before described, though no one of them seemed so recently erected. This village had, probably, been the residence of, what may in this country be esteemed, a considerable tribe; and the construction of it afforded us an opportunity of concluding, that however humble the state of their existence might be, they were not destitute of distinctions. Two or three huts were larger, and differed in shape from the rest, as if a couple were fixed close to the side of each other; but the parts which in that case would have caused a separation were removed, and the edges joined close together, as described in the plate, leaving the whole of their fronts open, and increasing their diameter about one third more than the rest. Yet were they not an inch loftier, nor were they of greater extent from the front to the back than the single one before mentioned. Fires had been made in the fronts of all, but not recently: and, excepting some branches of trees that seemed to have been lately broken down, there were not any signs of this place having been visited for some time; and although we were very industrious to ascertain the food on which the inhabitants of this village subsisted, we still remained in ignorance of it; as neither shells, bones, nor any other relicts, which might serve as indications, could be found, notwithstanding

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1791, October. Tuesday 4

this place had the appearance of a principal resort; for besides the habitations already mentioned, which were in pretty good repair, there were many others in different states of decay. This spot was intersected with several small streams of water, yet the same marks of fire were evident on all the vegetable kingdom; although none of the huts seemed to have been affected by it, which led me to suppose that this general fire, was of a less recent date than at first I had imagined. In one of the larger huts, probably the residence of a chief, towards which were several paths leading in different directions, some beads, nails, knives, looking glasses, and medals, were deposited as tokens of our friendly disposition, and to induce any of the natives, who might, unperceived by us, have been in the neighbourhood, to favour us with a visit. Having gratified our curiosity, though at the expence of our feelings, in contemplating these very wretched and humiliating efforts of human ingenuity, we returned on board, and having by the morning of the 4th replenished our water, and taken on board a supply of firewood, Messrs. Puget and Whidbey went to Oyster Harbour, with three boats, for the purpose of hauling the seine, and obtaining a quantity of those shell fish, previously to our proceeding the following morning to sea. In this part of our plan, however, we were disappointed, as the wind which had blown a steady moderate breeze from the N.M. towards the evening blew a strong gale from the S.E. with a heavy swell and prevented the return of the boats; at the same time that the cloudiness of the weather precluded me from making those lunar observation, for the sole purpose of obtaining which I had remained on board.

Wednes 5

The gale moderating the next morning, the boats returned, not having been very successful with the seine, but bringing a sufficient supply of oysters not only for our convalescents, but for the affording also of two or three excellent meals for all hands. As the S. E. wind and a heavy sea in the offing prevented our departure, Mr. Broughton was employed in examining the eastern side of the found from Oyster Harbour to Mount Gardner: this was found nearly a straight and compact shore, on which Mr. Broughton landed in several places, where the same effects of fire were evident, although there were not any traces of the natives or of their habitations to be discovered.

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1791 October. Friday 7.

The lib causes of detention still operating, on friday the 7th a party was made for the further examination of Oyster Harbour, and by a little excursion into the country on that side to acquire some information of its natural productions, and, if possible also, of the natives. After examining the channel as we proceeded to the upper part of the harbour, our attention was directed to several large black swans in very stately attitudes swimming on the water, and, when flying, discovering the under parts of their wings and breast to be white: this is all the description we were enabled to give of them, since they were excessively shy, and we very indifferent marksmen. In the northern corner of the harbour, we landed near a rivulet navigable only for canoes and small boats. It meandered in a northern direction between the hills, which opening to the east and west, presented a spacious plain with forest trees occupying the banks of the rivulet, and the sides of the hills, even to their very summits. We proceeded about a league by the side of the rivulet, which flowed through so dead a flat, that its motion was scarcely perceptible, and continued to be brackish, although in its passage it received several other smaller streams of most excellent water. In it were an abundance of very fine fish, and on its banks were many black swans, ducks, curlews, and other wild fowl. On the sides of this stream, as well as on the shores in Oyster Harbour, were seen the remains of several fish wears, about eight or nine inches high, evidently the sorry contrivance of the wretched inhabitants of the country: some of these were constructed with loose stones, others with sticks, and stumps of wood; but none of them were likely to be of much utility at this season, as several were placed nearly at, and others above, what now seemed the high water mark; but we supposed at times, when the rain or other cause should extend the rivulet beyond its present bounds, which in width did not exceed thirty yards, and in depth four or five feet, these humble contrivances might arrest some small fish. Great bodies of water evidently pass down this stream at certain seasons, as appeared by the river's course occupying from two to three hundred yards on each side the rivulet, the soil of which was composed of sea sand and broken shells, and was destitute of any vegetable production. This space when overflowed must, from its

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1791 October. Monday 10. Tuesday 11.

winding course, form a most beautiful sheet of water. The wears for the taking fish, and steps made in the bark for the purpose of ascending some of the largest trees, though both excessively rude, were undoubtedly the effects of manual labour, and, with the huts, formed the only indications of the country being inhabited, that we were able to discern. There were no paths in the woods, nor were any smokes to be seen over the extensive country we beheld, which fully satisfied us, that any further search for the natives would be fruitless; and therefore we returned by a different route to the boats. In our way we saw the remains of two similar huts. Near these was an ants nest much of the same shape and magnitude, though finished in a very superior style and manner, and shewing how very humble is the state of human existence, when unassisted by civil society, and undirected by the sciences. Having eaten our salt beef we proceeded homewards, much mortified that the many wild fowl we had seen had escaped our vigilance; but that we might not return empty handed, we stopped at one of the oyster banks, where in about half an hour we loaded our boat, and returned on board about 9 o'clock in the evening. The bank on which we found them in greatest plenty and the best flavoured, is that which extends from the north or low point of the entrance towards the little verdant island. The wind blew a strong gale from the E.S.E. and a very heavy sea ran without the found; but the vessels within rode perfectly quiet. This sort of weather, with much rain, continued until monday, when we entertained hopes of getting to sea, as the wind veered to the south; but soon again resuming its former direction, attended by the heavy sea in the offing, we remained at anchor until the next day: which being more favourable to our purpose, though the wind was still adverse, we weighed, and turned out of the found. About 4 in the afternoon, we regained the ocean; but the wind at E. N. E. prevented our steering along the coast, and obliged us to stand to the southeastward. Whilst we were getting under weigh, I caused to be deposited in the hut at the watering place some beads, knives, looking-glasses, and other trinkets, as a compensation to its solitary owner, should he ever return. for the wood we had cut down, and deprived him of: and to commemorate our visit, near the stump of one of the trees we had felled,

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1791 October.

in a pile of stones, raised for the purpose of attracting the attention of any European, was left a bottle sealed up, containing a parchment on which were inscribed the names of the vessels, and of the commanders; with the name given to the found, and the date of our arrival and departure. Another bottle, containing a similar memorandum, was likewise deposited on the top of Seal Island, with a staff erected to conduct any visitor to it, on which was affixed a medal of the year 1789. Those who may meet with the staff will most probably discover the bottle hidden near it. This precaution was here taken, on a presumption that Seal Island was entirely out of the reach of the inhabitants, which might not be the case where the first bottle was secreted.

Tuesday 18.

At sun-set the Eclipse Islands by compass bore N. 71 W. Bald-head N. 45 W. Mount Gardner N. 13 E. the hummock mentioned on the 28th, now evidently an island, N. 56 E. to N. 51 E. and the easternmost part of the main in sight N. 42 E. whence the coast appeared to take a sharp turn to the northward As we stood to the S. E. the wind gradually veered to the north, which, by day light, led us out of fight of the coast; but as in the forenoon it was calm and the atmosphere very clear, Mount Gardner was seen bearing N.W. 18 leagues distant. In this situation we had much swell from the eastward; and soundings could not be gained at the depth of 200 fathoms. The observed latitude was 35° 37′, longitude 119° 24′, which was 2′ to the south, and 16′ to the east, of what the log shewed. The wind was light and variable until the evening, when it settled in a steady breeze at S.W.; the swell from the east, and E. S. E. still continuing, indicated the land in that direction to be at some distance. Our unexpected detention by the late eastwardly winds, and the advanced season, conspired greatly against prosecuting researches on this coast; I determined, however, not to abandon that favorite object, provided the task should not prove too dangerous, and intricate; or that the direction of the coast should not lead us too far out of our way; as, in respect of the former, I acted without any authority in the investigation; and, in respect of the latter, our time would not now admit of sufficient leisure to persevere in the pursuit. Under these considerations our course was directed to the N. E. during the night, in hopes of passing within fight of the land lying to

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1791 October. Thursday 20

the eastward of Mount Gardner, so as to connect our survey. Not gaining bottom with 110 to 140 fathoms of line; and there being at daybreak no appearance of the coast, we steered north, which soon brought us within sight of land lo the N.W. making like three islands; but on a nearer approach, the two westernmost were evidently connected by low land lo the main: but the connecting of the northernmost being uncertain, it obtained the name of DOUBTFUL ISLAND.

From the westernmost land seen this morning, to the easternmost land seen on tuesday evening, is a space of 14 leagues, stretching S. 58 W. and N.58 E. in which no land was seen. The depth of water was at this time 30 fathoms: the bottom coarse sand, with broken shells and coral. The weather was delightfully pleasant; and, with a gentle gale at S. W. we steered along the coast, which now took a direction N. 55 E. our distance from the shore from 2 to 4 leagues. Doubtful Island, and the shores to the S.W. of it, nearly resembled the rest of the coast; but to the N.E. the coast presented a very different prospect; being composed of high detached clusters of craggy mountains, on a base of low and to all appearance level land, well wooded, particularly to the N.W. of Doubtful Island, where the land falls back to a considerable distance, forming either a deep well-sheltered bay, or a low flat country. At noon, a high bluff point, extending from the northernmost cluster of mountains, the easternmost land then in fight, bore by compass N. 24 E. the most western and conspicuous cluster of apparently disunited mountains N. 67 W. about 9 leagues distant; and the east point of Doubtful Island, the westernmost land at that time visible, S. 73 W. This land forms a remarkable point on the coast, and is in latitude 31° 23′, longitude 119° 49′: which, after admiral Lord Hood, I distinguished by the name of POINT HOOD. In this situation, our observed latitude was 34°18′, longitude 120° 14′ being 13′ more to the north, and 6′ more to the east, than appeared by the log. Soon after mid-day, low land was descried, stretching out from the high bluff point, which we found situated not immediately on the shore, but some distance inland, whence a very low country extends to the sea coast, which takes a direction S.70 E. breakers in two detached places were discovered at this time lying at

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1791 October. Friday 21.

some distance from the land; the nearest of these about 1 o'clock, bore by compass N.E. 4 miles distant; the other, visible only from the mast-head, appeared to lie from the former E. by N. 2 leagues distant. At this time the depth of water was 35 fathoms; and as the wind blew directly on the shore, and the main land, though not more than 4 leagues off, was not sufficiently high to be distinctly seen from the deck; we hauled our tacks on board, and stood to the S.E. increasing our distance very slowly. At fix in the evening, the nearest land was a rocky island, about 2 miles in circuit, which bore by compass N. 13 E. 8 miles distant; and from the mast-head, the flat low coat was visible as far as E.N.E.; at 9 the depth of water had gradually increased to 40 fathoms. Considering our present as the most prudent tack to remain upon until we should meet shoals, or other impediments, I directed the Chatham to lead and found; our depth gradually increased to 54 fathoms, and the coast in the morning was in fight from N.E. to east. The wind blew a light breeze from the S.S.E. with which we steered for the land until about nine, when we tacked in 60 fathoms. The land in fight, at that time, from the mast-head bore by compass from N. N. W. to E. by N. each extremity 5 or 6 leagues distant; all this was supposed to be the main, though between north and E.N.E. the land appeared somewhat broken, occasioned perhaps by some of its parts being elevated a little above the rest of the shore, off which breakers were seen to lie at some distance; and the land, which in the morning bore east, and now bore by compass N. 87 E. 8 miles distant, was evidently a rocky island about a league in circuit, much resembling that which we passed the preceding evening. It proved the termination of our researches on this coast, and thence obtained the name of TERMINATION ISLAND; on it the sea broke with much violence, and between it, and the main, was a small low islet. The great depth of water indicated that the bank of soundings, which we had hitherto found extending along the coast, terminated also on its approach to this island, as we had no where found so great a depth of water at this small distance from the shore; which, on being increased a few miles only, put the ship intirely out of soundings. At noon, the observed la-

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1791 October. Sunday 23.

titude was 31°34′ longitude 121° 52′; 22 miles further east, and 4 further north than shewn by the log. In this situation the main land from the mast-head was seen bearing by compass N.N.W. to E.N.E. ½ E.; and Termination Island situated in latitude 34° 32′, longitude 122° 8 ′½; N.84 E. Between the easternmost part of the main, seen the preceding evening, and the westernmost seen this morning, is a space of 10 leagues, which we passed in the night without observing land; yet, from the regularity of the soundings, there can be little doubt of its being one continued coast, and that the course by us made good s. 76 E. is nearly parallel to its direction. The whole of this low country presented a dreary aspect, destitute of wood, or herbage, and interspersed with white and brown patches, occasioned, most probably, by the different colours of sand or rock, of which it is composed. We here noticed more coast and oceanic birds, than we had seen on any other part of the shores: as, besides gunnets, and two or three different sorts of tern, albatrosses, and petrels, particularly the black and footy, were in great abundance. The weather continued very fine, with a light variable breeze in the eastern quarter, which drew us, not only out of light, and some distance from the coast, but prevented our making much progress in the direction, in which it seemed to bend, until the 16th; when the wind, settling in the western board, we steered to the E.N.E. in hopes of falling in with the land; and in the event of its taking a more northerly direction, the Chatham was ordered to look out 3 leagues on the larboard beam. At noon, the observed latitude was 35° 30′, the longitude 122° 40′. At this time, the wind suddenly shifted to the southward, and was accompanied by a very heavy swell in that direction, which strongly indicating the approach of boisterous weather, the Chatham's signal was made to join, and our course was directed to E.S.E.; not daring, under all the circumstances of our situation, to run the risk of encountering bad weather on an unexplored coast, that presented to us so many dangers. Besides, as the lowness of the shores which we had lately seen, and the distant shoals that we had found extending from them, would exact particular caution as we proceeded, more time would necessarily be required in the prosecution of such an

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1791 October.

inquiry, than the main object of our voyage would at present allow. I was therefore compelled to relinquish, with great reluctance, the favorite project of further examining the coast of this unknown though interesting country; and, directing our route over an hitherto untraversed part of these seas, we proceeded without further delay towards the pacific ocean.

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CHAPTER III.

Remarks on the country and productions on part of the south-west coast of New Holland—Extraordinary devastation by fire—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1791. October.

ALTHOUGH the considerations adverted to in the foregoing chapter, rendered it impracticable to explore the S.W. coast of New Holland to the extent my wishes first led me to imagine, and prevented our ascertaining its boundary and connection with, or separation from, Van Dieman's Land; yet the information we have acquired, will open a field to those whose duty it may hereafter be to perform that task; by shewing, that its S.W. part may be approached with the greatest safety, as its shores are bold with regular soundings to the distance of 8 or 9 leagues; and by the discovery of the very excellent harbour in King George the Third's Sound. Considering therefore its situation and conveniences as likely to become of material importance to those whose pursuits may induce them to navigate this and the pacific ocean, it may not be uninteresting to detail, in a more particular manner, the circumstances that occurred during our visit to a country hitherto so little known to Europeans.

Our survey comprehended an extent of 110 leagues, in which space we saw no other haven or place of security for shipping than the sound before mentioned: notwithstanding the opinion of Dampier, who has considered the whole of the western part of New Holland as consisting of a cluster of islands. He was undoubtedly a judicious observer, of very superior talents; and, it is most likely, formed his opinion from the many islands which he found composing the exterior coast of the N.W. part of this extensive country. However just may be his conclusions as to that part of New Holland,

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1791. October.

they certainly do not apply to its south western side, as no very material separation, either by rivers, or arms of the sea, was discovered in the neighbourhood of our survey. Had such breaks in the coast existed, and had they escaped our observation, it is highly probable we should have met in the sea, or seen driven on its shores, drift wood and other productions of the interior country. The very deep colour also of the several streams of water may possibly be occasioned by the quality of the soil through which they slow; whence it may be inferred that, if any considerable inland waters had their source far in the country, or if any great body descended from its shores, the sea along the coast would in some measure have been discoloured: but neither of these evidences existed, for, on our approach to the land, there was no previous appearance to indicate its vicinity. This opinion was further corroborated on inspecting the habitations and places of the natives' resort; where not the least remains of canoes, or other circumstance presented itself, which could convey the most distant idea of these people having ever trusted themselves on the water; a circumstance which it is reasonable to suppose would sometimes have happened, had their country been insulated, or their travelling interrupted by large rivers or arms of the sea; especially as all appearances favored the conjecture of their being, by no means, a stationary people. There was great reason, however, to conclude, that the country was well supplied with fresh water; as wherever we chanced to land, we easily procured that valuable article, not only where the soil was of considerable depth, but from streamlets issuing out of the solid rocks. This seemed to be the cafe even on the most elevated land, which caused a very singular appearance when the sun shone in certain directions on those mountains whose surfaces were destitute of soil; for on these made humid by the continually oozing of the water, a bright glare was produced that gave them the resemblance of hills covered with snow.

Our researches afforded little matter worthy of notice excepting such as appertained to King George the Third's Sound. This pert has its entrance in latitude 35° 5′, longitude 118° 17′. It is easily known on approaching it from the westward, as it is the first opening in the coast that presents any appearance like an harbour,

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1791. October.

eastward of cape Chatham. The Eclipse Islands being the only detached land that can be so regarded, are an excellent guide to the found, having, between them and Bald-head, some rocks on which the sea breaks with great violence. The port is safe, and easy of access any where between its outer points of entrance, Bald-head, and Mount Gardner, lying N. 62 E. and S. 62 W. 11 miles distant from each other. Mount Gardner is not less conspicuous and useful in pointing out the sound from the eastern quarter, than in its being rendered very remarkable by its handsome shape, and its rocky, and almost uninterrupted polished surface to its summit. Its base may be said rather to form the eastern extent of the coast, than the opposite point of the found, there being within it a projection which more properly forms the N.E. point of the found, lying from Bald-head N. 30 E. about 5 miles distant. Between these latter points are Michaelmas, and Break Sea islands, each about a league in circuit, one mile apart, nearly equidistant between the two points, and affording to all appearance good channels on every side. The water suddenly decreases in its depth from 30 to 12 fathoms; the latter depth uniformly continuing across from point o point, I should conceive, must be an additional means of preventing any very heavy sea from rolling into the sound; which, in the most exposed place of anchorage convenient to the shore, is only open from E. by N. to S.E. by E. Between these limits are situated the two islands above mentioned, whence the sound extends W. by N. about two leagues to Point Possession, and from our anchorage to Oyster Harbour, north about the same distance, with regular soundings in mid-channel of 12 to 15, and 10 to 6 fathoms close to the shore, excepting near Seal Island, where there is a hole of 21 fathoms. The Discovery and Chatham were moored in a situation, not only very convenient as to communication with the shore, but I believe, in perfect security as it respected the element: for although the sea broke sometimes with such violence on Break Sea Island, that the surf ranged to its elevated summit, during a continuance of the boisterous weather; yet it did not occasion us the least inconvenience. A more eligible situation if required in the sound might very probably be met with above the stat rock, as vessels would be there more completely land locked;

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1791. October.

and a convenient sandy cove, easily to be discovered in that neighbourhood, a stream of excellent fresh water slows into, which though to all appearance not better in quality than the water we received on board, was yet more pleasing to the eye, not being of so deep a colour.

Princess Royal's Harbour admits of a passage into it about a quarter of a mile wide; nearst to the northern shore the depth is 5 or 6 fathoms, but on the southern, not more than 2½ and 3 fathoms water, occasioned by banks of coral rock which are very conspicuous, and, not being liable to any of the violent agitations of the sea, are by no means dangerous. Within the points of entrance, the depth is regularly from 4 to 7 fathoms, and the bottom clear, good holding ground. This depth, though occupying part only of the harbour, yet affords a sufficient space for several vessels to ride in safety.

Oyster Harbour is rendered admissible alone for vessels of a middle size, by the shallowness of the water on the bar, extending from shore to shore, on which we sound 17 feet water only, although the depth increased from 5 to 7 fathoms on each side. The deep water within the harbour did not seem of any great extent. In both these harbours the communication with the country is rendered unpleasant by the shallow depth of water in most places extending to a great distance from the shore. This inconveniency could easily be remedied, should it ever be an object so to do, by wharfs; although it is not unlikely that on a more minute inspection the necessity for such a measure would cease to appear.

In navigating the sound, we did not observe any danger that was not sufficiently conspicuous to be avoided: circumstances however did not admit of our acquiring that satisfactory information respecting Princess Royal and Oyster harbours which fall into it, that could have been wished; yet so far as relates to the sound, the annexed sketch will I believe be sound to contain no very material error.

The appearance of this country along the coasts, resembles, in most respects, that of Africa about the cape of Good Hope. The surface seemed to be chiefly composed of sand mixed with decayed vegetables, varying exceedingly in point of richness; and although bearing a great similarity, yet indicating a foil superior in quality to that in the imme-

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1791. October.

diate neighbourhood of Cape Town. The principal component part of this country appeared to be coral; and it would seem that its elevation above the ocean is of modern date, not only from the shores, and the bank which extends along the coast being, generally speaking, composed of coral, as was evident, by our lead never descending to the bottom without bringing up coral on its return; but by coral being sound on the highest hills we ascended; particularly on the summit of Bald-Head, which is sufficiently above the level of the sea to be seen at 12 or 14 leagues distance. Here the coral was entirely in its original state; particularly in one level spot, comprehending about eight acres, which produced not the least herbage on the white sand that occupied this space; through which the branches of coral protruded, and were sound standing exactly like those seen in the beds of coral beneath the surface of the sea, with ramifications of different sizes, some not half an inch, others four or five inches in circumference. In these fields of coral, (if the term field be allowable,) of which there were several, sea shells were in great abundance, some nearly in a perfect state still adhering to the coral, others in different stages of decay. The coral was friable in various degrees; the extremities of the branches, some of which were nearly four feet above the sand, were easily reduced to powder, whilst those close to, or under the surface, required some small force to break them from the rocky foundation from whence they appeared to spring. I have seen coral in many places at a considerable distance from the sea; but in no other instance have I seen it so elevated, and in such a state of perfection.

In the lower lands we frequently met with extensive tracts occupied by a kind of okerish swampy peat, or moorish soil of a very dark brown colour, forming as it were a crust, which shook and trembled when walked upon: with water oozing through, or running over the surface, in all directions. Through this soil most of the streams take their course, and it is to their impregnation in the passage, that the general high colour of the water is to be attributed. These swamps were not always confined to low and level spots, but were sound on the acclivity of the higher lands; and where these did not occupy the sides of the hills, the soil was deep, and appeared infinitely more productive than the surface

VOL. I. H

[page] 50

1791. October.

of the plains; especially that through which the rivulet in Oyster Harbour has been mentioned to slow. In that plain we sound, at irregular intervals, just beneath the surface, a substratum of an apparently imperfect chalk, or a rich white marle, seemingly formed of the same decayed shells, with which the course of the river abounded. Those strata, about eight or ten yards broad, run perpendicularly to the rivulet; their depth we had not leisure to examine, although there seemed little doubt of finding this substance in sufficient abundance for the purposes of manure, should the cultivation of this country ever be in contemplation. The general structure of it seems very favorable to such an attempt, as the mountains are neither steep nor numerous; nor do the rising grounds form such hills as bid defiance to the plough, while they produce that fort of diversity which is grateful to the eye, and not unpleasant to the traveller.

This chalky earth was also sound in the neighbourhood of a moorish soil; and, on a more minute examination, seemed much to resemble an earth described in Cronstadt's Mineralogy at the bottom of his note (y), page 21. It did not shew any signs of effervescence with acids, nor did it burn into lime; but, like the earth alluded to, contains a number of finall transparent crystals. These were visible without a microscope; and as, on applying the blow pipe, vitrisication took place, it might probably be usefully appropriated in making a fort of porcelain.

The stones we sound were chiefly of coral, with a few black and brown pebbles, state, quartz, two or three sorts of granite, with some sand stones, but none seeming to posses any metallic quality.

The climate, if a judgment may be formed by so short a visit, seemed delightful: for though we contended with some boisterous weather on our approach to the coast, nothing less ought reasonably to have been expected at the season of the vernal equinox, and breaking up of the winter. The gales we experienced in King George the Third's Sound, were not of such violence as to put vessels at sea past their topsails; although whilst the S.W. wind continued a most violent sea broke with incredible fury on the exterior shores. This however can easily be imagined, when the extensive uninterrupted range which the wind in that direction has over the Indian ocean is taken into consideration: during the continuance of

[page] 51

1791. October.

this wind the atmosphere was tolerably clear, though the air was keen. Farenheit's thermometer, at the time of year answering to the beginning of april in the northern hemisphere, stood at 53°; but at all other times during our stay, varied between 58° and 64°, and the barometer from 29° 90′ to 30° 50′. Slight colds were caught by the crew, which ought rather to be imputed to their own want of care than to the climate, as, on getting to sea, the parties soon recovered. Our convalescents in the flux received much benefit. though their health could not yet be considered as thoroughly reestablished. These circumstances induced an opinion, that the climate and soil bid fair to be capable of producing all the essentials, and many of the luxuries of life; although on the subject of agricultural improvement, I felt myself as unqualified to determine, as to enumerate scientifically the several trees, shrubs, and plants with which the country abounds. Of the two latter there appeared a great variety, and I believe afforded to Mr. Menzies much entertainment and employment. Amongst the most remarkable was the gum plant, sound every where in great abundance, and answering, in all its characters, to the description and representation of that plant sound at port Jackson, as mentioned in Philips's voyage. Wild celery was sound in quantities sufficient for our pea-soup, and daily to supply the people by way of sauce to their salted meat: this with samphire were the only eatable vegetables we procured. Other plants were numerous, and afforded a great variety of beautiful flowers. The shrubs also were abundant, and of many species; but neither these nor the trees grew so closely together as materially to incommode travelling, even in the neighbourhood of Oyster Harbour, where the country is very well wooded; and as the branches of the trees do not approach within several feet of the ground, an extensive view is admitted in every direction. The forest trees seemed of four different sorts. The most common much resembled the holly, but these were not of the larger fort; that which I took to be the gum tree of New South Wales, by its foliage and its producing a considerable quantity of gum, seemed to be a hard, ponderous, close-grained wood: of this description the larger trees seemed chiefly to consist; one of these measured 9 feet 4 inches in girth, and was of a proportionable height. Those from which our fuel was procured were of the myr-

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1791. October.

tle tribe, not unlike the pimento of the West Indies, in shape, appearance, and aromatic flavor of the foliage: and in the hard and close texture of the wood, which makes an excellent and pleasant fire, burning cheerfully yet consuming flow; whilst, from the smoke, a very spicy agreeable fragrance is exhaled. These do not, in general, grow to large timbers; but there is another species much resembling them, with rather broader leaves, and possessing like them an aromatic flavor, which grow to a considerable size. These, with a species not unlike the silver tree of the cape of Good Hope, were the trees that were found generally to compose the forest.

For the benefit of those who may visit the country hereafter, some vine-cuttings and water-cresses were planted on the island in Oyster Harbour, and at the place from whence we procured our fuel; and an assortment of garden seeds, with some almonds, orange, lemon and pumkin seeds were sown. The whole being the produce of Africa, I should have entertained little doubt of their success, had it not been, that there was much to apprehend in their being over-run by the natural productions of the country.

Of the animal kingdom, so far as relates to the tenants of the earth, little information was derived. The only quadruped seen was one dead kangaroo; the dung, however, of these or some other animals seeding on vegetables, was almost every where met with, and frequently so fresh as to indicate that the animal could not be far removed.

Of the birds that live in or resort to the woods, the vulture may be said to be the most common, as we saw several of this species, or at least, birds that were so considered. Hawks of the falcon tribe, with several others of that genus; a bird much resembling the English crow, parrots, parroquets, and a variety of small birds, some of which sung very melodiously, were those which attracted our attention the most; but all were so excessively wild and watchful, that few specimens could be procured. Of the water fowl, the black swan seemed as numerous as any other species of aquatic birds in the neighbourhood of Oyster Harbour, but they were seen in no other place. There were also black and white pelicans of a large sort, seen at a distance; and though ducks were

[page] 53

1791. October.

in great numbers, we were very unsuccessful in taking them. A very peculiar one was shot, of a darkish grey plumage, with a bag like that of a lizard hanging under its throat; which smelt so intolerably of musk that it scented nearly the whole ship. There were also many grey curlews, and sea-pies; of the latter we procured a few, which were excellent eating. The aquatic birds before enumerated, with shags, the common gull, two or three forts of tern, and a few small penguins of a blueish colour, included the whole of the feathered tribe in the vicinity of the shores.

With the productions of the sea, we were not much more acquainted; which is rather to be attributed to our want of skill as fishermen than to its want of bounty. Some of the few fish we caught were very excellent, particularly of the larger fort; one much resembling the snook, and another the calipevar of Jamaica, both of high flavor; as was a kind of fish not unlike, nor inferior in quality to, the English red mullet. These, with the common white mullet, rock fish, mackerel, herrings, and a variety of small fish, were those we procured, though not in any abundance.

Whilst on the coast, whales and seals were frequently playing about the ship; of the latter, we saw about a score at one time on Seal Island. The little trouble these animals took to avoid us, indicated their not being accustomed to such visitors. The throat and belly of these seals, which were of a large fort, were nearly white; between the head and shoulders, the neck rises in a kind of crest, which, with the back, was of a light brown colour; their hair was exceedingly coarse; the carcase very poor, and afforded little blubber; which, however, may be imputable to the season.

Reptiles and noxious animals seemed by no means to be numerous, as only two or three yellow, and bronze-coloured snakes were seen, which were good eating; these, with a few lizards of the common fort, and some about eight or nine inches long of a thick clumsy make, dark colour, and altogether excessively ugly, were what composed that race of animals. Some beautiful beetles, common flies, and muskitoes, were occasionally met with, but not in such numbers as to produce inconvenience.

[page] 54

1791. Ocotber.

It would now remain to say something of the human species, the inhabitants of this country; but as we were not so fortunate to procure an interview with any one of them, all that can be advanced on this subject must be founded on conjecture or nearly so, and consequently very liable to error: it may, however, not be unacceptable to state such circumstances as, on the spot, occurred to our observation.

The natives appeared to be a wandering people, who sometimes made their excursions individually, at other times in considerable parties; this was apparent by their habitations being found single and alone, as well as composing tolerably large villages.

Besides the village I visited, Mr. Broughton discovered another about two miles distant from it. of nearly the same magnitude; but it appeared to be of a much later date, as all the huts had been recently built, and seemed to have been very lately inhabited. It was situated in a swamp, which might probably have been preferred to a higher and firmer land for the convenience of water.One or two huts of a larger size were here also observed; the rest were precisely of the same description with those in the neighbourhood. The larger trees in the vicinity of both villages, had been hollowed out by fire, sufficiently to afford the shelter these people seemed to require. Upon stones placed in the inside of these hollow trees fires had been made, which proved that they had been used as habitations, either for the inferior of the party, which would argue a further degree of subordination amongst them, or for those who were too indolent to build themselves the wattled huts before described. No one species of furniture or utensil was discovered in any of the houses; the only implements seen, were pieces of sticks intended as spears, rudely wrought, and the operation of manual labour upon them but slightly discernible. The bark was stripped off, and the thickest end, after having been burnt in the fire, was scraped and reduced to a blunt point, on one of which some blood was found still adhering.

Destitute (as they seemed) of the means, and totally ignorant of every mode of embarkation, it is not likely that they place much dependence on marine productions for their subsistence; yet it was evident from the wears on die shores, and from the mouths of the brooks near the villages

[page break]

A DESERTED INDIAN VILLAGE in KING GEORGE III. SOUND, NEW HOLLAND.

[page break]

[page] 55

1791. October.

being flopped up, that they sometimes resort to the rivulets and to the sea for provisions. On this account, it was considered rather extraordinary, that the bones of the fishes on which they had fed were no where to be found; and this led to a supposition that those which their endeavours enabled them to procure were very small. It appeared still more extraordinary that, since they drew a certain proportion of their food from the sea, they should not have discovered so excellent a part of its produce as oysters and clams; notwithstanding that the latter show themselves on the beaches over which they must frequently walk; and that the former at low water require only wading half-leg deep on the shoals that extend from the main land to gather in a few minutes a day's subsistence. Neither did it appear that they had any knowledge of these, the limpets, nor any other shell fish found amongst the rocks; or if they had, for some reason not easily to be imagined, they certainly made no use of them; otherwise their shells in all human probability would have been seen near the places of their resort. Hence it may naturally be inferred, that the land principally supplies their wants, or hunger would long since have conducted them to such excellent resources. This opinion is supported by the extreme shyness of the feathered creation, and the wildness of the quadrupeds, whose footing, and the other signs of their being at no great distance without our obtaining any fight of them, sufficiently proved that they were constantly pursued. This circumstance may furnish a probable conjecture on the cause of the very extraordinary devastation by fire, which the vegetable productions had suffered throughout the whole country we traversed. Fire is frequently resorted to by rude nations, cither for the purpose of encouraging a sweeter growth of herbage in their hunting grounds, or as toils for taking their wild animals, of which they are in pursuit. When the forest is set on fire for such purposes in a dry season, its ravages may become very extensive; and the inflammatory quality of the gum plant, which is here in great abundance, may operate to promote that general havock which we observed in the vegetable kingdom.

The destructive operations of fire were, however, evident in places where the gum-plant was not found for a considerable distance; and, positively speaking, in our excursion on shore, we did not see a spot

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1791. October

that produced any vegetables, which had not visibly felt its effects. Where the country was well wooded, the loftiest timbers had the topmost of their branches burned; yet none seemed totally destroyed by it; and where the luxuriance of the soil had obliterated its baneful appearance amongst the growing shrubs and plants, the ground, on examination, was found strewed over with the remains of branches and stumps that had been partially consumed by fire. Had this conflagration been occasioned, as some of us supposed, by repeated storms of violent lightning and thunder, it is reasonable to imagine we should have seen the forest trees much torn and shattered to pieces; which in no instance was observed.

As nothing further occurred, worthy any particular notice, I shall conclude my remarks on this country by stating the astronomical and nautical observations that were made for ascertaining its situation, and for other purposes of navigation.

The latitude of the situation of the ships in King George the Third's Sound, deduced from 9 meridional altitudes of the sun, taken by four different observers and quadrants, all nearly agreeing together, gave their mean result 35° 5′ 30″ south
The longitude deduced from the mean result of 25 sets of lunar distances of the sun and stars, taken before our arrival; 8 sets taken whilst at anchor in the found; and 52 sets taken after our departure, and reduced to our station there; making in the whole 85 sets, each set containing 6 observed distances, and equal to 510 observations, gave 118° 14′ 13″ east
Kendall's chronometer, allowing the Portsmouth rate, on our arrival chewed 117° 46′ 0″
Allowing the Cape rate 118° 23′ 0″
Arnold's chronometer, on board the Chatham, allowing the Cape rate 117° 38′ 30″

By the daily observations made at anchor, Kendall's chronometer appeared to have altered its rate as settled at the cape of Good Hope,

[page] 57

1791. October.

and seemed to be going nearer to its original Portsmouth rate. The result of a fortnight's observations proved it to be gaining at the rate of 6″ per day; and admitting the longitude to be right as ascertained by our observations, it was, at noon on the 9th of October, fast of mean time at Greenwich 26′ 14″: and as it was manifest on our arrival and during our residence at the Cape, that Kendall's chronometer was gaining materially on its Portsmouth rate, I have, in reducing the observations taken prior to our arrival in King George the Third's Sound, adopted a mean rate, which I trust will render the result of the several observations liable to little error.

The variation of the magnetic needle on board whilst at anchor, by two compasses, differed from 3° 55′ to 7° 11″. The mean result of 12 sets shewed 5° 20′ westwardly variation.

The vertical inclination of the South point of the magnetic needle, marked end North, face East 65° 49′
Marked end North face West 63°
Marked end South face East 65° 28′
Marked end South face West 65° 20′
Mean vertical inclination of the South point of the marine dipping needle 64° 54′

Our observations with regard to the tides were rather indecisive, as their fluctuation in the sound seemed to be greatly influenced by the force and direction of the wind; our last visit however to Oyster Harbour afforded an opportunity of noticing, that the rise and fall appeared on that day to be about four feet, and that it was high water 3″ 42′ after the moon passer the meridian. Whilst on the coast the vessels were constantly sound to be further advanced, than what the run of the log intimated; but whether this was occasioned by errors in this practice, or by a current continually pressing eastward along the coast, we had no positive means of discovering; though, from our conclusions at the time, the latter should seem to be the cafe, as the log was not only used with much circumspection, but the line was frequently remeasured, and always found according to its due proportions.

VOL. I.I CHAPTER

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CHAPTER IV.

Passage from the south-west coast of New Holland—Pass Van Dieman's Land—Arrival in Dusky Bay, New Zealand—Violent storms—Leave Dusky Bay—A violent storm—Much water found in the ship—Part company with the Chatham—Discover the Snares—Proceed towards Otaheite—Arrive and join the Chatham there.

1791. October. Wednes. 26.

OUR apprehensions of approaching boisterous weather, proved in the sequel to have been ill founded; for notwithstanding the S.W. swell on the 17th greatly increased, a gentle gale continued to attend us, chiefly from the western quarter, with pleasant weather. With this we steered to the S.E. and without the occurrence of any intervening circumstance worth relating, made such progress, that on the 26th, we had fight of Van Dieman's Land, bearing by compass E.N.E. 10 or 12 leagues distant. Soundings at this time could not be gained at the depth of 80 fathoms. During this passage few oceanic birds had been seen; a continual and heavy swell had rolled between the south and west, and we experienced the same fort of influence in our reckoning as on the coast of New Holland, in finding the ship every day further advanced than we expected. A continuance of fine weather allowed several lunar observations to be taken, which were directed to the purpose of ascertaining the longitude of our last station. The breeze from the S.E. was very light, and it was not until late in the day that the land could be plainly distinguished. At seven o'clock in the evening we tacked and stood to the S.W.; the Mewstone bearing by compass S. 88 E.; the easternmost part of the main land in sight N. 82½ E. the south-west cape being the nearest land N.E. 3 or 4 leagues distant; land appearing like an island, N.11 W. and the

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1791. October.

westernmost part of the main land N. 5 W. This land lies from the south-west cape N. 16 W. about 9 leagues distant: between these points the coast seemed to be much broken, with some small islands lying a few miles from the shore. It was nearly calm during the night, and although within 3 or 4 leagues of the land, soundings could not gained at the depth of 130 fathoms.

Thursday 27.

In the morning we steered along the coast, with a fine breeze from N.N.W.; and about 8, under the meridian of the south-west cape, the chronometer gave the longitude by the last rate 146° 27′ ″
By the Cape rate 147 7 15
By the Portsmouth rate 146 8
The former, places the south-west cape 20′ further east than the longitude assigned to it by captain Cook. The chronometer placed the Swilly rock which we passed in the evening, according to the last rate, in longitude 147° 23′ 30″
According to the Cape rate 148 3 45
Portsmouth rate 147 2

By the last rate the chronometer was 17½′ to the east of Captain Cook's longitude of this rock, and made the mean difference of the longitude of this coast, 18′ 45″, to the eastward of Captain Cook's calculations; whence it would appear, that either the chronometer had acquired that error since our departure from King George the Third's Sound, or that we had placed that port a few miles too far to the eastward. The nearest land at six in the evening, was the south cape of Van Dieman's, which bore by compass N. 24 W. 6 or 7 leagues distant. Having now a fine gale at N.N.E. we took two reefs in the topsails; shaped a course for Dusky Bay in New Zealand; and by signal to the Chatham, appointed Facile Harbour in that bay as the next place of rendezvous.

The dysentery, though nearly subdued on board both vessels, had left those who had been afflicted with it in a very feeble and reduced state; and not knowing of any place so easily within our reach, where such excellent refreshments could be procured with so much facility, together with tim-

I 2

[page] 60

1791 October.

for planks, spars for tent poles. &c. &c. of which we stood in great need, I was induced to make choice of Dusky Bay, notwithstanding the inconvenience it labours under from the great depth of water, and want of anchorage in its entrance.

November. Wednes 2.

A favorable wind, attended in general with tolerably fine weather, varied between the N. and W. and afterwards between the W. and S. with fresh gales, until the 2d of november; when about 9 in the forenoon we were brought within fight of the coast of New Zealand, bearing by compass E.N.E. 12 or 14 leagues distant. We stood for the land, making all sail with a fresh breeze at S.W.; but the weather was so exceedingly hazy, that it was one o'clock in the afternoon before it was plainly distinguished; when Five Finger Point was seen bearing by compass N.E. 7 leagues distant, and the west cape E. by N. ½ N. The wind in the evening veered round to the N.N.W. and being light, with alternate calms, the boats were hoisted out to tow; by which means, and with the additional assistance of a heavy swell rolling up Dusky Bay, we anchored about 9 that evening in 40 fathoms soft bottom, in the arm leading into Facile Harbour. Five Finger Point by compass bore S. 38 W.; the west point of Parrot Island N. 35 E. and the nearest shore W.N.W. half a mile distant. About 11 the Chatham anchored, and, though within us, was in 60 fathoms water.

Although in the year 1773, I had visited Dusky Bay with Captain Cook in the Resolution, I had never been in Facile Harbour; for this reason I deemed it expedient, previous to moving the vessels, to examine and determine on a situation there most convenient for our several employments. On this occasion I was accompanied by Mr. Broughton and Mr. Whidbey. Having made our choice, we were greatly alarmed on our return by the report of two guns; but as the wind had much increased since our departure from the ships, we were not long at a loss how to account for this signal, and concluded that one, or both, of the vessels had driven from their anchorage.

We were no sooner clear of the islands, than our conjectures were in part confirmed. The Chatham was stationary, but the Discovery was moving; and by the time we reached her, about one o'clock, she was

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1791 November. Friday 4.

nearly a-breast of Five Finger Point. We found that, on the ship's driving, a second anchor had been resorted to; but the depth of water being upwards of 70 fathoms, she was not brought up; that anchor was again at the bows, and the other nearly up; so that we were shortly enabled to set the sails; and, having a strong gale at N.N.W. though attended with heavy squalls, I was not without hopes of reaching our destination in Facile Harbour before dusk. But about five, a very violent gust of wind carried away the strap of the sore-topsail sheet block; the staysail sheets and haulyards gave way; and the fore-topmast staysail split: the gale seemed to be increasing, and as we were in too narrow a channel to repair these damages before we should have lost all the distance we had gained, it was exceedingly fortunate that we had Anchor Island Harbour to leeward of us, for which we immediately steered; and running in by the western entrance, anchored at the mouth of the cove in 26 fathoms, soft muddy bottom; and after veering to half a cable, our stern was in 13 fathoms water, about forty yards from the island that lies at the bottom of the cove. The ship was steadied by hawsers, from the bows to the points of the cove, and from the quarters to the trees on each side. The gale increased during the night; and it became necessary to strike the lower yards, and top-gallant masts. Our apprehensions for the safety of the Chatham were not relieved until, by rowing over to the Petrel Islands the next forenoon, and by walking across the land, we had the happiness to see her ride in perfect safety; but as she was directly to windward, and the gale continued to increase, Mr. Broughton was unable to get on board. Satisfied with the security of her station, we returned to the Discovery, when the violence of the gale from the N.W. obliged us to strike the topmasts, it not being in our power to were more cable, or allow the ship to drive, without her being on the rocks astern; of which even with these precautions we entertained some fears; although in a situation perfectly land locked, and the weather shores not more than five cables length distant. The violence of the gale still continuing, the small bower anchor was dropped under foot. In the evening the wind moderated a little, which seemed to be for the sole purpose of acquiring and returning with new vigor, as, by two on saturday morning, the gale increased to so

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1791 November.

violent a storm, as to oblige us to lower the top-masts close down to the cap, and to get our yards and top-gallant masts sore and aft on the deck. From five o'clock until eight, it blew a perfect hurricane, attended with torrents of rain. We were happily in a very snug, secure little harbour, yet the sea beat with such unremitted violence against the rocks immediately astern of us, that had either the anchor, or cable given way, little else but inevitable destruction must have followed. Our anxiety was infinitely increased, by our solicitude for the welfare of the Chatham; but as the storm with us at N.W. by W. was directly from off the highland under which the rode, we comforted ourselves with the hope she might not experience its fury to the degree it affected us. About nine a most tremendous gust caused the ship to roll excessively; this was immediately followed by a slash of lightning, and a heavy crash of thunder which broke up the storm; and in the space of half an hour, the weather might be considered, comparatively speaking, as fair and pleasant. Mr. Broughton immediately repaired to the Chatham, and had the inexpressible pleasure of finding, that she had rode out the gale in a manner far beyond all expectation. At her station the storm had blown from the N.N.E. directly down the arm in which the was at anchor; the sea broke intirely over her, though it had not a fetch of three miles, and in a channel not three quarters of a mile wide; yet with her yards and topmasts close lowered and two anchors down, she rode out this heavy storm in perfect security. Mr. Broughton lost no time in getting under weigh, and worked into Facile Harbour; to which place, notwithstanding our having been obliged to seek shelter here, it was my intention to have gone; but as we were now completely dismantled, and finding that from these shores all our wants could conveniently be supplied, I determined to remain quiet, and to set about the several repairs we required with all possible dispatch. Parties were immediately employed on the different services of cutting wood for fuel, timber for spars, and planks; brewing spruce beer; repairing the fails and rigging, casks, &c. &c. which necessary and essential duties engaged every person on board. A small boat with four men, daily employed in fishing, never returned without an abundance of excellent fish for present use, and a supply for every one who

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1791 November. Sunday 6.

chose to salt them for future occasions. The N.W. gale did not intirely abandon us, it again blew with considerable violence on sunday, after which it moderated, and the weather became settled, serene and pleasant, particularly when the wind, which was generally the case, had its direction from the south or western quarters; by which means our several duties were executed pleasantly, and with great ease.

Sunday 13.

By the 13th, these necessary operations were in such a state of forwardness, as to allow a large party of officers and gentlemen in two boats, accompanied by Mr. Broughton in the Chatham's cutter, to attend me on an excursion over this spacious bay, with the hope of becoming acquainted with some of the inhabitants; and, if circumstances permitted, to explore the upper part of the northern arm, which by Captain Cook was called, "NO BODY KNOWS WHAT," and the only part he did not thoroughly examine.

Monday 14. Tuesday 15.

We found the arm in which Captain Cook places Apparent Island, to be divided into two branches, leaving that land a peninsula joined to the main land, by a very high, though narrow ridge of mountains. The perpendicular height, and very extraordinary shape, of the rocky part fronting the arm, render it a most singular and majestic promontory. Mr. Broughton undertook the right hand, or southern branch, which he sound winding, first in a direction nearly N.E. by E. about 3° miles; then E.S.E. about half a league; and there, in a northern direction, terminating in a small cove. The northern arm we sound to run nearly straight about N.E. for 5 miles, then turning round to the northward, for half a league further, and ending in a small cove with very shallow water, in a north western direction. The heads of these arms, in conformity with Captain Cook's name of their entrance, I have called SOME BODY KNOWS WHAT. We were exceedingly fortunate in having most delightful weather for these examinations, and returned on board on tuesday afternoon; though not without some disappointment that, after three days excursion, and landing in many places, particularly in Cascade and Indian Coves, which were formerly the resort of the natives, we no where found any traces of them, or any circumstance that in the least indicated the country being at present inhabited: if one or two mi-

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1791 November. Wednes.16.

serable huts be excepted which the officers of the Chatham met with in the neighbourhood of Facile Harbour, but which had not the appearance of having been lately occupied. Pleasant weather still continuing, on the 16th I took a survey of Anchor Island Harbour. It appeared to be perfectly secure, and may be found convenient, when accident may prevent vessels getting into Facile Harbour. It has two entrances; that to the north of the Petrel islands is a fair and clear channel, though of great depth; its general soundings being from 33 to, 38 fathoms; in the narrowest part it is about a cable's length wide, and, I believe, free from any danger; as the shores are sleep, without any sunken rocks or shoals, excepting within the passage close under the south side of large Petrel Island, where they are discoverable by the weeds growing upon them, and are quite out of the way of its navigation. The other passage is to the southward of the Petrel islands; and as, in all probability, a strong northerly wind would alone induce any person to make choice of this in preference to Facile Harbour, the S.W. point of large Petrel Island should be kept close on board, (which may be safely done) in order to weather the rock that appears above water in the middle of the harbour, and to avoid a sunken one of which there is not the least indication, and on which there is no greater depth than twelve feet at low water. Between this sunken rock, and the point from off which it lies about three quarters of a cable's length, and nearly in the direction to what I have called ENTRY ISLAND, are sixteen fathoms. Keeping the rock in the harbour, which is always visible, in a line with what I have called NORTH ENTRY ISLAND, will be sufficient direction, to pass within the above-mentioned point and the sunken rock. This, however, with some other particulars, is better illustrated by the annexed sketch; which, with one of Facile Harbour taken by Mr. Broughton, I have subjoined to a copy of captain Cook's most excellent chart of this port, with such trifling additions as in the course of our observations we have been able to make; and on this head, I shall only further remark, that Anchor Island harbour, although a very safe and secure port, is not a very convenient one to get to sea from, owing to its narrow limits, great depth of water, and the above sunken rock which we discovered in its western entrance.

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1791 November Friday 18. Saturday 19. Sunday 10.

Most of our business with the shore being finished our rigging overhauled, sails bent, and the ship ready for sea, with very fine weather and a gentle breeze from S. S. E., on the morning of the 18th we failed out of the cove. The Chatham was not yet in readiness to depart; in order, however, that we might be conveniently stationed to proceed together when circumstances should admit, I intended to place the ship abreast of Facile Harbour; but the breeze failing, and the tide setting us towards the islands that lie from it, we were obliged to anchor sooner than I wished in 38 fathoms soft bottom. Five Finger Point by compass bore S. 40 W.; west point of Anchor Island S. 12 W. and the south point of Parrot Island N. 53 W. a quarter of a mile distant. The day was nearly calm, but the next morning brought with it a fresh breeze from the southward. The Chatham having completed her business, stood out into the roadsted, which obtained the name of TEMPEST ROAD, from the storm she there rode out on our arrival: but not seeing any probability of getting to sea, she returned into Facile Harbour. The gale increased towards noon, but in the evening the weather again became delightfully pleasant.

Sunday 20. Monday 21. Tuesday 12.

On sunday morning about 7 o'clock, a fresh breeze from the S.W. set in, accompanied by an unusually heavy swell, which giving us reason to apprehend some violence from the wind in that direction, we weighed, ran into Facile Harbour, and anchored abreast of the passage leading out through Parrot and Pigeon islands, in 38 fathoms soft bottom. This passage, though not exceeding a cable's length in width, we found to be a very excellent one, with soundings from 9 to 5 fathoms close to the shores. These soundings are on a ridge from island to island, as the water deepened to upwards of 30 fathoms immediately on either side. The Chatham was at anchor near us, and both vessels were conveniently stationed for proceeding to sea on a favorable opportunity presenting itself. The wind continued to blow very strong from the S.W. and brought with it a surf which broke very heavily on the shores in the bay; yet the vessels rode perfectly quiet. On monday, the sky became intirely obscured, the former serenity gave place to dark gloomy weather, and the wind became variable with much rain. The next morning was perfectly calm and although it did not rain, the heavy atmosphere continued. We were

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now employed in completing our Hock of water, and in procuring wood, spruce, or rather a species of cypress, and the tea plant, for brewing at sea. Towards noon, a breeze springing up from the N.W. both vessels failed out of Dusky Bay. A very heavy swell rolled from the S.W. and westward: but having a fresh breeze, by 4 o'clock Five Finger Point bore N. by E. a league distant.

Thus we quitted Dusky Bay, greatly indebted to its most excellent refreshments, and the salubrity of its air. The good effects of a plentiful supply of fish, and spruce beer, were evident in the appearance of every individual in our little society. The health of our convalescents was perfectly re-established, and excepting one with a chronic complaint, and two wounded by cuts in their legs, we had not a man on the surgeon's list; though, on the most trifling occasion of indisposition, no person was ever permitted to attend his duty. Some wild fowl were procured, though they were by no means found in such numbers as when the Resolution was here in the year 1773, owing, in all probability, to the difference of the season; to which, possibly, is to be ascribed, our being unable to ascertain whether the geese then left here had propagated.

Captain Cook's very excellent description of this place precludes any material additions; and leaves me, as a transitory visitor, little else than the power of confirming his judicious remarks and opinions. One circumstance, however, may not be unworthy notice. Mr. Menzies here found the true winter's bark; exactly the same plant as that found at Terra del Fuego; but which escaped the observation of Captain Cook and our botanical gentlemen in 1773: of this, with the antarctic birch, flax, and one or two other plants, we took specimens on board, though the period of our reaching England seemed too distant to entertain hopes of their continuing alive. Captain Cook's recommendation of Facile Harbour to vessels bound to the southward, is highly judicious, as it is in all respects a safe, commodious, and convenient station; capable of supplying every article that can be expected from this country, without going out of fight of the vessel: and it is rendered still more eligible, by our having found so good an outlet with northerly or N.W. winds, between Pigeon and Parrot islands; as, in consequence of the high land drawing those winds directly

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1791. November.

down the harbour, the western entrance will be found less convenient. No time should be lost on arriving in this bay, to seek security in some of its harbours; which, as Captain Cook very truly observes, "are numerous, case, and convenient." For although the weather we experienced after the storm on our arrival, may justly be considered as delightful summer weather, yet it cannot be denied that the northerly winds blow with incredible fury; and as they always take the direction of the arms of the bay, they cause in them, though they are very narrow, a considerable sea, which, in addition to their great depth of water, render such anchoring places neither pleasant nor secure. I should not, however, suppose these storms to be very frequent, for two reasons. First, during our stay here, from the 26th of march until the 11th of may in the year 1773, which may be considered as comprehending part of the winter season, we had no gale of wind comparable in point of violence to that, which we had lately experienced. This was my fifth visit to New Zealand and its neighborhood; and although I have certainly seen much boisterous and tempestuous weather, I never before contended with so violent a storm. Secondly, the mountains in Anchor Island, Resolution Island, and all those of moderate height round the Bay, (the land of Five-Finger Point alone excepted,) which on our arrival were perfectly free from snow, were after the storm covered with it a considerable way down. Were such falls of snow to happen frequently, it is natural to conclude that vegetation would be severely checked, and that its productions would not have been found to flourish, as they certainly do in a most luxuriant manner. A few days fine weather soon removed the greater part of the snow; and that which remained on the high, distant, barren mountains, which for some days past had been entirely free from clouds, was observed to be greatly diminished.

I shall conclude our transactions in Dusky Bay, by noticing the few astronomical and nautical observations that were made in Anchor Island harbour.

The badness of the weather on our first arrival, and the short time I proposed to remain, made me conclude that the erection of the obser-

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vatory on shore would be to little purpose. The latitude of the harbour was sound to be one minute south of Captain Cook's calculation, or 45° 15′ 36″ ′. His determination is, however, most likely to be correct, as mine was deduced from one day's observation only, with an artificial horizon; and, having agreed so nearly, any further investigation I deemed unnecessary.

The mean result of ten sets of altitudes taken between the 9th and 16th of November, for ascertaining the longitude of the chronometer, and to form some judgment as to its rate of going, were as follows, viz.

By the Portsmouth rate it placed Anchor island Harbour in longitude 166°42′ 23″
By the Cape rate 167° 55′ 12″
By King George the Third's Sound rate 167° 7′ 40″
The true longitude as assigned to that place by Captain Cook 166° 15′ 54″
Makes the Portsmouth rate cast of the truth 26′ 29″
Cape rate ditto 1° 39′ 18″
King George the Third's Sound ditto 51′ 46″
Mr. Arnold's watch on board the Chatham gave the longitude of Facile Harbour, according to the Cape rate 165° 48′ 52″

Esteeming the true longitude of Anchor island harbour to be 166° 15′ 54″, the chronometer was fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 16th at noon 26′ 34″ whence it appeared, that it had gone nearly at mean time since leaving King George the Third's Sound, and that its having differed from Captain Cook's assigned longitude of Van Dieman's land was occasioned by its not having gained at the rate we allowed, and of course the longitude of King George the Third's Sound was not wrong. By the result of our observations here, it gained on an average about 3″ per day, which error I shall allow, until a better opportunity of ascertaining its rate may offer.

The variation of the magnetic needle, observed on shore by three different compasses in 18 sets of azimuths, varied from 11° 17′ to 17°26′, the mean result of which was 14° 55′ 45″ call variation. The vertical inclination

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1791 November.

of the south point of the magnetic needle on board was found to be —

Marked end North face East 70° 3′
Ditto North face West 69° 8′
Ditto South face East 70° 5′
Ditto South face West 69° 35′
Mean inclination of the south point of the dipping needle 69° 43′

As we increased our distance from the land, the N.W. wind increased also. A swell at this time coming very heavily from the S.W. made me apprehensive the wind would shift round, and blow hard in that direction. The slate of the mercury in the barometer, the gloominess of the weather, and every other appearance of the evening, indicated more wind from the S.W. than would be pleasant to be caught in on this dreary coast: we therefore steered south, under as much sail as we could carry, and made the necessary signals to the Chatham for the like purpose. Our lofty canvass was, however, spread a very short time before it blew so hard a gale, that we were under the necessity of close reefing the topsails, getting down the top-gallant yards, and striking the masts. The night was extremely dark; which, by ten, prevented our seeing the Chatham, The wind was now at N.N.W. very happily not on the shore, as by three in the morning its increased violence obliged us to furl the topsails. At this moment we were alarmed by finding six feet water in the hold, which the ship felt excessively, labouring much by being pressed down forward with that weight of water. This very unpleasant circumstance obliged us to feud directly before the wind and sea, for the purpose of freeing the ship; when, by receiving much water in the waste, the casks of beer and water flowed upon deck, broke from their securities and were stove to pieces. The cause of so much water in the hold, at first a matter of great surprize, was soon accounted for. The hand pumps had been, and were still, choaked; which induced the carpenter to believe, that because they discharged no water there was none in the ship. This, in all probability, had governed his examination all the latter part of the time we had been in port, and produced an accumulation that might have been attended with the most serious consequences, had not

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1791. November.

one of the quarter-masters heard in the tier, the water rushing about in the hold. The hand, pumps were soon in order; and, to relieve the ship as soon as possible, the cross piece of the bits was unshipped, the launch got forward, and with the chain pumps the vessel by seven o'clock was made perfectly dry. The gale had now increased to a most curious storm, nearly equal to that we had experienced in Dusky Bay. The torrents of rain which fell, mixing with the sea raised by the violent flurries of the wind, kept us so much in darkness that we could not perceive any thing at the distance of an hundred yards in any direction; nor were we able to resume our southwardly course; the wind and sea obliging us to steer S.S.E. or right before the storm. We had not seen the Chatham since eleven o'clock the preceding evening, but concluding she would stand on if able to pursue a southerly course, I did not with to bring to for her; particularly, as the wind was such as would soon set us clear of the coast of New Zealand, which was doubtless a very desirable object.

Thursday 24.

Towards nine in the forenoon the storm began to abate; at ten the wind veered round to the W.S.W.; the rain ceased, and the atmosphere became clear, but the Chatham was not to be discovered in any direction. There was, however, great probability of her being to windward; and as I was still apprehensive of a S.W. gale before we should be clear of this coast, I determined to lose no time in getting far enough to the southward to enable us to fail round the land and the Traps with such a wind. As Matavai Bay in Otaheite was the next appointed rendezvous, I concluded Mr. Broughton would do the same, and make the best of his way with the Chatham to that port. The mainsail and close-reefed top-sails (all the sail the ship would bear) were now set, and keeping the wind on the beam, we steered S.S.E.; when about eleven o'clock, to our great astonishment land was discovered, bearing east 4 or 5 leagues distant. We knew of no land nearer than the south cape of New Zealand; and, by the courses we had steered there was scarcely a possibility of our being within less than 18 or 20 leagues of the Cape; but being flattered with the prospect of a meridional observation for the latitude, our decision was postponed until that should be ascertained. Noon brought us nearer the land,

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1791. November Friday 25.

which by compass bore N.L. by E. to E.N.E., at the distance of three or four leagues only. By a tolerably good observation in latitude 48° 5′ it was clearly proved, that this land could not, from its situation, be any part of New Zealand, as it was nearly three fourths of a degree to the southward of the most southern promontory of that country. Our longitude by the chronometer, was at this time 166° 4′; which situation was 18′ more south, and 13′ more east, than the log gave. The weather, though very hazy, being something clearer than before noon, we beheld, as we passed this land at the distance of two or three leagues, the sea breaking upon its shores with great violence, and discovered it to be composed of a cluster of seven craggy islands, extending about six miles in a direction N. 70 E. and S. 70 W. They appeared destitute of verdure, and it is more than probable they never produce any. The largest, which is the north-easternmost, I should suppose to be in extent equal to all the rest; it is about three leagues in circuit, sufficiently elevated to be seen in clear weather eight or nine leagues off, and is situated in latitude 48° 3′, longitude 166° 20′. The latitude was ascertained by three sextants which nearly agreed; and the longitude reduced by die chronometer from Dusky Bay, by three sets of altitudes in the afternoon; viz. one set before we passed its meridian; another under it; the third after we had passed it. As there severally corresponded within a mere trifle, when reduced to the same point, I should presume that the longitude above stated is not likely to be materially incorrect. It was matter of some surprize how these islands could have escaped the attention of Captain Cook; but on laying them down in his chart of New Zealand, I found his tracks had not at any time reached within at least ten leagues of them. From the south cape they bear S. 40 W. 19 leagues, and from the southernmost part of the Traps S. 62 ½ W. 20 leagues distant. These islands, or rather rocks, for they appeared perfectly steril, I have named, on account of their situation, and the sort of weather there is great reason to expect in their vicinity. THE SNARES; as being very likely to draw the unguarded mariner into alarming difficulties. At four o' clock in the afternoon, the Snares bore by compass N. 30 W. five or six leagues distant. At day-light the next morning, we hauled to the N.E. By noon, the

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1791. November.

gale had sufficiently moderated to admit the spreading of all our canvass; at noon the observed latitude was 48° 18′, longitude 169° 33′. I cannot avoid here mentioning the concern I felt in beholding the last of our sheep thrown overboard; the race of animals of the brute creation on board the Discovery, had certainly been very ill fated; out of thirty sheep taken on board at Portsmouth, no more than two came to the table, the rest died before we reached the equator; nor were we much more fortunate in the like number of wethers received at the Cape; two thirds of these, with seven ewes and six rams, intended as presents to our friends in the South-Sea islands, were at this time dead; notwithstanding they were all taken on board in exceedingly high condition, and had neither wanted care, plenty of wholesome food, nor good lodging.

December. Thursday 8. Saturday 10. Tuesday 13. Thursday 15. Saturday 17.

With a pleasant, favorable gale; sometimes in the N.W. but chiefly from the S.W. quarter, and with tolerably fine weather, we stood to the E.N.E.; and made such progress, that by noon on the 8th of december we had reached the latitude of 37° 27′; longitude 207° 14′. The wind veered round to the north with a moderate breeze, attended by dark gloomy weather and some rain. On saturday we were surrounded by a very thick fog, which, with much rain at intervals, continued until the 13th; when having a fine breeze at S. S. W. the fog cleared away, but it still remained very cloudy. We were however enabled to ascertain our situation for the first time since the 8th, to be in latitude 36° 13′, longitude 214° 33′, varying since that day 53′ more to the north, and 28° 28′ more to the east, than was shewn by the log. We stood to the north, under all the sail we could spread, but were not suffered long to pursue this course. In the latitude of 31° 43′, longitude 214° 11′, at noon on the 15th the wind veered round, and settled between the N.E. and N.N.E., obliging us to ply with a moderate breeze to the northward; in doing which so little was gained, that on saturday we had only reached the latitude of 31° 8′, longitude 214° 34′. The wind now blew a fresh gale from the north, the topsails were reefed, the weather was very dark, gloomy, and excessively sultry, with continued lightning and thunder at some distance, until the morning; when the wind died away, and in its stead, extremely vivid forked lightning, with incessant peals of thun-

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1791. December Sunday 18.

der accompanied by torrents of rain, attended us, without intermission, until sunday noon. The thunder and lightning then ceased, but the rain still continued; and, contrary to our expectation, the wind resumed its N.N.E. direction, and blew so hard as to make the striking our topgallant yards necessary. A remarkably smooth sea, with heavy, damp, close, cloudy weather, and little alteration in the wind, attended us until the 20th; it then moderated, and the top-gallant sails were spread.

Tuesday 20. Wednes. 21

Since the 17th we had not obtained any correct observations; but, by our reckoning, the latitude at noon was 30° 17′, longitude 215° 22′. Although the wind from the north and N.N.E. was attended with sudden and violent flurries, yet the sea continued smooth, which indicated, that land, probably of some extent, existed not very far distant in that direction. After noon, we stood to the eastward about four leagues; when, suddenly, a very heavy swell was met from N.N.E. which was soon followed by such an increase of wind from that quarter, as reduced us to our close-reefed topsails. This gale, which proved the breaking up of the northerly wind, was of short duration: in the evening it moderated, and veered round by the east to the S.S.W. We made all sail to the north by west; but it was not until the wind became a very fresh breeze, that we were enabled to steer that course against the northerly swell, which drove the ship astern. This evening there were several small white tern hovering about the ship, seemingly with great inclination to alight on board. On wednesday morning, the head sea had for the most part subsided, and the wind seemed to have settled in the southern quarter; and blowing a gentle breeze with very pleasant weather, enabled me to obtain fix sets of lunar distances, whose mean result reduced to noon gave the longitude 215° 22′ 45″. The chronometer, by the last rate shewed 215° 16′ 45″, the latitude was 29° 15′; which was, at this time, 6′ further north than we expected.

Thursday 22.

We continued our route to the northward; which, with a gentle gale at S.S.E. and pleasant weather, brought us, by day-light on the 22d, in sight of land, bearing by compass N.E. ½ N. At first it appeared like three small high islands, the easternmost much resembling a vessel under sail. This land being at a considerable distance from the tracks of former

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navigators, I steered for it, in order to be satisfied of its extent, productions, and other circumstances worthy observation. In the forenoon, eight sets of lunar distances were obtained: which, as before, nearly corresponding with each other, gave, by their mean result, when reduced to noon,215° 42′ 40″, these, with those taken the preceding day, comprehending 14 sets of distances, gave by their mean result 215° 39′. The latitude, by several sextants, was determined to be 27° 54′.

Since seeing the land in the morning, we had run eleven leagues; and had approached it sufficiently near to perceive, that all we had at first seen was united. It now bore, by compass, from N.29 E. to N.43 E. about 5 leagues distant, with a small island lying off its eastern side N.45 E.

Assisted by a gentle S.E. gale, with fine pleasant weather, at three in the afternoon we were within about a league of the shore; yet no bottom was to be gained at the depth of 180 fathoms. Several canoes came off to the ship, and all means were used to invite them on board. They declined our entreaties, but seemed very solicitous that we should accept their invitations to land; which they signified by waving their paddles towards the coast, and by desiring us, in the language of the Great South-Sea nation, to go nearer to the there. We bore away with that intent, but soon again brought to, on observing that two or three canoes were paddling in great haste towards the ship. After some persuasion, four men in one of the canoes came near enough to receive some presents, which seemed to please them exceedingly; and though their countrymen appeared to rebuke them for their rashness, the example was shortly followed by several others. It was not, however, without shewing every assurance of friendship, that any could be prevailed upon to come on board, until at length, the man who had brought about this intercourse seemed determined to establish it, by complying with our desires. On his entering the ship, he trembled and was much agitated; apprehension, astonishment, and admiration, equally appearing at the same instant; and though, on his being made welcome after the usual fashion, and presented with a small iron adz, his countenance became more serene and cheerful, yet he still appeared in a state of great anxiety. He soon communicated his reception and treatment to his surrounding countrymen; and we

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shortly had as many visitors as it was pleasant to entertain. They all seemed perfectly well acquainted with the uses to which they could apply iron, and how to estimate its value amongst themselves; as also the manner in which it was regarded by Europeans, They made no scruple, even with some force, to take articles of iron out of our hands; and, in lieu of them, with great courtesy and address presented, in return, some few fish, fishing-hooks, lines, and other trifles, which they seemed to with should be accepted as presents, and not received in exchange. Looking-glasses, beads, and other trinkets of little importance, at first attracted their attention, and were gladly accepted; but no sooner did they discover that articles made of iron were common amongst us, than they refused all other presents, and wanted to barter every other gift for iron. I could not prevail on any of them to accept a few medals.

Their visit seemed prompted only by curiosity, as they were completely unarmed, and brought with them neither articles of food, nor manufacture. A sew spears, and a club or two, were seen in one or two of the canoes only; two or three indifferent flings for stones were also noticed; with which they parted without the least reluctance.

We lay to until five o'clock in the hope of obtaining the name of this island, or of any other which might exist in its neighbourhood, since these people were evidently of the Great South-Sea nation; speaking, with some little difference of dialect, the same language; and resembling the Friendly islanders, more than the inhabitants of any other country. On this occasion, Towereroo the Sandwich islander was of little assistance; having been taken at an early period from home, and having been long absent, he had so much forgotten his mother tongue, as to be scarcely able to understand the language of these people better than ourselves. Two or three of them remained on board nearly an hour; but so unfixed and unsteady was their attention, which wandered from object to object, that it was impossible to gain from them any information. Their answers to almost every question were in the affirmative; and our enquiries as to the name of their island, &c. were continually interrupted by incessant invitations to go on shore. At length, I had reason to believe the name of the island was, Oparo; and that of their chief, Korie. Although I

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could not positively determine that these names were correctly ascertained, yet as there was a probability of their being so, I distinguished the island by the name of OPARO, until it might be sound more properly entitled to another. By six in the evening, we had nearly seen round the island, which is of little extent; and not choosing to lose the advantage of a fine southwardly wind, we proceeded to the N.N.W. under all the sail we could spread.

*Vide Astronomical observations as Otaheite.

As it was not my intention to stop at Oparo, no delay was occasioned by examining for anchorage, which probably may be found on both sides of its N.W. point. To the southward of that point is a small bay with a stony beach, through which there was the appearance of a considerable stream of water falling into the sea. The shores in most parts were so perfectly smooth, that landing might have been effected without the least difficulty. Round to the north of that point is another small bay, in which are a small islet and some rocks; behind these, the shore may be approached with great ease at any time. Indeed, there was not any part of the island which appeared to have been acted upon by heavy violent surfs, as the verdure in many places reached to the water's edge. The south extremity of the island appeared in some points of view to form a right angle, without the least; interruption in the sides; about half a mile to the S.E. is a small detached islet; the shores are interspersed with sandy beaches; its greatest extent, which is in a N. 18 w. and s. 18 E. direction, is about six miles and a half, and it may possibly be about eighteen miles in circuit. This island is situated in the latitude of 27° 36′; and, by our lunar observations of the two preceding days reduced to its center by the chronometer, is in longitude* 215° 58′ 28″; the mean of the variation was 5° 40′ eastwardly.

Its principal character is a cluster of high craggy mountains, forming, in several places, most; romantic pinnacles, with perpendicular cliffs nearly from their summits to the sea; the vacancies between the mountains would more probably be termed chasms than vallies, in which there was no great appearance of plenty, fertility, or cultivation; they were chiefly clothed with shrubs and dwarf trees. Neither the plantain, nor other spontaneous vegetable productions common to the inhabited tropical islands, presented themselves. The tops of

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1791. December.

six of the highest hills bore the appearance of fortified places, resembling redoubts; having a sort of block house, in the shape of an English glass house, in the center of each, with rows of pallisadoes a considerable way down the sides of the hills, nearly at equal distances. These, overhanging, seemed intended for advanced works, and apparently capable of defending the citadel by a few against a numerous host of assailants. On all of them, we noticed people, as if on duty, constantly moving about. What we considered as block houses, from their great similarity in appearance to that sort of building, were sufficiently large to lodge a considerable number of persons, and were the only habitations we saw. Yet from the number of canoes that in so short a time assembled around us, it is natural to conclude that the inhabitants are very frequently afloat, and to infer from this circumstance that the shores, and not those fortified hills which appeared to be in the center of the island, would be preferred for their general residence. We saw about thirty double and single canoes, though most of them were of the double sort: the single canoes were supported by an outrigger on one side, and all built much after the fashion of the Society Islands, without having their very high sterns, though the sterns of some of these were considerably elevated; and their bows were not without some little ornament. They were very neatly constructed, though the narrowest canoes I ever saw. When it is considered that the builders of them are nearly destitute of iron, and possessed of very few implements of that valuable metal; and when the miserable tools they have generally recourse to for such operations are regarded, the mind is filled with admiration at their ingenuity, and persevering industry. The island did not appear to afford any large timber; the broadest planks of which the canoes were made, not exceeding twelve inches, confirmed us in this opinion, as they were probably cut out of the largest trees. Some of the stoutest double canoes accommodated from twenty-five to thirty men, of whom, on a moderate computation, three hundred were supposed to have been seen near the ship. These were all adults, and apparently none exceeding a middle age; so that the total number of inhabitants on the island can hardly be estimated at less than fifteen hundred. In this respect it must be considered

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1791. December. Friday 23.

prolific, notwithstanding its uncultivated appearance. The natives, however, appeared to be exceedingly well fed, of middling stature, extremely well made; and in general, their countenances were open, cheerful, and strongly marked with indications of hospitality. They were all, to a man, very solicitous that some of us should accompany them to the shore; and those who last quitted the ship. endeavoured with all their powers of persuasion, and some efforts of Compulsion, to effect their purpose. On their departure they took hold of the hand of every one near them, with a view to get him into their canoe. They all had their hair cut short; and, excepting a wreath made of a broad long-leaved green plant, worn by some about the waist, they were intirely without clothing. Although the custom of tatowing prevails so generally with all the islanders of this ocean, these people were destitute of any such marks.

Independent of the protection their fortified retreats may afford, it did not appear that they were subject to much hostility, as fearcely any fears from wounds or other marks of violence were observed on their bodies. Their elevated fortified places (for certainly they had every appearance of being such) led some of us to conjecture, that they were frequently annoyed by troublesome neighbours from some other islands not far distant. But, as the canoes we saw were not even furnished with sails, nor had any appearance of having been ever equipped for an expedition beyond their own coast, it may reasonably be inferred, that they were not accustomed to voyages of any length. Yet, on the other hand, when the small extent of their island is taken into consideration, it is hard to reconcile that it is not the fear of foreign enemies, but the apprehension of domestic insurrection, that has induced the laborious construction of their fortified retreats; and as to the S.E. of this island there is an extensive space in the ocean hitherto but little frequented; it is not improbable that some islands may exist there, the inhabitants of which may occasionally make unfriendly visits to these people.

Leaving Oparo, we had pleasant weather with a gentle breeze from the S. E. At eight in the morning, the island was still visible from the deck, bearing by compass S.S.E. ½ E. at the distance of 18 leagues. The breeze between E. and S. E. carried us rapidly to the N.N.W. and brought

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1791. December. Sunday 25. Monday 26 Wednes. 28. Thursday 20. Friday 30.

us on sunday evening into the vicinity of some low islands discovered by Captain Carteret, and named the Duke of Gloucester's Islands. The evening was dark and gloomy, and not choosing to pass the spot assigned to them in the night, we continued to make short trips under our top-sails, until day light; after which we again resumed our course. Our latitude at noon was 19° 58′, longitude 211° 46′, which was 9′ further south, and 23′ further west, than was shewn by the log. At about 1° 33′ to the west of the situation of the Duke of Gloucester's Islands according to Captain Carteret, we passed their latitude, without seeing any appearance of land. Having now a fresh gale at east, we entertained the pleasing hope of reaching Otaheite the next day; this flattering prospect was of short duration. Towards the evening, the wind veered to the N.1. and its violence obliged us to close reef the topsails. The gale was attended with very heavy squalls, and a torrent of rain continued almost without intermission until wednesday evening, when it ceased, and the wind still at N.E. became moderate. By standing on to the N.N.W., day light the next morning presented us with a view of Matavai, or Osnaburgh Island, at the distance of seven or eight leagues, bearing by compass N.E. by E. Our course was immediately shaped for Otaheite, the south point of which was visible by eleven o'clock, bearing by compass s. 70 W. 8 or 9 leagues distant. The wind coming to the north prevented our reaching Matavai Bay, and obliged us to ply to windward during the night. In the morning, with a gentle breeze from the N. E. we stood for Matavai under all the sail we could spread. About eight o'clock, a canoe came alongside with two pigs and some vegetables; a present from a sister of Otoo, residing in that part of the island of which we were then abreast The natives informed me that we had been expected, and that they had been looking out for us two days, in consequence of information they said they had received from an English vessel, then at anchor in Matavai Bay; and their description of her being perfectly intelligible, I did not hesitate to believe it was the Chatham, of which we shortly experienced the happiness of being convinced. Mr. Broughton soon visited us, and brought with him an early and acceptable supply, of the excellent productions of this fertile country. About

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1791 December.

ten, we anchored in Matavai Bay. Our mutual gratulations on meeting were extremely heightened, by receiving and communicating the happy tidings, that every individual composing the society of each vessel was in a most perfect state of health. Mr. Broughton had, since his arrival, received repeated marks of friendship and attention from the good people of the island. Having deemed it expedient to establish the following regulations on board the Discovery, I delivered a copy of them to Mr. Broughton, and directed that the rules might be strictly observed and attended to on board the Chatham; after which, Mr. Broughton presented me with a narrative of his proceedings during the time of our separation.

RULES and ORDERS for the guidance and conduct of all persons in, or belonging to, his Majesty's sloop Discovery and Chatham tender; enjoined to be most strictly observed in all intercourse with the natives of the several South Sea islands.

The principal, and indeed sole design, of the Discovery and Chatham calling at the islands in the pacific ocean, being to acquire such refreshments as those islands may be found to afford; and as these refreshments are to be purchased with articles which Europeans esteem of little value;— if each individual be permitted to make such bargains as he may think proper, not only the value of these articles will soon be reduced in the estimation of the Indians, but, until a proper and good understanding be established between the natives of the different islands, and ourselves, it may subject us to such disturbances as may be attended with the most fatal consequences. And as a due proportion of time will be allowed before the vessels depart from any island, (circumstances admitting thereof) for the providing such articles of curiosity, &c. as any person may be inclined and able to purchase:

It is, First, strictly enjoined, that no officer, seaman, or other person, in such commerce with the Indians, do give such articles of value, for any article of curiosity, as may tend hereafter to depreciate the value of iron, beads, &c. &c.

Secondly, That every fair means be used to cultivate a friendship with the different Indians, and on all occasions to treat them with every degree of kindness and humanity.

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1791. December.

Thirdly, As proper persons will be appointed by the respective commanders to trade with the natives, for the necessary provisions and refreshments; it is strictly enjoined that no officer, seaman, or other person, excepting him or them so appointed, do on any pretence, presume to trade, or offer to trade, for any article whatever, until permission shall have been granted for so doing.

