RECORD: Vancouver,George. 1798. A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the world. 3 vols. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, vol. 2.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 4.2013. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.

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Undertaken by HIS MAJESTY'S Command,


North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans;

1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795,









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Visited by a priest and a Spanish sergeant—The commandant visits the ship— Account of the missions of St. Francisco and Sta Clara—Arrival of the Chatham—Departure from St. Francisco—Meet the Dædalus at Monterrey, Page 1
Transactions at Monterrey—Description of the mission of St. Carlos—Departure of the Dædalus for port Jackson—Situation and description of Monterrey bay—Account of the Presidio—Generous conduct of Senr. Quadra—Astronomical and nautical observations, 31
Lieutenant Broughton's account of Columbia river, 52


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Mr. Whidbey's account of Grays harbour—Transastions of the Dædalus at the Marquesas, and at some newly-discovered islands—Murder of Lieutenant Hergest at Woahoo—Arrival of the Dædalus at Nootka, 79
Departure of Lieutenant Broughton for England—Progress towards the Sandwich islands—Fruitless search for the islands of Los Majos—Arrive at Owhyhee—Visited by the chiefs—Anchor in Karakakooa bay— Land the cattle—Regulations adopted—Account of two English seamen residing on the island—Capture of the schooner Fair American—Character of some of the leading chiefs, 99
Transactions at Karakakooa bay—Visit from the widow of Terrecoboo—An Indian sham-sight—Proposals for a general peace amongst the Indians— Quit Ozchyhee—Astronomical observations. 146
Arrive off Mowee—Particulars relative to the murder of Lieutenant Hergest, Mr. Gooch, and others—Conversation respecting a peace with, Owhyhee—Reasons for sending the Chatham to Nootka—The peace acceded to by the chiefs—Information acquired by an excursion of the boats—Departure from Mowee, 172
Proceed to Whyteete bay—An Indian's account of the murder at Woahoo— Three of the murderers brought on board—Their trial and execution— Proceed to Attowai—Settle two female natives, found at Nootka—Quit the Sandwich islands, 201

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Passage towards the coast of America—Anchor in Trinidad bay—Description of the bay, its inhabitants, &c. &c.—Arrival at Nootka—Quit Nootka, and proceed to the northward—Join the Chatham in Fitzhugh's found, 235
Anchor in Restoration Cove—Account of two boat expeditions—Astronomical and nautical observations—Proceed to the northward—Visited by many of the natives—Their character—Account of the boats excursion—Seaman poisoned by muscles, 260
The vessels proceed—Pass through Milbank's found, and along the continental shore—Arrive in a small cove—Two boat parties dispatched on the survey—One returns—Account of their discoveries—The vessels again proceed—Tedious navigation — The other boat party returns—Their report, 288
Mr. Whidbey again dispatched with two boats — Anchor near the isle de Gil—Account of Mr. Whidbey's excursion—Quit Fisherman's cove—Pass between Banks's island and Pitt's archipelago into the ocean — Enter Chatham's found—Meet three English vessels—Arrive in Observatory inlet —Anchor in Salmon bay—Boats again dispatched on the survey, 307


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An extensive boat excursion—Party attacked by the natives—Astronomical and nautical observations, 334
Quit Observatory inlet—Proceed to the north-west—Description of Port Stewart—Visited by the natives—Account of two boat excursions, 378
Leave port Stewart, and proceed to the north-westward—Visited by the natives—Arrive in port Protection—Account of boat excursions—Proceed to the southward—Description of port Protection—Departure thence—Passage along the western fide of Queen Charlotte's islands to Nootka—Quit Nootka, 405
Passage to the southward—The Chatham sent to port Bodega—Arrival of the Discovery at port Francisco—Chatham arrives there—Account of her proceedings—Proceed to Monterrey—Joined by the Dædalus—Conduct of the governor—Proceed to the southward—Anchor at Sta Barbara—Visit Buena Ventura—Proceed along the coast to the southward—Arrive at St. Diego —Astronomical and nautical observations, 431
Proceed to the southward—Description of the coast—Some account of port Bodega—Brief account of the Spanish settlements in New Albion, 477

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Plate To face Page
I. THE mission of St. Carlos near Monterrey, 10
II. Chart of Hergest's islands, 91
III. Salmon cove, Observatory inlet, 332
IV. The new Eddystone in Behm's canal, 352
V. The Presidio of Monterrey, 440

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Visited by a priest and a Spanish sergeant—The commandant visits the ship— Account of the missions of St. Francisco and St. Clara—Arrival of the Chatham—Departure from St. Francisco—Meet the Dædalus at Monterrey.

1792. November.

Thursday 13.

THURSDAY morning discovered our anchorage to be in a most excellent small bay, within three fourths of a mile of the nearest shore, heaving by compass south; one point of the bay bearing N. 56 W., the other S. 73 E. the former at the distance of 2½ the latter about 3 miles. The herds of cattle and flocks of sheep grazing on the surrounding hills were a sight we had long been strangers to, and brought to our minds many pleasing reflections. These indicated that the residence of their proprietors could not. be far remote, though we could perceive neither habitations nor inhabitants. On hoisting the colours at sun-rise


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a gun was fired, and in a little time afterwards several people were seen on horseback coming from behind the hills down to the beach, who waved their hats, and made other signals for a boat, which was immediately sent to the shore, and on its return I was favored with the good company of a priest of the order of St. Francisco, and a sergeant in the Spanish army to breakfast. The reverend father expressed, and seemingly with great sincerity, the pleasure he felt at our arrival, and assured me that every refreshment and service in the power of himself or mission to bestow, I might unreservedly command: since it would be conferring on them all a peculiar obligation to allow them to be serviceable. The sergeant expressed himself in the most friendly manner, and informed me, that in the absence of the commandant, he was directed on our arrival to render us every accommodation the settlement could afford.

We attended them on shore after breakfast, where they embraced the earliest opportunity of proving, that their friendly expressions were not empty professions, by presenting me with a very fine ox, a sheep, and some excellent vegetables. The good sria, after pointing out the most convenient spot for procuring wood and water, and repeating the hospitable offers he had before made in the name of the fathers of the Franciscan order, returned to the mission of St. Francisco, which we understood was at no great distance, and to which he gave us the most pressing invitation.

From these gentlemen we learned, that the station we had taken was far within the general anchoring place of the Spanish vessels, which they said was off that part of the shore where the light was shewn and guns fired the preceding night on the beach, near the entrance into the port. Our situation was however perfectly commodious and suitable to all our purposes, and with permission of the sergeant, I directed a tent to be pitched for the accommodation of the party employed in procuring wood and water; whilst the red of the crew were engaged on board in repairing the damages sustained in our sails, rigging, &c. during the tempestuous weather with which we had lately contended.

We amused ourselves with shooting a few quails on the adjacent hills, and in the afternoon returned on board to partake of the excellent re-

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past which had been supplied by our hospitable friends. Whilst we were thus pleasantly engaged, our boat brought off father Amonio Danti, the principal of the mission of St. Francisco, and Senr. Don Heamegildo Sal, an ensign in the Spanish army, and commandant of the port. This gentleman, like those who visited us in the morning, met us with such warm expressions of friendship and goodwill, as were not less deserving our highest commendations, than our moll grateful acknowledgments.

The happiness they seemed to anticipate did not appeal to arise so much from any pleasure they might derive in our society, as from the comforts and assistance which it was in their power to administer; this was manifested by all their actions, and by their expressing that our arrival had empowered them to execute a task the most accordant to their own wishes, as well as to the directions of their sovereign, which had been communicated to them and to the neighbouring settlements and missions.

From Senr. Sal I was made acquainted, that although the situation we had taken might answer our purposes in a certain degree, yet there was one which we had passed by the preceding evening, that we should find infinitely more commodious, as we should then be more immediately in his neighbourhood, and more frequent opportunities would be afforded him of rendering us service. In addition to the motive of his politeness, I was induced to comply with his wishes by the falling tide discovering to us a very great obstacle to our communication with that part of the shore from whence the wood and water were to be procured. A large bank of soft mud was found at low water to extend nearly half way between the ship and the shore.

I understood from these gentlemen that Senr. Quadra still waited our arrival at Monterrey; I therefore intrusted to them a letter informing him of our arrival in this port, to which Senr. Sal said an answer would most likely be procured in the course of three or four days. Having joined with us in drinking the healths of our royal masters, they took their leave and returned to the shore.

In the afternoon a fresh breeze from the S. E. sprang up, attended with rainy disagreeable weather, which continued during the night; the

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Friday 16.

next morning we had a strong gale from the S. and S.W. with heavy squalls and much rain. Having no time to spare, and the pilot sent by Senr. Sal being arrived, we proceeded under double-reefed topsails to the general place of anchorage, which we reached by noon, and took our station about a quarter of a mile from the shore in 5 fathoms water; the outer anchor was in 13 fathoms soft muddy bottom. In this situation the S.E. and N.W. points of the passage into this port, in a line, bore by compass S. 80 W. distant about half a mile. The flag staff at the Presidio bore S. 42 E.

The little we had seen of port St. Francisco enabled us to decide that it was very extensive in two directions; one spacious branch took its course east and south-eastward to a great distance from the station we had quitted in the morning, the other apparently of equal magnitude led to the northward. In this were several islands. Although I had been informed by Senr. Quadra that the boundaries of this inlet had been defined, yet I was anxious to be more particularly acquainted with its extent, having since been given to understand that Senr. Quadra's information was by no means correct.

Near the branch leading to the east and south-eastward above-mentioned, is situated the mission of Sta Clara. These gentlemen informed me, that this branch had been thoroughly examined, but that the branch leading to the north never had. I was, however, obliged to remain contented under the uncertainty of such contradictory information; for the port having been established by Spain, I did not consider it prudent to prosecute its examination without sufficient authority for so doing: nor was the weather favorable for such an undertaking, though it did not prevent the exercise of those friendly dispositions in the Spanish commandant, which he had before professed. He had been some time on the beach in the rain before we anchored, for the purpose of instantly affording us any assistance in his power to supply. A message to this effect was brought by three of the native Indians who spoke Spanish, and who came on board in a canoe of the country; which with another, (though perhaps the same) seen crossing the harbour the evening we entered it, were the only Indian vessels we had met with, and were without exception the most rude and sorry contrivances for embarkation

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I had ever beheld. The length of them was about ten feet, the breadth about three or four; they were constructed of rushes and dried grass of a long broad leaf, made up into rolls the length of the canoe, the thickest in the middle, and regularly tapering to a point at each end. These are so disposed, that on their ends being secured and lashed together the vessel is formed, which being broadest in the middle, and coming to a point at each extremity, goes with either end foremost. These rolls are laid and fastened so close to each other, that in calm weather and smooth water I believe them to be tolerably dry, but they appeared to be very ill calculated to contend with wind and waves. The wind now blew strong with heavy squalls from the S.W. and in the middle of this spacious inlet the sea broke with much force; notwithstanding which, as soon as these people had delivered their message, they crossed the inlet for the purpose of catching fish, without seeming to entertain the least apprehension for their safety. They conduced their canoe or vessel by long double-bladed paddles, like those used by the Esquimaux.

Saturday 17.

The S.W. wind attended by much rain, blew very hard until the morning of the 17th, when the weather becoming more moderate I visited the shore. I was greatly mortified to find, that neither wood nor water could be procured with such convenience, nor of so good a quality, as at the station we had quitted a league and a half within the entrance of the port on the southern shore; but as our Spanish friends had informed us that the water here was far superior in its quality to that at Monterrey, there was now no alternative but that of taking what the country afforded. A tent was immediately pitched on the shore, wells were dug for obtaining water, and a party was employed in procuring fuel from small bushy holly-leaved oaks, the only trees fit for our purpose. A lagoon of sea water was between the beach and the spot on which these trees grew, which rendered the conveying the wood when cut a very laborious operation.

Whilst engaged in allotting to the people their different employments, some saddled horses arrived from the commandant with a very cordial invitation to his habitation; which was accepted by myself and some of the officers. We rode up to the Presidio, an appellation given to their military establishments in this country, and signifying a safe guard.


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The residence of the friars is called a Mission. We soon arrived at the Presidio, which was not more than a mile from our landing place. Its wall, which fronted the harbour, was visible from the ships; but instead of the city or town, whose lights we had so anxiously looked for on the night of our arrival, we were conducted into a spacious verdant plain, surrounded by hills on every side, excepting that which fronted the port. The only object of human industry which presented itself, was a square area, whose sides were about two hundred yards in length, enclosed by a mud wall, and resembling a pound for cattle. Above this wall the thatched roofs of their low small houses just made their appearance. On entering the Presidio, we found one of its sides still uninclosed by the wall, and very indifferently fenced in by a few bushes here and there, fastened to stakes in the ground. The unfinished state of this part, afforded us an opportunity of seeing the strength of the wall, and the manner in which it was constructed. It is about fourteen feet high, and five feet in breadth, and was first formed by uprights and horizontal rafters of large timber, between which dried sods and moistened earth were pressed as close and as hard as possible; after which the whole was cased with the earth made into a fort of mud plaster, which gave it the appearance of durability, and of being sufficiently strong to protect them, with the assistance of their fire-arms, against all the force which the natives of the country might be able to collect.

The Spanish soldiers composing the garrison amounted, I understood, to thirty-five; who, with their wives, families, and a few Indian servants, composed the whole of the inhabitants. Their houses were along the wall, within the square, and their fronts uniformly extended the same distance into the area, which is a clear open space, without buildings or other interruptions. The only entrance into it, is by a large gateway; facing which, and against the centre of the opposite wall or side, is the church; which, though small, was neat in comparison to the rest of the buildings. This projects further into the square than the houses, and is distinguishable from the other edifices, by being white-washed with lime made from sea-shells; as there has not yet been any

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lime-stone or calcareous earth discovered in the neighbourhood. On the left of the church, is the commandant's house, consisting, I believe, of two rooms and a closet only, which are divided by massy walls, similar to that which encloses the square, and communicating with each other by very small doors. Between these apartments and the outward wall was an excellent poultry house and yard, which seemed pretty well stocked; and between the roof and ceilings of the rooms was a kind of lumber garret: these were all the conveniencies the habitation seemed calculated to afford. The rest of the houses, though smaller, were fashioned exactly after the same manner; and in the winter, or rainy seasons, must at the best be very uncomfortable dwellings. For though the walls are a sufficient security against the inclemency of the weather, yet the windows, which are cut in the front wall, and look into the square, are destitute of glass, or any other defence that does not at the same time exclude the light.

The apartment in the commandant's house, into which we were ushered, was about thirty feet long, fourteen feet broad, and twelve feet high; and the other room, or chamber, I judged to be of the same dimensions, excepting in its length, which appeared to be somewhat less. The floor was of the native soil raised about three feet from its original level, without being boarded, paved, or even reduced to an even surface: the roof was covered in with flags and rushes, the walls on the inside had once been white-washed; the furniture consisted of a very sparing assortment of the most indispensable articles, of the rudest fashion, and of the meanest kind; and ill accorded with the ideas we had conceived of the sumptuous manner in which the Spaniards live on this side of the globe.

It would, however, be the highest injustice, notwithstanding that elegancies were wanting, not to acknowledge the very cordial reception and hearty welcome we experienced from our worthy host; who had provided a refreshing repast, and such an one as he thought likely to be most acceptable at that time of the day; nor was his lady less assiduous, nor did she seem less happy than himself, in entertaining her new guests.

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On approaching the house we found this good lady, who, like her spouse, had passed the middle age of life, decently dressed, seated cross-legged on a mat, placed on a small square wooden platform raised three or four inches from the ground, nearly in front of the door, with two daughters and a son, clean and decently dressed, sitting by her; this being the mode observed by these ladies when they receive visitors. The decorous and pleasing behaviour of the children was really admirable, and exceeded any thing that could have been expected from them under the circumstances of their situation, without any other advantages than the education and example of their parents; which however seemed to have been studiously attended to, and did them great credit. This pleasing sight added to the friendly reception of our host and hostess, rendered their lowly residence no longer an object of our attention; and having partaken of the refreshments they had provided, we remounted our horses in order to take a view of the surrounding country before we returned on board to dinner, where Senr. Sal and his family had promised to favor me with their good company, and who had requested my permission to increase their party by the addition of some other ladies in the garrison.

Our excursion did not extend far from the Presidio, which is situated as before described in a plain surrounded by hills. This plain is by no means a dead flat, but of unequal surface; the soil is of a sandy nature, and was wholly under pasture, on which were grazing several flocks of sheep and herds of cattle; the sides of the surrounding hills, though but moderately elevated, seemed barren, or nearly so; and their summits were composed of naked uneven rocks. Two small spaces in the plain, very insecurely inclosed, were appropriated to kitchen gardens; much labour did not appear to have been bestowed either in the improvement of the soil, in selecting the quality of the vegetables, or in augmenting their produce; the several seeds once placed in the ground, nature was left to do the rest without receiving any assistance from manual labour.

Senr. Sal having been made acquainted with the difficulties we had to encounter in removing our wood to the sea side, politely offered us the carts he had for the use of the Presidio; but on their being produced

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I was greatly disappointed, as they were by no means so well calculated as the miserable straw canoes for the service they were intended to perform.

Thus, at the expence of very little examination, though not without much disappointment, was our curiosity satisfied concerning the Spanish town and settlement of St. Francisco. Instead of finding a country tolerably well inhabited and far advanced in cultivation, if we except its natural pastures, the stocks of sheep, and herds of cattle, there is not an object to indicate the most remote connection with any European, or other civilized nation.

This sketch will be sufficient, without further comment, to convey some idea of the inactive spirit of the people, and the unprotected state of the establishment at this port, which I should conceive ought to be a principal object of the Spanish crown, as a key and barrier to their more southern and valuable settlements on the borders of the north pacific. Should my idea of its importance be over-rated, certain it is, that considered solely as an establishment, which must have been formed at considerable expence, it possesses no other means for its protection than such as have been already described; with a brass three-pounder mounted on a rotten carriage before the presidio, and a similar piece of ordnance which (I was told) was at the S.E. point of entrance lashed to a log instead of a carriage; and was the gun whose report we heard the evening of our arrival. Before the presidio there had formerly been two pieces of ordnance, but one of them had lately burst to pieces.

The examination of these few objects, and the consequent observations upon them, occupied our leisure until dinner time, when we returned on board, accompanied by Senr. Sal, his wife, and party, and one of the fathers of the mission of St. Francisco, Martin de Landaeta, who brought me a pressing and polite invitation from his brethren, and who proved to be a very pleasing and entertaining acquisition to our society.

Sunday 18.

The next day, being sunday, was appointed for my visiting the mission. Accompanied by Mr. Menzies and some of the officers, and our friendly Senr. Sal, I rode thither to dinner. Its distance from


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the presidio is about a league, in an eastwardly direction; our ride was rendered unpleasant by the soil being very loose and sandy, and by the road being much incommoded with low groveling bushes.

Its situation and external appearance in a great measure resembled that of the presidio; and, like its neighbourhood, the country was pleasingly diversified with hill and dale. The hills were at a greater distance from each other, and gave more extent to the plain, which is composed of a soil infinitely richer than that of the presidio, being a mixture of sand and a black vegetable mould. The pastures bore a more luxuriant herbage, and fed a greater number of sheep and cattle. The barren sandy country through which we had passed, seemed to make a natural division between the lands of the mission and those of the presidio, and extends from the shores of the port to the foot of a ridge of mountains, which border on the exterior coast, and appear to stretch in a line parallel to it. The verdure of the plain continued to a considerable height up the sides of these hills; the summits of which, though still composed chiefly of rugged rocks, produced a few trees.

The buildings of the mission formed two sides of a square only, and did not appear as if intended, at any future time, to form a perfect quadrangle like the presidio. The architecture and materials, however, seemed nearly to correspond.

On our arrival, we were received by the reverend fathers with every demonstration of cordiality, friendship, and the most genuine hospitality. We were instantly conducted to their mansion, which was situated near, and communicated with the church. The houses formed a small oblong square, the side of the church composed one end, near which were the apartments allotted to the fathers. These were constructed nearly after the manner of those at the presidio, but appeared to be more finished, better contrived, were larger, and much more cleanly. Along the walls of this interior square, were also many other apartments adapted to various purposes.

Whilst dinner was preparing, our attention was engaged in seeing the several houses within the square. Some we found appropriated to the reception of grain, of which however they had not a very abundant

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stock: nor was the place of its growth within sight of the mission; though the richness of the contiguous soil, seemed equal to all the purposes of husbandry. One large room was occupied by manufacturers of a coarse fort of blanketting, made from the wool produced in the neighbourhood. The looms, though rudely wrought, were tolerably well contrived, and had been made by the Indians, under the immediate direction and superintendance of the fathers; who, by the same assiduity, had carried the manufacture thus far into execution. The produce resulting from their manufactory is wholly applied to the clothing of the converted Indians. I saw some of the cloth, which was by no means despicable; and, had it received the advantage of fulling, would have been a very decent fort of clothing. The preparation of the wool, as also the spinning and weaving of it, was, I understood, performed by unmarried women and female children, who were all resident within the square, and were in a state of conversion to the Roman Catholic persuasion. Besides manufacturing the wool, they are also instructed in a variety of necessary, useful, and beneficial employments, until they marry, which is greatly encouraged; when they retire from the tuition of the fathers to the hut of their husband. By these means it is expected, that their doctrines will be firmly established, and rapidly propagated; and the trouble they now have with their present untaught flock will be hereafter recompenced, by having fewer prejudices to combat in the rising generation. They likewise consider their plan as essentially necessary, in a political point of view, for insuring their own safety. The women and girls being the dearest objects of affection amongst these Indians, the Spaniards deem it expedient to retain constantly a certain number of females immediately within their power, as a pledge for the fidelity of the men, and as a check on any improper designs the natives might attempt to carry into execution, either against the missionaries, or the establishment in general.

By various encouragements and allurements to the children, or their parents, they can depend upon having as many to bring up in this way as they require: here they are well fed, better clothed than the Indians

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in the neighbourhood, are kept clean, instructed, and have every necessary care taken of them; and in return for these advantages they must submit to certain regulations; amongst which, they are not suffered to go out of the interior square in the day time without permission: are never to sleep out of it at night; and to prevent elopements, this square has no communication with the country but by one common door, which the fathers themselves take care of, and see that it is well secured every evening, as also the apartments of the women, who generally retire immediately after supper.

If I am correctly informed by the different Spanish gentlemen with whom I conversed on this subject, the. uniform, mild, and kind-hearted disposition of this religious order, has never failed to attach to their interest the affections of the natives, wherever they have sat down amongst them; this is a very happy circumstance, for their situation otherwise would be excessively precarious; as they are protected only by five soldiers who reside under the directions of a corporal, in the buildings of the mission at some distance on the other side of the church.

The establishment must certainly be considered as liable to some danger. Should these children of nature be ever induced to act an ungrateful and treacherous part, they might easily conceal sufficient weapons to effect any evil purpose. There are only three fathers; these live by themselves, and should any attempt be made upon them at night, the very means they have adopted for their security might deprive them of any assistance from the guard until it might be too late; and individually, they could make but little resistance. Should a conspiracy for their destruction take place, the mission would soon fall, and there would be little; doubt of the conspirators being joined by the Indians of the village, which is in the vicinity of the mission, and was said to contain six hundred persons; but on visiting it, I considered their number greatly over-rated. The major part of them, I understood, were converted to the Roman Catholic persuasion; but I was astonished to observe how few advantages had attended their conversion.

They seemed to have treated with the most, perfect indifference the precepts, and laborious example, of their truly, worthy and benevolent

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pastors; whose object has been to allure them from their life of indolence, and raise in them a spirit of emulous industry; which, by securing to them plenty of food and the common conveniences of life, would necessarily augment their comforts, and encourage them to seek and embrace the blessings of civilized society. Deaf to the important lessons, and insensible of the promised advantages, they still remained in the most abject state of uncivilization; and if we except the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, and those of Van Dieman's land, they are certainly a race of the most miserable beings I ever saw, possessing the faculty of human reason. Their persons, generally speaking, were under the middle size, and very ill made; their faces ugly, presenting a dull, heavy, and stupid countenance, devoid of sensibility or the least expression. One of their greatest aversions is cleanliness, both in their persons and habitations; which, after the fashion of their forefathers, were still without the most trivial improvement. Their houses were of a conical form, about six or seven feet in diameter at their base (which is the ground), and are constructed by a number of stakes, chiefly of the willow tribe, which are driven erect into the earth in a circular manner, the upper ends of which being small and pliable are brought nearly to join at the top, in the center of the circle; and these being securely fastened, give the upper part or roof somewhat of a flattish appearance. Thinner twigs of the like species are horizontally interwoven between the uprights, forming a piece of basket work about ten or twelve feet high; at the top a small aperture is left, which allows the smoke of the fire made in the center of the hut to escape, and admits most of the light they receive: the entrance is by a small hole close to the ground, through which with difficulty one person at a time can gain admittance. The whole is covered over with a thick thatch of dried grass and rushes.

These miserable habitations, each of which was allotted for the residence of a whole family, were erected with some degree of uniformity, about three or four feet asunder, in strait rows, leaving lanes or passages at right angles between them; but these were so abominably infested with every kind of filth and nastiness, as to be rendered not less offensive than degrading to the human species.


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Close by stood the church, which for its magnitude, architecture, and internal decorations, did great credit to the constructors of it; and presented a striking contrast between the exertions of genius, and such as bare necessity is capable of suggesting. The raising and decorating this edifice appeared to have greatly attracted the attention of the fathers; and the comforts they might have provided in their own humble habitations, seemed to have been totally sacrificed to the accomplishment of this favorite object. Even their garden, an object of such material importance, had not yet acquired any great degree of cultivation, though its soil was a rich black mould, and promised an ample return for any labour that might be bestowed upon it. The whole contained about four acres, was tolerably well fenced in, and produced some fig, peach, apple, and other fruit-trees, but afforded a very scanty supply of useful vegetables; the principal part lying waste and over-run with weeds.

On our return to the convent, we found a most excellent and abundant repast provided of beef, mutton, fish, fowls, and such vegetables as their garden afforded. The attentive and hospitable behaviour of our new friends amply compensated for the homely manner in which the dinner was served; and would certainly have precluded my noticing the distressing inconvenience these valuable people labour under, in the want of almost all the common and most necessary utensils of life, had I not been taught to expect, that this colony was in a very different stage of improvement, and that its inhabitants were infinitely more comfortably circumstanced.

After dinner we were engaged in an entertaining conversation, in which, by the assistance of Mr. Dobson our interpreter, we were each able to bear a part. Amongst other things I understood, that this mission was established in the year 1775, and the Presidio of St. Francisco in 1778, and that they were the northernmost settlements, of any description, formed by the court of Spain on the continental shore of North-West America, or the islands adjacent, exclusive of Nootka, which I did not consider as coming under that description any more than the temporary establishment which, in the preceding spring had been formed by Senr. Quadra near cape Flattery, at the entrance of the straits of Juan De Fuca; and which

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has been already stated to be intirely evacuated. The excursions of the Spaniards seemed to be confined to the neighbourhood of their immediate place of residence, and the direct line of country between one station and another; as they have no vessels for embarkation excepting the native canoe, and an old rotten wooden one, which was lying near our landing place. Had they proper boats on this spacious sheet of water, their, journies would not only be much facilitated, but it would afford a very agreeable variety in their manner of life, and help to pass away many of the solitary and wearisome hours which they must unavoidaby experience. I understood that the opposite side of the port had been visited by some soldiers on horse-back, who obtained but little information; some converted Indians were found living amongst the natives of the northern and western parts of the port, who were esteemed by the Spaniards to be a docile, and in general a well-disposed people; though little communication took place between them and the inhabitants of this side. The missionaries found no difficulty in subjecting these people to their authority. It is mild and charitable, teaches them the cultivation of the soil, and introduces amongst them such of the useful arts as are most essential to the comforts of human nature and social life. It is much to be wished, that these benevolent exertions may succeed, though there is every appearance that their progress will be very slow; yet they will probably lay a foundation, on which the posterity of the present race may secure to themselves the enjoyment of civil society.

The next establishment of this nature, and the only one within our reach from our present station, was that of Sta Clara, lying to the south-eastward, at the distance of about 18 leagues, and considered as one day's journey. As there was no probability of our wood and water being completely on board in less than three or four days, I accepted the offer of Senr. Sal and the reverend fathers, who undertook to provide us horses for an expedition to Sta Clara the following morning. At the decline of day we took our leave, and concluded a visit that had been highly interesting and entertaining to us, and had appeared to be equally grateful to our hospitable friends.

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1792. November.

On my return to the Presidio, I was favored with a polite reply from Senr. Quadra; in which he informed me, that neither the Chatham nor the Dædalus had yet arrived at Monterrey, but that on their reaching that port, I might rely on their receiving every assistance and service in his power to bestow, and trusted it would not be long ere the Discovery would rejoin them at Monterrey.

Tuesday 20.

During the night, the wind from the S.W. blew a strong gale, and continued with much rain until the morning of the 20th; when the weather being serene and pleasant, we undertook our journey to Sta Clara. We called in our way on our friends at the presidio and mission, with whose company we were to have been favored; but in consequence of some dispatches received by Senr. Sal which required his immediate attention, and of the indisposition of one of the fathers, they begged leave to decline the engagement; we therefore, agreeably with the fashion of the country, sat out, attended by a drove of spare horses, more than double the number of our party, under the guidance of the sergeant of the presidio, who was accompanied by six stout active soldiers, fully accoutered for our protection, and for affording us such assistance as we might require.

We considered our route to be parallel with the sea coast; between which and our path, the ridge of mountains before-mentioned extended to the south-eastward; and as we advanced, their sides and summits exhibited a high degree of luxuriant fertility, interspersed with copses of various forms and magnitude, verdant open spaces, and enriched with stately forest trees of different descriptions. The plain on which we rode stretched from the base of these mountains to the shores of the port, and gradually improved as we proceeded. The holly-leaved oak, maple horse-chesnut, and willow, were increased from dwarf shrubs to trees of tolerable size, having some of the common English dwarf oak scattered amongst them.

Our journey was estimated at 18 leagues, in which distance the country afforded no house, hut, nor any place of shelter excepting such as the spreading trees presented. About noon, having then advanced about twenty-three miles, we arrived at a very pleasant and enchanting lawn,

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1792. November.

situated amidst a grove of trees at the foot of a small hill, by which flowed a very fine stream of excellent, water. This delightful pasture was nearly inclosed on every side, and afforded sufficient space for resting of ourselves and baiting our cavalry. The bank which overhung the murmuring brook was well adapted for taking the refreshment which our provident friends had supplied: and with some grog we had brought from the ship, (spirits and wine being scarce articles in this country) we all made a most excellent meal; but it required some resolution to quit so lovely a scene, the beauty of which was greatly heightened by the delightful serenity of the weather. To this, however, after resting about an hour, we were obliged to submit, when a fresh supply of cavalry being selected from the drove of horses, we mounted and pursued our journey.

We had not proceeded far from this delightful spot, when we entered a country I little expected to find in these regions. For about twenty miles it could only be compared to a park, which had originally been closely planted with the true old English oak; the underwood, that had probably attended its early growth, had the appearance of having been cleared away, and had left the stately lords of the forest in complete possession of the soil, which was covered with luxuriant herbage, and beautifully diversified with pleasing eminences and vallies; which, with the range of lofty rugged mountains that bounded the prospect, required only to be adorned with the neat habitations of an industrious people, to produce a scene not inferior to the most studied effect of taste in the disposal of grounds; especially when seen from the port or its confines, the waters of which extend some distance by the side of this country; and though they were not visible to us, I was inclined to believe they approached within about a league of the road we pursued. Our riding was attended with some inconvenience, on account of the fox earths, and burrows of rabbits, squirrels, rats, and other animals; but our surefooted horses avoided every danger, notwithstanding we rode at a brisk rate. Having passed through this imaginary park, we advanced a few miles in an open clear meadow, and arrived in a low swampy country; through which our progress was very slow, the horses being nearly


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1792 November.

Wednes. 21.

knee-deep in mud and water for about six miles. The badness of our road rendered this part of our journey somewhat unpleasant. About dark we reached better ground, and soon after the night closed in, we arrived at the mission of Sta Clara, which according to my estimation is about forty geographical miles from St. Francisco. Our journey, excepting that part of it through the morass, had been very pleasant and entertaining; and our reception at Sta Clara by the hospitable fathers of the mission, was such as excited in every breast the most lively sensations of gratitude and regard. Father Thomas de la Pena appeared to be the principal of the missionaries. The anxious solicitude of this gentleman, and that of his colleague father Joseph Sanchez, to anticipate all our wishes, unequivocally manifested the principles by which their conduct was regulated. Our evening passed very pleasantly, and after a most excellent breakfast the next morning on tea and chocolate, we took a view of the establishment and the adjacent country.

The buildings and offices of this mission, like those of St. Francisco, form a square, but not an intire inclosure. It is situated in an extensive fertile plain, the soil of which, as also that of the surrounding country, is a rich black productive mould, superior to any I had before seen in America. The particular spot which had been selected by the reverend fathers, for their establishment, did not appear so suitable to their purpose as many other parts of the plain within a little distance of their present buildings, which are erected in a low marshy situation for the sake of being near a run of fine water; notwithstanding that within a few hundred yards they might have built their houses on dry and comfortable eminences.

The stream of water passes close by the walls of the fathers apartments, which are upon the same plan with those at St. Francisco; built near, and communicating with the church, but appearing to be more extensive, and to possess in some degree more comforts, or rather less inconveniences, than those already described. The church was long and lofty, and as well built as the rude materials of which it is composed would allow, and when compared with the unimproved state of the country, was infinitely more decorated than might have been reasonably expected.

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1792. November.

Apartments within the square in which the priests resided, were appropriated to a number of young female Indians; and the like reasons were given as at St. Francisco, for their being so selected and educated. Their occupations were the same, though some of their woollen manufactures surpassed those we had before seen, and wanted only the operation of fulling, with which the fathers were unacquainted, to make them very decent blankets. The upper story of their interior oblong square, which might be about one hundred and seventy feet long, and one hundred feet broad, were made use of as granaries, as were some of the lower rooms; all of which were well stored with corn and pulse of different sorts; and beside these, in case of fire, there were two spacious warehouses for the reception of grain, detached from each other, and the rest of the buildings, erected at a convenient distance from the mission. These had been recently finished, contained some stores, and were to be kept constantly full, as a reserve in the event of such a misfortune.

They cultivate wheat, maize, peas and beans; the latter are produced in great variety, and the whole in greater abundance than their necessities require. Of these several sorts they had many thousand bushels in store, of very excellent quality, which had been obtained with little labour, and without manure. By the help of a very mean, and ill contrived plough drawn by oxen, the earth is once slightly turned over, and smoothed down by a harrow; in the month of november or december, the wheat is sown in drills, or broad east on the even surface, and scratched in with the harrow; this is the whole of their system of husbandry, which uniformly produces them in july or august an abundant harvest. The maize, peas, and beans, are produced with as little labour; these are sown in the spring months, and succeed extremely well, as do hemp and flax, or linseed. The wheat affords in general from twenty-five to thirty for one according to the seasons, twenty-five for one being the least return they have ever yet deposited in their granaries from the field; notwithstanding the enormous waste occasioned by their rude method of threshing, which is always performed in the open air by the treading of cattle. The product of the other grains and pulse

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1792. November.

bears a similar proportion to that of the wheat. I was much surprized to find that neither barley nor oats were cultivated; on inquiry I was given to understand, that as the superior kinds of grain could be plentifully obtained with the same labour that the inferior ones would require, they had some time ago declined the cultivation of them. The labours of the field are performed under the immediate inspection of the fathers, by the natives who are instructed in the Roman Catholic faith, and taught the art of husbandry. The annual produce is taken under the care of these worthy pastors, who distribute it in such quantities to the several persons as completely answers all the useful and necessary purposes.

Besides a few acres of arable land, which we saw under cultivation near the mission, was a small spot of garden ground, producing several sorts of vegetables in great perfection and abundance. The extent of it, however, like the garden at St. Francisco, appeared unequal to the consumption of the European residents; the priests, and their guard consisting of a corporal and six soldiers. Here were planted peaches, apricots, apples, pears, figs, and vines, all of which excepting the latter promised to succeed very well. The failure of the vines here, as well as at St. Francisco, is ascribed to a want of knowledge in their culture; the soil and climate being well adapted to most sorts of fruit. Of this we had many evidences in the excellence of its natural unassisted productions. In this country the oak, as timber, appears to take the lead. A tree of this description near the establishment measured fifteen feet in girth, and was high in proportion, but was not considered by the fathers as of extraordinary size; and I am convinced, that on our journey we passed several oaks of greater magnitude. The timber of these trees is reputed to be equal in quality to any produced in Europe. The elm, ash, beech, birch, and some variety of pines, grew in the interior and more elevated parts of the country in the greatest luxuriance and abundance.

Our attention was next called to the village of the Indians near the mission. The habitations were not so regularly disposed, nor did it con-

[page] 21

1792. November.

tain so many, as the village at St. Francisco; yet the same horrid state of uncleanliness and laziness seemed to pervade the whole. A sentiment of companion involuntarily obtruded on the mind in contemplating the natural or habitual apathy to all kind of exertion in this humble race. There was scarcely any sign in their general deportment of their being at all benefited, or of having added one single ray of comfort to their own wretched condition, by the precepts and laborious exertions of their religious instructors; whose lives are sacrificed to their welfare, and seem intirely devoted to the benevolent office of rendering them a better and a happier people. They appeared totally insensible to the benefits with which they were provided, excepting in the article of food; this they now find ready at hand, without the labour of procuring it, or being first reduced by cold and hunger nearly to a state of famine, and then being obliged to expose themselves to great inconvenience in quest of a precarious, and often scanty means of subsistence. Not only grain, but the domestic animals have been introduced with success amongst them; many of the natives have, by the unremitted labour of the fathers, been taught to manufacture very useful and comfortable garments from the wool of their sheep; for the introduction of this animal they ought to be highly grateful, since by the mildness of the climate, and the fertility of the soil, they are easily propagated and reared; and whilst they provide them with comfortable clothing, afford them also nourishing and delicate food. These advantages however seemed to have operated as yet to little purpose on the minds of these untaught children of nature, who appeared to be a compound of stupidity and innocence; their passions are calm; and, regardless of reputation as men, or renown as a people, they are stimulated neither to the obtaining of consequence amongst themselves by any peaceful arts, nor superiority over their neighbours by warlike achievements, so common amongst the generality of the Indian tribes. All the operations and functions both of body and mind, appeared to be carried on with a mechanical, lifeless, careless indifference; and as the Spaniards assert they found them in the same state of inactivity and ignorance on their earliest visits, this disposition is probably inherited from their forefathers.

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1792. November.

Further efforts are now making at this mission, to break through the gloomy cloud of insensibility in which at present these people are inveloped, by giving them new habitations; an indulgence that will most probably be followed by others, as their minds appear capable of receiving them. A certain number of the most intelligent, tractable, and industrious persons, were selected from the group, and were employed in a pleasant and well-adapted spot of land facing the mission, under the direction and instruction of the fathers, in building for themselves a range of small, but comparatively speaking comfortable and convenient habitations. The walls, though not so thick, are constructed in the same manner with those described in the square at St. Francisco, and the houses are formed after the European fashion, each consisting of two commodious rooms below, with garrets over them. At the back of each house a space of ground is inclosed, sufficient for cultivating a large quantity of vegetables, for rearing poultry, and for other useful and domestic purposes. The buildings were in a state of forwardness, and when finished, each house was designed to accommodate one distinct family only; and it is greatly to be wished, for the credit of the rational part of the creation, that this supine race of our fellow creatures may not long remain insensible to, and unconvinced of, the superior advantages they may derive, or the new comforts they may possess, by this alteration in their mode of living. It is by no means improbable, that by this circumstance alone they may be roused from their natural lethargic indifference, and be induced to keep themselves clean, and to exert themselves in obtaining other blessings consequent on civilized society. This once effected, the laborious task of their worthy and charitable benefactors will wear the appearance of being accomplished; and should it be hereafter attended with a grateful sense of the obligations conferred, it is not possible to conceive how much these excellent men will feel rewarded, in having been the cause of meliorating the comfortless condition of these wretched humble creatures.

Our conversation admitted of no pause with these seemingly happy and benevolent priests; whilst we acquired much information we were high-

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1792. November.

ly entertained; and the day was far advanced by the time our curiosity was thus far gratified.

In compliment to our visit, the fathers ordered a feast for the Indians of the village. The principal part of the entertainment was beef, furnished from a certain number of black cattle, which were presented on the occasion to the villagers. These animals propagate very fast, and being suffered to live in large herds on the fertile plains of Sta Clara, in a sort of wild state, some skill and adroitness is required to take them. This office was at first intended to have been performed by the natives, but it was over-ruled by Senr. Paries an ensign in the Spanish army, who, with one of the priests of Senr. Quadra's vessel, had joined our party from a mission at some little distance called Sta Cruz. This gentleman conceived the business of taking the cattle would be better performed by the soldiers, who are occasionally cavalry, and are undoubtedly very good horsemen. We mounted, and accompanied them to the field, to be spectators of their exploits. Each of the soldiers was provided with a strong line, made of horse-hair, or of thongs of leather, or rather hide, with a long running noose this is thrown with great dexterity whilst at full speed, and nearly with a certainty, over the horns of the animal, by two men, one on each side of the ox, at the same instant of time; and having a strong high-peaked pummel to their saddles, each takes a turn round it with the end of the line, and by that means the animal is kept completely at bay, and effectually prevented from doing either the men or horses any injury, which they would be very liable to, from the wildness and ferocity of the cattle. In this situation the beast is led to the place of slaughter, where a third person, with equal dexterity, whilst the animal is kicking and plunging between the horses, entangles its hind legs by a rope, and throws it down, on which its throat is immediately cut. Twenty-two bullocks, each weighing from four to six hundred weight, were killed on this occasion: eighteen were given to the inhabitants of the village, and the rest were appropriated to the use of the soldiers, and the mission, in addition to their regular weekly allowance of twenty-four oxen, which are killed for their service every saturday: hence it is evident, as the whole of their


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1792. November.

stock has sprung from fifteen head of breeding cattle, which were distributed between this and two other missions, established about the year 1778: that these animals must be very prolific to allow of such an abundant supply. Their great increase in so short a time is to be ascribed to the rigid œconomy of the fathers, who would not allow any to be killed, until they had so multiplied as to render their extirpation not easy to be effected. The same wife management has been observed with their sheep, and their horses have increased nearly at the same rate.

Although this village did not appear so populous as that at St. Francisco, I was given to understand that there were nearly double the number of inhabitants belonging to it; and that in consequence of the many unconverted natives in the neighbourhood of Sta Clara, several of the Christian Indians of good character were dispersed amongst their countrymen, for the purpose of inducing them to partake of the advantages held out to them, in which they had not been altogether unsuccessful. All who have offered themselves as converts have been admitted and adopted, notwithstanding the artifices of several, who have remained in and about the mission until they have acquired a stock of food and clothing, with which they have decamped. This improper conduct has however had no sort of effect on the benevolent minds of the fathers, who have not only uniformly supplied their wants on a second visit, but also those of many wandering tribes that would be at the trouble of asking their assistance.

Thursday 22.

Thus concluded our morning's entertainment, and we retired to dinner. In the convent a most excellent and abundant repast of the productions of the country was provided, which were in the greatest perfection. The day passed to the mutual satisfaction of all parties, and we found ourselves under some difficulty the next morning to excuse ourselves from accepting the pressing solicitations of these good people, to prolong our stay at Sta Clara; this, however, necessity and not inclination obliged us to decline. We took our leave at an early hour, highly gratified by our reception and entertainment; which had amply compensated for the fatigue or inconvenience attending so long a journey, performed in a way to which we were so little accustomed.

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1792. November.

The mission of Sta Clara is situated at the extremity of the S.E. branch of port St. Francisco, which terminates in a shallow rivulet extending some distance into the country, from whence, and the confines of the port in its vicinity, Sta Clara is well supplied with a variety of excellent fish.

To the eastward at the distance of about 5 leagues, near the sea coast, or rather on the borders of the bay of Monterrey, is the mission of Sta Cruz, very recently established; and like those before described governed by three fathers of the order of St. Francisco, and protected by a corporal and six soldiers. As this establishment was in its infancy I much wished to have seen it, but as my leisure would not admit of extending our excursion, we lost no time in proceeding to the ships. Our road back was over a more elevated country than that of the morass, leading through a continuation of the forest of oaks, but greatly inconvenienced by the many holes in the ground before noticed; and our good friend and guide the sergeant, apprehending that the approach of night might make us liable to accident, was induced to conduct us through a lower country, which he did not suspect to be so wet and unpleasant as we afterwards found it. We were however very fortunate in point of weather, which during our three days excursion was very mild, serene, and pleasant; and on our arrival at the ship in the evening, I had the pleasure to find the Chatham near us at anchor.

Friday 23.

From Mr. Broughton I had the additional happiness of understanding that all were well on board; and that during the time of our separation he had been employed in prosecuting the examination of the river Columbia, which was found to extend further than we had supposed. The particulars of this survey, together with those of Mr. Whidbey's examination, whom we expected to meet, at Monterrey, and such information respecting a cluster of islands seen by the late Lieutenant Hergest as could be gained from his log-book and papers, I shall postpone for future consideration and recital.

The arrival of the Chatham in some measure hastened our departure. Having by a very tedious process completed our stock of water, and taken on board a small quantity of fire wood, every thing was


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1792. November.

Saturday 24.

received from the shore, and the vessels unmoored the next morning in order to put to sea; but the wind and tide proving unfavorable we remained at anchor during the day. I therefore employed this interval in noticing the following circumstances, which occurred after our return from ta Clara.

The average price of the large cattle at this port on my arrival, I understood to be six Spanish dollars each; the sheep, in proportion. Having received as many of these as were wanted for the use of both vessels, with some vegetables, poultry, &c. I presented Senr. Sal with the amount of their value, as our supply had been principally procured from him. Much to my surprize, he declined accepting the money in payment; and at length acquainted me, that he had been strictly enjoined by Senr. Quadra, on no pretence whatever to accept any pecuniary recompence from me; as every thing of that nature would be fettled by himself on our meeting at Monterrey. These injunctions from Senr. Quadra removed my difficulties, as I should ill have known how to have requited such generosity, or to have accepted such obligations, from persons who, in every respect excepting that of food, had the appearance of poverty, and of being much pressed for the most common conveniences of life.

My late excursion into the country had convinced me, that although its productions, in its present state, afforded the inhabitants an abundant supply of every essential requisite for human subsistence, yet the people were nearly destitute of those articles which alone can render the essentials of life capable of being relished or enjoyed. On this occasion I experienced no small gratification, in being able to relieve their wants by the distribution of a few necessary articles and implements, culinary and table utensils, some bar iron, with a few ornaments for the decoration of their churches; to which I added one hogshead of wine, and another of rum; and consigned the whole to the care of Senr. Sal, with a request that an equal distribution should be made between the Presidio and the missions of St. Francisco and Sta Clara. This was punctually attended to, and I had the satisfaction of finding the several articles were received as very acceptable presents.

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1792. November.

The inclemency of the weather, and the short stay I purposed to make on our arrival in this port, prevented my erecting the observatory on shore; sufficient observations were however procured for ascertaining its latitude to be 37° 48′ 30″, and its longitude 237° 52′ 30″. The variation of the compass, by six sets of azimuths, varying from 12° 2′ to 13° 32′, gave the mean of 12° 48′ eastwardly.

Sunday 25.

The morning of the 25th brought a fresh breeze against us from the N.W.; but being prepared to depart, and having a strong ebb tide in our favor, we turned out of the port against a very disagreeable irregular sea, produced by the opposing elements. After entering the channel leading out, foundings could not be gained with the hand-line until we were about two miles to the south-westward of the S.E. point of entrance, when we suddenly arrived in 10, 7, and 6 fathoms water. In this situation we were about 2 miles to the south of our former track, when going into the port; where, in 5 fathoms water, the same disagreeable agitation of the sea was experienced: hence I concluded that it was occasioned by a bank, or bar, at the distance of near four miles from the port, extending right across its entrance. This bar we soon passed over, and again lost foundings with the hand-line. At noon our observed latitude was 36° 53′; the outer points of the entrance into the port of St. Francisco bore by compass N. 10 E. and N. 28 E.; and the extremes of the coast in sight, from N.W. to S. 28 E.; along which our course was directed southerly at a little distance from the shore, towards Monterrey.

Thus we quitted St. Francisco, highly indebted to our hospitable reception, and the excellent refreshments, which in a few clays had intirely eradicated every apparent symptom of the scurvy.

My engagements in the country on my first arrival, and my haste to depart from St. Francisco on the arrival of the Chatham, prevented me from obtaining any precise information respecting the port; every thing, however, that we were able to notice tended to confirm the original opinion, that it was as fine a port as the world affords; sailing only in the convenience of obtaining wood and water. It is however probable,

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1792. November.

that, on due examination, these essential articles might be obtained with less difficulty than we experienced. So far as we became acquainted with its foundings, they appeared regular and good; the bottom excellent holding ground; and though we passed over some that was hard in going from our first anchorage to the other, it was not in a situation where vessels are likely to remain stationary; nor do I consider the bank or bar without as any detriment to the port, though an unpleasant sensation is frequently occasioned in passing over it. I have however been given to understand, that the port is not much in repute with the maritime Spaniards, on account of the strength of its tides; this disapprobation is easily accounted for, when the manner of securing their vessels is considered. This is done invariably by mooring them head and stern, with many anchors and cables; never less than four, and seldom less than six; a very injudicious method when under the influence of rapid and irregular tides. The tides, however, at St. Francisco, to persons unaccustomed to navigate in tidesways, may be an objection; but to those who know how to benefit by their stream they are amongst its greatest advantages, since the prevailing winds are from the westward, frequently continue many days together, and blow directly into the port, which would render its egress difficult at those times without the assistance of the ebb tide; which, in the stream of the port, takes, I believe, a regular course with the flood, nearly six hours each way, and is high water about 11h 24′ after the moon passes the meridian: though in the place where we anchored, and particularly at the last, the tides were very irregular; nor could we form any true judgment of their rise and fall, which appeared to be very inconsiderable. Our first place of anchorage possesses many advantages, superior to those we found at the second. The tides are there infinitely the most regular, and notwithstanding the bank of mud prevented our landing in some places, it does not extend all round the cove; for its south-western part is a steep shore, and might easily be made commodious for obtaining fuel and water; the latter is very good, and there is an abundance of the former immediately in its vicinity. The anchorage is more secure, by

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1792. November.

being completely land-locked, and further removed from the ocean. Independently of these places of safety, there is every reason to conclude that the northern parts of this extensive port would afford many situations preferable to either.

With a fresh gale from the N.W. we made great progress to the southward along the sea-coast; having the range of mountains which were to the right of us in our journey to Sta Clara, now on our left hand, and presenting us a very different aspect. Their western side, exposed to all the violence and changes of an oceanic climate, was nearly destitute of wood or verdure; some grovelling shrubs were scattered in the vallies, and some dwarf solitary trees were seen on the sides of the mountains, which had in general a very naked and barren appearance.

Wishing to delineate the coast, which we found to extend nearly S. 14 E., from the entrance of St. Francisco, we plied during the night; and the next morning shewed our situation to be off the entrance of the bay of Monterrey, where we were becalmed until noon, when a pleasant breeze from the westward allowed us to steer for the center or bottom of the bay, whose shores were chiefly composed of low compact land; but in this point of view, the more southern and western parts of them seemed to be very much elevated, and bore the appearance of being insular. As we steered along, I was in constant expectation of finding a proper place of anchorage, which was not discovered until four in the afternoon, by making the signal I had settled with Senr. Quadra, which was immediately answered from the presidio. Our anchorage was directed to be nearly under the high land before mentioned, on the southern side of the bay. About seven in the evening Mr. Whidbey came on board from the Dædalus, which vessel had arrived, all well, on the 22d, after having completed the service on which she had been employed. Soon after we were met by some Spanish boats, sent by Senr. Quadra to our assistance; and in about an hour we were safely moored with our anchors to the N.W. and S.E.; the latter lying in 9 fathoms water, good holding ground. Our distance from the nearest or S.W. shore about a quarter of a mile; the points of the bay bore


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1792. November.

by compass N. 45 W. and N. 52 W.; the former point, Anno Nuevo, distant 7 or 8 leagues; the latter, called point Pinos, was about a mile off.

On our arrival we found here at anchor, besides the Dædalus, the following vessels belonging to the crown of Spain; the brig Active, on board of which was Senr. Quadra's broad pendant, the Aransasu, and a schooner.

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Transactions at Monterrey—Description of the mission of St. Carlos—Departure of the Dædalus for port Jackson—Situation and description of Monterrey bay—Account of the Presidio—Generous conduct of Senr. Quadra—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1792. November.

Tuesday 26.

Wednes. 27.

HAVING arrived in the famous port of Monterrey (so distinguished by the Spaniards.) I waited on Senr. Quadra, who had taken up his residence at the governor's house in the presidio. After the usual compliments had passed, and I had received repeated assurances of friendship and hospitality, I returned on board, and at sun-rise the next morning the presidio was saluted with thirteen guns; which being equally returned, the topsails were hoisted, and Senr. Quadra's broad pendant saluted with the same number. After receiving the return of this compliment, Senr. Quadra, accompanied by the acting governor Senr., Arguello, with Senr. Caamano, and several Spanish officers, returned my visit, all of whom were received on board the Discovery and Chatham with such marks of respect and ceremony as were due to their rank and situation. When these formalities were over, I accompanied Senr. Quadra on shore to partake the entertainment of his hospitable table.

In the course of conversation Senr. Quadra informed me, that on his arrival in this port from Nootka, he found orders directing him to capture all vessels he should find engaged in commercial pursuits on this coast, from these presidios northward, to the extent where the general traffic is carried on; excepting the vessels belonging to the people of Great Britain, who were to proceed without the least interruption or molestation. These orders from the court of Spain induced us both to

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1792. November.

believe that our respective sovereigns had adjusted, and finally concluded, every arrangement with respect to the territories at Nootka.

This information appeared to me of a very important nature, and in the event of my being able to procure a passage to England for an officer through New Spain, would induce me to relinquish the design I had meditated of sending the Chatham home this season for the purpose of conveying such intelligence as I had now the power of communicating. Although I might have been materially incommoded by the absence of our little consort in the further prosecution of my voyage, yet the informing of Government how far I had been able at this time to carry His Majesty's commands into execution, appeared to me so absolutely indispensable, that I had determined to submit to any inconvenience rather than omit so essential a part of my duty; especially, as in addition to our own exertions during the preceding summer, I had obtained the possession of all the charts of the Spanish discoveries to the northward of our own researches.

These surveys, together with an account of our transactions at Nootka, and other information I had acquired respecting these countries, I considered of a nature too important to withhold; as it was only by such a communication that any just or reasonable conclusion could be drawn, either in respect of the national advantages which were likely to result from a further prosecution of commercial pursuits in these regions, or of the most proper situations for the purpose of forming permanent establishments on the coast, to protect and facilitate the trade if carried further into execution. This intelligence on which the accomplishment of one of the principal objects of our voyage might depend, together with my other dispatches, I proposed to intrust to the care of Lieutenant Broughton the commander of the Chatham, who had been privy to the whole of my transactions with Senr. Quadra at Nootka; and whose abilities and observations would enable him, on his arrival in England, to satisfy the Board of Admiralty on many points of inquiry, for which it was impossible I could provide in my dispatches. On this occasion I requested of Senr. Quadra, if it were compatible with his inclination and the disposition of the Spanish court, that Mr. Broughton should be

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permitted to take his passage by the way of New Spain to England. To this Senr. Quadra, without the least hesitation, and in the most friendly manner replied, that Mr. Broughton might accompany him to St. Blas, where he would supply him with money, and every other requisite in his power, which could contribute to render his laborious journey across the continent of America as pleasant as could be expected from the nature of the undertaking. At so obliging and generous an offer I testified every sentiment I was capable of expressing; and used my utmost endeavors that no time should be lost in preparing for Mr. Broughton's departure, since on that depended not only the sailing of ourselves, but the departure of Senr. Quadra and the vessels under his orders.

Wednes. 28.

After having obtained permission, the observatories and tents were sent on shore; and on wednesday I began to make the observations which were necessarily required.

The decks of the Discovery, in consequence of the late inclement weather, were found to be excessively leaky, and to require caulking; many of the sails wanted material repair: these, with various other services, were put in a train of execution. On board the Chatham all were busily employed, particularly in recruiting their stock of provisions; as, in consequence of my former intention, no more had been received on board than would be absolutely necessary for her passage home; it now however became requisite that both vessels should receive from the Dædalus as large a proportion of stores, provisions, &c. as each was capable of stowing.


Sunday 2.

Having given proper directions for carrying these several services into effect, on sunday the 2d of December, in consequence of a very polite invitation, I paid my respects to the mission of St. Carlos, accompanied by Senr. Quadra, Senr. Arguella, Senr. Caamano, Mr. Broughton, and several other English and Spanish officers.

This establishment is situated about a league to the south-eastward of the presidio of Monterrey. The road between them lies over some steep hills and hollow vallies, interspersed with many trees; the surface was covered over with an agreeable verdure; the general character of the country was lively, and our journey altogether was very pleasant.


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1792. December.

Our reception at the mission could not sail to convince us of the joy and satisfaction we communicated to the worthy and reverend fathers, who in return made the most hospitable offers of every refreshment their homely abode afforded. On our arrival at the entrance of the mission the bells were rung, and the Rev. Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, father president of the missionaries of the order of St. Francisco in New Albion, together with the fathers of this mission, came out to meet us, and conduct us to the principal residence of the father president. This personage was about seventy-two years of age, whole gentle manners, united to a most venerable and placid countenance, indicated that tranquillized state of mind, that fitted him in an eminent degree for presiding over so benevolent an institution.

The usual ceremonies on introduction being over, our time was pleasantly engaged in the society of the father president and his two companions, the priests regularly belonging to the mission of St. Carlos, who attended us over their premises. These seemed to differ but little from those at St. Francisco, or Sta Clara; excepting that the buildings were smaller, the plan, architecture, and materials exactly corresponding.

In their granaries were deposited a pretty large quantity of the different kinds of grain before noticed at the other establishments, to which was added some barley, but the whole was of an inferior quality, and the return from the soil by no means equal to that produced at Sta Clara. Here also was a small garden on the same confined scale, and cultivated in the same manner as observed at the other stations.

An Indian village is also in the neighbourhood; it appeared to us but small, yet the number of its inhabitants under the immediate direction of this mission was said to amount to eight hundred, governed by the same charitable principles as those we had before visited. Notwithstanding these people are taught and employed from time to time in many of the occupations most useful to civil society, they had not made themselves any more comfortable habitations than those of their forefathers; nor did they seem in any respect to have benefited by the instruction they had received. Some of them were at this time engaged under the direction

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1792. December.

of the fathers, in building a church with stone and mortar. The former material appeared to be of a very tender friable nature, scarcely more hard than indurated clay; but I was told, that on its being exposed to the air, it soon becomes hardened, and is an excellent stone for the purpose of building. It is of a light straw colour, and presents a rich and elegant appearance, in proportion to the labour that, is bestowed upon it. It is found in abundance at no great depth from the surface of the earth; the quarries are easily worked, and it is I believe the only stone the Spaniards have hitherto made use of in building. At Sta Clara I was shewn a ponderous black stone, that father Thomas said was intended to be so appropriated as soon as persons capable of working it could be procured. The lime they use is made from sea shells, principally from the ear shell, which is of a large size and in great numbers on the shores; not having as yet found any calcareous earth that would answer this essential purpose. The heavy black store is supposed to be applicable to grinding, and should it be found so to answer, it will be a matter of great importance to their comfort, since their only method of reducing their corn to flour is by two small stones placed in an inclined position on the ground; on the lower one the corn is laid, and ground by hand by rubbing the other stone nearly of the same surface over it. The flour produced by this rude and laborious process makes very white and well tasted, though heavy bread, but this defect is said by the Spaniards to be greatly remedied when mixed with an equal proportion of flour properly ground.

After we had satisfied our curiosity in these particulars we rode round the neighbourhood of the mission. It was pleasantly situated, and the country, agreeably broken by hills and vallies, had a verdant appearance, and was adorned like that in the vicinity of Monterrey, with many clumps and single trees, mostly of the pine tribe, holly-leaved oak, and willows; with a few trees of the poplar and maple, and some variety of shrubs, that rather incommoded our travelling, which was chiefly confined to one of the vallies, and within sight of the buildings. Through this valley a small brook of water about knee-deep, called by the Spaniards Rio Carmelo, takes its course, passes the buildings of the mission, and immediately empties itself into the sea.

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1792. December.

In this valley, near the sides of the Carmelo, a few acres of land exhibited a tolerably good plant of wheat; but as the soil here, as well as at Monterrey, is of a light sandy nature, its productions are consequently inferior to the other two missions I had visited; yet I was given to understand, that the interior country here, like that at St. Francisco, improves in point of fertility, as it retires from the ocean.

On our return to the convent, we found a most excellent repast served with great neatness, in a pleasant bower constructed for that purpose in the garden of the mission. After dinner we were entertained with the methods practised by the Indians in taking deer, and other animals, by irritating them. They equip themselves in a dress consisting of the head and hide of the creature they mean to take; with this, when properly put on and adjusted, they resort to the place where the game is expected, and there walk about on their hands and feet, counterfeiting all the actions of the animal they are in quest of; these they perform remarkably well, particularly in the watchfulness and the manner in which deer feeds. By these means they can, nearly to a certainty, get within two or three yards of the deer, when they take an opportunity of its attention being directed to some other object, and discharge their arrows from their secreted bow, which is done in a very stooping attitude; and the first or second seldom fails to be fatal. The whole was so extremely well contrived and executed, that I am convinced a stranger would not easily have discovered the deception.

Monday 3.

In the evening I returned on board, and was the next day honored with the company of most of the party to dinner; including Senra. Arguello, the governor's wife, and some other ladies of the presidio; but the motion of the ship, though very inconsiderable, greatly to my disappointment obliged the ladies, and indeed some of the gentlemen, very soon to retire.

The various employments which constantly engaged my time when on board, joined to my attendance on the observatory on shore, left me but little leisure to indulge either in exercise, or social entertainment; nor was it without much difficulty, that I now and then snatched a few

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hours of relaxation, to partake of the society of our attentive and hospitable friends.

Sunday 9.

It was not until the 9th that my arrangements permitted me to make another short excursion with Senr. Quadra and our numerous friends, to dine at the garden of the presidio. This spot might contain about four acres of land, situated in a valley about a league to the eastward of the presidio. Its soil, like the generality in this neighbourhood, when compared with that of Sta Clara, could be considered only as indifferently good; it is however greatly benefited by a fine stream of water that runs close past it, and enables the gardener to keep it properly moist in dry weather, and in the rainy season of december, january, and february, prevents its being floated. With these advantages it generally produces a great abundance of the several kitchen vegetables, with some fruit; but in consequence of the many vessels, that have been employed on the coast of North West America this season, resorting hither for refreshments, both on their passage from and on their return to St. Blas, the productions of this and the only other garden at St. Carlos were nearly exhausted. Were a little labour however bestowed on the cultivation of an additional space for this essential purpose, a scarcity would not be likely to happen; as the soil seems well adapted to horti-culture, and the climate produces a perpetual spring. Of this we had manifest proof by seeing peas, beans, lettuces, cabbages, and various other esculent plants, some springing from the ground, and some in perfection, whilst others had produced their feed or were fallen to decay.

This garden, though situated at a pleasant distance for an excursion, was not provided with any fixed accommodation for visitors. The only places of shelter near it, (for they could scarcely be called houses) were a few miserable mud huts, the residence of the gardener, and a few soldiers who are stationed there for its protection. This deficiency afforded to Senr. Paries a second opportunity of exercising his genius, in the construction of another temporary bower for our reception, similar to that which he had erected in the garden of the mission at St. Carlos. In both he had succeeded much to the approbation of all his friends,


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1792. December.

who had greatly profited by his kind solicitude for their comfort and happiness.

Few objects or circumstances occurred in the course of this excursion worthy of notice. The surrounding country consisted chiefly of a sandy heath, overgrown with a naturally impassable thicket of shrubs about four or five feet high, which afforded an excellent cover for deer, foxes, hares, rabbits, quails, &c. some of which we saw in passing along the roads cut through it.

Monday 10.

The late inconvenience experienced by some of my visitors, in consequence of the ship's motion, became a subject of our conversation; and as this was impossible to be provided against, I solicited the honor of my Spanish friends company at our encampment on shore. This accordingly took place the following day, when I was gratified with the presence of most of the ladies, as well as the gentlemen, at dinner. A display of fire works was exhibited in the evening. These, still remaining in excellent preservation, afforded a very high degree of satisfaction, not only to our visitors, but their dependants of every description; the whole of whom in the neighbourhood, with a great number of Indians, were assembled on this occasion, and most probably partook of an entertainment to which most of them were before intire strangers. The evening was concluded by a dance and supper, which was not ended until a late hour.

Wednes. 12.

The Dædalus having delivered such provisions and stores as could be taken on board the Discovery, and Chatham, on wednesday her hold was restowed, and our carpenters were employed in fitting up commodious stalls on board of her, for the reception of live cattle; Senr. Quadra having, with his accustomed politeness and liberality, offered me any number of those animals, with such other productions of the country as I might judge to be necessary, for the service of His Majesty's infant colony in New South Wales. Twelve cows, with six bulls, and the like number of ewes and rams, were received on board the Dædalus on the 24th; but the ship was detained until a sufficient quantity of provender for their maintenance could be procured. The country, at this season affording but a scanty supply, furnished employment for almost all

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1792. December.

Saturday 29.

our people in cutting it wherever it could be found. Water also was not very easily obtained, since it could only be had in small quantities at a time, from a number of shallow wells dug by ourselves. It was however extremely good, and might have been procured in any quantity with little labour, by finking wells of a proper construction to a moderate depth; notwithstanding this, the Spaniards are content to take on board, for their common use at sea, water of a very inferior quality, because it is procured without any trouble. That which is drunk at the table of the officers is however very fine water, and is brought in carts from the river Carmelo. But to return; these several employments prevented the sailing of the Dædalus until the 29th, when she departed with the cattle in very high condition.

On this occasion Lieutenant James Hanson received from me his orders to proceed to New South Wales; to call at Hergest's islands, in his way thither, for a supply of water and food for the cattle, and any refreshments for the crew that could be procured: passing thence to the north of all the low islands, to proceed to Otaheite; from Otaheite to New Zealand; and from thence to port Jackson; where I was particularly anxious the Dædalus should arrive as soon as possible, because the cattle, sheep, &c. in the event of their being preserved, could not sail to be a very valuable acquisition to that country. Beside these, it was by no means improbable that Mr. Hanson might be enabled to procure a considerable number of hogs and fowls, at the several islands he might touch at: these I also conceived would be highly acceptable at port Jackson, and he had my directions to use his discretion in thus appropriating such articles of traffic consigned to me, as yet remained on board the Dædalus.

His visit to Otaheite had another object beside that of procuring refreshments, which was, to receive on board twenty-one English seamen who had been east away in the ship Matilda, of London, on the 25th of february, 1792, on a ledge of rocks, not within sight of any land, and said to be situated in latitude 22° south, and longitude 138° 30′ west. After this unfortunate accident the crew returned in their boats, to Otaheite; from whence, six days before, they had departed in the ship. From

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1792. December.

Otaheite, the second mate and two of the sailors had, in one of their open whale boats, proceeded towards New South Wales. The rest of the crew remained on the island, excepting Mr. Matthew Weatherhead the commander of the vessel, who, with two men and two boys, had taken their passage from Otaheite on board the Jenny of Bristol; and on their arrival at Nootka, Senr. Quadra not only provided Mr. Weatherhead with a passage towards England through New Spain, but benevolently furnished him with a sum of money to defray his expences through a country where the inhabitants would necessarily be strangers to himself and all his connections.

The misfortune of this shipwreck appeared to have been attended with very unpleasant consequences to our friends at Otaheite. The few valuable articles which these unfortunate people had been able to save from the wreck, instead of having been secured and properly taken care of, had been indiscriminately dispersed, or left to the disposal of the natives. This had produced a jealousy between the chiefs of Matavai and those of Oparre; and on their disagreement concerning the division of the spoil, some of the Englishmen had sided with the chiefs of the one party, whilst others had taken up the cause of the other. A war was the necessary consequence between the two districts, which had terminated very disastrously for Matavai. Nearly the whole of that beautiful district had been laid waste, their houses burnt down, and their fruit-trees torn up by the roots, and otherways destroyed. This was the sum of what I was able to learn; but the very confused and incoherent detail that was given me of all these transactions, prevented my acquiring any satisfactory information on this melancholy event.

Having now positively determined on the mode to be pursued in the execution of the remaining objects of our voyage, I requested Commodore Phillips would, at port Jackson, complete the cargo of the Dædalus to a year's provisions of all species, and such stores as I judged would be necessary for the Discovery and Chatham; and to forward them by this vessel to me at Nootka, where her commander should find

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1792. December.

sufficient instructions for the regulation of his conduct, should he arrive there in my absence.

I communicated to Commodore Phillips the few discoveries we had made in the south pacific ocean, and transmitted him a copy of my survey of that part of the south-west coast of New Holland, which we had visited.

We had, by this time, procured such observations as were necessary for determining the situation of this place, as likewise for ascertaining the rate of the chronometers, and for correcting my survey of the coast of New Albion, southward, from cape Mendocino to this Bay. These several matters, owing to the very unfavorable passage we had had from Nootka, not being yet intirely completed, produced a longer delay at Monterrey than I could have wished; not only, because I was anxious that our time should be otherways employed, but also, that Senr. Quadra's departure should not be postponed on our account. I was, however, in some degree reconciled to his detention, by the repeated friendly assurances he gave me, that his time was mine, earnestly requesting that I would not hesitate so to employ it, as to make my dispatches as complete as I might on the present occasion deem it expedient.

Every hour was therefore dedicated to this purpose, which necessarily precluded me from making more than a few cursory remarks on Monterrey. These, with the astronomical and nautical observations that were made on shore at the observatory, will conclude this chapter.

This famous Bay is situated between point Pinos and point Anno Nuevo, lying from each other N. 72 W. and S. 27 E., 22 miles apart. Between these points, this spacious but very open Bay is formed, by the coast falling back from the line of the two points, nearly 4 leagues. The only part of it that is at all eligible for anchoring, is near its south extremity, about a league south-eastward from point Pinos; where the shores form a fort of cove, that affords clear good riding, with toleable shelter for a few vessels. These, for their necessary protection from the sea, must lie at no very great distance from the south-west shore; where, either at night or in the morning, the prevailing wind from the land admits the sailing of vessels out of the bay, which otherways


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1792. December.

would be a tedious tack, by the opposition of the winds along the coast which generally blow between the N.W. and N.N.W. TO these points of the compass this anchorage is wholly exposed; but as the oceanic swell is broken by the. land of point Pinos, and as these winds, which prevail only in the day time, seldom blow stronger than a moderate gale, the anchorage is rendered tolerably safe and convenient; and notwithstanding these north-westerly winds are common throughout most part of the year, I have not heard of an instance of their being so violent as to affect the safety of vessels tolerably well found with anchors and cables. The foundings, are regular from 30 to 4 fathoms; the bottom, a mixture of sand and mud; and the shores are sufficiently steep for all the purposes of navigation, without shoals or other impediments. Near point Anno Nuevo are some small rocks, detached from the coast at a very little distance; the shores of point Pinos are also rocky, and have some detached rocks lying at a small distance from them, but which do not extend so far into the ocean as to be dangerous. The rocky shores of point Pinos terminate just to the south of the anchoring place, where a fine sandy beach commences, which extends, I believe, all round the bay to point Anno Nuevo. In a direction N. 42 E., at the distance of 4 leagues from point Pinos, is what the Spaniards call Monterrey river; which, like the river Carmelo, is no more than a very shallow brook of fresh water, that empties itself into that part of the bay. Here a small guard of Spanish soldiers are generally posted, who reside on the spot in miserably wretched huts. Near point Anno Nuevo is another of these rivers, something less than, the other, in whose neighbourhood the mission of Sta Cruz is planted. Such are the rivulets to which the Spaniards in their representation of this country, as well by their writings as their charts, have given the appellation of Rivers, and delineated them as spacious and extensive.

The anchorage already described, is the only situation in the Bay where vessels can ride with any degree of safety or convenience. In its neighbourhood is the Spanish establishment. The presidio is about three quarters of a mile to the southward of the spot, where the sandy beach

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1792. December.

before mentioned commences. This is the landing place, where they have erected a mod wretched kind of house, which they call a store-house, serving for that purpose, and for the reception of a guard of soldiers generally posted there.

The presidio, like that of St. Francisco, is situated in an open clear plain, a little elevated above the level of the sea; the space, between the presidio and the landing place, is very low swampy ground. The former does not appear to be much benefited by its vicinity to fresh water, since in the dry season it must be brought from a considerable distance, as the Spaniards had not been at the pains of finking wells to insure a permanent supply. There were many delightful situations in the immediate neighbourhood of the presidio, with great diversity in the ground to favor the taste of the ingenious, and a soil that would amply reward the labour of the industrious, in which our Spanish friend; might with equal case have fat themselves down; more comfortable, more convenient, and I should conceive more salutary than their present residence appeared to be.

The most important of all blessings, health, is here treated with great indifference; since not only the climate of Monterrey, but the whole of the surrounding country, has the reputation of being as healthy as any part of the known world. Other objects of a secondary nature, such as the place of their abode, convenience, or comfort, have no greater influence on their consideration, as the present presidio is the identical one that was built on the first establishment of this port in the year 1770, without having undergone the least improvement or alteration since that period. The buildings of the presidio form a parallelogram or long square, comprehending an area of about three hundred yards long, by two hundred and fifty yards wide, making one intire inclosure. The external wall is of the same magnitude, and built with the same materials; and except that the officers apartments are covered in with a sort of red tile made in the neighbourhood, the whole presents the same lonely uninteresting appearance, as that already described at St. Francisco. Like that establishment, the several buildings for the use of the officers, soldiers, &c. and for the protection of stores and pro-

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1792. December.

visions, are erected along the walls on the inside of the inclosure, which admits of but one entrance for carriages or persons on horseback; this, as at St. Francisco, is on the fide of the square fronting the church, which was rebuilding with stone like that at St. Carlos. Besides the principal gateway, they have small doors that communicate with the country, nearly in the middle of the side walls, to the right and left of the entrance. One of these, on the right hand, is through the apartments of the commanding officer. These are much more extensive than those at St. Francisco, as they consist of five or six spacious rooms with boarded floors, but under the same disadvantage of wanting glass, or any substitute for it. The window places are open, and only on that side of the houses which looks into the area; as no apertures, I believe, are allowed to be made in the grand wall of the inclosure, excepting for the doors; which are those already mentioned; with one at each of the officer's houses contiguous to the governor's, and one other on the opposite side. These are all the apertures in the wall, which when seen at a distance has the appearance of a place of confinement. At each corner of the square is a small kind of block house, railed a little above the top of the wall, where swivels might be mounted for its protection. On the outside, before the entrance into the presidio, which fronts the shores of the bay, are placed seven canon, four nine and three three-pounders, mounted; these, with those noticed at St. Francisco, one two-pounder at Sta Clara, and four nine-pounders dismounted, form the whole of their artillery. These guns are planted on the open plain ground, without any breast work or other screen for those employed in working them, or the least cover or protection from the weather. Such, I was informed, was also the defenceless state of all the new settlements on the coast, not excepting St. Diego, which from its situation should seem to be a post of no small importance.

The four dismounted cannon, together with those placed at the entrance into the presidio, are intended for a fort to be built on a small eminence that commands the anchorage. A large quantity of timber is at present in readiness for carrying that design into execution; which, when completed, might certainly be capable of annoying vessels lying in


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1792. December.

that part of the Bay which affords the greatest security, but could not be of any importance after a landing was accomplished; as the hills behind it might be easily gained, from whence the assailing party would soon oblige the fort to surrender; nor do I consider Monterrey to be a very tenable post without an extensive line of works.

The presidio is the residence of the governor of the province, whose command extends from St. Francisco, southward along the exterior shore, to cape St. Lucas; and on the eastern side of the peninsula of California, up that gulph to the bay of St. Louis. The rank in the Spanish service, required as a qualification to hold this extensive command, is that of lieutenant colonel. Whether the governor interfered in the common garrison duty I know not. A lieutenant and ensign, sergeants, corporals, &c. resided also in the presidio; the establishment of which I understood was similar to all the rest in the province, but was then incomplete in consequence of the recent death of the late commandant. By this event, Lieutenant Arguello, properly the commander at St. Francisco, as being the senior officer, had taken upon him the government, and had sent the alserez, or ensign, Senr. Sal, to command at St. Francisco; which posts we understood they were severally to retain, until another lieutenant colonel should be appointed to the government.

By what I was able to learn, I did not consider the number of soldiers who composed the garrison as exceeding one hundred, including the non-commissioned officers. From this body detachments are drawn for the protection of the neighbouring missions; the remainder, with their wives and families, reside within the walls of the presidio, without seeming to have the least desire for a more rural habitation; where garden ground and many other comforts might easily be procured, at no great distance from the feat of the establishment. This seemed to be composed intirely of military people, at least we did not see amongst them those of any other description. The few most necessary mechanical employments were carried on in an indifferent manner by some of the soldiers, under permission of the commanding officer.

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1792. December.

I must now for the present quit the interesting subject of these establishments; in which we unexpectedly not only found an asylum, and pleasant retreat from the vicissitudes and labours of our voyage, but the gratification of social intercourse with a set of liberal-minded, generous people, each of whom endeavoured to surpass the other in manifesting an interest for our welfare, and expressing on every occasion the happiness they felt, in relieving our wants or rendering us any kind of service. Their friendly and hospitable behaviour daily proved the sincerity of their professions, by making our residence whilst amongst them, as comfortable and agreeable as their circumstances would permit.

With the most grateful recollection of the attentive civilities, disinterested kindnesses, and benevolent assistance received at the hands of intire strangers, I should very insufficiently requite their goodness, or comply with the dictates of my heart, were I to omit the opportunity which now presents itself of making this, though rude and unpolished, yet grateful record, of the weighty obligations I shall for ever feel to have been conferred upon us on this occasion.

The well-known generosity of my other Spanish friends, will, I trust, pardon the warmth of expression with which I must ever advert to the conduct of Senr. Quadra; who, regardless of the difference in opinion that had arisen between us in our diplomatic capacities at Nootka, had uniformly maintained towards us a character infinitely beyond the reach of my powers of encomium to describe. His benevolence was not confined to the common rights of hospitality, but was extended to all occasions, and was exercised in every instance, where His Majesty's service, combined with my commission, was in the least concerned.

To Senr. Quadra we were greatly indebted, for waiting our arrival at Monterrey, for the friendly and hospitable reception we experienced, and afterwards for remaining there for the sole purpose of affording me an opportunity of transmitting through the medium of his kind offices, my dispatches to England; when his time, no doubt, would have passed infinitely more to his satisfaction at the town of Tepic, the place

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1792. December.

of his residence in the vicinity of St. Blas. Such sacrifices did not however sill the measure of Senr. Quadra's liberality: for, on my requesting an account of the expences incurred for the refreshments, with which the three vessels under my command had been so amply supplied, here and at St. Francisco, together with the charges attendant on the cattle, sheep, corn, &c. &c. put on board the Dædalus for His Majesty's infant New South Wales, he not only revolted at the idea of receiving any ment, but gave street ders that no account whatever should be rendered; nor would he accept of the most common voucher, or other acknowledgment, for the very liberal supply we had received, of such essential importance, not only to our health and comfort at the time, but to our subsequent welfare.

On my first arrival at Monterrey I had questioned Senr. Quadra, as to the supply of refreshments, and the price of the different species we should require. To the first he allured me, that every thing the country afforded was at our service; and as to the last, he laid that could be easily settled on our departure. On this ground I now strongly urged his compliance with his former promise, especially as the account between us was of a public nature; but all my remonstrances were to no effect:; he. insisted that he had fulfilled his promise, since the only settlement in which he could possibly engage, was that of seeing we were accommodated to the extent of our wishes, with every supply the country could bestow; adding, that repayment would most amply be made, by the promised success attending every creature and production, that we had either received for our own use, or that were destined for other purposes. And as it was probable our respective courts would become acquainted with our several transactions, he should submit all further acknowledgment to their determination.

The venerable, and respectable father president of the Franciscan missionaries, with all the excellent and worthy members of that religious order, together with Senra. Caamano, Arguello, Sal, and the whole of the Spanish officers with whom we had the honor of being acquainted, demand from us the highest sentiments of esteem and gratitude. Even the

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common people were intitled to our good opinion and respect, as they uniformly subscribed to the exemplary conduct of their superiors, by a behaviour that was very orderly and obliging.

To the reverence, esteem, and regard, that was shewn Senr. Quadra by all persons and on all occasions, I must attribute some portion of the respect and friendship we received; and consider the general disposition in our favor to have acquired no little energy, by the noble example of that distinguished character.

Captain King, when speaking in his pleasing language of our benevolent friend Major Behm, at Kamschatka, pourtrays with justice the character of Senr. Quadra, whose general conduct seems to have been actuated by the same motives of benevolence, and governed by principles of similar magnanimity.

The parting from a society for which we had justly conceived a very sincere regard, could not take place without sensations of much regret. My concern on this occasion was increased by my powers of administering to their comfort by a supply of the necessary utensils which they needed, being so much lited. Such articles however as I could possibly spare, or make shift without, I consigned to their use, and having selected an assortment of the most necessary kind, I had the satisfaction to understand that they were highly valued and thankfully received.

The following are the results of such observations as were made for ascertaining the situation of the observatory
on shore at Monterrey. Whence it appeared that Mr. Kendall's chronometer on the 28th of november,
allowing the Nootka rate, (hewed the longitude to be
238° 36′ 15″
Mr. Earnshaw's pocket watch ditto 238 27
Mr. Arnold's ditto ditto (No. 82) 238 30 15
Ditto ditto ditto (No. 14) 238 9 45
Ditto ditto ditto (No. 176) 238 30

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1792. December.

Longitude of the observatory at Monterrey by lunar observations taken there.

Dec. 5, Myself, eight sets of distances, moon and sun, 238° 17′ 25″
— Mr. Whidbey, eight ditto ditto 238 33 20
7, ditto, seventeen ditto ditto 238 42 52
— Myself, twelve ditto ditto 238 30 54
8, ditto, twelve ditto ditto 238 29 40
— Mr. Whidbey, twelve ditto ditto 238 45 29
— ditto, three ditto, moon and regulus 237 54 25
— Myself, three ditto ditto 238 11 10
9, ditto, four ditto, moon and sun 238 31 26
— Mr. Whidbey, twelve ditto ditto 238 42
10, ditto, twelve ditto ditto 238 40 54
— Myself, eight ditto ditto 238 32 9
18, ditto, sixteen ditto ditto 238 19 50
— Mr. Whidbey, sixteen ditto ditto 238 8 14
19, ditto, two ditto ditto 238 23 47
— myself, two ditto ditto 238 31 45
20, ditto, sixteen ditto ditto 238 10 45
— Mr. Whidbey, sixteen ditto ditto 238 8 32
21, ditto, eight ditto ditto 238 16 16
— Myself, eight ditto ditto 238 13 56
— Mr. Whidbey, four ditto, moon and aldeberan, 238 52 56
The mean of the whole, collectively taken, being one hundred and ten sets by Mr. Whidbey, and eighty-nine by myself, amounting in all to
one hundred and ninety-nine sets of lunar distances; each set as usual containing six observations; shewed the longitude to be
238 25 45

The longitude of Monterrey, deduced from the above authority, was found to differ 10′ 30″ from that shewn by Mr. Kendall's chronometer on our arrival. On the belief that this difference arose from an error in the chronometer, commencing from the change of climate about the time we passed cape Mendocino, it has been allowed and corrected,


[page] 50

1792. December.

both in the foregoing journal and in my chart of the coast of New Albion, south-eastward from that cape to this station.

The longitude, thus ascertained, is found to differ likewise from that assigned to it by Senr. Melaspina, who places Monterrey in 237° 51′, and who' also places the north promontory of cape Mendocino, 26′, and point de los Reys, 33′, further to the westward of their situations shewn by our observations. By these calculations, the whole of the coast of North West America that we have yet visited, is uniformly removed to the eastward of the longitude assigned to it by Captain Cook and Senr. Melaspina; authorities no doubt that demand the greatest respect and confidence; yet, from the uninterrupted serenity of the weather that prevailed at the time our observations were made,I have been induced to adopt the meridian obtained from the result of our own observations, which, at noon on the 29th of december, shewed Kendall's chronometer to be fast of meantime at Greenwich, 1h 32′ 32″ 14″′
And to be gaining per day on mean time at the rate of 18 25
Mr. Earnshaw's pocket watch, fast of mean time at ditto, 1 14 1 14
And gaining per day, 4 27
Mr. Arnold's No. 8.2, fast of mean time at ditto, 4 25 41 14
And gaining per day, 25 6
Mr. Arnold's No. 14, fast of mean time at ditto, 1 6 15 14
And gaining per day, 19 33
Mr. Arnold's No. 176, fast of mean time at ditto, 3 3 32 14
And gaining per day, 34 45
The latitude, deduced from twenty-two meridional altitudes, taken on both sides of the arch of Mr. Ramsden's new circular instrument,
varying between 36° 35′ 27″, and 36° 36′ 50″, shewed the mean collectively taken
36° 36′ 20″

This most excellent instrument was used, both at Nootka and at this place, for the purposes it is intended to answer, in making such observations as we required; in doing which its excellence was fully proved, and Mr. Ramsden is deserving of great commendation for its accuracy, and the case with which it is managed and kept in its adjustments.

[page] 51

The variation of the magnetic needle in thirty sets of azimuths by three compasses, differing from 9 to 15 degrees, gave the mean result 12° 22′, eastwardly.

The vertical inclination of the magnetic needle was found to be
Marked end, North face East, 62° 48′
Ditto, West, 63 47
Marked end, South face East, 62 48
Ditto, West, 62 39
Mean inclination of the marine dipping needle 63 0 30

The tides appeared to be irregular and of little elevation; by their general motion, they seemed to flow but once in twenty-four hours, and it was high water about seven hours and a half after the moon passed the meridian; the rife and fall was about six feet at the spring, and four feet at the neap tides.

Thus conclude the transactions of the voyage, appertaining particularly to the Discovery, to the end of the year 1792. The two following chapters will contain the services performed, and the information acquired, by the officers under my command during the time of our separation.

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[page] 52


Lieutenant Broughton's account of Columbia river.

1792. December.

ON reference to the preceding part of this narrative it will be found, that on the 21st of october we stood to sea at the commencement of a heavy gale of wind, from off the entrance of Columbia river; leaving the Chatham there at anchor, in full confidence that her commander, Mr. Broughton, would, prior to his departure, endeavour to gain all possible information respecting the navigable extent of that inlet, and such other useful knowledge of the country as circumstances would admit of. The implicit reliance I had in Mr. Broughton's zeal and exertions, will be found to have been worthily placed, by the perusal of the following narrative of that officer's transactions.

The situation the Chatham had gained in the entrance of Columbia river was by no means comfortable at low water, when the depth did not exceed 4 fathoms, and the sea broke very heavily about a cable's length within the vessel, on a bank of 2½ fathoms, which obtained the name of SPIT BANK. The place of their anchorage was, by observation, in latitude 46° 18′; bearing S. 50 E. about a mile and a quarter from the inner part of cape Disappointment, from whence to the opposite shore, across the channel leading to sea, the breakers formed nearly one connected chain, admitting only of one very narrow passage, which lies in a direction about W. by N. from a point Mr. Broughton called Village point, there being in its vicinity a large deserted village.

The Discovery having put to sea without making any signal to the Chatham, Mr. Broughton very judiciously concluded that I was desirous he should explore and examine this opening on the coast; and in order

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1792. December.

that no time should be lost in carrying this service into execution, he proceeded at two in the afternoon, with the first of the flood and a strong gale at S.W. up the inlet, keeping the Village point, which lies S. 70 E. 5 miles distant from cape Disappointment, well open with a remarkable projecting point, that obtained the name of TONGUE POINT, on the southern shore, appearing like an island. The depth of water here was not less than 4 fathoms, and as they approached the deserted village the depth increased to 6, 7, and 8 fathoms. The wind by this time obliged them to bring to, for the purpose of double-reefing the topsails: and whilst thus engaged, the rapidity of the flood tide impelled them into 3 fathoms water, before sufficient sail could be made on the vessel to render her governable. By this means she was driven on a bank of sand, where the strength of the stream, preventing an anchor being carried into deep water, she remained aground until high tide; when they hove into 10 fathoms with the greatest case, and there rested for the night. Mr. Broughton had, for his guidance thus far up the inlet, a chart by Mr. Gray, who had commanded the American ship Columbia; but it did not much resemble what it purported to represent. This shoal, which is an extensive one lying in mid-channel, having completely escaped his attention.

The next day, being the 22d of october, the wind blew strong from the eastward, and there was little probability from the appearance of the weather of soon being able, with any degree of safety, to remove the vessel further up the inlet. That intention being laid aside, Mr. Broughton proceeded with the cutter and launch to examine the shores of its southern side. He first landed at the deserted village, on the northern shore, and on the eastern side of Village point; which he found a good leading mark for clearing the shoals that lie between it and cape Disappointment, carrying regular foundings of four fathoms. From this point he passed over to point Adams, the starboard or S. E. point of entrance into this inlet; and in his way crossed a shoal bank, supposed to be a continuation of that on which the Chatham had grounded. The least water found upon it was 2½ fathoms, and the sea was observed to break at intervals in several places. Point Adams is a low, narrow, sandy.