Fourthly, Every person employed on shore, on any duty whatever, is strictly to attend to the same: and if it should appear that by neglect, any of the arms, working tools, boats furniture, or other matters committed to the charge of one or more persons, be lost, or suffered to be stolen, the full value of the same will be charged against his, or their wages, and he or they will likewise suffer such other punishment, as the nature of the offence may deserve; and as the additional pay, and the emoluments of the artificers, serving in his Majesty's navy, is for their encouragement, and the diligent performance of their duty in their respective trades or occupations, and for providing themselves with the requisite working tools, all such implements or tools belonging to the several artificers of the two vessels, are by their respective owners to be carefully preserved, that they may be always able to perform the duties of their respective departments; and should any one be hardy enough to sail in his obedience to this order, he shall be disrated from his employment during the continuance of the voyage, and suffer such other punishment as the crime may deserve.

Lastly, The same penalty will be inflicted on every person, who shall be found to embezzle, or be concerned in embezzling, or offering to trade with, any part of the ships or boats stores, furniture, &c. &c. be these of what nature soever.

Given on board his Majesty's sloop Discovery, at sea, the 25th of December, 1791.

(Signed)

GEORGE VANCOUVER.

VOL. I M

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CHAPTER V.

Mr. Broughton's narrative, from the time of his separation, to his being joined by the Discovery at Otaheite; with some account of Chatham Island, and other islands discovered on his passage.

1791 November. Tuesday 22. Wednes 23.

"THE wood we received in Facile Harbour, with the spruce-beer, and water upon deck, had brought the vessel so much by the head, that, together with the high sea now running, obliged us to deviate from our southerly course and keep before the storm, which raged with great violence; and notwithstanding every precaution, a wave struck our stern, about fix on wednesday morning, washed away the jolly-boat, and fat us all afloat upon deck. Having, about nine, run by estimation to the south of the Traps, to prevent our shipping so much water I brought to, under a reefed trysail, and fore staysail. By noon, the gale had considerably abated, the sea subsided, and the horizon became tolerably clear; but the Discovery was not to be seen in any direction. After duly weighing all circumstances since the commencement of the gale, our separation from the Discovery appeared now complete; and the chance of our meeting again until our arrival at our next rendezvous in Otaheite, seemed little in our favor.

"About two in the afternoon, land was discovered from the deck, appearing like a high island, bearing by compass S.S.E. 3 or 4 leagues distant; about an hour afterwards, we had fight of more land lying to the southward and detached from the former; our utmost endeavours were used to weather this land, but finding it impracticable, we bore up for a passage between the high island, and the detached land, which was found

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1791 November.

to be composed of a cluller of small islets and rocks, greater in extent though about the height of the Needles; their tops.or ridges are much broken; and from the high island bore by compass N.E. and S.W. forming a passage 3 miles wide; about one third of the passage over, on the southern side, lies a small black rock just above water: on all these rocks and islets the sea broke with great violence. In this passage we had a confused irregular swell, with the appearance of broken water; large bunches of sea-weed were observed, and the whole surface was covered with birds of a blackish colour. The N.E. part of the island in the evening, bore by compass north; the S.W. part, N.W. by N.; the passage N.W.; and the rocky islets from N.W. by W. to W. by N. between 2 and 3 leagues distant: in this situation we had no bottom at the depth of 60 and 80 fathoms. Some parts of the island presented a very barren appearance, not unlike the S.W. fide of Portland, composed of whitish rocky cliffs. The rocky islets are five in number, some of which wore a pyramidical form. On account of the haziness in the atmosphere, the northeasternmost part of the island was seen so very indistinctly, that its extent could not be ascertained. We had no reason to suppose it inhabited, and its desolate appearance made that very improbable. This island, in honor of Captain Knight of the navy, I named KNIGHT'S ISLAND. Its south point lies in the latitude of 48° 15′, longitude 166° 44′, ascertained by the watch the last time the bearings were taken, allowing its error to be 30′ west, as determined at Dusky Bay. Knight's Island, so far as we could see of its extent, and the rocky islets, lie in the direction of N.E. by E. ½ E. and S.W. by W. ½ W. allowing a point and a half variation east: they extend about 4 leagues.

Thursday24. Saturday 26. Sunday 27.

"In the morning of the 24th, with a fine westwardly gale, we altered our course, and made all sail to the N.E. The wind which varied in point of force, veered gradually round by the north. On Saturday our latitude was 46°43′, longitude 173°30′. In the evening the wind shifted suddenly to the S.W. and blew with such violence, that striking our topgallant masts and yards became necessary. A remarkably heavy following sea, kept the vessel constantly under water; but the gale was attended with clear weather. At noon on the 27th our latitude by observation was

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1791 November. Monday 29.

45° 54′, longitude by account 176° 13′. The gale now moderated, which permitted us again to resume our N.E. course, with a line breeze between west and N.W. Early in the morning of the 29th low land was discovered, bearing by compass N.E. to E.N.E.; and being then in 40 fathoms water, we brought to until day-break. About four o'clock we had 38 fathoms sand and broken shelly bottom, when the N.W. point of this land, which is low, bore by compass S.7 E. about 3 leagues distant, and which, after the man who fortunately saw it, from the fore yard, I named POINT ALISON; a remarkably rugged rocky mountain that obtained the name of MOUNT PATTERSON S. 60 E.; a sugar-loaf hill S.84 E.; and the extreme point to the eastward, which formed an abrupt Cape, N. 75 E. Two islands N. 3 E. to N. 5 E. 2 or 3 leagues distant. The interior land was of a moderate height, rising gradually, and forming several peaked hills, which at a distance have the appearance of islands. From point Alison to mount Patterson the shore is low, and covered with wood; from thence to the above Cape was a continued white beach, on which some sandy cliffs, and black rocks were interspersed, apparently detached from the shore. To the eastward of these rocks, between them and a flat projecting point, the land seemed to form a bay open to the westward. From this point to the above Cape, a distance of about two miles, the cliffs are covered with wood and coarse grass. These cliffs are of moderate height, composed of a reddish clay, mixed with black rocks. Several large black rocks lie off point Alison, and the Cape, extending little distance; and as we passed within about half a mile of the shore, the depth of water was 14 fathoms, broken shells, and sandy bottom. This Cape forms a conspicuous head land, and is the northernmost part of the island; I called it CAPE YOUNG; it lies in latitude 43°48′, longitude 183° 2′. The above two islands lie very near each other; to the eastward of them lies a small rock, apparently connected, though at no great distance, by a reef; another rock somewhat larger is situated between them. They are of no great height; flat top with perpendicular sides, composed intirely of rocks, and much frequented by birds of different kinds. These, which from their resemblance to each other, I called THE TWO SISTERS, are in latitude 43° 41′, longitude 182° 49′; and bear, by compass, from Cape Young N.50 W. 4

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1791 November.

leagues distant We steered from cape Young E. by N. keeping between 2 and 3 miles from the coast, with regular soundings from 25 to 22 fathoms. The shore is a continued white sandy beach, on which the surf ran very high. Some high land, rising gradually from the beach and covered with wood, extends about 4 miles to the eastward of the Cape. After passing this land, we opened the several hills over the low land we had seen in the morning, and could discern that many of them were covered like our heaths in England, but destitute of trees. The woods in some spots had the appearance of being cleared, and in several places between the hills smoke was observed. The beach is interrupted at unequal distances by projecting rocky points covered with wood. Over the banks of sand were seen a range of retired hills at a considerable distance, in the direction of the coast. After failing about 10 leagues, we came abreast of a small sandy bay. Water was seen over the beach, and the country had the appearance of being very pleasant. With our glasses we perceived some people hauling up a canoe, and several others behind the rocks in the bay. Fearful that so good an opportunity might not occur for acquiring some knowledge of the inhabitants, I worked up into the bay, which we had passed before the natives were discovered. We came to an anchor about a mile from the shore in 20 fathom water, sandy and rocky bottom. The eastern point by compass bore N.78 E.; cape Young W.12 S.; the larboard point of the bay S. E.; the eastern point from our anchorage proved to be the termination of the island, to which I gave the name of POINT MUNNINGS.

"Accompanied by Mr. Johnston the master, and one of the mates, we proceeded towards the shore in the cutter. The rocks project a little at each extremity of the bay; within them we found smooth water, and landed upon the rocks on the starboard shore, where we had first perceived the inhabitants; who were, at this time, on the opposite side, but seeing us examining their canoes, they hastily ran round the bay; on which we retired to the boat, to wait their arrival. As they approached they made much noise, and having soon joined us, we entered into a conversation by signs, gestures, and speech, without understanding what each other meant. We presented them with several articles, which they

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1791 November.

received with great eagerness, and seemed pleased with whatever was given them; but would make no exchanges. Yet as we had reason to believe they were very solicitous that we should land, Mr. Sheriff, leaving his arms in the boat, went on shore; but he seemed to excite the attention of two or three of them only, who attended him towards the canoes on the beach, whilst: the rest, amounting to forty or thereabouts, remained on the rocks talking with us, and whenever the boat backed in, to deliver them anything, they made no scruple of attempting to take whatever came within their reach. Having repeatedly beckoned us to follow them round to where their habitations were supposed to be, as soon as Mr. Sheriff returned, we proceeded to comply with their wishes. They had been very curious in their examination of Mr. Sheriff's person, and seemed very desirous of keeping him, as they frequently pulled him towards the wood, where we imagined some of them resided. On meeting them on the other side, they seated themselves on the beach, and seemed very anxious to receive us on shore; but as all our intreaties were ineffectual in obtaining any thing in return for our presents, perceiving many of them to be armed with long spears, and the situation being unfavorable to us, in case they should be disposed to treat us with hostility, we did not think it prudent to venture amongst them; and finding our negotiation was not likely to be attended with success, we took our leave; but in our way off, as the natives remained quietly where we had left them, I thought it a good opportunity to land once more and take another view of their canoes. Having again reached the shore without any interruption, we displayed the Union flag, turned a turf, and took possession of the island; which I named CHATHAM ISLAND, (in honor of the Earl of Chatham,) in the name of His Majesty King George the Third; under the presumption of our being the first discoverers. After drinking His Majesty's health, I nailed a piece of lead to a tree near the beach, on which was inscribed, His Britannick Majesty's Brig Chatham, Lieutenant William Robert Broughton commander, the 29th November, 1791. And in a bottle secreted near the tree, was deposited an inscription in Latin to the same effect.

"The canoes we examined were more in form of a small hand barrow

[page] 87

without legs, than any other thing to which they can be compared, decreasing in width from the after to the fore part. They were made of a light substance resembling bamboo, though not hollow, placed fore and aft on each side, and secured together by pieces of the same wood, up and down, very neatly fastened with the fibres of some plant in the manner of basket work. Their bottoms flat and constructed in the same way, were two feet deep and eighteen inches in breadth; the openings of the seams on the inside and bottom were stuffed with long sea weed; their sides meet not abaft, nor forward, their extreme breadth aft is three, and forward, two feet; length eight and nine feet. In the stern is a seat very neatly made of the same material; which is moveable. They appeared calculated alone for fishing amongst; the rocks near the shore; were capable of carrying two or three persons, and were so light that two men could convey them any where with ease, and one could haul them into safety on the beach. Their grapnels were stones, and the ropes to which these were made fast, were formed of matting, worked up in a similar way with that which is called French sinnet. The paddles were of hard wood, the blades very broad, and gradually increasing from the handle. The nets of these islanders were very ingeniously made, terminating in a cod or purse; the mouth was kept open by a rim of six feet in diameter, made from wood of the supple jack kind; the length from eight to ten feet, tapered gradually to one; they were closely made, and from the center attached to the rim by cords, was fixed a line for hauling them up. They were made of fine hemp, two strands twisted and knotted like a reef knot, and seemingly very strong. They had also scoop nets, made of the bark or fibres of some tree or plant, without any preparation, and netted in equal meshes. We penetrated a little into the woods, but did not find any huts, or houses, though large quantities of shells, and places where fires had been made, were observed.

"The woods afforded a delightful shade, and being clear of undergrowth, were in many places formed into arbours, by bending the branches when young, and enclosing them round with smaller trees. These appeared to have been slept in very lately. The trees of which the woods are composed grow in a most luxuriant manner, clear of small branches to a

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1791 November.

considerable height: and consist of several sorts, some of which, the leaf in particular, was like the laurel. Another sort was jointed like the vine, but we did not see one that could be dignified by the appellation of a timber tree. On our return, a few of the natives were seen approaching us, and as they appeared peaceably disposed, we joined the first party, and saluted each other by meeting noses, according to the New Zealand fashion. They were presented with some trinkets, but seemed to entertain not the lead idea of barter, or of obligation to make the least return, as we could not prevail upon them to part with any thing excepting one spear of very rude workmanship. On making a bargain with him who had parted with the spear, for his coat, or covering of sea-bear skin, he was so delighted with the reflection of his face in the looking glasses proposed in exchange, that he ran away with them. Previously to this with a view to shew them the superior effect of our fire arms, I gave them some birds which I had killed, and pointed out to them the cause of their death. On firing my gun they seemed much alarmed at its report; and all retreated as we advanced towards them, excepting one old man, who maintained his ground; and presenting his spear side-ways, beat time with his feet; and as he seemed to notice us in a very threatening manner, I gave my fowling piece to one of our people, went up to him, shook him by the hand, and used every method I could devise to obtain his confidence. Observing something in his hand rolled carefully up in a mat, I was desirous of looking at it upon which he gave it to another, who walked away with it; but who did not prevent my seeing that it contained stones fashioned like the Patoo Patoes of New Zealand. They seemed very anxious to get my gun and shot belt, and frequently exclaimed Toohata. Some of their spears were ten feet, others about six feet in length, one or two of which were new, with carved work towards the handle; whenever these were pointed to, they were immediately given to those behind, as if afraid of our taking them by force. Finding little was to be procured or learned here, we made signs of going to their supposed habitations, and endeavoured to make them understand we needed something to eat and drink. As they continued very friendly, three men armed attended Mr. Johnston and myself along the water-side; the boat with

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1791 November.

four hands keeping close by the shore as we walked, left we might require support, or it should be necessary to retreat. Every one had orders to be prepared, but on no account, to make use of their arms, until I should give directions, which, at this time, I had not the most distant idea would become necessary. When our little party first fat off, several of them collected large sticks, which they swung over their heads, as if they had some intention of using them. He who had received the stones from the old man, had them now fixed, one at each end, to a large stick about two feet in length. Not liking these appearances, we had some thoughts of embarking; but, on our suddenly facing about, they retired up the beach to a fire which some of them had just made. Mr. Johnston followed them singly, but was not in time to discover the method by which it had been so quickly produced. His presence seemed rather to displease them, on which he returned, and we again proceeded along the beach, making signs of our intention to accompany them on the other side of the bay. Fourteen only followed, the rest remained at the fire. Those who had not spears substituted the drift wood on the beach for their weapons; yet as our party consisted of nine, all well armed, we entertained no fear for our personal safety, especially as every thing had been studiously avoided that we imagined might give them offence, and the various presents they had received had apparently purchased their good opinion and friendship, until now that we had reason to believe the contrary by their providing themselves with bludgeons. Having walked about half round the bay, we arrived at the spot behind which, from the mast head, inland water had been seen. As we proceeded up the beach we found it to be a large sheet of water, which took a western direction round a hill that prevented our seeing its extent. At the upper end of this lake, the country appeared very pleasant, and level. The water seemed of a reddish colour and was brackish, which was most probably occasioned by the salt water oozing through the beach, which at this place is not more than twenty yards wide: or by its having some communication with sea to the westward, which we did not perceive. We tried to explain to the natives who still attended us, that the water was not fit to drink, and then returned to the sea side; when, abreast of the boat, they became

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very clamorous, talked extremely loud to each other, and divided so as nearly to surround us, A young man strutted towards me in a very menacing attitude; he distorted his person, turned up his eyes, made hideous faces, and created a wonderful fierceness in his appearance by his gestures. On pointing my double-barrelled gun towards him he desisted. Their hostile intentions were now too evident to be mistaken, and therefore, to avoid the necessity of resorting to extremities, the boat was immediately ordered in to take us on board. During this interval, although we were strictly on our guard, they began their attack, and before the boat could get in, to avoid being knocked down I was reluctantly compelled to fire one barrel, which being loaded with small shot, I was in hopes might intimidate without materially wounding them, and that we should be suffered to embark without further molestation. Unfortunately, I was disappointed in this hope. Mr. Johnston received a blow upon his musket with such force from an unwieldy club, that it fell to the ground, but before his opponent could pick it up, Mr. Johnston had time to recover his position, and he was obliged to fire on the blow being again attempted. A marine and seaman near him, were, under similar circumstances forced into the water, but not before they had also, justified alone by self preservation, fired their pieces without orders. The gentleman having charge of the boat seeing us much pressed by the natives, and obliged to retreat, fired at this instant also, on which they sled. I ordered the firing instantly to cease, and was highly gratified to see them depart apparently unhurt. The happiness I enjoyed in this reflection was of short duration, one man was discovered to have fallen; and I am concerned to add, was found lifeless, a ball having broken his arm and passed through his heart. We immediately repaired towards the boat, but the surf not permitting her to come near enough, we were still under the necessity of walking to the place from whence we had originally intended to embark. As we retired, we perceived one of the natives return from the woods, whither all had retreated, and placing himself by the deceased, was distinctly heard in a sort of dismal howl to utter his lamentations.

"As we approached our first landing place we saw no signs of habi-

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tations, although women and children were supposed to have been looking at us from the woods, whilst: talking to the natives on our arrival. On tracing some of the foot-paths, nothing was discovered but great numbers of ear shells, and recesses formed in the same manner with a single pallisade as those seen on our first landing. We distributed amongst the canoes the remaining part of our toys and trinkets, to manifest our kind intentions towards them, and as some little atonement also for the injury which, contrary to our inclinations, they had sustained, in defending ourselves against their unprovoked, unmerited hostility. In our way to the ship, we saw two natives running along the beach to the canoes, but on our arrival on board they were not discernible with our glasses.

"The men were of a middling size, some stoutly made, well limbed and fleshy; their hair, both of the head and beard, was black, and by some was worn long. The young men had it tied up in a knot on the crown of their heads, intermixed with black and white feathers. Some had their beards plucked out; their complexion and general colour is dark brown, with plain features, and in general bad teeth. Their skins were destitute of any marks, and they had the appearance of being cleanly in their persons. Their dress was either a seal or bear-skin tied with sinnet, inside outwards, round their necks, which fell below their hips; or mats neatly made, tied in the same manner, which covered their backs and shoulders. Some were naked, excepting a well woven matt of fine texture, which, being fastened at each end by a string round their waists, made a sort of decent garment. We did not observe that their ears were bored, or that they wore any ornaments about their persons, excepting a few who had a sort of necklace made of mother of pearl shells. Several of them had their fishing lines, made of the same sort of hemp with their nets, fastened round them; but we did not see any of their hooks. We noticed two or three old men, but they did not appear to have any power or authority over the others. They seemed a cheerful race, our conversation frequently exciting violent bursts of laughter amongst them. On our first landing their surprize and exclamations can hardly be imagined; they pointed to the sun, and then to us, as if to ask, whether we had come from thence. The not finding a single habitation, led us to consider

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1791. November. Wednes 30. December. Saturday 3.

this part of the island as a temporary residence of the inhabitants, possibly for the purpose of procuring a supply of shell and other fish. The former, of different kinds, were, here to be had in great abundance: claws of cray fish were sound in their canoes; and as the birds about the shore were in great numbers, and flew about the natives as if never molested, it gave us reason to believe that the sea furnished the principal means of their subsistence. Black sea pies with red bills, black and white spotted curlews with yellow bills, large wood pigeons like those at Dusky bay, a variety of ducks, small land larks, and land-pipers, were very numerous about the shores.

"These few observations conclude a brief narrative of our visit and transactions at Chatham island; and I have to lament that the hostility of its inhabitants rendered the melancholy sate that attended one of them unavoidable, and prevented our researches extending further than the beach, and the immediate entrance of the adjoining wood.

"On our return to the vessel we got under weigh, with a fresh gale at S.W. About six in the evening, on passing point Munnings, which is the N. E. extremity of the island, it was seen to be a low peninsula, over which, from the mast-head, was discovered more land to the south-ward: but the weather became so very hazy, that it was impossible to discern how far it extended in that direction. From the bay, which I called SKIRAMISH BAY, to point Munnings, the shore is low, rocky, and clothed with wood. Some rocks lie a little way off the point. The extent of the island in an east and west direction, which is nearly the line of the coast, was now considered to be about 12 leagues, allowing 14° cast variation. The latitude of our anchoring place in Skirmish bay was 43° 49′, and its longitude 183° 25′. At eight o'clock the extremities of the land bore from S.W. by S. to W. by S. 5 or 6 leagues distant. At day-break, the next morning, we made all fail as usual, and pursued our way to the N.E. In the course of this day, we passed many patches of sea weed, and saw some port Egmont hens and several oceanic birds.

"With pleasant weather and a fine gale between the S.E. and S.W. quarters, we proceeded, without any thing occurring worthy of notice; until the 3d of december, when, in the afternoon, our latitude was 38°

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1791. December. Tuesday 6. Wednes. 7. Sunday 11. Thursday 15. Tuesday 20. Thursday 22.

52′; the mean result of eight sets of lunar observations taken the two preceding days, and reduced by the watch, gave the longitude this day 192° 43′ 33″. The watch, by its rate, and error, as sound at Dusky bay, shewed 192° 45′ 37″. The mean variation, by azimuths and amplitude, 11° 56′ eastwardly. The watch and observations having agreed so well, little error is to be apprehended in the longitude assigned to Chatham island.

"Our pleasant weather was of no long continuance; on tuesday, in the latitude of 35° 43′, longitude 197° 20′, towards evening, it fell calm. A breeze next morning sprang up at N.E. with which we steered to the E.S.E.; between which, and the N.N.W. the wind continued with hazy, rainy, soggy and very unpleasant weather until sunday, in latitude 36° 53′, longitude 206°: having been visited by few oceanic birds. The wind now veered round by the west to the southward, and brought us tolerably pleasant weather, with which, until thursday, we continued to steer north by east; when, in latitude 30° 17′, longitude 208°46′, the wind again resumed its northern direction, varying a point or two on either side of north. The atmosphere became dark, heavy, sultry and gloomy; the clouds poured down torrents of rain accompanied with much lightning, thunder, and violent squalls, which obliged the crew to be constantly exposed, until the 20th; when the wind changed to the south, blew a moderate breeze, and we again had fine settled weather.

"Although every advantage had been taken which the winds afforded, during the last four days, we had not been able to shorten the distance from our destined port, more than 6 leagues; our latitude this day being 29°8′, longitude 211° 55′. Shortly, after noon, some observations were procured for the longitude. The mean of four sets of distances gave 214° 30′ 18″, the watch 212° 13′ 15″. Although the watch was considerably to the westward of the lunar observations, yet in the last of five days, it made 1° 19′ more easting than the log shewed.

"The wind continued between south, and E.S.E. with pleasant weather; on thursday we were again enabled to obtain more observations for the longitude, when the mean of two sets gave 213° 53′ 7′, the watch 212°43′, the mean of these, and those taken on tuesday, reduced by the watch to

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1791. November. Monday 26.

this day, gave the mean result of the six sets 213° 51′ 30″, which was 1° 10′ east of the watch; our latitude at this time was 25° 26.′

"At eight the next morning, land was seen from the mast-head bearing, by compass, W. by S. an hour afterwards it was visible from the deck bearing W.S.W.½W. at the distance of about 10 leagues. It proved to be a small high island; its northern part formed an elevated hummock, from the fall of which the land continued level, and then gradually decreased to the other extreme point.

"The watch, with its error, gave the longitude, at the time the above bearings were taken, 211° 6′, ⊙ a ☾ 213° 16′, our latitude by estimation at this time 23°,36′. The sun being within a few minutes of the zenith at noon, our observation was indifferent, and could by no means be depended upon. I did not think it proper, on the present occasion, to give any name to this island. I had some reason to doubt the accuracy of our longitude. On our arrival at Otaheite I should be enabled to determine whether this island might not be Tobouai seen by Captain Cook, or the land supposed to have been seen to the south-eastward, whilst the Resolution was off that island.

"The wind principally between E.N.E. and S.E. blew very fresh, attended with squalls, a gloomy atmosphere, and an almost incessant rain, until seven in the morning of the 26th; when the weather clearing, gave us a view of Maitea or Osnaburgh island; bearing, by compass, E.S.E. distant only about 6 or 8 leagues. We immediately steered for Otaheite, which was seen about eight bearing W.½N. The wind was now eastwardly, accompanied by showers of rain. At noon, the land over point Venus bore west, distant 7 or 8 leagues. The latitude now observed (being the first time since the 23d,) varying only 5′ from the dead reckoning, was 17° 29′, longitude 211° 45′, by the watch 210° 39′. In the afternoon, the wind became southwardly, with dark gloomy weather. Having reached, by five o'clock, within four or five miles of the shore, a little to the eastward of point Venus, some canoes came off, and brought some cocoa-nuts, and two small hogs, which were instantly purchased. Towards sun-set, the breeze died away, and it continued calm until midnight, when it again freshened from the eastward; with which, under an easy fail, we plied

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1791. December. Wednesday 28.

until the morning, when all our canvass was spread for Malavai bay About, eight o'clock we rounded the Dolphin bank in 2 frac12 fathoms water, and worked up into the bay. About nine we anchored in 8 fathom, black muddy bottom; point Venus bearing by compass N. 15 E.; the Dolphin bank N.70 W.; and One-Tree hill S. 31 W. This being the place of rendevous appointed by Captain Vancouver, we experienced no small degree of disappointment on not finding the Discovery in port; and our solicitude for her welfare was greatly increased, when we adverted to her superiority in sailing, which had given us reason to believe her arrival would have preceded ours, at least a week.

"We scarcely anchored, when the natives flocked around us in the most civil and friendly manner, bringing with them an ample supply of the different refreshments their country afforded. Some trifling thefts being committed by some of our numerous visitors, we were under the necessity of obliging them to retire to their canoes alongside, with which they complied in the greatest good humour. The whole of the afternoon was a continued rain, as heavy as any one on board ever beheld, accompanied with a very severe tempest. On our first arrival, the whole of the shore was one uninterrupted beach; but, towards evening, the torrents of rain which had fallen, caused an inundation of the river, which broke its bank about half way, between point Venus and One-Tree hill; and through the breach an immense quantity of water was discharged, which brought with it a great number of large trees that were scattered in various directions over the bay. A great concourse of the inhabitants had assembled and beheld the bank give way, upon which they all shouted, seemingly with acclamations of great joy; for had not this event taken place, their houses and plantations would probably have been much incommoded by the overflowing of the river.

Our cutter was moored alongside. In the course of the night one of the trees drifted athwart her, broke the iron chain, with which she was secured, stove in her broadside and stern; and, on her filling, the furniture was washed away. This circumstance, little to the credit of the gentlemen who had the watch on deck, was not discovered until the morning, when, after some hours search in the launch, the party returned without finding the lost materials.

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1791. December. Thursday 29. Friday 30.

From young Otoo, I received this morning a present of two hogs, and some fruit. Otoo the elder, now stiled Pomarre, we understood, was at Eimeo, whither the messengers requested we would send to acquaint him with our arrival, on which he would instantly repair to Matavai. His absence, however, had produced not the least inconvenience; for notwithstanding we had not been visited by any chief, yet the behaviour of the people was perfectly civil and friendly. They supplied us with as much provision as we could possibly use, on very reasonable terms. The greater part of this day, and all the succeeding night, the tempest continued with unabated torrents of rain.

On thursday morning I received from Oparre a very bountiful present, consisting of hogs and fruit, from young Otoo, with a message to signify that he might be expected next day at Matavai. In the evening, the weather being a little more temperate, though the surf continued to run too high to admit of our approaching the beach in the bay, we landed at the back of point Venus, and were received by the natives with great cheerfulness and cordiality. They treated us with the utmost hospitality, and vied with each other to be foremost in friendly attentions. The wind having shifted to the eastward, the weather became serene and pleasant; and being informed the next morning, by some of the natives, that a ship was in sight, I repaired instantly on shore, and had the unspeakable pleasure of perceiving it to be the Discovery to the eastward, steering for the bay. About ten o'clock, as she hauled in between the reef and the Dolphin bank, I went on board to congratulate Captain Vancouver; and to inform him of our welfare and proceedings since our separation."

It may not be improper to observe, that the separation of the two vessels was occasioned, as was first conjectured, by circumstances unavoidable, which occurred during a very heavy and violent storm. As some recompence, however, for the anxiety attendant on losing the company of our little consort, we had to reflect, that, eventually, the gale had been the fortunate means of our making some additions to geography.

The islands first discovered by the Chatham and named Knight's

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1791 December.

island by Mr. Broughton, were the Snares, which we had passed in the Discovery a few hours before. As Mr. Broughton considered our means for ascertaining their true position superior to what he possessed, their positive situation as placed by us may be received as correct; but as the Chatham passed through them, the relative situation to each other, according to Mr. Broughton's observations, is to be preferred.

The Discovery passed about 20 leagues to the north of Chatham island; as did Captain Cook in march 1777, who also passed, about the same distance to the south of it, in June 1773: on all these occasions, it was not observed, nor did we, in the Discovery, see the islands discovered by the Chatham on the 23d of december, lying more to the eastward than Tobouai, and in latitude 23° 42′, longitude 212° 49′.

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CHAPTER VI.

Visit Otoo—Arrival of Pomurrey and Matooara Mahow—Arrival of Taow, Pomurrey's father—Interview between Taow and his sons—Submission of Taow to Otoo—Entertainments at the encampment—Visit of Poatatou—Death of Mahow—Excursion to Oparre.

1791 December. Friday 30.

BY the time we had anchored, the ship was surrounded with canoes laden with the different productions of the country. The natives, with every assurance of friendship, and with expressions of the greatest joy at our arrival, were crowding on board. One or two amongst them, although not principal chiefs, evidently assumed some little authority, and were exceedingly earnest that we should not suffer the multitude to come on board, as that would be the best means to prevent thefts, and insure that amity and good fellowship which they appeared very solicitous to establish and support. We complied with their advice, and found no difficulty in carrying it into execution. We had only to desire they would return to their canoes, and they immediately complied, I had the mortification of finding on inquiry, that most of the friends I had left here in the year 1777, both male and female, were dead. Otoo, with his father, brothers, and sisters, Potatow, and his family, were the only chiefs of my old acquaintance that were now living. Otoo was not here; nor did it appear that Otaheite was now the place of his residence, having retired to his newly acquired possession Eimeo, or as the natives more commonly call that island MOREA, leaving his eldest son the supreme authority over this, and all the neighbouring islands. The young king had taken the name of Otoo, and my old friend that of Pomurrey; having given up his name with his sovereign jurisdiction, though he still

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seemed to retain his authority as regent. Mr. Broughton had received some presents from Otoo, who being now arrived from Oparre, had sent desiring that gentleman would visit him on shore at Matavai. I had received no invitation: but, as some of the natives gave me to understand that my accompanying Mr. Broughton would be esteemed a civility, I did not hesitate to comply, especially as Mr. Broughton had prepared a present in so handsome a way, that I considered it a sufficient compliment to the young king from us both. As soon as the ship was secured, Mr. Whidbey and myself attended Mr. Broughton, with intention to fix on an eligible spot for our tents, and for transacting our necessary business on shore; and afterwards to pay our respects to his Otaheitean majesty.

The surf obliged us to row round the point near the mouth of the river; where we landed, and were received by the natives with every demonstration of regard. A messenger was instantly dispatched to inform the king of our arrival, and intended visit. The station of our tents on my former visits to this country, was not likely, on the present occasion, to answer our purpose; the beach was considerably washed away, and the sand being removed from the coral rocks rendered the landing very unsafe. The surf had also broken into the river, and made it very salt. These circumstances induced me to fix on a situation about a quarter of a mile further along the beach, to the southward. The messenger that had been dispatched to inform Otoo of our landing and proposed visit, returned with a pig, and a plantain leaf, as a peace-offering to me; accompanied by a speech of congratulation on our arrival, and offers of whatever refreshments the country afforded. This short ceremony being finished, we proceeded along the beach in expectation of meeting the young sovereign, until we arrived near to the place where the river had broken its banks. There we were directed to halt, under the shade of a palm tree, to which we readily consented, the weather being nearly calm, and excessively sultry. After waiting a short time, we were acquainted that the king, having some objection to cross the river for the purpose of meeting strangers, requested we would go to him. A canoe was in waiting to take us over; and having walked about an hun-

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dred yards on the other side, the interview took place. We found Otoo to be a boy of about nine or ten years of age. He was carried on the shoulders of a man, and was clothed in a piece of English red cloth, with ornaments of pigeon's feathers hanging over his shoulders. When we had approached within about eight paces, we were desired to stop: the present we had brought was exhibited; and although its magnitude, and the value of the articles it contained, excited the admiration of the bystanders in the highest degree, it was regarded by this young monarch with an apparently stern and cool indifference. It was not immediately to be presented; a certain previous ceremony was necessary. Not considering myself sufficiently master of the language, I applied for assistance to an inferior chief named Moerree, (who had been useful to Mr. Broughton) to be my prompter. At first he used some pains, but not finding me so apt a scholar as he expected, he soon took the whole office upon himself. He answered for our peaceable and friendly intentions, and requested supplies of provisions, and a pledge of good faith towards us, with as much confidence as if he had been intimately acquainted with our wishes and designs. Our situation on this occasion was similar to that of his Otaheitean majesty, who condescended to say but a few words, a person by his side sparing him that trouble by going through all the formal orations. A ratification of peace and mutual friendship being acknowledged on both sides, and these ceremonies concluded, which took up fifteen or twenty minutes, the different European articles composing the present, were, with some little form, presented to Otoo; and on his shaking hands with us, which he did very heartily, his countenance became immediately altered, and he received us with the greatest cheerfulness and cordiality. He informed me, that his father, my former acquaintance and friend, was at Morea, and requested I would send thither a boat for him; for, as the islanders were much accustomed to raise false reports, Pomurrey would not believe that I was arrived without seeing some of us, by whom he would be convinced. He also added, that if we should sail without seeing his father, he would not only be very much concerned, but very angry. This language being in the mouths of every one around us, and feeling a great desire to see an old friend who had

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ever conducted himself with propriety, ard appeared firmly attached to our interest, I promised to comply with the young king's request. The suffusions of joy, and a readiness to oblige, were evident in the countenances of all whom we met. Their instant compliance with all our requests, and their eagerness to be foremost in performing any little friendly office, could not be observed without the most grateful emotions. Each of us was presented with a quantity of cloth, a large hog, and some vegetables; after which we returned on board extremely well pleased with our visit and reception.

My original intention in calling here was for the sole purpose of recruiting our water, and obtaining a temporary supply of fresh provisions; but on further consideration I was convinced, that we should not find any place this winter, where the necessary duties we had to perform before we could proceed to the coats of America, would be so well done, or executed with so much ease and convenience, as in our present situation. A small boat for the Chatham was to be built, and a great repair was necessary to her large cutter. The timber cut in Dusky bay wanted to be sawn into planks for many other immediate and essential purposes. These matters required immediate attention, and could not so properly be executed on board: beside which, the known accuracy with which the situation of this island is settled, made me anxious to land our chronometers, for the purpose of ascertaining their error, and rate of going, which had lately become somewhat equivocal. These reasons induced me to determine on giving the vessels every equipment here they required, which would have the further convenience of shortening our visit this season at the Sandwich islands. Directions were therefore given, that the sails should be unbent, the topmasts, &c. struck, and that a thorough examination of the rigging and sails should take place. The Discovery's carpenters were ordered to assist those of the Chatham, in building and repairing her boats, sawing out the plank, and all other necessary services that circumstances rendered practicable, were, by the several artificers, put in a train of execution.

Saturday 31.

Agreeably to the promise made to Otoo, Mr. Mudge, accompanied by Mr. Menzies, was on saturday dispatched to the island of Morea for

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Vide Cook's Voyages.

Pomurrey. Matuaro, who we were informed was, under Otoo, fovereign of Huaheine, and who was now here on an Ercoei party,* undertook to be their pilot. As soon as the boat put off, the crowd about the ship becoming acquainted with her errand the news was speedily carried with acclamations to the shore, and there received with great demonstrations of gladness.

During the night, the swell in the bay had greatly increased, and conceiving we were nearer the Dolphin bank than was imagined on our arrival, we warped nearer in shore, and moored in 13 fathoms black sand, and muddy bottom: One-Tree hill bearing by compass S.26 W.; and point Venus N. 14 E. The surf breaking with great violence, had hitherto prevented our landing the encampment; but as I had been accustomed to see this place perfectly smooth, I entertained no doubt that the bay would in a day or two resume its usual tranquillity.

1792. January. Sunday 1.

Sunday morning ushered in the new year. The surf had in some measure subsided, though it still broke with great violence on the shore; which induced me to make new-year's day a holiday. Every one had as much fresh pork, and plum-pudding as he could make use of; and left in the voluptuous gratifications of Otaheite, we might forget our friends in old England, all hands were served a double allowance of grog to drink the healths of their sweethearts and friends at home. It is somewhat singular that the gunner of the Discovery was the only married man of the whole party.

Monday 2.

The weather becoming pleasant on monday morning, the tents, observatory, &c. were sent on shore. These were constantly protected by a guard of marines, and our field pieces; which were very properly constructed for our occasions, and answered every expected purpose. Mr. Puget was charged with the encampment, and Mr. Whidbey was particularly to attend the observatory. My attention and residence was divided between the ship, and the shore. On pitching our tents, a great concourse of the natives in the most friendly and orderly manner attended. Their numbers, in some measure, proved inconvenient, by interrupting our labours; but, on a line being drawn on the ground, denoting the space we intended to occupy, not one attempted to trespass; and

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1792. January.

those who were permitted to help in the debarkation of our stores, conducted themselves with the utmost decorum, and seemed amply repaid with a few beads for their assistance.

Towards noon Mr. Mudge returned with my old friend Pomurrey, who was saluted, previously to his coming on board, with four guns from each vessel, which gratified him extremely. With him came Matooara Mahow, commonly called Mahow; the reigning prince, under Otoo, of Morea. There was however little probability of his long enjoying this honorable station, as he appeared to be in the last stage of a deep and rapid decline; his person was reduced to a mere skeleton, which he was not able to raise without great assistance. He was heisted on board in a chair, and supported by six people down to the cabin, where, unable to fit up, or to stand, a bed was prepared for him on the lockers. The reasons that could induce a man in his deplorable condition to undertake such a visit, must, without doubt, be not less curious than extraordinary!

Pomurrey had perfect recollection of me; and every expression, and action, indicated the sincerity of the happiness he prosessed on our arrival. He frequently observed, I had grown very much, and looked very old since last we had parted. In the afternoon, his two wives and youngest sister arrived; the former were the sisters, and the latter the wife of Mahow. His two brothers also accompanied the ladies, with many chiefs and attendants, each presenting me on their coming on board with cloth, hogs, fowls and vegetables, in such abundance, that we had now more than we could well dispense with. This profusion, however, and the manner in which it was bestowed, was very grateful to our feelings, as it plainly evinced the kind-hearted disposition of the inhabitants, and that we could not experience any want were our stay to be protracted far beyond the period of my present intention. It now became necessary that a handsome return should be made to the whole group, agreeably to the rank and situation of each individual. In selecting the presents I was fortunate enough at once to succeed, far beyond their most fanguine expectations.

As Pomurrey and Mahow, with their wives, were to sleep on board,

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their donations were not to be exhibited to public view until the crowd was dispersed; and I was instructed, in the event of inquiries being made concerning the presents I proposed to make these illustrious personages, to enumerate but few of the articles. Amongst those intended for Pomurrey were two axes. These he desired no one should know of; and to prevent even suspicion, hid them under my bureau, where they remained some days, until he sent his elder wife Pomurrey Whaheine for them. This degree of secrecy seemed inexplicable.

Amongst the several chiefs who visited us, was Poeno, chief of Matavai, who brought with him a portrait of Captain Cook, drawn by Mr. Webber, in the year 1777. This picture is always deposited in the house of the chief of Matavai, and is become the public register. On the back of it was written, that the Pandora had quitted this island the 8th of may 1791.

It is natural to suppose we should be very solicitous to become acquainted with the circumstances that had attended the vessel and the unfortunate persons belonging to the Bounty. Captain Edwards, who in the Pandora was dispatched from England in quest of them some months prior to our failing, had, we understood, arrived here, and taken on board those of the crew who were left at Otaheite, amounting to the number of thirteen, at the time Mr. Christian with the rest of his party failed from the island, which was some time before the arrival of the Pandora; since which period I was not able to procure any intelligence of Mr. Christian or his companions.

Whatever particulars could be collected from the natives, respecting this no less criminal, than melancholy event, I thought it an incumbent duty to procure and transmit to England, left any accident should befal the Pandora. But as a legal investigation has since taken place, I trust I shall neither incur the displeasure of the humane, nor the reproach of the curious, by declining any further digression on this sad subject: the former will readily find an apology for me in their own bosoms; and the latter may resort to the publications of the day, for any other particulars with which they may be desirous of becoming acquainted.

A large party of yalty, and chiefs, honored us with their company at

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1792. January. Monday 2.

dinner, which failed being a pleasant circumstance in consequence of the weather being extremely hot, and the cabin excessively crowded. On this occasion, the wives of Pomurrey and the wife of Mahow were permitted to sit with us at table, and partake of the repast. This indulgence, however, is by no means common, and, I believe, granted to no other of the women on the island. Our attention was particularly acted by the great desire which the generality of them, both male and fee, exhibited, in the endeavours to adopt our manners and customs, and the avidity with which they sought spirituous liquors,

Vide Cook's Voyages.

Pomurrey, in the course of dinner and afterwards, drank a bottle of brandy, without diluting it. This threw him into such violent convulsions, that four strong men were required to hold him down, and to perform the office of "Roome, roome,"* which is done by squeezing the flesh of the limbs, and body of the intoxicated person with their hands. On these convulsions subsiding, he slept for about an hour, and then arose to all appearance as much refreshed with his nap, as if he had retired perfectly sober. I expostulated with a desire to convince him that inebriety was highly pernicious to health, but in vain; his only reply was, "Nowe none," a term used for every thing that delights or pleases, such as music, &c. &c. accused me of being a stingy fellow, and that I was not "Tio tio," a phrase lately adopted to signify a jolly companion. This determined me that he should have his own way, and orders were given that he should have as much brandy or rum, as he chose to call for; concluding, that in a few days he would be convinced of its ill effects. In this I was not mistaken; before the week expired he ceased calling for spirits; and a few glasses of wine, at and after dinner, completely satisfied him; frequently saying, that all I had told him of the "Ava Britarne" was perfectly true. Spirits and wine are, however, in great request with all the chiefs, as is sugar; and there can be no doubt that these articles might be rendered amongst them considerable branches of traffic.

Tuesday 3.

We were busily employed this day about our rigging, fails, and other matters on board; and in landing the chronometers, instruments, and other necessary articles and implements for the execution of our business

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on shore; from whence the boats returned with some water; and we began salting of pork.

The weather continued to be very sultry; the thermometer generally standing between 83 and 86 my royal guests, with a crowd of attendants, still remained on board, and their company became no less pleasant than inconvenient. I was given to understand they intended to make the ship their place of residence, until they should return to Morea. This arrangement was very incommodious, and to which it was equally impossible to object: I was therefore under the necessity of resorting to some little address, which fortunately was attended with the desired success. I took an opportunity of acquainting Pomurrey that my attendance at the observatory would now be constantly required, which would oblige me to dine on shore; but that I had ordered a dinner on board, and plenty of brandy, for him and his friends. A consultation shortly took place, and as I was about to leave the ship, he said, if I would call for him after dinner, the whole party would disembark, desiring at the same time, that he might be saluted on his landing, from the encampment; which in the evenin was done accordingly. Our royal friends took up their abode in a wretched house brought for the express purpose to point Venus, where our tents on former visits had been pitched. Pomurrey was not in a condition to favor us with his presence that evening; but, in the morning, we had the honor of his company at the encampment. He regarded with inquisitive attention, and great admiration, the several works in which our people were engaged. A large piece of timber which was sawing into plank, greatly attracted his notice, and drew me into a scrape; he said it was impossible we could be in immediate want of so great a quantity, and did not doubt that ere long we should be in a country where we could again be supplied, having understood that this stick had been cut at New Zealand. These considerations led him to request, that I would order a chest of the plank to be made for him, six feet long, four feet broad, and three feet deep. I excused myself, by replying that I could not with any conveniency part with so much plank, nor could the carpenters be well spared from the business on which they were employed; but that, before we failed, I would endeavour to have a small chest made for him. Pomurrey, however, was of opinion,

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that a large chest would take little more time to finish than a small one, and offered to find plank for the top and bottom, if I would supply the sides and end, and allow a carpenter to make it. In short, he was so pressing and earnest, that much against my inclination, having great demands for the plank, and constant employ for the artificers, I was under the necessity of complying with his wishes.

Mahow, though extremely feeble, paid us a visit on shore; being unable to walk, he was carried about in a kind of litter. Many other chiefs were now constantly attendant upon us with a numerous party of the natives, who all conducted themselves with the strictest propriety, and seemed highly delighted with the new mode of spending their time, in observing and animadverting on our different employments.

The wind, since our arrival, had been easterwardly, blowing a moderate breeze; it had now veered to the north with squalls and showers of rain, attended by a very heavy rolling swell in the bay. The Discovery's yawl wanting repair was hauled up for that purpose. In the evening, we had much rain, with frequent gusts of wind; which so much increased the surf, that all communication with the shore must have ceased, had not the good offices of our kind friends on the island, enabled us to keep up a correspondence. They successfully contended with the boisterous elements, by swimming to and from the ship; and, to manifest their attachment, supplied us by this means with bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, and other refreshments.

Thursday 5.

On thursday morning, the N.W. wind, which is the most boisterous and unpleasant known in this country, brought with it a sea which broke with such great violence on the shore, as to insulate the spot on which our royal friends had taken up their abode. The wind could not be considered as a strong gale; yet so violent was the sea that accompanied it, that it broke with unintermitted force in every part of the bay, excepting where the vessels rode; and, even there, we did not intirely escape its fury; two seas broke on board the Discovery, although in eight fathoms water, which nearly filled the waist. Towards eight o'clock, the clouds in the N.W. bearing a very threatening appearance, the sheet anchor was dropped underfoot. This disagreeable weather

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continued all day, and the surf ranged so high on the shores as to make it necessary to remove the observatory further back several paces; notwithstanding which, the kind offices of the friendly natives, regardless of danger, were uninterruptedly continued.

Friday 6.

It became calm, and the weather appeared more settled, on friday morning. The sheet anchor was weighed and replaced; and all hands were busily employed in their respective departments. After breakfast, I went on shore, and understood that Otoo had, in the course of the last two days, been carried, as when we first met him, about the encampment. On his approach, I invited him into the marquee, and requested he would visit the ships. Both these invitations he declined; and I was immediately given to understand, that should he enter the tents or ships, neither his father, mother, or any inhabitant of these islands, could again be admitted; that every thing is and must be destroyed out of which he should eat or drink, although vessels or utensils belonging to us. As the young monarch was about the encampment most part of the day; whilst at dinner, I demanded of his father if I might send him a glass of wine; he replied, if I chose to have the glass broken, I was at liberty so to do; and enquired if I had an abundance of such articles to spare. Some wine was therefore sent in the shell of a cocoa-nut, which being emptied by the young king, was instantly broken and thrown in the sea. Pomurrey had, early and frequently, asked if we had not fire-works on board, and being informed that we had, saturday evening was fixed for an exhibition, after which the royal party, with their dying chief Mahow, were to return to Morea, and having landed him, Pomurrey and his wives were to return, and remain here until we should depart. The intended display of fire-works was made known to all around us, and messengers with the intelligence were dispatched to various parts of the island.

Saturday 7.

Pomurrey's father, who was formerly known by the name of Happi, now called Taow, had arrived from Morea, and was on board the Discovery where he desired to see me; on which, Pomurrey with Urripiah and Whytooa, his two next brothers, accompanied me to pay our respects to their old fire, who had just arrived in a large canoe, laden with the

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productions of the country as a present. This interview was excessively affecting. It was with great satisfaction that I beheld the affectionate regard with which the three sons embraced their aged and venerable father; who, in acknowledging a grateful sense of their dutiful congratulations, exhibited feelings which drew tears from the whole party. When these filial effusions, which would have done credit to the sensibility of the most polished nations, had subsided; I presented Taow with a suitable return; and, on including some articles for his wife, who was still living at Morea, he was highly delighted, and the value of the present in his estimation seemed thereby infinitely increased.

Some of the royal females had now joined our party; and as Pomurrey had not yet paid Mr. Broughton a visit, we all went on board the Chatham. Presents were necessary on this occasion; and although I considered that Mr. Broughton had been very liberal, our royal guests seemed of a different opinion; but on explaining that there was not the same abundance of valuable things on board the small vessel, that there was in the large ship, and having some retrospect to the number and value of those obtained from the Discovery, we left the Chatham, and went on shore tolerably well satisfied.

Soon after our arrival at the encampment I witnessed a scene, very different from that which had been exhibited on board on the meeting of three sons with their venerable parent. It was shortly announced that Otoo was approaching. On this occasion, it became necessary that the grandfather should pay homage to his grandson. A pig and a plantain leaf were instantly procured, the good old man stripped to the waist, and when Otoo appeared in the front of the marquee, the aged parent, whose limbs were tottering with the decline of life, met his grandson, and on his knees acknowledged his own inferiority, by presenting this token of submission; which, so far as could be discovered, seemed offered with a mixture of profound respect, and parental regard. The ceremony seemed to have little effect on the young monarch, who appeared to notice the humiliating situation of his grandsire with the most perfect indifference and unconcern. This mode of behaviour is, however, rather to be attributed to the force of education, than to a want of the proper sen-

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timents of affection; as I perfectly recollect that when I was here with Captain Cook, Pomurrey treated his brothers with the most cool indifference, although, on the present occasion, there are few examples of three brothers living in greater harmony, or regarding each other with more fraternal affection: it should therefore seem, that this fort of distant deportment is a necessary appendage to the high office of sovereign. Another royal son and daughter honored us with their company. These, with a daughter remaining at Morea, are all the children of Pomurrey now living. His family originally consisted of five, but one of his daughters was deceased. All these children were by his eldest wife, known by the name of Pomurrey Whaheine, or the female Pomurrey; this lady I shall hereafter distinguish by the appellation of Queen Mother. By his youngest wife he has had no children; she is called Fier re te. Our new visitors were, each like their brother Otoo, carried on men's shoulders; and for the same reasons which interdicted him, they could not enter our habitations. The youth seemed to be about three or four years younger than Otoo, and had taken the name of Whyeadooa, in consequence of his being the acknowledged sovereign of Tiarabou under his brother Otoo; the daughter appeared to be about two or three years of age, to whom, or to the young lady remaining at Morea, I did not understand that any particular titles or consequence were at present annexed; yet this child seemed treated with much respect and attention.

We had a very large party of royalty and of the different chiefs to dinner at the marquee; after which it was proposed, that the "Heava no Britarne," that is, the English entertainments, were to commence. Pomurrey requested that some guns from the ships should be fired as a prelude; that the marines on shore should go through their exercise, and fire; and that the efforts of the field pieces should be exhibited. From the latter were fired both round and cannister shot, which the surrounding multitude beheld with surprize, admiration, and terror, manifested by their expressions, particularly on observing the distance to which the small three pounders threw the round shot; and the execution that evidently could be done by the cannister, which was fired at a rock in the sea, lying at a convenient distance. On firing with some dispatch, three

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rounds from the field pieces, the fear of Pomurrry completely overcame his curiosity, and he exclaimed "Ateerara;" signifying he was perfectly satisfied.

Sunday. 8.

In the evening, we were very fortunate in our display of fire works. They had been well prepared and preserved; and were, without exception, of their various kinds, equal to any I ever saw discharged in Europe. A numerous crowd were assembled on the occasion, who expressed as much astonishment and admiration, as if these had been the first exhibited in the island. I endeavoured to prevail on Pomurrey to assist in the performance. He once took the port fire in his hand, but his heart failed, and calling his youngest wife re te, desired I would instruct her. She was by no means so alarmed as her husband; and, with a little of my assistance, she fired several rockets, a catharine wheel, some flower pots, and balloons. Having displayed an ortment of these, together with some water rockets, &c. the exhibition was closed; and the natives retired in the most perfectly good der to their respective habitations, excessively well pleased with their entertainment; although it was evident, that the major part had been as much affected by terror as admiration. Pomurrey, with his two wives and sister, came to breakfast the next morning, and expressed great satisfaction and many thanks for the pleasure which the last evening and afforded them. The young king, with his brother and sister, honored the encampment also with their presence. Understanding that our royal party were about to leave us for some days, presents were made them on the occasion; with which, highly delighted with their excursion, and their reception by us, they departed.

The chronometers and other instruments had now been landed nearly a week; but, owing to the very unsettled state of the weather, until this day, we had not been able to get corresponding altitudes. The like cause had operated also in retarding the general transactions at the encampment; where whilst I was busily employed at the observatory, Poatatou arrived; having sent before him a magnificent present of hogs, vegetables, cloth, mats, &c. I had been very intimate with this chief on my last visit to this country; we perfectly recollected each other; and the sin-

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cerity of my friend, and his wife also, did not spare me the mortification of being informed a second time, that I was grown exceedingly old. He much regretted, that he had not arrived in time to partake of the entertainments of the preceding day and evening; as he had never been so fortunate as to be present at such an exhibition. This induced me to promise, that, on the return of Pomurrey from Morea, a similar display should take place.

Poatatou, who was now called Hidiea, with his wife and sister, accompanied me on board. Amongst the valuables with which I presented my old acquaintance and friend, was an axe, of which his sister became so enamoured, claiming to herself a part of the present I had received, that Hidiea was under the necessity of using some force to prevent her wrenching it out of his hand; but, on my making a small addition to the articles she had received, the lady became reconciled.

Monday 9.

Our business in the several departments was now in great forwardness: yet we were likely to experience an inconvenience in procuring fire wood, as we had few trees in our neighbourhood but such as bore fruit. On mentioning this circumstance to Urripiah, he undertook, with Whytooa, Poeno, and Moerree an inferior chief, to supply more than the ships would contain, provided they were furnished with two axes each, as, on such an occasion, they could not afford to wear out their own; which, on my part, was readily acceded to.

The sea had broken so much into the river as to render it brackish and unfit for use near our encampment; this obliged us to have our casks filled near a mile off, opposite Urripiah's habitation; who ordered them to be emptied, and filled, for the purpose of seasoning, as often as we desired; and giving them in charge to his trusty domestics, they remained in his custody several days in the most perfect safety. This conduct was not singular; for it is but justice to acknowledge, that every one of the inhabitants behaved with an uniform propriety, as deserving of our thanks as of our commendations. In every transaction, they were emulous to afford us assistance to the utmost of their power; and seemed amply and satisfactorily rewarded for their exertions in our service, by the humble return of a few beads, or small nails.

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The departure of Pomurrey's family was daily put off; Mahow being very desirous that we should convey him home in one of our boats; but as these, as well as our men, were too much employed to be spared for this purpose, we were daily honored at our meals with most of this good company; and it must be acknowledged, that their deportment at table was now so much improved, that the major part conducted themselves with great consistency. Excepting the daughter of Opoone, who reigned over Bolabola, and its two neighbouring isles, we had now the presence of all the sovereigns of this group of islands. Opoone had formerly conquered and annexed the islands of Ulietca and Otaha to the government of Balabola; but, on his death, the sovereignty of these islands had, in right of natural, or original succession, fallen to a chief whose name was Mowree. He was a shrewd sensible fellow, affected to be well acquainted with the English language, and certainly had acquired some words which he pronounced so as to be understood. He was a brother of Pomurrey's mother, was on a visit to the royal family here, and was by them treated with much respect and attention.

Hitherto, I had received a few trifling presents of provisions only from Pomurrey, who had lately expressed some regret that he had not made me a return for the many useful matters I had bestowed upon him, and had fixed this day to make an acknowledgment.

Towards noon Pomurrey came to the marquee, attended by a considerable train. He was preceded by three men, each bearing a parri or mourning dress, esteemed the most valuable present the country can afford. Many of the rest were laden with cloth, fowls, and vegetables; these with some very large hogs which brought up the rear, made altogether a very superb and grateful compensation. Pomurrey and his wives dined with us; after which they took. leave of the encampment to embark for Oparre, there to join Mahow, who had departed early in the morning for Morea; for which island the whole of the royal party were to sail the next day; there they proposed to land Mahow, and, in the course of four or five days, return; having given them to understand we should, about that time, be on the eve of our departure. They were saluted from our station on

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shore, on their way on board the Discovery, where a canoe was waiting to receive them; and in which were two large hogs, that Pomurrey had desired might be sent me from Oparre. Considering myself, on this occasion, his debtor, I endeavoured to discover what would be most acceptable in return. He had promised to solicit a file for a man in his canoe, and he could not be prevailed upon to accept any other article. After a short slay on board, they bid us farewel, and were saluted with eight guns from the vessels. Most of the chiefs left us, in order to procure such articles as they considered might be acceptable to us previously to our departure.

Friday 13.

Mr. Broughton, Mr. Menzies, and several officers of the Discovery and Chatham, made an excursion on the 13th to the westward, towards Oparre, and the country in its vicinity; which, together with the absence of the chiefs and their attendants, so much reduced our society, that the encampment had the appearance of being almost deserted.

Saturday 14.

At day break the next morning I received a message from Pomurrey, acquainting me with the death of Mahow; in consequence of which their voyage to Morea was at an end. Little concern could possibly be felt on this occasion. Mahow's relief from the wretched condition in which he existed, was directed by humanity to be esteemed a most happy event; particularly when the very singular treatment is considered, which this poor being endured whilst in our neighbourhood. Almost every evening, and sometimes twice in the night, he was brought in the litter from the royal habitation near the point, and placed in some one of our tents for a short time, and then carried back again. In the day-time he was either visiting the encampment, or, in the heat of the sun, or in the midst of rain was rowed round the ships, and insisted one evening on steeping on board the Chatham. He was very fond of tea, and extremely desirous that whatever nourishment he took, should be dressed in the English fashion. The conduct observed towards this dying man, seemed calculated, is not intended, to hasten his dissolution. This however, was not to be reconciled with the general deportment of the whole royal party, and especially with that of Pomurrey, who appeared to regard him with great tenderness and affection. I was parti-

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cularly inquisitive why he was so harrassed about; and they all agreed it was in consequence of his own desire, which, so far as could be learned, seemed dictated by superstitious notions.

Sunday 15.

I desired the messenger to inform Pomurrey, that I would attend the funeral solemnities of the deceased the next day. On sunday morning he again returned with a request from Pomurrey, that I would not visit Oparre until tuesday, when the religious interdiction under which that district shad been laid would be at an end, no communication at present being permitted between the inhabitants of Oparre and those of the other parts of the island. This was made generally known by the display of flags in the several path-ways; not a canoe was suffered to move along the shores; nor was a fire allowed to be made; which produced a degree of solemnity, that was very expressive of the concern felt for the death of this chief, and of his consequence and respectability. Numerous fires had been observed the preceding day all over the district of Oparre. These, we were given to understand, were ceremonies of a religious nature consequent on the demise of Mahow; and it is reasonable to suppose that the mourners took advantage of this ordinance to cook sufficient provisions for the time of the interdiction.

Our provisions having been supplied in the greatest abundance, permission was now granted for the purchase of curiosities, agreeably to my promise contained in the restrictive orders of the 25th of december last. And as nothing worthy of attention had occurred in our neighbourhood during the absence of Mr. Broughton and his party, I shall insert such observations made during their excursion, as were communicated to me on their return.

Our gentlemen embarked in a canoe belonging to Mowree, the sovereign of Ulietea, who together with Whytooa and his wife, accompanied them towards Oparre. On their way they landed for the purpose of seeing the morai of Tapootapootatea. Mowree, who attended them, on approaching the sacred spot, desired the party would stop until he should address the Eaetooa. For this purpose he seated himself on the ground, and began praying before a watta, ornamented with a piece of wood indifferently carved, on which was placed, for the present

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occasion, a bundle of cloth and some red feathers. During this ejaculation, which took up a considerable time, the names of the party were twice mentioned. He likewise repeated the names of the several commanders who had visited the island; together with those of "Keene Corge" (that is, King George) and "Britarne," which were frequently expressed. When these introductory ceremonies were finished, Mowree attended them to every part of the morai, and explained every particular. He appeared to be well versed in all the ceremonials and rites appertaining to their religion, which made the party greatly lament their want of a competent knowledge of the language, as they were unable to comprehend his meaning, except in a few common instances. Having left the morai, and proceeded westward about a mile, they arrived at a house surrounded by a plantation of ava belonging to Urripiah, who was then at dinner with a numerous company of our Matavai friends; and whilst our gentlemen were taking some refreshment, a messenger arrived from Whytooa, whose guests they were to be, and who had gone before them from me morai, requesting their attendance at his habitation, which they found situated on the verge of the sea shore. In the front of it was an ava plantation, interspersed with sugar cane, and bananas; near the house was a small shrubbery, of native ornamental plants. The whole surrounded by a well constructed fence of bamboo, neatly intersected with clean paths, that led in different directions, produced an effect that was extremely pleasing, and redounded much to the credit and ingenuity of the proprietor. Whytooa had taken very effectual means to provide for their entertainment; for a large hog had been committed to the oven, and was nearly ready for the table, with an abundance of other refreshments. The mansion was large and airy. By lines stretched across, they had quiet possession of one half of the building; and this partition prevented the idle curiosity of the assembled natives from interrupting the comfort of their repast. In the afternoon they were visited by Urripiah and some of his attendants. He observed, that, in the absence of the royal brothers, and other principal chiefs, it was not improbable that some of the natives might take advantage of this circumstance, and discontinue their present orderly be-

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haviour: in the neighbourhood of die vessels and the encampment. He therefore requested Mr. Broughton would, in his name, write to me, recommending the five following chiefs to be admitted into our society on board on shore; whose presence would be the means of effectually restraining the populace. Their names were Poeno, Matiapo, and Moerree, of Matavai; and Tatoah, and Arreheah of Hapino; in the protection and good offices of whom we might place the fullest confidence. Matiapo being present, he was charged by Mr. Broughton with this embassy. From our earliest acquaintance with this royal and worthy chief, his mind had appeared to be wholly engrossed in devising the means for our comfort, and for preserving a friendly and good understanding between us and his countrymen; and even here, though retired to his cottage, he was found equally zealous in the same laudable pursuit. They were also complimented by the young king Otoo with a visit. His approach was announced by the usual ceremony of all the natives present uncovering their shoulders; and as he could not with propriety enter Whytooa's fence, they paid him their respects on the beach; whence, after receiving some trinkets, he hastened with his royal sister, each carried as before, to meet Pomurrey, who was about to land at the morai. Towards the evening, a scene was presented that gave a very different turn to the feelings of the party. On paying their respects to the royal family who had landed near them, the sorrow and dejection which appeared in the countenance of Pomurrey, induced an inquiry into the cause of his melancholy; he replied in a low tone of voice, that" Matooara Mahow was dead." Urripiah on hearing the news burst into a flood of tears; and a sorrowful gloomy sadness soon overspread the whole assembly. On advancing a little further, they observed the queen-mother and Fier re te in tears near the canoe from which they had landed, searching a bundle containing some sharks teeth, with which the women of this country torture themselves, to manifest their grief on such occasions. After each had made choice of an instrument for this purpose, they retired in silent affliction to a neighbouring plantation.

The next morning, they were again honored by a visit from Otoo and

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several of the chiefs, in their way to the morai. Soon after, a canoe covered with an awning was seen coming from the westward, paddling in a flow and solemn manner towards the morai in which was the corpse of the deceased chief. On their expressing great anxiety to fee Pomurrey for the purpose of obtaining permission to attend the burial ceremony, they were informed that he was gone to the morai, but would have no objection to their being present. They proceeded; and, near the rivulet that flows by Urripiah's house, they saw the queen-mother, Fier re te, and the widow of the deceased Mahow, fitting all in tears; and in the paroxysms of their affliction, wounding their heads with the shark's teeth they had prepared the preceding evening. The widow had a small spot shaved on the crown of her head, which was bloody, and bore other evident marks of having frequently undergone the cruel effect of her despair. Being apprehensive that the presence of strangers might be unwelcome, they took leave, and repaired to the morai, where the priests had already begun their funeral solemnities. Pomurrey, Urripiah, and others silently assenting, they moved quietly through the assembly, and were seated with as little interruption to the duties, as on entering a church in England after the service is commenced. Five priests were seated before Pomurrey, chanting a prayer, with their faces towards Otoo, who fat on a man's lap. About ten yards from him was held a bundle of cloth, which contained emblematically the Eatooa; a general name for their deities. The body of Mahow, wrapped in English red cloth, was deposited under an awning in a canoe, whose bow was drawn up a little way on the beach near the morai, and was attended by one man only at her stern up to his middle in water, to prevent her driving from the spot. The priests continued chanting their prayers, frequently exalting their voices, until they ended in a very shrill tone. He who, on this occasion, performed the office of chief priest, was discovered to be our friend Mowree, whose prayer was equally fervent, and continued nearly half an hour longer than the rest; during which he was occasionally joined by another priest in a very shrill tone of voice. This prayer of Mowree's seemed, at intervals, like an expostulation with the Divinity, by adverting to the different productions of the island remaining, and still

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flourishing in the greatest plenty, and yet Matooara Mahow was suffered to die.

The address being ended they all rose up, and proceeded westward along the shore, followed by the canoe in which was the corpse, to the mouth of the rivulet, where the three royal ladies still continued to indulge their excessive grief; and who, on perceiving the canoe, burst forth into a loud yell of lamentation, which was accompanied by an accelerated application of the shark's teeth, until the blood very freely following, mingled with their tears. The canoe entered the brook, and proceeded towards another morai at the foot of the mountains, where the ceremonies to be performed on the body of the deceased required such secrecy, that, on no account, could our gentlemen be permitted to attend, although it was most earnestly requested. As some alleviation to this disappointment, Pomurrey promised they should see the manner in which the remains would be deposited the next day, and earnestly intreated they would desist from following the procession any further on the present occasion. As it was generally suspected that the body was now to undergo the process of embalming, the party much lamented Pomurrey's interdiction, as it deprived them of the only opportunity that possibly might ever occur of becoming acquainted with the nature of this operation; whence might be derived not only curious, but useful anatomical information. This prompted Mr. Menzies to renew his solicitations to Pomurrey to be admitted alone; but as these were attended with no better success, they determined to abandon these melancholy solemnities, and extend their excursion a few miles westward to Pomurrey's residence; which they found pleasantly situated near the shore, consisting of two large houses lately erected. Here they were entertained with a heava performed by a number of very young girls, in the wanton manner of the country. At a particular part of the dance, a fellow slept in amongst the performers, and in a very obscene though ludicrous manner entertained the native audience; but, on our gentlemen expressing their abhorrence of such indecorous behaviour, the girls, in finishing their parts, did not expose their persons below the waist. After distributing some presents to the young actresses, they retired; and directing their route back, through

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the plantations, soon arrived at the house of a chief, where Whytooa having provided an excellent repast they were sumptuously regaled.

In the evening, as they returned to our friend's house, they observed many fires were burning at Oparre, as if a grand entertainment was preparing; they however fared as usual; and after supper, on requesting their worthy host would join in a glass of grog, to the health of friends in Britarne, he, though extremely fond of the liquor, very politely declined the invitation; saying, there was but little for themselves, and he would therefore drink "Britarne" in a bowl of Otaheitean ava, which was immediately prepared.

Before break of day, Mowree acquainted them, that, as religious restrictions were laid on all the canoes in that part of the island, his could not be launched; he was informed this would not be any inconvenience, as it was the intention of the party to return by land; and requested, that Whytooa would prepare them an early breakfast. This, Whytooa hoped, they would excuse, as fires were interdicted, and cooking could not be suffered at his house; but that he would endeavour to provide them with some refreshment on their journey, when out of the district of Oparre. Accompanied by their worthy host and hostess, they now set forth on their return, highly impressed with the attentive kindness and hospitality they had received.

On reaching the rivulet, they requested to be shewn the morai to which the remains of Mahow had been carried the preceding day. The road was pointed out, but having advanced a little way a message was delivered, requesting they would return. On explaining the promise made by Pomurrey, much hesitation ensued; after which Whytooa directed one of the natives only to accompany them, giving him at the same time very particular injunctions. Mr. Broughton and Mr. Menzies followed this man, who appeared exceedingly cautious and apprehensive of every step he took. They had not proceeded far when a general solitary gloom prevailed; all the houses were deserted, and not a living creature, excepting two or three dogs, were to be seen until they arrived near the morai; where, in a small house, three men were observed, who, most probably, were the centinels of the sacred place.

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These questioned the guide in a very particular manner, and then acquainted him, that the body of Mahow had been removed to the morai, where it had stopped the day before; and that Pomurrey was there also. They now took a cursory view of the holy spot, which afforded little worthy of notice. It was terminated by high perpendicular rocks, whence issued several streams of water, whose continued murmurs, assisted by the wild and gloomy situation of the morai, gave an awful solemnity to the place, and fitted it to the mournful, sacred purpose, for which it is designed. On the return of these two gentlemen to join the rest of the party, they passed the residence of the young king Otoo. It consisted of a middling-sized house, inclosed by a railing of wood, situated on the confines of the districts of Matavai and Oparre; beyond which the religious interdictions did not seem to extend any great distance, as they soon afterwards partook of an excellent breakfast that Whytooa had taken care to provide. They then returned to the encampment, extremely well pleased with their excursion, on which they had been constantly attended by several of the natives, who were always struggling to be foremost in acts of friendly attention; such as carrying the party over the rivulets; taking charge of their superfluous apparel, and other bundles; which, although comprised of many articles highly valuable to them, yet, in justice to their honesty, it must be recorded that the most trivial article was not missed.

I shall take leave of this excursion by adding a few ideas which, though principally founded on conjecture, may not be unimportant, as they respect these peculiar religious ceremonies. The opinion that the operation of embalming commenced at the morai near the mountains was most probably correct. One of the principal parts of this ceremony, I have been given to understand, is always performed in great secrecy, and with much religious superstition; this is the disembowelling of the body. The bowels are, by these people, considered as the immediate organs of sensation, where the first impressions are received, and by which all the operations of the mind are carried on: it is therefore natural to conclude, that they may esteem, and venerate the intestines, as bearing the greatest affinity to the immortal part. I have frequently

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held conversations on this subject, with a view to convince them, that all intellectual operations were carried on in the head; at which they would generally smile, and intimate, that they had frequently seen men recover whole skulls had been fractured, and whose heads had otherways been much injured; but that, in all cases in which the intestines had been wounded, the persons on a certainty died. Other arguments they would also advance in favor of their belief; such as the effect of fear, and other passions, which caused great agitation and uneasiness, and would sometimes produce sickness at the stomach, which they attributed intirely to the action of the bowels. If therefore this reasoning be admitted, it would appear probable that the intestines of Mahow were deposited at the morai under the mountains; and as it is natural to imagine they would consider the soul most attached to those mortal parts which bore to it the greatest affinity, so wherever those parts were deposited, there they may probably suppose the soul occasionally resorts. And hence it may be inferred, that it is in the places made sacred by the deposit of these relics, that the ceremony of chief mourner, habited in the parie, is performed; whose business it is to keep off the inquisitive, and to maintain as far as possible a profound silence over a certain space in which he parades, having a kind of mace, armed with shark's teeth, borne before him by a man almost naked, whose duty is to assail any one with this formidable weapon, who may have the temerity to venture within his reach. This may account for, Whytooa's disinclination to permit our gentlemen to visit the morai; the apparently deserted houses; and the apprehensions of the guide, who started at the least interruption of the profound and solemn silence which prevailed in that neighbourhood.

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CHAPTER VII.

Two natives punished for theft—Obsequies of Mahow—Several articles stolen—Measures for their recovery—Towereroo the Sandwich islander absconds—Brought back by Pomurrey—Sail from Matavai bay—Character of Pomurrey—His wives—Changes in the government of Otaheite—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1792. January: Tuesday 17.

ON the morning of the 17th, we were visited by the young king, his uncles, and several other chiefs from Oparre. Two men had been detected in stealing a hat from on board the Discovery; and, as several other petty thefts had been committed at the encampment, I desired the delinquents to be sent on shore, that they might be punished in the presence of their chiefs, and countrymen; which was done by shaving their heads, and bestowing on each a flight manual correction.

A message was received from Pomurrey, requesting my attendance at Oparre, to "tiehah," that is, to mourn for the death of Mahow. It was understood to be much wished, that we should be provided to fire some vollies; and that I should present, on this occasion, a piece of red cloth as an offering to the deceased. I was informed also that most of the neighbouring chiefs were to pay their last tribute of respect to the remains of Mahow, and that the ceremony would consequently be attended with many formalities; but on our arrival at Oparre there did not appear the least foundation for any such report. Mr. Broughton and Mr. Whidbey accompanied me. On our landing, we were conducted to a temporary habitation of Pomurrey, where we found him, his wives, and sisters, in readiness to receive us. Some little concern was certainly apparent for the loss of their friend and relation; though very unequal to the affliction I expected to have witnessed, from the great care, and ten-

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der regard, manifested to Mahow by the whole party when alive. The grief of these good people is of two descriptions, natural and artificial; it is excessive on the first impulse, but soon moderates and wears away.

The corpse was laid on the tapapaoo, which seemed to have been erected for the express purpose about a quarter of a mile to the eastward of the grand morai; (or as it is called, "tapootapootatea") and appeared to be then undergoing the latter part of the embalming process, in the fame manner as described by Captain Cook in the instance of Tee. The body was exposed to the fun; and, on our approach, the covering was taken off, which exhibited the corpse in a very advanced state of putrefaction. The skin shone very bright with the cocoa-nut oil, with which it had been anointed, and which, we understood, was highly impregnated with "aehigh," or sweet-scented wood. One of the arms and a leg being moved, the joints appeared perfectly flexible. The extremely offensive exhalations that were emitted, rendered it natural to conclude, that the whole mass would soon be completely decomposed; but, if credit may be given to their assertions, which were indubitably confirmed by the remains of Tee, and to which I could myself bear testimony, this will not be the case. Pomurrey informed us, the corpse was to remain a month in this place; then a month was to be employed in its visiting some of the western districts; after which it was to be removed to Tiaraboo for another month; whence it was to be carried to Morea, and there finally deposited with his forefathers in the morai of the family. In the course of a few months after its arrival there, it would gradually begin to moulder away, but by such very flow degrees, that several months would elapse, before the body would be entirely consumed.

This method of embalming, or rather preserving human bodies, is certainly an object of great curiosity; particularly, when it is considered that it is performed under the influence of a vertical sun; sometimes in the rainy season; and that the operators are totally ignorant of the properties of spices, salts, &c. &c. as antisceptics. Whether their preparations be simple or compounded, or what may be the peculiarities observed in the process, remains, I believe, intirely unknown to

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Europeans; and it is much to be regretted, that their religious interdictions precluded our attending the whole of these mysterious obsequies, as many vessels may visit this country without meeting so favorable an opportunity, with persons on board qualified and inclined to direct such inquiries to effect.

The boat's crew were ranged before the paling that encompassed the tapapaoo; the piece of red cloth was given to the widow, who spread it over the dead body; some vollies were then fired, and I was directed to pronounce "Tera no oea Mahow," that is, For you Mahow. On some rain falling, the body was taken under cover, and carefully wrapped up. We had but a few yards to retire to Pomurrey's habitation, where himself and family had taken up a temporary abode for this occasion; but the exceedingly offensive smell of the corpse obliged us to proceed to an excellent new house of Whytooa's, a little to the westward of Pomurrey's former habitation, which had been destroyed during the late wars, and had not been rebuilt; nor did it appear that he had any other house at present in this part of the district. Here we dined, and returned to Matavai with two large hogs, presented on this mournful occasion by the widow of Mahow.

Wednes. 18.

Our friends with their axes made so little progress, that, on wednesday morning, I requested Urripiah would point out such trees as we might cut down ourselves. This, with Whytooa's assistance, he shortly did; and we procured of the apple, and bread-fruit, sufficient numbers to supply our wants. Parties for this service were sent on shore, and the axes lent to the chiefs for this express purpose, were directed to be forthwith returned; with which Urripiah, Whytooa, and Poeno, immediately complied.

Thursday 19.

The mourning for Mahow being now at an end, the royal females paid us a visit, and returned after dinner to Oparre. Pomurrey, his father, wives, brothers and sisters, with our several friends, were again about us the next morning, perfectly cheerful and in high spirits. As sunday was now determined upon for our departure, the preceding evening was fixed for a further display of fire-works, in which all our friends seemed to anticipate much pleasure. Pomurrey returned in the

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evening to Oparre, for the purpose of procuring us such supplies as he thought would be acceptable previously to our failing.

*Produced from the flock originally established by Capt. Cook.

A great number of presents were received on board on friday morning, consisting of hogs, fowls, goats*, roots and vegetables, from our several friends; who had uniformly conducted themselves with the greatest propriety, and who all appeared to regret that the period of our departure was now so near at hand. In the midst of this happy intercourse and desirable harmony, a circumstance unfortunately occurred, which occasioned much concern. A bag, containing a large quantity of linen belonging to Mr. Broughton, had been artfully taken out of the marquee. Moerree, who had offered to be a cutter of wood, had neither sent any down since the first or second day, nor had he returned the axes with which he had been furnished. This led me to suspect he intended something unfair; of which, as well as of the theft, I acquainted Urripiah, who immediately replied he would go in quest both of the axes and the linen. He seemed, by no means, to be ignorant of the theft, and requested I would apply to Whytooa, who, having in a more particular manner attached himself to Mr. Broughton, was the most proper person to exert himself on this occasion; especially as he had reason to believe the linen had been taken to a part of the country where Whytooa's influence was very considerable. Several shirts also had been, the preceding evening, reported missing from the people's tents; but as circumstances induced me to believe the inhabitants were little concerned in their removal, no means were pursued for their recovery. Mr. Broughton's linen was, however, too serious a loss, and was a robbery too audacious to be passed over in silence: particularly, as it became evident the chiefs knew of the linen having been stolen, before we discovered the theft; which was strongly suspected to have been projected by themselves.

Urripiah had prepared a heava, close to the lines of the encampment, for our amusement; but, to shew my disapprobation, I deemed it expedient to forbid the performance, and told Urripiah, that, whilst his people conducted themselves so treacheronsly, the less connexion there subsisted between us the more agreeable it would be; and that, unless the

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articles purloined were immediately returned, I should be under the disagreeable necessity, though greatly against my inclination, of enforcing the restoration of them by the adoption of very serious measures. On this he immediately departed; and about noon returned with one of the axes, and said that he had dispatched people in search of the linen, which he hoped would soon be found; but that Moerree would not give up the other axe, alledging as an exense for with-holding it, that he had left an adz with me to be altered, which when done and sent to him, he would send back the other axe; but this was a kind of bargaining with which I did not think proper to comply. The queen-mother, who was our guest, informed me that Pomurrey would be at the tents the next morning, and for that reason I deferred any further proceedings until his arrival.

A favorable opportunity occurred in the evening to send on board the observatory, chronometers, instruments, together with a large quantity of lumber from the encampment; and apprehending that the natives might attempt to commit other depredations on our moveable property, additional centinels were posted; and, as a summary and immediate punishment when caught in the fact, seemed most likely to prevent in future a repetition of crime, orders were issued to shoot any person who might be found in the act of stealing; but, on no pretence, to fire without the presence of an officer, who had the strictest injunctions to be extremely circumspect.

Saturday 21.

On going on board the next morning, I had the additional mortification to understand that a much more material circumstance than the loss of the linen had occurred to interrupt the harmony which had so long subsisted.

Towereroo the Sandwich islander had, in the course of the preceding night, found means to elope from the ship. Of this his intention, we had not for some time been free of suspicion; but I did not like to impose absolute confinement upon him without some proof. He had formed an attachment with the daughter of Poeno, the chief of Matavai, on whom, by examination, we now found he had lavishly bestowed nearly all he had possessed. This was of no small value, for, indepen-

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dent of his abundant outfit in England, many presents had been made him; to which his want of principle had added, by making too free with some valuable articles belonging to the gunner, with whom he had messed previously to his departure. Towereroo was a boy of weak intellect, of a sullen disposition, and excessively obstinate; and though his condition was so very subordinate at the Sandwich islands, that there was little probability of his services being important to us or to our countrymen hereafter; yet his example was a matter of such consequence, as to render it highly expedient that his return should be insisted upon; left the crew might suppose I had not sufficient influence with the chiefs to procure it, and some of them be tempted to abscond from the vessels. On my return on shore Pomurrey and his wives were at the encampment, and seemed not at all ignorant of what had happened, therefore little explanation was necessary. A servant of Moerree being sent for by Pomurrey, delivered the same message Urripiah had brought respecting the wood axe, and with which Pomurrey requested I would comply. I shewed him the adz, but insisted on the restoration of the axe before it should be returned. A short conference now took place, on which he said he would himself go for the wood axe, and gave directions that proper persons should be sent in quest of Towereroo, who, he most solemnly promised should be given up; and added, that he would immediately take measures for the recovery of the linen, but requesting, as Urripiah had before done, that I would resort to Whytooa for this especial purpose, as it lay in his particular department. About noon Pomurrey returned with the wood axe, and the adz was accordingly restored to its owner.

In the presence of Taow his father, his two brothers, Poatatou, and several other chiefs; Pomurrey inquired if, agreeably to my promise, I intended a display of fire-works that evening; to which I replied in the negative, and explained, that when that promise was made there was no reason to suspect the treatment we had since experienced, from those whose duty it was to have observed a very different conduct with respect to the theft of the linen, and the elopement of Towereroo; in both of which unpardonable transactions many of the principal chiefs were materially

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concerned. Pomurrey instantly replied, that Towereroo should the next day be brought back, either to the tents or to the Discovery; and, on interrogating him respecting the linen, a very warm argument took place between the three brothers, in which Pomurrey in particular accused Whytooa of a want of exertion and friendship on the occasion. In the course of this debate, the name of Arreheah was frequently mentioned; and, so far as I could understand, Pomurrey seemed convinced that he was very principally concerned. This man was an inferior chief in Hapino, one of the districts belonging to Whytooa, who, as well as Urripiah, had recommended him to our notice; in consequence of which, he had lately been a constant attendant on the encampment; a man, who had also been recommended by some of the chiefs to assist in cooking, had been observed with Arreheah to have slept near the marquee on the night the robbery was committed. On this circumstance being made known to Pomurrey, he replied, that one, if not both, were certainly guilty. The dinner being now served, ended the debate; after which the three brothers sallied out in quest of the stolen linen, and soon returned with the servant who had absconded. On his being examined he accused Arreheah as the thief; but being conscious of the robbery, he had fled, left he should be suspected and punished. This man's evidence although tending to acquit himself as the principal, clearly proved him an accomplice; and, not being without my suspicions that he was in reality the thief, I ordered a halter to be put about his neck in terrorem and sent on board the ship, there to be confined in irons; with the assurance, that if the linen was not restored, he should certainly be hanged.

A short debate, nearly to the same purport, again took place between the three brothers, in which Whytooa seemed much affected by Pomurrey's rebuke. As the thief was now known, I embraced this occasion to inform the royal party, that very considerable presents were proposed to be made to them and the several chiefs; but not one single article would be presented unless Towereroo and Mr. Broughton's linen were forth-coming. On this they again departed, saying every thing should be restored.

The surf being tolerably smooth in the afternoon, the large working

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tent, with various articles were sent off; leaving the marquee, the guard's tent, and cannon, only to be embarked. Whilst thus employed, the chiefs had all, imperceptibly, withdrawn themselves; towards sun-set, most the canoes that had been on the banks of the river were observed to be moving off, and the houses on the opposite side, which had been fully inhabited, were intirely stripped and deserted. We were soon given to understand that the Erees and people were "mattowed," that is, alarmed, because I was angry; which intelligence a man named Boba was extremely urgent to communicate. He had, on the evening the linen was stolen, come over the river under a slimsy pretence, with which at the time I was by no means satisfied; and since then he had not been seen. Suspecting him to be an accessary, I gave directions that he should be secured; and that the remaining canoe, which chanced to contain many of their most valuable articles, should be detained; that we might have something in our power in case the chiefs should have deserted us, which I began to apprehend, as a general mattow seemed to have taken place. Mr. Broughton, who had been with the natives on the other side of the river, informed me that the principal cause of the mattow, was the confinement of Boba; and that they conceived, I had also confined the queen-mother. This good lady had been our constant companion, even in the absence of her husband; and was, on all occasions, very solicitous to imitate our manners. Having carried her politeness rather too far, in taking a few glasses more at dinner than was quite agreeable, she had been sleeping in the marquee most of the afternoon. On this information, I requested she would instantly repair to Pomurrey, who, with several chiefs, and a large concourse of the inhabitants, were assembled on the opposite shore of the river. She complied, though greatly against her inclination, saying she well knew that I was the friend of her Pomurrey, and all the chiefs, and it was his and their business to come to me. This conversation took place at the river side, whilst Pomurrey and the natives were accusing me of detaining his wife, who, with all imaginable spirit contradicted the assertion. The crowd replied, she was instructed by me to say so; asserting that I well understood their language. Matters thus situated I

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insisted she should cross the river, with which at length she complied, and was received on the opposite side with great demonstrations of joy. On her assuring Pomurrey that I was still his friend, and that I earnestly wished to confer with him on the unpleasant circumstances that had occurred, he attempted to come over the river, but was prevented by the crowd. On his assuring them his intentions were not to cross, but to be sufficiently near to understand me perfectly, he was allowed to advance a few paces, when he again questioned my pacific intentions, and whether I would confine him if he crossed the river. After receiving, the most unequivocal assurances of a continuance of my friendship, and his own personal liberty, he disengaged himself from those who forcibly attempted to stop him, and came over to us much against the general voice and opinion of the multitude, who murmured excessively on the occasion; but this shortly subsiding, his wives soon followed his example. I acquainted Pomurrey with the detention of the canoe, and the man I had confined. The instant he saw it was Boba, he assured me he was innocent, and requested he might be released; and, as he had been arrested on suspicion only, I did not hesitate to comply with the request of Pomurrey, who had gratified me exceedingly by the confidence he had so recently reposed in my integrity.

Sunday 22.

Our royal guests became perfectly reconciled, spent the evening with us, and slept in the marquee. Early on sunday morning they departed. Pomurrey informed me, he was then going to Oparre in quest of Towereroo, who, was reported, had secreted himself in the mountains of that district; that in the course of the day he would be taken, and that, with him, he would return to Matavai; he further added, that Whytooa was going in search of the linen, which would likewise be restored.

It was an excessively mortifying reflection, now that we were in every respect ready for sea, after having lived three weeks on terms of the strictest amity with, these good people, that just on the eve of our departure, they should so conduct themselves, as materially to incur our disapprobation and censure, and prevent our bidding them farewell with that cordiality and good-will, to which they were so highly intitled by their former good behaviour.

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Having nothing further to transact on shore, every thing was sent on board excepting the marquee, at which, with a guard, Mr. Puget remained for the more easy communication with the chiefs, should they be inclined to renew their visits; as no one person of any distinction had appeared since the departure of Pomurrey in the morning. Mr. Broughton having strolled over the river found Whytooa in soft dalliance with his wife at home, instead of being in search of the linen. Mr. Broughton invited them to the marquee, but Whytooa replied he was "mattowed." After some persuasion he complied, and having come opposite the encampment, he requested some assurance of friendship on my part; which being complied with, he consented, and having gained about the middle of the river, he was compelled by the natives to return. Another conversation now took place; and on Mr. Broughton proposing to remain with them during Whytooa's absence, he came over, and being soon reconciled after his arrival, to his situation, he sent a servant to desire Mr. Broughton would cross the river. On this occasion Whytooa's wife accompanied him, and we afterwards went all on board to dinner. On my enquiring, he said Pomurrey and Urripiah were at Oparre, but would return the instant Towereroo was taken. With respect to the linen I could gain no satisfactory account; and, as I wished to encourage him in the confidence he had manifested, I did not think it right to push this inquiry further; wishing to detain him and hi; wife, in case their imprisonment hereafter should be deemed necessary to effect our purpose; but desisted from any further measures, until I should see or hear something of the other royal brothers. The canoe and goods we had arrested the preceding evening now appearing to belong to a chief of Ulietea, who could not have had any concern in the late improper transactions. Justice dictated its restoration to the proper owner, and directions to that effect were accordingly given.

Monday 13.

Neither Pomurrey, nor Urripiah having arrived on monday morning; Mr. Broughton proposed that Whytooa and his wife, who were still with us, should accompany him to Oparre, in order to procure an interview with Pomurrey, and learn how our affairs stood in that district. To this, Whytooa readily agreed, and whilst the boat was preparing for their

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conveyance, the royal females paid us a visit. They said, Pomurrey was still at Oparre, but would return to the ship the instant that Towereroo could be found. The ladies were immediately informed of Mr. Broughton's errand, and told, that, until his return, they were to remain on board. With this arrangement they seemed perfectly satisfied; and from their mirth, and joking with each other as to their being carried to sea, their reception in England, &c. &c. I began to conjecture that Towereroo was in reality taken, though it was their pleasure to keep me in suspense. We did not long remain in this state. About noon, the boat returned with the three royal brothers, and Towereroo. Mr. Broughton met them on their way towards the ships, attended by a fleet of canoes, laden with every species of provisions as presents from the royal family and our several other friends, who all flocked on board with such a profusion of their various valuable commodities, that unable to dispose of their bounty, several laden canoes returned to the shore.

Pomurrey and Urripiah observed, on the delivery of Towereroo, that they had now restored every thing in which they considered I was particularly interested, and that it was Whytooa's business to recover the linen for Mr. Broughton. Whytooa protested that, if we could remain until the morning, it should certainly be brought on board; but as we had been repeatedly instructed to place little reliance on assurances of this nature, had the wind been favorable, we should not have waited to put his integrity to the test.

Poatatou, with many other chiefs of the distant districts, were made extremely happy by the presents which each of them received; and, finding we were, to sail with the first favorable wind, took their leave in the evening, with much apparent regret for our departure; which was evidently increased by their being disappointed of a second display of fire-works. From the inordinate love of pleasure which these people possess, I do not believe it were possible to have caused, by any other means, so general and so great a degree of mortification. A great many chiefs, and numbers of the inhabitants, had come from the most distant parts of the island, and from Morea likewise, for no other purpose than to gratify their curiosity, and to be present at the expected

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exhibition. These, in particular, complained much of their disappointment; to which I replied, their concern was by no means unpleasant to me, as it gave me reason to hope it would operate to prevent the cause of it in future: and that, if thefts, and other breaches of confidence had not been committed, and sanctioned, as I was confident they had been by the chiefs themselves, I should not have been under the painful necessity of denying them the promised entertainment, and we should have parted much better friends. On the arrival of another ship, I trusted, from this disappointment, they would all be taught to conduct themselves with more fidelity.

Tuesday 21.

Pomurrey and his wives remained on board all night. The next morning brought no tidings of the linen. On reflecting that, without using rigorous measures, which, in all probability, would fall more on the innocent who were in our power, than on the guilty who were at a distance, there did not appear the most remote prospect of regaining this property; and as we had now a favorable breeze from the eastward, and could ill afford a longer detention, about ten in the forenoon we sailed out of the bay. Pomurrey and his wives were our guests until we were beyond the reefs: they were now presented with an assortment of valuables, which afforded them the highest satisfaction; and Pomurrey requesting as a particular favor that they might be saluted on leaving the ship, they took a very friendly and affectionate leave, and were complimented agreeably to his wishes. Whytooa had also accompanied Mr. Broughton in the Chatham; who, after we were out, brought him on board the Discovery, with an assortment of such articles, as he conceived Whytooa intitled to, for his hospitable attention, and the large quantity of provisions, &c. &c. which he had supplied, without having as yet received the least return: but as I had repeatedly declared Whytooa should receive no present, unless the linen was restored, my ultimate decision was now requested. On considering, that, possibly, it might not have been in his power to recover the linen, and that equity demanded he should be paid for the supplies which he had furnished, I consented to his receiving in return, such articles as were deemed fairly equal in point of value; but he was not presented with any thing from

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me, although I had promised him several valuable implements. These were again enumerated, the reason of their being with-held fully explained, and shewn to have arisen from his not having acted towards Mr. Broughton with that propriety which had been observed in the conduct of his royal brothers towards me.

I am well aware that our visit to this country will fill the inquisitive mind with the expectation of acquiring much additional information, relative to a people whose situation and condition have been long the subject of curious investigation; but the shortness of our ay, and various concurring circumstances afforded little opportunity to gratify such desires.

* Or girdle of royalty.

The veneration these people entertain for the names of their sovereigns, has been already very justly related by Mr. Anderson. But no example, I believe, had then appeared to that judicious observer, of the extent to which this respect is carried. On Otoo's accession to the Maro*, a very considerable alteration took place in their language, particularly in the proper names of all the chiefs, to which however it was not solely confined, but extended to no less than forty or fifty of the most common words which occur in conversation, and bearing not the least affinity whatever to the former expressions.

This new language every inhabitant is under the necessity of adopting; as any negligence or contempt of it is punished with the greatest severity. Their former expressions were, however, retained in their recollection; and, for our better communication, were, I believe, permitted to be used in conversation with us, without incurring displeasure. Pomurrey however would frequently correct my on my accidentally using the former mode of expression, saying, I knew it was wrong, and ought not to practise it. Were such a pernicious innovation to take place, generally, at the arbitrary will of the sovereigns throughout the South-Sea islands, it would be attended with insurmountable difficulties to strangers; but it appears to be a new regulation, and, as yet, confined to these islands, or it would be impossible to reconcile the affinity which has been hitherto found to subsist in the language of different parts of the Great South-Sea nation. The new-fashioned words produce a very material difference in

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those tables of comparative affinity which have been constructed with so much attention and labour; and may, possibly, when the reasons for the alteration are known and developed, be a matter of interesting political inquiry. This, however, required more leisure, and a more intimate knowledge of the language, than I possessed. Circumstances of greater importance to the expediting the various services, which the grand object of our voyage here demanded, and on which my mind was every hour anxiously engaged; augmented by the difficulties we had to encounter, in the new modification of so many terms; rendered most of my inquires ineffectual. These perplexities and disadvantages were also materially increased, by the difficulty of obtaining the truth from a race who have a constant desire to avoid, in the slightest degree, giving offence; insomuch, that, on the least appearance of displeasure, even in conversation; to disengage themselves from any such inconvenience, they would often, by that extensive and specious comprehension, which their language admits of, seemingly so qualify, what they before had asserted, as to contradict according to our acceptation, a positive matter of fact; or, what amounted to nearly the same thing, a completely different construction was by us very frequently put on a second conversation, from that which we had conceived from, or had attributed to, the first. Had we been more competent linguists, we might, in all probability, have found both their modes of expression tending to the same point, and differing only in the figurative relation of the circumstances, to which these people are much accustomed. This deception, I have more than once experienced, and have, on reflection, thus reconciled the apparent incongruity. Such, and various other important circumstances, must ever occur, to render the acquirement of knowledge in the language, manners, and customs, of newly-discovered countries, (beyond a certain superficial extent,) a business of much labour and study, although aided by a series of minute observations. Under such evident disadvantages, how far my abilities might or might not have empowered me to direct such inquiries to effect, had time and other objects permitted, must still remain to be proved. I shall therefore resign the palm to those gentlemen who have preceded me, and to whom the

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world is indebted for many pertinent and judicious observations contained in their general description of this country.

Notwithstanding I must concur with Mr. Anderson in opinion, that much information remains to be acquired which would he extremely acceptable to the contemplative mind, vet it only remains with me to record faithfully the circumstances which arose in our transactions and intercourse with these people.

The changes which have taken place in their government, so far as I have been able to understand from the chiefs, with such other matters worthy attention a fallen under my own immediate observation, I shall proceed to relate; as the preceding narration would be incomplete without such an explanation.

We have become acquainted by subsequent visitors, that, shortly after the last departure of Captain Cook from these islands, considerable disputes had arisen between Maheine the usurping chief of Morea, and Pomurrey, (then Otoo) in some of which wars, (for there had been many,) Maheine was joined by Towha, and other chiefs of the western districts of Otaheite; by which means, for a considerable space of time, Pomurrey was materially worsted, and his own districts laid intirely waste. Thus His Majesty's benevolent intentions of adding to the comforts of these people, have been nearly frustrated. Most of the animals, plants, and herbs, which had caused Captain Cook so much anxiety and trouble to deposit here, have fallen a sacrifice to the ravages of war. The black cattle were carried to Morea, where they still remain; and having bred, are now five in number, four cows and a bull. The latter has very unfortunately received a hurt in his loins, which renders him an intire cripple; consequently their further propagation will be at an end unless some additional assistance is afforded.

In the midst of these hostile engagements, Pomurrey married the queen-mother, a near relation of his most inveterate enemy Maheine. This lady having taken a very material part in the advantageous change of Pomurrey's government, I shall obtrude a few lines as a sketch of her character, and also that of Fier re te her sister, and conjugal partner in the royal affection.

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The queen-mother, although destitute of any pretensions to beauty, and having in her person a very masculine appearance, has yet, in her general deportment, something excessively pleasing and engaging; free from any austerity or pride, she is endued with a comparative elegance of manners, which plainly bespeaks her descent, and the high situation in which she is placed. Although her figure exhibited no external charms of feminine softness, yet great complacency and gentleness were always conspicuous; indicating, in the most unequivocal manner, a mind possessing and alone actuated by those amiable qualities which most adorn the human race. All her actions seemed directed to those around her with an unalterable evenness of temper, and to be guided by a pure disinterested benevolence. Self, which on most occasions is the governing principle in the conduct of these islanders, with her was totally disregarded; and indeed, such was her very amiable disposition, that it counterbalanced any disadvantages she might labour under in a deficiency of personal attractions.

The portrait of Fier re te on canvas would most probably be generally thought intitled to a preference; yet she appeared by no means to possess either mental endowments, or other excellent qualities, in the same degree with the queen-mother; if she had them, they were latent, and required some particular exertion to bring them into action. Her softness and effeminacy afforded her some advantage over her sister; there was a shyness, want of confidence and manner in her general demeanor, that evinced her motives to be less disinterested. We were however led to believe, that the was not destitute of the amiable qualities, though to us they did not appear so conspicuous as in the character of the queen-mother. Of the two ladies, Fier re te was now the favorite of Pomurrey, at least we had every reason to think so by the general tenor of his conduct. Notwithstanding this preference, he was observed in several instances to abide implicitly by the advice and opinion of the queen-mother, and to treat her with great affection and regard; who in return never appeared jealous or dissatisfied at the marked attention, or evident partiality, with which her sister Fier re te was treated by Pomurrey

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In consequenced of the very superior rank and condition of these two ladies, they possessed privileges which I had never before seen conferred on any of the women of the Great South Sea nation; as they were not only permitted to eat of all the good things of the country, but allowed to partake of them in company with men; as well the chiefs of the island as ourselves; and of the identical dishes at any repast of which men had eaten, without incurring displeasure or disgrace: these were honors to which we had reason. to believe no other females of the island could aspire.

These two ladies with the deceased Matooara Mahow, were the children of a sister of Maheine, and his only near relations. Mahow I considered to be the same person mentioned by Captain Cook, under the name of Tiareetaboonooa; as, on our first: arrival, he was introduced to me by the name of Areetaboonooa, which appellation was almost immediately dropped, and he was afterwards called Mahow; occasioned most likely by the recent alteration in their language, which has before been stated to have taken place on the accession of the young king Otoo.

As Maheine was an Errooe, whose advanced age precluded the expectation of his having children, little doubt was entertained that his consequence and power would soon descend to his family, which had become more firmly attached to the Otaheitean authority by the intermarriage of the late Matooara Mahow with Pomurrey's youngest sister. This connection appears to have been an important political measure, to insure a permanent establishment of peace and tranquillity between the two islands, on the conquest, or death of Maheine. The event was however long looked for before it arrived, for we understood it did not happen until about fifteen months previous to our arrival; at which time Maheine was killed in a battle fought at Athoora by him and some of the western chiefs, against the partisans of Pomurrey, who, I believe, then for the first time came off victorious.

Maheine having fallen in this conflict, and Towha being dead, little was necessary to complete the conquest, which was finally accomplished by the excursion of the Bounty's people in a vessel they had constructed from the timber of the bread fruit tree; and as good or bad

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fortune is generally attended with corroborating events, other circumstances intervened to softer and indulge the ambition of Pomurrey. At this time Whyeadooa the king of Tiarabou died, leaving only a very distant relation to assume his name and government; who was by Pomurrey and his adherents obliged to relinquish all pretensions to such honours, and with the people of Tiarabou to acknowledge Pomurrey's youngest son as their chief, under the supreme authority of his eldest son Otoo; which on their assenting to, the youth assumed the name of Whyeadooa as a necessary appendage to the government. By this acquisition it should appear, they have more effectually established a firm and lasting peace amongst themselves than has been enjoyed for a long series of years; and to insure this inestimable blessing to their dominions, the royal brothers have so disposed themselves as completely to watch over and protect the two young princes during their minority.

Urripiah, the next brother to Pomurrey, having acquired the reputation of a great warrior, has taken up his residence on the borders of Tiarabou, to watch the conduct of those people in their allegiance to his nephew Whyeadooa; and on the least appearance of disaffection or revolt, to be at hand for pursuing such measures as may be required to bring them back to their obedience. Whytooa, the next brother, resides for the like reason at Oparre, near the young monarch; and Pomurrey with his wives has retired to Morea, where the inhabitants are, in all respects, perfectly reconciled; firmly attached to his interest; and ready to afford him and his children every support and assistance they may require. From the relative situation of this island with Otaheite, there is little probability that Pomurrey could long remain ignorant of any dissentions that might take place, or that he would be prevented affording such succour as the nature of the occasion might demand.

There is yet a fourth brother whose insignificance has hitherto precluded his name, which is Tapahoo, from appearing in any of our transactions with these worthy people. Although in the possession of a very considerable property, Tapahoo seems little regarded by his family, and less esteemed by his people. This want of respect is greatly, and possibly wholly, to be attributed to a natural imbecillity of mind; as, to

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all appearance, he is a young man of an exceedingly weak and trifling character.

On the late decease of Mahow, his daughter by Pomurrey's sister succeeded to the sovereignty of Morea, under the supreme authority of her cousin Otoo. To this young princess Pomurrey became regent, and in course, the inhabitants of Morea were intirely at his command. In consequence of Pomurrey's connexion with Mahow's family, his son Otoo in right of his mother was acknowledged as the supreme sovereign of Huaheine; and Matuarro the king of that island, had consented to the superiority of Otoo over him, as "Aree Maro Eoora;" but that he Matuarro was "Aree de Hoi."

Omai having died without children, the house which Captain Cook had built for him, the lands that were purchased, and the horse which was still alive; together with such European commodities as remained at his death, all descended to Matuarro, as king of the island; and when his majesty is at home, Omai's house is his constant residence. From Matuarro we learned, that Omai was much respected, and that he frequently afforded great entertainment to him, and the other chiefs, with the accounts of his travels, and in describing the various countries, objects, &c. that had fallen under his observation; and that he died universally regretted and lamented. His death, as well as that of the two New Zealand boys left with him by Captain Cook, was occasioned by a disorder that is attended by a large swelling in the throat, of which very few recover, but die a flow lingering death. During the latter part of our stay several persons were pointed out who seemed much afflicted with this fatal malady, particularly those belonging to Tiarabou, who said the disease had been imported by a Spanish vessel which had anchored near the south part of Otaheite.

Otoo, in right of his grandmother by his father's side, on the death of Mowree will claim the sovereignty of Ulietea and Otaha. Mowree, who is brother to Pomurrey's mother, is an Ereeoe of an advanced age. He seemed extremely fond of Otoo, and proud of his succeeding him in the government of those islands; saying, that, at present, there were two sovereigns, that "Maw ta Tarta," but when he should die then there

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would be but one, meaning Otoo. This expression, in its literal signification, means "to eat the Man;" the idea, however, which in this sense it is intended to convey, is to point out those, whose rank and authority entitle them to preside at human sacrifices; a power which at present is possessed only by Mowree and Otoo.

In consequence of the extensive dominion that has devolved upon this young monarch, he is not now distinguished by the title of Aree de Hoi, but by one which is considerably more eminent and comprehensive; since they say there may be many Arees de Hoi, but there can be but one Aree Maro Eoora; which means, the chief of the red-seathered Maro; and under which title, Otoo's authority is acknowledged in Otaheite, Morea, Mattea, Tetero, Tupea-mannoo, and Huaheine. But the people of Ulietea and Otaha, seem much averse to this submission; and it does not appear, that even Mowree himself has much influence in those islands, notwithstanding that he is their acknowledged sovereign. Since the death of Opoony, the government of the islands under his late authority appears to have been ill administered; the inhabitants having been very turbulent and much disposed to anarchy and in consequence of the disinclination which the people of these islands have manifested to subscribe to the supreme authority of Otoo, an expedition was in contemplation from Otaheite, to enforce the power of the Aree Maro Eoora over them, and little doubt was entertained of its success. Another favorite object was the annexing to Otoo's present dominions by conquest, (for no right was set up,) the islands of Bolabola, Mowrooa, and Tapi, which, since the death of Opoony, had been governed by his daughter, and were said, in a great measure, to have lost their former high reputation as a martial and warlike nation.

Pomurrey and his brothers having procured from the vessels which had lately visited Otaheite, several muskets and pistols, they considered themselves invincible; and the acquiring of new possessions for Otoo, now seemed to occupy the whole of their study and attention. They were extremely solicitous that I should contribute to their success by augmenting their number of fire-arms, and adding to their stock of ammunition. Of the latter I gave Pomurrey a small quantity; but of the former I had none to dispose of, even if I had seen no impropriety in com-

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plying with his request. Finding there was no prospect of increasing their armory, they requested that I would have the goodness to conquer the territories on which they meditated a descent, and having so done, to deliver them up to Otoo; and as an excuse for their subjugation, insisted that it was highly essential to the comfort and happiness of the people at large, that over the whole group of these islands there should be only one sovereign. On satisfying them that the islands in question were quite out of my route, and that I had no leisure for such an enterprize, Pomurrey, in the most earnest manner requested, that on my return to England I would, in his name, solicit His Majesty to order a ship with proper force to be immediately sent out, with directions, that if all those islands were not subjected to his power before her arrival, the was to conquer them for Otoo; who, he observed, I well knew would ever be a steady friend to King George and the English. This request was frequently repeated, and he did not fail to urge it in the most pressing manner at our parting.

I cannot take leave of my friend, for to such an epithet from me Pomurrey's conduct justly entitles him, without adverting to the alteration which seemed to have taken place in his character, since my former visits to this country. At that time, he was not only considered as a timid, but a very weak prince; on this occasion, however, he did not appear deficient either in discernment, or intrepidity; although it must be acknowledged his fears were exceedingly awakened at the display of our fire-works, and that he always appeared to regard fire-arms, with a considerable degree of terror; which possibly might arise from his knowledge of their destructive powers, whilst at the same time he remained ignorant of the extent to which they were capable of doing execution; but this character of weapons out of the question, we had reason to believe his courage was equal to that of his neighbours, of which he certainly gave an undeniable proof by joining our party alone and unarmed at the encampment; in direct opposition to the counsel and apprehensions of his surrounding countrymen. On former occasions, I had also considered his general character to be haughty, austere, and combined with much low cunning When he condescended to speak, or converse, which was not frequent, little or no information could be de-

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rived; whilst the questions ho asked in return, did not tend to the acquisition of useful knowledge. His conduct and deportment on the present occasion, were extremely different; and, when compared with that of his associates, were marked with an evident superiority, expressive of the exalted situation he filled; and indicated that he possessed a just knowledge of himself, and an open, generous, and feeling heart. In conversation, there were few from whom better information could be acquired; nor was he now deficient in directing his observations and enquiries to useful and important objects. For this purpose only, he would remain whole days in our working tents, observing with the strictest attention the different transactions going forward; and frequently interrupting the mechanics, to require explanations of their several operations. The whole tenor of his behaviour towards us was so uniformly correct and meritorious, that, on his taking leave, I could not resist making him, and his wives, such acknowledgments in useful articles, as he conceived they could have no possible claim to; and suspecting I was about to make some addition, he caught my arm, expressed how highly repaid and gratified they were with what they had received, and observed, as I was going to visit many other countries where such things would be equally valuable; I ought to be careful and œconomical.

How far these disinterested sentiments had actuated the conduct of the royal party in all their former transactions, is not easy to ascertain; but certain it is, they took great pains to keep up the value of our commodities, and, by their own example, established the price of three large hogs, weighing from an hundred to an hundred and fifty and two hundred pounds each, at an axe; under which they desired we would not part with our axes; and would frequently admonish us, when they considered we were about to pay extravagantly for our purchases. In our traffic, axes were the most valuable; next to these, red cloth, and all kinds of European linen: files, knives, and fishing hooks, were in great request; as were scissars and looking-glasses by the ladies; nails were of little value, and such things as were only of an ornamental nature were

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accepted with indifference, red feathers excepted, which I believe would still find a ready market.

So important are the various European implement, and other commodities, now become to the happiness and comfort of these islanders, that I cannot avoid reflecting with Captain Cook on the very deplorable condition to which these good people on a certainty must be reduced, should their communication with Europeans be ever at an end. The knowledge they have now acquired of the superiority and the supply with which they have been furnished of more useful implements have rendered these, and other European commodities, not only essentially necessary to their common comforts, but have made them regardless of their former tools and manufactures, which are now growing fast out of use, and, I may add, equally out of remembrance. Of this we had convincing proof in the few of their bone, or stone tools, or utensils, that were seen amongst them; those offered for sale were of rude workmanship, and of an inferior kind, solely intended for our market, to be purchased by way of curiosity. I am likewise well convinced, that, by a very small addition to their present stock of European cloth, the culture of their cloth-plant, which now seems much neglected, will be intirely disregarded, and they will rely upon the precarious supply which may be obtained from accidental visitors, for this and many others of the most important requisites of social life.

Under these painful considerations, it manifestly appears that Europeans are bound by all the laws of humanity, regularly to furnish those wants which they alone have created; and to afford the inhabitants from time to time supplies of such important useful articles as have been already introduced, and which having excluded their own native manufactures, are, in most respects, become indispensably necessary to their whole œconomy of life: in return for which a valuable consideration would be received in provisions and refreshments, highly beneficial to the traders who may visit the pacific ocean.

The various manufactures in iron and in cloth have become so essentially requisite to their common concerns, that instead of these commodities being reduced in their value by the frequent visits of Europeans, or their

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supplies of food and refreshments being less plentiful in return, we were served with every article in the greatest profusion. Six hogsheads of very sine pork were cured; and had we been better provided with salt, we might have secured ten times that quantity; and sailed with a large supply for present use, which comprehended as many live hogs and vegetables, as we could find room to dispose of; the whole procured at least 200 per cent, cheaper than on any of Captain Cook's visits, notwithstanding the recent departure of the Pandora.

Great alteration has taken place in the military operations of these people. On our first discovery of these islands their wars were principally of a maritime nature; but at present it should seem they were conducted in a very different manner. For although some of our gentlemen extended their excursions to a considerable distance, not a single war canoe was seen belonging to Otaheite. I had much conversation with Urripiah on this subject; from whom I learned, that in their late contests they had found them so unmanageable, particularly when the wind blew at all strong, that they had intirely given them up, and now carried on their enterprizes by land, using the larger fort of their common canoes, when their wars were offensive, to convey them to the place of their destination, which was generally effected under cover of the night, or in dark rainy weather.

The youth of Otoo authorises us to say little more, than he bore every appearance of becoming a very promising man. Some circumstances attendant on this young monarch were so very peculiar and extraordinary, as to make a few observations indispensable. Amongst the first was the curious restriction which prohibited his entering any of our habitations. His father, when Otoo, and king of the island, was under no such interdiction; but, as frequently as his inclination prompted, visited our ships and tents without attaching the inconvenience which would now have fallen upon the people had the young king done the same. Nor was the grandfather Taow then treated with that degree of obedience and respect, which is at present paid to him on all occasions. The origin of the above mysterious restraint, or the reasoning on which it has been founded, I could not satisfactorily learn. The result, however, of my inquiries on

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this head induces me to believe, that a ceremony very similar to the Natche of the Friendly islands described by Captain Cook, on Poulahou's son being permitted to eat in company with his father, will be performed here. This ceremony will occupy a considerable space of time, after which he will no longer be carried on men's shoulders, but be at liberty like others to walk about; but when this was to take place in respect of Otoo, I could not discover; for as often as the question was put, so often the period when the event was to take place varied. It was likewise very remarkable, that we never saw any person of consequence or respectability about the young monarch. His nearest relations, though they paid all possible respect to his high office, did not appear to regard or converse with him: and those whose duty it was to attend him on his journies between Oparre and our encampment, were servants from the lowest order of the people. Amongst these was a man named Peterrah, who apparently was a very shrewd, sensible fellow, on whose shoulders the young king never rode, but who, on all occasions, acted as messenger, and bore no higher office than that of a butler, or upper servant. I had originally taken this man for a priest and fort of preceptor; but, on repeated inquiries, they always pointed to my steward, as bearing the same office with that of Peterrah.

Much encomium, and with great justice, has been bestowed on the beauty of the female inhabitants of this country. I cannot avoid acknowledging how great was the disappointment I experienced, in consequence of the early impression I had received of their superior personal endowments. The natives themselves freely admit the alteration, which in a few years has taken place, and seem to attribute much of the cause to the lamentable diseases introduced by European visitors, to which many of their finest women, at an early period of life, have fallen sacrifices. Beauty in this country, especially amongst the women, is a flower that quickly blossoms, and as quickly fades: like the personal accomplishments of the Creoles of America, theirs soon arrive at maturity, remain but a short time stationary, and as rapidly decay. The extreme deficiency of female beauty on these islands makes it singularly remarkable, that so large a proportion of the crew belonging to the

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Bounty, should have become so infatuated as to sacrifice their country, their honor, and their lives, to any female attachments at Otaheite. The objects of their particular regard, by whom they have children, we frequently saw. Whatever superiority they may be entitled to from their mental accomplishments, we had no opportunity of ascertaining; but with respect to their personal attractions, they were certainly not such as we should have imagined could possibly have tempted Englishmen to so unpardonable a breach of their duty; nor were any of the women they selected, persons of the least power or consequence in the island.

The European animals and plants deposited here by Captain Cook, and other navigators, with the hope of their future increase, I have already had occasion to regret, had been almost intirely destroyed in the late conflicts of the contending parties. My concern at this circumstance was greatly augmented, not only by my having little in my power with which I could replace them, but in the confidence of their now succeeding could I have furnished a supply; as the recent alteration which has taken place in the government, afforded reasonable grounds to believe that, whatever I might have bestowed on the present occasion, would have been carefully protected. To the race of animals, I could add but two Cape geese and a gander. We planted some vine cuttings that had flourished extremely well on board; with some orange and lemon trees; and an assortment of garden feeds; but as nature has been so very bountiful in the variety of vegetables the has bestowed on this country, the natives seem to possess little desire for any addition; and, if a judgment is to be formed, by the deplorable state in which we sound the several spots where foreign plants and feeds had been deposited, we had little reason to be sanguine in the success of our gardening. Nor do I believe such attempts will ever succeed until some Europeans shall remain on the island, and, by the force of their example, excite in the inhabitants a desire of cultivating the soil by their manual labour, to which at present they are almost strangers.

The ava, and the cloth plant in a small proportion, are the only vegetables which the Otaheiteans take the least trouble to cultivate. Some sew indifferent shaddocks, a little tolerably good maize, a few pods of the

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capsicon, and some very coarse radishes, were the only productions I saw from the various and numerous vegetable exotics, that, from time to time, have been introduced into this island.

The milk of goats not having been appropriated to any use and the animal not being sufficiently fat for the taste of these people, they have fallen into disrepute, and become scarce. I collected, however, a sufficient number to establish a breed of those animals on the Sandwich islands, in case I should there find them acceptable to the inhabitants.

The few astronomical and nautical observations, here made, tending only to our own useful and necessary purposes, will conclude our transactions at Otaheite, and are as under, viz.

Eighteen sets of meridian observations of the zenith distances of the sun and stars, gave the latitude of the observatory by their mean result 17° 30′ 20″
Its longitude, by the chronometer; allowing the Dusky bay rate, to the 19th of january at noon 209° 58′
Its longitude to the same time, allowing the Portsmouth rate 211° 18′
Its longitude by eighteen sets of distances, by my sextants, of ☾ a ⊙, east of her 210° 31′ 53″
Its true longitude, as determined by Captain Cook 210° 24′ 15″

By our observations made at the observatory the first day, viz. the 7th of january, on allowing the Dusky bay rate, the chronometer gave the longitude 209° 55′ 45″, from which day to the 19th instant inclusive, being twelve days observations of equal altitudes, it was sound gaining at the rate of 4″ 2′″ per day, and fast of mean time at Greenwich, on the 20th at noon, 31′ 42″ 46′″. Allowing the chronometer this error, and the above rate of going since we discovered the island of Oparo, the difference of the longitude between it and point Venus, will by such means be 5° 14′ 45″ west, and consequently its longitude, by that mode of calculating, would be 215° 39′; my observations however place it in 215° 58′ 20″; the mean between the two 215° 48′ 40″, I should suppose can be liable to little, if any error; and as such I shall adopt it for the true longitude of that island. This is further authorised on finding, that by

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nearly the same number of observations, made with the same instruments at point Venus, and the sun on the same side the moon as when the observations were taken off Oparo, I placed that point 7′ 38″ to the eastward of the truth.

Mr. Arnold's chronometer on board the Chatham, when taken to the observatory, was found to be fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 20th of january at noon 2° 10′ 25″ 46′″, and to be gaining at the rate of 19″ 51″ 24″″ per day.

The variation of the magnetic needle, with all our cards, and compasses, in fifteen sets of azimuths, varied from 7° 30′ to 5° 30′ east variation, giving their mean result 6° 12′, and the vertical inclination as under:

Marked end, North face East 30° 15′
Ditto, ditto West 31° 13
Ditto, South face East 30° 43′
Ditto, ditto West 30° 47′
The mean vertical inclination of the South point of the dipping needle 30° 53′

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BOOK THE SECOND.

VISIT THE SANDWICH ISLANDS; PROCEED TO SURVEY THE COAST OF NEW ALBION; PASS THROUGH AN INLAND NAVIGATION; TRANSACTIONS AT NOOTKA; ARRIVE AT PORT ST. FRANCISCO.

CHAPTER I.

Passage to the Sandwich islands—Arrive off Owhyhee—Visit from Tianna and other chiess—Leave Towereroo at Owhyhee—Proceed to leeward—Anchor in Whyteete bay in Waohoo—Arrival at Attowai.

1792. January. Tuesday 24.

OUR friends having quitted us soon after noon on tuesday the 24th, we directed our course to the northward, and notwithstanding we had now been nearly ten months absent from England, it was not until the present moment that our voyage could be considered as commenced; having now for the first; time pointed our vessels' heads towards the grand object of the expedition. I cannot help mentioning that I felt, on this occasion, very considerable regret for the little progress we had hitherto made. It was now within a few days of the time I had calculated, agreeably to the arrangements in England, that we should be quitting the Sandwich islands, which were yet at the remote distance of nearly 800 leagues. One satisfactory reflection however was, that we had not been retarded by any mispent time, or inexcusable delays; and that although a month had been devoted to the examination of the south-west part of New Holland, that period was, without doubt, not unprofitably employed. Adverse winds, and the indifferent failing of the vessels had principally operated to prevent our being further advanced.

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1792. January. Wednes. 25. Friday 27. February. Wednes. 1. Wednes. 8. Sunday 12. Wednes. 15.

A light eastwardly breeze brought us in the afternoon within fight of Titeroa, and at sun set that island bore by compass from N. by W. to N. by E.; Otaheite S.E. to S.; and Morea S.S.W. to S.W. Our progress was so slow that, at noon the next day, we observed in latitude 17° 1′, Morea bearing by compass s.24 W. to S.8 W.; Otaheite S.11 E. to S.41 E. and Titeroa N.85 E. to N.45 E. about three or four miles distant. Some of the inhabitants visited us from this island, and brought a few fowls, fish, and cocoa nuts to barter. The weather falling calm, and the ship drifting sast in with the land, we were employed until sun set in towing her from it. At this time a light breeze springing up from the south the boats were taken on board, and all fail made to the northward; but so tardily did we proceed that, on the 27th in the morning, Otaheite and Morea were still in fight astern. We continued moving at this gentle rate until wednesday the 1st of february, at which time we had reached only the latitude of 13° 54′, longitude 209° 53′. The wind had been variable, though chiefly from the eastern quarter, with tolerably fair weather. From this period our progress was somewhat accelerated. We were daily visited by numerous birds which inhabit the low half drowned islands of this ocean, varying in their kinds as well as numbers, until the 8th, when, in latitude 4° 36′, and longitude 209° 15′, they appeared to have intirely deserted us. During this last week the weather had been clear, though very sultry, with a moderate breeze between the E.N.E. and N.N.E. The dead reckoning had hitherto varied about half a degree only to the westward of the chronometer; but as we now advanced, we found a very strong westwardly current, which affected us so much, that when we reached the equator, which was about noon on the 12th, our longitude by account was 210° 35′, although by the chronometer we were then in 207° 38′ only. This afternoon a few birds were again seen about the ship; the winds and weather continued nearly the same, attended with a heavy northerly swell, which continued to be very unpleasant, and generally from the N. E. After crossing the line, the current seemed to set to the north westward, until in latitude 4° 54′ north,* longitude by the chronometer 204° 4′, by the dead reckoning 209° 22′, which proved, that since we had entered

* The latitude is hereafter to be considered as north latitude until it shall be otherways indicated.

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the northern hemisphere, we had been set, in the course of three days, 81′ to the westward, and 50′ to the north. From this point the current ceased to set to the westward, but continued its northern direction, inclining a little to the east, at the rate of 4 to 5 leagues per day. Several birds, which had been our constant attendants since the 12th, became very scarce after this evening. The trade wind between N.E. and E.N.E. blew a fresh gale. The weather in general was cloudy, with squalls, accompanied with a very heavy sea from the eastward.

Thursday 16. Thursday 23.

The sky, on the morning of the 16th, being tolerably clear, I was enabled to obtain six sets of distances of ☾ a ⊙, the mean result of which gave the longitude 204° 5′ 53″, the chronometer chewed 204° 6′ 15″; latitude 6° 14′. Very few birds were now to be seen; but in the morning one or two turtles were observed. The wind prevailing to the northward of N.E.; rendered our reaching the Sandwich islands, without being first led a considerable distance beyond them, a very doubtful circumstance. This induced me to take advantage of the current, which still continued to set to the northward; and by standing to the eastward or northward as the wind veered, on the 23d we reached the latitude of 12° 18′, the longitude by the chronometer 203° 16′, and by the dead reckoning 207° 42′. The wind now blew a moderate breeze mostly from the eastward; which permitted us to make a course good, a little to the eastward of north.

Sunday 26.

On the 26th, the mean result of six sets of distances ☾ a ⊙ gave the longitude at noon 203° 48′, the chronometer 203° 40′, by the dead reckoning 208° 23′, the latitude 15° 25′.

Wednes. 29. March. Thursday 1

The wind, which was light, continued between the east and N.E. attended with a hollow rolling swell from the N.W. On wednesday, in latitude 17° 22′, longitude 203° 30′, after a few hours calm, towards sunset a breeze sprang up from the N.W. We now stood to the N.N.E.; which course, by day-light on thursday the 1st of march, brought us in fight of Owhyhee, bearing by compass from north to N. by E. about 24 leagues distant.

The order for prohibiting general trade with the Indians was again read to the ship's company. A particular attention to such regulations

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with persons circumstanced as we were, was not only of material importance, but was absolutely indispensable.

As the day advanced, which was delightfully pleasant, the wind gradually veered round to the north-eastward, which enabled us shortly after noon to steer for the south point of Owhyhee, then bearing by compass N.8 W.14 leagues distant. Our latitude was now 18° 9′, longitude per dead reckoning 209° 33′; by the chronometer 204° 19′, which latter is to be received as the true longitude, notwithstanding the difference of 5° 14′; for so much had we been affected by western or lee currents, in performing this very long and tedious passage. About midnight, we passed to the westward of the south point of Owhyhee; and, in the hope of procuring some provisions and refreshments, as we failed past the west coast of this island we kept close in shore.

Friday 2. Saturday 3

In the morning, with a light breeze from the land, at the distance of about 3 miles, we stood along shore to the northward. Several canoes came off with a supply of pigs, and vegetables; amongst the latter were some very excellent water melons: the natives, however, demanded a very exorbitant return for these refreshments, and seemed very indifferent about trading, or having any other communication with us. At noon on saturday, with very pleasant weather and light breezes, generally from off the land, Karakakooa bore north about 5 miles distant; and we had now the satisfaction of finding our chronometer, allowing the Otaheitean rate, to agree within a few seconds of its longitude as settled by Captain Cook. The Portsmouth rate made it 1° 18′ to the eastward. On board the Chatham, Mr. Arnold's chronometer erred 24′ to the westward; according to its rate of going as settled at Otaheite.

The steep precipice which forms the north side of Karakakooa bay, renders it too remarkable to be easily mistaken, especially as the interior country rises thence more abruptly than from the coast to the north or south of the bay; which, although presenting both wood-land and cultivated country above the barren rocky shores where the habitations of the natives are chiefly situated, is, nevertheless, in a great degree destitute of that diversity of prospect which might have been expected here, and which is also the general character of all this side of the island.

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Several canoes having stood to sea after us in the morning, we now brought to, for the purpose of trading with them; and were soon honored with visit from Tianna, the person mentioned in Mr. Mears's voyage. He was received in a manner agreeable to the distinguished character he had been represented to support, and which, from his grateful inquiries after his patron, he appeared to deserve. This complimentary conversation he seemed desirous of speedily putting an end to, being very anxious to acquaint us, that, since his return from China, he had resided on this island, where many severe conflicts had taken place; in which he had taken part with Tamaah-maaha, against Teamawheere, who, it seemed, had, since the death of Tereeoboo, shared the government with Tamaah-maaha. In one of these battles Tianna having shot Teamawheere, a complete victory was gained, and these two chiefs agreed to divide the island between them. Tamaah-maaha becoming the sovereign over the three northern, and Tianna of the three southern districts.

*See Mears's Voyage.

Understanding that I purposed going directly to the Leeward islands, Tianna requested he might be permitted to accompany us, and, with his wives and retinue, to sleep on board; with which request I thought proper to comply. From the character given of this chief*, I was not a little surprized to find him totally ignorant of our language, and unable to pronounce a single word articulately; but by our knowledge of his speech we soon understood, that, since the preceding autumn, not any vessel had arrived; that about that time three or four American brigs, and one, in which was Mr. Colnett, belonging to Macao, had visited the islands; and, that it was not possible for any vessels to touch at the other islands, without himself and the people of Owhyhee being informed of their arrival. This intelligence made me despair of meeting the store-ship, and the hope which I had so long indulged, as a compensation for the tardy progress which circumstances had hitherto compelled us to make, now seemed intirely to vanish.

Tianna viewed every transaction on board with attentive admiration, whilst our numbers seemed to create in his mind a degree of surprize he was unable to subdue. In the course of the evening he held frequent conversations with Towereroo, and during the night he was several times

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on deck. endeavouring to ascertain the number of men on duty in the different parts of the ship.

Sunday 4.

The retinue of Tianna on this occasion was to consist of a considerable number; part were to attend him on board the Discovery, and the remainder was to proceed in the Chatham. His residence was a little to the north of Karakakooa; and as it was proposed his suite should be taken on board the next afternoon, we kept off that station. A messenger, apparently of some consequence, was dispatched to the shore with directions for this purpose the preceding evening: in the forenoon, however, several consultations took place with those about him, which finally ended in his declining to accompany us to Attowai. The conversation he had held with Towereroo had induced him to believe, that the services of this lad might be of great importance to him; and as he promised Towereroo a very handsome establishment, of house, land, and other advantages, I thought it adviseable to fix him with Tianna for the present, that, on my return in the winter, I might be enabled to form some judgment of his treatment. Morotoi, the native island of Towereroo, was in a state of great confusion, in consequence of its being the general rendezvous of Titeere and Taio, the sovereigns of Woahoo and Attowai, who were then meditating a war against this island. This was an additional reason for consenting to the arrangement. Towereroo, though exceedingly anxious to accept Tianna's offer, seemed to entertain great doubts as to the future safety of himself and his property; to the last moment he had his choice of remaining on board, or departing with Tianna; and, notwithstanding he did not hesitate to prefer the latter, yet he earnestly requested the few clothes he had left, and the articles I had given him, since our leaving Otaheite, might be taken care of on board, until our return; and he would take with him a very small assortment of the different articles of traffic only, to supply his present necessities.

As Tianna had several goats, I did not present him with any of these animals, but made him very happy by giving him some vine and orange plants, some almonds, and an assortment of garden seeds, to all of which he promised the most particular care and attention. After re-

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ceiving some acceptable valuables in return for ten small hogs, he took his leave of us with Towereroo about five in the afternoon; and though he affected to be pretty well satisfied with his reception, and flattered with being saluted with four guns on his departure, yet it was very evident he was extremely disappointed and chagrined in not having been able to procure any fire arms or ammunition; which were anxiously solicited, not only by himself but by all his countrymen, and by us as uniformly refused.

To the care of Towereroo I intrusted a letter, addressed to the officer commanding the vessel charged with stores and provisions for our service, acquainting him with our departure from Owhyhee, and of my intention to call at the Leeward islands to recruit our water, after which, we should proceed immediately to the coast of America: and I directed him to follow us thither without loss of time, agreeably to the arrangements I had previously made with the Secretary of State's office.

As we stood along shore with a light breeze, we were in the evening greatly surprized on being hailed, from a large canoe which was meeting us, in broken English; demanding, who we were, and to what country we belonged, and very civilly requesting to be admitted on board. This being granted, the speaker proved to be a young man named Tarehooa, a native of Attowai, who had accompanied a Mr. John Ingram commanding an American ship laden with furs, from North West America, bound to Boston in New England by the way of China. Tarehooa had been with Mr. Ingram in North America about seven months, and had returned in a brig with him some months before.

His present master, he informed me, was a chief named Kahowmotoo, of great importance, and nearly equal in consequence with Tianna; and who like him had been very instrumental in gaining for Tamaah-maaha the sovereignty of the whole island. We were instantly made known to this chief, who presented me with a letter written in Spanish, dated "Sloop Princess Royal, march 28, 1791." (probably the same vessel that was captured at Nootka) attended by an English translation of the same date, and both signed "Emanuel Kimper;" recommending in the strongest terms Tamaah-maaha, Tianna, and this chief Kahowmotoo, for

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their having, on all occasions, shewn Mr. Kimper and his people every mark of friendly attention and hospitality. Kahowmotoo presented me with three fine hogs, for which in return he received ample compensation; but, like Tianna, was much mortified that it had not been made in arms or ammunition. He requested to sleep on board, and that his canoe might be taken in tow, in both of which he was indulged. Much conversation took place in the evening. He confirmed the account given by Tianna of the non-arrival of any vessels for some months past, and the wars which had taken place; but it was excessively difficult to reconcile the story he told of Tianna, with that which Tianna had related of himself. Tianna's atchievements he readily admitted, and candidly allowed him great merit for his military exploits; but denied his having equal power with Tamaah-maaha; saying, there was but one aree de hoi over all Owhyhee, and he was Tamaah-maaha; and that if Tianna was an aree de hoi, so also must he be, and other chiefs of equal consequence with Tianna and himself.

This instance will serve to illustrate how very difficult it is, according to our comprehension of their language, to obtain matter of fact from these people; and that nothing short of indefatigable labour can obtain the truth, and correct information, from man in so early a state of civilization.

The next morning we were abreast of the south point of Toca-yahha bay, near which is Kahowmotoo's residence. It was a great pleasure to observe the avidity, with which all the chiefs who had visited the ship fought after the vegetable productions we had brought; which, if attended to, will in future add to their present abundant production. Kahowmotoo was very anxious to obtain every acquisition of this fort, and was made very happy by receiving some fine orange plants, and a packet of different garden feeds; and likewise a goat and kid. With these valuables he appeared to be highly delighted, and promised to give them his greatest care and attention.

Tareehooa, who preferred the name of Jack, had been with Mr. Ingram in the capacity of a servant; but was now promoted to the office of interpreter in the service of this chief, which he by no means

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badly executed. Jack was extremely solicitous to remain on board, and to accompany us on our voyage. As he appeared to be a very shrewd active fellow, and there was a probability of his being made useful, I accepted of his services, to which the chief consented, though with a mixture of regret, and a friendly regard for Jack's future advantage and success. After being saluted with four guns, a compliment which Tianna had received, and taking a very affectionate leave of his interpreter, Kahowmotoo departed with the most friendly assurance, that whenever we should think proper to visit his district, we should be abundantly supplied with refreshments.

Tuesday 6.

A light breeze, chiefly from the south, advanced us slowly towards the north point of Owhyhee, until the trade wind at E.N.E. no longer intercepted by the high mountains which compose the island, met us; when we directed our course towards Woahoo. Early in the morning of the 6th, being well in with the island of Tahoorowa, the Chatham's signal was made to denote our situation in bearing up along the south side of that island; but as neither this nor some previous signals had been acknowledged, I concluded the Chatham had remained becalmed under the high land of Owhyhee; whilst we had benefited by a very fine gale, owing to our being a little further advanced; and Woahoo being our next appointed rendezvous, a long separation could not be apprehended. The trade wind blew strong from the N. E. until we were under the lee of Ranai, when light and variable winds succeeded. At noon Tahoorowa by compass bore S.88 E.; the S.W. part of Mowee N. 79 E.; the east point of Ranai N. 60 E.; south point N.20 E.; north west point N. 18 W.; and the western part of Morotoi indistinctly seen, bore N.N.W. In this situation the latitude was observed to be 20° 41′, longitude by the chronometer 203° 2′. The south point of Ranai being the nearest land, was about four miles distant, and was placed by our observations 1′ south, and 5 ½ to the west of the situation assigned to it by Captain King. In the afternoon some sew of the natives visited us from Ranai, merely, I believe to satisfy their curiosity, as they brought with them scarcely any thing for barter. Indeed, the dreary and desolate appearance of their island, seemed a sufficient apology for their coming empty handed. The

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apparent sterility of the island, and the few scattered miserable habitations which we were able with our glasses to discern, indicated the part of it now presented to our view to be very thinly inhabited and incapable of affording any of its productions to strangers. During the afternoon we proceeded to the north along the west side of Ranai; and, towards sun-set again met the trade wind, which about midnight brought us in sight of Woahoo, bearing by compass west 6 or 7 miles distant. We plied until day light, when we directed our course along the south side of that island whose eastern shores bear a similar desolate appearance to those of Ranai, and are principally composed of barren rocks and high precipices, which fall perpendicularly into the sea. We did not pass at a greater distance than a league, yet verdure or cultivation was not any where to be seen. From its east point the north east side of Woahoo takes a direction N. 33 W. off which are scattered some small detached islets and rocks; the northernmost: of these which we saw, is a low flat rock, lying from the east point N.22 W. 3 or 4 leagues distant; and near the shore was a hill whose summit bears the appearance of a volcanic crater. The land to the north of the east point seemed much indented, but whether capable of affording any shelter or not, we were too far off to discern. On the south east part of this island are two remarkable promontories, which lie from each other S.81 W, and N.81 E. about 7 miles asunder; the first or easternmost of these is formed of barren rocky cliffs, rising so suddenly from the sea, that to all appearance vessels might brush their sides in passing them; whence the land falls a little back, and forms a shallow bay in a northern direction, where the different colours in the water indicated a rocky bottom; on the beach the surf broke very violently, behind which a lagoon extended some distance to the northward. Should the bottom be found good, vessels might ride in this bay tolerably well protected against the general trade wind; but as our place of rendezvous was round the second promontory, we did not examine it in a more particular manner. Continuing our course, about nine we hauled round the reef which lies about a quarter of a mile from that point, and had soundings from 22 to 10 fathoms; in which latter depth of water we anchored about ten o'clock, the bottom sand and pieces of

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small coral. This promontory, which is the south point of the island, has also on its top the appearance of a crater, formed by volcanic eruptions; this bore by compass N. 82 E.; the outward part of the reef S. 81 E.; the westernmost part of the land in fight N. 82 W.; a break in the reef, which extends at irregular distances along the shore, N. 20 W.; a low sandy point, near the west end of a large Indian village N. 7 W.; and the middle of the village, (where, the natives informed us, we might land in perfect safety with our boats,) N.N.E. about 2 miles distant. We examined a considerable space around the ship, and found in shore the same description of bottom, though the coral which principally composed it was of so soft a nature, as to cause little apprehension for the safety of our cables. The depth of water within us gradually decreased to 6 fathoms, and without, to the distance of nearly a mile, as gradually increased to 25 and 30 fathoms, where the bottom was found to be a fine grey sand.

As our quarter deck required caulking, the carpenters were immediately employed on this business. Some few of the natives visited us from the shore, who brought in their canoes a very sparing supply of refreshments, amongst which, the musk and water melons made no inconsiderable part, and were very excellent of their kinds. The situation occupied by us in this bay, which the natives call Whyteete, seemed nearly as eligible as most of the anchoring places these islands are generally found to afford. The inhabitants were excessively orderly and docile, although there was not a chief or any person of distinction amongst them to enforce their good behaviour; neither man nor woman attempted to come on board, without first obtaining permission; and when this was refused, they remained perfectly quiet in their canoes alongside.

The information obtained at Owhyhee, that Titeere and Taio, with most of the principal chiefs and warriors of this island, and those to leeward, were on a hostile expedition at Morotoi and Mowee, was here confirmed; but differed as to the immediate cause of their absence, which was now represented to be for the purpose of repelling an invasion likely to take place from Owhyhee, by Tamaah-maaha, Kahowmotoo, and Tianna. This, in a great measure, seemed to account for the small

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number of inhabitants who visited us, the wretched condition of their canoes, and the scanty supply of their country's produce which they brought to market. On the shores, the villages appeared numerous, large, and in good repair; and the surrounding country pleasingly interspersed with deep, though not extensive valleys; which, with the plains near the sea-side, presented a high degree of cultivation and fertility. The apparent docility of these people, who have been represented by former visitors as the most daring and unmanageable of any who belong to the Sandwich islands, might, probably, be attributed in a great measure to the absence of their fighting men, and to our manifest superiority in numbers, regularity in point of order, and military government; which seemed to make a wonderful impression on all who were permitted to come on board, and who, to a man, appeared very much afraid of fire-arms. This was evinced, on our mounting guard to post the centinels round the ship. On this occasion they all hastily paddled towards the shore, and it was not without much persuasion that they were induced to return.

It appeared very singular, that the war of which we had heard so much, was not yet begun; and Kahowmotoo, who had frequently mentioned the subject, said they were not to begin the combat until after the expiration of fifteen months. If this information be correct, designs so long premeditated, or preparations delayed so long from being carried into execution, were hard to account for. Taio and Titeere had now been several months from their respective governments.

Our new ship-mate Jack became very useful; he took upon him to represent us in the most formidable point of view to all his countrymen; magnifying our powers, and augmenting our numbers, and proclaiming that we were not traders, such as they had been accustomed to fee; but that we were belonging to King George, and were all mighty warriors. This being his constant discourse, it is not to be wondered that his countrymen became much intimidated; and as this could be productive of no ill consequences, we permitted Jack to proceed in his encomiums, and unanimously agreed it would not be his fault, if we were not in high repute amongst the islanders.

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After caulking the decks I purposed to execute such trivial repairs, at this place, as might be found necessary to the rigging, &c. &c. provided that water, for which I was alone solicitous, could he procured; as the abundant and excellent refreshments we had obtained at Otaheite, and the high state of health which we had enjoyed since our leaving Dusky bay, rendered supplies of any other nature a secondary consideration.

For this purpose, attended by two armed boats, and a guard of seven marines, I landed accompanied by Mr. Mudge, Mr. Whidbey, and Mr. Menzies. Our boats remained perfectly quiet on the beach, having passed to the shore between some rocks, which completely protected it from the surf. The natives, who were present, received us in a very orderly manner. Two bustling men with large sticks, kept the few spectators at a respectful distance: to these I made some presents; and. on inquiring for water, they directed us to some stagnant brackish ponds near the beach. This being rejected we were given to understand that good water was to be had in abundance at some distance, to which they readily undertook to conduct us; and as they all appeared friendly and pacific, the boats were left in charge of Mr. Swaine and Mr. Manby; and we proceeded, with our guard, in search of the promised supply. Our guides led us to the northward through the village, to an exceedingly well-made causeway, about twelve feet broad, with a ditch on each side.

This opened to our view a spacious plain, which, in the immediate vicinity of the village, had the appearance of the open common fields in England; but, on advancing, the major part appeared divided into fields of irregular shape and figure, which were separated from each other by low stone walls, and were in a very high state of cultivation. These several portions of land were planted with the eddo or taro root, in different stages of inundation; none being perfectly dry, and some from three to six or seven inches under water. The causeway led us near a mile from the beach, at the end of which was the water we were in quest of. It was a rivulet five or six feet wide, and about two or three feet deep, well banked up, and nearly motion-

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less some small rills only finding a passage through the dams that checked the sluggish stream, by which a constant supply was afforded to the taro plantations. The water was excellent, but the road was too rough and hard for rolling our casks such a distance, without exposing them to great damage. This induced me to make our guides understand, that, if the inhabitants would collect, and carry this water on board in gourds, they should be well rewarded for their trouble. The offer was instantly communicated to their neighbours about us, who immediately replied, we should have an ample supply the next day. At the termination of the causeway, the paths of communication with the different fields or plantations were on these narrow stone walls; very rugged, and where one person only could pass at a time. The gentleness and civility of the natives tempted us to extend our walk through the plantations, which we found very pleasant. A fine refreshing breeze prevailed, and the Indians kept at a sufficient distance to prevent their company being incommodious. In this excursion we found the land in a high state of cultivation, mostly under immediate crops of taro; and abounding with a variety of wild fowl, chiefly of the duck kind, some of which our sportsmen shot, and they were very fine eating. The sides of the hills, which were at some distance, seemed rocky and barren; the intermediate vallies, which were all inhabited, produced some large trees, and made a pleasing appearance. The plains, however, if we may judge from the labour bestowed on their cultivation, seem to afford the principal proportion of the different vegetable productions on which the inhabitants depend for their subsistence. The soil, though tolerably rich, and producing rather a luxuriant abundance, differs very materially from that of Matavai, or the other parts of Otaheite. At Woahoo, nature seems only to have acted a common part in her dispensations of vegetable food for the service of man; and to have almost confined them to the taro plant, the raising of which is attended with much care, ingenuity, and manual labour. In the several parts of its culture, the inhabitants, whether planting, weeding, or gathering, must, during the whole of these operations, be up to their middle in mud, and exposed to the rays of a vertical sun: whereas, on the plains of Otaheite, the

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surface teems, as it were, spontaneously with the most abundant produce of esculent vegetables, without the help of industry to sow, plant, or rear them, or the assistance of the aqueducts which these people construct with great labour and ingenuity to insure them a crop. There, the continued groves of the lofty and umbrageous bread fruit, apple, palm, and other trees, afford a delightful cool retreat to those favored islanders; here, the inhabitants know not the luxury of such retirement. Nor did it appear in the vegetable kingdom alone that nature here had been more favorable; the human species, though without doubt originally of the same nation, differ excessively; and it would seem that the comparative benevolence of the Otaheiteans and these people was about equal to the natural fertility of the soil on which they respectively lived. It may however appear rather uncharitable to form any decided opinion on so short an acquaintance; yet first impressions will ever have their influence on visiting different countries under circumstances similar, or nearly so. On such occasions it is scarcely possible to avoid comparisons, in which one must necessarily suffer. On our landing at Otaheite, the effusions of friendship and hospitality were evident in the countenances of every one we met. Each endeavoured to anticipate our wants or our wishes by the most fascinating attention, and by sedulously striving to be first in performing any little service we required; inviting us to take refreshments at every house we approached, and manifesting a degree of kindness that would justly be extolled amongst the most; polished nations. At Woahoo we were regarded with an unwelcome austerity, and our wants treated by the generality with a negligent indifference. In the course of our walk they exhibited no assiduity to please, nor did they appear apprehensive left offence should be given; no refreshments were offered, nor had we invitation to any of their houses. Their general behaviour was distantly civil, apparently directed by a desire to establish a peaceable intercourse with strangers, from whom there was a prospect of deriving many valuable acquisitions, which would be unattainable by any other mode of conduct; as they must have been convinced immediately on our landing, that we were too powerful to be

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conquered, and too much upon our guard to suffer the least indignity by surprize. I must, however, do justice to the hospitality of our two guides, who on our reaching the shore took upon them the office of constables; and who had also each caused a hog and a quantity of vegetables to be prepared for our entertainment. On our return this repast was ready, and we were much intreated by them to partake of it; but as it was now past sun set, we were under the necessity of declining their civility; on which they very obligingly put our intended supper into the boats. I presented each of our guides with an acceptable acknowledgment, and earnestly renewing my request of a supply from the brook, which they promised should be complied with the next day, we returned on board.

Towards midnight the Chatham arrived, and anchored a little to the westward of the Discovery. I soon learned from Mr. Broughton that as I had suspected, his vessel had been becalmed the evening we parted until near one the next morning, when they stood towards Mowee; but on his not being able to see the Discovery at day light, he steered to the north west along the southern side of that island, and found an eligible anchoring place off its western part, with soundings regular and good; and as the natives brought off a considerable quantity of water, he had great reason to believe that article could there be readily procured.

Thursday 8.

The few natives in our immediate neighbourhood, though they conducted themselves in a very civil and submissive manner, yet brought us so little water in the course of the next day, that I was induced to give up the idea of obtaining a supply by their means, and to proceed immediately to Attowai; where I was assured we should have that necessary article completely within our own reach and power. After employing the forenoon in setting up our rigging, and in other useful occupations, we weighed anchor, and steered to the westward.

Anxious to communicate the intelligence of our progress to the officer commanding the storeship, (this being one of the appointed rendezvous,) I entrusted a letter to one of the natives, a very active sensible fellow, who promised to take great care of it, and to deliver it on the

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vessel's arrival in this bay; and for the faithful discharge of this trust, he was assured of receiving a very handsome present, to which I promised him an addition on my return.

Whyteete bay is formed, by the land falling a little back round the south point of Woahoo; and although open above half the compass in the southern quarters, it is unquestionably the most eligible anchoring place in the island. We found the latitude of the ship's station by four good meridional altitudes, to be 21° 16′ 47″; its longitude by the chronometer 202° 9′ 37″; and the variation of the compass to be 7° 50′ eastwardly. Mr. Arnold's chronometer on board the Chatham gave the longitude 201° 45′ 30′, allowing the rate as settled at Otaheite; our chronometer by the Portsmouth rate, shewed the longitude to be 203° 29′ 50′; but 202°9′ 37′ is to be received as its true longitude.

A fine breeze between five and six brought us round the south west part of Woahoo, which lies from the south point N.82 W.5 leagues distant. This point is low flat land, with a reef round it, extending about a quarter of a mile from the shore. The reef and low land continue some distance to the eastward towards Whyteete bay, and form, between the south and south-west points, a large open shallow bay, with high land rising very irregularly at some distance from the beach; which, towards the south-west point, appeared to be broken in two places, and to form lagoons that seemed capable of receiving boats and small craft. One of the natives, who was accompanying us to Attowai, informed me, that all along the shore off these openings the bottom was rocky, and would cut our cables. This, with some other circumstances, induced me to believe, that there was not any where in this spacious bay such good anchorage as our last station.

Friday 9.

At eight in the evening, the west point of Woahoo bore N.½ E.3 leagues distant. The Chatham being under the land becalmed, we soon lost fight of her. We continued our course under all sail, and to our great surprise came within fight of Attowai, by half past four the next morning. The east end, by compass, bore N. by W. at a trifling distance, having gained almost 6 leagues in the night's run from land to land, more than the

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log ascertained; which I concluded must have been effected by a very strong north-west current.

At day-break, we bore away along the south side of Attowai for Whymea bay, where about nine o'clock we anchored, and moored a cable each way; the depth of water was 24 fathoms, with a bottom of dark-grey sand and mud. The east point of the bay bearing, by compass, S.67 E. the west point N.70 W.; and the river N.31 E; about 2 miles distant.

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CHAPTER II.

Transactions at Attowai—The prince and regent visit the ships—Fidelity of the natives—Observations on the change in the several governments of the Sandwich islands— Commercial pursuits of the Americans.

1792. March. Friday 9.

BY the time we had anchored, several of the natives visited us in the same submissive and orderly manner as at Woahoo, and appeared better provided. Towards noon, the Chatham arrived; but the wind shifting about prevented her coming to anchor until sun-set, when she moored a little to the westward of the station we had taken.

Our boats, guard, &c. being in readiness, about one o'clock we proceeded to the shore. Mr. Menzies accompanied me in the yawl, and Mr. Puget followed with the cutter and launch. The surf was not so high as to prevent our landing with ease and safety; and we were received by the few natives present, with nearly the same fort of distant civility which we experienced at Woahoo.

A man, named Rehooa, immediately undertook to preserve good order, and understanding we purposed to remain some days, caused two excellent houses to be tabooed for our service; one for the officers, the other for the working people, and for the guard, consisting of a serjeant and six marines. Stakes were driven into the ground from the river to the houses, and thence across the beach, giving us an allotment of as much space as we could possibly have occasion for; within which few encroachments were attempted. This business was executed by two men, whose authority the people present seemed to acknowledge and respect, although they did not appear to us to be chiefs of any particular

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consequence. I made them some very acceptable presents; and a trade for provisions and fuel was soon established. Certain of the natives, who had permission to come within our lines, were employed in filling and rolling our water-casks to and from the boats; for which service they seemed highly gratified by the reward of a few beads or small nails.

Having no reason to be apprehensive of any interruption to the harmony and good understanding that seemed to exist, and the afternoon being invitingly pleasant; with Mr. Menzies, our new ship-mate Jack, and Rehooa, I proceeded along the river-side, and found the low country which stretches from the foot of the mountains towards the sea, occupied principally with the taro plant, cultivated much in the same manner as at Woahoo; interspersed with a few sugar canes of luxuriant growth, and some sweet potatoes. The latter are planted on dry ground, the former on the borders and partitions of the taro grounds, which here, as well as at Woahoo, would be infinitely more commodious were they a little broader, being at present scarcely of sufficient width to walk upon. This inconvenience may possibly arise from a principle of œconomy, and the scarcity of naturally good land. The sides of the hills extending from these plantations to the commencement of the forest, a space comprehending at least one half of the island, appeared to produce nothing but a coarse spiry grass from an argillaceous soil, which had the appearance of having undergone the action of fire, and much resembled that called the red dirt in Jamaica, and there considered little better than a caput mortuum. Most of the cultivated lands being considerably above the level of the river, made it very difficult to account for their being so uniformly well watered. The sides of the hills afforded no running streams: and admitting there had been a collection of water on their tops, they were all so extremely perforated, that there was little chance of water finding any passage to the taro plantations. These perforations, which were numerous, were visible at the termination of the mountains, in perpendicular cliffs abruptly descending to the cultivated land; and had the appearance of being the effect of volcanic eruptions, though I should suppose of very ancient date. As we proceeded, our attention was arrested by an object that greatly excited our

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admiration, and at once put an end to all conjecture on the means to which the natives resorted for the watering of their plantations. A lofty perpendicular cliff now presented itself, which, by rising immediately from the river, would have effectually stopped our further progress into the country, had it not been for an exceedingly well constructed wall of stones and clay about twenty-four feet high, raised from the bottom by the side of the cliff, which not only served as a pass into the country, but also as an aqueduct, to convey the water brought thither by great labour from a considerable distance; the place where the river descends from the mountains affording the planters an abundant stream, for the purpose to which it is so advantageously applied. This wall, which did no less credit to the mind of the projector than to the skill of the builder, terminated the extent of our walk; from whence we returned through the plantations, whose highly-improved state impressed us with a very favorable opinion of the industry and ingenuity of the inhabitants.

On our arrival at the beach, I had the comfort of finding all things in perfectly good order. As the trading and working party were extremely well lodged, it was reasonable to believe that our business would not only be much facilitated, but that a more plentiful supply of refreshments would, probably, be procured, by allowing them to remain on shore. This induced me to leave Mr. Puget in charge of the party, and I returned on board perfectly satisfied with the safety of their situation.

Like our treatment at Woahoo, our reception here was not of that hearty, friendly nature, I had been accustomed to experience from our southern friends. The eagerness, nay even avidity, with which the men here assisted in the prostitution of the women; and the readiness of the whole sex, without any exception, to surrender their persons without the Ieast importunity, could not sail, at the moment, to incur our censure and dislike; and, on reflection, our disgust and aversion. I have read much, and seen something in my several visits to this ocean, of the obscenity attributed to the inhabitants of Otaheite and the Society islands; but no indecency that ever came under my observation, could be compared with the excessive wantonness presented in this excursion. Had this levity, now so offensively conspicuous, been exhibited in my former

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visits to these: islands, its impressions could not have been effaced, and it must have been recollected at this time with all the abhorrence which it would at first have naturally created; but as no remembrance of such behaviour occurred, I was induced to consider this licentiousness as a perfectly new acquirement, taught, perhaps, by the different civilized voluptuaries, who, for some years past, have been their constant visitors.

At Woahoo, and also on our arrival here, we were given to understand that there were Englishmen resident on this island.

Saturday 10.

One of them, a young man about seventeen years of age, whose name was Rowbottom, came on board in a large double canoe; who said he was of Derbyshire, that he had failed from England about five years since in an Indiaman to China, which ship he had quitted in order to engage with some of the vessels in the fur trade between North-West America and China; and that he had, ever since, been thus employed in the American service. He informed me, that himself, John Williams a Welchman, and James Coleman an Irishman, had been left at Onchow, in order that they might return to this island for the purpose of collecting sandal-wood, and pearls, for their master John Kendrick, an American, commanding the brig Lady Washington, in whose service they still remained at the wages of eight dollars per month. The Lady Washington had quitted these islands the preceding October, bound to New England, with a cargo of furs to dispose of in her way thither at China; she was immediately to return from Boston, and having spent the next winter in North-West America, was, in the autumn of the ensuing year, to call for these men at Attowai, and take in a cargo of sandal-wood for the Indian market, with such pearls as they might have collected.

With Rowbottom came two chiefs, the one named No-ma-tee-he-tee, the other Too; both of whom he said would be useful at Attowai and Onchow. On making these chiefs each a present, with which they were greatly pleased, they said they were directed by the king, or rather the prince Ta-moo-eree, (who is a boy, and the eldest son of Taio the sovereign of this and the neighbouring islands) to say, that Enemoh, the regent in Taio's absence, and Tamooeree, would be with us in a day or two; giving me to understand that Enemoh was the principal acting

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officer. A messenger was immediately dispatched to request of his highness, that, as my stay would be very short, he would do me the favor to lose no time in giving us the honor of his company; and, as a pledge of our friendly disposition, I sent him a large axe as a present.

Our young countryman said it was highly important to have the strictest watch over the behaviour of these people; for although he conceived our force was too great for them to attempt any thing hostile with the least prospect of success, yet he could not determine how far their ambitious views might lead them, as, since their success in taking a schooner at Owhyhee, they had become so elated, that they had attempted to take a brig at Mowee.

The schooner belonged to a Mr. Medcalf, an American trader, who having been successful in the fur trade, equipped and entrusted her to the command of his son, who failed with eight men from Macoa, in order to prosecute that branch of commerce. This vessel was captured at Owhyhee; but as Rowbottom's narrative of the facts was afterwards found erroneous, the particulars of the enterprize, from better authority, will be given in a future chapter.

Nomateehetee and Too, with other natives present, confirmed the intelligence of this atrocious act, and, at the same time, highly reprobated the inhuman murder of the crew, who were all put to death excepting one man. Tianna was accused by them of having projected this wicked scheme, and of having perpetrated the horrible massacre; but they positively denied that Taio, who had been suspected of meditating the capture of the brig at Mowee, had any knowledge of that business; saying, that it was intirely the act of the people of Mowee. On becoming acquainted with these daring and ambitious designs, I inquired, what reception Tianna would have experienced had he accompanied us from Owhyhee? Every one present seemed to be astonished at his entertaining such an idea, and agreed that he would have been put to death the instant he had landed, as they all considered him as their most inveterate enemy. These reports, and the observations that were made by the natives in consequence of their being related to me, gave me great reason to apprehend that Tianna's intentions of accompanying us hither, which on

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reflection he had thought proper to decline, were not dictated by motives of the most friendly and disinterested nature.

These unwelcome tidings being concluded, Mr. Broughton attended me on shore with the two chiefs and the young Englishman, who was extremely serviceable to us as an interpreter; and pointed out to the natives our friendly intentions towards them, and the manner in which they should conduct themselves, not only to insure our good opinion, but to obtain the advantages that would eventually result to themselves from our visit. On landing, I understood from Mr. Puget that every thing was, and had been, conducted with the greatest propriety and good order by all parties. Trade for provisions, wood, &c. was going on very briskly, and our supply of water was equal to our wishes.

Matters thus pleasantly circumstanced, we embarked with Mr. Menzies and Mr. Whidbey, who had accompanied us en shore, in a double canoe to examine the river, which, at the distance of about half a league from the entrance, divides into two branches, one stretching towards the E.N.K.; the other, seemingly the furthest navigable, took a northerly direction, in which however we were not able to advance more than five hundred yards beyond the wall we had visited the preceding evening. Here we landed, and considered ourselves about three miles from the seaside, to which we now returned by a path somewhat nearer the foot of the mountains than before, through a similar country; and were on this occasion more pestered and disgusted, if possible, with the obscene importunities of the women, than on our former excursion.