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1792. December.

spit of land, projecting northerly into the ocean, and lies from cape Disappointment, S. 44 E. about four miles distant. From this point the coast takes a sudden turn to the south, and the shores within the inlet take a direction S. 74 E. four miles to another point, which obtained the name of POINT GEORGE. From point Adams the breakers stretched into the ocean, first N. 68 W. about a league, then S. 83 W. about 4 miles, from whence they took a rounding course to the southward, extending along the coast at the distance of 2 leagues and upwards.

These form the south side of the channel leading into this inlet, which is about half a league wide. The northern side is also formed by the breakers extending 2½ miles from cape Disappointment. In this point of view, the breakers were so shut in with each other, as to present one intire line of heavy broken water, from side to fide across the channel.

At this place was found the remains of a deserted Indian village, and near it three large canoes supported from the ground, each containing dead human bodies. These canoe coffins were decorated at the head and stern with rude carved work, and from their decayed state seemed to have been thus appropriated for a great length of time. Another sepulchre was discovered, bearing some affinity to our mode of burial. The body was rolled up in deer skins, after these with mats, and then laid at full length in a wooden box, which exactly fitted it. The flesh of the body was preserved quite firm. After the party had satisfied their curiosity, every thing that had been displaced by their examination was restored to its original situation.

The shoal on which the Chatham had grounded, was found to extend within half a mile of the eastern side of point Adams. The space between the shoal and the land formed a shallow channel over a kind of bar, on which was found little more than 3 fathoms water, into a Bay that lies between point Adams and point George; whither Mr. Broughton directed his course, and found on each fide of the bar, the foundings regular from 3 to 7 fathoms. The (shores of this Bay were low land, and the water again shoaled as he advanced to 3 and 2½ fathoms. Near the shores on cither side the sea broke very high, and on the water were seen many pelicans. As the party approached the center, or rather the S. E.

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1792. December.

corner of the Ray, they discovered a small river, whose entrance was about two cables length in width, and the depth of water 5 fathoms, gradually diminishing to 2 fathoms. By the shores it appeared to be high water, yet the stream attended them up the river, which now took a south easterly direction, in a winding form, and branched off into several creeks. After advancing about 7 miles the width decreased to 19 fathoms, and it being then high water, any further examination was deemed unnecessary. The evening at this time having nearly closed in, the party returned about a mile, and took up their residence for the night on the bank of the river, which, after Sir George Young of the royal navy, Mr. Broughton distinguished by the name of YOUNG'S RIVER; whose termination was supposed to have been seen by some of the party, but Mr. Broughton was of opinion, from the strength of the tide, that its source was at some distance. The night was windy, and it rained without ceasing until day-light the next morning, which was very pleasant, and greatly inriched the prospect of the beautiful, surrounding country. From the banks of the river a low meadow, interspersed with scattered trees and shrubs, extended to the more elevated land. This was of easy ascent, and was agreeably variegated with clumps and copies of pine, maple, alder, birch, poplar, and several other trees, besides a considerable number of shrubs, greatly diversifying the landscape by the several tints of their autumnal foliage. The marshy edges of the river afforded shelter to wild geese, which flew about in very large flocks; ducks were in abundance, as were the large brown cranes before noticed in the more northern parts of New Georgia.

On leaving the river, as they proceeded to point George, they found the greatest depth of water at about two thirds flood neap tides, was 2½ fathoms; this continuing intirely across the entrance of Young's river, renders it navigable for small vessels only. From hence the launch was lent on board, with orders to found in a direct line to the Chatham, then at anchor off the deserted village. The continuation of the shoal in this passage, was found to be a great obstacle to the navigation of the inlet.

Mr. Broughton proceeded in the cutter at a moderate distance from the shore, with foundings of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathoms to Tongue point. On the eastern side of this point the shores first fall to the southward, and


[page] 56

1792. December.

then stretch nearly E. N. E. From this point was seen the center of a deep Bay, lying at the distance of 7 miles, N. 26 E. This Bay terminated the researches of Mr. Gray; and to commemorate his discovery it was named after him GRAY'S BAY. Mr. Broughton now returned on board, in the hope of being able to proceed the next flood tide higher up the inlet. In the afternoon he reached the Chatham, finding in his way thither a continuation of the same shoal on which she had grounded, with a narrow channel on each side, between it and the shores of the inlet; on this middle ground the depth of water was in overfals from 3 fathoms to 4 feet. Mr. Broughton got the Chatham immediately under weigh, with a boat a-head to direct her course. His progress was greatly retarded by the shoalness of the water. A channel was found close to the northern shore, where, about dark, he anchored for the night in 7 fathoms water, about 2 miles from the former place of anchorage. Before day-break the next morning (october 24th) the vessel, in tending to the tide, tailed on a bank; this however was of no consequence, as on heaving short she was soon afloat again. At day-light Mr. Manby was sent to found the channel up to Gray's bay, where in Mr. Gray's sketch, an anchor is placed; but on Mr. Manby's return he reported the channel to be very intricate, and the depth of water in general very shallow. This induced Mr. Broughton to give up the idea of removing the Chatham further up the inlet, the examination of which he determined to pursue in the boats. After ascertaining the vessel's station to be in latitude 46° 17′, longitude 236° 17½', he departed with the cutter and launch, with a week's provisions, to carry his determination into effect. A strong easterly gale attended with squalls was against them, but the flood tide favored their progress until six in the evening, when, on the ebb making, they took up their abode for the night on the western fide of Gray's bay. They rowed across the Bay the next morning, in squally unpleasant weather, with regular foundings of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathoms. The depth of water within the Bay was not more than 2 fathoms, interspersed near the bottom of the Bay with frequent overfals of 4 fathoms. After passing Gray's bay, the continental shores became high and rocky. About a mile S.W. by W. from the cast point of the Bay, which lies from its weft point

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1792. December.

N. 78 E. at the distance of 4 miles, commences a range of five small low sandy islets, partly covered with wood, and extending about five miles to the eastward. The easternmost, which was also the largest, was nearly at the extremity of the shallow space they had thus examined. Between the ocean and that which should properly be considered the entrance of the river, is a space from three to seven miles wide, intricate to navigate on account of the shoals that extend nearly from side to side; and ought rather to be considered as a found, than as constituting a part of the river, since the entrance into the river, which they reached about dark, was found not to be more than half a mile wide, formed by the contracting shores of the found. Between the points of entrance, lying from each other N. 50 E. and S. 50 W. there were 7 fathoms water. The northernmost point is situated in latitude 46° 18½', longitude 236° 34½, from whence the river takes a direction about S. 45 E. From the east point of Gray's bay to this station, the shore is nearly straight and compact, and lies in a direction S. 87 W. They stopped to dine about three miles from the east point of the Bay, on the fide of a high steep hill, on the northern shore, facing one of the above low islets; from whence extended a long, sandy, shallow spit, down the channel, inclining towards the opposite or southern shore, which was low, and appeared also very shoal. From this steep hill a remarkable pillar rock lies S. 79 W. about a mile from the shore, on the starboard or southern side of entrance into the river. Not only within, but without this rock, the water is very shallow, with overfals from 2½ to 6 fathoms; but by keeping the northern shore on board from Gray's bay, a sufficient depth of water will be found. The two points of entrance into the river are formed by low marshy land, the southernmost seemed to be an island; and to the N.W. of the most northern, a branch took a northerly direction, which was named ORCHARD'S RIVER; in one of these the party passed a very uncomfortable night, owing to the dampness of their situation.

At day-light the next morning (26th October), with the first of the stood, Mr. Broughton proceeded up the river, whose width was nearly half a mile. The shores on either fide were low and marshy; on the


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1792. December.

N. E. were from 8 to 10 fathoms, but on the opposite shore the depth of water did not exceed 4 fathoms, one third of the channel over. After advancing about 2 leagues the land became high and rocky on both sides; here a well-wooded island, about a league and a half long, divided the stream, and afforded a good passage on each side of it; the deepest is on the N.E. Side, in which was found 10 and 12 fathoms water. About a league past the S.E. point of this island, which received the name of PUGET'S ISLAND, the river continued its direction to latitude 46° 10′, longitude 236° 50′; where it took a short turn N. 56 E. for about a league; at this turn a small river presented itself, which Mr. Broughton named SWAINE'S RIVER. In this neighbourhood they were joined by some of the natives in four canoes. Their clothing was chiefly deer skins, though a few had garments made of sea otter skins. These good people fold the party a few fish, and then took their leave. Their language was so totally different from that of the other American Indians, that not a single word could be understood. The shores abounded with fine timbers, the pine predominated in number on the higher lands, but near the banks of the river grew ash, poplar, elder, maple, and several other trees unknown to the party. The ebb tide rendered their progress very flow, and it was evening before they arrived at the end of the above-mentioned north-eastwardly reach. On the northern shore was seen a village of the natives, who evidently solicited the landing of the party, but choosing to wave their civility, they proceeded up the river, which took a direction S. 62 E. from the village passing some islands lying in the middle of it; these occupy about two miles; their easternmost point is about a league from the above village, and after the second lieutenant of the Discovery, they were named BAKER'S ISLANDS. The bold northern shore now became low near the banks of the river, and rose high again, at a distance, in a gradual ascent. Mr. Broughton crossed over half a mile to the eastward of Baker's islands, to a high bluff point named by him POINT SHERIFF, where good shelter for the night was found on a sandy beach. At this time they had gained only 22 miles after rowing twelve hours. The river here was about half a mile wide, and the best channel from point Sheriff was found along the southern shore.

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1792. December.

Nine canoes, with a number of Indians, took up their lodging in a small creek at a little distance from the party. This circumstance served to convince Mr. Broughton, that the further he proceeded the more the country w inhabited. At first their warlike appearance produced some small degree of caution; but this was afterwards, by their orderly behaviour, proved to have been unnecessary. From ten in the morning, when it appeared by the shore to be high water, the party had rowed against the stream to their landing place, where, although the tide continued to rise until midnight, the stream had ran up only two hours.

At seven the next morning (october 27,) with the stream still running down very rapidly, they proceeded in their examination, passing to the north of a small woody island, which, after the surgeon of the Chatham, was named WALKER'S ISLAND. The foundings were from 4 to 7 fathoms. About ten o'clock the tide was flowing fast according to the appearance of the shore, and, for about two hours, the stream favored their progress; after this, great delay and much fatigue was endured, by a strong ebb tide and a fresh easterly wind. The nine canoes attended them, and as they passed some small creeks and openings on the sides of the river their numbers kept increasing.

Eastward from Walker's island and nearly into mid-channel a bank partly dry extends for 2 or 3 miles, but admits of a ciear passage on either side; the passage to the south, being the widest and deepest, has 5 or 6 fathoms water. After passing this bank, the channel continued on the southern side, with foundings from 6 to 10 fathoms. They now again approached high land, and on the northern shore was a remarkable mount, about which were placed several canoes, containing dead bodies; to this was given the name of MOUNT COFFIN. About a mile to the eastward of mount Coffin, their Indian attendants flopped at a single hut, but Mr. Broughton continued rowing until three in the afternoon; when, having increased their distance only 9 miles from point Sheriff, the Marty slopped to dine on the southern shore. This was high and rocky, and terminated the direction of this reach, in latitude 46° 5′, longitude 237° 11′, from whence the river ran S. 18 E., and the same depth of water continued. The northern shore, instead of being the steepest, now consist-

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1792. December.

ed of low, flat, sandy, shores, through which, nearly opposite to their dinner station, where the river was about half a mile wide, two other dreams fall into it. The westernmost was named RIVER POOLE, and the easternmost KNIGHT'S RIVER; this last is the largest of the two; its entrance indicated its being extensive, and by the signs of the natives, they were given to understand, the people up that river possessed an abundance of sea-otter skins. After dinner the party proceeded up the reach, extending S. 18 E., passing a low sandy island at its entrance against a very strong stream; and having advanced about 4 miles, they took up their residence for the night. Several of their friendly Indian attendants, as usual, lodged at a small distance; it was low water at half past ten at night, and high water about two in the morning.

About six o'clock on sunday morning, (october 28) Mr. Broughton continued to proceed against the stream, and soon passed a small rocky islet, about twenty feet above the surface of the water. Several canoes covered the top of this islet, in which dead bodies were deposited. About two miles from hence is a low sandy island, having a spit stretching from each end to some distance. On each side, the channel is clear, the south fide is the deepest, having 3 or 4 fathoms water. From this island the reach takes a more eastwardly course about 4 miles, to a point on the north shore, in latitude 45° 56′, longitude 237° 18′. The foundings to this point, which is high and rocky, were from 4 to 7 fathoms; the shores of the opposite or southern side of the river are low, and produce many willow-trees; the high and rocky banks were covered with pine-trees down to the water's edge. From hence, with little variation, the river's direction is about S. 5 E.; the channel is narrow, and on the eastern shore the Jepth of water was from 4 to 6 fathoms.

Here were three openings stretching in an easterly direction, formed by two small woody islands, on one of which was a grove of tall and strait poplars, These were distinguished by the name of URRY'S ISLANDS. Abreast of these is a shoal that joins the south side of the river, and renders the passage close to their shores very narrow; beyond them the river, now about a quarter of a mile wide, is free from obstruction, and the general

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1792. December.

depth 5 and 6 fathoms to another point, about four miles to the south of the above mentioned high one, where, for the first time in this river, some oak-trees were seen, one of which measured thirteen feet in girth; this obtained the name of OAK POINT. Close to the south of it was a small brook that ran to the eastward, off which a bank of sand diverted the channel to the western shore, where soundings were found from 5 to 8 fathoms. About three miles and a half from Oak point Mr. Broughton arrived at another, which he called POINT WARRIOR, in consequence of being there surrounded by twenty-three canoes, carrying from three to twelve persons each, all attired in their war garments, and in every other respect prepared for combat. On these strangers discoursing with the friendly Indians who had attended our party, they soon took off their war dress, and with great civility disposed of their arms and other articles for such valuables as were presented to them, but would neither part with their copper swords, nor a kind of battle-axe made of iron.

At point Warrior the river is divided into three branches; the middle one was the largest, about a quarter of a mile wide, and was considered as the main branch; the next most capacious took an easterly direction, and seemed extensive, to this the name of RUSHLEIGH'S RIVER was given; and the other that stretched to the S.S.W. was distinguished by the name of CALL'S RIVER.

On the banks of Rushleigh's river was seen a very large Indian village, and such of the strangers as seemed to belong to it strongly solicited the party to proceed thither; and, to enforce their request, very unequivocally represented, that if the party persisted in going to the southward they would have their heads cut off. The same intreaties, urged by similar warnings, had before been experienced by Mr. Broughton during his excursion, but having found them to be unnecessary cautions, he proceeded up that which he considered to be the main branch of the river, until eight in the evening; when, under the shelter of some willows, they took us their lodging for the night on a low sandy point, accompanied by twelve of the natives in a canoe, who fixed their abode very near to the uring the whole of this day little assistance had been

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1792. December.

derived from the flood tide, the ebb had slackened for about two hours, but no current upwards during that time was perceptible.

The next morning, (october 29) they again proceeded up the river, and had a distant view of mount St. Helens, lying N. 42 E. In founding across the river, whose width was here about a quarter of a mile, from 3 to 12 fathoms water was found. Owing to the rapidity of the stream against them they were under the necessity of stopping to dine at not more than four or five miles from their resting place; here it was low water at noon, and though the water of the river evidently rose afterwards, yet the stream continued to run rapidly down. The greatest perpendicular rise and fall appeared to be about 3 feet. In this situation the latitude was observed to be 45° 41′, longitude 237° 20′; when mount St. Helens was seen lying from hence N. 38 E., our distance from point Warrior being about 8 miles.

In their way hither they had passed two Indian villages on the west side of the river, and had been joined by an hundred and fifty of the natives in twenty-five canoes. To avoid any surprize they dined in their boats; this precaution was however unnecessary, for on some trivial presents being made, a trade immediately commenced, in which the Indians conducted themselves with the utmost decorum. No attempts were made to pass the line drawn on the beach, excepting by two who appeared to be the principal chiefs, and who were permitted to join the party. These seemed to be very well disposed, and inclined to communicate every information; but, unfortunately for our gentlemen, a total ignorance of the Indians' language precluded their profiting by these friendly intentions.

At one o'clock they quitted their dinner station, and after rowing about five miles, still in the direction of the river S. 5 E., they passed on the western side a small river leading to the south-westward; and half a mile further on the same shore came to a larger one, that took a more southerly course. In the entrance of the latter, about a quarter of a mile in width, are two small woody islets; the foundings across it from 2 to 5 fathoms. The adjacent country, extending from its banks, presented a most beautiful appearance. This river Mr. Broughton distinguished by the name of RIVER MANNINGS. Its southern point of en-


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1792. December.

trance situated in latitude 45° 39′, longitude 237° 21′, commanded a most delightful prospect of the surrounding region, and obtained the name of BELLE VUE POINT; from whence the branch of the river, at least that which was so considered, took a direction about S.57 E., for a league and a half. A very distant high snowy mountain now appeared riling beautifully conspicuous in the midst of an extensive tract of low, or moderately elevated, land, lying S. 67 E., and seemed to announce a termination to the river. From Belle Vue point they proceeded in the above direction, passing a small wooded island, about three miles in extent, situated in the middle of the stream Their route was between this island and the southern shore, which is low; the foundings between its north-west point and the main land were 3 fathoms, increasing to 4, 5, and 6, off its south-east point; from whence the river took its course S. 75 E. This obtained the name of MENZIES' ISLAND; near the east end of which is a small sandy woody island that was covered with wild geese. From Belle Vue point, a small stream of flood had attended them to this station; but here a rapid downward current was met, though it was by no means high water.

At the several creeks and branches they had passed they loft successively most of their Indian companions, excepting one elderly chief, who, in the most civil and friendly manner had accompanied them from the first, and had a village still further up the river. Having received many presents he had become much attached to the party, and, to manifest his gratitude, he now went forward to provide them with lodgings, and whatever acceptable refreshments his village might afford. About seven in the evening they reached his habitation, where he much wished them to remain; but preferring a more secluded resting place, they resorted to a shallow creek a mile further up the river, and about eight miles from Belle Vue point, where they passed the night. Here it was low water about two, and high water at half past five o'clock the next morning. At seven they again departed, but were obliged to retire some distance to clear a shoal spit that lies off this creek; after this they proceeded to the northern shore. This shore was well wooded, composed of stony beaches, and the foundings were regular from 2 to 7

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1792. December.

fathoms. The southern shore, though low and sandy, was also well clothed with wood; the breadth of the river was about a quarter of a mile, and its direction was the same as before mentioned.

The wind blew fresh from the eastward, which, with the stream against them, rendered their journey very slow and tedious. They passed a small rocky opening that had a rock in its center, about twelve feet above the surface of the water; on this were lodged several large trees that must have been left there by an unusually high tide. From hence a large river bore S. 5 E., which was afterwards seen to take a south-westwardly direction, and was named BARING'S RIVER; between it and the shoal creek is another opening; and here that in which they had rested stretched to the E. N. E., and had several small rocks in it. Into this creek the friendly old chief who had attended them went to procure some salmon, and they pursued their way against the stream, which was now become so rapid that they were able to make but little progress. At half past two they stopped on the northern shore to dine, opposite to the entrance of Baring's river. Ten canoes with the natives now attended them, and their friendly old chief soon returned and brought them an abundance of very fine salmon. He had gone through the rocky passage, and had returned above the party, making the land on which they were at dinner an island. This was afterwards found to be about three miles long, and after the lieutenant of the Chatham, was named JOHNSTONE'S ISLAND. The west point of Baring's river is situated in latitude 45° 28′, longitude 237° 41′ from whence the main branch takes rather an irregular course, about N. 82 E.; it is near half a mile wide, and in crossing it the depth was from 6 to 3 fathoms. The southern shore is low and woody, and contracts the river by means of a low sandy flat that extends from it, on which were lodged several large dead trees. The best passage is close to Johnstone's island; this has a rocky bold shore, but Mr. Broughton pursued the channel on the opposite side, where he met with some scattered rocks; these however admitted of a good passage between them and the main land; along which he continued until towards evening, making little progress against the stream. "Having now passed the sand bank," says Mr. Broughton, "I landed for the purpose of taking our last bear-

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ings; a sandy point on the opposite shore bore S. 80 E., distant about two miles; this point terminating our view of the river, I named it after Captain Vancouver; it is situated in latitude 45° 27′, longitude 237° 50′." The same remarkable mountain that had been seen from Belle Vue point, again presented itself, bearing at this station S.67 E.: and though the party were now nearer to it by 7 leagues, yet its lofty summit was scarcely more distinct across the intervening land which was more than moderately elevated. Mr. Broughton honored it with Lord Hood's name; its appearance was magnificent; and it was clothed in snow from its summit, as low down as the high land, by which it was intercepted, rendered it visible. Mr. Broughton lamented that he could not acquire sufficient authority to ascertain its positive situation, but imagined it could not be less than 20 leagues from their then station.

Round point Vancouver the river seemed to take a more northerly direction; its southern shores became very hilly, with bare spots of a reddish colour on the sides of the hills, and their tops were thinly covered with pine trees. The opposite shore was low, well wooded, and mostly composed of shingly beaches. The breadth of the river here was a quarter of a mile; it afforded a clear good channel on the northern shore, with foundings across from 6 to 2 fathoms, shoaling gradually to the bed of sand that stretches from the opposite side. During this day, they had constantly rowed against the stream, having increased their distance only 12 miles up the river; and notwithstanding there had been a sensible regular rise and fall of the water, it had not in the least degree affected the stream, which had run constantly down with great rapidity.

Mr. Broughton at this time calculated the distance, from what he considered the entrance of the river, to be 84, and from the Chatham, 100 miles. To reach this station had now occupied their time, with very hard labour, seven days; this was to the full extent for which their provisions had been furnished; and their remaining supplies. could not with all possible frugality last more than two or three days longer. And as it were impossible under the most favorable circumstances, they


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should reach the vessels in a less space of time, Mr. Broughton gave up the idea of any further examination, and was reconciled to this measure, because even thus far the river could hardly be considered as navigable for shipping. Previously to his departure, however, he formally took possession of the river, and the country in its vicinity, in His Britannic Majesty's name, having every reason to believe, that the subjects of no other civilized nation or state had ever entered this river before; in this opinion he was confirmed by Mr. Gray's sketch, in which it does not appear that Mr. Gray either saw, or was ever within 5 leagues of, its entrance.

The friendly old chief, who still remained of their party, assisted at the ceremony, and drank His Majesty's health on the occasion; from him they endeavoured to acquire some further information of the country. The little that could be understood was, that higher up the river they would be prevented passing by falls. This was explained, by taking up water in his hands, and imitating the manner of its falling from rocks, pointing, at the same time, to the place where the sun rises; indicating, that its source in that direction would be found at a great distance.

By the time these ceremonies and inquiries were finished, the night had closed in; notwithstanding this, Mr. Broughton re-embarked, and with the stream in his favor sat out on his return. All the Indians now very civilly took their leave, excepting the old chief and his people, who, their route being the same way, still bore them company. Little opportunity had been afforded, especially at the latter part of their journey up the river, to ascertain the depth of the channels: to supply this deficiency, the two boats spread, and founded regularly all the way down. By this means a bank was found extending intirely across Baring's river, and from thence across the main branch, which they had navigated, to the rocky passage at the west end of Johnstone's island; the greatest depth having been only 3 fathoms, Mr. Broughton was confirmed in the opinion he had previously formed, that any further examination of this branch would be useless.

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After passing to the west of the rocky passage, the best channel is on the southern shore, but even that is intricate, and the greatest depth of its water is only 4 fathoms. They took up their abode for the night about half a mile from their preceding night's lodging; having returned in three hours the same distance that had taken them twelve hours to ascend.

In the morning of the 31st of october it was low water at four, and high water at six o'clock; the rise and fall of the water did not appear generally to exceed two feet, and the stream constantly ran down. Mr. Broughton departed early, and off the village of their friendly old chief was joined by him and his whole tribe. Soundings were pretty regular, until the party were abreast of some barren land, off which is an extensive bank. On this there were only three feet water; this depth continued nearly to the east point of the islet, that was observed before to be covered with wild geese, and obtained the name of GOOSE ISLAND. The channel here is on the southern shore, until the passage between Menzies island and the north shore is well open; this is good and clear with regular foundings from 3 to 7 fathoms, quite to Belle Vue point, where a spit lies out at some small distance. The land in the neighbourhood of this reach, extending about 5 leagues to Baring's river, is on the southern side low, sandy, and well wooded. On the north side the country rises beyond the banks of the river with a pleasing degree of elevation, agreeably adorned with several clumps of trees; and towards the eastern part of the reach, it finishes at the water's edge in romantic rocky projecting precipices.

The good old chief here took his leave of the party. In commemoration of his friendly behaviour, and his residence being in the neighbourhood, this part of the river obtained the name of FRIENDLY REACH, and a point on the northern shore, bearing from Belle Vue point S.67 E., PARTING POINT. From this place to the station where Mr. Broughton observed the latitude on the 29th, the foundings were from 6 to 10 fathoms; from whence a bank of sand extended along the western shore about a league, reaching over two-thirds of the channel, leaving a very narrow passage of the depth of 10 to 12 fathoms. This bank

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terminates at Willow point, from whence the foundings decreased from 9 to 6 fathoms. About three miles from this point, on the opposite or eastern side of the river, an opening or arm was passed, leading to the N. E. This was named by Mr. Broughton, after the master of the Discovery, WHIDBEY'S RIVER. The western point was slat, and produced some grass and willow trees. The opposite shore still continued more elevated, and from Whidbey's river was covered with pine trees. At the entrance into this river the depth of water was 6 or 7 fathoms; but on approaching point Warrior for about two miles, it decreased to 3 and 4 fathoms, and again increased to 10 and 12 fathoms off that point; from thence to Oak point the depth was from 10 to 5 fathoms, here the party rested for the night, and perceived it to be low water at half past three, and high water at five in the morning of the lst of november. In this situation they had before seen many of the natives, but the night most probably now prevented their appearance. The weather had the preceding day been gloomy, attended with fog and rain; this morning it was fair and pleasant, with a favorable eastwardly breeze. In passing from Urry's islands, the foundings were first from 7 to 3, then from 4 to 9 fathoms; the depth again decreased as the low sandy island was approached, to 6, 3, and 4 fathoms; this latter depth continued between the island and the northern shore, which is the best channel, passing close to the main land. From this island where the water all round it is shoal, a spit extends some distance to the westward, on which there was no more than 3 fathoms: but from thence to the rocky islet where the canoes with the dead bodies were deposited, it increases to 7 and 12 fathoms; about a mile above this rock, a bank extends to the eastern shore nearly into mid-channel, where the depth of water did not exceed 2½ fathoms, all the way to Knight's river. The shores on this side are low, flat, and sandy; on the western side high, and woody, and affording a clear, though narrow channel, with foundings from 5 to 8 fathoms.

Knight's river is about the eighth of a mile in width; and from its entrance, where its depth is 4 fathoms, it takes a direction S. 51 E. Leaving Knight's river, the foundings increased from 7 to 12 fathoms, until mount Coffin was reached, where the depth of water was only 6 fathoms;

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and passing between the northern shore, and the dry sand bank, from 3 to 5 fathoms only were found; but the foundings increased from 6 to 10 fathoms as the party advanced towards Walker's island. On the western point of this island they made a late dinner, and had an opportunity of observing, that during the rising of the water the stream did not run up, the surface of the water being still and stationary; it was high water at five in the afternoon. From this point the depth continued from 5 to 7 fathoms, until Baker's islands were approached. A shoal spit extends from the longest and largest of these islands, or that which was so considered, to the eastward; on this was found only 2½ or 3 fathoms water. To the north of this apparently large island are three smaller ones, which admit a clear though narrow passage between them and the northern shore. On one of these, under the shelter of a grove of fine poplars, Mr. Broughton rested for the night. At day-light the next morning their journey was resumed, and in passing Swaine's river, which takes a south-westerly direction, no bottom could be found with 15 fathoms of line; but towards its western point foundings were had of 3 and 4 fathoms. About a league to the westward of this is Manby's river, taking a course S. S. W.; from hence the depth of water was from 7 to 9 fathoms, until they approached near the east point of Puget's island; from whence a shoal extends about a mile nearly into mid-channel; on this there were only 2 fathoms, but on crossing over to the southern shore, it deepened to 7 fathoms. Mount St. Helen's was here very distinctly seen lying S. 81 E. Puget's island was patted on the south, and observed to produce on that side only a few pine trees of inferior size; but it afforded a good channel of 7, 10, and 13 fathoms of water; the latter depth was off its western extremity, which is a low marshy point covered with reeds. Soon after patting this point, another branch of the river was opened, which appeared, by the high land on the southern side, to lead into the found in a direction N. 56 W. But as in its entrance the depth of water was only 2½ fathoms. Mr. Broughton was induced to give up his intention of examining it, and pursued his former course, keeping near the southern shore, consisting apparently of a cluster of marshy islands. The north-westernmost of these forms the south point of the entrance into the river; and on the west, or

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found side, of this point, the low marshy land takes a south-west direction., whose other openings appeared to communicate with the last mentioned. Before these openings lie the shoals already noticed. On the northern shore, immediately without the entrance into the river, is an Indian village; a part of it only was occupied by the natives, who supplied our friends very liberally with salmon, and promised to follow them with more to the vessel. From hence they steered for a low sandy island, partly covered with trees, in the eastern part of the found, with foundings from 7 to 5 fathoms, until they drew very near to it, when the water became so shallow that they were obliged to hawl off. Towards its north-west part 2½ fathoms were found close to it. Mr. Broughton had no opportunity of examining whether there was any passage in this situation towards the southern shore, as it was at this time dark; but, by its former appearance from the elevated land on the northern shore, he was of opinion there was not. A bank nearly dry continued all the way from this island to point Adams. He however passed some distance along the north edge of the bank, towards Tongue point, in 3 fathoms water, until nearly a-breast of Gray's bay; here they came to overfals from 3 to 7 fathoms, and found themselves within, or to the south of, a dry bank, which obliged them to pull back in order to clear it; after which they had regular foundings in crossing Gray's bay from 4 to 6 fathoms water.

At nine in the evening the party arrived on board the Chatham: having employed exactly half the time in returning, that had been occupied in going up this river, in consequence of the general rapidity of the stream downwards, and of being assisted sometimes by a favorable wind.

Mr. Broughton had now lost sight of the Discovery twelve days, and though he had received no orders for the investigation he had undertaken, yet he was convinced, that in so doing he would act agreeably to my wishes; and having obtained so much information, he deemed it expedient to join the Discovery with all possible dispatch.

Much to his satisfaction, he found the Chatham ready in every respect for sea; the next morning she was unmoored; but the wind from the


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east shifting suddenly to the southward, and blowing in squalls very hard, attended with a heavy rain, they remained at their anchorage until the next day, when the weather being more moderate they got under weigh; but they had scarcely filled their fails when the wind, as on the preceding day, came round, and as they had a very narrow space to work in between the northern shore and the shoals, they again anchored in 8 fathoms water, to wait a more favorable opportunity. This presented itself in the afternoon; but by the time they had reached the large deserted village, it again became stormy, with a heavy rain from the westward, which compelled them again to stop in 6 fathoms water, a little below the deserted village called by the natives Chenoke. Cape Disappointment bore by compass N. 84 W., Tongue point N. 64 E., one mile distant; point Adams S. 51 W., and the nearest shore north, at the distance of a quarter of a mile.

The same unpleasant weather continued until the next morning, (November 6) when, with the wind at E.N.E., they stood towards cape Disappointment. The launch founded the channel before the vessel, and the surf was soon seen to break across the passage leading to sea with great violence, and in such a manner as to leave no apparent opening. The wind at this time also veering to the south, induced Mr. Broughton to bear away for a Bay that is situated immediately within, and on the eastern side of cape Disappointment; the south-east end of that promontory forms its west point of entrance; its east point being formed by the west extremity of the spit bank, lying from each other E.S.E. and W.N.W, about three quarters of a mile asunder. In passing the channel a sufficient depth of water was found, until bordering too much on the bank they came into 3 fathoms, with a very confused sea that broke violently on the bank. At ten in the forenoon they anchored in 5 fathoms water; point Adams, by compass, hearing S.46 E.; Chenoke point S. 86 E.; the inner part of cape Disappointment forming the west point of entrance into the Bay S. 4 E., half a mile distant; and the southernmost part of the coast in sight S. 26 E.

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Here was found the Jenny of Bristol, the same vessel that had been passed by the Chatham on her first arrival. Mr. Broughton was informed by the master of this vessel, Mr. Baker, that a constant succession of bad weather had prevented his putting to sea; that he had made several attempts, but from the violence of the surf and its breaking intirely across the entrance, he had not been able to effect that purpose. In the afternoon, Mr. Broughton went on shore in order to view from the hills the state of the channel into the ocean. This presented one intire range of heavy breakers, reaching across from side to side.

Fresh gales with squally weather from the S.E. on the 7th. The Chatham, with half a cable only, rode very easy; and the Jenny lying within her, in 3 fathoms water, at low tide, with the Cape bearing by compass S.E., was intirely becalmed under its high land. The afternoon being more moderate the seine was hauled, but with little success. The weather still continuing unfavorable, the next day was employed in replenishing their stock of wood and water, and Mr. Broughton in person founded the Bay, and pert of the channel. The depth of water between the Chatham and Jenny, and within the spit bank, towards a small river in the northern part of this Bay, was from 5 to 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and then overfals of 2 and 3 fathoms, to the spit bank: where the water broke very heavily. From the Chatham across to the breakers off point Adams, were found not less than 4½ fathoms, but the sea broke so violently that he was prevented founding through the channel, which was not distinguishable in any direction.

Mr. Manby and some others of the gentlemen, who with Mr. Baker had been up the small river, returned in the evening with eighteen geese, besides a great number of ducks, and some smaller birds.

The morning of the 9th brought fair and pleasant weather, with the wind at S. E. Mr. Broughton again visited the hills of the Cape to take some angles; the sea was too much agitated by the breakers to allow the appearance of any opening through them towards the ocean. In his walk he killed a fine deer. The weather being more moderate than it had been for many days, induced a number of the inhabitants to visit the Chatham; these brought a large supply of fish, and moose-deer

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sufficient for the crew. Amongst the Indians were several who had followed them up the river, and who now brought their various commodities for sale, in the same friendly manner they had done before. The latitude observed this day was 46° 19′. In the afternoon Mr. Sheriff was sent to found, and view the channel out to sea. On his return it was reported to be clear, smooth, and no where less than 4 fathoms water.

The next morning, with a moderate breeze at E.N.E., the Chatham weighed at half ebb from Baker's bay, so named by Mr. Broughton after the commander of the Jenny, whose track he followed; Mr. Baker having obligingly offered, as his was the smallest vessel, to lead out, and having been here in the earlier part of the year, he was better acquainted than Mr. Broughton with the course of the channel. After making two short trips, the Chatham just weathered the Cape, and the breakers that lie off it. The foundings were from 6 to 9 and 11 fathoms, the sea extremely irregular and confused. On standing over towards point Adams, the depth decreased to 6, 5, and 4½ fathoms. Their course was now directed W. ½ S. close to the southern side of the channel. Here the heavy breakers rolled with impetuous force against the wind and tide, and greatly retarded their progress. For, notwithstanding the fresh favorable breeze that blew right aft, there was much difficulty to keep the vessel's head the right way, owing to the violence of the sea, that made her pitch so incessantly as to shake the wind out of her sails.

The Jenny appeared to get out without shipping any water; the Chatham followed her track, but the sea broke several times over her from stem to stern; due precautions however having been taken, none of the water got below. In this unpleasant situation little progress was made. Mr. Broughton suspecting they might have occasion for the boats, had kept them both out in readiness for any emergency. Unfortunately one of these tremendous surges stove the launch, which filled, and by the violence of the jerk broke the tow-rope. One of their marines was unhappily the boat keeper, and it was impossible at the moment to afford him any other assistance than that of veering a buoy a-stern; this expedient however sailed, and they had every reason to fear that the poor fellow would be drowned. After contending with three other such violent billows,


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the wind and tide carried the vessel out with great velocity; and on their arriving in smoother water, the cutter was instantly dispatched to the assistance of the marine, who was perceived amidst those violent agitations of the water, still holding fast of the launch; which, having been more sensibly operated upon than the vessel by the strength of the tide, had drifted clear out; and those on board the Chatham had the inexpressible happiness of seeing the cutter bring both their ship-mate and the launch safely alongside, with the loss only of the furniture that she had contained. Both boats were immediately hoisted in, and the Chatham made sail to the S. S. E. with a fine breeze at N.W. in company with the Jenny.

Soon after the Chatham was out a ship was seen in that quarter, which Mr. Broughton would have concluded to be the Dædalus store ship, had not Mr. Baker informed him that the had joined the Discovery off the entrance, the day after he went up the river; the sequel however shewed that he was not mistaken, this vessel proving to be the Dædalus, which had been detained by the inclemency of the weather in Gray's harbour, until within a few hours of her being seen by the Chatham.

Thus the Chatham quitted Columbia river; the rest of the time, till she joined the Discovery, was employed in performing a very boisterous and unpleasant passage, until she passed cape Mendocino, exactly similar to that which we had experienced. I shall conclude this account of Columbia river, by a few short remarks that Mr. Broughton made in the course of its survey, in his own words:

"The discovery of this river we were given to understand is claimed by the Spaniards, who call it Entrada de Ceta, after the commander of the vessel, who is said to be its first discoverer. but who never entered it, he places it in 46°, north latitude. It is the same opening that Mr. Gray stated to us in the spring, he had been nine days off the former year, but could not get in, in consequence of the out-setting current. That in the course of the late summer he had however entered the river, or rather the found, and had named it after the ship he then commanded. The extent Mr. Gray became acquainted with


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on that occasion is no further than what I have called Gray's bay, not more than 15 miles from cape Disappointment, though according to Mr. Gray's sketch it measures 36 miles. By his calculation its entrance lies in latitude 46° 10′, longitude 237° 18′, differing materially in these respects from our observations.

The entrance as already stated, lies between the breakers extending from cape Disappointment on the north side, and those on the south side from point Adams, over a fort of bar, or more properly speaking, over an extensive flat, on which was found no less depth of water than 4½ fathoms. The best leading mark is to bring the Tongue point, which looks like an island near the southern shore, to bear by compass about E. by N. and then steer for it; this was observed in the passages of the Chatham in and out, though on the latter occasion, circumstances were too unpleasant to allow of great precision.

From the information and experience derived by this visit, it appears to be highly adviseable, that no vessel should attempt entering this port, but when the water is perfectly smooth; a passage may then be effected with safety, but ought even then to be undertaken with caution: bordering on the breakers off point Adams, and keeping the Tongue point well open, with Chenoke, or Village point, will avoid the spit bank, and give a clear channel up to Chenoke; but in case of failure in the wind or tide, it will then be most adviseable to anchor in Baker's bay, bringing its entrance to bear north, and keeping close round the Cape breakers, where the depth of water is from 11 to 9 and 6 fathoms, close to the Cape shore. Within the Cape are three rocky islets in the Bay, the middle one being the largest; just on with the Cape is the line of direction going in, or out; leading along the southern side of the spit bank in deep water, and near this islet, bringing the Cape to bear between S. and S. E. is good anchorage, in 5 fathoms water. The latitude is 46° 19′, longitude 231°,7′, and the variation of the compass 20° eastwardly. The greatest rise and fall of the tide in this Bay observed by Mr. Baker was twelve feet; high water at full and change at half pail one o'clock, Manby's. observations on board

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the Chatham, confirmed those of Mr. Baker, as to the time of high water; but the rise and fall of the tide with him did not exceed six feet, and the greatest strength of the tide was about four knots.

This Bay, besides affording good and secure anchorage, is convenient for procuring wood and water; and, by keeping upon good terms with the natives, who seemed much inclined to be friendly, a supply of fish, and other refreshments, may easily be obtained. The heavy and confused swell that in bad weather constantly rolls in from the sea over its shallow entrance, and breaks in 3 fathoms water, renders the space between Baker's bay and Chenoke point a very indifferent roadstead. Cape Disappointment is formed by high steep precipices, covered with coarse grass, the sides and tops of the hills with pine trees. Point Adams being the south-east point of entrance is low and sandy, from whence the country rises with a gradual ascent, and produces pine and other trees, Any further nautical information that may be required will be better obtained by reference to the sketch.

With respect to its natural productions, and other interesting matter; the weather experienced on board the vessel having uniformly been similar to that afterwards encountered at sea, precluded any competent knowledge being acquired. The trees principally composing the forest, were pines of different kinds, growing to a large size, but were unequal to those of Nootka. Near the water-side were found maple, alder, and ash, and at some distance up the river, beside these, the oak, poplar, and oriental strawberry tree were produced, with many other forest trees, unknown to the gentlemen, who made a short excursion into the country, and who were only able to judge of the indigenous quadrupedes or animals, by the skins the natives wore or brought to barter; these were similar to those found on other parts of the coast. The birds that were procured, were large brown cranes, white swans, white and brown geese, ducks, partridges, and snipes; a variety of others were seen, that could not be taken. All that were brought on board, excepting the brown cranes, proved excellent at table. The river seemed to abound with fish, from the supply the natives provided,

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consisting of two forts of salmon, both very good; sturgeon of a large size and very fine flavor, with silver bream, herrings, flat fish, and soirdinias; of these four last sorts some were caught in the seine. The skirts of the woods afforded a most excellent green vegetable, resembling in appearance and taste the turnip-top when young. A bulbous root, about the size, and not unlike the crocus, that ate much like mealy potatoe, wild mint, ground ivy, and wild lavender, all these the natives make great use of, together with berries of various kinds, particularly the cranberry, of a most excellent flavor, and the first we had seen on this coast.

The natives differed in nothing very materially from those we had visited during the summer, but in the decoration of their persons; in this respect, they surpassed all the other tribes with paints of different colours, feathers, and other ornaments. Their houses seemed to be more comfortable than those at Nootka, the roof having a greater inclination, and the planking being thatched over with the bark of trees. The entrance is through a hole, in a broad plank, covered in such a manner as to resemble the face of a man, the mouth serving the purpose of a door-way. The fire-place is funk into the earth, and confined from spreading above by a wooden frame. The inhabitants are universally addicted to smoking. Their pipe is similar to ours in shape; the bowl is made of very hard wood, and is externally ornamented with carvings; the tube, about two feet long, is made of a small branch of the elder. In this they smoke an herb, which the country produces, of a very mild nature, and by no means unpleasant; they however took great pleasure in smoking our tobacco; hence it is natural to conclude, it might become a valuable article of traffic amongst them. In most other respects they resemble their neighbours, as to their manners and mode of living, being equally filthy and uncleanly.

The soil of the low ground was mostly a stiff, rich clay, capable to all appearance of being made very productive; that on the high land amongst the pine trees, a black mould, seemingly composed of decayed vegetables."

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Having now concluded Mr. Broughton's very interesting account of the river Columbia, and the adjacent country; I shall in the next chapter proceed with the transactions of the Dædalus; and, in the first place, notice Mr. Whidbey's account of Gray's harbour; where, although he was longer detained from us, he had not an opportunity of employing his time to so much advantage in geographical pursuits as Mr. Broughton; the regions allotted to his examination having been found of very limited extent.

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Mr. Whidbey's account of Gray's harbour—Transactions of the Dælalus at the Marquesas, and at some newly-discovered islands—Murder of Lieutenant Hergest at Woahoo—Arrival of the Dædalus at Nootka.

1792. December.

AT Sun-set, on the 18th of october, the Dædalus anchored before the entrance of Gray's harbour, in 7 fathoms water, about half a mile from the reef that extends from the north point of entrance; a boat was sent to examine the passage into this harbour, but returned with little more information than that of its being very intricate, and that it would require much time to become acquainted with it. At day-light the next morning, a boat was again sent for the same purpose, and afterwards the ship was got under weigh, in order to be in readiness; but the boat not returning, another was dispatched at noon, and at three o'clock both returned; the first having been detained by the strength of the stood tide. From their report the ship immediately bore away, and passed a bar in eighteen feet water. The bar extends directly across the entrance into the harbour, which is about a mile wide; from whence they proceeded up the channel, formed by two reefs about three quarters of a mile asunder, extending into the ocean from the points of land which form the entrance into this harbour. Here the depth of water regularly increased from 4 to 11 fathoms, but the ebb tide made so strong, that although the ship went nearly at the rate of five knots, little progress was made; this compelled them to anchor about seven o'clock in the latter depth, having a clear sandy bottom. The outer breakers, on the reef forming the northern side of the passage, bore by com-

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pass S. 58 W. distant 2 miles; a dry sand bank N. 81 W. half a mile distant; the inner breakers on the same side N. 31 E. at the like distance; the outer breakers on the southern side S. 32 W. distant 2 miles; and the inner breakers on that side, N. 65 E.; these form the channel within the bar: there is also a breaker on the bar about a quarter of a mile from the S. W. point of the northernmost ledge of breakers, which bore S. 50 W.

On the morning of the 20th the wind blowing a strong gale from the N.E., prevented the ship moving; but whilst the stood tide lasted, the boats were profitably employed in the further examination of the channel. The observed latitude was found to be 46° 58′½.

Fair weather attended the N.E. gale, which continued until the next morning, when the wind veered to the S. E.; the Dædalus then flood into the harbour, and was moored about noon in 4 fathoms water, off the north point of entrance.

* Now rear admiral.

This is a rounding point, bearing by compass from N. 34 W. to N.68 W., the former distant half a mile; the south point of entrance bore S. 20 W. and the intermediate space was shut in from the sea by the reefs. This anchorage was found to be a very snug and safe situation, and it was a fortunate retreat, as a hard gale of wind set in from the S. E. with a great deal of rain, which continued until the next morning, when Mr. Whidbey began his examination of the harbour. It seemed to be of no great extent, as the land appeared to be closely connected on every side; the operation however proved to be very tedious, in consequence of the very bad weather, and the difficulty of approaching the several parts of the shore on which it was necessary to land. This survey was not finished so far as the boats could proceed, until the morning of the 26th. The north point of entrance, named by Mr. Whidbey after Captain* Brown, is situated in latitude 47°, longitude 236° 7′; the variation of the compass 18° easterly. From hence its southern point of entrance, which obtained the name of POINT HANSON after Lieutenant Hanson who commanded the Dædalus, lies S. 10 E., distant about 2 miles and a quarter from the former; the breakers of the northern side of the channel stretch first S. 33 W. for half a league, and then S. 72 W.

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two miles and three quarters further, where they terminate on that side. Those on the southern side extend first N. 59 W. for a mile, and then S. 61 W. 2 miles and three quarters further, where these also terminate. From these terminations of the reefs, the bar stretches across from point to point, on which at high neap tides there is only twenty feet water; having on it the breaker before noticed, contracting the width of the passage, which can only be considered to lie between it and the southern reef. After passing the bar the channel appeared to be uninterrupted, the northern fide being the deepest, with regular foundings from 4 to 14 fathoms; the latter depth was found in the narrowest part, not more than half a mile wide, between the two first mentioned projecting points of the reef, from the points of the harbour. Thence in the line of mid-channel the depth decreases to 6 fathoms between, the points of the harbour, and to 4 and 3 fathoms towards the southern side, which is the shallowest; it however increases to 10 and decreases again to 6 and 3 fathoms near point Brown: this is the boldest shore, and affords a space of near two miles in extent to the N.E. east and S. E. of it, where maybe found good and secure anchorage; with regular foundings from 10 to 4 fathoms; to the north is excellent anchorage also in 4 to 6 fathom water, though this is more confined by the shoals. From point Brown, to a point up the harbour, lying from it N. 65 E. at the distance of 4 miles and a quarter, which obtained the name of POINT NEW after the master of the store ship, the northern shore forms a deep Bay, falling back near a league and a half from the line of the two points. This Bay is occupied by shoals and overfals commencing about a mile to the north of point Brown, stretching nearly in an eastern direction, and passing, about a mile to the southward of point New, up to the navigable extent of the harbour, which terminates in an eastern direction about 2 leagues from point Brown, though the shore on each side retires about half a league further back; but the intermediate space, consisting of a shallow flat, prevented the head of the harbour from being approached, where was the appearance of a small rivulet. From this station the shoals on its southern side take a direction nearly S. 73 W., until they reach within about 1 mile and three quarters of point Brown, lying from


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that point S. 45 E.; there, a point is formed that stretches to the southward, and admits of a narrow channel of about 4 and 5 fathoms water, between them and the shoal that lies on the eastern side of point Hanson, into a small cove, lying from that point S.50 E. 2 miles distant. These shoals, extending intirely round the harbour, are in some parts particularly on its southern side dry at low water, and on them are lodged great numbers of dead trees and logs of drift timber. There are also two other shoals situated at the distance of 2 miles to the eastward of point Brown, lying nearly in a north and south direction. The easternmost, which is the largest, and partly a dry sand, nearly connects the two shoal banks, admitting a narrow passage to the north of it with 5 fathoms, and another to the south of it in which there is only 3 fathoms water. The rise and fall of the tide was here found to be about ten feet, and it is high water about 50′ after the moon passes the meridian. The only leading mark for sailing into this harbour, are two small red cliffy islets lying to the N.W. of point New; the outermost of these, having the resemblance of a flower pot, in a line with point Brown, leads over the center of the bar; as also, over part of the northern reef, easily avoided by keeping in the depth of water already mentioned, after crossing the bar. Any further nautical information that may be required, will be found by reference to the sketch of this survey.

This port appears to be of little importance in its present state, as it affords but two or three situations where the boats could approach sufficiently near the. shores to effect a landing; the most commodious place was at point Brown; another near point Hanson; and one in the cove or creek to the S. E. of that point. The shallowness of the water on the bar also renders it by no means a desirable port. To pass this is impracticable unless near high water, even with vessels of a very moderate size, and it should then be attempted with the utmost caution; since Mr. Whidbey had great reason to believe that it is a shifting bar; there being a very apparent difference in the channel on their arrival, and at their departure, when it seemed to have become much wider but less deep. A dry sand bank which lay near their anchorage the first evening 011 the north side of the channel, was now intirely washed away by

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the violence of the sea, which had incessantly broke upon the shoals and bar.

Wood and water are at too great a distance to be easily procured, particularly the latter, which is found in small springs only, running through the sand near point Hanson, at the distance of a mile from the landing place, over a very heavy sand.

The surrounding shores are low and apparently swampy, with salt marshes; the soil is a thin mixture of red and white sand, over a bed of stones and pebbles. At a small distance from the water side the country is covered with wood, principally pines of an inferior stunted growth.

Both the Dædalus and Chatham had greatly the advantage of the Discovery, by being detained in port during the boisterous weather that we contended with. There they procured a most abundant supply of excellent fish, and wild fowl; the productions of Gray's harbour being similar to those found in and about Columbia river. Salmon, sturgeon, and other fish, were plentifully obtained from the natives, and geese, ducks, and other wild fowl, shot by themselves in such numbers, as sometimes to serve the whole of their crews. The best sporting ground in Gray's harbour was found to be on its south side.

Mr. Whidbey estimated the number of Indians inhabiting this place at about one hundred; they spoke the Nootka language, but it did not appear to be their native tongue; and they seemed to vary in little or no respect from those people we had occasionally seen during the summer. Their behaviour was uniformly civil, courteous, and friendly. In Mr. Whidbey's excursion to the head of the harbour he was visited by nineteen of them, who, having satisfied their curiosity and received some trivial presents, were about to depart, when the boat in endeavouring to approach a small rivulet became entangled amongst shoals, sunken logs of wood, and stumps of trees; on which there being some sea occasioned the boat frequently to strike, and rendered its situation very disagreeable; the friendly Indians, perceiving their embarrassment, very kindly by signs, and other means, afforded them such assistance as soon

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conducted them into deep water, when they took their leave and departed.

Mr. Whidbey considered them to be rather a more slender race than we had been accustomed to see, and that, contrary to the generality of the men we had become acquainted with on the coast of North West America, these did not appear to be jealous of their women, but allowed them to repair on board the vessel, where they remained many hours at a time much to their satisfaction. They appeared to be divided into three distinct tribes, or parties, each having one or two chiefs. When inquiries were made of any one party respecting the other two, they would reply that the others were bad people, and that the party questioned were the only good Indians in the harbour. Hence may be inferred that they were at this time at variance, and that their interests were totally separate from each other. Some of their war canoes were seen; these had a piece of wood rudely carved, perforated, and placed at each end, three feet above the gunwale; through these holes they are able to discharge their arrows, without exposing their persons to their adversaries, either in advancing or retreating. Each canoe held twenty people or upwards; little difference appeared in their bows or arrows from those generally met with; the former were somewhat more circular, and the latter were pointed with iron, copper, or shells, some of which were barbed; these seemed to be their most favorite weapon, and were managed with great dexterity. One of the Indians desired the mate of the Dædalus to shoot a pelican sitting on the water about fifty yards off. The mate fired twice with single ball without hurting the bird, which kept its station. The Indian missed it with the first arrow, but with the second he pierced through the wing and body of the pelican, to the great exultation of all the natives present. They are well versed in commercial pursuits, and dealt very fairly and honestly. For sea-otter skins they sometimes required iron in exchange, but in general sold them for copper and woollen cloth. About thirty or forty good sea-otter skins, with many of inferior quality, were thus purchased; for their less valuable commodities they were partial to pale blue beads, two of which would buy a large salmon. They appeared to be a hardy people,

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and inured to the inclemency of the weather; which, when at the worst, did not deter them from visiting the ship, though the sea frequently broke intirely over them. On such occasions they bale their canoe, and paddle on, without the least apparent concern.

This is the substance of the information acquired by Mr. Whidbey in his visit to Gray's harbour; and, as the observations made on the passage of the Dædalus from thence to Monterrey, would, like those of the Chatham, be only a repetition of what has been already related, I shall now proceed to date some interesting intelligence collected from letters written off Owhyhee by the late Lieutenant Hergest, agent to the Dædalus transport, respecting his transactions at the Marquesas, and the discovery of some islands to the N.W. of them, with an extract from his log-book on the same subjects; together with the account given by Mr. Thomas New the master of the unfortunate death of that officer, and of the late Mr. Gooch the astronomer. As the preceding part of Mr. Hergest's voyage appeared by the journals on board to contain no very interesting intelligence, the narrative will commence on the arrival of the Dædalus at the Marquesas.

The length of the passage from Falkland's islands into this ocean, rendered it necessary that Mr. Hergest should embrace the earliest opportunity to recruit his water, and procure refreshments, especially as the character, that, had been lately published in England of the inhabitants on the Sandwich islands, made it uncertain that any supplies would be procured from that quarter. Having made the Marquesas, Lieutenant Hergest directed his course for Resolution bay in the island of Ohetahoo; where the Dædalus anchored on the evening of the 22d of march, 1792, in 22 fathoms water, sandy bottom; having worked into the Bay against very heavy squalls and gusts of wind, which came down with great fury from the hills that overlook the shores.

In one of these heavy squalls, about 4 o'clock the next morning, they parted from their anchor and drove out of the Bay. The vessel was scarcely clear of the points when Mr. Hergest discovered the ship to be on fire. They had all been prevented sleeping during the night by the ship having been full of smoke; those who had the watch on deck at-

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tributed this circumstance to the smoke having come from the shore; and this opinion, very inconsiderately and without reflection had been generally adopted, until Mr. Hergest, after the ship had cleared the points of the Bay, in going into the cabin was convinced that the smoke originated from a nearer and more alarming cause. On listing up the gun room scuttle, there immediately issued an immense column of smoke, which left no doubt of their perilous situation, as the fire was close to the magazine. Not a moment was lost in getting out the powder, and putting it into a boat alongside, but this was no easy task to perform; as the gun room was extremely hot and full of smoke, and the powder, very injudiciously, had been promiscuously stowed amongst the ship's provisions. On this occasion there appears to have been no exertion wanting in the crew of the Dædalus, to whose credit Mr. Hergest observes, that in that trying moment every man flood firm to his duty, without suffering fear or panic to swerve them from its execution; although on some other occasions they had given him much trouble and serious concern. At first the fire was supposed to have been occasioned by some oakum, stowed in the fore part of the gun room, taking fire, by accidentally getting wet; since no lights had ever been near it. After a large quantity of provisions had been hoisted up to get out the powder, the smoke was still found to ascend from below; this circumstance, with that of the deck being so hot as not to allow the people keeping their hands upon some lead that was laid upon it, convinced them that the fire must be in the lazaretto below, where some pursers beds were now recollected to have been very improperly stowed; and from the seas they had shipped during the tempestuous weather which they had experienced in their passage round cape Horn, no doubt was entertained that these beds had got wet and had taken fire. Every minute confirming Mr. Hergest in this opinion, care was immediately taken to stop every avenue and crevice about the after hatch-way, to prevent any communication of air before they ventured to scuttle the deck for the purpose of extinguishing the fire by pouring water over it. Happily they had day-light for executing this; and were soon convinced, that the fire had originated as they had last conjectured, from the appearance of the ascending smoke,


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on scuttling the deck, as also of the good effect of their judicious labours. Other holes were now bored immediately over the beds, and after pouring down large quantities of water, they soon had reason to be gratefully thankful to divine Providence for so timely and critical a preservation. Some of the beds were intirely consumed; a case on which they were laid, as also the deck over them, were burnt some way into the wood to a black cinder. Little else was flowed with these beds but rum and oil; so that had the fire once broke out into a blaze, the extinguishing it, or preventing its communication with these inflammable substances, would have been morally impossible, and their destruction would have been inevitable.

The fire thus providentially discovered and happily extinguished, all the bedding, being either burnt or rotten, was got up and thrown overboard. Fearful of drifting too far to leeward, they were obliged to make sail in order to work into the Bay, although the decks at this time were very much encumbered. Many of the natives were about the ship, employed in picking up the rotten bedding that had been thrown into the sea. At eleven in the forenoon they anchored near their former station. The natives had taken away the buoy, but had fastened a piece of wood to the buoy-rope, which answered all the purposes of recovering their anchor; this was soon effected, and the ship steadied with the kedge anchor to the southward; the south point of the Bay bearing by compass S.W., the north point N.W., and the watering place E. by N. one mile distant. The village in the south cove being the nearest shore, was at the distance of about a quarter of a mile.

In the afternoon Mr. Hergest in the cutter, attended by the second mate in the long boat, went to procure water, and landed with the mate and three men, though not without much difficulty on account of the surf. This did not permit them to put more than two casks on shore. Many of the natives were assembled, and in consequence of there being no chief amongst them were soon found to be very troublesome, as they stole every thing they could make off with, so that not a bucket was left them to fill the casks with water. Mr. Hergest, finding that his party on shore would require considerable reinforcement to effect his purpose.

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was about to embark, when one of his people claimed his attention. The natives had amused themselves by pulling the hair of a young man, and other waggish tricks, whilst his endeavours to prevent this rudeness afforded the rest of the Indians as high an entertainment as it would have done an English rabble. These indignities were so galling to the poor fellow, that no longer able to endure them, and not being in a situation to resent the insults he received, he burst into a flood of tears. On Mr. Hergest reproaching him in rather harsh terms for exposing so great a proof of his weakness, he found himself suddenly turned round by the natives who were behind him, and his fowling piece forcibly wrenched out of his hand. On the impulse of the moment he called to the mate to fire and bring down the thief, but fortunately, "I say fortunately" repeats Mr. Hergest, "his piece was not cocked, and I had time to recollect that his musket was then the only one on shore; and there is no faying what consequences might have followed had the thief been shot." Mr. Hergest and his party very prudently retired immediately to their boats, which they effected without any opposition; but on re-embarking, it was found that some of the Indians had dived under water and cut the long boat's grapnel-rope, by which means they lost the grapnel.

These unprovoked injuries and indignities were not easily to be put up with; and Mr. Hergest very properly reflected, that passing by such insults and depredations would only encourage the islanders to persevere in these unwarrantable practices. In order therefore to awe them into better behaviour, he rowed close to the beach, and discharged a volley of musketoons and small arms over their heads. This measure had the good effect of driving them all, excepting one man, from the beach among the trees; this fellow was bold enough to remain, and throw stones with his fling at the boats. Mr. Hergest however took no notice of him, being determined to shew them the effect of their great guns, four of which were fired over the village on his return to the Dædalus. These produced such consternation, that the natives were seen making the best of their way in every direction towards the mountains.

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The clearing the ship's decks and putting her to rights employed all hands till nearly dark, when one of the natives swam off with their usual ensigns of peace, a green bough, wrapped up in white cloth; this he threw into the ship, and immediately returned to the shore. By this act of humiliation on the part of the natives, Mr. Hergest had great reason to expect that he should be enabled to carry into execution the service they had to perform on shore, without further molestation; and to hope that none of the Indians were killed or materially hurt, as his intention was only to frighten them, and by the superiority of his powers to shew them, that such improper behaviour should not long remain unchastised. In these expectations, the next morning (october 24th) he met with no disappointment, though it was not possible to restrain intirely the exercise of their thievish faculties, even on board the ship. The astronomer's theodolite, in its case, happening to be on deck, one of them contrived to convey it away, but being discovered swimming with it to his canoe, a musket was discharged by the chief mate, and it had the good effect of making the Indian abandon his prize, which was recovered, the case being sufficient to keep it afloat. After this the natives supplied them with bread fruit, together with a large quantity of other vegetables, and a few small pigs.

On Mr. Hergest's return to the shore, with a guard well armed, for the purpose of procuring water, no inconvenience arose from the natives; on the contrary, they cheerfully assisted in swimming off to the boats, filling and rolling down the water casks, and in other services, for which they were liberally rewarded with such trivial articles as they most highly esteemed.

One person only had been seen bearing the appearance of a chief, whose name was Tu-ow, and who had been amongst their first visitors on their arrival. In the afternoon, he brought as a present some vegetables, with a small pig or two, for which he received a suitable reward; and was also presented by Mr. Hergest with the only English sow he had left, for the purpose of improving the breed of those animals in that country. Their operations were now carried on in a very amicable manner, but the number of visitors greatly impeded their business; to obviate this


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inconvenience the colours were hoisted, in order to signify that the ship was tabooed. This had the desired effect with respect to the men; but the women, who probably had more incitements than bare curiosity, were not to be so easily restrained. They still continued to swim from the shore in such numbers, that they were obliged, frequently, to fire muskets over their heads to deter them from advancing.

A tolerable supply of vegetables was obtained, but so few hogs, that it was noon on the 26th before a sufficient number were procured to serve the ship's company at the rate of one pound and a half per man; and these were purchased with twelve inches of bar iron for each small pig.

Two chiefs, who visited the ship on the 27th, restored the grapnel that had been stolen, and promised to bring back Mr. Hergest's fowling piece. In the afternoon Mr. Hergest was employed in surveying and founding the Bay, the depth of water was found to be regular from 30 fathoms at its entrance to 9 fathoms towards the shore, admitting of good anchorage within that space. Round the shores of the Bay, at a very small distance, the depth of water was from 7 to 5 and 4 fathoms.

Having completed their supply of water on the 29th of october, and having finished all the business they were here desirous of executing, just as they were preparing to sail the two chiefs who had returned the grapnel re-visited the ship, and repeated their promise that the fowling piece should be restored. In consequence of their former good behaviour they had received many valuable presents; and as they were now in Mr. Hergest's power, and as he was well assured that they could obtain the restitution of his gun, he informed one of the chiefs that the ship was immediately going to sea, and that if the fowling piece was not instantly sent on board he should be carried away from his island. To these threats he paid little attention, until an armed centinel was placed to guard him in the cabin; when his apprehensions became visible, and were not a little augmented by the alarm of the Indians on board, most of whom quitted the ship. Mr. Hergest, perceiving his agitation, used every means to assure him, that he should not be hurt, but yet if the gun was withheld, that he would on a certainty proceed with him to sea. This conversation had the desired effect; a message was sent to the chief in whole possession the piece was,

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and in about half an hour a canoe was seen coming towards the ship displaying the usual emblems of peace, in which was a chief who had brought back the gun, and to whom Mr. Hergest delivered up the prisoner unhurt. The tears, eager salutation, and the fond delight expressed by the chief who had been detained on again embracing his countrymen, plainly discovered the terror of his mind under the apprehension of seeing them no more. They now parted very good friends, and both the prisoner and the other chief seemed perfectly reconciled on receiving some useful presents.

Thus the Dædalus quitted the island and its inhabitants, with whom they seemed to be continually on the eve of a quarrel, in consequence of their repeated and daring thefts. Mr. Hergest very humanely concludes the account of his transactions at the Marquesas, by expressing much happiness that he had not been driven to the melancholy necessity of putting any of the natives to death, for the security of their property; and, excepting one man who was detected in stealing a bucket, and who was suffered to reach his canoe before a musket was fired, with the intention to frighten him by passing the ball through his canoe, but which unintentionally passed through the calf of his leg, no other person appeared to have received the least injury. This was a very fortunate circumstance, as the shot fired from the great guns went far up the valley, where were many of their habitations; and their escaping unhurt on that occasion, was more than could well have been expected. It is however very probable they may not fare so well on the future arrival of other vessels, since their inordinate propensity to thieving seems beyond all restraint or controul; and there did not appear to be any chief amongst them, who possessed either inclination or authority sufficient to deter them from such practices.

In the evening, about five o'clock, they weighed and steered to the northward. At day-light the next morning (30th october) they came within sight of some islands, which appeared to Mr. Hergest to be new discoveries. Those first seen were three in number, one bearing by compass N. by E., the other N. by W., and the third S.W. by S. They fetched the S.W. part of the easternmost, where a good Bay was found

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with a Tandy beach. Some rocky islets lie to the S.E. of it, and from a gully in the N.W. part of the Bay, there was an appearance of procuring a supply of water. To the east of the south point there appeared another good Bay; and along the western shore, shallow broken water. But, on rounding that point, and hauling to the north along the west side, the broken water was found to extend not more than a quarter of a mile from the shore. On this side there is neither cove nor inlet, only a rocky shore, with two small rocky islets off its N.W. point. This island is about 6 leagues in circuit, and is in latitude 8° 5o' south; longitude 220° 51′ east. It is inhabited by a tribe of seemingly friendly Indians, some of whom visited the ship in their canoes. In the vallies were a great number of cocoa nut and plantain trees, and the whole island presented an infinitely more verdant and fertile appearance than those they had just quitted. From hence they flood over to the southernmost island, which appears at a distance like a remarkably high rock, with three peaked rocks close to it; these are about the middle of the island. The night was spent in keeping their station near it, and in the morning their course was directed towards its S.W. point. As the shore was approached, the land was seen to be well cultivated and numerously inhabited. More than one hundred Indians were soon assembled round the ship in their canoes, disposing of cocoa nuts, plantains, &c. for beads and other trifles, and behaving in a very friendly manner. At the S.W. end of this island is a very good Bay, with a sandy beach in its eastern part. Along the southern side are other bays; one in particular appeared to retire deeply in towards the S.E. end of the island, having a small islet lying off it, not unlike in shape to a cathedral, and other rocks and islets. From the weft point of this island, forming also the west point of the finest and deepest Bay it affords, its shores trend round to the N.E.; and, like the west side of the island they were at the preceding day, (which received the name of RIOU'S ISLAND) are rocky, and bear rather a steril appearance. This island obtained the name of TREVENEN'S ISLAND; it is situated in latitude 9° 14′ south, longitude 220° 21′ east.

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In the forenoon of the 1st of april, the south side of the third island was passed, which was named SIR HENRY MARTIN'S ISLAND; immediately to the west of its S.E. point, called point Martin, is a deep well-sheltered Bay bounded by sandy beaches, this obtained the name of COMPTROLLER'S BAY; it was not examined, but on passing had the appearance of a safe and commodious port. At its head was a break in the shores, supposed by some to be the mouth of a rivulet, but as it appeared too large for so small an island to afford, Mr. Hergest was rather inclined to believe it only a deep cove.

They were here visited by many of the natives paddling and sailing in their canoes; who behaved in a very civil and friendly manner. About 2 leagues to the westward of point Martin is a very fine harbour, extending deep into the island, and bounded by a most delightful and fertile country. Mr. Hergest, accompanied by Mr. Gooch went with the cutter to take a sketch and to examine the port, which he called PORT ANNA MARIA. It was found to be very easy of access and egress, without any shoals or rocks that are not sufficiently conspicuous to be avoided; the depth at its entrance 24 fathoms, gradually decreasing to 7 fathoms, within a quarter of a mile of its shores; the bottom a fine sand, and the surrounding land affording most perfect, security against the winds and sea in all directions. An excellent run of fine water flows into the harbour, which possesses every advantage that could be desired.

The country seemed to be highly cultivated, and was fully inhabited by a civil and friendly race of people, readily inclined to supply whatever refreshments their country afforded. Our people were induced to entertain this opinion from the hospitable reception they experienced on landing, from the chiefs and upwards of fifteen hundred of the natives who were assembled on the shores of the harbour. On their return to the ship they found the same harmony subsisting there with the Indians, who had carried off and fold a supply of vegetables and some pigs. They renewed their route along the south side of the island to its S.W. point, when they hauled their wind along the western side. This is a rocky iron bound shore without cove or bay. It had a verdant appear-

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ance, but no great sign of fertility, nor were any habitations or natives perceived. About sun-set they discovered what appeared like a large rock to the north-westward, about 6 or 7 leagues distant, and during the night they remained near Sir Henry Martin's island; but in the morning not being able to fetch its N. E. point they quitted it; its N.W. side appeared to contain some small bays, and towards its N.E. extremity the land turned, apparently, short round, forming a bay something similar to, but not so deep as Comptroller's bay. Another rock just above water now shewed its head to the eastward, and to the northward of that before mentioned. These Mr. Hergest represents to be dangerous; they lie about W. by N. about 6 leagues from the western side of Sir Henry Martin's island, which is about 16 leagues in circuit. Its center is situated in south latitude 8° 51′, longitude 220° 19′, east.

After leaving this island, two others were discovered to the northward of them. On the morning of the 3d of april they bore up to the southward, along the east side of the south-westernmost. This is the largest of the two, its shores are rocky, without any coves or landing places, and though its surface was green it produced no trees, yet a few shrubs and bushes were thinly scattered over the face of the rocks; nor did it seem to be otherways inhabited than by the tropical oceanic birds. These were in great numbers about it, and it seemed to be a place of their general resort. The N.W. side, however, had a more favorable aspect, and although its shores were also rocky a number of trees were produced, as well on the sides of the hills, as in the vallies. This side afforded some coves where there is good landing, particularly in one near the middle; this, from the appearance of its northern side, was called BATTERY COVE. A little more than a mile to the north of this cove is a Bay, which Mr. Hergest and Mr. Gooch examined. Good anchorage and regular foundings were found from 18 to 5 fathoms water; the bottom a fine clear sand. An excellent run of fresh water discharged itself into the Bay near a grove of cocoa-nut trees; here they landed, and found a place of interment, and a hut near half a mile from it by the side of a hill; but there were no people, nor the appearance of any having been recently there; although it was manifest that they did, on some occasions, resort to the island. This induced Mr.


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Hergest to forbear cutting down any of the cocoa-nut trees as he had at first intended to do; and he procured by other means as many of the fruit as served the whole crew, with five to each person.

The landing was but indifferent on account of the surf; but water is easily obtained.

After ascertaining the last mentioned island to be eight miles long and two miles broad, and to be situated in south latitude 7° 53′, longitude 219° 47′ east, they took leave of these islands the next morning; and to the N.E. of the last, at the distance of about a league, they discovered another, nearly round and much smaller, with two islets lying off its S.W. point; to this was given the name of ROBERTS'S ISLAND.

Mr. Hergest states, that during the time he was amongst these islands and at the Marquesas, they were subject to frequent heavy squalls and much rain. He compares the inhabitants of this group to those of the Marquesas, in colour and in size: but in manners, behaviour, dress, and ornaments, excepting that of their being less punctured, they more resembled the people of Otaheite and the Society islands.

On the first information of the Dædalus having visited these islands, I concluded they had not been seen before, and to commemorate the discovery of a very worthy though unfortunate friend and fellow traveller in my more early periods of navigating these seas, I distinguished the whole group by the name of HERGEST'S ISLANDS. But I have since been informed, that these islands had been discovered and landed upon by some of the American traders, and that in fine weather the southernmost is visible from Hood's island, the most northern of the Marquesas. Hence they are considered by some as properly appertaining to that group, although neither the Spanish navigator, nor Captain Cook who visited the Marquesas after him, had any knowledge of such islands existing.

This is the amount of all the information I have been able to collect from Mr. Hergest's papers respecting his voyage thus far; the imperfect arrangement of which offers an additional cause, if an additional cause could be wanting, to lament the untimely and melancholy fate of that valuable officer; who, in several interesting particulars in his observations on these islands, refers to documents which I have never seen, and which

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would of course have enabled mc to illustrate many points and descriptions which, for that reason, I have not been able to insert.

The unfortunate, as well as the successful adventures of persons employed on services of a public nature, being generally objects of minute inquiry, I shall conclude this chapter with the account delivered to me by Mr. New, the master of the Dædalus transport, of the melancholy fate that attended Lieutenant Hergest her commander, Mr. Gooch the astronomer, and the unfortunate seaman who was murdered with them.

In their passage from Hergest's to the Sandwich islands there did not appear any thing worthy of remark except a strong current that set at the rate of 30 miles a day, and obliged them to stand to the eastward left they should fall to leeward of those islands. The Dædalus by this means arrived off Owhyhee, and Mr. Hergest received the orders I had left there. From thence he proceeded to the N.W. side of Woahoo, not having any expectation of finding the Discovery at that time on the south side of the island, as I had appointed. This unfortunate determination, though contrary to the orders I had given, appeared to him at the time to be right, in order to insure the most expeditious passage towards Nootka.

In the morning of the 7th of may, the Dædalus arrived in that bay where the Resolution and Discovery had anchored in 1779: but Mr. Hergest declined anchoring there, as he considered the inhabitants of that neighbourhood to be the most savage and deceitful of any amongst those islands. For this reason he lay to, and purchased from the natives some hogs, vegetables, and a few gourds of water. In the evening he stood off shore, and desired that the inhabitants would bring a further supply of water and refreshments the next morning; but it falling calm, and the current setting the ship to the westward, it was near noon on the 11th before they regained the shore, when Mr. Hergest receded from his former wife determination, and unhappily for himself and those who fell with him, ordered the ship to be anchored. The cutter was hoisted out and veered astern for the better convenience of purchasing water from the natives, but before three casks were filled, which was soon done, he ordered the

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cutter alongside, the full casks to ho taken out and replaced by empty ones: and then. accompanied as usual by Mr. Gooch. he went on shore, and another boat was hoisted out for the purpose of obtaining water: while those on board continued making purchases until near dark. At this time the cutter returned, with only five persons instead of the eight who had gone on shore in her. from whom was learned the distressing intelligence, that Mr. Hergest, Mr. Gooch. and two of the boat's crew having landed unarmed with two of the water casks to fill, their defenceless situation was perceived by the natives, who immediately attacked them, killed one of the people, and carried off the commander and the astronomer. The other being a very stout active man made his escape through a great number of these ravages, fled to the boat, and with two others landed again, with two muskets, and with the intention to rescue their officers, and to recover the body of their messmate. They soon perceived that both Mr. Hergest and Mr. Gooch were vet alive amongst a vast concourse of the inhabitants, who were stripping them, and forcing them up the hills behind the village: they endeavoured to get near the multitude, but were so assailed by stones from the crowd, who had now gained the surrounding hills, that they were under the painful necessity of retiring; and as night was fast approaching, they thought it molt advisable to return on board, that more effectual means might be resorted to on this unfortunate occasion.

Mr. New immediately assembled all the officers, to consult with them what was best to be done. It was agreed to stand off and on with the ship during the night, and in the morning to send the cutter well manned and armed on shore, and if possible to recover their unfortunate commander and shipmates. An old chief belonging to Attowai, who had been on board since the Dædalus entered the Bay, and had been promised by Mr. Hergest a passage to his native island, went also in the boat, to assist as an interpreter, and to employ his good offices. He was first landed, and went towards the natives, of whom he demanded the absent gentlemen; on which he was informed they were both killed the preceding night. Having delivered this message, he was sent back to demand their bodies; but was told in reply, that they had both been cut


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in pieces, and divided amongst seven different chiefs; at least it was so understood by those in the boat from the language and signs which the chief made use of.

After this conversation the savages came in great numbers towards the sea side, and threw stones at the party in the boat, who fired several times and at length obliged them to retire. Finding their errand to be completely fruitless, the boat returned on board, in which the old chief re-embarked, and the vessel bore away to land him agreeably to a former promise at Attowai; but when they were about 5 or 6 leagues to leeward of Woahoo, about five in the evening, the old chief made a sudden spring overboard, and swam from the ship, which was instantly brought to, but on finding that he still continued to swirn from them, without the least inclination of returning on board, they filled their sails, and having then no business at Attowai, they made the best of their way towards Nootka, agreeably to my directions.

On the 13th of june they made the American coast; the wind having been constantly in the N.W. quarter, they were not able to fetch higher up than the latitude of 41° 30′, from whence they beat to windward the rest of the way to Nootka, where they arrived on the 4th of july. In compliance with a letter of instructions left by the late commander of the Dædalus in his bureau, addressed to Mr. Thomas New in case of his death, Mr. New opened the dispatches addressed to me from the Lords of the Admiralty, and agreeably with the directions they contained, he delivered to Senr. Quadra, the commanding officer at that port, the letter therein inclosed, and addressed to him from the Spanish minister.

Thus conclude all the matters and transactions of our voyage up to the end of the year 1792. In the following chapter I shall resume the narrative of our proceedings at Monterrey.

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Departure of Lieutenant Broughton for England—Pregress towards the Sandwich islands—Fruitless search for the islands of Los Majos—Arrive at Owhyhee—Visited by the chiefs—Anchor in Karakakooa bay— Land the cattle—Regulations adopted—Account of two English seamen residing on the island—Capture of the schooner Fair American—Character of some of the leading chiefs.

1793. January.

THE preceding chapters brought to a conclusion the Various occurrences of our voyage to the end of 1792; the beginning of the following year was not marked by any thing of very particular moment. Senr. Quadra's benevolent disposition encouraged me again to obtrude on his goodness by requesting some black cattle and sheep, for the purpose of establishing a breed of those valuable animals in the Sandwich islands. A dozen, being as many as we could possibly take on board, were immediately provided, consisting of four cows, four ewes, two bulls, and two rams. The prospect we had of a good passage to those islands induced me to lay myself under this additional obligation, hoping by such an importation, to accomplish at once the purpose I had in contemplation; which, if effected, could not sail of being highly beneficial, not only to the resident inhabitants, but also to all future visitors.

Sunday 6.

Notwithstanding that I was extremely anxious to get away from Monterrey that the further objects of our pursuit might re-commence, and that we might be no longer the cause of Senr. Quadra's detention, yet, with our utmost labours and exertions, it was not until the 6th that the several charts, drawings, letters, and other documents were in readiness to be transmitted to England.

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Monday 7.

After this, having no further occasion for our establishment on shore, the tents, observatory, instruments, and every other article were reshipped, it being my full determination to sail with the land wind the following evening: in the interval I was honored on board with the company of Sen Quadra, Caamano, the commandant of the presidio with his lady, and most of our Spanish friends.

Sunday 13.

In the course of the afternoon a very material alteration took place in the weather, for the first time since our arrival in this Bay. The wind blew a hard gale from the S. E. attended with heavy squalls and torrents of rain. In addition to this another circumstance concurred to detain us some time longer. The armourer of the Chatham, a most industrious and excellent workman, found an opportunity in the course of the day, with one of the Chatham's best marines, to absent themselves. The abilities and generally good conduct of the armourer, made his loss a matter of no small consequence, especially as there was no other person in our little community that was competent to fill his post. The only mode to be pursued for their recovery, was to make a proper and formal application to Senr. Quadra, and to Senr. Arguello, the commandant of the presidio. In consequence of this, these gentlemen took similar steps to those which on a former occasion had recovered a seaman belonging to the Discovery, who had attempted to make his escape. The better to insure success in this instance, a reward of twenty-five dollars for each of the deserters was offered to the soldiers, who were dispatched in every direction in search of them. The like sum was offered by Senr. Quadra, by the commandant, and by myself, to any person who would deliver them up, or who should be the cause of their being taken. The loss we had thus sustained, and the active exertions making to repair it, would at any rate have induced me to wait a few days for the event of our researches. The S.W. and southerly winds with succeeding calms continued, however, to prevent our failing until the 13th, when in the morning the regular sea-breeze from the N.W. prevailed.

During this interval no tidings had been gained of the absentees, and the soldiers who had been sent in quest of them returned unsuccessful.

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Senr. Quadra evidently felt much distressed that so unfortunate an occurrence should take place just on the eve of our separation, and issued orders, that on their being apprehended they should be imprisoned; that they might be forwarded to me at Nootka, during any period of our remaining in these seas. And as a proof that these people had absconded without the knowledge, privity, or encouragement of any of the Spanish officers, he very obligingly offered to replace the armourer by substituting the only smith in this establishment; who, being reported to be a very good workman, was an artificer of too much importance, to persons in our situation, to be hastily declined. With great reluctance, and though contrary to my wishes, I was induced to accept the advantage of so friendly an offer, to which the urgency of the case alone could have obliged me to assent. He was accordingly received on board the Chatham, and Senr. Quadra's vessels as well as our own being in readiness to depart, it was agreed we should sail together, so long as our southern course answered the purpose of our respective routes, that we might continue as long as possible to benefit by each other's society.

We now waited only for the favorable land breeze to take our departure. I consigned to the charge of Mr. Broughton the dispatches I had prepared, with orders, as far as it might depend upon himself not to admit a moment's loss of time in repairing to England; and I directed my first lieutenant, Mr. Puget, to take upon him the command of the Chatham, during the absence of Mr. Broughton.

Monday 14.

The night was perfectly calm; about nine o'clock on monday morning a light breeze sprung up from the eastward, with which the Discovery weighed; but, as neither the Chatham nor any of the Spanish vessels were able to move, we waited for them off point Pinos, this we passed at the distance of 2 or 3 miles, and had foundings from 38 to 55 fathoms, black sand and muddy bottom.

Tuesday 15.

The next morning we found ourselves more to the southward, and further from the shore than we expected; the wind blew a fresh breeze from the land, and we stood to the northward in quest of our friends. The Chatham joined us about nine o'clock, when our situation afforded

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a good opportunity of making such observations as were required to prove the rate of the chronometers. At noon the latitude was found to be 36° 23′; Kendall's chronometer shewed 238° 18′: Arnold's No. 14, 238° 7′½; No. 176, 238° 10′¾, and Earnshaw's pocket watch, 238° 3′. In this situation the southernmost land in sight bore by compass S. 56 E.; an apparently detached piece of land like a small islet, S. 72 E.; and point Pinos N. 31 E. This point, according to our observations made on shore at Monterrey, is situated in latitude 36° 38′, longitude 238° 22′; from which it appeared that the chronometers, since they had been taken on board, had acquired the following errors, (viz.) Kendall's 13′. Arnold's No. 14, 2′ 30″; Arnold's No. 176, 5′ 45″, to the east of the truth. Earnshaw's pocket watch appeared to be correct. By these observations Kendall's had acquired the greatest error, and Earnshaw's had gone perfectly right. The great regularity of Kendall's hitherto made it difficult to account for this sudden alteration, which could be attributed to nothing but the change that had taken place in the climate on their being removed from the shore to the ship. The thermometer was found daily to vary at the observatory between mid-day and the evening, from about 72° to 40°; the excess was more, as it would sometimes rife to 76°, and fall to 31°; but this did not frequently happen, though early in the mornings it was not unusual to find the little wells we had dug skimmed over with thin flakes of ice, and the ground covered with hoar frost. On board the ship, the mean temperature of the air in which they were kept was between 54 and 60 degrees. This opinion appeared to be particularly corroborated in the instance of Kendall's watch, which evidently went nearly at its Nootka rate during our passage from thence to Monterrey; but on its being there landed, the increase and continuation of the cold appeared soon to accelerate its motion from that of gaining 11″¼ to 18½ per day. On allowing its rate of gaining at Nootka, from the time of its last coming on board at Monterrey, it was found to agree very nearly with the longitude of point Pinos, as affixed to it by our observations; and as I am perfectly satisfied of the accuracy of our observations, the difference can surely be attributed to no other cause,


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than that the best of these delicate pieces of mechanism are not yet, with all the ingenious and valuable improvements that have been made on them, able to withstand, for any length of time, the transitions and vicissitudes of different climates. Mr. Arnold's two watches on board the Discovery, being of later date by some years than Mr. Kendall's, appear to have continued their rate of going more correctly, but even these felt the effect of their altered situation; Mr. Earnshaw's was the newest, and was the least sensible of the change in the climate to which it was removed. Future experience may however enable me to form other conjectures, which may tend to elucidate more fully a subject of so much importance to nautical science.

In resuming the narrative of our proceedings it is necessary to state, that the longitude shewn by the chronometers will in future be inserted according to the Monterrey rate, until an opportunity may offer of making further observations.

Wednes. 16.

We remained off point Pinos until the evening; when, being joined by our Spanish friends, we directed our course to the southward with so light a northerly breeze, that by the next day at noon we had only reached the latitude of 36°, the land bearing by compass from N. 20 E. to S. 83 E.; the nearest shore N. E., distant about 4 leagues.

Friday 18.

The Active brig considerably outsailed our little squadron, and the Aransasu, the word sailer of the whole party, was by sun-set nearly out of sight astern. As neither Senr. Quadra nor myself wished to experience the least delay, we agreed to avail ourselves of the favorable gale from the north, and without waiting for Senr. Caamano in the Aransasu, to make the bed of our way. By the 18th at noon we had reached the latitude of 32° 30′, longitude 239° 14′, and the variation of the compass 12° eastwardly.

From this station the tracks we each had to pursue began to diverge, so that by continuing together we should not only have drawn each other from the proper line of direction, but, in consequence of the superiority which the Active had in point of sailing, have necessarily occasioned a further detention to Senr. Quadra; who, with Mr. Broughton,

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and such of our Spanish friends as could he spared from the brig, honored me with their company to partake of a parting dinner.

The wind blew a gentle breeze from the north; the serenity of the sky and smoothness of the sea, prolonged my pleasure on this occasion until near midnight; when we exchanged our mutual good wishes, and bad our friends of the Active farewel. Amongst all that, valuable society, there was but one friend who we could reasonably hope and expect to see again, whilst the prospect of never again meeting Senr. Quadra and our other friends about him, was a painful consideration. To the feelings of those perusers of this journal who have experienced moments like this. I must appeal. Their recollection will enable them to conceive the sensations which, inspired by the grateful recollection of pad kindnesses, occurred in thus bidding adieu to Senr. Quadra; who was the main spring of a society that had produced us so much happiness, who had rendered us so many essential benefits, and whose benevolence and disinterested conduct had impressed our minds with the highest esteem and veneration. On reaching the Active, our friends took their leave: we saluted them with three cheers, which they cordially returned; and we each pursued our respective voyages with all sail set.

Monday 21.

Nothing worthy of notice occurred until the 21st; when Joseph Murgatroyd, one of the carpenter's crew, was in the space of about a quarter of an hour from the time he had been last seen missing. He was last observed opening the gun-room ports, and whilst so employed, had probably been induced to leek his own destruction by contriving to let himself down into the sea; since it was scarcely possible he could have met his fate there by accident. An experiment was afterwards made, by much smaller men than himself, to force themselves out of the port-holes, which was not accomplished without, great difficulty and trouble; it was however pretty evident that he must have perished that way, as he was never seen to come out of the gunroom: add to this, that as he was a good swimmer, as the wind blew only a gentle breeze, with a smooth sea, and as every thing was very quiet upon deck, it is natural to conclude, that if he had fallen

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overboard, the accident must have been immediately known, and that he most likely would have been preserved.

Wednes. 23

The weather continued dark and gloomy, with frequent showers, until noon of the 23d; when the atmosphere became less loaded and more pleasant; the observed latitude at this time was 25° 51′, the longitude, by Kendall's chronometer, 237° 37′. Our progress was so slow, that on the 24th we had reached only the latitude of 24″ 50′. The true longitude, deduced from subsequent observations, and corrected back to our quitting the coast, was at this time 236° 14′. Kendall's chronometer shewed 236° 53′; Arnold's No. 14, 236° 27′: No. 176, 236° 31′: Earnshaw's 236° 19′; and Arnold's, on board the Chatham, 236° 8′: from whence it appeared, that their respective errors continued nearly in the same ratio as our observations had shewn the day after we quitted Monterrey.

The wind, though favorable between the N.N.E. and N.N.W., was light, and frequently funk into a calm, attended with a heavy rolling sea from between west and N.W.

Saturday 26.

In consequence of my intention to determine the existence or nonexistence of a cluster of islands, described in the Spanish charts as lying between the 19th and 21st degrees of north latitude, and between the 221st and 225th degrees of east longitude, I had been induced to steer a very easterly course; but, suspecting that the light winds we had experienced were occasioned by our vicinity to the continent, we steered a more westerly course during the two last days, with the hope of meeting a fresher trade wind. In this I was disappointed, for instead of having a more favorable breeze, the wind veered round to the west and S.W., and so continued until saturday evening, when our latitude was 22° 10′, the true longitude 236° 23′.

To this station the variation had gradually decreased to 8°; and for some days past we had regularly been affected by a current setting us to the south, at the rate of 7 or 8 miles per day; particularly during the preceding twenty-four hours we had been set 12 miles further south than the log shewed.