Sunday 11.

Nomateehetee returned with us to dinner; Too remained with Rehooa to assist our party on shore. The next morning Nomateehetee produced a list of certificates from four different commanders of trading vessels who had lately visited these islands. The first, dated in april 1791, signed by J. Colnett of the Argonaut, recommended this chief to the notice of future visitors; but the others signed by J. Ingram of the Hope, Thomas Barnet of the Gustavus, and John Kendrick of the Lady Washington, the two former without dates, the latter dated 27 october, 1791, all direct that the greatest circumspection should be observed in the intercourse of strangers with these islanders, notwithstanding the good

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opinion entertained of their fidelity, or the recommendation given, by Mr. Colnett. I told Nomateehetee the paper spoke much in his praise and favor, and desired that he would not omit shewing it to the commander of the next and every other vessel that might arrive at Attowai, which he promised to do, and requested it might remain on board until our departure.

The caulkers having finished the quarter deck of the Discovery, they were sent on board the Chatham to execute a similar service.

Another of the party left by the Lady Washington now made his appearance, which did not speak much in his favor. This man's name was Coleman, and Rowbottom had said he was of Ireland, which the man himself positively denied, and declared he was an American, born at New York. He had in most respects adopted the customs of the natives, particularly in dress, or rather in nakedness; for, excepting the maro, which he wore with much less decency than the generality of the inhabitants, he was perfectly naked, and the colour of his skin was little whiter than the fairest of these people. I asked him what he had done with his former clothes; to which he answered with a sneer, that "they were hanging up in a house for the admiration of the natives"; and seemed greatly to exult in having degenerated into a savage way of life. He acquainted me, that he was charged with a message from the prince, to ask what stay I intended to make, and to inquire if we were friendly and peaceably disposed. I desired he would inform the prince, that we should depart the instant a supply of water was obtained; that I was very desirous of having an interview both with him and Enemoh, but that I could not be detained for this purpose; and that, as a further pledge of the favorable disposition we bore towards him and his people, I desired he would present to the prince a piece of scarlet cloth in my name. With this embassy he immediately set off, after assuring me that the prince and regent, with many other chiefs, would pay us their respects by noon the next day.

The afternoon being delightfully pleasant, I made a small excursion to the westward along the beach; and on returning, observed the hills to the eastward of the river to be on fire from a considerable height, in

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particular directions, down towards the water's edge. I was by no means pleased with this appearance, well knowing that fires are generally resorted to by these and other rude nations as the signal for collecting the distant inhabitants, when an enterprize or scheme is meditated to be carried into effect.

I desired Rowbottom to attend to the conversation of the Indians who were near; but he collected nothing from them in our walk that could give rife to suspicion. On joining the shore party, I asked Nomateehetee and some other chiefs, what was the cause of this extensive conflagration. Some replied, it was to announce the arrival of the prince, the regent, and other great chiefs in this neighbourhood on the morrow; whilst others contended it was for no other purpose than that of burning the weeds. This disagreement in opinion concerning the cause of so unusual an appearance, was far from being satisfactory. The surf ran very high, and other circumstances concurred to render the embarkation of our working party very inconvenient; in addition to which, I did not think it prudent to manifest our apprehensions by a sudden and hasty retreat. The party on shore amounting to twenty armed persons was tolerably strong. Mr. Puget had directions to be vigilantly on his guard; and he was informed that the two launches, armed and provided with false fires to make signals in case of alarm, would be stationed as close to the beach as the surf would permit during the night, in case he should need further assistance. Having taken these precautions I returned on board, with the hope, that in the event of any tumult little danger was to be apprehended. During the night, the chiefs who had taken up their lodgings near our party, frequently visited the beach near where our boats rode; and seemed inquisitive as to the cause of the precautions which they beheld. The night however passed without the least interruption; and in the morning the natives were again trading in their usually civil and friendly manner.

Monday 12.

Our supply of water was completed the next day; and the few hogs and vegetables we were able to purchase were received from the shore. As the market no longer afforded provisions, and as our business was now finished, directions were given for the embarkation of the party in the

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afternoon, it being my intention the next day to sail for Onchow. The surf having prodigiously increased, Mr. Puget, on these orders being delivered to him, represented to me, that he was fearful our people would not be able to reach the boats with their arms without exposing themselves to some danger. Conceiving that with the assistance of a canoe, which hitherto had been the general mode of conveyance between our boats and the shore, there would be little hazard, I desired he would use his utmost endeavours to get off; as the re-appearance of the fires on the hills, and the non-appearance of either prince or regent, indicated a possibility that the natives might have thought proper to discontinue their former services and good behaviour.

In the evening our boats returned; they had been some time detained by the absence of a man belonging to the Chatham who had strayed from the party, and whom at length they had been obliged to leave behind. To effect the embarkation, Mr. Puget had procured a large double canoe, which unfortunately was stove and swamped the first trip; but by the exertions of those in the boats every person had happily been saved, though amongst them were some who could not swim. By this accident two muskets, three axes, a cross cut saw, and a set of accoutrements went to the bottom, but they had recovered one of the muskets. Several articles belonging to the officers who had been on shore on duty could not be taken without imminent danger of being lost, as those on shore after the loss of the canoe had to swim to the boats through the surf. Amongst these were some arms, and a valuable double barrelled fowling piece, which were left in the charge of Nomateehetee, who tabooed them; and, with John Williams, (the Welehman left by the Lady Washington,) gave every assurance of their security; to insure which, they both proposed to sleep in the house where the valuables were deposited. Mr. Puget seemed to entertain great confidence of the safety of the articles and of their being all forthcoming; but I must own, I expected that this necessity would put their fidelity severely to the test, and might eventually be the means of preventing our interview with the prince and regent; especially as Williams had returned with an apology for their having broken their engagement, which he said had

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been occasioned by excessive fatigue; but that we might rely on seeing them the next morning. This unpleasant state of suspense occasioned me some anxiety; but at day-break I was agreeably relieved by receiving a message that the prince and regent were arrived at Whymea.

Tuesday 13.

Mr. Puget was dispatched to the shore for the purpose of obtaining the things which had been left behind, and with directions to use every possible means to impress the prince and regent with our friendly disposition, and to prevail on them to visit the ships. In these respects he had the good fortune to succeed, and communicated to me the following particulars of his reception.

On landing, he was received with great marks of friendship and cordiality by Enemoh, who is an elderly chief; guardian to the children of Taio, king of the island, and regent during his absence. At some distance the young prince was seated in a man's lap, to whom Mr. Puget hastened to pay his respects, and had the satisfaction of seeing him well pleased with the presents he made him on this occasion. Having settled the business of their visiting the ships, to which Enemoh had consented, he was extremely anxious to become acquainted with the fate of the several articles which he had intrusted to the care of Williams and Nomateehetee the preceding evening. Much to their credit and honor, he not only found every thing he had consigned to their protection and integrity, but also the musket with its bayonet, and cross cut saw, which had been lost out of the canoe, but which in the course of the night had been recovered by the natives; who promised, that the axes which were not yet obtained should likewise be restored, the instant they were recovered. The several articles being collected and sent down to the boat, with the man belonging to the Chatham who had been left on shore the preceding evening, Mr. Puget acquainted Enemoh that he was ready to attend them on board. Enemoh replied that, with respect to himself, he had not the least objection to accompany Mr. Puget with the young prince and Tipoone, a young chief about the prince's age, who seemed his principal companion; but that he was now prevented following his own inclinations by the chiefs who were present, and some women apparently of great consequence, who collectively demanded an hostage to be left with them

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on shore, whilst we on board were honored with the company of these illustrious personages. On Mr. Puget's receiving and making known my orders, that Mr. Manby and Mr. Sheriff should remain behind in compliance with their desires, a general approbation was expressed by all present, and the regent with some attendants embarked; saying, that on his return the prince and his young friend should go on board, but that the island could not be left without either the prince or the regent.

On Enemoh's coming on board he affected to recollect me, and said we had been acquainted when I was at Attowai with Captain Cook; and, to recall himself to my remembrance added, that he was present when I gave a lock of my hair to Taio, which Taio had ever since preserved, and always carried about him; and that he, Enemoh, had on that occasion requested a similar pledge of friendship, which, however, I thought proper to decline. These circumstances were very likely to have taken place, although at the moment they did not recur to my memory.

A dozen hogs, and a quantity of mats and cloth, being presented by Enemoh, I made no delay in offering a suitable return, with which, however, he did not seem either delighted or satisfied. This produced an inquiry on my part; on which he frankly acknowledged, that the present I had made him was a very liberal one, but that he would gladly give up the whole for a musket, or even for a pistol. These engines of destruction had been uniformly solicited with the greatest ardency, by every native of the least consequence with whom we had any dealings; and I had frequently been much perplexed how, without offence, to refuse complying with requests so importunate, and, at the same time, in my humble opinion, so repugnant to the cause of humanity. On this occasion I availed myself of our peculiar situation, as it had respect to the trading vessels which he had been accustomed to visit; and informed him, that the ship, and every thing she contained, belonged to His Majesty King George, who had tabooed muskets, pistols, and various other articles. On this gunpowder and balls were immediately solicited; but, on being told that these were under similar restrictions, he remained silent, and seemed very thoughtful. At length, conceiving no importunities would avail, he recovered himself, and became as suddenly cheerful, as on the refusal of

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his favorite weapons he had seemed dejected. He now shook me very heartily by the hand, and said, since arms and ammunition were tabooed, he must acknowledge that the presents he and his friends had received were very ample, and that they had reason to be highly satisfied. Enemoh recommended in the strongest terms the attendance of Nomateehetee and Too on our passage to Onchow, where they would be very serviceable in procuring us the different productions, and would prevent any disorderly behaviour on the part of the inhabitants. His opinion of his own importance was greatly flattered by our saluting him with four guns on his departure; and he took leave with every appearance of being extremely gratified with his visit.

Mr. Puget, who had to execute the remaining part of his embassy, attended the venerable old chief and his suite on board the Chatham, where they paid their respects to Mr. Broughton; and, having received some presents from that gentleman, they proceeded to the shore. On landing, Enemoh exposed the several articles which had been given to him, and recounted the treatment he had received.

Although Mr. Puget was much pleased with the satisfaction and happiness which the visit had afforded all present, he was much disappointed on understanding that the embarkation of the prince and his young friend would not take place. On his searching for the cause of this sudden alteration, and pointing out to Enemoh the reception he had met, the presents he had received, and assuring him, that we had no with or desire but to shew the same marks of respect and friendship to Tamooere, which he had given us an opportunity of paying to him (all of which were readily admitted); Enemo, with some hesitation, explained; and at length the reason was discovered to have proceeded from their having observed, that the two gentlemen who had been left as hostages, were down on the beach near the boats, and they supposed were going on board without waiting the return of the prince to the shore. Mr. Puget instantly removed their apprehensions, when all objections ceased; and the prince and his young companion were now as eager to get to the boat, as they before had been willing to return on the demur of the regent; from whom Mr. Puget understood, that some hogs and vegetables were every minute

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expected to arrive. But not thinking it adviseable to wait, lest any other objection might arise and detain the prince on shore, he immediately put off, leaving Mr. Manby and Mr. Sheriff in their former situation as hostages.

I was much pleased with the appearance and behaviour of this young prince, who seemed to be about twelve years of age. In his countenance was exhibited much affability and cheerfulness; and, on closely observing his features, they had infinitely more the resemblance of an European, than of those which generally characterize these islanders; being destitute of that natural ferocity so conspicuous in the persons about him. In these respects, and in the quickness of his comprehension and ideas, he greatly surpassed his young friend and companion Tipoone. At first, he was not without considerable agitation, marked as evidently by the sensibility of his countenance, as by his actions; in constantly clinging to me, and repeatedly saluting me according to their custom, by touching noses. I soon dissipated his fears by a few trifling presents, and encouraged him to visit every part of the ship. His inquiries and observations, on this occasion, were not, as might have been expected from his age, directed to trivial matters; which either escaped his notice, or were by him deemed unworthy of it; but to such circumstances alone, as would have authorized questions from persons of matured years and some experience. He conducted himself with a great degree of good breeding, and applied to Rowbottom or Williams, who were with him, to know if he might be permitted, or it were proper, to make this, or that inquiry; and never moved forward, or sat down, without first inquiring, if, by so doing, he should incur any displeasure. It was now about our dinner-time. His young friend Tipoone did not fail to partake of our repast, whilst the prince seemed infinitely more entertained with the several new objects that surrounded him, and, I believe, would have returned to the shore perfectly satisfied with his visit, had I offered him nothing more. Considering, however, that some acknowledgment was due for their care, and honesty in restoring not only the articles, which through necessity had been committed to their charge, but such as were recovered from the sea; when

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dinner was ended, I presented Tamooere with nearly a duplicate assortment of the valuables I had, in the forenoon, given to Enemoh, with some few other things that seemed particularly to attract his attention. Amongst; these was a quantity of wine and rum, for which these islanders, like our southern friends, have acquired no inconsiderable relish. I presented likewise to his friend a collection of valuables; and gave to each of his attendants some trivial article, with which they seemed agreeably surprized, as this compliment was expected by none of them. Our countrymen who were in the habit of living with the prince, were instructed to impress on the minds of the royal party and the inhabitants in general, that the liberality they had experienced was wholly to be ascribed to their own civil, orderly, and honest behaviour; and, that, (in addition to what they had received,) as a particular testimony of my approbation of their conduct, if they would remain on board until it was dark they should be entertained with a display of fire-works. Tamoeree, though well satisfied that our intentions were pacific and friendly, and though perfectly reconciled to his situation on board, yet requested he might be permitted to go on shore, and, if Enemoh had no objection, he would return. He intreated us to remain a few days, to enable him to make us some return for our civilities, in hogs and vegetables; a supply of which, he expected, were already at the beach; but as we had accomplished all the business for which we had stopped at this island, and being desirous of obtaining from Onchow a stock of yams, (a vegetable that Attowai did not at that time afford) I gave the young prince to understand, that if the wind should prove favorable in the course of the night, we should, on a certainty, depart for Onchow.

After visiting the Chatham with the prince, Mr. Puget returned with his charge to the shore; where the party was received with the greatest cordiality by a large concourse of the natives, who, under the restrictions of the taboo, were kept in excellent order. The prince was carried on a man's shoulders and seated in the house which our officers occupied. There he was soon joined by Enemoh, with a large train of attendants, who unanimously expressed their satisfaction and gratitude for the treatment

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their young chief had experienced; of which, the valuable presents brought from the ships bore undeniable testimony.

Not seeing, nor hearing any tidings of, the promised supply of provisions, nor discovering any inclination in the royal party to return for the purpose of attending the fire-works, Mr. Puget took his leave and repaired on board. Previously to his quitting the shore, the prince found out that the exhibition could be equally well seen from the beach, and therefore requested he might be indulged.

As our young friend was anxiously waiting, with a large crowd of his countrymen, in expectation of something new, as soon as it became dark I ordered some sky and water rockets to be displayed. Nomateehetee and Too, who, with several of the natives, male and female, had begged a passage to Onchow, observed the rockets with infinite surprize and admiration, as did the concourse of people assembled on shore; which was announced to us by their repeated bursts of acclamation, distinctly heard, though at the distance of nearly two miles.

I should be guilty of an unpardonable injustice to these people, were I to neglect this opportunity of observing, that the faithful performance of their engagement with Mr. Puget, combined with those principles of honesty that directed the restoration of the articles recovered from the sea, produced in our minds opinions very contrary to those which we had, perhaps too hastily, formed of Attowai, on the report of the recent visitors to this country; and which, on the prejudice of our first impressions, were confirmed greatly to the disadvantage of the general character, to which, it now appeared, these islanders were entitled. The reports, however, ought not to be considered as having originated without cause; though, in all likelihood, transgressions may have been committed by strangers as well as by the natives, and the want of a sufficient knowledge of each other's language, may have provoked mutual aggression, which, otherways, would not, so repeatedly, have produced misunderstandings. That the natives had not been faithfully dealt with on all occasions, seemed evident, from the prince or regent demanding an hostage for their safe return, on their consenting to venture themselves amongst us; a circumstance that had never before occurred in any of my visits to the

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islands in this ocean. And, that they are capable of being taught by proper lessons and examples how to respect the property of others, is placed out of doubt by the exercise of those principles of rectitude that directed the honorable restoration of the musket and tools which they recovered from the sea; and this also affords reasonable grounds to believe, that, on their being convinced that irregularities and frauds are not to be committed with impunity, all the inhabitants of these islands would soon be induced to avoid disgrace and punishment, and secure the advantages resulting from the friendship of the more civilized world. Nothing could manifest more powerfully their being already extremely conscious of this important interest, than the faithful discharge of the trust reposed in them by Mr. Puget, and the delivery of the valuables recovered out of the water, which might have been secreted and with-held without fear of detection, and for which they were not requested to search; nor was any reward offered to those who might exert themselves to procure them. We might possibly be in some measure indebted for the good behaviour of the natives, to the confidence that the chiefs had reason to suppose was placed in their integrity. This, when reposed in their chiefs or responsible persons, I have, in former instances, seen attended with the most happy effect.

The people of the several nations who have visited these islands, are well known and distinguished by the inhabitants. I was extremely well pleased to understand that the three resident men, though at present in the service of an American, had used every endeavour to impress on the minds of the natives, the most favorable opinion of the English; and I was made very happy on being convinced of the strong predilection and attachment which the young prince had conceived for the subjects of Great-Britain. This prepossession, if properly cherished, may eventually be highly important to the British traders; for, if conclusions may be permitted to be drawn from the general deportment and manners of his early years, the riper ones of this young prince must be attended with a very considerable degree of consequence, in this part of the world. This presumption appears the more warrantable, by the splendid atchievements, and the example he will have had exhibited by

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his father, who has raised himself to the high station he at present fills by his perseverance and prowess in military exploits.

The predilection of the prince was not only conspicuous in the attention shewn to Rowbottom and his comrades, whose persons and property he had made sacred by their constantly residing with him, and by his making them his companions in all his diversions and amusements, but in his having assumed the title of King George; not suffering his domestics to address him by any other name, and being much displeased with us, as well as his countrymen, if we called him Tamooere.

Besides the different articles of traffic with which I presented this promising youth, were a male and female goat, and two geese; Mr. Broughton added a third; and we had hopes they were of different sexes. He had likewise an ewe and a ram in most excellent condition, left by Mr. Colnett; these had bred, but their progeny had been unfortunately killed by a dog. Notwithstanding this accident, there was every prospect of their future propagation and success.

From Mr. Puget I learned, that there appeared in none of his transactions with the royal party any marks of external respect towards them, either from the subordinate chiefs, or the common people. When I was at these islands with Captain Cook, prostration was very usually observed, and seemed then to be demanded even by chiefs, though not of the highest rank. On this occasion, the only circumstance which proclaimed the prince's superior rank, was a guard consisting of about thirty men, armed with iron pahooas, who attended him and the royal personages on all excursions, carrying thirteen muskets made up into three bundles, with some callibashes containing ammunition, of which it was thought expedient we should be apprized previous to their visit, lest such formidable appearances should create in us distrust or suspicion. During the time our party was employed on shore, an armed man was scarcely ever seen; and such of the natives who appeared so provided, brought their weapons for the purpose of sale only.

Wednes. 14.

About three in the morning of the 14th, we failed with a fine northerly breeze for Onehow, in order, whilst the decks of the Chatham were

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caulking, to take on board such yams and other vegetables as we might be able to procure.

Friday 16.

On our arrival at Onehow, we anchored in 14 fathom water off the south part of the island, about ¾ of a mile from the shore; its south east point bearing by compass S. 77 E. its west point N.48 W. and the island of Tahoora S. 58 W. Finding the bottom here soft, sandy, regular, and good, I was induced to prefer this anchorage to a situation I had been in, further to the N.N.W. as the surf broke with great violence on the N.W. side of the island, though here we rode very smoothly. Nomateehctee wished we had proceeded further west; saying, the natives would have a great way to bring us their yams and other productions. The station we had taken was not however attended with any such inconvenience; as, by friday in the afternoon, we had purchased a very ample supply: and the Chatham's deck being now finished, about six in the evening we proceeded together towards the coast of America.

On our departure, the two Englishmen with our other friends took their leave, who, for the good services they had rendered us, received acknowledgments far beyond their most sanguine expectations.

The supply of refreshments which the Sandwich islands on this occasion had afforded us, was undeniably a very scanty one. This, however, I did not solely attribute to scarcity, as I had frequently great reason to believe an abundant stock might have been procured, had we been inclined to have purchased them with arms and ammunition; with which, through the unpardonable conduct of the various traders who have visited these islands, the inhabitants have become very familiar, and use these weapons with an adroitness that would not disgrace the generality of European soldiers. Their great avidity for procuring these destructive engines may possibly have been increased by the successes of Tianna, who, it should seem, is principally indebted for his present exaltation, to the fire arms he imported from China, and those he has since procured from the different traders. His example has produced in every chief of consequence an inordinate thirst for power; and a spirit of enterprize and ambition seems generally diffused amongst them. If reliance is to be placed on the information which I received, the flame of these unwar-

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rantable desires has been raised by the practice of every species of artifice and address in their European and American visitors; who have thereby enhanced the value of such destructive articles of commerce. For these alone the natives now seem inclined to exchange the valuable refreshments, with which there can be little doubt these islands still abound. The evil of this trade will be materially selt by vessels that may have occasion to resort to this country, unequipped with military stores for the inhuman purpose of barter with these people; and it is much to be apprehended the mischief will extend considerably further, as we have been acquainted, by the late adventurers in the fur trade, that these islanders have tried various schemes to destroy the crews, and to gain possession of some of the trading vessels, in which they succeeded too well with Mr. Medcalf's schooner at Owhyhee. These ambitious designs however, had been rendered in most instances ineffectual, by the superiority alone which the traders possessed in fire-arms; and yet, neither the conviction of their own security being wholly dependant on these powerful means of defence, nor the common principles of humanity, seem to have had sufficient influence to restrain a traffic, encouraged by avaricious pursuits in defiance of all moral obligation.

The alteration which has taken place in the several governments of these islands since their first discovery by Captain Cook, has arisen from incessant war, instigated both at home and abroad by ambitious and enterprizing chieftans; which the commerce for European arms and ammunition cannot fail of encouraging to the most; deplorable extent.

If we may be allowed to decide by comparing the numerous throngs that appeared on the first visits of the Resolution and Discovery, and which were then constantly attendant on all our motions, with the very few we have seen on the present occasion, the mortality must have been very considerable. It may however be objected, that the novelty of such visitors having, at this time, greatly abated, is sufficient to account for the apparent depopulation. But when it is considered, how essential our different implements and manufactures are now become to their common comforts, that reason will not apply; as every individual is eager to

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bring forth all his superfluous wealth, on the arrival of European commodities in the market.

At Whytcete, I had occasion to observe that, although the town was extensive, and the houses numerous, yet they were thinly inhabited, and many appeared to be intirely abandoned. The village of Whymea is reduced at least two-thirds of its size, since the years 1778 and 1779. In those places where, on my former visits, the houses were most numerous, was now a clear space, occupied by grass and weeds. That external wars and internal commotions had been the cause of this devastation, was further confirmed by the result of my inquiries off Owhyhee, when it did not appear that any of the chiefs, with whom I had been formerly acquainted, excepting Tamaah-maaha, was then living; nor did we understand, that many had died a natural death, most of them having been killed in these deplorable contests.

The short time we remained amongst these people, did not allow of my obtaining the satisfactory information I sought, and which was so very desirable on this, as well as on other important topics. This has induced me to reserve the subject matter I had collected, until I should have an opportunity of going into a more correct investigation: for the present, therefore, I shall take leave of the Sandwich islands, by stating the advantages which the Americans promise themselves by the commercial interests they are endeavouring to establish in these seas.

Previously to the departure of Rowbottom and Williams, they informed me, that their captain had conceived that a valuable branch of commerce might be created, by the importation of the sandal-wood of this country into India, where it sells at an exorbitant price; that, in the fur trade, immense profits had been gained, insomuch that it was expected not less than twenty vessels would, on these pursuits, sail with their captain (Kendrick) from New England, and that they were desired to engage the natives to provide several cargoes of this wood, which is easily procured, as the mountains of Attowai as well as those of Owhyhee, abound with the trees from which it is produced; though we were not able to procure any of their leaves, to determine its particular class or species. The wood seemed but slightly to answer the description

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given of the yellow sandal wood of India, which is there a very valuable commodity, and is sold by weight.

The pearls I saw were but few, and consisted of three sorts, the white, yellow, and lead colour. The white were very indifferent, being small, irregular in shape, and possessing little beauty; the yellow, and those of a lead-colour, were better formed, and, in point of appearance, of superior quality. Mr. Kendrick must, undoubtedly, flatter himself with great emoluments from these branches of commerce, or he would not thus have retained three men in constant pay for such a considerable length of time, with a promise of further reward if they conducted themselves with fidelity towards his interest. This proceeding, however, appears to have been the effect of a sudden thought, as it was not until his brig was weighing anchor at Onehow that he came to this determination, and landed the three men; who, in consequence of such short notice, had no means of equipping themselves, and were left almost. destitute of apparel. The few clothes they had were nearly worn out; these I replaced with a sufficient stock to serve them some time; and, to add as much as possible to their comforts in their present situation, and to make them respectable in the eyes of the people with whom they were yet to remain for several months, they received such tools and articles of traffic as would best answer their purpose, and some books, pens, ink, and paper, for their amusement, with an assortment of garden seeds, and some orange and lemon plants that were in a very flourishing state.

To the care of Rowbottom, who seemed the most qualified, I intrusted a letter of instructions to the commanding officer of the storeship, whose arrival we daily expected; as also one to the Lords of the Admiralty, acquainting them with the time we had quitted these islands, the state and condition of the vessels, and health of their crews, the route I had taken to this station, and the discoveries we had made.

Kendall's chronometer, agreeably to its error and rate of going as ascertained at Otaheite, agreed so well on our arrival at Owhyhee, that I was not at all solicitous for any further investigation. Our observations in Whymea road made its latitude 21°57′½, and its longitude, by the chronometer, 200° 18′ 15″, varying 5′ 15″ to the eastward of Captain

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Cook's, and 1′ 45″ to the westward of Captain King's assigned true longitude of the roadsted; whence I concluded its rate of going very correct. The Portsmouth rate shewed 201° 40′ 45″. Mr. Arnold's chronometer, on board the Chatham, made the longitude of Whymea, according to its Otaheitean rate, 199° 58′ 30″. Our anchorage at Onehow, by observation, was in latitude 21° 46′ 30″, the longitude, by the chronometer, 199° 40′. This station is to the E.S.E. of the spot where the Resolution anchored, and which is laid down by Captain Cook in latitude 21° 50′, longitude 199° 45′; consequently, our observations place the south point of Onehow nearly in the same latitude, though 8′ further to the westward, and 2 leagues further distant from Whymea. The Portsmouth rate shewed the longitude to be 201° 5′; but Mr. Arnold's chronometer made a much greater difference, as it placed the anchorage at Onehow in longitude 199° 12′ 15″. At this island, we found the tides regular, as noticed by Captain Cook; but at Attowai and Woahoo, there was a current which generally set to the eastward.

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CHAPTER III.

Passage to the coast of America—Find the main-mast sprung—See the land of New Albion—Proceed along the coast—Fall in with an American vessel—Enter the supposed straits of De Fuca—Anchor there.

1792. March.

Saturday 17.

HAVING put to sea from Onehow, as before related, we stood to the N.W. close hauled, with a moderate breeze at N.N.E. attended by a heavy swell from the N.W. until the next morning, when the wind having veered to that quarter, we made sail to the N.E. in order that we might pass to the north of the Sandwich islands, and be enabled to steer to the eastward, should the wind continue its northern direction, from whence it had lately prevailed. By noon the wind blew a fresh gale from N.N.W. attended with some trifling squalls; our latitude was now 22° 16′, longitude 199° 17′; the west point of Onehow bearing by compass S. 57 E. 8 leagues distant. About two in the afternoon we discovered a spring in the main mast on the larboard side, about six feet below the hounds. This part of the mast had occupied much of our attention since our departure from Teneriffe, in consequence of a suspicious appearance near a rugged knot, opposite to the place where the defect now became evident. We were under an immediate necessity of getting down the top-gallant-mast, with every moveable out of the top; close reefing the topsail, and lightening the head of the mast as much as possible, until a fish should be prepared; which the carpenters lost no time in getting ready. A defect was also discovered in the head of the foremast, above the rigging, which was of less importance, and did not require any additional security for the present.

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At sun-set Attowai bore by compass S.80 E. to S.45 E. and Onehow S. 4 W. to S. 14 W. The wind remaining in the N.W. we stood on, and about midnight passed the north point of Attowai at no great distance; though the weather being very dark and hazy, prevented our seeing the land.

Sunday 18. Friday 23.

On sunday morning we took our departure from the Sandwich islands: Attowai bearing by compass S.5 E. to S. 30 W. 10 or 11 leagues distant. In the afternoon all the sails were furled on the main-mast, and we were employed until six in the evening in fixing the fish, and securing the head of the mast; when the sails were again set, and we proceeded to the E.N.E. The wind was generally to the westward of north, with cool and pleasant, though generally cloudy weather, attended by a great swell from the N.W. which indicated the wind having blown with much violence in that direction. The main-mast, after a trial of some days in a fresh gale with a heavy sea, not seeming to complain, the top-gallant mast was on the 23d got up, and the usual quantity of sail carried. The N.W. swell had now almost subsided, and the wind veered round to N.E. with which we stood to the N.N.W. The weather continuing dark and gloomy prevented our making any observations on the solar eclipse this morning; but at noon our observed latitude was 24° 43′, longitude 209° 6′; and in the afternoon the variation was sound to be 11° 5′ eastwardly.

Thursday 29.

Our course was directed to the castward or northward as the wind veered, which was mostly in the northern board, blowing a moderate breeze with pleasant weather. On the 29th, in latitude 27°, I got five sets of distances of the moon and sun; the mean result gave the longitude 214° 21′ 15″; by the chronometer it was 213° 46′ 30″; and by the dead reckoning, 211° 44′. This error in the dead reckoning seemed gradually to have taken place since our departure from Attowai; and many of the officers having lately made several lunar observations with great accuracy, whose mean result gave from 25′ to 40′ east of the chronometer, I was led to believe, that our change of climate (the thermometer having fallen from about 80 to about 66 since leaving the Sandwich islands,) had caused some acceleration in its rate of going. From hence our progress was

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Saturday 7.

attended by a very smooth sea, and in general by cloudy and gloomy weather. The wind between N. by W. and N.N.E. blew so gently, that on the 7th of april we had only reached the latitude of 35° 25′; longitude 217° 24′, by the dead reckoning 214° 42′; when we sound ourselves in the midst of immense numbers of the sea blubber of the species of the Medusa Villilia; so that the surface of the ocean as far as the eye could reach, was covered with these animals in such abundance, that even a pea could hardly be dropped clear of them. The largest did not exceed four inches in circumference; and adhering to them was found a worm of a beautiful blue colour, much resembling a caterpillar. This worm is about an inch and a half long, thickest toward the head, forming a three-sided figure, its back being the broadest; its belly, or under part, was provided with a festooned membrane, with which it attached itself to the medusa villilia. Along the ridge connecting the sides and back from the shoulders to the tail, on each side, are numberless small fibres, about the eighth of an inch in length, like the downy hair of infects, but much more substantial; probably intended to assist the animal in its progress through the water. This worm or caterpillar Mr. Menzies considered to be a new genus. We saw also in the forenoon a bird, which I took to be of the duck or awke kind, flying to the N.W., but at too great a distance to discover its character.

Sunday 8.

Since our leaving the land we had been daily visited by one or two large birds, but not more at a time, which we sometimes took for the quebrantahuessos, and at others for a species of albatross. On sunday, the weather being perfectly calm, Mr. Menzies was so fortunate as to determine this point, by killing a brown albatross; of the same sort, I believe, as are found in abundance about Terra del Fuego, distinguished vulgarly by the name of Mother Cary's geese, on account of the white rump, shape of the tail. &c. which resemble the storm petrel, commonly called Mother Cary's chicken. This albatross had also a white mark, about the eighth of an inch wide, and two inches long, extending in a diagonal direction from the inner corner of its eye towards the neck. From tip to tip of each wing it measured seven feet; and, from the extremity of the beak to that of the tail, three feet.

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Tuesday 10.

The weather continued pleasant, nearly calm or with light variable breezes until tuesday, when in latitude 36°, longitude 219° 34′, the wind blew a moderate gale, and seemed settled in the southern quarter; with which we made all sail, steering to the eastward. Notwithstanding I had, in case of separation with the Chatham, appointed our next rendezvous in Berkley's sound, yet whilst we were so fortunate as to keep together, it was my fixed determination to fall in with the coast; of New Albion as far to the southward of that station as circumstances would permit.

Several small whales and grampusses had lately been observed about the ship; and this afternoon we passed within a few yards of about twenty whales of the anvil-headed or spermaceti kind, that were playing in the water. The immense number of the medusa with which this region abounds, may probably induce the spermaceti whale to resort hither in quest of food. We now advanced very pleasantly to the eastward, and gradually lost sight of the medusa villilia, which had attended us in the greatest abundance over a space of seven degrees of longitude; and, as Mr. Johnstone of the Chatham paid particular attention to these extraordinary creatures, I shall insert his description of them.

"These small blubbers are of an oval form, quite flat, and measuring about an inch and an half the longest; way; their under side is somewhat concave; the edges, for near a quarter of an inch in width, are of a deep blue colour, changing inwardly to a pale green; the substance being much thinner and more transparent there than on the upper side. Perpendicularly to the plain of their surface stands a very thin membrane, extending nearly the whole length of its longest diameter in a diagonal direction; it is about an inch in height, and forms a segment of a circle. This membrane, which seemed to serve all the purposes of a fin and a sail, was some times observed to be erect; at others lying flat, which was generally the case in the morning; but as the day advanced, it became extended. Whether this was voluntary, or the effect of the sun's influence, was a quesstion not easily to be decided. When the membrane was down, these little animals were collected into compact clusters, were apparently destitute of any motion, and their colour at that time seemed of a dark green."

The wind gradually veered round to the S. E. and E. S. E. increasing in

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Sunday 15. Monday 16. Tuesday 17.

its force, attended generally with a very smooth sea; though sometimes with a little swell from the westward and S.W. accompanied by cloudy and gloomy weather. On sunday morning I got one set of lunar distances, which at noon gave the longitude 232° 56½′; by the chronometer 232° 7¾′; and by the dead reckoning 229° 39′: the latitude 37° 55′.

The wind at E.S.E. by two the next morning, increased with such violence as to make it necessary that the topsails should be close reefed; the squalls were very heavy, with an appearance of an approaching storm. No soundings were to be had with 120 fathoms of line; and as I could not depend upon the longitude of the coast of New Albion under this parallel, we stood on a wind until day-light, when we again resumed our course to the N. E. with an increasing gale, attended by thick rainy weather; which, by two in the afternoon, obliged us to strike our top-gallant masts, and stand to the southward under the foresail and storm staysails. At ten that night the wind veered round to the south, blew a moderate gale, and brought with it fair and pleasant weather. Our upper canvas was again spread; and the necessary signals made to the Chatham not being answered, and not seeing her at day-break on the 17th, we abandoned our course to the eastward to go in search of her. About five she was seen from the mast-head to the N.W.; upon which we bore down to her, and having joined company, we again directed our route to the eastward. The sky being tolerably clear, although the wind had again put us under double-reefed topsails, enabled me to obtain six sets of lunar distances, whose mean result at noon gave the longitude 50′ to the eastward of the chronometer, the true longitude being 236° 8′, and the dead reckoning 231° 30′; the observed latitude was 39° 20′.

Soon after mid-day we passed considerable quantities of drift wood, grass, sea weed, &c. Many shags, ducks, puffins, and other aquatic birds were flying about; and the colour of the water announced our approach to soundings. These circumstances indicated land not far off, although we were prevented seeing any object more than 3 or 4 miles distant, by the weather, which had become very thick and rainy. Being anxious to get sight of the land before night if possible, we stood to the eastward with as much sail as we could carry, and at four in the after-

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Wednes. 18.

noon reached soundings at the depth of 53 fathoms, soft brown sandy bottom. The land was now discovered bearing by compass E.N.E. to E. by S. at the distance of about 2 leagues, on which the surf broke with great violence. We stood in for the shore under our topsails for about an hour, and perceived the coast to extend from north to S. E. The nearest shore was about 2 miles distant. The rain and fog with which the atmosphere was now loaded, precluded our seeing much of this part of the coast of New Albion. The shore appeared strait and unbroken, of a moderate height, with mountainous land behind, covered with stately forest trees; excepting in some spots, which had the appearance of having been cleared by manual labour; and exhibited a verdant, agreeable aspect. During the night we plied under an easy sail, in order to be near the land in the morning; when, in consequence of a thick haze, it remained obscured until a light breeze from the eastward about ten o'clock gave us a view of the shore to the north eastward, for which we immediately steered. The northern extremity of the land bore by compass at noon N.N.W., the nearest shore east about 6 leagues, the land I considered we were off the preceding night S. 72 E. about 8 leagues; and the southernmost land in sight S. 60 K. about 10 leagues distant. The observed latitude was at this time 39° 27′; longitude 235° 41′ 45″; by the chronometer 235°. The former was deduced from the mean result of eighty-five sets of lunar distances, taken by the several persons as under, and reduced at noon by the chronometer since the 27th of march, according to its Otaheitean rate, (viz.)

Nine sets taken by Mr. Puget gave 235° 36′ 0″
Eighteen sets by Mr. Whidbey 235 49
Nineteen by Mr. Orchard 235 35
Ten by Mr. John Stewart 235 44
Seventeen by Mr. Ballard 235 46
Twelve by myself 235 39
The mean result of the above eighty-five sets 235 41 30

This made the chronometer 41′ 30″ to the west of that which I supposed to be nearest the true longitude; and from the general result of these observations it evidently appeared, that the chronometer had ma-

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terially altered in its rate since we had reached these northern regions. The longitude of the respective points, headlands, &c. as hereafter stated, will therefore be corrected and affixed, by subsequent observations, agreeably to the explanation contained in the following chapter; whence, by allowing a different rate to the chronometer, the true longitude this day at noon was ascertained to be 236° 25′.

The gentle breeze of wind that now prevailed appearing to be settled in the southern quarter, favored my with to pursue a northern course; for which purpose, we bore away along the coast; at the distance of 3 or 4 leagues. The weather was delightfully pleasant; and as we drew nearer the land, the shore seemed to be perfectly compact, formed, generally speaking, by cliffs of a moderate height and nearly perpendicular. The inland country, which rises in a pleasing diversity of hills and dales, was completely clothed with forest trees of considerable magnitude; and those spots which, on our first view, had the appearance of having been cleared of their wood by art, were now seen to extend, generally, along the sea-side; and their being destitute of wood, was evidently to be ascribed to some natural cause. They were beautifully green, with a luxuriant herbage, interrupted by streaks of red earth. At sun-set, the southernmost land in fight bore by compass, S. 45 E.; a small white rock, not unlike a vessel under fail, close to the shore, east; the nearest shore E.N.E. 4 leagues; and the northernmost land in fight, which I considered to be cape Mendocino N. 36 W. about 10 leagues distant. In this situation, the variation by the surveying compass was observed to be, 16° eastwardly.

Thursday 19.

The night was spent in making short trips. The next morning brought with it a return of calm or light baffling winds, a very heavy swell from the S.W. and so thick a haze over the land that the shores were scarcely perceptible. Immense numbers of whales were playing about us during the morning. Most of them were of that tribe which, in Greenland, are called sinners. Towards noon, we had again from the southward, a moderate breeze; but the weather still remained extremely gloomy.

In directing our course along the coast to the northward, we observ-

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ed in latitude 40° 3′, longitude 235° 51′. The mean variation of the surveying compass, by observations made before and after noon, was 15° eastwardly. In this situation, the northernmost land in fight bore, by compass, N. 10 W.; cape Mendocino, N. 2 W.; the easternmost: land in fight, S.60 E.; and the nearest shore N. E. about 4 leagues distant. In the afternoon we passed cape Mendocino. It is formed by two high promontories, about ten miles apart; the southernmost, which is the highest, and when seen either from the north or the south much resembles Dunnoze, is situated in latitude 40° 19, longitude 235° 53 Off the Cape lie some rocky islets and sunken rocks, near a league from the shore. The southernmost of these from the northernmost promontory, lies S. 61 W. about a league distant; and within it are two rocky islets in shape much resembling hay-cocks. The northernmost of them lies N. 3 W. distant 5 or 6 miles, nearly of the same shape and size with the other, to which it is apparently connected by a ledge of rocks, whose outermost part lies from the above promontory N. 38 W. about 2 leagues distant, having a smaller islet, about midway, between them. On some parts of this ledge the sea constantly breaks with great violence; on others, at intervals only. The broken water appeared from the masthead to extend along the coast, as far north as could be discerned; which, however, was at no great distance, owing to the weather being still thick, and hazy. The whole of this Cape, though by no means a very projecting head land, is doubtless very remarkable, from being the highest on the sea-shore of this part of New Albion. The mountains at its back are considerably elevated, and form altogether a high steep mass, which does not break into perpendicular cliffs, but is composed of various hills that rife abruptly, and are divided by many deep chasms. In some of these, as well as on some of the ridges of the hills, grew a few dwarf trees. The general surface was covered with vegetables of a dull green colour, interspersed in some places with perpendicular strata of red earth or clay. South of the Cape the coast is nearly strait, forming only a trifling bend, to the southernmost part we had seen. Its elevation is regular, it may be considered as high land and is apparently steep to, as we founded without gaining bottom with 120 fathoms of line

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at distances from 2 to 5 leagues from the shore. This had been uniformly the case since the evening we first saw the coast, having no where else gained any soundings, nor seen any drift wood, sea-weed, or aquatic birds, nor noticed any difference in the colour of the water. These circumstances induced some of us to suspect, that an opening or river existed to the southward of our then station. To the northward of cape elevation of the country appeared suddenly to decrease beyond the roc lets, where it assume a moderate height. As the day advanced, the weather becoming unpleasant, and adverse to our pursuit, about five o'clock we hauled off the shore. The outermost of the sunken rocks on a line with the middle islet, bore by compass E. by N. at the distance of about a league; the main land, then indistinctly seen, from N. E. by N. to E. S. E. In this situation, we had soundings at the depth of 49 fathoms; dark brown sand. As we flood into the offing, we tried, at the distances of 2, 3, and 4 leagues S.W. from the rocks, but gained no bottom at the depth of 80 and 90 fathoms.

Friday 20.

The gale had so much increased by midnight from the S. E., as to render close-reesing the topsails necessary; under which we again stood in for the land, in the hope of the wind abating on the return of day. Instead of which it became more violent, attended with such very heavy squalls of rain and thick weather, that we were obliged to strike the top-gallant yards, and stand to sea under our courses. In the afternoon, the head-railing on the starboard side was intirely carried away. This obliged us to reef the foresail, and bring the tack to the cat-head; by which means, the sail stood so indifferently, that the consequences attendant on this accident might have been very alarming, had we had a lee shore instead of a weather shore to contend with.

Saturday 21.

The gale, accompanied by torrents of rain, continued until midnight; when it veered to the south, moderated, and permitted us to steer again for the land under close-reefed topsails. On saturday morning, our top-gallant sails were again set, but the weather was very unpleasant, being thick, with heavy rain; which, towards noon, terminated in a calm and fog. By our reckoning, the south promontory of cape Men-

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docino bore S. 60 E., 11 miles distant. In this situation, no bottom could be reached with 120 fathoms of line.

Sunday 22.

The fog, with calms, or light variable winds, continued until about ten the next forenoon, when the weather suddenly altered, and brought with it a fine pleasant gale from the south. All sail was now made for the land; at noon the south promontory of cape Mendocino bore by compass, S. 64 E., distant 9 leagues; its north part N. 88 E., 6 leagues; the northernmost of the rocky islets N. 71 E., 5 or 6 leagues; and the northernmost land in sight, N.E.; the observed latitude 40° 32′; longitude 235° 28′, and the variation of the compass 16° eastwardly.

Monday 23.

From cape Mendocino the coast takes a direction N. 13 E.; along which we ranged at the distance of about two leagues. After passing the above islets, the shores became strait and compact, not affording the smallest shelter; and, although rising gradually from the water's edge to a moderate height only, yet the distant interior country was composed of mountains of great elevation; before which were presented a great variety of hills and dales; agreeably interspersed with wood-land, and clear spots, as if in a of cultivation; but we could discern neither houses, huts, smokes, for other signs of its being inhabited. The coast we had passed this afternoon, seemed to be generally defended by a sandy beach; but the evening brought us to a country of a very different description, whose shores were composed of rocky precipices, with numberless small rocks and rocky islets extending about a mile into the sea: the most projecting part, which is situated in latitude 41° 8′, longitude 236° 5′, obtained the name of ROCKY POINT. This, at seven in the evening, bore by compass N. 18 E. 6 miles distant; the nearest shore east 4 miles; and the northernmost land in sight N. 6 E. We spent the night in preserving our situation with the land, and the next morning again pursued our course along the coast, which from Rocky point takes a direction N, 9 W. The wind at south was light, the weather was cloudy with some little rain. At eight o'clock. Rocky point bore by compass S, 40 E., 5 or 6 miles; the nearest shore, N.E, by E. 3 miles distant; and a detached rocky islet N. 18 W.; within which we, afterwards, passed in 35 to 50 fathoms water, black sandy bottom. This

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rock is a high round lump about half a mile in circuit, apparently steep to, and lies from Rocky point. N. 11 W. distant 13 miles, and about half a league from the shore. When abreast, of Rocky point, the colour of the sea suddenly changed from the oceanic hue to a very light river-coloured water, extending as far a-head as could be discerned. This gave us reason to suppose some considerable river or rivers were in the neighbourhood.

A fresh gale from the south permitted our sailing along the coast within a league of the shore, which appeared to be destitute of any opening, and similar to that which we had passed the preceding evening, bounded by innumerable small rocks and rocky islets. The face of the country may be considered as mountainous, and did not appear so pleasing as that lying to the south of Rocky point. In this respect however we were able to say but little, as the land was nearly obscured by the haziness of the weather, excepting immediately on the sea-shore; which being composed of steep rocky precipices broken by deep gullies, at a distance would put on the appearance of harbours, or breaks in the land. At noon, we were again in oceanic-coloured water; the observed latitude 41° 36′; longitude 235° 58′; and variation of the compass 16° eastwardly. In this situation, the southernmost land in sight bore by compass S.S.W.; the nearest shore N.E. four miles distant; and the northernmost: extremity in sight, (being a cluster of remarkable rocky hummocks at the termination of a considerable tract of low level land, that at a distance seemed to be an island,) bore N. 15 W. At the junction of the low level land with the high rocky coast, a shallow bay is formed; at the bottom of which was an appearance of a small harbour or opening, which bore N. 5 E. Here I entertained hopes of finding shelter; but the number of breakers along the shore of the low level land, some of which were detached and lie at a considerable distance from the shore, together with a ledge of rocks and rocky islets seen from the mast-head, extending as far to the westward as N.W., and a sky bearing the fame dull and gloomy aspect as that which preceded the former gale, induced me to confider it most prudent to decline any attempt; and to embrace the opportu-

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nity of the favorable gale at S.S.W. to continue my examination of the coast, in the confidence of soon finding a more convenient shelter.

We stood off W. N. W. in order to sail round the outwardmost of the rocks, which we passed at the distance of about 3 or 4 miles, about four o'clock; and again hauled in for the north side of the low level land. This land forms a very conspicuous point which I named POINT ST. GEORGE, and the very dangerous cluster of rocks extending from thence, the DRAGON ROCKS. The outwardmost of these lies from point St. George, which is situated in latitude 41° 46′½ and longitude 235° 57′½, N. 52 W., 3 leagues distant. The rocks above water are four in number, with many sunken ones, and numerous breakers stretching from the outermost, (southward of point St. George,) towards the opening mentioned at noon. This point forms a bay on each side; that into which we stood from the north side is perfectly open to the N. W., yet apparently sheltered from the W. S.W. and southwardly winds by the Dragon rocks; the soundings we found regularly from 35 to 45 fathoms, black sand and muddy bottom: when at the former depth, point St. George bore by compass S. 33 E. 10 miles; the northernmost: of the Dragon rocks S. 7 W. 4 miles; and the north point of the bay, which I called ST. GEORGE'S BAY, N. 24 W. 6 or 7 miles distant.

The surf broke with great violence all round the bay; and although we were again in whitish water, there was not any opening on this side of the point: the shores of the northernmost part of the bay, like the coast of the bay on the south side of point St. George, rise very abruptly from the sea, forming numberless gullies and chasms, which were covered with a dull brownish herbage, and produced little or no wood. North of the bay the shores were again bounded with numberless small rocks and rocky islets, similar to those already mentioned; but the low land of point St. George terminates in a sandy beach, from whence the coast takes a direction N. 15 W.

Tuesday 24.

Not finding a situation here likely to answer our purpose, we directed our route along the coast until it was dark, when we hauled off shore, and spent, the night in the offing. The next morning the north point of St. George's bay bore, by compass, east 2 leagues distant. With a

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favorable breeze at S.E. and less hazy weather, our survey was continued to the northward along the shores, which are composed of high steep precipices and deep chasms, falling very abruptly into the sea. The inland mountains were much elevate, and appeared, by the help of our glasses, to be tolerably well clothed with a variety of trees, the generality of which were of the pine tribe; yet amongst them were observed some spreading trees of considerable magnitude. Although some of these mountains appeared quite barren, they were destitute of snow; but on those at the back of cape Mendocino, which were further to the south, and apparently inserior in point of height, some small patches of snow were noticed. The shores were still bounded by innumerable rocky islets, and in the course of the forenoon we passed a cluster of them, with several sunken rocks in their vicinity, lying a league from the land; which, by falling a little back to the eastward, forms a shallow bay into which we steered. As the breeze that had been so favorable to our pursuit since the preceding sunday died away, and as a tide or current set us fast in shore, we were under the necessity of coming to an anchor in 39 fathoms water, black sand and mud. The latitude of this station was found to be 42° 38′, longitude 235° 44′. In this situation, the outermost rock of the cluster before mentioned bore, by compass, S. 16 E. 6 miles distant; a remarkable, black rock, the nearest shore being N. 64 E. 3½ miles; a remarkably high black cliff resembling the gable end of a house, N. 1 E.; the northernmost; extremity of the main land, which is formed by low land projecting from the high rocky coast a considerable way into the sea, and terminating in a wedge-like low perpendicular cliff, N. 27 W. This I distinguished by the name of CAPE; ORFORD, in honor of my much respected friend the noble Earl (George) of that title: off it lie several rocky islets, the outwardmost of which bore N. 38 W.

Soon after we had anchored a canoe was seen paddling towards the ship; and with the greatest confidence, and without any sort of invitation, came immediately alongside. During the afternoon two others visited the Discovery, and some repaired to the Chatham, from different parts of die coast in sight; by which it appeared, that the inhabitants

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who are settled along the shores of this country, may, probably, have their residence in the small nooks that arc protected from the violence of the westwardly swell by some of the larger rocky islets, so abundantly scattered along the coast.

* Vide Cook's last Voyage.

A pleasing and courteous deportment distinguished these people. Their countenances indicated nothing ferocious; their features partook rather of the general European character; their colour a light olive; and besides being punctuated in the fashion of the South-Sea islanders, their skin had many other marks, apparently from injuries in their excursions through the forests, possibly, with little or no clothing that could protect them; though some of us were of opinion these marks were purely ornamental, as is the fashion with the inhabitants of Van Dieman's land*. Their stature was under the middle size; none that we saw exceeding five feet six inches in height. They were tolerably well limbed, though slender in their persons; bore little or no resemblance to the people of Nootka; nor did they seem to have the least knowledge of that language. They seemed to prefer the comforts of cleanliness to the painting of their bodies; in their ears and noses they had small ornaments of bone; their hair, which was long and black, was clean and neatly combed, and generally tied in a club behind; though some amongst them had their hair in a club in front also. They were dressed in garments that nearly covered them, made principally of the skins of deer, bear, fox, and river otter; one or two cub skins of the sea otter, were also observed amongst; them. Their canoes, calculated to carry about eight people, were rudely wrought out of a single tree; their shape much resembled that of a butcher's tray, and seemed very unfit for a sea voyage or any distant expedition. They brought but a few trifling articles to barter, and they anxiously solicited in exchange iron and beads. In this traffic they were scrupulously honest, particularly in fixing their bargain with the first bidder; for, if a second offered a more valuable commodity for what they had to fell, they would not consent, but made signs (which could not be mistaken.) that the first should pay the price offered by the second, on which the bargain would be closed. They did not entertain

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the least idea of accepting presents; for on my giving them some beads, medals, iron, &c. they instantly offered their garments in return, and seemed much astonished, and I believe not less pleased, that I chose to decline them. The first man, in particular, gave me some trouble to persuade him that he was to retain both the trinkets and his garment.

Wednes. 25.

We remained in this situation until near midnight, when a light breeze springing up from the S. S. E. attended with some rain and dark gloomy weather, we weighed and stood to and fro until day-light; when we directed our course round the group of rock, lying off cape Orford, comprehending four detached rocky islets, with several dangerous sunken rocks about them, on which the sea broke with great violence: the outermost of these lies from the Cane. S 38 W., distant about 4 miles; we passed close to the breakers in soundings of 45 fathoms, black sandy bottom. Cape Orford, which is situated in, latitude 42° 52′, longitude 235° 35′, at the extremity of a low pring tract of land, forms a very conspicuous point, and bear the same appearance whether approached from the north or the south. It is covered with wood as low down as the surf will permit it to grow. The space between the woods and the wash of the sea, seemed composed of black craggy rocks, and may from the mast head be seen at the distance of 7 or 8 leagues; but I should suppose not much further. Some of us were of opinion that this was the cape Blanco of Martin D'Aguilar; its latitude, however, differed greatly from that in which cape Blanco is placed by that navigator: and its dark appearance, which might probably be occasioned by the haziness of weather, did not seem to intitle it to the appellation of cape Blanco. North of this Cape, the coast takes a direction about N. 13 E.; and south of it towards St. George, S. 18 E.

The rocky islets which we had seen in such numbers along the shore, ceased to exist about a league to the north of cape Orford; and in their stead, an almost strait sandy beach presented itself, with land behind gradually rising to a moderate height near the coast; but the interior was considerably elevated, and much diversified both by its eminences and productions, being generally well wooded, though frequently interrupted

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with intervals of clear spots, which gave it some resemblance to a country in an advanced state of cultivation.

The weather having become more clear and pleasant at noon, cape Orford was visible astern nearly in the horizon, bearing by compass S. 11 E. 5 leagues distant; the nearest shore about a league distant east; a small projecting point, forming the north point of a small cove off which lie five detached rocks, N. 23 E., distance 7 miles: and the northernmost; land in sight, which I considered to be cape Blanco, N. 2 E.: the observed latitude was 43° 6′; longitude 235° 42′; and the variation 16° eastwardly.

Having now a fine gale from the S.S.W. with serene and pleasant weather, we ranged along the coast at the distance of about a league, in hopes of determining the existence or non-existence of the extensive river or straits, asserted to have been discovered by Martin D'Aguilar. About three in the afternoon we passed within a league of the Cape above-mentioned; and at about half that distance from some breakers that lie to the westward of it. This Cape, though not so projecting a point as cape Orford, is nevertheless a conspicuous one, particularly when seen from the north, being formed by a round hill on high perpendicular cliffs, some of which are white, a considerable height from the level of the sea. Above these cliffs it is tolerably well wooded, and is connected to the main land, by land considerably lower. In this respect it seemed exactly to answer Captain Cook's description of cape Gregory; though its situation did not appear to correspond with that assigned to cape Gregory by Captain Cook; our observations placing it in latitude 43° 23′; longitude 235° 50′; whence the coast tends N. 21 E. About a league north of the pitch of the Cape, the rocky cliffs composing it terminate, and a compact white sandy beach commences, which extends along the coast 8 leagues, without forming any visible projecting point or head land. We failed along this beach at a distance of from 3 to 5 miles, and had there been any projecting point or inlet in it, neither could have escaped our observation. This induced me to consider the above point as the cape Gregory of Captain Cook, with a probability of its being also the cape Blanco of D'Aguilar, if land hereabouts the latter ever saw. The

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difference in latitude between our computation and that of Captain Cook was 7′; our observations placing the Cape that distance farther south. This might possibly have been occasioned by the tempestuous weather with which the Resolution and Discovery contended when off this coast, preventing the position of the several head lands being then ascertained with that accuracy, which the lair winds and pleasant weather have enabled us to assign to them. The land seen to the south of cape Gregory by Captain Cook, and by him considered as answering nearly to the situation of cape Blanco, must have been some of the inland mountains which to the south of cape Gregory rile to a great height; whilst the land near the sea shore, particularly in the neighbourhood of cape Orford, was much too low to have been seen at the distance which Captain Cook was at that time from it; and it is fair to presume, that the excessive bad weather led Captain Cook and his officers to confider the extremely white land on the sea shore and on the hills to be snow. With us it put on the same appearance, excepting where it was interrupted by the clumps of trees, and until it was intirely lost in the sorest. There could be no doubt of its being mistaken in winter for snow; but as the general temperature of the thermometer since our arrival on the coast had been at 59 and 60, the error of such conclusion was sufficiently manifested.

Thurs. 26.

The night was spent as before; and in t' morning we failed along the coast, which extended from S. E. by S. to N.½ E.; the land we hauled off from the preceding evening, S.40 E. or. 4 or 5 leagues; and the nearest shore east, six or seven miles distant. A considerable increase in the wind from the S.W. with appearances of a threatening nature, made me consider it not prudent to venture nearer than within 2 or 3 leagues of the shore; which being greatly obscured by the haziness of the atmosphere, prevented out seeing much of the inland country. We lost fight again of the sandy beaches and low shores, and in lieu of them we were presented with a strait and compact coast, composed of sleep craggy rocky cliffs, nearly perpendicular to the lea, with a retired mountainous country much broken, and forming a great variety of deep chasms; the whole but thinly covered with wood. At eight we passed the only projecting point from cape Gregory. It is a high rocky bluff, nearly perpendicular to

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the sea; against it the billows, that now ran very high, broke with immense violence. This promontory I considered to be that which Captain Cook calls cape Perpetua; our observations placing it in latitude 44° 12′, longitude 236° 5′. From hence the coast takes a north direction, which we ranged along at the distance of about 3 leagues from the shore, until towards noon; when having nearly reached the northern extent of the coast hereabout seen by Captain Cook, and the gale still increasing, we close-reefed the topsails and hauled off shore, until the weather should prove more favorable to the examination of an unknown coast. Cape Foulweather at this time bore by compass N. 42 E. 3 or 4 leagues distant, and the coast indistinctly seen, from N. by E. to S.E. by S. The observed latitude 44° 42′, longitude 235° 53′, and the variation 18° eastwardly.

The gale having a little abated, veered to the south; and the haze clearing away from the land we again pursued our route, and in the afternoon passed cape Foulweather, which is a conspicuous promontory, almost as singular in its appearance as any we had seen along the coast. A high round bluff point projects abruptly into the sea; a remarkable table hill is situated to the north, and a lower round bluff to the south of it. Our observations placed this Cape in latitude 44° 49′, longitude 236° 4′.

From cape Foulweather the coast takes a direction a little to the eastward of north, and is nearly a strait and compact shore, considerably elevated, and in general steep to the sea. The face of the country is much chequered, in some places covered with a pleasing verdure, in others occupied by barren rocks and sand; but in none very thickly wooded.

Sun-set brought us in fight of that part of the coast which had been seen by Mr. Mears; its northern extremity in fight bore by compass N. ½ W.; cape Look-out N. 10 E.; the nearest shore N.34 E. about a league distant. This, being a remarkably steep bluff cliff, flattered us for some time with an appearance like the entrance of an harbour; but on a nearer approach the deception was sound to have been occasioned by the low land to the north of the bluff forming a very shallow open bay;

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the southernmost land in fight bore S.S.E.; in this situation we had 50 fathoms of water, black sandy bottom.

The night, which was tolerably fair, was spent as usual in preserving our station until day-light, when we pursued our examination along the coast with a favorable breeze, attended with some passing showers. Cape Look-out then bore by compass east, about 2 leagues distant. This Cape forms only a small projecting point, yet it is remarkable for the four rocks which lie off from it; one of which is perforated, as described by Mr, Mears; and excepting a rock passed the preceding afternoon, these were the first we had seen north of cape Gregory.

From cape Look-out, which is situated in latitude 45° 32′, longitude 236° 11′, the coast takes a direction about N. 8 W. and is pleasingly diversified with eminences and small hills near the sea shore, in which are some shallow sandy bays, with a few detached rocks lying about a mile from the land. The more inland country is considerably elevated; the mountains stretch towards the sea, and at a distance appeared to form many inlets and projecting points; but the sandy beach that continued along the coast renders it a compact shore, now and then interrupted by perpendicular rocky cliffs, on which the surf violently breaks. This mountainous inland country extends about 10 leagues to the north from cape Look-out, where it descends suddenly to a moderate height; and had it been destitute of its timber, which seemed of considerable magnitude and to compose an intire sorest, it might be deemed low land. Noon brought us up with a very conspicuous point of land composed of a cluster of hummocks, moderately high, and projecting into the sea from the low land before mentioned. These hummocks are barren, and steep near the sea, but their tops thinly covered with wood. On the south side of this promontory was the appearance of an inlet, or small river, the land behind not indicating it to be of any great extent; nor did it seem accessible for vessels of our burthen, as the breakers extended from the above point 2 or 3 miles into the ocean, until they joined those on the beach nearly 4 leagues further south. On reference to Mr. Mears's description of the coast south of this promontory, I was at first induced to believe it to be cape Shoalwater, but on ascertaining its latitude, I presumed it to be

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that which he calls cape Disappointment; and the opening to the south of it. Deception bay. This Cape was sound to be in latitude 46° 19′, longitude 236° 6′.

The sea had now changed from its natural, to river coloured water; the probable consequence of some streams falling into the bay, or into the ocean to the north of it, through the low land. Not considering this opening worthy of more attention, I continued our pursuit to the N.W. being desirous to embrace the advantages of the now prevailing breeze and pleasant weather, so favorable to our examination of the coast, which now took a direction N. 12 W.; the latitude at this time was 46° 14′; longitude 236° 1½′; and the variation of the compass 18° eastwardly. In this situation we had soundings at the depth of 33 fathoms, black sandy bottom; the northernmost land seen from the deck bore by compass north; the promontory of cape Disappointment, from N. 14 E. to N. 32 E.; this, the nearest shore, was about 2 leagues distant; and the southernmost land in fight bore S. E. by S.

The country now before us presented a most luxuriant landscape, and was probably not a little heightened in beauty by the weather that prevailed. The more interior parts were somewhat elevated, and agreeably diversified with hills, from which it gradually descended to the shore, and terminated in a sandy beach. The whole had the appearance of a continued sorest extending as far north as the eye could reach, which made me very solicitous to find a port in the vicinity of a country presenting so delightful a prospect of fertility; our attention was therefore earnestly directed to this object, but the sandy beach bounded by breakers extending 3 or 4 miles into the sea, seemed to be completely inaccessible until about four in the afternoon, when the appearance of a tolerably good bay presented itself. For this we steered, in the hope of finding a division in the reef, through which, should admittance be gained, there was great reason to expect a well sheltered anchorage; but on approaching within 2 or 3 miles of the breakers, we found them produced by a compact reef, extending from a low projecting point of land along the shores to the southward, until they joined the beach to the north of cape Disappointment. This projecting point is somewhat more elevated than

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the rest of the coast, and is situated in latitude 46° 40′; longitude 236°. Not a little disappointed, we resumed our route along the shores of this pleasant country. The projecting point, at six, bore by compass N. 10 E.; the center of the bay, and the nearest part of the reef in a line N. 69 E.; distant from the former about 7, and from the latter, about 3 miles. Immediately within the point, the interior country is more elevated than to the north or south of it; rising in gradual ascent to land of a moderate height. In respect of latitude, this point answered nearly to Mr. Mears's cape Shoalwater; but, from his description of the adjacent country, it should rather appear to be his Low Point; and the bay we endeavoured to enter to the south of it, Shoalwater bay; as in it there appeared two openings, the one taking a northerly, and the other an eastwardly direction. Mr. Mears likewise states, "that, with their glasses, they traced the line of the coast to the south of cape Shoalwater, which presented no opening that promised like an harbour;" those to the south of both these points flattered our expectations, until the breakers, extending across each of them, gave us reason to consider them inaccessible, and unworthy any loss of time whilst accompanied by so favorable a breeze. At sun-set we again shortened sail, and as usual, hauled our wind to preserve our station until the morning. Our soundings were from 24 to 43 fathoms, dark brown sandy bottom. It was calm for a few hours during the evening and night, with a heavy fall of rain.

Saturday 28.

The next morning at four o'clock, with a light breeze at E.S.E. we again steered in for the land, and sound that we had been materially affected by a northern current. The land we had been abreast of the preceding evening, now bore by compass S. E. 6 or 7 leagues distant; and the coast; to the north of it still continuing to appear a strait and compact shore, I did not attempt gaining a nearer view, but passed on to the northward, keeping at about a league from the land which now took an almost north direction, to a point that, after the Right Honorable Lord Grenville, I named POINT GRENVILLE, situated in latitude 47° 22′, longitude 235° 58′½; whence the coast tends N.N.W. Lying off point Grenville are three small rocky islets, one of which, like that at cape Look-out, is perforated.

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From hence, as we proceeded to the north, the coast began to increase regularly in height, and the inland country, behind the low land bordering on the sea shore, acquired a considerable degree of elevation. The shores we passed this morning, differed in some respects from those we had hitherto seen. They were composed of low cliffs rising perpendicularly from a beach of sand or small stones; had many detached rocks of various romantic forms lying at the distance of about a mile, with regular soundings, between 16 and 19 fathoms, soft sandy bottom. Noon brought us in fight of land, which was considered to be that named by Mr. Barclay, Destruction island; bearing by compass from N. 14 W. to N. 17 W.; the southernmost land in fight, S. 53 E.; the northernmost N.36 W.; and the nearest shore N.65 E. at the distance of about 4 miles; in this situation our observed latitude was 47° 30′, longitude 235° 49′, and the variation of the compass 18° eastwardly.

In the afternoon the wind we had been so happily favored with died away, and was succeeded by calms and light variable breezes. These, with a current or tide setting rapidly in shore, obliged us to anchor in 21 fathoms, on a bottom of soft sand and mud: the coast, which now formed a strait and compact shore, bore by compass from N. 30 W. to S. 49 E.; the nearest part of the main land, east, about five miles; Destruction island, being the nearest shore, N. 5 E. to N. 5 W. about a league distant; and some breakers extending from its north point N. 8 W.

This island is situated in latitude 47° 37′; longitude 235° 49′; and is, by far, the largest detached land yet observed on the coast. It is about a league in circuit, low, and nearly flat on the top, presenting a very barren aspect, and producing only one or two dwarf trees at each end. A canoe or two were seen paddling near the island. It was a fact not less singular than worthy observation. that, on the whole extensive coast of New Albion, and more particularly in the vicinity of those fertile and delightful shores we had lately passed, we had not, excepting to the southward of cape Orford and at this place, seen any inhabitants, or met with any circumstances, that in the most distant manner indicated a probability of the country being inhabited.

The serenity of the weather, although very pleasant, was rendered

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*Vide Mr. Dalrymple's plan for promoting the fur trade, &c. p. 21, 1789.

excessively irksome by the want of wind; our progress was slow, and our curiosity was much excited to explore the promised expansive mediterranean ocean, which, by various accounts, is said to have existence in these regions. The several large rivers and capacious inlets, that have been described as discharging their contents into the pacific, between the 40th and 48th degree of north latitude, were reduced to brooks, insufficient for our vessels to navigate, or to bays, inapplicable as harbours, for refitting; excepting that one of which Mr. Dalrymple informs us, that "it is alledged that the Spaniards have recently found an entrance in the latitude of 47° 45′ north, which in 27 days course brought them to the vicinity of Hudson's bay; this latitude exactly corresponds to the ancient relation of John De Fuca, the Greek pilot, in 1592."* This inlet could be now only ten miles from us; and another that had been visited by Mr. Mears and other traders on the coast, was not more than 20 leagues distant. We had been extremely fortunate in the favorable winds that had attended us along this coast, and their absence at this juncture made us impatient for their return. Our anxiety was, however, of no long duration; as by three o'clock on sunday morning we were indulged with a pleasant breeze, with which at day-light we weighed and stood along the shore to the N. W. Whilst at anchor we found a constant current, without intermission, setting in the line of the coast to the northward, at an uniform rate of near half a league per hour. Since we had passed cape Orford, we had been regularly thus affected, and carried further to the north by 10 or 12 miles per day than we expected.

At four o'clock, a fail was discovered to the westward standing in shore. This was a very great novelty, not having seen any vessel but our consort, during the last eight months. She soon hoisted American colours, and fired a gun to leeward. At six we spoke her. She proved to be the ship Columbia, commanded by Mr. Robert Gray, belonging to Boston, whence she had been absent nineteen months. Having little doubt of his being the same person who had formerly commanded the sloop Washington, I desired he would bring to, and sent Mr. Puget and Mr. Men-

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zies on board to acquire such information as might be serviceable in our future operations.

The most remarkable mountain we had seen on the coast of New Albion, now presented itself Its summit, covered with eternal snow, was divided into a very elegant double fork, and rose conspicuously from a base of lofty mountains clothed in the same manner, which descended gradually to hills of a moderate height, and terminated like that we had seen the preceding day, in low cliffs falling perpendicularly on a sandy beach; off which were scattered many rocks and rocky islets of various forms and sizes. This was generally considered, though it was not confirmed by its latitude, to be the mount Olympus of Mr. Mears; it being the only conspicuous mountain we had observed on the part of the coast he had visited. Mount Olympus is placed in latitude 47° 10′; whereas our latitude now was 47° 38′: and as this mountain bore N.55 E. it must consequently be to the north of us; although we were unable to determine its precise situation, by the thick hazy weather which shortly succeeded.

On the return of the boat, we found our conjectures had not been ill grounded, that this was the same gentleman who had commanded the sloop Washington at the time, we are informed, the had made a very singular voyage behind Nootka. It was not a little remarkable that, on our approach to the entrance of this inland sea, we should fall in with the identical person who, it had been stated, had failed through it. His relation, however, differed very materially from that published in England. It is not possible to conceive any one to be more astonished than was Mr. Gray, on his being made acquainted, that his authority had been quoted, and the track pointed out that he had been said to have made in the sloop Washington. In contradiction to which, he assured the officers, that he had penetrated only 50 miles into the straits in question, in an E.S.E. direction; that he sound the passage 5 leagues wide; and that he understood, from the natives, that the opening extended a considerable distance to the northward; that this was all the information he had acquired respecting this inland sea, and that he returned into the ocean by the same way he had entered at. The inlet he sup-

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posed to be the same that De Fuca had discovered, which opinion seemed to be universally received by all the modern visitors. He likewise informed them of his having been off the mouth of a river in the latitude of 46° 10′, where the outset, or reflux, was so strong as to prevent his entering for nine days. This was, probably, the opening passed by us on the forenoon of the 27th; and was, apparently, inaccessible, not from the current, but from the breakers that extended across it. He had also entered another inlet to the northward, in latitude 54°½; in which he had failed to the latitude of 56°, without discovering its termination. The south point of entrance into De Fuca's streights he stated to be in 48° 24′, and conceived our distance from it to be about 8 leagues. The last winter he had spent in port Cox, or, as the natives call it, Clayoquot, from whence he had sailed but a few days. During the winter he had built a small vessel, in which he had dispatched a mate and ten men to barter for furs on Queen Charlotte's islands, and was himself now commencing his summer's trade along the coast to the southward. Whilst he remained at Clayoquot, Wicananish, the chief of that district, had concerted a plan to capture his ship, by bribing a native of Owhyhee, whom Mr. Gray had with him, to wet the priming of all the fire-arms on board, which were constantly kept loaded; upon which the chief would easily have overpowered the ship's crew, by a number of daring Indians who were assembled for that purpose. This project was happily discovered, and the Americans being on their guard the fatal effects of the enterprize were prevented.

Having obtained this information, our course was again directed along the coast to the northward. It continued to increase in height as we advanced, with numberless detached rocky islets, amongst which were many sunken rocks, extending in some places a league from the shore. As we passed the outermost of these rocks at the distance of a mile, we plainly distinguished the south point of entrance into De Fuca's straits, bearing by compass N. 8 W.: the opposite side of the straits, though indistinctly seen in consequence of the haze, plainly indicated an opening of considerable extent. The thick rainy weather permitted us to see little of the country, yet we were enabled to ascertain that this coast,

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like that which we had hitherto explored from cape Mendocino, was firm and compact, without any opening into the mediterranean sea, as stated in latitude 47° 45′; or the least appearance of a safe or secure harbour, either in that latitude, or, from it southward to cape Mendocino; notwithstanding that, in that space, geographers have thought it expedient to furnish many. Those, however, who from such ideal reports may be induced to navigate, in the confidence of meeting such resorts for shelter or refreshment, will, it is greatly to be apprehended, be led into considerable error, and experience like myself no small degree of mortification.

We now saw several villages scattered along the shore, whose inhabitants came off for the purpose, as we supposed, of trading; as the Columbia brought to for a short time, and again made all the fail the could after us; which led us to conjecture, that Mr. Gray had not been perfectly satisfied with the account given by our officers, and suspected that our object was of a commercial nature like his own, as he had informed our gentlemen that he was immediately going a considerable way to the southward. We were, at this time, within 2 or 3 miles of the shore; the wind blew a fresh gale, attended with thick rainy weather from the E.S.E. But as it was favorable for entering this inlet, we were eager to embrace the opportunity it afforded, and shortened sail that the Chatham might take the lead. About noon, we reached its south entrance, which I understand the natives distinguish by the name of Classet*; it is a projecting and conspicuous promontory; and bore, by compass, from N. 56 E. to N. 39 E., distant from its nearest part about two miles. Tatooche's island, united to the promontory by a ledge of rocks over which the sea violently breaks, bore N. 17 E. to N. 30 E.; and the rock lying off the island, as described by Mr. Duncan in his excellent sketch of the entrance into this inlet, N. 14 E. In the latitude, however, there appears to be an error of 10 miles; which, from Mr. Duncan's accuracy in other respects, I was induced to attribute to the press. The south entrance is by him stated to be in 48° 37′; whereas, by our run, and making every allowance, we could not place it so far north as Mr. Gray. No great violence of tide was experienced; nor did we observe

*Cape Flattery.

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the Pinnacle rock, as represented by Mr. Mears and Mr. Dalrymple, in order to identify these as De Fuca's straits, or any other rock more conspicuous than thousands along the coast, varying in form and size; some conical, others with flat sides, flat tops, and almost every other shape that can be figured by the imagination.

We followed the Chatham between Tatooche's island and the rock, hauling to the eastward along the southern shore of the supposed straits of De Fuca. This rock, which rises just above the surface of the water, and over which the surf breaks with great violence, I called ROCK DUNCAN, in commemoration of that gentleman's discovery. It is situated, as he represents, about N. 20 E., nearly half a league from Tatooche's island; forming a passage, to all appearance, perfectly clear. The island of Tatooche is of an oblong shape, lying nearly in a N.W. and S.E. direction, about half a league in circuit, bearing a verdant and fertile appearance, without any trees. On the east side is a cove which nearly divides the island into two parts; the upper part of the cliff in the center of the cove, had the appearance of having been separated by art for the protection or conveniency of the village there situated; and has a communication from cliff to cliff above the houses of the village by a bridge or causeway, over which the inhabitants were seen passing and repassing. On the beach were seen several canoes, and some of them would most probably have visited us, had we thought proper to shorten sail. This promontory, though not greatly elevated, rises very abruptly from the sea in steep barren cliffs; above these it seems well wooded; but the badness of the weather that obscured the adjacent country, prevented also our ascertaining its situation. From the north-west part of Tatooche's island, which bears from the north point of the promontory of Claffet N. 79 w, distant about two miles, the exterior coast takes a direction nearly south about 10 leagues; where, as we passed, I anxiously looked out for the point which Captain Cook had distinguished by the name of Cape Flattery, of which I could not be completely satisfied, on account of the difference in latitude. A shallow bay, however, does extend about 3 leagues to the southward of Classet, which falls some distance back from the general line of the coast; and the base of the in-

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land mountains which project there, and form deep ravines, present at distance the appearance of a safe and secure port; but, on a nearer approach, the whole was found firmly connected by a sandy beach. This, most probably, is the bay which the Resolution and Discovery stood into; and Classet is the point, with an island lying off it, which Captain Cook called cape Flattery. The difference in latitude, (if Mr. Gray is correct, who has passed it several times, and always made it nearly the same,) may have been occasioned by a current similar to that which we had lately experienced along the coast; affecting the Resolution in the same manner, between noon, when their latitude was observed, and late in the evening, when Captain Cook hauled off the coast.

As we proceeded along the shore, we passed the village of Classet, which is situated about two miles within the Cape, and has die appearance of being extensive and populous. As the fresh southwardly wind became much moderated by the intervention of the high land we were now under, some of the inhabitants found no difficulty in visiting us; this they did in a very civil, orderly, and friendly manner, requesting permission before they attempted to enter the ship; and on receiving some presents, with assurances of our friendship, they very politely and earnestly solicited us to stop at their village. The situation of the anchorage however being much exposed, and wishing for some snug port where, with ease and convenience, the various necessary services we now required might be performed, I declined their very cordial invitation, and directed our course up the inlet, entertaining no doubt that we should soon be enabled to accommodate ourselves with a more advantageous station.

The few natives who came off resembled, in most respects, the people of Nootka. Their persons, garments, and behaviour, arc very similar; some difference was observed in their ornaments, particularly in those worn at the nose; for instead of the crescent, generally adopted by the inhabitants of Nootka, these wore strait pieces of bone. Their canoes, arms, and implements, were exactly the same. They spoke the same language, but did not approach us with the formality observed by those people on visiting the Resolution and Discovery; which may probably be owing to their having become more familiar with strangers,

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The wind veering to the S. E. obliged us to turn up along shore on the southern side of the straits, which, from cape Classet, takes a direction S.70 E. About two miles within the village we passed a small open bay, with a little island lying off its eastern side, apparently too insignificant to answer our purpose of resitting. The weather becoming more unpleasant as the day advanced; at seven in the evening we came to anchor in 23 fathoms water, on a bottom of black sand and mud, about a mile from the shore.

I now became acquainted that after we had passed within Tatooche's island a rock was noticed, and supposed to be that represented as De Fuca's pinnacle rock; this however was visible only for a few minutes, from its being close to the shore of the main land, instead of lying in the entrance of the straits; nor did it correspond with that which has been so described.

It was somewhat remarkable, that although we rode all night by the wind, the Chatham, though anchored not a quarter of a mile in shore of us, rode to a regular six hours tide, running near half a league per hour; and, by the appearance of the shores, the ebb and flow seemed to have been very considerable.

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CHAPTER IV.

Proceed up the Straits—Anchor under New Dungeness—Remarks on the coast of New Albion—Arrive in port Discovery—Transactions there—Boat excursion—Quit port Discovery—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1792. April. Monday 30.

THE evening of the 29th brought us to an anchor in very thick rainy weather, about 8 miles within the entrance on the southern shore of the supposed straits of De Fuca. The following morning, a gentle breeze sprang up from the N.W. attended with clear and pleasant weather, which presented to our view this renowned inlet. Its southern shores were seen to extend, by compass, from N. 83 W. to E.; the former being the small island we had passed the preceding afternoon, which lying about half a mile from the main land, was about 4 miles distant from us: its northern shore extends from N. 68 W. to N. 73 E.; the nearest point of it, distant about 3 leagues, bore N. 15 W. We weighed anchor with a favorable wind, and steered to the east along the southern shore, at the distance of about two miles, having an uninterrupted horizon between east and N. 73 E. The shores on each side the straits are of a moderate height; and the delightful serenity of the weather permitted our seeing this inlet to great advantage. The shores on the south side are composed of low sandy cliffs, falling perpendicularly on beaches of sand or stones. From the top of these cliffy eminences, the land appeared to take a further gentle moderate ascent, and was intirely covered with trees chiefly of the pine tribe, until the forest reached a range of high craggy mountains, which seemed to rise from the wood-land country in a very abrupt

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manner, with a few scattered trees on their steril sides, and their summits covered with snow. The northern shore did not appear quite so high: it rose more gradually from the sea-side to the tops of the mountains, which had the appearance of a compact range, infinitely more uniform, and much less covered with snow, than those on the southern side.

Our latitude, at noon, was 48° 19′; longitude 236° 19′; and the variation of the compass 18° eastwardly. In this situation, the northern shore extended by compass from N. 82 W. to N. 51 E.; between the latter, and the eastern extremity of the southern shore, bearing N. 88 E., we stad still an unbounded horizon; whilst the island before mentioned, continuing to form the west extremity of the southern shore. bore S. 84 W. By these observations, which I have great reason to believe were correctly taken, the north promontory of Classet is situated in latitude 48° 23′½; longitude 235° 38′. The smoothness of the sea, and clearness of the sky, enabled us to take several sets of lunar distances, which gave the longitude to the eastward of the chronometer, and served to confirm our former observations, that it was gaining very materially on the rate as settled at Otaheite. As the day advanced, the wind, which as well as the weather was delightfully pleasant, accelerated our progress along the shore. This seemed to indicate a speedy termination to the inlet; as high land now began to appear just rising from that horizon, which, a few hours before, we had considered to be unlimited. Every new appearance, as we proceeded, furnished new conjectures; the whole was not visibly connected; it might form a cluster of islands separated by large arms of the sea, or be united by land not sufficiently high to be yet discernible. About five in the afternoon, a long, low, sandy point of land was observed projecting from the cliffy shores into the sea, behind which was seen the appearance of a well-sheltered bay, and, a little to the S.E. of it, an opening in the land, promising a safe and extensive port. About this time a very high conspicuous craggy mountain, bearing by compass N. 50 E. presented itself, towering above the clouds: as low down as they allowed it to be visible it was covered with snow; and south of it, was a long ridge of very rugged snowy moun-

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tains, much less elevated, which seemed to stretch to a considerable distance.

As my intention was to anchor for the night under the low point, the necessary signals were made to the Chatham; and at seven we hauled round it, at the distance of about a mile. This was, however, too near, as we soon sound ourselves in 3 fathoms water; but, on steering about half a mile to the north, the depth increased to 10 fathoms, and we rounded the shallow spit, which, though not very conspicuous, is shewn by the tide causing a considerable rippling over it. Having turned up a little way into the bay, we anchored on a bottom of soft sand and mud in 14 fathoms water. The low sandy point of land, which from its great resemblance to Dungeness in the British channel I called NEW DUNGENESS, bore by compass N. 41 W. about 3 miles distant, from whence the low projecting land extends until it reaches a bluff cliff of a moderate height, bearing from us S. 60 W. about a league distant. From this station the shores bore the same appearance as those we had passed in the morning, composing one intire forest. The snowy mountains of the inland country were, however, neither so high nor so rugged, and were further removed from the sea shore. The nearest parts bore by compass from us, south about half a league off; the apparent port S. 50 E. about 2 leagues; and the south point of an inlet, seemingly very capacious, S. 85 E.; with land appearing like an island, moderately elevated, lying before its entrance, from S. 85 E. to N. 87 E.; and the S.E. extremity of that which now appeared to be the southern shore, N. 71 E. From this direction round by the north and N.W. the high distant land formed, as already observed, like detached islands, amongst which the lofty mountain, discovered in the afternoon by the third lieutenant, and in compliment to him called by me MOUNT BAKER, rose a very conspicuous object bearing by compass N.43 E., apparently at a very remote distance. A small Indian village was near us on the south side of the bay, but we had not yet been visited by any of the inhabitants. We had now advanced further up this inlet than Mr. Gray, or (to our knowledge) any other person from the civilized world; although it should hereafter be proved to be the same which is said to have been entered by

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De Fuca, in support of which, oral testimony is the only authority produced; a tradition rendered still more doubtful by its entrance differing at least 40′ in latitude.

Considering ourselves now on the point of commencing an examination of an intirely new region, I cannot take leave of the coast already known, without obtruding a short remark on that part of the continent, comprehending a space of nearly 215 leagues, on which our inquiries had been lately employed under the most fortunate and favorable circumstances of wind and weather. So minutely had this extensive coast been inspected, that the surf had been constantly seen to break on its shores from the mast-head; and it was but in a few small intervals only, where our distance precluded its being visible from the deck. Whenever the weather prevented our making free with the shore, or on our hauling off for the night, the return of fine weather and of day-light uniformly brought us, if not to the identical spot we had departed from, at least within a few miles of it, and never beyond the northern limits of the coast which we had previously seen. An examination so directed, and circumstances happily concurring to permit its being so executed, afforded the most complete opportunity of determining its various turnings and windings; as also the position of all its conspicuous points, ascertained by meridional altitudes for the latitude, and observations for the chronometer, which we had the good fortune to make constantly once, and in general twice every day, the preceding one only excepted.

It must be considered as a very singular circumstance that, in so great an extent of sea coast, we should not until now have seen the appearance of any opening in its shores, which presented any certain prospect of affording shelter: the whole coast forming one compact, solid, and nearly strait barrier against the sea.

The river Mr. Gray mentioned, should, from the latitude he assigned to it, have existence in the bay, south of cape Disappointment. This we passed on the forenoon of the 27th; and, as I then observed, if any inlet or river should be sound, it must be a very intricate one, and inaccessible to vessels of our burthen, owing to the reefs and broken water which then appeared in its neighbourhood. Mr. Gray stated, that he had been several days attempting to enter it,

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which at length he was unable to effect in consequence of a very strong outset. This is a phenomenon difficult to account for, as, in most cases where there are outlets of such strength on a sea coast, there are corresponding tides setting in. Be that however as it may, I was thoroughly convinced, as were also most persons of observation on board, that we could not possibly have passed any safe navigable opening, harbour, or place of security for shipping on this coast, from cape Mendocino to the promontory of Classet; nor had we any reason to alter our opinions, notwithstanding that theoretical geographers have thought proper to assert, in that space, the existence of arms of the ocean, communicating with a mediterranean sea, and extensive rivers, with safe and convenient ports. These ideas, not derived from any source of substantial information, have, it is much to be feared, been adopted for the sole purpose of giving unlimited credit to the traditionary exploits of ancient foreigners, and to undervalue the laborious and enterprizing exertions of our own countrymen, in the noble science of discovery.

Since the vision of the southern continent, (from which the Incas of Peru are said to have originated,) has vanished; the pretended discoveries of De Fuca and De Fonte have been revived, in order to prove the existence of a north-west passage. These have been supported by the recent concurring opinions of modern traders, one of whom is said to conceive, that an opening still further to the north is that which De Fuca entered. Under this assertion, should any opening further to the northward be discovered leading to a N.W. passage, the merit of such discovery will necessarily be ascribed to De Fuca, De Fonte, or some other favorite voyager of these closet philosophers.

May. Tuesday

The preceding evening brought us to an anchor under New Dungeness. Our May-day was ushered in by a morning of the most delightfully pleasant weather, affording us, from the broken appearance of the coast before us, the prospect of soon reaching a safe and commodious harbour. Indeed, our present situation was far from ineligible, as it promised to admit us as near the shore as we might think proper to take our station, Mr. Whidbey was therefore dispatched in the cutter, to found, and search for fresh water.

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The appearance of the huts we now saw, indicated the residence of the natives in them to be of a temporary nature only; as we could perceive with our glasses, that they differed very materially from the habitations of any of the American Indians we had before seen, being composed of nothing more than a few mats thrown over cross sticks; whereas those we had passed the preceding day, in two or three small villages to the eastward of Classet, were built exactly after the fashion of the houses erected at Nootka*. The inhabitants seemed to view us with the utmost indifference and unconcern; they continued to fish before their huts as regardless of our being present, as if such vessels had been familiar to them, and unworthy of their attention. On the low land of New Dungeness were erected perpendicularly, and seemingly with much regularity, a number of very tall strait poles, like flag-staves or beacons, supported from the ground by spurs. Their first appearance induced an opinion of their being intended as the uprights for stages on which they might dry their fish; but this, on a nearer view, seemed improbable, as their height and distance from each other would have required spars of a greater size to reach from one to the other, than the substance of the poles was capable of sustaining. They were, undoubtedly, intended to answer some particular purpose; but whether of a religious, civil, or military nature, must be left to some future investigation.

Mr. Whidbey found from 10 to 3 fathoms water close to the shore. He landed at the upper part of the bay, but could not find any water; nor did he see the appearance of any along the shore near the habitations of the Indians, who remained, as before described, or fishing on the water, without paying any more attention to the cutter, than if she had been one of their own canoes.

On receiving this report, the Chatham's cutter, with the Discovery's yawl and cutter, were ordered to be armed and supplied with a day's provision; with which we sat off to examine the two apparent openings nearest to us. We found the surface of the sea almost covered with aquatic birds of various kinds, but all so extremely shy that our sportsmen were unable to reach them with their guns, although they made many attempts. The first opening to the S. E. appeared to be formed

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by two high bluffs; the elevated land within them seemingly at a considerable distance. It proved, however, to be a close and compact shore, the apparent vacant space being occupied by a very low sandy beach, off which extended a flat of very shallow soundings. From hence we made the best of our way for land, appearing like an island, off the other supposed opening; from whose summit, which seemed easy of access, there was little doubt of our ascertaining whether the coast afforded any port within reach of the day's excursion. On landing on the west end of the supposed island, and ascending its eminence which was nearly a perpendicular cliff, our attention was immediately called to a landscape, almost as enchantingly beautiful as the most elegantly finished pleasure grounds in Europe. From the height we were now upon, our conjectures of this land being an island situated before the entrance of an opening in the main land were confirmed. The summit of this island presented nearly a horizontal surface, interspersed with some inequalities of ground, which produced a beautiful variety on an extensive lawn covered with luxuriant grass, and diversified with an abundance of flowers. To the northwestward was a coppice of pine trees and shrubs of various sorts, that seemed as if it had been planted for the sole purpose of protecting from the N.W. winds this delightful meadow, over which were promiscuously scattered a few clumps of trees, that would have puzzled the most ingenious designer of pleasure grounds to have arranged more agreeably. Whilst we stopped to contemplate these several beauties of nature, in a prospect no less pleasing than unexpected, we gathered some gooseberries and roses in a state of considerable forwardness. Casting our eyes along the shore we had the satisfaction of seeing it much broken, and forming to all appearance many navigable inlets. The inlet now before us did not seem so extensive, as we had reason to believe it to be from the ships; yet there was little doubt of its proving sufficiently secure and convenient for all our purposes. We therefore proceeded to its examination, and found its entrance to be about a league wide, having regular good soundings from 10 fathoms close to the shores, to 30, 35, and 38 fathoms in the middle, without any apparent danger from rocks or shoals. Fresh water, however, seemed hitherto a scarce commodity, and yet, from the general face of the country, a

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deficiency in this respect was not to be apprehended. The shores of the harbour were of a moderate height; its western side, bounded at no very great distance by a ridge of high craggy mountains covered with snow, were, as I conceived, connected with the mountain we took for mount Olympus. In quest of the only great object necessary for constituting this one of the finest harbours in the world, we prosecuted our researches; until almost: despairing of success, I suddenly fell in with an excellent stream of very fine water. The design of our excursion was thus happily accomplished; and, after taking some little refreshment, we returned towards the ships, and arrived on board about midnight, perfectly satisfied with the success of our expedition, and amply rewarded for our labour.

During my absence, some of the natives had been trading with the vessels in a very civil and friendly manner. They did not appear to understand the Nootka language; as those of our people who had some knowledge of it were by no means able to make themselves understood.

Wednes 2.

A light pleasant breeze springing up, we weighed on wednesday morning, and steered for the port we had discovered the preceding day, whose entrance about 4 leagues distant bore S. E. by E. The delightful serenity of the weather greatly aided the beautiful scenery that was now presented; the surface of the sea was perfectly smooth, and the country before us exhibited every thing that bounteous nature could be expected to draw into one point of view. As we had no reason to imagine that this country had ever been indebted for any of its decorations to the hand of man, I could not possibly believe that any uncultivated country had ever been discovered exhibiting so rich a picture. The land which interrupted the horizon between the N. W. and the northern quarters, seemed, as already mentioned, to be much broken; from whence its eastern extent round to the S. E. was bounded by a ridge of snowy mountains, appearing to lie nearly in a north and south direction, on which mount Baker rose conspicuously; remarkable for its height, and the snowy mountains that stretch from its base to the north and south. Between us and this snowy range, the land, which on the sea shore terminated like that we had lately passed, in low perpendicular cliffs, or on

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beaches of sand or stone, rose here in a very gentle ascent, and was well covered with a variety of stately forest trees. These, however, did not conceal the whole face of the country in one uninterrupted wilderness, but pleasingly clothed its eminences, and chequered the vallies; presenting, in many directions, extensive spaces that wore the appearance of having been cleared by art, like the beautiful island we had visited the day before. As we passed along the shore near one of these charming spots, the tracks of deer, or of some such animal, were very numerous, and flattered us with the hope of not wanting refreshments of that nature, whilst we remained in this quarter.

A picture so pleasing could not fail to call to our remembrance certain delightful and beloved situations in old England. Thus we proceeded, without meeting any obstruction to our progress; which, though not rapid, brought us before noon abreast: of the stream, that discharges its water from the western shore near 5 miles within the entrance of the harbour; which I distinguished by the name of PORT DISCOVERY, after the ship. There we moored, in 34 fathoms, muddy bottom, about a quarter of a mile from the shore.

The entrance of this harbour is formed by low projecting points, extending, on each side, from the high woodland cliffs which in general bound the coast; bearing by compass N. 48 W. to N. 54 W., in a line with two corresponding points from the island already described, lying off this harbour. Had this insular production of nature been designed by the most able engineer, it could not have been placed more happily for the protection of the port, not only from the N.W. winds to the violence of which it would otherwise be greatly exposed, but against all attempts of an enemy, when properly fortified; and hence I called it PROTECTION ISLAND.

The stream of water, near which we had taken a very convenient station, appeared to have its source at some distance from its outfal, through one of those low spits of sand already mentioned, which constitute most of the projecting points we had seen ever since our having entered this inlet. These usually acquire a form somewhat circular, though irregular; and, in general, are nearly steep to, extending from

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the cliffy woodland country, from one to six hundred yards towards the water's edge, and are composed of a loose sandy soil. The surface of some was almost intirely occupied by a lagoon of salt water, or brackish swamp; others were perfectly dry; no one of them produced any trees; but were mostly covered with a coarse spiry grass, interspersed with strawberries, two or three species of clover, samphire, and a great variety of other small plants; some of which bore very beautiful flowers. On a few of the points were some shrubs that seemed to thrive excessively; such as roses, a species of sweet briar, gooseberries, raspberries, currants, and several other smaller bushes, which, in their respective seasons, produce most probably the several fruits common to this and the opposite side of America. These all appeared to grow very luxuriantly; and, from the quantity of blossoms with which they were loaded, there was great reason to believe them very productive.

We had little trouble in clearing a sufficient space for our encampment, which was very commodiously situated close to the north side of the stream or brook. The tents, observatory, chronometers and instruments, guarded by a party of marines, were sent on shore after dinner; and, whilst they were properly arranging, I made a short excursion up the harbour. It extended nearly in a south direction, about four miles from the ship, and then terminated in a muddy flat across its head, about a quarter of a mile from the shore. The water, which was 7 fathoms deep close to the flat, gradually deepened to 10, 20, and 30 fathoms, good holding ground. On this bank were found some small indifferent oysters. The shores beyond it are low and thickly wooded, and through them there appeared to run a very considerable stream of water, with several smaller ones, emptying themselves into the harbour. The back country had the appearance of a swampy fen for a considerable distance. We landed not far from the largest rivulet, where we found a deserted village capable of containing an hundred inhabitants. The houses were built after the Nootka fashion, but did not seem to have been lately the residence of the Indians.

The habitations had now fallen into decay; their inside, as well as a small surrounding space that appeared to have been formerly occupied,

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Thursday 3.

were over-run with weeds; amongst which were found several human sculls, and other bones, promiscuously scattered about.

On thursday morning we sat seriously to work en board, and on shore where the sail-makers were repairing and altering the sails; coopers inspecting the casks; gunners airing the powder; and parties cutting wood, brewing spruce beer, and filling water: whilst those on board were as busily employed, in necessary repairs about the rigging; getting the provisions to hand; clearing the main and after holds for the reception of shingle ballast, of which we had for some time stood in much need; some of our carpenters were stopping leaks about the bows, and the rest assisted in caulking the Chatham's sides. The serenity of the climate and season was extremely favorable to the execution of their several duties, as also to our astronomical inquiries. The part of the coast that we had now reached being nearly destitute of inhabitants, few circumstances occurred to divert our attention, or interfere with the pursuits in which we were all engaged.

Sunday 6.

So little leisure or rest had been afforded in the several ports we had hitherto visited since we left the cape of Good Hope, that it was not until this morning that our people could be indulged with a holiday, for the purpose of taking some recreation and exercise on shore.

A few of the natives in two or three canoes favored us with their company, and brought with them some fish and venison for sale. The latter was extremely good, and very acceptable, as we had not obtained any; though on our first arrival we had entertained hopes of procuring a supply, from the numerous tracks of deer which appeared fresh, and in all directions.

These people, in their persons, canoes, arms, implements, &c. seemed to resemble chiefly the inhabitants of Nootka; though less bedaubed with paint, and less filthy in their external appearance. They wore ornaments in their ears, but none were observed in their noses; some of them understood a few words of the Nootka language; they were clothed in the skins of deer, bear, and some other animals, but principally in a woollen garment of their own manufacture, extremely well wrought. They did not appear to possess any furs. Their bows and implements they

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freely bartered for knives, trinkets, copper, &c.; and, what was very extraordinary, They offered for sale two children, each about six or seven years of age, and, being shewn some copper, were very anxious that the bargain should be closed. This, however, I peremptorily prohibited, expressing, as well as I was able, our great abhorrence of such traffic.

As our several employments, on board and on shore, would still require some time before they could be fully completed; and as I was desirous of obtaining some further knowledge of this inlet, in order that, when the vessels should be ready, we might extend our researches without fear of interrupt I directed the Discovery's yawl and launch, with the Chatham's en properly armed, and supplied with stores for five days, to be in readiness early the next morning. I committed to Mr. Broughton the charge of the ships, and to Mr. Whidbey that of the observatory and encampment, with directions to make a survey of the port, and such further necessary observations as circumstances would admit during my absence.

Monday 7.

Mr. Menzies, with two of the young gentlemen, accompanied me in the yawl, Mr. Puget commanded the launch, and Mr. Johnstone the Chatham's cutter. With this arrangement, about five o'clock on monday morning we took our departure for the purpose of becoming more intimately acquainted with the region in which we had so very unexpectedly arrived. The day did not promise to be very auspicious to the commencement of our examination. That uninterrupted serenity of weather that we had experienced the last seven days, seemed now to be materially changed; the wind which, in the day-time, had constantly blown from the N.W. with light southwardly airs, or calms, from sun-set until eight or ten o'clock in the forenoon, had now blown, since the preceding evening, a moderate gale from the S.E.; and, before we had proceeded a mile from the ship, brought with it a very thick fog, through which we steered keeping the starboard, or continental shore, on board, trusting that towards noon the fog would disperse itself and clear away.

On our arrival in port Discovery, we passed to the S.W. of Protection island; another channel, equally as safe and convenient, we now found to the S.E. of it. Having rowed against a strong tide along the

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shore about 2 or 3 leagues to the N.E. from the entrance of port Discovery, we rounded a low projecting point, and though the fog prevented our seeing about us, yet there was no doubt of our having entered some other harbour or arm in the inlet that took a southwardly direction. Here I proposed to wait until the weather should be more favorable, and in the mean time to haul the seine; which was done, along the beach to the southward, with little success.

Prosecuting our labours as fishermen along the beach, we were led near a point similar to that we had passed, and distant from it about two miles; here the fog intirely dispersing afforded an opportunity of ascertaining its latitude to be 48° 7′ 30″, its longitude 237° 31′½. A very spacious inlet now presented itself, whose N.E. point, in a line with its S.W., being the point from which we had last departed, bore by compass N. 25 W. and seemed about a league asunder: mount Baker bore N. 26 E.; a steep bluff point opposite to us, appearing to form the west point of another arm of this inlet, S.87 E. about 4 miles distant; the nearest eastern shore S. 50 E. about 2 miles; and a very remarkable high round mountain, covered with snow, apparently at the southern extremity of the distant range of snowy mountains before noticed, bore S. 45 E.: the shores of this inlet, like those in port Discovery, shoot out into several low, sandy, projecting points, the southernmost of which bore S. 9 E. distant about 2 leagues, where this branch of the inlet seemed to terminate, or take some other direction. Here we dined, and having taken the necessary angles, I directed Mr. Puget to sound the mid-channel, and Mr. Johnstone to examine the larboard or eastern shore, whilst I continued my researches on the continental shore, appointing the southernmost low point for our next rendezvous. As we advanced, the country seemed gradually to improve in beauty. The cleared spots were more numerous and of larger extent; and the remote lofty mountains covered with snow, reflected greater lustre on the fertile productions of the less elevated country. On arriving near our place of rendezvous an opening was seen, which gave to the whole of the eastern shore under the examination of Mr. Johnstone, the appearance of being an island. For this we steered, but found it closed by a low sandy neck of

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land, about two hundred yards in width, whose opposite shore was washed by an extensive salt lake, or more probably by an arm of the sea stretching to the S. E. and directing its main branch towards the high round snowy mountain we had discovered at noon: but where its entrance was situated we could not determine, though conjecture led to suppose it would be found round the bluff point of land we had observed from our dinner station.

In the western corner of this isthmus was situated a deserted Indian village, much in the same state of decay as that which we had examined at the head of port Discovery. No signs of any inhabitants were discernible; nor did we visit it, it being expedient we should hasten to our appointed station as night was fast approaching, during which Mr. Johnstone did not join us; this led us to suppose he had found some entrance into the above lake or inlet that had escaped my notice; and which afterwards proved to have been the cause of his absence. Having determined the extent of this inlet, whose south extremity is situated in latitude 47° 59′, longitude 237° 31′; at day-break, the next morning, we embarked in pursuit of the entrance into the lake or inlet that we had discovered the preceding evening. About this time, we heard and answered the report of a swivel gun. A very strong run of water was now observed, but being brackish we were under the necessity of carrying our kegs near a mile into the country to replenish them, not having found any fresh water since we left the ships. Whilst we were thus engaged, Mr. Johnstone came up. He had found a narrow channel into the inlet which had flattered him with returning by the isthmus that had opposed our progress; but to his great mortification he found it closed, and was obliged to keep rowing the greater part of the night, in order that he might join us by the same passage he had entered, which he had now just effected. Its southern entrance was found to be navigable for small boats only, from half stood to half ebb, and was dry at low water; but as its northern part formed a snug little port, and, with its tide, seemed likely to be made useful in careening; Mr. Johnstone was induced to prosecute its examination. The survey of this inlet, which had occupied our time since the preceding day at noon,

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having been finally accomplished by the joining of the boats, it proved to be a very safe and more capacious harbour than port Discovery; and rendered more pleasant by the high land being at a greater distance from the water-side. Its soundings also give it a further advantage, being very regular from side to side, from 10 to 20 fathoms depth of water, good holding ground: but, with respect to fresh water, so far as we could determine by our transitory visit, it was very deficient, as has been already observed. To this port I gave the name of PORT TOWNSHEND, in honor of the noble Marquis of that name.

Mr. Johnstone, who had a much better opportunity than I had of seeing the above lake or inlet, represented it as appearing very extensive and divided into two or three branches; but he had not been able to determine its communication either with the ocean or the main inlet, although he had great reason to believe it did communicate by the way of the bluff point already mentioned; which about noon was confirmed. In our way thither, we found on one of the low points projecting from the eastern shore, two upright poles set in the ground, about fifteen feet high, and rudely carved. On the top of each was stuck a human head, recently placed there. The hair and flesh were nearly perfect; and the heads appeared to carry the evidence of fury or revenge, as, in driving the stakes through the throat to the cranium, the sagittal, with part of the scalp, was borne on their points some inches above the rest of the skull. Between the stakes a fire had been made, and near it some calcined bones were observed, but none of these appearances enabled us to satisfy ourselves, concerning the manner in which the bodies had been disposed of.

The situation of this point is a little to the southward of the narrow passage Mr. Johnstone had gone through; the north extremity of which is formed by a very long sandy spit, where seventeen of the long supported poles were seen like those before described on New Dungeness. These poles had frequently presented themselves, though in less numbers than on the present occasion; but though these afforded us an opportunity of examining them, they did not contribute the least instruction concerning the purpose for which they were intended. They were uniformly placed in the center of the low sandy spit, at the distance of about eighty yards from each other;

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FOUR remarkable, supported POLES, in PORT TOWNSHEND, GULPH of GEORGIA.

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and it should seem, that they were required to be of certain definite heights, although not all equally high. They were, in general, about six inches in diameter at the bottom, and perfectly strait: and, when too short, a piece was added, which was very neatly searsed on: the top of each terminating in two points like a crescent or rather like the strait spreading horns of an ox. The tallest of these poles I should suppose to be about one hundred feet, the shortest not so high by ten or fifteen feet. Between several of them large holes were dug in the ground, in which were many stones that had been burnt, which gave these holes the resemblance of the cooking places in the South-Sea islands. There was, however, no appearance of any recent operations of that kind.

In most of my excursions I met with an indurated clay, much resembling fuller's-earth. The high steep cliff, forming the point of land we were now upon, seemed to be principally composed of this matter; which, on a more close examination, appeared to be a rich species of the marrow stone, from whence it obtained the name of MARROW-STONE POINT. East of this cliff, the shore is extended about a quarter of a mile by one of those sandy projecting points we had so frequently met with. Here we dined, and had an excellent view of this inlet, which appeared to be of no inconsiderable extent. The eastern shore stretched by compass from N. 41 W. to S.51 E.; the south extremity of the western shore, bore S. 26 E.; and, between these latter bearings, the horizon was occupied by islands, or land appearing much broken. The weather was serene and pleasant, and the country continued to exhibit, between us and the eastern snowy range, the same luxuriant appearance. At its northern extremity, mount Baker bore by compass N. 22 E.; the round snowy mountain, now forming its southern extremity, and which, after my friend Rear Admiral Rainier, I distinguished by the name of MOUNT RAINIER, bore N. 42 E. Having finished all our business at this station, the boats received the same directions as before; and having appointed the western part of some land appearing like a long island, and bearing S. E. by S. 4 leagues distant, for our evening's rendezvous, we left Marrow-Stone point with a pleasant gale, and every prospect of accomplishing our several tasks. The favorable breeze availed us but

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little; for we had not advanced a league before we found the influence of so strong an ebb tide that, with all the exertions of our oars in addition to our sails we could scarcely make any progress along the coast. Towards sun-set, both the wind and the weather materially changed: the former became light and variable from the southern quarter, and brought with it inceffant torrents of rain. We, persevered however, in our endeavours to gain our destined point, but without success, until about eleven at night: when, having collected the boats by signal, we bore up for the western, which was nearest the shore, and landed about one in the morning, completely drenched. With some difficulty we got a fire, and found a tolerable place for our tents. This, though uncomfortable, protected us in some degree from the inclemency of the weather, which detained us all the next day. On wednesday morning, we found ourselves near the south extremity of the narrow shoal passage through which Mr. Johnstone had passed from port Townshend, in a very fine cove, affording good anchorage from 10 to 25 fathoms, excellent holding ground, and sufficiently capacious to accommodate many vessels. We traversed its northern shores, but could not find any water, except such as dripped in small quantities from the rocks. Whilst detained by this unfavorable weather, some of the young gentlemen in their excursions found several oak trees, of which they produced specimens; but stated that they had not seen any exceeding three or four feet in circumference. In consequence of this valuable discovery, the place obtained the name of OAK COVE.

Thursday 10.

The weather in some measure clearing up soon after day-break on thursday, we again embarked, and continued on the same western, or continental shore, making a very slow progress, owing or a strong ebb tide, and a fresh S.E. wind, against us.

We had not been long out of Oak Cove, when we deseried some Indians paddling slowly under the lee of a rocky point, with an apparent intention of waiting our approach. In this they were soon gratified, and on our arrival, they did not seem to express the lead doubt of our friendly disposition towards them. They courteously offered such things as they possessed, and cordially accepted some medals, beads, knives,

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and other trinkets, which I presented to them, and with which they appeared to be highly pleased. We were now employed in taking such necessary angles as the weather permitted us to obtain, and in acquiring some further information of this inlet. It appeared to be divided into two branches; the most extensive one took its direction to the southeastward of land appearing like along, low island; the other, apparently much less, stretched to the south-westward of the same land; the shores of which terminating in a high perpendicular bluff point, was, in consequence of the change we experienced in its neighbourhood, called FOULWEATHER BLUFF.

As my intentions were not to depart from the continental boundary, the western arm was the first object of our examination; and we directed our course towards a high lump of land that had the appearance of an island entertaining little doubt of finding a way into the south eastern, or main arm, south of the supposed long low island. Off this point lie some rocks above water, with others visible only at low tide, extending at the distance of three fourths of a mile, and nearly a mile along the shore. The country thereabouts presented a very different aspect from that which we had been accustomed to see. Instead of the sandy cliffs that form the shores within the straits, these were composed of solid rocks. On them the herbage and shrubs seemed to flourish with less luxuriance, though the trees appeared to form a much greater variety. Having landed about nine o'clock to breakfast, and to take the advantage of the sun and wind to dry some of our clothes, our friends the Indians, seventeen in number, landed also from six canoes about half a mile a-head of us, and then walked towards our party, attended by a single canoe along the shore; they having hauled up all the others. They now approached us with the utmost confidence, without being armed, and behaved in the most respectful and orderly manner. On a line being drawn with a stick on the sand between the two parties, they immediately fat down, and no one attempted to pass it, without previously making signs, requesting permission for so doing.

In their persons, dress, canoes, &c. they much resembled the Indians of port Discovery; they had not the most distant knowledge of the

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Nootka language, and it was with some difficulty that any of their numerals were acquired. They had not any thing to dispose of excepting their bows, arrows, and some few of their woollen and skin garments; amongst the latter appeared to be the skin of a young lioness. These they exchanged for trinkets, and other things of little value, and in the traffic conducted themselves in a very fair and honest manner.

After we had embarked they examined the place where we had been fitting, and then paddled towards their village, which was situated in a very pleasant cove a little to the S.W. and built with wood, after the fashion of the deserted ones we had before seen. The wind blowing strong from the southward of much retarded our progress that at noon we had only reached the N.W. point of the arm we had been steering for, and which was not more than five miles from our station in Oak cove, in a direction S. 14 E.; its observed latitude was 47° 53′, longitude 237° 36′, Foulweather bluff forming the opposite point of entrance into the arm, bore east about half a league distant. The strength of the ebb tide obliged us to stop near two hours, and from its rapidity we were induced to believe, as we had before suspected, that either the eastern shore was an island, or that the tide had extensive inland communication.

On the stood returning we resumed our route, and found our supposed high round island connected with the main by a low sandy neck of land, nearly occupied by a salt-water swamp. Into the bay formed between this point and that we had departed from, descended a few small streams of fresh water; with which, so far as we were enabled to judge, the country did not abound. This opinion was sanctioned by the Indians who visited us this morning, bringing with them small square boxes filled with fresh water, which we could not tempt them to dispose of. Hence this branch of the inlet takes a direction about S.W.½ S. near 13 miles, and is in general about half a league wide. Its shores exhibited by no means the luxuriant appearance we had left behind, being nearly destitute of the open verdant spots, and alternately composed of sandy or rocky cliffs falling abruptly into the sea, or terminating on a beach; whilst in some places the even land extended from the water side, with little or no elevation. The low projecting points cause the

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coast to be somewhat indented with small bays, where, near the shore, we had soundings from 5 to 12 fathoms: but in the middle of the canal, though not more than 2 miles in width, no bottom could be reached with 110 fathoms of line.

Friday 11.

We had not advanced more than 2 or 3 miles before we lost the advantage of the flood tide, and met a stream that ran constantly down. This, with a very fresh S.W. wind so retarded our progress, that it was not until friday noon that we reached the extent above mentioned, which we found to be situated due south of our observatory in port Discovery, in the latitude of 47° 39′. From this station, which I called HAZEL POINT in consequence of its producing many of those trees, the canal divides into two branches, one taking a direction nearly due north, the other S.W. We still continued on the right hand, or continental shore, and found the northern arm terminate at the distance of about seven miles in a spacious bason, where bottom could not be found with 70 fathoms of line. As we returned to take up our abode for the night at the S.W. point of this arm, we observed some smoke on shore, and saw a canoe hauled up into a small creek; but none of the inhabitants could be discovered, nor did we hear or see any thing of them during the night.

Saturday 12.

The next morning at four o'clock we again embarked. Having been supplied for five days only, our provisions were greatly exhausted, and the commencement of this, which was the sixth, threatened us with short allowance. Our sportsmen had been unable to assist our stock; and the prospect of obtaining any supplies from the natives was equally uncertain. The region we had lately passed seemed nearly destitute of human beings. The brute creation also had deserted the shores; the tracks of deer were no longer to be seen; nor was there an aquatic bird on the whole extent of the canal; animated nature seemed nearly exhausted; and her awful silence was only now and then interrupted by the croaking of a raven, the breathing of a seal, or the scream of an eagle. Even these solitary founds were so seldom heard, that the rustling of the breeze along the shore, assisted by the solemn stillness that prevailed, gave rife to ridiculous suspicions in our seamen of hearing rattlesnakes, and other

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hideous monsters, in the wilderness, which was composed of the productions already mentioned, but which appeared to grow with infinitely less vigour than we had been accustomed to witness.

To the westward and N.W. lay that range of snowy mountains, noticed the morning we spoke with the Columbia. These gradually descended in a southern direction, whist the summit of the eastern rang now and then appearing, seemed to give bounds to this low country on that side. Between the S.E. and S.W. a country of a very moderate height seemed to extend as far as the eye could reach; and, from its eminences and vallies, there was reason to believe that this inlet continued to meander a very considerable distance, which made me much regret that we were not provided for a longer excursion. Yet, having proceeded thus far, I resolved to continue our researches, though at the expence of a little hunger, until the inlet should either terminate, or so extensively open, as to render it expedient that the vessels should be brought up; which would be a very tedious and disagreeable operation, in consequence of the narrowness of the channel, and the great depth of the water. Soundings in some places only could be gained close to the shore; and in the middle no bottom had any where been sound with 100 fathoms of line, although the shores were in general low, and not half a league asunder.

Having very pleasant weather, and a gentle favorable breeze, we proceeded, and passed several runs of fresh water. Near one of the largest we observed our latitude at noon to be 47° 27′ and once again had the pleasure of approaching an inhabited country. A canoe, in which there were three men, went alongside the launch, and bartered a few trifles for beads, iron, and copper, but declined every invitation to come on shore. From Mr. Puget I learned, that they appeared to be very honest in their dealings, and had used their utmost endeavours to prevail on the party in the launch to attend them home, which he understood to be at the distance of about a league, and for which they seemed to make the best of their way, probably to acquaint their friends with the approach of strangers. Soon after we had dined a smoke was observed, near the supposed place of their residence; made, as we concluded,

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for the purpose of directing to their habitations, for which we immediately sat off agreeably to their very civil invitation.

An idea during this excursion had occurred to us, that part of the brute creation have an aversion to the absence of the human race; this opinion seemed now in some measure confirmed, by the appearance for the first during the last three days, of several species, of ducks, and other aquatic birds. I do not however mean, absolutely lo infer, that it is the affection of the lower orders of the creation 10 man, that draws them to the same spots which human beings prefer, since it is highly probable that such places as afford the most eligible residence in point of sustenance to the human race, in an uncivilized state, may be by the brute creation resorted to for the same purpose.

The habitations of our new friends appeared to be situated nearly at the extremity of this inlet, or where it appeared to take a very sharp turn to the S. E. still favoring our hopes of returning by the great eastern arm. These however vanished on landing, as we found its S. W. direction terminate in land, apparently low and swampy, with a shoal extending some distance from its shores, forming a narrow passage to the south-eastward into a cove or bason, which seemed its termination also in that direction.

Here we found the finest stream of fresh water we had yet seen; from the size, clearness, and rapidity of which, little doubt could be entertained of its having its source in perpetual springs. Near it were two miserable huts with mats thrown carelessly over them, protecting their tenants neither from the heat nor severity of the weather; these huts seemed calculated to contain only the five or six men then present, though previously to our quitting the boats we supposed a greater number of persons had been seen; those were probably their women, who on our approach had retired to the woods.

These good people conducted themselves in the most friendly manner. They had little to dispose of, yet they bartered away their bows and arrows without the least hesitation, together with some small fish, cockles, and clams; of the latter we purchased a large quantity, a supply of which was very acceptable in the low condition of our dock. They made us clearly to understand, that in the cove to the S. E. we should find a number of their countrymen, who had the like commodities to dis-

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pose of; and being anxious to leave no doubt concerning a further inland navigation by this arm of the sea, and wishing to establish, as far as possible, a friendly intercourse with the inhabitants of the country, which from the docile and inoffensive manners of those we had seen appeared a task of no great difficulty, we proceeded to a low point of land that forms the north entrance into the cove. There we beheld a number of the natives, who did not betray the smallest apprehension at our approach; the whole assembly remained quietly seated on the grass, excepting two or three whose particular office seemed to be that, of making us welcome to their country. These presented us with some fish; and received in return trinkets of various kinds, which delighted them excessively. They attended us to their companions, who amounted in number to about sixty, including the women and children. We were received by them with equal cordiality, and treated with marks of great friendship and hospitality. A short time was here employed in exchanges of mutual civilities. The females on this occasion took a very active part. They presented us with fish, arrows, and other trifles, in a way that convinced us they had much pleasure in so doing. They did not appear to differ in any respect from the inhabitants we had before seen; and some of our gentlemen were of opinion that they recognized the persons of one or two who had visited us on the preceding thursday morning; particularly one man, who had suffered very much from the small pox. This deplorable disease is not only common, but it is greatly to be apprehended is very fatal amongst them, as its indelible marks were seen on many; and several had lost the sight of one eye, which was remarked to be generally the left, owing most likely to the virulent effects of this baneful disorder. The residence of these people here was doubtless of a temporary nature; few had taken the trouble of erecting their usual miserable huts, being content to lodge on the ground, with loose mats only for their covering.

From this point, which is situated nearly at the south extremity of the canal in latitude 47° 21′, longitude 237° 6′½, little doubt existed of the cove terminating its navigation. To ascertain this, whilst I remained with these civil people Mr. Johnstone was directed to row round the projection that had obstructed our view of the whole circumfe-

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rence of the cove, which is about two miles; and, if it were not closed, to pursue its examination. Our former conjectures being confirmed, on his return we prepared to depart; and, as we were putting off from the shore, a cloak of inferior sea otter skins was brought down, which I purchased for a small piece of copper. Upon this they made signs, that if we would remain, more, and of a superior quality, should be produced; but as this was not our object, and as we had finished our proposed talk sooner than was expected this morning, to the no small satisfaction of our whole party we directed our course back towards port Discovery, from which we were now about 70 miles distant.

A fresh northwardly wind, and the approach of night, obliged us to take up our abode about two miles from the Indians, some of whom had followed us along the beach until we landed, when they posted themselves at the distance of about half a mile, to observe our different employments; at dark they all retired, and we neither heard nor saw any thing more of them. The rise and fall of the tide, although the current constantly ran down without any great degree of rapidity, appeared to have been nearly ten feet, and it was high water 3h 50′ after the moon passed the meridian.

Sunday 13. Monday 14.

Early on sunday morning we again embarked; directing our route down the inlet, which, after the Right Honorable Lord Hood, I called HOOD'S CANAL; but our progress homeward was so very flow, that it was monday afternoon before we reached Foulweather bluff. This promontory is not ill named, for we had scarcely landed when a heavy rain commenced, which continuing the rest of the day, obliged us to remain stationary. This detention I endeavoured to reconcile with the hope, that the next morning would permit some examination, or at least afford us a view of the great eastern arm, before we returned to the ships; but in this I was disappointed. After waiting until ten o'clock in the forenoon of tuesday without the least prospect of an alteration for the better, we again fat out with a fresh breeze at S.S.E., attended with heavy squalls and torrents of rain; and about four in the afternoon arrived on board, much to the satisfaction I believe of all parties, as great anxiety had been entertained for our safety, in con-

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1792. May. Thursday 17. Friday 18.

sequence of our unexpected absence. The swivels sired from our boat and that of the Chatham's the morning after our departure, were heard on board, and were the cause of much alarm after the expiration of the time appointed for our return. Such attention had been paid to the several common occupations going forward when I left the ships, that I had the satisfaction to find every thing accomplished. But from Mr. Whidbey I understood, that the weather had been so unfavorable to our astronomical pursuits, that he had not been able to obtain any lunar distances, though he had succeeded in ascertaining the rate of the chronometers. Having, however, acquired sufficient authority of this nature for correcting our survey, and carrying it further into execution, I determined to depart as soon as the weather should break up. This did not happen until thursday afternoon; when the tents and observatory were re-embarked, and every thing got in readiness for sailing the next morning. A light air from the S.E. and pleasant weather, favored our departure; and about breakfast time, the ship arriving at the entrance of the port, I landed on the east end of Protection island, in order, from its eminence, to take a more accurate view of the surrounding shores. In most directions they seemed much broken, particularly in the northern quarter, being there occupied by an archipelago of islands of various sizes. On my return on board, I directed Mr. Broughton to use his endeavours, in the Chatham, to acquire some information in that line, whilst I continued my examination with the Discovery up the inlet which we had discovered in the boats, to the eastward of Foulweather bluff; appointing the first inlet to the south-eastward of that point on the starboard or continental shore, as our place of rendezvous. We parted about noon in pleasant weather, and with a fine breeze directed our vessels agreeably to our respective pursuits.

As a more particular description of port Discovery and the surrounding country would have interfered with our primary object of ascertaining the boundary of this coast, I shall reserve it for the subject of the following short chapter; and shall conclude this with such astronomical and nautical observations as circumstances permitted us to make whilst in port, as well as those made previous to our arrival and after our depar-

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ture; which have assisted in fixing its longitude, as well as that of the exterior coast of New Albion southward to cape Mendocino.

A part of this coast, prior to our visit, had been seen by different navigators, and the position of certain head lands, capes, &c. given to the world. Several of these I have found myself under the necessity of placing in different latitudes and longitudes, as well those seen by Captain Cook, as others laid down by the different visitors who have followed him. This, however, I have not presumed to do, from a consciousness of superior abilities as an astronomer, or integrity as an historian; but from the conviction, that no one of my predecessors had the good fortune to meet so favorable an opportunity for the examination: under the happy circumstances of which I have been induced to assign, to the several conspicuous head lands, points, &c. the positions ascertained by the result of our several observations; from which, as it evidently appeared that our chronometer had materially accelerated on its Otaheitean rate, it may not be unacceptable to state the mode I adopted for the correction of that error.

In our passage towards, and during our stay amongst, the Sandwich islands, the chronometer, agreeably to its Otaheitean rate, seemed to have been accurate to a scrupulous degree of nicety; but, by some observations made prior to the 26th of march, it appeared to have deviated manifestly from the truth. The observations made on that day were the most remote ones I made use of on this occasion; and, by the mean result of all made since in port Discovery, instead of the chronometer gaining at the rate of 4″ 3‴ per day only, it was found to be gaining 11″ 55‴ per day; and therefore, instead of the allowance of the former rate, from the 26th of march to our arrival on the coast, it was increased to 8″ per day: and from the 17th of april, 11″ 30‴ were allowed as the rate of the chronometer, for the purpose of reducing all our observations from that period to our arrival in port Discovery; which medium, I trust will hereafter be found fully to answer my expectations. The following will serve to exhibit the different observations made to establish this point, comprehending two hundred and twenty sets of lunar distances, each set containing six observations, taken by the several officers and gentlemen on board, as follow:

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Mr. Puget, nine sets taken between the 28th of march and 9th of april, 237° 19′ 5″
Mr. Whidbey, fifty-eight ditto, the 26th of march and 12th of june, 237° 23′ 38″
Mr. Orchard, fifty-three ditto, ditto 237° 22′
Mr. J. Stewart, twenty-four ditto, the 27th of march and 29th of april, 237° 25′ 50″
Mr. Ballard, thirty-eight ditto, ditto 237° 22′ 13″
Myself thirty-eight ditto, the 28th of march and 5th of may, 237° 21′ 9″
Hence, the longitude of the observatory deduced from the mean result of the above observed distances of the ☾a ⊙ and stars, was 237° 22′ 19″
On our arrival in port Discovery the chronometer, by the Portsmouth rate, on the 4th of may, shewed 237° 51′
By the Otaheitean rate 235° 59′
Mr. Arnold's chronometer on board the Chatham, by the Otaheitean rate, 235° 27′

From the above observations and nine days corresponding altitudes, Kendal's chronometer was found, on the 13th of may at noon, to be fast of mean time at Greenwich 45′ 46″, and to be gaining on mean time at the rate of 11″ 55‴ per day. By the same observations, Mr. Arnold's, on the 13th of may at noon, was fast of mean time at Greenwich 2′ 56′ 49″, and was gaining on mean time at the rate of 27″ per day.

The latitude of the observatory, by the mean result of nine meridian altitudes, was 48° 2′ 30″
The variation, by all our compasses, in eleven sets of azimuths, differing from 20° to 26°, gave their mean result, 21° 30′

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The vertical inclination of the magnetic needle.

Marked end North face East 73° 50′
Ditto West 75° 57′
Ditto South face East 72° 17′
Ditto West 75° 55′
Mean vertical inclination of the North point of the marine dipping needle 74° 30′

In port Discovery, the tide was observed to flow on the full of the moon, about ten feet; and was high water 3°50′ after the moon passed the meridian.

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CHAPTER V.

Description of port Discovery and the adjacent country—Its inhabitants—Method of depositing the dead—Conjectures relative to the apparent depopulation of the country.

1792. May.

I SHALL now proceed to relate such matters respecting the country of New Albion as appeared intitled to notice, and which are not inserted in the preceding narrative.

Port Discovery, already mentioned as a perfectly safe and convenient harbour, has its outer points 1¾ miles asunder, bearing from each other S. 63 W. and N. 63 E.; its entrance is situated in latitude 48° 7′, longitude 237° 20′½ whence the port first takes a direction S.30 E. about 8 miles, and then terminates S.W. by W. about a league further. If it lies under any disadvantage, it is in its great depth of water; in which respect, however, we found no inconvenience, as the bottom was exceedingly good holding ground, and free from rocks. Towards the upper part of the harbour it is of less depth; but I saw no situation more eligible than that in which the vessels rode, off the first low sandy point on the western shore, about 4½ miles within the entrance. Here our wooding, watering, brewing, and all other operations were carried on with the utmost facility and convenience. The shores of Protection island form on its south side, which is about two miles long, a most excellent roadstead, and a channel into port Discovery, near 2 miles wide on either side, without any interruption, which with other nautical particulars are exhibited in the chart.

The country in the neighbourhood of this port may generally be considered of a moderate height, although bounded on the west side by

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mountains covered with snow, to which the land from the water's edge rises in a pleasing diversity by hills of gradual ascent. The snow on these hills probably dissolves as the summer advances, for pine trees were produced on their very summits. On the sea shore the land generally terminated in low sandy cliffs; though in some spaces of considerable extent it ran nearly level from high water mark. The soil for the most part is a light sandy loam, in several places of very considerable depth, and abundantly mixed with decayed vegetables. The vigour and luxuriance of its productions proved it to be a rich fertile mould, which possibly might be considerably improved by the addition of the calcareous matter contained in the marrow stone that presented itself in many places. In respect to its mineral productions no great variety was observed. Iron ore, in its various forms, was generally found; and from the weight and magnetic qualities of some specimens, appeared tolerably rich, particularly a kind that much resembled the blood stone. These, with quartz, agate, the common flint, and a great intermixture of other silicious matter, (most of the stones we met with being of that class) with some variety of calcareous, magnesian, and argilaccous earths, were the mineral productions generally found.

The parts of the vegetable kingdom applicable to useful purposes appeared to grow very luxuriantly, and consisted of the Canadian and Norwegian hemlock, silver pines, the Turamahac and Canadian poplar, arbor-vitæ, common yew, black and common dwarf oak, American ash, common hazel, sycamore, sugar, mountain, and Pensylvanian maple, oriental arbutus, American alder, and common willow; these, with the Canadian elder, small fruited crab, and Pensylvanian cherry trees, constituted the forests, which may be considered rather as encumbered, than adorned, with underwood; although there were several places where, in its present state, the traveller would pass without being in the least incommoded, excepting by the undecayed trunks of trees which had fallen. Of esculent vegetables we found but few; the white or dead nettle, and samphire, were most common; the wild orache, vulgarly called fat-hen, with the vetch. Two or three sorts of wild peas, and the common hedge mustard, were frequently though not always met with, and were consi-

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dered by us as excellent of their kinds, and served to relish our salt provisions, on which, with a very scanty supply of fish all hands subsisted. Amongst the more minute productions, Mr. Menzies found constant amusement; and, I believe, was enabled to make some addition to the catalogue of plants.

The knowledge we acquired of the animal kingdom was very imperfect. The skins of the animals already noticed were such as are commonly found amongst the inhabitants on the sea coasts under the same parallel, and towards Nootka; these were mostly of the coarser and more common sorts. Garments of sea otter skins were not worn, nor did many such skins appear amongst the inhabitants. The only living quadrupeds we saw, were a black bear, two or three wild dogs, about as many rabbits, several small brown squirrels, rats, mice, and the skunk, whose effluvia was the most intolerable and offensive I ever experienced.

Few of the feathered tribe were procured, although, on our first arrival, the aquatic birds were so numerous that we expected a profuse supply of wild fowl; but these were all so extremely shy and watchful, that our guns seldom reached them; and, on being fired at, they disappeared. About the shores and on the rocks, we found some species of the tern, the common gull, sea pigeon of Newfoundland, curlews, sandlarks, shags, and the black sea pye, like those in New Holland and New Zealand; these were however not so abundant as the others. Nor did the woods appear to be much resorted to by the feathered race; two or three spruce partridges had been seen; with few in point of number, and little variety, of small birds: amongst which the humming birds bore a great proportion. At the outskirts of the woods, and about the water side, the white headed and brown eagle; ravens, carrion crows, American king's fisher, and a very handsome woodpecker, were seen in numbers; and in addition to these on the low projecting points, and open places in the woods, we frequently saw a bird with which we were wholly unacquainted, though we considered it to be a species of the crane or heron; some of their eggs were found of a bluish cast, considerably larger than that of a turkey, and well tasted. These birds have

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remarkably long legs and necks, and their bodies seemed to equal in size the largest turkey. Their plumage is uniformly of a light brown, and when erect their height on a moderate computation could not be less than four feet. They seemed to prefer open situations, and used no endeavours to hide or screen themselves from our sight, but were too vigilant to allow our sportsmen taking them by surprize. Some blue, and some nearly white herons of the common size were also seen.

The sea was not much more bountiful to us of its animal productions than was its shores. The scanty supply of fish we were enabled to procure, consisted in general of the common sorts of small flat-fish, elephant fish, sea bream, sea perch, a large sort of sculpin, some weighing six or eight pounds, with a greenish colour about their throat, belly, and gills; these were very coarse, but no ill effects were consequent on eating them. The above, with a few trout, a small sort of eel extremely well tasted, of a yellowish green colour, were the fishes we most generally caught. A small common black snake, a few lizards and frogs, together with a variety of common insects, none of which could be considered as very troublesome, were the only creatures of the reptile tribe we observed.

This country, regarded in an agricultural point of view, I should conceive is capable of high improvement, notwithstanding the soil in general may be considered to be light and sandy. Its spontaneous productions in the vicinity of the woods are nearly the same, and grow in equal luxuriance with those under a similar parallel in Europe; savoring the hope, that if nutritious exotics were introduced and carefully attended to, they would succeed in the highest degree. The mildness of the climate, and the forwardness of every species of plants, afforded strong grounds in support of this opinion.

The interruptions we experienced in the general serenity of the weather, were probably no more than were absolutely requisite in the spring of the year to bring forward the annual productions. These were attended with no violence of wind, and the rain which fell, although disagreeable to travellers, was not so heavy as to beat down and destroy the first efforts of vegetation. Under all these favorable circumstances, the country yet labours under one material disadvantage in the scarcity of

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fresh water. The streams however that we met with appeared sufficient to answer all purposes, in the domestic œconomy of life, to a very numerous body of inhabitants: and, were the country cleared and searched, there can be little doubt that a variety of eligible situations might be found for establishments, where, with proper exertions, wholesome water might be procured.

What the low country before us toward the range of snowy mountains may produce, remains for future investigation; but judging from what we had seen, it seemed more than probable, that those natural canals of the sea wind in various directions; and that they are capable of affording great advantages to commercial pursuits, by opening communications with parts of the interior country commodiously and delightfully situated. The great depth of water may be offered as an insuperable objection; yet, on a more minute examination, it is likely that many eligible and convenient stopping places might be found for the security of such vessels as would necessarily be employed in those occupations.

Having considered with impartiality the excellencies and defects of this country, as far as came under our observation, it now remains to add a few words on the character of its inhabitants.

* Vide Capt. Cook's last Voyage.

None being resident in port Discovery, and our intercourse with them having been very confined, the knowledge we may have acquired of them, their manners, and customs, must necessarily be very limited, and our conclusions drawn chiefly from comparison. From New Dungeness we traversed nearly one hundred and fifty miles of their shores without seeing that number of inhabitants. Those who came within our notice so nearly resembled the people of Nootka, that the best delineation I can offer is a reference to the description of those people, which has before been so ably and with so much justice given to the public.* The only difference I observed was, that in their stature they did not generally appear quite so stout; and in their habits were less filthy; for though these people adorn their persons with the same fort of paint, yet it is not laid on in that abundance, nor do they load their hair with that immense quantity of oil and colouring matter, which is so customary amongst

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the people of Nootka; their hair, as before mentioned, being in general neatly combed and tied behind.

In their weapons, implements, canoes, and dress, they vary little. Their native woollen garment was most in fashion, next to it the skins of deer, bear, &c.; a few wore dresses manufactured from bark, which, like their woollen ones, were very nearly wrought.

Their spears arrows, fishgiggs, and other weapons, were shaped exactly like those of Nootka; but none were pointed with copper, or with musele shell. The three former were generally barbed, and those pointed with common stint agate, and bone, seemed of their original workmanship. Yet more of their arrows were observed to be pointed with thin flat iron, than with bone or flint, and it was very singular that they should prefer exchanging those pointed with iron, to any of the others. Their bows were of a superior construction; these in general were from two and a half to three feet in length; the broadest part in the middle was about an inch and a half, and about three quarters of an inch thick, neatly made, gradually tapering to each end, which terminated in a shoulder and a hook for the security of the bow string. They were all made of yew, and chosen with a naturally inverted curve suited to the method of using them. From end to end of the concave side, which when strung became the convex part, a very strong strip of an elastic hide is attached to some, and the skins of serpents to others, exactly the shape and length of the bow, neatly and firmly affixed to the wood by means of a cement, the adhesive property of which I never saw, or heard of being, equalled. It is not to be affected by either dry or damp weather, and forms so strong a connection with the wood, as to prevent a separation without destroying the component parts of both. The bow string is made of the sinew of some marine animal laid loose, in order to be twisted at pleasure, as the temperature of the atmosphere may require to preserve it at a proper length. Thus is this very neat little weapon rendered portable, elastic, and effective in the highest degree, if we may be allowed to judge by the dexterity with which it was used by one of the natives at port Discovery.

We had little opportunity of acquiring any satisfactory information

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with regard to the public regulations, or private œconomy, of these people. The situation and appearance of the places we found them generally inhabiting, indicated their being much accustomed to a change of residence; the deserted villages tended strengthen the conjecture of their being wanderers. Territorial property appeared to be of little importance; there was plenty of room for their fixed habitations, and those of a temporary nature, which we now found them mostly to occupy, being principally composed of cross sticks, covered with a few mats, as easily found a spot for their erection, as they were removed from one station to another, either as inclination might lead, or necessity compel: and having a very extensive range of domain, they were not liable to interruption or opposition from their few surrounding neighbours.

From these circumstances alone, it may be somewhat premature to conclude that this delightful country has always been thus thinly inhabited; on the contrary, there are reasons to believe it has been infinitely more populous. Each of the deserted villages was nearly, if not quite, equal to contain all the scattered inhabitants we saw, according to the custom of the Nootka people: to whom these have great affinity in their persons, fashions, wants, comforts, construction of these their fixed habitations, and in their general character. It is also possible, that most of the clear spaces may have been indebted, for the removal of their timber and underwood, to manual labour. Their general appearance furnished this opinion, and their situation on the most pleasant and commanding eminences, protected by the forest on every side, except that which would have precluded a view of the sea, seemed to encourage the idea. Not many years since, each of these vacant places might have been allotted to the habitations of different societies, and the variation observed in their extent might have been conformable to the size of each village; on the seite of which, since their abdication, or extermination, nothing but the smaller shrubs and plants had yet been able to rear their heads.

In our different excursions, particularly those in the neighbourhood of port Discovery, the scull, limbs, ribs, and back bones, or some other vestiges of the human body, were found in many places promiscuously scattered about the beach, in great numbers. Similar relics were also frequently met with during our survey in the boats; and I was

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informed by the officers, that in their several perambulations, the like appearances had presented themselves of repeatedly, and in such abundance, as to produce an idea that the environs of port Discovery were a general cemetery for the whole of the surrounding country. Notwithstanding these circumstances do not amount to a direct proof of the extensive population they indicate, yet, when combined with other appearances, they warranted an opinion, that at no very remote period this country had been far more populous than at present. Some of the human bodies were found disposed of in a very singular manner. Canoes were suspended between two or more trees about twelve feet from the ground, in which were the skeletons of two or three persons; others of a larger size were hauled up into the outskirts of the woods, which contained from four to seven skeletons covered over with a broad plank. In some of these broken bows and arrows were found, which at first gave rise to a conjecture, that these might have been warriors, who after being mortally wounded had, whilst their strength remained, hauled up their canoe for the purpose of expiring quietly in them. But on a further examination this became improbable, as it would hardly have been possible to have preserved the regularity of position in the agonies of death, or to have defended their sepulchres with the broad plank with which each was covered.

The few skeletons we saw so carefully deposited in the canoes, were probably the chiefs, priests, or leaders of particular tribes, whose followers most likely continue to possess the highest respect for their memory and remains: and the general knowledge I had obtained from experience of the regard which all savage nations pay to their funeral solemnities, made me particularly solicitous to prevent any indignity which might be wantonly offered to their departed friends. Baskets were also found suspended on high trees, each containing the skeleton of a young child; in some of which were also small square boxes filled with a kind of white paste, resembling such as I had seen the natives eat, supposed to be made of the saranne root; some of these boxes were quite full, others were nearly empty, eaten probably by the mice, squirrels, or

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birds. On the next low point south of our encampment, where the gunners were airing the powder, they met with several holes in which human bodies were interred slightly covered over, and in different states of decay, some appearing to have been very recently deposited. About half a mile to the northward of our tents, where the land is nearly level with high water mark, a few paces within the skirting of the wood, a canoe was found suspended between two trees, in which were three human skeletons; and a few paces to the right was a cleared place of nearly forty yards round; where from the fresh appearance of the burnt stumps most of its vegetable productions had very lately been consumed by fire. Amongst the ashes we found the sculls, and other bones, of near twenty persons in different stages of calcination; the fire, however, had not reached the suspended canoe, nor did it appear to have been intended that it should. The skeletons found thus disposed, in canoes, or in baskets, bore a very small proportion to the number of sculls and other human bones indiscriminately scattered about the shores. Such are the effects; but of the cause or causes that have operated to produce them we remained totally unacquainted: whether occasioned by epidemic disease, or recent wars. The character and general deportment of the few inhabitants we occasionally saw, by no means countenanced the latter opinion; they were uniformly civil and friendly, without manifesting the least sign of fear or suspicion at our approach; nor did their appearance indicate their having been much inured to hostilities. Several of their stoutest men had been seen perfectly naked, and contrary to what might have been expected of rude nations habituated to warfare, their skins were mostly unblemished by scars, excepting such as the small pox seemed to have occasioned: a disease which there is great reason to believe is very fatal amongst them. It is not however very easy to draw any just conclusions on the true cause from which this havoc of the human race proceeded, which must remain for the investigation of others who may have more leisure, and a better opportunity, to direct such an inquiry: yet it may not be unreasonable to conjecture, that the present apparent depopulation may have arisen in some

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measure from the inhabitants of this interior part having been induced to quit their former abode, and to have moved nearer the exterior coast for the convenience of obtaining in the immediate mart, with more ease and at a cheaper rate, those valuable articles of commerce, that within these late years have been brought to the sea coasts of this continent by Europeans and the citizens of America, and which are in great estimation amongst these people, being possessed by all in a greater or less degree.

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CHAPTER VI.

Enter Admiralty inlet—Anchor off Restoration point—Visit an Indian village—Account of several boat excursions—Proceed to another part of inlet—Take possession of the country.

1792. May. Friday 18.

AGREEABLY to the proposed destination of each vessel, the Discovery and Chatham, at noon, on the 18th of may, directed their course towards the objects of their respective pursuits; and as I had already traced the western shore in the boats, we now kept the eastern side on board, which, like the other, abounds with those verdant open places that have been so repeatedly noticed. On one of these beautiful lawns, nearly a league within the entrance of the inlet, about thirty of the natives came from the surrounding woods, and attentively noticed us as we sailed along. We did not discover any habitations near them, nor did we see any canoes on the beach. On the south side of the lawn, were many uprights in the ground, which had the appearance of having formerly been the supporters of their large wooden houses. We used our endeavours to invite these good people on board, but without effect. After advancing about 4 leagues up the inlet, the pleasant gale, which had attended us from the N.W. died away, and a strong ebb making against us, we were compelled to anchor for the night, in 18 fathoms water, about half a mile from the eastern shore: Marrow-Stone point bearing by compass N. 56 W.; the N.E. point of Oak-cove S. 48 W.; and Foulweather bluff S. 51 E.

Saturday 19.

During the night, we had a gentle southerly breeze, attended by a fog which continued until nine o'clock on saturday morning, when it

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was dispersed by a return of the N.W. wind, with which we pursued our route up the inlet; our progress was, however, soon retarded by the sore-topsail yard giving way in the slings; on examination it appeared to have been in a defective slate some time. The spare sore-topsail yard was also very imperfect; which obliged us to get the spare main-topsail yard up in its room; and it was a very fortunate circumstance, that these defects were discovered in a country abounding with materials to which we could resort; having only to make our choice from amongst thousands of the finest spars the world produces.

To describe the beauties of this region, will, on some future occasion, be a very grateful talk to the pen of a skilful panegyrist. The serenity of the climate, the innumerable pleasing landscapes, and the abundant fertility that unassisted nature puts forth, require only to be enriched by the industry of man with villages, mansions, cottages, and other buildings, to render it the most lovely country that can be imagined; whilst the labour of the inhabitants would be amply rewarded, in the bounties which nature seems ready to bestow on cultivation.

About noon, we passed an inlet on the larboard or eastern shore, which seemed to stretch far to the northward; but, as it was out of the line of our intended pursuit of keeping the continental shore on board, I continued our course up the main inlet, which now extended as far as, from the deck, the eye could reach, though, from the mast-head, intervening land appeared, beyond which another high round mountain covered with snow was discovered apparently situated several leagues to the south of mount Rainier, and bearing by compass S. 22 E. This I considered as a further extension of the eastern snowy range; but the intermediate mountains, connecting it with mount Rainier, were not sufficiently high to be seen at that distance. Having advanced about 8 leagues from our last night's station, we arrived off a projecting point of land, not formed by a low sandy spit, but rising abruptly in a low cliff about ten or twelve feet from the water side. Its surface was a beautiful meadow, covered with luxuriant herbage; on its western extreme, bordering on the woods, was an Indian village, consisting of temporary habitations, from whence several of the natives assembled to view the ship as we passed

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by; but none of them ventured off, though several of their canoes were seen on the beach. Here the inlet divided into two extensive branches, one taking a south-eastwardly, the other a south-western direction. Near this place was our appointed rendezvous with the Chatham; and, under a small island to the S.W. of us, appeared an eligible spot, in which, with security, we might wait her arrival; but, on approaching it, we found the depth of water no where less than 60 fathoms, within a cable's length of the shore. This obliged us to turn up towards the village point, where we found a commodious roadstead; and about seven o'clock in the evening, anchored about a mile from the shore in 38 fathoms water, black sand and muddy bottom. The village point bore by compass N. 4 E., the nearest opposite shore of the main inlet N. 52 E. about a league distant; and the direction of its southern extent S.E.; the above island, lying before the branch leading to the south-westward, bore from S. 36 E. to south, about half a league distant; and the appearance of a small inlet, or cove, west, about the same distance. We had no sooner anchored than a canoe, in which were two men, paddled round the ship. We attempted to induce them, but they were not to be prevailed upon, to enter the vessel; and, having satisfied their curiosity, they hastily returned to the shore. Before the evening closed in, I proceeded to acquire some information respecting the small opening to the westward. It was nearly dark before I reached the shore, which seemed to form a small cove about half a mile in width, incircled by compact shores, with a cluster of rocks above water, nearly in its center, and little worthy of further notice. On my return on board, I directed that a party, under the command of Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey, should, in the launch and cutter, proceed, with a supply of provisions for a week, to the examination of that branch of the inlet leading to the south-westward; keeping always the starboard or continental shore on board: which was accordingly carried into execution, at four o'clock the next morning.

Our situation being somewhat incommoded by the meeting of different tides, we moved nearer in, and anchored in the same depth, and on the same bottom as before, very conveniently to the shore. Our eastern

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view was now bounded by the range of snowy mountains from mount. Baker, bearing by compass north to mount Rainier, bearing N. 54 E. The new mountain was hid by the more elevated parts of the low land; and the intermediate snowy mountains in various rugged and grotesque shapes, were seen just to rear their heads above the lofty pine trees, which appearing to compose one uninterrupted forest, between us and the snowy range, presented a most pleasing landscape; nor was our western view destitute of similar diversification. The ridge of mountains on which mount Olympus is situated, whose rugged summits were seen no less fancifully towering over the forest than those on the eastern side, bounded to a considerable extent our western horizon; on these however not one conspicuous eminence arose, nor could we now distinguish that which on the sea coast appeared to be centrally situated, and forming an elegant bi-forked mountain. From the southern extremity of these ridges of mountains, there seemed to be an extensive tract of land moderately elevated and beautifully diversified by pleasing inequalities of surface, enriched with every appearance of fertility.

Sunday 20.

In the meadow and about the village, many of the natives were seen moving about, whose curiosity seemed little excited on our account. One canoe only had been near us, from which was thrown on board the skin of some small animal, and then it returned instantly to the shore.

Our carpenters were busily engaged in replacing the topsail yards with proper spars, which were conveniently found for that purpose. Some beer was brewed from the spruce, which was here very excellent, and the rest of the crew were employed in a variety of other essential services. The gentle N.W. wind generally prevailed in the day, and calms or light southerly breezes during the night.

Towards noon I went on shore to the village point, for the purpose of observing the latitude; on which occasion I visited the village, if it may be so dignified, as it appeared the most lowly and meanest of its kind. The best of the huts were poor and miserable, constructed something after the fashion of a soldier's tent, by two cross sticks about five feet high, connected at each end by a ridge-pole from one to the other, over some of which was thrown a coarse kind of mat, over others a few loose

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branches of trees, shrubs, or grass; none however appeared to be constructed for protecting them, either against the heat of summer, or the inclemency or the winter. In them were hung up to be cured by the smoke of the fire they kept constantly burning, clams, muscles, and a few other kinds of fish, seemingly intended for their winter's subsistence. The clams perhaps were not all reserved for that purpose, as we frequently saw them strung and worn about the neck, which, as inclination directed, were eaten two, three, or half a dozen at a time. This station did not appear to have been preferred for the purpose of fishing, as we saw few of the people so employed; nearly the whole of the inhabitants belonging to the village, which consisted of about eighty or an hundred men, women and children, were busily engaged like swine, rooting up this beautiful verdant meadow in quest of a species of wild onion, and two other roots, which in appearance and taste greatly resembled the saranne, particularly the largest; the size of the smallest; did not much exceed a large pea: this Mr. Menzies considered to be a new genus. The collecting of these roots was most likely the object which attached them to this spot; they all seemed to gather them with much avidity, and to preserve them with great care, most probably for the purpose of making the paste I have already mentioned.

These people varied in no essential point from the natives we had seen since our entering the straits. Their persons were equally ill made, and as much besmeared with oil and different coloured paints, particularly with red ochre, and a fort of shining chaffy mica, very ponderous, and in colour much resembling black lead; they likewise possessed more ornaments, especially such as were made of copper, the article most valued and esteemed amongst them. They seemed not wanting in offers of friendship and hospitality; as on our joining their party, we were presented with such things as they had to dispose of: and they immediately prepared a few of the roots, and some shell fish for our refreshment, which were very palatable. In these civil offices, two men who appeared the most active, and to be regarded by their countrymen as the most important persons of the party, were particularly assiduous to please. To each of them I made presents which were received very

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thankfully; and on my returning towards the boat, they gave me to understand by signs, the only means we had of conversing with each other, that it would not be long ere they returned our visit on board the ship. This they accordingly did in the afternoon, with no small degree of ceremony. Beside the canoes which brought these two superior people, five others attended, seemingly as an appendage to the consequence of these chiefs, who would not repair immediately on board, but agreeably to the custom of Nootka advanced within about two hundred yards of the ship, and there resting on their paddles a conference was held, followed by a song principally sung by one man, who at stated times was joined in chorus by several others, whilst some in each canoe kept time with the handles of their paddles, by striking them against the gunwale or side of the canoe, sorming a sort of accompanyment, which though expressed by simple notes only, was by no means destitute of an agreeable effect. This performance took place whilst they were paddling slowly round the ship, and on its being concluded, they came alongside with the greatest confidence, and without fear or suspicion immediately entered into a commercial intercourse with our people. The two chiefs however required some little intreaty before they could be induced to venture on board. I again presented them with some valuables, amongst which was a garment for each of blue cloth, some copper, iron in various shapes, and such trinkets as I thought would prove most acceptable. In this respect either my judgment failed, or their passion for traffick and exchange is irresistible; for no sooner had they quitted the cabin, than excepting the copper they bartered away on deck nearly every article I had given them, for others of infinitely less utility or real value, consisting of such things as they could best appropriate to the decoration of their persons, and other ornamental purposes, giving uniformly a decided preference to copper.

Monday 21.

In the morning of the 21st, fell a few showers of rain, which were neither so heavy as to retard our business on shore, nor to prevent the friendly Indians paying us a visit on board. Convinced of our amicable disposition towards them, nearly the whole of the inhabitants, men, women and children, gratified their curiosity in the course of the day by

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paddling round the ship; for neither the ladies nor the children ventured on board. This was the case also with the generality of the men, who contentedly remained in their canoes, rowing from side to side, bartering their bows and arrows; which, with their woollen and skin garments, and a very few indifferent sea-otter skins, composed the whole of their assortment for trading; these they exchanged, in a very fair and honest manner, for copper, hawk's bells, and buttons, articles that greatly attracted their attention. Their merchandize would have been infinitely more valuable to us, had it been comprized of eatables, such as venison, wild fowl or fish, as our sportsmen and fishermen had little success in either of these pursuits. All the natives we had as yet seen, uniformly preferred offering such articles as composed their dress, arms, and implements, for sale, rather than any kind of food, which might probably arise, either from the country not affording them a superabundance of provisions, or from their having early discovered that we were more curious than hungry.

Tuesday 22.

In the evening, some of the canoes were observed passing from the village to the opposite shore, for the purpose, as we supposed, of inviting their neighbours to partake of the advantages of our commerce. This was confirmed, the next morning, by the return of our friends, accompanied by several large canoes, containing near eighty persons, who after ceremoniously paddling round the ships came alongside, without the least hesitation, and conducted themselves with the utmost propriety. The principal number of these evidently belonged to the other side of the inlet; they were infinitely more cleanly than our neighbours; and their canoes were of a very different form. Those of our friends at the village, exactly corresponded with the canoes of Nootka, whilst those of our new visitors were cut off square at each end; and were, in shape, precisely like the canoes seen to the southward of cape Orford, though of greater length, and considerably larger. The commodities they brought for sale, were trifles of a similar description to those offered by the other society: in all other respects, they corresponded with the generality of the few inhabitants of the country with whom we had become acquainted.

Wednes 23.

On wednesday, we had some lightning, thunder, and rain, from the

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S.E.; this continued a few hours, after which the day was very serene and pleasant. Some of our gentlemen having extended their walk to the cove I had visited the first evening of our arrival, sound it to communicate by a very narrow passage, with an opening apparently of some extent. In consequence of this information, accompanied by Mr. Baker in the yawl, I set out the next morning to examine it, and sound the entrance of the opening situated in the western corner of the cove, formed by two interlocking points about a quarter of a mile from each other; these formed a channel about half a mile long, free from rocks or shoals, in which there was not less than 5 fathoms water. From the west end of this narrow channel the inlet is divided into two branches, one extending to the S.W. about 5 or 6 miles, the other to the north about the same distance, constituting a most complete and excellent port, to all appearance perfectly free from danger, with regular soundings from 4 fathoms near the shores, to 9 and 10 fathoms in the middle, good holding ground. It occupied us the whole day to row round it, in doing which we met a few straggling Indians, whose condition seemed excessively wretched and miserable. The country that surrounds this harbour varies in its elevation; in some places the shores are low level land, in others of a moderate height, falling in steep low cliffs on the sandy beach, which in most places binds the shores. It produces some small rivulets of water, is thickly wooded with trees, mostly of the pine tribe, and with some variety of shrubs. This harbour after the gentleman who discovered it, obtained the name of PORT ORCHARD. The best passage into it is found by steering from the village point for the south point of the cove, which is easily distinguished, lying from the former S. 62 W. at the distance of about 2½ miles, then hauling to the N.W. into the cove, keeping on the larboard or S.W. shore, and passing between it and the rocks in the cove; in this channel the depth of water is from 9 to 15 fathoms, gradually decreasing to 5 fathoms in the entrance into the port. There is also another passage round to the north of these rocks, in which there is 7 fathoms water; this is narrow, and by no means so commodious to navigate as the southern channel.

On my return to the ship I understood that few of our friendly neigh-

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bours had visited the vessel. The party was evidently reduced, and those who still remained having satisfied their curiosity, or being compelled by their mode of life, were preparing to depart with all their stock and effects. These it required little labour to remove, consisting chiefly of the mats for covering their habitations, wherever it may be convenient to pitch them; their skin and woollen garments, their arms, implements, and such articles of food as they had acquired during their residence; which, with their family and dogs, all find accommodation in a single canoe; and thus the party is easily conveyed to any station, which fancy, convenience, or necessity, may direct. The dogs belonging to this tribe of Indians were numerous, and much resembled those of Pomerania, though in general somewhat larger. They were all shorn as close to the skin as sheep are in England; and so compact were their fleeces, that large portions could be lifted up by a corner without causing any separation. They were composed of a mixture of a coarse kind of wool, with very fine long hair, capable of being spun into yarn. This gave me reason to believe, that their woollen clothing might in part be composed of this material mixed with a finer kind of wool from some other animal, as their garments were all too fine to be manufactured from the coarse coating of the dog alone. The abundance of these garments amongst the few people we met with, indicates the animal from whence the raw material is procured, to be very common in this neighbourhood; but as they have no one domesticated excepting the dog, their supply of wool for their clothing can only be obtained by hunting the wild creature that produces it; of which we could not obtain the least information.

The weather continued delightfully serene and pleasant; the carpenters had executed their task, and the topsail yards were replaced.

Friday 25.

In the course of the forenoon on friday, some of our Indian friends brought us a whole deer, which was the first intire animal that had been offered to us. This they had killed on the island, and from the number of persons that came from thence, the major part of the remaining inhabitants of the village, with a great number of their dogs, seemed to have been engaged in the chase. This and another deer,

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parts of which remained in one of their canoes, had cost all these good people nearly a day's labour, as they went over to the island for this purpose the preceding evening; yet they were amply rewarded for their exertions by a small piece of copper not a foot square. This they gladly accepted as a full compensation for their venison, on which the whole party could have made two or three good meals; such is the esteem and value with which this metal is regarded!

About four in the afternoon, agreeably to our expectations, the Chatham was seen from the mast head over the land, and about sun-set the arrived and anchored near us. Mr. Broughton informed me, that the part of the coast he had been directed to explore, consisted of an archipelago of islands lying before an extensive arm of the sea stretching in a variety of branches between the N.W. north, and N.N.E. Its extent in the first direction was the most capacious, and presented an unbounded horizon.

On due consideration of all the circumstances that had fallen under my own observation, and the intelligence now imparted by Mr. Broughton, I became thoroughly convinced, that our boats alone could enable us to acquire any correct or satisfactory information respecting this broken country; and although the execution of such a service in open boats would necessarily be extremely laborious, and expose those so employed to numberless dangers and unpleasant situations, that might occasionally produce great fatigue, and protract their return to the ships; yet that mode was undoubtedly the most accurate, the most ready, and indeed the only one in our power to pursue for ascertaining the continental boundary.