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In the course of the day some tropic birds were about the ship; and after a few hours calm in the evening, a light breeze sprang up from the S.E. which gradually veered round to the N.E. yet the N.W. swell still continued to be very heavy.

Monday 28.

The N.E. wind, proving to be a steady trade wind, soon increased to a fresh gale, attended with pleasant weather. On monday morning being nearly in the latitude assigned to the easternmost of the islands before mentioned, the Chatham was sent by signal to look out on the larboard beam. At noon, our observed latitude was 21° 12′, true longitude 231° 39′, and the variation of the compass 5° 31′ easterly: Kendall's chronometer (shewed the longitude to be 235° 22′, Arnold's No. 14, 234° 59′, Arnold's No. 176, 235° 1′, and Earnshaw's 234° 48′. The north-westerly swell still continued to be very heavy.

Thursday 31.

On thursday we passed through a large quantity of the medusa villilia, like those which, in our way to the north the preceding spring, we had found occupying a much larger space in the ocean; these extended only a few leagues in the direction we were steering, and were by no means so numerous.

The trade wind varying between the E.N.E. and N.N.E. increased to a fresh gale, and brought with it squally and unsettled weather, with some passing showers of heavy rain. Having nearly reached the situation assigned to the islands we were in quest of, though without any of the usual indications of the vicinity of land, I yet judged it expedient to reduce our sail at night to prevent the possibility of passing any land that might exist in the neighbourhood. Our latitude at sun-set 19° 54′, longitude 227° 42′. This and several following nights were passed in such a manner, as that the point of view a-head in the evening, and that a-stern the next morning, should meet in the same horizon unless intercepted by land, though even very moderately elevated. Thus we continued to proceed in search of these islands at night; and in the day time, spreading as wide as our signals could be plainly discerned.

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1793. February.

Sunday 3.

The weather being delightfully serene and pleasant enabled us on the 3d of february to make the following observations for the longitude.

Eight sets of distances of the ☾ and ⊙ taken by myself, 224° 14′ 43″
Seven sets ditto ditto Mr. Baker, 224 21 51
Eight sets ditto ditto Mr. Whidbey, 224 1930
Six sets ditto ditto Mr. Orchard, 224 11 20
Eight sets ditto ditto Mr. Ballard, 224 25 32
In all 37 sets, which gave the mean longitude at noon 224 18 35
The true longitude deduced from these and subsequent.observations I considered at this time to be 224 2
The observed latitude was 19 53
Kendall's chronometer on allowing the Nootka rate, from the time of its removal at Monterrey to the ship shewed the longitude to be 224 21
According to its Monterrey rate 225 13 30
Arnold's No. 14, by ditto 224 28 15
Ditto No. 176, by ditto 224 27 16
Earnshaw's 224 9

Wednes. 6.

The variation of the compass 5° 16′ eastwardly. At this juncture we were passing over the position assigned in a chart I had received from Senr. Quadra, to the center of the easternmost of the islands in question. Messrs. Portlock and Dixon also had searched for them to no purpose; but as the track of these navigators seemed to have been on the northern side, our's was directed along the southern side of this supposed cluster of islands, until the 6th, when the latitude at noon was observed to be 19° 19′, the true longitude 219° 49′.

During this search, the trade wind, having been moderate between the S. E. and N. E. attended with tolerably pleasant weather, afforded us during the day time a constant, extensive, and distinct view all around, but no indication of them, nor of the vicinity of land, was discovered; nor had I in any of my passages across this ocean, which have been many, ever passed over so vacant a space, as since our departure from

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the coast of New Albion. No bird, fish, or other object, occurred to attract our attention, beside two tropic buds, one booby, about as many petrols, and three or four porpoises; these and our little consort excepted, the heavens and the ocean gave uninterrupted limits to our fight. The latter however caused us great inconvenience, by means of a very heavy and irregular swell, chiefly from the N.W. which gave the ship such a labouring uneasy motion, as to render the transacting of all sedentary business almost impossible. At the close of day there was no appearance of these islands so far as could be seen a-head, and as we had now passed some distance to the westward, I concluded they could have no existence in the neighbourhood of the spot assigned to them, and for that reason I relinquished any further search, and made the best of our way towards Owhyhee.

On this occasion it is but just to observe. that the Spanish sea officers have no faith in the existence of these islands; the only authority which they are acquainted with for their insertion in the Spanish charts, is their having been so found in a chart of the pacific ocean, constructed many years ago by an old pilot who had frequently passed between South America and the Philippines, and whose still and observation had acquired him much reputation and credit in his profession; but as the spot in which they were placed was totally out of his path, it was generally believed by the Spanish officers that he had laid them down from the authority of others.

Friday 3.

Monday 11.

Tuesday 12.

The variation in the afternoon had been observed to be 5° eastwardly. The trade wind blew only a gentle breeze, and so continued until the 8th, when we had a line fresh gale; but were reduced to our topsails for the purpose of keeping company with the Chatham. The observed latitude on the 11th was 19° 34′. and the true longitude 207° 20′; the fresh. gale continued from about the N.E., the weather squally with thick mist and much rain. We however made a tolerable progress till two the next morning, when, not wishing with such uncertain weather to run our observations too close, we hauled to the wind under an easy sail to wait for day-light, when we again made sail; and at nine in the

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forenoon saw the east end of Owhyhee, bearing by compass S. 60 E. distant 7 leagues.

My intention was, that Mr. Puget in the Chatham should examine the coast of this island, from its east point southward round to Karakakooa bay; whilst we were employed on the Purvey of its shores in the opposite direction. By these means the whole coast of the island would be ascertained, with all its bays, harbours, or roadsteads; and every other information that circumstances could admit of, would thus be acquired. The Discovery was brought to, for the purpose of communicating these directions to Mr. Puget; after which we separated and pursued our respective courses.

The observed latitude at noon was 19° 40′; at this time the east point of Owhyhee bore by compass S. 30 W., at the distance of seven miles, and was placed, by our chronometers according to Kendall's per Nootka rate, in the longitude of 205° 40′½; by the Monterrey rate 206° 49′; Arnold's No. 82, on board the Chatham, per Nootka rate, 205° 45′; per Monterrey rate 205° 18; Arnold's No. 14, per Monterrey rate, 205° 41′ 30″; No. 176, by the same rate, 205° 31′ 30″; Earnshaw's per Monterrey rate, 205° 13′ 30″; and my own last lunar observations brought forward, by Earnshaw's watch, 205° 19′ 13″. This point is placed by Captain Cook in 205° 6′, which being esteemed by me to be the true longitude shews the errors of the several chronometers during this passage.

Our course was now directed towards the north-east point, of this island, which forms the east point of a very deep Bay. Into this we steered, as far as was prudent, to avoid being imbayed, as the wind blew a fresh gale directly on the shore; and though we were sufficiently near its southern parts to see the surf break with great violence, yet so dense was the haze in which the land was enveloped, that it was impossible to distinguish any object on shore. A low projecting point was indistinctly seen, where the breakers appeared to fall back from their northern direction; beyond ibis point they were not visible from the deck, until we drew near to the northern side of the Bay; here we brought to, about four o'clock, within two miles of the north-east point, in the hope of seeing some of the natives, but being disappointed, we


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Wednes. 13.

made sail off the shore, and plied during the night. The next morning, with a fresh gale at E.S.E., we sailed along the N.E. side of Owhyhee, within two or three miles of its shores; these were firm and compact, terminating mostly in steep rocky cliffs, with a few small indented bays, rendered easily accessible to their canoes by the sandy beaches that bounded them. From the rugged rocky cliffs, many streams of water fell, and discharged themselves into the ocean.

The country, in this point of view, had a very dreary aspect; perfectly uncultivated, and nearly destitute of habitations; those which were observed were small, and thinly scattered at great distances from each other. As we advanced to the westward, the population and cultivation seemed to increase, and to keep pace with each other. About nine o'clock, a canoe was seen coming towards the ship from one of the small bays; we immediately brought to, in the hope that others would follow her example, but we were again disappointed.

On the arrival of our visitors they, gave us to understand, that a general taboo had prevented the inhabitants coming off to us; they however had ventured to trespass on the interdiction, at the hazard of suffering death, should their transgression be ever known to any of the priests or chiefs. The taboo bad now existed some days, and in the course of a day or two more would cease. These people further informed us, that Tamaahmaah was then residing at Karakakooa, and that hogs, and the other refreshments of the island, were prohibited from being disposed of to European or American visitors, under penalty of death, for any other commodities whatever than arms and ammunition.

This is the baneful consequence arising from the injudicious conduct of unrestrained commercial adventurers, who have thought proper to furnish these people, naturally a warlike and daring race, with a large assortment of arms and ammunition; not only rendering them, by these means, a formidable nation; but by thus absurdly and profusely out-bidding each other, bringing the generality of other European commodities into contempt and few estimation. Our visitors, however, regardless of the taboo, disposed of their cargo, consisting of

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one hog, two or three fowls, some roots, and bread-fruit, seemingly much to their satisfaction, for some iron; with which they returned to the shore.

Towards noon we arrived off a part of the northern side of Owhyhee, where the coast is composed of a cluster of remarkably high steep rugged and romantic cliffs, discharging from their naked summits many rapid cataracts into the ocean. The rushing of these impetuous torrents down the black barren surface of the rocky cliffs, contrasted with the enchanting, cultivated, and populous country to the east and west, and behind this dreary frontier, for a considerable distance up the sides of the lofty mountains, on approaching them in the offing, present a very beautiful and picturesque appearance. Nearly in the centre of these cliffs is a tolerably deep small bay, much resembling, in appearance and in most other respects, the bay in the island of St. Helena; but, unfortunately, seemed too much exposed to the sea, and the generally prevailing winds, to be an eligible situation for shipping. Off the western extremity of these cliffs lie some rocky islets, at a little distance from the land. Westward from these cliffs, the surf was observed to break with great violence near the shore, which was then within two miles of us; at this moment we suddenly arrived in 7 fathoms water, the west point of the island lying S. 70 W., at the distance of nine miles. The trade wind blew a strong gale, attended by a very heavy, confused, irregular sea, probably occasioned by the violence of the wind, and an uneven bottom. As this appearance extended all the way to the west end of the island, on finding ourselves in foundings of 7 fathoms we hauled a little off the shore, and did not again reach the bottom; though at the rate we were then going we were not likely to have gained soundings, in much deeper water.

The western part of the land, from this situation, falls in a gradual descent from the base of the mountains, and forms an extensive plain towards the water-side, which seemed to be in a state of high cultivation, and abounded with the habitations of the natives. We passed the west point at the distance of about a league, close on the verge of the agitated water; this I suspected to arise from a very sudden decrease in its

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depth, but could not ascertain the fact, as the wind blew with too much violence, and the agitation of the sea was too great, to venture on a more minute examination, either with the ship or the boats; and as the adjacent shores afford no shelter for vessels, there can be no necessity for approaching within a league of them.

Having passed this point, situated, by our corrected survey, in latitude 20° 18′, longitude 204°, we hauled into Toeaigh bay, and at seven o'clock anchored about seven miles to the south of the point above mentioned, in 41 fathoms water, brown sandy bottom, with small pieces of coral.

Thursday 14.

The night proved very boisterous, attended with very heavy gusts and flurries of wind directly off the land: in one of these, about three in the morning, we drove from the bank, but as it was my design to acquire every information that could be obtained respecting this Bay, the anchor was weighed, and we turned up into it, against a very strong S.E. gale.

As the day advanced, it moderated, and the weather became serene and pleasant. The adjacent shores, forming the north-western part of the Bay, seemed to be very fruitful, whilst the number of habitations indicated them to be well peopled; yet none of the natives ventured near us. As we considered the taboo to be at an end, I began to be apprehensive that the shyness of the inhabitants originated from some more serious cause; about ten o'clock however a canoe was seen paddling towards the ship; we immediately brought to, and on her coming alongside, we were informed by those in her that they belonged to Kahowmotoo, who was then residing at a village, on an estate of his, in the bottom of the Bay, named Toeaigh; off which there was good anchorage, and excellent water easily to be procured. These people, without the least hesitation, said that the reason of our not having been visited before was, that the whole of the island was under a very strict taboo, that prohibited the inhabitants from using their canoes, or quitting the shore by any other means; but that the rank and consequence of their master Kahowmotoo, authorized him to dispense with the restrictions on the present occasion; as he entertained hopes, that

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the vessel in sight was the same in which his favorite servant Terehooa had embarked; he had therefore sent them to make the necessary inquiries, and in case his expectations should be confirmed, a present of a hog and some vegetables was in the canoe for Terehooa; whose gratitude for such a mark of remembrance was instantly testified, by the tears that flowed on his receiving the message. This was accompanied by a pressing request, that I would stand in and anchor off Kahowmotoo's village, where I should be supplied with every refreshment the island afforded, as soon as the taboo was at an end; which had now existed four days, but would intirely cease at sun-rise the day after the next.

I had not the least objection to accept this invitation, and a breeze favoring my design we steered for the village of Toeaigh. Mr. Whidbey, who was in the cutter founding for the best anchorage, soon made the signal for an eligible situation, where, about half past two, we anchored in 25 fathoms water on a bottom of fine brown sand and mud: the points of the bay bore by compass N. 36 W. and S. 31 W.; the morai, which is also conspicuous in pointing out this station, N. 67 E.; and the watering place at the distance of a mile and a quarter, being the nearest shore, S. 87 E. On founding round the ship, about half a cable's length to the S.W. of us was found a very small patch of coral rocks, where the water was only 10 fathoms in depth, but increased suddenly to 20 fathoms all around it. On the opposite side, however, was clear good anchorage for near a mile, where many vessels might ride without inconvenience from the bottom, though nevertheless exposed to the violence of the winds and sea between the limits above mentioned, comprehending 113° in the western quarter.

Soon after the ship had anchored, our old acquaintance Kahowmotoo paid us a visit, and brought with him half a dozen very fine hogs, and a handsome supply of vegetables. Notwithstanding that I took an early opportunity to acquaint Kahowmotoo that arms and ammunition were hill tabooed, who seemed much to regret the continuance of these restrictions; yet it did not appear to influence his hospitality; as he assured me, that if I would remain a few days at Toeaigh, we


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should be supplied with every refreshment in his power to procure, and that the promise he had formerly made, should now be punctually performed.

After dinner I went with him on shore, to take a view of the watering place; it is situated in a small sandy bay, where, over a space of twenty yards of rugged rocks and stones, a fine stream empties itself, whose water is easily to be procured by landing the casks on the sandy beach, and having the water brought in smaller vessels to fill them; a service the natives will readily perform for a trivial reward. This made me regret the absence of the Chatham; as in the immediate neighbourhood of the water the country did not appear to be very populous, we might each have supplied our wants without being teazed and pestered with a numerous throng of the natives, whom we should most likely meet with in the more inhabited parts of the island, and which on such occasions had frequently proved very inconvenient.

Kahowmotoo strongly urged my remaining a few days at Toeaigh; where he would supply us with refreshments, and would afterwards accompany us to another place of his called Ti-ah-ta-tooa, lying between this Bay and Karakakooa. This he represented as a small bay affording good anchorage; water, according to his account, was a scarce commodity there, but all kinds of refreshments were in the greatest abundance, and were perfectly at our command. To these solicitations I in some measure consented, by promising to stay the next day, in the expectation of not only deriving some supplies for ourselves, but of procuring some provender for the cattle and sheep; which, in consequence of the inferior quality of the hay obtained at Monterrey, were almost starved. To this cause I attributed the unfortunate losses we had sustained in our passage, amounting to three rams, two ewes, a bull and a cow. These were serious misfortunes, and in a great measure disappointed the hopes I had entertained, from the importation of these valuable animals into the several islands of the pacific ocean. Still however I flattered myself with the expectation of succeeding in Owhyhee, by leaving the remaining bull, with the rest of the cows, under the protection of Tamaahmaah, who I expected would meet me at Karakakooa, to receive, and insure as far as possible, the preservation of the ani-

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mals I had on board. To Kahowmotoo, who had taken the greatest care of the goats I had presented him with on a former occasion, and of their produce since my last visit, I gave a ram, two ewes, and an ewe lamb that had been born on our passage. On his being informed that ad the rest were designed for Tamaahmaah, he strenuously recommended their being landed at this place, it being highly necessary that they should have pasture as soon as possible, especially as Tamaahmaah had very extensive possessions in the immediate neighbourhood, where, he affirmed, great care would be taken of them. I should gladly have subscribed to his judicious advice, but the shortness of our acquaintance did not authorize me to place implicit confidence in all the assertions of Kahowmotoo, particularly in his declarations of being the most intimate and sincere friend of Tamaahmaah; for should these hereafter have proved to be false, it might possibly have caused the total destruction of the animals, or have been the occasion of commotions, or other unhappy disputes. This determined me to deliver them myself into the hands of Tamaahmaah, for whom they were originally intended.

Friday 15.

During the day, a gentle refreshing breeze blew into the Bay from the westward; but soon after sun-set, a gale suddenly arose from the eastward, attended with very heavy gusts, and continued until day-light the next morning, when it fell calm, and the weather resumed a pleasant degree of serenity, attended as before with a gentle refreshing breeze from the westward.

This morning, agreeably to his appointment, Kahowmotoo came on board, for the purpose of accompanying me to his habitation on shore. His visit was rendered still more acceptable by his presenting me with sixteen very fine hogs, a large assortment of vegetables, and a supply of green food for the cattle. Arms and ammunition now ceased to be fought after, and he seemed very highly pleased and fully recompenced on receiving about two yards of red cloth, and a small piece of printed linen, with a few beads and other trivial articles for his favorite ladies. Of these he had no less than four, in the character of wives, who (he said) were waiting on shore with much anxiety to see me; as the taboo, though at an end as it respected some particulars, was still in force as to

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the women embarking in canoes; such of our female visitors, as had been induced to favor us with their company, had therefore been obliged to have recourse to swimming for that purpose.

The name of the village Toeaigh was by us extended to the Bay, (which is the same that had been called by Captain King Toeayahha bay,) since the natives give no distinctive name to any part of the ocean that washes the Chores of their islands. Such bays, coves, &c. as are so distinguished, having been named by their European visitors from the contiguous villages or districts.

Toeaigh is situated in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, just behind a sandy beach. A reef of coral rocks, extending thence about three quarters of a mile into the sea, rendered it inaccessible to our boats in a direct line, but we landed very commodiously in a narrow channel, between the reef and the shore, near the morai, to the S.E. of the beach, from whence we had about two miles to walk to the habitation of Kahowmotoo.

We could, I believe, have gone much further with the boats in that channel, but as the navigation was intricate and tiresome, I preferred the walk, and attended by the corporal and six marines, we proceeded along the beach; leaving the boats, properly manned and armed, in readiness to support us in case of any treacherous or hostile behaviour. These precautions however appeared to have been intirely unnecessary, as nothing but the most civil, attentive, and friendly deportment was experienced from all classes of the people. The village consisted only of straggling houses, of two classes; those appropriated to the residence of the inhabitants were small, mean, miserable huts; but the others, allotted to the purposes of shading, building, and repairing their canoes, were excellent in their kind; in these occupations several people were busily employed, who seemed to execute their work with great neatness and ingenuity. In about the middle of the village is a reservoir of salt water, nearly in the centre of a large inclosure, made by walls of mud and stones. Between these walls and the reservoir the whole space is occupied by shallow earthen pans, of no regular size or shape, nor placed in any order or degree of elevation. The reservoir is separated by a bank or small portion of the sandy beach from the ocean, and had no visible communication with it,

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but was apparently a stagnated standing pool, covered with a muddy scum, of a yellowish green colour. This, the natives say, it always bears, and without being replenished by them from the sea constantly affords a sufficient quantity of excessively salt water, for supplying the numerous pans; the exposure of which to the influence of the sun, soon causes evaporation and crystallization. The crystals are then carefully taken up; and if found dirty from the cracking or breaking of the pans, which frequently want repair, or by the falling of rain whilst making, they are washed clean in sea-water and dried. This is their process in making salt, which is always white in proportion to the care bestowed in gathering it. They have large quantities, equal in colour and in quality to any made in Europe, but the crystals are much larger. The quantity of salt obtained, might be supposed, from the appearance of this salt-pond, to be produced rather from the saline quality of the surrounding earth, in which it is contained, than purely from the sea-water. Yet, its being not more than thirty yards from the sea-side, makes it probable that the oceanic water penetrates into it, through the loose sandy beach that separates it from the sea, and that the richness of the fluid may be produced from both those causes.

Paying our respects to Kahowmotoo's wives, and inspecting this saltpond, occupied most of our time, and claimed the most of our attention. Having rendered our visit pleasant to the former, by distributing such articles as we knew they held in high estimation, we returned towards the boats, accompanied by the chief and his ladies, and attended by the natives, who conducted themselves in the most orderly and respectful manner. They brought us cocoa-nuts as we passed along, and seemed studious to afford us any little service or civility, without being the least troublesome; and strictly conformed themselves to the orders of their chief, who directed that few only should advance near us, and that the crowd should be seated at a distance, in whatever direction we should pass.

On reaching the boats, I requested that Kahowmotoo would accompany us on board to dinner, but in consequence of the taboo, I had no idea of soliciting that favor from the ladies; they however entertained very

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different notions, particularly Kahowmotoo's favorite, Na-ma-han-na, who contended, that although the taboo prohibited their embarking in canoes belonging to Owhyhee, it could not possibly extend to the boats of those who totally disregarded their laws and restrictions. This ingenious mode of reasoning seeming to meet Kahowmotoo's concurrence, we soon embarked, leaving Mr. Menzies, who had been of our party, on shore, in pursuit of new vegetable productions. He returned in the evening, after receiving much hospitable civility from the natives,

Saturday 16.

Sunday 17.

Kuhowmoloo went on shore with his lady in one of our boats. On its return a message was brought from Tianna, desiring to be informed, who we were? adding, that if we were his friends, he would make all possible haste to visit us; but, as it would be late on account of his distance before he should be able to arrive, in order that he might be admitted on board in the dark, he would carry in the bow of his canoe a large fire, as a signal by which he might be known. He accordingly arrived about four o'clock the next morning, just as we were getting under sail. In his canoe were half a dozen line hogs, these he desired might be taken on board, and said, he had many others on the road, that would follow the ship to the southward. Kahowmotoo, attended by his favorite wife, agreeably to a preconcerted signal with him of siring a gun on our departure, came on board to fulfil his engagement of conducting us to Tyea-ta-tooa. The wind proved very variable, not only in direction but force. The weather sometimes was perfectly calm, at others we had violent gusts from the land, so that it was not until the evening that we were abreast of the south point of this bay, forming the western extremity of Owhyhee. The weather continued squally, with thunder, lightning and rain. A little before it was dark, a brig and a sloop were seen in the offing. From the natives we learned that these were the Chatham, and the Jackall trader, under the orders of Mr. Brown of the Butterworth. We immediately made towards them, and as they seemed to be under little sail, soon expected to join our consort. But, to our great astonishment, next morning, notwithstanding the night had been mostly calm, we found ourselves at least 9 or 10 leagues from the land, and had lost sight of both vessels. A fresh breeze from the N.E. during the morning, carried

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us at the rate of 3 or 4 miles an hour, directly toward; the land, yet we did not appear to approach its shores; and at noon its nearest part, being about the south point of Toeaigh bay, bore E. by N. 10 leagues distant. The observed latitude was 19° 42′. The north-east wind was soon afterwards succeeded by a calm.

Monday 18.

The morning of the 18th brought the two vessels again in sight, and towards noon the Chatham was sufficiently near us to receive a visit from Mr. Puget; from whom I learned, that he had traced the shores on the S. E. side of Owhyhee from its call to its south point, at the distance from one to three miles of the shore, without finding any place that presented a probability of anchorage; and if foundings were to be had, they must exist upon an open coast, exposed to the prevailing winds, where so violent a surf broke on the shores, that any communication with the land, by such means as we possessed, would have been impossible. From the south point of the island, their examination was not attended with that minuteness which was necessary to determine the object I had in view. This it seems had been occasioned by baffling winds, and a current setting the Chatham some distance from the land to the northward. That part which required the mod minute survey lies between the south point and Karakakooa, where some of the traders are said to have discovered a more eligible situation for the reception of shipping, than Karakakooa affords; on this report I placed little reliance, but as I expected to have a future opportunity of ascertaining the fact, it was of little importance on the present occasion. Mr. Puget informed me also, that I should find Karakakooa a more formidable place than I expected, as he had understood from those in the Jackall who had visited it, that it was by no means a desirable flopping place for small vessels; since Tamaahmaah had procured from the several traders a number of cannon, with a proper assortment of ammunition. That these cannon were planted, and in some measure protected by stone walls, thrown up by the natives along the beach in the Bay before his houses; situated in the same place where the habitations of the priests were destroyed, after the unfortunate death of Captain Cook.

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Calms and light baffling winds detained us in this inactive situation, which was rendered extremely unpleasant by a heavy irregular swell, and by oppressively hot sultry weather. A circumstance now occurred that contributed to make me infinitely more dissatisfied with this irksome detention from the shore. The only bull that remained, and a cow that had brought forth a dead calf, were no longer able to stand on their legs, and it was evident, that if a speedy opportunity did not offer itself for relieving them by sending them on shore, their lives could not possibly be preserved. The loss, particularly of the bull, would have been a cruel disappointment to my wishes; but as favorable circumstances often take place when least expected, so it was on this occasion.

Tuesday 19.

In the afternoon of the 19th we were visited by many canoes, though at the distance of 8 or 9 leagues from the land. In one of these was a chief named Crymamahoo, half brother to Tamaahmaah, and chief of the district of Ahiedo. To him and to his friends I made such presents as were considered by Kahowmotoo highly suitable to his rank, and which were accepted with marks of great approbation and content: this induced me to hope, that by his good offices I should be enabled to get these poor animals conveyed to the shore. As his canoe was sufficiently large and roomy, I requested he would consent to their being put into it, but to my great surprize a thousand evasions and excuses were immediately started. Anxious for the future advantages these people would derive by the propagation of these animals, I probably discovered much earnestness, whilst endeavouring to prevail with Crymamahoo to lend me his assistance, in securing to himself and countrymen so important a benefit. This he certainly perceived, but possessing no desire to oblige, nor any patriotic zeal, he was only studious to turn my intreaties to his own particular advantage. After Kahowmotoo had anxiously interfered, but with the same success, I offered Crymamahoo (well knowing that avarice is a predominant passion with many of these islanders) a moderate recompence only, for allowing his canoe to perform this service. He instantly waved all his former objections, and the bull and cow were soon comfortably placed in his canoe, in which there were some vegetables that the bull ate, seemingly with much appetite; this gave me great pleasure, as I


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was now in hopes that he would soon recover by the help of proper nourishing food, which the shore abundantly supplied.

Wednes. 20.

The next morning we had again increased our distance from Owhyhee; but towards noon, with a light breeze from the south-westward, we made all sail for the island. As we approached we were met by several large and small canoes, laden with the several productions of the country, which were exchanged by the natives in the most honest and civil manner, for our various articles of traffic; amongst these, red and blue woollen cloths, with printed linens, seemed the commodities in the highest estimation. Beads and other trinkets were accepted as presents, but were considered as unworthy any return.

Amongst our numerous visitors was Tamaahmaah's eldest son, and presumptive heir to the sovereignty of Owhyhee. He was a boy about nine years of age; possessing a shrewd and lively appearance.

In return for the presents I had made him, he presented me on leaving the ship with three or four hogs, and promised me a further supply in the morning.

By this time we had nearly reached Tyahtatooa. Mr. Whidbey was dispatched in the cutter to examine the anchorage, as in the event of its being found superior to that of Karakakooa, I purposed giving Tyahtatooa the preference for the transacting of all our material business before we proceeded to the other place, where in case of any disagreement with the inhabitants, we might be much inconvenienced by the cannon, of which they were said to be possessed.

Thursday 21.

A calm succeeded the rising of the sun. This continuing until ten in the forenoon, we were again driven a considerable distance from the land; but a S.W. breeze then springing up, enabled us to steer towards Tyahtatooa.

About noon I was honored with the presence of Tamaahmaah, the king of Owhyhee, whole approach had been announced some time before his arrival.

Not only from Captain King's description, but also from my own memory, as far as it would serve me, I expected to have recognized my former ac-


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quaintance by the most savage countenance we had hitherto seen amongst these people; but I was agreeably surprized in finding that his riper years had softened that stern ferocity which his younger days had exhibited, and had changed his general deportment to an address characteristic of an open, cheerful, and sensible mind; combined with great generosity, and goodness of disposition. An alteration not unlike that I have before had occasion to notice in the character of Pomurrey at Otaheite.

Tamaahmaah came on board in a very large canoe, accompanied by John Young, an English seaman, who appeared to be not only a great favourite, but to possess no small degree of influence with this great chief. Terrehooa, who had been sent to deliver the bull and cow to the king, was also of the party, and informed me that the cow had died in her passage to the island, but that the bull arrived safe, and was lodged in a house where he ate and drank heartily.

After the usual ceremonies and assurances of friendship had passed between Tamaahmaah and myself, he said that his queen, with several of his friends and relations were in the canoe alongside, and requested they might be admitted on board. This was instantly granted, and I was introduced to her majesty, who we had previously understood was the daughter of Kahowmotoo, by his favorite wife now on board, Namahanna. The meeting of the daughter and her parents sufficiently indicated the relation, and the affection that subsisted between them. She appeared to be about sixteen, and undoubtedly did credit to the choice and taste of Tamaahmaah, being one of the finest women we had yet seen on any of the islands. It was pleasing to observe the kindness and fond attention, with which on all occasions they seemed to regard each other; and though this mode of behaviour in public would be considered as extravagant in the polished circles of society, yet to us, so far removed from the civilized world, the profusion of tenderness was very admissible, and could not be regarded without a warmth of satisfaction at thus witnessing the happiness of our fellow creatures; though so far behind us in that state of civilization, from which alone we imagine, the essential comforts and happiness of life can be derived.


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The sole object of this visit was to invite and intreat our proceeding to Karakakooa: to their solicitations I replied, that our boat was examining Tyahtatooa, and that on her return I should determine. With this answer they were perfectly satisfied, but observed, that I should not find it so convenient as Karakakooa.

I was much pleased with the decorum and general conduct of this royal party. Though it consisted of many, yet not one solicited even the most inconsiderable article; nor did they appear to have any expectation of receiving presents. They seemed to be particularly cautious to avoid giving the lead cause for offence; but no one more so than the king himself, who was so scrupulous, as to enquire when and where it was proper for him to be seated. The inhabitants, who had assembled round the ships, were by this time very numerous; on being denied their requests to be admitted on board, which was observed towards all but the principal chiefs, they remained perfectly quiet in their canoes, and in a most orderly manner carried on an honed and friendly intercourse.

The demand, amounting to clamour, for arms and ammunition, which on our first arrival seemed at that time to be so formidable an obstacle to our procuring refreshments; appeared now to be intirely done away, whilst the cordial manner in which we had been received and treated, the profusion of good things we had purchased at an easy rate, and the value attached to our articles of traffic, impressed me with a more favorable idea of the character of these people than that which had been recently given to the world.

Being determined that nothing should be wanting on my part to preserve the harmony and good understanding that seemed to have taken place between us; and having learned from Young that our royal visitors did not entertain the most distant idea of accepting any thing from me until they had first set the example; I considered this a good opportunity to manifest our friendly disposition towards them, by presents suitable to their respective ranks and situations. In the hope that by such an early compliment I should confirm, or perhaps heighten the favorable opinion of us, that they already seemed to have imbibed. Accordingly, such articles were distributed as I knew were likely, and (as

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they afterwards proved to be) highly acceptable to the whole party. Permission was now requested for the friends and relations, who were alongside in their canoes, to be suffered to visit the ship. I easily comprehended what was the real object of the request, which soon became evident by the behaviour of these new visitors, who, of both sexes, and different ages, instantly found their way aft, and nearly filled the cabin: until Tamaahmaah desired that no more should be admitted into the ship; and then demanded of me, if it were my intention to make those now on board any presents? On his being answered in the affirmative, he undertook the distribution himself, and was so œconomical as to give me several opportunities to make some addition to his dispensations, which were more bountifully bestowed on some of the men, than on the generality of the women. The ladies however were no losers on this occasion. The deficiency of Tamaahmaah's attention being otherways amply supplied, produced no small degree of mirth, in which Tamaahmaah bore a very considerable part. This distribution being finished, and the whole party made very happy, the king, in addition to what he had before received, was presented with a scarlet cloak, that reached from his neck to the ground, adorned with tinsel lace, trimmed with various coloured gartering tape, with blue ribbons to tie it down the front. The looking glasses being placed opposite to each other displayed at once the whole of his royal person: this filled him with rapture, and so delighted him that the cabin could scarcely contain him. His extasy produced capering, and he soon cleared the cabin of many of our visitors, whose numbers had rendered it very hot and unpleasant. He himself soon followed, and after strutting some little time upon deck, he exposed himself in the most conspicuous places, seemingly with the greatest indifference, though in reality for the sole purpose of attracting the admiration and applause of his subjects. The acclamations that his appearance produced from the surrounding multitude were evidently gratifying to his vanity; yet his joy and satisfaction were incomplete until two in the afternoon, when Mr. Whidbey returned, and reported, that although the anchorage at Tyahtatooa seemed convenient, yet it was

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infinitely more exposed than any part of the anchorage at Karakakooa.

I had by this time understood that the account of Tamaahmaah's cannon and fortification was intirely void of truth; and as there could be no hesitation, which of the two situations to prefer, from Mr. Whidbey'; representation, we steered immediately for Karakakooa. Tamaahmaah soon became acquainted with my determination. The high degree of satisfaction he expressed on this occasion was not easily to be described, as I could not recollect in any former instance ever to have noticed sensations like his, in the countenance or behaviour of any person.

The breeze was too gentle, and the day was too far advanced to reach Karakakooa before night; when the general happiness of our party received some small degree of cheek.

Notwithstanding the present harmony, and the prospect of its continuance, I considered it highly important not to relax in any of the precautions I had taken on former occasions; but to be most vigilantly on our guard, and to watch with a jealous eye over the behaviour of these ambitious chiefs. Had I permitted any of them to have slept on board, which they are very fond of doing, our caution would naturally have lessened, by a continuance of their then docile behaviour, and had one been admitted to this indulgence, many others could not, without giving great offence, have been refused. Their numbers might thus have increased beyond expectation, and by distributing themselves unobserved in different parts of the ship, a favorable opportunity might have been seized, had they been so inclined, when we least expected danger, to carry any ambitious project, into execution. Having uniformly adhered to the maxim, that "prevention is better than punishment," I determined in no instance whatever, so far as it was in our power, to suffer the least temptation to be laid in their way, either in and about the ship, or in any of our transactions with them on shore. On this occasion however a difficulty arose, by Kahowmotoo having remained on board three nights successively. After explaining that this would not have happened, had not the ship been unavoidably driven to a great

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distance from the land, the whole party appeared pretty well satisfied, and about dark retired to the shore in high spirits, and in extremely good humour, some of them having taken their grog and wine very cheerfully.

Friday 22.

By seven the next morning we were abreast of Karakakooa bay, from whence, and the adjacent shores, we were visited by a vast concourse of people, who brought in their canoes the greatest abundance of refreshments, and who seemed to be as eager to exchange them for our articles of traffic, as on the first discovery of these islands. But as we were well stored with such good things, I directed that no more should be purchased until the ship was properly secured. This was effected by noon; the best bower anchor lying to the S.S.W. in 22 fathoms, and the small one E.N.E., in 12 fathoms water, soft sandy bottom. The points of the Bay lying S. 5 W. and N. 87 W. distant from Kakooa the nearest shore, about the length of a cable and half.

This village as already stated, we found to be the residence of Tamaahmaah; from whence, before the ship was well secured, eleven large canoes put off from the shore with great order, and formed two equal sides of an obtuse triangle. The largest canoe being in the angular point, was rowed by eighteen paddles on each side; in this was his Owhyhean majesty, dressed in a printed linen gown, that Captain Cook had given to Terreoboo; and the most elegant feathered cloak I had yet seen, composed principally of beautiful bright yellow feathers, and reaching from his shoulders to the ground on which it trailed. On his head he wore a very handsome helmet, and made altogether a very magnificent appearance. His canoe was advanced a little forward in the procession, to the actions of which the other ten strictly attended, keeping the most exact and regular time with their paddies, and inclining to the right or left agreeably to the directions of the king, who conducted the whole business with a degree of adroitness and uniformity, that manifested a knowledge of such movements and manoeuvre far beyond what could reasonably have been expected. In this manner he paraded round the vessels, with a slow and solemn motion. This not only added a great dignity to the procession, but gave time to the crowd of canoes alongside to get

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out of the way. He now ordered the ten canoes to draw up in a line under our stern, whilst, with the utmost exertions of his paddlers, he rowed up along the starboard side of the ship; and though the canoe was going at a very great rate, she was in an instant stopped, with that part of the canoe where his majesty was standing immediately opposite the gangway.

He instantly ascended the side of the ship, and taking hold of my hand, demanded, if we were sincerely his friends ? To this I answered in the affirmative; he then said, that he understood we belonged to King George, and asked if he was likewise his friend? On receiving a satisfactory answer to this question, he declared that he was our firm good friend; and, according to the custom of the country, in testimony of the sincerity of our declarations we saluted by touching noses. He then presented me with four very handsome feathered helmets, and ordered the ten large canoes that were under the stern to come on the starboard side. Each of these contained nine very large hogs, whilst a fleet of smaller canoes, containing a profusion of vegetables, were ordered by him to deliver their cargoes on the opposite side. This supply was more than we could possibly dispose of; some of the latter he was prevailed upon to reserve; but although our decks, as well as those of the Chatham, were already encumbered with their good things, he would not suffer one hog to be returned to the shore.

The remaining live stock I had on board, consisting of five cows, two ewes and a ram, were sent on shore in some of his canoes; these were all in a healthy state though in low condition, and as I flattered myself the bull would recover, I had little doubt of their succeeding to the utmost of my wishes. I cannot avoid mentioning the pleasure I received, in the particular attention paid by Tamaahmaah to the placing of these animals in the canoes. This business was principally done by himself; after which he gave the strictest injunctions to his people who had the charge of them, to pay implicit obedience to the directions of our butcher, who was sent to attend their landing. At the departure of these canoes, I was unacquainted with the extent of Tamaahmaah's intended compliment. In addition to his magnificent present of provisions, other ca-

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noes were now ordered alongside, from which a large quantity of cloth, mats, and other articles of their own manufacture, were delivering into the ship; but we were so much incommoded, that there was no possibility of taking care of these valuables, and on promising to receive them on a future day, the king permitted them to be returned to the shore, giving particular charge to one of his attendants, to whom they were intrusted, to be very careful of them, as they belonged to me, and not to himself.

This present, though not accompanied by the elegant entertainments that followed those made by Fenow and Powlahow to Captains Cook and Clerke at the Friendly islands, was however highly worthy of a generous and noble mind; especially when the manner is adverted to, in which it was made, as a token of the sincerity of the king's wishes and desire to establish, upon a firm and permanent basis, our mutual good understanding and harmony; and possibly, in some measure, as a requital for the service I had rendered his country in the introduction of the sheep and cattle. On this score, however, I soon convinced him that I required no return; as in so doing I only complied with the directions of my sovereign, in his humane and friendly disposition towards them, by adding as much as was in my power to their comfort and happiness.

These transactions did not pass unobserved by Kahowmotoo, who strictly attended to every occurrence. He appeared to be much rejoiced at the introduction of the sheep and cattle on the island, yet he could not refrain from observing, that he considered it a very unequal distribution, to give all the large cattle to Tamaahmaah, and none to himself, Tianna, or other principal chiefs. In reply to these observations, I pointed out that I had already done Tamaahmaah an injustice, by giving him, Kahowmotoo, the sheep originally designed for the king. That, under this consideration, he ought to be perfectly contented; and as there was a probability of my returning, that I should endeavour to bring with me a supply of those, and very likely some other useful animals, by which I should have it in my power to oblige him, and the rest of our friends in Owhyhee. Kahowmotoo paid particular attention to this conversation, and seemed to be tolerably well satisfied; which gave me hopes that I

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should be able to steer a middle course between these jealous chiefs; but whilst we were at dinner, another impediment occurred by the arrival of Tianna.

On his entering the cabin, I again recognized the identical Tamaahmaah I had known some years before, by the savage austerity and gloom that was now diffused over the countenance of that chief. Tianna was nevertheless received by me with due civility and cordiality, which, by the increased sullenness of the king's countenance, seemed greatly to augment his dislike to the presence of our new visitor. Tianna presented me with a helmet, and desired that I would order some hogs, which were in the canoes that had attended him, to be taken into the ship. These proved to be fifteen of the finest animals of this description I had ever seen at any of these islands; but, in consequence of the numbers already on board, I was under the necessity of declining them, which could only be done under a promise of receiving them, as soon as our stock on board should be exhausted. With this assurance Tianna was perfectly contented; but it awakened the envious disposition of Kahowmotoo, who contended, that he was not treated with the friendship I had professed towards him, since twenty very fine hogs of his had been returned unconditionally. Whilst I was endeavouring to pacify him, by stating that I had no other intention than to accept his kind and friendly present, the instant the animals could be received on board; the king, who since Tianna's appearance had sat in the most sullen silence, and had not uttered a single word, replied with some warmth, that I had no occasion for hogs, or other productions of Owhyhee, from Kahowmotoo, Tianna, or any other chief, as he had many more to supply our wants, when those which he had presented were exhausted. Under these circumstances of rivalship, it became no easy matter to ascertain and pursue a line of conduct, which should be equally agreeable and accommodating to the bountiful dispositions of these contending chiefs.

I was however fully determined on the measures to be pursued; to pay my principal court to Tamaahmaah, as the king of the whole island, and to treat the other chiefs with a due degree of respect and attention. And


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though, at first, this sort of conduct might occasion some dissatisfaction, yet I entertained no doubt that it would soon wear away.

After this discussion on the subject of pigs and poultry was brought to a conclusion, the king had a short, though serious, conversation with Tianna; the subject matter we did not rightly comprehend, but we understood it to respect his coming from the north-west part of the island without the king's knowledge or permission. On this being settled, some jokes passed between them, when the latter gradually resumed his usual cheerfulness, and harmony seemed to be again re-established on all sides.

Tamaahmaah understanding that I intended to erect the tents and observatory on shore, gave me the strongest assurance that no injury nor offence should take place, provided we would subscribe to such regulations as he should point out, tending to the preservation of that harmony which so happily existed at the present moment.

In consequence of the convenience with which we could lie near to that part of the shore where the tents and observatories of the Resolution and Discovery were erected in the year 1779, on their unfortunate visit to this island, I preferred that station to any other part of the bay, for the services we had now to perform. Here, those whose business required their residence on shore, would be fully protected by the ship against any surprize or attack from the natives of the country. But this situation we could not immediately occupy, as it was part of the consecrated ground of the morai, which it was unlawful for us to enter during the continuance of the periodical taboo that was to commence this evening at sunset, and to end at sun rise of the 24th; during which interval there could be no communication between the shore and the ship: but as soon as the interdiction should cease, the king promised to return on board, after issuing his orders and injunctions that our party should be properly received, and sufficiently guarded.

Saturday 23.

The whole of the next day we remained in the most perfect silence; not a canoe was seen afloat, excepting a few that went out of the Bay to take fish. This degree of quiet was a very agreeable change, and a great relief to us, having the preceding day been almost stunned by the clamour and intolerable noise of near three thousand people of both


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sexes, in their canoes, or swimming about the vessels. Much to their credit, however, it was in this circumstance only that their company was unpleasant; for they conducted themselves with great honesty, and in every other respect behaved with the greatest civility and good humour.

On our passage from the coast of America, we had reason to believe that the main mast was materially defective; a fish was here put on, that reached from the main deck to the upper part of the cheek, and such other repairs were undertaken as the rigging, sails, &c. required.

Sunday 24.

Agreeably to his promise Tamaahmaah, attended by Young, repaired on board immediately after sun rise on the 24th. He informed me, that all the necessary directions respecting our tents, &c. were left with persons properly authorized to take charge of them, and that they might be sent on shore whenever I pleased. This was instantly done under the care of Mr. Whidbey; and soon after breakfast, accompanied by the king, Mr. Puget, and some of the officers, I went on shore with a guard of six marines to be left for the protection of our party there. I was made very happy by finding that the presence of such a guard had not been in the least necessary; as the person appointed by Tamaahmaah, under the immediate directions of Young who had accompanied Mr. Whidbey, had conducted himself with the greatest propriety, and had acted in every respect so very conformably to Mr. Whidbey's instructions, that a guard on shore seemed almost an unnecessary precaution. In point of dignity, however, if not of security, I considered such formalities as indispensable; but being well aware of the avidity with which muskets and ammunition were here sought after, I did not lead them into any temptation by sending on shore any spare small arms, or the field pieces, left such a valuable booty might stimulate them to a breach of that integrity, which at present seemed to regulate all their actions. Yet, as I did not think it prudent to place unlimited confidence in the sincerity of their professions, the field pieces were mounted on the quarter deck in readiness for action, either in that situation, or to be transported to the shore at a moment's notice. The guns were all shotted, plenty of ammunition was at hand, and a small anchor and hawser laid out for a spring on the cable. Four centinels were

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always at their posts, with a certain number of small arms kept constantly loaded, and every man in the ship was at all times ready to fly to quarters. These precautions did not pass unregarded by Tamaahmaah; who, in the confidence of our friendship, instead of being displeased, or apprehending any danger from the occasion, highly applauded the measures that were taken; as they would effectually prevent the ill disposed part of his people from planning or attempting any enterprize to our prejudice. I learned from him that he had issued the strictest injunctions to prevent any offence, or cause of complaint, arising from any improper conduct, or behaviour in his subjects, and that he entertained no doubt of their being punctually attended to and obeyed.

The king observed, there were persons in the neighbourhood, who were servants and vassals belonging, not only to the chiefs of the other islands who were his inveterate enemies, but also to many belonging to Owhyhee, who were not better inclined; and conceiving it to be very likely that some of these might think proper to make depredations on our property, or to insult our persons, he had taken due precaution to prevent any such mischievous design; fearing left I might be impelled to seek such redress as would prove fatal to his person or his government, or probably to both; although he and his people might be perfectly unconcerned in the offence committed.

This conversation was urged by Tamaahmaah in the coolest manner, though in the most forcible language, and concluded by hoping, that I would cause such measures to be pursued for the regulation of our conduct towards them, as would avoid all possible chance of any misunderstanding. To this end he made the following requests; that I would give the most positive orders that none of our people, on any account whatsoever, should be suffered to enter their morai's, or consecrated places, or be permitted to infringe on their rights or sacred privileges; that no person should be allowed to stray about the country; and that I would scrupulously adhere to my practice of admitting none but the principal chiefs into the vessels; and that in the day time he should be frequently on board. This, he said, would deter the lawless from any impro-

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per conduct, whilst in their canoes about the vessels for the purpose of trading; that when any of our people wished to travel into the country, they should first apply to him, and he would appoint a proper person to be their guide; and a number of others in whom he could confide, to protect them, carry their baggage, and render them every service of which they might stand in need; that, under these regulations, as many of the officers and people as were inclined to make excursions, might extend their travels over the whole island, provided they committed no act contrary to the advice of their guides, and he would himself be accountable for their safety, and also for their receiving every attention of friendly hospitality; that if any of the natives were daring enough to commit any acts of fraud, or were guilty of other irregularities, the offenders should be delivered over to him; by which means a more public example would be made, and they would receive a severer punishment than he conceived it was likely I should cause to be inflicted.

Regulations so well concerted, and dictated by so much good sense and found policy, could not fail to meet my hearty concurrence, and to insure my utmost exertions to have them duly obeyed.

These were all, Tamaahmaah said, which on his part he had to propose; but he begged that I would make such additions to them as circumstances might hereafter teach to be necessary.

Convinced of the advantage, as well as the necessity, of preserving peace with these people, not only on the score of humanity, but as it respected our own present and future welfare; it became indispensably requisite that I should leave no object unattended to, that was likely to co-operate with the judicious measures the king had concerted.

Notwithstanding that the spot on which our tents and observatories were situated, became consecrated from its vicinity to, or rather from forming a part of, the morai, yet it was very much confined, and afforded but little room for our people to act in their defence, should any sudden change take place, and the natives be hostilely inclined. In the event of any misunderstanding, I was by no means certain, that the sanctity of the place would render sacred the persons of our party residing within its precincts; and should they be unfortunately cut off, the

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loss of our instruments and chronometers would certainly follow; many important objects of our voyage would necessarily be defeated; and consequences of a. more serious nature might ensue.

These important considerations led me seriously to reflect, in what instances the precautions of Tamaahmaah could be strengthened. Little apprehension existed with me, except from the insatiable desire these people possessed for arms, particularly muskets and pistols. These were, apparently the only temptations to a breach of the subsisting cordiality and friendship. To prevent therefore any of these from being thrown in their way, by the carelessness of those who might occasionally be permitted to amuse themselves on shore, I gave directions that no one should take on these occasions any arms, excepting a small pair of pocket pistols; which were to be kept intirely out of sight, and from the knowledge of the Indians, until the moment when self-preservation, or any other absolute necessity, should call them into action. This restriction was suggested by my own experience in several instances at different islands in these seas; where I have seen even considerate officers, as well as midshipmen, when on shore with a gun, either fatigued by the heat of the climate, or disappointed by the want of game, intrust their fowling pieces to an attendant native, who would watch for a good opportunity to make off with it; or, by holding fire arms carelessly in a crowd of the natives, have them wrenched from their hands, and instantly conveyed out of sight. Amongst a much more docile race than those of the Sandwich islands, the most unpleasant consequences have followed these misadventures; not only all supplies of refreshments have been stopped, but the blood of innocent natives has been shed on being fired upon for the thief, by the companions of the person robbed; but amongst these clever, designing, resolute people, worse results were to be expected, especially if any of the dissatisfied and turbulent chiefs should chance to be concerned.

This was by no means unlikely to take place; and should they once succeed in any trifling attempt, they might, when wholly unexpected by us, in order to delay or prevent punishment, pursue their object to a fatal and serious end.

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For the preservation therefore of our present happy intercourse, I deemed it expedient, and consequently directed, that the whole of these regulations should be most rigidly observed; and though they caused some dissatisfaction to inconsiderate individuals, yet for the faithful discharge of His Majesty's service entrusted to my execution, and for the security and happiness of his subjects under my command, I demanded and enforced a strict obedience to these orders, as well as those formerly issued respecting our traffic with the Indians, which were carried into execution on our first arrival.

This morning on shore I met with two seamen, one an Irishman, who had deserted from an American trader about three months since, named John Smith; the other, whose name was Isaac Davis, had been unfortunately captured by these islanders in the schooner Fair American, as was noticed on our former visit to Attowai. But as the information I then received now seemed to differ materially from the truth, and as the circumstances of this transaction, together with the treatment which this poor fellow and Young have since received, reflect not less credit on themselves for their good sense and propriety of conduct, than on Tamaahmaah for his humanity and justice, I shall proceed to state, in the abstract, the report made to me both by Young and Davis; and as I have not any doubt of the veracity of either, their information will serve in a great degree to illustrate the different characters of some of the ruling people of these islands, and prove how requisite it is, that every precaution should be taken, by visitors to this country from the civilized world. For although I had every reason to be satisfied of Tamaahmaah's abhorrence of violence and injustice, yet it did not appear that his authority was always equal to restraining the ambitious desires, that governed the conduct of many of the subordinate chiefs.

John Young was boatswain of an American snow, called the Eleanor, mounting ten guns, navigated by ten Americans and forty-five Chinese, or other inhabitants of that country, and commanded by Mr. Metcalf, on a commercial voyage to the coast of North-West America in the fur trade; in which pursuit Mr. Metcalf had likewise embarked his son,

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a youth of about eighteen years of age, in a small schooner, called the Fair American, of about twenty-six tons burthen, and navigated with five men, one of whom was Davis the mate.

These two vessels had sailed from China, and in the year 1789 the Fair American was detained by the Spaniards at Nootka, but the Eleanor came on in the autumn of that year to the Sandwich islands, and remained principally about Owhyhee during the winter.

Young stated, that in february 1790, they proceeded to Mowree, where a boat belonging to the snow, with one man in her, was stolen by the natives from the stern of the vessel; and, on a reward being offered for the boat and the man, Mr. Metcalf was informed, that the former was broken to pieces, and that the latter had been killed. The bones of the man were then demanded, which, with the stem and stern-post of the boat, were carried on board the snow in about three days. The natives in the mean time had continued to trade with the crew; and after delivering up the remains of the man, and parts of the boat, they supposed the anger of those on board was intirely appeased, and demanded of Mr. Metcalf the reward he had offered. This, Mr. Metcalf replied, they should soon have, and immediately ordered all the guns to be loaded with musket balls, and nails; and having tabooed one fide of the ship in order to get all the canoes on the starboard side, next the shore, the ports were hauled up, and the guns fired amongst the canoes. The guns between decks, being nearly upon a level with the canoes, did great execution, as did the small arms from the quarter-deck and other parts of the ship. On this occasion, Young represented that upwards of an hundred were killed, and a great many were wounded.

Having thus taken such revenge as he considered equivalent to the injury received, Mr. Metcalf quitted Mowee, and returned with his vessel to Owhyhee; where, to all appearance, they were on very good terms with the chiefs, and the inhabitants of that island.

On the 17th of inarch, Young had permission to be on shore until the next day, when the snow stood close in, and fired a gun as a signal for him to return on board; but, to his very great astonishment, he found the canoes all tabooed, and hauled up on the shore, and was informed

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by Tamaahmaah, that if he attempted to take a canoe by himself, he would be put to death, but that he should have a canoe the next day. Having no other resource, Young was obliged to submit: and in the evening he was informed, that the schooner Fair American had been captured by Tamaahmootoo, to the southward of Toeaigh bay; and that Mr. Metcalf's son, and the four men composing the crew, had been barbarously murdered.

The snow remained two days off Karakakooa, siring guns, and standing in shore, as a signal for Young; but after the news was confirmed of the schooner having been captured, the king would not permit him to leave the island, but behaved to him in the kindest manner; telling him that he should not be hurt, and that he should be at liberty to depart in the next ship that arrived; but that he would, on no account, allow a canoe to go off to the snow, left his people should be killed.

Tamaahmaah, who had been on the strictest terms of friendship with Mr. Metcalf and his people, took Young immediately to his house, where he was treated with every kindness and attention.

The king, being excessively concerned, and very angry at the late inhuman business, collected a very considerable force; and, as if he intended to chastise those who should be found the perpetrators of this barbarous transaction, he fat out, accompanied by Young, on the 22d of the same month, in order to inquire into the circumstances that could have caused so great a breach of hospitality. The schooner was found in the situation already described, destitute of almost every thing that was moveable. Tamaahmaah demanded that the vessel should instantly be delivered up to him, that he might restore her to the proprietor Mr. Metcalf, should he ever again visit Owhyhee. This was complied with by Tamaahmootoo, who received from the king a very sharp rebuke for the great impropriety of his late conduct in the capture of the schooner, and his unpardonable barbarity in murdering the commander and the people; in excuse for which, he alledged he had been struck and otherways ill treated by the father of the unfortunate young man.

Here they found Isaac Davis, the mate, still alive, but in a most deplorable condition. Tamaahmaah ordered that he should immediately


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be taken to his residence, and gave particular injunctions that he should receive every assistance in their power to bestow.

From Davis I learned, that he had been treated by Tamaahmaah and his attendants with a degree of humanity, kindness, and careful attention, that he could not have believed these people were capable of shewing.

The following is his account of the melancholy fate of the younger Metcalf and his people, on the capture of the schooner by Tamaahmootoo; which I have every reason to believe is a true and fair statement of that unjustifiable transaction.

"The schooner, being close in with the land, and nearly or intirely becalmed, she was visited by Tamaahmootoo, a very powerful chief, who was attended by a great number of the innabitants. Many of these, as well as their chief, made considerable presents to the young commander, and others sold their hogs and vegetables for little or nothing; and in order to ingratiate themselves further in the good opinion of Mr. Metcalf, and to gain his permission for their entering his vessel, they told him that the snow was but a little way to the westward, and that he would see his father before night.

Davis, who was at the helm, represented the impropriety of this measure to Mr. Metcalf, and said that he thought the behaviour of the natives had a very suspicious appearance; but all he could urge was to no effect; the young commander, perfectly satisfied of their friendly intentions, replied that they would do them no harm, and allowed as many as thought proper to come on board his vessel. In a few minutes he was seized by Tamaahmootoo, thrown overboard, and was no more seen. Davis having a pistol at hand, snapped it at the chief on his seizing his commander, but it unfortunately missed fire. He was then thrown overboard himself, and most inhumanly treated whilst in the water; die women stripped him there of his cloaths, and the men endeavoured to murder him with their paddles, being otherways all totally unarmed. But Davis being a good swimmer, and a very strong athletic man, escaped from one canoe to another before his pursuers, in order to preserve his life, which he appeared to be incapable of prolonging but for

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a few moments. At length, exhausted by fatigue, and the loss of blood, which had been very considerable from the wounds he had received, he was hauled into a large double canoe; and as they had no weapon or instrument with which they could put him to death, he was held with his throat across the raster that unites the two canoes, whilst the inhuman wretches jumped upon his neck and shoulders, with the intention of thus depriving him of life, but still without effect; till, being tired their cruelties, eased to persecute him.

After a short respite he recovered a little, and looking up to the most active of the party, said "mytie, mytie," signifying "good" the man instantly replied "arrowhah," meaning, that he pitied him, and instantly saluted him, by touching noses, gave him some cloth, and assisted him to wipe and bind up his wounds. After this he had no other injury offered to him; on his being taken on shore he was kindly treated by Harapy, brother to Kahowmotoo, who nursed him, and expressed great concern for his deplorable condition; but Tamaahmootoo, notwithstanding the state he was in, took him in triumph through the village, and made a jest of him.

Davis further stated, that Tamaahmootoo took every thing out of the schooner that he possibly could, before the arrival of the king and Young; that he was rejoiced to see the latter, and thought he had come from the snow to fetch the schooner; but when they met, and he had heard the snow was gone, and that Young had been informed of the particulars of the late cruel transaction, they were both sitting in the greatest affliction, when the king came to them, caught them in his arms and comforted them; and said, that no one should hurt them whilst he could protect them. The king then gave directions that he should be properly taken care of, and told him he was very sorry for what had happened, but that he, Davis, should live with, and be protected, by him.

After this, the king reprimanded Tamaahmootoo in such terms, that Davis saw tears in the eyes of the latter. Tamaahmaah then took possession of the schooner for the right owner."

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Although there can be no possible excuse offered in vindication of the unjustifiable conduct of this turbulent and ambitious chief, yet it appears to have been almost as inexcusable on the part of the elder Metcalf, that he should have thrown such a temptation in his way. The vessel in question had been a pleasure boat, and was lengthened at China; her gunwale was not a foot higher than that of the double canoes of this country, and being navigated and protected by five persons only, under the command of an inexperienced young man, she became not less a desirable acquisition to Tamaahmootoo than a prize of easy attainment. To risk therefore a vessel so circumstanced, amongst a set of Indians, whose daring and ambitious character was so well known in every corner of the civilized world, must ever be regarded as highly imprudent and inconsiderate.

John Young, who was about forty-four years of age, born at Liverpool, and Isaac Davis, then thirty-six years old, born at Milsord, have from this period resided intirely with Tamaahmaah; are in his most perfect confidence, attend him in all his excursions of business or pleasure, or expeditions of war or enterprize; and are in the habit of daily experiencing from him the greatest respect, and the highest degree of esteem and regard. Near the bay of Whyeatea the king has given them three very fine estates; and Kahowmotoo, who is the firm friend of Tamaahmaah, not only from connection, but a sincere regard, and who, from his atchievements in war and advice in council, is considered as the second chief in the island, has likewise shewn them, on all occasions, the greatest marks of friendship and respect, and has presented each with a very fine estate near the east point of the island. Kavaheero and Commanowa, who are considered the next chiefs in power and authority to the two former, have also treated them both in the most friendly manner; but neither of them could speak of Tianna in the same favorable terms. This chief eyes them with great jealousy, and has made some attempts on their lives; particularly on the return of Captain Colnett from St. Blas. On this occasion Captain Colnett, understanding that there were two white men on the island, very humanely desired, by letter, that they would repair on board his vessel, and that he would afford them


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all the protection and service in his power. Young and Davis being extremely averse to their present way of life, concerted a plan for escaping to Captain Colnett's vessel; a measure very contrary to the wishes and inclinations of Tamaahmaah and the chiefs of the island; left revenge for the capture of the schooner should follow their departure, to prevent which they were always very narrowly watched, and strongly guarded, whenever any vessel was in sight.

In reply to Captain Colnett's letter Young wrote to him, and stated how he and Davis came to be on the island, what had happened with respect to the schooner, and the means that were used to prevent their escaping. This letter was sent off by one of their attendants, who, meeting Tianna, shewed him the letter. This Tianna immediately took to the king, and, in consequence of his voyage to China, and having lived so long in the society of Englishmen, persuaded the king that he could read its contents. He pretended that Young and Davis had desired Captain Colnett to get the king into his possession, and to keep him until the schooner and they were delivered up to him; and that he then should kill the king and many more of the islanders. To prevent this calamity, he earnestly advised the king to kill Young and Davis; after which, he said, no one would know any thing about them but themselves.

Captain Colnett concluding the two men were prevented by the natives from getting off to him, very kindly wrote them another letter, and laid, that if that they were so circumstanced, he begged they would send for any thing they wanted, and if he had it it should be sent on shore to them. To this very kind letter Young wrote an answer, and told the man who undertook to carry it on board, that the captain would make him a handsome present for so doing. The next day the man returned, and said he was afraid to deliver the letter, as the king had given orders, that every man should be punished with death, who should carry any thing from either Young or Davis to Captain Colnett. This disappointment determined them if possible to effect their escape.

They had in their possession two muskets, with some powder and shot; they loaded their pieces and sat out, but before they had got near to the water side opposite to the vessel, they were followed by a great number

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of the inhabitants, who, being fearful of their guns, did not molest them. Some of the natives however endeavoured to prevent their reaching a point, that was nearly surrounded by water, from whence being near to the ship, they were in hopes of effecting their purpose. In accomplishing this, Young was obliged to strike one man with the but of his piece, (for they did not like to fire) and unfortunately broke its stock. They had not long been here before the king arrived in his canoe, attended by many others. Tamaahmaah very dispassionately advised them to return from whence they had come; and said, that he would do any thing they could wish to render their lives more comfortable, but. that he could not consent they should leave the island; assuring them that his people would rebel, and put him to death, the instant they took their departure. Tianna, who was present, seemed to be of a different opinion; and offered to take Young and Davis on board Captain Colnett's vessel, in his own canoe. But the king, well knowing that Tianna only wanted to accomplish their destruction, immediately interposed; and in the kindest and most persuasive manner requested they would on no account accept Tianna's offer, but that they would return in his canoe with him. The confidence they reposed in Tamaahmaah, that they should be subject to no inconvenience in consequence of their attempt to escape, and the earnestness with which he solicited them to go back with him, at length had the desired effect, and they both embarked on board his canoe. Davis was in the fore part, and Young in the after part of the canoe, when they were boarded by many others; and Tamaahmaah, observing some violence was likely to be offered to Davis, went forward to rescue him, and to prevent any accident took Davis's musket away from him; in the mean time many of the natives fell upon Young, who received several wounds before the king could return to his assistance, who was obliged to strike several of them with his paddle before they would desist.

After this project was defeated, Young and Davis were never suffered to be both afloat at the same time until our arrival; and they were given to understand, that the escape of the one would be fatal to the other. This seemed to be a very political measure, as the interest they

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had in each other's happiness and welfare, and the sincere friendship and regard that subsisted between them, could not escape the observation of Tamaahmaah, who would readily suggest the expediency of such an interdiction. Thus have Young and Davis since remained, observing that fidelity towards each other, which the true principles of honor dictate under such circumstances.

Young and Davis had now been resident in Owhyhee nearly three years, which had afforded to each of them frequent opportunities of noticing the characters of the principal chiefs, and leading people, on the island. I derived from them such information respecting the conduct of certain chiefs, as may be considered important; at least to those whose pursuits may lead them into these seas.

Tianna, they represented, as possessing the most turbulent and ambitious disposition, with great activity of mind, and a thorough contempt of danger. Had his power been sufficient, or had his plots and designs been countenanced and adopted by Tamaahmaah, they must have proved fatal to many of the small trading vessels that have visited these islands. Ever since Tianna had been settled on Owhyhee with the arms and ammunition he had brought from China, his mind had constantly been directed to the seizing of every small vessel that had arrived amongst them; whilst the plans he had repeatedly concerted for such enterprizes had been seconded by his brother Nomatahah and Tamaahmootoo, and as uniformly opposed and over-ruled by Tamaahmaah, Kahozvmotoo, Crymamahoo, and Cavaheero. The chief, Commanow, was of the king's pacific party, had uniformly rejected the counsels of Tianna, and was adverse to his ambitious projects, excepting in one instance; that of the capture of the sloop Princess Royal. In justification however of his conduct on this occasion, he says the reason that induced him to concur in that enterprize, was, that the Spaniards had taken the Princess Royal from the English, and therefore he thought there could be no harm in taking her from the Spaniards.

Nomatahah and Tamaahmootoo are artful, designing, and restless characters, and have dispositions to act on all occasions of hazard, or unlawful attempt, in conjunction with Tianna. One single instance may serve

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to shew with what art their projects are designed, and with what success they are likely to be attended.

About two months before the capture of the Fair American, whilst Mr. Metcalf was lying with his snow in Karakakooa bay, it was proposed to Tamaahmaah by these chiefs to seize the snow, to put as many of her crew to death as they thought necessary, but to reserve a sufficient number to navigate her, and to instruct them in the management of such vessels. By this acquisition, so great an advantage would be gained over the rest of the islands, as would make the conquest of them all very easy; for under the power that Tamaahmaah would then have, they must inevitably be reduced to subjection.

The mode proposed by Tianna for the accomplishment of this project was, that whilst the crew were engaged aloft in furling the sails after they had been loosed to dry, which, in consequence of the then rainy season, was a daily practice on board the vessel, these chiefs, with others on whom they could depend, being assembled on board for this express purpose, should murder all those who remained upon deck, and put as many of the others to death, as they considered necessary, on their coming down out of the rigging. Tianna reduced the success of this exploit nearly to a certainty, as he had been two or three times on board the vessel whilst her sails were furling, and saw with what ease his plan could be carried into effect.

Notwithstanding Tamaahmaah revolted at the idea of this barbarous scheme, and with great abhorrence rejected the proposals of Tianna, he very fortunately still remained in the neighbourhood. For when the projectors, instead of subscribing to the orders of their king, and abandoning their cruel design, repaired on board the vessel, Tamaahmaah on becoming acquainted that they were so assembled, went in person immediately on board, and ordered them out of the vessel; adding threats, that if they did not instantly comply, he would inform Mr. Metcalf of the danger that awaited him. They denied having visited the ship with any hostile intention; and Mr. Metcalf left the island without having the least knowledge of the conspiracy that had been formed for his destruction; and which had been the case also with the Princess Royal, and

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several other vessels, against which their plots had been equally well concerted; but, by the timely interference of Tamaahmaah, their barbarous projects had been defeated, and the lives of many civilized people preserved.

On this subject I had questioned both Tamaahmaah and Kahowmotoo, who confirmed the information given by Young and Davis; and in addition to it they stated to me, that in council Tianna was always for war and coercive measures, by which conduct he had not only incurred their disapprobation, but that Tamaahmaah had obliged him to quit his former residence in the neighbourhood of Karakakooa, and to retire to the north-west part of the island.


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Transactions at Karakakooa bay—Visit from the widow of Terreeoboo—An Indian sham-sight—Proposals for a general peace amongst the Indians— Quit Owhyhee—Astronomical observations.

1793. February.

Monday 25.

HAVING now opened a friendly communication with the chiefs, and adopted measures for establishing and preserving the good understanding that had taken place between the inhabitants and ourselves, one thing only appeared necessary to make our situation perfectly comfortable: this was, to discover some means of recruiting our supply of water, which Karakakooa does not naturally furnish. On visiting the well from which the Resolution and Discovery had obtained theirs, I found that it contained but a small quantity, and this so excessively brackish, that I was fearful of its bad effects on the health of our people; and as there was no better within our reach, I applied to Tamaahmaah for his assistance to relieve our wants. The vast consumption of water by the cattle on our passage hither, made the quantity we now required very considerable, and he was for some time at a loss to devise the best means for procuring a sufficiency. At length he proposed that a certain number of his canoes, each taking one. two, or three puncheons, according to their size, should be sent to different places on this side of the island, and there be filled with water brought by the natives in calabashes to the casks at the sea side, from the little wells in their plantations.

This plan being determined upon, a dozen puncheons, by way of experiment, were put into the canoes, the destination of some of which was

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Tuesday 26.

at that distance, that they were not expected to return in three days. Six of the calks, however, were brought back full of most excellent water the following morning; for which service those employed seemed amply rewarded by receiving a piece of iron about six inches long, and two inches in breadth, being the price fixed by the king for filling each cask, who also directed that the people of the neighbourhood should bring down water for sale; this was furnished in tolerable abundance, and they acted in this, as in other articles of traffic, with the greatest honesty and propriety of conduct.

The king spent the day in visiting the two vessels, though he passed most of his time on board the Discovery, where his observation was constantly awake, and few of our most common operations escaped his notice; all his inquiries were pertinent, directed to useful objects, and calculated to obtain information that would hereafter answer some good purpose.

Wednes. 27.

On missing his early visit the next morning, I received a message from him, that an axe and some small articles belonging to the Chatham had been stolen by the women who had been permitted to sleep on board, and who bad escaped to the shore undetected. Our first knowledge of the theft was by this message from Tamaahmaah, who informed me that the offender, a young woman was in custody, and that the instant the stolen goods were recovered, they should be returned to the place from whence they had been taken. This was done about breakfast time, after which he spent the remainder of the day with me, and gave me the unwelcome intelligence, that the bull for whose recovery I was so very solicitous, was dead. On this mortifying occasion I much regretted that I had not followed the advice of Kahowmotoo, from whose connection with the king I most probably might have relied with perfect security on his offers, of taking charge of the cattle at Toeaigh. Two of the young cows, however, appeared to be in calf: this encouraged me to hope that his loss would be repaired by one of them bringing forth a male. The finest of the two ewes, I was now informed was killed by a dog the day after the cattle were landed; whose life was instantly forfeited for the transgression.

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Our plan for procuring water answered very well; the casks were taken the greatest care of, and were punctually and regularly returned; so that by this evening we had acquired eight tuns of excellent water.

Thursday 28.

On thursday afternoon Kerneecuberrey, the unfortunate widow of the late Terreeoboo, favored me with a visit. After lamenting the death of her husband, and witnessing nearly the extirpation of his whole race, she had survived to this time in a state of captivity. Under these melancholy circumstances, she had met in Tamaahmaah not only a humane and generous conqueror, but a friend and a protector.

During the conflict at the revolution, he was under the necessity of using some violence to shelter her from the revenge of his nearest relations, and the fury of the mob, who loudly demanded her immediate execution, and the lives of all her husband's adherents. Although on my visit to these islands in the year 1779 she was then advanced in life, yet I perfectly recollected the features of her countenance. The high degree of sensibility and vivacity it then possessed, now too plainly bespoke the sorrow and dejection she had since experienced.

In a very feeble saultering voice she said, that we had been formerly acquainted, that she had come with Tamaahmaah to pay me a visit and see the ship, presenting me at the same time with a small feathered cap, which was all she had now in her power to bellow. My name was perfectly familiar to her, but my person was so altered, that it was some time before she was quite reconciled to the change that fourteen years had produced. Curiosity induced her to visit most parts of the ship; and whilst she was so engaged, a slight degree of cheerfulness seemed to obtrude, and for a moment appeared to suspend the weighty afflictions that her declining years were scarcely able to sustain. Satisfied with the surrounding objects, and gratified in her inquiries after many of the officers and some of the people of the Resolution and Discovery, I presented her with an assortment of valuables suitable to her former distinguished situation, and obtained from Tamaahmaah a most solemn promise in her presence, that the articles I had given her should not be taken from her by himself or any other person.

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Friday 1.

Kahowmotoo, who with a part of his family had been our constant visitors in the clay time, and whose good offices had been uniformly exerted to the utmost of his ability in our service. took a very friendly leave on friday morning, for the purpose of collecting such things as would be most acceptable to us after quitting Karakakooa; it being my intention to visit Toeaigh previously to my departure from this island. On this occasion I presented him with some useful articles that were highly acceptable to him, particularly a suit of sails made of old canvas for his largest canoe, and a cloak of scarlet cloth made after the fashion of that I had given to Tamaahmaah, but not quite so gaudily decorated.

Mr. Menzies, who had departed on monday in pursuit of botanical researches, accompanied by one of the midshipmen of the Discovery, on an excursion into the country, returned to the ship this morning. He had been attended by a guide and eight people appointed for that purpose by Tamaahmaah. From these people he had received the greatest attention and civility, and through all the inhabited parts of the country they had passed, had been treated with the utmost respect and hospitality.

Saturday 2.

Most of our material business being by this time accomplished, our wood and water completely replenished; and finding that on application to the chiefs a sufficient quantity of refreshments were instantly supplied, I annulled the order prohibiting a general barter, and gave permission for the purchasing of curiosities.

Sunday 3.

Accompanied by Tamaahmaah and some of the officers, I visited the three villages in this bay: and first of all the fatal spot, where Captain Cook so unexpectedly, and so unfortunately for the world, yielded up his valuable life. This melancholy, and ever to be deplored event, the natives are at much pains exactly to represent, to produce reasons for its taking place, and to shew that it fulfilled the prophecies of the priests, who had foretold this sad catastrophe. But as these are matters that require further examination, I shall defer them to future consideration.

At this place, as well as at the other villages, the inhabitants, who were very numerous, behaved with the utmost civility and decorum. It may

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not however he unimportant to observe, that we repaired on shore with both boats well armed, our men dressed, as was the usual practice on a sunday, in their best attire, and with a guard of marines. Possibly our appearance had some influence on their general behaviour, though for my own part, I entertained not the least suspicion that such protection was at all necessary. The vanity of Tamaahmaah was however highly gratified by the parade, and he much regretted that he had not an English dress to wear upon this occasion. For this he bad substituted a garment I had given him, that had not before been exposed to public view, which much attracted the notice and applause of the surrounding multitude. Tianna, with several other chiefs, were also present; the latter had every appearance of a cheerful and happy disposition: but the countenance of the ambitious Tianna could not conceal the envy he felt in not being treated with the same degree of respect that was shewn to his sovereign. His jealousy became conspicuously evident in our walk through the village, by his asking in a surly tone of voice, why I gave that, man so many things, and himself so few? This I endeavoured to explain, though possibly not intirely to his satisfaction.

Nothing worthy of notice occurred during our perambulation on shore; which, being ended, we returned on board to dinner.

Notwithstanding we had completely finished the principal business of refitting the vessels, yet, as I considered the meridian of this place to have been accurately and unalterably fixed by Captain Cook and Captain King, for the better regulation of our chronometers, I much wished for the further observations of a day or two at the observatory; and having promised to give the king an entertainment with fire works, that exhibition was fixed for monday evening; and that he might contribute to the pleasures of the day, he proposed to have a sham-battle on shore in the afternoon, between such of his best warriors as could be assembled on so short a notice.

Monday 4.

As soon as dinner was over on monday we were summoned to this review, and as Tamaahmaah considered all ceremonies and formalities on my part as adding to his consequence, he requested that I would be attended on shore by a guard.

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We found the warriors assembled towards the north corner of the beach, without the limits of the hallowed ground. The party consisted of about an hundred and fifty men armed with spears; these were divided into three parties nearly in equal numbers, two were placed at a little distance from each other; that on our right was to represent the armies of Titeeree and Taio, that on the left the army of Tamaahmaah. Their spears on this occasion were blunt pointed sticks, about the length of their barbed ones; whilst, on each wing, we were to suppose a body of troops placed to annoy the enemy with stones from their slings. The combatants now advanced towards each other, seemingly without any principal leader, making speeches as they approached, which appeared to end in vaunts and threats from both parties, when the battle began by throwing their sham spears at each other. These were parried in most, instances with great dexterity, but such as were thrown with effect produced contusions and wounds, which, though fortunately of no dangerous tendency, were yet very considerable, and it was admirable to observe the great good humour and evenness of temper that was preserved by those who were thus injured. This battle was a mere skirmish, neither party being supported, nor advancing in any order but such as the fancy of the individuals directed. Some would advance even from the rear to the front, where they would throw their spears, and instantly retreat into the midst of their associates, or would remain picking up the spears that had fallen without effect. These they would sometimes hurl again at the foe, or hastily retreat with two or three in their possession. Those, however, who valued themselves on military achievements, marched up towards the front of the adverse party, and in a vaunting manner bid defiance to the whole of their adversaries. In their left hand they held their spear, with which in a contemptuous manner they parried some of those of their opponents, whilst with their right they caught, others in the act of flying immediately at them, and instantly returned them with great dexterity. In this exercise no one seemed to excel his Owhyhean majesty, who entered the lists for a short. time, and defended himself with the greatest dexterity, much to our surprize and admiration; in one instance particularly, against six spears that were hurled at him nearly at the

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same instant; three he caught as they were flying, with one hand, two he broke by parrying them with his spear in the other, and the sixth, by a trifling inclination of his body, passed harmless.

This part of the combat was intended to represent the king as having been suddenly discovered by the enemy, in a situation where he was least expected to be found; and the shower of darts that were instantly directed to that quarter, were intended to shew that he was in the most imminent danger; until advancing a few paces, with the whole body of his army more closely connected, and throwing their spears with their utmost exertion, he caused the enemy to fall back in some little confusion, and he himself rejoined our party without having received the least injury.

The consequences attendant on the first man being killed, or being so wounded as to fall on the disputed ground between the contending armies, were next exhibited.

This event causes the loss of many lives and much blood, in the conflict that takes place in order to rescue the unfortunate individual, who, if carried off by the adverse party dead or alive, becomes an immediate sacrifice at the morai. On this occasion the wounded man was supposed to be one of Titeeree's soldiers, and until this happened, no advantage appeared on either side; but now the dispute became very serious, was well supported on all sides, and victory still seemed to hold a level scale, until at length the supposed armies of Taio and Titeeree fell back, whilst that of Tamaahmaah carried off in triumph several supposed dead bodies, dragging the poor fellows, (who already had been much trampled upon) by the heels, some distance through a light loose sand; and who, notwithstanding that their eyes, ears, mouth, and nostrils were by this means filled, were no sooner permitted to use their legs, than they ran into the sea, washed themselves, and appeared as happy and as cheerful as if nothing had happened.

In this riot-like engagement, for it could not possibly be considered any thing better, the principal chiefs were considered to bear no part; and on its being thus concluded, each party fat quietly down on the ground, and a parly, or some other fort of conversation took place.


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The chiefs were now supposed to have arrived at the theatre of war, which had hitherto been carried on by the common people only of both parties; a very usual mode of proceeding, I understood, among these islanders. They now on both sides came forward, guarded by a number of men armed with spears of great length, called pallaloos. These weapons are never relinquished but by death, or captivity; the former is the most common. They are not barbed, but reduced to a small point, and though not very sharp, yet are capable of giving deep and mortal wounds by the force and manner with which they are used. The missive spears are all barbed about six inches from the point, and are generally from seven to eight feet long.

The warriors who were armed with the pallaloos, now advanced with a considerable degree of order, and a scene of very different exploits commenced; presenting, in comparison to what before had been exhibited, a wonderful degree of improved knowledge in military evolutions. This body of men, composing several ranks, formed in close and regular order, constituted a firm and compact phalanx, which in actual service, I was informed, was not easily to be broken. Having reached the spot in contest, they fat down on the ground about thirty yards asunder, and pointed their pallaloos at each other. After a short interval of silence, a conversation commenced, and Taio was supposed to state his opinion respecting peace and war. The arguments seemed to be urged and supported with equal energy on both sides. When peace under certain stipulations was proposed, the pallaloos were inclined towards the ground, and when war was announced, their points were raised to a certain degree of elevation. Both parties put on the appearance of being much upon their guard, and to watch each other with a jealous eye, whilst this negociation was going forward; which, however, not terminating amicably, their respective claims remained to be decided by the fate of a battle. Nearly at the same instant of time they all arose, and, in close columns, met each other by flow advances. This movement they conducted with much order and regularity, frequently shifting their ground, and guarding with great circumspection against the various advantages of their opponents; whilst the inferior bands were supposed to be en-


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gaged on each wing with spears and slings. The success of the contest, however, seemed to depend intirely on those with the pallaloos, who firmly disputed every inch of the ground, by parrying each others lunges with the greatest dexterity, until some to the left of Titeeree's center fell. This greatly encouraged Tamaahmaah's party, who, rushing forward with shouts and great impetuosity, broke the ranks of their opponents, and victory was declared for the arms of Owhyhee, by the supposed death of several of the enemy; these at length retreated; and on being more closely pressed, the war was decided by the supposed death of Titeeree and Taio; and those who had the honor of personating these chiefs, were, like those before, dragged in triumph by the heels over no small extent of loose sandy beach, to be presented to the victorious Tamaahmaah, and for the supposed purpose of being sacrificed at his morai. These poor fellows, like those before mentioned, bore their treatment with the greatest good humour.

The first exhibition appeared to be extremely rude, disorderly, and ineffectual, though much dexterity was certainly shewn; but from the manner in which the pallaloos were managed, it would seem that they are capable of sustaining a very heavy assault.

These military exploits finished towards sun-set, and as soon as it was dark we entertained the king and a large concourse of his people with a display of fire works. Tamaahmaah and some of the chiefs recollected to have seen a few indifferent ones, that were fired by Captain Cook on his being visited by Terreeoboo; but ours, being in higher preservation, of greater variety, and in a larger quantity, were viewed by the several chiefs, who were the only persons admitted within our tabooed precincts, with the greatest mixture of fear, surprize, and admiration; and by the repeated bursts of acclamation from the numerous body of the inhabitants assembled on the occasion, it was hard to determine which of these passions most generally preponderated.

Tuesday 5.

The following morning Kavahero, the chief of Kowrooa, who was of our party the preceding evening, informed me, that on his return home, the inhabitants of that village at first considered what they beheld as a diversion only, but from the time it lasted, and the continual clamour that


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they had heard, they had become very much alarmed, and suspected that some misunderstanding had taken place between us and Tamaahmaah; and that we were destroying him, with all his people and houses, on this side of the country. The same opinion had prevailed with most of the women who were on board the vessels, and who were not easily persuaded to believe otherways.

These intimations afforded me an opportunity which I did not suffer to escape, to impress on their minds the very great superiority we possessed, should we ever be obliged to act towards them as enemies. The sky and water rockets, balloons, hand grenades, &c. &c. I represented to be like guns fired without shot, when designed for entertainment; but like them capable of being rendered formidable and destructive weapons, when occasion might require. Of this they seemed to entertain no doubt, and were anxious beyond measure to be provided with a few, for their protection against Taio and Titeeree. On this subject the king was so excessively pressing, that I was induced to indulge him by complying with his request. I gave to the charge of Young, who with his comrade Davis had so conducted themselves as to be intitled to our confidence, a dozen sky rockets, and half that number of effective hand grenades, for the sole purpose of Tamaahmaah's protection, and with the strictest injunctions, that they should never be used but with this design. I likewise exhorted them on no pretence to attend Tamaahmaah, or assist him, in any ambitious schemes for the conquest of the neighbouring islands; but to support him to the utmost of their power, not only in the defence of his island against foreign invasion, but in maintaining his authority against domestic insurrection.

I had embraced every opportunity, and had met with no little difficulty to convince Tamaahmaah, and the chiefs who had been our constant visitors, that a peaceable mode of life was infinitely to be preferred, and more conducive to their real happiness, than the continued state of warfare that had so long disgraced their islands; without any other motive that could be urged as an excuse for despoiling each other's lands, or destroying their fellow creatures, than a wild and inordinate am-

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bition to possess themselves of each others territories, which experience had shewn them they were incapable of retaining after conquest.

These and similar arguments I had repeatedly made use of, for the desirable purpose of bringing about a general pacification with the contending sovereigns of these islands; and had at length succeeded so far, as to induce the king, and most of the chiefs, to give the matter their serious consideration. One obstacle, however, seemed to be insurmountable. The want of confidence in all the ruling parties. Such a negociation could only take place by personal conference, and were a chief to be lent from hence to Mowee, with full powers to enter upon so desirable a business, it was alledged the people there would have no good opinion of his intentions; and, considering him as a spy, would instantly put him to death.

I endeavoured to do away this objection, by offering to take any chief so empowered on board the ship, and to tow his canoe to Mowee, where I would protect him, and remain until the negociation was at an end. This was not considered as a sufficient protection, as the ambassador would be safe no longer than I should remain on the spot. The business however did not rest here; for being on shore the day before Kahowmotoo's departure, I was solicited to attend a council of the chiefs at Tamaahmaah's house. Here much was said on the subject of the peace I had so earnestly recommended. The king and several of the chiefs seemed to be well convinced of the benefits with which a peace would be attended; on this part of the discourse little was said by Kakowmotoo or Tianna, but that they were convinced that little confidence could be placed in Titeeree. They were however of opinion, that the best method of insuring success would be, that I should take a chief of Owhyhee to Mowee, and having shewn to Titeeree and Taio the advantages of making peace, and convinced their minds of the propriety of so doing, and of the inclination of Tamaahmaah to accomplish this happy object, that I should return with Taio to Owhyhee, where they would immediately enter heartily into the business with him, and leave all disputed points to be adjusted by me, as the mutual friend of both parties.

There was doubtless a great deal of solid sense in this mode of ar-

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guing, and probably there was no other mode so likely to have been attended with success; but I was so much pressed for time, that it was impossible for me to have made the experiment. On my stating, that the want of time put it totally out of my power to comply with this arrangement, which I should otherways have cheerfully acceded to, some conversation, that I did not understand, passed in a low voice between the king and Kahowmotoo; after which the former requested, as I seemed so desirous of effecting a peace between the two islands, that I would use my endeavours when I went to Mowee to bring this matter about, and that on my return next autumn to these islands, I should visit Mowee first, and if I then found the business unaccomplished, should bring Taio under my protection to Owhyhee, where every thing should be adjusted and settled in the manner before proposed. To this I gave no positive answer, wishing first to know on what terms Tamaahmaah would agree to peace; to this it was replied, that Mowee, Morotoi, and the neighbouring islands, should be ceded to his sovereignty of Owhyhee, in right of his last conquest; and that Titeeree and Taio should remain in the quiet possession of Woahoo, Attowai, and the rest of the small islands to leeward.

This exorbitant demand I was confident would never be listened to, and I therefore declined having any thing more to do in the business, until terms should be offered that might incline the opposite party to be desirous of an accommodation.

After much conversation respecting the magnitude, population, and fertility of Owhyhee, which was stated to be equal if not superior to all the islands collectively taken, the right which Titeeree held in the sovereignty of Mowee and its neighbouring islands was next discussed. As the possession of these territories appeared to have been in the family of Titeeree for many ages, I stated that it was not likely he should easily relinquish his pretensions; and though he might be tempted to do so on certain conditions, at the moment, yet after he had re-established his power, and recruited his strength in men and canoes, there could not be a doubt but he would endeavour to re-assume the dominions of his forefathers, and then the same devastation and warfare would be again revived.

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These, and other arguments to the same effect, induced the king and his counsellors to listen to the conditions I proposed. They were founded on the spirit of their original laws, and the ancient custom of governing Owhyhee and Mowee, with the islands in their immediate vicinity; at which time, according to their own account, they lived in great harmony and friendship with each other. My first proposition was, that Owhyhee should remain a separate and distinct government of itself, under the authority of Tamaahmaah and his heirs: that Titeeree and Taio should remain in the sovereignty of the other islands, as distinct or foreign dominions: and that the king of Owhyhee should surrender all claim or pretensions to those territories; experience having already demonstrated his inability of retaining conquered countries, without endangering his authority, and disturbing his peace at home. After due consideration, it was agreed that I should on my arrival at Mowee use my endeavours to establish a permanent peace on my own principles; and, by a letter to Young from thence, inform Tamaahmaah with the progress of my negociation, which they promised to conclude and ratify, if a chief, properly authorized, brought, the letter from Mowee.

I avoided noticing this business whilst it was pending, in the order of my narrative, under the idea that new objections would arise from after considerations, and additional consultations on the subject; all matters however now seemed finally adjusted, and it may not be uninteresting to state the circumstances that first gave rise to this disposition towards peace, as I do not claim the merit of the thought having originated with myself.

The king and several of the chiefs solicited my assistance in the conquest they meditated of all the islands to leeward. They entertained great hopes of my concurrence from the friendship I had uniformly manifested, and from the utter abhorrence I had as uniformly expressed of the cruel and horrid murder of our countrymen at Woahoo, belonging to the Dædalus. This vessel they considered as belonging to me, and for the purpose of exciting my revenge, and inducing my compliance with their wishes, they alledged, that this lamentable outrage was committed in the presence, and by the positive order, of Titeeree's brother. This assertion however seemed to be intended for no other purpose than to

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aggravate the crime of their neighbours, and to increase our misfortune: and they were not less disappointed than surprized that, notwithstanding the forcible reasons they had urged, I peremptorily refused them any assistance. Instead of encouraging hostilities between them, I pointed out the many important advantages that would result from a friendly intercourse with each other; and recommended, that a permanent peace should be established with the inhabitants of all the islands. Still they endeavoured to prevail upon me to listen to their solicitations, and disregarding the pacific measures I had recommended, thought to influence my conduct by representing, that Mr. Ingraham, commanding the American brig Hope, on some misunderstanding with Titeeree and Taio, had fired several shot at them as they went from his vessel to the shore; and that in consequence of this treatment, those chiefs had given directions to the inhabitants of all the islands under their authority, to kill every white man they should meet with, whether English, American, or of any other nation. What impression this intelligence might have made at any other time I cannot say, but on this occasion it did not in the lead tend to affect my determination, founded on the cause of humanity, and many weighty political considerations.