The main arm of the inlet leading towards mount Rainier still remained unexplored. It became evident from the length of time Mr. Puget and Mr. Whidbey had been absent, that the inlet they had been sent to examine, had led them to a considerable distance. We had no time to spare, and as it was equally evident none ought to be lost, I directed that Mr. Johnstone in the Chatham's cutter should accompany me in the morning in the Discovery's yawl, for the purpose of examining the main arm; and that Mr. Broughton, on the return of our boats,

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which were now hourly expected, should take Mr. Whidbey in one of them, and proceed immediately to the investigation of that arm of this inlet, which we had passed on the eastern shore, stretching to the N. N. E.; and I desired that the Chatham might be anchored within its entrance in some conspicuous place on the starboard side, where the Discovery or the boats would easily find her, in case the result of my inquiries should render it expedient for the vessels to proceed further in that direction.

Saturday 26.

On saturday morning, accompanied by Mr. Baker in the yawl, and favored by pleasant weather and a fine northerly gale, we departed and made considerable progress. Leaving to the right the opening which had been the object of Mr. Puget and Mr. Whidbey's expedition, we directed our route along the western shore of the main inlet, which is about a league in width; and as we proceeded the smoke of several fires were seen on its eastern shore. When about 4 leagues on a southerly direction from the ships, we sound the course of the inlet take a south westerly inclination, which we pursued about six miles with some little increase of width. Towards noon we landed on a point on the eastern shore, whose latitude I observed to be 47° 21′, round which we flattered ourselves we should find the inlet take an extensive eastwardly course. This conjecture was supported by the appearance of a very abrupt division in the snowy range of mountains immediately to the south of mount Rainier, which was very conspicuous from the ship, and the main arm of the inlet appearing to stretch in that direction from the point we were then upon. We here dined, and although our repast was soon concluded, the delay was irksome, as we were excessively anxious to ascertain the truth, of which we were not long held in suspense. For having passed round the point, we found the inlet to terminate here in an extensive circular compact bay, whose waters washed the base of mount Rainier, though its elevated summit was yet at a very considerable distance from the shore, with which it was connected by several ridges of hills rising towards it with gradual ascent and much regularity. The forest trees and the several shades of verdure that covered the hills gradually decreased in point of beauty until they became invisible; when the perpetual clothing of snow commenced, which seemed to form a

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MOUNT RAINIER, from the SOUTH part of ADMIRALTY INLET.

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horizontal line from north to south along this range of rugged mountains, from whose summit mount Rainier rose conspicuously, and seemed as much elevated above them as they were above the level of the sea; the whole producing a most grand, picturesque effect. The lower mountains as they descended to the right and left, became gradually relieved of their frigid garment; and as they approached the fertile woodland region that binds the shores of this inlet in every direction, produced a pleasing variety. We now proceeded to the N.W in which direction the inlet from hence extended, and afforded us some reason to believe that it communicated with that under the survey of our other party. This opinion was further corroborated by a few Indians, who had in a very civil manner accompanied us some time, and who gave us to understand that in the north western direction this inlet was very wide and extensive; this they expressed before we quitted our dinner station, by opening their arms, and making other signs that we should be led a long way by pursuing that route; whereas, by bending their arm, or spreading out their hand, and pointing to the space contained in the curve of the arm, or between the fore-finger and thumb, that we should find our progress soon stopped in the direction which led towards mount Rainier. The little respect which most Indians bear to truth, and their readiness to assert what they think is most agreeable for the moment, or to answer their own particular wishes and inclinations, induced me to place little dependence on this information, although they could have no motive for deceiving us.

About a dozen of these friendly people had attended at our dinner, one part of which was a venison pasty. Two of them, expressing a desire to pass the line of separation drawn between us, were permitted to do so. They sat down by us, and ate of the bread and fish that we gave them without the least hesitation; but on being offered some of the venison, though they saw us eat it with great relish, they could not be induced to taste it. They received it from us with great disgust, and presented it round to the rest of the party, by whom it underwent a very strict examination. Their conduct on this occasion left no doubt in our minds that they believed it to be human flesh, an impression which

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it was highly expedient should be done away. To satisfy them that it was the flesh of the deer, we pointed to the skins of the animal they had about them. In reply to this they pointed to each other, and made signs that could not be misunderstood, that it was the flesh of human beings, and threw it down in the dirt, with gestures of great aversion and displeasure. At length we happily convinced them of their mistake by shewing them a haunch we had in the boat, by which means they were undeceived, and some of them ate of the remainder of the pye with a good appetite.

This behaviour, whilst in some measure tending to substantiate their knowledge or suspicions that such barbarities have existence, led us to conclude, that the character given of the natives of North-West America does not attach to every tribe. These people have been represented not only as accustomed inhumanly to devour the flesh of their conquered enemies; but also to keep certain servants, or rather slaves, of their own nation, for the sole purpose of making the principal part of the banquet, to satisfy the unnatural savage gluttony of the chiefs of this country, on their visits to each other. Were such barbarities practiced once a month, as is stated, it would be natural to suppose these people so inured, would not have shewn the least aversion to eating flesh of any description; on the contrary, it is not possible to conceive a greater degree of abhorrence than was manifested by these good people, until their minds were made perfectly easy, that it was not human flesh, we offered them to eat. This instance must necessarily exonerate at least this particular tribe from so barbarous a practice; and, as their affinity to the inhabitants of Nootka, and of the sea-coast, to the south of that place, in their manners and customs, admits of little difference, it is but charitable to hope those also, on a more minute inquiry, may be found not altogether deserving such a character. They are not, however, free from the general sailing attendant on a savage life. One of them having taken a knife and fork to imitate our manner of eating, found means to secrete them under his garment; but, on his being detected, gave up his plunder, with the utmost good humour and unconcern.

They accompanied us from three or four miserable huts, near the

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place where we had dined, for about four miles; during which time they exchanged the only things they had to dispose of, their bows, arrows, and spears, in the most fair and honest manner, for hawk's bells, buttons, beads, and such useless commodities.

The first information of the natives, we found perfectly correct; and it was not long before we had every reason to give credit to the second, by finding the inlet divided into two branches, one taking a northerly direction towards the ships, giving that, which, in the morning, we had considered to be the western shore of the main inlet, the appearance of an island, 8 or 9 leagues in circuit; the other stretched to the southwestward; and into which ran a very strong tide. Although there was little doubt of our having been preceded in the examination of this branch, yet, as the strength of the influx indicated its extremity to be at some distance, I determined, as we were well supplied for the excursion, to embrace the advantage of so favorable an opportunity of keeping the larboard shore on board, and of examining such inlets as might be found leading to the left; that, in the event of Mr. Puget having been unable to accomplish the task assigned him, our survey might be completed without another expedition into this region. With the assistance of the strong tide, we rapidly passed through a fair navigable channel, near half a league wide, with soundings from 24 to 30 fathoms, free from any appearance of shoals, rocks, or other interruptions. The eastern shore was found nearly strait and compact; but on the western, three wide openings were seen, whose terminations were not distinguishable; and the strength with which the tide flowed into the two northernmost, induced us to consider them as very extensive.

Having advanced in a direction S. 32 W. about 3 leagues from the south, or inner point of entrance, into an opening, situated in latitude 47° 19′½, longitude 237° 42′, we halted about eight in the evening for the night, on a small island, lying about a mile from the eastern shore. The general character of the situation in which we had now arrived, indicated it to be a continuation of the main branch of the inlet, we had been thus long navigating. The insulated appearance of its western side, the rapidity of the flood tide, and its increasing width, gave us rea-

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son to suppose we should find it still more extensive. Whilst employed in arranging our matters for the night, we discovered, coming out of the southernmost opening, two small vessels, which, at first, were taken for Indian canoes, but, on using our glasses, they were considered to be our two boats. The evening was cloudy; and, closing in very soon, prevented a positive decision. The original idea was, however, somewhat confirmed on firing two muskets, which were not answered.

Sunday 27.

During the night, we had some rain, with a fresh gale from the S.E. which abated by the morning; the rain still continued, but not so violently as to prevent our proceeding. At four o'clock on sunday morning, we again embarked, and steered about S.W. by S.; in which direction the inlet seemed to stretch to some distance; and the appearance of the southern land gave rise to an opinion of its terminating in a river. The space we had so considered was, by seven o'clock, proved to be a low swampy compact shore, forming the southern extremity of the inlet in this direction, about 2 leagues from our last resting place. The inlet here terminated in an expansive though shallow bay across which a flat of sand extended upwards of a mile from its shores; on which was lying an immense quantity of drift wood, consisting chiefly of very large trees. The country behind, for some distance, was low, then rose gradually to a moderate height; and, like the eastern shores of the inlet, was covered with wood, and diversified with pleasant inequalities of hill and dale, though not enriched with those imaginary park and pleasure grounds we had been accustomed to behold nearer to the sea coast; the whole presenting one uninterrupted wilderness.

From hence the direction of the inlet was about N.W. by N., still preserving a considerable width; the western shore appearing to be formed by a group of islands. Our progress was a little retarded by the rain in the forenoon; but, about mid-day the clouds dispersed, though not sufficiently early to procure an observation for the latitude. We had now reached a point on the larboard shore, where the inlet was again divided into two other large branches, one leading to the south-westward, the other towards the north. As my plan was to pursue the examination of the larboard shore, the south-west branch became our first object.

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This we found divided into two narrow channels, leading to the southward, with the appearance of two small coves to the northward. Up the westernmost of the former, about six miles, we took up our abode for the night, which was serene and pleasant.

Monday 28.

Early in the morning we again started, and soon found the canal to terminate about a league from the place where we had slept the night before, as the rest had done, in low swampy ground, with a shallow sandy bank extending to some distance into the canal. Here we met, as had been frequently the case, a few miserable Indians in their temporary habitations; these either had nothing to dispose of, or were not inclined to have intercourse with us; the latter seemed most probable, as our visit was not attended with that cordial reception we had generally experienced. This however might have been occasioned by our having disturbed them unusually early from their rest; we made them some presents which they accepted very coolly, and having satisfied ourselves with the extent of the inlet in this direction we returned, and about nine o'clock landed to breakfast about two miles within the main entrance of the south-west branch. We left behind us to the westward the appearance of two or three small islands or points, that might form similar inlets to those we had already examined, leading to the south. These could be of little extent, as scarcely any visible tide was found in the narrowest parts.

From the length of time also that the other boats had been absent previous to our departure from the ships, together with the appearance and direction of the inlet, I entertained little doubt that the greater part of what we had seen, as also that which we were now leaving unexplored, had undergone the examination of Mr. Puget and Mr. Whidbey. This induced me to return on board, considering we were now passing our time to little purpose; and as the branch of the main inlet before us stretching to the northward, presented every prospect of communicating with some of those we had passed on saturday evening, we pursued that route. The situation we quitted this morning, according to my survey, was in latitude 47° 3′, longitude 237° 18′, about 17 leagues from the sea coast of New Albion, towards which, from the moderate height of the country, there could

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be little doubt of an easy intercourse by land. About noon we landed on a point of the eastern shore, whose latitude is 47° 15′½, longitude 237° 17′½. From hence we proceeded with a pleasant southerly gale, to ascertain if any communication existed, as we had before conjectured. The further we advanced the more doubtful it became, until at length about 3 leagues north of the above point, it terminated like all the other canals in a shallow flat before a low swampy bog. Here we dined, and about four in the afternoon set out on our return by the way we had come, purposing to stop for the night at a cove a little to the south of the point we were upon at noon, where we arrived about nine in the evening. Mr. Johnstone, who had kept along the western shore in order to look into a small opening we had passed in sailing down, had the advantage by being on the weather shore, and had arrived a short time before us. He informed me the opening was very narrow, and could extend but a little way before it joined that which we had quitted this morning. Whilst; he was on shore for the purpose of taking the necessary angles, a deer came down to the beach, which Mr. Le Mesurier, the gentleman who had attended him in the boat, fired at, and fortunately killed. It proved to be a very fine buck, and afforded our people a good fresh meal, which was some compensation for the disappointment we experienced in not finding a passage home by the route we had lately pursued.

Tuesday 29.

About day-break, as usual, on the morning of the 29th, we again resumed our voyage towards the ships, which were now distant about 45 miles. Towards noon we landed on the north point of entrance into the second opening we had passed on saturday evening; the latitude of which is 47° 15′½. The strength of the ebb tide facilitated our progress, and our conjectures were soon proved to have been well founded in this being the same inlet, which I had directed the other party to examine. We were carried with great rapidity for some time up the branch leading to the northward, and through this channel we arrived in the evening on board, without seeing any other opening leading to the westward. The land composing the eastern shore of this channel, and the western shore of that we had pursued on saturday morning,

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was now ascertained to be the most extensive island we had yet met with in our several examinations of this coast; which after my friend Captain Vashon of the navy, I have distinguished by the name of VASHON'S ISLAND.

Late on the preceding saturday night, or rather on sunday morning, our other party had returned. It was them we had seen the first evening of our excursion from the island, and they very distinctly saw our fire: but as they did not hear the report of the muskets, concluded it a fire of the natives, not having the least idea of any of our boats being in that neighbourhood. They had explored all those parts of the inlet we had passed by, and found the three openings we left unexamined, the first afternoon, leading to the westward, to be channels dividing that shore into three islands; and those we had not attended to on monday morning formed two small branches leading to the S.W.; the westernmost of which extends to the latitude of 47° 6′, about 2 leagues to the westward of our researches in that direction; that in which the deer was shot communicated with the S.W. branch of the inlet by a very narrow channel. They had also passed the opening we had pursued leading towards mount Rainier; but agreeably to my directions had not prosecuted its examination; the termination of every other opening in the land they had ascertained. Thus by our joint efforts, we had completely explored every turning of this extensive inlet; and to commemorate Mr. Puget's exertions, the south extremity of it I named PUGET'S SOUND.

The Chatham had failed on monday, and Mr. Whidbey had departed in the Discovery's launch for the purpose of carrying into effect the orders I had left with Mr. Broughton.

Mr. Puget had little more to communicate respecting his late expedition than what had fallen under my own observations, excepting the disorderly behaviour of an Indian tribe he had met with at some distance up the first arm leading to the westward within the narrows, whose conduct had materially differed from that of the natives in general; and in particular from that of a party consisting of about twenty natives whom they had before seen in that route, and who had behaved with their usual friendship and civility. In this arm they found the shores

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in general low and well wooded. About eight in the evening, attended by some of the natives in two canoes, they landed for the night. These people could not be invited nearer our party than about an hundred yards, where they remained attentive to all the operations until the tents were pitched, when it became necessary to discharge some loaded muskets, the noise of which they heard without any apparent surprize, and exclaimed poo! after every report. They soon afterwards paddled away to the westward. The next morning Mr. Puget proceeded up the arm, which took a N. E. direction about a mile wide, narrowing as they advanced to one fourth of that width; the soundings were found regular from 8 to 13 fathoms. In this situation they saw a canoe making towards them, on which they rested on their oars to wait its approach. The canoe suddenly stopped, and no offers of presents, nor signs of friendly inclinations, could induce the Indians to venture near the boat. In order to remove their apprehensions, Mr. Puget fastened some medals, copper, and trinkets, to a piece of wood which he left floating on the water; and when the boat was at a sufficient distance, the Indians picked it up. After repeating this twice or thrice they ventured, though not without some trepidation, alongside the boats. In their persons they seemed more robust than the generality of the inhabitants; most of them had lost their right eye, and were much pitted with the small-pox. They now attended the boats for a short time, and having received some additional presents, returned to the shore. The whole of their conduct exhibited much suspicion and distrust. When any question was endeavoured to be put to them, they replied by poo! poo! pointing at the same time to a small island on which the party had breakfasted, and where some birds had been shot. They seemed well acquainted with the value of iron and copper, but would not dispose of their weapons, or any other article in exchange for either. About noon the party landed to dine; and whilst they were preparing to haul the seine before a fresh water brook, six canoes were seen paddling hastily round the point of the cove they were in, and directing their course towards the boats. The suspicious behaviour of those whom they had parted with in the morning, rendered it highly expedient that they should be upon

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their guard against any hostile design of these people; on whose approach, a line on the beach was drawn, to separate the two parties from each other; which was readily understood, and obeyed. They now divided their numbers into two sets, one remaining on shore with their bows and quivers, the other retiring to their canoes, where they quietly seated themselves.

Thus, with every appearance of good order being established, the officers went to dinner, on an elevated spot a few yards from the water-side, where the crews were dining in their respective boats, and in readiness to act in case of any alarm. On a seventh canoe joining the Indian party, those on the beach immediately embarked; and the whole number, amounting to twenty-four persons, evidently entered into a consultation, during which they frequently pointed to those in the boats, as well as to the officers on the hill. This conduct tended to increase the suspicions that their inclinations were otherwise than friendly, however imprudent they might deem it, on the present moment, to carry their intentions into execution. But as our party could not be surprized, and as they were ready to act immediately on the defensive, Mr. Puget and the other gentlemen did not consider their situation alarming, and preferred quietly finishing their repast, to that of indicating any signs of distrust or apprehension, by a precipitate retreat. Towards the conclusion of their conference, three of their canoes were stealing near to the boats; but, on finding they were discovered by the officers, instantly returned. At this time, an eighth canoe joined the party; on which all of them paddled to the beach, jumped on shore, and strung their bows. This was manifestly preparing for an attack, as they had not ever been seen, on any former occasion, with their bows strung. The very man who appeared the principal in the canoe, they had met in the morning, and with whom so much trouble was taken to obtain his good opinion, now seemed the leader of this party; and, with an arrow across his bow in readiness for immediate use, advanced towards the station of the officers, whilst others of the party were moving that way. Such measures however were prudently resorted to, without proceeding to extremities, as obliged them all to retreat to the line of separation, where

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they again held a close and long consultation; and our gentlemen having now no object to detain them on shore, they re-embarked, leaving the Indians at the line of separation, sharpening their arrows and spears on stones, apparently much inclined, though irresolute, to attempt hostilities. In this undecided state of their minds, Mr. Puget thought it might answer a good purpose to fire a swivel, shotted; the effect of which, might teach them to respect, hereafter, our powers of defence, and induce them, on the present occasion, to prefer a pacific deportment, and preserve the lives of many, that must have been lost, had they been so injudicious as to have commenced an attack. Although, on the report of the gun, or the distant effect of the shot, which was fired over the water, not the least visible astonishment or apprehension was expressed, yet, the measure was almost instantly attended with every expected good consequence. Their bows were soon unstrung; and instead of their menacing a combat, their weapons became articles of traffic, in common with other trifles they had to dispose of, for copper, buttons, knives, beads, and other ornaments; in which friendly intercourse, they accompanied the boats until towards the evening, when they peaceably took their leave, and returned to their home.

From Mr. Puget I likewise understood, that, in the course of his excursion, himself and party had visited, and had received the visits of several other tribes of Indians, whose behaviour had been uniformly civil, courteous, and friendly. Why that party, whose unfriendly intentions were too evident to be mistaken, should have been induced to assume, without the least provocation, a character so diametrically opposite to that which, in every other instance, seemed to govern their general conduct, is certainly very mysterious, and renders the foregoing an extraordinary circumstance, for which it is difficult to account.

The country we had mutually explored, did not appear, to either party, from our transient view of it, materially to differ from that which has already been described, either in its several productions from the foil, or in its general appearance of fertility. It did not, however, possess that beautiful variety of landscape; being an almost impenetrable

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wilderness of lofty trees, rendered nearly impassable by the underwood, which uniformly incumbers the surface.

By the termination of the western range of snowy mountains in their southern direction, taking place considerably to the north-westward, and the more elevated land intercepting the view of such mountains as may extend from the eastern range, southward of mount Rainier, we were presented with more than the whole southern horizon of land moderately high, extending as far as the eye could reach, diversified by eminences and vallies, affording a probability of an easy intercourse by land with the sea coast; where, some places of shelter for small vessels yet may possibly be found, which, in the event of an establishment being formed, would prove highly advantageous.

The scarcity of water has before been mentioned as the only disadvantage that the interior country seemed to labour under; but in Mr. Puget's survey, a greater supply of water was found than in the inlets and bays that underwent my own particular examination. The country had also been considered by us as nearly destitute of inhabitants: but this opinion we found to be erroneous, from the other party having, by accident, fallen in with near an hundred and fifty Indians, and having seen several deserted villages.

The point near our present station, forming the north point of the bay, hitherto called the Village point, I have distinguished by the name of RESTORATION POINT, having celebrated that memorable event, whilst at anchor under it; and from the result of my observations, made on the spot, it is situated in latitude 47° 30′, longitude 237° 46′. During our stay the tides were observed to be materially affected, by the direction or force of the winds, not only in respect to their rise and fall, but as to the time of high water. The former seldom exceeded 7 or 8 feet: and the latter generally took place about 4h 10′ after the moon passed the meridian. The variation of the compass, by six sets of azimuths taken on board, differing from 18° to 22°, gave the mean result of 19° 36′ east variation.

Wednes. 30.

Nothing occurring to detain us, on wednesday morning, with a pleasant southerly breeze, we directed our course to the opening under the

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examination of Mr. Broughton; the entrance of which lies from Restoration point, N. 20 E., 5 leagues distant. The breeze, as was usual, dying away, we advanced very slowly; towards noon, it was succeeded by a N.W. wind, accompanied with the flood-tide, so that, by the time we had worked up the opening, the ebb, tide was returning not only with great strength, but attended by a sort of counter tide, or under tow, that so affected the ship, as to render her almost unmanageable, notwithstanding we had a fresh breeze, and were assisted in working in by our boats. Having advanced about 3 miles within the entrance, which we found about half a league across, and, in the evening, seeing no appearance of the Chatham, a gun was fired, which was immediately answered from behind a point of land, on the starboard, or eastern shore, where, soon afterwards, we saw the Chatham bearing a light at her mast-head for our guidance; and, though within the distance of 2 miles, it was near midnight before we anchored in 32 fathoms water, about a cable's length from her: not having been able to gain soundings with 110 fathoms of line, until we reached this station.

Thursday 31.

The next morning, we sound ourselves about a cable's length from the shore, in a capacious sound; whose entrance bore by compass from S. 2 W. to S. 30 W., about 6 miles from us, from whence it extended in a true N.N.E. direction. To the north was a high round island, bearing from N. 18 W. to N. 33 W.; on each side of which an opening was seen stretching to the northward. These openings were separated by a high narrow slip of land, which also appeared to be insulated. The eastern side of the sound formed a deep bay, apparently bounded by solid compact land of a moderate height.

Mr. Broughton informed me, he had navigated the east side of the round island in the brig, and had examined the eastern shore of the sound, which was, as it appeared to be, a compact shore. Mr. Whidbey, in our launch, accompanied by Lieutenant Hanson in the Chatham's, had, on the 29th, been dispatched to the two openings to the northward, with directions to examine the right-hand, or easternmost, first; and, on finding its termination, to return with such information to the Chatham, before they proceeded to visit the other; that, in the event of the Dis-

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covery's arrival previous to their return, the vessels might follow them in such pursuit, observing to keep on the eastern shore until they should find it divided into two branches. This being the third day of their absence, it was concluded they had sound the easternmost opening to be of considerable extent; in consequence of which I determined to follow them, but the weather being calm and gloomy, with some rain, we were prevented moving. On a low point of land near the ship, I observed the latitude to be 47° 57′½, longitude 237° 58′. A light favorable breeze sprang up shortly after noon; but before the anchor was at the ship's bows it again fell calm, with much rain, which obliged us to remain quiet. The Chatham however weighed, and being soon off the bank, which does not reach a quarter of a mile from the shore, was instantly out of soundings, and was driven by the ebb-tide until nine in the evening to the entrance of the sound. At this time a fresh southerly breeze springing up we weighed, and directed our course northward, to pass on the western side of the round island.

We had now been stationary upwards of twenty hours, and during that time the tide or current had constantly sat out; the like was observed by Mr. Broughton during his continuance in the same place. The southerly wind, attended by a heavy fall of rain, soon became so saint, that by eleven at night we had proceeded only 5 miles. Here we were obliged to anchor in 20 fathoms water, hard sandy bottom, near half way between the island and the point that divides the two openings, which are about a league asunder.

June Friday 1.

About six in the morning of june the 1st, assisted by the stood tide, and a light south-easterly wind, we proceeded up the eastern arm; the entrance of which is about a mile wide, with soundings from 75 to 80 fathoms, dark sandy bottom. The weather being rainy, calm, or attended with light variable winds, most of the forenoon we made little progress. During this interval the Chatham gained some advantage of us, and about noon proceeded with a favorable breeze from the southward up the opening. The haze which had obscured the land all the sore part of the day, gave the inlet an extensive appearance, without any visible termination: but on the fog's dispersing, it seemed to be

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closed in every direction, excepting that by which we had entered; but as soundings could not be gained with 50 fathoms of line, we continued our course up the inlet until about two o'clock, at which time we had advanced 6 miles from the entrance; and being perfectly satisfied that the inlet finished in the manner common to all we had hitherto examined, the signal was made for the Chatham to bring up, and we shortened sail accordingly. In a few minutes she was discovered to be a-ground, and had made the signal for assistance. On this we stood towards her, and anchored about a mile from her in 20 fathoms water, sandy bottom, and about half that distance from the eastern shore, which was the nearest land. Our boats were immediately sent to her relief; but as the tide subsided very fast, they could only lay out anchors for heaving her off on the returning stood. Although the upper part of the inlet had appeared to be perfectly closed, yet it was not impossible a channel might exist on the western or opposite shore, which by interlocking points might have been invisible to us on board, and through which our absent party might have sound a passage. To ascertain this fact, I went in the yawl, and sound the depth of water suddenly to decrease on leaving the ship to 10, 7, and 2 fathoms. We continued our researches in 1 and 2 fathoms water to the opposite side, where we landed nearly a-breast of the ship, and sound the shores of the inlet to be strait, compact, and about two miles apart. In several places we attempted to land near the upper end, but found ourselves as often repulsed by a slat sandy shoal, which extended directly across. The land there seemed of a swampy nature, was thinly wooded, and thought it, was the appearance of a shallow rivulet falling into the sea; further back it was more elevated, and the surrounding country being covered with a similar growth of timber to that before noticed, made us conclude the land to be equally fertile.

This examination perplexed me extremely to account for an error that had certainly taken place. For under the conviction that this inlet had been found navigable by the boats, I should not have hesitated to have prosecuted my way hither in the ship at midnight, in consequence of the party not having made any report to the contrary. This could only

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be attributed to a misunderstanding of the orders given, or to some un-fortunate accident having besallen them. The latter we had no reason to apprehend, unless from an attack of the Indians, which was not very likely to have happened, as we saw not the least indication of either permanent or temporary habitations. I called on board the Chatham on my return, and was happy to understand that there was little probability of her receiving any injury, having grounded on a muddy bank; and that there was every prospect of her floating off the next tide. In sounding to lay out their anchors, it became evident that in the very direction in which they had sailed to their then station, they had run upwards of half a mile on this bank in 2 fathoms water, in consequence of the unpardonable negligence of the man at the lead, who had announced false soundings, and for which he was deservedly pumshed. She was hove off about midnight, and anchored near us without having received the least damage.

Saturday 2.

The Chatham being in readiness by ten the next morning, with a light northerly breeze, attended with gloomy weather and some rain, we directed our route back by the way we had come, and it was not until three o'clock that we reached the sound, where we again anchored in 50 fathoms, a quarter of a mile from the eastern shore, and about six times that distance to the eastward of the arm we had quitted, which forms an excellent harbour, well sheltered from all winds; but during our short stay there we saw no appearance of any fresh water. Here our position was before a small bay, into which flowed two excellent streams, but these were so nearly on a level with the sea, that it became necessary either to procure the water at low tide, or at some distance up the brook; which latter was easily effected, as our boats were admitted to where the fresh water fell from the elevated land. In this situation the observed latitude was 48° 2′½, longitude 237° 57′½, being 6 miles S. S. E. from our last anchorage.

As there was little doubt now remaining that the party had proceeded to the examination of the other inlet, and as the weather was thick and hazy with some rain, a gun was now and then sired to direct them to the ships in case they should be on their return.

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In the course of the afternoon we were tolerably successful with the seine, as we had also been in the above harbour, in taking a quantity of fish similar to those we procured in port Discovery. About eight in the evening we had the satisfaction of hearing our gun answered; and at nine the boats safely returned to the vessels.

Mr. Whidbey informed me, that on his return from the survey of the port we had quitted in the morning, he saw the Chatham working off the east end of the round island at so little distance, that he concluded the boats could not have escaped the observation of those on board; and under that impression, and his anxiety to forward this tedious service, he had availed himself of a favorable southerly wind, and stood tide, to prosecute his examination of the other branch, whose entrance he had sound something wider than the harbour we had left, having 60 fathoms depth of water, with a soft muddy bottom. Its general direction led N.N.W. Having advanced about four miles, they sound on a low projecting point of the western shore, a village containing a numerous tribe of the natives. But as my orders, as well as the general inclination of the officers, were to prevent by all possible means the chance of any misunderstanding, it was the uniform practice to avoid landing in the presence of considerable numbers; and as it was now the dinner time of our party, Mr. Whidbey very prudently made choice of the opposite shore, in the hope of making a quiet meal without the company of the Indians. Having reached the place where they intended to land, they were met by upwards of two hundred, some in their canoes with their families, and others walking along the shore, attended by about forty dogs in a drove, shorn close to the skin like sheep. Notwithstanding their numbers, it was important to land for the purpose of taking angles; and they had the satisfaction of being received on shore with every mark of cordial friendship. Mr. Whidbey however, thought it prudent to remain no longer in their society than was absolutely necessary; and having finished the business for which he had landed, he instantly embarked, and continued his route up the inlet until the evening, when he landed for the night about nine miles within its entrance In the morning they again pursued their inquiry, and soon after they

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had landed to breakfast, they were visited by a large canoe full of Indians, who were immediately followed by an hundred more of the natives, bringing with them the mats for covering their temporary houses, and, seemingly, every other article of value belonging to them.

On landing, which they did without the least hesitation, their behaviour was courteous and friendly in the highest degree. A middle-aged man, to all appearance the chief or principal person of the party, was foremost in shewing marks of the greatest hospitality; and perceiving our party were at breakfast, presented them with water, roasted roots, dried fish, and other articles of food. This person, in return, received some presents, and others were distributed amongst the ladies and some of the party. The chief, for so we must distinguish him, had two hangers, one of Spanish, the other of English manufacture, on which he seemed to set a very high value. The situation of the spot where they had landed was delightful; the shores on each side the inlet being composed of a low country, pleasingly diversified by hills, dales, extensive verdant lawns, and clear spaces in the midst of the forest, together with the cordial reception they had met from the natives, induced Mr. Whidbey to continue his examination on shore; on which occasion he was accompanied by the chief and several of the party, who conducted themselves with the greatest propriety; though with no small degree of civil curiosity in examining his clothes, and expressing a great desire to be satisfied as to the colour of the skin they covered; making signs, that his hands and face were painted white, instead of being black or red like their own; but when convinced of their mistake by opening his waistcoat, their astonishment was inexpressible. From these circumstances, and the general tenor of their behaviour, Mr. Whidbey concluded they had not before seen any Europeans, though, from the different articles they possessed, it was evident a communication had taken place; probably, by the means of distinct trading tribes. The people, who had been met in that inlet removing with their families, and all their moveable property, were not unlikely to be of this commercial description; particularly, as their voyage was towards the sea-coast, where, in some convenient situation near to the general resort of Europeans, they might six their

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abode until an opportunity was afforded them to barter their commodities for the more valuable productions of Europe, which are afterwards disposed of to the inhabitants of the interior country at a very exorbitant price. This circumstance tends, in some degree, to corroborate an opinion hazarded on a former occasion to this effect.

On the boats being ordered in shore to receive Mr. Whidbey and the gentlemen who had attended him in his walk, the launch grounded, which was no sooner perceived by the Indian chief, than he was foremost in using every exertion to shove her off. This being effected, and the gentlemen embarked, most of these good people took their leave, and seemed to part with their newly-acquired friends with great reluctance. The chief, and a few others, accompanied our party, until they had advanced about fourteen miles from the entrance, when they, very civilly, took their departure; here the arm branched off from its former direction of about N.N.W., to the westward, and N.E. The latter being the object of their pursuit, they soon arrived off another extensive and populous village, whence several canoes came off with not less than seventy of the natives in them; and several others were seen coming from the different parts of the shore. Those who approached the boats conducted themselves with the utmost propriety, shewing, by repeated invitations to their dwellings, the greatest hospitality, and making signs, that they had plenty of food to bestow. In these intreaties the ladies were particularly earnest, and expressed much chagrin and mortification that their offers of civility were declined. As the boats failed past the village those in the canoes returned to the shore.

The direction which the land took to the N.E. conducted them to a considerable branch whose outer points lie from each other N. 20 W., about a league asunder. From its eastern shore a shallow slat of sand, on which are some rocky islets and rocks, runs out, until within half a mile of the western shore, forming a narrow channel, navigated by them in nearly a N.N.W. direction, for about 3 leagues. The depth, at its entrance, was 20 fathoms; but gradually decreased to four, as they advanced up the channel which is formed by the western shore, and the sand-bank, continuing with great regularity, about half a mile wide,

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to the latitude of 48° 24′, longitude 237° 45′, where it then ceased to be navigable for vessels of any burthen, in consequence of the rocks and overfals from 3 to 20 fathoms deep, and a very irregular and disagreeable tide. On meeting these impediments, the party returned, with intention of exploring the opening leading to the westward. As they re-passed the village, they were again visited by their friendly chief, attended by two or three canoes only, who presented them with a most welcome supply of very fine small fish which, in many respects, resembled, and, most probably were, a species of the smelt. He accepted, with apparent pleasure, an invitation into the launch, where he remained with Mr. Whidbey until the evening, ate and drank of such things as were offered with the greatest confidence, and on being made acquainted that the party was going to rest, bad them farewell with every mark of respect and friendship.

In the morning, the examination of the western branch was pursued, and sound to terminate in a very excellent and commodious cove or harbour, with regular soundings from 10 to 20 fathoms, good holding ground. Its western extent situated in latitude 48° 17′, longitude 237° 38′, is not more than a league from the eastern shore of the main inlet, within the straits. On each point of the harbour, which in honor of a particular friend I call PENN'S COVE, was a deserted village; in one of which were sound several sepulchres formed exactly like a centry box. Some of them were open, and contained the skeletons of many young children tied up in baskets; the smaller bones of adults were likewise noticed, but no one of the limb bones could here be found, which gave rise to an opinion that these, by the living inhabitants of the neighbourhood, were appropriated to useful purposes, such as pointing their arrows, spears, or other weapons. The surrounding country, for several miles in most points of view, presented a delightful prospect, consisting chiefly of spacious meadows, elegantly adorned with clumps of trees; amongst which the oak bore a very considerable proportion, in size from four to six feet in circumference. In these beautiful pastures, bordering on an expansive sheet of water, the deer were seen playing about in great numbers. Nature had here provided the well-stocked park, and wanted only the assistance of art to constitute that desirable assemblage of surface, which is so much

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sought in other countries, and only to be acquired by an immoderate expence in manual labour. The soil principally consisted of a rich black vegetable mould, lying on a sandy or clayey substratum; the grass, of an excellent quality, grew to the height of three feet, and the ferns, which, in the sandy soils, occupied the clear spots, were nearly twice as high. The country in the vicinity of this branch of the sea is, according to Mr. Whidbey' s representation, the finest we had yet met with, notwithstanding the very pleasing appearance of many others; its natural productions were luxuriant in the highest degree, and it was, by no means, ill supplied with streams of fresh water. The number of its inhabitants he estimated at about six hundred, which I should suppose would exceed the total of all the natives we had before seen; the other parts of the sound did not appear, by any means, so populous, as we had been visited by one small canoe only, in which were five of the natives, who civilly furnished us with some small fish. The character and appearance of their several tribes here seen did not seem to differ in any material respect from each other, or from those we have already had occasion to mention.

Sunday 3. Monday 4.

A fortnight had now been dedicated to the examination of this inlet; which I have distinguished by the name of ADMIRALTY INLET: we had still to return about forty miles through this tedious inland navigation, before we could arrive on a new field of inquiry. The broken appearance of the region before us, and the difficulties we had already encountered in tracing its various shores, incontestibly proved, that the object of our voyage could alone be accomplished by very flow degrees. Perfectly satisfied with the arduousness of the task in which we were engaged, and the progress we were likely to make, I became anxiously solicitous to move the instant an opportunity should serve. The two following days were however unfavorable to that purpose, and after the great fatigue our people had lately undergone, were well appropriated to holidays. On sunday all hands were employed in fishing with tolerably good success, or in taking a little recreation on shore; and on monday they were served as good a dinner as we were able to provide them, with double allowance of great to drink the King's health, it being the anni-

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versary of His Majesty's birth; on which auspicious day, I had long since designed to take formal possession of all the countries we had lately been employed in exploring, in the name of, and for His Britannic Majesty, his heirs and successors.

To execute this purpose, accompanied by Mr. Broughton, and some of the officers, I went on shore about one o'clock, pursuing the usual which are generally observed on such occasions, and under the of a royal from the vessels, took possession accordingly of the coast, from that part of New Albion, in the latitude of 39° 20′ north, and longitude 236° 26′ east, to the entrance of this inlet of the sea, said to be the supposed straits of Inan de Fuca; as likewise all the coast islands, &c. within the said straits, as well on the northern as on the southern shores; together with those situated in the interior sea we had discovered, extending from the said straits, in various directions, between the north-west, north, east, and southern quarters; which interior sea I have honored with the name of THE GULPH OF GEORGIA, and the continent binding the said gulph, and extending southward to the 45th degree of north latitude, with that of NEW GEORGIA, in honor of His present Majesty. This branch of Admiralty inlet obtained the name of POSSESSION SOUND; its western arm, after Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner, I distinguish by the name of PORT GARDNER, and its smaller or eastern one by that of PORT SUSAN.

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CHAPTER VII.

Quit Admiralty inlet and proceed to the northward—Anchor in Birch bay—Prosecute the survey in the boats—Meet two Spanish vessels—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1792. June. Tuesday 5.

A Light breeze springing up from the N. W. about seven in the morning of tuesday the 5th of june, we failed down Possession sound. This wind brought with it, as usual, serene and pleasant weather. Whilst we were passing gently on, the chief, who had shewn so much friendly attention to Mr. Whidbey and his party, with several of his friends came on board, and presented us with some fruit and dried fish. He entered the ship with some reluctance, but as no sooner on deck than he seemed perfectly reconciled; and with much inquisitive earnestness regarded the surrounding objects, the novelty of which seemed to fill his mind with surprise and admiration. The unaffected hospitable attention he had shewn our people, was not likely upon this occasion to be forgotten. After he had visited the different parts of the ship, at which he expressed the greatest astonishment, I presented him and his friends with an assortment of such things as they esteemed to be most valuable; and then they took their leave, seemingly highly pleased with their reception.

The N.W. wind was unfavorable after we were clear of Possession found, and obliged us to work to windward, which discovered to us a shoal lying in a bay, just to the westward of the north point of entrance into the found, a little distance from the shore. It shews itself above water, and is discoverable by the soundings gradually decreasing to 10, 7, and 5 fathoms, and cannot be considered as any material impediment to the navigation of the bay. As the ebb-tide was greatly in our favour,

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I did not wait to examine it further, but continued plying to windward until midnight, when being unable to gain any ground against the strength of the flood, we anchored in 22 fathoms water about half a mile from the western shore of Admiralty inlet, and about half way between Oak cove and Marrow-stone point; the Chatham having anchored before us some distance astern.

Wednes. 6.

The ebb again returned at the rate of about 3 miles per hour; but as it was calm we did not move until the N.W. wind set in about seven in the morning, when we worked out of the inlet.

Having reached its entrance, we were met by several canoes from the westward. Some of the headmost, when they had advanced near to the ship made signs of peace, and came alongside, giving us to understand that their friends behind wished to do the same, and requesting we would shorten sail for that purpose. They seemed very solicitous to dissuade us from proceeding to the northward by very vociferous and vehement arguments; but as their language was completely unintelligible, and their wishes not appertaining to the object of our pursuit so far as we were enabled to comprehend their meaning, we treated their advice with perfect indifference, on which they departed, joined the rest of their countrymen, and proceeded up Admiralty inlet, whose north point, called by me POINT PARTRIDGE, is situated in latitude 48° 16′, longitude 237° 31′, and is formed by a high white sandy cliff, having one of the verdant lawns on either side of it. Passing at the distance of about a mile from this point we very suddenly came on a small space of 10 fathom water, but immediately again increased our depth to 20 and 30 fathoms. After advancing a few miles along the eastern shore of the gulph, we found no effect either from the ebb or flood tide, and the wind being light and variable from the northward, at three in the afternoon we were obliged to anchor in 20 fathoms water, sandy bottom.

In this situation New Dungeness bore by compass S. 54 W.; the east point of Protection island S. 15 W.; the west point of Admiralty inlet, which after my much esteemed friend Captain George Wilson of the navy, I distinguished by the name of POINT WILSON, S. 35 E. situated in latitude 48° 10′, longitude 237° 31′; the nearest shore east, two

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leagues distant but; a low sandy island forming at its west end a low cliff above which some dwarf trees are produced from N. 26 W. to N.40 W.; and the proposed station for the vessels during the examination of the continental shore by the boats, which, from Mr. Broughton who had visited it, obtained the name of STRAWBERRY BAY, N. 11 W. at the distance of about 6 leagues, situated in a region apparently much broken and divided by water. Here we remained until seven in the evening; we then weighed, but with so little wind, that after having drifted to the southward of our former station, we were obliged again to anchor until six the next morning, when we made an attempt to proceed, but were soon again compelled to become stationary near our last situation.

On reflecting that the summer was now fast advancing, and that the progress of the vessels occasioned too much delay, I determined, rather than lose the advantages which the prevailing favorable weather now afforded for boat expeditions, to dispatch Mr. Puget in the launch, and Mr. Whidbey in the cutter, with a week's provisions, in order that the shores should be immediately explored to the next intended station of the vessels, whither they would proceed as soon as circumstances would allow. In this arrangement I was well aware, it could not be considered judicious to part with our launch, whilst the ship remained in a transitory unfixed state in this unknown and dangerous navigation; yet she was so essentially necessary to the protection of our detached parties, that I resolved to encounter some few difficulties on board, rather than suffer the delay, or lose so valuable an opportunity for the prosecution of the survey. In directing this, orders were given not to examine any openings to the north-westward, beyond Strawberry bay, but to determine the boundaries of the continental shore leading to the north and eastward, as far as might be practicable to its parallel, whither they were to resort after performing the talk assigned. On this service they departed, and directed their course for the first opening on the eastern shore about 3 or 4 leagues distant, bearing by compass from the ship N. by E.

Having repaired to the low sandy island already noticed, for the purpose of taking some angles, I found some rocks lying on its wes-

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tern side nearly three quarters of a mile from its shores; and that the eastern part of it was formed by a very narrow low spit of land, over which the tide nearly flowed. Its situation is in latitude 48° 24′, longitude 237° 26′½. Amongst the various hearings that here it became necessary to take, were those of the two remarkably high snowy mountains so frequently mentioned. Mount Baker bore N. 63 E.; mount Rainier S. 27 E.; and from a variety of observations purposely made for fixing their respective situations, it appeared that mount Baker was in latitude 48° 39′, longitude 238° 20′, and mount Rainier in latitude 47° 3′, longitude 238° 21′. To the southward of these were now seen two other very lofty, round, snowy mountains, lying apparently in the same north and south direction, or nearly so; but we were unable to ascertain their positive situation. The summits of these were visible only at two or three stations in the southern parts of Admiralty inlet; they appeared to be covered with perpetual snow as low down as we were enabled to see, and seemed as if they rose from an extensive plain of low country.

When due attention is paid to the range of snowy mountains that stretch to the southward from the base of mount Rainier, a probability arises of the same chain being continued, so as to connect the whole in one barrier along the coast, at uncertain distances from its shores; although intervals may exist in the ridge where the mountains may not be sufficiently elevated to have been discernible from our several stations. The like effect is produced by the two former mountains, whose immense height permitted their appearing very conspicuously, long before we approached sufficiently near to distinguish the intermediate range of rugged mountains that connect them, and from whose summits their bases originate.

Friday 8.

About six in the evening, with a light breeze from the S.W. we weighed and stood to the northward; but after having advanced about 11 miles, the wind became light and obliged us to anchor about nine that evening, in 37 fathoms water, hard bottom, in some places rocky; in this situation we were detained by calms until the afternoon of the following day. Our observed latitude, here, was 48°29′, longitude

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237°29′: the country, occupying the northern horizon in all directions, appeared to be excessively broken, and insular. Strawberry bay bore, by compass, N. 10 W., about 3 leagues distant; the opening on the continental shore, the first object for the examination of the detached party, with some small rocky islets before its entrance that appeared very narrow, bore, at the distance of about 5 miles, S. 87 E.; point Partridge S. 21 E.; the low sandy island south; the south part of the westernmost shore, which is composed of islands and rocks, S. 37 W., about 2 miles distant; the nearest shore was within about a mile: a very dangerous sunken rock, visible only at low tide, lies off from a low rocky point on this shore, bearing N. 79 W.; and a very unsafe cluster of small rocks, some constantly, and others visible only near low water, bore N. 15 W. about 2½ miles distant.

This country presented a very different aspect from that which we had been accustomed to behold further south. The shores now before us, were composed of sleep rugged rocks, whose surface varied exceedingly in respect; to height, and exhibited little more than the barren rock, which in some places produced a little herbage of a dull colour, with a few dwarf trees.

With a tolerably good breeze from the north, we weighed about three in the afternoon, and with a flood tide, turned up into Strawberry bay, where, in about three hours, we anchored in 16 fathoms, fine sandy bottom. This bay is situated on the west side of an island, which, producing an abundance of upright cypress, obtained the name of CYPRESS ISLAND. The bay is of small extent, and not very deep; its south point bore by compass S 40 E.; a small islet, forming nearly the north point of the bay, round which is a clear good passage west; and the bottom of the bay east, at the distance of about three quarters of a mile. This situation, though very commodious, in respect to the shore, is greatly exposed to the winds, and sea in a S.S.E. direction.

Saturday 9.

In consequence of the wind ceasing, the Chatham, whilst endeavouring to gain this anchorage was, by a very strong flood tide, driven to the eastward of the island, where she was compelled to anchor. The next morning, I received from Mr. Broughton a letter acquainting me.

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that, having been obliged to anchor on a rocky bottom, on account of the strength, and irregularity of the tide, their stream cable had been cut through by the rocks; and that, aster several attempts to recover the anchor, the rapidity of the tide had rendered all their efforts ineffectual; and he was very apprehensive that, remaining longer in that situation, for the purpose of repeating his endeavours, might endanger the loss also of the bower anchor, by which they were then riding. In reply, I desired, if the anchor could not be regained by the next flack tide, that they would desist, rather than run a risk of still greater importance.

A fine sandy beach, forming the shores of the bay, gave us the hope of procuring a good supply of fish, as the Chatham, on her former visit, had been very successful; we were, however, unfortunately mistaken; the seine was repeatedly hauled, but to no effect.

Sunday 10,

The Chatham arrived in the bay on sunday morning, with the loss of her stream anchor; and in the afternoon the boats returned from their survey.

From the officers, I became acquainted, that the first inlet communicated with port Gardner, by a very narrow and intricate channel, which, for a considerable distance, was not forty yards in width, and abounded with rocks above and beneath the surface of the water. These impediments, in addition to the great rapidity and irregularity of the tide, rendered the passage navigable only for boats or vessels of very small burthen. This determined all the eastern shore of the gulph, from the S.W. point of this passage, in latitude 48°27′, longitude 237°37′, to the north point of entrance into Possession sound, in latitude 47° 53′, longitude 237° 47′, to be an island, which, in its broadest part, is about ten miles across; and in consequence of Mr. Whidbey's circumnavigation, I distinguished it by the name of WHIDBEY'S ISLAND: and this northern pass, leading into port Gardner, DECEPTION PASSAGE.

Hence they proceeded to the examination of the continental coast leading to the northward, and entered what appeared to be a spacious found, or opening, extending widely in three directions to the eastward of our present station. One, leading to the southward, and another, to

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the eastward, they examined, and found them to terminate alike in deep bays affording good anchorage, though inconvenient communication with the shores; particularly towards the head of each bay on account of a shallow flat of sand or mud, which met them at a considerable distance from the land. Having fixed the boundaries of the continent as far to the north as the latitude of this island, agreeably to their directions, they returned, leaving unexplored a large opening which took a northern direction, as also the space that appeared to be the main arm of the gulph, to the north-westward, where the horizon was unbounded, and its width seemed very considerable. The country they had seen to the north-east of Deception passage, is much divided by water, and bore nearly the same steril appearance with that of our present situation; excepting near the heads of the two large bays, which they had examined on the continental shore. There the land was of a moderate height, unoccupied by rocky precipices, and was well wooded with timber. In the course of this expedition, several deserted villages had been seen, and some of the natives met with, who differed not, in any material particular, as to their persons nor in their civil and hospitable deportment, from those we had been so happy, on former occasions, to call our friends.

As our present anchorage was much exposed, and supplied us with no fort of refreshment, excepting a few small wild onions or leeks, I determined, on this information, to proceed with the vessels up the gulph, to the N.W in quest of a more commodious situation, from whence Mr. Whidbey might be dispatched, to complete the examination of the arm which had been left unfinished, and another party, to prosecute their inquiries to the N.W., or in such other direction as the gulph might take.

Monday 11.

With a light breeze from the S.E., about four o'clock the next morning we quitted this station, and passed between the small island and the north point of the bay to the north-westward, through a cluster of numerous islands, rocks, and rocky islets. On Mr. Broughton's first visit hither, he found a great quantity of very excellent strawberries, which gave it the name of Strawberry bay; but, on our arrival, the fruit season

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was passed. The Bay affords good and secure anchorage, though somewhat exposed; yet, in fair weather, wood and water may be easily procured. The island of Cypress is principally composed of high rocky mountains, and sleep perpendicular cliffs, which, in the center of Strawberry bay, fall a little back, and the space between the foot of the mountains and the sea-side is occupied by low marshy land, through which are several small runs of most excellent water, that find their way into the bay by oozing through the beach. It is situated in latitude 48°36′½, longitude 237° 34′. The variation of the compass, by eighteen sets of azimuths differing from 18° to 21° taken on board, and on shore, since our departure from Admiralty inlet, gave the mean result of 19° 5′ eastwardly. The rise and fall of the tide was inconsiderable, though the stream was rapid: the ebb came from the east, and it was high water 2h 37′ after the moon had passed the meridian.

We proceeded first to the north-eastward, passing the branch of the gulph that had been partly examined, and then directed our course to the N.W., along that which appeared a continuation of the continental shore, formed by low sandy cliffs, rising from a beach of sand and stones. The country moderately elevated, stretched a considerable distance from the N.W. round to the south-eastward, before it ascended to join the range of rugged, snowy mountains. This ected barrier, from the base of mount Baker, still continued very lofty, and appeared to extend in a direction leading to the westward of north. The soundings along the shore were regular, from 12 to 25 and 30 fathoms, as we approached, or increased our distance from, the land, which seldom exceeded two miles: the opposite side of the gulph to the south-westward, composed of numerous islands, was at the distance of about 2 leagues. As the day advanced, the S. E. wind gradually died away, and, for some hours, we remained nearly stationary.

In the evening a light breeze favoring the plan I had in contemplation, we steered for a bay that presented itself, where about six o'clock we anchored in 6 fathom water, sandy bottom, half a mile from the shore. The points of the bay bore by compass S. 32 W. and N. 72 W.; the westernmost part of that which we considered to be the main land

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west, about 3 leagues distant; to the south of this point appeared the principal direction of the gulph, thought a very considerable arm seemed to branch from it to the north-eastward. As soon as the ship was secured, I went in a boat to inspect the shores of the bay, and found, with little trouble, a very convenient situation for our several necessary duties on shore; of which the business of the observatory was my chief object, as I much wished for a further trial of the rate of the chronometers, now that it was probable we should remain at rest a sufficient time to make the requisite observations for that purpose. Mr. Broughton received my directions to this effects, as also, that the vessels should be removed, the next morning, about a mile further up the Bay to the N.E., where they would be more conveniently stationed for our several operations on shore; and as soon as the business of the observatory should acquire a degree of forwardness, Mr. Whidbey in the Discovery's cutter, attended by the Chatham's launch, was to proceed to the examination of that part of the coast unexplored to the S.E.; whilst myself in the yawl, accompanied by Mr. Puget in the launch, directed our researches up the main inlet of the gulph.

Tuesday 12.

Matters thus arranged, with a week's provision in each boat, I departed at five o'clock on tuesday morning. The most northerly branch, though attracting our first attention, caused little delay; it soon terminated in two open bays; the southernmost, which is the smallest, has two small rocks lying off its south point; it extends in a circular form to the eastward, with a shoal of sand projecting some distance from its shores. This bay affords good anchorage from 7 to 10 fathoms water: the other is much larger, and extends to the northward; these, by noon, we had passed round, but the shoals attached to the shores of each, and particularly to those of the latter, prevented our reaching within 4 or 5 miles of their heads. The point constituting the west extremity of these bays, is that which was seen from the ship, and considered as the western part of the main land, of which it is a small portion, much elevated at the south extremity of a very low narrow peninsula; its highest part is to the S.E., formed by high white sand cliffs falling perpendicularly into the sea; from whence a shoal extends to the distance of half a mile round it, joining

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those of the larger bay; whilst its south-west extremity, not more than a mile in an east and west direction from the former, is one of those low projecting sandy points, with 10 to 7 fathoms water, within a few yards of it. From this point, situated in latitude 48° 57′, longitude 237° 20′, (which I distinguished by the name of PONIT ROBERTS, after my esteemed friend and predecessor in the Discovery) the coast takes a direction N. 28 W., and presented a task of examination to which we conceived our equipment very unequal. That which, from hence, appeared the northern extreme of the continental shore, was a low bluff point, that seemed to form the southern entrance into an extensive found, bearing N. 25 W., with broken land stretching about 5° farther to the westward. Between this direction and N. 79 W., the horizon seemed uninterrupted, excepting by the appearance of a small though very high round island, lying N. 52 W., apparently at the distance of many leagues. Having thus early examined and fixed the continental shore to the furthest point seen from the ship, I determined to prosecute our inquiries to the utmost limits that care and frugality could extend our supplies; and, having taken the necessary angles, we proceeded, but soon found our progress along the eastern or continental shore materially impeded by a shoal that extends from point Roberts N. 80 W. 7 or 8 miles, then stretches N. 35 W. about 5 or 6 miles further, where it takes a northerly direction towards the above low bluff point. Along the edge of this bank we had soundings from 10 to 1 fathom, as we increased or decreased our distance from the eastern shore; to approach which all our endeavours were exerted to no purpose, until nine in the evening, when the shoal, having forced us nearly into the middle of the gulph, we stood over to its western side, in order to land for the night, and to cook our provisions for the ensuing day, which being always performed by those on watch during the night, prevented any delay on that account, in the day time. As we stood to the westward, our depth soon increased to 15 fathoms, after which we gained no bottom until we reached the western shore of the gulph, where, on our arrival about one o'clock in the morning, it was with much difficulty we were enabled to land on the steep rugged rocks that compose the coast, for the purpose of cook-

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Wednes. 13.

ing only, and were compelled, by this unfavorable circumstance, to remain and sleep in the boats.

About five on wednesday morning, we again directed our course to the eastern shore, and landed about noon, on the above-mentioned low bluff point. This, as was suspected, formed the south point of a very extensive sound, with a small arm leading to the eastward: the space, which seemed to be its main direction, and appeared very extensive, took a northerly course. The observed latitude here was 49° 19′, longitude 237° 6′, making this point (which, in compliment to my friend Captain George Grey of the navy, was called POINT GREY) 7 leagues from point Roberts. The intermediate space is occupied by very low land, apparently a swampy flat, that retires several miles, before the country rises to meet the rugged snowy mountains, which we found still continuing in a direction nearly along the coast. This low flat being very much inundated, and extending behind point Roberts, to join the low land in the bay to the eastward of that point; gives its high land, when seen at a distance, the appearance of an island: this, however, is not the case, notwithstanding there are two openings between this point and point Grey. These can only be navigable for canoes, as the shoal continues along the coast to the distance of seven or eight miles from the shore, on which were lodged, and especially before these openings, logs of wood, and stumps of trees innumerable.

From point Grey we proceeded first up the eastern branch of the sound, where, about a league within its entrance, we passed to the northward of an island which nearly terminated its extent, forming a passage from 10 to 7 fathoms deep, not more than a cable's length in width. This island lying exactly across the canal, appeared to form a similar passage to the south of it, with a smaller island lying before it. From these islands, the canal, in width about half a mile, continued its direction about east. Here we were met by about fifty Indians, in their canoes, who conducted themselves with the greatest decorum, and civility, presenting us with several fish cooked, and undressed, of the sort already mentioned as resembling the smelt. These good people finding we were

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inclined to make some return for their hospitality, shewed much understanding in preferring iron to copper.

For the sake of the company of our new friends, we stood on under an easy sail, when encouraged them to attend us some little distance up the arm. The major part of the canoes twice paddled forward, assembled before us, and each time a conference was held. Our visit and appearance were most likely the objects of their consultation, as our motions on these occasions seemed to engage the whole of their attention. The subject matter, which remained a profound secret to us, did not appear of an unfriendly nature to us, as they soon returned, and if possible, expressed additional cordiality and respect. This fort of conduct always creates a degree of suspicion, and should ever be regarded with a watchful eye. In our short intercourse with the people of this country we have generally sound these consultations take place, whether their numbers were great or small; and though I have ever considered it prudent to be cautiously attentive on such occasions, they ought by no means to be considered as indicating at all times a positive intention of concerting hostile measures: having witnessed many of these conferences, without our experiencing afterwards any alteration in their friendly disposition. This was now the case with our numerous attendants, who gradually dispersed as we advanced from the station where we had first met them, and three or four canoes only accompanied us up a navigation which, in some places, does not exceed an hundred and fifty yards in width.

We landed for the night about half a league from the head of the inlet, and about 3 leagues from its entrance. Our Indian visitors remained with us until by signs we gave them to understand we were going to rest, and after receiving some acceptable articles they retired, and by means of the same language, promised an abundant supply of fish the next day; our seine having been tried in their presence with very little success. A great desire was manifested by these people to imitate our actions, especially in the firing of a musket, which one of them performed, though with much fear and trembling. They minutely attended to all our transactions and examined the colour of our skins with infinite cu-

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riosity. In other respects they differed little from the generality of the natives we had seen: they possessed no European commodities, or trinkets, excepting some rude ornaments apparently made from sheet copper; this circumstance, and the general tenor of their behaviour, gave us reason to conclude that we were the first people from a civilized country they had yet seen. Nor did it appear that they were nearly connected, or had much intercourse with other Indians, who traded with the European or American adventurers.

The shores in this situation were formed by steep rocky cliffs, that afforded no convenient space for pitching our tent, which compelled us to sleep in the boats. Some of the young gentlemen however preferring the stony beach for their couch, without duly considering the line of high water mark, sound themselves incommoded by the flood tide, of which they were not apprized until they were nearly afloat; and one of them slept so sound, that I believe he might have been conveyed to some distance, had he not been awakened by his companions.

Thursday 14.

Perfectly satisfied with our researches in this branch of the sound, at four the next morning we retraced our passage in; leaving on the northern shore, a small opening extending to the northward with two little islets before it of little importance, whilst we had a grander object in contemplation; and more particularly so, as this arm or canal could not be deemed navigable for shipping. The tide caused no stream; the colour of its water after we had passed the island the day before, was perfectly clear, whereas that in the main branch of the sound, extending nearly half over the gulph, and accompanied by a rapid tide, was nearly colourless, which gave us some reason to suppose that the northern branch of the sound might possibly be discovered to terminate in a river of considerable extent.

As we passed the situation from whence the Indians had first visited us the preceding day, which is a small border of low marshy land on the northern shore, intersected by several creeks of fresh water, we were in expectation of their company, but were disappointed, owing to our travelling so soon in the morning. Most of their canoes were hauled up into the creeks, and two or three only of the natives were seen strag-

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gling about on the beach. None of their habitations could be discovered, whence we concluded that their village was within the forest. Two canoes came off as we passed the island, but our boats being under sail, with a fresh favorable breeze, I was not inclined to halt, and they almost immediately returned.

The shores of this canal, which after Sir Harry Burrard of the navy I have distinguished by the name of BURRARD'S CANAL, may be considered, on the southern side, of a moderate height, and though rocky, well covered with trees of large growth, principally of the pine tribe. On the northern side, the rugged snowy barrier, whose base we had now nearly approached, rose very abruptly, and was only protested from the wash of the sea by a very narrow border of low land. By seven o'clock we had reached the N.W. point of the canal, which forms also the south point of the main branch of the sound: this also, after another particular friend, I called POINT ATKINSON, situated north from point Grey, about a league distant. Here the opposite point of entrance into the sound bore by compass west, at the distance of about 3 miles; and nearly in the center between these two points, is a low rocky island producing some trees, to which the name of PASSAGE ISLAND was given. We passed in an uninterrupted channel to the east of it, with the appearance of an equally good one on the other side.

Quitting point Atkinson, and proceeding up the sound, we passed on the western shore some small detached rocks, with some sunken ones amongst them, that extend about two miles, but are not so far from the shore as to impede the navigation of the sound; up which we made a rapid progress, by the assistance of a fresh southerly gale, attended with dark gloomy weather, that greatly added to the dreary prospect of the surrounding country. The low fertile shores we had been accustomed to see, though lately with some interruption, here no longer existed; their place was now occupied by the base of the stupendous snowy barrier, thinly wooded, and rising from the sea abruptly to the clouds; from whose frigid summit, the dissolving snow in foaming torrents rushed down the sides and chasms of its rugged surface, exhibiting altogether a sublime, though gloomy spectacle, which animated nature seemed to

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have deserted. Not a bird, nor living creature was to be seen, and the roaring of the falling cataracts in every direction precluded their being heard, had any been in our neighbourhood.

Friday 15.

Towards noon I considered that we had advanced some miles within the western boundary of the snowy barrier, as some of its rugged losty mountains were now behind, and to the southward of us. This filled my mind with the pleasing hopes of finding our way to its eastern side. The fun shining at this time for a few minutes afforded an opportunity of ascertaining the latitude of the east point of an island which, from the shape of the mountain that composes it, obtained the name of ANVIL ISLAND, to be 49° 30′, its longitude 237° 3′. We passed an island in the forenoon lying on the eastern shore, opposite to an opening on the western, which evidently led into the gulph nearly in a S.W. direction, through a numerous assemblage of rocky islands and rocks, as also another opening to the westward of this island, that seemed to take a similar direction. Between Anvil island, and the north point of the first opening, which lies from hence S. by W. 5 miles distant, are three white rocky islets, lying about a mile from the western shore. The width of this branch of the sound is about a league; but northward from Anvil island it soon narrows to half that breadth, taking a direction to the N.N.E, as far as latitude 49° 39′, longitude 237° 9′, where all our expectations vanished, in finding it to terminate in a round bason, encompassed on every side by the dreary country already described. At its head, and on the upper part of the eastern shore, a narrow margin of low land runs from the foot of the barrier mountains to the water-side, which produced a few dwarf pine trees, with some little variety of underwood. The water of the sound was here nearly fresh, and in colour a few shades darker than milk; this I attributed to the melting of the snow, and its water passing rapidly over a chalky surface, which appeared probable by the white aspect of some of the chasms that seemed formerly to have been the course of water-fall, but were now become dry.

The gap we had entered in the snowy barrier seemed of little importance, as through the vallies caused by the irregularity of the mountain's tops, other mountains more distant, and apparently more elevated, were

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seen, rearing their lofty heads in various directions. In this dreary and comfortless region, it was no inconsiderable piece of good fortune to find a little cove in which we could take shelter, and a small spot of level land on which we could erect our tent; as we had scarcely finished our examination, when the wind became excessively boisterous from the southward, attended with heavy squalls and torrents of rain which continuing until noon the following day, occasioned a very unpleasant detention. But for this circumstance we might too hastily have concluded, that this part of the gulph was uninhabited. In the morning we were visited by near forty of the natives, on whose approach, from the very material alteration that had now taken place in the face of the country, we expected to find some difference in their general character. This conjecture was however premature, as they varied in no respect whatever, but in possessing a more ardent desire for commercial transactions; into the spirit of which they entered with infinitely more avidity than any of our former acquaintances, not only in bartering amongst themselves the different valuables they had obtained from us, but when that trade became slack, in exchanging those articles again with our people; in which traffic they always took care to gain some advantage, and would frequently exult on the occasion. Some fish, their garments, spears, bows and arrows, to which these people wisely added their copper ornaments, comprized their general stock in trade. Iron, in all its forms, they judiciously preferred to any other article we had to offer.

The weather permitting us to proceed, we directed our route along the continental or western shore of the sound, passing within two small islands and the main land, into the opening before mentioned, stretching to the westward from Anvil island. At the distance of an hundred yards from the shore, the bottom could not be reached with 60 fathoms of line, nor had we been able to gain soundings in many places since we had quitted point Atkinson with 80 and 100 fathoms, though it was frequently attempted; excepting in the bason at the head of the sound, where the depth suddenly decreased from 60 fathoms to 2. We had advanced a short distance only in this branch, before the colour of the water changed from being nearly milk white, and almost fresh, to that

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of oceanic and perfectly salt. By sun-set we had passed the channel which had been observed to lead into the gulph, to the southward of Anvil island; and about nine o'clock landed for the night, near the west point of entrance into the sound, which I distinguished by the name of HOWE'S SOUND, in honor of Admiral Earl Howe; and this point, situated in latitude 49° 23′, longitude 236° 51′, POINT GOWER; between which and point Atkinson, up to Anvil island, is an extensive group of islands of various sizes. The shores of these, like the adjacent coast, are composed principally of rocks rising perpendicularly from an unfathomable sea; they are tolerably well covered with trees, chiefly of the pine tribe, though few are of a luxuriant growth.

Saturday 16

At four o'clock on saturday morning we resumed our course to northwestward, along the starboard or continental shore of the gulph of Georgia, which from point Gower takes a direction about W.N.W. and affords a more pleasing appearance than the shores of Howe's sound. This part of the coast is of a moderate height for some distance inland, and it frequently jets out into low sandy projecting points. The country in general produces forest trees in great abundance, of some variety and magnitude; the pine is the most common, and the woods are little encumbered with bushes or trees of inferior growth. We continued in this line about 5 leagues along the coast, passing some rocks and rocky islets, until we arrived at the north point of an island about 2 leagues in circuit, with another about half that size to the westward of it, and a smaller island between them. From the north point of this island, which forms a channel with the main about half a mile wide, and is situated in latitude 49° 28′½, longitude 236° 31′, the coast of the continent takes a direction for about eight miles N.30 W. and is composed of a rugged rocky shore, with many detached rocks lying at a little distance. The track we thus pursued had not the appearance of the main branch of the gulph, but of a channel between the continent and that land, which from point Roberts, seemed like a small though very high round island. This now appeared of considerable extent, its N.E. side formed a channel leading to the N.W. as far as the eye could reach, about five miles in width. The main branch of the gulph, apparently of infinitely greater

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Sunday 17.

extent, look a direction to the south-westward of this land, which now looked more like a peninsula than an island. Along this rocky shore of the main land we passed in quest of a resting place for the night, to no effect until after dark; when we found shelter in a very dreary uncomfortable cove near the south point of an island, about a mile long, and about two miles to the S. S. E. of a narrow opening leading to the northward. This on the return of day-light we proceeded to examine; and passed through a very narrow, though navigable channel, amongst a cluster of rocks and rocky islets, lying just in the front of its entrance, which is situated in latitude 49° 35′½, longitude 236° 26′. It is about half a mile wide, winding towards the N.N.E. for about 3 leagues, where it divides into two branches, one stretching to the eastward, the other to the westward of north, with an island before the entrance of the latter. Agreeably to our general mode of proceeding, the north-easterly branch became the first object of our attention, and was sound from hence to continue in an irregular course to the latitude of 49° 49′, longitude 236° 35′½; where, finding a tolerably comfortable situation, we rested for the night.

We had seen about seventeen Indians in our travels this day, who were much more painted than any we had hitherto met with. Some of their arrows were pointed with slate, the first I had seen so armed on my present visit to this coast; these they appeared to esteem very highly, and like the inhabitants of Nootka, took much pains to guard them from injury. They however spoke not the Nootka language, nor the dialect of any Indians we had conversed with; at least, the few words we had acquired were repeated to them without effect; in their persons they differed in no other respect, and were equally civil and inoffensive in their behaviour. The shores we passed this day are of a moderate height within a few miles of this station, and are principally composed of craggy rocks, in the chasms of which a soil of decayed vegetables has been formed by the hand of time; from which pine trees of an inferior dwarf growth are produced, with a considerable quantity of bushes and underwood. We passed a few rocky islets near the division of the inlet. These seemed steep, as soundings with the hand line could not be gained; nor had we any where in mid-channel been able

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Monday 18.

to reach the bottom with 100 fathoms of line although the shores are not a mile asunder.

The next morning, as usual, at four o'clock, we proceeded up the inlet about 3 miles in a N.N.W. direction, whence its width increases about half a league in a direction nearly N. E. to a point which towards noon we reached, and ascertained its latitude to be 50° 1′, longitude 236° 46′. The width of this channel still continuing, again flattered us with discovering a breach in the eastern range of snowy mountains, notwithstanding the disappointment we had met with in Howe's sound; and although since our arrival in the gulph of Georgia, it had proved an impenetrable barrier to that inland navigation, of which we had heard so much, and had sought with sanguine hopes and ardent exertions hitherto in vain, to discover.

The progression of this morning, which comprehended about 6 leagues, seemed to have made a very considerable penetration into this formidable obstacle; and as the more losty mountains were now behind us, and no very distant ones were seen beyond the vallies caused by the depressed parts of the snowy barrier in the northern quarters, we had great reason to believe we had passed the center of this impediment to our wishes, and induced me to hope we should yet find this inlet winding beyond the mountains, by the channel through which we had thus advanced upwards of 11 leagues, though for the most part it was not more than half a mile wide. Under these circumstances, our reduced stock of provisions was a matter of serious concern, fearing we might be obliged to abandon this pursuit without determining the source of this branch of the sea, having now been absent six days with subsistence for a week only, which would consequently very materially retard our survey, by rendering a second visit to this inlet indispensably necessary. The surrounding country presented an equally dreary aspect with that in the vicinage of Howe's sound; and the serenity of the weather not adding at present to the natural gloominess of the prospect, was counterbalanced by the rugged surface of the mountains being infinitely less productive. A few detached dwarf pine trees, with some berry, and other small bushes, were the only signs of vegetation. The cataracts here rushed from the rug-

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ged snowy mountains in greater number, and with more impetuosity than in Howe's sound; yet the colour of the water was not changed, though in some of the gullies there was the same chalky aspect Hence it is probable, that the white appearance of the water in Howe's sound, may arise from a cause more remote, and which we had no opportunity of discovering.

Having dined, we pursued our examination. The inlet now took a N.W. by W. direction, without any contraction in its width, until about five o'clock in the evening, when all our hopes vanished, by finding it terminate, as others had done, in swampy low land producing a few maples and pines, in latitude 50° 6′, longitude 236° 33′. Through a small space of low land, which extended from the head of the inlet to the base of the mountains that surrounded us. slowed three small streams of fresh water, apparently originating from one source in the N.W. or left land corner of the bay, formed by the head of this inlet; in which point of view was seen an extensive valley, that took nearly a northerly uninterrupted direction as far as we could perceive, and was by far the deepest chasm we had beheld in the descending ridge of the snowy barrier, without the appearance of any elevated land rising behind. This valley much excited my curiosity to ascertain what was beyond it. But as the streams of fresh water were not navigable, though the tide had risen up to the habitations of six or seven Indians, any further examination of it in our boats was impracticable, and we had no leisure for excursions on shore. From the civil natives who differed not in any respect from those we had before occasionally seen, we procured a few most excellent fish, for which they were compensated principally in iron, being the commodity they most esteemed and sought after. In all these arms of the sea we had constantly observed, even to their utmost extremity, a visible, and sometimes a material rise and fall of the tide, without experiencing any other current than a constant drain down to seaward, excepting just in the neighbourhood of the gulph.

On our approach to the low land, we gained soundings at 70 fathoms, which soon decreased as we advanced, to 30, 14, and 3 fathoms, on a bank that stretches across the head of the inlet, similar to all the

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others we had before examined. So far as these soundings extended, which did not exceed half a league, the colour of the water was a little affected, probably by the discharge of the fresh water rivulets, that generally assumed a very light colour. Beyond these soundings the water again acquired its oceanic colour, and its depth was unfathomable.

Not a little mortified that our progress should be so soon stopped, it became highly expedient to direct our way towards the ships, to whose station, by the nearest route we could take, it was at least 114 miles. This was now to be performed, after the time was nearly expired for which our supply of provisions had been calculated. Necessity directed that no time should be lost; especially as I was determined to seek a passage into the gulph by the branch of this inlet that we had passed the preceding day, leading to the N.W. conceiving there was a great probability that this branch might lead into the gulph at some distance beyond where we had entered this inlet; in which course we should have an opportunity of fixing the boundaries of the continent to the utmost extent that our present equipment would afford. For as our people had become wife by experience, I entertained little doubt of their having so husbanded their provisions as to enable our effecting this service; by which means any other excursion this way would be rendered unnecessary.

About 2 leagues from the head of the inlet we had observed, as we passed upwards on the northern shore, a small creek with some rocky islets before it, where I intended to take up our abode for the night. On our return, it was found to be a fall of salt water, just deep enough to admit our boats against a very rapid stream, where at low tide they would have grounded some feet above the level of the water in the inlet. From the rapidity of the stream, and the quantity of water it discharged, it was reasonable to suppose, by its taking a winding direction up a valley to the N.E. that its source was at some distance. This not answering our purpose as a resting place, obliged us to continue our search along the shore for one less incommodious, which the perpendicular precipices precluded our finding until near eleven at night, when we disembarked on the only low projecting point the inlet afforded.

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At four again the next morning, we started, but having a strong southerly gale against us, it was past nine at night, before we reached a small bay, about a mile to the north of the north point of the arm leading to the north-westward, where we rested for the night; and, at day-light, proceeded, as usual, along the continental shore.

This first stretched a little way to the north-westward, and then to the S.W. into the gulph, as I had imagined it would; forming, irregularly, a much more spacious channel than that by which we had entered, having an island lying between the two channels about 3 leagues in length, with several small islets about it. This island, and its adjacent shores, like those in the other channel, are of a moderate height, and wear a similar appearance. It was nearly noon before we reached the north point of the inlet; which, producing the first Scotch firs we had yet seen, obtained the name of SCOTCH-FIR POINT, and is situated in latitude 49° 42′, longitude 236° 17′. To this arm of the sea, I gave the name of JERVIS'S CANAL, in honor of Admiral Sir John Jervis.

The boundary of the continental shore I now considered as determined to this point, from a full conviction that the inlet under the examination of Mr. Whidbey, would terminate like those we had visited. Presuming our time to have been not ill spent, we directed our course to the station where we had left the ships now at the distance of 84 miles, steering for the opposite shore, being the land before adverted to, as appearing to form an extensive island, or peninsula; the nearest part of which was about five miles across from Scotch-fir point; and with the continental shore still formed a passage, to all appearance, of the same width, in a direction N. 62 W., with an uninterrupted horizon in that point of view; so that, whether it was an island or peninsula, remained still to be determined.

Thursday 21.

The shores of this land, nearly strait and compact, are principally formed of rocky substances of different sorts; amongst which, slate was in abundance; and the trees it produced were of infinitely more luxuriant growth than those on the opposite shore. In the forenoon of the 21st, we passed the south point of this land, and, in remembrance of an

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early friendship, I called it POINT UPWOOD, situated in latitude 49° 28′½, longitude 236° 24′. This land, though chiefly composed of one lofty mountain, visible at the distance of 20 leagues and upwards, is very narrow, appearing to form, with the western shore of the gulph, a channel nearly parallel to that which we had last quitted; though considerably more extensive, and containing some small islands. Its horizon was bounded by the summits of high distant detached mountains.

Friday 22.

As we were rowing, on friday morning, for point Grey, purposing there to land and breakfast, we discovered two vessels at anchor under the land. The idea which first occurred was, that, in consequence of our protracted absence, though I had lest no orders to this effect, the vessels had so far advanced in order to meet us; but on a nearer approach, it was discovered, that they were a brig and a schooner, wearing the colours of Spanish vessels of war, which I conceived were most probably employed in pursuits similar to our own; and this on my arrival on board, was confirmed. These vessels proved to be a detachment from the commission of Senr. Melaspina, who was himself employed in the Philippine islands; that Senr. Melaspina had, the preceding year, visited the coast; and that these vessels, his Catholic Majesty's brig the Sutil, under the command of Senr. Don D. Galiano, with the schooner Mexicana, commanded by Senr. Don C. Valdes, both captains of frigates in the Spanish navy, had failed from Acapulco on the 8th of march, in order to prosecute discoveries on this coast. r Galiano, who spoke a little English, informed me, that they had arrived at Nootka on the 11th of april, from whence they had failed on the 5th of this month, in order to complete the examination of this inlet, which had, in the preceding year, been partly surveyed by some Spanish officers whose chart they produced.

I cannot avoid acknowledging that, on this occasion, I experienced no small degree of mortification in finding the external shores of the gulph had been visited, and already examined a few miles beyond where my researches during the excursion, had extended; making the land, I had been in doubt about, an island; continuing nearly in the same direction, about 4 leagues further than had been seen by us; and, by

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the Spaniards, named Favida. The channel, between it and the main, they had called Canal del Neustra Signora del Rosario, whose western point had terminated their examination; which seemed to have been intirely confined to the exterior shores, as the extensive arms, and inlets, which had occupied so much of our time, had not claimed the least of their attention.

The Spanish vessels, that had been thus employed last year, had refitted in the identical part of port Discovery, which afforded us similar accommodation. From these gentlemen, I likewise understood, that Senr. Quadra, the commander in chief of the Spanish marine at St. Blas and at California, was, with three frigates and a brig, waiting my arrival at Nootka, in order to negotiate the restoration of those territories to the crown of Great-Britain. Their conduct was replete with that politeness and friendship which characterizes the Spanish nation: every kind of useful information they cheerfully communicated, and obligingly expressed much desire, that circumstances might so concur as to admit our respective labours being carried on together; for which purpose, or, if from our long absence and fatigue in an open boat, I would wish to remain with my party as their guest, they would immediately dispatch a boat with such directions as I might deem necessary for the conduct of the ships, or, in the event of a favorable breeze springing up, they would weigh and sail directly to their station: but being intent on losing no time. I declined their obliging offers, and having partaken with them a very beauty breakfast, bad them farewell, not less pleased with their hospitality and attention, than astonished at the vessels in which they were employed to execute a service of such a nature. They were each about forty-five ton burthen, mounted two brass guns, and were navigated by twenty-four men, bearing one lieutenant, without a single inferior officer. Their apartments just allowed room for sleeping places on each side, with a table in the intermediate space, at which four persons, with some dissiculty, could sit, and were, in all other respects, the most ill calculated and unfit vessels that could possibly be imagined for such an expedition; notwithstanding this, it was pleasant to observe, in point of living, they possessed many more

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comforts than could reasonably have been expected. I shewed them the sketch I had made of our excursion, and pointed out the only spot which I conceived we had left unexamined, nearly at the head of Burrard's canal: they seemed much surprized that we had not found a river faid to exist in the region we had been exploring, and named by one of their officers Rio Blancho, in compliment to the then prime minister of Spain; which river these gentlemen had fought for thus far to no purpose. They took such notes as they chose from my sketch, and promised to examine the small opening in Burrard's canal, which, with every other information they could procure, should be at my service on our next meeting.