Tuesday 6.

A general periodical taboo was to take place this evening, and as most of the chiefs our friends had disposed of such matters as they had brought for our service, they took their leave, knowing our departure was nigh, and returned to their respective places of abode; well satisfied with their visit, and intreating us to return again soon to Owhyhee.

The taboo demanded the removal of our tents, observatory, &c. these of course were duly received on board; and I acquainted Tamaahmaah that it was my intention to fail on wednesday night, or the following morning. The king earnestly requested that we should not depart until friday, as he should then be able to accompany us some distance along the island to the northward; but as the season was fast advancing, I entered into no engagement, but left our stay to the event of circumstances.

Tamaahmaah conceiving this might be his last visit, presented me with a handsome cloak formed of red and yellow feathers, with a small collection of other native curiosities and at the same time delivered into

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my charge the superb cloak that he had worn on his formal visit at our arrival. This cloak was very neatly made of yellow feathers; after he had displayed its beauty, and had shewn me the two holes made in different parts of it by the enemy's spears the first day he wore it, in his last battle for the sovereignty of this island, he very carefully folded it up, and desired, that on my arrival in England, I would present it in his name to His Majesty, King George; and as it had never been worn by any person but himself, he strictly enjoined me not to permit any person whatever to throw it over their shoulders, saying, that it was the most valuable thing in the island of Owhyhee, and for that reason he had sent it to so great a monarch, and so good a friend, as he considered the King of England.

This donation I am well persuaded was dictated by his own grateful heart, without having received the least hint or advice from any person whatever, and was the effect of principles, highly honorable to more civilized minds. The cloak I received, and gave him the most positive assurance of acting agreeably with his directions.

Although Tamaahmaah considered himself to be amply rewarded by the different articles I had from time to time presented him with, yet, the very essential services he had rendered us, his steady friendship, and the attachment he had shewn to our welfare, demanded, I thought, some additional testimony of our general approbation. For this purpose I selected a number of useful as well as ornamental articles; amongst the latter were two cloaks similar to those I had before presented him, and a quantity of plain and coloured gartering tape; this was held in great estimation, especially when two or three sorts were sewn together to form that part of their dress called the maro, about three yards long, and six inches broad. The useful matters consisted of a variety of culinary utensils and implements of husbandry, with some smiths and carpenters tools. With this acquisition he was greatly delighted, and expressed much surprize at the liberality of the present.

He then in the most affectionate manner took his leave, not only of myself and all the officers, but of every person he saw on deck; and requesting that I would remain until friday morning, which however I

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did not think adviseable to promise, he left the ship with considerable reluctance.

Amongst those who had accompanied the king on this visit, were two chiefs, one named Crymakoo, the other Quoti, but more commonly called Kookinney, which in their language means quickness. To the care of these chiefs Mr. Whidbey and the observatory had been entrusted, with an additional guard of some natives of the order of the priesthood, each of whom strove to surpass the other in acts of service and civility. The situation that the two chiefs filled, and the superiority they possessed, afforded them more frequent opportunities than the rest of manifesting their friendly intentions, in a uniform steadiness deserving the highest commendation.

As an acknowledgment for their services and fidelity, I requested that Tamaahmaah would point out to me such articles as would be most worthy of their acceptance: these were presented to them, and they were highly gratified by this compliment to their integrity.

There were none of the chiefs who seemed to feel so much regret on our departure as these two young men. They had been constantly with Mr. Whidbey in the marquee, and had acquired such a taste for our mode of living, that their utmost endeavours were exerted to imitate all our ways, and they seemed so perfectly happy and pleased with our society, that they were scarcely ever absent unless when sent for by the king. Their attachment was by no means of a childish nature, or arising only from novelty; it was the effect of reflection, and the consciousness of their own comparative inferiority. This directed their minds to the acquirement of useful instruction, from those whom they acknowledged to be so infinitely their superiors. Their conversation had always for its object important information, not frivolous inquiry; and their questions were of a nature that would not have discredited much more enlightened observers. Their vivacity and sensibility of countenance, their modest behaviour, evenness of temper, quick conception, and the pains they took to become acquainted with our language, and to be instructed in reading and writing, bespoke them to have not only a genius to acquire, but abilities to profit by instruction.


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It appeared to us very singular that these two young men, who were nearly allied to the most inveterate enemies of Tamaahmaah, should have been selected by him from the numerous train of favorites attending on his person, to be his most intimate and confidential friends. Crymakoo, who was about twenty-four years of age, was son to a chief of the first consequence in Mowee, and one of Titeeree's principal warriors. In his early infancy he was taken under the care of Tamaahmaah, brought up by him, and had for some years past possessed the confidence, and been the constant companion, of the king, for whose interest and prosperity he entertained the greatest regard; and in return, he was inverted by his prince with an authority almost equal to his own. Quoti, though not possessing at this time power and authority equal to that of Crymakoo, yet seemed to divide with him the affection and esteem of the king. He was about the age. of eighteen; and notwithstanding that he was inferior in point of figure and address to Crymakoo, whose person and deportment excelled in a great degree any of the islanders we had seen, yet he had a very engaging manner, and a pleasing mode of conducting himself. In his intellectual endowments he seemed to possess a great superiority over Crymakoo. This youth was the reputed son of Terreeoboo, by Namahanna, the favorite wife of Kahowmotoo, but report whispered that he was a much nearer relation than that of cousin to Tamaahmaah.

Wednes. 6.

All our external business being completely finished, little else remained to be done but to bend the sails, and get the vessels ready for sea: this service was performed the next day, when all our friends who continued or resided in the neighbourhood were in sacred retirement. This taboo was not observed by the lower orders of the people with the same degree of strictness as that mentioned in the preceding chapter. Many of the men were busily employed in their traffic alongside, but no woman was permitted to be afloat.

On this occasion I think it important to state, that ever since permission had been granted for a general traffic with the islanders. I had attentively watched its effect, and could not have had a better opportunity to be convinced, how absolutely requisite it is that a prohibition

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on a general trade, between the crews and the natives, should take place on board all European or American vessels, until the more important business, of procuring the necessary supplies of refreshments, wood and water, be accomplished. Whilst the prohibition was in force on board the Discovery, all the essential articles were brought to market, and purchased by us as fast as they could conveniently be received; and any number of hogs, or quantity of vegetables, might have been procured during that period. But no sooner were these reductions discontinued, and our people at liberty to indulge themselves in the purchase of what at the moment they esteemed to be curiosities, than almost all our essential supplies ceased to be brought from the shore, and the few articles of that description which did appear alongside, were increased in price four or five hundred per cent.; even at that rate I endeavoured to purchase our daily consumption of water, but could not succeed. The depreciation in the value of our own commodities was also the consequence of the permission for a general trade, from the extravagant prices given by the crew in outbidding each other, for insignificant articles, which were no sooner possessed than they were neglected, and often in a few days were thrown overboard.

Thursday 7.

The weather became cloudy with some rain in the afternoon, and the wind was unsteady, blowing in squalls very hard from the northern quarter. This continued all night, and in the morning of thursday brought a very heavy swell into the bay, that obliged us, much to the satisfaction of Tamaahmaah, and our friends on shore, to remain stationary. Soon after suse they all stocked round us with their usual affability and friendship; the king however was not, according to his general practice, amongst the earliest. A delay had been occasioned by his waiting to come off in great state in one of his largest canoes, that we had rigged for him with a full suit of canvas sails, sloop fashion, to which I had added a union jack and a pendant; but these, not having been placed according to his directions, required alteration; and, that they might be quite in proper order, he cruized for some time about the bay, before he came alongside. On his arrival we found him highly delighted with his man of war, but he observed, that she would make a much better appearance with a few swivels properly mounted; I agreed with him

Y 2

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in this opinion, but the words "Taboo King George" were sufficient to prevent a syllable more being urged on that subject.

Tamaahmaah, knowing my intention of visiting Kahowmotoo in my way to Mowee, informed me, that he had sent directions to the persons on his estates at Toeaigh to supply us with a full stock of hogs and vegetables, and any thing else the country afforded; and that he might be certain that his orders would be duly executed, he requested that Young and Davis might attend us thither; as it was impossible for him to absent himself from Karakakooa until certain ceremonies had taken place, in consequence of his having celebrated the festival of the new year in this district; and of his having transgressed the law by living in such social intercourse with us, who had eaten and drank in the company of women.

On the evening of our departure, Tamaahmaah was to resign himself to the strict obedience of a taboo that was then to commence. On this occasion, all his people who had been in commercial intercourse with us, were to lay before him the whole of the treasure they had acquired, and to render to him the customary tribute. The presents that the king himself had received would also be exposed to public view, when certain priests would perform prayers, exhortations, and other functions of their office. These ceremonies frequently continue without stopping, near half a day, and are sometimes repeated ten days successively.

Friday 8.

On the morning of the 8th the weather being pleasant, with a gentle breeze from the land, we sailed from Karakakooo, and stood along shore to the northward; about four miles from our last station we passed a small creek, where we saw the captured schooner laid-up, and a house built over it to protect her from the sun. About this time Tamaahmaah, with his queen and most of his attendants, had overtaken us. I took this opportunity of resuming this unfortunate subject, and understood from Tamaahmaah, that it was his intention to return the schooner to Mr. Metcalf her owner. This, Tamaahmaah promised to do; either to Mr. Metcalf himself, or to the commander of any vessel authorized by Mr. Metcalf to receive her. Young bore witness to the king's sincerity, and said that this had been his constant language, from the moment he became acquainted with the melancholy cattle of her detention. From

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Young we learned, that the schooner was now of little value, having nearly fallen to pieces for want of the necessary repairs.

The royal party remained on board until about ten in the forenoon, when, after taking an affectionate leave of us all, and expressing the greatest concern at the shortness of our visit, they returned to Karakakooa.

With a favorable breeze from the south-west we continued our route to the northward, within about 2 miles of the land. Some rocks and breakers were seen lying, about half way from the shore, off the west point of the island, and extending two or three miles from thence towards Toeaigh. To the north of these the bottom is free from rocks, where vessels may anchor, but the situation does not afford any fresh water; and it is besides objectionable, on account of its being exposed to the north winds, which, with those that blow from the north-westward, are the most violent and dangerous known in this country. Towards the evening we were pretty far advanced in the bay, where, with a moderate breeze from the land, we plied during the night.

Saturday 9.

Our friend Kahowmotoo, agreeably to his promise, visited us the next morning, and presented me with twenty fine hogs, and a large assortment of vegetables; to these he was pleased to add a very handsome feathered cloak.

The servants of the king were very alert in obeying their master's orders, and brought eighty very fine hogs for the Discovery, and half that number, equally good, for the Chatham; with large supplies of vegetables for both. They behaved with the utmost decorum, and inquired if any more of these, or any other articles, would be wanted, adding, that if so, they should be immediately provided. This abundant supply was however far beyond what we could possibly require, one third being fully sufficient for all our purposes; the remainder was therefore directed to be returned to the shore.

During the forenoon we received a visit from Tianna, who brought as a present to me about half a dozen small ill-fed hogs, for which we had neither room nor occasion. He was not however dismissed without a farewel present, and such a one, as in my opinion he ought to have


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been extremely well contented with; since, on no one of his visits, which had been very frequent, excepting on the first, had he offered us any refreshments; yet he had received from me presents nearly equal to those I had made to other chiefs, who had been instrumental in supplying our wants, and anxious on all occasions to render us service. Although Tianna could assume no merit, either for his supplies, or services bestowed upon us, yet, such was his envious pride, that instead of being thankful for what he had not deserved, he could not refrain from expressions of dissatisfaction, that he had not been shewn the same attention and respect, and complimented with articles of similar value to those, that had been offered to Tamaahmaah. In short, his conversation was in so haughty a stile, and so unlike the general conduct of all the other chiefs of Owhyhee, that I was induced to request that he would return the scarlet cloak, axes, and a variety of other useful articles I had just before given him; observing, that as these things were in his opinion so inadequate to his claims, they could not possibly be worthy his acceptance. With this request however Tianna did not think proper to comply, but departed, affecting to be perfectly satisfied and contented, though his countenance proclaimed those designing, ambitious, and (I believe I may with justice add) treacherous principles, that apparently govern his turbulent and aspiring disposition.

Kohowmotoo, who was present, expressed the highest disapprobation of Tianna's conduct; saying, that if any one could be dissatisfied, he had cause to complain, that such valuable presents had been bestowed on a man who had appeared totally indifferent to our welfare, and who had never even endeavoured to render us any service. This observation was extremely well timed, and was immediately followed by the most grateful acknowledgments for the valuable articles himself and family had received. These he said, had far exceeded the utmost limits of his expectations.

I was not less pleased with the gratitude of Kahowmotoo, than with the assurance of his being so well contented with the selection of things I had presented him, as they were on our part tributes very justly due to his steady, uniform, and friendly attention.

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Amongst other points of information that I collected at Owhyhee, I learned that Tamaahmaah, having obtained some intimation of our intended visit, had been excessively impatient for our arrival, that he might obtain an opportunity of displaying his real and true character; which he understood had been most unjustly traduced, by some of the traders who had visited, this island since he had acquired its government. Instructions had been given to several of the masters of the trading vessels by their owners, directing them to be excessively cautious of, and vigilantly on their guard against, the treacherous, villainous, and designing arts of Tamaahmaah; these unnecessary admonitions had been explained to him; and being conscious of his own innocence, his concern was excessive, and he impatiently looked forward to an opportunity of rescuing his character from such imputations, by exhibiting his real disposition to his more candid visitors.

If what I have here had occasion to state, respecting the conduct and liberal sentiments of this chief, be not sufficient to wipe away the aspersions that have detracted from his good name, I doubt not of having yet a further opportunity of producing such facts, as will effectually accomplish that purpose.

Tianna was not ignorant of our prepossession for Tamaahmaah's, virtues, and goodness of heart: this prompted his envy, to let no occasion escape for saying something to his prejudice and dishonour, so long as any one would listen to this favorite topic of his conversation: and it is by no means unlikely, that when he had successfully implicated the king by his artful contrivances, in his crimes and misdemeanors, he entertained the ambitious hopes to undermine our good opinion by the continual repetition of his calumnies, and to engage us to assist him in the destruction of Tamaahmaah, and the assumption of the government. But, on finding that his wishes for royalty and power were not to be gratified by our means, he experienced a disappointment that he had neither prudence to conceal, nor fortitude to support.

As we had now no further business at Owhyhee, we made the best of our way out of the bay; but calms and light baffling winds rendered our situation nearly stationary. This afforded some of the natives an op-

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portunity of shewing their dexterity in catching a small kind of bonetto; not only an amusing but a profitable employment. A small canoe is paddled as quick as possible by three or four people, whilst another is in the stern with a fishing rod, a very fine line, and a neat small hook; this hook passing swiftly through the water, is taken by the bonetto for a small fish, and to increase the deception, the angler is constantly throwing water about his hook with his hand, in order that it may be the less distinctly seen; so that almost the instant he throws it into the sea, it is taken by the bonetto. This mode of fishing was conducted with so much dexterity, that we saw great numbers taken, but did not observe one that had been hooked to escape. We were not only entertained with the sport, but it furnished an explanation of the general and rigid taboo all over the island at the time we arrived on the coast. It now appeared to have been in consequence of the season having commenced for the taking of these fish, which are exceedingly good to eat when fresh, and being caught in abundance, make a very considerable part of the food of the inhabitants when preserved and salted.

In the evening Kahowmotoo with all the natives took their leave, after assuring us of a continuance of their friendship, and expressing the highest satisfaction and happiness at our visit. Our two countrymen, Young and Davis, bid us also farewel with a degree of reluctance that did credit to their feelings.

It may not be improper to state in general terms, that I became perfectly convinced that the cause of these two men being left on shore at Owhyhee was not desertion, nor their own choice; nor did it arise from their having been dismissed by the commanders of vessels under whom they had served, for improper conduct and unruly behaviour; but from a series of events impossible to foresee or provide against. Their behaviour on the island had been meritorious in the highest sense of the word; supporting by their character (for they possessed nothing else) such a degree of consequence, that whilst it insured them the respect, it engaged the affections and regard, of the natives; and of no one more than of the king himself, who did not sail to listen to their counsel and advice; and I am well persuaded we had been much indebted for our

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very friendly and hospitable reception, as also for the orderly and civil behaviour we experienced from the generality of the inhabitants, by their attention to the instructions and example of these our countrymen.

That they might be encouraged to continue in the exercise of those virtuous principles which they had taught, I gave them a written testimonial of their good conduct; and in the most serious manner enjoined them to persevere in the path that their own good understanding had pointed out; and at all times to be useful and assisting to the subjects of every civilized power, who might resort to Owhyhee. From the king and the principal chiefs I obtained a promise of the continuance of their protection, not only to their persons, but to their property also; particularly, a large assortment of useful and necessary articles that I had given them, as well for their own comfort, and for the support of the consequence they had hitherto maintained, as for the purpose of introducing such things into use amongst the inhabitants.

I appointed to meet the king and his friends, with Young and Davis, on my return to the islands from the coast of America, in the bay between the east and north-east points of Owhyhee; where I had been given to understand there was a commodious bay or port, that afforded secure and good anchorage.

The following astronomical observations made at Karakakooa, will conclude the narrative of our transactions during our stay at Owhyhee. This island we quitted about eight in the evening, and directed our course, close hauled, towards the east end of Mowee.


On the 24th of February Kendall's chronometer shewed the longitude at the observatory to be, according to the Monterrey rate 206° 17′ 15″
Arnold's on board the Chatham, ditto 203 39
Ditto, No. 14, ditto ditto 204 43 15
Ditto, No. 176, ditto ditto 204 10 15
Earnshaw's ditto ditto 203 27 30


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On the 25th of february Mr. Whidbey observed the immersion of Jupiter's first satellite, this gave the longitude, 203° 52′ 15″
differing 7′ 45″ to the westward of the longitude by Captain Cook, and corresponding with that deduced by Mr. Bailey from two eclipses.
Latitude of the observatory by six meridian altitudes of the sun corresponding with Captain Cook's, 19 28 12
The following lunar observations for ascertaining the longitude were made for the purpose of shewing the agreement between our instruments and those of Captain Cook.
Mean of thirty-two sets taken by Mr. Whidbey, 204 4 21
Ditto twenty sets taken by myself, 203 52 27
Ditto sixteen sets taken by Mr. Orchard, 203 51 52
Mean of the above sixty-eight sets collectively taken, 203 57 54
But allowing the longitude, as settled by Captain Cook, to be 204°, Kendall's chronometer in that cafe appeared to be fast of mean time at Greenwich at noon on the 4th of march, 1h 42′ 27″ 23″′
And gaining per day at the rate of, 8 52
Arnold's on board the Chatham, fast of mean time at Greenwich, 5 11 58 23
And gaining per day at the rate of, 35 59
Arnold's No. 14, fast of mean time at Greenwich, 1 24 20 23
And gaining per day at the rate of, 15 29
Arnold's No. 176, ditto ditto 3 42 14 23
And gaining per day at the rate of, 43 37
Earnshaw's, ditto ditto 1 22 36 23
And gaining per day at the rate of, 17 22
The variation by four compasses in thirty-one sets of azimuths, differing from 5° 47′ to 9° 47′, gave the mean result, 7° 47′

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The vertical inclination of the magnetic needle, Marked end, North face East 42° 35′
Ditto ditto West 43 30
Ditto South face East 40 52
Ditto ditto West 38 40
Mean inclination of the marine dipping needle, 41 24

Z 2

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Arrive off Mowee—Particulars relative to the murder of Lieutenant Hergest, Mr. Gooch, and others—Conversation respecting a peace with Owhyhee—Reasons for sending the Chatham to Nootka—The peace acceded to by the chiefs—Information acquired by an excursion of the boats—Departure from Mowee.

1793. March.

Sunday 10.

BY day-light in the morning of the 10th of march we were well in with the eastern shores of Mowee, extending from S. 80 W. to N. 16 E.; the nearest more bore by compass N. 62 W. about a league distant. I was not certain whether the northernmost land thus seen, formed the eastern extremity of Mowee or not; from the direction of the coast it so appeared, but its distance to windward of us was so great, that it would have required some time to have ascertained the fact, and as we could not accomplish the examination of both sides of the island on this occasion, I availed myself of the prevailing favorable breeze, and bore away along the coast about 2 miles from the shore. This took a direction S. 72 W. distant 16½ miles from hence to the south point of the island; which is according to our observations situated in latitude 20° 34′, longitude 203° 36′.

Notwithstanding that the appearance of Mowee at a distance has been very accurately represented by Captain King; yet, as we had an opportunity of being better acquainted with this part of the island than those on board the Resolution or Discovery on that voyage, it may be useful to remark, that the part we were abreast of at day-light in the morning, though terminating very abruptly in the ocean, and though its surface

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was very uneven, had yet a verdant and fertile appearance, and was seemingly in an advanced state of cultivation. From the number of villages and distinct houses, we were led to consider it as tolerably well inhabited. This pleasant scene was shortly changed on our advancing a few miles to the westward. The face of the country became totally different, the shores and sides of the hills had no indications of being inhabited, and were almost destitute of vegetable productions. They appeared to be a rude mass of naked barren rocks, broken into many deep gulleys, that extended from the mountains to the water side. Beside these, were many small circular hills, that appeared to be composed either of sand or stones, and had acquired a very smooth surface of a light brown colour. Perpendicular veins separated the different strata, and descended down the mountains; these, so far as our glasses enabled us to distinguish, betokened this part of the island to have undergone some violent effects from volcanic eruptions.

We passed the south point before mentioned at the distance of about half a mile; it is formed by rugged craggy rocks, and the sea breaks at a little distance to the north-west of it. On approaching these breakers we gained foundings, and suddenly decreased the depth of water from 25 to 10 fathoms rocky bottom; but, on hauling off shore, we almost instantly reached no bottom with 80 fathoms of line. Whilst in this situation, we were visited by a few of the poor natives from a small sandy cove, where they had some miserable habitations. The poverty of these people was apparent, by their bringing only a few small packages of salt to dispose of, and by their canoes being very small and out of repair. Two miles to the north-west of this point we were greatly inconvenienced by light baffling winds and calm weather, whilst without, or to the eastward of us, the trade wind blew strong. We continued to make a flow progress, and passed between Morokinney and Tahowrowa.

In the afternoon, we were visited by a chief in the only decent canoe we had yet seen at Mowee. From him I learned, that he was sent by Titeeree to inquire who we were, and if we had friendly intentions towards the island. On his first question being answered, he seemed instantly


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to become suspicious of the motives of our visit, in consequence of the late murders at Woahoo. The reports that had been propagated respecting this unfortunate melancholy business, made me desirous of seeing Titeeree and Taio, in order to obtain from them the real circumstances of this sad affair. This I communicated to the chief, and told him further, that if the offenders should prove to have been natives, those who were concerned should be given up to justice; but that neither Titeeree nor Taio should receive the least injury, if I found that they were innocent; and, as a pledge of my pacific disposition towards Titeeree, I returned by the chief such a present as I knew would be worthy his acceptance, and would be most likely to insure his confidence in my sincerity. I was not deficient in due acknowledgments to the messenger, in order to secure the faithful discharge of his embassy. He informed me, that the best anchorage was near the north-west part of the island, called Rahcina, and that if I would proceed thither, Titeeree would not hesitate, under this, and my other assurances of friendship, to pay us a visit. These I repeated again, and after telling him that I purposed to anchor near the spot he had pointed out, the chief departed, apparently much gratified with the execution of his commission.

Monday 11.

Towards sun-set we passed to the south-west of Morokinney, and meeting there a light breeze from the N. E. we worked up into a large bay on the south-west side of Mowee, lying before the low isthmus that unites the two large lofty bodies of land which compose the island. Here, about midnight, we anchored in 39 fathoms water, muddy bottom; and at day light on monday morning found we had taken a station towards the eastern side of the bay. Morokinney, and the S. E. point of Tahowrowa in a line, bearing by compass S. 11 E.; the south point of Mowee S. 39 E.; the nearest shore E. by N. two miles, and the westernmost part of Mowee in sight N. 56 W.

The appearance of this side of Mowee was scarcely less forbidding than that of its southern parts, which we had passed the preceding day. The shores, however, were not so steep and rocky, and were mostly composed of a sandy beach; the land did not rise so very abruptly from the sea towards the mountains, nor was its surface so much broken with

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hills and deep chasms; yet the soil had little appearance of fertility, and no cultivation was to be seen. A few habitations were promiscuously scattered near the water side, and the inhabitants who came off to us, like those seen the day before, had little to dispose of.

The weather was cloudy, and the wind at the station we had taken was very unpleasant, in consequence of the trade wind from the N.E. reaching us at intervals in furious squalls, over the low land of the isthmus. A strong current setting to the S. E. at the same time, obliged us to remain at anchor, and wait for a more favorable opportunity to proceed.

About noon we had the company of a chief named To-mo-ho-mo-ho, who said, he was younger brother to Titeeree, and that he had come by his orders to conduct us to the best anchorage at Raheina, where Titeeree himself would shortly meet us. Tomohomoho produced a certificate from Mr. Brown of the Butterworth, recommending him as a very useful, friendly, and honest man. His canoe was a very fine one; this he requested might be towed a-stern of the ship, which he recommended should get under sail that we might arrive before dark at Raheina; but in the event of any delay, directions had been given for fires to be made in such situations, as would enable him to place the ship with security.

As the wind and weather were more settled, these requests were complied with; and thus, provided with a pilot, the Chatham and ourselves stood across the bay under double-reefed topsails, until we had shut in the isthmus; when, the high land intercepting the current of the trade wind, the gale was succeeded by light baffling airs. With these, and the assistance of the lights on the shores, we arrived at our destination about half past eight in the evening, when we anchored in 25 fathoms water, on a bottom of sand, stones, and coral.

Tuesday 12.

The next morning, we discovered our situation to be in the place pointed out in our former visit to these islands by Mr. Broughton, who then mentioned another anchoring place in Mowee, a little to the southward of a remarkable round hill, on a sandy beach, projecting its rocky base into the sea. Its top, having the appearance of a crater, acquired for it


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the name of VOLCANO HILL. It lies N. 26 W., about a league from: the south point of Mowee, directly opposite to the barren and uninhabited islet of Morokinney, which lies something more than two miles from the shore of that bay. Here Mr. Broughton had sound regular foundings from 25 to 15 and 7 fathoms, within half a mile of the beach, sandy bottom. The beach, about half a mile long, appeared very convenient for landing upon; but I was given to understand, by our pilot and others of the natives, that good water was not to be procured even in small quantities within a considerable distance, and that its neighbourhood was very barren and thinly inhabited.

In this roadstead we were pretty well protected by the surrounding land, excepting towards the S.S.W.; in which direction the wind seldom, if ever, blows violently. The Volcano hill bore by compass S. 54 E.; Morokinney S.46 E.; Tahowrowa S. 35 E. to S. 7 E.; Rannai S.54 W. to N. 78 W.; the westernmost part of Morotoi in sight N. 66 W.; and of two low projecting points of land from the shore of Mowee forming the points of the roadstead, the northernmost bore N. 26 W., distant four miles and a half; the southernmost, S.64 E. distant live miles; and the nearest shore N. E. by E., half a league distant.

The village of Raheina is of some extent towards the north-west part of the roadstead; it seemed to be pleasantly situated on a space of low, or rather gently elevated land, in the midst of a grove of bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, and other trees; to the eastward, the country seemed nearly barren and uncultivated, and the shores were bounded by a reef, on which the surf seemed to break with so much force as to preclude any landing with our boats. In the village, the houses seemed to be numerous, and to he well inhabited. A few of the natives visited the ships.; these brought but little with them, and most of them were in very small miserable canoes. These circumstances strongly indicated their poverty, and proved what had been frequently asserted at Owhyhee, that Mowee, and its neighbouring islands, were reduced to great indigence by the wars, in which for many years they had been engaged.

Our native pilot seemed very proud of the confidence we had reposed on his skill, in conducting the ship to this anchorage; and that the situa-

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tion he had chosen in the night now met our approbation. From the moment of his coming on board, he had pleaded the cause of Titeeree and Taio with all his eloquence, and gave a positive contradiction to the reports in circulation, of the murders having been premeditated by them at Woahoo, and committed by their express orders, for the sole purpose of revenging a difference that had happened between them and Mr. Ingraham. These reports, he said, he was well aware prevailed at Owhyhee; but he denied them in the most positive terms, and asserted, that the conduct of the people at Woahoo, instead of being sanctioned by their chief, had incurred his highest displeasure; and that Titeeree on being informed of the event, sent immediate orders that the offenders should be put to death; and that in consequence of these orders three men, who were principally concerned, had been executed.

This led me to inquire of Tomohomoho, if three people only had been implicated in that barbarous transaction? To this he replied, that there were three or four more considered as equally guilty; but that these had found means to escape, and had sled to the mountains, where they had eluded their pursuers for such a length of time, that any further search had been discontinued, and the offence had blown over, and was nearly forgotten.

I had understood at Owhyhee, that three of the principal offenders concerned in the murder had been put to death by the orders of Titeeree; and if we revert to the circumstances attending our visit in last march, several months subsequent to the dispute with Mr. Ingraham, it is more than probable, that had any such sanguinary directions, as have been already mentioned, been issued by Titeeree, they must have been equally in force at the time we were there, as on the arrival of the Dædalus not long after our departure. And though I must confess, that our reception at Woahoo did not impress me with the most exalted opinion of their friendly and hospitable intentions, yet, they did not appear to use any means for carrying such orders into effect; although they had frequent opportunities in the course of our walks through the plantations, where they could easily have interrupted our retreat. But, admitting that the people of Woahoo were under such injunctions, as some have pretended,

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and that we were indebted for our preservation to the small force that attended us, or because that day was "taboo poory," or a day of rest and prayer; yet these arguments would be insufficient on many accounts; for they could not be reconciled with the friendly, trusty, and honorable conduct pursued by the chiefs and people on our visit to Attowai, particularly on the evening of our departure. Such behaviour towards us could not possibly have been observed by a people who were under orders from their king, to kill every white man who might come within their power.

These circumstances duly considered, render it more than probable, that Titeeree and Taio were innocent of the contrivance, and not concerned in the perpetration of the murders at Woahoo.

The different mercantile people who had visited these islands since that unfortunate period, had taught the natives to apprehend the horror and detestation with which we regard unprovoked assassination. They had apprized them of the difference between our ships, and the trading vessels that had touched here for refreshments; that we acted, not from the orders of any private individual, but under the special authority of our sovereign, who had given me power to take cognizance of all such circumstances, and to requite the barbarity of the natives with the severest punishment.

No hint whatever of this nature had ever escaped my lips, since the moment I had to deplore the melancholy transaction. I was nevertheless fully determined in my own mind not to omit making every inquiry, nor to suffer the crime to pass unnoticed; and, at the same time, to pursue such measures, as might appear most likely to prevent in future such unpardonable and savage proceedings.

To the minds of the natives it now appeared a matter of great national concern; and in that point of view it was considered of such importance, as to demand from me the most particular investigation, and the most serious attention.

Being thus fortunately possessed of so much essential information from Tomohomoho, I considered myself to be fully provided to meet Titeeree on this distressful subject, especially as I had heard with great satisfaction from

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Tomohomoho, that the unfortunate commander of the Dædalus and his party had been guilty of no offence whatever, to provoke the untimely fate they had so unjustly met.

I now came to a determination of insisting with Titeeree, that the remaining offenders should be brought to justice. Not by any measures of force in our power, but by their own means. That, on their conviction the cause of their punishment should be clearly and satisfactorily made known to the islanders, with assurances that no distance of time would in future secure any from detection, or prevent the punishment which such crimes demand.

A pusillanimous conduct on an occasion of this nature, could not sail to sink the character of Europeans into the lowest contempt; and atrocities would become more frequent, either to satisfy the passions of the avaricious or licentious, or the revenge of any individual, who might think proper to take umbrage if not indulged in every whim that his fancy might dictate; to the disgrace of human nature, and the destruction of the adventurers engaged in the commerce of the north pacific ocean.

In undertaking to negociate a peace on a firm and broad basis, between Owhyhee and all the contiguous islands, my views were directed to the advantage, as well as to the general happiness, of the inhabitants on all the islands. The new impressions my mind had received, tended to convince me of the important necessity for such a measure, were it only to recover the people of Mowee from the deplorable condition to which they had been reduced by an eleven years war; and, notwithstanding that they had not fought a single battle during the last two years, yet the detriment sustained by the contending parties was almost equally great. To guard their respective dominions, Tamaahmaah on the western parts of Owhyhee, and Titeeree on the eastern side of Mowee, had each assembled a large body of men. By these means, not only those parts were greatly impoverished and exhausted of supplies for the maintenance of those forces, but the inhabitants being drawn from their homes in the different districts of the country, the land was necessarily neglected, and the produce of the foil was lost for want of people to

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carry on its cultivation. The war, and the vast supplies that the half famished trading vessels had recently drawn from some of these islands, had left a very scanty portion for the remaining inhabitants of Mowee, and the other islands under the authority of Titeeree and Taio. This information was communicated to me by several respectable chiefs at Owhyhee, and was now fully confirmed by Tomohomoho, particularly as to Mowee and Morotoi; he stated these as having been the principal feats of Tamaahmaah's wars, and that Rannai and Tohowrowa, which had formerly been considered as fruitful and populous islands, were nearly over-run with weeds, and exhausted of their inhabitants; nor had Owhyhee escaped the devastation consequent on her foreign and intestine disputes, which had been numerous and severe.

Every hour produced some new intelligence, to convince me of the necessity of bringing, if it were possible, to an immediate conclusion, the ambitious pretensions of these sovereigns; being now decidedly of opinion, that a continuation of such commotions would soon desolate these islands, and render them incapable of affording those abundant and excellent supplies we had constantly derived, and without which the English traders would be ill qualified to maintain the commerce of north-west America. Whereas, if peace could be happily established, and the inhabitants be prevailed upon to be satisfied, and to live in harmony and good fellowship with each other, they would readily return to their habitations, and to their former employments, of cultivating the land, and the other peaceful arts. These occupations would be immediately resumed with great energy; and the ability of procuring European commodities, for the purpose of imitating our manners and fashions, by the produce of their own labour and ingenuity, would stimulate them to an industry and exertion, that would be attended with so abundant an increase of productions, as would render the supplies of these islands almost inexhaustible; especially, as the breed of black cattle, sheep, and goats, already introduced, when established under such happy circumstances, would soon greatly increase.

These ideas I communicated to Tomohomoho, who listened to them with the greatest attention, and expressed much pleasure in looking forward

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to so happy an event; and assured me, that Titeeree and Taio would gladly accede to the measures I had to propose, but that Kahowmotoo and Tianna were not to be trusted.

In the forenoon we were visited by a young man, a citizen of the American states, who said that he had deserted about three months before, from the same American vessel that Smith (whom we found at Owhyhee) had left, in consequence of the ill treatment received from his commander. That he was now in the service of Titeeree, and his principal business was to visit such ships as might arrive at the island, and to order them such supplies of wood, water, and refreshments, as they might have occasion for, without their commanders having the trouble of bartering with the natives; and that on the departure of such vessels, some small acknowledgment to Titeeree the king only was expected. That in virtue of his appointment, he had done us the favour of issuing his directions to this effect. We afterwards found, however, that his authority as purveyor had been unjustly assumed, and that his orders were issued to no purpose. He likewise stated, that he was directed by Titeeree to acquaint me, that he was on his way towards the ship; but that his age and infirmities prevented him from travelling otherwise than very slowly. This message made me entertain some suspicion that the king had doubts of my sincerity; and I therefore desired that Tomohomoho would either go himself, or send some trusty person, to dispel any groundless apprehension that Titeeree might be under. To this request he instantly replied, with a smile, that Titeeree, conscious of his own innocence with respect to the offence committed at Woahoo, would have no fort of objection to trust himself in our power; and that he, Tomohomoho, had received positive directions to remain with us until the arrival of the king, to prevent any improper behaviour of the natives. All this was corroborated by a chief named Namahanna, who, with his wife, were far the handsomest couple we had seen on these islands. He was next in consequence to Titeeree, and possessed at that time in Mowee almost the sovereign power over its inhabitants. Of these but few visited us, who brought nothing to dispose of, excepting such articles as our people deemed curiosities. They conducted themselves with great propriety,

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and the little traffic that was entered into, was carried on with the greatest honesty.

Wednes. 13.

On wednesday afternoon we were honored with the presence of Titeeree, who I was given to understand was considered as the king of all the islands to leeward of Owhyhee; and that from him Taio derived his authority.

There seemed, however, nothing in his character or appearance to denote so high a station, nor was his arrival attended by any accumulation in the number of the natives on the shores, or in the canoes about the vessels. He came boldly alongside, but entered the ship with a fort of partial confidence, accompanied by several chiefs who constantly attended him; his age I supposed mud have exceeded sixty; he was greatly debilitated and emaciated; and, from the colour of his skin, I judged his feebleness to have been brought on by an excessive use of the ava. His faultering voice bespoke the decline of life; and his countenance, though surrowed by his years and irregularities, still preserved marks of his having been, in his juvenile days, a man of pleasing and cheerful manners, with a considerable degree of sensibility, which the iron hand of time had not yet intirely obliterated.

Amongst the articles I presented to Titeeree on this occasion, was a cloak, similar to those I had given Tamaahmaah; this highly delighted him; and he was also well pleased with the other presents he received. In proportion to their rank, and the situations they held, his whole suite were complimented, and all seemed well satisfied with their visit.

After a short conversation respecting the stay I purposed to make at Mowee, and islands to leeward, with other miscellaneous matters, I introduced the subject of a peace with Owhyhee, and was attended to with great earnestness; not only by the king, but by the whole of his attendants, who seemed unanimously desirous for the accomplishment of so beneficial an object, and a measure so important to their future happiness and tranquillity. They appeared to be perfectly convinced of my good intentions as a mediator; but the same want of confidence prevailed here as at Owhyhee. They all agreed, that no faith could be reposed in the


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integrity of the Owhyhean chiefs; and that if peace was again restored, the several chiefs who had been assembled in Mowee for their general protection, would retire to their respective islands; and Mowee and its dependencies would be again left open to the invasion of Tamaahmaah, whose unconquerably ambitious spirit, they said, would not allow him to neglect so favorable an opportunity. I endeavoured to combat these prejudices by every argument I could make use of, and assured them, that I firmly believed that Tamaahmaah. and the people of Owhyhee, were as desirous of peace as they could possibly be: that the king was sincere, and that I was convinced he would mod religiously abide by such conditions as might be mutually approved. Our deliberations however drawing to no conclusion, it was agreed to adjourn the subject until the arrival of Taio from Morotoi, who was expected in the course of the following day.

The royal party appearing to be perfectly satisfied of our friendly intentions, I demanded of Titeeree, what offence had been committed by the late Mr. Hergest, and Mr. Gooch, to occasion their having been put to death? To this question they all replied, that neither of those gentlemen, nor any other person belonging to the Dædalus, had, to their knowledge, been guilty of any offence whatever. I then requested to know, what was the reason of their having been murdered without any provocation on their part; and who was the chief that gave orders for that purpose, or that was by any other means the cause of their losing their lives? This question was also answered by the solemn declaration of the whole party, that there was no chief present on that melancholy occasion; nor was any chief in the least degree concerned; but that the murder was committed by a lawless set of ill-minded men; and that the instant Titeeree had become acquainted with the transaction, he had ordered all those who had been principally concerned to be put to death; and in consequence of his directions, three of the offenders had suffered that punishment. I then desired to know if three people only had been concerned ? The king then replied, that many were present at the time, but that only three or four more were concerned in the murder; who would likewise have suffered death, had they not found means to escape to the moun-

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tains, where they had secreted themselves for some time; but that he understood they had returned, and were now living on or near an estate belonging to Tomohomoho. These protestations corresponding with the evidence before related, induced me to give credit to the asserted innocence of the chiefs, and the guilt of the persons criminated by them. As punishment ought to fall on those alone, I demanded that three, or four, who were known to have been principals in the horrid act, should be fought, and punished according to the heinousness of their crime; not by us, but by themselves, without the least interference on our part. And that the punishment of the murderers might be made as public and impressive as possible, I recommended that it should take place alongside of the ship, in the presence of the natives; and that the spectators, as well as all the absent inhabitants of the several islands, under the jurisdiction of Titeeree, or the inferior chiefs, should be made thoroughly acquainted, that the criminals had been punished for having been guilty of murder, or for aiding and assisting therein, and for that crime only; and that in future, neither chiefs, nor private individuals, who might commit such acts of barbarity, should be excused, or escape similar punishment, be the distance of time ever so great, so long as the offending parties had life, or the English continued to visit these islands.

These propositions met not the smallest opposition, but on the contrary, much to the credit and honor of the whole party, were readily and cheerfully agreed to in every particular. This being the case, I desired that a chief might be appointed to attend us, for the purpose of carrying these resolutions into effect, and causing justice to be properly executed. After a short consultation, Titeeree nominated Tomohomoho, and invested him with due authority, not only for this function, but for the supplying of our wants, as far as the country might be able to afford.

Being desirous that a more minute survey of this side of Mowee should be made in the boats, I acquainted Titeeree with my wishes; and in order that thefts, or other improper behaviour, might not be experienced from the different islanders they might meet, I requested that a chief

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should be appointed to attend the expedition. Titeeree replied, that the orders he had issued were sufficient to answer every purpose; but, that if I was particularly desirous of the attendance of a chief, Tomohomoho should undertake the charge. Matters being thus arranged, Mr. Whidbey received my directions to proceed on this service in our cutter, accompanied by that of the Chatham; which took place accordingly early the next morning.

Thursday 14.

In the forenoon of thursday we were again favored with the company of Titeeree and his party. Whilst our boats were engaged in the survey, Mr. Menzies wished to make an excursion into the country; and on his desire being made known to the king, together with mine, that a chief might be appointed to accompany him who should be answerable for the behaviour of the natives, Tomowha, the chief of the district, with a young chief called Tea-ow-whan-nee, were accordingly nominated for his guides and protectors.

This young chief was one of the king's sons; he appeared to be about fifteen years of age, was well made, and had a pleasing, sensible, and open countenance. If the American sailor's information could be depended upon, this young prince was invested with very considerable power and authority. Thus guarded, Mr. Menzies, with two or three of the gentlemen and the American sailor, sat out, relying with confidence upon the declaration of the king, for experiencing every civility and attention they could possibly require.

Titeeree, considering himself under an obligation to make some return for the handsome present he had received, brought me four small lean hogs, with a few vegetables: accompanying them with many apologies, stating that his poverty prevented him from making such acknowledgments, as his inclination directed, or his situation demanded. The present reduced condition of the island, and consequently of his wealth, had been wholly occasioned, he laid, by the ravage of Tamaahmaah's forces, who, not content with the vast quantity of provisions consumed during their stay in these islands, nor with loading their canoes with the productions of the soil, had laid waste the lauds on all sides, broken the fences of the plantations, thrown down the banks of the little canals made for

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watering the crops, which were torn up by the roots; and that all the hogs, dogs, and fowls, that could not be carried away, were killed, or dispersed over the country.

Such was the deplorable account he related of the distressed situation of Mowee, and the neighbouring islands. This had hitherto so humbled and broken the spirit of the people, that little exertion had been made to restore these islands to their accustomed fertility by cultivation; and they were at that time under the necessity of collecting provisions from Woahoo and Attowai, for the maintenance of their numerous army on the eastern parts: of the island. I expressed my concern for the calamitous state of his dominions, and took that opportunity of again pointing out the beneficial consequences that would result from a peace with Tamaahmaah; and that nothing short of this could remove or repair those serious disasters of which he so justly complained. And as I considered that the present he had brought me, though in itself small, might possibly have put him to inconvenience, I desired it might be returned; but at the same time I assured the king, that his inability to afford me a greater quantity of refreshments, would not in the least degree influence my conduct in promoting the welfare of himself and his people, or induce me to withhold such articles as would be of real utility to him.

In the afternoon we were visited by Taio, who presented me with a feathered cloak; and in return, amongst other valuables, I presented him with one of fearlet cloth, which in a very short time he gave to his eldest brother and sovereign, Titeeree. On my asking the reason for so hasty a disposal of it, he replied, that the old king was only taking care of it for Taio; but I afterwards understood, that it was a fort of care that would free Taio from any further trouble in the possession.

The day was too far advanced to enter at large on the interesting negociation I had fat on foot. I briefly pointed out to Taio the outline of the business, and was happy to find, that the idea of a peace with Owhyhee, seemed to afford him more pleasure and satisfaction, than had been expressed by any other chief to whom this proposal had been communicated. After a short conversation, he observed, that we had formerly been very great friends when I was at Attowai with Captain

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Cook and Captain Clerke, that he still retained a very great regard for me, and hoped we should both remain in the same sentiments towards each other. That, as a proof of the sincerity of his friendship, he had still in his possession a lock of my hair, which I had given him at that period, when at the same time I refused a similar pledge to Enemo and several other chiefs, who were present on that occasion. This story, corresponding exactly with what I had heard from Tianna and Enemo the preceding year, induced me to ask where the lock of hair was To this Taio replied, that it was on shore, with some other valuable testimonies of friendship, that constantly attended him in his travels or campaigns; and that he would bring it with him in the morning.

The circumstance of the hair having before been frequently mentioned to me, had made me endeavour to recal the person of this former friend to my remembrance; and on recollection, I suspected that Taio must have been a young chief, at that time about eighteen years of age, who had made me several presents, and who had given me many other instances of his friendly attention. But, to my great surprize, on his entering the cabin, I beheld him far advanced in years, seemingly about fifty; and though evidently a much younger man than Titeeree, yet nearly reduced to the same state of debility. If he were in reality the person I had considered him to have been, I must have been much mistaken with respect to his age on our former acquaintance; or the intemperature of that pernicious intoxicating plant the ava, which he took in great quantities, assisted by the toils of long and fatiguing wars, had combined to bring upon him a premature old age. Notwithstanding these appearances of the decline of life, his countenance was animated with great quickness and sensibility, and his behaviour was affable and courteous. His inquiries were of the most sagacious nature, respecting matters of useful information. The shrewdness of his understanding, his thirst to acquire and wish to communicate, useful, interesting, or entertaining knowledge, sufficiently indicated a very active mind, and did not fail to impress us with a very favorable opinion of his general character. Taio and his party remained on board until near dark, when they took their leave for

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the night, carrying with them such presents as were suitable to their several ranks and situations.

The bottom of the Chatham having been examined by diving, it was discovered that some of the copper had been torn off when the accidently got on shore, failing out of Nootka. On this representation from Mr. Puget, I deemed it expedient that no time should be lost in replacing the copper, and having the bottom thoroughly examined; left some more important damage might have been sustained. For this specific purpose, I gave orders that the instant her supplies of wood and water were completed, the should proceed to Nootka, and I directed Mr. Puget, on his departure from hence, to examine the north side of Morotoi; as it was my design, in visiting the other islands belonging to this group, to pass along its southern side.

Friday 15.

The next morning my old friend Taio was amongst the earliest of our visitors, and brought with him the look of hair. It was tied carefully round at the bottom, where it was neatly decorated with some red feathers and appeared to have been well preserved, and held in some degree of estimation. The colour corresponding with that of my own, tended to prove its identity.

The preservation of this memorial exhibited a striking instance of similarity in the human mind, by shewing the same pledge of friendship that exists in the civilized and polished states of the world, to be held equally in estimation by the untaught inhabitants of these distant regions. These customs must certainly arise from principles innate and common to the species; since, at the time that Taio solicited and received that token of my regard, it was not possible that he should have acquired the idea from any European or other civilized person. This was one amongst innumerable instances, that occurred in our acquaintance with the uncultivated world, which served to shew the analogy of the several passions and affections, that, under every colour, clime, or in every stage of civilization, govern the human heart.

On this occasion, I could not help feeling some internal humiliation at the superiority which the steadiness of Taio's friendship had gained

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over me; by preserving the lock of my hair; by retaining, after an absence of fourteen or fifteen years, a perfect recollection of my name: and by recounting the various incidents, and the several acts of reciprocal kindness and friendship that had taken place in our former acquaintance. All these he seemed to remember with the greatest pleasure; but all these had been long obliterated from my memory.

I trust, that my wish to pay some tribute to Taio's unshaken friendship, will be my excuse for the insertion of this otherwise unimportant subject.

In the forenoon, the king, with Taio, Namahanna, and such other chiefs as were necessary to the occasion, being assembled in the cabin, the negociation for peace was again resumed, and the subject was discussed with much warmth amongst themselves. All their arguments tended to prove, that peace was an object of their most earnest desire, but that they doubted the possibility of obtaining its blessings, because they could place no confidence in the fidelity of Tamaahmaah. This prejudice I endeavoured to do away by all my former arguments; and, in addition, I pointed out that peace was an object as important, and as much desired, in Owhyee, as in Mowee and its dependencies: that this could not be disputed, as the king and chiefs of Owhyhee would not have solicited my interference and good offices, to accomplish this happy undertaking, had they not been instigated by these weighty reasons.

Taio however was decidedly of opinion, that peace could not be obtained, unless I would return to Owhyhee; being convinced, that Tamaahmaah would place no reliance on any message, that should be sent from them by any of their chiefs. I told them, it was impossible for me to accede to their willies in this respect, but that I would adopt other measures which would in effect answer the same purpose, provided they were in earnest, and would faithfully abide by the stipulations I had made with Tamaahmaah, and the chiefs of Owhyhee. These I had communicated to them, and in addition had n commended, that they should by all means forget, if possible, but certainly forgive, all past enmities, and the occasions of them; all injuries and insults; and

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discourage, by every effort in their power, all animosities, disputes, and wrangling, between the subjects of Titeeree and those of Tamaahmaah. And as great intemperance in the support of the question, which of these kings was the greatest and most powerful monarch ? was a grievance much complained of on both sides, and had given rise to much ill blood and contention amongst the people of the different governments; it became a matter of infinite consequence, that such conversations should be immediately prohibited. When these preparatory measures had undergone due consideration, and had been adjusted by both parties, an intercourse of confidence and friendship, I alledged, would naturally take place between the present contending powers; and such measures would then be agreed upon, as would seem to be best calculated to secure a permanent good understanding, and most beneficial to their respective interests. After repeating to them the happy consequences that would result from so wife, humane, and political a measure, in the same manner as I had represented them to Tamaahmaah, both Taio and Namahanna, but particularly Taio, with respectful formality, questioned me as to the sincerity of my views in thus strongly recommending these peaceful overtures. They desired to know the reason, why the advice I gave was so directly opposite to that of the several commanders, and people of the trading vessels, who for some time past had been their constant visitors ? who had uniformly recommended a continuance of the war with Owhyhee; had pointed out the numerous advantages they would obtain; and had supplied them with arms and ammunition, for the express purpose of carrying that advice into execution. To these interrogatories I had no mode of replying, but by producing facts that were completely within their own knowledge and observation. I stated, that such advice did not come from friends, but from persons interested, not in their happiness and welfare, but in their own aggrandizement; who, having brought with them to these countries a large assortment of arms and ammunition, as articles of trade, would be great losers by such ventures, were the inhabitants of the different islands to remain in peace and unanimity with each other; that under the happy circumstances proposed, these engines of destruction would soon fall

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into low estimation; that therefore it was not surprizing, if animosity, revenge, and war were recommended, in order to enhance the value of these commodities, and by that means secure a larger supply of refreshments. That my pursuit was of a very different character they must have been well convinced, by the nature of the articles they had received, either as presents from me, or in exchange for the several productions of their country; which were such as were ornamental to their persons, or really instrumental to their welfare. That one of my most favorite objects was, to render them such services, on all occasions, as my situation could afford. Of this they would be convinced, should they think proper to adopt the pacific measures I had proposed; in which case, I would communicate their consent, by writing to the Englishman residing at Owhyhee with Tamaahmaah. On the receipt of this, I alledged, a council of the chiefs would be immediately assembled, and in the presence of a chief to be appointed by Titeeree, and entrusted with the charge of this important commission, Tamaahmaah, and the chiefs of Owhyhee, would solemnly agree to, and faithfully abide by the peace, on the terms already mentioned. And that further, to secure the performance of the promises made to me at Owhyhee, I would threaten to withdraw the friendship and good will I entertained towards that island, in case the king and the chiefs should refuse to ratify their engagement.

Having thus explained to Titeeree and his friends, my wishes, and motives for the advancement of their happiness and welfare, I left them at full liberty either to embrace the blessings and advantages of peace, or to continue in their present calamitous state of warfare and hostility.

After a short consultation with each other, they unanimously declared for peace.

Without any solicitation on my part, Taio requested that, on my return to these islands, I would take him to Owhyhee, where, under my protection, he would, in person, treat with Tamaahmaah, in order that a lasting peace might be concluded, and an amicable intercourse established between Owhyhee and all the islands; and he desired that these his intentions might be made known to Tamaahmaah. This was accordingly done in my letter to Owhyhee on this subject, which was to be in-

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trusted to a sensible and careful chief; who, impowered with sufficient authority, was immediately to proceed to Owhyhee, in order to negotiate this desirable business with Tamaahmaah.

The execution of this embassy was allotted to a chief named Martier; a man, whole first appearance and deportment were likely to make unfavorable impressions; but, whose real character, I understood, was that of a shrewd, sensible fellow; and though his countenance was ferocious, yet he was remarkable for the mildness and evenness of his disposition. In all our conferences he was a principal speaker, and from the great attention paid by Titeeree and Taio to what he said. it was evident that his abilities were in great estimation.

This favorite object being so far attained, I embraced the opportunity of a full assembly, to advert again to the inhuman murder at Woahoo. On this occasion I was stopped, rather hastily, by Titeeree, who observed, that that business was already settled; that they had full confidence in my assertions, and that I ought not to doubt them !

Having considered a general restoration of tranquillity to these islands, and the punishment of the criminals at Woahoo, to be matters of the first importance to the safety and interests of the commercial adventurers in this ocean, they had for some time past occupied much of my attention. The prospect of the one being happily accomplished, and of the other being executed with justice, afforded my mind no small degree of satisfaction; and as, by the survey on which our boats were employed, I should obtain a perfect knowledge of the shores of this island, the principal objects that had induced my visit hither, seemed to promise a successful termination.

As neither hogs nor other refreshments could be procured, I was anxious to quit this station. Titeeree and his counsellors were made acquainted that I intended so to do, on the return of the boats, which were expected the next morning; when, agreeably to their earnest request, I purposed to pay them a visit on shore, whilst the ship was preparing for her departure.

They expressed much concern at the shortness of our stay, and some surprize that we should so suddenly take our leave. This I explained


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was occasioned by the necessity I was under to visit other distant countries, and not from any disinclination, or want of friendship for them, as they had supposed. With this reason they became perfectly satisfied, but hoped, as I could pay them only one visit on shore, that it might be deferred until sunday morning, because the next day was taboo poory, and it would be impossible for them to receive us as they could wish. They eagerly intreated me to remain until that time, when they would repair to the ship and accompany me on shore. The same of our fire works had reached Mowee, and they added to this request an earnest desire, that their curiosity might be gratified in this respect. Taio in particular was very pressing in his solicitations, and as it was our first visit to these chiefs, whose friendship and good opinion I much wished to cultivate, I was induced to comply with their wishes; especially, as I was now satisfied that I had sufficient time for the business I had to transact this season at the other islands, and to join the Chatham at Nootka, long before the would be ready to proceed with us to the northward.

The chiefs having succeeded in their wishes, the whole party seemed excessively happy, and returned to the shore for the purpose of attending their religious ceremonies.

Saturday 16.

In the evening, Mr. Menzies with his party returned from the mountains, having received the greatest civility and attention from such of the natives as they had met with during their excursion; and the next morning Mr. Whidbey arrived on board, after completing the examination of the shores on this side of Mowee.

The Chatham's cutter was sent on board, and Mr. Puget, agreeably to my directions, failed for Nootka, passing between the west end of Mowee, and the east part of Morotoi.

Mr. Whidbey resumed his survey round the west point of Mowee; which service he performed, and returned in the evening.

Before I close the narrative of our proceedings on this station, I shall state the result of the information obtained in Mr. Whidbey's excursion.

During the first day the boats did not advance more than 7 miles along the shore, in a direction N.60 E., to a place called by the natives Patoa,

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and reached even that with much labour and difficulty, not only in consequence of the violence of the wind, which had nearly driven them from the land, but because, in their endeavours to approach the shores, the Chatham's cutter shipped some heavy seas, and was in imminent danger of being lost. Patoa is represented by Mr. Whidbey as a roadstead affording good anchorage; its depth of water from 10 to 20 fathoms, sandy bottom; the former within half a mile, the latter about a mile of the shore, where there is an excellent run of fresh water, though the place is inconvenient for filling casks expeditiously, as the water takes its course amongst some rugged rocks over which large casks could not be rolled. This difficulty, however, might easily be surmounted by allowing the casks to remain on the beach, where the natives, for a very small reward, would soon fill them. The foundings from the ship were regular all the way to Patoa; a station easily found, by attending to the following description.

The large bay already noticed, lying before the isthmus before mentioned, has its western side formed by high rocky precipices, that rise perpendicularly from the sea. To the westward of these precipices the coast is chiefly composed of sandy beaches, and the mountains, at some distance from the shore, form two remarkable vallies, separated from each other by a high rugged mountain, seemingly detached from the rest, and approaching nearer to the beach than those to the right and left of it. The anchorage at Patoa is a-breast of the easternmost of these vallies, which appeared to be fruitful and well cultivated.

The boats remained at this station until the next morning, when they proceeded along shore to the eastward, and found the same foundings until they were a-breast of the rocky precipices; here they gained no ground; but, close to the shore the bottom, which is rocky, was reached with 20 fathoms of line. These precipices extend about a league from Patoa, in the line of the shore, then trend more northerly, and at the distance of about four miles join the low land of the isthmus; before this lies a reef, or rather detached patches of rocks, at the distance of near a quarter of a mile from the shore; without which the foundings are regular and good. The western side of the large bay is formed

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by these precipices or cliffs; its opposite shore about four miles distant, takes a north direction from the Volcano hill; the depth of the bay is there somewhat increased; the foundings on the eastern side are regular, but very rocky.

Nearly in the middle of its western side is a village, called by the natives Mackerrey; off this there is anchorage in 7 fathoms water, a little more than a quarter of a mile from the shore, the bottom sand and broken coral. This situation is land-locked in every direction, excepting between Tahowrowa and Rannai, where to the south-westward it is exposed about two points of the compass, but not liable I believe to much wind from that quarter. The neighbouring shores afford good landing, and, in moderate weather, the communication is easily effected; but, the neglected and impoverished state of the surrounding country offers no inducements to strangers, under its present circumstances, to make choice of it as a stopping, or resting place; though it is probably one of the best sheltered and mod convenient anchorages which these islands possess. In all likelihood, good water might with little labour be procured at a small distance to the southward of the village, from the upper part of a stream that was found rushing through the loose sand composing the beach; though just below high water mark it was somewhat brackish. The inhabitants, who are generally nice in this particular, procure their water from this run at low tide. The examination of this bay being the limits of Mr. Whidbey's excursion to the eastward, he returned to the ship; from whence he continued his researches round the western point of Raheina roadstead, and found the shores bounded by a reef, which admits of only one landing place for boats, and that a very indifferent one, at the eastern part of the village. From the ship to the shore the foundings were regular, decreasing to 5 fathoms close to the reef, extending in general about a fourth of a mile from the beach, and not exceeding that distance from the west point of the roadstead; where, on the north side of that point the reef terminates. This point, with the west extremity of Mowee, which is bold and free from rocks or other impediments, forms an excellent little bay; its outer points lie from each other N. 14 W. and S. 14 E. about a league asunder. The northern point is

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formed by a round hill close to the water side, much resembling Volcano hill, but not quite so large. This bay Mr. Whidbey esteemed the most eligible anchoring place he had seen in Mowee; the foundings, in the line of the two points, from 10 to 14 fathoms, soft, sandy bottom, regularly decreased to 5 fathoms close to the beach; which is protected from the ocean, and the prevailing winds, by its north point locking in with the eastern part of the island of Morotoi. It is free from rocks, shoals, or other obstacles; and affords pleasant landing and good anchorage, where vessels may lie nearly land-locked in every direction, excepting that between Rannai and Morotoi, in the western quarter. This space, however, embraces but a small extent, from whence little danger can be apprehended.

The day being too far spent prevented Mr. Whidbey from landing; but we were informed by Tomohomoho, that the shores of that bay afforded abundance of very excellent water. This advantage gives the bay a great preference to any other station in Mowee, especially as its ingress and egress may be effected with much ease by approaching it from the northward; as the regular trade wind may be depended upon, which without interruption or sudden gusts, blows past the bay, and enables vessels to chase in it what station they please.

By these means a very accurate knowledge of the shores on this side of Mowee was acquired. These appeared to be more likely to afford anchorage and shelter, than those of the other islands; but, as I have already had occasion to observe, under the present impoverished state of this and the neighbouring islands, Mowee is certainly not the most desirable rendezvous for vessels employed in the commercial pursuits of this hemisphere. It is likewise necessary to add, that notwithstanding the advantages of Patoa and Mackerrey, there is great reason to suspect that the bottom at those places, as well as on all this side of Mowee, is no where good holding ground. That of the roadstead of Raheina, I am convinced, is nothing more than a very slight covering of sand, over a bed of hard coral; and the same remark seems to extend to the edge of the bank, where, in 40 fathoms water, the bottom is much softer, but the declivity of the bank is such, that with a strong wind from the shore,


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vessels would not be able to retain their anchorage. By Mr. Whidbey's examination of the south-west part of Mowee, the foundings generally indicated the same deceitful bottom; this can only be discovered by anchoring upon it, as the lead only brings up the sand and small stones, which cover a bed of solid rock beneath, that the anchor cannot penetrate. Of this we had proof on two different days in the squalls of wind that came across the isthmus, which drove the vessels in whatever direction the wind chanced to blow, though they were riding with a very sufficient scope of cable. As we were not moored, I at first attributed this circumstance to the anchor being soul, but on heaving it up, this was not found to be the case; whilst the peak of the anchor, with the under part of the flock, were found much chased, by their having been dragged along the hard ground.

Another inconvenience attending these two places, is the violent gusts, or rather gales of wind, that I believe constantly blow when the trade wind blows fresh at sea; and particularly, when it is most from the northern quarter. At these times it is most violent, and rushes with such fury over the isthmus, as to prevent all communication with the shore; and if my conjecture respecting the bottom be right, vessels would have great difficulty to maintain their stations.

Sunday 17.

The king, Taio, and the rest of the chiefs returned according to their promise to the ship on sunday morning; and in the forenoon, accompanied by Titeeree, and some of our officers in two armed boats, with a guard of marines, I paid my compliments on shore, where the landing was but indifferent.

We were received by the natives with the greatest civility and friendship. At the first view they appeared very numerous, being collected on a small space of ground; but when they were a little distributed, their number, including the children, did not exceed fix or seven hundred. The king conducted us through the crowd, who made way for us, and behaved in a very orderly manner. We soon arrived at his residence. This consisted of two small shabby huts, situated in a pleasant grove of spreading trees, where we were served with cocoa nuts, and other refreshments. I re-

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quested that Titeeree and Taio would accompany us in a walk through the plantations; this they begged leave to decline, and pleaded their age and infirmities as an excuse. They however directed that Namahanna, Tomohomoho, and Martier should attend us, who would equally prevent the obtrusion of the curious, and render us every service.

Attended by our guard and these chiefs, we visited the cultivated parts of the plain of Raheina; these occupied no very great extent; the part bordering on the sea shore was pleasantly laid out in plantations of taro, potatoes, sugar cane, the cloth plant, &c. tolerably well shaded by spreading trees, chiefly of the bread fruit; but in point of size, or in the luxuriance of its productions, it bore no proportion to the plains of Otaheite and of the Society islands. Through these grounds little canals were cut in various directions, that supplied the several plantations with water; the whole originating from a continual spring of excellent water, sufficiently above the level to inundate every part. The taro was growing among the water, but in a very bad state of culture, and in very small quantities. To the ravage and destruction of Tamaahmaah's a wars, the wretched appearance of their crops was to be ascribed; of this they grievously complained, and were continually pointing out the damages they had sustained. The despoiled aspect of the country was an incontrovertible evidence of this melancholy truth. Most of the different tenements in the lands formerly cultivated, were now lying waste, their fences partly or intirely broken down, and their little canals utterly destroyed; nor was a hog or a fowl any where to be seen. By far the larger portion of the plain was in this ruinous state; and the small part that was in a flourishing condition, bore the evident marks of very recent labour.

Having extended our walk as far as our inclinations led us, and having satisfied our curiosity, we returned to the royal habitation, where we found Titeeree and Taio at dinner on raw pickled fish, and poey taro; that is, a mess made of the taro root, not unlike a hasty pudding. Sensible that we were not likely to relish such food, they had provided two very fine baked hogs which were immediately let before us, but the cook having neglected to provide any vegetables, which was a more important article to us, we declined the repast, and the chiefs having finished their meal, returned with us on board.

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As this was likely to he the last visit of Titeeree and Taio, I presented them with a large assortment of useful tools, implements, and household utensils, with cloth, linen, some beads, and other articles of ornament. To Titeeree I gave also some goats; and these being the first foreign animals imported into Mowee, were regarded as a most valuable present. The inferior chiefs and attendants were not neglected on this occasion, and I had the satisfaction to find, that my liberality had exceeded their most sanguine expectations. By this time they had become well acquainted with the noble and generous conduct; of Tamaahmaah, and our reception and treatment at Owhyhee. This they would have been happy to have imitated, had they not been prevented by the general distress of their country; but they promised to assist us on our return to the very utmost of their power and ability.

In the evening, we had a display of fire-works from the after part of the ship, to the great terror and admiration of our visitors, and their attendants on board, and of the natives of all descriptions assembled in their canoes about the ship, comprehending most probably all the inhabitants.

The exhibition being concluded, I expected to have taken leave of my Mowee friends, but the night being very dark, and a heavy surf breaking on the shore, the king and Taio were not much inclined to leave us, faying they should be liable to great danger in passing the reef in the dark. This circumstance induced me, though contrary to my established rule, to indulge them and the major part of their retinue with my cabin. The night was more appropriated to conversation, than to sleep. I retired to rest, but was frequently awakened, and found that their discourse was principally on the occurrences that had taken place since our arrival, and on the destructive powers of our fire-works when used in war.

Monday 18.

The next morning Titeeree departed in a very sudden manner, and without my knowledge. I became apprehensive that some accidental offence had been given him; but Taio assured me of the contrary, and that such was his common practice of retiring. I had indeed, before, noticed an abruptness in his leaving the ship; but on the present occasion I thought he would have shewn more respect.

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Taio, Martier, and some of the other chiefs, remained with us until we failed. This we were prevented doing till near noon; when, with a light breeze from the westward, we put to sea, and they took an affectionate leave of us.

Thus we quitted Mowee, little benefited by the refreshments it had afforded; for although I did not choose to accept the inadequate returns of the chiefs, yet every article of this fort that was brought along side for sale was purchased, and the whole did not amount to two day's subsistence.

The mean result of our observations made between the 12th and 17th, shewed the latitude of the ship's station at Raheina roadstead, to be 20° 50′, the longitude 203° 19′. All further nautical information, relative to this anchorage and its immediate neighbourhood, will most probably be better obtained from the charts of the islands, than from any written description.

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Proceed to Whyteete bay—An Indian's account of the murder at Woahoo— Three of the murderers brought on board—Their trial and execution— Proceed to Attowai—Settle two female natives, found at Nootka—Quit the Sandwich islands.

1793. March.

Monday 18.

LIGHT baffling winds attended us, after leaving Raheina roadstead, until the evening, when we reached the channel between Mowee and Morotoi, where we met the regular trade wind blowing a pleasant gale. With this we stood to windward, and anchored for the night off the N.W. part of Mowee in 19 fathoms water, soft sandy bottom. Its shores extended by compass from N. 51 E. to S. 4 E., its nearest part bore E. by S. 2 miles from us, and the east point of Morotoi, N. 15 W. distant 8 miles.

Tuesday 10.

Early the next morning, with a pleasant breeze from the N. E., we stood over towards the east point of Morotoi, until we were within a league of the shore, which was bounded by a reef extending about half a league from it. Thus we sailed along to the westward, and saw several shallow breaks forming passages for boats, but not affording any shelter for shipping against the prevailing winds. About half a league south of the east point of Morotoi, which is situated in latitude 21° 9′, longitude 203° 16′, lies a small barren rocky islet, called by the natives Modooenete; and from that point the shores of the island lie S. 53 W. In this direction the land rises rather abruptly from the sea, towards the lofty mountains in the center of the east part of Morotoi; and though the acclivity was great, yet the face of the country, diversified by emi-

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nences and vallies, bore a verdant and fertile appearance. It seemed to be well inhabited, in a high state of cultivation, and presented not only a rich but a romantic prospect. To the westward of these cliffs, the shores terminated in the former direction, by a low point of land, called by the natives Crynoa, and from thence they stretch N. 85 W. 8 leagues to the west point of the island. From Crynoa the country assumes a dreary aspect. The mountains, forming the eastern part of the island, gradually descend to the westward, and like those of Mowee, terminate on a low isthmus, which appears to divide the island into two peninsulas. These however bear no proportion to each other; the easternmost, which is far the largest, is composed of very high land, but the westernmost does not rife to any elevation, beyond that of a mean height. The country from Crynoa rises from the sea by an ascent, uninterrupted with chasms, hills, or vallies. This uniform surface, on advancing to the westward, exhibited a gradual decrease in the population; it discovered an uncultivated barren foil, and a tract, of land that gave residence only to a few of the lower orders of the islanders, who resort to the shores for the purpose of taking fish, with which they abound. Those so employed are obliged to fetch their fresh water from a great distance; none but what is brackish being attainable on the western parts of Morotoi. This information I had before gained from several chiefs at Mowee, and was now confirmed in it by Tomohomoho, who was accompanying us to Woahoo; and who also acquainted me, that along the shores of this south side, which are chiefly composed of a sandy beach, anchorage would be found on a clear sandy bottom. But as there were no projecting points for shelter, I did not think a further examination worth the time it would employ, and therefore proceeded to the bay at the west end of the island, for the purpose of feeing if, contrary to my former observations, it was commodious for the refitting of vessels, as it had been reported.

We passed within about half a league of the west point of the island, situated in latitude 21° 6′ 30″, longitude 202° 43′, with regular foundings from 17 to 23 fathoms, sandy bottom. The N.W. point of the island lies from the west point N. 25 E., at the distance of 3 leagues; between these two points a commodious bay had been stated to exist;

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whereas we found the whole intermediate space nearly a straight shore, composed alternately of rugged rocks and sandy beaches.

The day being too far advanced for standing over to Woahoo, we stood to windward, and anchored for the night in 19 fathoms water, sandy and bad holding ground; as the ship would not ride with less than a whole cable, although the trade wind blew but a moderate breeze. In working up, the foundings were pretty regular from 17 to 60 fathoms, fine sandy bottom; and where we anchored, within about a mile of the breakers, the west point of the island bore by compass south, distant 4 miles; and the north-west point N. 26 E. about the same distance. Our situation here was as close into shore as vessels can lie with safety; this side of the island being intirely open, and exposed to the north and north-west winds, which blow frequently with great violence; and to a heavy sea, that is almost constantly rolling from that quarter on the shores; and which at that time broke with so much fury, that it would have been dangerous to land even in canoes.

The country had the same dreary and barren appearance as that noticed on the south side, and I was informed it was equally destitute of water.

Wednes. 20.

With a light easterly breeze, about six o'clock on wednesday morning, we directed our course so as to sail along the north side of Woahoo. Tomohomoho objected to this mode of approach, saying, that the murderers resided near Whyteete bay, which would be the best station for us to take; for that if we went to the other side, he should have a great distance to go in search of them, by which means the offenders might get intelligence of our errand, escape into the mountains, and Titeeree would be accused of breaking his promise. There appeared so much good sense in this precaution, and so much earnestness in Tomohomoho to execute the business entrusted to him, that I did not hesitate to yield to his wishes, and postponed the examination of the north side of the island till our next visit; and we proceeded to Whyteete, where we anchored about three o'clock, in 10 fathoms water, occupying nearly our former station.

We were visited by a few of the natives in small single canoes, who brought little or nothing to dispose of. One double canoe only made its

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appearance. In this came James Coleman, one of the three men we found last year lest by Mr. Kendrick at Attowai. This man had quitted Mr. Kendrick's employ, and had entered into the service of Titeeree, why had Rationed him at this island in order to regulate the trade, and to assist such vessels as might touch at Woahoo for refreshments. This corresponded with what I had heard in support of Titeeree's character, in contradiction to the report that had been circulated, of his having issued orders for putting to death all the white men who resided in, or who might visit, his dominions.

Coleman was accompanied by a chief named Tennavee, and a lad called To-hoo-boo-ar-to. The latter had made a voyage to China in some of the trading vessels, and had picked up a few English words that rendered his conversation very intelligible. These informed me, that they were sent by Try-too-boo-ry, Titeeree's eldest son, and governor of Woahoo in his absence, to inquire who we were, and to offer such supplies as the island afforded; though at present they could not boast of any abundance. They apologized for Trytooboory's not coming himself, as he was ill, and not able, without much pain, to walk or fit upright.

Coleman introduced the melancholy subject of our countrymen's unhappy fate, and dated the circumstances attending it much in the same way as we had heard them at Mowee; but, for our more particular information, he referred us to Tohoobooarto, who, he said, was present, and would relate the whole of that transaction.

Tohoobooarto dated, that he had received much civility from Mr. Hergest and the rest of the gentlemen, on his visiting the Dædalus at Whymea bay, on the opposite side of this island; that when Mr. Hergest and Mr. Gooch were going on shore, he accompanied them in the boat, to assist as an interpreter; that when they arrived at the beach, he advised Mr. Hergest by no means to land: telling him, that there was no chief present, and that it was a part of the island where a great many very bad people resided; that no attention was paid to his advice; that they went on shore, and after taking some measures, without any opposition, for procuring a supply of water, that Mr. Hergest left some directions with his people; and then, still contrary to the advice of this young man, went with Mr.

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Gooch from the sea-side up to the habitations of the natives, who behaved to them in a friendly manner. At this time Tohoobooarto had left them, in order to wash himself in the fresh water, (a prevailing custom, on landing after being some time at sea) and whilst the gentlemen were absent, a dispute arose at the watering place, between the natives and the people of the Dædalus, from which an affray ensued, and the Portuguese seaman was killed. That no harm or molestation had been offered, or was intended, towards those gentlemen, who were treated civilly by the people of the village, until the news of this unfortunate transaction arrived; when, to prevent revenge taking place, it was thought necessary to put to death the chiefs whom they then had in their power; and that, in pursuance of this horrid resolution, Mr. Gooch was instantly killed by being stabbed through the heart with a pahooa; that the first blow only wounded Mr. Hergest, who, in endeavouring to make his way towards the boat, was knocked down by a large stone hitting him on the side of his head, and was then murdered in a most barbarous manner. The man who stabbed Mr. Gooch, the one who first wounded Mr. Hergest, and another who had been principally concerned at the watering place, had been, he said, apprehended by Titeeree's orders, and been put to death. To assure us of his having been present, and having interfered to save Mr. Hergest, he pointed out the fear of a wound in his left arm, which he said he had received on that occasion; and further added, that the man who knocked down and murdered Mr. Hergest, with two or three others materially concerned, were still living, and resided not far from our then anchorage. The former of these he had pointed out a few days before to Coleman. I inquired of Coleman, if he had ever heard this young man tell this melancholy story before? who instantly replied, that he had, and precisely as it was then related; which corresponded with the account he had received from other natives, and that he believed it to be a very true statement.

After Tohoobooarto had finished his account, he was questioned by Tomohomoho, about the residence of the offenders, who desired that he would accompany him and Tennavee for the purpose of apprehending the delinquents, and bringing them to justice. At first, Tohoobooarto declined engaging, fearing the friends and relations of the offenders would murder


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him; but on being assured of protection by Tomohomoho, he consented, and the whole party made the best of their way to the shore. I intrusted to Coleman a present of red cloth, and some other things, as a pledge of my good will and friendly disposition towards Trytooboory; as also an axe, and other articles, to Tomohomoho, which he requested to be the bearer of for the same purpose.

Thursday 21.

The next forenoon, Coleman with Tomohomoho and Tennavee came on board. As no one appeared like a prisoner in the canoe, I inquired of Coleman if the murderers were in custody ? He said, he believed they were, but did not positively know, as the business after landing the preceding evening, had been conducted by the chiefs with the most profound secrecy; that he had seen nothing of the party during the whole of the night, nor till they were about to put off from the beach, when he jumped into the stern of the canoe. The two chiefs desired I would attend them into the cabin; where, after shutting all the doors, they informed me, that the man who had murdered Mr. Hergest, with two others who had been equally active and guilty, were in the fore part of the canoe, and that no time should be lost in securing them, left any thing should transpire, and they should again make their escape. Orders were immediately given for their being admitted into the ship, and they soon were brought into the cabin.

The chiefs now pointed out the principal offender, whose appearance corresponded with the description given by Tohoobooarto. One half of his body, from his forehead to his feet, was made jet black by punctuating; the other two men were marked after the same manner, but not with the same regularity. These appearances alone would not have been sufficient to have identified their persons, as we had seen many of Titeeree's subjects disfigured after the same barbarous fashion; which I understood had been adopted in the late wars, for the purpose of increasing the ferocity of their appearance, and striking their enemies with terror.

Tohoobooarto was not present as a witness against the accused persons; this I very much regretted, but as there was great probability that Coleman's evidence would confirm what the chiefs had asserted, he was

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called in. After stedfastly surveying their persons, he pointed out the same man whom the chiefs had accused as the murderer of Mr. Hergest, but said, that he had no knowledge of the other two.

Notwithstanding Coleman's corroborative evidence, I much wished for further proof before I sanctioned their punishment; and having heard that Mr. Dobson, one of the midshipmen who came out in the Dædalus, had spoken of one of the natives, who, when alongside on that occasion, had been remarked for his insolence and improper behaviour; and who, the instant the boat with Mr. Hergest put off from the ship, had paddled hastily to the shore, where he landed, became very active in the affray, and was, in the unanimous opinion of the crew, suspected to have been the principal, if not the sole cause, of the calamity that followed; I having therefore called upon Mr. Dobson, and allied him if he had any recollection of the prisoners; he without the least hesitation, pointed out the same man who stood accused as the person who had acted the part above described, and was ready to make oath to his identity.

These proofs, though not positive, were yet so circumstantial as to leave little doubt of this man's guilt; but, as the evidence of Tohoobooarto would be still an additional confirmation, I desired Tennavee would repair to the shore and bring him on board, that the criminals might be fairly tried, and that we might have the fullest satisfaction of their guilt which the nature of the case would afford. During this interval, I ordered the prisoners into confinement, until further testimonies should be produced to criminate or acquit them.

Tomohomoho disliked much the delay of punishment, and requested that the prisoners might be immediately executed; but I persisted in the exercise of my own feelings and judgment. On questioning him concerning a fourth man, who had been implicated in the murder, he acknowledged, that there was a fourth who had been very materially concerned; but said, that all he could learn about him was, that he had been seen in the neighbourhood some months before; and as he had not lately made his appearance, it was by no means certain whether he was then on the island, or had gone to some of the others. Under all circumstances

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there appeared little probability of this man being taken, especially when the news of the three others being in custody should be spread abroad. This determined me not to insist upon any further search, on the conviction that it would be neither prudent nor proper to adopt any measures of force to effect an object, that want of time might oblige me to abandon and leave unaccomplished.

In the afternoon Tennavee returned without Tohoobooarto. At this I was not less concerned than surprized, and could not but consider his absenting himself as an indication of some misconduct. The two chiefs assured me I need be under no such apprehensions, as they were certain it was only the fear of revenge from the relations and friends of the delinquents that prevented his attendance. Despairing of his evidence we had only one further appeal. This was to know from Trytooboory, the chief of the island, if he believed these were the identical people guilty of the offence? and as his indisposition prevented him from coming on board, I desired Terrehooa, who could not be at all interested in any event that might take place, and who had conducted himself with great fidelity during twelve months he had been on board, to accompany Coleman, and make this inquiry of Trytooboory. This they accordingly performed, and returned in the evening.

Terrehooa declared, that Trytooboory had positively pronounced that all three of the prisoners were guilty of the murder with which they were accused. This Coleman confirmed, and added, that the chief desired they might be immediately punished with death. To this declaration Coleman made oath, in the most solemn manner, in the presence of myself and all the officers of the ship, who had attended the investigation in the morning; and who, having maturely considered the business, were unanimously of opinion with me, that justice demanded exemplary punishment, in order to stop, or at least to check, such barbarous and. unprovoked outrages in future.

It was clearly established in the course of the examination, by the testimonies of all the natives who were questioned, that neither those two unfortunate gentlemen, nor the people in the boats, had given the least cause for umbrage. This certainly aggravated the crime. After much in-

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quiry it did not appear that any other witnesses could be procured. And though we could have wished to have had more satisfactory proof of the criminality of the persons in custody, yet as they had been apprehended by their own people, accused and convicted by their own neighbours, and condemned by their own chief, it was, after the most serious deliberation and reflection, deemed sufficient to authorize the execution of the three prisoners; but as the day was too far spent it was deferred until the next morning, contrary to the wishes of the chiefs, who were very desirous of its immediately taking place. When they returned to the shore, I desired they would use their endeavours to find out and bring on board every person, that might be able to prove the innocence of the persons in custody. This injunction was treated with indifference, because they were perfectly convinced no such persons could be found. And as I wished that as many of the natives as could be collected, should witness the awful punishment that the prisoners had brought upon themselves by their barbarity, I desired also that they would make it publicly known that the execution would probably take place the next forenoon.

Friday 22.

On friday morning a few of the natives were about the ship, but not so many as on the former days. After breakfast, Coleman, with Tomohomoho and Tennavee, came on board. The two latter demanded the immediate execution of the prisoners. This however was not complied with, as it was deemed right that they should again be accused by their own chiefs, in the presence of all the witnesses, of the crime with which they stood charged, in order, if possible, to draw from them a confession of their guilt, and to renew the opportunity which before had been given them, of producing some evidence in proof of their innocence. Nothing however could be extorted from any of them, but that they were totally ignorant of any such circumstance having ever happened on the island. This very assertion amounted almost to self-conviction, as it is not easy to believe, that the execution of their comrades, by Titeeree's orders, for the same offence with which they had been charged, had not come to their knowledge, or that it could have escaped their recollection.

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Neither myself nor my officers discovered any reason, from the result of this further examination to retract or alter our former opinion of their guilt, or of delivering them over to their own people, to be dealt with according to the directions of their chief.

Before they went from the ship, they were placed in irons on the quarter-deck; where, in the presence of all the ship's company, I recapitulated the crime which they had committed, the evidence that had been adduced against them, and the condemnation of their chiefs, and stated, the punishment that was now to be inflicted. All this was likewise made known to the Indian spectators who were present.

That the ceremony might be made as solemn and as awful as possible, a guard of seamen and marines were drawn up on that side of the ship opposite to the shore, where, alongside of the ship, a canoe was stationed for the execution. The rest of the crew were in readiness at the great guns, left any disturbance or commotion should arise. One ceremony however remained yet to be performed. One of these unfortunate men had long hair; this it was necessary should be cut from his head before he was executed, for the purpose of being presented, as a customary tribute on such occasions, to the king of the island. I was shocked at the want of feeling exhibited by the two chiefs at this awful moment, who in the rudest manner not only cut off the hair, but, in the presence of the poor suffering wretch, without the least compassion for his situation, disputed and strove for the honor of presenting the prize to the king. The odious contest being at length settled, the criminals were taken one by one into a double canoe, where they were lashed hand and foot, and put to death by Tennavee, their own chief, who blew out their brains with a pistol; and so dexterously was the melancholy office performed, that life sled with the report of the piece, and muscular motion seemed almost instantly to cease.

If steadiness and firmness, totally devoid of the least agitation, can be considered, in the performance of such a duty, as a proof of conscious rectitude; or that the forfeiture of these three men's lives was considered as no more than what the strict principles of retributive justice demanded, it should seem that Tennavee's mind had been completely

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made up, not only as their judge, but their executioner; and that he was perfectly convinced his conduct, was unimpeachable, in executing an office that justice demanded.

The whole of Tennavee's deportment, on this sad occasion, afforded us additional cause to believe, that the persons executed were wholly guilty of the murder, and that the chiefs had not punished the innocent to screen themselves.

This public example, made so long after the crime was committed, we had reason to hope, would convince the islanders, that no intervention of time would, in future, prevent justice taking its regular course; and that any one who should dare to commit such barbarities would, sooner or later, suffer punishment.

The dead bodies were taken to the shore, attended by most of the natives who were present at the execution, and who, on this occasion, observed some small degree of solemnity, by paddling slowly towards the island. When they had gained about half the distance between the ship and the shore, they stopped, and some lamentations were heard, that continued, I believe, until they were landed.

I had proposed that the dead bodies should each be hung upon a tree near the shore, to deter others from committing the like offences; but Tomohomoho informed me, that such spectacles would be considered as very improper, contrary to their religious rites, and would greatly offend the whole of the priesthood. That such an exposure was totally unnecessary, as all the inhabitants would become fully acquainted with every circumstance attendant on their trial and execution, and the crime for which they had justly suffered; and that he verily believed their fate would have the good effect of restraining the ill-disposed in future. I inquired of him, why so few of the natives had attended on this awful occasion? He replied, it was in consequence of the message I had sent on shore to require it. This had created suspicions, arising, he said, from the former conduct of Europeans, on disputes or misunderstandings taking place between the chiefs and the commanders. Some of these, under the pretext of re-established friendship, would prevail on many of the inhabitants to come off to their ships, where they

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would, as usual, enter into trade with the natives, until great numbers were assembled; the commanders then ordered them to be fired upon, which continued, without mercy, as long as any of the canoes were within shot. Tomohomoho stated, that two or three instances of this barbarous nature had taken place, as well by the English as the American traders, and which was the reason why my invitation had been distrusted.

The two chiefs solicited my visiting Trytooboory, saying, if he had not been so ill, he would have been with us during the late unpleasant business; and that he was very desirous of seeing me, that he might be better convinced of my friendship and good inclinations towards him. I should certainly have complied with this request, had there been any object whatever to attain. Although I did not entertain any apprehension for the safety of myself, or any person belonging to the ship, whilst under the protection of the chief, yet I did not consider it prudent, whilst the execution of the criminals was so fresh in the minds of the people, to throw temptations of revenge in the way of the daring and ill-disposed part of the society, by placing myself and others in their power on shore. Should my confidence, on making the trial, prove ill-grounded, I should stand self-accused, in having so unnecessarily opened the channel for a fresh effusion of blood. Their civil invitations were, for these reasons, declined, seemingly much to their mortification. I was not however at a loss to relieve them of the disappointment, provided their intentions were as pure as their professions.

As the only object the two chiefs had in view, was stated to be an interview between me and Trytooboory, whole indisposition, and the want of a proper conveyance, prevented him coming on board, I proposed, as the day was remarkably fine and pleasant, to make a commodious platform on a double canoe, on which he might with great ease come alongside, and then if he found himself inclined to come on board, he should he hoisted in by means of a chair, or I would converse with him on the platform, and render him any medical or other assistance. With this proposal they appeared to be as well satisfied as if I had

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visited him on shore, and Coleman, with Tennavee, immediately departed to communicate this plan to the chief; to whom also, the better to insure his confidence, I again sent a present of red cloth and other articles. These had the desired effect;, and the messengers soon returned accompanying Trytooboory, who, without the least hesitation, desired he might be hoisted into the ship, which he entered, and was placed on the quarter-deck with the most implicit confidence.

Trytooboory appeared to be about thirty-three years of age, his countenance was fallen and reduced, his emaciated frame was in a most debilitated condition, and he was so totally deprived of the use of his legs, that he was under the necessity of being carried about like an infant; to these infirmities was added, a considerable degree of fever, probably increased by the hurry and fatigue of his visit.

The usual compliments, and mutual exchange of friendly assurances, having passed, I requested the favor, of his company below; to this with much pleasure he assented, but no sooner were his intentions known to the natives in the canoes about the ship, than a general alarm took place, and he was earnestly recommended not to quit the deck; from a suspicion, as I imagined, amongst the crowd, that the works of death were not yet finally accomplished. Trytooboory however disregarded all remonstrances, and ordered the people who were carrying him in the chair, and who, in consequence of the alarm, had stopped, to proceed to the cabin, where he found a comfortable resting place, and appeared to be perfectly at home. He then informed me, that he had not been ill above sixteen or eighteen days; and as Mr. Menzies had now inquired into the nature of his disorder, and had prepared him some medicines, I gave him hopes that his health would soon be reinstated.

Notwithstanding his indisposition, his conversation was cheerful and pleasing; and I had the happiness of hearing him confirm every part of the evidence, that had been given against the three unfortunate wretches who had suffered in the morning. He spoke of them all as being equally guilty, and of having always borne extremely bad characters; and said there were many others of the same description at Woahoo, but hoped

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the example of the morning would be the means of frightening them into a more discreet mode of behaviour.

The proposed peace with Owhyhee was next adverted to. He highly applauded the measure, and said, if such a business could be effected, it would be of the utmost importance to them; as the chiefs and people would then return to their habitations; by this means the country would be better governed, the lands better cultivated, and, by the production of a greater abundance from the soil, they would be enabled to procure a more ample supply of European commodities. The same want of confidence however that the contending parties entertained, was evident in the opinions of this chief; and although the negociation at Mowee had put on a favorable appearance, I began to fear this unfortunate prevailing sentiment would be fatal to the establishment of a general and permanent peace. He likewise took an opportunity to apologize, and to express his concern, that the reduced state of the country precluded his making me any suitable return for the obligations I had conferred upon him. In reply, I made him a similar answer to that given his father at Mowee; adding, that on a future visit he might probably have more to spare, and I less to beslow.

The same of our fire-works still attended us, and Trytooboory was very solicitous to be indulged with a fight of their effect. Considering that the present moment afforded no ill-timed opportunity to impress the minds of these people more deeply with our superiority, his curiosity was gratified in the evening, by the display of a small assortment, from the after part of the ship. These were beheld by the surrounding natives with more than the usual mixture of the passions already described; for, on the present occasion, they were regarded with a degree of awful surprize, that I had not before observed. This exhibition being finished, Trytooboory was conveyed into his canoe, in the same manner as he had entered the ship. Before his departure I complimented him with some additional articles, and with these, as well as his reception and entertainment, he seemed highly delighted.

Sunday 24.

With a pleasant breeze from the westward, on sunday morning we plied to the windward, along the south fide of Woahoo, until the after-


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noon, when we anchored abreast of the westernmost opening or lagoon, mentioned in our former visit to this island, called by the natives O-pooro-ah, and which had since been reported to us, by the natives, as capable of admitting vessels by warping into it. About half a mile from the reef that binds these shores, we found the foundings irregular from 5 to 15 fathoms, rocky bottom; but where the ship rode, the bottom was tolerably even, and composed of sand and coral; the depth of water, about half a league from the reef, was 25 fathoms. The evening was too sail approaching to investigate the truth of the report given by the natives. This was deferred until day-light the next morning, when Mr. Whidbey, with two armed boats, accompanied by Tomohomoho, was dispatched for that purpose.

The part of the island opposite to us was low, or rather only moderately elevated, forming a level country between the mountains that compose the east and west ends of the island. This tract of land was of some extent, but did not seem to be populous, nor to possess any great degree of natural fertility; although we were told that, at a little distance from the sea, the soil is rich, and all the necessaries of life are abundantly produced.

Whilst we remained in this situation, a few only of the natives paid us their respects; their canoes were small and indifferent, and their visit was that of curiosity only, as they were furnished with little for barter.

Mr. Whidbey returned in the forenoon. He found the opening in the reef, about four hundred yards wide, to be occupied by a sandy bar about two hundred yards across, on which there was not more than nine or ten feet water; but on each side of it the water suddenly increased in depth to 5 and soon to 10 fathoms. These foundings were regular on each fide of the bar; on the inside the bottom is a stiff mud, or clay; this, with the same foundings, continued to the entrance of a small harbour about half a mile within the bar, formed by two low sandy points, about the same distance asunder. From each of these sandy points extended a shallow flat, near a cable's length on either side, contracting the width of the deep-water channel to not more than the

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fourth of a mile; in this is 10 fathoms water; but the entrance is again further contracted by a sunken rock, stretching nearly into mid-channel from the northern shore, with which it is connected; on this was found only two feet water, although the depth is 10 fathoms within a few yards of it. From the entrance, this little harbour about a quarter of a mile wide, took a north-westerly direction for about a mile; the depth from 10 to 15 fathoms, muddy bottom; it then seemed to spread out, and to terminate in two bays, about a mile further to the northward, forming a very snug and convenient little port. Unfortunately, the bar without renders it fit only for the reception of very small craft.

Mr. Whidbey, under this impression, lost no time in any further examination, but returned to the ship; and as I was now very anxious to proceed on our voyage, no delay for matters of little importance could be admitted. Mr. Whidbey observed, that the soil in the neighbourhood of the harbour appeared of a loose sandy nature; the country low for some distance, and, from the number of houses within the harbour, it should seem to be very populous; but the very few inhabitants who made their appearance was an indication of the contrary. At the time the bar was founded, it was low water, and Mr. Whidbey being unacquainted with the rife and fall, was not able to say what depth there might be on the bar at high tide.

The other opening to the eastward, called by the natives Honoonoono, Tomohomoho represented as being much more shallow, and a smaller place; this induced me to pass it without examination; but to shew how liable we are to be mistaken in such inquiries amongst the natives, I was afterwards informed, by Mr. Brown of the Butterworth, that although it is smaller, and of less depth of water, yet it admits of a passage from sea 5 fathoms deep between the reefs; and opens beyond them into a small but commodious bason, with regular foundings from 7 to 3 fathoms, clear and good bottom, where a few vessels may ride with the greatest safety; but the only means of getting in or out is by warping.

About noon, with a light breeze from the S.S.W., we weighed, and flood to windward; and in the afternoon, our very attentive and useful friend Tomohomoho, having executed all his commissions, and ren-

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dered us every service and assistance in his power, bad us farewel. On this occasion I presented him with such an assortment of articles as afforded him the highest satisfaction. Of these he was richly deserving, from the uniformity and integrity of conduct that he had supported from the first to the last moment of his being with us.

We found the western side of Woahoo lie in a direction from its S.W. point N. 25 W., 6 leagues to the west point of the island, which forms also the S.W. point of Whymea bay. The S.W. side of the island is principally composed of steep craggy mountains, some descending abruptly into the sea, others terminating at a small distance from it, whence a low border of land extends to the sea-shore, formed by sandy beaches, chiefly bounded by rocks, over which the surf breaks with great violence.

From these shores we were visited by some of the natives, in the most wretched canoes I had ever yet seen amongst the South-Sea islanders; they corresponded however with the appearance of the country, which from the commencement of the high land to the westward of Opooroah, was composed of one barren rocky waste, nearly destitute of verdure, cultivation, or inhabitants, with little variation all the way to the west point of the island. Not far from the S.W. point is a small grove of shabby cocoa-nut trees, and along those shores are a few draggling fishermen's huts. Nearly in the middle of this side of the island is the only village we had seen westward from Opooroah. In its neighbourhood the bases of the mountains retire further from the sea-shore, and a narrow valley, presenting a fertile cultivated aspect, seemed to separate, and wind some distance through, the hills. The shore here forms a small sandy bay. On its southern side, between the two high rocky precipices, in a grove of cocoanut and other trees, is situated the village, and, in the center of the bay about a mile to the north of the village, is a high rock, remarkable for its projecting from a sandy beach. At a distance it appears to be detached from the land. Between this and the high rocky point to the south of the village, is a small bank of foundings, that stretches some distance into the sea. On the south side of this bank the foundings were irregular, from 25 to 8 fathoms, rocky bottom; but, to the north of it,

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near the rock, no ground could be reached with 90 and 100 fathoms of line, though not more than the fourth of a mile from the shore; this we found to be the cafe also a little to the southward of the bank. In both these places we were for some time very awkwardly situated, without wind, yet with a swell and current that set us so fast towards the land, that I was under some apprehension for the safety of the ship, as the united force of the current and swell prevented any effect from the assistance of the boats; from this dilemma however we were happily relieved, by a breeze springing up, that enabled us to increase our distance from the land.

The few inhabitants who visited us from the village, earnestly intreated our anchoring, and told us, that if we would stay until the morning, their chief would be on board with a number of hogs, and a great quantity of vegetables; but that he could not visit us then because the day was taboo-poory. The face of the country did not however promise an abundant supply; the situation was exposed, and the extent of anchorage was not only very limited, but bad; under these circumstances, having, by eleven at night, got clear of the shores, I deemed it most prudent to make the bell of our way, with a light S.E. breeze, towards Attowai.

Tuesday 20.

We had not. reached more than half way between the two islands, by noon the next day; when the observed latitude was 21° 19′, longitude 201° 18′. In this situation Woahoo extended, by compass, from S. 88 E. to S. 64 E., and Attowai N. 70 W. to N. 87 W. The weather was now calm, and continued so all the afternoon; this gave to some of the islanders, who were passing from Attowai to Mowee, an opportunity to visit the ship. The foremost of these, undertaking so distant a voyage in a single canoe, much attracted our attention; on her coming alongside, she proved to be without exception the finest canoe we had seen amongst these islands. This vessel was sixty-one feet and a half long, exceeding, by four feet and an half, the largest canoes of Owhyhee; its depth and width were in their proportion of building, and the whole of the workmanship was finished in a very masterly manner.

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The size of this canoe was not its only curiosity, the wood of which it was formed was an infinitely greater, being made out of an exceedingly fine pine-tree. As this species of timber is not the produce of any of these islands, and as the natives informed us it was drifted by the ocean, it is probably the growth of some of the northern parts of America.

This, it seems, was left on the east end of Attowai, in a perfectly found state, without a shake or a bruise. It remained there unwrought for some time, in the hope of a companion arriving in the same manner. In this cafe, the natives would have been enabled to have formed the grandest double canoe these islands could boast of; but their patience having been exhausted, they converted the tree into this canoe; which, by the lightness of its timber, and the large outrigger it is capable of supporting, is rendered very lively in the sea, and well adapted to the service it generally performs,—that of communicating intelligence to Taio, whilst: he is absent from the government of his own dominions.

The circumstance of fir timber being drifted on the northern sides of these islands is by no means uncommon, especially at Attowai, where there then was a double canoe, of a middling size, made from two small pine-trees, that were driven on shore nearly at the same spot. Some logs of timber, with three or four trees of the pine tribe, were then lying on the island, that had at different times been lodged by the sea, but were too much decayed and worm-eaten to be usefully appropriated.

As this kind of timber is the known produce of all the northern part of the west side of America, little doubt can remain of these trees having come from that continent, or its contiguous islands; since it is more than probable, that if any intervening land did exist between the Sandwich islands, and the countries on every side of them, and particularly in the direction of the prevailing winds, such would have been discovered before now. And hence we may conclude, that trees do perform very distant voyages, and sometimes arrive in a found state at the end of their journey. This instance alone will be sufficient to develope the mystery attending the means by which the inhabitants of Easter

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island procure their canoes, since the distance of that island from South America, is not so far by 80 leagues as Attowai is from the shores of North America.

The object of this canoe expedition, we learned, was to inform Taio of some commotions that had arisen against the government of Enemo the regent. But these having been timely opposed, they had subsided, without any loss on the part of Enemo, or his adherents; whilst on the side of the conspirators, two chiefs and five men had been killed, and some others wounded, who had made their escape to the woods.

The leg bones of the two unfortunate chiefs were in the canoe, and had some of the sinews and flesh still adhering to them; in this state they were to be presented to Taio, as trophies of victory over the rebels. This large single canoe was charged with the official dispatch and important part of the business, whilst the others were employed in conducting a certain number of the ring-leaders as prisoners to Taio, for his examination, and sentence on their conduct. Amongst these were several of his nearest relations; one in particular was his half-sifter, who had also been his wife or mistress, and had borne him some children.

The charge of this embassy was intrusted to a young chief, about twenty-two years of age, named Oeashew. Our meeting him must be considered as rather a singular circumstance, as the business that had carried Poory to Mowee, (a chief we had taken on board at Woahoo, and was on his return home to Attowai) had been some matters of importance relative to the government of that island; in consequence of which Titeeree and Taio had appointed this young man chief of the district of Whymea, one of the most important trusts on the island; where his presence at this time was considered as highly necessary. Poory requested I would permit Oeashew to return in the ship to Attowai, which being granted, the latter instructed another chief with the purport of his commission. This occupied them in very secret conversation for about half an hour; when, the charge being properly and completely transferred, the canoes pushed off, and made the bed of their way towards Woahoo, where they expected to arrive early the next morning, having quitted Attowai at sun-set the preceding evening.

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Wednes. 27.

During the night the wind was light from the northward, but in the morning it freshened to a pleasant, though unfavorable, breeze, that prevented our weathering the north-east point of Attowai, as I had intended, for the purpose of examining its northern shores. The water being smooth, and the wind steady in force and direction, I was in hopes we should have been able to beat round it, until we had approached the shores; when it became evident we were in a strong current setting to leeward.

I however did not wish to abandon hastily the project I had in view, and therefore, about nine o'clock, we tacked about two miles from the shore, then extending, by compass, from N. 8 W. to S. 20 W.; these extremities, which lie from each other N. 14 E. and S. 14 W., are each formed by low land, are about nine miles asunder, and constitute what may he deemed the east side of the island. The former in a rounding point projects into the ocean, from a very remarkable forked hill, that is, in a great measure, detached from the rest of the connected mountains of the island. The latter extends from a range of low hills that stretch along the coast, at a small distance within the beach. Beyond these hills, towards the foot of the mountains that are at some distance from the shore, the country presented a most delightful, and even enchanting, appearance; not only from the richness of its verdure, and the high date of cultivation in the low regions, but from the romantic air that the mountains assumed, in various shapes and proportions, clothed with a forest of luxuriant foliage, whose different shades added great richness and beauty to the landscape.

About a league to the south of the southern extremity, lies the south-east point of the island, formed by a bold, bluff, barren, high, rocky head land, falling perpendicularly into the sea. Between this and the low point is a small cove, accessible for boats only, where, near a rivulet that flows into it, is a village of the natives. This part seemed to be very well watered, as three other rapid small streams were observed to flow into the sea within the limits above mentioned. This portion of Attowai, the most fertile and pleasant district of the island, is the principal residence of the king, or, in his absence, of the superior chief,

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who generally takes up his abode in an extensive village, about a league to the southward of the north-east point of the island. Here Enemo the regent, with the young prince Tamooerrie, were now living; who sent Williams (the Welchman mentioned in our former visit) to acquaint me, that, in the course of the forenoon, they would visit the ship, if we were near enough the shore for them to embark. I understood from Williams, that we had gained so much on the esteem and regard of Enemo, the young prince, the principal chiefs, and others, on our last visit, that, for a great length of time, the hogs, and every other production of the major part of the island, had been tabooed, in order that on our arrival our wants might be amply supplied. Of these kind intentions we were made acquainted before our departure from Owhyhee; but I knew too well the little regard that the whole of the great South-Sea nation of islanders bear to truth, to rely implicitly on such tales; and it was very fortunate that I did not, and that I had availed myself of the bounty of Tamaahmaah, and the rest of our Owhyhean friends: for I was given to understand, that, in consequence of our having exceeded the period of our promised return, the pressing demands of the trading vessels, and the extravagant prices paid by their commanders, in firearms, ammunition, and other commodities, for such things as their necessities or fancies prompted them to purchase, the regent had been prevailed upon to suspend the interdiction, under the persuasion that we should not return, and that most of the supplies had been disposed of. Some few hogs, I found, might probably be procured from the north side, and I was happy to discover, that the few supplies we were likely to obtain, were in the route I wished to pursue; but I was again mortified, on hearing that the current fat, almost without intermission, from the N.W. along the north side of the island; and following the direction of the shores, on the southern and western sides of the island, caused a stream almost always round it; so that the easiest mode of arriving at the north-east point, now scarcely more than 2 leagues distant, was to sail to leeward round its west extremity, and then to turn up along its northern side, which Williams informed me afforded no shelter, nor convenient anchorage, for shipping. Several vessels, he said, since he had been at


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Attowai, had fallen, as we had done, to leeward of the north-east point, and all their attempts to beat round it proved ineffectual; one vessel only having succeeded after a week's trial, and which then passed the point merely by an accidental spirt of wind from the southward.

Williams confirmed also the account of the insurrection that we had heard the preceding day. He dated, that the disaffection had been produduced by the conduct of the regent Enemo, (or, as he is frequently called, Attaia); that no harm was meditated against Taio, or his son Tamooerrie; but, on the contrary, it was the general wish of the people, that the young prince would either direct the government himself, or that Taio would appoint some other person to officiate in his absence, until his son should be considered equal to the task. The principal dislike to the regent, arose from his having put several people to death, and confiscated the property of others, for having been suspected of witchcraft; a notion that universally prevails, and is confided in by the generality of the people belonging to the Sandwich islands. It seemed, by his account, to have been a fortunate circumstance, that the insurrection was discovered in its infancy, and that he and Rowbottom, with five other English or American sailors (who since our last visit had deserted from different trading vessels) had sided with the governor, as, on their instantly attacking the leaders of the rebellion it was easily quelled. This circumstance was afterwards mentioned by the natives, who spoke in the highest terms of their courage, and propriety of conduct.

We again stood in shore, and about noon were honored with the presence of Enemo.

On this occasion, I expected much satisfaction in the renewal of our former acquaintance; but instead of deriving any pleasure in our meeting, I experienced sensations of a very opposite nature the instant he entered the ship. His limbs, no longer able to support his aged and venerable person, seemed not only deserted by their former muscular strength, but their substance was also intirely wafted away, and the skin, now inclosing the bones only, hung loose and uncontracted from the joints, whilst a dry white scurf, or rather scales, overspread the whole

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surface of his body from head to foot, tended greatly to increase the miserable and deplorable appearance of his condition; and I was not a little shocked and surprized that one so wretchedly infirm, should have taken the painful trouble of this visit. The compliment was a very flattering one, and I did not sail to receive it as it was intended, by acknowledging myself considerably obliged.

Notwithstanding his corporeal infirmities, and the decline of his life, he still supported a cheerful degree of spirits, said he was very happy to see us, and much concerned that we had not arrived on an earlier day, according to our promise, when he should have had an abundant quantity of refreshments for our use, and lamented that those supplies were now greatly exhausted. I acknowledged that it was our misfortune, not his fault, that we had not arrived at the time appointed; thanked him for the interest he had preserved, and the attention he had shewn to our welfare during our absence; and rewarded his friendship by presents similar to those I had made the principal chiefs of the other islands. With these he was highly gratified, especially with the scarlet cloak, and a complete set of armourer's tools. These are in high estimation, as these people are fond of forming the iron for their several purposes after their own fashion.

Enemo remained on board most of the afternoon, made many sensible and judicious inquiries, and soon took an occasion to express, in the warmed manner, his satisfaction at the measures I had taken for the purpose of establishing a general peace. This he had learned from Poory, who had visited Enemo on shore early in the morning. The old regent, with great understanding, adverted to its necessity for the mutual good, happiness, and prosperity of all parties; and observed, that to him it would be particularly grateful, as it would relieve him from much care and anxiety, by the return of his relations, friends, and country men. He then desired to know, whether on my return to England I would take him thither, as his principal wish in this life was to see that country, and to have the gratification of speaking to His Majesty King George; after this, he said, he should die in peace, without having another wish to

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indulge, On this subject he seemed so earnest, that I thought proper, by a promise in the affirmative, to favor his fond hopes.

The ship being near the shore, about four in the afternoon the good old regent took his leave, after acquainting me, that as the next, day was taboo-poory, neither himself nor the prince could leave the shore; but that he would direct a chief to bring off such hogs and vegetables as could be collected by the morning; and that if we would remain off this part of the island until the day following, he would either bring himself, or send off, such further supplies as could be procured in the neighbourhood. Thus we parted from this friendly old chief, with little expectation of ever seeing him again.

Thursday 14.

Soon after the departure of Enemo, Tamooerrie, attended by Poorey, came on board. The young prince appeared to be in high spirits, and was totally divested of those fears which he had entertained on his former visit. He seemed to be made very happy by our return; but, as his guardian had done, upbraided us for not having come before, when the several productions of his country were in the greatest abundance, and had been reserved for our use and service. The approach of night, and the distance we were to leeward of his habitation, conspired to shorten his visit. I made him some presents suitable to his rank and condition, after which, with the chiefs who were on board, he reluctantly took leave, desiring we would remain in the neighbourhood two or three days, that we might receive such articles of refreshment as could be obtained. This, I said, would depend upon circumstances; and on the departure of the canoes we made all sail to windward, with a pleasant steady breeze at N. N. E.; notwithstanding which, the next morning we had not advanced more than a mile to windward of our situation the preceding evening.

Being near the shore in the forenoon, and seeing some canoes making towards the ship, we tacked and brought to, to give them an opportunity of coming alongside. These presently were proved to contain our friends Poorey, Too, and some other chiefs, who had brought us eight middling sized hogs, and some vegetables. This was but a scanty supply; and as the apologies we received, proved we had little probability of procuring more, and as little chance of beating round this part of

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the island in any tolerable time, I declined persisting, and bore up for Whymea bay. There I intended to complete our water; and then, without further delay, to direct our course to the northward; having still remaining of our Owhyhean stock, a number of hogs, exclusive of fix hogsheads and ten barrels that had been salted and headed down, and every man in the ship having been daily served with as much pork as he liked.

These refreshments, with those we had before obtained from our Spanish friends in New Albion, had lb perfectly re-established the health and strength of every individual on board, that I hoped we should be able to encounter the difficulties I had reason to apprehend in our next campaign, with all the firmness and alacrity that such services demand.

Poorey and the rest of the chiefs accompanied us, in order that they might afford us their good offices at Whymea; where, owing to the light baffling winds in its neighbourhood, we were prevented anchoring until eleven at night; when we took our former station, conceiving it to be the belt in the bay, in 33 fathoms water, dark sandy bottom, about half a league from the shore.

Friday 29.

The next morning, as the few natives who had visited us brought little for sale, Poorey and the rest of his friends betook themselves to the shore, for the purpose of collecting in the neighbourhood such hogs and vegetables as could be procured. The launch was hoisted out, and sent with a guard of marines under the orders of Lieutenant Swaine, for a supply of water.

I was engaged on shore most of the day, in regulating a comfortable establishment that I had procured from the chiefs, for our two female passengers, the one named Raheina, the other Tymarow, who we had met with as already stated at Nootka, in October, 1792, and had brought them from thence, to restore them to this their native country; from whence they had been forcibly taken, and had endured an uncomfortable absence of upwards of a year. This office of humanity, to which their behaviour and amiable dispositions so justly intitled them, I was fortunate enough to accomplish to their satisfaction; and I had the pleasure of finding that they both acknowledged this, and the civil


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and attentive treatment they had each received from every person on board the Discovery and Chatham, with expressions of gratitude, and the most affectionate regard.

Amongst the various reports industriously circulated at Nootka by the citizens of the united states of America, to the prejudice and dishonor of the British subjects trading on the coast of North West America, it had been positively asserted, that some of the latter had brought the natives of the Sandwich islands from thence to the coast of America, and had there fold them to the natives of those shores for furs. These two young women were particularly instanced, as having been so brought and disposed of by Mr. Baker, commanding the Jenny, of Bristol; and the story was told with such plausibility, that I believe it had acquired some degree of credit with Senr. Quadra, and most of the Spanish officers who heard it. The arrival of the Jenny, however, in the port of Nootka, gave a flat contradiction to these scandalous reports, and proved them to be equally malicious and untrue; as the two girls were found still remaining on board the Jenny, without having entertained any idea that they were intended to have been sold; nor did they mention to have received any ill usage from Mr. Baker, but on the contrary, that they had been treated with every kindness and attention whilst under his protection.

Although I had not any personal knowledge of Mr. Baker previous to his entering Nootka, yet I should conceive him totally incapable of such an act of barbarity and injustice; and if there were the lead sincerity in the solicitude he expressed to me for the future happiness and welfare of these young women, it is impossible he could ever have meditated such a design. I do not, however, mean to vindicate the propriety of Mr. Baker's conduct, in bringing these girls from their native country; for I am decidedly of opinion it was highly improper; and if the young women are to be credited, their seduction and detention on board Mr. Baker's vessel were inexcusable. They report, that they went on board with several others of their countrywomen, who were permitted to return again to the shore; but that they were confined down in the cabin until the vessel had sailed, and was at some distance from Onehow. On

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the other hand, Mr. Baker states, that he put to sea without any knowledge of their being on board his vessel. But be that as it may, we found them thus situated at Nootka; and the future objects of Mr. Baker's voyage leading him wide of the Sandwich islands, he requested, as I then noticed, that I would allow them to take their passage thither on board the Discovery. To this I assented, and on our sailing from Nootka, they were sent on board and taken under my protection.

The names of these unfortunate females we first understood were Taheeopiah and Tymarow, both of the island of Onehow. The former, about fifteen years of age, was there of some consequence; the latter, about four or five years older, was related to the former, but was not of equal rank in the island.

Taheeopiah, for some reason I never could understand, altered her name to that of Raheina, a short time after the came on board, and was continued to be so called.

After leaving Nootka, our visit to the Spanish settlements, especially during the first part of our residence there, afforded them some recompence for the long and tedious voyage they had been compelled to undertake from their native country.

The fight of horses, cattle, and other animals, with a variety of objects to which they were inure strangers, produced in them the highest entertainment; and without the least hesitation or alarm, they were placed on horseback on their first landing, and, with a man to lead the animal, they rode without fear, and were by that means enabled to partake of all the civilities and diversions which our Spanish friends so obligingly offered and provided. On all these occasions they were treated with the greatest kindness and attention by the ladies and gentlemen; at which they were not less delighted, than they were surprized at the social manner in which both sexes live, according to the custom of most civilized nations; differing so very materially from that of their own.

These pleasures, however, they enjoyed but a short time; for soon after our arrival at Monterrey, they were both taken extremely ill; and notwithstanding that every means in our power was resorted to for the

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re-establishment of their health, they did not perfectly recover until after our arrival at Owhyhee.

They seemed much pleased with the European fashions, and in conforming to this new system of manners, they conducted themselves in company with a degree of propriety beyond all expectation. Their European dress contributed most probably to this effect, and produced, particularly in Raheina, a degree of personal delicacy that was conspicuous on many occasions. This dress was a riding habit, as being best calculated for their situation, and indeed the best in our power to procure. Its skirt, or lower part, was soon found to be intended as much for concealment, as for warmth; and in the course of a very short time, she became so perfectly familiar to its use in this respect, that in going up and down the ladders that communicate with the different parts of the ship, she would take as much care not to expose her ancles, as if she had been educated by the most rigid governess; and as this was particularly observable in the conduct of Raheina, it is probable her youth rendered her more susceptible of fresh notions, and of receiving new ideas and impressions from the surrounding objects, than the more matured age of her friend Tymarow.

The elegance of Raheina's figure, the regularity and softness of her features, and the delicacy which she naturally possessed, gave her a superiority in point of personal accomplishments over the generality of her sex amongst the Sandwich inlanders; in addition to which, her sensibility and turn of mind, her sweetness of temper and complacency of manners, were beyond any thing that could have been expected from her birth, or native education; so that if it were fair to judge of the dispositions of a whole nation from the qualities of these two young women, it would seem that they are endued with much affection and tenderness. At least, such was their deportment towards us; by which they gained the regard and good wishes of, I believe, every one on board, whilst I became in no small degree solicitous for their future happiness and prosperity.

Onehow being the place of their birth and former residence, I had promised to set them on shore on that island; but on our arrival at

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Owhyhee, I had understood that the inhabitants of Onehow had almost intirely abandoned it, in consequence of the excessive drought that had prevailed during the last summer; which had nearly caused the total destruction of all its vegetable productions. Finding on my arrival at Attowai this information to have been well grounded, I came to a determination to leave our female friends at this island.

Being well aware that the mode of living they had lately been constrained to adopt, and that their having eaten at mine and other tables in the company of men, was an offence of so heinous a nature against their laws as to subject them both to the punishment of death, I took, much pains to point out to Titeeree and Taio their innocence in this respect; and obtained from them both the strongest assurances, that they should not be liable to the least injury on that account, but that on their landing they should be immediately, taken care of and protected.

These intreaties I enforced with Enemo, in the presence of Raheina and Tymarow when he was on board; and had the satisfaction of receiving from him similar assurances of his protection, not only of their persons, but their property; and that whatever articles we might think proper to give them, should be secured to them, and no one should be permitted to wrest or extort any thing from them. These assurances being given not only by Enemo, but by the rest of the chiefs then present, I thought, by the purchase of a house and a small portion of land, to add to their future respectability and comfort. This Enemo would not permit me to do, but instantly directed Oeashew to allot to each of them an estate in his newly acquired district of Whymea; to which Oeashew with much apparent pleasure consented.

The better to make sure of this donation, and to secure the permanent possession of it to these young women, I desired that the houses and land might be given to me, that the property should be considered as vested in me, and that no person whatever should have any right in it, but by my permission; and that I would allow Raheina and Tymarow to live upon the estates.

Matters having been in this manner arranged, Oeashew had gone on shore in the morning to fix upon the lands that were to be thus dif-

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posed of; and about three in the afternoon he returned, saying that he had fixed upon two very eligible situations adjoining to each other, which if I approved should be mine; if not, I was at liberty to make choice of any other part of the district I might think more proper. In consequence of this offer, I attended him on shore, accompanied by some of the officers and our two females, who had received such an assortment of articles from us, as were deemed sufficient to make them respectable, without exciting the envy of the chiefs or their neighbours.

We found the situation proposed by Oeashew to be a very large portion of the fertile valley, noticed on our former visit on the western side of the river, commencing at the sea beach, and extending along the banks of the river to a certain established land mark, including a very considerable extent of the inland mountainous country. The contiguity of these estates to the commerce of all the Europeans who visit this island, and the territory which it comprehended, was in value so far above our most sanguine expectations, that I was led to suspect the sincerity of the intended donation. But to this we became reconciled, from the protestations of the chief himself, as also from the universal declaration of many of the natives who had accompanied us, and who asserted that Oeashew really intended thus to dispose of the land in question; to which he added the most solemn assurances that he would protect them in the possession of it; together with their canoes, and all the articles they had brought with them from the ship; which declarations seemed perfectly to satisfy the young women, that they would be put into possession of these estates; and that their persons and property would be protected according to the assurances we had now received.

A long established line of division, formed by trees and a common road, separated the two estates. The lower one nearest the sea, which was the most extensive, was allotted to Raheina, the other to Tymarow; each of which they respectively took possession of, and in the warmest and most grateful terms acknowledged the obligations they were under, for this last mark of our attention to their future happiness; and for the friendship and kindness they had experienced during their residence amongst us. They attended us to the beach, where they took an affectionate

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leave, and we embarked for the ship, leaving them to meditate on their new situation, and the various turns of fortune that had conspired to place them in such comfortable circumstances.

On my arrival on board I found, our friends who had been employed in procuring us supplies had returned with little success. Seventeen middling sized hogs, a few potatoes, and some taro, without any yams, was the whole amount of their collection. Our stock of water was completely replenished; and being satisfied from the report of the chiefs that no additional quantity of provisions was to be had at this island, I informed them that we should depart the first favorable opportunity. They inquired if I intended to visit the north side, as Poorey and Too would in that case continue on board for the purpose of assisting us in procuring some yams, which they said were more plentiful there than on the south side of the island; but as nothing less than a very tempting opportunity would have induced me to go thither, I declined giving them further trouble, and having presented them with such articles as their services and the occasion demanded, they took their leave, with expressions of the highest satisfaction, promising to pay every attention, and afford all possible assistance and protection, to their countrywomen whom we had just landed, and in whose future happiness and welfare they knew we had great interest.

A light breeze of wind springing up from the land, about ten at night we put to sea and stood to the westward, to take the advantage of the south-westerly winds, which we were led to believe prevailed generally at this season of the year.

Saturday 30.

On saturday morning Attowai bore by compass from N. 20 E. to S. 77 E.; Onehow, S. 64 W. to S. 85 W.; and Oreehooa, west. But, instead of the promised south-west wind, we were met by a fresh trade wind from the north-east. As this circumstance precluded our making a speedy survey of the north side of the island, I gave up that object for the present.

A report having prevailed that Captain Cook had erroneously separated Oreehooa from Onehow, it being asserted that the inhabitants walked from one place to the other; and that Captain King had been

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misinformed as to the number of inhabitants being four thousand. As these facts could be easily ascertained, we steered over for Oreehooa, and passed within a quarter or half a mile of its shores. It was soon proved that Oreehooa is positively separated from Onehow, by a channel about a mile in breadth; and though the depth of the sea appeared by its colour to be irregular, it was manifestly far too deep for people to w from one island to the other. As this channel lies immediately open, d is exposed to the whole force and influence of the trade wind, and the swell of the sea consequent upon it, (neither of which were very moderate at the time of our examination,) it is natural to infer, that if the channel did admit of foot passengers crossing it, the causeway would have been visible above the surface of the water; or, from the violence with which the sea broke on the contiguous shores, that it certainly would have broken over a space so shallow, as to allow people to pass and repass on foot; but the sea did not break in any part of the channel, which, on the contrary, seemed to be nearly of a sufficient depth to admit of a passage for the Discovery. With respect to the population, Captain King must doubtless have been led into error. The island of Oreehooa is of very small extent, and wholly composed of one rugged, naked, barren rock, to all appearance destitute of soil, and presenting no indication of its being, or having ever been the residence of human creatures.

Having completely satisfied our minds in these respects, we hauled our wind to the north-west, and with all sail set, we bad adieu to the Sandwich islands for the present, and made the best of our way towards Nootka.

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Passage towards the coast of America—Anchor in Trinidad bay—Description of the bay, its inhabitants, &c. &c.—Arrival at Nootka—Quit Nootka, and proceed to the northward—Join the Chatham in Fitzhugh's found.

1793. March.

Saturday 30.


Saturday 6.

WE took our departure from the Sandwich islands, on saturday the 30th of march, with the trade wind blowing principally from the N. N. E. and N.E. accompanied by very pleasant weather; and in one week afterwards we reached the variable winds, having a light breeze from the southward, with which we steered N. by E.; our observed latitude at this time was 30° 35′, longitude by Kendall's chronometer, 197° 26′, Arnold's No. 14, 196° 57½', No. 176, 197° 42′, and Earnshaw's, 196° 37½'. The variation of the compass was 13° 46′, eastwardly.

Since our leaving the islands, I observed a very extraordinary rise and fall of the mercury in the barometer. Early in the morning it would be three and four tenths of an inch higher than at noon; its mean height at that time of the day being 30. 38, varying only from 30. 43, to 30. 34; whereas in the morning it would stand at 30. 70; it did not regularly descend, but fluctuated until it settled as above stated. This day however it gradually fell from 30. 40, its point at the preceding noon, to

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30. 27, without any fluctuation whatever. As there was no sensible alteration in the state of the atmosphere, nor any visible indication of a change in the weather, I was at a loss to account for this deviation; since the instrument did not appear to have received any injury.

Sunday 7.

Some few small albatrosses and petrels had lately been seen about the ship; and in the morning of the 7th the wind shifted suddenly to the north-west, attended with squalls and rain, which produced a considerable alteration in our climate. The thermometer now fell from 73 at noon in the former day, to 59 this day at twelve o'clock.

Our pork and other refreshments, procured at the Sandwich islands, being all expended, the regular provisions were now served, with portable soup five times a week in the peas for dinner, and three times a week in the wheat for breakfast, with a due proportion of four krout. On our former passage to the northward, I had been less prodigal of these healthy articles, under the fear that some accident had befallen the expected store ship; but, as our stock was now replenished, I ordered a double quantity to be regularly served, that we might preserve the excellent state of health we had all acquired by the refreshments we had procured in New Albion, and at the Sandwich islands. The general state of health on board both vessels, on our return to the southward last autumn, clearly convinced me, that too much nourishing and wholesome food cannot be given to people employed on such arduous services, as those in which we were engaged.

Monday 8.

Saturday 13.

A small flock of curlews, or some such coasting birds, with several others of the petrel tribe, were about the ship; on the 8th we also saw several whales, and passed through a large quantity of the medusa villilia. Our observed latitude was 33° 4′, longitude by Kendall's chronometer, 201° 4¾'; by Arnold's No. 14, 200° 37½'; Arnold's No. 176, 201° 26′; and Earnshaw's, 200° 18′. The wind, though generally moderate, was very variable, as well in force as in direction. The weather gloomy, with some rain; the air sharp and unpleasant. We however made a tolerably good progress, and on the 13th at noon had reached the latitude of 35° 27′; longitude by Kendall's chronometer, 209° 22½'; Arnold's No. 14, 208° 57′; Arnold's No. 176, 210° 1′; and Earnshaw's, 208° 45¼'; in this situation we were

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visited by some flocks of coasting birds, with albatrosses, and some variety of the petrel tribe. The sea was covered with abundance of the medusa villilia, but we had not lately seen many whales. In the course of the night we passed over a part of that space, where Mr. Meares states that Mr. Douglas of the Iphigenia, in two different passages, found the compass so affected, by flying about four or five points in a moment, as to make it impossible to steer the ship by it. We however met with no phæomenon of that nature, either now, or at any former period of our voyage, unless when the violence of the wind and sea produced such an agitation, as to render it utterly impossible that any machine of that fort could remain steady.

Tuesday 16.

The wind remaining in the north-west quarter, and the sky obscured in one continual dense haze, or dark heavy gloom, occasioned the weather to be damp, chilly, and unpleasant. The thermometer fluctuated between 52 and 55; the barometer, though not altogether regular, was more uniform than it had lately been, being on an average about 30. 30. On winding up Earnshaw's watch, it stopped; but on applying a little gentle horizontal motion it went again, after stopping about two minutes and a half; I was much concerned at this unexpected circumstance, having hitherto found this excellent piece of workmanship to be highly intitled to our praise.

Though we were now in a much more western situation, we were advanced as far to the north as we were on the 16th of april, 1792; and having no object to lead us to the coast between this parallel and our appointed rendezvous at Nootka, then lying from us N. 47 E. at the distance of 312 leagues, we had reason to expect we should be at that port as soon as could be necessary for resuming the examination of the continent to the northward from Fitzhugh's found, whence we had taken our departure in the month of last august. The observed latitude was 38° 58′, longitude according to Kendall's chronometer, 217° 40½', Arnold's No. 14, 217° 19½', Arnold's No. 176, 218° 31½'. Many of the medusa villilia were still about the ship; a heavy swell rolled from the north-westward; some few oceanic birds were seen, but not any whales.

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Thursday 18.

After the weather had been calm, or nearly so, during the greater part of the 17th and 18th, the wind fixed in the northern board, and varied little between N.N.E. and N. by W. This obliged us to stand to the eastward, and I was not without hope, that in case it should continue so until we made the coast of New Albion, we should there have more favorable opportunities of advancing to the northward. This opinion was founded on the experience we derived the last spring, when close in with its shores.

Monday 22.

A continuation of the same gloomy unpleasant weather still attended us, with an increase of wind that sometimes obliged us to take in the third reefs in our topsails. The cross-jack yard having been carried away, it was replaced on monday by a spare maintop-sail yard. At this time we were rendered very uncomfortable by the increasing from two or three inches to upwards of a foot per hour of a leak that had been discovered a few days after we had left the Sandwich islands, and had been suspected to have arisen from some defect in the bows; the water in this quantity had not only found its way into the well, but had also filled the coal hole up to the deck, which could scarcely be kept under by constant baling, and from thence had reached the magazine, where I was apprehensive some of the powder might receive material damage. At noon our observed latitude was 38° 54′; longitude by Kendall's chronometer, 228° 21′; Arnold's No. 14, 228° 8′; and No. 176, 229° 25′.

Tuesday 23.

Friday 26.

The jib-boom and foretop-gallant-mast were the next morning carried away, and at day-light the foretop-mast cross-tree was also found broken; these were immediately replaced; and the same unfavorable winds and unpleasant weather still continued; which however brought us, on the evening of the 26th, within sight of cape Mendocino, bearing by compass N. E. by N. 7 or 8 leagues distant. The leak in the ship's bows, though daily increasing when the wind blew strong, we had every reason to believe was above water, as in light winds no ill effects were produced from it, and therefore no material consequences were apprehended.

It may not be improper to notice, that we found the medusa villilia, though not without some intervals of clear spaces, existing on the surface of the ocean from the place where they were first observed on the 8th of this month, to within about 40 leagues of our then situation. At

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Saturday 27.

eight in the evening we tacked and stood off the land. The wind at N.W. by N. increased very much; bur. as the sea was smooth, I was flattered with the hope of making some progress by turning to windward along the shore, and tacking occasionally as advantages were presented. The observed latitude at noon the next day was 39° 54′, so that we had gained only 4 leagues to the northward in twenty-four hours.

The land was not in sight, nor could we obtain any observations for the chronometers. On winding them up, it appeared that Earnshaw's had intirely stopped about eight hours after it was wound up the preceding day. I repeated my efforts to put it again in motion, but did not succeed; and as its cases were secured by a screw, to which there was no corresponding lever in the box that contained it, I concluded that in the event of any accident, it was Mr. Earnshaw's wish that no attempt should be made to remedy it; it was therefore left for the examination and repair of its ingenious maker. I had for some time suspected some thing was wrong in this excellent little watch. On its first coming on board it beat much louder than any of the others, and so continued until we quitted the Sandwich islands, when it gradually decreased in its tone until it became weaker than any of them; from whence I was led to conjecture, that probably too much oil had been originally applied, which was now congealed, and clogged the works.

Monday 29.

We continued to ply with adverse winds to little effect. On the 29th we had only reached the latitude of 40° 16′. The weather was serene and pleasant, and although the thermometer stood at 55°, the air was sharp. The promontories of cape Mendocino, bore by compass at four in the afternoon from east to N. 25 E.; this, agreeably to the situation assigned to those points on our former visits, placed the ship in latitude 40° 22′, and in longitude 235° 42′. Our observations placed the ship at this time in latitude 40° 21½', longitude by Kendall's chronometer, 234° 20′ 45″, Arnold's No. 14, 234° 14′ 45″, and by his No. 176, 236° 4′; hence, according to their rates as settled at Karakakooa, Kendall's appeared to be 1° 21′ 15″, and Arnold's No. 14, to be 1° 27′ 15″, to the westward of the truth; and No. 176, 22′ to the eastward of the truth. The variation of the compass was 16° 20′, eastwardly. Such had been

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the very gloomy and unpleasant weather during the whole of this passage as to preclude our making any lunar observations, that might have tended either to correct, or substantiate the errors of the chronometers. In the evening the sky was again overcast, the weather unpleasant, and the wind mostly at N.N.W. attended by some fogs, continued the two following days.

Thursday 2.

On the 2d of may in the morning the weather was for some time calm, and there were other indications of an alteration in the wind; though the heavy swell that continued from the northward, and the sharpness of the air, were unfavorable to such wishes. At noon we had reached the latitude only of 41° 2′. The land was in sight, but was so covered with haze, that its parts could not be distinctly discerned. The northerly wind soon returned: with this we stood for the land, and fetched it a few miles to the southward of Rocky point; just at the spot discovered by the Spaniards in Senr. Quadra's expedition to this coast in the year 1775, which they named Porto de la Trinidad. According to the description of this place in the Annual Register for the year 1781; translated from the journal of Don Francisco Maurelli, who was one of the pilots on that expedition, and given to the public by the hon. Daines Barrington; it appeared to be an eligible place for shipping; but as we had passed it before unnoticed as a port, I was desirous of being better acquainted with it on the present occasion. Our tardy passage had greatly exhausted our wood and water, which was a further inducement for stopping, especially as there was not the most distant prospect of any favorable alteration in the wind.

About six in the evening we anchored in 8 fathoms water, dark sandy bottom, in Porto de la Trinidad. Our station here was in a small open bay or cove; very much exposed, and bounded by detached rocks lying at a little distance from the shore. When moored, the bearings from the ship were, a high, steep, rounding, rocky head land, projecting a small distance from the general line of the shore into the ocean, forming by that means the bay. This was the northernmost land in sight, and bore by compass N. 75 W., distant about three quarters of a mile; a high round barren rock, made white by the dung of sea fowl, between which and

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the above head land we had entered the bay; S. 50 W. at the like distance; the high distant land of cape Mendocino, the southernmost land in sight, south; a rugged rocky point forming the south-east point of the bay, S. 62 E. distant one mile and a half; and the nearest shore north-east, about half a mile from us.

We had not been long anchored before we were visited by two of the natives in a canoe; they approached us with confidence, and seemed to be friendly disposed. In exchange for a few arrows, and other trivial articles, they received some iron; with this they returned highly pleased to the shore; and after dark, another party followed their example. These came with a large fire in their canoe; two of them ventured on board, but could not be tempted to descend below the deck, by any presents which were offered to them for that purpose; these, however, consisted of articles for the possession of which they appeared to manifest so earnest a desire, that they easily obtained them without violence to their inclinations, and departed, seemingly much satisfied with their visit.

Friday 3.

The next morning I went on shore with a guard of marines, and a working party, in search of wood and water; these were found conveniently situated a little to the southward of a small Indian village. The landing was tolerably good, being within several rocks, which lie a little way from the shore, and greatly protect the beach from the violence of the surf, caused by the north-west swell, that breaks with great force on all parts of this coast.

Most of the inhabitants of the village were absent in their canoes, trading alongside the ship, leaving a few old women only to attend us; these, after setting our people to work, I accompanied to their habitations, which consisted of five houses built of plank, rudely wrought like those of Nootka, neither wind nor water tight; but not exactly in that fashion; every one of these houses being detached at a small distance from each other, and in no regular order; nor are their roofs horizontal like those at Nootka, but rise with a small degree of elevation to a ridge in the middle, and of course are better calculated for carrying off the rain. The upright boards forming the sides and ends of the house are not joined close enough to exclude the weather, the vacancies are filled up with fern leaves and small

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branches of pine trees. The entrance is a round hole in one corner of the house close to the ground, where with difficulty a grown person can find admittance; I found this so unpleasant in two instances, that I declined satisfying my curiosity any further than could be done by removing the materials that filled up the interstices. Four of these houses seemed to have been recently built, and were on a level with the ground. These appeared to be calculated for two families of six or seven persons each; the other, which was smaller and nearly half underground, I supposed to be the residence of one family, making the village according to this estimate to contain about sixty persons. To the matrons of these rude habitations, I distributed some nails, beads, and other trivial matters, who in return, insisted on my accepting some muscles of a very large size, which they candidly acknowledged were the only things they had to offer. After re-visiting our party at work, who, were proceeding with much dispatch, I left them under the care of Mr. Swaine and returned on board, where I found our few Indian visitors trading in a very honest and civil manner. Their merchandize consisted of bows, arrows, some very inferior sea otter skins, with a scanty supply of sardinias, small herrings, and some flat fish. Their numbers during the forenoon seemed to multiply from all quarters, particularly from the southward, from whence they arrived both by land and in their canoes. These people seemed to have assembled in consequence of signals that had been made the preceding evening, soon after die last party returned to the shore. A fire had been then made, and was answered by another to the southward on a high rock in the bay; the same signal was repeated in the morning, and again answered to the southward.

Whilst we were thus engaged in supplying our wants, Mr. Whidbey was employed in founding and taking a sketch of the bay.

Saturday 4.

The weather was cloudy and rainy during a few hours in the middle of the day, and contrary to expectation the night brought with it no land wind; but as the rest of the twenty-four hours was perfectly calm, we had hopes that a favorable change was at hand. We were however again disappointed, as towards noon on the 4th, the wind returned to us from its former quarter.

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Few of the natives visited the ship, though the party on shore had the company of more than a hundred. The number of the inhabitants belonging to the village seemed to be about sixty; the others, who came from the southward, were all armed with bows and arrows. These they at first kept in constant readiness for action, and would not dispose of them, nor even allow of their being examined by our people. They seated themselves together, at a distance from our nearer neighbours, which indicated them to be under a different authority; at length however they became more docile and familiar, and offered for sale some of their bows, arrows, and sea otter skins. The bow and arrow were the only weapon these people appeared to possess. Their arrows were made very neatly, pointed with bone, agate, or common flint; we saw neither copper nor iron appropriated to that purpose; and they had knives also made of the same materials.

Sunday 5.

In the afternoon we had taken on board about twenty-two tons of water, and as much wood as we thought requisite. With a light northerly breeze we unmoored, but in weighing our small bower, the cable, that was afterwards found to be excessively rotten, broke near the clench of the anchor; this obliged us to let go the best bower, until we should recover the other; and by the time this service was performed it was again calm, and we were under the necessity of remaining in this uncomfortable exposed situation another night, and until eight o'clock the next morning; when, although the same adverse wind still prevailed from the N.W. by N., we stood to sea, without the least regret at quitting a station that I considered as a very unprotected and unsafe roadstead for shipping.

How far the place we had quitted is deserving the denomination of a port, I shall not take upon me exactly to determine; but in the language of mariners it can in no respect be considered as a safe retreat for ships; not even the station occupied by the Spaniards, which I conceived to be close up in the N. N. W. part of the bay, between the main and a detached rock lying from the head land, that forms the north-west point of the bay, N. 72 E. about half a mile distant. There, two or three vessels moored head and stern may lie in 6 and 7 fathoms water, sandy bottom.

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The point above-mentioned will then bear by compass S.W.; and the rocks lying off the south-east point of the bay, S. 50 E. Between these points of the compass, it is still exposed to the whole fury and violence of those winds, which, on our return to the southward the preceding autumn, blew incessantly in storms; and when we approached the shores, were always observed to take the direction of the particular part of the coast we were near. Under these circumstances, even that anchorage, though the most sheltered one the place affords, will be found to be greatly exposed to the violence of these southern blasts, which not only prevail during the most part of the winter seasons, but continued to blow very hard in the course of the preceding summer. Should a vessel part cables, or be driven from this anchorage, she must instantly be thrown on the rocks that lie close under her stern, where little else than inevitable destruction is to be expected. The points of Trinidad bay lie from each other S. 52 E. and N. 52 W. about 2 miles asunder. From this line of direction, the rocks that line the shore are no where more than half a mile distant. The round barren rocky islet lies, from the north-west point of the bay, S. by W., distant three quarters of a mile; this is steep to, and has 8 or 9 fathoms water all round it, and admits of a clear channel from 9 to 6 fathoms deep, close to the above point; from thence to Rocky point, the shores of the coast are bounded by innumerable rocky islets, and several sunken rocks lying a little without those that appear above water; but I know of no danger but what is sufficiently conspicuous. The foundings of the bay are regular from 9 to 5 fathoms, the bottom clear and sandy; but as our anchors were weighed with great ease, and came up quite clean, we had reason to consider it to be not very good holding ground.

The latitude of the ship's station when at anchor, observed on two days by different persons and different sextants, was, by the mean result of five meridional altitudes of the sun, 41° 3′; this is 4′ to the south of the latitude assigned by Maurelli to the port of Trinidad, and the same distance south of the situation I had in my former visits given to this nook; not regarding it as deserving either the name of a bay, or a cove. The latter position was however calculated, after eight hours run, by


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the log, subsequent to the observation for the latitude at noon. But as I consider the observations made upon the spot, to be infinitely lets liable to error, I have adopted those so obtained; and as Rocky point lies only five miles to the north of our anchorage, I have been induced to correct its latitude in my chart from 41° 13′, to 41° 8′, but not having obtained any authority for altering, or correcting the longitude of the coast, it will remain the same as determined on our last visit; which places Trinidad bay in longitude 236° 6′, from whence it will appear that our chronometers had acquired an error, similar to that in our former run from the Sandwich islands to this coast. By five sets of altitudes of the sun, taken on different days for this purpose, though not agreeing remarkably well, the mean result was fully sufficient to shew, that according to the rate as settled at Owhyhee, the longitude by Kendall's chronometer was 234° 43′; by Arnold's No. 14, 234° 39′; and by his No. 176, 236° 37′. The cloudy weather having precluded any observations being made for ascertaining the variation, I have considered it to remain as we found it in this neighbourhood the preceding year; that is 16° eastwardly. The tides appeared to rise and fall about five feet, but they were so very irregular, that no positive information could be gained of their motion. The first morning that I went on shore it was nearly low water, about six o'clock; and when the working party landed the next, morning about five o'clock, the tide was higher than it had been the whole of the preceding day. This was owing probably to the very heavy north-west swell that rolled into the bay; and as no stream nor current was observed, it would appear that the tides had but little influence on this part of the coast. Further nautical information may be derived on reference to the sketch of the place.

In an excursion made by Mr. Menzies to the hill composing the projecting head land, that forms the north-west side of the bay, he found, agreeably with Senr. Maurelli's description, the cross which the Spaniards had erected on their taking possession of the port; and though it was in a certain state of decay, it admitted of his copying the following inscription:


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The identity of porto de la Trinidada therefore cannot be doubted; and this affords me an opportunity of remarking, that as our attention whilst employed in exploring these shores, had been constantly directed to the discovery of openings in the coast, and secure retreats for shipping, it is by no means improbable that very many other such ports as that of Trinidada may be found to exist, and intirely to have eluded the vigilance of our examination.

We had little opportunity of becoming acquainted with the country, as our travels were confined to the vicinity of the water side. About the out-skirts of the woods the soil, though somewhat sandy, appeared to be a tolerably good mould lying on a stratum of clay, frequently interrupted by protruding rocks. The grounds bordering on the sea-shore were interspersed with several rocky patches of different extent; these did not produce any trees, but were covered with fern, grass, and other herbage. Beyond this margin the woods formed one uninterrupted wilderness to the summit of the mountains, producing a variety of stately pine trees; amongst these was observed, for the first time in the course of the voyage, the black spruce, which with the maple, alder, yew, and a variety of shrubs and plants, common to the southern parts of New Georgia, seemed principally to compose the forest. Of the land animals we could form no opinion but from their skins, worn as garments by the inhabitants; these seemed to be like those found in the more northern part of the continent. And as to the productions of the sea, we knew no more of them than what have already been enumerated. Our stay was too short to enable us to obtain any other knowledge of the inhabitants than their external character. Their persons were in general but indifferently, though stoutly made, of a lower stature than any tribe of Indians we had before seen. They wore their hair chiefly long, kept very clean, neatly combed and tied; but the paint they use for ornament, disfigures their persons, and renders their skins infinitely less clean than those of the Indians who visited us the former year, to the southward of cape Orford; to whom in most respects these bear a very strong resemblance, as well in their persons, as in their friendly and courteous behaviour. Their canoes also were of the same sin-

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gular construction, observed only among these people, and a few of those who visited us off cape Orford, and at Restoration point. Like the other tribes on this side of America, they sang songs on approaching the ship, by no means unpleasant to the ear. Their clothing was chiefly made of the skins of land animals, with a few indifferent small skins of the sea otter. All these they readily disposed of for iron, which was in their estimation the most valuable commodity we had to offer. The men seemed very careless and indifferent in their dress; their garment was thrown loosely over them, and was little calculated either for warmth or decency; for the former, they provided whilst afloat, by burning a large fire in. their canoes; of the latter they were completely regardless. The women attended more particularly to these points; some were covered from head to foot with a garment of thin tanned hides; others with a similar though less robe of the like materials; under this they wore an apron, or rather petticoat, made of warmer skins not tanned of the smaller animals, reaching from the waist below the knees.

Amongst these people, as with the generality of Indians I had met with, some mutilation, or disfiguring of their persons, is practised, either as being ornamental, or of religious institution, or possibly to answer some purpose of which we remain ignorant. At Trinidad the custom was particularly singular, and must be attended with much pain in the first instance, and great inconvenience ever after. All the teeth of both sexes were, by some process, ground uniformly down, horizontally, to the gums; the women especially, carrying the fashion to an extreme, had their teeth reduced even below this level; and ornamented their lower lip with three perpendicular columns of punctuation, one from each corner of the mouth, and one in the middle, occupying three fifths of the lip and chin. Had it not been for these frightful customs, I was informed that amongst those who visited our party on shore the last day, there were, amongst the younger females, some who might have been considered as having pretensions to beauty. The men had also some punctuations about them, and scars on their arms and bodies, from accident, or by design, like the people who had visited us

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to the southward of cape Orford; but as their language was wholly unintelligible to us, without the least affinity to the more northern dialects, our curiosity could only be indulged in those few respects that inspection gratified.

At noon the coast was in sight, extending from s. 10 E. to N. 20 E.; Rocky point bore by compass N. 40 E., and the bay of Trinidad N. 62 E.; our observed latitude 41° 1′. The adverse wind, having continued since we had made the land, gave us hopes that, by keeping near the shore, we might now and then acquire a favorable breeze; in these conjectures however we were totally mistaken, having anchored three successive nights within half a mile of the coast, and found not the least advantage from land winds during the night. This determined me to stand out into the ocean, hoping the winds there would be more suitable to our northern destination.

In the afternoon, a range of very high inland mountains were observed, in a parallel direction to the coast, behind Rocky point; rearing their summits above the mountains that compose that shore, and which concealed them on our former passage, when we were nearer in with the land. As we proceeded to the westward the wind gradually came to about N.N.E., the weather gloomy and unpleasant, attended with sleet and rain; the thermometer varying from 51° to 53°. The leak in the bows increased so much, as to keep us constantly pumping and baling.

Friday 10.

Tuesday 14.

On the 10th we had reached the latitude of 45°, longitude 226°. The wind at N.N.E. was moderate, the sea smooth; and having at length discovered the leak to have been occasioned by the caulking being washed out of the rabbitting of the stem that assisted in securing the wooden ends of the starboard side, we brought to, to apply some temporary remedy; which being accomplished, and finding the winds no less adverse to our proceeding, although we were upwards of 140 leagues from the land, we again directed our course to the eastward, with a continuation of nearly the same unpleasant winds and weather, until the 14th, in latitude 45° 5′; and, what I considered to be the true longitude, 231°. After a calm during the last twenty-four hours, we

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had a light air from the southward, attended by a cloudy sky, and a much milder atmosphere. The thermometer rose to 6o°, the barometer that had lately acquired its usual regularity stood at 29° 95′, and the variation of the compass was 16° 42′, eastwardly.

Wednes. 15.

Friday 17.

Saturday 18.

The wind continued in the southern quarter, blowing light airs, or gentle breezes; this day the atmosphere assumed a degree of serenity, and with the mildness of the air indicated the approach of a summer season; but in the evening the sky was again overcast; and in the night we had much rain, with a heavy swell from the south-west, which was also attended by very variable weather until the 17th, in latitude 47° 53′, longitude 233° 17′. At this time the wind became fixed in the north-west, and blowing a moderate breeze we stood with it to the N. N. E., and at day-light on the following morning, saw the coast of the island of Quadra and Vancouver, bearing by compass from N.W. to E.N.E.; the nearest shore N.N.E. about 4 or 5 leagues distant. We stood for the land until seven o'clock, when being within a league of ponta de Ferron, we tacked. The east point of the entrance of Nitinat bore by compass N.80 E. and the east point of Clayoquot, N. 51 W.; the air was very sharp, and the atmosphere being clear and serene, afforded a tolerable view of the country that composes this part of the island.

On the sea shore the land may be considered rather as low, forming alternately rocky cliffs, and sandy beaches, with many detached rocks lying at a little distance from the shore, that seemed to be well wooded with pine trees. The surface of this low country is very uneven, and at a small distance from the sea meets a compact body of rugged dreary mountains; whose summits were covered with snow, which extended on many, though not on all of them, a considerable way down, and impressed us with no great opinion of their fertility.

About noon we again stood in shore; the coast then bore by compass from N.W. to E. by N., ponta de Ferron bore N. 52 E., and the east point of Clayoquot, N. 10 W. The latitude of these points, as laid down from Spanish authority, agreed very well with our observations of 48°

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48′; but differed about 5′ to the eastward of the longitude shewn by the nearest of our chronometers. This was Mr. Arnold's No. 176, allowing the assigned correction when off cape Mendocino and in Trinidad bay.

Sunday 19.

In the evening we fetched well up along shore of the isle de Ferron; off which, beside many small islands, there are several sunken rocks lying about a mile within them, where the surf broke with great violence. The wind continuing in the western quarter, we stood off shore during the night, and at noon the next day the observed latitude was 49° 7′; longitude by Kendall's chronometer, allowing the above rate, 233° 8′; Arnold's No. 14, 233° 23′; and by No. 176, 233° 41′. At this time point Breakers just shewing itself above the horizon, bore by compass N. 32 W., and according to its position ascertained on our former visit, it placed the ship in longitude 233° 39′. The nearest shore, which I took to be point St. Rafael of the Spaniards, N. by E. 4 or 5 leagues distant. The easternmost land in sight, point de Ferron, E. ½ N. and the western extreme N.W. With a moderate breeze from the west we stood for the land, and fetched about 5 miles to the south-eastward of point Breakers, into the entrance of an opening that had the appearance of admitting us a considerable way up, though in the Spanish chart this inlet is not noticed; the first opening to the eastward of point Breakers being at point de Rafael, 4 leagues from this point.

About six in the evening we suddenly reached foundings, at the depth of 9 fathoms, hard bottom; the further examination being no object, of my present pursuit, after heaving a few casts with the lead without finding any alteration, we tacked. In this situation, a point which lies about s 33 E., two miles and a half from point Breakers, being the westernmost land then in sight, bore by compass N. 75 W., about two miles and a half from us; a point, off which lie some rocks, forming the nearest shore on the western side, N.N.W., one mile and a half; a point on the eastern side formed by a sandy beach, N. N. E., distant about a league; the upper part of the inlet to the northward, where it seemed to take a winding direction towards the north-east, about 4 or 5 miles from us, and point de Ferron, S. 75 E. In this neighbourhood there is a much

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Monday 20.

greater extent of low country than about Nootka or Clayoquot. It produced forest trees of many forts and of considerable size; and on examination there might probably be found a more eligible situation for an establishment, than at either of those places. The wind being still adverse to our proceeding northward, we stood to the south-west during the night. The next day at noon our observed latitude was 48° 18′; the westernmost land in fight bore by compass N. 50 W.; Woody point, N. 42 W.; point Breakers, N. 27 E. being the nearest shore, at the distance of about 3 leagues; the west point of the opening we were in the preceding night, N. 41 E.; and point de Ferron, S. 84 E. At this time a schooner was seen to windward. The air was very keen, the thermometer being at 52°, and the clearness of the atmosphere gave us an opportunity of beholding the rugged craggy mountains that compose this country, whose summits were encumbered with infinitely more snow than had been seen on any of my former visits to these shores.

The wind just permitted us to fetch Nootka. About four in the afternoon we saw another sail to windward, apparently a brig; and as there was a chance of its being the Chatham, the private signal was made, but was not acknowledged. At five o'clock we reached Friendly cove, and anchored in 8 fathoms water. An officer was immediately dispatched on shore, to acquaint Senr. Fidalgo of our arrival, and that I would salute the fort, if he would make an equal return; this was accordingly done with eleven guns.

A Spanish officer, who visited us prior to our anchoring, delivered me a letter, journal, and other papers, left by Mr. Puget. By these documents I became informed, that the Chatham had arrived in this port on the 15th of april, and had departed thence on the 18th of may, agreeably to the instructions I had given Mr. Puget, in the event of my not arriving here by about the middle of may; in order that no time might be lost in prosecuting the survey of this coast.

His examination of the north side of Morotoi, had determined that it did not afford any safe or convenient anchorage for shipping, and that it presented a similar dreary, and barren aspect, to that on the south side

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of the island. Few occurrences had taken place on board the Chatham, between the Sandwich islands and Nootka, worthy particular notice, excepting that the winds had been very favorable, contrary to those which we had contended with; that she arrived within sight of the coast of this island on the 7th of april, when the high land over Woody point was seen bearing by compass N. E. by N.; and that Mr. Puget had directed his course from thence towards Nootka. But meeting a strong south-east gale on the 9th, attended by all the circumstances that indicate an approaching storm, he put into Porto Buena Esperanza, to wait more favorable weather; and although several attempts were made to gain Nootka from that port, none succeeded until the 14th, when it was accomplished with the expence of a bower anchor, owing to the breaking of the cable on the sea coast.

Mr. Puget had on his arrival at Nootka lightened the Chatham, and laid her on shore on the beach; and found that most part of her false keel had been knocked off, the lower part of the gripe considerably damaged, and most of the copper rubbed off from the starboard bilge. The highest of the spring tides being insufficient on its falling to answer all purposes, the Chatham was obliged to be hove down, both sides had consequently been examined, and she had undergone as thorough a repair as circumstances would admit, and which had become essentially necessary. In the execution of this business Mr. Puget stated, that His Majesty's service had been greatly forwarded and assisted by the polite attention of Senr. Fidalgo, who afforded Mr. Puget every assistance in his power. This was of material importance at this juncture, as several of the Chatham's people were indisposed with large tumours, that prevented their attending to any duty. These complaints however, though affecting most of the crew, were not of long duration. By the 15th of may the Chatham was in readiness to proceed to sea, but adverse winds prevented her so doing until the 18th, when she quitted Nootka.

The vessel we had seen in the offing anchored here soon after us, and proved to be His Catholic Majesty's snow St. Carlos, from St. Blas, commanded by Senr. Don Ramon Saavedra, ensign in the Spanish navy.

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Tuesday 21.

The next day we were employed in various necessary services; and about noon I was favored with the company of Senr. Fidalgo, who received from us the usual marks of ceremony and respect. This gentleman informed me, that the officer commanding the St. Carlos was to supersede him in the government of this port, and that he should immediately return to St. Blas; and offered to take charge of, and forward any dispatches, I might wish to send through that channel to Europe. This opportunity I gladly embraced, and intrusted to his care a letter for the Lords of the Admiralty, containing a brief abstract of our transactions since the commencement of the year 1793. As also a reply to some very friendly and polite letters I had received by the St. Carlos, from his excellency the count de Revilla Gigedo, the vice-roy of New Spain, residing at Mexico; and from Senr. Quadra, at St. Blas; informing me of the welfare of Mr. Broughton, and the means that each of these gentlemen had used to render his arrival in Europe as speedy as possible.

In one of his excellency's letters, I received the most flattering assurances of every support and assistance that the kingdoms of New Spain were capable of bestowing. These were extremely acceptable, as we had still a considerable extent of the coast of New Albion to examine; and we were made very happy by learning, that the friendly and hospitable treatment we had already received from the Spaniards, was likely to be thus continued.

The very unpleasant weather that attended us soon after our last departure hence, led me to inquire of Senr. Fidalgo, how the winter had passed at Nootka. From whom I understood, that their situation here had been very irksome, having been almost constantly confined to the house by incessant rain; that on the 17th of february a very severe shock of an earthquake had been felt, and on the 1st of april a most violent storm from the south-east.

Notwithstanding the badness of the season, he had found means to erect a small fort on Hog island, that mounted eleven nine pounders, and added greatly to the respectability of the establishment. He very justly considered employment as essentially necessary to the preservation of his people's health, which began to decline towards the spring,


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and a man and a boy of puny constitutions had fallen victims to scorbutic disorders; the rest had for some time past been perfectly recovered, owing principally to the wild vegetables procured from the woods.

In the confidence that our arrival here must have been before the end of april, I had intended to have made the necessary observations for ascertaining the rate and error of our chronometers at this place, whilst the Chatham should undergo the repair she so evidently required. But in consequence of our long and tedious passage from the Sandwich islands, I was now determined to proceed immediately to the northward, in order to join the Chatham, and whilst our boats should be employed in examining those regions we had left unexplored the former year, to make the necessary observations for ascertaining the rate of the chronometers, and for carrying into execution our future investigations.

On our arrival here we had been visited by Maquinna, Clewpenaloo, Annapee, and other chiefs. When we were last here I had understood, that Maquinna's eldest child, being a daughter named Ahpienis, had in the course of the last summer been proclaimed as the successor to the dominions and authority of Maquinna after his death; and had about that time been betrothed to the eldest son of Wicananish, the chief of a very considerable district in the neighbourhood of Clayoquot and Nittinat.

Thursday 23.

This chief with his son, attended by a considerable retinue, came in form to Maquinna's residence, now situated without the found on the sea shore, about a league to the westward of this cove; where, after presenting an assortment of certain valuable articles, he had demanded Maquinna's daughter; the considerations on this dower caused great consultation and many debates. At some of these a few of the officers of the Discovery were present, who understood, that the compliment was deemed inadequate to the occasion; but on the forenoon of the 23d, I was informed, that matters between the two fathers were finally adjusted to the satisfaction of both parties, and that Wicananish, with his suite, had returned to Clayoquot; but that Ahpienis was still to reside some time longer at Nootka. Her youth, most likely, as she did not then exceed ten or twelve years of age, was the reason for postponing the nuptials.

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Wicananish did not favor us with his company, but sent his brother Tahtoochseeatticus, to congratulate us on our arrival. This chief came with some little apprehension about the manner in which he would be received, in consequence of the dispute with Mr. Brown of the Butterworth; his fears were however soon dispelled, on receiving some copper and blue cloth, which were esteemed presents suitable to his rank and condition. By him I also sent similar presents to Wicananish; which he promised faithfully to deliver, and added, that his brother would no longer entertain any doubts of our sincerity, and would be made extremely happy by the proofs I had transmitted of my friendship and good wishes.

Having a light breeze at S. S. W. though it was still attended with hazy, rainy, unpleasant weather, we weighed, worked out of the found, and saluted the fort as on our arrival.

During our short stay in Friendly cove, we were not so fortunate as to procure any observations for ascertaining the rate of our chronometers; we had however taken four sets of the sun's altitude on the 20th, as we sailed into the port. These shewed the longitude of Nootka, agreeably to their rates of gaining as ascertained at Karakakooa bay, to be, by Kendall's chronometer, 231° 42′; by Arnold's No. 14, 231° 52′ 22″; and by his No. 176, 234° 10′ 45″; hence Kendall's erred, according to our settlement of this place the preceding year, 1° 49′ 30″ to the westward; Arnold's No. 14, 1° 36′ 8″ to the westward also; and Arnold's No. 176, 39′ 14″, eastwardly. Considering this error in Kendall's chronometer to have taken place since our departure from Whymea bay, in Attowai, where it had agreed within two miles of all our former calculations, it will be found to have been gaining since that time, instead of 8″ 52″′, as established at Karakakooa bay, 16″ 55″′ per day, and to be fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 20th of may, at noon, 2h 1′ 2″. The other two instruments erred very materially between Karakakooa and Whymea, the same way that their errors were now found to be; therefore I have supposed those errors to have commenced on our departure from Karakakooa bay, and by so doing, Arnold's No. 14 will be found to be gaining at the rate of 20″ 32″′ per day, and fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 20th of may, at noon, 1h 56′ 26″; and No.

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176, to be gaining 41″ 36″′ per day, and fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 20th of may, at noon, 4h 36′ 55″; instead of the rates settled on shore at the observatory on Owhyhee. As this estimated corrected rate was found to agree much nearer with the longitude of Trinidad bay, according to its position as determined by us the preceding year, I shall continue to allow the above rate and error, until I shall have authority sufficient to alter my opinion of its correctness.

Friday 24.

Saturday 25.

As we proceeded towards the ocean the wind gradually veered to the south-east, with which we steered along the coast to the north-westward, passing the entrance of Buena Esperanza, which had a very different appearance to us, from that exhibited in the Spanish chart. The same was noticed by Mr. Puget; but we had no opportunity of fixing more than its exterior points, nor was any correction made in consequence of the Chatham's visit. At eight in the evening we were within about 3 leagues of Woody point, bearing by compass N. 66 W. As the general appearance indicated very unpleasant weather, and as I was desirous of obtaining, if possible, a more competent knowledge of the space between cape Scott and the entrance into Fitzhugh's found, than we were able to obtain by our inconclusive observations on our former visit; the third reefs were taken in the topsails, and we hauled to the wind off shore, until the weather should be more favorable to this inquiry. During the night the gale increased with hard squalls and a heavy rain. The topsails were close reefed, and the topgallant-yards got down. At eight the next morning we again stood in for the land, and at eleven it was seen at no great distance; but we were not able to direct our course along shore until the afternoon. About eight the following morning we were abreast of cape Scott, which terminates in a low hummock, joined to the main land by a narrow isthmus, and forms, with the islands that lie from it N. 80 W. a clear navigable channel about 3½ miles wide. There are a few breakers at a small distance from the cape, in a direction from it S. 27 E. about 7 miles. About 7 miles to the south-eastward of this cape on the exterior coast, we passed an opening with two small islets lying off its north point of entrance. This appeared clear, and promised to afford very good shelter. From cape Scott, forming the

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west point of the island of Quadra and Vancouver; the coast on the interior side takes a direction N. 62 E. about 11 miles to the west point of entrance between that island, and those of Galiano and Valdes.

The weather becoming serene and pleasant in the forenoon, afforded me an opportunity of correcting in some measure our former erroneous delineation of the space between cape Scott, and the southern entrance into Fitzhugh's found, comprehending the positions of the several islands, islets, rocks, and breakers, in the entrance of, and about Queen Charlotte's found. On comparing this view with our former chart, it appeared, that land had been placed where in reality it had no existence, and vice versa, owing to the deceptions of the soggy weather that prevailed whilst we were in this neighbourhood in august, 1792. It is therefore requisite to repeat, that the coast, islands, islets, rocks, &c. &c. between Deep-water bluff and Smith's inlet, both on the continental, and opposite side of Queen Charlotte's found; excepting the western extremities, that on this occasion were in some degree corrected; are to be considered as likely to have been erroneously described, as well in respect to their positive, as relative positions; the former occasioned by our not being able to procure any celestial observations; the latter by the thick foggy weather, that continually produced deceptions, and left us no rule on our former visit, for estimating the distance between one indistinct object and another.

As I would by all means wish to guard against too great reliance being placed on this particular part of our survey, I must beg leave to slate, that I consider myself answerable only for the certainty of the connection of the continental shores, between the stations before mentioned, those having been traced in such a ner, as to ascertain that fact beyond all possible dispute.

At noon the observed latitude was 51° 9′, the true longitude 231° 58′. In this situation the islands of Galiano and Valdes bore by compass S. 68 E.; the south point of Calvert's islands, N. 6 W.; a low point on the same island, N. 30 W.; and cape Scott, S. 8 W.; distant 23 miles. This placed cape Scott in latitude 50° 48′: 2 miles further north than the latitude I had before assigned to it, owing to our imperfect obser-

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vations at that time; but I found no reason to make any alteration in its longitude. The nearest shore to us bore by compass N. 48 E., distant 2 or 3 leagues. This was the most westerly projecting part of the continent in this neighbourhood; from whence the shores of the main land take a N. N. E. and south-eastwardly direction, and make it a conspicuous cape, terminating in rugged, rocky, low hummocks, that produce some dwarf pine, and other small trees and shrubs. This cape, from the dangerous navigation in its vicinity, I distinguished by the name of CAPE CAUTION; it is in latitude 51° 12′, longitude 232° 9′. Cape Caution, though not named, was noticed on our former visit, and erroneously placed, from the causes before stated, in latitude 51° 18′, longitude 232° 8′. An error also at that time took place, in the situation of the south point of entrance into Smith's inlet, now found to be in latitude 51° 18′, longitude 232° 11½'. The south point of Calvert's island, being in latitude 51° 27, longitude 232° 5′, was found to be correctly placed. The variation of the compass allowed in this situation was 18° eastwardly.

Soon after noon, some very dangerous breakers were discovered, over which the sea, at long intervals of time, broke with great violence. These had escaped our attention the last year, although we must have passed very near them; they consist of three distinct patches, and seemed to occupy nearly the space of a league. Their eastern part lies from cape Caution, N. 72 W., distant about 5 miles; but the rocks that lie off the shore to the northward of the cape, reduce the width of the channel between them and the breakers to about a league, through which we passed without noticing any other obstruction that was not sufficiently conspicuous to be avoided.

Sunday 26.

With a gentle breeze from the E. N. E. we stood up Fitzhugh's found in the evening with all the sail we could spread. This by four the next morning brought us opposite to the arm leading to point Menzies, whose extent was left undetermined, and where in a cove on the south shore, about eight miles within its entrance, I expected to join the Chatham; but the wind being unfavorable, and the ebb tide setting out, we made little progress until six o'clock, when we worked up the arm with the

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stood tide, and a light easterly breeze, attended with much rain, and thick misty weather.

The Chatham was seen at eleven, and about noon we anchored within about half a mile of her in 60 fathoms water, gravelly bottom.

Mr. Puget informed me, that he had arrived here on the 24th, and that nothing material had occurred since he had left Nootka; and I had the happiness to understand that himself, officers, and crew, were in a perfect state of health.

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Anchor in Restoration Cove—Account of two boat expeditions—Astronomical and nautical observations—Proceed to the northward—Visited by many of the natives—Their character—Account of the boats excursion—Seaman poisoned by muscles.

1793. May.

Sunday 20.

As many necessary repairs in and about the Discovery demanded our immediate attention, and that no time might be lost. I determined, that whilst those on board were employed on the requisite duties, two boat parties should be dispatched to prosecute the examination of the broken region before us. Recollecting there was a large cove to the northward, that I had noticed on our former visit, and supposing it more likely to answer all our purposes than the station we had taken, I sat out after dinner to take a view of it, and finding it a very eligible place, I returned in the evening, and with the flood tide, the following morning, we stood towards this bay or cove, bearing by compass N. 28 E,., distant five miles.

Monday 27.

The flood tide assisted our progress but a little way up the arm, after which we had to contend with those counter currents, that have been before stated as not only rendering the vessel nearly stationary, but totally ungovernable. It was not until two in the afternoon that we anchored in 12 fathoms water, and with a hawser moored the ship to the trees on the shore; this was a fine sandy beach, through which flowed an excellent stream of water into the cove, close to the station we had taken. Near this stream, by the selling of a few trees, a very good situation was obtained for the observatory and tents. The seine was hauled with tolerable success, so that we had a prospect of much convenience, and

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of acquiring some refreshment from the sea. These were advantages beyond our expectations in this desolate region, where the rain had been almost incessantly pouring down in torrents ever since our arrival on it.

Tuesday 28.

On tuesday our several repairs were begun. The leak in the bows of the ship claimed our first attention; by ripping the copper off down to the water's edge this seemed likely to be got at, and to be completely stopped. The after part of the ship required caulking, the launch stood in need of repair, the sails in use wanted mending, the powder airing, and several spars were required to replace those we bad carried away since our last departure from this coast; but the rainy weather still continuing, we proceeded very slowly in these several services.

Wednes. 29.

Thursday 30.

On the 29th, Mr. Johnstone was dispatched in the Chatham's cutter, attended by our small one, to finish the examination of this inlet, which he was prevented doing last year by the badness of the weather. The next morning, accompanied by Lieutenant Swaine in the cutter, I fat out in the yawl to examine the main arm of this inlet, that appeared to take its direction northerly to the west of, or without, the arm in which the ships were at anchor. This, after the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, I named BURKE'S CANAL.

On this occasion I deemed it expedient, that those employed on boat, service should be supplied with an additional quantity of wheat and portable soup, sufficient to afford them two hot meals every day during their absence; and, in consequence of their being much exposed to the prevailing inclement weather, an additional quantity of spirits, to be used at the discretion of the officer commanding each party; a practice that was found necessary to be continued throughout the season.

About nine in the forenoon we arrived in what appeared to be the main branch of the inlet, leading to the north from Fitzhugh's found. After a much-respected friend, I named this FISHER'S CANAL. some detached rocks were passed, that lie N. 14 W., about a league from the north-west point of entrance into Burke's canal, which obtained the name of POINT WALKER; it is situated in latitude 51° 56½', longitude 232° 9′; its opposite point of entrance, named POINT EDMUND, lies from it

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S. 60 E., near two miles. Off point Edmund lie several rocky islets; with one on the opposite shore, a little within point Walker; but the channel is fair to navigate.

We had a fresh southerly gale in our favor, but the cloudiness of the weather prevented my obtaining an observation for the latitude. For this purpose, though we did not succeed, we landed on some rocks near the western shore; here we were visited by a few of the natives, who were at first somewhat shy, but the distribution of a few trinkets amongst them soon gained their confidence and friendship. These people appeared to be of a different race from those we had seen to the southward, used a different language, and were totally unacquainted with that spoken by the inhabitants of Nootka. The stature of the few here seen, (not exceeding twenty) was much more stout and robust than that of the Indians further south. The prominence of their countenances, and the regularity of their features, resembled the northern Europeans; their faces were generally broad, with high cheek bones; and had it not been for the filth, oil, and paint, with which, from their earliest infancy, they are besmeared from head to foot, there is great reason to believe that their colour would have differed but little from such of the labouring Europeans, as are constantly exposed to the inclemency and alterations of the weather. From these rocks we steered over to the opposite shore, the canal being from a mile to half a league wide. The eastern, almost a compact shore, lies in a north direction, to the south point of a small opening, in latitude 52° 6½'; this extended E. by N. four miles, and terminated as is usual with the generality of these branches. Its north point of entrance lies from its south point N. 14 E., distant two miles. Before its entrance are two small islands, and towards its northern shore are some rocks. This opening formed a good harbour, and was by me named PORT JOHN. From the north point the eastern coast still continued nearly in its former direction for two miles and an half, and then took a more eastwardly bend. The country we had passed along, since we had entered Fisher's canal, might, on the western side, be considered of a moderate height; its surface, composed principally of rocks, was uneven, and full of chasins, where a soil, formed by the decay of vegetables, pro-

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duced some different forts of pine trees of slender growth, the maple, birch, small-fruited crab, and a variety of shrubs, and berry bushes. The eastern shore rose more abruptly, and was bounded behind by very lofty rugged mountains, covered with snow.

As we proceeded along the eastern shore, we passed, and left for future examination, an opening on the opposite shore, that took a N.N.W. direction, and was of such considerable extent, as to make me doubtful whether it might not be the main branch of the inlet. Agreeably however to my former practice, we kept the starboard shore on board, as the most positive means of ascertaining the continental boundary; and as we advanced, the land to the north-east of the above opening, forming the north-west side of the canal, rose to an equal if not a superior height to that on the south-east side.

The evening was very rough, rainy, and unpleasant, and what contributed to render our situation more uncomfortable, was the steep precipices, that constituted the shores, not admitting us to land until near midnight; when with difficulty we found room for erecting our tents, that had been constructed on a small scale for the convenience of this service.

Friday 31.

During the night we had a very heavy fall of rain, and at day-light the next morning our lodging was discovered to have been in a morass, and most of our things were very wet. In this very unpleasant abode we were detained by the weather until eight o'clock, when, although the rain continued, the haze cleared sufficiently to allow of our proceeding northward to a point on the opposite shore, situated in latitude 52° 14½', longitude 232° 12½'; where the channel divided into two branches, one leading to the N.N.E., the other N. 63 E. The latter, for the reasons before given, became the object of our pursuit. From Mr. Johnstone's sketch the preceding year, and from the direction this branch was now seen to take, we had some reason to suppose the eastern land was an island. Towards noon the weather enabled me to get an indifferent observation for the latitude, which shewed 52° 19′. The inlet now extending to the north-eastward was generally about a mile wide, the shores steep, rocky, and compact, if a small opening, or sheltered bay, on the

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south-east shore be excepted. In the afternoon two openings on the north-west shore were passed. The northernmost of these bad the appearance of being extensive. At its south point of entrance, in latitude 52° 23½', longitude 232° 28½', we met with a small party of the natives, whose appearance and conduct much resembled those we had met the day before. They strongly solicited us to visit their houses; but as their signs gave us reason to believe their habitations were behind us, though at no great distance, I declined their civil intreaties, and prosecuted our survey until seven in the evening, when we arrived at a point, from whence this inlet again divides into two arms, one taking a northerly, the other a south-easterly direction. From this point, named by me POINT EDWARD, situated in latitude 52° 25½', longitude 222° 37½', and forming the northern extremity of the eastern shore, we directed our route to the south-east, in order to take up our lodging for the night, having little doubt of finding that channel to be the same that Mr. Johnstone had the last year left unexplored, extending to the northward.


Saturday 1.

About four the next morning, the weather being mild, though cloudy, we again prosecuted our researches to the south-east, and about seven came to a point that left no doubt as to our situation, and that the starboard shore which we had thus far pursued, was one side of an extensive island, which I distinguished by the name of KING'S ISLAND, after the family of my late highly-esteemed and much-lamented friend, Captain James King of the navy. Point Menzies was seen from this station lying S. 83 E., about 3 leagues distant, and the north-east point of Burke's canal on the opposite shore S. 78 E. two miles and an half distant. The continuation of the inlet to the eastward was evidently the same that had undergone the examination of Mr. Johnstone, and determined to a certainty that we had the continent again in view.

At this point I left in a conspicuous place a note, desiring Mr. Johnstone would return to the vessels by the way he had come; having before received directions, in case of his finally exploring the arm before us leading to the eastward, to endeavour to return to the vessels by the route we had pursued; this had now become unnecessary; and as the inlet at point Menzies had again divided itself into two branches, one extend-


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ing in a south-easterly, and the other in a north-easterly direction. I had acquainted Mr. Johnstone, that I should prosecute the examination of the north-eastern branch, whilst he was employed in the other, if I met with no indications of his having preceded me. After quitting this point, we landed to breakfast on the before mentioned point of the continental shore, and there found, either left by accident or design, one of our kegs, which proved that Mr. Johnstone had reached that spot before us. In its bung-hole I left a note similar to the former.

The weather was now serene and pleasant. With a gentle south-west breeze, after breakfast, we continued to examine the north-east branch, and at noon I observed the in its entrance to be 52° 19′ 30″; whence point Menzies will be found to lie in 52° 18′ 30″; being 4′ further north than the latitude assigned to that point on our former visit; but its longitude did not appear to require any correction.

On the north point of entrance into this branch I left a third note for Mr. Johnstone, left he should not at this time have finished his south-eastern survey, and should hereafter pursue the examination of this arm, directing him as before to return home, as the whole extent within the limits of his intended excursion would now fall under my own investigation.

From hence we directed our course over to the eastern shore, where, observing a fire on the beach amongst the drift wood, we landed, and not only found evident signs of Mr. Johnstone's party having recently quitted the beach, but on a tree was written with a burnt stick, "Gone by" Any further attempts here on our part became therefore useless. That branch extended to the south-east, and from the light colour of the water we had passed through this morning, there was no doubt it had terminated in the usual way. In our progress to this station, we had passed five openings on the larboard or continental shore. Our attention was now directed to these objects, and having dined, we returned by the same way we had come, and rested for the night near our lodging of the preceding evening.

The appearance of the country we had passed by, varied in no respect from what has already been frequently described, excepting that the maple, birch, crab, and other small trees, seemed to be more numerous,

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and of a larger size. Two or three whales, one near point Menzies, several seals, and some sea otters had been seen; these were remarkably shy, as were two black bears that were observed on the shores.

The tide in this neighbourhood appeared to rise and fall about ten feet; and it is high water 10h 20′, after the moon passes the meridian; but neither the ebb nor the flood appeared to occasion any general, or even visible, stream.

Sunday 2.

Early the next morning, with rainy unpleasant weather, we again proceeded, keeping the starboard or continental shore on board, to the fifth unexamined opening, lying from point Edward on King's island nearly north, about 6 miles; in general a mile, but sometimes a league wide. We passed an islet and some rocks, lying on the eastern or starboard shore, where we breakfasted, and afterwards continued our researches until about two o'clock, when we stopped to dine in a bay on the western shore, into which flowed the most considerable rivulet I had yet seen in this country. The tide was then at the lowest, yet it admitted our boats into its entrance, which is about thirty yards wide, and four feet deep, and discharged a rapid stream of fresh water until prevented by the flood tide. The spring tides appeared to rise about seven feet. High water 11h 10′ after the moon passes the meridian. This brook soon decreased in dimensions within the entrance, and shortly lost itself in a valley, bounded at no great distance by high perpendicular mountains. Three Indians appeared on the opposite side of the brook. I endeavoured by signs and offers of trinkets to prevail on their crossing over to us, but without success; at length they gave us to understand by signs, that if we would go back to our party who were at no great distance, they would follow in their canoe. They paddled after us a few yards, but again returned to the shore, on which one of them landed, and the other two again came forward. The man who had landed hastened back along the banks of the brook, with visible marks of fear, as we conjectured towards their habitations. His apprehensions operated on the other two, who also retired up the brook in their canoe. As we were preparing to depart about three o'clock, this canoe, attended by another containing six or seven Indians, came down the

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rivulet; but notwithstanding every means was used to invite them, they would not venture nearer us than their companions had done before. I left some iron, knives, and trinkets near our fire, whither I had little doubt their curiosity would soon be directed.

Monday 3.

Tuesday 4.

From hence we proceeded about 9 miles up the arm, still extending to the north-east, and preserving the same width. We passed a small island lying near the western shore; here we took up our abode for the night, and the next morning again proceeded. The water was nearly fresh at low tide, but was not of a very light colour. Having gone about a league we arrived at a point on the western shore, from whence the arm took a direction N.N.W. for about 3 leagues, and then, as was most commonly the case, it terminated in low marshy land. On a small spot of low projecting land from the eastern shore, three or four natives were observed, who would not venture near us; and at a little distance from the shore, the trees appeared to have been cleared away for some extent, and a square, spacious platform was erected, lying horizontally, and supported by several upright spars of considerable thickness, and apparently not less than twenty-five or thirty feet high from the ground. A fire was burning on it at one end, but there was no appearance of any thing like a house, though we concluded that such was the use to which it was appropriated. After breakfast we returned by the same route we had arrived, and stopped at the point above mentioned to observe its latitude, which I found to be 52° 43½', and its longitude 232° 55′. To this point I gave the name of POINT RAPHOE, and to the canal we had thus explored, DEAN'S CANAL. Quitting this point, we dined on our return at the same brook where we had stopped the preceding day; the Indians had taken the trinkets we had left for them, and although they were heard in the woods they did not make their appearance. From thence we proceeded towards the next unexplored inlet, until near dark, when we halted again for the night, and on the following morning reached its entrance about half a mile wide, lying in a N. 50 W. direction. The weather was rough, chilly, and unpleasant, attended with much rain until near noon. At this time we had reached within a mile of the head of the arm, where the observed latitude was 52° 32′, longi-

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tude 232° 17′; this terminated like the others, and we returned by the same route we had come.