Saturday 23.

From these new and unexpected friends we directed our course along the shoal already noticed, which I now called STURGEON BANK, in consequence of our having purchased of the natives some excellent fish of that kind, weighing from fourteen to two hundred pounds each. To avoid this bank, which stretches from point Roberts to point Grey, a most excellent leading mark was observed along its western extremity, being Passage and Anvil islands in one, which lead by its edge in 6 fathoms waster, deepening suddenly to the westward, and in many places to the eastward, shoaling as suddenly to 3, 2, and 1 fathom. The circle which this bank occasioned us to make, made the distance to point Roberts upwards of 30 miles. We were likewise unfortunate in having two flood tides against us. These, together with a light southerly breeze that prevailed the whole time, obliged us to be constantly rowing from nine in the forenoon until after midnight, before we could reach the point, which was at length effected; though not before we were nearly exhausted by fatigue. Here we slept, and in the morning of the 23d, against a strong easterly breeze, about ten in the forenoon we reached the ships, after having traversed in our boats upwards of 330 miles.

The broken part of the coast that Mr. Whidbey had been employed in examining, was found to extend but a few miles to the northward of the spot where his former researches had ended; forming altogether an extensive bay, which I have distinguished as BELLINGHAM'S BAY. It is situated behind a cluster of islands, from which a number of channels

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lead into it: its greatest extent in a north and south direction, is from the latitude of 48° 36′, to 48° 48′; the longitude of its eastern extremity 237° 50′. It every where affords good and secure anchorage; opposite to its north point of entrance the shores are high and rocky, with some detached rocks lying off it. Here was found a brook of most excellent water. To the north and south of these rocky cliffs the shores are less elevated, especially to the northward, where some of those beautiful verdant lawns were again presented to our view. Near the north entrance into this bay, the two Spanish vessels had been descried by Mr. Whidbey, who returned, and communicated the intelligence to the ships; in consequence of which the Chatham weighed and spoke them off point Roberts; they having passed our ships during the night undiscovered.

Having now fixed the continental shore so far as from this station was within our reach, and having obtained sufficient observations for correcting the rate of our chronometers, every thing was immediately re-embarked, and we were in readiness to proceed in the morning.

During my absence, the boats of the Discovery and Chatham had been employed in attempting to gain some further knowledge of the numerous islands we passed by on our arrival in this bay; but they were found so abundantly dispersed as to preclude any correct examination, without having sufficient leisure for the purpose.

Nothing further occurred at this station worthy of notice, if we except an observation which had been repeatedly made, that in proportion as we advanced to the northward, the forests were composed of an infinitely less variety of trees, and their growth was less luxuriant. Those most commonly seen were pines of different sorts, the arbor vitæ the oriental arbutus, and I believe, some species of cypress. On the islands some few small oaks were seen, with the Virginian juniper; and at this place the Weymouth pine, Canadian elder, and black birch; which latter grew in such abundance, that it obtained the name of BIRCH BAY. The S. E. part of this Bay is formed by nearly perpendicular rocky cliffs, from whence the higher woodland country retires a considerable distance to the north eastward, leaving an extensive space of low land between it and the sea, separated from the high ground by a rivulet of fresh water

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that discharges itself at the bottom, or north extremity of the Bay. On the low land very luxuriant grass was produced, with wild rose, gooseberry, and other bushes in abundance.

I shall conclude this chapter by stating that, by the mean result of eleven meridional altitudes of the sun, we found Birch bay situated in latitude 48° 53′½; the longitude 237° 33′, was deduced from the observations made use of for settling port Discovery, including twenty-eight sets of lunar distances taken at this station, whence on the 22d, at noon, Kendall's chronometer was found to be 54′ 11″ 29‴ fast of mean time at Geeenwich, and by six days corresponding altitudes, to be gaining on mean time at the rate of 12″ 45‴ per day. Mr. Arnold's on board the Chatham, from the same authority was, on the same day at noon, fast of mean time at Greenwich, 3h 14′, 46″, and gaining at the rate of 25″ 15‴ per day. The variation of the compass. by nineteen sets of azimuths, differing from 17½ to 21 degrees, gave a mean result of 19° 30′ eastwardly variation.

The vertical inclination of the marine dipping needle,

Marked end. North face East 72° 18′
Ditto, Ditto West 73 —
Ditto, South face East 73 28
Ditto, Ditto West 74 20
The mean vertical inclination of the magnetic needle 73 13

The tides were found to be very inconsiderable, but were not particularly noticed.

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CHAPTER VIII.

The vessels continue their route to the northward—Anchor in Desolation sound—The boats dispatched on surveying parties—Discover a passage to sea—Quit Desolation sound—Pass through Johnstone's straits.

1792. June. Sunday 24.

WITH a fine breeze, and very pleasant weather, we failed out of Birch bay, on Midsummer morning; and, with the wind from the eastward, we directed our course up the gulph, to the north-westward. About two in the afternoon, we were joined by the Spanish vessels, who saluted by cheering. This was returned; after which, their respective commanders favored me with their company on board the Discovery; and we pursued our way up the gulph together.

Senr. Galiano informed me, that they had examined the small branch I had passed by in Burrard's canal, which was found very narrow, leading in a north direction nearly 3 leagues, where it terminated in a small rivulet. They favored me with a copy of their sketch of it, as also with their good company until sun-set, when they returned to their vessels; point Roberts then bearing by compass S. 68 E., point Grey, N.64 E.; which being the nearest part of the continental or eastern shore, was at the distance of about 3 leagues; and the nearest part of the opposite shore of the gulph, bearing S.W., was distant about 2 leagues.

Monday 25.

During the night, and until noon the next day, the winds were light and baffling. In the course of the forenoon a great number of whales were playing about in every direction; and though we had been frequently visited by these animals in this inland navigation, there seemed more about us now, then the whole of those we had before seen, if collected together.

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This circumstance, in some measure, favored the assertion in Mr. Mears's publication, that a passage to the ocean would be found by persevering in our present course; though this was again rendered very doubtful, as we had understood, from our Spanish friends, that, notwithstanding the Spaniards had lived upon terms of great intimacy with Mr. Gray and other American traders at Nootka, they had no knowledge of any person having ever performed such a voyage, but from the history of it published in England; and so far were these gentlemen from being better acquainted with the discoveries of De Fuca or De Fonte than ourselves, that, from us, they expected much information as to the truth of such reports. Senr. Valdes, who had been on the coast the preceding year, and spoke the Indian language very fluently, understood, from the natives, that this inlet did communicate with the ocean to the northward, where they had seen ships. He was, however, too well acquainted with their characters as reporters, to place much dependence on their information, which was incompetent to the forming of any idea how far remote such ocean might be.

A gentle gale springing up from the eastward, soon after mid-day, we brought to for the Spanish vessels, who were at some distance astern. When they came up, we were honored with the company of the commanders to dinner; and then made sail, directing our course through the canal del Neustra Signora del Rosario, whose whole extent nearly in a direction N.53 W., is about 10 leagues from point Upwood, the S.E. point, to POINT MARSHALL, the N.W. point of the island of Feveda; which point is situated in latitude 49° 48′, longitude 235° 47′½ From Scotchfir point, the shores of the canal approximated, until they became within two miles of each other, at its western end; and are, as well on the island, as on the continental side, nearly straight, perfectly compact, and rise gradually, particularly on the continental shore, from a beach of sand and small stones, to a height that might be considered rather elevated land, well clothed with wood, but without any signs of being inhabited. From hence, the continental shore took a N.W. direction. From point Marshall N. 35 W., about a league distant, lies an island of a moderate height, four miles in circuit, with a smaller one about a

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mile to the S.W. of it; between this, which I named HARWOOD'S ISLAND, and point Marshall, are some rocky islands and sunken rocks.

On the coast of the main land opposite this island is a small brook, probably of fresh water; from whence, as we advanced, the shores put on a very dreary aspect, chiefly composed of rugged rocks, thinly wooded with small dwarf pine trees. The islands, however, which appeared before us, were of a moderate height, and presented a scene more pleasing and fertile. About five in the evening we passed between the main and an island lying in an east and west direction, which I named SAVARY'S ISLAND, about 2 leagues long, and about half a league broad: its N.E. point, situated in latitude 49° 57′½ longitude 235° 54′½ forms a passage with the continental shore, along which, in a N.W. direction, we continued at a distance from half a mile to half a league. On the south side of Savary's island were numberless sunken rocks, nearly half a league from its shores, visible I believe only at low water.

We seemed now to have forsaken the main direction of the gulph, being on every side encompassed by islands and small rocky islets; some lying along the continental shore, others confusedly scattered, of different forms and dimensions. South-westward of these islands, the main arm of the gulph extended in a north west direction, apparently 3 or 4 leagues wide, bounded by high though distant land. Through this very unpleasant navigation we failed, still keeping close to the continental shore, which was compact. About dark we entered a spacious sound stretching to the eastward. Here I was very desirous of remaining until day light; but foundings could not be gained though close to the shore.

Tuesday 26.

The night was dark and rainy, and the winds so light and variable, that by the influence of the tides we were driven about as it were blindsolded in this labyrinth, until towards midnight, when we were happily conducted to the north side of an island in this supposed sound, where we anchored in company with the Chatham and the Spanish vessels, in 32 fathoms water, rocky bottom. At break of day we found ourselves about half a mile from the shores of a high rocky island, surrounded by a detached and broken country, whose general appearance was very inhospitable. Stu-

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pendous rocky mountains rising almost perpendicularly from the sea, principally composed the north west, north and eastern quarters; on these, pine trees, though not of luxuriant growth, nor of much variety, were produced in great numbers. The pleasing prospects which the shores on the eastern side of the gulph afforded by their contrast with the mountains of snowy barrier, giving a grand and interesting character to the landscape, here no longer existed; nor had we been enabled to trace that range of mountains far to the north-westward of Scotch-Fir point, where the line of coast forms a very considerable angle with that of the barrier mountains. It is however probable, that at some distance from our present anchorage, where the perpendicular precipices we were now under, would no longer have obstructed our view of the inland country, their lofty summits would have been still visible. The tops of the rugged mountains that compose these shores were not sufficiently elevated to retain the snow in summer, which, in all probability, clothe them during the winter season.

The infinitely divided appearance of the region into which we had now arrived, promised to furnish ample employment for our boats.

To Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey in the Discovery's launch and cutter, I consigned the examination of the continental shore, from the place where we had lost sight of it the preceding evening. Mr. Johnstone, in the Chatham's cutter, accompanied by Mr. Swaine in her launch, were directed to investigate a branch of this found leading to the north westward; and Senr. Valdes undertook the survey of the interediate coast; by which arrangement the whole, or if not of a very considerable extent, would soon be determined. Whilst the boats were equipping, Mr. Broughton went in quest of a more commodious situation for the ships up the found to the north west.

The weather, which was serene and extremely pleasant, afforded me an opportunity, in company with Senr. Galiano and some of our officers, to visit the shore of the island, near which we were at anchor, and to determine the situation of its west point to be in latitude 50° 6′, longitude 235° 26′. With the former Senr. Galiano's observations agreed, but by his chronometer the longitude was made more westerly. My ob-

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servations being deduced from the watch, according to its rate as settled in Birch bay, which was not very likely to have yet acquired any material error, inclined me to believe we were probably the most correct.

Early in the afternoon Mr. Broughton returned, having found a more eligible anchorage, though in a situation equally dreary and unpleasant. The several gentlemen in the boats being made acquainted with the station to which the ships were about to resort, departed agreeably to their respective instructions.

The wind that since noon had blown fresh from the S. E, attended with heavy squalls and much rain, drove us by its increased violence from our anchorage, and instantly into 70 and 80 fathoms water. The anchor was immediately hove up, and we steered for the rendezvous Mr. Broughton had pointed out, where about six in the evening we arrived in company with our little squadron. Our situation here was on the northern side of an arm of the found leading to the north westward, a little more than half a mile wide, presenting as gloomy and dismal an aspect as nature could well be supposed to exhibit, had the not been a little aided by vegetation; which though dull and uninteresting, screened from our sight the dreary rocks and precipices that compose these desolate shores, especially on the northern side; as the opposite shore, though extremely rude and mountainous, possessed a small space of nearly level land, stretching from the water side, on which some different sorts of the pine tribe, arbor vitæ, maple, and the oriental arbutus, seemed to grow with some vigour, and in a better soil.

The very circumscribed view that we had of the country here, rendered it impossible to form the most distant idea of any circumstances relative to the situation in which we had become stationary; whether composed of islands, or of such arms of the sea as we had lately been employed in examining, or how long there was a probability of our remaining in anxious expectation for the return of our friends. Our residence here was truly forlorn; an aweful silence pervaded the gloomy forests, whilst animated nature seemed to have deserted the neighbouring country, whose soil afforded only a few small onions, some samphire, and here and there bushes bearing a scanty crop of indifferent berries. Nor

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was the sea more favorable to our wants, the steep rocky shores prevented the use of the seine, and not a fish at the bottom could be tempted to take the hook.

I had absented myself from the present surveying excursions, in order to procure some observations for the longitude here, and to arrange the charts of the different surveys in the order they had been made. These when so methodized, my third lieutenant Mr. Baker had undertaken to copy and embellish, and who, in point of accuracy, neatness, and such dispatch as circumstances admitted, certainly excelled in a very high degree. To conclude our operations up to the present period some further angles were required. Beside these I was desirous of acquiring some knowledge of the main channel of the gulph we had quitted on monday afternoon, and to which no one of our boats had been directed.

Saturday 30.

Early the next morning I sat out in the yawl on that pursuit, with a favorable breeze from the N.W. which shortly shifted to the opposite quarter, and blew a fresh gale, attended with a very heavy rain. Having reached by ten in the forenoon no further than the island under which we had anchored at midnight on the 25th, a prospect of a certain continuance of the unsettled weather obliged me to abandon my design, and return to the ship; where I had the pleasure of hearing the launch and cutter had arrived soon after my departure, after having completed the examination of the continental coast from the place where we had left it, the night we had entered the found, to about 3 leagues northwestward of our present station, making the land near which we were then at anchor on our northern side, an island, or a cluster of islands of considerable extent. These gentlemen were likewise of opinion, that all the land before us to the westward and N.W. from its insular appearance, formed an immense archipelago; but knowing Mr. Johnstone was directed to examine that quarter, and coming within sight of the ships, they had returned on board for further instructions.

On the commencement of their survey, they found the continental shore continue nearly in its N.W. direction to the eastern point of entrance into this found, which I called POINT SARAII, and is situated in latitude 50° 4′½, longitude 235° 25′½; its opposite point, which I named

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POINT MARY, lying N. 72 W. about half a league distant; from point Sarah they proceeded along the continental shore up a very narrow canal, rendered almost inaccessible by the number of sunken rocks and rocky islets which it contained. It was found to lead in a south-easterly direction, almost parallel with, and 2 or 3 miles from, the northern shore of the gulph at the distance of about 3 leagues, with a smaller branch near the middle, extending about a league from its northern shore to the N.N.E. From this canal they continued along the continental shore in an easterly and N. E. direction, which led to that part of the coast under the inspection of Senr. Valdes. The eastern shore, for the space of 2 leagues, was found much indented; and several small islands and rocks were seen lying near it to the latitude of 50° 10′, longitude 235° 35′. Here these rocky islets disappeared, and the coast took a winding course N.W. and westward, to a point bearing from the above station N. 35 W. distant about 2 leagues, and forming the east point of an arm of the found, whose entrance, about half a league wide, has two small islets lying in it. About a mile up this arm they met Senr. Valdes, who informed them he had thoroughly explored that place, and that in the channel leading to the north-westward he had spoken with Mr. Johnstone, so that there could be no doubt of a passage to the ships by that route. Senr. Valdes intimated that he considered any further investigation of that place totally unnecessary; but the officers not having on this occasion any directions of a discretionary nature, acted according to the orders they had formerly received for the execution of such service, and prosecuted its examination. They found it extend in an irregular north-easterly direction to the latitude of 50° 22′, longitude 235° 46′, where it terminated in shallow water and a little low land; through which slowed two small rivulets. In these rivulets, and on the shoal parts, several wears were erected. Along the shores of the upper part of this arm, which are mostly composed of high steep barren rocks, were several fences formed by thin laths, stuck either in the ground, or in the chinks of the rocks, with others placed along them; some in horizontal, others in oblique, and different directions. Ranges of these were fixed along the rocky cliffs in the line of the shore, others varied from that direction,

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and from their appearance were supposed to be intended for the purpose of drying fish; but as similar works, though perhaps not quite so extensive, had been often observed without being appropriated to that use, and were always at a considerable distance from any known habitation; the object they were designed for, remained as uncertain to us, as the application of the high beacons we found so frequently erected on the more southern parts of New Georgia.

The surrounding country up this arm nearly corresponded with that in the neighbourhood of Howe's found; and, like it, was nearly destitute of inhabitants. Two canoes were seen, which the owners had very recently quitted, as their garments and many of their utensils were remaining in them, to which the officers added some articles of iron, copper, beads, and other trinkets. From hence they directed their course towards the ships, and arrived as before stated. The country they had visited differed little, excepting in one or two small spots, from the region in which we were then stationed: the whole presented one desolate, rude, and inhospitable aspect. It has already been considered as not intirely destitute of the human race; and that it had been more populous than at present, was manifested by the party having discovered an extensive deserted village, computed to have been the residence of nearly three hundred persons. It was built on a rock, whose perpendicular cliffs were nearly inaccessible on every side; and connected with the main, by a low narrow neck of land, about the center of which grew a tree, from whose branches planks were laid to the rock, forming by this means a communication that could easily be removed, to prevent their being molested by their internal unfriendly neighbours; and protected in front, which was presented to the sea, from their external enemies, by a platform, which, with much labour and ingenuity had been constructed on a level with their houses, and overhung and guarded the rock. This, with great stability, was formed by large timbers judiciously placed for supporting each other in every direction; their lower ends were well secured in the chasms of the rocks about half way to the water's edge, admitting the platform to be so projected as to command the soot of the rock against any attempt to storm the village. The whole seemed so

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skillfully contrived, and so firmly and well executed, as rendered it difficult to be considered the work of the untutored tribes we had been accustomed to meet; had not their broken arms and implements, with parts of their manufactured garments, plainly evinced its inhabitants to be of the same race.

Whilst examining these abandoned dwellings, and admiring the rude citadel projected for their defence, our gentlemen were suddenly assailed by an unexpected numerous enemy, whose legions made so furious an attack upon each of their persons, that unable to vanquish their foes, or to sustain the conflict, they rushed up to their necks in water. This expedient, however, proved ineffectual; nor was it until after all their clothes were boiled, that they were disengaged from an immense hord of fleas, which they had disturbed by examining too minutely the filthy garments and apparel of the late inhabitants.

July. Sunday 1.

The weather continued very rainy and unpleasant until the forenoon of the 1st of July, when on its clearing up, Mr. Puget and Mr. Whidbey were again dispatched, to execute the task I had the preceding day attempted; as likewise to gain some information of the southern side of the gulph, and the broken country, which existed between it and our present anchorage.

The securities about the head of the Discovery being constantly out of repair, our carpenters were now employed on that service; and, here also, we brewed some spruce-beer., which was excellent.

Monday 2.

The next day in the afternoon, Mr. Johnstone returned, who, after having met Senr. Valdes, as before stated; abandoned his pursuit of that which appeared to him to be the main shore leading to the eastward, and prosecuted his researches in the opposite direction, leading to the west N.W. and to the north, in a channel of an irregular width, where, after examining a small opening, in a northerly direction, he shortly discovered another, about two miles wide, in latitude 50° 21′, longitude 235° 9′; along which, he kept the starboard or eastern shore on board; which was compact; but the western side, for some miles on which some sires were observed, seemed somewhat divided by water. This inlet, in general, from one to two miles wide, led them in an irregular northern direction

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to the latitude of 50° 52′, longitude 235° 19′, where, in the usual manner, it terminated by a small tract of low land, from whence a shallow bank stretched into the arm, which soon increased, from 2 to 50, 70, and 100 fathoms in depth, and then became unfathomable. Behind this low small spot of land, the mountains rose very abruptly, divided by two deep vallies, whence issued streams of fresh water, though not sufficiently capacious to admit the boats. In these vallies, and on the low plains, pine-trees grew to a tolerable size; the few seen on the mountains, were of very stinted growth. High steep barren rocks, capped with snow, formed the sides of this canal, the water of which at its head was nearly fresh, and of a pale colour, as was that in the arm where Mr. Puget met Senr. Valdes. It was noon on the 30th before we reached that part of the western shore, which had appeared broken, and on which the fires of the natives had been observed on entering this canal; which I distinguished by the name of BUTE'S CANAL. Here was found an Indian village, situated on the face of a steep rock, containing about one hundred and fifty of the natives, some few of whom had visited our party in their way up the canal, and now many came off in the most civil and friendly manner, with a plentiful supply of fresh herrings and other fish, which they bartered in a fair and honest way for nails. These were of greater value amongst them, than any other articles our people had to offer. From the point on which this village is erected, in latitude 50° 24′, longitude 235° 8′, a very narrow opening was seen stretching to the westward, and through it flowed so strong a current, that the boats unable to row against it, were hauled by a rope along the rocky shores forming the passage. In this fatiguing service the Indians voluntarily lent their aid to the utmost of their power, and were rewarded for their cordial disinterested assistance, much to their satisfaction. Having passed their narrows, the channel widened, and the rapidity of the tide decreased. Mr. Johnstone, in the cutter, had alone been able to pass; to whom it was evident that this narrow passage had communication with some very extensive inlet of the sea; but, as the weather was now very boisterous, with heavy rain, and a thick haze, and as the launch had not yet made her appearance, he returned in search of her, and found

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VILLAGE of the FRIENDLY INDIANS at the entrance of BUTE'S CANAL.

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the party using their utmost endeavours to get through the narrows by the same friendly assistance of the natives he had before experienced; which being now no longer required, these good people returned to their habitations, apparently well satisfied with the kind offices they had rendered, and the acknowledgments they had received. The boats now sought shelter from the inclemency of the weather in a small cove on the south side of the arm they had quitted, where the same cause operated to detain them until the morning of the 2d of july, when the time for which they were supplied with provisions being nearly expired, it was deemed most expedient to return to the ships.

By these two expeditions the boundary of the continental shore was completely ascertained to the above narrow passage; and the strongest presumption induced that the whole of the coast on our western side, southward of that passage was composed of innumerable islands.

Wednes. 3

The weather being tolerably fair, Mr. Johnstone and Mr. Swaine were the next day again dispatched with a week's provisions, to examine the continental shore through the narrow passage from whence they had returned; by the means of which, and the survey then prosecuting under Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey, who were to commence their inquiries in an opposite point, the whole extent of the gulph would be finally determined; or, in the event of the Indian's information being correct, its further navigable communication to the northward would be discovered.

By what I had seen of the gulph on the evening we entered this found, though its western extremity was certainly bounded, yet the appearance of the land in that direction favored the opinion of its being composed of islands, though the whole might be united by low land not perceptible at so great a distance.

Friday 5.

On friday afternoon, the officers in the launch and cutter returned, from whom I understood, that they had found the western side of the gulph of Georgia, from that part opposite to point Marshall, to be compact, rising in a gentle ascent from the sea shore to the inland mountains, (some of which were covered with snow) wearing a pleasant and fertile appearance; along this shore they continued their route and en-

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tered an inlet, whole eastern side is formed by a long narrow peninsula. the south extreme of which is situated in latitude 50°, longitude 235°9′. This promontory, after my first lieutenant, who had also discovered the inlet from the top of a mountain he had ascended in this neighbourhood, obtained the name of POINT MUDGE. It forms a channel with the main land of the western side of the gulph of about a mile in width, nearly in a N. N. W. direction; this was pursued about 3 or 4 leagues without any apparent termination; the further they advanced the more extensive it was found. The tide, which was regular, was also rapid, and the flood evidently came from the north-west ward: all these circumstances indicating the channel to be of considerable extent, they returned to communicate this intelligence.

On point Mudge was a very large village of the natives, many of whom visited the party on their passing and repassing by it, who uniformly conducted themselves with the greatest civility and respect. On the western shore, immediately without the entrance of the inlet, they found a rivulet of excellent fresh water. The passage up the inlet is perfectly free from danger, and affords good anchorage. Round point Mudge, at the distance of about half a mile, is a ledge of sunken rocks; these are, however, easily avoided by the weeds which they produce. From hence their way was directed to the northward, in order to join the ship through the broken land that exists between our present station and point Mudge. This was effected through a very intricate channel full of and rocky islets, leading them to the north point of the island which formed our S. W. shore, and bearing from hence N. 53 W., distant about four miles.

After receiving this information, I waited with no little impatience the return of the other boat party; in the hope that, if no intelligence should be derived to facilitate the progress of the ships, there was yet a great probability of finding a more comfortable resting place than that we then occupied. This afforded not a single prospect that was pleasing to the eye, the smallest recreation on shore, nor animal nor vegetable food, excepting a very scanty proportion of those eatables already described, and of which the adjacent country was soon exhausted, alter

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our arrival. Nor did our exploring parties meet with a more abundant supply, whence the place obtained the name of DESOLATION SOUND; where our time would have passed infinitely more heavily, had it not been relieved by the agreeable society of our Spanish friends.

Thursday 12

The week, for which Mr. Johnstone and his party were furnished with supplies, having been expired some time, I began to be anxiously solicitous for their welfare; when, about two in the morning of the 12th, I had the satisfaction of having their arrival announced, all well, and that a passage leading into the pacific ocean to the north-westward had been discovered.

Mr. Johnstone had succeeded in finding his way into the arm leading to the westward through the narrows, where they were assisted by the friendly natives, about a league to the south of the passage by which he had before entered it; making the intermediate land, lying before the entrance into Bute's canal, nearly a round island 3 or 4 leagues in circuit, which obtained the name of STUART'S ISLAND. This channel was not less intricate than the other, neither of which he considered a safe navigation for shipping, owing to their being so narrow, to the irregular direction and rapidity of the tides, and to the great depth of water; which, even close to the shore, was no where less than 60 fathoms. From this passage the northern shore was pursued, and two small arms leading to the N.W., each about a league in extent, were examined. Here was met a canoe in which were three Indians, who fled to the woods with the utmost precipitation, leaving their canoe on the shore. In it Mr. Johnstone deposited some trifling articles, in the hope of dissipating by this means, their ill-grounded apprehension of danger. As he proceeded, he passed a spacious opening leading to the S.W., which he supposed communicated with the gulph some distance to the westward of our present station. The principal channel of the western arm still preserving a west direction, was about a mile wide; and as they advanced in it, they arrived at another branch nearly about the same width, in latitude 50° 26′, longitude 234° 35′, with an islet and some rocks lying off its east point of entrance. Conformably to our mode of tracing the continental shore, they were led up this opening; and in the night, found themselves incommoded by the

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flood tide, although they had conceived from their former observations on the sides, that, at the time of their being disturbed at their resting place on shore, it would be nearly low water, as the moon was then passing the meridian. But, as the tide here varied upwards of four hours earlier than in the gulph of Georgia, and as the night had been still and pleasant, no accidental cause be referred to, which was likely to have produced so material an alteration: the period of flowing, however, nearly corresponded with that of the tides at Nootka, and on the sea-coast to the north of that place; which left little doubt, in the mind of Mr. Johnstone, that this unexpected circumstance had been occasioned by the channel they were in communicating with the ocean to the north-westward. The examination of the arm was continued, the next morning, to the latitude of 50° 46′ longitude 234° 41′, where it was thought to end. But this appearance proved to be a contraction only of the channel, by two interlocking points, from whence the Spaniards, who afterwards pursued its course, found its final termination in a N. E. by N. direction about 3 leagues further. They again reached the entrance in the evening, where the party rested for the night. This canal, which I distinguished by the name of LOUGHBOROUGH'S CANAL, was about a mile wide, between sleep and nearly perpendicular mountains, from whose lofty summits the dissolving snow descended down their rugged sides in many beautiful cascades.

In the morning of the 6th, their researches were continued along the western channel, in which they found the tide favoring their former conjectures, by the flood evidently approaching them from the westward. About 2 leagues to the west of the arm they had quitted, the channel again branched off in two directions, one stretching a little to the northward, the other a little to the southward of west. The former demanded their attention first, and was sound to be an intricate channel, containing many sunken rocks and rocky islets, occasioning great irregularity in the tides, which were here extremely violent; this continued about 2 leagues, where the channel widened, and the water became less agitated. Their course along the continental shore led them into a continuation of the western channel, which they had forsaken for the pur-

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pose of pursuing this more northerly one along the shore of the main land, by which means the southern side of the channel they had passed through was proved to be an island, about 4 leagues in extent. From hence, they continued along the northern shore of the great western channel for the most part upwards of half a league wide, in the firm reliance of finding it lead to the ocean. Under this impression, Mr. Johnstone thought it of importance to ascertain that fact as speedily as possible; for which purpose, he steered over to the southern shore, leaving some openings, with some islands and rocks, on the northern side, for future examination. The southern shore was found nearly straight, and intire, rising abruptly from the sea to mountains of great height. Here they passed some small habitations of the natives, but the northern shore presented not the least sign of its being inhabited to the westward of the narrows. A flow progress was now made to the westward, in consequence of a fresh gale from that quarter, most part of the day; and the nights and mornings, often obscured in a thick fog, were generally calm.

*So called by the Spaniards, but known by the name of Maquilla by the English

On the morning of the 8th, they were much surprized by the report of a gun at no very great distance. This was immediately answered by a swivel; but no return was heard. On the fog clearing away, a small canoe appeared, which attended them until they reached a village of greater consequence, in point of size, than any they had before seen, situated on the front of a hill near the sea-side. The two Indians in the canoe, finding they were seen by those on shore, ventured alongside our boats; and, in the canoe, was a musket with its appendages, and an eagle recently shot, which easily accounted for the discharge heard in the fog. As they approached the village several canoes visited the party; each of which was armed with a musket, and provided with ammunition; in one canoe there were three; these were considered as belonging to a chief, who informed them, that the village was under the authority of Maquinna*, the chief of Nootka, who, they gave our party reason to believe, was then on shore. The village had the appearance of being constructed with much regularity; its inhabitants numerous, and all seemingly well armed: under these circumstances it was passed

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by, without further inquiry, agreeably to our established maxim, never to court a danger on shore when necessity did no compel our landing.

A small sandy island, lying to the eastward of the village, affords between it and the land on which the town is situated, a small, but very commodious, anchorage. This is not, however, to be approached by the passage to the south of the island, that being navigable only for very small craft. To the south of the village a valley extended, apparently to a considerable distance in a south-westerly direction. Through it a very sine stream of fresh water emptied itself into the sea, and, from the many wears that were seen in it; it was unquestionably well stocked with fish, though not any was offered for sale, notwithstanding the solicitations of our party, in the Nootka language, with which the natives seemed well acquainted.

After the chief had received some presents, amongst which copper seemed to him the most valuable, he, with most of his companions, returned to the shore; and, on landing, fired several muskets, to shew, in all probability, with what dexterity they could use these weapons, to which they seemed as familiarized as if they had been accustomed to fire-arms from their earliest infancy.

The shores on each side of the channel had materially decreased in height. That to the northward appeared very much broken, and mostly composed of islands: whilst that to the southward, which was pursued, remained compact and intire. The islands to the north were generally formed by low land near the shore, rising to a moderate height, well wooded, and on them the smoke of several fires was observed. This circumstance, together with the number of inhabitants on the southern shore, and the many canoes that were seen passing and re-passing, evidently bespoke this country to be infinitely more populous than the shores of the gulph of Georgia.

The evening brought our party to the termination of the compact southern shore in its west direction, by a narrow channel leading to the south; and the main arm, which from that station took a north direction, spread very considerably; but the view to the westward was

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greatly interrupted by small islands. In the hope of reaching the westernmost island in fight, and by that means of determining the great object of their pursuit, they proceeded with a fresh gale from the east, attended by a great fall of rain, until midnight; when, supposing themselves at the limits they had seen before it was dark, they came to a grapnel under the lee of a small island, which in some degree sheltered them from the inclemency of the night. This extremely unpleasant weather continued without intermission, the whole of the next day, and until the morning of the 10th. They had now been absent six days out of the seven for which they had been provided, and the small remains of their stock were becoming hourly more insufficient for the distant voyage they had yet to perform in returning to the ships, which greatly increased the mortification they experienced by this very unlooked for detention; but a westerly wind and pleasant weather returning with the morning of the 10th, they rowed to an island conspicuously situated, from whence their expectations were gratified by a clear though distant view of the expansive ocean. The land constituting the different shores of the passage appeared of moderate height, much broken, and seemed to form various other channels to sea. This was however the most capacious; the westernmost land of which, on the northern side, bore by compass N. 62 W. about 5 leagues; and the westernmost land on the southern side N. 80 W. about 4 leagues distant. This island obtained the name of ALLEVIATION ISLAND, from whence they directed their course homeward, being upwards of 120 miles from the ships.

Impelled by reasons of the most pressing nature, no time was lost in taking advantage of the prevailing favorable gale, with which they kept on their return until midnight, When as usual they landed for the night on the southern shore, nearly opposite the west end of the island that forms the south side of the intricate passage they had passed through on the 6th. As the survey from the ship had been carried on by that route, and confined to the examination of the northern or continental shore to that station, through passages rendered by various impediments ineligible as a navigation for the ships, Mr. Johnstone was desirous of pursuing another which led more southerly, and appeared less liable to such ob-

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jections. Though he much regretted the lost opportunity of returning by the favorable gale that continued all night, he waited the approach of day, and departing with the dawn, had his wishes gratified by sailing through a clear and spacious channel, in width about half a league, without the smallest interruption, or the least irregularity in the tides. The southern shore, which from the large village was nearly straight, afforded some few small bays, the land mostly rising in an abrupt manner from the sea to mountains of considerable height, divided by vallies that appeared to extend a great way back into the country: the shores were tolerably well inhabited by the natives who lived in small villages near the water side. The northern shore was neither so high nor so compact; several detached rocks were seen lying near it, and it was, generally speaking, composed of rugged rocks, in the fissures of which an abundance of pine trees were produced, constituting, as on the southern shore, one intire sorest. As they advanced in this channel, leading nearly in an east and west direction, they observed another which led to the south, south eastward, bearing every appearance of being clear, navigable, and communicating with the gulph; and one also stretching to the north-eastward, which they had little doubt was the same they had seen after passing the narrows on the 4th, leading to the S.W. The former of these they much wished to explore, but their provisions being totally exhausted, it became expedient they should join the ships without further delay, and therefore pursued that leading to the north eastward, by which they arrived as already related.

This information left me scarcely a doubt that the channel Mr. Johnstone had declined pursuing south eastwardly towards the gulph, was the same our boats had entered leading to the northward from point Mudge, and which, on comparing the sketches of the several surveys, was as nearly as possible reduced to a certainty. I derived no small degree of satisfaction in finding my expectations so far answered, for had our efforts proved ineffectual in discovering a communication with the ocean, it would have occupied the remaining part of the season, to have examined the numerous openings on the opposite shores of the gulph, which were now proved to form the north-eastern side of an extensive island

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or archipelago, on whose south western coast Nootka is situate; hence this task now became unnecessary, and I was flattered with the hope of yet extending our researches during the summer months a considerable distance to the northward.

Senr. Galiano and Valdes I made acquainted with our discoveries: and with my intention of departing, in consequence of the information we had gained, the first favorable moment.

When the village was pointed out where Maquinna was supposed to have been. Senr. Valdes was of opinion, that circumstance was highly probable, knowing he had authority over an extensive country to the north-westward of Nootka.

These gentlemen received such information of all our discoveries up to this period as they required, and now begged leave to decline accompanying us further, as the powers they possessed in their miserable vessels, were unequal to a co-operation with us, and being apprehensive their attendance would retard our progress. Senr. Galiano favored me with a copy of his survey, and other particulars relative to this inlet of the sea, which contained also that part of the neighbouring coast extending north-westward from the straits of De Fuca, beyond Nootka to the latitude of 50° 3′, longitude 232° 48′. He likewise gave me a letter to be forwarded to Senr. Quadra at Nootka, by Maquinna, or any of his people with whom we might chance to meet, together with an introductory one to Senr. Quadra, when I should have the pleasure of meeting him at Nootka. After an exchange of good wishes, we bad each other farewell, having experienced much satisfaction, and mutually received every kindness and attention that our peculiar situation could afford to our little society. From these gentlemen we were assured, that on our arrival at Nootka we should meet a most cordial reception, and be more pleasantly situated than we could imagine, as the houses had lately undergone a thorough repair, and all the gardens had been put and kept in the highest order, for the purpose of being so delivered into our possession.

Friday 13.

With a light breeze from the northward, in the morning of the 13th, we weighed and left our Spanish friends at anchor, who intended to pursue their researches to the westward through the channel Mr. Johnstone

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had discovered; and in commemoration of whose exertions was by me named JOHNSTONE'S STRAITS; and the island described by him on the 6th, was in compliment to Mr. Swaine, who commanded the other boat distinguished by the name of Hardwicke's island, after the noble earl of that title; towards which straits our course was now bent to the southward, trusting we should find a passage into them to the westward of point Mudge.

Little remains further to add respecting the station we had just quitted, but to state the general satisfaction that prevailed on leaving a region so truly desolate and inhospitable. During our stay at that gloomy place, I was enabled to take only ten sets of lunar distances; which, with six sets taken at our anchorage near the entrance of the sound, gave a mean result for the longitude 235° 5′ 30′. Kendal's chronometer, by ten sets of altitudes taken on different days, shewed the mean result, allowing the Birch bay rate, to be 235° 21′. This I considered to be nearer the truth than that deduced from the few lunar observations above mentioned, and have accordingly adopted it as the longitude of Desolation sound, whose latitude by six meridional altitudes of the sun was found to be 50° 11′. The mean result of eighteen sets of azimuths taken on board, differing from 17° 45′ to 23°, gave a mean result of 19° 16′ easterly variation; seventeen sets taken on shore differed from 14° 26′ to 19° 30′, gave a mean result of 16° variation in the same direction. The irregularity of the tides was such that no correct inferences could well be drawn. They appeared to be principally influenced by local, or incidental causes: possibly by the operation of both. They were greatly affected by the direction or force of the winds, which seemed as equally to act on the rise and the fall, as on the current when there was any. This however was not always the case; as in the course of some days there would not be the least perceptible stream; and in others a very rapid one, that generally continued in the same direction twenty-four hours, and sometimes longer. The time of high water was equally vague and undefinable; this I attributed to its insular situation, nearly at the extremity of the influence of two tides slowing from directly opposite points, causing their divided streams to act, according to the incidental circumstances that might operate upon them.

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In this route we passed through the assemblage of islands and rocks lying at some distance before the entrance into Desolation sound; some of which presented an appearance infinitely more grateful than that of the interior country. These were mostly of a moderate height from the sea, tolerably well wooded, and the shores not wholly composed of rugged rocks, afforded some small bays bounded by sandy beaches. The wind continued light from the northern quarter, and the weather being serene and pleasant, made a most agreeable change. Numberless whales enjoying the season, were playing about the ship in every direction; as were also several seals; the latter had been seen in great abundance during our residence in Desolation sound, and in all the remote excursions of our boats, but they were so extremely watchful and shy, that not one could be taken. These animals seemed to have had the exclusive possession of the gloomy region we had just quitted; but the scene now before us was more congenial to our minds, not only from the different aspect of the shores, but from the attention of the friendly Indians, who as we were crossing the gulph, visited us in several canoes, with young birds, mostly sea fowl, fish, and some berries, to barter for our trinkets and other commodities. Soon after mid-day we anchored about half a mile to the northward of point Mudge in 37 fathoms water, on a bottom of black sand and mud. A very strong flood tide came from the northward, and although nearly convinced that our conjectures were right, the launch and cutter with lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey, were immediately dispatched to examine the channel as to its communication with Johnstone's straits; that in the event of there being any obstructions where such rapid tides were running, we might have sufficient notice, and be prepared to avoid them.

From the village situated on point Mudge, we were visited by several of the natives, who brought fish and the wild fruits of their country, which they exchanged for our European articles, in a very fair and honest manner.

After dinner, accompanied by Mr. Menzies and some of the officers, I went on shore to return the visit of our friends, and to indulge our curiosity. On landing at the village, which is situated a little to the

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N.W. within the promontory, and nearly at the summit of a sleep sandy cliff, we were received by a man who appeared to be the chief of the party. He approached us alone, seemingly with a degree of formality, though with the utmost confidence of his own security, whilst the rest of the society, apparently numerous, were arranged and seated in the most peaceable manner before their houses. I made him such presents as seemed not only to please him excessively, but to confirm him in the good opinion with which he was prepossessed; and he immediately conducted us up to the village by a very narrow path winding diagonally up the cliff, estimated by us to be about an hundred feet in height, and within a few degrees of being perpendicular. Close to the edge of this precipice stood the village, the houses of which were built after the fashion of Nootka, though smaller, not exceeding ten or twelve feet in height, nearly close together in rows, separated by a narrow passage sufficiently wide only for one person. On the beach, at the foot of the cliff, were about seventy canoes of small dimensions, though amongst them were some that would carry at least fifteen persons with great convenience. On a computation, therefore, deduced from these and other circumstances, we were led to consider that this village, though occupying a very small space, could not contain less than three hundred persons. The spot where it was erected appeared to be well chosen to insure its protection; the steep loose sandy precipice secured it in front, and its rear was defended by a deep chasm in the rocks; beyond these was a thick and nearly impenetrable forest: so that the only means of access was by the narrow path we had ascended, which could easily be maintained against very superior numbers. Having gratified our curiosity, and, in return for the cordial attention of these friendly people, made our acknowledgments by presents of such trivial articles as we had about us, we took our leave of the village for the purpose of indulging ourselves before dark, with a refreshing walk, on a low margin of land extending from the more elevated woodland country, some distance along the water-side to the northward; a luxury we had not for some time experienced. In this excursion, which was extremely grateful and pleasant, we saw two sepulchres built with plank about five feet in height, seven

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in length, and four in breadth. These boards were curiously perforated at the ends and fides, and the tops covered with loose pieces of plank, as if for the purpose of admitting as great a circulation of air as possible to the human bones they enclosed, which were evidently the relics of many different bodies. A few of the Indians attended us in our walk, picking the berries from the trees as we passed, and with much civility presenting them to us on green leaves. The evening approaching obliged us to return on board, against a very strong ebb tide.

The Chatham having been detained some hours in Desolation sound after we had sailed, had now arrived and anchored near us. She had been stopped by her anchor when nearly half up, hooking a rock; every means that could be devised had been resorted to without effect, until the moment when they were about to cut it away it cleared itself, which fortunately saved the anchor and cable.

Saturday 14.

With a fresh breeze from the N.W. and a continuation of pleasant weather, at high water about three o'clock on saturday morning we were under sail, and with the assistance of the ebb tide, turned about 4 leagues up the inlet towards a commodious anchoring place, that had been discovered by our boats, and was the appointed rendezvous on the return of the launch and cutter. About six o'clock we arrived and anchored in 21 fathoms water, sandy bottom. In this situation each fide of the arm formed a bay affording commodious anchorage; and that on the western side being the most extensive was preferred. Nearly in the center is a shallow bank of sand, with a navigable passage all around it. The ships were stationed between this bank and the north side of the bay, near a small Indian village, whose inhabitants had but little to dispose of, though they were very civil and friendly. Whilst turning up in the ship, many of the natives came off; but the swiftness of our motion prevented their coming on board.

The clearness of the sky and atmosphere enabled me to procure some observations, by which our latitude was ascertained to be 50° 7′ 30′. Ten sets of lunar distances, with those made in Desolation sound, amounting in all to twenty-six sets taken on different sides of the moon, brought forward by Kendal's chronometer and the protraction, agree-

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ing extremely well together; gave the mean result of the longitude by the lunar distances 15′ 15′ to the westward of the watch. On such authority however, I could not possibly determine that the chronometer erred so materially; yet had reason to believe, that it was not gaining at the rate we had allowed since our departure from Birch bay. The true longitude therefore of the respective places hereafter mentioned, from Desolation sound to Nootka, will be deduced from such observations as I was enabled to make at the latter place for correcting the error of the chronometer; by which, according to the Birch bay rate, the longitude of our present rendezvous was 234° 57′; its true longitude, by subsequent observations, 234° 52′½; the variation of the compass by three sets of azimuths 18° 30′ eastwardly.

From point Mudge to this bay the channel is nearly straight; the western shore is compact, the eastern one has some rocky islets and rocks lying near it; it is about half a league wide; in turning up we found not the smallest obstruction; and the shores are sufficiently bold for vessels to stand as close to them as inclination may direct. Immediately above this station the channel contracts to a short half mile, by the projecting land that forms the north sides of these two bays, and by an island on the eastern shore (navigable round for boats only) which projects so far as to reduce the channel to nearly one half its width. The tide, setting to the southward through this confined passage, rushes with such immense impetuosity as to produce the appearance of falls considerably high; though not the least obstruction of either rocks or sands, so far as we had an opportunity of examining it, appeared to exist. The returning tide to the north, though very rapid, does not run with such violence; this was estimated to move at the rate of about 4 or 5 miles; the other, at 7 or 8 miles per hour. They seemed regular in their quarterly change, but the visible rise and fall by the shore in this situation, was so inconsiderable as to allow us merely to distinguish the ebb from the flood tide.

In the evening of the 14th our boats returned, having found the channel from these narrow parts gradually increasing its width to a mile, and half a league, and to communicate with Johnstone's straits in nearly the same N.N.W. direction, about 4 leagues further, without any visible ob-

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struction or impediment to the navigation. The eastern shore, like that to the northward, was much broken; the western shore continued firm, and afforded some small bays in which there was good anchorage. As they proceeded, not any inhabitants were seen, but, on returning, they met twenty canoes filled with Indians, who, at first, were a little distant, but, at length, approached our party with confidence, and with every appearance of civility and friendship.

These were observed to be more variously painted than any of the natives our gentlemen had before seen. The faces of some were made intirely white, some red, black, or lead colour; whilst others were adorned with several colours; and the generality had their hair decorated with the down of young sea-sowl. In these respects, they evidently approached nearer to the character of the people of Nootka, than of any other we had yet seen, either in the entrance of the straits of De Fuca, or in the gulph of Georgia.

Sunday 15. Monday 16.

The winds being too light and variable to command the ship against the influence of such rapid tides, we were under the necessity of waiting for the ebb in the afternoon of the following day, when, with pleasant weather and a fresh breeze at N.W., we weighed about three o'clock, turned through the narrows; and, having gained about 3 leagues, by the time it was nearly dark, we anchored on the western shore in a small bay, on a bottom of sand and mud, in 30 fathoms water, to wait the favorable return of tide. On monday morning, with the assistance of a fresh N.W. wind, and the stream of ebb, we shortly reached Johnstone's straits; passing a point which, after our little consort, I named POINT CHATHAM, situated in latitude 50° 19′½, longitude 234° 45′. This point is rendered conspicuous by the confluence of three channels, two of which take their respective directions to the westward and south-eastward towards the ocean, as also by a small bay on each side of it; by three rocky islets close to the south of it, and by some rocks, over which the sea breaks to the north of it.

Immediately on our entering these straits, we were affected by more swell than we had experienced in this inland navigation, indicating that the ocean, in a westerly direction, was not quite so remote as, by Mr. Johnstone, it had been estimated.

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In the Bay, to the north-westward of point Chatham, was situated an Indian village, from whence some of the natives attempted to give us their company; but the wind, blowing heavily in squalls, prevented their venturing alongside. After we had proceeded about ten miles from point Chatham, the tide made so powerfully against us as obliged us, about breakfast time, to become again stationary in a bay on the northern shore in 32 fathoms water. The land, under which we anchored, was a narrow island, which I distinguished by the name of THURLOW'S ISLAND, it is about 8 leagues long, and was passed to the northward by Mr. Johnstone in going, and to the S.E. on his return. The Bay was observed to be in latitude 50° 23′, longitude 234° 32′; three sets of azimuths gave the variation 19° eastwardly; it affords good anchorage; and wood and water may be easily procured. Our efforts with the seine, though unremitted, were ineffectual, not having afforded us the least supply since our departure from Birch bays; nor, with the hooks and lines, had we been more successful. About four in the afternoon, we again proceeded, but made little progress against a fresh westerly gale. In the evening we passed another village, when the inhabitants, more knowing than their neighbours, embraced the opportunity of the ship being at stays, of felling a few small fresh salmon. They had some with them ready cooked, and they seemed to have great pleasure in throwing them on board as we passed their canoes. We anchored again about nine in the evening, on the southern shore, nearly abreast of the west end of Thurlow's island, in 22 fathoms sandy bottom; having gained, this tide, little more than 3 leagues.

Tuesday 17.

The wind blew strong from the westward, with squalls, during the night; and when we weighed, at three the next morning, we were obliged to ply, under double-reefed topsails, to windward, with little prospect of making much progress, until we had passed Thurlow's and Hardwick's islands.

The meeting of these channels added great velocity to the tides; and, as the day advanced, the weather became fair and pleasant, which enabled us to spread all our canvass; yet we were very apprehensive of losing, by the adverse tide, all we had gained by the favorable stream;

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not having been able to reach the bottom with 100 fathoms of line, although repeated trials had been made, on traveling within a ship's length of each shore. At last, about eleven, in a small bay on the southern side, soundings were gained at the depth of 50 fathoms, where we instantly anchored, about half a cable's length from the rocks, to wait the return of the favorable current: not knowing by what name to call it. That which came from the eastward we had stiled the ebb; but, on going on shore to observe the latitude, the stream that came rapidly from the westward, appeared to be the reflux, as the water on the shore, during the afternoon, had evidently retired, though to no very great distance.

Our station here was nearly opposite the first opening on the northern shore, passed by unexamined by Mr. Johnstone; who had also declined visiting two others, apparently on the continent, further to the westward. Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey, were dispatched in the launch and cutter, in order to explore the former, lying from us N.50 E., about a league distant, with instructions to join me, in the ship, either in the third unexplored opening on the north side of the straits, or at the village where Maquinna was stated to be; it being my intention, that the Chatham should pursue the second opening, whilst I proceeded in order to procure an interview with Maquinna, through whom I might be able to inform Senr. Quadra of the time he might expect to see us, and forward Senr. Galiano's letter.

In the afternoon we were visited by two canoes, having a musket, with all the necessary appurtenances, in each. These were the first firearms, we had seen from the ships, but, from the number Mr. Johnstone had seen in his late excursion, it would appear, that the inhabitants of this particular part are amply provided with these formidable weapons.

Having the tide in our favor, at four o'clock we quitted this station, the latitude of which was found to be in 50° 27′, longitude 235° 53′. At this time, it appeared to be low tide, the water having fallen, since my landing in the forenoon, nearly five feet; the stream was in our favor, though running at a very gentle rate, and the wind from the N.W. being very light, we advanced so slowly, that, by ten at night, we had

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only gained 3 leagues, where another small bay, or cove, was seen on the southern shore, with low land extending some distance from the mountains. Here I was in hopes of finding a commodious resting place, but was obliged to stand very near to the shore before soundings could be gained; at length, with 40 fathoms of line, the bottom was reached, and on wearing, which the ship did very briskly, in order to anchor in a less depth of water, our next cast was 10 fathoms, when the anchor was instantly let go: yet, before we had veered a third of the cable, the ship grounded abaft; but, on heaving in a few fathoms of the cable, the very easily swung off the bank. The Chatham grounded also, and was likewise got off with little difficulty.

At this station, it was again low water about four on wednesday morning, or nearly so, as the inner part of the bank on which we had grounded, and at that time was covered with water, was dry at no great distance from us. We again proceeded, with the current in our favor, to the westward; and on passing two small villages of the natives, a few of the inhabitants, from each, paid us their respects. At this time we were nearly abreast of the second opening, passed by unexamined by Mr. Johnstone. It appeared infinitely more capacious than the other, which, agreeably to my former intentions, Mr. Broughton was directed to pursue, appointing the same rendezvous with him, that had been fixed for the boats.

We remained under sail the whole day, but made so little way, that, by nine at night, we had advanced about 5 leagues only. Then, in a small bay, close to the rocks on the southern shore, we again anchored, in 45 fathoms water, sandy bottom.

Thursday 19.

Light variable winds prevented our sailing until eight the next morning, when, with a gentle breeze from the eastward, we weighed; and, what was not a little extraordinary, without heaving the least strain on the cable, on fishing the anchor, its lower arm was discovered to be broken off close to the crown, and to have been left at the bottom. On further examination, it proved to have been just welded round the surface, so as barely to hold the parts together, within which the bars, composing the internal mass, preserved their original unaltered shape,

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distinctly separate from each other; and, in the spaces remained the blacksmith's coal, without any appearance of their having undergone the action of fire.

Whilst we remained inactive the fore part of the morning, our time was not unprofitably employed, in receiving the welcome visits of some hospitable friends from the shore; who brought us such an abundant supply of fresh salmon, that we purchased a sufficient number to serve the crew so long as they would keep good; which was a great relief from our salted provisions, being a luxury we had not lately experienced.

We had not long been under sail, when the officers, who had been dispatched in the boats on the 17th, arrived on board. From these gentlemen I became acquainted, that they had examined the inlet to which they had been directed. Off its west point lies a small island; its entrance is about half a mile wide, but with no more than 4 fathoms water in mid-channel; from whence it extends about 8 miles, in a direction N. 75 E.; this depth however increased as they advanced, to 5, 6, and 7 fathoms, affording good anchorage about two thirds of the way up; beyond which limits, like all the canals of this kind that we had explored, it terminated in shallow water. The country bore a more pleasing aspect than that seen from Johnstone's straits; and the soil, where they landed, at the upper part, was composed of black mould and sand, producing pine-trees of large dimensions. They saw one run of water at the head; but the shoal stretching from thence, prevented their ascertaining its qualities; yet as a deserted village was observed half way up on the northern shore, in all probability this place is not destitute of wholesome water, the only undiscovered requisite to constitute it a very snug and commodious port; to which I gave the name of PORT NEVILLE.

The weather was serene and pleasant, but the wind so light and variable, that, although we were not more than 4 leagues from the village where we expected to meet Maquinna; it was not until past ten at night that we reached that station, when we anchored just without the sandy island, in 7 fathoms water.

Friday 20.

The next morning shewed the village in our neighbourhood to be large; and, from the number of our visitors, it appeared to be very populous. These brought us the skins of the sea-otter, of an excellent

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quality, in great abundance, which were bartered for sheet-copper, and blue cloth; those articles being in the highest estimation amongst them. Most of these people understood the language of Nootka, though it did not appear to be generally spoken.

The Ty-eie, or chief of the village, paid us an early visit, and received from me some presents which highly delighted him. I understood his name to be Cheslakees. He acknowledged Maquinna to be a greater chief; as he also did Wicananish; but, so far as I could learn, he did not consider himself to be under the authority of either.

On inquiring if Maquinna was at the village, he answered in the negative, saying they seldom visited; and that it was a journey of four days across the land to Nootka sound, which from hence towards the S.S.W. is about 20 leagues distant.

Accompanied by some of the officers, Mr. Menzies, and our new guest Cheslakees, I repaired to the village, and sound it pleasantly situated on a sloping hill, above the banks of a fine fresh-water rivulet, discharging itself into a small creek or cove. It was exposed to a southern aspect, whilst higher hills behind, covered with lofty pines, sheltered it completely from the northern winds. The houses, in number thirty-four, were arranged in regular streets; the larger ones were the habitations of the principal people, who had them decorated with paintings and other ornaments, forming various figures, apparently the rude designs of fancy; though it is by no means improbable, they might annex some meaning to the figures they described, too remote, or hieroglyphical, for our comprehension. The house of our leader Cheslakees was distinguished by three rafters of stout timber raised above the roof, according to the architecture of Nootka, though much inferior to those I had there seen, in point of size; the whole, from the opposite side of the creek, presented a very picturesque appearance.

On our landing, three or four of the inhabitants, only, came down to receive us at the beach; the rest quietly remained near their houses. These, Cheslakees informed me, were his near relations, who consequently received, in the shape of presents, compliments from me, with which they seemed greatly pleased.

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CHESLAKEE'S VILLAGE in JOHNSTONE'S STRAITS.

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The houses were constructed after the manner at Nootka, but appeared rather less filthy, and the inhabitants were undoubtedly of the same nation, differing little in their dress, or general deportment. Several families lived under the same roof; but their steeping apartments were separated, and more decency seemed to be observed in their domestic economy, than I recollected to be the practice at Nootka. The women, who in proportion appeared numerous, were variously employed; some in their different houshold affairs, others in the manufacture of their garments from bark and other materials; though no one was engaged in making their woollen apparel, which I much regretted. The fabrication of mats for a variety of purposes, and a kind of basket, wrought so curiously close, as to contain water like an earthen vessel without the least leakage or drip, comprehended the general employment of the women, who were not less industrious than ingenious.

As inquiries into the laudable ingenuity of others are not to be satisfied in the civilized world without some expence, so investigations of the like nature amongst; the uncultivated regions were not to be had in this society without due acknowledgments, which were solicited by these female artizans in every house we entered; and so abundant were their demands, that although I considered myself amply provided for the occasion with beads, hawk's bells, and other trinkets, my box, as well as my pockets, and those of the gentlemen who were of the party, were soon nearly emptied. At the conclusion of this visit we were entertained at 'the house of an elderly chief, to whom Cheslakees, and every other person paid much respect, with a song by no means unmelodious, though the performance of it was rendered excessively savage, by the uncouth gestures, and rude actions accompanying it, similar to the representations I had before seen at Nootka. The song being finished, we were each presented with a strip of sea-otter skin; the distribution of which occupied some time. After this ceremony a song from the ladies was expected; and during this interval, I observed in the hands of the numerous tribe that now surrounded us, many spears pointed with iron, clubs, large knives, and other weapons with which they were not furnished on our first approach to the village. I was not altogether satis-

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fied with this change in their appearance, though I had every reason to believe their intentions were of the most inoffensive nature, and that it was most probable they had thus produced their arms to shew their wealth, and impress us with an idea of their consequence: I deemed it, however, most adviseable to withdraw; and having distributed the few remaining articles we had reserved, Cheslakees was informed I was about to return; on which he, with his relations who had attended us through the village, accompanied us to the sandy island, whither I went to observe its latitude.

Some few others of the Indians attended us on this occasion, whose behaviour being orderly and civil, they were permitted to assemble round me whilst observing. They were excessively amused with the effect of the fun's rays through the reading glass; and the extraordinary quality of the quicksilver used for the purpose of an artificial horizon, afforded them the greatest entertainment, until our business was ended, when they in a very friendly manner took leave, and confirmed me in the opinion, that the martial appearance they had assumed, was purely the effect of ostentation.

In most of the houses were two or three muskets, which, by their locks and mounting, appeared to be Spanish. Cheslakees had no less than eight in his house, all kept in excellent order: these, together with a great variety of other European commodities, I presumed, were procured immediately from Nootka, as, on pointing to many of them, they gave us to understand they had come from thence, and in their commercial concerns with us, frequently explained, that their skins would fetch more at Nootka than we chose to offer. Their total number we estimated at about five hundred. They were well versed in the principles of trade, and carried it on in a very fair and honorable manner. Sea-otter skins were the chief objects of our people's traffic, who purchased nearly two hundred in the course of the day. Mr. Menzies informed me, that these had been procured at least an hundred per cent, dearer than when he visited the coast on a former occasion, which manifestly proved, that either a surplus quantity of European commodities had been since imported into this country, or more probably, that the avidity shewn by

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the rival adventurers in the commerce, and the eagerness of an unrestrained throng of purchasers from different nations, had brought European commodities into low estimation. Iron was become a mere drug; and when we refused them fire arms and ammunition, which humanity, prudence, and policy directed to be with-held, nothing but large sheets of copper, and blue woollen cloth engaged their attention in a commercial way; beads and other trinkets they accepted as presents, but they returned nothing in exchange.

These were the principal circumstances that occurred to me on our short visit to this station. The further and more general observations, that fell under my notice respecting the very extraordinary region we had lately passed through, and which were not noticed in the narratives of the several parties who were employed in exploring it, I shall now briefly state, with such reflections as were consequent thereon.

The length of coast from point Mudge to this station, about 32 leagues, forms a channel which, though narrow, is fair and navigable; manifested by the adverse winds obliging us to beat to windward every foot of the channel, and to perform a complete traverse from shore to shore through its whole extent, without meeting the least obstruction from rocks or shoals. The great depth of water not only here, but that which is generally sound washing the shores of this very broken and divided country, must ever be considered as a very peculiar circumstance, and a great inconvenience to its navigation. We however sound a sufficient number of stopping places to answer all our purposes, and, in general, without going far out of our way. In coming from the westward, through Johnstone's straits, the best channel into the gulph of Georgia in thick weather might, though not easily, be mistaken. Such error however may be avoided, by keeping the southern shore close on board, which is compact, and so sleep, that it may be passed within a few yards in the greatest safety: indeed I have every reason to believe the whole of the passage to be equally void of dangers that do not evidently shew themselves. The height of the land that compose these shores and the interior country, has been already stated to decrease as we proceeded westward. The land on the southern side, which is an extensive

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island, appeared the most elevated, composed of very lofty mountains, whose summits, not very irregular, were still in some places covered with snow. The northern side, for a considerable distance, seemed less elevated, and the intire forest that covered its surface, might have favored the belief of great fertility, had we not known that pine trees innumerable are produced from the fissures and chasms of the most barren rocks, of which, we had great reason to suppose, the whole of the country before us was composed. Its low appearance may possibly be occasioned by its being much divided by water, as we evidently saw, through an opening, about four miles only to the westward of that appointed for our rendezvous, a much greater space so occupied, than that which comprehended these straits. Our general view to the northward, was, however, bounded by a mountainous country, irregular in the height of its eminences, and some of them capped with snow. The retired hills of the most eastern part of the straits, were, as we passed, so obscured by the high steep rocky cliffs of the shores, that we were unable to describe them with any precision. As the elevation of the northern shore decreased, I was in expectation of seeing a continuation of that lofty and connected range of snowy mountains, which I have repeatedly had reason to consider, as the insurmountable barrier to any extensive inland navigation. Herein I was disappointed, as this lofty structure either decreases in its vast degree of elevation, or it extends in a more inland direction.

The residence of all the natives, we had seen, since our departure from point Mudge, was uniformly on the shores of this extensive island, forming the southern side of Johnstone's straits, which seems not only to be as well inhabited as could be expected in this uncultivated country, but infinitely more so, than, we had reason to believe, the southern parts of New Georgia. This fact established, it must be considered as singularly remarkable, that, on the coast of the opposite or continental shore, we did not discover even a vestige of human existence, excepting the deserted villages! This circumstance, though it countenances the idea of the original inhabitants of the interior country having migrated, fallen by conquest, or been destroyed by disease; still leaves us unable to adduce any particular reason as the cause of this evident depopulation.

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The width of the passage scarcely any where exceeding two miles, can hardly have induced the inhabitants of the northern side, to quit their dwellings for a residence on the opposite shore, merely for the purpose of being that small distance nearer to the commerce of the seacoast. On regarding the aspect of the two situations, and on reflecting that the winter season under this parallel must be severe and inclement, it appears reasonable to suppose, that any human beings, not restrained in fixing their abode, would not hesitate to choose the very opposite side to that which is here preferred, where, in general, their habitations front a bleak northern aspect, with mountains rising so perpendicularly behind them, that, if they do not totally, they must; in a great measure, exclude the cheering rays of the sun for some months of the year. The northern side labours not under this disadvantage, and enjoying the genial warmth denied to the other, at certain seasons, most probably, possesses the requisites necessary to their present mode of life, at least in an equal degree; especially, as this country has, in no instance, received the advantages of cultivation. This would appear to be the situation of choice, the other of necessity; for the same source of subsistence, which is evidently the sea, affords equal supplies to the inhabitants of either shore. And that there was a time, when they resided on both, is clearly proved, by their deserted habitations, yet in existence, on the northern shore.

As neither Maquinna, nor any of his people, were at this village, I intrusted to the brother of a man named Kaowitee, who seemed next of importance to Cheslakees, the letter I received from Senr. Galiano, as also one from myself, to be forwarded to SenSenr. Quadra at Nootka, which this man undertook to deliver, on the promise of being handsomely rewarded for his service.

The sandy island, by my observations, is situated in latitude 50°35′½, longitude 232° 57′;the variation of the compass here being 20° 45′ eastwardly.

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CHAPTER IX.

Pass through Broughton's archipelago, to pursue the continental shore—The vessels get aground—Enter Fitzhugh's sound—Reasons for quitting the coast, and proceeding to Nootka.

1792. July. Saturday 21.

HAVING replaced our broken anchor with a new one from out of the hold, which had employed the whole of the preceding day, about ten on saturday forenoon we proceeded with a favorable breeze from the westward, to the appointed rendezvous, that lies from the sandy island N. 89 E. at the distance of about 14 miles, where, at three in the afternoon, we anchored in 20 fathoms water, sandy bottom, about a cable's length from the shore, of a similar nature to those already described.

Wishing to acquire some idea of the probable extent of this opening, I left the ship after dinner, and was not a little surprized to find it communicate with the extensive space of water, to the north of the channel or straits already mentioned, making the land under which we were at anchor, an island about a league and a half long, nearly in a direction N. 70 W. with many rocky islets and rocks lying about its western extremity, some along its north side, and others off the east end. Northward of this island, and of a chain of others which lie to the westward of it, an arm of the sea, not less than 4 or 5 leagues across, stretched westward towards the ocean, where the horizon, in that direction, appeared to be intercepted only by a few small islands; the eastern and northern shores seemed wholly composed of rocky islands and rocks, and presented in their examination a very laborious talk, to ascertain the continental boundary. But as this important line had been already determined to the entrance of an opening, not more than 3 leagues to the

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eastward of our present station. now under the survey of Mr. Broughton in the Chatham, and as a branch of this opening to the eastward of us took a direction that way through a multitude of islands, any investigation of this broken country was rendered unnecessary, until I should understand how far the Chatham had been able to succeed in fixing the continuation of the continental shore.

Our very inactive, unpleasant situation, whilst we anxiously waited the arrival of our consort, was somewhat relieved by the visits of a few Indians from the southern shore of the straits, who brought us a small supply of fish, very acceptable, being unable to obtain any by our own efforts. Amongst the number of our visitors we were honored with the company of Cheslakees, with whose importunities for various articles I had with pleasure complied. He remained on board most part of the day; and as he fat at my elbow whilst writing, saw me frequently advert to a small memorandum book, which he managed to take away in the most dexterous manner, unperceived. Having occasion for its use, and knowing no other person had been near me, the purloiner could not be mistaken, A Sandwich island mat which I had given him, he had contrived to fold up in a very small compass, and in the center of it was the missing book. He appeared somewhat ashamed at the detection, but more mortified at my taking away the presents he had received; these were however, about two hours afterward restored, on his contrition, and penitential application. Stealing a book, incapable of being in the least degree serviceable to him, or useful to any other person than the owner, strongly marked that natural inordinate propensity to thieving, which, with few exceptions, influences the whole of the uncivilized world, preventing them, as if impelled by mere instinct, and destitute of reason, to restrain such inclinations.

Friday 27.

Without any circumstance occurring of an interesting nature, we remained uncomfortably idle until the arrival of Mr. Broughton in the afternoon of the 27th, who came on board in his cutter, the Chatham having been obliged, by adverse winds, to anchor the preceding evening 3 leagues to the westward of our rendezvous.

Mr. Broughton informed me, that after he had entered the opening

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he had been sent to examine, the eastern point of which is situated in latitude 50° 32′, longitude 233° 32′, he found it take an irregular course towards the N.E. passing a narrow branch leading to the westward. This opening, about a mile in width, occupied their attention until sun-set, when they anchored at its head in 35 fathoms water, and found it to terminate like the many others already described, in latitude 50° 42′½, longitude 234° 3′½: which after Sir John Call, was named CALL'S CANAL. On the evening of the next day they reached the narrow branch leading to the westward, which lies from their last place of anchorage S. 68 W. about 4 leagues distant. Here the Chatham stopped for the night in 17 fathoms water, near a small village of the natives, who brought them an abundance of fresh salmon. Mr. Broughton examined this narrow branch, and found it communicating with an arm of the sea in latitude 50° 43′, longitude 233° 33′, just navigable for the Chatham; and with the assistance of a strong flood tide, and their boats, they passed it the next morning, through a channel that continued for about half a league, not a hundred yards wide. The shallowest water, from 3 fathoms, gradually increased to 7 fathoms, as they approached the arm of the sea, which is about 2 miles wide, and extends in an east and west direction. Here the Chatham anchored, and Mr. Broughton pursued us eastern course in his boat along the continental shore, leaving a branch leading to the northward, near the entrance of which are two islands and some rocks. This arm of the sea continued a little to the northward of east, 6 leagues to the latitude of 50° 45′, where its width increased to near a league, taking an irregular northerly direction to its final termination in latitude 51° 1′, longitude 234° 13′. To this, after Capt. Knight of the navy, Mr. Broughton gave the name of KNIGHT'S CANAL. The shores of it, like most of those lately surveyed, are formed by high stupendous mountains rising almost perpendicularly from the water's edge. The dissolving snow on their summits produced many cataracts that fell with great impetuosity down their barren rugged sides. The fresh water that thus descended gave a pale white hue to the canal, rendering its contents intirely fresh at the head, and drinkable for twenty miles below it. This dreary region was not, however, destitute of in-

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habitants, as a village was discovered a few miles from its upper extremity, which seemed constructed like that described in Desolation sound, for defence; the inhabitants were civil and friendly. Near this place Mr. Broughton joined the Chatham on the morning of the 23d, and proceeded in her towards the branch above mentioned, leading to the northward. This in the evening he reached, and anchored for the night in 75 fathoms water. The next morning its course was pursued about 3 leagues towards the N.E. where this direction terminated in latitude 50° 51′½, longitude 233° 49′, from whence it irregularly stretched to the N.W. and westward. Inhabitants were still found on these inhospitable shores, who brought fish and skins of the sea-otter to fell, demanding in return blue great coats. A passage through this channel was accomplished on the 25th, notwithstanding the wind was very sickle and blew hard in squalls, attended with much thunder, lightning, and rain: the night was nearly calm, gloomy, and dark; and not being able to gain soundings, although within thirty yards of the rocky shores, they were driven about as the current of the tides directed, and happily escaped, though surrounded on all sides by innumerable rocks and rocky islets. On the 26th, the boundary of the continent was determined to a point which, from its appearance and situation, obtained the name of DEEP SEA BLUFF, in latitude 50° 52′, longitude 232° 29′. This station Mr. Broughton judged to be as far to the westward as the appointed rendezvous; and for the purpose of repairing thither, directed his course to the south-westward, through a channel that bore every appearance of leading to sea, as had been understood from the natives. With the assistance of a fresh gale from the N.E. he shortly arrived at its southern entrance, which presented the opening I had seen on the day we arrived at this station. Across it his course was directed to the southward, leaving between his present track, and the route he had pursued to the northward, an extensive cluster of islands, rocky islets, and rocks. These in commemoration of his discovery, I distinguished by the name of BROUGHTON'S ARCHIPELAGO.

Whilst; at this station, I had an opportunity of observing the latitude by five meridional altitudes of the fun, to be 50° 35′, its longitude 233°

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19. The variation of the compass, differing in eight sets of azimuths from 18° 30′ to 23° 53′, shewed a mean result of 20° 5′, eastwardly variation. The tides were irregular, on some days being very rapid, on others scarcely perceptible; the rise and fall, the time of high water, and other fluctuations and irregularities, I attributed, as already stated, to the influence of the winds, and the operation of other local causes on this insulated region.

Saturday 28.

With a fresh breeze from the E.N.E. we directed our course to the westward on the morning of the 28th, in order to proceed to the northward round the west end of this island. The channel through which we passed, though very unpleasant on account of the many rocks in it, is infinitely less dangerous than that to the eastward of the island, which is by no means adviseable for ships to attempt.

We had not been long under weigh before we were joined by the Chatham, and steered to the northward for the channel leading to Deep Sea bluff, which I called FIFE'S PASSAGE. As we crossed the main arm the squally hazy weather permitted our seeing, but very imperfectly, the several islands and rocks that it contains. About two o'clock in the afternoon we entered Fife's passage, and found its eastern point (named by me, after Captain Duff of the royal navy, POINT DUFF), situated in latitude 50° 48′, longitude 233° 10′. A small rocky islet lies off point Duff covered with shrubs; and off the west point of this passage, named POINT GORDON, bearing N. 83 W. from point Duff, are several white slat barren rocks lying at a little distance from the shore. Although the tide appeared to be in our savor, we made so little progress in this inlet, that we were compelled to anchor at five in the afternoon not more than 2 miles within the entrance in 20 fathoms water, on the northern shore, near some small rocky islets. The shores that now surrounded us were not very high, composed of rugged rocks steep to the sea, in the chasms and chinks of which a great number of stunted or dwarf pine trees were produced. Some few of the natives favored us with their company, but brought little to dispose of; these were not quite so much painted as the Indians of Cheslakee's village, nor did they seem in the least acquainted with the Nootka language.

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1792. July. Saturday 29. Monday 30.

On sunday morning about nine we were under sail with a light favorable breeze, sufficient to have carried us at the rate of near a league per hour: yet the ship remained stationary and ungovernable, not answering to her helm in any direction. In this very unpleasant and disagreeable situation, attributed by us to a kind of under tow, or counter tide, we continued until near dark, when a more powerful breeze springing up, we reached Deep Sea bluff and anchored about eleven at night, in a small opening on its western side in 70 fathoms water; having passed a more extensive one to the south of this, which took its direction to the N.W. On the return of day, this appeared a very small branch of the sea; and as it was now manifest there was no certainty in confiding in appearances, directions were given, that both vessels should be removed higher up near to a convenient spot for recruiting our wood and water; whilst, in the yawl, I proceeded to examine whither this arm was likely to lead. It continued about four miles from Deep Sea bluff to the north-eastward, then stretched to the westward, and terminated behind the hill under which the vessels were at anchor, about two miles to the westward of them, forming a narrow isthmus, over which we walked, and had a distinct view of the opening before mentioned, extending to the westward. Being perfectly satisfied on this head, I returned, and found the vessels, at the appointed station, riding in 30 fathoms water near the western shore, conveniently situated for procuring the only supplies this dreary region seemed likely to afford. But, as tolerably secure anchorage was not on all occasions to be found, I determined the vessels should remain stationary here, whilst the boats explored the broken country before us; which promised to furnish other passages, into the great western channel we had quitted, and bore every appearance of leading to the pacific ocean.

Tuesday 31.

The Discovery's yawl, launch and cutter, were ordered to be equipped, and in readiness to depart at day-light the next morning. Mr. Broughton accompanied me, attended by Lieutenant Puget in the launch, and Mr. Whidbey in the cutter. At sun-rise, our little squadron put off with intention of following up the continental shore, until we might find a more western passage leading to the sea; there to appoint a ren-

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dezvous for the launch and cutter, which were to continue the examination of the continental boundary, whilst we returned to conduct; the vessels to the appointed station.

From Deep Sea bluff, the shore of the main, across this small opening, took a direction N.50 W., for about four miles; then extended N.N.E., about a league to a point, where the arm took a more easterly course, passing an island, and several rocky islets, forming passages for boats only; whilst, to the westward of the island, the main channel was a mile in width, and no doubt was entertained of our there finding a greater depth of water than we required for the vessels. We were however obliged to quit the direction of that which appeared, and afterwards proved to be the main channel, to pursue the continental line along this, which apparently led to the N.E. and eastward. In this route, a poor unfortunate deer, that seemed to have eluded the pursuers, had found an asylum in a small recess on the rocky precipice forming the shore, about twenty yards in a direction almost perpendicular to the water, from whence he could only escape by the way he had come. In this very exposed situation, the two headmost boats passed him unnoticed; but, on the third making the discovery, a platoon of muskets was discharged at the defenceless animal by the whole party without effect. On this a seaman landed, and, with a boat-hook, dragged him from the rocks by the neck, and secured to us this valuable acquisition. Upwards of twenty muskets on this occasion were fired, seven of which hit him, but no one mortally; or wounded him in such a manner as to have prevented his escaping, had not the over-hanging precipices of the rocks rendered it impossible. Venison had long with us been a scarce commodity; our buck proved excellent, and afforded us all one or two excellent fresh meals.

We pursued the examination of this arm to its head in latitude 51°, longitude 233° 46′; where it terminated in a similar way to the many before described. Its shores, about a mile apart, were composed of high steep craggy mountains, whose summits were capped with snow; the lower cliffs though apparently destitute of soil, produced many pine trees, that seemed to draw all their nourishment out of the solid rock. The water, near 4 leagues from its upper end, was of a very light

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chalky colour, and nearly fresh. From its shores two small branches extended, one winding about four miles to the S.E. and S.W., the other about a league to the N.N.W. The examination of this canal employed us until noon the next day, when we pursued that which appeared to be the main channel leading to the westward, having several rocky islets and rocks off its north point of entrance. This I called POINT PHILIP, lying N. 56 W. from Deep Sea bluff, at the distance of not more than eight miles. So tardy was our progress in fixing the boundary of this broken continental shore, which we traced from point Philip, about 2 leagues in the direction of N. 78 W., when it again became divided into various channels. The most spacious one, leading to the south-westward, presented an appearance of communicating with the sea. The shores, on all sides, were high, steep and rocky; though they seemed tolerably well clothed with pines of different sorts.

We kept the continental shore on board through a very intricate narrow branch that took a direction E. by N. for near 2 leagues, and then terminated as usual, at the base of a remarkable mountain, conspicuous for its irregular form, and its elevation above the rest of the hills in its neighbourhood. This I have distinguished in my chart by the name of MOUNT STEPHENS, in honor of Sir Philip Stephens of the Admiralty. It is situated in latitude 51° 1′, longitude 233° 20′, and may serve as an excellent guide to the entrance of the various channels with which this country abounds.

As we prosecuted our researches, we visited a small Indian village situated on a rocky islet. The whole of it was nearly occupied, well constructed for its protection, and rendered almost inaccessible by platforms, similar to that before described, though not so strong, nor so ingeniously designed. The inhabitants did not exceed thirty or forty persons, who exactly corresponded with those seen to the southward of Deep Sea bluff, and from whom we met with, as usual, a very cordial reception. A few indifferent sea-otter skins, for which they demanded more iron than we were inclined to give, comprehended all their stock in trade; they had a distant knowledge of a few words of the Nootka language; but did not always seem properly to apply them. The nar-

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row passage by which we had entered, is a channel admissible for boats only; and thence, to the foot of mount Stephens, was merely a chasm in the mountains, caused, probably, by some violent efforts of nature. This idea originated in its differing materially in one particular from all the canals we had hitherto examined; namely, in its having regular soundings, not exceeding the depth of 13 fathoms, although its shores, like all those of the bottomless canals, were formed by perpendicular cliffs, from their snowy summits to the water's edge.