The width of this canal did not any where exceed three quarters of a mile: its shores were bounded by precipices much more perpendicular than any we had yet seen during this excursion; and from the summits of the mountains that overlooked it, particularly on its north-eastern shore, there sell several large cascades. These were extremely grand, and by much the largest and most tremendous of any we had ever beheld. The impetuosity with which these waters descended, produced a strong current of air that reached nearly to the opposite side of the canal, though it was perfectly calm in every other direction. At first I considered these cascades to have been solely occasioned by the melting of the snow on the mountains that surrounded us; but, on comparing them with several smaller falls of water, which, by their colour, by the soil brought down with them, and other circumstances, were evidently produced from that temporary cause; but the larger torrents appeared to owe their origin to a more general and permanent source. This arm I distinguished by the name of CASCADE CANAL. Near its south point of entrance, we again met the friendly Indians who had so civilly invited us to their habitations; their intreaties were repeated, with which we complied, and we found their village to consist of seven houses, situated in a small rocky cove close round the point. On approaching near to their dwellings, they desired we would not land there, but on the opposite side of the cove; which we did, and by that means ingratiated ourselves in their favor, and secured their confidence. We were visited by about forty of the male inhabitants, but the women and young children who appeared to equal that number, remained in their houses. The construction of these was very curious; the back parts appeared to be supported by the projection of a very high, and nearly perpendicular, rocky cliff, and the front and sides by slender poles, about sixteen or eighteen feet high. I was much inclined to be better acquainted with these curious mansions; but the repugnance shewn by their owners to our entering them, induced me to decline the attempt, left it might give them serious offence, and disturb the harmony that had taken place between us. Not one of

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them had a weapon of any kind, and they all conducted themselves in the most civil and orderly manner. Some medals and a few trinkets were given them, and in return we received a very indifferent sea otter skin, and some pieces of halibut. In this traffic they proved themselves to be keen traders, but acted with the strictest honesty.

Wednes. 5.

Our visit here detained us about half an hour, after which we proceeded to the third unexplored opening. This was about S. 52 W., and about a league distant from the south point of Cascade canal; here we rested, and in the morning of the 5th, found it terminate about 2 miles in a westerly direction. From thence we proceeded to the next arm; this was the first we had noticed to the eastward of that, of which on the 30th of may I had entertained doubts of its being the main branch of the inlet.

We were now favored with pleasant weather, and a gentle gale from the N.E. and S. E. This, by noon, brought us within about a mile of this arm's termination, which, from its entrance in a N.N.E. direction, is about 5 miles; here I observed the latitude to be 52° 19′, the longitude, 232° 13½'. This branch finished in a similar manner with the many others, though its shores were not so steep, nor did they afford such falls of water a were seen in Cascade canal. From hence we continued along the continental shore until the evening, when we reached the doubtful opening, and found its entrance to be in latitude 52° 12′, longitude 232° 7′; it is about three quarters of a mile wide, and has a small islet and several rocks extending from its north-east point. Between these rocks and the western shore there appeared to be a fair navigable channel.

About a mile up this opening on the starboard, or continental shore, we remained during the night on an insulated rock, that had formerly been appropriated to the residence of the natives. It forms the north point of entrance into a cove, where a sunken rock lies, not visible until half tide; within this rock is a clear sandy bottom, that might be found convenient for the purpose of laying small vessels aground to clean or repair, as we estimated the tide, though not near the height of the springs, to rise fourteen or fifteen feet, and to be high water at the time

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Thursday 6.

the moon passes the meridian. We were detained at this station by thick, foggy, and rainy weather, attended with a strong south-east gale, until ten o'clock in the forenoon of the 6th, when the fog in some measure clearing away, we proceeded in our researches up this arm. It lies in a general direction of N. 20 W., for about 3 leagues; the eastern or continental shore is steep and compact; but, on the western shore, we passed, five or six miles within the entrance, five rocky islets producing some trees, and admitting a passage for boats between them and the shore; and on the same side, about seven miles within the entrance, is a larger islet, having between it and the shore a rock; on which was an Indian village that contained many houses, and seemed to be very populous. We were no sooner discovered, than several large canoes were employed in transporting a number of the inhabitants to the shore on the western side, who instantly ran to the woods and hid themselves. Our route however, lying wide of either their village or their retirement, we did not increase their apprehensions by approaching nearer to them, but continued our survey up the arm, that still took a northerly direction, leaving on the western shore a spacious opening extending to the westward, and passing a small island covered with pine trees, that lies nearly in mid-channel of the arm we were pursuing.

Having reached, about two in the afternoon, a point on the eastern shore, about 10 miles from the entrance, we stopped to dine, and were here visited by some of the Indians from the village in two canoes. These were totally unarmed, and at first acted with a considerable degree of caution. A few trivial presents however soon dissipated their fears, and they became equally civil with those we had before seen, from whom they did not appear to differ, excepting in their being less cleanly; or more properly speaking, in being more dedaubed with oil and paints. They remained with us until our dinner was over, sold us two or three otter skins, the only commodity they brought for barter, and when we proceeded they returned home.

From this point, we found the arm take first a direction N. 40 E. near a league, and then N. 30 W. about 5 miles further; it was in general from half to three quarters of a mile wide, and terminated as usual in

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low swampy land, in latitude 52° 28½', longitude 232° 4′. From hence we returned and halted for the night, about 2 miles from its head on the western shore.

Friday 7.

The next morning we proceeded to the branch leading to the westward, that we had passed the preceding day; and about eight o'clock reached a small island lying near the northern shore, about two miles to the west ward of its entrance, situated in latitude 52° 19¾' longitude 232° 1′. Here we stopped to breakfast, and were again visited by our friends from the village on the rock, whose behaviour was similar to what we had before experienced.

The weather became serene and pleasant, with a gentle breeze from the south-west. We now quitted the high steep snowy mountains, composing the shores we had lately traversed; for the sides of the opening before us, comparatively speaking, might be considered as land of moderate height. Its surface covered with wood was very uneven, and being very similar to the general appearance of the land near the sea coast, gave us reason to believe this channel would lead towards the ocean.

The continental shore had been accurately traced to our present station, and the communication of this channel with the ocean became an object I much wished to ascertain, before the vessels should be removed further into this interior and intricate navigation; well knowing the tardy and disagreeable progress in so doing. To effect this purpose in the best manner I was able, I continued to trace the channel leading westward, passing by on the starboard or continental shore, an opening that appeared to terminate in a spacious bay, at the distance of about two miles. Another opening was seen immediately to the westward of this bay, that appeared of considerable extent, leading to the N.N.W. and had two small islands nearly in the center of its entrance; but, as we had now been nine days from the ship, our stock of provisions was too much reduced to admit of our undertaking further examinations, especially as every foot we advanced we had additional reasons for supposing we should find a channel in this neighbourhood that would lead to the ocean. From the last opening the coast trended S. 40 W.; in which direction I well knew we could not long continue, without meeting the sea; and having pro-


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ceeded thus about a league, I stopped about noon at a point on the north-west shore to observe the latitude, which was 52° 17′, longitude 231° 54′; and whilst I was so employed, Mr. Swaine was sent forward, with directions, on his discovering a clear channel to sea, to return. As I was preparing to follow him, the cutter was seen coming back; Mr. Swaine reported, that from a point lying S. 48 W. a mile and a half from our then station, he had seen the ocean in a direction S. 70 W.; the furthest land being about 3 or 4 leagues distant.

Being now satisfied that all the land forming the sea coast, from the south entrance into Fitzhugh's found, to the place from whence we now looked into the ocean, consisted of two extensive islands, that were again probably much subdivided; I considered the object of our errand accomplished, and we sat off on our return towards the station of the vessels, from whence we were 45 miles distant. In the evening we passed close to the rock on which the village last mentioned is situated; it appeared to be about half a mile in circuit, and was intirely occupied by the habitations of the natives. These appeared to be well constructed; the boards forming the sides of the houses were well fitted, and the roofs rose from each side with sufficient inclination to throw off the rain. The gable ends were decorated with curious painting, and near one or two of the most conspicuous mansions were carved figures in large logs of timber, representing a gigantic human form, with strange and uncommonly distorted features. Some of our former visitors again came off, and conduced themselves as before with great civility; but these, as well as those on shore, had great objections to our landing at their village; the latter making signs to us to keep off, and the former giving us to understand, that our company was not desired at their habitations. Their numbers, I should imagine, amounted at least to three hundred. After gratifying our friends with some presents, they returned to their rock, and we continued our route homewards.

Saturday 8.

About noon the next day, in a bay opposite an opening on the western shore, that had the appearance of communicating with the ocean, we fell in with about forty men, women, and children of the same tribe of Indians we had met on the first day. These received us with the

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same kind of caution we had before experienced, and desired we would land at a rock a little distant from the party. On complying with their wishes, we were visited by most of the men and boys, who, after receiving some presents, gave us fully to understand, that the women would have had no objection to our company; but having still a long pull against wind and tide before we could reach the ships, I declined their civil solicitations.

The whole of this party were employed in gathering cockles, and in preparing a fort of paste from the inner bark of a particular kind of pine tree, intended we supposed as a substitute for bread; this they washed in the sea water, beat it very hard on the rocks, and then made it up into balls. It had a sweetish taste, was very tender, and if we may judge from their actions, it seemed by them to be considered as good food.

This as well as the cockles they offered in abundance, in return for nails and trinkets, but we accepted only a few of the latter.

About ten at night we arrived on board, where I found all well, and most of our material work executed. Mr. Baker informed me, that the weather had been very unpleasant during my absence, and according to his account infinitely worse than what we had experienced; this had greatly protracted the necessary duties of the ship, and prevented due observations being made for ascertaining our situation, and the rate of the chronometers; I was apprehensive, that the few that had been obtained were all that on the present occasion were likely to be procured.

Sunday 9.

The next morning Mr. Johnstone informed me, that on the forenoon of the 30th of may he reached point Menzies, from whence he found an arm lying in a direction with little variation S. 33 E. By noon they had advanced about 5 miles from point Menzies, where the latitude was observed to be 52° 15′, and about 4 miles further passed an island on the eastern shore. The weather being pleasant great progress was made until the evening, when they reached its termination in latitude 52° 1′, longitude 233° 18′. Its width in general a little exceeded a mile, and the surrounding country exactly resembled that which we had found contiguous to those branches of the sea that have been so repeatedly

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described. Here the party halted for the night, and at day-light the next morning returned. On the eastern side of this canal, near the head of a small rivulet, they had noticed on the preceding evening a house of a very singular construction, but perceived no signs of its being inhabited. As they now advanced some smoke was observed, and three Indians approached them with much caution, and shewing great disapprobation at their landing; on receiving some nails and trinkets they however became reconciled, and attended Mr. Johnstone with some of the gentlemen of his party to their habitations. These were found to be of a different construction from any they had before seen; they were erected on a platform similar to that seen in my late excursion, and mentioned as being raised and supported near thirty feet from the ground by perpendicular spars of a very large size; the whole occupying a space of about thirty-five yards by fifteen, was covered in by a roof of boards lying nearly horizontal, and parallel to the platform; it seemed to be divided into three different houses, or rather apartments, each having a separate access formed by a long tree in an inclined position from the platform to the ground, with notches cut in it by way of steps, about a foot and a half asunder. Up one of these ladders Mr. Johnstone, with one of his party only, was suffered to ascend, and by removing a broad board placed as a kind of door on the platform where the ladder rested, they entered on a small area before the door of the house, or apartment to which the ladder belonged. Here they found four of the natives posted, each bearing a rude weapon made of iron, not unlike a dagger. They only permitted Mr. Johnstone to look about him, and seemed much averse to his entering the house, which he prudently did not insist upon; but so far as he was able to observe within doors, their internal arrangements differed little or nothing from the domestic œconomy of the Indians already seen on North West America. The number of inhabitants seen at this curious place did not exceed a dozen or fourteen, but amongst them were neither women nor children. Mr. Johnstone discovered from this that their landing had excited no small degree of alarm; which greatly subsided on their departure. Three very small canoes only were seen, and these seemed, from their construction,

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capable of performing no other service than that of fishing in the small streams, that are frequently met with at the head of these canals. At the mouth of the creek were a great number of wicker fish pots, which induced the party to ask for something to eat, but instead of fish, the natives brought them a kind of paste or bread, supposed to be made from the inner rind of the pine. Their language was quite new to our party, and they appeared to be totally unacquainted with that of Nootka.

From this curious place of residence Mr. Johnstone came back along the eastern shore, and about five miles from the termination of the canal he observed the latitude to be 52° 4′. About seven the next morning (1st of june) the arm leading to the north-eastward was entered; this was found about 1 mile and a quarter wide, lying in a direction of N. 62 E. from its north point of entrance; and, at the distance of eleven miles, it terminated in the usual way; in latitude 52° 26′, longitude 233° 16′. Here was another habitation of the same sort. Having now completed the examination of this branch, the party returned along its northern shores, and at the point of entrance Mr. Johnstone found my directions to return to the vessels, which they reached in the forenoon of the next day. In their way they saw several bears; two young cubs were killed, and proved excellent eating.

I now directed Mr. Johnstone to proceed immediately and examine the arm leading to the north north-westward, which I had passed on the forenoon of the 7th; to follow it as far as it might lead, or his provisions allow, and to return to its entrance, where he would find the vessels at anchor near the two small islands; but in the event of his business being finished before the ships should arrive, he was to leave a note on the northernmost of the islands, mentioning his arrival and departure, and proceed to the survey of the coast further to the westward, and to gain every information with respect to the channel we had discovered leading to sea. With these directions, and a week's provisions, attended by Mr. Barrie in the Discovery's small cutter, he departed in the forenoon.

I had intended to proceed with the ships the next morning, but on visiting the observatory, I found another day's corresponding altitudes

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Monday 10.

would be very desirable; for which purpose I determined to remain a day longer. The magazine also, being yet damp, would be benefitted by further airing with sires. The powder which had been all aired, and found in better condition than was expected, remained on shore until the next morning, when the weather being rainy and unpleasant, without the least prospect of any alteration, the observatory with every thing else was taken from the shore; and in the afternoon we weighed and towed out of the cove, which I distinguished by the name of RESTORATION COVE, having there passed and celebrated the anniversary of that happy event.

During my absence some excellent spruce was brewed from the pine trees found here, and a sufficient supply of fish for the use of all hands was every day procured. The gentlemen on board did not long remain without being visited by the natives, who seemed to be of three different tribes, each having distinct chiefs, named Keyut, Comockshulah, and Whacosh; they seemed all on very friendly and amicable terms with each other, and conduced themselves with the greatest good order on board. Their language it seems much resembled that of the people on Queen Charlotte's islands, through which some on board were able to make themselves understood. From Whacosh they had learned, that he had fallen in with our boats at some distance; this had been really the case, as he was one of those who had visited me from the large village on the detached rock. They brought for barter the skins of the sea otter and other animals, some of which were purchased with copper and iron.

This uninteresting region afforded nothing further worthy of notice, excepting the foundings, the dimensions of the cove, and the very few astronomical and nautical observations, that, under the unfavorable circumstances of the weather, could be procured.

The breadth of the cove at the entrance, in a north and south direction, is about a mile and a quarter, and its depth, from the center of the entrance in a north-east direction, is three quarters of a mile. The foundings, though deep are regular, from 60 fathoms at the entrance, to 5 and 10 fathoms close to the shore. The land on the opposite side of the arm is about two miles and a half distant.

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The astronomical observations made at this station were,
Fourteen sets of lunar distances taken by Mr. Whidbey on the 3d and 5th of june, gave a mean result of 232° 8′ 45″
Fourteen sets taken by Mr. Orchard, ditto 232 15 51
The mean of twenty-eight sets as above, 232 12 18
The latitude by six meridional altitudes of the sun, 52 0 58
By single altitudes on the 31st of may, Kendall's chronometer shewed the longitude to be by the Karakakooa rate 230 11 15
Arnold's No. 14, by the same rate 230 35
Ditto, No. 176, ditto 233 2 45
Ditto, No. 82, on board the Chatham, ditto 234 5 45
Having corresponding altitudes on the 3d and 5th of june, that interval was considered too short; a single altitude taken on the 7th, and another on the 10th, were therefore made use of, for ascertaining the rates of the chronometers. From this authority, and considering the longitude of this place as fixed by our last year's observations in 232° 20′ to be correct, it appeared that Kendall's chronometer was fast of mean time at Greenwich on the 10th of june, at noon, 2h 8′ 15″ 46″′
And gaining per day at the rate of, 23 15
Arnold's No. 14, fast of mean time at Greenwich, 1 57 29 46
And gaining per day at the rate of, 20 32
Arnold's No. 176, ditto, ditto 4 50 46
And gaining per day at the rate of, 42 58
Arnold's No. 82, ditto, ditto 6 4 19 46
And gaining per day at the rate of, 29 41

But, as I considered this authority insufficient for establishing the several rates of the instruments, the longitude of the different stations hereafter mentioned will be deduced from such observations as we were able to obtain, when an opportunity offered for getting the observatory again on shore.

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The variation by two compasses taken on shore, differing in six sets from 17° 49′ to 20° 28′, gave a mean result of 19° 15′, eastwardly.

The tide was found to rise and fall fourteen feet, the night tides were in general one foot higher than in the day time, the flood came from the south, and it was high water at the time the moon passed the meridian.

Tuesday 11.

The winds were light and variable, attended with rainy unpleasant weather; we continued under sail all night, and with the assistance of the ebb tide the next morning reached Fisher's canal. A moderate breeze springing up from the S.S.W. we directed our course to the northward, and by noon arrived in the arm of the inlet that had been discovered by the boats to lead into the sea. Our observed latitude at this time being 52° 12′, agreed very nearly with our former observations. The favorable breeze soon left us, and at three o'clock we anchored within a cable's length of the western shore in 58 fathoms water, about a league to the southward of the Indian village on the detached rock. Though it was not in sight from the ship, yet our arrival was not long unknown to its inhabitants, several of whom came off, and brought in their canoes sea otter and other skins to exchange for iron and copper; the articles principally in request amongst them. All their dealings were carried on with confidence, and with the strictest honesty.

Wednes. 12.

A small stream of tide making in our favor, we weighed, and although we had the assistance of all our boats a-head until near midnight, we did not advance above a mile before we were obliged to anchor again near the western shore in 53 fathoms water. In this situation we remained until eight in the morning of the 12th, when we proceeded; but so slowly, that at noon the village bore west of us at the distance of about half a mile, and the rendezvous appointed with Mr. Johnstone nearly in the same direction about a league further. This we reached by six in the evening, and anchored in 22 fathoms water, steadying the ship by a hawser to a tree, on the northernmost island; where I found a note from Mr. Johnstone, stating that he had quitted that station at three o'clock on monday afternoon, and had proceeded in the examination of the arm

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before us, leading to the north north-westward. We were therefore to wait his return here.

Thursday 13.

Friday 14.

Sunday 16.

The next morning we tried the seine, but it was not attended with the least success. A great number of muscles however were procured, and converted into good palatable dishes. Our Indian friends, though not far from us, were out of sight, and did not make their appearance; this might be partly owing to the dark, gloomy, rainy weather, that continued all friday, but which did not then prevent our receiving the compliments of some, amongst whom was Whacosh, with two other chiefs of consequence, one named Amzeet, the other Neslaw Daws. The latter I had seen on our boat excursion, amongst the first natives who came from the village; from whence, exclusive of the chiefs, we were now visited by many of the inhabitants, who brought the skins of the sea otter and other animals for barter, but we could not obtain any supply of fish. The same uncomfortable weather, with little or no intermission, continued until towards sunday noon, when the rain ceased, but the weather continued unpleasant, dark and gloomy.

Most of our Indian friends were about us, and beside the chiefs before mentioned came a chief I had not before seen, whose name was Moclah. The whole party, consisting of an hundred and upwards, conducted themselves with great good order. One or two trivial thefts were attempted, but these being instantly detected, and great displeasure shewn on the occasion, nothing of the fort happened afterwards. Amongst the skins brought for sale, was that of the animal from whence the wool is procured, with which the woollen garments, worn by the inhabitants of North West America, are made. These appeared evidently too large to belong to any animal of the canine race, as we had before supposed. They were, exclusively of the head or tail, fifty inches long; and thirty-six inches broad, exclusively of the legs. The wool seemed to be afforded but in a small proportion to the size of the skin, It is principally produced on the back and towards the shoulders, where a kind of crest is formed by long bristly hairs, that protrude themselves through the wool, and the same sort of hair forms an outer covering to the whole animal, and intirely hides the wool, which is short, and of a very fine quality,


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All the skins of this description that were brought to us were intirely white, or rather of a cream colour; the pelt was thick, and appeared of a strong texture, but the skins were too much mutilated to discover the kind of animal to which they had belonged.

In the afternoon we had the honor of a female party on board. Those of the women who appeared of the most consequence, had adopted a very singular mode of adorning their persons. And although some fort of distortion or mutilation was a prevailing fashion with the generality of the Indian tribes we had seen, yet the peculiarity of that we now beheld, was of all others the most extraordinary, and the effect of its appearance the most undescribable. A horizontal incision is made, about three tenths of an inch below the upper part of the under lip, extending from one corner of the mouth to the other intirely through the flesh; this orifice is then by degrees stretched sufficiently to admit an ornament made of wood, which is confined close to the gums of the lower jaws, and whose external surface projects horizontally.

These wooden ornaments are oval, and resemble a small oval platter or dish made concave on both sides; they are of various sizes, but the smallest I was able to procure was about two inches and a half; the largest was three inches and four tenths in length, and an inch and a half broad; the others decreased in breadth in proportion to their length. They are about four tenths of an inch in thickness, and have a groove along the middle of the outside edge, for the purpose of receiving the divided lip. These hideous appendages are made of fir, and neatly polished, but present a most unnatural appearance, and are a species of deformity,, and an instance of human absurdity, that would scarcely be credited without ocular proof.

It appeared very singular, that in the regions of New Georgia, where the principal part of the people's clothing is made of wool, we never saw the animal nor the skin from which the raw material was procured. And though I had every reason to believe, that those animals are by no means scarce in this neighbourhood, yet we did not observe one person amongst our present visitors in a woollen garment. The clothing of


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the natives here was either skins of the sea otter, or garments made from the pine bark; some of these latter have the fur of the sea otter, very neatly wrought into them, and have a border to the sides and bottom, decorated with various colours. In this only they use woollen yarn, very fine, well spun, and dyed for that purpose; particularly with a very lively and beautiful yellow.

We at first considered the inhabitants of this region to be a much finer race of men than those further south; the difference however appeared less conspicuous, when they were seen in greater numbers, probably owing to our having become more familiar with their persons, and to their having performed a long journey to visit us, in extremely rough rainy weather. Their dispositions, as far as our short acquaintance will authorize an opinion, appeared to be civil, good-humoured and friendly. The vivacity of their countenances indicated a lively genius, and from their repeated bursts of laughter, it would appear that they were great humourists, for their mirth was not confined to their own party, or wholly resulting from thence, but was frequently at our expence; so perfectly were they at ease in our society.

The chiefs generally approached us with the ceremony of first rowing round the vessels, and departed in the same manner, singing a song that was by no means unpleasing; this was sometimes continued until they had retired a considerable distance. They seemed a happy cheerful people, and to live in the strictest harmony and good fellowship with each other. They were well versed in commerce; of this we had manifest proof in their disposal of the skins of the sea otter, and other animals; about one hundred and eighty of the former I believe were purchased by different persons on board, in the course of their several visits. This number seemed nearly to have exhausted their stock, as most of the chiefs took their leave, as if they had no intention of returning, and in the same friendly and cheerful manner as before related.

The bay immediately to the eastward of this opening, which I had not very minutely examined, had been found by a shooting party not to be closed, as I had imagined, but to communicate, by a channel about a cable's length in width, with a narrow arm, about a south of a mile

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Monday 17.

wide, extending in another direction; this, on monday morning, I sent Mr. Swaine to explore, who found it terminate about 3 leagues from the entrance of the bay, in latitude 52° 29′, longitude 232° 2′.

This day in the afternoon, and for a few minutes about one o'clock the day before, the sun made its appearance, and enabled me to procure some observations for the longitude by the chronometers, but not for the latitude; I had however, whilst on the survey in the boats not more than 2 leagues to the westward of this station, an excellent observation for this purpose; and from hence I judged, that by placing our anchorage in latitude 52° 20½', longitude 231° 58½', it will be found nearly correct.

In the evening the Chatham's cutter, and the Discovery's small cutter returned, after having had a very disagreeable, fatiguing, and laborious excursion; rendered very distressing by the melancholy loss of John Carter, one of our seamen, who had unfortunately been poisoned by eating muscles. Two or three others of the party narrowly escaped the same fate.

The first day after their departure from the vessels, they met with some of the natives who had some halibut recently caught, and although very high prices were offered, the Indians could not be induced to part with any of these fish; this was singular, and indicated a very scanty supply of this species of food. As they passed the village on the rock, the inhabitants appeared to regard them with great attention and friendship. Their chief Whacosh being down on the rocks, some presents were sent to him, and he seemed to receive them with great pleasure. When the party left this station, they found the opening, though not more than a quarter of a mile wide in some places, to be a clear and navigable canal, lying in a direction N. 18 W. for about 8 miles, where it united with a more extensive one about half a league wide, which took a direction N. 15 E. and S. 15 W. This appeared the most extensive, but their object was the pursuit of the other. On its eastern side were found two large bays, or rather basons. In the southernmost of these are some rocky islets. The next morning brought no alteration in the weather, which continued extremely bad and rainy; yet they proceeded again, and were joined by half a dozen of the natives in two small canoes, of


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whom they purchased a small fish, being all they had to dispose of. The wind blew very strong in squalls from the south-east, attended with constant rain. At five in the afternoon they reached the head of the arm, where it terminated in latitude 52° 36½', longitude 232°. The evening being fair, some progress was made in their way back by the same route they had advanced; and having stopped for the night, the above channel was pursued in its southern direction in the morning of the 12th. This continued nearly straight, making the land that forms the west side of this opening an island. On its western shore they found a considerable village, from whence several of the natives visited them in their canoes. These were mostly small, containing only four or five persons in each; excepting one, in which there were thirty-two men. They conducted themselves in a very proper manner, and in a friendly way invited our party to their habitations; a civility that it was thought most proper to decline. Having passed to the northward of some detached rocks, and rocky islets, they reached the south-west point of the canal, situated in latitude 52° 15′, longitude 231° 45′. This communicated with another channel about 2 miles wide, that took an east and west direction; the former towards the station of the ships, the latter towards the ocean, being the same that had been discovered in my examination. From thence they pursued the continental coast about a league, lying in a direction from this point N. 72 W.; its shores are low and rocky, with several detached islets and rocks lying near them. From this situation they had an unlimited view of the ocean, between south, and S.W. by W. The wind blowing strong from this quarter, produced a very heavy surf on the shores, which prevented their making any further progress to the westward; and being then a-breast of a small opening extending to the northward, interspersed with rocks and breakers, Mr. Johnstone entered it contrary to his inclinations, as it was by no means eligible for the navigation of shipping, but the wind and sea totally preventing their making any progress further westward, he was compelled to take shelter there from the inclemency of the weather; and during the night it blew a strong gale of wind, attended by torrents of rain. The return of day (the 13th) presented no alternative, but that of remaining inactive, or

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of pursuing the small branch leading to the northward. This soon communicated with a more extensive channel. The length of the narrow passage is about half a league, the width fifty yards, and the shoalest water 5 fathoms. The larger channel had communication with the sea by falling into an opening about a league in a south-west direction, and thence continued nearly north about 3 miles. In this line they pursued the examination of the continent, through another very narrow channel that suddenly widened to three quarters of a mile, and a little further increased in width to 2 miles, extending, though somewhat irregularly, about N. 15 E. about 28 miles, to an arm leading to the eastward, whose northern point of entrance is in latitude 52° 46½, longitude 231° 51′. This arm was not reached before noon on the 14th, when it was found to extend from the above point about 4½ miles, in nearly an east direction; about 2 miles from whence, further to the north-east, it terminated. In general it was about half a mile wide. On the northern shore of this arm, some Indians visited them without the least hesitation, attended them up the arm, and gave our party to understand that it was closed; which afterwards proved so. In returning they passed near the village of these good people, who having remained with them most of the afternoon, took their leave, after conducting themselves in a very orderly and friendly manner. Mr. Johnstone describes their habitation as consisting of only one large dwelling made with broad planks; the roof covered with the same materials, and nearly flat. It was built on the top of a precipice against the side of a steep rocky cliff, by which means the access to it was rendered difficult; the party did not land, but they estimated the number of its inhabitants to be about seventy or eighty. They were not visited by any of the women; but those who were seen in patting wore the hideous lip ornaments above described. Towards the evening the weather cleared up, and the night was tolerably fair.

In the morning of the 15th, the examination of the continental shore was continued, and from the above north point of this arm the channel was found to extend in a direction N. 24 W. about 5 miles, where the larboard or western shore formed a sharp point, from whence another branch took a direction S. 55 W., and united with that which they had navigated

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for about 4½ miles north; then took a direction N. 70 E., 4 miles further, where it terminated in latitude 52° 56½', longitude 231° 54′, forming some little bays on the southern side. In one of these they stopped to breakfast, where finding some muscles, a few of the people ate of them roasted; as had been their usual practice when any of these fish were met with; about nine o'clock they proceeded in very rainy unpleasant weather down the south-westerly channel, and about one landed for the purpose of dining. Mr. Johnstone was now informed by Mr. Barrie, that soon after they had quitted the cove, where they had breakfasted, several of his crew who had eaten of the muscles were seized with a numbness about their faces and extremities; their whole bodies were very shortly affected in the same manner, attended with sickness and giddiness. Mr. Barrie had, when in England, experienced a similar disaster, from the same cause, and was himself indisposed on the present occasion. Recollecting that he had received great relief by violent perspiration, be took an oar, and earnestly advised those who were unwell, viz. John Carter, John M'Alpin, and John Thomas, to use their utmost exertions in pulling, in order to throw themselves into a profuse perspiration; this Mr. Barrie effected in himself, and found considerable relief; but the instant the boat landed, and their exertions at the oar ceased, the three seamen were obliged to be carried on shore. One man only in the Chatham's boat was indisposed in a similar way. Mr. Johnstone entertained no doubt of the cause from which this evil had arisen, and having no medical assistance within his reach, ordered warm water to be immediately got ready, in the hope, that by copiously drinking, the offending matter might have been removed. Carter attracted nearly the whole of their attention, in devising every means to afford him relief, by rubbing his temples and body, and applying warm cloths to his stomach; but all their efforts at length proved ineffectual, and being unable to swallow the warm water, the poor fellow expired about half an hour after he was lauded. His death was so tranquil, that it was some little time before they could be perfectly certain of his dissolution. There was no doubt that this was occasioned by a poison contained in the muscles he had eaten about eight o'clock in the morning; at nine he first found himself unwell, and died at half past one; he pulled his oar un-

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til the boat landed, but when he arose to go on shore he fell down, and never more got up, but by the assistance of his companions. From his first being taken his pulse were regular, though it gradually grew fainter and weaker until he expired, when his lips turned black, and his hands, face, and neck were much swelled. Such was the foolish obstinacy of the others who were affected, that it was not until this poor unfortunate fellow resigned his life, that they could be prevailed upon to drink the hot water; his fate however induced them to follow the advice of their officers, and the desired effect being produced, they all obtained great relief; and though they were not immediately restored to their former state of health, yet, in all probability, it preserved their lives. From Mr. Barrie's account it appeared, that the evil had arisen, not from the number of muscles eaten, but from the deleterious quality of some particular ones; and these he conceived were those gathered on the sand, and not those taken from the rocks. Mr. Barrie had eaten as many as any of the party, and was the least affected by them.

This very unexpected and unfortunate circumstance detained the boats about three hours; when, having taken the corpse on board, and refreshed the three men, who still remained incapable of assisting themselves, with some warm tea, and having covered them up warm in the boat, they continued their route, in very rainy, unpleasant weather, down the south-west channel, until they stopped in a bay for the night, where they buried the dead body. To this bay I gave the name of CARTER'S BAY, after this poor unfortunate fellow; it is situated in latitude 52° 48′, longitude 231° 42′: and to distinguish the fatal spot where the muscles were eaten, I have called it POISON COVE, and the branch leading to it MUSCLE CANAL.

In the morning of the 16th, having advanced a small distance from Carter's bay, they found the arm divide into two branches; one taking a southerly direction, about two miles wide, had the appearance of communicating with the ocean, the other took a north-westerly direction along the shores of the continent; and, from the appearance of the neighbouring mountains, it seemed likely to prove extensive. But, from the reduced state of the party, Mr. Johnstone, very judiciously, did not

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think it adviseable to undertake its examination, but pursued that leading to the southward; convinced that this, if found to communicate with the channel they had been in leading to sea, would be by far the most eligible route for the vessels or boats to pursue, in carrying into execution the further survey of the continental shore.

This branch soon took a south direction, the shores on both sides were much broken, and each had the appearance of composing an archipelago of islands. The wind being against them their progress was slow; however before dark they gained a very satisfactory view of the ocean, being now further advanced to the westward, in the same channel from whence it had been before observed. The next morning they passed the narrow channel they had been obliged to enter on the 12th, and arrived on board, as before stated. The very unfavorable weather, during their absence, had not afforded them one fair day, or an opportunity of ascertaining the latitude, either by a meridional or double altitude.

M'Alpin and Thomas, by this time, as well as the man belonging to the Chatham, were a little recovered; they were excessively weak, and still complained of numbness and dizziness, as also of a violent pain in their bowels. They were instantly taken under the surgeon's care, and treated with every attention and assistance which the nature of their situation required.

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The vessels proceed—Pass through Milbank's found, and along the continental shore—Arrive in a small cove—Two boat parties dispatched on the survey—One returns—Account of their discoveries—The vessels again proceed—Tedious navigation—The other boat party returns—Their report.

1793. June.

Tuesday 18.

NO time was to be lost in proceeding to the station where Mr. Johnstone had quitted the examination of the continental shore. For this purpose, about nine in the morning of tuesday the 18th, it being calm, all our boats were employed in towing us round the west point of this opening, which, though not more than a mile from our anchorage, was not effected until one o'clock in the afternoon. By eleven at night we had advanced only 2 leagues further to the south-west, where we anchored. Our situation was nearly a mile to the north-east of the south point of the island, forming the west side of the opening we had quitted, and from which Mr. Swaine had seen the ocean. This channel is a more northerly one than that by which Mr. Johnstone had returned.

Wednes. 19.

The next morning either a brig or a schooner was seen standing towards the sea, in a passage to the southward of our then station, but was soon out of sight, owing to the many intervening islands between us and the ocean. In our way thither were some islands and rocks; Mr. Johnstone had passed to the south of these, but as our nearest way was to the north of them, I went with the boats to take a short survey of the channel before us, and obtained some necessary angles for fixing its several parts, leaving directions for the vessels to follow in my absence. Al-

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Thursday 20.

though I saw many rocks and breakers in this channel, they were all sufficiently conspicuous to be avoided in fair weather, so that I had no hesitation in proceeding with the vessels, although the channel was extremely intricate; and having got a good observation for the latitude at noon, I returned on board. On my arrival I found, that in near four hours the Discovery had gained only half a mile, and was beginning to lose even that advantage. This compelled us to anchor between the above south point of the island, and a small round island, at a little distance from the east point of which lie an islet and a sunken rock. The depth of water was 35 fathoms, soft bottom. The south point of the island, situated in latitude 52° 175½', longitude 231° 53′, bore by compass N. W. a fourth of a mile distant; the passage leading out to sea, S. 53 W., and the small round island, S.S.E., at the distance of a cable and an half. The weather was clear and pleasant, but as we had a fresh breeze from the S.W., we remained at anchor until eleven at night; when the wind ceasing, and the ebb tide making in our favor, with the assistance of our boats we made some progress towards the north-west extreme of a cluster of islands, lying off the north-west point of a spacious found, extending to the S. S. E. amongst the islands that lie before the continent. This extremity is not more than 2 miles S. 68 W. from our last anchorage; yet it was not until after day-light the next morning, that we passed between it and a cluster of low barren rocks, that lie from it S. 74 W. at the distance of a mile.

About half a league within these rocks, in a westerly direction, nearly reaching to the continental shore, are two rocky islets covered with wood; about them are some sunken rocks, and another cluster of low barren rocks, between the rocky islets and the rocks first mentioned; in whose neighbourhood are several sunken rocks, so that the safest passage is that we had passed through, in which there are some detached rocks near the shores of the cluster of small islands; these however extend but a little distance; and in all other respects, so far as appeared to us, the passage was tolerably free from danger. Having got through this passage, we were favored with a light north-easterly breeze, with which we stood to the westward in a channel about 2 miles wide, that led into the

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arm by which Mr. Johnstone had returned from Carter's bay. The southern side of this channel being intirely covered with trees, presented, from the lowness of the shores, a prospect very grateful to the eye, and the several bays formed by the projecting parts of the sandy beaches that chiefly compose the shore, indicated a pleasant communication with the land; but the coast on the opposite side was formed by a rude, confused mass of low rugged cliffs, and bounded by innumerable rocky islets and rocks, as well beneath as above the surface of the water.

Having passed between this rugged north-eastern shore and some rocks that lie about half a league to the westward of it, we were so far advanced as to gain a distant view of this inlet in most directions, particularly in that towards the ocean; and on comparing it with some printed sketches on board, no doubt remained of its being the same that had been discovered by Mr. Duncan, and named Milbank's found. The delineation of the shores by Mr. Duncan, bore a strong resemblance to those before us, although we materially disagreed with him in the latitude; there could, however, be no doubt as to the identity of the place, and I have therefore continued the name given to it by Mr. Duncan.

The north-east wind was succeeded by a calm; during this interval, the swell and tide fat us towards the eastern shore near some of its sunken rocks, where the foundings were very irregular, from 60 to 35 fathoms, rocky bottom. We were, however, soon relieved from this unpleasant situation, by a fine breeze springing up from the south-west; when our course was directed up the arm leading from Milbank's found to Carter's bay. The wind blowing a gentle gale, attended with serene and cheerful weather, gave the country as we passed a very pleasant appearance. The land constituting the shores of the external or sea-coast was low, or rather moderately elevated, rising in a pleasing diversity of hills intirely covered with wood; and had we not been well acquainted with the rocky foundation from which such forests are produced, we might have been led to suppose that the soil before us was in the highest degree luxuriant.

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Some observations were procured for ascertaining our situation. These, with those made the preceding day, were very satisfactory, and corrected Mr. Johnstone's survey during his late expedition, when he was prevented making any celestial observations by the inclemency of the weather. At noon the observed latitude was 52° 24′, longitude 231° 37′. The north-west point of entrance into Milbank's found, now bore by compass S. 16 W., and the south-east point, named after the third lieutenant of the Discovery, CAPE SWAINE, S. 13 E.; in this direction was a small island about two miles and a half from us; and from that island S. 14 W., at the distance of about half a league, lies a very dangerous sunken rock. We passed to the westward of these, but the Chatham went between them and the, eastern shore, which still continued broken and rocky, forming a passage with the above sunken rock and breakers about half a mile wide, where the foundings were found to be very irregular. On the western shore an opening was seen extending N. 88 W., having the appearance of leading to sea, with two very large low flat rocks lying before it; the nearest shore was on that side, and bore W.N.W. at the distance of a mile.

Cape Swaine was found by our observations to be in latitude 52° 13′, longitude 231° 40′; and the north-west point of entrance into Milbank's found, which I called point Day, off which lie several barren rocky islets, in latitude 52° 14½', longitude 231° 27′; being in point of latitude, 15′ to the south of the situation assigned to it by Mr. Duncan, and who considers its longitude to be 50′ to the westward of our calculations. As the day advanced the south-westwardly breeze freshened with pleasant weather. The Chatham was directed to lead, and by four in the afternoon, having reached the extent of Mr. Johnstone's researches, we directed our route up a channel about half a mile wide, leading to the north-westward, whose entrance from Milbank's found is situated in latitude 52° 47′, and longitude 231° 37′. As we advanced in a direction from its entrance N. 55 W., the channel narrowed to about a fourth of a mile, and having proceeded about 4 miles, the Chatham suddenly found only 6 fathoms water, on a shoal stretching from the starboard or continental shore into mid-channel; this we passed on the opposite side in

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18 and 20 fathoms water. Beyond this, which is the narrowest part of the channel, formed by a high round projecting part of the south-west shore, appearing like an island; the arm widened to near half a league, and an extensive opening, taking a southerly direction, indicated a communication with the ocean.

The wind continuing favorable, and the weather pleasant, we made a tolerably good progress along the continental shore until about nine in the evening, when we anchored in 58 fathoms water, within about half a cable's length of the south point of an opening leading to the eastward, where the tides were very strong and irregular. The region we had been navigating since noon, had gradually increased in its elevation, and we were again encompassed by high, steep, rocky, snow-capped mountains, forming various chasms, and producing a forest of pine trees nearly to their very summits.

Friday 21.

As I intended to prosecute our examination thus along the starboard shore, until I should find sufficient employment for two parties to take different directions in the boats, we proceeded the next morning, but it being calm, with the utmost efforts of our boats a-head we gained only half a league by noon. Soon after this time, the wind, though variable, assisted us, and we advanced about 2 leagues. Another opening was passed on the starboard shore; and about seven in the evening we arrived in a situation N. 32 W. from our last anchorage, where the main branch of the inlet appeared to take two directions, one to the north-west, the other to the westward, with an island lying at their junction; the two branches being divided by a high ridge of steep mountains. Off the extremity of the starboard shore, in the above line of direction, was a small islet, and south of it a little sandy bay, where we anchored, and steadied the ship with a hawser to the shore.

Saturday 22.

The following morning Mr. Whidbey with the large cutter, attended by Mr. Humphrys in the launch, provided with supplies for a week, were dispatched to the openings we had left unexplored behind. And Mr. Johnstone in the Discovery's small cutter, attended by Mr. Barrie in the Chatham's launch, were sent to examine the branch leading to the westward and the larboard shore, so long as their week's supplies would

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hold out, or until the branch should be found to communicate with the sea, or bring the party back to the ship's station; in which case a report was to be made on board, prior to undertaking the survey of the north-west: branch, as I intended that service for Mr. Whidbey's execution after he should have examined the openings to the southward, in the event of his returning before Mr. Johnstone.

The poison which our people had received by eating the muscles, appeared by no means of so malignant a nature as to have remained unsubdued, could proper remedies have been timely applied. The means used for their recovery on their arrival on board was first an emetic; this operated very well; at bed time anodynes procured them good rest; these were followed the next day by cathartics, which had a powerful effect, gave great relief, and produced considerable abatement in the unpleasant symptoms; and with the assistance of diaphoretic medicines, and a strict attention to the complaints in their bowels, so intirely removed the malady, that one of the men was able this day to take his station in the boat, but the others not being quite so much recovered, were excused from duty some days longer.

The melancholy event that attended the discovery of the poisonous quality in the muscles, though it may probably be the means of preserving many lives in future, was to us, independently of the loss we sustained, attended with circumstances additionally mortifying. Wherever we had found these fish, they were sure to afford us a pleasant and palatable fresh meal. Prudence however now directed that we should abstain from them; which to persons in our situation, especially when detached from the ships, and frequently on a very scanty allowance, was the privation of no small comfort.

Sunday 23.

The weather enabled me to obtain some good observations, and in the evening Mr. Whidbey returned, having found the southern opening to extend N. 85 E. about 5 miles, and the other N. 72 E. about 3 miles, where each terminated as usual. This ascertained and traced the continental shore completely up to this station. At four o'clock the next morning, Mr. Whidbey with his party was again dispatched to the north-west branch. This he had examined by eleven in the forenoon.

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He reported, that it extended N. 28 W. for 5 miles, and that it there terminated. He had also traced the continental shore into the branch of the inlet, under the examination of Mr. Johnstone; but as the tenor of Mr. Johnstone's orders might induce him to pass some openings on the starboard shore, the provisions of Mr. Whidbey's party were recruited to a supply for a week, and he was again dispatched to continue his researches along the continental shore; on which occasion Mr. Menzies in pursuit of botanical information accompanied Mr. Whidbey.

This forenoon some additional observations were obtained for the longitude; in the evening, the sky was again overcast, and the wind that had blown fresh from the S. E. during the day, now increased to a strong gale, attended with small rain.

Monday 24.

The wind abated the next morning, but the rain that had been very heavy during the night, still continued. The wind from the S. E. again freshened in the evening, and blew hard in squalls, with torrents of rain. During the night, the tide rose three feet perpendicularly higher than it had been observed usually to flow, and floated away some of our water casks, that had been left to all appearance in perfect security. Our seine hooks and lines having been repeatedly tried without success, rendered our situation here very unprofitable, neither the sea nor the shores afforded us the smallest refreshment, nor the least relaxation; and the weather being extremely unpleasant, without any prospect of a change, necessarily increased the labour, and retarded the progress of our boats in the examination of this inhospitable region; whose solitary and desolate appearance, though daily more familiarized to our view, did not become less irksome to our feelings.

Thursday 27.

The weather continued to be variable and unsettled until the morning of the 27th, when, it becoming fair and pleasant, some observations were procured for ascertaining the latitude, longitude, and variation.

About noon on the following day Mr. Johnstone returned, and communicated the following particulars of his excursion.

The western branch he found to extend N. 55 W. about 12 miles, where it united with two extensive arms, one leading nearly north, the other about west. The western one continued near 2 leagues, where it

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united with two other branches more extensive than the former; one taking a southerly, the other a north-westerly direction. The first of these was pursued, and having by noon of the 23d advanced about 2 leagues, the latitude was observed on the larboard side to be 53° 11′, longitude 231° 3′; the variation of the compass 21° 40′, east; and high water 20′ after the moon passed the meridian. From hence in a south direction, this southern branch reached about 2 leagues further, where it took a sharp turn to the W.S.W. about 4 miles, and there communicated with a still more extensive opening, stretching to the S.W. and N.W. The land on the western side appeared to form a large island, on which rose a conspicuous ridge of mountains, with a remarkable peak nearly in their center, considerably above the rest; their summits were naked rocks, without the least appearance of verdure; the land to the southward was much lower, seemed greatly broken, and probably afforded several passages to sea. The wind blew strong from the south-east, attended with much rain. In the morning of the 24th the wind abated, but the rain continued. The opening leading to the westward was pursued, until the party was overtaken by a strong gale from the S. E., attended with very heavy rain and thick misty weather. This obliged them to seek shelter round a low point of land on the western shore, forming the north point of the apparent large island, in a small cove; which, though screening them from the violence of the wind and sea, admitted of very indifferent communication with the shore, being chiefly composed of steep rocky precipices. The wet and comfortless situation of the party, however, made it indispensably necessary that some place should be fought where the advantage of a fire might be had; and having ascended the top of a bare rock, some distance above high water mark, it was fixed upon for their night's abode, where they remained in the most uncomfortable manner, until by the unusual flow of the tide, produced by the increased violence of the storm, they were dislodged from this resting place, and obliged to retire to such shelter as the less inhospitable woods afforded. Here their hours passed with the most anxious concern till the return of day, left their boats should have been driven out of the cove; happily this did not prove to be the case; but a con-

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tinuation of the same inclement weather detained them until the 26th, when, it becoming rather more moderate, they had for the first time a tolerably distinct view of their situation. This was in a spacious channel about 2 miles in width, stretching in a westerly direction, which they followed about a league, when it opened to their view another still more extensive, taking a north-west and south-east course, and bounded by land near 2 leagues distant; this Mr. Johnstone concluded to be Banks's island, so named by some of the traders; and under that impression a passage to the ocean was deemed certain of being found by that route; for which reason, after Mr. Johnstone had observed the latitude on the south-west point of the westerly channel, off which lie an islet and some rocks about a mile from the shore, to be in 53° 10′, and its longitude 230° 41′, he commenced his return to the ship.

Mr. Johnstone had little doubt that the land, forming the west side of the channel that led him to the southward as he proceeded to his last station, and the east side of that which led him to the northwestward, was an island; and if his conjectures were right, a more direct passage to the vessels would necessarily be found, by which they might proceed to sea. These ideas proved in the sequel to be correct, and the island was found to be 5 leagues long in a north and south direction, and 5 miles in breadth; of a moderate though uneven height, composed chiefly of rocky materials, covered with pine trees of inferior growth, and having to the north and north-west of it much broken and divided land. About noon on the 26th the weather again became rainy and boisterous; this continued until noon the next day, when they arrived at the north point of the above island, and observed its latitude to be 53° 18′, longitude 230° 53½'. From hence, with fair pleasant weather, they made the best of their way towards the ships, where they arrived as before stated. The country that had falien under their observation, differed little from the general character of the surrounding region. That on the sea coast was somewhat less mountainous, chiefly covered with wood, and less encumbered with snow than the barren rugged summits of the mountains of the interior country.


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Those parts that had lately occupied Mr. Johnstone's attention, appeared to be the same that had been visited by Mr. Duncan, and called Nepean's found; Senr. Caamano had also resorted thither the preceding year, and had named the island which Mr. Johnstone circumnavigated, Isle de Gil. These names I accordingly adopted.

As this report rendered our stay here no longer necessary, I determined to proceed immediately to the western arm, where, on the continental shore, Mr. Johnstone had observed a bay that appeared likely to afford good anchorage, and which was so situated, that Mr. Whidbey on his return must necessarily perceive the ships; in the event, however, of his passing that station in the night, or in thick weather, I left a letter, sealed up, in a bottle, in a situation that had been agreed upon between us before his departure, containing such information and directions as should be necessary for his government.

Saturday 29.

By the time our brewing utensils and other matters were brought from the shore, the wind blew a strong gale from the S.E., attended with heavy squalls and thick rainy weather. This continued until the morning of the 29th; when, about ten in the forenoon, with the assistance of the tide, we towed out of the cove, and, a light breeze springing up from the eastward, we sailed up the western arm. Whilst we had remained at anchor only two small canoes, with three persons in each, had visited us; one on the preceding sunday, bringing nothing to dispose of, the other just before our departure, which brought three sea-otter skins and a: few salmon, that were exchanged principally with iron.

In this dreary and uninteresting place nothing further attracted our attention. The astronomical and nautical observations made there were very satisfactory, and by the former the cove was found to be situated in latitude 53° 10′, longitude 231° 26′. The variation of the compass, by sixteen sets of azimuths taken on shore, shewing from 19° to 24°, gave a mean result of 21° 37′ eastwardly; and, independently of the influence that the stormy weather seemed to have upon the tide, at the springs, the day tide rose fifteen feet three inches, the night tide about six inches higher, and was high water 10h 15′ after the moon passed the meridian.

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By seven in the evening we had advanced from the anchorage we had quitted only five miles up the western arm; it was about a mile in width, and the steepness of its rocky sides afforded little prospect of obtaining any anchorage on which we could depend for the night. We had repeatedly traversed from shore to shore without finding bottom with 165 and 185 fathoms of line, though within half the ship's length of the rocks. The tide now making against us, we were constrained to rest our sides against the rocks, and by hawsers fastened to the trees to prevent our being driven back. Our present resting place was perfectly safe, but this is not the case against every part of these rocky precipices, as they are frequently found to jet out a few yards, at or a little beneath low-water mark; and if a vessel should ground on any of those projecting parts about high water, she would, on the falling tide, if heeling from the shore, be in a very dangerous situation.

Sunday 30.

The weather was foggy for some hours the next morning, and was afterwards succeeded by a calm;' this, in addition to an unfavorable tide, detained us against the rocks until about noon, when a breeze from the westward enabled us to make sail, though with little effect. In the afternoon the breeze again died away; but with the assistance of our boats, and an eddy tide within about fifty yards of the rocks, we advanced by slow degrees to the westward, and found soundings from 45 to 60 fathoms, hard rocky bottom, about half a cable's length from the shore; but at a greater distance no ground could be gained. In this tedious navigation, sometimes brushing our sides against the rocks, at others just keeping clear of the trees that overhung them, we had advanced at midnight about four miles; and having, at that time, bottom at the depth of 45 fathoms, about forty yards from the shore, we let go the anchor; but such was the projecting declivity of the rocks on which the anchor at first rested, that it almost instantly slipped off into 60 fathoms. By this time however a hawser was made fast to the trees, and being hauled tight, it prevented the anchor slipping lower down, and just answered the purpose of keeping us from the projecting rocks of the shore.

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Monday 1.

About eight in the morning of the 1st of july, with the tide then seemingly in our favor, and a moderate westerly breeze, we made some progress, and by two in the afternoon we arrived at the place where I purposed to wait Mr. Whidbey's return. It was a commodious cove; the south point of it was formed by a rocky clump covered with trees, which became an island at high water. There a note was found from Mr. Whidbey, stating that he had quitted this station at seven in the evening on the same day he had left the ship; a distance that had taken us now three days to gain. We anchored in 46 fathoms, sandy bottom, and moored with a hawser to the rocky clump, which was our nearest shore, at the distance of a cable and an half. This little bay is formed by a stony beach, through which a considerable run of water falls into the sea; this flattered us with the hope of taking a few fish, but the seine was worked to no other purpose than that of tearing it to pieces; nor were we more successful with our hooks and lines. The shores however afforded us some raspberries, with black and red berries, and the labradore tea; these were all gathered at some little distance in the woods.

Tuesday 2.

At noon on the 2d I observed the latitude to be 53° 18′, longitude 231° 14′. The cutter and launch were then seen approaching the ships, by the channel Mr. Johnstone had pursued towards the ocean; and on their arrival on board, Mr. Whidbey communicated to me the following account of his expedition.

From this station he continued on the eastern shore, which took nearly a north direction. A small inlet was examined extending easterly about half a league, whose north point of entrance lies north from this place, about a league distant; there the party rested for the night in a very uncomfortable situation, owing to the extremely bad weather, and the rugged rocky shore, that scarcely afforded them a sufficient horizontal space to land and remain upon. The next morning (june 24th) as they were preparing to proceed, a smoke was discovered issuing from amongst the stones on the shore, that, at low tide, formed a kind of beach. On examination, a run of hot water was found passing amongst the stones, which at high tide must be at least six feet beneath the surface of the sea. They were not able to discover its source, and

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having no thermometer, its degree of heat could not be ascertained. Some of the seamen attempted to wash their hands in it, but found the heat inconvenient. It had a saltish taste, and Mr. Whidbey was of opinion, that the rapidity with which it flowed could scarcely permit of its receiving this favour from the sea water. Its colour and taste were thought to resemble much the waters at Cheltenham.

From hence Mr. Whidbey continued his route along the continental shore. This took a north-westerly direction to a point in latitude 53° 32′, longitude 231° 5′; in their way to this station, about 2 leagues to the south-east of it, a small branch was examined. It was about a mile in width; its first direction was N. 30 E. for about a league, and then S. 68 E. about 2 miles further, where it terminated in a round bason, having near its center a small island on the southern shore. Both sides were composed of perpendicular cliffs covered with pine trees. The breadth of the channel they had thus pursued was in general about half a league, until they approached this point, where it decreased to about half that width. The western shore was found to be nearly straight and compact, until the party were abreast of this point; there it formed a deep bay, whose shores appeared to he a little broken at the bottom. From this point the inlet taking an easterly direction widened to about half a league, and the continental shore first took a direction N. 75 E. about four miles, where it left but a narrow neck of land between it and the north side of the above-mentioned small branch. From thence it extended N. 50 E. about four miles further, to a point where the width of the inlet increased to about 3½ miles, and it divided into two branches; the principal one, or continuation of the former branch, stretched about N. by W.: the other S. E. by E., about a mile wide. This station they gained about breakfast time on the 25th, after passing a very uncomfortable night in consequence of the tide having flowed into their tents at the bottom, whilst a heavy torrent of rain was falling over their heads.

This point was named by Mr. Whidbey POINT STANIFORTH, and is situated in latitude 53° 34′, longitude 231° 17′. The shores they had passed were in part composed of lofty steep mountains, that rose nearly perpendicularly from the sea, and were covered from the water side to

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their summits with pines and forest trees. The then parts, equally well wooded, were less elevated, and terminated in sandy beaches with projecting points, forming several small bays and coves; and before they reached that part of the inlet which took an easterly direction, Mr. Whidbey observed more drift wood than he had seen on any other part of the coast. After breakfast the party entered the south-easterly branch, and found its shores composed of mountains that were barren towards their summits, but well wooded near the water side. As they advanced, its width increased to about half a league; and in a direction S.60 E. 3½ miles from point Staniforth, an island lies nearly in mid-channel, where they stopped to dine. At the entrance into this arm a tide was found in their favor, and not being more than half flood by the shore, Mr. Whidbey was flattered with the prospect of carrying the flood tide some distance; it however shortly turned, with a breeze, down the arm, and they were six hours advancing about 4 miles. They quitted their dinner station, leaving unexamined a small arm extending from the southern shore, and pursued the main branch, taking a direction from the island S. 55 E. This was traced along the southern shore 10 miles, until they arrived at a place that had the appearance of being a small bay; here they stopped for the night, after having advanced through a very desolate country, whose inhospitable shores were formed by such steep barren rocky precipices, as rendered the landing very difficult. A very few trees were thinly dispersed, of a slender dwarf kind, produced upon the naked rock.

The cutter having been very leaky during the afternoon, was instantly cleared and hauled up, when one of her planks under the larboard bow was discovered to have been stove in by some means, of which no one could form any conjecture. A piece of lead was nailed over the injured part, and the boat was again made tight.

At day-light on the 26th, their situation was discovered, instead of being in a small bay as had been supposed, to be a little way within the entrance of a small rivulet, about a cable's length wide, admitting, for about a fourth part of that extent, a passage of 5 fathoms water. It took a winding course to the S.W., between two mountains; the tide of flood

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ran strongly up, and the ebb returned with such impetuosity, that the boats could not make the least way against the current.

As many sunken rocks were lying across its entrance, Mr. Whidbey did not think it an object worth hazarding any further examination; and for that reason he proceeded immediately up the arm, taking an irregular direction, first about N. 50 E., for 8 miles, and then about S. 55 E., 22 miles; where, as usual, it terminated in shoal water, before a border of low land, through which flowed several small streams or rivulets of fresh water. The latitude appeared to be 53° 20′, longitude 232° 17′; it was high water by the shore 36′ after the moon passed the meridian, and the rise and fall of the tide was about fourteen feet.

On the morning of the 27th they returned down this arm, which, after Sir Alan Gardner, I called GARDNER'S CANAL. On this occasion Mr. Whidbey observed, that the face of the country through which they had passed from the little rapid rivulet, was almost an intirely barren waste, nearly destitute of wood and verdure, and presenting to the eye one rude mass of almost naked rocks, rising into rugged mountains, more lofty than any he had before seen, whose towering summits seeming to overhang their bases, gave them a tremendous appearance. The whole was covered with perpetual ice and snow, that reached, in the gullies formed between the mountains, close down to the high-water mark; and many water-falls of various dimensions were seen to descend in every direction.

By the morning of the 28th, they had reached the small arm on the southern shore, that had been passed unexamined on the afternoon of the 25th. This they now found extending S. 35 E. nine miles from point Staniforth, where it terminated as usual. From thence the party proceeded about seven miles up what appeared to be the main branch of the inlet, where they rested for the night, on the eastern shore, opposite to an island lying nearly in mid-channel. This station lies from point Staniforth N. 10 W. eight miles. The shores of the continent, from the south-eastern arm, were nearly straight and compact. Here they were visited by eight Indians in two canoes, the first that they had seen during this expedition. The natives behaved in a very civil and friendly manner, and presented the party with two sine salmon, each weighing

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about seventy pounds; these were the finest and largest that had been seen during our voyage, and the Indians, after being recompensed with a small piece of iron, departed very well pleased with the exchange.

The weather was calm, with heavy rain in the morning of the 29th, and so it continued all the day; notwithstanding this Mr. Whidbey resumed his examination in the afternoon, along the eastern or continental shore. From their place of rest it took a north direction for nine miles, to a projecting point that obtained the name of POINT HOPKINS, forming, within those limits, a deep bend, in which were many sandy bays. The shores here were moderately elevated and well covered with wood. Two openings to the south of this point were passed on the opposite shore. From hence the main inlet appeared to divide into two branches, one taking a north-easterly, the other a north-westerly direction. The former, as being a continuation of the continent, was first attended to, and was found to extend N. 37 E. seven miles to the south point of a small branch about half a mile wide. The eastern shore here formed a large sandy bay, and to the westward some rocky islets, and an island about four miles long, were passed. Here they were met by the same Indians who had furnished them with the two salmon, and who attended the party up the above-mentioned small branch. This, from its south point of entrance, took a direction S. 78 E. 7 miles, where it terminated as usual by shoal water in latitude 53° 54½' longitude 231° 30′. They stopped here to dine, and were visited by ten canoes, containing about sixty Indians; the largest of these, in which was the chief and his family, had its head and stern curiously decorated with carved work, and rude and uncouth figures in painting, resembling those with which they adorn their houses. The skins of the sea otter and some land animals they readily disposed of, for copper, blue cloth, and blankets, but the former seemed highest in their estimation. They all behaved very civilly and honestly, and were very compliant in doing whatever they were desired. Mr. Whidbey permitted the chief to sit with him at dinner; which he considered as a great indulgence, and conducted himself very well. He drank some grog, and appeared to be very fond of bread and sugar; he preferred the latter, and seemed greatly asto-

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nished at the taste of it; he gave some to several of his attendants, who seemed to be equally surprized. After dinner Mr. Whidbey returned down this branch, accompanied by the chief and his whole party, who every now and then sung songs, by no means unmelodious or unpleasing. The party reached the entrance in the evening, where they stopped for the night in a small cove within a bay. On making signs to the Indians that they were going to rest, all these immediately retired to another cove, at a little distance, where they remained perfectly quiet; and at four the next morning (the 30th) they accompanied them again in their researches up the main branch of the inlet. From hence it was about two miles wide, and took nearly a north direction 9 miles, to the latitude of 54° 4′, longitude 231° 19′, where it was terminated by a border of low land; whence extended a shallow flat from side to side, through which a small rivulet discharged itself at its eastern corner, navigable for canoes only. This termination differed in some respect from many of the others; its shores were not very abrupt, but were bounded on each side by a range of lofty mountains, which, however, were not (as had been constantly the case) connected at the head of the arm, but continued seemingly in a direction parallel to each other. The valley between them, which was three or four miles wide, formed nearly a plain, and was covered with tall forest trees, mostly of the pine tribe. This plain was supposed by Mr. Whidbey to extend some leagues, to where the distant mountains appeared to connect the two ranges. Our party made a late breakfast near the entrance of the rivulet, where they found the remains of an Indian village. On their moving from thence, their Indian attendants took their leave, went up the rivulet in their canoes, and were seen no more. Contrary winds, though the weather was now pleasant, retarded their progress so much, that by nine at night they had not reached more than eleven miles in a direction S. 20 W. from the head of the inlet. Here they stopped for the night on the western shore, close to a very large water-fall, about ten feet above high water mark, that had its source in a lake of fresh water which appeared to be deep, lying in a north-west direction.

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About three in the morning of the 1st of july, the party proceeded down the western shore, and soon arrived at the western division of the main inlet, mentioned on the 29th of june to have been seen from point Hopkins. This, which took a direction S. 35 W., was about a mile wide; its western shore being still a continuation of the continent, its eastern having the appearance of being an island, or a group of islands; so that little doubt was entertained of finding a passage by that route, instead of returning by the way they had come. For this reason Mr. Whidbey did not hesitate to proceed down the arm, and having advanced about five miles along the continental shore, he came to a point in latitude 53° 50′ longitude 231° 8½', which he named POINT ASHTON. Here another branch extended from that they were pursuing to the northward, and, at a little distance, appeared again to divide into two arms, to the north and the north-west.

By this time their provisions were nearly exhausted; and as there was no certainty of gaining a passage to the ship by this route, Mr. Whidbey deemed it most prudent to quit the further examination of the continental shore, and to make the best of his way towards the vessels. At point Ashton they breakfasted, and by the shore found it high water there 13′ after the moon passed the meridian. From this point in. a southerly direction were several rocky islets, and two small islands. After breakfast they made considerable progress, and found the arm take a direction S. 30 W., 14 miles to a point on the east shore. About half way from point Ashton, they passed on that shore by an opening, stretching to the north-east, and communicating most probably with one of those they had passed on the opposite side of the land, extending to the westward. From this last station the channel ran nearly south; and by ten in the forenoon of the 2d of july, their former opinion was confirmed, by their arriving at the south-west extremity of the land which, in their way up to point Hopkins, had formed their western, and on their return from point Ashton, their eastern shore. This, which I called POINT CUMMING, is situated in latitude 53° 18½', longitude 230° 58′, from hence the islet, on which Mr. Whidbey had left a note the 23d of

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june, was seen lying nearly east, at the distance of about nine miles. Thus his conjectures were proved to have been well founded, and that the intervening land composed an extensive island about thirty-three miles in length, and from three to eleven miles in breadth.

* Now Lord Liverpool.

This island, after that noble and indefatigable promoter of the British commerce, Lord Hawkesbury,* I named HAWKESBURY'S ISLAND. From point Cumming the party returned to the ships as already related.

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Mr. Whidbey again dispatched with two boats — Anchor near the isle de Gil—Account of Mr. Whidbey's excursion—Quit Fisherman's cove—Pass between Banks's island and Pitt's archipelago into the ocean — Enter Chatham's found—Meet three English vessels—Arrive in Observatory inlet —Anchor in Salmon bay—Boats again dispatched on the survey.

1793. July.

OUR distance from the place where Mr. Whidbey had quitted the examination of the continental shore being at least 15 leagues, and the probability there was, that the branches he had left unexamined, on the western shore, were only small arms, induced me not to proceed in the vessels so far, in such a tedious and disagreeable navigation, but to take a situation somewhere in the neigbourhood of the north-west part of Mr. Johnstone's researches; where the vessels would be conveniently stationed for proceeding in the inland navigation, should this be found adviseable, or for pursuing the route Mr. Johnstone had explored leading towards the ocean.

With a favorable breeze we steered to the westward, but we had no sooner entered the channel by which the boats had returned, which was about half a league in width, and communicated with Nepean's found, than the favorable breeze died away, and it was succeeded by light baffling winds in the contrary direction. As we at first advanced in this channel, foundings were gained from 40 to 45 fathoms, at the distance of near two cables' length on each side; but, the ebb-tide being in our favor, and we being also in hopes of finding foundings as we proceeded, I was not induced to anchor until the flood should return; at which time, the

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Wednes. 3.

wind intirely dying away, and we being in the middle of the channel, it was not until midnight, though with the assistance of all our boats a-head towing, that we arrived in 60 fathoms water, about half a cable's length from the southern shore, and four miles and an half from our late anchorage. The bottom did not appear by the lead to be rocky. The anchor, however, in the morning slipped off the bank, and the ship was adrift; it was immediately hove up, and with light variable winds, attended with much rain, we attempted to advance until two in the afternoon; when finding we lost ground, we came to an anchor on the southern shore, about half a mile to the eastward of the place we had left in the morning, in 40 fathoms water; but before a hawser could be made fast to the shore, the anchor again slipped into 60 fathoms: this precaution however prevented our being again adrift, or the anchor from slipping into deeper water.

Such being the unavoidable and tedious delays attendant on moving the vessels, I dispatched Mr. Whidbey in the large cutter, attended by Mr. Barrie in the small one, to prosecute the inland navigation; appointing a rendezvous not likely to be mistaken, whither we should proceed by such advances as were in our power. But, in case this service should be early completed, and he himself returned before the arrival of the vessels at the appointed place, which was that where Mr. Johnstone's investigation was intended to commence, he was then to proceed in that route, leaving, in a situation easily to be discovered, due information of his proceedings; by which means any further examination in that quarter would become intirely unnecessary. With these directions, and ten days' provisions, he departed about noon.

Thursday 4.

We remained in this situation until about half past ten in the forenoon of the 4th, when a moderate breeze springing up from the south-westward, we made sail to windward. Our progress was so flow, that at seven in the evening we had only reached point Cumming; and we had no sooner rounded this point, than the wind, that had been against us the whole day, and would now have been favorable, instantly shifted to the very point for which, on entering Nepean's found, we had wanted to steer, in order to reach our rendezvous now at the distance of about four miles. This disappointment compelled us, at ten o'clock, to an-

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chor, and make fast to the trees, two miles to the northward of the above point, in 50 fathoms water; the bottom sand and stones, about half a cable's length from the eastern shore. In the morning, the appointed rendezvous for meeting Mr. Whidbey's party not having been visited by any of our boats, I ordered the master of the Chatham to go thither, and to ascertain the best anchorage for the vessels. About ten o'clock a light breeze from the N.W. springing up, we made sail to windward in order to follow him.

On heaving up the best bower anchor, to our great surprize and mortification, we found it broken. The palm, with half the arm of the anchor, was broken off. It had evidently struck slantingly against a rock, as the mark of the rock still remained on the broken part of the anchor; and as there was not the least strain in weighing it, there is little doubt that its own weight broke it in the act of falling. The anchor appeared to have been composed of very bad materials, and to have been very ill wrought; it had broken quite short off, and had it not been for the shape of the bars, that remained in its inside in their original state, the texture of the metal would rather have induced the belief of its being cast, than wrought, iron.

Such were the anchors with which we were supplied, for executing this tedious, arduous, and hazardous service. Happily, neither on this, nor on the former similar occasion, about this time in the preceding year, were we exposed to any immediate danger, otherwise the chances of our escaping would have been much against us. A loss of confidence in the liability of these our last resources, must always be attended with the most painful reflections that can occur in a maritime life. From our unfortunate experience, little dependence could be placed in future on the services of our anchors, should we be driven to the cruel necessity of resorting to them as a last resource.

On Mr. Manby's return, he reported, that although the neighbourhood of the spot he had been sent to examine afforded anchorage, yet it was very much exposed, and the foundings gained were off a small sandy beach, that extended but a little way in any direction. On more minutely noticing the western shore of this inlet, being the cast side of

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the isle de Gil, I saw a situation that promised to answer our present purpose, having now to break out the main hold for another anchor. I sent a boat to found it, and on receiving a favorable report, about three o'clock we anchored in 40 fathoms; stones, shells, and sandy bottom; mooring with a hawser to the shore. The bay is situated on the north-east part of the island, about 2 miles from its northern extremity. Its outer points bearing by compass N. W. to S. E. by E., our distance about a cable's length from the shore.

Saturday 6.

My intentions now were, that the Chatham should proceed to, and remain at, the rendezvous, for the information of the boats; and that the Discovery should continue at this more eligible station for the service we had to perform. But on observing the Chatham haul her wind, instead of anchoring at the place appointed, I concluded the anchorage was not found very desirable; the signal was therefore made for them to join us, which was accordingly done about five in the evening. We immediately sat about replacing the anchors; this was accomplished, and the hold re-stowed by noon the next day.

The Chatham's launch requiring some repairs, detained Mr. Johnstone and his party until four o'clock on sunday morning, when, with supplies for a week, he departed, in order to resume his examination of the coast towards the ocean; with directions to call at the place appointed for Mr. Whidbey's rendezvous, bearing by compass N. 27 W. distant 3 miles, and there to leave information of his departure, and of the station the vessels had taken. About nine Mr. Johnstone returned, having found a note from Mr. Whidbey, which stated, that the openings he had pursued to the northward in the inland navigation, had been all found to terminate in the usual way; that he had quitted the rendezvous the preceding day at noon, whither he had then traced the continental shore, and had departed with the view of continuing its further examination up an arm leading to the north-west. Mr. Johnstone left the directions according to his orders, and returned on board, as this intelligence of Mr. Whidbey's proceedings had rendered his expedition unnecessary. On his arrival he pointed out a situation round the north point of this island, which appeared to him more eligible for waiting the

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return of the boats than the station we had taken; but as this afforded an abundance of berries and of the labradore tea, I was induced to remain here another day, that our people might have the advantage of a ramble into the woods, and of partaking of those excellent refreshments.

Tuesday 9.

As the wind blew from the northward directly into the bay, attended with thick misty weather, we remained quiet until tuesday, when we proceeded to the station pointed out by Mr. Johnstone. On anchoring, the bed bower was in 33, the small bower in 43 fathoms, about a quarter of a mile from the shore; the bottom dark sand and mud. Our situation was directly to the south-westward of the north point of the isle de Gil. whose shores bore by compass S. by E. to N. E. by E.; the nearest opposite shore west, about half a league distant; the arm under Mr. Whidbey's examination north-west, distant 2 miles; and the appointed rendezvous distant about a league.

Wednes. 10.

Sunday 14.

The next morning the seine was hauled, and a good meal of fish procured for all hands; an abundance of berries were produced on the adjacent shores, and a sufficient quantity of fish caught to supply our wants during our stay, which continued without any particular occurrence until the following sunday. About seven in the morning the boats returned, after having pursued the examination of the continental shore, through an arm whose entrance, 2 miles from this station, was in a direction N. 30 W.; in which its boundaries were traced to the latitude of 54° 24′, longitude 229° 42′, and considered to be there the eastern part of Chatham's found, so named by some former visitors. From thence the continental shore, which took a northerly direction, appeared to be compact, and formed the eastern side of a very spacious and extensive opening, lying in the same direction with the continent from 2 to 3 leagues it width, and nearly unlimited in its northern direction. The continental shore was composed of a range of lofty mountains covered with snow; but the western side of the found was divided into large and small islands, through which Mr. Whidbey saw two channels communicating with the ocean. By one of these he intended to have returned, but the strong southerly winds that prevailed induced him to return by the inland navigation. The following is an account of this excursion.


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By noon of the 4th the party reached point Ashton, where Mr. Whidbey on his former expedition had quitted the examination of the continental shore. Having dined they proceeded round this point along the continent, up the northern branch then left unexplored; and found it, as it had appeared to be, divided into two small arms, the first scarcely half a mile wide, taking a direction N. 18 E., about 4 miles, where it terminated in low land, rising gradually to a moderate height within the country. The east side of the arm bore a similar appearance, indented with several sandy bays; but the western side was high, steep, and rocky. The other branch of this opening, extending from point Ashton N. 10 W., was about the same width; with an island situated nearly in its middle, and some sunken rocks on its eastern shore. This branch terminated by low swampy land, surrounded on every side by high mountains, with deep gullies between them where the snow had lodged, and in some places remained frozen, though not more than twenty feet above the level of the sea. Each side of the arm was well wooded, but composed of steep rocky shores. Having thus satisfied themselves the party returned, and rested for the night in a small cove on the continental shore, three miles to the southward of point Ashton. From hence the continental shore first took a direction S. 31 W. fifteen miles; here it formed a small cove, in which is a fresh water brook; from thence it extended nearly south, twelve miles; and having examined in their way a small bay about a mile wide, and half a league deep, they entered a narrow opening that first took nearly a south-west direction about a league, and then S. 15 E., about 3½ miles further; where it again communicated with the main channel, making the eastern shore a small island about a league and a half long, whose south end was the appointed rendezvous. In this neighbourhood Mr. Whidbey expected to have found the vessels; but being disappointed, he left the note as before mentioned, and prosecuted the examination of the continent up the arm already pointed out, which they entered about noon. During their morning's excursion they were visited by seven canoes, in which were about thirty of the natives, most of whom Mr. Whidbey described to be little old men; there were few young men amongst them, and no women nor children. They brought

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a very inferior assortment of sea otter skins to dispose of, and their general appearance indicated them to be a very poor tribe; they stayed with our party about an hour, and conduced themselves in a very orderly manner.

At the south-east point of entrance into this arm, which lies west about two miles from the rendezvous point, and for two miles within, the sea abounded with sea otters. These, in the most sportive manner, played about the boats, rearing themselves half way out of the water, and holding up their young ones in their fore paws, as if to view the boats as they passed. The arm at this place was not more than half a mile wide, with straight and compact shores on each side; they found its direction N. 40 W., until they had advanced about twenty-four miles from the entrance, when they arrived at a small harbour, or rather cove, on the eastern shore, where they passed a very rainy and uncomfortable night.

At day-light, in the morning of the 7th, some rocks were found near the head of this cove, which was bounded by a sandy beach, having a lagoon of water behind it. Off its north-west point was an island, from whence the arm was found to continue its same width and direction about four miles further. It then stretched N. 27 W., about eight miles to the south point of an opening on the western or continental shore, about a mile wide; its opposite point of entrance lying north. At this point the width of the main arm increased to nearly half a league. Off the south point lie many rocks, both above and beneath the surface of the water. The shores, along which they had thus navigated from the entrance of the arm, were mountainous on the east or continental side, but, on the opposite side, low and rocky; both produced pine-trees, and were interspersed with bare and naked patches. From this point the opening was found to take a course first S. 37 E. for four miles, where it ended in a sandy bay, in which were some sunken rocks; from thence it extended N. 9 W., six miles, where it finally terminated in the usual manner, with some rocky islets, and sunken rocks, about half way up. Immediately within its north point of entrance lies a small island, behind which is a deep sandy cove. From this northern point the eastern shore took a direction N. 45 W., three miles and an half, to a small cove, where

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they rested for the night, which, as well as the day, was very rainy and unpleasant.

Although the rain still continued, the party again proceeded at four the next morning along the continental shore, N. 31 W., ten miles, to the south point of a bay, about a mile wide, and two miles deep, in a north-east direction, with many islets and several sunken rocks about it. Here they were detained by thick foggy weather until near noon, when it cleared up, and permitted Mr. Whidbey to observe the latitude of the above point to be 53° 53′, its longitude 230° 12½. Having examined the bay, they proceeded, and found the east shore to take a rounding direction westerly to a cove, lying from the above bay N. 23 W., distant about nine miles. Here they rested for the night, which, like the former, was very wet and uncomfortable.

In their way hither the continental shore was found to be lined with innumerable rocky islets and rocks, above and below the surface of the sea; nor was the middle of the channel free from these obstructions, where was also a cluster of islands; and behind them, an extensive opening on the opposite shore ran to the S.S.W., appearing to divide the land. To the north-west of that opening the south-west shore still continued N. 35 W., from whence the main arm increased its width to near half a league, and formed a channel leading to the northwestward, with land lying between it and the continental shore. This last now took a direction N. 5 W., and formed a channel with the eastern shore of the above intermediate land, from 2 to 3 miles wide. The south point of this land bore from hence N. 69 W., distant 3 miles. In the morning of the 9th they bent their way up this channel, passing along the continent, and found the shores composed of steep rocky cliffs, difficult to land upon, though but moderately elevated; their lower parts being well wooded, but towards their summits rugged and barren; here also they met with immense numbers of sea otters playing about the boats, which were frequently fired at, but without effect.

Soon after they had left the cove, they found themselves opposed by a very rapid stream, against which the boats could scarcely make any way; it was remarked, that no part of this stream seemed to enter the

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passage which the boats had pursued, but was wholly directed towards the above S.S.W. opening, that appeared to divide the south-western shore, and left little doubt of that passage communicating with the ocean, as the current was evidently the ebb tide.

Having advanced seven miles along the main land in the above direction, they arrived at a point from which the intermediate land before mentioned was clearly perceived to be a high island, about seven miles long; its north point lying N. 77 W. at the distance of three miles and a half. This formed the south-west point of a passage communicating with a very extensive found, in which were several islands; between these the open sea was supposed to be seen, as the horizon appeared unbounded beyond those islands. From this point also, the east point of that passage bore N. 64 W. 1½ miles distant. This proved to be the south point of a high island, where the party met with a stood tide, and found the continental shore continue in the same direction about a league, when they suddenly came into four feet water; and found themselves at the entrance of a branch leading to the north-east, about 2 miles wide. To gain a greater depth of water, they hauled over to its northern shore, passing many dead trees that were lodged on the bank, where no more than three to six feet water were found, until within half a mile of the northern shore, when the water suddenly deepened to 7 fathoms. This bank joins on to the south point of entrance into this branch, to which I gave the name of POINT LAMBERT, after commissioner Lambert of the navy; it is situated in latitude 54° 10½', longitude 230° 6½'. From it the shoal forms a rounding spit, and terminates on the southern shore, about two miles within the point. They now proceeded in the direction of the branch N. 30 E., with foundings from 10 to 7 fathoms, for about 7 miles, when they came abreast of some islands on the northern shore, lying before the entrance of a narrow opening which took a south-east direction. Having passed this, they continued in mid-channel about 2 miles further, when they came into 2 fathoms water. Here Mr. Whidbey remained till high water, which was 1h 45′ after the moon passed the meridian, and then dispatched Mr. Barrie to the northern

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shore, whilst he founded the southern side, towards the above islands, where he found no more than 3 fathoms water.

At one of these islands, which, from the quantity of excellent raspberries it produced, obtained the name of RASPBERRY ISLAND, Mr. Barrie joined the party, and reported, that the shoal extended within a cable's length of the north shore, where it formed a narrow channel with the main land 7 fathoms deep. Under these circumstances Mr. Whidbey determined to stay at the island until low water, that a better judgment might be formed of their actual situation, since, from the rapidity and regularity of the tides he began to suspect it to be a river.

In the evening Mr. Barrie was sent to the opening extending to the south-east, and Mr. Whidbey went to the above 7 fathom channel; but found that it was too narrow to be navigated, and that it was interspersed with sand banks and sunken rocks. On his return to Raspberry island, he was met by Mr. Barrie, who made a similar report of the opening he had been sent to explore. Mr. Whidbey however, wishing to be more fully satisfied, went himself on the morning of the 10th to the south-east opening, and found its entrance obstructed with innumerable sunken rocks, and the tide rushing down it in violent overfals. He retired to Raspberry island for the purpose of returning to take a second view there at low water; as the night tides in this country rise in general much higher, and fall much lower than those that flow in the day. This proved to be so much the case in this instance, that they were enabled to see, at low tide, the whole space of the branch above them from side to side intirely dry, up to its very head, which was about 4 miles from the island they were then upon; encumbered with sunken rocks, and innumerable large round stones scattered in all directions. From its head, there appeared in this point of view three small rivulets, that flowed over this shallow space, very dangerous for boats on account of the rapidity of the tide, and of the rocks and stones that could scarcely be avoided. Mr. Whidbey prudently declined wasting any more time in its further examination, and taking the advantage of the ebb tide that commenced at three in the afternoon, he returned, and directed his course towards the entrance into the extensive found he had seen on the 9th. During their late researches in this branch, which

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I have called PORT ESSINGTON, after Captain Essington of the navy, the flood tide was observed to run up at the rate of 4, and the ebb tide down at the rate of 5 knots per hour; the tides regular nearly six hour each way, and the water perfectly fresh at low tide, though brackish at high water. Many sea otters were seen playing about, and diverting themselves amongst the rocks at all times of tide. The surrounding country was in general moderately elevated, particularly its north-west side, where, in several places, low land seemed to stretch to some distance; but to the northward and eastward, the view was bounded by lofty barren mountains wrapped in perpetual frost and snow.

About five in the evening, they reached the north point of the island forming the south side of the passage into the large found, nearly four leagues from Raspberry island. This passage, which is two miles long, and about a mile wide from island to island, was mostly occupied by shoals and over-falls, from 3 feet to 3 fathoms, contracting it to a very narrow channel close on the southern side, where the depth was 15 and 16 fathoms all the way through into the found. From hence a view was gained of the spacious opening before them, from six to seven miles wide, whose width seemed to increase further to the N.W., interspersed, in most directions, with small islands, rocky islets, rocks and shoals. One extensive dry sandbank, in particular, was seen lying from this point, N. 53 W., a league distant. The south-western shore of the extensive arm they had passed through from Nepean's found, still continued its last-mentioned course, and formed the south-west side of the spacious found, that has been mentioned already to have been discovered before, and named after the Earl of Chatham. From this point they steered towards some islands that lie to the south-west of the above sand-bank. The foundings were irregular, from 10 to 3, and sometimes only 2, fathoms water. At one of these islands, lying from the point they had left N. 65 W., at the distance of four or five miles, the party rested for the night.

The next morning (july 11) as Mr. Whidbey was taking his bearings, he found the compass vary 13° from his former observations. He altered its situation, then placed it on a tree, yet the same difference appeared; from whence he was led to suspect, that some mistake had been made on

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the preceding day; but, on revising his former angles, he was convinced that the deviation had commenced in this, and not at any former station; proving that the component parts of this island are strongly impregnated with a magnetic quality, a circumstance that had occurred in other instances during our former investigation, but more particularly in New Georgia than in these northern regions.

From this island they sleered over towards the larboard side of the found, and soon passed the northern extremity of the land, mentioned before as forming its south-west side; the extreme point of which terminates the N. 35 W. direction of that shore, and forms a very conspicuous point, surrounded on all sides with many rocks and islets. To this point I gave the name of POINT HUNT; it is situated in latitude 54° 10½', longitude 229° 48′. From hence the shores of that land took an irregular direction S. 50 W., for seven miles, to a point which I called POINT PEARCE; the intermediate space is bounded by innumerable rocks and other impediments, forming at first a wide channel, with the land to the north-west of it, but decreasing at this point to about a mile. Its nearest opposite side bore N. 72 W.; to the westward of this point the channel again expanded, and the larboard shore fell back considerably, forming a deep bay, in which were several small openings running to the south-eastward. In a direction W. by S., about three miles from point Pearce, Mr. Whidbey landed on the south point of a small island, lying before the northern shore of this channel, where he observed the latitude to be 54° 5′, longitude 229° 34½', and from whence he had a clear and distinct view of the ocean. The western point of the northern shore lying N. 58 W., and the western point of the southern or larboard shore S. 78 W. This latter, forming a very conspicuous projecting land, I named, after Mr. Ibbetson of the Admiralty, CAPE IBBETSON; it is situated in latitude 54° 4′, longitude 229° 3o', having between it and the westernmost land, on the northern shore, a cluster of rocky islets; exclusively of which, the channel out to sea appeared to be without interruption, though, about the northern shore, there were several rocks and islets.

By this unequivocal view of the ocean, it was positively ascertained, that the land forming the south-west side of the extensive channel they

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had pursued, from Nepean's found to point Hunt, and from thence to cape Ibbetson, constituted either an archipelago of islands, or one island upwards of 20 leagues in length; but as I considered the former most likely to be the case, I named it after the Right Hon. William Pitt, PITT'S ARCHIPELAGO. Mr. Whidbey much wished to have returned to the ships along its southern side; but, as a strong S. E. wind prevailed, attended with a good deal of sea, against which they were not likely to make much progress in the open ocean; and their stock of provisions being reduced to a very low state, Mr. Whidbey abandoned that project in order to return by the way he came; but first went back into Chatham found for the purpose of acquiring some farther information respecting it.

On repassing the channel just mentioned as being a mile in width, Mr. Whidbey noticed to the north-east of it, on the shores of Pitt's archipelago, two sandy bays, that appeared likely to afford good anchorage; but having other objects in view, he did not enter them, but proceeded up the found, where the afternoon was employed in fixing the situation of the several islands, rocks, &c. which it contained. From one of the former, lying from point Hunt N. 43 W., at the distance of eight miles, a distant view was again obtained of the ocean, making the western shore of the found, from the passage they had left leading to sea, an island about four leagues long. To this, after Sir Philip Stephens of the admiralty, I gave the name of STEPHENS'S ISLAND. Its north point lies, from this island, N. 85 W., distant five miles; and the opposite side of this channel leading out to sea, N. 45 W. From hence they visited another cluster of islands, where the party rested for the night, and which terminated the northern extent of their excursion.

Returning on the morning of the 12th, Mr. Whidbey passed close by Point Hunt, and pursued the channel observed to stretch to the north-west, on the evening of the 8th; where, towards its southern part, several sunken rocks were found in mid-channel, and in passing through the cluster of islands mentioned at the same time, they found them to be surrounded by rocks and shoal-water. From hence they lost no time in making the best of their way to the ship, through the same channel by which they had advanced


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This channel, about 22 leagues long, communicating between Chatham's and Nepean's founds, I named, after the Right Hon. Lord Grenville, GRENVILLE'S CANAL.

The result of this expedition left no doubt as to the measures that were to be pursued. I therefore directed that the brewing utensils and other matters should be immediately removed from the shore, and the vessels unmoored; my intention being, to proceed through the channel that Mr. Johnstone had found leading towards the ocean, and from thence to continue to the north-westward, through the passage formed by Banks's island to the south-west, and Pitt's archipelago to the north-east. This channel had already been navigated by Senr. Caamano, who had named it Canal del Principe, and in whose chart it is represented as fair and navigable.

Whilst our business with the shore was going forward, three canoes, in which were some of the natives, made their appearance; these, with one canoe seen some clays before at a distance, in which were some people, were the only inhabitants we had noticed during our residence in Nepean's found. One only of these canoes ventured near us this morning; it contained four or five persons, who made their approach with the utmost diffidence and caution. They disposed of a few indifferent sea otter skins, and seemed, in a trifling degree, to differ in their persons from the people we had been accustomed to see; they were not taller, but they were stouter, their faces more round and flat, their hair coarse, straight, black, and cut short to their head; in this respect they differed from any of the tribes of North West America with whom we had met, who, though in various fashions, universally wore their hair long, which was in general of a soft nature, and chiefly of a light or dark brown colour, seldom approaching to black.

The wind being light and variable, kept us stationary until near noon, when, seeming to be settled in the north-east quarter, we quitted our anchorage. Although the shores here formed no very great indent, I distinguished it by the name of Fisherman's cove, from our success in procuring fish, which in these regions were a very scarce commodity. In this cove are two considerable runs of fresh water, and wood may be

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easily procured in abundance. The foundings are from 15 to 40 fathoms, good holding ground, where a few vessels may ride with great safety and convenience.

Whilst we remained in Fisherman's cove, I procured observations sufficient to ascertain its situation, by which its latitude was found to be 53° 18½, its longitude deduced from six sets of the sun's altitude and the chronometers, 230° 53′; the variation, by three different compasses taken on shore, shewing from 20° 29′ to 22° 18′, gave the mean result of 21° 17′ eastwardly. Fisherman's cove being situated at the extremity of an island, in the midst of this very broken region, it was impossible to ascertain with the least regularity any thing respecting the tides, as they were so much influenced by the winds and other latent causes.

It was seven in the evening before we had passed through the northern entrance into Nepean's found, when the wind, which blew in very light airs, being favorable, our course was directed slowly up the Canal del Principe.

Monday 15.

The next morning a light breeze springing up, we stood to windward, and at noon Banks's island extended from S. 51 E. to N. 70 W., the latter being in a line with a part of the shores of Pitt's archipelago; so that, as yet, we had not the passage to sea open. At this time we were a-breast of a small opening about N.E. by N., at the distance of a mile, apparently the same that had been named by Mr. Duncan, Port Stephens; its entrance was obstructed by many rocky islets and rocks, and it presented no very tempting appearance as a port. The easternmost land in sight, on the northern side of the canal, bore by compass S. 58 E., and the nearest shore of Banks's island S.W. by W., about a mile distant; here the observed latitude was 53° 26½', longitude 230° 19′.

In the afternoon, we passed the Port de Canaveral; it seemed to be extensive, and to have an entrance, free from obstruction, about a league and a half wide. Its outer points lie N. 35 W. and S. 35 E. from each other; off the latter lies a small round island, in latitude 53° 29′, longitude 230° 16′. As we made a tolerable progress in plying, we continued under sail until nine in the evening; when we anchored it 34 fathoms, within the length of three cables from the shores of Pitt's ar-

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chipelago, which consisted here of a number of small islands and rocks, lying in front of land more compact, extending westward from the north point of Port del Canaveral, and bearing by compass N. 73 W. to E. by S.; each extreme being about two miles distant. Here we had a view of the ocean between a projecting point on the shores of Pitt's archipelago, and the N.W. point of Banks's island; the former bearing by compass N. 80 W., the latter N. 86 W., and the nearest opposite shore on Banks's island S. by W., about two miles distant.

Tuesday 16.

The wind prevented our sailing until nine o'clock the next morning, when a patch of rocks was discovered that had not more than 3 fathoms water over them, about half a cable's length from the ship's anchorage, bearing by compass W.N.W. By eight in the evening we had reached nearly the western extent of this channel, and finding foundings near the eastern shore in 35 fathoms water, we anchored for the night. In this situation, the N.E. point of the Canal del Principe bore by compass N. 66 W., about a league distant; its N.W. point S. 72 W.; this latter is the north point of Banks's island, and is situated in latitude 53° 39½', longitude 229° 47′. The nearest shore E.N.E. about three cables' length distant.

This canal, from the north point of entrance into Nepean's found, to the north point of Banks's island, extends first in a direction N. 43 W., to the south point of Puerto del Canaveral, and from thence to its N.W. point N. 63 W., in all about 14 leagues. The southern shore is nearly straight and compact, without foundings; the northern shore is much broken, bounded by many rocks and islets, and affording foundings in several places. On the south-west side the acclivity is the greatest, but both sides of the canal may be considered as elevated land, and are intirely covered with pine trees, which seemed to be produced principally from a soil of decayed vegetables in the chasms of the rocks. The shores abounded with a great number of very shy sea otters.

Thursday 18.

Light variable winds, attended by dark gloomy weather, detained us at anchor until four on thursday morning, when we weighed, in company with the Chatham. We had a moderate breeze from the westward, with cloudy weather, that soon turned to drizzling rain, approaching

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Friday 19.

nearly to a fog; we continued, however, to turn towards the ocean, and, by eight in the evening, gained a good offing between Queen Charlotte's islands and the north-west part of Pitt's archipelago, where we found a good space to work in, the wind blowing at N.N.W. exactly in the direction we wanted to steer. Our soundings, during the night, were between 30 and 40 fathoms muddy bottom; but in the morning we passed over a bank of sand and shells, on which there was only from 23 to 25 fathoms; but the depth suddenly increased on each side to 30 fathoms water, muddy bottom.

The wind was now at N.N.W., blowing a fresh gale, with hazy weather, the land of Queen Charlotte's islands was in sight, but the haze prevented our distinguishing any of its conspicuous points. At noon, the north-west point of Banks's island bore by compass S. 83 E., the island of Bonilla S. 55 E., and the northernmost land in sight N. 55 E. The latitude observed was 53° 46′; longitude 229° 20′.

From this station we ran five miles W.S.W. in 21 fathoms water, sandy and shelly bottom; this I considered to be a continuation of the bank we had crossed in the morning. The wind still remaining unfavorable, we continued to ply all night, with soundings from 25 to 53 fathoms; the bottom at the latter depth black sand and mud, at the former light brown sand and shells.

Saturday 20.

The next morning we had again an indistinct view of Queen Charlotte's islands; but the wind veering to the S.E., accompanied by thick misty weather, they were soon again obscured.

About noon, the wind freshened with all the appearance of an approaching gale, and rendered our situation by no means so pleasant as could have been wished. By the transient view we had had of the shores to the north of us, they appeared broken, and bounded with many rocky islets and rocks. We had now passed the north point of Stephens's island, which bore by compass S. 84 E., at the distance of 2 leagues, and were a-breast of the opening through which, from Chatham's found, Mr. Whidbey had seen the ocean; but at too great distance to discern the innumerable rocky islets and rocks that nearly occupied the whole passage leading out. These dangers, the gloominess of the weather, and

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the impending gale from the S. E., combined to give this unexplored channel an appearance so forlorn, as scarcely to admit the idea of its being navigable. I was still very unwilling to abandon the prospect we now had, of speedily arriving at the station to which our boats had already traced the boundaries of the continental shore; and for this reason I directed our course towards the intricate inhospitable labyrinth, lying between us and the point I was so anxious to gain; in the hope, that amongst the numerous islets and rocks, some place of secure anchorage might be found, until the weather should become more favorable to our views. As we advanced our prospects became less flattering. The lucid intervals of the mist only exhibited our situation to be more intricate and dangerous, by discovering rocks and breakers that had not been seen before. In this painful situation of care and apprehension, I experienced no small degree of relief, by unexpectedly discovering a whale-boat rowing towards the ship; we instantly brought to, and on the officer coming on board, I learned that he belonged to the Butterworth of London, then at anchor in a very commodious place, on the eastern side of the rocky group before us, whither he very civilly offered to conduct us. We made sail immediately for the channel we had before been steering for, which was the same as that by which the Butterworth had entered the found, between the northernmost of the above group of islets, breakers, and rocks, and a ledge of sunken rocks to the north, on which the sea broke only at intervals. We reached our promised station about six in the evening, and anchored, in company with the Chatham, in 36 fathoms water. The Butterworth, Prince Lee Boo, and Jackall schooner, belonging to the same concern, we found riding here, under the orders of Mr. Brown, commander of the Butterworth, who saluted us with seven guns, which compliment was returned by five.

Soon after we had anchored, Mr. Brown visited the Discovery, and I believe I may venture to assert, that the satisfaction arising from meeting with our fellow countrymen in such distant regions of the globe was very mutual on this occasion. Mr. Brown informed me, that, he had spent some time in this immediate neighbourhood, and on coming out of a harbour that lies to the N.N.W. of this station, about 3 leagues

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distant, his ship had struck upon a rock that seemed to be a small pinnacle situated by itself, as no foundings were gained near it; the ship remained but a short time upon the rock before the rising of the sea disengaged her, though not without knocking off her rudder. This however was fortunately recovered, and its damages were nearly repaired.

Whilst the Butterworth had remained stationary, Mr. Brown had been employed in his small vessels in various directions, and to some extent, about this coast, particularly to the north-westward, in procuring of furs. He very obligingly communicated to me every information he had been able to obtain. The principal circumstance was that of his having sailed up a large opening, whose southern entrance was in latitude 54° 45′.

This is probably the same as that laid down in Senr. Caamano's chart, named Estrecho de Almirante Fuentes. Mr. Brown found it extend to the north-westward, with several arms branching from it in various directions to the latitude of 56° 20′; where, in a south-westerly direction, it again communicated with the north pacific. He had understood, from the natives, that there was in this neighbourhood a very extensive inland navigation, communicating with a sea to the northward, that employed the inhabitants nearly three months in reaching its extent, where they traded for whale oil, sea otter skins, and other marine productions. This inland navigation Mr. Brown supposed to be in an extensive arm, lying from hence towards the N.N.E about 9 leagues distant; the entrance of which he had visited, and found it spacious and large, but had not penetrated any distance into it. At its south-east point of entrance a small branch extended to the south-eastward, up which he proceeded with his sloop and schooner about 6 miles, where they anchored before a village of the natives, whose improper conduct made it necessary to fire upon them from the vessels, which was attended with some slaughter.

As these openings were near the continent, some leagues to the northward of Mr. Whidbey's late excursion, they would, it was probable, fall under our future inspection; this made me particular in my inquiries respect-

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ing those shores, about which Mr. Brown stated that there were many lurking rocks; and as it was probable there were others that had escaped his notice, he obligingly offered me one of his small vessels to precede us, and found the channel, and begged I would retain her as long as I should find it expedient; which very kind offer I readily accepted.

Sunday 21.

The weather became more temperate the following morning, yet the land was so obscured by the haze, that it was late in the forenoon before we could get any tolerable view of the surrounding shores; when, the north part of Stephens's island bore by compass S. 20 E. to S. 9 E., distant half a league; the north extreme of the rocky group N. 58 W., distant 3 miles, part of the ledge of rocks forming the north side of the passage by which we had entered the found, N. 31 W. to N. 20 W., distant 4½ miles. This passage, after the commander of the Butterworth, I named BROWN'S PASSAGE. The westernmost part of the land, forming the north side of Brown's passage, bore N. 52 W. eight miles; the easternmost point of the same land being an island, N. 9 E. seven miles; and an intermediate point of the same shore N. 37 W., distant six miles; between this land and the above ledge of rocks are other rocks, and two small islets; the northernmost part of the east side of the found in sight N. 13 E.; a group of islands N. 35 E. to N. 40 E.; a saddle island N. 74 E. to N. 77 E.; another group, N. 80 E. to N. 84 E.; point Hunt, S. 75 E. distant fourteen miles; and the station to which Mr. Whidbey had traced the continental boundary, being a small projecting point with an island to the south of it, N. 28 E. eleven miles distant.

Having thus gained a very competent view of the surrounding region in all directions, Mr. Whidbey was dispatched in the large cutter, to recommence his examination of the continental shore towards the above N.N.E. opening. In this pursuit I purposed to follow him with the vessels. About eleven, in company with the Chatham, and the sloop Prince Lee Boo founding a-head, we again departed; on this occasion the Butterworth saluted as on our arrival, which was returned in the same manner.

The anchorage we had quitted, situated in latitude 54° 18′, longitude 229° 28′, is on the eastern side of a range of innumerable rocky islets and

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rocks, extending from the north side of Stephens's island N. 30 W., about a league and a half, and occupying a space of about 2 miles in width. To the westward of this group, at the distance of two or three miles, lies a low detached rock with some breakers near it; there are other lurking rocks, lying about the same distance from the west side of Stephens's island.

As the day advanced the weather became serene and pleasant; and as the wind as favourable, we made a very good progress along the eastern shores of the found. These were low, and somewhat indented with small bays, but were bounded by a reef of rocks at the distance of a quarter of a mile from the shore. The more interior country was composed of a lofty range of mountains covered with perpetual snow. These, as well as the islands of the found, produced a great number of pine trees, though apparently of no great size. In the evening we passed two clusters of low rocks, with some breakers about them to the west of us, as also the north point of the island forming the west side of Chatham's found to the northward of Brown's passage. This island, in a direction N. 20 W., is fifteen miles long, and five miles broad from east to west. To this island I gave the name of DUNDAS'S ISLAND, after the Right Honorable Henry Dundas.

To the north of this island we had a distinct view of the ocean to the westward, through a spacious channel that appeared free from interruption; and by sun-set we entered the arm, up which we expected to find this extensive inland navigation. To its south-east point of entrance I gave the name of POINT MASKELYNE, after the astronomer royal; it is situated in latitude 54° 42½', and longitude 229° 45′, and off it lie two rocky islets, and to the south of it a small island close to the shore.

The apparent extent of this inlet did not answer my expectations, from the description that had been given of it. Its entrance is not more than two miles and a half across, and this, at the distance of a few miles, seemed to be materially contracted. If this be the same branch described by the natives, which is much to be questioned, especially as some of Mr. Brown's gentlemen considered the opening meant by those people to be further to the westward, it is called by them Ewen Nass. The

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word Ewen we understood to signify great, or powerful; as, Ewen Smoket, a great chief; but the word Nass was completely unknown to Mr. Brown, and all of his party.

The divided country we had now examined, from the 47th degree of north latitude to this station, and the information derived from Mr. Brown, rendered it highly probable that the continental shore still continued to have extensive islands lying between it and the ocean, to a very considerable distance further north.

The length of time which, as Mr. Brown understood, occupied these people in making so distant a journey, may be accounted for by their tardy mode of travelling through each others dominions, or in passing through the various windings and crooked shallow channels, many of which, though sufficient for their canoes, were very probably unfit for the navigation of shipping. I have ever found it extremely hard, almost impossible, indeed, to make the inhabitants of these remote parts, and even the Sandwich islanders with whose language we are much better acquainted, comprehend the kind of passage that is required for ships to pass through, or the kind of port or opening in the land that is capable of affording them safe and convenient shelter. In addition to which difficulty selfish or sinister views too frequently regulate them, in the information they communicate. Be this as it may, it was our business now to determine the question, and embracing the favorable opportunity of a fair wind, we steered up the inlet, and were joined by Mr. Whidbey in the cutter, who had traced the continental shore to point Maskelyne; where, on its becoming broken, he had desisted from any further examination until a future opportunity.

From point Maskelyne, the two clusters of low rocks and breakers before noticed, lie, the northernmost S. 28 W, eight miles, and the southernmost S. 33 W., distant ten miles and a half; these, in the day time, and in clear weather, are easily avoided, as there are always some of them above the surface of the water; but in dark nights, or foggy weather, they must render the navigation of the found very dangerous. After passing between the northern cluster of these rocks, and the continental shore, with which they form a channel about a mile in width, we had


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about that distance from the main land, foundings at the depth of 15, 55, 30, 19, 12, and 8 fathoms, soft bottom; the latter about half a mile from point Maskelyne. No bottom was however gained, after passing that point, with 60 and 70 fathoms of line, until ten at night, when the Prince lee Boo having reached the contracted part of the inlet, made the signal for having foundings and anchorage. We arrived at this station about eleven, and anchored in 35 fathoms water, soft bottom, after passing two openings on the eastern shore, besides that immediately round point Maskelyne, where Mr. Brown had had his dispute with the natives.

Monday 22.

We found our station the next morning to be off the north-west part of an island lying near the eastern shore, and further up the inlet than those in the sloop had yet been; no information from them could therefore be any longer of use, though a continuation of their services would have been very acceptable. This made me regret, that we had not one or two vessels of thirty or forty tons burthen, calculated as well for rowing as for sailing, to assist us in this intricate investigation, by which means much dispatch would have been given to our survey, and our labours would have been carried on with much less danger and hardship than we had constantly endured.

I intended to proceed up this inlet, until I should see sufficient employment for two boat parties, which I was convinced the surrounding region would soon afford; as also to seek a convenient situation where the vessels might remain; and whilst this service was executing, to embrace the opportunity for making such astronomical observations as might be procured, and which were become necessary for correcting our survey, and ascertaining with precision the situation of the several parts of the broken region, through which we had passed in the vessels and in the boats from Restoration cove to this inlet. Pursuant to this determination we weighed about seven in the morning, and the Prince le Boo returned to the Butterworth.

At our anchorage, lying from point Maskelyne N. 24 E., distant 6 miles, the width of the inlet was scarcely half a league. On the western shore a small opening appeared to branch off in different directions.

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North of the island the breadth of the inlet increased again to about 2 or 3 miles, trending N. 39 E. In pursuing this line about 4 miles, we passed the south point of an opening on the eastern shore two miles wide, appearing to divide itself into several arms; but the western shore seemed to be compact, from the opening opposite the anchorage, until we arrived a-breast of an opening, about 2 miles wide at its entrance, on the western shore, seemingly divided into two or three branches, taking a direction about N. 18 W. The observed latitude at this time was 54° 58′, longitude 230° 3′. The branch of the inlet we were now navigating was not of greater width, not did it appear likely to become more extensive, than that to the westward of us just discovered. This made it uncertain which to consider as the main branch. Four other openings had been passed on the eastern shore, whose extent had not yet been ascertained; and although I was much inclined to follow the north-westerly branch, yet I was apprehensive, that by so doing we might be led too far from the continent, and by that means cause additional labour and loss of time. Our route was, for this reason, continued to the N. N. E., and another division of the inlet stretching to the eastward was soon discovered.

In the event of a convenient situation being found in this branch, I intended to stop the vessels there, and made the Chatham's signal, who had preceded us during the forenoon, to steer for the eastern opening, and shortened fail for the purpose of sending a boat before us to found. Whilst we lay to wait the boat's return, a few of the natives visited the ship in five or six canoes; they brought little to dispose of, yet appeared to be anxious that we should remain in their neighbourhood. Several inquiries were made for Ewen Nass, but these people seemed to be totally ignorant of the phrase, until it had been repeated several times, and we had pointed in various directions; upon which, some of them repeated the words, and imitated our motions, giving some amongst us reason to imagine, that they meant, that Ewen Nass was up this identical branch of the inlet; though in all other respects we remained totally ignorant of their language.

The appearance and direction of this opening, however, by no means favored the opinion, that it was an extensive channel communi-

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cating with the ocean to the north. The water that flowed from it remained, without mixing, on the surface of the water of the inlet. The upper water was nearly fresh, of a lightish colour, interspersed with thick muddy sheets, indicating it to have flowed from a small river whose source was not very remote.

At three o'clock the cutter returned, with a very unfavorable account of the place so far as their examination had gone; especially on the northern side of the opening, from whence a shallow flat extended some distance, on which there was not more than from 1 to 3 fathoms water. The latter depth suddenly increased to 30, and, at the distance of a cable's length from the edge of the bank, to 50 and 60 fathoms. This shallow flat made the communication with the shore very unpleasant, and appeared to be continued all round. To those in the cutter the opening seemed to be nothing more than a deep bay with very shallow water, excepting in its north-east part, where a branch from which the muddy water flowed, seemed to extend into the country. Across this branch they had also founded, and found shallow water. As it did not, from this report, seem likely to answer our purpose, we proceeded round its north point of entrance, and again made sail up the inlet, which, beyond this bay, was in general about half a league wide. The shores on both sides were nearly straight and compact; in this pursuit our progress was greatly retarded by a counter tide, or under tow, and notwithstanding that we had a fresh gale from the south-east, the strength of this repelling current was such, that the wind had no influence whatever, though in other situations the vessel with such a gale would have gone 5 or 6 knots per hour. On this occasion the ship became totally unmanageable; the wind was sometimes a-head, at others a-stern, a-broadside, and in every other direction; and we were drifting from side to side in the most unpleasant situation imaginable for two hours and a half, when the force of the wind prevailing, we advanced slowly up the inlet until about eleven at night. The distance of its shores had now again increased, and the country became less elevated. A small cove was discovered on the eastern shore, where we anchored in 30 fathoms water.

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Tuesday 23.

This place, however, not appearing likely to suit our purpose, Mr. Whidbey was dispatched early the next morning in quest of a more convenient situation, which the adjacent shores promised to afford, particularly in the northern quarter, where the land was moderately elevated, and seemed to be much broken. The interior country was, however, still composed of lofty, barren, and snowy mountains.

In the forenoon Mr. Whidbey returned, having examined two or three coves, of which the most eligible appeared to be one that we had passed in the dark the preceding evening on the western shore, not more than a mile from our actual station. This afforded good anchorage, with every other convenience that we required. Having a moderate breeze from the southward, we loft no time in proceeding thither, where we anchored in 31 and 35 fathoms water, muddy and small-stony bottom. The points of the cove bore by compass N.N.E. and S. by E., the nearest shore W. by S., about a cable and a half distant, and the opposite shore of the inlet E.N.E., one mile distant.

On going on shore, we found a small canoe with three of the natives, who were employed in taking salmon, which were in great abundance, up a very fine run of fresh water that flowed into the cove. Some of these fish were purchased with looking glasses and other trinkets. They were small, insipid, of a very inferior kind, and partaking in no degree of the flavor of European salmon.

In the afternoon, the tents, observatory, chronometers, and instruments were sent on shore, under the directions of Mr. Whidbey; and Mr. Johnstone, in the Chatham's cutter, accompanied by Mr. Barrie in the Discovery's small cutter, and supplied with ten days' provisions, departed for the purpose of recommencing the survey of the continental shore, northward from point Maskelyne.

The account I had received of this famous inlet from Mr. Brown, inducing me to undertake the principal examination of it myself; the Discovery's yawl and launch were equipped with supplies for a fortnight, being as much as they could possibly stow; Lieutenant Swaine was directed to attend me in the latter, and Mr. Puget, with Mr. Menzies, accompanied me in the yawl.. The appearance of the country,

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on the western side of this inlet, left me little doubt of its being the continent; and we departed in full expectation, that, during this excursion, we should finally determine the reality of the discoveries attributed to the labours of Admiral de Fonte.

With Mr. Whidbey I left the charge of the observatory, with orders to make all necessary observations for correcting the errors, and ascertaining the rate of the chronometers; and the more completely to effect the former, I desired that Mr. Baker, and some others of the gentlemen, would assist in making as many observations as the circumstances would admit of, for determining the true position of the station we had taken.

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An extensive boat excursion—Party attacked by the natives—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1793. July.

Wednes. 24.

MATTERS being all adjusted and arranged, we departed at five o'clock on wednesday morning, in thick, rainy, unfavorable weather, which continued until the forenoon, when it became fair and pleasant. Our course was first directed along the eastern shore, which, from our anchorage on the night of the 22d, took a direction N. 14 E. for six miles. We passed an island to the west of us, two miles long and half a mile broad, lying nearly in the same direction, about three fourths of a mile from the eastern shore; and having reached this extent, we entered a narrow arm, leaving to the west a coast apparently much broken, and divided by water.

As we rapidly advanced up this arm, with a southerly wind, and a flood tide in our favor, its width increased to about a mile, and taking a winding course to the E.N.E., it was terminated by a low border of land, in latitude 55° 26′, longitude 230° 36′.

We stopped to dine about a mile short of the low border of land, which composed the head of the arm. Here we were visited by seven of the natives, who approached us in a canoe with much caution, and landed some of their party at a little distance, whilst the others advanced, seemingly with no small suspicion of our friendly intentions; this, however, was soon removed by the distribution of some trivial presents amongst them; and their reception being made known to their companions who had landed, these without the least hesitation joined our party also. They

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were well prepared with arms, consisting of long spears, bows and arrows, together with an iron dagger, that each man wore about his neck or wrist. The chief of this party was soon pointed out, who, by means of signs easily understood, desired to partake of our repast. He was given some bread and dried fish, and afterwards a glass of brandy, all which were much relished by himself, and two or three of his friends. These people differed very little from the generality of the circumjacent natives, and rather seemed to be an exception to the trivial differences pointed out in those few inhabitants who visited us in Fishmonger's cove. Their language appeared to be similar in some respects to that spoken at Queen Charlotte's islands, at least a few common-place expressions of that language were understood by these people. They made use of these, with many signs, to solicit us to visit their habitations, pointing out their situation to be on the low land, at the head of the arm; but as it was out of our route, we declined their invitations, and, with a favorable ebb-tide, returned towards the entrance of the arm, being accompanied by these our new acquaintances, who were soon joined by another party from the village in a smaller canoe. On finding however that we did not return for the purpose of trading, they all retired to the village.

About eight in the evening we reached the entrance of this arm, where we took up our abode for the night. The land of the shores which we had thus traced, was, comparatively speaking, low, yet the interior country rose suddenly, and terminated our view by a range of high barren mountains, mostly covered with snow. The soil of the lower parts, near the shores, is chiefly composed of a light mossy substance, formed by the decay of trees and other vegetable productions, lying on an uneven rocky substance, which is the general foundation of this country, and of all the coast we had yet seen this season.

Thursday 25.

At four o'clock the next morning we proceeded again, with thick cloudy weather, attended with some flying showers of rain. Our course was directed up the branch that appeared to be the main arm of the inlet, through a narrow passage, occasioned by an island lying in mid-channel, about a league long, and three quarters of a mile broad, and having near it some rocks and breakers, like that we passed the preceding day. From

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Friday 26.

the west point of the arm that we had quitted, that which we were now pursuing extended N. 20 W., nearly straight, about ten miles; where, as usual, it was terminated by low swampy ground; and in latitude 55° 32′, longitude 230° 16′. Our expectations of discovering the extensive inland navigation, distinguished by the name of Ewen-Nass, were here a little disappointed; still however we entertained hopes of succeeding, by the appearance of the low land on the western shore; and we returned in the afternoon to prosecute its examination. It was found to be a compact shore, much indented with small bays and coves, and abounding in some places with sunken rocks. In the south-westernmost of these coves, which is the deepest, we halted for the night; and although a situation for our tents was fixed upon amongst the pine-trees, at least twenty feet above the surface of the water at our landing, and, as we thought, sufficiently without the reach of the tide, yet, about two in the morning, it flowed into the tents, and we were obliged to retire to our boats. At day-light we pursued the western shore of the inlet, towards the ships, where we arrived about noon.

Saturday 27.

I now entertained no doubt of this being the continental shore; and it was equally evident to me, that it extended itself far up that branch which we had passed in the afternoon of the 22d, leading to the N.N.W. Having therefore determined to prosecute my researches in that quarter, our stock of provisions was recruited; and, after dining on board, we recommenced our examination along the western shore of the inlet, and rested for the night in a small cove, about twelve miles to the southward of the ships. The afternoon and night were very rainy and unpleasant, but early the next morning we fat out, with fair weather, and having a rapid tide in our favor, soon reached the east point of entrance into the N.N.W. branch; which, after Mr. Ramsden, the optician, I called POINT RAMSDEN, lying in latitude 54° 59′, longitude 230° 2½'. Off this point are some dangerous rocks, that are visible only at low tide; from hence we directed our course N.W., three miles to a low point on the larboard shore, where we found this arm to communicate with another, leading in a S.W. and N.N.E. direction, and being in general about half a league in width. After breakfast, we pursued the latter direction, and


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steered for the eastern or continental shore. This extends first from point Ramsden N. 21 W. six miles, and takes a N.N.E. course.

As we advanced, we were joined by a party of fifteen natives in two canoes. A smoke had before been observed amongst the trees on the eastern shore, but we then saw no appearance of any habitations. These people approached us without much hesitation, and in their countenances was expressed a degree of savage ferocity infinitely surpassing any thing of the fort I had before observed in the various tribes that had fallen under my notice. Many of those we had before seen had their faces painted in various modes; but these had contrived so to dispose of the red, white, and black, as to render the natural ugliness of their countenances more horribly hideous. This frightful appearance did not seem to be a new fashion among them, but to have been long adopted by their naturally ferocious dispositions, and was correspondent to the stern and savage deportment they took so much pains to exhibit. I offered them such presents as we had been accustomed to make on similar occasions, but they were rejected by some with disdain, whilst the few who deigned to accept any thing, received our gifts with a stern and cool indifference. Amongst the party was a woman who was additionally disfigured by one of those extraordinary lip ornaments; this did not a little augment her froward, shrewish aspect. I offered her a looking glass, with some trinkets, but, at the instance of the most savage fellow of the party, she contemptuously rejected them. This Indian then arranged his spears, about six or eight in number, and placed them with their points just over the bow of the canoe, near where he sat; he also laid near him his bow with some arrows; then put on his war garment, and drew his dagger. Some in the other canoe made similar preparations, either to menace an attack, or, what seemed to us more likely, to convince us they were upon their guard against any violence we might be inclined to offer them.

At this time we were considerably a-head of the other boat; and as it was necessary that we should shortly land on the point from whence the continent takes its N.N.E. direction, for the purpose of taking angles, we waited for the launch to come up; and during this interval, we used

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our endeavours to gain the confidence, and, if possible, to conciliate the good opinion of, our visitors. But all was to no effect; they refused to accept any more presents, whilst those who had condescended to receive any, made signs that we should go to their place of abode, which we had by this time passed; and frequently made use of the words "Winnce watter" signifying to stop and trade, producing at the same time some very indifferent sea otter skins. Recollecting the avidity with which all the inhabitants of these parts enter into commercial intercourse, I thought their uncourteous behaviour might have arisen from our backwardness in following the same pursuit; and hoped, by offering to trade with them, we should be able to obtain their friendship. But neither cloth, iron, copper, nor any thing we had, was in their opinions sufficient in quantity, or equal in quality to the value of their skins; which were, without exception, the worst I had yet seen on the coast. On the launch coming up we pulled towards the shore; they now seemed better pleased, and on landing they offered their skins again for sale, but it was not within our reach to purchase them. Whilst we remained together on shore their behaviour was more civil, and we seemed to part on much better terms than we had met. They remained at the point, and we proceeded up the arm. Their absence however was not of long duration, as they shortly followed us waving their skins, and exposing them for sale; and it was not a little extraordinary, that they should now exchange their skins, and other articles of traffic, for the very identical commodities, which they had before rejected with so much contempt.

It was not easy to account for the singular appearance and rude behaviour of this tribe, so very different from what we had hitherto experienced; some amongst us suggested, that these people might probably belong to that party on whom Mr. Brown had recently been obliged to sire in this neighbourhood, and at no great distance from our actual station; but it appeared to me far more likely, that their resentment had been excited by our perfect indifference to their commodities brought for sale, and our having declined their invitations to the place of their abode. This opinion was soon confirmed by their subsequent conduct; on being now offered blue cloth for their skins, they began a

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song, that continued until they came close to us, when I observed that their arms and war garments were all laid aside; and having disposed of such things as they had for sale, they began to betray a somewhat thievish disposition. I endeavoured to make them sensible of my disapprobation of this conduct, and made signs that they should depart, with which they reluctantly complied.

I did not observe that these people differed from the generality of the North-West Americans, otherwise than in the ferocity of their countenances. Their weapons seemed well adapted to their condition; their spears, about sixteen feet long, were pointed with iron, wrought in several simple forms, amongst which some were barbed. Their bows were well constructed, and their arrows, with which they were plentifully supplied, appeared but rude, and were pointed with bone or iron. Each man was provided with an iron dagger, suspended from his neck in a leather sheath, seemingly intended to be used when in close action. Their war garments were formed of two, three, or more folds, of the strongest hides of the land animals they are able to procure. In the center was a hole sufficient to admit the head and left arm to pass through; the mode of wearing them being over the right shoulder, and under the left arm. The left side of the garment is sewed up, but the right side remains open; the body is however tolerably well protected, and both arms are left at liberty for action. As a further security on the part which covers the breast, they sometimes fix on the inside thin laths of wood; the whole is seemingly well contrived, and I doubt not answers the essential purpose of protection against their native weapons.

The weather though pleasant was unfortunately cloudy about noon, and prevented any observation being made for the latitude. The same unfavorable circumstance attended us during our excursion to the northward of the vessels. We continued to the N. N. E., without meeting any interruption or break in the shores until about eight in the evening, when we arrived at a point on the western shore, situated in latitude 55° 16′, longitude 230° 8′. Near this point we rested for the night. From hence the arm took a direction N. 15 W., continuing in general about

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the same width. Between us and the opposite shore was a small island nearly in mid-channel.

Sunday 28.

Monday 29.

The weather being fair and pleasant, we started early the next morning, continuing our researches up this branch. At noon the observed latitude on the eastern shore was 55° 25′, the longitude 230° 5′. From hence it took a more northerly direction, and then trended a little to the eastward of north, where, by ten in the forenoon of the following day, it was found to terminate in low marshy land, in latitude 55° 45′, longitude 230° 6′. The shores of this inlet were nearly straight, and in general little more than a mile asunder, composed mostly of high rocky cliffs, covered with pine trees to a considerable height; but the more interior country was a compact body of high barren mountains covered with snow. As we pursued this branch, salmon in great plenty were leaping in all directions. Seals and sea otters were also seen in great numbers, even where the water was nearly fresh, and which was the case upwards of twenty miles from its termination.

Tuesday 30.

Mortified with having devoted so much time to so little purpose, we made the best of our way back. At noon I observed the latitude to be 55° 42′; from whence to our reaching the western shore, near where we had entered this branch, occupied our time until late in the evening of the 30th, when we brought to in a small cove, behind an island about half a league from us, and not far from the place where we had met the ungracious natives on the preceding saturday.

Wednes. 31.

The night was mild and pleasant, but a thick fog the next morning not only obscured the surrounding shores, but prevented our departure until eight o'clock; when, on its dispersing, we directed our examination along the western, or continental shore, to the S.S.W. in a continuation of the branch we had seen on the morning of the 27th. The shores of both sides were straight, compact, of moderate height, and in general little more than a mile asunder. At noon the observed latitude on the western shore was 54° 55½', longitude 229° 47′; the inlet still continuing in the same direction. On the western shore, about half a league to the southward of this station, we entered a small opening not more than a cable's length in width, stretching to the northward; up this we had

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made a little progress, when the launch, which had preceded us and had reached its extremity, was met on her return. Mr. Swaine informed me, that its termination was about a league from its entrance, and that its width was from a quarter to half a league.

We stopped for the purpose of dining, and were visited by a canoe, in which were three persons; they approached us with little hesitation, and seemed well pleased on receiving a few trivial presents. They earnestly solicited our return to the head of this little arm, where, it appeared, their chief resided, and who had abundance of furs to barter for our commodities; but as it was out of our way, we declined their proposal; at which they seemed hurt and disappointed, but retired in perfectly good humour.

After dinner we attempted to return by the way we had come, but, on approaching the entrance, the rapidity of the flood tide prevented our advancing against it until near high water, about six in the evening. Many of the small trees, at the place where we had dined, had been cut down with an axe, an implement not yet in use with these people, who, on all such occasions, prefer any kind of chisel. The trees appeared to have been felled, for the purpose of gaining convenient access to the run of water hard by; and this gave rise to an opinion, that our dining place had lately been the resort of other civilized people.

Having again reached the arm leading to the S.S.W., we proceeded in that direction, and passed two small rocky islets, about a mile to the south of the last mentioned small arm. Finding the main channel now regularly decreasing to half a mile in width, and having a strong southerly breeze, we did not proceed more than three miles, before we rested for the night. The narrowness of the channel, and the appearance of its termination before us, would have induced me to have relinquished all thoughts of finding a communication with the ocean by this route, had it not been for the indications presented by the shores on either side. These gradually decreasing in height, with a very uneven surface, were intirely covered with pine trees; and as such appearances had, in most instances, been found to attend the bro-

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ken parts of the country immediately along the sea coast, I was encouraged to persevere in this pursuit.

We had not been long landed, before the natives, who had visited us at dinner time, made their appearance again, accompanied by a large canoe, in which was the chief of their party.

I directed them to land at a small distance from our boats, with which they readily complied. The chief received some presents, and, in return, gave me two or three sea otters' tails. This intercourse seemed, by our signs, and such words as we had picked up, to be an assurance of a good understanding between us; and, on a promise of entering further into trade the next morning, they retired to a small cove about half a mile from us, with every appearance of being perfectly satisfied; but, about an hour afterwards, one of their canoes was seen paddling towards us. On this a pistol was fired in the air, which had the good effect of shewing that we were upon our guard, and prevented their giving us any further disturbance.


Thursday 1.

As soon as it was day-light the next morning, these people, accompanied by another canoe, were with us according to appointment the preceding evening. They offered for sale the skins of the sea otter, and a large black bear, that seemed to have been killed by a spear in the course of the night. I was not backward in complying with our part of the agreement; but, like those whom we had seen on saturday, these rejected every article we had with us for the purpose of barter; and, excepting fire-arms and ammunition, which were not offered to them, we could not discover on what their inclinations were placed. They followed us however for two miles, persisting in desiring we would "Winnee watter," until, at length, finding no other articles were tendered them than those they had before declined, they retired, exclaiming "Pusee" and "Peshack;" which could not be misunderstood as terms of disapprobation.

This party, including one woman with a lip ornament, consisted of sixteen or eighteen persons, who, in character, much resembled (though I think they were not quite so ferocious) those we had seen the preceding saturday. This woman, as well as the other we

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had seen on the 27th, steered the canoe. She appeared to be a most excessive scold, and to possess great authority. She had much to say respecting the whole of their transactions, and exacted the most ready obedience to her commands, which were given in a very surly manner, particularly in one instance to a man in the bow of the canoe; who, in compliance to her directions, immediately made a different disposition of the spears. These had all lain on one side of him, just pointed over the bow of the canoe, with several things carelessly lying over them; but, on his receiving her commands, the outer ends were projected further, their inner ends cleared of the lumber that was over them, and the whole, amounting to about a dozen, were equally divided, and regularly laid on each side of him.

From the place at which we had slept, this channel took a direction S. 42 W., about a league and a half, to a point in latitude 54° 48′, longitude 229° 39½', from whence the continental shore takes a direction N. 25 W. about a league, through a narrow channel not a fourth of a mile in breadth; having in it several islets and rocks. In order to make sure of keeping the continental shore on board, we pursued this, and left the south-westerly channel, whose width had increased to about a mile, and whose shores appeared to be much broken, as if admitting several passages to the sea. At the north end of this narrow channel we came to a larger one extending N. 35 E. and S. 35 W. The former first attracted our notice; this by noon was found to end in latitude 54° 55½', longitude 229° 40′; not in low marshy land, as had been generally the case in the interior parts of our survey, but by low though steep rocky shores, forming many little bays and coves, abounding with rocks and rocky islets. Here were seen an immense number of sea otters, and amongst them some few seals, but more of the former than I had yet noticed. Having dined we pursued the examination of the continent in a south-westerly direction, which brought us by the evening to its end in that direction, in latitude 54° 48½', longitude 229° 31½'. From hence the channel extended to the S.S.E. and met that which we had quitted in the morning, making the land which formed the western shore of the narrow channel, and that before us to the eastward, an island about ten

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miles in circuit. The shores, that had been nearly straight and compact since we had quitted the rocky arm above-mentioned, became again indented with bays and coves, bounded by many rocks and rocky islets.

In examining these broken parts of the shore, the launch had preceded the yawl whist I was taking the necessary angles. On our turning sharp round a point, I discovered her endeavouring as I supposed to pass a most tremendous fall of water; the evening at this time was nearly closing in, and being now about high tide, the fall appeared to be adverse to their proceeding; but finding they continued to advance, I hailed, and waved to them to desist. On our meeting, I found they had possessed but sufficient strength and time to extricate themselves from a very alarming situation. The direction of the fall was in a contrary line to what they had expected, as the water was rushing with great impetuosity through a narrow rocky channel, and falling into a bason whose surface appeared to be greatly beneath the level of the canal we were navigating; on their perceiving this, their utmost exertions were required for a short time, to prevent the boat from being drawn within its vortical influence. About a mile from the above point, nearly in a south direction, we brought to for the night.

Friday 2.

In the morning of the 2d we sat out early, and passed through a labyrinth of small islets and rocks along the continental shore; this, taking now a winding course to the south-west and west, shewed the south-eastern side of the canal to be much broken, through which was a passage leading S.S.E. towards the ocean. We passed this in the hope of finding a more northern and westerly communication; in which we were not disappointed, as the channel we were then pursuing was soon found to communicate also with the sea; making the land to the south of us one or more islands. From the north-west point of this land, situated in latitude 54° 45½', longitude 229° 28′, the pacific was evidently seen between N. 88 W. and S. 81 W. Off the point, at a little distance from the main land, was an island about half a mile from us; the opposite, or continental shore, lying north-east, not quite half a mile distant. Between this and the westernmost land in sight the shores ap-

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peared to be much divided, with small rocky islets and breakers in most directions. Between these and the continental shore, our way was directed N. 26 W.; at the distance of two miles we passed a large deserted village, on the north point of a small cove; which point may also be considered as the south-east point of entrance into a narrow arm, taking nearly a north direction; half a league to the northward of this point the eastern shore formed three small bays or coves, with four or five islets before them. On the point which divides the two southernmost of these coves, I observed the latitude to be 54° 49′, the longitude 229° 29′; from whence the inlet took a direction about N. 8 W.; the shores became nearly straight and compact, and were in general about half a mile asunder. The surrounding land being of moderate height, and of that uneven surface generally exhibited by the insular countries lying on the sea coast, afforded reasonable grounds to believe the western shore to be an island; in which case we should have been enabled to trace the continental boundaries a considerable distance to the north. About six in the evening our hopes vanished, by our arriving at the head of the arm, where it terminated in a small fresh water brook, flowing from low marshy ground, in latitude 54° 56′, longitude 229° 28′. Before it were several rocks and some rocky islets.

This disappointment occasioned us no small degree of mortification, since we had already been absent from the ship a whole week, with the finest weather the season had yet afforded; and though our utmost exertions had been called forth in tracing the continent through this labyrinth of rocks, we had not advanced more than 13 leagues in a right line from the ships to the entrance of this inlet, and that in a south-west direction; very different from the course we could have wished to have pursued. It was also now evident that we had the exterior coast to contend with, and from the length of time we had been indulged with sine weather, we could not reasonably expect its continuing much longer; indeed, the appearance of the evening indicated an unfavorable alteration, which made me apprehensive, that probably the finest part of the season had been devoted, in our late pursuit, to a very perplexing object of no great value or consideration.

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Saturday 3.

On the low land forming the upper extremity of this arm, we saw some animals like wolves, but the shallowness of the water prevented our approaching near enough to fire at them with any probability of success. From hence we returned by the western shore, passing three or four rocky islets, and rested for the night about a league to the N.N.W. of our station at noon. During the night there fell a great quantity of rain, but towards the morning it in some measure abated, though the weather still continued very gloomy and hazy; we had however no time to spare, and it becoming necessary that we should proceed as far as circumstances would admit, we started early, and kept along the continental shore, which was much indented with small bays, and bounded by innumerable rocks. We passed to the south of us a cluster of rocks and islands, extending nearly in a south-west and north-east direction about half a leagne. The outermost lies nearly south-east, about 2½ miles from the point seen the former morning, and stated to be the north point of the passage leading towards the ocean. We arrived at this point by noon, but the weather then becoming thick and hazy, attended by heavy rain, and a strong gale from the south-west, obliged us to make for the first place of safety we could reach. Close round to the north-west of the above point, which, after the Right Honorable Charles James Fox, I called CAPE FOX, in latitude 54° 45½', longitude 229° 22′, we retired to a very unsheltered cove, where we remained some hours, though by no means pleasantly circumstanced. The weather in the afternoon for a short time bore a more favorable aspect, and tempted us again to proceed along the exterior coast, which now took nearly a west direction; but we had scarcely advanced beyond the rocks that encumber the shore, when the gale from the southward increased, attended with a very heavy swell, and thick misty weather. This obliged us again to seek some place of security, which we very fortunately found about half a league to the westward of cape Fox, in a very commodious well sheltered little cove; which protected us during the night from an excessively heavy rain, and a very hard gale of wind from the south-east, which brought from the ocean so heavy a sea upon these shores, as to invade even our snug retreat.

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Sunday 4.

About eight o'clock the next morning the weather again moderated, and the wind favoring our pursuit, we again proceeded, although it continued to rain and was otherways very unpleasant. We resumed our examination along the coast, taking a rounding direction from the cove N.W. by W. 4 miles, and then N. 15 W., near 7 miles further, to a projecting point on the shore that obtained the name of FOGGY POINT, situated in latitude 54° 54½', longitude 229° 11′.

The weather continued very unfavorable to our researches; it permitted us to distinguish the rocky shores along which we passed only from point to point; landing was not only difficult but very dangerous, and could only be effected in the chasms of the rocks, near to the several points on which it was indispensably necessary to land, for the purpose of ascertaining the positive direction of the coast; which, by the time we had reached Foggy point, not being visible at the distance of fifty yards, we stopped to dine, having in the course of the morning been again excluded from the ocean. And though the thickness of the weather had prevented our seeing by what means this had taken place, it was manifest, that either land or shoals now intervened, as we had intirely lost the oceanic swell, that a few miles to the south had rolled in, and broke with great violence on the shores.

By the time we had dined the fog sufficiently cleared away, to admit of our gaining a tolerably distinct view of our situation. It was on the south point of a bay, in which were many small islands and rocks. The opposite fide of the opening in which we had advanced during the fog, was also indistinctly seen to the westward and north-west, composed of a country moderately elevated, covered with trees, and which seemed much divided by water. After taking the necessary angles, we proceeded along the continent round the shores of the above bay: and in its northern corner, our time was again unprofitably spent in examining a narrow opening about two miles in extent to the north-east. From thence, through a labyrinth of rocks and shoals, we steered over to the north-westernmost and largest of those islands lying from Foggy point, N. 20 W. near a league, where we took up our abode for the night. The wind blew strong attended with heavy rain, which towards day-light

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Monday 5.

the next morning abated, and we again proceeded along the continental shore. This, from the narrow N.E. opening, took first a N.W. course for two miles and a half, and then N. by E., about the same distance, to a point in latitude 55° 1′, longitude 229° 8½', forming the S.E. point of an inlet, (its opposite point of entrance lying a quarter of a mile distant N. 25 W.) apparently of some extent, to the north-eastward; but its entrance, and its exterior shores to the north and south, were rendered almost inaccessible by islets and rocks. It was, however, indispensably necessary, that we should visit such branches of the sea, as the boundaries of the continental shore could only be established by the strictest examination of every arm, inlet, creek, or corner.

Having breakfasted, we proceeded along the starboard or continental shore. This took a direction first: N. 50 E., to a point about seven miles from the entrance; within which distance we observed the latitude on the opposite, or N.W. shore, to be 55° 4½'. From this point, the shores became less elevated than those we had passed from the entrance of the inlet; particularly that on the starboard side, which took a S.S.E. direction, and had now increased to two miles in width. Having advanced about four miles in this line, a small branch was seen in the former direction, about half a mile wide, having a small island in its entrance; about two miles from whence it terminated in low marshy land; situated, according to my survey, not more than four miles distant, and in a direction N.N.W. from the head of the arm we had quitted on the evening of the 2d, making the shores of the main land along which we had navigated since that time, a peninsula, fifteen leagues round, united by this narrow isthmus. Such was the slow and irksome process by which our researches were carried into execution, on account of the extremely divided state of this extraordinarily inhospitable region.

From the entrance of this small branch, the starboard shore of the inlet takes a direction N. 60 E. for a league, to another branch of the same extent and direction, parting a small round island in mid-channel, another in the entrance of the little arm, and a third a little way within it. From hence, the width of the inlet became contracted to three quarters of a mile, taking a course N. 5 E. two miles, to a third small branch

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Tuesday 6.

about a mile further, where we rested for the night; and in the morning found it extend N. 73 E. for two miles. Here it terminated in low land at the head; but the sides were so steep and rocky, that it was with some difficulty we could find a sufficient space for making a fire to dress our provisions. From hence we pursued the main branch of the inlet, about three quarters of a mile wide, which took nearly a direction N. 25 E., 4½ leagues; where it finally terminated in latitude 55° 17′, longitude 229° 36½'.

The sides of this canal are nearly straight, firm and compact, composed of high steep rocky cliffs, covered with wood as high as the thick rainy weather permitted us to see. At its head was a small border of low land, through which flowed two small rivulets. On the larboard shore, about eight miles within the entrance, we had passed two openings; these, on our return, were found to be very inconsiderable; the easternmost, which was the largest, did not extend more than two miles north from the shores of the main inlet, where it terminated in latitude 55° 9′, longitude 229° 19′; the other, not more than a mile in length, and in a parallel direction, ended S.W. by S., about a mile from the head of the former.

Wednes. 7.

The weather continued very rainy and unpleasant until two in the afternoon of the following day; at which time we had reached a small islet, lying N. 70 E. one mile and three quarters from the point where we had breakfasted on the morning of the 5th; at this islet we stopped to dine.

The atmosphere soon afterwards became clear, and gave us a most distinct and satisfactory view of the surrounding region, and proved our situation to be in a spacious branch of the ocean, extending in two or three different directions.

Since we had left cape Fox, we had conceived ourselves to be in the southern entrance of the Canal de Revilla Gigedo, as represented in Senr. Caamano's chart. Although this gave but a faint idea of the shores we were tracing, it had sufficient resemblance, in the general outline, to leave no doubt of our being in the precise situation intended in that representation; and hence it appeared, that the inlet which had occupied our time the two preceding days, was called Bo-

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cas de Quadra. The south point of its entrance in the chart is, however, placed in 55° 11, which is 10° further north than it appeared to be by our observations.

An extensive opening, dividing the western land between N.60 W., and N. 46 W., was evidently a continuation of the Canal de Revilla Gigedo, and its southern side, the Island de Gravina. The width of this canal at Foggy point is about four miles, and abreast of this island not quite a league; though, in the Spanish chart, it is laid down at the width of eight or nine miles, from the entrance to this station. The land in the Canal de Revilla Gigedo was too distant to admit of our ascertaining the situation of any of its particular points, excepting that above mentioned, lying N. 46½ W., five miles from this island; it is very conspicuous, and forms the west part of an extensive branch, taking apparently a northern course along the shores of the continent. To this point I gave the name of POINT ALAVA, in compliment to the Spanish governor at Nootka.

The opposite, or western shore, particularly to the south of the Canal de Revilla Gigedo, seemed to be much broken. The shores in most directions were low, or of a moderate height; but the more interior country was composed of mountains covered with show, not only in the eastern quarter, but to the northward and westward.

The islet, on which we had dined, seemed to be formed of different materials from those we had been accustomed to visit; it being one intire quarry of slate. In walking round and across it, through the trees, we found no other sort of stone. Slate had been frequently seen forming a kind of beach, or in thin strata, lying between the rocks; but, till now, we had never met with this substance in such a prodigious mass. This islet, which obtained the name of SLATE ISLET, we quitted, leaving the Canal de Revilla Gigedo to the westward of us, and directing our inquiries along the continental shore, to a point that lies from Slate islet N. 10 W. four miles. This, after one of the gentlemen of the Discovery, I named POINT SYKES. From thence, the continental shore, which is a little indented and has a few small islets and rocks lying near it, takes a direction about N. 37 E. to a point, which, after Captain Nelson of the


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Thursday 8.

navy, I named POINT NELSON, situated in latitude 55° 15′, longitude 229° 17½', and which we reached the next morning by half past six. The inlet up which we had thus navigated, was from 2 to 4 miles wide. From this point it seemed to be divided into three branches; one leading to the north-west; another to the north, in the center of which, 4 or 5 leagues distant, was a rock much resembling a vessel under sail, lying N. 7 W., and seemingly detached from the shores; and the third took an easterly direction along the continuation of the continent. The last occupied our attention, and employed the whole day, which was very rainy and unpleasant. It was found to be about three quarters of a mile wide, irregularly extending N. 80 E. for 2 leagues, and then towards the north-east for 4 miles further, where it terminated in the usual manner, in latitude 55° 18½', longitude 229° 29½'; having a bay or cove on its eastern shore, which, in an E.S.E. direction, approached within about two miles of the northern part of Bocas de Quadra.

The surrounding country consisted of a huge mass of steep, barren, rocky mountains, destitute of soil; whose summits were perpetually covered with snow. Excepting at the head of the arm where the land was low, these mountains rose in nearly perpendicular cliffs from the water's edge, producing only a few scattered dwarf trees.

Not far from the spot on which we had dined, and near the ruins of a few temporary huts of the natives, we found a box about three feet square, and a foot and a half deep, in which were the remains of a human skeleton, which appeared, from the confused situation of the bones, either to have been cut to pieces, or thrust with great violence into this small space. One or two other coffins, similar to this, had been seen in the excursions of the boats this season; but as we had met with so few of this description, I was inclined to suppose that this mode of depositing their dead is practised only in respect to certain persons of their society, since if it had been the general usage, we should in all probability have more frequently noticed them.

By the evening we reached the main inlet again, where, on a point which I named POINT TROLLOP, in a direction from point Nelson

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Friday 9.

N. 20 W., distant a league and a half, we rested for the night, and the next morning started at an early hour.

Having advanced about a mile along the continental shore, we again quitted the main branch of the inlet, and entered a very narrow channel, in some places navigable only for boats and canoes. This extended with little deviation N. 7 W., 7 miles, when it again communicated with the branch of the inlet, making the western shore two long narrow islands. The southernmost is about half a league long. A small round island lies off the north-west point of the most northern, from whence we again saw the remarkable rock resembling a ship under sail, before mentioned, lying N. 22 W., near a league distant, having between it and the continental shore several rocks and islets. Its situation and elevation, if accessible, promised to afford us an excellent view of the inlet; and its singular pyramidical appearance from this point of view invited our curiosity. We reached this rock about seven, and found the main inlet, (whose sides were compact for 4 or 5 leagues, excepting in the appearance of an opening lying N. 37 E., about a league from us) to take nearly a north direction, maintaining a width from two to three miles. On the base of this singular rock, which, from its resemblance to the Light House rock off Plymouth, I called the NEW EDDYSTONE, we stopped to breakfast, and whilst we were thus engaged, three small canoes, with about a dozen of the natives, landed and approached us unarmed, and with the utmost good humour accepted such presents as were offered to them, making signs, in return, that they had brought nothing to dispose of, but inviting us in the most pressing manner to their habitations; where they gave us to understand, they had fish skins, and other things in great abundance, to barter for our commodities; amongst which, blue cloth seemed to be the most esteemed. They pointed out the situation of their residence to be on the eastern shore; but as that was behind us, and as we had no time for unnecessary delays, their civil intreaties were declined, and we departed from the new Eddystone, which is certainly a very remarkable rock. Its circumference at its base is about fifty yards, standing perpendicularly on a surface of fine, dark coloured sand. It is intirely detached, at the distance of two miles from the eastern, and one

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from the western shore of the inlet, in latitude 55° 29′, longitude 229° 15′. Its surface is uneven, and its diameter regularly decreases to a few feet at its apex, which is nearly flat, and seemed to be in every direction perpendicular to the center of its base; its height, by a rude measurement, was found to be upwards of two hundred and fifty feet. The fissures and small chasms in its sides, quite up to its summit, afforded nourishment to some small pine trees and various shrubs. The south and eastern part of its base is an intire bed of sand; to the north, about two hundred yards from it, extended a ledge of rocks, that stretched a small distance, and was visible only at low tide, beyond which the bottom was unfathomable with our lines.

The natives attended us for a short time, but finding that our course was not directed towards their habitations, they retired; after having given us to understand by signs, that at night we should find the inlet closed on all sides, that we should sleep at its termination, and requested that on our return we would visit their habitations.

Saturday 10.

We soon arrived at the point that had in appearance formed an opening in the eastern shore, and found that our conjectures had been well founded; it being the south point of a branch, in general about three quarters of a mile wide, irregularly extending N. 53 E. 2 leagues, with a cove on the southern shore, and forming at the above extent two other coves; one in a direction S. 24 E., two miles and a half long, the other north, two miles long, terminating in latitude 55° 37½', longitude 229° 29′. The examination of this insignificant branch, winding between an immense body of high, barren, snowy mountains, occupied the remainder of the day. About ten at night we reached the main inlet, and took up our abode until the next morning, at a point on the continental shore.

The weather being again fair and pleasant, we early directed our way along the continental shore, which was nearly straight and compact, and trending about N. 5 W. About our time of breakfast, we arrived at the south point of another of those arms, about half a mile wide, which had hitherto employed the major part of our time to so little purpose.

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Our situation at this juncture required some attention. The time was expired for which our provisions had been supplied, and we were now one hundred and twenty miles from the ships by the nearest route we could pursue. It was extremely mortifying to reflect, that after all our exertions, no one point had been gained to facilitate the progress of the vessels; as the way by which we had advanced thus far was infinitely too intricate for them; and if the want of provisions should now oblige us to return before we could determine the extent of this spacious inlet, which still continued to be between 2 and 3 miles wide, our labours would become ineffectual, because it would be necessary that the same space should be traversed again, to accomplish what we might be compelled to leave unfinished.

Under these considerations, and well knowing from experience, that all the small branches leading to the eastward either terminate at the foot of the lofty range of rugged mountains, or else form into islands parts of the shores of these inlets; I determined to decline their further examination, and to proceed in the main channel to ascertain the truth of the information derived from the natives, or to discover some eligible passage, by which the vessels might advance, towards the extent of our present researches. Our prospect of succeeding in this particular was not very flattering. We lost no time however in making the best of our way; and from the entrance of this arm, which is situated in latitude 55° 41′, longitude 229° 16′, as we advanced up the main inlet, the general opinion seemed to support the account of the natives; and that the evening would certainly bring us to its final termination. The water was of a very light colour, not very salt, and the interior country of the western shore rose to rugged mountains, little inferior in height to those on the eastern side; which we knew to be a continuation of the continent, now taking a direction N. 35 W. In the forenoon we passed a small cluster of rocks and islets a mile in extent, lying in the line of the eastern shore, at the distance of about half a mile from it. The latitude at noon I observed to be 55° 44′; and soon afterwards we passed a small opening, that appeared to form a bay half a mile wide, and about a mile deep, in a north-east direction. As we pursued our route in the

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afternoon, the shores, which were no where more than two miles asunder, took a more westerly direction, affording some small bays and coves.

The weather being calm and pleasant, we made a tolerable progress until late in the evening, when we arrived at a point in latitude 55° 56′, longitude 228° 54½'; and although the night was too far advanced to see distinctly about us, yet we had no doubt of our having reached the confluence of this inlet with two other branches, lying nearly at right angles to it. A fresh breeze blew up the branch leading to the south-west till after dark; this I considered as the sea breeze, indicating our vicinity to the exterior coast; or possible our approach to wider channels leading more immediately towards the . The whiteness and freshness of the water, with other circumstances common to our general observation, presented themselves however in opposition to this opinion; and gave us some reason to believe, that we should be obliged to return by the same track we had come. Such was the uncertainty with which, in general, all our conjectures were attended, from the various appearances that occurred in exploring this country.

I felt much regret that I had left unexamined the small branch we had seen in the morning, and the bay we had passed in the course of the afternoon; as these researches would have completely ascertained the continental shore to this point, which I distinguished by the name of point FITZGIBBON. I determined however to pursue the branch that now appeared to the north-east, and seemed of some extent; as, should this be found to terminate, there would be little reason to suppose, even if we had been able to examine them, that the others would have led to any thing of importance.

Sunday 11.

The next morning we accordingly proceeded; the north-east branch was found in general to be about a mile wide; and keeping on its southern shore, which is much indented with small bays; at half past six we arrived at its termination in latitude 56° longitude 229° 1′, by low land; through which two or three small rivulets appeared to flow over a bank of mud, stretching from the head of the arm, and reaching from side to side, on which was lodged a considerable quantity of drift wood.

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The water was perfectly fresh, extremely muddy, and the whole surface was strewed over with salmon, either dead, or in the last stages of their existence. Many had life sufficient to give them motion, though wanting vital powers to keep them beneath the surface of the water. In the course of this excursion great numbers of these fish had been seen, not only in all the arms, but in almost every run of fresh water, particularly near the terminations of the several inlets, where they were innumerable, though most of them were in a sickly condition. We had no difficulty to take as many of the best as we were inclined to make use of; they however had little of the colour, and nothing of the flavor of salmon, and were very insipid and indifferent food. They were all small, of one sort, and were called by us hunch-backed salmon; from an excrescence that rose along the upper part of the backs of the male fish, where the back fins are inserted. This protuberance is much thinner than the body of the fish, which below it takes nearly a cylindrical form. These were the worst eating fish; the females were not so deformed, though the mouths of both were made in a kind of hook, resembling the upper mandible of a hawk. The sickly condition of these fish appeared to be consequent on the season of their spawning, and may possibly be occasioned by their exertions, in forcing their way up the runs of fresh water, against the impetuosity of the torrents that rush into the sea; by which means they had evidently received many bruises and other injuries. If any just conclusion is to be drawn from the appearance of the immense numbers found dead, not only in the water, but lodged on the shores below high water mark, it should seem that their death takes place immediately after spawning.

Having traced the north-east extent of this branch, and finding it only to form a deep bay (which obtained the name of BURROUGH'S BAY.) we returned along the northern shore, which took a direction somewhat irregularly S. 53 W. down the south-westerly branch, to a point on which I observed the latitude to be 55° 54′, longitude 228° 46′. At this station, which I call POINT LEES, the width of the south-west channel was decreased to less than a mile, and from hence its north-east point of entrance, which I named POINT WHALEY, lies N. 68 E., distant 4 miles.

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As we advanced, the colour of the water gradually, though slowly, turned dark; and the wind blowing fresh from the south-west, still cherished the hope that the land, forming the western side of the extensive northern arm we had navigated from point Alava to point Whaley, and southern sides of this south-westerly branch, would be found to compose an extensive island, and that we should obtain a passage to the ships by the route we were then pursuing.

On this point was found the remains of a deserted village, the largest of any I had seen for some time, and so constructed as to contain, by our estimation, at least three or four hundred people, who appeared to have quitted it not many months before. Shortly after noon, we reached a narrow opening on the northern shore leading to the northward; this was passed by unexamined, and we stopped to dine about a mile to the south-west of it; and in a direction S. 63 W. distant about a league from the deserted village. We soon proceeded again, and by eight in the evening arrived at a point on the southern shore in latitude 53° 50′, longitude 228° 30′.

Monday .

The doubts we had entertained respecting our situation were now in a great measure satisfied, for the water had again nearly resumed its oceanic taste and colour; and the channel which from hence turned sharp to the south, seemed to widen in that direction. A point on the northern shore lying N. 49 E. about a mile distant, formed the south-east point of a small opening, that appeared to branch off in two directions: one leading to the north, the other to the E. N. E.; the latter having the appearance of communicating with that seen in the afternoon, making the land on which we had dined in that case an island. About nine o'clock we took up our abode for the night, and on the following morning proceeded to the southward, with little doubt of finding by that course our way back to the station of the vessels; from whence we were now at least one hundred and forty miles distant. The weather being calm and hazy, prevented our seeing distinctly the surrounding regions, yet we were able to discern two openings on the western shore, leading towards the north-west. The southernmost of these seemed spacious, and about two miles in width. South of this opening the western shore appeared

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to be nearly compact, with one or two small bays only, and a few detached islets lying at little distance from it; whilst the eastern shore, along which we passed, was considerably broken. Its several inlets however were disregarded, as we had barely time to obtain at the different stations the necessary angles for fixing the general outline of the shores of this channel, whose width as we advanced appeared to increase from 1 to nearly 2 leagues.

As our route was directed to one of these necessary stations, some of the natives were observed in their canoes near the shore; four of these canoes appearing to be large and well manned, went towards the launch, then some distance astern of us; and by their singing, which we heard, appeared to be very peaceably inclined. We were also visited by a small canoe containing only two of the natives, who approached us without hesitation, and with the greatest good humour accepted such trifling presents as were offered to them, and made known our friendly behaviour to some of their associates who were still on the shore. These, apparently at the instance of the other two, came off in two small canoes, that just reached us as we were putting on shore for the purpose of taking the requisite angles. Their behaviour was civil and inoffensive, and they seemed equally well satisfied with the presents that were distributed amongst them. They offered their skins and other commodities to barter, which were accordingly exchanged; and thus, without the least apprehension on our parts of any evil design in these people, who like most of the natives we had lately seen were well armed, I landed, leaving Mr. Puget in the yawl, using his endeavours to entertain our new visitors. In a little time they became extremely clamorous, and were hallowing to the large canoes that were near the launch. On my return into the boat, Mr. Puget informed me that the natives had betrayed a very thievish disposition, and that he had great reason to suspect they were inclined to be turbulent. I immediately ordered the boat from off the shore, hoping by that means to get quit of them, but in this attempt they were excessively troublesome; the number of their canoes was by this time four or five, in these they laid fast hold by the boats quarters, calling out "Winnee watter"; though at our solicitations they frequently

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quitted their hold, but which they almost instantly again resumed; we had however put off from the rocks, and had partly got the use of our oars, without being obliged to resort to any hostile measures, when the largest of the canoes, under the steerage of an old woman, with a remarkably large lip ornament, laid us on board across the bow; this vixen instantly snatched up the lead line that was lying there, and lashed her canoe with it to the boat; whilst a young man, appearing to be the chief of the party, seated himself in the bow of the yawl, and put on a mask, resembling a wolf's face, compounded with the human countenance. About this time the Indian who had first visited us, watching his opportunity, stole a musket out of the boat. Our situation was now become very critical and alarming; we had discovered too late the treacherous designs of these people, and to add to our embarrassment, the launch was yet too far distant to afford us any immediate succour. The only chance we had for our preservation, was, if possible, to ward off the blow by a kind of parley, until our friends might come up, who were hastening with their utmost exertions to our assistance. With these ideas, I went forward with a musket in my hand in order to speak to the chief; on which the surrounding Indians, about fifty in number, seized their daggers, brandished their spears, and pointed them towards us in all directions. I was not yet without hopes of effecting an amicable reparation, without being under the necessity of resorting to extremities. The chief instantly quitted the boat at my request, and gave me to understand by signs, that if I would lay down my musket, his people would lay down their arms; on my disposing of my gun, the conditions were complied with on all sides, and tranquillity appeared likely to be restored; nor do I believe that any thing further would have happened, had they not been instigated by the vociferous efforts of their female conductress; who seemed to put forth all the powers of her turbulent tongue to excite, or rather to compel the men, to act with hostility towards us. Her language appeared to have the most effect upon those who were towards the stern of our boat, and who were likewise greatly encouraged by a very ferocious looking old man in a middling sized canoe. This old fellow, assisted by his companions, seized hold of our oars on

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the starboard side, and prevented their being used. Observing this, and that the spears were again brandishing in that quarter, I again made signs for peace, and went immediately ast; where I found Mr. Puget using his utmost endeavours to accomplish the same desirable object, which seemed once more likely to take place by their laying down their arms a second time.

This posture of affairs continued however but for a few moments. I had scarcely turned round, before I saw the spears, in the canoe which contained the chief and the old woman, all in motion; but on my stepping forward they were again dropped. Whilst I was thus engaged, the Indians near the stern of the boat became very troublesome; and, as I was passing back along the boat, a general commotion seemed to have taken place; some spears were thrust, one or two of which passed very near me, and the Indians, in all directions, began to seize all the moveables in our boat that they could possibly reach, and to commit other acts of violence. Our destruction now seemed almost inevitable; as I could hardly flatter myself that the force we had to oppose against the number that surrounded us, and, as it were, held us so completely within their power, would have been sufficient to make diem retire.

By this time, however, which was about ten minutes from my return to the boat, the launch had arrived within pistol-shot; and being now thoroughly satisfied that our forbearance had given them confidence, and that our desire for peace had rather stimulated them to acts of temerity than dissuaded them from their hostile intentions; and seeing no alternative left for our preservation against numbers so superior, but by making use of the coercive means we had in our power, I gave directions to fire; this instantly taking effect from both boats, was, to my great astonishment, attended with the desired effect, and we had the happiness of finding ourselves immediately relieved from a situation of the most imminent danger.

Those in the small canoes jumped into the sea, whilst those in the large ones, by getting all on one side, raised the opposite sides of their canoes, so that they were protected from the fire of the yawl, though


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they were in some measure exposed to that of the launch; and in this manner they scrambled sideways to the shore.

The only arms they had left us in the yawl, besides those in the arm chest, were a blunderbuss, a musket, a fowling-piece loaded with small shot, and a brace of pocket pistols; the rest of the arms that had usually been kept at hand, consisting of three muskets and a fowling-piece, having been stolen, in the affray, together with two cartridge-boxes, some books, and other articles of little value. The arm chest, however, afforded a sufficient supply for our future defence, and were immediately got in readiness for our protection; whilst the chastizement I intended to bestow on these treacherous people, by destroying their canoes, should be carried into execution. But, as we were pulling towards the shore for this purpose, I understood that two of our boat's crew were very badly wounded, which circumstance had escaped my notice, by their having continued to exert themselves in their respective stations; and this very unpleasant intelligence immediately induced me to decline the punishment I had meditated to inflict for the unprovoked aggression of the natives.

The Indians, on reaching the shore, ascended the high rocky cliffs of which it is composed, from whence they endeavoured to annoy those in the launch by stones, some of which fell into her at the distance of thirty or forty yards from the shore, and from whence also they fired a musket. The arms they had stolen from our boat were all loaded; beside these, they had fire arms of their own, but I had reason to believe they were not charged at the time of their attack upon us, as one of the most savage-looking fellows amongst them, just as I gave orders to fire, snapped his piece at me; but it missed fire, and he immediately laid it down, and took up his spear with all imaginable composure.

The launch was now ordered to join us, and an equal distribution of the remaining arms and ammunition was made in both boats. Being now fully prepared to repel any further attack, we rested on our oars about a quarter of a mile from the precipice the Indians had gained, until Mr. Menzies had dressed the wounded men. Robert Betton, in the act of removing the arm chest, was first wounded in the breast, but by

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his seizing the spear, he in a great measure parried the blow, and destroyed its force; but on its being instantly repeated, he received a very deep wound in the upper part of his thigh, which was little short of being mortal. George Bridgeman was also badly wounded lower down in the thigh, by a spear that passed quite through, from one side to the other. I had the satisfaction however to learn from Mr. Menzies, aster he had dressed the wounds, that he considered neither of them likely to he attended with any present danger, nor with consequences that would be inconvenient hereafter.

Betton and Bridgeman had both received their wounds as I was returning the second time to the stern of the boat, and just before that I was compelled to give the order to fire; the former as above stated, and the latter in preventing those in the large canoe, lying across our boat's bows, from unshipping one of the wall-pieces. Their wounds being dressed, and births as convenient as circumstances would admit, one in each boat, being made for our unfortunate ship-mates, we departed, giving the point on which we had landed the name of ESCAPE POINT, situated in latitude 55° 37′, longitude 228° 30′; and to a small opening, about a league to the northward of this point, the name of TRAITOR'S COVE; these treacherous people having from thence made their first appearance.

From Lieutenant Swaine and Mr. Menzies I learned, that when these audacious people first approached them in the launch, they behaved with the greatest friendliness and good humour, offering their skins for sale, two of which were thrown into the launch; and in return they accepted any thing that was given them with apparent satisfaction. In consequence of the friendly intercourse that had taken place, and the avidity of the Indians in their commercial pursuits, they pressed on the boat to take hold of her, but on this being objected to, and the canoes obliged to keep at a respectable distance, some little discontent was observed to shew itself amongst them. This was attributed to their great eagerness for trading, until the canoe conducted by the old virago, who was the only female of the party, finding the launch would not comply with their solicitations to stop and trade, paddled across the bow of the boat

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with the intention of stopping her progress. On this occasion a musket was presented, with menaces that had the desired effect of making her drop a-stern; much against the will of the old shrew, whose designs were evidently not of the most friendly nature.

It was now deemed expedient to be vigilantly upon their guard, to have all their arms at hand, and to charge such as were unloaded; which was done in the most private way, left any alarm should be given to the Indians, who were kept by signs at a proper distance, and only one canoe at a time allowed to come near enough to receive the presents that were offered; these were accepted with great civility, and the general tenor of their conduct betokened a friendly disposition. In this humour, to all appearance, they paddled hastily towards the yawl, seemingly in consequence of the invitation of their comrades, who were by this time assembled about our boat. Notwithstanding they were observed by the gentlemen in the launch to use uncommon exertions for the purpose of reaching the yawl, yet their efforts were at first attributed to diversion, or eagerness to arrive at a better market; until they observed their spears to be in motion, when they lost no time in coming to our relief.

The conduct of these people, so unlike that of any of the natives we had hitherto met with, inclines the mind to advert to some cause that could have produced a deportment so opposite to that which we had in general experienced. I was apprehensive at first, that during my absence from the boat some offence, however inadvertently, had been given; but on inquiry, nothing of the fort appeared to have happened; on the contrary, to the moment of my return from the shore, the Indians had spared no pains to impress us with the most favorable idea of their good intentions, by frequently uttering the word "Wacon," signifying in their language, friendship. Their attack upon us should therefore appear, either to have been planned on their first seeing us, or determined upon in consequence of our temporizing conduct, which it is easy to imagine they would interpret into fear of their superior numbers. Whether their motives were rather to take revenge on us for injuries they may have sustained from other civilized visitors;

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or whether they conceived the valuable articles we possessed, were easily to be obtained by these means, is difficult to be determined.

It was manifestly evident that they had been acquainted with civilized commercial people, by the muskets and other European commodities in their possession; and, when we considered the particular behaviour of the first man who visited us, we had reason to suspect that they had been ill-treated in their traffic with white men. This Indian, by means of signs and words too expressive to be mistaken, gave us clearly to understand, that they had reason to complain of one or more muskets that they had purchased, which burst into pieces on being fired; a fraud which I know has been practised too frequently, not only on this coast, but at the Sandwich, and other islands in the pacific ocean. These defects have not arisen from ignorance or mismanagement on the part of the Indians, but from the baseness of the metal and imperfect workmanship of the firearms. Of this dishonesty the chiefs of the Sandwich islands most loudly complain; and with great justice contend, that the produce of their country, being bartered for such articles, of the very best quality, whatever was received by them in exchange, ought to have been so likewise.

And I am extremely concerned to be compelled to state here, that many of the traders from the civilized world have not only pursued a line of conduct, diametrically opposite to the true principles of justice in their commercial dealings, but have fomented discords, and stirred up contentions, between the different tribes, in order to increase the demand for these destructive engines. They have been likewise eager to instruct the natives in the use of European arms of all descriptions; and have shewn by their own example, that they consider gain as the only object of pursuit; and whether this be acquired by fair and honorable means, or otherwise, so long as the advantage is secured, the manner how it is obtained seems to have been, with too many of them, but a very secondary consideration.

Under a conviction that repeated acts of such injustice had taken place, it was not unreasonable to suppose, that these people, who had experienced the like frauds, should be of opinion that our muskets.

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and the other arms that we carried for our protection, were of a superior quality to those they had procured from the traders. This, indeed, was proved by their praising ours and comparing them with those in their possession; and they might possibly from thence have been tempted to trespass on the laws of honesty, in order to acquire by force those really valuable commodities, which, by fair commercial dealings on their part they could only procure in a defective slate. It may also not be impossible that they reconciled amongst themselves any acts of violence, which should become necessary in order to the attainment of them, as not being less offensive to justice, than the impositions that had been practised upon them by a people who, from every appearance, they might naturally conclude were of the same country and connections with us; and that they might thus consider themselves justified in using every artifice of retaliation, to effect their purpose.

I cannot however avoid observing, that through our want of caution they had, in this instance, sufficient address to succeed by their friendly professions, in nearly assembling all their force round us, though in the more early part of our voyage, we should have regarded their conduct with much suspicion; particularly their vociferous hallooing to each other, the haste with which the party came to us from the launch, their throwing overheard their dogs, and other hostile preparations that did not escape our notice, and would formerly have been deemed sufficient indications to have awakened our suspicions, and to have put us completely upon our guard against any unfriendly design they might have had in contemplation. But, having been so long accustomed to a series of tranquil intercourse with the several different tribes of Indians we had met with, our apprehensions of any molestation from them were totally done away; and that attentive wariness which had been the first object of my concern on coming amongst these rude nations, had latterly been much neglected. For although we had now more arms than we were provided with during the preceding summer, namely, two wall-pieces cut short for the purpose of being more handy in the boats, each of which was loaded with a dozen pistol balls, yet these

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as well as some of our muskets, had been so neglected by disuse, that they were unserviceable on this pressing emergency.

The good fortune we had experienced until now, had given me hopes, that an equal success would continue to the close of our researches; and that I should have the happiness of concluding our voyage, without being under the painful necessity of firing one shot in anger.

To what degree our firing did execution, was not ascertained. Some of the natives were seen to fall, as if killed, or severely wounded; and great lamentations were heard after they had gained their retreat in the woods, from whence they shewed no disposition to renew their attack.

Our route was now uninterruptedly directed across an extensive bay, in which were several small openings, appearing to lead to the eastward and south-east. About three o'clock we reached a small island lying N. 9 W. from Escape point, at the distance of five miles. Our progress hither had been slow, occasioned by a fresh south-west wind, which however was attended with pleasant weather. The width of the southerly channel we thus pursued, had diminished from being nearly 2, to scarcely league; this was occasioned by an island lying about a mile from the eastern shore, half a league broad, and a league long, in a direction N. 60 E. and S. 60 W. This island I named BETTON'S ISLAND, after our wounded shipmate; on its north-west side are several dangerous rocks, lying half a mile from its shore, and between it and the eastern shore are several smaller islands. We traversed this eastern passage, and took up our night's abode near a conspicuous point on the eastern shore, which I named POINT HIGGINS, after his Excellency Senr. Higgins de Vallenar, the president of Chili. It is situated in latitude 55° 27½', longitude 228° 25′, from whence a very remarkable projecting point on the opposite shore lies N. 78 W. distant four miles and a half; and two small islands, with some trees upon them, S. 40 W. half a league distant.

Tuesday 13.

We started early the next morning, and were favored with pleasant weather, though with an adverse southerly wind. Immediately to the south of point Higgins, we passed an opening about two miles wide, and having advanced five miles in a direction S. 10 W. from that point, we reached another, that proved our situation to be in the north-east part of

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the extensive opening laid down in Senr. Caamano's chart, and distinguished by the name of Estrecho del Almirante Fuentes, y Entrada de Nostra Senr. del Carmin: and although the chart in this, as well as in the former instance, did not bear any very strong resemblance to the regions before us, yet it was sufficient to prove the identity of the place.

Point Higgins evidently formed the north-west point of the northern entrance into the canal de Revilla Gigedo. Its south point, which I called point Vallenar, is the north-west extremity of the island Gravina, lying from point Higgins S. 8 W. at the distance of two miles, and forming the opening above alluded to. From point Vallenar lies a ledge of rocks, parts of which are visible only at low tide; this ledge nearly joins on to the above two small islands. The remarkable projecting point, noticed the preceding evening on the western shore, is that which I considered to be cape Caamano, and is a point of separation, dividing this arm of the sea into two principal branches; one being that which we had navigated to this station; the other, extending towards the north-west, seemed to be about 4 miles wide; and is I suppose the channel by which Mr. Brown of the Butterworth had found his way to the ocean, in the latitude of 56° 20′. The opposite shore of Estrecho de Fuentes, &c. that is, the supposed straits of de Fonte, to the southward of cape Caamano, was not more than seven or eight miles distant, but in the chart before alluded to, it is represented to be double that distance; and, on comparing the latitude of the points as therein expressed, with those resulting from my observations, they were found to differ also very materially.

We now entertained no doubt of finding a passage to the vessels by this route; though there was reason to expect we should have some extent of the exterior coast to encounter. The land to the north of the canal de Revilla Gigedo was now proved to be, what had been before conjectured of it, an extensive island which we had nearly circumnavigated.

On this occasion I cannot avoid a repetition of my acknowledgements for the generous support we received from Senr. Quadra, acting un-

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der the orders of the Conde de Revilla Gigedo, viceroy of New Spain; as also for his excellence's offers of whatever further assistance the countries under his authority might afford. In commemoration therefore of his excellency's very kind attention, I have not only adopted the name of the canal after that nobleman, but have further distinguished the land to the north of it by the name of the ISLAND OF REVILLA GIGEDO.

Opposite to the eastern entrance into the canal is situated the Bocas de Quadra; and as I had always regretted that no opportunity was taken to commemorate the weighty obligations conferred by Major Belun on the officers and crews of the Resolution and Discovery, whilst at Kampschatka in the year 1779, by the introduction of that gentleman's name in the charts of that voyage; I embraced this occasion to name the channel that separates the island of Revilla Gigedo from the continent, BEHM'S CANAL. These tributes are of a very insignificant nature when compared with the merit to which they are offered, and are only to be regarded as memorials to bear testimony of the zeal for advancing of science in these noble and distinguished characters, displayed by their friendly and liberal support of those who have been engaged in the several laborious undertakings projected by His Britannic Majesty, for the attainment of a true and perfect geographical knowledge of the earth.

Quitting this station, we continued along the west side of the island of Gravina; where a few rocks extended from the projecting points of its shores; these are nearly straight and compact, stretching S. 13 E. to a point where I observed the latitude to be 55° 10′; longitude 228° 28′. From this point, and for 2 leagues to the north of it, the width of the channel did not exceed a league and a half; but, as we advanced to the south, it again increased in its width to 2 and 3 leagues. The western shore appeared to be much broken, and the land to be more elevated than on the eastern side, which is of a moderate height, and is covered with wood.

From this station the eastern shore took a direction S. 30 E. for five miles, and then turned short to the eastward and north-east, appearing


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to divide the island of Gravina by a passage about two miles wide, in which were seen innumerable rocks and rocky islets; but the haziness of the weather did not permit our acquiring any competent knowledge of them, or of the shores forming the passage.

Wednes. 14.

I was much inclined to pursue our way home by this channel, as in all probability it would have materially shortened our journey, and made it less laborious, by following a more direct; line, and in smooth water; but as the main branch still led to the south, it was evidently the most proper for the vessels to navigate, and I was for that reason extremely anxious that it should undergo our examination. We therefore passed by this opening, and continued our route until near ten o'clock, when we rested for the night in a small cove near a point, situated in latitude 55° 0′ 30″, longitude 228° 40′. This point I named POINT DAVISON, in compliment to Alexander Davison, Esq. the owner of our storeship. Here, in consequence of a strong gale of wind from the south-west, attended with a heavy rain, we passed a very disagreeable night. By the dawn of day the wind was less violent, and we departed from this unpleasant station; but the agitation of the sea much retarded our progress, until we passed a projecting point of land, which I distinguished by the name of POINT PERCY, when we derived some tolerable assistance from our sails for the first time during this excursion.

Point Percy is the western extremity of a long narrow cluster of low islands, lying S. 5 W. from point Davison, distant four miles. This chiller of islands and rocks seems to extend about five miles in an E. N. E. direction, nearly uniting to the eastern shore, which is much broken both on the north and south of these islands, and appears to form another division of the island of Gravina. From point Percy, the south point of this land, or isles of Gravina, which I named CAPE NORTHUMBER LAND, in honor of that illustrious family, lies S. 65 E., at the distance of 3 leagues. Our course was directed thither through several clusters of dangerous rocks, lying in all directions a considerable distance from the shore, with very irregular foundings from 4 to 30 fathoms water; the weeds however which grow in their neighbourhood, are a sufficient warning in the day time to avoid those dangers.

VOL. II. 3 B

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About noon I landed in a small island lying to the south from cape Northumberland, where I observed the latitude to be 54° 51½', longitude 228° 55½'; from this island, which is tolerably high, I gained a very distinct view of the surrounding rocks and breakers in all directions; the outermost of these towards the north-west lies N. 57 W. three miles and a half distant, those towards the south-west, S. 67 W. four miles and a half; the southernmost, which were the furthest off, south six miles and a half; and the south-easternmost S. 50 E. five miles distant. The intermediate spaces were occupied by an immense number of rocks and breakers. From hence also the west point of entrance into this arm of the sea, called by Senr. Caamano cape de Chacon, lies S. 67 W. 8 or 9 leagues, and cape Fox, E. by S. 5 leagues distant. About a mile to the north-eastward of us, on a high detached rock, were the remains of a large village, much more exposed to the inclemency of the weather than any residence of the natives I had before seen. Here was found a sepulchre of a peculiar character. It was a kind of vault, formed partly by the natural cavity of the rocks, and partly by the rude artists of the country. It was lined with boards, and contained some fragments of warlike implements, lying near a square box covered with mats and very curiously corded down. This we naturally conjectured contained the remains of some person of consequence, and it much excited the curiosity of some of our party; but as the further examination could not possibly have served any useful purpose, and might have given umbrage and pain to the friends of the deceased, should it be their custom to visit the repositaries of their dead, I did not think it right that it should be disturbed. Not from motives of superstition as some were then pleased to suppose, but from a conviction, that it was highly proper to restrain our curiosity, when it tended to no good purpose whatever.

Our course was directed from hence across the south-east entrance of the Canal de Revilla Gigedo, with a favorable gale, though we were not more fortunate in being able to see round us, than when we passed the same region on the 4th; for immediately after noon the weather became extremely thick and hazy, with intervals of fog; and, towards the evening, a very heavy swell rolled from the S.W., and broke upon

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Thursday 15.

the shores with great violence, and with every other appearance of an approaching storm. Before dark, however, we reached the cove that had afforded us shelter under similar circumstances on the evening of the 3d; here we rested for the night, which was more temperate than we had reason to expect, and early on the following morning we again bent our way towards the vessels.

In the forenoon we reached that arm of the sea, whose examination had occupied our time from the 27th of the preceding to the 2d. of this month. The distance from its entrance to its source is about 70 miles; which, in honor of the noble family of Bentinck, I named PORTLAND'S CANAL.

Friday 16.

Our provisions being now so nearly exhausted, that we each dined this day on half a pint of peas, we were under the necessity of keeping on our oars, or under sail, all night; and about seven in the morning we arrived on board, much to the satisfaction of all parties, as we had now been almost intirely confined to the boats for twenty-three days; in which time we had traversed upwards of 700 geographical miles, without, having advanced our primary object, of tracing the continental boundary, more than 20 leagues from the station of the vessels. Such were the perplexing, tedious, and laborious means, by which alone we were enabled by degrees to trace the north-western limits of the American continent.

Our return was attended with much relief to the feelings of those on board, who had begun to suffer the greatest anxiety for our welfare; all of whom I had the satisfaction of finding perfectly well, and also that the several requisite services were completed, and that the weather had been sufficiently clear to admit of such astronomical observations being procured as were satisfactory for all our purposes.

By the timely assistance, and the great care that had been taken of the two wounded men, who were each valuable in their respective stations, they were both in a fair way of recovery; and as we had no object to detain us longer in this situation, I gave directions that every thing should be taken from the shore, and the vessels got in readiness to proceed down the inlet in the morning.

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Mr. Johnstone had returned on the 30th of july. I learned from him, that on his quitting the ship he had been greatly retarded in his progress southward, by strong breezes that prevailed from that quarter, and that it was not until five in the evening of the 24th, that he and his party reached the northernmost opening, or bay, that we had passed by in the ship. They used their utmost endeavours to commence their survey on the continental shore at point Maskelyne; but the wind, attended with much sea, being adverse to this design, they entered this opening, in order to prosecute the further examination of it, until the weather might become more moderate. This engaged but little of their time, as it proved to be only a spacious bay, with a very shallow bank extending from its shores in all directions; along this they rowed with scarcely a sufficient depth of water for the boats, until they arrived at its north-east end, when the water suddenly deepened from 5 feet to a and 5 fathoms, and then as suddenly became shallow again. The bank, which was flat a long way from the shore quite round the bay, prevented their landing for the night, and obliged them to come to a grapnel and rest in the boats. The small opening in the shallow bank was the mouth of a little river, not exceeding in width, according to Mr. Johnstone's estimation, a ship's length; and from every appearance it seemed to be navigable only for canoes. Through this narrow entrance both the flood and ebb tide rushed with great force, but more particularly the latter; and though it is not more than four miles from the main arm, where the water is in all respects completely oceanic, that which was discharged here at the latter part of the ebb was perfectly fresh. The natives, who had visited the ships when in its vicinity, now paid their respects to the boats, and by repeating their visit in the night, occasioned some little alarm to the party. They had soon however the satisfaction of being convinced, that these Indians had no inhospitable design; for, on their being made sensible that their attendance was unseasonable, they immediately retired, after throwing some fish into one of the boats. On the Indians first meeting our party in the evening, they had been desired to procure them some fish; this they promised to do, and it is therefore but charitable to suppose, that this was the object of their late visit.

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In the morning of the 25th, being assisted by a strong ebb tide, they quitted this small river, which, with the other in port Essington observed in Mr. Whidbey's late excursion, are the only two streams that had yet been discovered to the north of the river Columbia. These are too insignificant to be dignified by the name of rivers, and in truth scarcely deserve the appellation of rivulets; but should it hereafter be thought expedient, in support of the late prevailing conceits, and to establish the pretended discoveries of De Font, De Fonta, or De Fuentes, that one of these brooks should be considered as the Rio de los Reys leading into lake Bell, I must beg leave to premise, that neither of their entrances will be met with under the parallels of 43, 53, or 63 degrees of north latitude; these being the several different positions assigned to the entrance of this most famous Rio de los Reys, by speculative closet navigators.

Had any river or opening in the coast existed near either the 43d or 53d parallel of north latitude, the plausible system that has been erected, would most likely have been deemed perfect; but, unfortunately for the great ingenuity of its hypothetical projectors, our practical labours have thus far made it totter; the position of the former stream, seen by Mr. Whidbey, falling into port Essington, being in latitude 54° 15′; that of the latter, in latitude 54° 59′; neither of which will correspond with any of the positions above-mentioned.