The stupendous mountains on each side of this narrow chasm, prevented a due circulation of air below, by excluding the rays of the sun; whilst the exhalations from the surface of the water and the humid shores of the canal, wanting rarefaction, were, in a great measure, detained, like steam in a condensed state; the evaporation thus produced a degree of cold and chillness which rendered our night's lodging very unpleasant.

Thursday 2.

We quitted this unwholesome situation, at the dawning of the next day, and directed our course through another passage, which, from the northern shore led about a league to the westward, and then turned to the south. This channel is rendered excessively dangerous, owing to the number of rocky islets, sunken rocks, and, by the tides setting through it with great rapidity and irregularity. By breakfast time, we reached the opening leading to the south-westward, about half a league from the village we had visited the preceding day. Here I intended to conclude my excursion as soon as a place of rendezvous for the vessels and boats should be found; in quest of which we proceeded down the opening leading to the south-westward; which I called WELLS'S PASSAGE; this now seemed, on a certainty, to communicate with the great channel, which we supposed to lead to sea. But another branch soon appearing that stretched a little to the south-westward of west, I was in hopes my object would have been further attained, by finding some more westerly station for our rendezvous than the end of Wells's passage. In this hope, we continued our examination about 2 leagues, leaving some part of the shore to the north of us, not fully explored. On landing to dine about the time of high water, we soon perceived a rapid ebbtide coming from the westward. This rendered a communication with

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the ocean in that direction, if not impossible, at least very improbable; and as the time, its examination was likely to engage from its apparent extent, might render my design ineffectual, I determined to return, leaving the launch and cutter to carry on the survey. Our future meeting I appointed near the west point of Wells's passage; this after Captain Boyles of the navy I named POINT BOYLES; it is situated in latitude 50° 51′, and in longitude 232° 52′.

Friday 3. Saturday 4.

About one o'clock the next day, we arrived on board, and immediately proceeded with the vessels towards the rendezvous, but so slowly that it was saturday evening before we arrived within 2 leagues to the S. E. of it. There the boats joined us, and the want of wind obliged us to anchor in 60 fathoms water, on the S.W. side of a low island, about half a league from its shores, bearing by compass from N. 42 E. to N. 38 W.; point Duff N.87 E.; the land of the southern shore from S.50 E. to S. 22 W.; a high island appearing to lie nearly in mid-channel, from S. 55 W. to S. 64 W.; and point Boyles N. 84 W.; having many rocky islets and rocks in view, too numerous to be here noticed.

I now became acquainted, that the officers had returned, as directed, to the examination of the continental shore from the place where I quitted it, and on pursuing it to the southward, they had found it indented with small bays, that afforded, like the narrow arm before mentioned, snug and convenient anchorage; but the passages into them were intricate and dangerous, owing to the strong currents, and the many rocky islets, and sunken rocks, in their neighbourhood. The arm, leading to the westward, that I had been in, was traced to the latitude of 50° 59′, longitude 232° 36′. In it were many rocky islets and sunken rocks; which, with the velocity of the tide, rendered it dangerous, even for the navigation of boats. Near its termination, they pursued a very narrow opening on its northern shore, winding towards the E.N.E. replete with overfalls and sunken rocks, and ending by a cascade similar to several that had before been observed. These are perfectly salt, and seem to owe their origin to the tidal waters, which, in general, rise seventeen feet, and, at high water, render these falls imperceptible, as the bar or obstruction, at that time, lies from four to fix

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feet beneath the surface of the sea, and consequently at low water causes a fall of ten or twelve feet: some of which are twenty yards in width. One of these Mr. Whidbey ascended nearly at low water, and found the internal reservoir to be a small lake, or rather a large pond, seemingly of deep water, divided into several branches, that winded some distance through low, swampy woodland country. These salt-water cascades may, probably, be occasioned by the tides flowing with great rapidity, and, after they have risen above these obstructions, act with considerable pressure, rushing forward in those inland narrow channels, where they soon overflow the plain, and, finding an extensive field for their expansion, a sufficient quantity of water, with the addition of the drains and springs of the country, is thus collected, to replenish these reservoirs every twelve hours, and to cause a constant fall during the reflux of the tide. Within a few yards of one of these cascades was discovered a considerable stream of warm fresh water.

Sunday 5.

By this expedition, the continental shore was traced to the westernmost land in fight. We had now only to proceed along it, as soon as the wind and weather would permit our moving. This, however, a thick fog and a calm, prevented, until sunday afternoon, when a light breeze between S.W. and west, enabled us, by sun-set, to advance about 2 leagues to the westward of point Boyles, which, by compass, bore from us S. 85 W.; an island, previously considered to lie in mid-channel, but now discovered to be divided into four or more islets, S. 38 E.; the most distant part of the opposite shore south, 4 or 5 leagues off; and the nearest taken by us to be an island, W.S.W. about a league. These positions are not, however, to be received as correct, because the fog, still continuing, alternately obscured place after place, in the southern quarters, so as to render it impracticable, either to acquire the true position, or even gain a distinct view of those shores. The northern, or continental side, was not in the like manner, obscured; its nearest part bore by compass north about half a league from us; and its western extremity N. 78 W. Between this point and a cluster of islands, bearing west, a channel appeared to lead along the coast; of the main land, in which were some small islets and rocks; south of the

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cluster, the haze and fog rendered it impossible to determine of what that region principally consisted, though the imperfect view we obtained, gave it the appearance of being much broken. In this situation, we had 60 and 70 fathoms, muddy bottom; but, as we had sufficient space to pass the night in under sail, I preferred so doing, that we might be the more ready to pursue the above-mentioned channel in the morning.

Monday 6.

The wind continuing light in the S.W. quarter, we plied until day-break, when the breeze was succeeded by a calm and a very thick fog that obscured every surrounding object until noon, without our being able to gain soundings; so that we were left to the mercy of the currents, in a situation that could not fail to occasion the most anxious solicitude. The fog had no sooner dispersed, than we found ourselves in the channel for which I had intended to steer, interspersed with numerous rocky islets and rocks, extending from the above cluster of islands towards the shore of the continent. The region to the S.W. still remained obscured by the fog and haze; at intervals, however, something of it might be discerned, serving only to shew there was no great probability of our finding a less intricate passage to navigate, than that immediately before us along the continental shore; which must either be now traced by the ship, or by the boats on a future occasion. This made me determine on the former mode, although there was reason to apprehend it would engage our utmost attention, even in fair weather, to preserve us from latent dangers. The dispersion of the fog was attended by a light breeze from the N.N.W., and as we stood to windward, we suddenly grounded on a bed of sunken rocks about four in the afternoon. A signal indicating our situation was immediately made to the Chatham, she instantly anchored in 50 fathoms water, about a cable and a half distant from us, and we immediately received all her boats to our assistance. The stream anchor was carried out, and an attempt made to heave the ship off, but to no effect. The tide fell very rapidly; and the force with which the ship had grounded, had occasioned her sewing considerably forward. On heaving; the anchor came home, so that we had no resource left but that of getting down our topmasts, yards, &c. &c. shoaring up the vessel with spars and

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spare topmasts, and lightening her as much as possible, by starting the water, throwing overboard our fuel and part of the ballast we had taken on board in the spring. Soon after the ship was aground, the tide took her on the starboard quarter; and as the was afloat abaft it caused her to take a sudden swing, and made her heel so very considerably on the starboard side, which was from the rocks, that her situation, for a few seconds, was alarming in the highest degree. The shoars were got over with all possible dispatch, but notwithstanding this, by the time it was low water, the starboard main chains were within three inches of the surface of the sea. Happily, at this time, there was not the smallest swell or agitation, although we were in the immediate vicinity of the ocean. This must ever be regarded as a very providential circumstance, and was highly favorable to our very irksome and unpleasant situation, which under the persuasion of the tide falling as low as had been lately observed in our several boat expeditions, nothing short of immediate and inevitable destruction presented itself, until towards the latter part of the ebb tide, when more than one half of the ship was supported by such a sufficient body of water, as, in a great measure, to relieve us from the painful anxiety that so distressing a circumstance necessarily occasioned. When the tide was at the lowest, about nine at night, the ship's fore foot was only in about 3½ feet water, whilst her stern was in 4 fathoms.

Tuesday 7.

In this melancholy situation, we remained, expecting relief from the returning flood, which to our inexpressible joy was at length announced by the floating of the shoars, a happy indication of the ship righting. Our exertions to lighten her were, however, unabated, until about two in the morning; when the ship becoming nearly upright, we hove on the stern cable, and, without any particular efforts, or much strain, had the undeseribable satisfaction of feeling her again afloat, without having received the least apparent injury. We brought up in 35 fathoms water, about a quarter of a mile from the bed of rocks from whence we had so providentially escaped. After about three hours rest, all hands were employed in the re-equipment of the ship. The main topgallant top-rope unluckily broke, and by this accident, John Turner, a

[page break]

The DISCOVERY in the ROCKS in QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S SOUND.

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seaman, had his arm unfortunately fractured. By noon, the hold was re-slowed, and the ship, in every respect, ready again to proceed.

A light breeze springing up from the S.W. about one o'clock, we were again under sail, and knowing of no safer channel, we directed our course through that before us, along the continental shore. This was a narrow passage, and as we advanced, became more intricate by an increased number of rocky islets and rocks, as well beneath, as above the surface of the water; the former being ascertained by the surf breaking with some violence upon them. This dangerous navigation seemed to continue as far as was discernible towards the ocean, between the shore of the continent and the land forming the opposite side of the channel, which appeared to be an extensive range of islands.

Having so recently been preserved from the dangers of a most perilous situation, the scene before us, in presenting a prospect of many such snares, was extremely discouraging. We had, however, not the least hope of finding a less difficult way for the execution of the adventurous service in which we were engaged; nor any alternative but to proceed with all the possible circumspection and caution that the nature of our situation would permit, through a channel not more than half a mile wide, bounded on one side by islands, rocks, and breakers, which in some places appeared almost to meet the continental shore on the other. However intricate, this apparently was the only navigable channel in the neighbourhood. About five in the afternoon we had fortunately escaped through its narrowest part; the wind now became light and baffling; the ebb tide fat us towards the ocean, where we now had a view of the distant horizon, although intercepted by the same rocky region that surrounded us in every direction. About six o'clock some of its hidden dangers arrested the progress of the Chatham. We instantly anchored in 70 fathoms water, and sent our boats to her assistance. Thus, before we had recovered from the fatiguing exertions and anxious solicitude of one distressing night, the endurance of a similar calamity was our portion for the next.

I had less reason at first to hope for the preservation of the Chatham under the circumstances of her disaster, than I had the preceding night

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for that of the Discovery; as the oceanic swell was here very perceptible, and caused a considerable surf on the shore. On the return of our small boat, I became acquainted that, in consequence of its having fallen calm, she had been driven by the tide on a ledge of sunken rocks, but had the consolation of hearing, that although she had frequently struck when lifted by the surge, it had not been violently; that no damage had yet been sustained: and that her present very uncomfortable situation could not be of long duration, as it was nearly half ebb when she grounded.

Our present anchorage bore by compass from the rocks, on which the Discovery had struck, though intercepted by various others, S. 42 E. 5 miles, and from the ledge of rocks on which the Chatham was then lying, S. 61 E. 3 miles distant. Our estimated latitude was 51° 2′, longitude 232° 25′. Since the commencement of the month of august, the soggy weather had totally precluded our making any celestial observations; the situation therefore of the islands, coasts, rocks, &c. westward from Deep Sea bluff, could only be ascertained by an estimated protraction, which may be liable to errors we had no means to detect; hence this portion of intricate navigation is not to be implicitly depended upon in this particular, as exhibited by the chart; but the continued direction of the continental shore, (the nearest part now bearing by compass N.E. at the distance of about half a league) was positively ascertained to this station; and I trust, its latitude and longitude will not be found to deviate many miles from the truth.

The rocks between our present anchorage and the ocean having the appearance of being almost impenetrable, Mr. Whidbey was dispatched to discover the most safe channel for us to pursue. The day-light just served him to execute his commission; and on his return at night he informed me, that there were three passages; one nearly through the center of the rocks; another about midway between the continental shore, and a very broken country to the southward of us; and a third between the nearest cluster of rocks and the continent. This for a small distance seemed to be clear; but further to the north-westward a labyrinth of rocks appeared to stretch from the continent towards land, forming like

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two islands. These rocks nearly joined to the north-easternmost about 9 miles from us, bearing by compass N.50 W. the westernmost at about the same distance, N. 64 W.

The nearest cluster of rocks, whose southern part was almost in a line with the easternmost island, not quite a league from us, we were to pass to the south of; between them and other rocks and rocky islets, to the westward and S.W. forming a channel about two miles wide, in which no visible obstruction had been discovered by Mr. Whidbey. These rocks and rocky islets presented an appearance of being as nearly connected with the southern broken shore, as those further north did with the continent, giving us little to expect but a very intricate and hazardous navigation.

An extremely thick fog ushering in the morning of the 8th, precluded our seeing or knowing any thing of the Chatham's situation; and obliged us to remain in the most painful state of suspense until about nine in the forenoon, when the fog in some measure dispersing, we had the satisfaction of seeing our consort approaching us under sail; and having a light southerly breeze, with the ebb tide in our favor, we immediately weighed in order to proceed together through the channel before mentioned between the rocks.

Thursday 9

On the return of the boats, lieutenant Baker, who had been with our people assisting the Chatham during the night, informed me that latterly she had struck so hard, as intirely to disable both the spare topmasts, which had been used for shoars; but that about half past one they succeeded in heaving her off, without the appearance of her having sustained any very material damage. Our sails were scarcely set when the wind became variable; and soon after mid-day partial fogs and a clear atmosphere succeeded each other in every direction. These by one o'clock obliged us again to anchor in 55 fathoms water, as did the Chatham about 2 miles to the northward of our former station, and within a quarter of a mile of the continental shore. Here we were detained until nine the following morning, when with a light eastwardly breeze, and clear weather, we directed our course as before stated. On passing near the rocks on the eastern side of the channel, we had soundings at the

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depth of 28 fathoms, rocky bottom; but immediately afterwards gained no ground with 60 and 70 fathoms of line. As it was my intention to seek a channel between the two islands, the Chatham's signal was made to lead. The wind being light we advanced slowly, passing some very dangerous rocks, whose situation was only to be known by the breakers upon them at low tide, lying about 2 miles to the S.E. of the north-easternmost island.

Though clear immediately overhead, the horizon was encumbered with partial fogs in every direction. This rendered the view of surrounding objects not less limited than undefined, and prevented such observations being made, as were necessary for ascertaining our positive situation. About noon we were becalmed between these islands, whose shores are about two miles and a half asunder; soundings were obtained at the depth of 70 fathoms, rocky bottom. They lie from each other about north and south; the southernmost is about a league in circuit, with a small island lying off its eastern extremity. The northernmost, instead of being one island, as had been supposed, was now found to comprehend eight or nine small islets, lying in a direction about N. 50 W. and occupying in that line an extent of four miles; their breadth about half, or perhaps three quarters of a mile. With the assistance of the boats a-head, we passed through this channel about one o'clock. At this time a light breeze springing up from the north-westward, we stood towards the southern shore; it was not, however, as was usual with the north-westerly winds, attended with clear and pleasant weather, but with a remarkably thick fog; and having no soundings we were obliged to ply to windward under an easy sail until about five o'clock, when we gained bottom, and anchored in 55 fathoms water. The fog soon after cleared away, and discovered our situation to be near the southern shore, before a small opening at the distance of about a mile. This by compass bore S. 7 W.; a channel that appeared to stretch to the S.E. through the range of islands to the southward of that we had navigated, bore S. 80 E. and seemed tolerably clear of those dangers and impediments with which we had lately contended. The southernmost of the islands we had passed at noon bore by compass N. 7 E. at the distance of about a league; and the

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north-westernmost of the islets, N. 8 W. distant about 2 leagues; a low point land forming the south point of an opening on the continental shore N. 14 W. a high distant mountain being the northernmost land in sight N. 30. W. and the westernmost land on the southern shore S. 55 W. Between these latter directions the oceanic horizon seemed perfectly clear and uninterrupted.

We now appeared to have reached the part of the coast that had been visited and named by several of the traders from Europe and India. The Experiment, commanded by Mr. S. Wedgborough, in august, 1786, honored the inlet through which we had lately passed, with the name of "QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S SOUND;" the opening on the continental shore was discovered, and called "SMITH'S INLET," by Mr. James Hanna, the same year; the high distant mountain that appeared to be separated from the main land, formed part of a cluster named by Mr. Duncan "CALVERT'S ISLANDS;" and the channel between them and the main land, was by Mr. Hanna called "FITZNUGH'S SOUND." These being the names given, as far as I could learn, by the first discoverers of this part of the coast, will be continued by me, and adopted in my charts and journal.

Destitute of any other authority, our estimated latitude in this situation was 51° 4′ longitude 232° 8′. In the evening I visited the shores and found the opening take a winding southerly direction, dividing the land most probably into two or more islands. Westward of the opening a sandy beach stretched along the coast, and afforded tolerably good shelter, with anchorage from 6 to 20 fathoms depth of water. Some detached rocks were observed to lie at a little distance from these shores.

Friday 10.

Having a fine breeze from the eastward on friday morning, we weighed at 7, and stood across Queen Charlotte's sound for the entrance of Smith's inlet. The Chatham being ordered to lead, at half past ten made the signal for soundings, at the depth of 10 to 18 fathoms. In this situation the island, near which the Chatham had grounded, bore S. 43 E. distant about 6 or 7 leagues; and the labyrinth of rocks that before had appeared to extend along the continental shore, now seemed to exist no further than a low sandy point bearing by compass E. S. E. at the distance

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of about 2 leagues. The shores of the main from this point seemed free from rocks, and possessed some small sandy bays to the south point of entrance into Smith's inlet, which bore by compass N. 18 W. about a league distant; where detached rocks were again seen to encumber the shore.

The weather, less unfavorable to our pursuits than for some time past, permitted our having a tolerably distinct view of the surrounding country. The opening before us, Fitzhugh's sound, appeared to be extensive in a northerly direction. At noon we found our observed latitude to be 51° 21′, longitude 232° 4′. In this situation, the south point of Calvert's island bore by compass N. 29 W. its westernmost part in sight N. 60 W. two clusters of rocks S. 73 W. and N. 70 W. these were discovered by Mr. Hanna, who named the former "VIRGIN," the latter "PEARL ROCKS," both which being low, and at some distance from the shore, are dangerously situated. The south point of Smith's inlet terminating the continental shore in a north-westwardly direction, bore by compass S. 40 E. from which the Virgin rocks, about thirteen miles distant, lie N. 75 W. and the Pearl rocks N.38 W. distant about eight miles.

With intention of continuing the investigation of the continental shore up Smith's inlet, the Chatham was directed that way; but as we advanced, the great number of rocky islets and rocks, as well beneath as above the surface of the sea, and the irregularity of the soundings, induced me to abandon this design, and to steer along the eastern side of Calvert's island, forming a steep and bold shore, in quest of "Port Safety," laid down in Mr. Duncan's chart, or of any other convenient anchorage we might find; and from thence to dispatch two parties in the boats, one to prosecute the examination of the broken shores to the south-eastward of us, the other to explore the main branch of Fitzhugh's sound leading to the northward. In consequence of this determination, the necessary signal was made to the Chatham for quitting her pursuit; and we made all sail to the northward.

On passing that which we had considered as the south point of Calvert's island, it proved to be two small islets lying near it; and from the

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southernmost of them, the Virgin and Pearl rocks in a line lie S. 68 W. the former eleven and the latter four miles distant.

Saturday 11.

As we proceeded up this sound, the eastern shore still continued to be much divided by water; towards the sea it was of moderate height, though the interior country was considerably elevated; the whole was apparently one intire forest of pine trees produced from the chasms in the rugged rocks of which the country is formed. The western, or shore of Calvert's islands is firm, and rose abruptly from the sea to a very great height, seemingly composed of the same rocky materials, and like the eastern shore, intirely covered with pine trees. About four in the afternoon a small cove was discovered on the western shore, bearing some resemblance to Mr. Duncan's port Safety, but differing in its latitude according to our run since noon. Appearing however likely to answer all our purposes, we hauled in for it; the shores we sound to be bold, steep on either fide, and soundings at the entrance were from 23 to 30 fathoms, soft bottom. We anchored about fix in the evening in 17 fathoms on the south side of the cove, as did the Chatham on the opposite shore, steadying the vessels with hawsers to the trees. My first object after the ship was secured, was to examine the cove. It terminated in a small beach, near which was a stream of excellent water and an abundance of wood: of these necessaries we now required a considerable supply; and as the field of employment for our boats would be extensive, there was little doubt of our remaining here a sufficient time to replenish these stores. Being tolerably well sheltered in this cove. I was willing to hope the Chatham might with security, and without much difficulty, be laid on shore to examine if the had sustained any damage whilst striking on the rocks.

After giving directions for the execution of these services, I ordered the yawl, launch, and two cutters belonging to the Discovery, and the Chatham's cutter to be equipped, supplied with a week's provisions, and to be in readiness to depart early the next morning. The boats being prepared and supplied, agreeably to my wishes, we departed about five o'clock; and having proceeded together nearly into the middle of the sound, I directed Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey, in the Discovery's launch and large cutter, to examine the coast we had left unexplored

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to the south-eastward, from the termination of the continent in its N.W. direction, to a certain point on the eastern shore, where Mr. Johnstone, in the Chatham's cutter, attended by Mr. Humphreys in the Discovery's small cutter, would commence his inquiry. Conceiving the northern survey would be infinitely more extensive than that to the south, I joined Mr. Johnstone's party, in order to fix on a rendezvous where, agreeably to my proposed plan, he would on his return find the vessels, or they would be on their way from the cove to the place so appointed.

Sunday 12.

Our separation had scarcely taken place, when our southerly breeze freshened to a brisk gale, attended by a torrent of rain. The wind however having favored our pursuit, we reached the eastern shore about five miles to the northward of the cove where the ships rode. It was low but compact, with one small opening only, impassable for our boats by breakers extending across it. On the western side two conspicuous openings had been observed; the southernmost had the appearance of being a very fine harbour; the other, about 2 leagues further north, formed a passage to sea, in which were several rocky islets. About noon we arrived at the point where Mr. Johnstone's researches were to commence, nearly in the direction of north from the ships, and at the distance of about 16 miles. From this point, the north point of the passage leading to sea, lies s.39 W. 4 miles distant; but the thick rainy weather prevented our seeing any objects that were to the northward. Increased torrents of rain, and thick stormy weather from the S.E. obliged us to take shelter in the first safe place we could discover, which presented itself in a small cove, about a mile from the point above-mentioned, where we were very unpleasantly detained until near noon the following day; when the wind having moderated, and the rain in some degree abated, we resumed our examination along the starboard or continental shore, extending from the above point about a league and a half in a north direction. Here the inlet divided into two capacious branches; that appearing to be the principal one still continued its northerly course, the other stretched E. N. E. and was in general about a mile wide. In order to prosecute the survey of the continental shore, which I presumed this to be, the latter became the first object of our examination, for which

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we quitted the former, whose width we estimated at a league. The intermission of the rain was for a short time only; at three in the afternoon, it again returned with such squally and unpleasant weather, that we were necessitated, at fix, to take up our abode, for the night, on a long sandy beach, about eight miles within the entrance of this eastern branch. In the S. E. corner of this beach, was the largest brook of fresh water we had yet seen on the coast. It bore a very high colour, and emptied itself into the sea with considerable velocity. Here the mountains which appeared to be a continuation of the snowy barrier from mount Stephens, retired a small distance from the beach, and the low land, occupying the intermediate space, produced pine trees of inferior growth, from a bed of moss and decayed vegetables in the state of turf, nearly as inflammable as the wood which it produced. A continuation of the unpleasant weather confined us to this uncomfortable spot until monday afternoon; when, about four, we ceeded up the branch, which, from the beach, took a directi the furthest point seen in that line, was at the distance of about 3 leagues; this, after passing an extensive cove on the starboard side, we reached about nine at night. Excepting this cove, and that we had departed from, none other was seen, the fides of this canal being composed of compact stupendous mountains, and nearly perpendicular rocky cliffs, producing pine trees to a considerable height above the shores, and then nearly barren to their lofty fummits, which were mostly covered with snow.

Tuesday 14.

During the night, we had much rain; the next morning the weather was cloudy, with some passing showers, which at intervals enabled us to obtain a tolerably distinct view of the region before us; and for the first time, since the commencement of this expedition, it shewed the branch we were navigating to be about two miles wide, extending in a N.E. by E. direction, several leagues ahead. I had been in continual expectation of finding that the larboard shore would prove to be an island, in which case, on the return of the launch and cutter, the vessels should have been removed to its northern extremity, and, by that means, the return of the boats that were still to proceed, would be materially shortened; but, seeing little reason

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to indulge this hope any longer, I appointed a rendezvous with Mr. Johnstone, a little to the south of the entrance into this arm; where, on his return, he would find the vessels, or they would be their way thither: and, after bidding him farewell, returned on my way towards the ships.

By noon we had reached the entrance of this branch of the inlet, where, on a small islet near its south point, I observed the latitude to be 51° 52′, making the station at which I had parted with Mr. Johnstone, and which I had concluded to be the continental shore, in latitude 52° 3′, longitude 232° 19′. This rendezvous was about 37 miles from the station of the vessels, in as desolate inhospitable a country as the most melancholy creature could be desirous of inhabiting. The eagle, crow, and raven, that, occasionally, had borne us company in our lonely researches, visited not these dreary shores. The common shellfish, such as muscles, clams, and cockles, and the nettle samphire, and other coarse vegetables, that had been so highly essential to our health and maintenance in all our former excursions, were scarcely found, any where here, to exist: and the ruins of one miserable hut, near where we had lodged the preceding night, was the only indication we saw that human beings ever resorted to the country before us, which appeared to be devoted intirely to the amphibious race; seals and seaotters, particularly the latter, were seen in great numbers.

Having dined, and dedicated a short interval of fun-shine to the drying of our wet clothes, we made the best of our way towards the ships; where, about midnight, we arrived, most excessively fatigued; the inclemency of the weather having, on this occasion, been more severely felt than in any of our former expeditions.

The same very disagreeable weather had prevailed on board, attended with much more wind than we had experienced. From the s.w. the gale had blown particularly hard, which caused our most grateful reflections for having providentially reached so comfortable a place of shelter, from the dangers that must necessarily have awaited our navigating, in such tempestuous weather, the intricate and unexplored region we had so recently quitted.

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During our absence, a sufficient quantity of salmon had been taken, for every person on board the vessel; the necessary supplies of wood and water were nearly completed; but the rife and fall of the tide had not been equal to our wishes for the purpose of grounding the Chatham, without landing the greater part of her stores and provisions; and, as the bottom at low tide, was found to be soft mud, unfavorable to such an operation, that business was necessarily deferred.

The weather, though clear at intervals for a short time, continuing very boisterous, filled our minds with much solicitude for the welfare of our friends in the boats; particularly those detached to the S.E., who were greatly exposed not only to its inclemency, but to the violence of the sea, which, from an uninterrupted ocean, broke with great fury on the southern shores. One consolation, however, always attended my anxious concern on these perilous occasions, that, in the exposure of my people to such fatiguing and hazardous service, I could ever depend on their cheerful and ready obedience to the prudent and judicious directions of the officers who were intrusted with the command of these adventurous expeditions.

Friday 17.

Whilst we thus remained under much concern for the safety of our detached parties, we were suddenly surprized by the arrival of a brig off the entrance of the cove, under English colours. A fight so uncommon, created a variety of opinions as to the cause that would induce any vessel in a commercial pursuit, (for so the appeared to be employed) to visit a region so desolate and inhospitable. Our suspense, however, was at an end on the return of Lieutenant Baker, who informed me, the was the Venus belonging to Bengal, of 110 tons burthen, commanded by Mr. Shepherd, last from Nootka, and bound on a trading voyage along these shores; that having found the price of skins so exorbitant on the seacoast, he had been induced to try this inland navigation, in the hope of procuring them at a less extravagant price. By him we received the pleasant tidings of the arrival of the Dædalus store-ship, laden with a supply of provisions and stores for our use; and he acquainted Mr. Baker that Senr. Quadra was waiting, with the greatest impatience, to deliver up the settlement and territories at Nootka. But, as fortune too frequent-

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ly combines disastrous circumstances with grateful intelligence, Mr. Shepherd had brought with him a letter from Mr. Thomas New, master of the Dædalus, informing me of a most distressing and melancholy event. Lieutenant Hergest the commander, Mr. William Gooch the astronomer, with one of the seamen belonging to the Dædalus, had been murdered by the inhabitants of Woahoo, whilst on shore procuring water at that island. A circumstance so much to be deplored, and so little to be expected, was sincerely lamented by us all, and severely felt by myself, as Mr. Hergest had, for many years, been my most intimate friend; he was a most valuable character; and I had ever esteemed him as a man not less deserving my respect than intitled to my regard. The loss of Mr. Gooch, though I had not the pleasure of his acquaintance, would, unavoidably, be materially felt in the service we had to execute during the ensuing part of our voyage. For although Mr. Whidbey, with the assistance of some of our young gentlemen, relieved me of considerable labour, by attending to nautical astronomy; yet, for the purpose of expediting this arduous service on which we were employed, the absence both of Mr. Whidbey and myself frequently became necessary, whilst the ships remained stationary for some days, in situations where many opportunities might occur of making various astronomical observations on shore. Although we were compelled to appropriate such time to those pursuits as were indispensably requisite to determine the position of different points, promontories and stations, yet we had little leisure for making such miscellaneous observations as would be very acceptable to the curious, or tend to the improvement of astronomy.

Saturday 18.

The weather was less disagreeable and boisterous the next morning, when, to our great satisfaction, the launch and cutter returned, without having met with any accident, although infinitely fatigued by the severity of the weather, with which they had so long contended.

The entrance into Smith's inlet, was nearly closed by rocky islets, some producing shrubs and small trees, others none; with innumerable rocks, as well beneath as above the surface of the sea, rendering it a very intricate and dangerous navigation for shipping. Within the islets and rocks, the northern shore appeared clearest; but the opposite

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side could not be approached without some difficulty, not only from the numerous rocks, but from a great oceanic swell occasioned by the prevailing tempestuous weather. From the entrance into the inlet, whose north point lies from its south point N.20 E., about a league distant, they sound it extend, nearly in an east direction, about 6 leagues; here it took a turn to the north-eastward, and terminated in latitude 51° 24′, 232° 47′½ About 3 leagues within the entrance, the rocks eased to exist, inlet contracted to a general width of about half a mile; though, in particular places, it was near twice that distance from shore to shore; both of which were formed by high rocky precipices covered with wood.

About half way up the canal a village of the natives was discovered, which our gentlemen supposed might contain two hundred or two hundred and fifty persons. It was built upon a detached rock, connected to the main by a platform, and, like those before mentioned, constructed for defence. A great number of its inhabitants, in about thirty canoes, visited our party, and used every endeavour, they thought likely, to prevail on them to visit their habitations. They offered the skins of the sea-otter and other animals to barter; and beside promises of refreshment, made signs too unequivocal to be misunderstood, that the female part of their society would be very happy in the pleasure of their company. Having no leisure to comply with these repeated solicitations, the civil offers of the Indians were declined; and the party continued their route back, keeping the northern or continental shore on board. On the 16th they entered another opening, about a league to the north of the north point of Smith's inlet. The entrance into this, seemed less dangerous than the former; it had, however, on its southern side, many rocky islets and rocks; but they discovered no one below the surface of the water, nor any danger that could not easily be avoided; and, by keeping on the north side of the entrance which is about half a league across, a fair navigable passage was found about half a mile wide, between the north shore and the rocky islets that lie off its southern side. Along this the continent was traced about a league, in an east direction, where the opening took its course N. 15 E., about

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16 miles, and terminated in latitude 51° 42′, longitude 232° 22′. About a league and a half south of this station, a small branch extends about four miles to the W.N.W.; and, half a league further south another stretches about the same distance, to the N.E.

In this inlet, which I have distinguished by the na of RIVERS'S CANAL, the land continued of a more moderate height, further up, than had generally been sound to be the case: but where it branched off in the above directions towards its head, the shores were composed of high steep rocky mountains, and, like Smith's inlet, and many other canals of this kind that we had examined, afforded no soundings in the middle with 80 fathoms of line; though in the bays, found in most of these canals, anchorage may, in all probability, be procured. Having finally examined these branches, they returned, by a very narrow intricate channel, on the northern shore, leading through an immensity of rocky islets and rocks, until they reached POINT ADDENBROOK, and again arrived on the eastern shore of Fitzhugh's sound; making the land they had passed, in going up this last inlet, on their larboard side, an island about fix or seven miles long The continental shore, abreast of this station, having been so far ascertained, their supply of provisions being exhausted, and being greatly fatigued by the inclement weather, they returned on board without proceeding agreeably to my original design to the northern extremity allotted to their examination. The further labour, however, of this party, I deemed unnecessary, having become perfectly satisfied as to the intermediate space. Every thing was therefore directed to be taken from the shore, that we might sail in the morning towards the rendezvous I had appointed with Mr. Johnstone.

Since my return from the last boat expedition, I had fortunately obtained, during the few short intervals of fair weather that had occurred, some tolerably good observations for the latitude and longitude of this station. The former, by three meridional altitudes of the sun, appeared to be 51° 32′, the latter, 232° 3′ 15″: the variation of the compass, 17° 7′ eastwardly. This cove is at its entrance, the points of which lie from each other N. 30 W. and S. 30 E., about a quarter of a mile wide; and from thence, to its head, in a direction S. 68 W., about a mile. A small

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rock and two rocky islets lie off its north point of entrance. It undoubtedly bore some resemblance at first to Mr. Duncan's port Safety; but on reference to particulars, differed very materially. Mr. Duncan places port Safety in latitude 51° 41′; and in his sketch, takes no notice of the above-mentioned islets and rocks. By him port Safety is recommended as a very proper place for cleaning and refitting vessels; and he says, that the opposite shore is not more than 6 or 7 miles distant. We however found the opposite shore within a league of us; and at the entrance of the cove, instead of 100 fathoms, as stated by Mr. Duncan, we had only 30 fathoms water; decreasing gradually to its head, the whole a soft muddy bottom, and consequently very improper for the operations of cleaning or repairing vessels. Notwithstanding this manifest disagreement, there were those amongst us, who having heard Mr. Duncan's discourse on this subject, insisted upon the certainty of its being his port Safety. In this opinion however, I could not concur, for the obvious reasons above stated, and was more inclined to suppose that the opening I had seen when in the boats on this shore, to the south of that which led to sea, was Mr. Duncan's port Safety, as that corresponded nearer in point of latitude, and had more the appearance of a port than this small cove: it however is the first place that affords safe and convenient anchorage on the western shore, within the south entrance into Fitzhugh's sound, and proved a comfortable retreat to us from the dangerous situations to which we had so recently been exposed. Hence I have distinguished it by the name of SAFETY COVE; and have only further to add, that the rife and fall of the tide was about ten feet, and that it is high water at the time the moon passes the meridian. The same circumstances respecting the tides were observed by those employed in the boat excursions from this station.

Sunday 10.

In the morning of the 19th, we failed out of Safety cove, having, for the first time since the commencement of the present month, a pleasant breeze from the S.E. with serene and cheerful weather. About eleven o'clock we had the gratification of being joined by our other boat party; and from Mr, Johnstone I learned, that about 4 miles to the N. E. of the spot where I had quitted them, they pursued a narrow branch of the inlet winding to the south and south-westward, to the la-

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titude of 51° 57′, due south of the place of our separation. The inclemency of the weather detained them in this situation until the 16th, when they pursued the main branch of the inlet, which is from one to two miles broad, in a north-easterly direction, to a point which I called by the name of POINT MENZIES, after Mr. Menzies who had accompanied me, and afterwards Mr. Johnstone, in this excursion; here the inlet divides into three branches, each nearly as wide as that they had navigated. The first led to the N.W. the second to the northward, and the other to the south. Several leagues to the s.w. of point Menzies, the water had assumed a pale white colour, and was not very salt, which had encouraged them to push forward in constant expectation of finding its termination; but on reaching the above station, all hopes intirely vanished of carrying their researches further into execution, having extended their excursion beyond the time I had prescribed, and the period for which they had been supplied with provisions. These on the morning of the 17th, being nearly expended, Mr. Johnstone considered it most prudent to decline any further investigation, and to return to the ships. These they reached two days afterwards, almost exhausted with hunger and fatigue.

The country they had visited differed in no one respect from the general appearance we had long been accustomed to, nor did any thing occur to vary the continual sameness, or chequer the dreary melancholy scene before them, if we except their finding near the conclusion of their examination, a canoe about forty feet long, hauled up by the fide of a miserable hut, near which was the remains of a fire still burning; indicating the vicinity of some human beings, for whom they left in the canoe some copper, nails, and other trifles; these on their return were found in the fame state, without any appearance of the canoe or hut having been visited in their absence; but concluding the natives could not be far removed, they added a few more articles to their former donation. The soil in this place was principally composed of roots, leaves, and other decayed vegetable matter, and the fire that had been kindled, had caught this substance, and made considerable progress on the surface.

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Had Mr. Johnstone sound a termination to the inlet under his examination, I should have proceeded up the main arm of this sound to the northward along the shore of the continent, in quest of a more northerly passage to sea; but as that had not been effected, I pursued that which I had seen from the boats leading to the westward through Calvert's islands; being now resolved, in consequence of the intelligence I had received from Nootka, to abandon the northern survey of the continental shore for the present season. This I had otherwise intended to have continued at least a month longer; but as the distressing event of Mr. Hergest's death necessarily demanded my presence in the execution of His Majesty's commands at Nootka, I determined to repair thither immediately. This determination favored also another design I much wished to execute, namely, that of extending the examination of the coast this autumn, southward from cape Mendocino, to the southernmost point of our intended investigations in this hemisphere. Having the greatest reason to be satisfied with the result of our summer's employment, as it had by the concurrence; of the most fortunate circumstances enabled us finally to trace and determine the western continental shore of North America, with all its various turnings, windings, numerous arms, inlets, creeks, bays, &c. &c. from the latitude of 39° 5′, longitude 236° 36′, to point Menzies, in latitude 52° 18′, longitude 232° 55′; we took our leave of these northern solitary regions, whose broken appearance presented a prospect of abundant employment for the ensuing season, and directed our route through the passage above-mentioned, in order to make the best of our way towards Nootka.

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CHAPTER X.

Passage from Fitzhugh's sound to Nootka—Arrival in Friendly Cove—Transactions there, particularly those respecting the cession of Nootka—Remarks on the commerce of North-west America—Astronomical observations.

1792. August. Sunday 19.

HAVING on the 19th directed our course towards a passage, which appeared to lead to the ocean as stated in the last chapter, its N.E. point of entrance was sound to be situated in latitude 51° 45′, longitude 232° 1′; south of this point lies a sunken rock, which though near the shore is dangerous, being visible at low tide only by the surf that breaks upon it. In turning into the channel we must have passed twice very near it, but did not discover it until we were some distance beyond it; and had not light baffling winds retarded our progress, it would have escaped our notice. From the point above-mentioned the passage extends S. 60 W. about 7 miles; its northern shore is composed of rocky islets and rocks, with some scattered rocks lying off its southern shore: between these and the rocky islets is the passage, generally from one to two miles wide, without any apparent obstruction, yet it is rendered unpleasant by the want of soundings, as within 50 and 100 yards of the shore, on either side, no bottom could be obtained, with 150 fathoms of line. In this very disagreeable situation we were detained by feint unsteady winds until eleven at night, when, by the assistance of a light breeze from the S.E. we reached the ocean, and stood to the south-westward.

Monday 20. Tuesday 21.

The next morning was very unpleasant; fresh squalls from the S.E., attended with thick rainy weather, continued until noon the following day, when it cleared up, and we saw Scot's islands, bearing S. 22 E.,

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about 7 leagues distant. The wind during the day was light and variable, though attended with fair weather; in the evening it seamed fixed at S.S.W.; when, not being able to pass to windward of Scot's islands, our course was directed to the north of them, towards cape Scot, having soundings and a soft muddy bottom at the depth of 80 and 90 fathoms, until about nine in the evening, when the water suddenly shoaled from 60 to 17 fathoms, and the bottom became rocky. On this we instantly stood back to the westward, left we should approach some danger, but we did not perceive either breakers or shoals, although the night was still and clear. These soundings were from the westernmost of Scot's islands N. 18 E. about 5 leagues; from this circumstance, and from the distant rocks and shoals we saw extending from the shores of Calvert's islands it is highly necessary that the space between Calvert's and Scot's islands should be navigated with great caution.

Friday 24

We were detained about Scot's islands by light variable winds until the 24th; when we passed to the south of them, and continued to the eastward along their southern shores.

The westernmost of them is situated in latitude 50° 52′, longitude 231° 2′. The group consists of three small and almost barren islands, with many small rocks and breakers about them. West from the westernmost of them, a ledge of rocks extends about two miles, and south of it is another about a league distant. The easternmost of Scot's islands being much larger than the rest, may probably be the same to which Mr. Hanna gave the name of "Cox's Island;" by others of the traders it has been represented as a part of the main; this is certainly wrong, and as Mr. Hanna's chart is very erroneous, even in point of latitude, no certain conclusion can be drawn.

Saturday 25

The wind, which was from the westward, was so light, that it was not until the forenoon of the 25th that we passed the N.W. point of the large island, which forms the south and western a shores of the gulph of Georgia and Queen Charlotte's sound. This point (called by former visitors "Cape Scott,") is situated in latitude 50° 48′, longitude 231° 40′, and with the easternmost of Scot's islands, forms a passage which appears to be about four miles wide. About cape Scot the land is composed of hills of

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moderate height, though to the south-eastward it soon becomes very mountainous, and at the distance of 3 or 4 leagues appeared to be much broken and to form many inlets, coves, and harbours, all the way to Woody point, which we passed in the afternoon within the distance of about 2 miles; it is situated in latitude 50° 6′, longitude 232° 17′ West from it lies a small rocky islet about half a league distant, and another larger one lying N. 28 W. about a league from the north part of the point, which is an extensive and projecting promontory.

From Woody point as we failed along the shore to the eastward, we saw several openings in the land, which was about three or four miles from us, that appeared like coves and harbours. Innumerable rocky islets and rocks lined the shores, which as we advanced became low, but the country behind swelled into hills of considerable height divided by many valleys; beyond these it rose to mountains so elevated, that at this season of the year many patches of snow were yet undissolved.

Tuesday 28.

As I intended to ascertain the outline of the coast from hence down to Nootka; at dark we brought to, about 6 leagues to the eastward of Woody point, in expectation of accomplishing this design the following day, but in this I was disappointed; the N.W. wind was succeeded by light winds, which continued until the afternoon of the 28th, and prevented in the present instance my acquiring such authority as I deemed necessary for delineating this part of the coast.

Foggy weather during the forenoon precluded us the advantage of steering for Nootka with the favorable wind that prevailed from the N.W., but on its clearing away about two we steered for that port. On reaching its entrance we were visited by a Spanish officer, who brought a pilot to conduct the vessel to anchorage in Friendly cove, where we sound riding his Catholic Majesty's brig the Active, bearing the broad pendant of Senr. Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, commandant of the marine establishment of St. Blas and California.

The Chatham, by the partial clearing of the fog, had sound her way in some time before us: the Dædalus shore ship, and a small merchant brig called the Three Brothers of London, commanded by Lieutenant Alder of the navy, were also there at anchor.

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FRIENDLY COVE. NOOTKA SOUND.

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As Senr. Quadra resided on shore, I sent Mr. Puget to acquaint him with our arrival, and to say, that I would salute the Spanish flag, if he would return an equal number of guns. On receiving a very polite answer in the affirmative, we saluted with thirteen guns, which were returned, and on my going on shore accompanied by some of the officers, we had the honor of being received with the greatest cordiality and attention from the commandant, who informed me he would return our visit the next morning.

Wednes. 29.

Agreeably to his engagement, Senr. Quadra with several of his officers came on board the Discovery, where they breakfasted, and were saluted with thirteen guns on their arrival and departure: the day was afterwards spent in ceremonious offices of civility, with much harmony and festivity. As many officers as could be spared from the vessels with myself dined with Senr. Quadra, and were gratified with a repast: we had lately been little accustomed to, or had the most distant idea of meeting with at this place. A dinner of five courses, consisting of a superfluity of the best provisions, was served with great elegance; a royal salute was fired on drinking health to the sovereigns of England and Spain, and a salute of seventeen guns to the success of the service in which the Discovery and Chatham were engaged.

Maquinna, who was present on this occasion, had early in the morning, from being unknown to us, been prevented coming on board the Discovery by the centinels and the officer on deck, as there was not in his appearance the smallest indication of his superior rank. Of this indignity he had complained in a most angry manner to Senr. Quadra, who very obligingly sound means to sooth him; and after receiving some presents of blue cloth, copper, &c. at breakfast time he appeared to be satisfied of our friendly intentions: but no sooner had he drank a few glasses of wine, than he renewed the subject, regretted the Spaniards were about to quit the place, and asserted that we should presently give it up to some other nation; by which means himself and his people would be constantly disturbed and harrassed by new masters. Senr. Quadra took much pains to explain that it was our ignorance of his person which had occasioned the mistake, and that himself and subjects would be as kindly

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treated by the English, as they had been by the Spaniards, He seemed at length convinced by Senr. Quadra's arguments, and became reconciled by his assurances that his fears were groundless. On this occasion I could not help observing with a mixture of surprize and pleasure, how much the Spaniards had succeeded in gaining the good opinion and confidence of these people; together with the very orderly behaviour, so conspicuously evident in their conduct towards the Spaniards on all occasions.

Thursday 30.

The tents, observatory, chronometer, instruments, &c. were sent on shore the following day, and all hands were busily employed on the several necessary duties of the ship, such as caulking, overhauling the rigging and sails, cleaning the hold and bread room for the reception of stores and provisions. The boats, in consequence of the services they had performed during the summer, were in want of much repair, and were hauled on shore for that purpose.

From the unfortunate death of Lieutenant Richard Hergest, late agent to the Dædalus, I considered it expedient that an officer should be appointed to that storeship, and I therefore nominated Lieutenant James Hanson of the Chatham to that office; Mr. James Johnstone, master of the Chatham, I appointed to the vacant lieutenancy; and Mr. Spelman Swaine, one of my mates, to be master in the Chatham.

In the forenoon I received an official letter from Senr. Quadra respecting the restitution of this place, with several copies of a correspondence resulting from the inquiries he had made during his residence here, respecting the English establishments on this coast, at the time the British vessels were captured, and the Spaniards effected an establishment at Nootka. On this occasion I considered myself very fortunate in finding a young gentleman, (Mr. Dobson.) on board the store-ship, who spoke and translated the Spanish language very accurately, and who politely offered me his services.

The Chatham was hauled on shore the next day to examine her bottom, and to repair the damage she had sustained by getting a-ground. Apart of the gripe, a piece of the fore-foot, with part of the main, and

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false keels, were broken off, and some of the copper was torn away in different places.

Sunday 1.

Senrs. Galiano and Valdes arrived the following day from the gulph of Georgia; they had pursued a route through Queen Charlotte's sound to the southward of that which we had navigated, and obligingly favored me with a copy of their survey of it.

Mr. Dobson having translated Senr. Quadra's letter and the documents accompanying it, it appeared that Senr. Quadra had, after his arrival at Nootka in april, 1792, commissioned all the vessels under his command to inspect the coast; in order that the proper limits to be proposed in the restitution of these territories might be ascertained, and that the several commanders might inform themselves of all the matters and circumstances that preceded the capture of the Argonaut and Princess Royal merchantmen in the year 1789.

Senr. Quadra stated, that the court of Spain had expended large sums in sustaining the department of St. Blas, with the sole view of its being an auxiliary to other establishments which were then in contemplation of being formed. That Nootka was seen in the year 1774, and in 1775 possession was taken 2° to the south, and 6° to the north of it; and as in this space Don Estevan Joseph Martinez sound no kind of establishment whatever, that therefore no one should take it ill that he (Martinez) should dispute his prior right to the port. Under the orders of the viceroy of New Spain, Maitinez entered Nootka, and took possession the 5th of may, 1789, with visible demonstrations of joy in the Indians; and afterwards fortified the place, without any objection being made on the part of a Portuguese commander of a trading brig called the Ephigenia, then in the cove. On the arrival of the Columbia and Washington American vessels, he examined their papers and passports, as he had before done those of the Portuguese; and disapproving some expressions contained in those of the Columbia, the was detained until an explanation took place, when the was released. The English schooner North West America, and sloop Princess Royal, arrived soon afterwards, and were permitted to depart after receiving the most friendly attention. Captain Colnett commanding the English vessel Argonaut, fearing to enter, the

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Spaniards visited him and his fears vanished; but as Captain Colnett did not confine his views to the commerce of the country, but wished to fortify himself, and to establish an English factory, Martinez arrested him, and sent him to St. Blas. The like conduct was observed towards Thomas Hudson, who commanded the Princess Royal, on his return to Nootka. The vessels of both were detained.

This was the real situation of things, says Senr. Quadra, who offers to demonstrate in the most unequivocal manner that the injuries, prejudices, and usurpations, as represented by Captain Meares, were chimerical: that Martinez had no orders to make prize of any vessels, nor did he break the treaty of peace, or violate the laws of hospitality: that the natives will affirm, and that the documents accompanying his letter will prove, that Mr. Meares had no other habitation on the shores of Nootka than a small hut, which he abandoned when he left the place, and which did not exist on the arrival of Martinez: that he bought no land of the chiefs of the adjacent villages; that the Ephigenia did not belong to the English; that Martinez did not take or detain the least; part of her cargo; and that Mr. Colnett was treated with the greatest distinction at St. Blas, and his officers and crew received the wages of the Spanish navy for the time of their detention: that the vessel and cargo were restored, and that Mr. Colnett obtained a great number of skins on his return to Nootka.

*Meaning an establishment they had in the entrance of De Fuca's straits.

These circumstances duly considered, adds Senr. Quadra, it is evident that Spain has nothing to deliver up, nor damage to make good; but that as he was desirous of removing every obstacle to the establishment of a solid and permanent peace, he was ready, without prejudice to the legitimate right of Spain, to cede to England the houses, offices, and gardens, that had with so much labour been erected and cultivated, and that himself would retire to Fuca*: observing at the same time, that Nootka ought to be the last or most northwardly Spanish settlement, that there the dividing point should be fixed, and that from thence to the northward should be free for entrance, use and commerce to both parties, conformably with the fifth article of the convention; that establishments should not be formed

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without permission of the respective courts, and that the English should not pass to the south of Fuca.

After enumerating these particulars, Senr. Quadra concludes his letter by expressing, That if I should find any difficulty in reconciling what he had proposed, or if I should have any other honorable medium to offer that might be the means of terminating this negociation, and secure the desired peace, he begged I would communicate it to him.

The documents accompanying this letter were copies of a correspondence between Senr. Quadra and Don Francisco Joseph De Viana, the commander of the Ephigenia; Mr. Robert Gray and Mr. Joseph Ingraham, commanders of the Columbia and Washington; from all of whom Senr. Quadra appears to have solicited every information respecting the transactions at Nootka, previously to his arrival, and the reasons which induced Mr. Meares to represent things to the prejudice of Don Estevan Joseph Martinez. The Portuguese captain briefly sets forth, that his vessel was seized, and that he was made prisoner by Don Martinez; during his captivity he was very well treated, and on his being liberated his vessel and cargo were completely restored, and he was furnished with whatever provisions and supplies he required. He also states, that when Don Martinez entered Nootka, there was not the least remains of a house belonging to the English.

Senr. Quadra had addressed Mr. Gray and Mr. Ingraham jointly, and consequently they both replied to him in the same way. These gentlemen state, that on the arrival of Don Estevan Joseph Martinez, in Friendly cove, the 5th of may, 1789, he sound there the Ephigenia only; the Columbia being at that time 6 miles up the sound at Mahwinna; the Washington and North-West America being then on a cruize. Martinez demanded the papers of each vessel, and their reasons why they were at anchor in Nootka sound, alledging, that it belonged to his Catholic Majesty. Captain Viana, of the Portuguese vessel, answered, that he had put in there in distress to wait the arrival of Captain Meares from Macao, who was daily expected with supplies, and that on his receiving them he should depart; that Captain Meares had failed from Nootka in 1788, under the colours of Portugal, had a Portuguese

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captain with him on board, and was expected to return with him in the same vessel, which with the Ephigenia belonged to a merchant at Macao. The Ephigenia wanting provisions and stores, the same were supplied by Martinez, who seeming satisfied with the answers which he had received from the several commanders, not the Ieast misunderstanding was suspected. On the 10th of may arrived the Carlos Spanish ship, Captain Arro, and on the following day Martinez captured the Ephigenia, and his reason assigned for so doing, as these gentlemen understood, was, that in the Portuguese instructions, they (the Portuguese) were ordered to capture any English, Spanish, or Russian vessel they might meet on the N.W. coast of America, and could take. This was afterwards said to have been a mistake, originating in a want of due knowledge in reading the Portuguese language. The vessel and cargo were liberated, and Martinez supplied the Ephigenia's wants from the Princissa, enabling her, by so doing, to prosecute her voyage without waiting for the return of Mr. Meares. They then proceeded to state that, on the arrival of the Columbia in the year 1788, there was a house, or rather a hut, made by the Indians, consisting of rough posts covered with boards; this was pulled down the same year, the boards were taken on board the Ephigenia, and the roof was given to Captain Kendrick, so that on the arrival of Martinez in may, 1789, there was no vestige of any house remaining. That Mr. Meares had no house, and as to land, they had never heard, although they had remained nine months amongst the natives, that he had ever purchased any in Nootka sound. From Maquina and other chiefs they had understood, that Mr. Kendrick was the only person to whom they had ever fold any land.

The North-West America is stated by these gentlemen to have arrived the 8th of june, and that on the following day the Spaniards took possession of her; ten days afterwards came the Princess Royal, commanded by Mr. Hudson from Macao, who brought the news of the sailure of the merchant at Macao, to whom the Ephigenia and other vessels belonged. That Martinez assigned this as a reason for his capturing the North-West America, (although she was seized before the arrival of the Princess Royal) that he had detained her as an indemnification for the

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bills of exchange, drawn on her owner in favor of His Catholic Majesty. That Captain Hudson, after having been treated with the kindest attention by the commodore and his officers, failed with the Princess Royal from Nootka the 2d of july; and that the same evening arrived the Argonaut, Captain Colnett.

Mr. Gray and Mr. Ingraham state also, that they heard Mr. Colnett inform Don Martinez that he had come to hoist the British slag, and to take formal possession of Nootka; and that, in conjunction with Mr. Meares and some other English gentlemen at Macao, he had concluded to erect a fort, and settle a colony. To this the Spanish commodore replied, That he had taken possession already in the name of His Catholic Majesty. Captain Colnett then asked, if he should be prevented from building a house in the port? the commodore replied, That he was at liberty to erect a tent, to wood and to water, after which he would be at liberty to depart when he pleased. Captain Colnett said that was not what he wanted, that his object was to build a block-house, erect a fort, and settle a colony for the crown of Great-Britain. To this Don Martinez answered, No; that in his acceding to such a proposal he should violate the orders of his king, relinquish the Spaniards' claim to the coast, and risk; the losing of his commission. Beside which the commodore stated, that Mr. Colnett's vessel did not belong to the King of Great-Britain, nor was Mr. Colnett invested with powers to transact any such public business. Captain Colnett replied, That he was a king's officer; but Don Martinez observed, That his being on half-pay, and in the merchants' service, rendered his commission as a lieutenant in the British navy of no consequence in the present business. In conversation afterwards on this subject, as we were informed, (say these gentlemen) for we were not present during this transaction, some dispute arose in the Princissa's cabin; on which Don Martinez ordered the Argonaut to be seized. Soon after this the Princess Royal returned, and, as belonging to the same company, the commodore took possession of her also. With respect to their treatment whilst prisoners, these gentlemen say. That although they have not read Mr. Meares's publication, they think it impossible that the officers and crew of the Argonaut can be backward in confessing,

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that Senr. Don Estevan Martinez always treated them kindly, and consistent with the character of gentlemen*. They further state, That the captain, officers, and crew, of the North-West America were carried by them to China, with one hundred sea-otter skins, valued at four thousand eight hundred and seventy-five dollars, which were delivered to Mr. Meares as his property.

* Some circumstances in contradiction to the whole of these evidences, which afterwards came to my knowledge, will appear in a future chapter.

To Senr. Quadra's letter of the 29th of august, I replied to the following effect: That I did not confider myself authorized to enter into a retrospective discussion on the respective rights and pretensions of the court of Spain or England, touching the western coasts of America, and islands adjacent, to the northward of California. That subject having undergone a full investigation, and having been mutually agreed upon and settled by the ministers of the respective courts, as appeared by the convention of the 28th of october, 1790, and Count Florida Blanca's letter of the 12th of may, 1791, I considered any interference, on my part, to be incompatible with my commission, being invested with powers only to receive the territories which, according to the first article of the convention. Senr. Quadra was authorized to restore and to put me in possession of, viz. ("the buildings and districts, or parcels of land which were occupied by the subjects of His Britannic Majesty in april, 1789, as well in the port of Nootka or of St. Lawrence, as in the other, said to be called Port Cox, and to be situated about 16 leagues distant from the former to the southward.") That agreeably to the express words of the fifth article in the said convention, ("It is agreed, That, as well in the places that are to be restored to the British subject by virtue of the first article, as in all other parts of the north-western coasts of North America, or of the islands adjacent, situated to the north of the parts of the said coast already occupied by Spain, wherever the subjects of either of the two powers shall have made settlements since the month of april, 1789, or shall hereafter make, any of the subject of the other shall have free access, and shall carry on their trade without any disturbance or molestation.") I considered the Spanish settlement in the entrance of the straits of De Fuca, which I had reason to believe was formed no longer ago than may, 1792, to come within the meaning of a

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"port of free access," as well as all other establishments that have been, or that may hereafter be, formed from thence southward to port St. Francisco, conceiving port St. Francisco to be the northernmost settlement occupied by the subjects of His Catholic Majesty, in april, 1789.

In my way to the observatory, on sunday, I waited upon Senr. Quadra, who informed me, that Mr. Dobson had translated my letter to him; and he was pleased to say, That he derived the greatest satisfaction from finding a person of my character, with horn he was to tranfact the business of delivering up Nootka; that he should accept the civil offers contained in my letter, and remain on shore until the carpenters had finished some additional accommodation to his apartments on board his little brig; which being completed, he should either wait my departure, to accompany us in our researches to the southward, and to conduct us to any of the Spanish ports I might with to visit; or he would sail, and wait my arrival at any place I should think proper to appoint, recommending St. Francisco or Monterrey for that purpose.

Senr. Quadra requested to know who I intended to leave in possession of these territories; and being informed that it would be Mr. Broughton in the Chatham, in whose charge the remaining cargo of the Dædalus would be deposited, he gave directions that the store-houses should be immediately cleared, and begged I would walk with him round the premises, that I might be the better able to judge how to appropriate the several buildings; which for the most part appeared sufficiently secure, and more extensive than our occasions required. A large new oven had been lately built expressly for our service, and had not hitherto been permitted to be used. The houses had been all repaired, and the gardeners were busily employed in putting the gardens in order. The poultry, consisting of fowls and turkies, was in excellent condition, and in abundance, as were the black cattle and swine; of these Senmr. Quadra said he should take only a sufficient quantity for his passage to the southward, leaving the rest, with a large assortment of garden feeds, for Mr. Broughton. Senr. Galiano and Valdes added ail they had in their power to spare, amongst which were three excellent goats; I had like wise both hogs and goats to leave with him; so that there was a pro-

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spect of Mr. Broughton passing the winter, with the assistance of the natural productions of the country, not very uncomfortably.

The orders under which I was to receive these territories, on the pan of His Britannic Majesty, were intirely silent as to the measures I was to adopt for retaining them afterwards. Presuming, however, that the principal object which His Majesty had in view, by directing; this expedition to he undertaken, was that of facilitating the commercial advantages of Great Britain in this part of the world; and for that purpose it might not he impossible, that a settlement was in contemplation to be made at this important station, which had become the general rendezvous for the traders of almost all nations; I had determined, on leaving; this port, to commit it to the charge and direction of Mr. Broughton, who would retain the possession of it, and whose presence might restrain such improper conduct as had already been manifested on the part of the several traders; whilst I should proceed to execute the remaining part of His Majesty's commands, until I should he furnished with further instructions for my future government.

Having satisfactory arranged these matters, I gave directions for clearing the store-ship, which was set about accordingly.

The politeness, hospitality, and friendship, shewn on all occasions by Senr. Quadra, induced Mr. Broughton and myself, with several of the officers and gentlemen of both vessels, to dine at his table almost every day, which was not less pleasant than salubrious, as it was constantly furnished with a variety of refreshments to most of which we had long been intire strangers.

Senr. Galiano informed me, that he intended to take advantage of the present serene weather, which without interruption had prevailed since our arrival, and sail for the Spanish ports to the southward, either in the course of the night or early the next morning; and obligingly undertook to forward a short letter to the Lords of the Admiralty, containing a brief abstract of transactions since our departure from the cape of Good Hope.

Monday 3.

I had the honor of Senr. Quadra's company on monday morning at breakfast. He omitted no opportunity of impressing on the minds of

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the natives the highest most favorable opinion of our little squadron; and the more effectually to insure a good understanding in future, he proposed a visit of ceremony to Maquinna; to him it would be grateful, and on my part he recommended it as efficiently requisite. It was agreed we should set out the next morning for his royal residence, which was about 7 leagues up the sound, at a place called Tahsheis.

In the evening I received from Senr. Quadra a letter in reply to mine of the 1st of september.

Tuesday 4.

Agreeably to appointment, about eight the next morning, Senr. Quadra accompanied me in the Discovery's yawl, which, with our own and a Spanish launch, and the Chatham's cutter, containing as many Spanish and English officers as could be taken, we departed for Tahsheis; a message having been sent the preceding day to announce our intended visit.

The weather though cloudy was very pleasant, and having a favorable breeze, we reached Tahsheis about two in the afternoon; Maquinna received us with great pleasure and approbation, and it was evident that his pride was not a little indulged by our shewing him this attention. He conducted us through the village, where we appeared to be welcome guests, in consequence perhaps of the presents that were distributed amongst the inhabitants, who all conducted themselves in the most civil and orderly manner. After visiting most of the houses, we arrived at Maquinna's residence, which was one of the largest, though it was not intirely covered in; here we sound seated in some kind of form, Maquinna's daughter, who not long before had been publicly and with great ceremony proclaimed sole heiress to all his property, power, and dominion. Near her were seated three of his wives, and a numerous tribe of relations. The young princess was of low stature, very plump, with a round face, and small features; her skin was clean, and being nearly white, her person altogether, though without any pretensions to beauty, could not be considered as disagreeable. To her and to her father I made presents suitable to the occasion, which were received with the greatest approbation by themselves, and the throng which had assembled; as were also those I made to

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wives, brothers, and other relations, These ceremonies being ended, most excellent dinner was served, which Senr. Quadra had provided, at which we had the company of Maquinna and the princess, who was seated at the head of the table, and conducted herself with much propriety and decorum.

After dinner, Maquinna entertained us with a representation of their warlike achievements. A dozen men first appeared, armed with muskets, and equipped with all their appendages, who took their post in a very orderly manner within the entrance of the house, where they remained stationary, and were followed by eighteen very stout men, each bearing a spear or lance sixteen or eighteen feet in length, proportionably strong and pointed with a long flat piece of iron, which seemed to be sharp on both edges, and was highly polished; the whole however appeared to form but an aukward and unwieldly weapon. These men made several movements in imitation of attack and defence, singing at the same time several war songs, in which they were joined by those with the muskets. Their different evolutions being concluded, I was presented with two small sea-otter skins, and the warriors having said by their arms, performed a mask dance, which was ridiculously laughable, particularly on the part of Maquinna, who took a considerable share in the representation. We were not backward in contributing to the amusements of the day, some songs were lung which the natives seemed much to admire, and being provided with drums and fifes, our sailors concluded the afternoon's diversion with reels and country dances.

In the evening we took leave of Maquinna, who was scarcely able to express the satisfaction he had experienced in the honor we had done him, saying, that neither Wacanaish, nor any other chief, had ever received such a mark of respect and attention from any visitors, and that he would in a few days return us the compliment; on which he was given to understand, he should be entertained in the European fashion.

From Tahsheis we proceeded a few miles in our way home, when, arriving at a convenient little cove, we pitched our encampment for the night, and passed a very pleasant evening.

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After breakfast the following morning we embarked and directed our route towards Friendly cove; the weather was pleasant though the wind was unfavorable; this occasioned our dining by the way on the rocks, for which however Senr. Quadra was amply provided. About five we reached the cove, where I landed Senr. Quadra and returned to the ship.

In our conversation whilst on this little excursion, Senr. Quadra had very earnestly requested that I would name some port or island after us both, to commemorate our meeting and the very friendly intercourse that had taken place and subsisted between us Conceiving no spot so proper for this denomination as the place where we had first met, which was nearly in the center of a tract of land that had first been circumnavigated by us, forming the south-western sides of the gulph of Georgia, and the southern sides of Johnstone's straits and Queen Charlotte's sound, I named that country the island of QUADRA and VANCOUVER; with which compliment he seemed highly pleased.

During my absence the Chatham had hauled off from the shore, but in consequence of the inconsiderable rise of the tide her damages had not been repaired; it was therefore necessary that the should remain light until the next spring tides; this however, under our present arrangements, was a matter of little importance.

Thurs 6.

Maquinna with his two wives and some of his relations returned our visit. They had not been long on board when I had great reason to consider my royal party as the most consummate beggars I had ever seen; a disposition which seemed generally to prevail with the whole of this tribe of Indians, and which probably may have been fostered by the indulgences shewn then by the Spaniards. They demanded every thing which struck their fancy, as being either useful, curious, or ornamental, though an article with which it might be impossible for us to gratify then; and if not immediately presented they would affected to be greatly offended, and would remain sulky for two or three days.

I was however particularly fortunate in having at hand every thing requisite to satisfy the demands of Maquinna and his party. The liberality I had so recently shewn to himself and family when at Tahsheis, was

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perhaps not yet quite forgotten; they nevertheless made a profitable visit, as what their modesty precluded their asking of me I was afterwards informed was amply made up by their begging from the officers and others on board.

The exhibition of fire works which I had promised the party, was anxiously wailed for: towards the evening their impatience was almost unrestrainable, as they could not, or would not, understand that darkness was necessary to their entertainment, and accused us of a breach of promise and telling falsities. Senr. Quadra however, after much persuasion, prevailed upon them to stay the night, by which they were convinced that our assuranes were not to be discredited. The night being favorable to our operations, they succeeded extremely well. The rockets, balloons, and other fire-works, were in a high state of preservation, and were regarded by the Indian spectators with wonder and admiration, mixed with a considerable share of apprehension; for it was not without great difficulty that I prevailed on Maquinna and his brother to fire a few sky rockets, a performance that produced the greatest exultation. The Europeans present were not less entertained with the exhibition, than surprized that the several fire works should have remained so long on board in such excellent condition.

Saturday 8.

The Aransasu, a Spanish armed ship, commanded by Senr. Caamano, arrived from a surveying expedition on the exterior coast to the north of Nootka, towards Biccareli, of the charts of which I was promised a copy, as soon as they should be properly an arranged.

Mr. Cranstoun, the surgeon of the Discovery, having been rendered incapable of his duty by a general debilitated state of health since our departure from the cape of Good Hope, requested permission to proceed to port Jackson in the Dædalus, from whence he should soon procure a passage to England; he was consequently discharged, and Mr. Archibald Menzies, a surgeon in the navy, who had embarked in pursuit of botanical information, having cheerfully rendered his services during Mr. Cranstoun's indisposition, and finding that such attention had not interfered with the other objects of his pursuit, I considered him the most proper person to be appointed m the room of Mr. Cranstoun. The

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boatswain of the Discovery, Mr. William House, a careful, sober, and attentive officer, having laboured under a violent rheumatic complaint, since our departure from New Zealand, which had precluded his attention to any part of his duty, was on his application in like manner discharged; Mr. John Noot, boatswain of the Chatham, was appointed in his room, and Mr. George Philliskirk was appointed boatswain of the Chatham.

Monday 10.

I deemed it expedient, that their Lordships directions, prohibiting charts, journals, drawings, or any other fort of intelligence respecting our proceedings being made known or communicated, should be publicly read to the officers and persons under my command, and to urge every injunction in my power to enforce a due obedience to those orders.

The letter I received the 2d of this month from Senr. Quadra, not having been translated till this day, in consequence of Mr. Dobson's indisposition, I was not a little surprized to find it differ so much from what I had reason to expect.

In this letter Senr. Quadra informs me, that in conformity to the first article of the convention, and the royal order under which he is to act, he can only restore to His Britannic Majesty the edifices, districts, or portions of land which in april, 1789, were taken from his subjects; that he was in possession of full proof that the small hut the English had was not in existence on the arrival of Martinez, and that the then establishment of the Spaniards was not in the place where the British subjects had theirs. That if I did not think myself authorized to subscribe to the tenor of his commission and instructions, he would recommend that each should lay before his respective court all the circumstances of the pending negociation, and wait for further instructions; in the mean time Senr. Quadra offered to leave me in possession of what Mr. Meares had occupied, and at my command the houses, gardens, and offices then occupied by the Spaniards, whilst he retired until the decision of the two courts should be known.

To this letter I immediately replied, that as, like his former one, it contained a retrospective view of matters which I had no authority to take cognizance of, I should accede to his proposal, and make a just and

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fair representation of all our proceedings to the court of Great Britain, and wait for further instructions. This letter I concluded by again repeating, that I was still ready to receive from Senr. Quadra the territories in question, agreeably to the first article of the convention, and the letter of Count Florida Blanca.

In the course of the night arrived here the brig Hope, belonging to Boston in America. commanded by Mr. Joseph Ingraham, the person who jointly with Mr. Gray had given Senr. Quadra a statement of the conduct of Don Martinez, and of the transactions at this port in the year 1789.

Wednes 12.

About noon the next day I received from Senr. Quadra a letter dated the 11th of September, in answer to my last, expressive of his confidence that I should make a faithful and true representation of the proceedings that had taken place respecting the points in question; and repeating the offer contained in his former letter, of relinquishing the territories on the terms and conditions therein expressed. To this letter I immediately replied, that I was ready whenever it suited Senr. Quadra's convenience, to be put into possession of the territories on the N.W. coast of America, or islands adjacent, agreeably to the first article of the convention, and the letter of the Count Florida Blanca.

Having this day dined with Senr. Quadra, on rising from table he requested, as no final determination had yet taken place respecting the restitution of these territories, to have some personal conversation on the subject, in hopes by that means of drawing the business to a more speedy conclusion. Besides ourselves there were present Senr. Mozino and Mr. Broughton; so that with the assistance of Mr. Dobson, and these gentlemen who spoke French extremely well, we had a prospect of coming to so perfect an explanation as to render any further epistolary altercation totally unnecessary. Senr. Quadra vindicated the conduct of Martinez, and laid considerable stress on the concession of Maquinna, who had put them into complete possession of the lands they then occupied: on this circumstance, and on the information he had obtained since his arrival at Nootka, certain parts of which he had by letter communicated to me, he seemed principally to establish the claims of the Spanish

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crown. The small spot on which Mr. Meares's house had been built, which did not then appear to be occupied by the Spaniards, Senr. Quadra said I was at liberty to take possession of for His Britannic Majesty, whenever I should think proper. This offer being totally foreign to my expectations, and a repetition only of that which had taken place in our correspondence, Senr. Quadra was made acquainted, that under such circumstances I did not feel myself justified in entering into any further discussion. The propriety of this determination being admitted, it was mutually agreed that we should each represent our objections and proceedings to our respective courts, and wait their decision on the important questions which had arisen in the negociation. In the mean time Senr. Quadra proposed to leave me in possession of these territories, the instant his vessel was fitted for his reception. On his departure the Spanish flag was to be struck, and the British flag hoisted in its place, which Senr. Quadra consented to salute, on my agreeing to return an equal number of guns. Thus did matters appear to be perfectly arranged, agreeably to the wishes of all parties, and the business brought to an amicable and pleasant conclusion, when to my great surprize I received the next morning a letter from Senr. Quadra, setting forth that he was ready to deliver up to me, conformably to the first article of the convention, the territory which was occupied by British subjects in april, 1789, and to leave the Spanish settlement at Nootka until the decision of the courts of England and Spain were obtained; which was proceeding, he said, as far as his powers extended. This very unexpected letter produced an immediate reply from me, wherein I stated, that the territories of which the subjects of His Britannic Majesty were dispossessed in april, 1789, and which by the first; article of the convention were now to be restored, I understood to be this place (meaning Nootka) in toto, and port Cox. These I was still ready to receive, but could not entertain an idea of hoisting the British flag on the spot of land pointed out by Senr. Quadra, not extending more than an hundred yards in any direction. I concluded by observing, that the offer made in Senr. Quadra's two last letters differed materially from that contained in his first letter to me on this subject.

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On saturday morning a young lad, who for about two days had been missing from Senr. Quadra's vessel, wan found in a cove not far from the ships, most inhumanly murdered. The calves of his legs were cut out, his head nearly severed from his body, and he had received several barbarous wounds in other parts. Doubts arose whether this horrid act had been perpetrated by the natives, or by a black man of most infamous character, who had deserted from the Spanish vessel about the time the boy was first missed. The prevailing opinion seemed to criminate the former, and on Senr. Quadra demanding of Maquinna that the murderer should instantly be given up, the immediate departure of all the inhabitants of the sound from our neighbourhood became a strong presumptive proof of their delinquency.

Senr. Quadra gave an immediate answer to my letter of the 13th, but as he therein did not depart from the terms of his late offer of leaving me in possession only not formally restoring the territory of Nootka to the king of Great Britain; it became necessary on my part to demand a Categorical and definitive answer from Senr. Quadra, whether he would or would not restore to me for His Britannic Majesty the territories in question, of which the subjects of that realm had been dispossessed in april, 1789. These were Nootka and Clayoquot, or port Cox; the former is the place which was then occupied by the British subjects, from thence their vessels were sent as prizes, and themselves as prisoners to New Spain; this is the place that was forcibly wrested from them, and fortified and occupied by the officers of the Spanish crown; this place therefore, with Clayoquot, or port Cox, were comprehended under the first article of the convention, and were by that treaty to be restored without any reservation whatsoever: on these terms, and on these only, could I receive the restitution of them. Senr. Quadra having also laid some stress upon Mr. Meares's vessels being under Portuguese colours, I took this opportunity of signifying, that I considered that circumstance equally foreign and unimportant, it having been set forth in Mr Meares's original petition to the Parliament of Great Britain, and of course must have come under the consideration of the Spanish and English ministers. Unless our negociation could be brought to a conclusion on the terms

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pointed out in this as well as in my former letters, I begged leave to acquaint Senr. Quadra, that I must positively decline any further correspondence on the subject.

It was a matter of no small satisfaction, that although on this subject such manifest difference arose in our opinions, it had not the least effect on our personal intercourse with each other, or on the advantages we derived from our mutual good offices; we continued to visit as usual, and this day Senr. Quadra and Caamano, with most of the Spanish officers, honored me with their company at dinner.

Monday 15.

On monday morning a Portuguese brig arrived here called the Fenis and St. Joseph, commanded by John de Barros Andrede, on board of which was a Mr. Duffin as super-cargo. In the evening I had Senr. Quadra's final determination; which resting on the same point where it had originated, I considered any further correspondence totally unnecessary; and instead of writing, I requested in conversation the next day to be informed, if he was positively resolved to adhere, in the restitution of this country, to the principles contained in his last letter? and on receiving from him an answer in the affirmative, I acquainted him that I should consider Nootka as a Spanish port, and requested his permission to carry on our necessary employments on shore, which he very politely gave, with the most friendly assurance of every service and kind office in his power to grant.

Tuesday 18.

Our negociation being brought by these means to a conclusion, Senr. Quadra informed me, that Senr. Caamano would be left in charge of the port, until the arrival of the Princissa, commanded by Senr. Fidalgo; with whom the government of the port of Nootka would be left, and from whom the English might be certain of receiving every accommodation.

Senr. Quadra was now making arrangements on board the Active for his departure, which he intended should take place in the course of a day or two. Agreeably to a former promise I had made him, he requested a copy of my charts for the service of His Catholic Majesty: but as our longitude of the several parts of the coast differed in many instances from that laid down by Captain Cook, I wished to embrace every future opportunity of making further observations whilst we might

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remain in this port, before any copy should be disposed of; but Senr. Quadra wishing to make certain of such information as we had acquired, and conceiving the further corrections we might be enabled to make of little importance, solicited such a copy as I was then able to procure: which, with a formal reply to his last letter, I transmitted to him on tuesday evening. In this letter I stated the impossibility of my receiving the cession of the territories in question on the conditions proposed by Senr. Quadra, and that in consequence of the existing differences in our opinions on this subject, I should immediately refer the whole of the negociation to the court of London, and wait the determination thereof, for the regulation of my future conduct. The next day Senr. Quadra acknowledged the receipt of my last letter with the charts of this coast, &c. which concluded our correspondence.

As Senr. Quadra intended to sail the next day, accompanied by most of the Spanish officers, he did me the honor of partaking of a farewell dinner, and was on this occasion received with the customary marks of ceremony and respect due to his rank, and the situation he here filled. The day passed with the utmost cheerfulness and hilarity: Monterrey was appointed as the rendezvous where next we should meet.

Having understood that Mr. Robert Duffin, the super-cargo on board the Portuguese vessel that had arrived on the 17th, had accompanied Mr. Meares in the year 1788, and was with him on his first arrival in Nootka sound, I requested he would furnish me with all the particulars he could recollect of the transactions which took place on that occasion. This he very obligingly did, and at the same time voluntarily made oath to the truth of his assertions. The substance of which was, that towards the close of the year 1787, two vessels were equipped for the fur trade on the N.W. coast of America, by John Henry Cox and Co. merchants at Canton. That the command and conduct of the expedition was given to John Meares, Esq. who was a joint proprietor also; that for the purpose of avoiding certain heavy dues, the vessels sailed under Portuguese colours, and in the name and under the firm of John Cavallo, Esq. a Portuguese merchant at Macao, but who had not any property either in the vessels, or their cargoes, which were in-

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tirely British property, and were wholly navigated by the subjects of His Britannic Majesty: That Mr. Duffin accompanied Mr. Meares in one of these vessels to Nootka, where they arrived in may, 1788, when Mr. Meares attended by himself and Mr. Robert Funter, on the