The 25th was wholly employed by Mr. Johnstone's party in reaching point Maskelyne, where the next morning they re-commenced the survey of the continental shore from this point, pursuing it up a branch that took immediately a south-east direction from it, until late in the afternoon, when it was found to terminate in latitude 54° 20′, longitude 230° 21′. Its shores approach within about half a mile of the north-east part of port Essington. The south-west shores of this arm were nearly straight and compact, its general width from one and a half to two miles, excepting about six or seven miles within the entrance, where it was much narrower. From the head of this branch they returned along the north-east shore, and about dark entered a narrow opening, which, on the morning of the 27th, was found to stretch irregularly, first towards the north and N.W., near 4 miles, and then to the E.N.E., to latitude 51° 31½',

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longitude 230° 16′. This branch, generally preserving the width of a mile, decreased at the end of its north-westerly course, by the projection of two points, to about 50 fathoms. The point extending from the western more is a remarkably steep, rocky precipice, and at high-water becomes an island. This had formerly been appropriated to the residence of a very numerous tribe of Indians, whose habitations were now fallen into decay, but it still retained the appearance of having been one of the most considerable and populous villages that Mr. Johnstone had yet seen. On their return its entrance was reached about noon; and the latitude observed there was 54° 24′, longitude 230° 10′.

As it was in this arm that Mr. Brown had found occasion to chastize the natives by cannonading their village, our party was much surprized that not a single inhabitant should have been seen, since those who had visited them on the 24th at night; this induced a more minute examination of the shores, and in the morning of the 28th, their attention was more particularly directed to those of that bay in which as they had understood the affray had happened. At the head of it was found a small projecting rock, on which were the remains of a few Indian habitations that appeared to have been very recently deserted. The holes where the shot had made their way through the houses, proved it to be the identical place described by Mr. Brown.

As they kept along the east or continental shore, they arrived in the main inlet by a narrow channel about half a mile long, and about two miles to the eastward of the place where they had entered it, making the intermediate land an island, a league long, and half a league broad. Behind this island was a small arm extending to the south-east about 2 miles, and then to the north-east about twice that distance. The following clay another small arm about three quarters of a mile wide was entered in latitude 54° 45′, longitude 229° 50½'; which, after stretching 4 miles to the E.N.E. divided into two branches, one taking a course of about a league, N. by E., where it joined the main inlet, making the western land an island lying about N. N. E. and S.S.W. five miles in length, and half a league broad; the other extending irregularly towards the S. E., where, in latitude 54° 40½', longitude 230° 13′, it terminated in low marshy land, like the generality of the others which we had explored.


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The survey of this arm occupied the party the whole of the 29th, and on the 30th they entered the only opening remaining unexamined. Its S.W. point of entrance, off which lie some rocky islets, is situated in latitude 54° 51½', longitude 229° 57′; this is about a mile in width, and terminated at the distance of about six miles from its entrance, in a direction N. 50 E.

Having thus accomplished the service they were sent to perform, Mr. Johnstone returned with his party towards the ships, where they arrived about nine in the evening, after experiencing, during this excursion, nearly an uninterrupted series of fair and pleasant weather.

Nothing of any note having occurred during my absence, I Shall conclude this chapter by the insertion of the astronomical and nautical observations made at this place; and, in consequence of our having been so fortunate as to be able to obtain those that were essential for correcting our former survey, and for our future regulation in that respect, this branch obtained the name of OBSERVATORY INLET; and the cove, where the vessels were stationed, that of SALMON COVE, from the abundance of that kind of fish that were there taken.


Longitude of the observatory, by Kendall's chronometer, on the 24th of july, according to the Restoration-bay rate, 230° 53′ 15″
Arnold's No. 14, by the same rate, 230 9 45
Ditto 176, ditto, 230 27 30
Ditto, 82, ditto, on board the Chatham, 230 10
Longitude of the observatory, deduced from lunar distances, 9 sets taken by Mr. Whidbey, on 27th july, ⊙ east; of ☾ 229° 56′37″
15 sets, by ditto, 28, ditto, 230 7 9
16 ditto, 29, ditto, 230 9 25
12 ditto, 30, ditto, 230 8 59
6 ditto, 31, ditto, 230 4 47
12 ditto, 11th aug. ⊙ west of ☾ 230 34 34
16 ditto, 12, ditto, 230 36 16
12 ditto, 15, ditto, 230 26 49
The mean of 98 sets, collectively taken, 230° 15′ 32″

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12 sets, by Mr. Baker, 28th july, ⊙ east of ☾ 230° 4′ 27″
16 ditto, 29, ditto 229 58 33
12 ditto, 30, ditto, 230 10
12 ditto, 11th aug. ⊙ west of ☾ 230 34 36
12 ditto, 12, ditto, 230 12 12
12 ditto, 15, ditto, 230 25 2
The mean of 76 sets, collectively taken, 230 15 10
9 sets, by Mr. Orchard, 27th july, ⊙ east of ☾ 230 7 5
12 ditto, 28, ditto, 230 4 31
16 ditto, 29, ditto, 229 55 25
10 ditto, 30, ditto, 230 13 16
12 ditto, 11th aug. ⊙ west of ☾ 230 38 54
16 ditto, 12, ditto, 230 5 28
8 ditto, 15, ditto, 230 16 36
The mean of 83 sets, collectively taken, 230 21 20
2 sets, by Mr. Ballard, 27th july, ⊙ east of ☾ 229 46 45
12 ditto, 28, ditto, 230 7 48
16 ditto, 29, ditto, 230 2 39
6 ditto, 30, ditto, 230 15 7
12 ditto, 11th aug. ⊙ west of ☾ 230 34 23
12 ditto, 12, ditto, 230 31 41
12 ditto, 15, ditto, 230 17 48
The mean of 72 sets, collectively taken, 230 16 39
6 sets, by Mr. Pigot, 30th july, ⊙ east of ☾ 230 13 12
6 ditto, 31, ditto, 230 2 55
5 ditto, 12th aug. ⊙ west of ☾ 230 22 21
The mean of 17 sets collectively taken, 230 12 8
The mean of the whole, amounting to 346 sets, each set, as usual, containing 6 observations, collectively taken, 230 16 30
Latitude, by 12 meridional altitudes of the sun, and one meridional altitude of a star, differing from 55° 15 to 55° 16½', gave a mean result of 55 15 34

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Allowing the true longitude of the observatory to be 230° 16′ 30″, and by ten days' corresponding altitudes, Kendall's chronometer was, at noon on the 15th of august, found to be fast of mean time at Greenwich, 2h 32′ 15″ 42″′
And gaining, per day, on mean time, at the rate of 24 23
Arnold's No. 14, fast of mean time at Greenwich, 2 20 46 42
And gaining, per day, at the rate of 19 37
Arnold's No. 176, fast of mean time at ditto, 5 37 13 42
And gaining, per day, at the rate of 42 54
Arnold's No. 82, fast of mean time at ditto, 6 39 2 42
And gaining, per day, 32 25
The variation of the magnetic needle, by four compasses, on shore, in 40 sets of azimuths, differing from 22° 16′ to 28° 16′, gave a mean result of 25°18′ eastwardly
The vertical inclination of the magnetic needle was, Marked end North, face East, 74 33
Ditto ditto, West, 76 33
Marked end South, face East, 75 53
Ditto ditto, West, 76 47
Mean inclination of marine dipping needle 75 54½

The tide was observed to rise generally about 16 feet, and to be high water 1h 8′ after the moon passed the meridian.

N. B. The longitude of the several stations between Restoration bay and Observatory inlet, are corrected by the observations made at the latter place.

VOL. II. 3 C

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Quit Observatory inlet—Proceed to the north-west—Description of Port Stewart—Visted by the natives—Account of two boat excursions.

1793. August.

Saturday 17.

THE route by which the vessels had advanced to Salmon cove, being infinitely better for them to pursue towards cape Caamana, than the intricate channel through which I had passed in the boats, we weighed with the intention of directing our course thus about six in the morning; but having a strong gale from the southward, we made little progress windward.

On heaving up the best bower anchor, we found the cable nearly divided, and although this cable had been very little used, it was intirely worn out; under this circumstance, I thought we were very fortunate in saving the anchor, which, had the cable broke, must have fallen to a fathomless depth.

Sunday 18.

By eight in the evening, we had advanced about seven miles from Salmon cove, where we anchored for the night, near some rocks on the western shore, in 85 fathoms water, and steadied with a hawser to the trees on the shore. At five the following morning, we again made sail with the tide in our favor, but with a strong unfavorable gale from the southward, with squally and misty weather; and, notwithstanding the wind was very powerful, the ship was so much affected by counter currents, that both staying and wearing were attended with many disappointments, and accomplished with great difficulty. These very unpleasant interruptions constantly attended our navigating this broken region. The Chatham drew three feet less water only than the Dis-

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covery; and it is a circumstance worthy of remark, that she but seldom felt, and never in an equal degree, the influence of these contending streams, by which we had been so continually annoyed. These were sometimes indicated by ripplings on the surface of the water, but at others we felt their effect, though there were no visible signs of their existence.

As we paired the small rivulet that Mr. Johnstone had visited, we again observed the sea to be covered, to the depth of two or three feet, by a very light-coloured muddy water, under which it evidently retained its oceanic colour and qualities.

Monday 19.

Tuesday 20.

The Indians, inhabiting the neighbourhood, approached us without fear, and seemed very friendly disposed, but no one of them would accompany us to the opposite shore; where, about three in the afternoon, on the flood-tide making against us, we anchored in 45 fathoms water, and, as before, steadied by a hawser to the trees. During the afternoon the wind blew strong from the southward, and our time was employed in replacing our disabled cable with a new one. A want of wind, and the flood-tide, prevented our weighing until nine the following morning, when, with the ebb-tide, we again proceeded, but did not reach the entrance of Observatory inlet until two o'clock in the morning of the 20th; a distance of not more than 13 leagues from Salmon cove.

The west point of Observatory inlet I distinguished by calling it POINT WALES, after my much-esteemed friend Mr. Wales, of Christ's Hospital; to whose kind instruction, in the early part of my life, I am indebted for that information which has enabled me to traverse and delineate these lonely regions.

Having again reached Chatham's found, we lay to until day-light, when our course was directed along the northern shore, to the southward of the islets and rocks that lie off cape Fox, passing between two and three miles of the north side of Dundas's island, along which are a great number of rocks. W. by S. three miles from its north-west point, which is situated in latitude 54° 38′, and longitude 229° 20′, lies a smaller island, surrounded by many rocks; it appeared to be about 2 leagues in circuit, and is called in Sen', Caamano's chart, the Isle de Zayas. A favorable breeze now attended us; and, by our observations, the latitude at noon

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was 54° 44′, longitude 228° 59′. In this situation, the north side of Dundas's island bore, by compass, from N. 80 E. to S. 82 E.; the island of Zayas S. 55 E. to S. 73 E., distant 3 or 4 leagues: the southernmost of the rocks, lying off cape Northumberland N. 89 w., three miles and a half; (this is a round lump of barren rock, very small, always above water, and which has some breakers lying at a little distance off its south-east side;) and the south-easternmost of those rocks N. 22 W. This last lies from the south rock N. 43 E., distant four miles and a half, and is a low, flat, double rock, always above water, but has much broken ground in its neighbourhood.

In the afternoon we passed the south-westernmost of the above rocks. These latter are two small rocks, above water, with much broken ground to the north and north-east of them, and in a direct line towards the south-easternmost rocks; they bear by compass, from the south rock, N. 44 W., five miles and a half distant. Between these and the eastern shore lie many dangerous rocks and breakers; but as we passed the south rock, I did not observe any danger to the north of it, between it and the other rocks; where the channel, to all appearance, seemed to be as free from impediments, as that which we were pursuing towards the western shore of Senr. Caamano's supposed straits of De Font. Having at this time a fresh gale from the S.W., with a very threatening unpleasant appearance of weather, which however gave us no other annoyance than a little rain, we were enabled to make great progress, and passed a small opening that, for a short distance, took a south-westerly direction. Its entrance is situated in latitude 54° 58½', longitude 228° 22′; from whence, about a league N. by W., an extensive found was passed, taking a southwesterly direction, and appearing to be divided into several branches, with some islands lying before its entrance. From this found, which I have distinguished as MOTRA'S SOUND, after the noble earl of that title, the western shore takes a direction nearly north, and forms some bays; the largest of these, situated in latitude 55° 8′, has, in and before it, several small islets: the outermost is by far the largest; and as it, in many points of view, resembled a wedge, it obtained the name of WEDGE ISLAND;

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from its south point lies a ledge of dangerous rocks, on which the sea broke with great violence.

The land in the neighbourhood of Moira's found is high, and rather steep to the sea; but as we advanced beyond Wedge island, the straight and compact shores were more moderately elevated, and the interior country was composed of lofty, though uneven, mountains, producing an almost impenetrable forest of pine trees, from the water side nearly to their summits; but by no means so high as those we had been accustomed to see in the more inland countries. About eight in the evening, still continuing along the western shore, we arrived off a projecting point, situated in latitude 55° 16½', longitude 228° 18′, where, gaining foundings at the depth of 47 fathoms, we anchored for the night about a quarter of a mile from the shore.

Wednes 21.

The winds were light and variable the next morning, but having a flood tide in our favor we again proceeded, and soon afterwards we passed the entrance of another found, which in extending to the south ward divided into several branches; this I called CHOLMONDELEY'S SOUND. A small island lies to the north-west of its entrance, the east point of which lies N. 75 W., two miles and a half from the point, under which we had last anchored. Noon brought us by our observations to the latitude of 55° 22′, longitude 228° 21′. In this situation we had a more distinct view of the two great branches of this arm of the sea, than we had as yet obtained. That leading to the north-east, being the same we had passed through in the boats, we were in some measure acquainted with, but the other stretching to the north-west appeared of greater extent, and seemed to be the main branch of the inlet.

On reference to Senr. Caamano's chart, a very distant land on its north-eastern shore appeared to be that to which he had given his own name. We were now much higher up the inlet than that gentleman had been, and as the land in that neighbourhood did not appear to form any conspicuous point, and as I wished to commemorate his researches, I gave his name to the point that divided the two branches, calling it CAPE CAAMANO, which, in our then situation, bore by compass N. 50 W. four or five miles distant, and is situated in latitude 55° 29′,

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longitude 228° 17′. The north-easternmost land before mentioned in the north-west branch, bore by compass N. 64 W., its remotest part on the opposite shore, N. 80 W., and its south point of entrance S. 74 W. To the southward of this point another opening of much apparent consequence extended in a parallel direction, and the shores in its neighbourhood seemed to be greatly divided.

The weather being calm, a good opportunity was afforded to a party of the natives from the western shore to pay us a visit. They approached us with little hesitation, and one amongst their number, who bore the character of an inferior chief, requested our permission to be admitted on board. On this being granted, he gave us to understand that he was acquainted with most of the traders on the coast, and said that he belonged to a powerful chief whose name was O-non-nis-toy, the U-en-Smoket, of U-en-Stikin, and pointed out his residence to be up the north-west branch. He desired we would fire a gun, on the report of which this great chief would visit us, with an abundance of salmon and sea otter skins to barter for our commodities. His request being complied with, he desired to know if I intended to go up the north-west branch, and on being answered in the affirmative, he appeared to be much pleased; but on being told that we should first visit that to the north-east, the intelligence seemed not only to produce in him a great disappointment, but to incur his disapprobation. He endeavoured to make us understand, that in those regions we should neither meet with chiefs, skins, nor any thing worthy our research; and that the people who resided in that quarter were great thieves, and very bad men.

Not being more than a dozen miles at this time from Escape point, the greatest attention was paid to the countenances and deportment of these strangers, using our endeavours to recognize in them any of the treacherous tribe by whom we had so recently been attacked; but as we did not discover a face that we had ever seen before, we were led to believe there might be some truth in the character now given of those resident up the north-east branch. I had, however, long been convinced, that, confidently with prudence, little reliance ought to be placed in such representations; for had our reception by those people been the

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very opposite of what we had experienced, this man's report would most probably have been the same, as he was not of their society. All the tribes of Indians we had lately met, had used every endeavour and artifice to tempt us to their habitations, but their motives for such pressing solicitations we were not able to discover.

About two o'clock a breeze sprang up from the south-west, with which our course was so directed as to pass to the north-east of cape Caamano, along the western shore of the north-eastern branch; which when our visitors perceived, they declined attending us any further; and as the chief on his coming on board had given me the skin of a sea otter recently killed, I made him an ample return, and added a piece of blue cloth, which I desired he would present in my name to his chief Ononnistoy. This he undertook to perform with much apparent pleasure, and on my promising to visit their neighbourhood, he took leave of us, seemingly well satisfied with his reception.

On this occasion I was much disposed to proceed up the north-west branch, until we should meet a convenient stopping place for the vessels; but as there was yet a probability that the unexplored openings on the western shore might communicate with that branch, or possibly with the ocean further to the north, I was induced to seek an anchorage nearly midway between the points in question. For this purpose the Chatham was sent a-head, and in the evening she made the signal for having discovered an eligible port on the western shore, in which she shortly anchored; but the wind failing us, we were compelled to anchor at eight in the evening on the outside in 54 fathoms water, and steadied as before with a hawser to the trees; having in our way, about 2 leagues to the north of cape Caamano, passed a tolerably deep bay, with some islands in it, which I did not consider sufficiently centrical for our purpose.

Thursday 22.

The port was found to be formed by a small, though very convenient bay, with several islets lying before it, which secured it from the wind in all directions; and being situated and circumstanced much to my wishes, we ran in and moored in 16 fathoms water, sandy bottom, about a cable's length from the western shore. The south point of the port bore

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by compass S. 60 E., the bottom N. 52 W., and the north point N. 3 W.; the intermediate space, between the north and the south point of the port, was chiefly occupied by islets and rocks, admitting of channels in various directions. The southernmost of these islets, having a safe passage all round it, bore by compass N. 48 E.

Great plenty of excellent water was found close at hand. The shores continuing still of a moderate height, and being covered with pine trees, berry bushes, and other shrubs, rendered this as eligible a situation as we were likely to obtain.

The boats were immediately prepared for two long excursions; Mr. Whidbey in the Discovery's large cutter, accompanied by Lieutenant Baker in the launch, with supplies for a fortnight, were to proceed and finish the survey of those branches, which I had been obliged to decline towards the conclusion of my last excursion; and afterwards, to continue their researches along the continental shore, so long as their provisions might last, or till it led them back to the station of the vessels.

Friday 23.

To Mr. Johnstone, with the two cutters, as usual, the other expedition was entrusted with provisions for ten days. He was to return to cape Caamano, for the purpose of examining the starboard shore of the north-west branch, until he should find it communicate with the ocean, With these directions both parties proceeded early in the following morning.

The situation of this port was nearly opposite to, and about four miles distant from, Traitor's cove; but as we now saw no smoke or other sign of inhabitants, I concluded that the inhospitable natives had abandoned that station.

In the forenoon, the Indians who had attended us on the 21st, visited us again, though without any addition to their party. The man, to whose care I had consigned the present for his chief, told me, that in a day or two Ononnistoy would pay us a visit. He said the chief was at some distance, and that it would require time to prepare for his journey; in the mean while he foliated a further present for him, as a testimony of our friendly intentions. With no


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small difficulty he made me understand that molasses would be very acceptable to Ononnistoy, with some bread to eat with it. Accordingly, these, with such other articles as I considered the occasion demanded, were entrusted to his care, and he departed the next morning.

Sunday 25.

The weather, since the evening of the 21st, had been very rainy, attended with strong winds and squalls from the S.E., which continued until sunday morning; when the sky being serene and clear, I was enabled to procure some good observations for ascertaining the situation of this place, and found them to agree very nearly with my calculation in our late boat excursion. The southernmost island noticed off this port having then been a particularly marked point.

About midnight we were disturbed by the singing of a party of the natives, as they entered the harbour; from whole noise we were at first led to suppose them a very numerous tribe, but, on a nearer approach, it proved to be only one canoe containing seventeen persons; who, after paddling round the vessels with their usual formalities, landed not far from the ship, where they remained singing until day-break. It appeared that much time had been bestowed on the decoration of their persons; their faces were painted after various fancies, and their hair was powdered with very delicate white down of young sea fowls. With the same ceremony they again approached the ship, and then came alongside with the greatest confidence.

Wednes. 28.

The chief of the party, named Kanaut, requested permission to come on board, which being immediately granted, he presented me with a sea otter skin, and on my making him a proper acknowledgment, he desired that a traffic with his people and ours might be entered into; in the conduct of which they proved themselves to be keen traders, though, to their praise it must be acknowledged, they observed the strictest honesty and propriety in the whole of their dealings, which were accompanied by a cheerful, sociable, and friendly disposition. These good folks continued in our neighbourhood until the 28th; when, having disposed of such articles as they were inclined to part with, they took a most friendly leave, seemingly much pleased with their visit, and speak-

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ing in the highest terms of Ononnistoy; who they acknowledged as their chief, and the head of a very numerous tribe.

In the afternoon Mr. Whidbey and his party returned, after having traced the boundaries of the continental shore, from the place where I had quitted it to this station. The several arms that I had left unexamined were found to be of little extent.

The party did not pursue the exact route by which I had proceeded to the first of these arms, but by mistake entered the fourth opening, which I had passed by on the evening of the 11th, and found that it communicated with the third opening, making the intermediate land, as I then suspected it to be, an island, which after one of the gentlemen of the Chatham, obtained the name of BELL'S ISLAND; it was about 2 leagues long, lying in a north-east and south-west direction. This led to the examination of the third opening, which, in latitude 55° 57′, longitude 228° 42′, was found to terminate in the usual manner; and from its head, nearly in a south direction 4 miles, it communicated with the channel I had pursued; having in that route passed the 5th opening, and another leading to the north behind Bell's island. The shores of this channel, in some places not more than a quarter of a mile apart, were high, steep, and rocky, yet covered with pine trees.

Rainy unpleasant weather, attended with adverse winds, rendered their progress so slow, that it was seven in the morning of the 25th, before they reached the first unexamined opening, which after the surgeon of the Chatham I called WALKER'S COVE; this was found to take a direction N. 60 E. about 2 leagues, where it terminated in low marshy land, extending a small distance from the high steep rocky barren precipices of the surrounding shores. On returning, they passed between some small rocky islets, lying off its northern point of entrance; on these were produced some groveling pine trees, and about their shores were a great number of sea otters. The next object of their pursuit was what I had considered as a bay, lying from Walker's cove N. 27 W., distant about 5 miles. This was found to be about 1½ miles deep, and a mile wide; the shores, for the most part, were moderately elevated, covered with wood, and terminated at the bottom by a sandy beach; from hence


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in their way to point Fitz-Gibbon three other small bays or coves were examined.

Although I was perfectly satisfied with my own examination of Burrough's bay, yet from the muddy appearance and freshness of its water, I was induced to direct this further examination, which however discovered no new circumstance, excepting the addition of a third small brook flowing in from its north-west side.

These researches were accomplished on the 26th; on their way that morning the party had stopped to breakfast at point Fitz-Gibbon, where they had met some Indians, who were extremely circumspect and cautious in their behaviour.

One man by himself invited them at first to the shore, whence, on seeing the boats stop, he retired; and presently four canoes, containing about ten of the natives, made their appearance from a small cove, a little to the southward of the point; one of these only advanced within musket shot of the party, singing songs, and making speeches, but they could not be prevailed upon to approach nearer, though every sign of friendship that could be thought of was made use of for this purpose; and when the boats were preparing for their departure, these good folks retired into the cove from whence they had first appeared. As the boats proceeded the canoes were soon again observed to follow, having now increased their party to fifteen or twenty persons. They still continued to observe the same distant deportment, and on seeing the boats return they crossed over, and landed on a point before the boats on the northern shore. Notwithstanding that looking glasses, and some other trifling presents, were fastened to pieces of wood, and dropped a-stern for them whilst they continued to follow the boats, and that these were all carefully picked up by them, they could not be induced to lessen the respectful distance they had at first observed.

When the boats came near to the point on which these people had landed, all of them, excepting three who remained behind, seemingly for the purpose of guarding their arms, and one old man, who was seated on the rocks at some distance, advanced unarmed to the water side, each bearing a green bough, and singing and dancing in a most

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savage and uncouth manner. The boats remained stationary whilst these rude performances were exhibiting; after which one of the natives made signs that two persons should land from the boats, and immediately they laid down on the rocks a long twist of white wool, which was considered as an additional token of peace; it was, however, deemed most prudent to decline their invitations, and having thrown them a few trivial articles more, the boats pursued the survey of the continental shore, and the canoes returned to the place from whence they had departed.

The behaviour of these people was so totally unlike the conduct of any we had yet met with, as to induce an opinion in Mr. Whidbey and his party, that these Indians were a part of that tribe who had attacked the yawl, and that the very extraordinary exhibition they had made, was a supplication for mercy and forgiveness. Some of the gentlemen then present having accompanied me in my last-boat excursion, were perfectly satisfied that some of these Indians were amongst the number of those treacherous people.

About seven in the morning of the 27th, they entered the small arm above-mentioned to the westward of the third unexplored opening. This was found to be about half a mile wide, stretching in a northerly direction about a league, and there terminating in latitude 55° 57′, longitude 228° 36′, by a sandy beach, over which several streams of fresh water rushed with great impetuosity. The land composing the upper part of this small arm was of a moderate height, and thickly wooded. Here they met another small party of the natives, consisting of seven men only, who seemed to be prepared to oppose their landing. Their canoes were lodged close to them, near a miserable small hut. After they had put on their war garments, they advanced to meet the boat; one of them was armed with a musket, and another with a pistol; these they cocked, whilst the other five, each provided with a bow, and plenty of arrows, had them in readiness for immediate service. Beside these, an elderly person made his appearance at a little distance; he was without any weapon, or his war garment, and whilst he made long speeches, he held in one hand the skin of a bird, and with the other plucked out the young feathers and down, which at the conclusion of certain sentences in his speech, he blew into the air. These actions being considered by Mr.

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Whidbey and his party as overtures of peace, they threw some spoons, and other trivial articles to the orator, and gave him to understand that they wanted something to eat. This had the desired effect; for this pacific individual ordered those who were armed to retire, and some salmon was soon brought. He now directed the boats to come to the rocks, where he delivered them the fish, and he received in return such articles as appeared to be highly acceptable, still continuing to blow the down into the air, as he plucked it from the bird's skin.

This custom I had before noticed with the inhabitants of this coast, but had never so good an opportunity of seeing it practised, nor have I a clear idea to what particular end it is directed; but as it has generally been accompanied by pacific measures, it is fair to presume that it is intended to display an hospitable disposition.

To have landed amongst these people, who appeared to be so watchful and to keep themselves so readily on their defence, could have answered no good purpose; nor would it have been prudent, for the sake of a more minute, though perhaps not less equivocal, inquiry into these mysterious ceremonies, to have attempted a further acquaintance, at the risk of any misunderstanding. For these reasons, therefore, they were left in quiet possession of their dreary rocks; every inch of which they seemed disposed to have disputed, had our people persisted contrary to their inclinations; particularly as it is by no means improbable, that this party had cither been concerned in the attack upon the yawl, or that they had received intelligence of that affray from some of their neighbours.

In the forenoon the fifth opening was examined. Its entrance is situated S. 56 W., about a league from that which they had just quitted. It was found to be not more than half a mile wide, extending in a northerly direction about a league, and then terminating in like manner with the various other branches before described.

The sixth unexplored opening employed the afternoon. This was found to be in general somewhat less than a mile in width; in it were several sunken rocks. It extended from its entrance N. 50 W., about 4 miles, and there terminated as above, in latitude 55° 51′, longitude 228° 19′. In a bay on the north-east shore, the remains of an Indian village, that had been formerly of considerable extent, was observed;

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but it was intirely over-run with weeds, shrubs, and small trees; amongst which the small fruited crab was in the greatest abundance, and its fruit was larger and better tasted than any before found.

The weather during the greater part of this excursion having been rainy and very unpleasant, and still continuing so, the party were detained in this arm until the forenoon of the 28th, when they proceeded to the last Opening I had left unexamined; and which, I had imagined, would be found cither to have communication with the great north-west branch, or to extend far to the northward; but it was now proved that I had been mistaken in both these conjectures, as the opening formed only a spacious bay. Its entrance was nearly a league wide, lying N. 8 W. and S. 8 E.; its northernmost point is situated in latitude 55° 48′, longitude 228° 25′, from whence the north side of the bay takes nearly a west direction about a league and a half, forming in that space three or four coves, and rounding somewhat irregularly to its southern point of entrance; within which is an island about a league in circuit, not admitting of any navigable channel between it and the south side of the bay. The shores bounding this bay are very moderately elevated, thickly wooded, and terminating in a sandy beach nearly all round. The interior country was not very high, particularly in the western quarter, where a very low woodland country extended nearly as far as the eye could reach. This low land, at the distance I had passed in the boats, had put on an appearance that induced me to believe it to be much broken and divided.

The examination of this bay concluded the service the party had been sent to perform, and they returned on board, keeping along the continental shore as before stated.

Friday 30.

A short interval of fair weather, with which we had but seldom been indulged, enabled me in the forenoon of the 30th to make some further celestial observations; and in the afternoon we were visited by a party of the natives consisting of twenty-five persons, who came in three canoes from the southward. These were all intire strangers to us, and were conducted by two chiefs, neither of whom was the famous Ononnistoy. They approached us with the same formalities as those observed by our

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Saturday 31.

former visitors, and if any just conclusions were to he drawn from their deportment on coming on board, we had reason to think them people of some importance; and I was consequently induced to compliment them with presents suitable to their apparent rank. These they accepted with indifference, and appeared to be more engaged in common conversation with each other, than in noticing us or any of the surrounding objects. Early in the evening they retired to the shore, where they formed a temporary habitation; and the next morning we were again favored with their company. They now appeared to be more sociably inclined, and each presented me, in return for the civilities they received the preceding evening, a sea otter skin, and desired that a commercial intercourse might be established between us, as they had brought many things for barter, amongst which was an abundance of the finest fresh salmon we had seen in the course of the season. Of these a number sufficient for every one in both vessels were immediately purchased.

The chiefs remained on board the greater part of the forenoon, and became very sociable. One of them had a very open cheerful countenance, and was the finest figure of a man, and the stoutest made Indian, I had yet seen on this coast. He had many scars about him, which indicated his having been a great warrior. Bread and molasses were the greatest treat we could give these people; the chiefs ate heartily of it, and distributed some amongst their particular friends in the canoes alongside. In return for this delicious repast, they took much pains to recommend to us some of their whale oil, which stunk most intolerably. This was brought into the cabin in a bladder, out of which a spoonful was very carefully poured by the chief, who extolled its superior qualities, and gave us to understand that, as a delicacy, it was quite equal to our treacle; and it was not without much difficulty, that I was able to excuse myself from partaking of their nauseous meal, which they seemed to relish in the highest degree; and finished it with a large glass of rum, a luxury to which they seemed by no means strangers.

In the afternoon, as these new friends of ours were visiting the Chatham, they were suddenly surprized by the arrival of a large canoe full

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of men singing a song, and keeping time by the regularity of their paddling. Their course, directed towards the Discovery, seemed not to correspond with the wishes of the former party, who immediately equipped themselves in their war garments, and their spears which had lain in the bottom of their canoes, were now got to hand, and couched in an inclined position, with their points towards the new comers. Thus prepared they advanced slowly to meet them, making most violent and passionate speeches, which were answered in a similar tone of voice by some persons who stood up in the large canoe. They continued to paddle with much regularity towards each other; yet those who had now entered the harbour, did not appear to be so hostilely inclined as those who had already occupied the port; as the lances of the former, though in readiness for action, were not disposed in a way so menacing. On a nearer approach they rested on their paddles, and entered into a parley; and we could then observe, that all those who stood up in the large canoe were armed with pistols or blunderbusses, very bright, and in good order. Their conversation seeming to have ended in a pacific way, the opposing party returned with the new comers, who, on passing by the Chatham, laid down their arms; but just as they came alongside the Discovery, one of the chiefs who had been on board, drew, with much haste, from within the breast of his war garment a large iron dagger, and appeared to be extremely irritated by something that had been said by those in the large canoe, who again with great coolness took up their pistols and blunderbusses; but on an explanation appearing to be made, their arms were again returned to their proper places; their pistols and ammunition were carefully wrapped up, and a perfect reconciliation seemed to have taken place on both sides.

The chief of the large canoe requested permission to be admitted into the ship, which being assented to, he came on board accompanied by a man, who, though not assuming the character of a chief, appeared to be a person of no small consequence, as the chief seemed to appeal to him on all occasions, and his countenance bespoke much penetration.

After a few words and signs had passed in assurance of peace, and of a good understanding between us; this minister, for in that capacity

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this man seemed to act, gave us to understand, that the chief who now visited us, was the great Ononnistoy, and his intelligence was almost immediately confirmed by Kanaut, (the messenger before mentioned) who arrived in a smaller canoe, and was received by the tribe in other canoes with similar ceremonies, but in a manner not quite so fierce and hostile.

Ononnistoy did not observe the distant formalities shewn by the chiefs of the other party, but accepted with great cheerfulness such presents as I considered it proper to make on this occasion. These seemed to afford him much satisfaction, and to gain the approbation and applause of all his party. The chiefs of the other tribe came on board at the same time; to these also some articles were given, which they now received with much pleasure, and appeared to be in very good humour, not only with us, but with Ononnistoy and all his attendants.

Towards the close of the day this great chief, with two or three of his suite, lamented that they had no habitation on shore, and requested for that reason permission to sleep on board. This was granted, and when it was dark some fire-works were exhibited for their amusement; but, excepting the water rockets, they were viewed with little attention.

From our previous acquaintance with Kanaut, I was not at a loss to know in what manner to provide some refreshment for Ononnistoy; bread and molasses, with rum and wine, were set before him, to which was added some of their own dried fish; on which he and his whole party seemed to regale very heartily, and then retired to rest with as much composure, I believe, as if they had been in their own habitations.


Sunday 1.

Early the next morning, Ononnistoy with his friends joined the party on shore, where they were very busily employed in adorning their persons in the manner already described; which being accomplished by breakfast time, he, attended by all the other chiefs, came off in his large canoe, and, according to their custom, sang while they paddled round the vessels. This ceremony being ended, they came alongside the Discovery, and exhibited a kind of entertainment that I had not before witnessed. It consisted of singing, and of a display of

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the most rude and extravagant gestures that can be imagined. The principal parts were performed by the chiefs, each in succession becoming the leader or hero of the song; at the several pauses of which, I was presented by the exhibiting chief with a sea otter skin; and the Indian spectators seemed to regret the performance was at an end, from which they had apparently derived great amusement.

There were five chiefs belonging to the associated parties; these, after they had played their parts, desired to be admitted on board. Ononnistoy gave us to understand, that as peace and goodwill were now completely established, he wished that trading might be allowed; this taking place accordingly, several sea otter skins of a middling quality, a great number of salmon, and various trivial articles, were purchased. Firearms and ammunition were at first demanded in exchange, but on finding that these were positively and uniformly with-held, they very soon became reconciled to the refusal, and entered into a brisk traffic for blue cloth, files, and tin kettles, which they preferred next to fire-arms, in exchange for their sea otter skins; but their fish and other less valuable articles, were readily parted with, for pewter spoons, looking glasses, beads, and other trinkets. The party of Indians thus assembled amounted to about sixty persons, who conducted themselves with strict honesty and much propriety.

Amongst these visitors was one whose character we could not define. This was a young man, who seemed to differ very materially from the rest in his general deportment. He was dressed in a blue jacket and trowsers, and seemed to be perfectly at his ease, particularly with respect to the pockets, which to persons unacquainted with their use generally produce embarrassment; he was very fond of segars, which he smoked in the Spanish fashion, discharging the fumes through his nostrils, and also of snuff; and we had great reason to believe that he had made free with a snuff-box that was in the cabin, and which was the only thing missed during the visit of these people. All our different kinds of provisions were perfectly familiar to this young man, who ate and drank of every thing that was given to him for this purpose, without the least hesitation, and with the greatest glee and appe-

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tite. His person had nothing of the European character in it, but from attentively observing his countenance, we were inclined to suppose him a native of New Spain, who might possibly have deserted from some of the Spanish vessels employed in the examination of this coast. He was more intelligent than any of the Indians we had found on these shores, particularly in respect of the different channels leading through this divided country. From his information we clearly understood, that the opening to the north-west of cape Caamano would be found to have some branches on its northern shore, terminating at some distance in land; and although it was a great distance from hence yet that that branch led to the ocean. His fondness for tobacco favored the conjecture of his not being a native of these shores as he was the first who had fought after this luxury. Under the idea of his having deserted from the Spaniards, we interrogated him in their language, but to no effect; and if we were right in this conjecture, he conducted himself in a manner so as to evade our questions, and to avoid detection; for he did not betray the least knowledge of the Spanish tongue. This, however, he might have artfully concealed, left he should have been taken from his present way of life, which he undoubtedly preferred, as he declined my offer of taking him with me on board the Discovery.

Monday 2.

The period for Mr. Johnstone's return began now to draw near, and that we might on his arrival be immediately ready to follow up his researches, the brewing utensils and all our other matters were taken from the shore, the ship was warped out of the port, and anchored near its southern point of entrance, in 25 fathoms water, soft bottom.

This port I named after Mr. John Stewart, one of the mates, PORT STEWART, in compliment of that gentleman's having made a very good survey of it; its south point of entrance is situated in latitude 55° 38′ 15″, longitude 228° 24′, with 28° 30′ eastwardly variation. It is formed, as before stated, by a bay in the land, having several islets and rocks lying before it; within these, from the south point of its entrance, it takes a course N. 27 W., about half a league in length, and three quarters of a mile in breadth. In this space it affords good and secure an-

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chorage, from 4 to 18 fathoms water, good holding ground. The communication with the shore is easy, and wood and water may be conveniently procured in the greatest abundance. Towards its head are two very snug coves, or basons, one of which is a continuation of the port, the other formed by an indent in the land; the foundings are from 6 to 9 fathoms, admitting of a navigable though narrow channel into them. It has been stated, that the islets lying before this harbour admit of passages in several directions; these, however, are not very safe, in consequence of several rocks between and about their shores, visible only at low tide. The best passage into port Stewart, through which we warped, is between the southernmost islet and the main land; this is perfectly free from any obstruction, with foundings from 4 fathoms at the sides to 11 fathoms in the middle. These are the most material circumstances respecting this harbour, which, from its interior situation, and want of inhabitants, does not seem likely to be much frequented; but should further information be required, reference may be had to the chart, which I believe will be found liable to little if any error.

The Indians having observed our motions, inquired if it were our intention to visit their place of abode; and as I thought it was probable their residence might lie in our route, I replied in the affirmative: this appeared to give them great pleasure; and having disposed of most of their saleable cargo, they took their leave, and returned to the southward.

Wednes. 4.

The morning of the 4th brought no intelligence of our boats, and having understood from Ononnistoy and his party, that there were many inhabitants in the regions they were directed to explore, who, like them, were well provided with fire-arms, I began to be very solicitous for their return. About noon, however, my anxiety was relieved, by the safe return of Mr. Johnstone and all his party. He had not actually discovered a passage to the ocean by the way he had pursued, but had brought back such evidences as left little doubt, that the channel he had navigated would ultimately be found to communicate with it.

The day on which they quitted the vessels was employed in reaching cape Caamano, which they effected by about dark, having been greatly

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impeded by a strong southerly gale, attended with a heavy sea, and a great fall of rain. In addition to these delays, they were further retarded by carrying away one of the boat's masts, and getting most of their things wet. Their time was occupied until eight the next morning (25th august), in putting these matters to rights, when they proceeded in the examination of this channel, keeping the starboard or continental shore on board. This, from cape Caamano, was found to take first a direction N. 55 W., near 2 leagues, then N. 23 E., to a point which, after one of the gentlemen of the Chatham, who generally attended Mr. Johnstone, I named POINT LE MESURIER, and is situated in latitude 55° 46′, longitude 227° 58′. The opposite shore, which from the haziness of the weather was but indistinctly seen, seemed to take a more westwardly direction, increasing the width of the channel; which from cape Caamano S. 58 W., to its opposite point of entrance, named by me POINT GRINDALL, (after Captain Grindall, of the navy,) is only from 4 to 5 miles across; though at this station it was 7 miles to the opposite shore. This point projects from the main land to the westward, with some rocks and breakers extending about a mile from it. Four or five miles to the south-east of it is a small bay, with some islets and rocks lying off it; half way between it and cape Caamano our party passed a small island lying near the same shore, admitting of a passage between it and the main land.

From hence another branch of this inlet, which I called after His Royal Highness Prince Ernest, PRINCE ERNEST'S SOUND, presented itself leading to the north-eastward, and is nearly as spacious as that they were pursuing; its opposite point of entrance, which I called POINT ONSLOW, lies from point Le Mesurier N. 30 W. 5½ miles distant. This, because it led along the continental shore, became the object of their immediate attention, and was the occasion of their quitting at that time the other channel.

As they advanced in this pursuit, they found the general direction of the continental shore, from point Le Mesurier, N. 29 E., for about 4 leagues, indented with several bays of different capacity, and along it were some scattered rocks and rocky islets. At this station, the opposite side of Prince Ernest's found approaches within two miles of the conti-

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nent, and from its entrance at point Onslow it appeared to be much broken, with several islets about its shores. Here the shores of the main land inclined a little more to the eastward. In the above direction, about a league and a half from thence, is situated the south point of an island, in front of a bay on the continental shore, in which are some islets and rocks. This island extends N. 25 W., five miles, and is about half a league in breadth; its western side is much broken, and about its shores are several islets; notwithstanding these it admits of a tolerably good channel between it and the shore of the continent, which from the north point of the above bay takes a direction N. 13 W., 2½ leagues, to a point which I named POINT WARDE, situated by observation in latitude 56° 9′, longitude 228° 10½'. The western shore was seen to be very irregular in its direction, and much broken by water, especially in that part opposite to the island, where the found was nearly 6 miles across; but here, its shores which were in general moderately elevated, and were covered with the usual productions, approached within a mile of each other.

From point Warde the continental shore took a sharp turn N. 60 E., four miles, to a point where this arm divided into two branches. That which took an easterly direction claimed their first attention, and was found to extend about 3 leagues; and then winding to the N. E. by N. 2 miles further, terminated in the usual way, in latitude 56° 14½', longitude 228° 37′. Their examination of this branch, which I named BRADFIELD CANAL, occupied their time until noon of the 26th; the progress of the party having been much impeded by adverse winds, and very unpleasant weather.

On setting out in the morning, one canoe with three Indians, (the first inhabitants seen during this excursion) accompanied them some distance; but on finding our party was bound up Bradfield canal, the natives made signs that it was closed, and that they would wait the return of the boats in a certain situation, where, without any increase of numbers, they were found in the evening.

In the morning of the 27th they continued their researches in rainy unpleasant weather up the other branch. This was not more than


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three quarters of a mile wide, with a small island, and two islets in its entrance; it extended nearly in a N.N.W. direction, 3 leagues, to a point where the latitude was observed to be 56° 20′, the longitude 228° 11′; here this branch was again divided, one division stretching about N. 10 E., the other taking a westerly direction. The former, about half a mile wide, terminated as usual at the distance of about a league from its entrance, near which, and likewise before the entrance of the westerly branch, lie several rocks and small islets. Here their Indian attendants, after receiving some trivial presents, took their leave. This westerly branch was not more than a quarter of a mile in width, and extended irregularly to the north-west and south-west, forming a passage about a league long to a point I called POINT MADAN; where it communicated with a more spacious channel, that took two directions, one to the S. S. W. through a broken insulated region; the other, stretching to the N. 28 W., was nearly two miles in width.

Notwithstanding that the weather during the following day was extremely inclement, the party continued their examination, and found the land that formed their western shore to terminate in its northern direction about sixteen miles from point Madan, by a very conspicuous point, in latitude 56° 34′, longitude 227° 48′. To this point I gave the name of POINT HIGHFIELD; and although through the badness of the weather a distinct view of their situation was not obtained, yet it was manifest that they had now arrived at the confluence of three extensive branches. The most spacious stretched to the westward; that which they had navigated was the least, and the line of the continental shore appeared still to continue in the above direction up the third branch, whose east point of entrance I distinguished by the name of POINT ROTHSAY. Towards this point their course was directed, but they were soon stopped by shallow water, which obliged them to quit the shores of the continent, and to proceed along the edge of the shoal, in nearly a west direction; and having traced it about a league, in 6 to 9 feet water, it was found to be connected with the north-east side of an island, lying from point Highfield N. 63 W., distant four miles. To the south of the shoal and in its immediate vicinity, were four small islands, and two

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or three islets; one of the former was upon the shoal, and the others, at the distance of a league and an half, extended to the south and south-west of it. Beside these, three small islands were lying to the north of the shoal, and the land in that neighbourhood had the appearance of dividing the third branch into two or three arms, the easternmost of which being the object of their pursuit, they were in expectation of finding a passage towards it to the westward of this island, which in a direction N.N.E. and S.S.W., is about two miles in length, and one mile in breadth. They were however disappointed, as they found the shoal to extend from the north-west part of this island, and to unite with the land, forming the western point of entrance into the third branch, which I called POINT BLAQUIERE, in latitude 56° 39′, longitude 227° 40′. This land being thus connected by this shoal to the opposite shore near point Rothsay, was considered to be a continuation of the continent. The depth of water along the edge of the shoal was from 2 immediately to 10 fathoms at high water; many unsuccessful attempts were made at this time to pass it, but the depth decreased too fast to venture further, and as the tide sell, patches of dry sand became visible in all directions.

This investigation employed most part of the day, during which they were accompanied by nine of the natives, in three small canoes, who behaved with great civility, and departed in the evening.

The next morning, the 29th, the party quitted this shallow navigation, and continued along what was then considered to be the continent; which was now found to take first a direction S. 48 W. for 2½ leagues, to a point named by me POINT HOWE. These shores were indented in small bays, with some islets lying at a little distance from the land. From this point, the nearest part of the opposite or southern shore of this western branch, which shore seemed to lie nearly in an east and west direction from point Highfield, bore south about a league distant; and to the westward of a point on this shore, which I called POINT CRAIG, lying from point HOWE S. 55 E., distant 2 leagues, the shore appeared to be firm and compact; but to the eastward of point Craig it seemed to be much broken, and divided by water. From hence the supposed continental shore took a rounding westerly direction, to a point in la-


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titude 56° 36′, longitude 227° 18′; this was called by me POINT ALEXANDER, forming the east point of an opening about a mile wide, with a rock nearly in the center of its entrance; this opening took a direction N. 7 W. about 2 leagues; both shores were nearly straight and compact, and were about half a mile asunder as far as to this extent; but here they became much broken, and the supposed continental shore, extending N. 20 E., formed a narrow arm about a league and a half long, which was terminated in latitude 56° 47′, longitude 227° 21′, by shoal water, at the edge of a low plain producing very long grass, behind which rose lofty barren mountains, covered with snow.

* After Admiral, now Lord Bridport.

From hence the party returned along the same shore, passing between it and the broken western land, through a narrow channel only 3 fathoms deep, which led to a point to which I gave the name of POINT HOOD,* in latitude 56° 44′, longitude 227° 11′. Here it communicated with a more spacious branch about 2 miles wide, leading southward into the above-mentioned westerly branch, making the western shore of the small opening they had passed through to this station, an island about 2 leagues long, and two miles wide; the broken land being a group of islets lying between its north side and the supposed continent. From hence, the opposite direction of this branch, which after Admiral Duncan I distinguished by the name of DUNCAN'S CANAL, stretched irregularly about N. 40 W., where it ultimately terminated in a shallow bay, bounded to the north by a low sandy flat, in latitude 56° 58′, longitude 226° 52′, having in it several islets and shallow bays, the latter principally on the south-west shore, along which they returned. By noon of the 31st they reached a point, from whence the continuation of the great western branch was directed to the south-west. This appeared to increase greatly in width; it contained some islands and islets, particularly along its northern shore, which from this point took a direction S. 20 W., four miles, to a point which after Captain William Mitchell of the navy, I named POINT MITCHELL, in latitude 56° 29′, longitude 237° 3′. The weather which, with little intermission, had been extremely bad and unfavorable to their pursuits, still continued so, and prevented their obtaining any satisfactory view of the surrounding regions. No doubt however could exist of their having

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now arrived in a very spacious arm of the sea, which was divided into three very large branches. That extending to the eastward they had already navigated, but that which appeared to be the main branch, being nearly 3 leagues wide, stretched to the westward and S.W.; the third, taking a S.S.E. direction, seemed also of importance, and had the appearance of being connected with the main channel of the branch stretching to the north-west from cape Caamano.

As far as any conclusions could be drawn from the view now before them, it seemed to be pretty clear, that the south-westerly channel communicated with the ocean; but as such communication might be through various intricate channels, it appeared to be an object of too extensive a nature to enter upon, at a time when their provisions were much reduced, and at the close of their expedition. The winding rocky channels also, through which they had passed in reaching this station, were by no means proper for the vessels to pursue; for these weighty reasons Mr. Johnstone declined prosecuting his researches any further, and considered it most prudent to find, if possible, a more direct and less intricate passage for the vessels to this station.

For this purpose the next morning (1st of september) the party steered for the s. s. E. branch before mentioned, and found its north-east point of entrance, which I called POINT MACNAMARA, after Captain Macnamara of the navy, situated in latitude 56° 21½', longitude 227° 14½'; from whence its western point of entrance, which I named after Admiral Colpoys, bore west a league and a half, and the nearest opposite shore south-west, about three miles distant. Their course was directed along the eastern shore, which from point Macnamara took a direction S. 41 E. Nearly in this line, at the distance of 4 miles, the width of the channel decreased to about three quarters of a mile, by means of an island that I named BUSHY ISLAND lying in the channel, about two miles long: having from its shores on both sides some detached rocks, but admitting between it and the eastern shore a channel free to navigate. From the north-west side of this island lies also a chain of small islets, extending northward to the entrance of this opening. A very strong southerly wind so much retarded their progress, that it was night before they reached the south part of this narrow passage; here


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they rested until the morning, and found a very rapid flood tide setting from the westward, which confirmed the opinion of the south-westerly branch having communication with the ocean. They found the eastern shore still continue its former direction to a point named by me POINT NESBITT, in latitude 56° 15′, longitude 227° 26′; from whence the branch they were pursuing communicated with a wide opening leading towards the north-east, which most probably divided the intermediate land, between them and the channels they had examined leading to the northward from Prince Ernest's found. This opening is about 2 leagues across, in a direction S. 43 E. to its south point of entrance, which I called POINT HARRINGTON, from whence the eastern shore extends S.8 E., about ten miles, to a projecting point which I named POINT STANHOPE, where at noon Mr. Johnstone observed the latitude to be 56° 2′, longitude 227° 38′; and from the view they now obtained of this branch, they entertained no doubt of its being a continuation of that seen extending to the north-westward from cape Caamano; the shores of which appeared much broken, and had some rocky islets lying near them. Their passage to the vessels by this route was now well ascertained, and a fresh favorable gale so accelerated their progress, that by midnight they reached point Onslow, making the land which they had gone round since the 24th of august an island, or a group of islands, which in honor of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, I called DUKE OF YORK'S ISLANDS. In the course of the day they had passed three deserted villages, two of which occupied a considerable space, but discovered no signs of these, nor any other part of the shores they had lately traversed, being then inhabited. Here they rested for a few hours, and the next morning proving tolerably fair, the party were early in motion. In consequence of a strong adverse southerly wind, it was near sun-set before they reached cape Caamano; near which they were surprized by the sudden appearance of twenty canoes from behind a small low projecting point of land, that seemed to contain not less than two hundred and fifty Indians; a very formidable party, especially as experience had taught us, that the inhabitants of these regions never went from place to place without being well armed.

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Our party immediately put themselves on the defensive, and made signs to the Indians to keep off; to this they paid no attention, and Mr. Johnstone seeing that they still advanced directly towards the boats, ordered a musket to be fired before them; but this having no effect, a swivel, loaded with grape shot, was fired, sufficiently a-head of them to avoid doing any harm, but near enough to shew its effect. They now made a temporary halt, but soon pushed forward again; a musket was then fired over the main body of the canoes, on which they stopped until the boats rowed past them, when they paddled over to the opposite shore. So large a body of the natives coming so unawares upon our boats was the occasion of much alarm, particularly as in passing close along the shores, no signs had been observed of their being inhabited.

Being unacquainted with the cause of their assembling, and their numbers being so great, Mr. Johnstone very prudently declined any nearer acquaintance, left their intentions should have been hostilely directed, which there was too great reason to apprehend; as no such party had visited the ship at any one time, or had been seen in such numbers together. As they were informed of the absence of our boats, it is not very improbable that the whole force of the neighbourhood might have been collected on this occasion, to intercept our party on their return; yet, on the other hand, their having been so easily deterred from any molestation which they might have intended, though superior in numbers, makes it equally probable that the meeting was purely accidental on the part of the natives. A light breeze springing up, favorable to the boats, they kept under fail all night, and arrived on board as before related.

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Leave port Stewart, and proceed to the north-westward—Visited by the natives—Port Protection—Account of boat excursions—Proceed to the south-ward— Description of port Protection—Departure thence—Passage along the western side of Queen Charlotte's islands to Nootka—Quit Nootka.

1793. September.

Thursday 5.

CALM weather prevented our moving until the morning of the 5th, when, by the assistance of all our boats, we directed our course towards cape Caamano; intending to proceed with the vessels by the channel through which Mr. Johnstone had returned to the branch which he considered as communicating with the ocean; and to prosecute our further inquiries from some convenient station in that neighbourhood.

Friday 6.

On the approach of evening I endeavoured to find anchorage near the continental shore, but without success; this rendered our situation very unpleasant, as we were reduced to the necessity either of returning to the place from whence we had come, or of keeping under sail all night, to which the gloomy and threatening appearance of the weather gave little encouragement. As the day closed in the wind increased to a strong gale from the south-east, attended with dark, misty, rainy weather, that occasioned us a very irksome uncomfortable night, being compelled to turn to windward towards cape Caamano, through a channel not a league in width, whose shores on either side were bounded by many lurking and dangerous rocks; these, however, we very providentially escaped, and, by four in the morning, reached a more spacious and navigable opening at the junction of two branches. Here the hawser

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by which the launch was towed broke, and had this accident happened before, in the dark of the night, whilst we were turning through the narrow channel, it would, in all probability have been attended with her total loss; which, next to that of one of the vessels, would have been the severest we could possibly have sustained. Having now plenty of sea room, on the dawning of the day we brought to, and the boat was soon recovered. By this time the strength of the south-east gale had so increased as to oblige us to close-reef the topsails, and get down the top-gallant yards.

Under the unfavorable circumstances of such weather, in this intricate navigation, where anchorage is so precarious and difficult to be found, and where innumerable steep lurking rocks, as well beneath as rising to different heights above the surface of the sea, were constantly presenting themselves, it must ever be regarded as a very happy circumstance that we had to leeward of us the great north-west branch, of which some information had been gained by Mr. Johnstone having passed through it; and, as far as he had been able to observe, he had considered it as free from danger. The gale being attended with thick misty weather, rendered it however most prudent to lie to, until about ten in the forenoon; when, the wind abating, and the weather in a great measure clearing up, we bore away along the north-east shore of the north-west branch, and at noon observed the latitude to be 55° 44′, longitude 227° 54′. The south-west shore of the branch, in this situation, bore by compass from S. 64 S. to S. 42 E., and the north-east shore N. 40 W. to S. 50 E,; the nearest part of the former shore S.W., distant four miles, and that of the latter, being point Le Mesurier, N.E. by N., three miles. The wind continuing to be favorable, we made a great progress until near dark, when we anchored for the night in 7 fathoms water, on the north side of a small island, close under the shores of the Duke of York's islands, in latitude 56° 7½', longitude 227° 34½', having some rocky islets between it and the above shores. This situation is tolerably well sheltered from the southerly and south-east winds, but the foundings are irregular, and the bottom in some places is rocky.

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Saturday 7.

The night was squally with much rain, but the next morning the weather was more favorable, and about four o'clock we directed our course towards point Nesbitt, passing a cluster of low rocks nearly in mid-channel, and also a ledge, extending southward from that point about two miles; these are very dangerous, as most of them seemed as if they were only visible at low tide. We were well advanced by noon in the passage between the Duke of York's islands and Bushy island, having a-breast of point Nesbitt foundings from 20 to 12 fathoms. By an indifferent observation the latitude was found to be 56° 16′, the longitude 227° 20′. The wind having veered to the north, we were under the necessity of turning through this passage, and in so doing the foundings were found to be irregular, from 10 to 30 fathoms; and the bottom in some places rocky. The ebb tide, which commenced about noon, was favorable to our pursuit, as it fat to the north and north-west, so that about three in the afternoon we reached the spacious branch leading to the south and south-westward; towards this quarter our route was now directed. The clearness of the weather gave us a very perfect view of the adjacent shores bounding the horizon in every direction. To the westward, the distant land was moderately elevated, and appeared to be similar to that we had generally found along the sea coast; of an uneven surface, and very much divided by water. These circumstances, together with the ebb tide setting strong to the westward, left little doubt of our finding a passage to the ocean by that route, though not without the prospect of its being dangerous and intricate; for beside the broken appearance of the distant land, this spacious branch seemed to be spotted with several islets and rocks, just even with the surface of the water; but more particularly so between us and the northern shore. Our foundings were very irregular, shoaling suddenly from 45 to 7, 11, and 9 fathoms; then deepening to 50 fathoms, and then no bottom with 110 fathoms of line, as quick as the lead could be thrown. This we experienced three distinct times in the course of the afternoon, which was for the most part calm, consequently our motion was slow, and was governed in a great degree by the tides or currents; these making greatly against us, about eight in the evening, with the assistance of our boats,

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we gained foundings and anchored in 47 fathoms water, near the southern shore; which by compass extended from S. 70 W., to N. 70 E., the latter, being point Colpoys, was about four miles from us; a rock above water, about the size of the launch, lying in mid-channel, N. 8 E. and the nearest shore south-east, about a quarter of a mile distant.

Sunday 8.

A few Indians had visited us in the course of the day, and by this time their number had considerably increased in six or seven canoes; who, after they had performed their ceremonies indicative of friendship, similar to those I have before had occasion to notice, conduced themselves very orderly, and when they were made to understand that it was time for rest, the whole party immediately retired to the shore, where they remained, though not very silently, until the following morning; when they repeated their visit with many songs, accompanied by a large augmentation to their party. This addition was principally of women, who, without the assistance of a single man, conducted two or three middling sized canoes, and used their paddles with great dexterity. They were by no means disinclined to entertain us with their vocal abilities; most of the full grown women wore very large lip ornaments, and as we were now visited by all ages, an opportunity was afforded of seeing the progress of this horrid piece of deformity in its several stages. In their early infancy, a small incision is made in the center of the under lip, and a piece of brass or copper wire is placed in, and left in the wound. This corrodes the lacerated parts, and by consuming the flesh gradually increases the orifice, until it is sufficiently large to admit the wooden appendage. The effecting of this, if we may be allowed to judge by the appearance of the young girls who were undergoing this cruel treatment, was attended with the most excruciating pain; and which they seemed to endure for a great length of time. These women appeared to possess in general a degree of liveliness, and a cheerful disposition, very different from any we had before seen with this hideous mark of distinction; and could this tribe be prevailed upon to dispense with this barbarous custom, there would have been some amongst them whose features would have intitled them to be considered as comely.


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The want of wind which detained us at anchor, gave us an opportunity of purchasing from these people a large supply of very good salmon, and a few sea otter skins; in return for which they received spoons, blue cloth, and tin kettles, with trinkets of different descriptions. In all the commercial transactions the women took a very principal part, and proved themselves by no means unequal to the task. Nor did it appear, that either in these or in any other respect they were inferior to the men; on the contrary, it should rather seem that they are looked up to as the superior sex, for they appeared in general to keep the men in awe, and under their subjection. The knowledge we obtained of their manners and customs, in our short acquaintance, was however too superficial to establish this or any other fact, that did not admit of ocular demonstration. Amongst the party there did not appear to be any chief, or other person of importance, unless such authority was vested in some of the females. They all conduced themselves with great honesty, and seemed to have the utmost confidence that we should govern our conduct towards them by the same principles.

A light breeze of wind springing up from the S.E., we got under sail, and our Indian friends took their leave. We now directed our course towards the northern, or what had been supposed to be the continental, shore, to the westward of point Mitchell, intending, as on former occasions, to survey as far as we possibly could in the vessels, before the boats again were dispatched; but, on a nearer approach to this shore, it proved to be so incumbered with rocks and rocky islets, that it became necessary to alter our intended mode of proceeding; and as the weather began to wear a very threatening appearance, we crossed over to the southern shore, in order to gain shelter in the first place of security that could be found there, making the Chatham's signal to lead in that pursuit; which, from the increase of the S.E. wind, attended by dark, gloomy weather, soon became an object of my most anxious concern.

In the afternoon, the wind, which blew in heavy squalls, shifted to the S.W., and obliged us to ply in that direction in quest of anchorage; but we could reach no bottom, even when we tacked close in with the shore.

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We were however extremely fortunate in finding before night an excellent port, round the point considered at our preceding anchorage as the extreme of the southern shore; which, after the first lieutenant of the Discovery, received the name of POINT BAKER. This the Chatham entered, making the necessary signals for us to follow; but just as we reached its entrance the wind sell calm, and the tide, to our great mortification, sat us out. In this very anxious situation, (for appearances too strongly indicated the approach of much boisterous weather) we did not remain long; for a light breeze from the N.W. springing up, and blowing directly into the port, conduced us to a safe and secure situation, where, about seven in the evening, we anchored in 16 fathoms water.

We had scarcely furled the sails, when the wind shifting to the S.E., the threatened storm from that quarter began to blow, and continued with increasing violence during the whole night; we had, however, very providentially reached an anchorage that completely sheltered us from its fury, and most probably from imminent danger, if not from total destruction. Grateful for such an asylum, I named it PORT PROTECTION. Had we not been so happy as to have gained this place of safety, we must have passed a most perilous night, the preceding day having Shewn us that the neighbouring shores, on the outside of this harbour, afforded no bank of foundings on which our anchors would have lodged, nor would the low sail to which we must have been reduced, have kept us to windward of the dangers we must necessarily have encountered; these, together with the darkness of the night, and the irregularity of the tides, would have rendered it almost impossible for us to have avoided the land not quite two leagues to leeward of us, or the innumerable rocks lying before it, on which the sea, brought by the wind up a channel leading from the south, that we had now opened, broke with great violence. Thankful, in the highest degree, for so providential and secure a retreat from the stormy season which now appeared to have commenced, I determined to remain here, whilst the boats should prosecute the examination of the broken region before us.

Monday 9.

After breakfast on monday morning, though the S. E. gale continued to blow very strong, yet as the weather was clear, accompanied by Mr.


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Whidbey and Mr. Johnstone I rowed out to point Baker, for the purpose of acquiring some information respecting the shores in its vicinity, with which the thickness of the weather, on the preceding day, had prevented our becoming acquainted.

From this station the inlet evidently appeared to be divided into three branches; the first, was that by which we had arrived; the second, took a northerly direction, through a very broken country; and the third, evidently communicated with the ocean, in a S S.W. direction.

As the continental boundary had already been considered as traced to point Mitchell by Mr. Johnstone, I directed him to recommence his examination at that place, which lay from this station E.N.E. 7 or 8 leagues distant; and to follow that shore up the above mentioned northern branch. Should it not be found to communicate with the ocean, he was in that case to continue his researches, to a certain a point on the opposite shore, lying N. 30 W. from hence, at the distance of eight or nine miles; where I intended that Mr. Whidbey should commence his survey of the western shore southward from that point, until he should arrive in the ocean, either by the channel that appeared to communicate with it, or by any other, in a more northerly or westerly direction.

Matters having been thus arranged we returned on board; and the next morning Mr. Whidbey in the cutter, accompanied by Lieutenant Swaine in the launch, with a fortnight's provisions; and Mr. Johnstone, attended by Mr. Barrie in our small cutter, sat out to execute their respective commissions.

Wednes. 11.

Mr. Johnstone's excursion was of short duration, for on the 11th in the afternoon he returned, having continued his examination of the supposed continental shore from the place where he had quitted it on his last expedition, and found it to take an irregular direction from thence to a point which, after Mr. Barrie who had accompanied him, I named POINT BARRIE, being the east point of the opening before mentioned leading to the northward. In that space innumerable rocks were found; and nearly in the middle between the two points a large bay was seen, about 4 miles wide at the entrance, and of about the same extent to its bottom; in which were two or three rocky islets, with many rocks. The opening

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leading to the north seemed to be also a large open bay, bounded with such an infinite number of rocky islets and rocks above and beneath the surface of the water, that the navigation was very intricate and dangerous even for the boats. Under these circumstances, Mr. Johnstone considered it most prudent to keep without the rocks which extended along that shore, until he was a-breast of the station that was to conclude his researches; and which, proving to be an island, acquired the name of CONCLUSION ISLAND, where Mr. Whidbey had already commenced his survey. From hence Mr. Johnstone returned on board, without meeting with any particular occurrence, or seeing any of the inhabitants; five of whom however had visited us in the course of the day, but had not brought any thing to dispose of.

Sunday 15.

In the evening we had a fresh gale from the N. W. but in the night the wind veered to the S. E., and again blew very hard, attended by heavy squalls and much rain. This boisterous unpleasant weather continued until the 15th, when it became more moderate, and enabled me to employ a boat in making a survey of this port.

Tuesday 17.

Friday 20.

The two following days the wind was moderate, but very variable between the north and western quarters, attended by dark heavy gloomy weather; this on tuesday night brought on a very violent gale from the S. E. attended with heavy squalls and torrents of rain. The same weather continued until the forenoon of the 20th, when both wind and weather became more temperate; yet I was very anxious for the safety of our friends in the boats, left they should have been overtaken by any of these storms in an exposed and dangerous situation. In the afternoon however, we were agreeably relieved from our unpleasant state of solicitude, by their arrival on board, all well, though very much fatigued with the inclement weather they had encountered during almost the whole of their excursion.

On leaving the vessels their route was directed towards Conclusion island, passing in their way thither a smaller island, that lies nearly in the same direction from point Baker, distant about four miles. This island is low, and is about a mile long in a north and south direction, with a ledge of very dangerous rocks extending from its south point. From the north

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point of Conclusion island, which is about three miles and a half long, in a direction N. 40 W., and S. 40 E., and has some rocks lying off its shores, they steered N. 13 W., 2 miles; to a point forming the north point of a bay in latitude 56° 31′, longitude 226° 21′, where they commenced their examination; and in pursuing a southerly course, the launch struck on a sunken rock, and knocked off her rudder with part of her stern-post. This accident obliged them afterwards to steer with an oar, which was not only very unpleasant, but likewise much retarded their progress. Off the south point of this bay, which in a south direction is 4 miles across, are a great many scattered rocks and islets, stretching nearly to the south-west point of Conclusion island, as also along the shore of the main land; which from that point takes a direction S. 20 E. about a league to the north point of the bay; off which, in the same line, at the distance of about a mile, is a small island about half a league long, with two smaller ones lying off its south point. This bay was found to be about 2 miles across, in a direction S. W. by W., and extending from its entrance to the W. N. W. 2½ miles; containing many rocks, whose tops were upon a level with the surface of the water. From hence the coast takes an irregular direction about S. 10 E., along which the party rowed, passing some bays and islets until they reached a point in latitude 56° 17′, longitude 226° 23′, which formed the north-east point of entrance into an opening leading to the north-west; this they entered on the morning of the 11th, and found that it formed an extremely good harbour, which I called PORT BEAUCLERC; its access and egress are free from every obstruction, but such as are sufficiently evident to be avoided. From its north-east point of entrance the shores first extended N. 40 W., four miles and a half, then S. 11 W., nearly the same distance; where they took a north-easterly direction, two miles towards its west point of entrance, which lies west, two miles from the opposite point. Nearly in the middle is a small island, and sundry rocky islets, with regular foundings from 13 to 20 fathoms; and an islet with some rocks before its entrance, lying from the north-east point of entrance S. 35 E., at the distance of one mile. These admit of a good channel on every side. The surrounding shores are in general moderately elevated, well covered with wood; and water is very easily to be

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procured, as the communication with the land is sufficiently commodious.

From port Beauclerc the party advanced about a league S. 30 E., to a point that I named POINT AMELIUS, which forms the north-east point of a bay, from whence they gained a clear and distinct view of the passage leading into the ocean. It appeared to be about 6 or 7 miles wide, taking nearly a south direction, with a high island, which after Captain Sir John Borlase Warren, I called WARREN'S ISLAND, lying in about the middle of the entrance; each shore is bounded by innumerable rocky islets and rocks, but the middle of the passage seemed free from danger. The bay was found to fall back about a league to the westward; here the shores took a more southerly direction, and islets, rocks, and breakers extended from them about a league. Some smart showers of rain fell in the fore part of the day, and as they pursued their inquiries through this labyrinth of dangers in the afternoon, a strong gale from the ocean brought with it so heavy a sea that they were constrained to seek for shelter, and were very fortunate in finding a secure retreat in a cove that effectually protected them against a very strong easterly gale of wind, that blew during the night with great violence. In the following morning it moderated, and the party prepared to depart; but the weather at that instant becoming very thick and rainy, attended by an increasing gale from the S.E., it was deemed most prudent to remain in this snug cove, until the weather should be more favorable for carrying their designs into execution. This did not take place until the morning of the 15th; in which interval the launch was hauled on shore, and such temporary repairs were given to her, as were likely to answer their present purpose. This storm blew without intermission from between the east and south, and with such fury that it was scarcely possible to look against the wind; nor could the party when on shore stand exposed to it, without holding by the, rocks, trees, or some other security.

From this cove they found the coast take a south direction nearly three miles, to a low rocky point, called by me POINT ST. ALBAN'S, in latitude 56° 7′, longitude 226° 18′. The violence of the surf, which still continued to break upon the coast in consequence of the recent tem-

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pestuous weather, not only prevented their landing on this point, but rendered their navigating this rocky region perilous in the highest degree. Mr. Whidbey, therefore, determined to get at the outside of the rocks that extend about a league from the land, which with much difficulty and danger at length was effected, and they then proceeded round to point St. Alban's, which forms the east point of an opening leading to the northward. This was entered, but the rocks still kept the party off from the main land, which first took a direction from point St. Alban's, N. 50 W., about a league and a half, where the rocks extending along the eastern shore terminated; and from thence that shore became straight and compact, taking a direction N. 11 W. to the latitude of 56° 20′, longitude 226° 9′; where also the northern extent of this opening finally ended. Here they rested for the night.

The sides of this canal, which after Admiral Affleck I named AFFLECK'S CANAL, were mountainous, but were not so steep as the shores of the more interior country. Its termination was formed by low flat land, covered with trees, that seemed to extend without interruption as far as could be discerned in a N.N.W. direction; through which flat country several small streams of fresh water flowed into the canal.

The next morning they returned nearly in a south direction along the western shore, and found the width of the canal to increase from half a mile near the head, to two miles at the distance of about eight miles from it, where the western shore still continuing its southern course, is indented with three large bays; the north point of the northernmost, which is the largest, being distant from the south point of the southernmost, nine miles. These bays were examined, and were found to retire from the line of their entrances (being all nearly in the same direction) about a league; the northernmost and southernmost have several rocks and islets about them, and the neighbouring country is moderately elevated, of uneven surface, and is covered with dwarf, pine, and other trees.

The day had been foggy and very unpleasant, which obliged them to rest from their labours early in the evening, near to the south point of

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the southernmost bay, which lies from point St. Albans S. 72 W., distant 5½ miles; where they passed a very rainy and uncomfortable night.

Although the rain had ceased on the next morning, yet the weather continued very hazy and unfavorable; the party however embarked, and after proceeding about four miles along the continental shore in a southerly direction, the fog obscured every object from their view; but as they continued their route towards the southernmost part of the main land they had before seen, they found themselves on a sudden within the influence of a very heavy long rolling swell, coming from the westward, and indicating their being arrived in, or very near to, the ocean.

Being anxious to acquire every possible information of the region before them, and of the cause of this sudden alteration they remained stationary from eight in the morning until two in the afternoon, without the least appearance of the fog clearing away; on which they retired to a cove about a mile north of the point, which was sheltered by some islets and rocks lying before it. Here the fog prevented their departure until seven o'clock in the morning of the 18th, when the weather in some measure clearing up, they returned to the point, where they landed with some difficulty, and found it to be a very conspicuous promontory, extending in a south direction to the ocean. From this promontory, the most northern extremity of the sea-coast was seen to lie N. 58 W., and the most southern S. 54 W.; the former about 7 leagues distant, and the latter, which is the western extremity of an island of some extent, about eight miles. From the north-east point of this island, which lies from the promontory S. 10 E., distant four miles, is a range of rocky islets extending to the north, within half a league from the main land, that obscured the channel before noticed as leading to the sea.

The intermediate space between these islets and the promontory, appeared to form a passage free from interruption; but the more spacious channel to the eastward of the range, seemed to be far the most eligible for vessels bound to the south or eastward. Those going to the northwest, may possibly find no inconvenience in navigating this passage; in which case a very great circuit will be avoided, and they will much sooner arrive in a clear ocean; as no rocks or breakers were seen


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near its shores, that were not to be easily avoided; and the only interruption to the view towards the sea, was a group of small islands, lying to the W. S. W., that were supposed to be those called the Hazy isles, by some of the traders.

The party having now accomplished the principal object of their expedition, it remained at Mr. Whidbey's option to prosecute his researches further along the exterior coast, or to desist from the pursuit. The frequent and long that had attended them thus far, left little probability of their now making any great progress along an open coast; especially as the very unsettled state of the weather was by no mean; favorable to the undertaking. Mr. Whidbey therefore very prudently declined the prosecution of his examination, and made the best of his way back towards the ships, stopping for the night in a cove a little to the south of that in which they had taken shelter during the storm, and which had the appearance of being sufficiently screened by rocks arid islets to afford them protection; in this opinion however they were mistaken, for during the night so heavy a swell rolled in from the southward, as to call forth their utmost exertions to prevent the boats from being dashed to pieces against the rocks. Here the party was detained until ten in the forenoon of the following day, before they could embark the tents and other matters that had been landed; and after this was accomplished, it was with no little difficulty that they extricated themselves from the surrounding rocks and breakers, when they returned to port Protection as already stated.

The communication of this intelligence, the boisterous state of the weather, the advanced season of the year, and the approach of long and dreary nights, left me with no doubt concerning the measures that ought to be now adopted; especially as the tracing of the continental boundary would now be exposed to the numerous inconveniences, attendant on an open unexplored sea coast; and if after our utmost endeavours it should not be effected with that accuracy that had hitherto been observed, our anxious labours and exertions would be rendered very incomplete.

Notwithstanding that I was by no means satisfied with the progress we had made in our survey during the summer, yet as we had an extensive space to examine, that would occupy a great length of time, to

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the southward of Monterrey, I was induced to yield to the measures which prudence dictated, and to decline entering on any new northern inquiries. It was now also become highly expedient, that the vessels should retire to some milder region, where refreshments might be obtained; and where such relaxation and ease as now became necessary might be given to those under my command, whose zeal and laborious exertions, during the summer, had justly intitled them to my best thanks and highest commendation.

My mind was by no means satisfied with the small extent, in a direct line, which had been examined during the late summer; yet I derived great consolation in the reflection that, in all probability, we had overcome the most arduous part of our task, and that our future researches would be attended with less disappointment and fatigue. And further, that should the information we had thus obtained reach Europe, there would no longer remain a doubt as to the extent or the fallacy of the pretended discoveries said to have been made by De Fuca, and De Fonte, De Fonta, or Fuentes.

The very intricate passages by which our late researches were carried into effect, I have taken much pains to describe; yet it may not be amiss to endeavour, by assigning names to some particular places, and by a more concise account, to render so unentertaining a narrative at least more comprehensible.

It is in the first place necessary to premise, that our researches were not carried on in a continued or direct line, but through part of a very extensive, and hitherto unexplored, region, in various directions, bounded to the eastward by the continent, and to the westward by the ocean; our navigation in the vessels on some occasions leading between islands, and on others along the continental shore.

That part of the archipelago, comprehended between the Chatham's and Fitzhugh's founds, lies immediately behind, or to the eastward of, Queen Charlotte's islands, admitting of a spacious navigable channel, between the western shore of the archipelago and the eastern shore of those islands. This region, as I have already had occasion to observe, had been visited before our arrival in it by several traders, particularly by a Mr. Duncan, but from whom no certain information could be obtained, whe-

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ther it was a part of the continent, or whether it was wholly composed of islands; this gentleman however was right in conjecturing the latter, and he named those parts between Nepean's and Fitzhugh's founds, PRINCESS ROYAL'S ISLANDS, which name I have continued.

The continent adjacent to those islands, from point Staniforth at the entrance of Gardner's canal, to Desolation found, the northern extent of New Georgia, I have distinguished by the name of NEW HANOVER, after His Majesty's hereditary German dominions. To the northward from Nepean's found, along the continental shore, is a continuation of this archipelago, separated from the continent by Grenville's canal and Chatham's found, nearly in a straight line; and north-westward from Chatham's found, is a further and more extensive continuation of the same group of islands, separated from the continental shore by various channels; the most spacious of which is that by which the vessels arrived at this station, and which, in honor of His Royal Highness Prince William Henry, I have called THE DUKE OF CLARENCE'S STRAIT; it is bounded on the eastern side by the Duke of York's islands, part of the continent about cape Caamano, and the isles de Gravina. Its western shore is an extensive tract of land, which (though not visibly so to us) I have reason to believe is much broken, and divided by water, forming as it were a distinct body in the great archipelago. This I have honored with the name of THE PRINCE OF WALES'S ARCHIPELAGO; and the adjacent continent, to the northward from Gardner's Canal, to point Rothsay, the extent of our survey to the north this season, I have distinguished with that of NEW CORNWALL.

This was the following year proved to be the fact.

The shoal extending from point Blaquiere to point Rothsay having been found by Mr. Johnstone to be impassable by our boats, the land to the westward of the former point was considered as forming a part of the continent; as also that to the westward of Conclusion island, although it had not been positively so determined from point Barrie, owing to the rocks and other dangerous impediments which prevented Mr. Johnstone from keeping sufficiently near to the main land for ascertaining that fact: should however this conjecture be hereafter proved to have been ill founded, and the land in question be found insular*, the channel or channels by which it may be divided or separated from

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the continent are certainly not navigable for shipping; hence I have considered the continental shore to have been traced to the conspicuous promontory at which Mr. Whidbey's last excursion terminated, and that its shores were there warned by the uninterrupted waters of the north pacific. Under the impression of all the land north-eastward from that promontory to point Rothsay being a continuation of the continental shores of New Cornwall, New Hanover, New Georgia, and New Albion, the extent of the discoveries of De Fuca, De Fonte, and other pretenders to a prior knowledge of these regions, must necessarily be decided, even admitting that such assumptions were true; hence I have distinguished this promontory, situated in latitude 56° 2′, and longitude 226° 8′, by the name of CAPE DECISION. This cape forms (if the expression be correct) the north-west continental point, and cape Flattery in New Georgia, situated in latitude 48° 23′, longitude 235° 38′, the south-east point of this very extensive archipelago.

These promontories, as it were, enfold the extremities of this broken region, which, from the former, extends to the north-eastward and south-eastward; and from the latter, to the south-eastward, north-eastward, and north-westward. The western side of the intermediate space of this extensive group of islands, between these two promontories, excepting that part opposite to Queen Charlotte's islands, forms the external or sea coast, and previous to this survey was generally laid down as the continental shore. This, at length, was found to compose the exterior coast at cape Decision, and flattered our hopes that our examination in the ensuing season would be carried into execution with less difficulty and fatigue than has hitherto attended our researches.

Conscious, however, that these additional observations may yet not be sufficiently explanatory, I beg leave to refer my readers to the charts for the further elucidation of our survey.

The reasons already assigned for declining the further prosecution of our inquiries along the continent, to the northward of cape Decision, induced me to lose no time in repairing to the southward; purposing in that route, should circumstances so permit, to fix the outline of the external coast, particularly the western side of Queen Charlotte's islands,

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which had been reported to have been very erroncously delineated in the charts already published.

Friday 20.

Saturday 21.

Every thing was in readiness for our proceeding to sea on the 20th; but contrary winds detained us until the following morning; when, with a light variable breeze, and the assistance of our boats, we were at noon about half a league to the westward of port Protection; a haven that had afforded us an asylum when we little expected it,, amidst impending dangers.

Port Protection will be most readily found, by attending to the following directions. It is situated at the north-west extremity of the Prince of Wales's archipelago; its southern extreme composes the base of a very remarkable, barren, peaked mountain, which I have called MOUNT CALDER, after Captain Calder of the navy; this is conspicuous in many points of view, not from its superior elevation, when compared to the mountains I have had occasion to notice on the continent, but from its height above the rest of the country in its immediate vicinity, and from its being visible in various directions at a great distance. Point Baker, on an islet close to the shore, forms its north-east point of entrance, from whence the opposite point lies S. 27 W., at the distance of three quarters of a mile; the channel is good, and free to enter, yet there is one lurking rock, visible only at low tide, lying in a direction from point Baker S. 13 E., about three cables length distant; the weeds that it produces however makes it sufficiently evident to be avoided, even at high water, as it admits of a clear passage all around it, with foundings close to it from 8 to 12 fathoms. About a mile to the north of point Baker is situated also a bank, on which the foundings are very irregular, from 15 to 32 fathoms; this, with the meeting of the tides round the Prince of Wales's archipelago, causes an agitation or kind of race in the water, especially with the flood tide, that might appear dangerous to strangers; we, however, after many trials, found no where less than 15 fathoms upon it, and no bottom could be gained with 60 and 70 fathoms of line, between it and the shore.

This harbour takes a general direction from its entrance S. 36 E., for about two miles and a quarter; its width from five to three cables length

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across its navigable extent; beyond which it terminates in small shallow coves. The foundings are rather irregular, from 30 to 50 fathoms; and where we anchored near a projecting rocky point, which at high water became an islet, the bottom, although the lead generally brought up mud, was hard, and probably rocky, as our cables received some damage; and just in that neighbourhood the depth was more irregular than in any other part of the harbour. From thence point Baker lies N. 25 W., the rock in the channel N. 33 W., the south point of the port N.82 W., and the projecting rocky point, or islet at high water, east, at the distance of a cable's length. Our situation was somewhat exposed to the north and north-west winds, which might have been avoided by taking a station higher up in the harbour, or in a snug cove to the south-east of the rocky point or islet. The shores are in most places steep and rocky, and are covered with an impenetrable forest of pine and other trees. They afford several streams of fresh water, and with our hooks and lines a few halibut were caught, but the seine was worked to no effect. We sometimes deprived the gulls and crows of a kind of caplin, which were left in some number by the high tides, on the beaches, and amongst the rocks; these proved to be most delicate eating, to which our sportsmen added some ducks, geese, and other aquatic birds; of the latter we had also procured some in port Stewart; so that with different forts of berries which the shores produced, the tables of the officers were by no means ill supplied. The wild fowl were not obtained in such numbers as to serve the ship's company, but of the fish and fruit they always had a due proportion. The irregularity of the tides prevented me from ascertaining any thing satisfactory concerning their motion, owing probably to the insular situation of the port, and the boisterous weather that had constantly prevailed. Our observations, however, served to shew that the stood-tide came from the south, and that it is high water 7h4o' after the moon passes the meridian. I procured only one day's observation for the latitude, for fixing the true position of this port, but it was one upon which I could much depend. That was by no means the cafe with the observations I made for ascertaining the longitude by the chronometers, which, since our departure from port Stewart, seemed to have gone

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very irregularly; the longitude therefore of this place, as likewise of the several points and stations from hence southward to Nootka, is deduced from subsequent observations made at that port, by which the longitude of the entrance into port Protection appeared to be 226° 35′, its latitude 56° 20′; and the variation, by two compasses, differing from 28° 37′ to 22° 42′, shewed the mean result to be 26°27′ eastwardly.

Although we had passed thus far through Clarence's straits without interruption, it is nevertheless a navigation that ought to be prosecuted with much circumspection; particularly from the anchorage which we quitted on the 7th, to port Protection, and from thence to lea, by the route we were now pursuing through the main channel, to the eastward of cape Decision.

Sunday 22.

Little progress was made on saturday night, owing to the light variable winds. Several signals were made to denote our situation to the Chatham, and though foundings were frequently fought, no bottom could be gained with 160 fathoms of line. With the approach of day a gentle breeze sprang up from the northward, but was unfortunately attended with a very thick fog. We had however procured a tolerably good view of our situation before its commencement; and Mr. Whidbey having paid particular attention to the course we had to pursue, we made fail accordingly.

About eight o'clock we were within hearing of a very heavy surf to the westward, and shortly after, by a partial dispersion of the fog, our situation was shewn to be, as we expected, a-breast of point St. Alban's, and about two miles from the nearest of those dangerous rocks that surround it. The fog gradually cleared away, and towards noon the weather became pleasant with a favorable breeze from the north-west; this made me regret the obscurity of the morning, which had prevented our delineating the eastern shore with more exactness than had been effected by the very distant view of it obtained in the boats.

Our course had been directed between Warren's island and the islands lying to the southward of cape Decision. The southernmost of these is the largest, being about seven leagues in circuit; this I called CORONATION ISLAND, the day of our passing it having been the anniversary of that happy event. At noon, it bore by compass

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from S. 40 W., distant four miles, to S. 23 W.; cape Decision S. 87 W., nearly two leagues; mount Calder N. 13 E; a conspicuous point on the eastern shore, forming the south-east point of entrance into this strait, N. 76 E., distant two leagues; to which, after Captain Pole of the navy, I gave the name of CAPE POLE; the east point of Warren's island S. 87 E.., about two leagues distant; its north-west point, named by me POINT BORLASE, S. 63 E., distant one league; and its south-west point S.51 E., five miles distant. In this situation our observed latitude was 56°, longitude 226° 17′.

Soon after mid-day our favorable breeze gradually decreased, so that it was past sun-set before we reached the ocean.

We had now become pretty well acquainted with this entrance into the strait, formed on the weft by cape Decision, and on the east side by cape Pole; these lie from each other S. 72 E., and N. 72 W., 11 miles asunder; having to the southward of this line the islands above mentioned, by which are formed three passages into the strait. That between cape Decision and the islands to the south of it, has been already described; that which we pursued between Coronation and Warren's islands is by far the most spacious and fair to navigate, for in that between cape Pole and Warren's island some lurking rocks were observed.

To the southward of this island are three clusters of very dangerous rocks, the first lying from its north-weft point S. 15 E., at the distance of three miles and a half; the second south, distant six miles; and a small islet lying from them south-east, at the distance of about half a league. The third clutter lies off the south-east point of the island, which, from its north-west point, lies S. 55 E.., four miles, from whence those rocks lie in a direction S. 30 E., about four miles distant. Nearly in mid-channel between the islands, bottom could not be gained with 120 fathoms of line. We saw nothing of the land to the north-weft of cape Decision, but that to the south-east and south of cape Pole seemed to be much divided by water.

Having once more the satisfaction of being in an open sea, our course was directed to the south-east, but our sails were scarcely trimmed to the favorable breeze that prevailed, when it suddenly shifted to the S.E.,


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and blew a fresh gale, with which we stood to the southward. The sky soon became overcast, and towards the morning of the 23d the wind had so much increased, attended by an heavy sea, that we pitched away our spritsail-yard, and were obliged to get down our top-gallant-yards. About this time the Chatham made signal for having sprung a lower yard.

In the forenoon the south-east gale moderated, and died away in the evening to a calm, which afforded us an opportunity of learning that the Chatham's main boom had been carried away, an accident that we had immediately in our power to repair. The calm was shortly succeeded by a fresh gale from the westward, with which we directed our course for the north-west point of Queen Charlotte's islands; these were in fight about ten the next morning, bearing E.N.E.½ E.; and at noon, being within about 3 leagues of the shore, we failed along it to the south-eastward; our observed latitude 54° 14′, longitude 226° 42′, and the variation of the compass 24° 33′ eastwardly.

In this situation the north-west point of this land, which it seems is an island, named by Senr. Caamano Isle de Langara, bore by compass N. 37 E. to N. 48 E., and the southernmost land in fight S. 42 E.: by our observations the north-weft point of this island is situated in latitude 54° 20′, longitude 226° 59½′; and by Mr. Dixon's chart it is placed in latitude 54° 24′, longitude 226° 36′; which no very material disagreement.

From this point, which I have called POINT NORTH, we found the general trending of these shores first take a direction N. 14 W., twenty-two miles to a. projecting land, appearing like two islands; the west extremity of which I named POINT FREDERICK; and then S. 17 E., twenty-fix miles to a high sleep cliffy hill, called by Mr. Dixon Hippa island; this ended in a low projecting point to the north-eastward, off which lie some breakers, though at no great distance. The coast to the N.N.E. and S.E. of Hippa island appeared to be much broken, particularly to the south-eastward; where a very extensive found takes an easterly direction, named by Mr. Dixon Rennell's found; its entrance by our observations is in latitude 53° 28′, longitude 227° 21′. Having reached this extent about dark, we hauled our wind, and plied under an easy fail to preserve our station until the next morn-

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Wednes. 25.

ing. At the dawn of the following day we continued along the coast, composed of steep mountainous precipices, divided from each other by the water; these seemed to have gradually increased in height from point North, from whence along the shores to this extent, were some scattered islets and rocks at a small distance from the land. Our progress was flow, the wind being light, accompanied with pleasant weather. At noon, in the observed latitude of 53° 2′, longitude 227° 22′, Hippa island by compass bore N. 42 W.; and a conspicuous projecting point, nearly the southernmost land in light, which I named CAPE HENRY, S. 82 E.; these forming the outline of the coast, lie from each other S. 32 E. and N.32 W., 15½ leagues apart. This cape, situated in latitude 52° 53′, longitude 227° 45½', forms the south point of a deep bay or found, its shores apparently much broken; to this I gave the name of ENGLE-FIELD BAY, in honor of my much esteemed friend Sir Henry Engle-field. Its north point of entrance lying from cape Henry N. 27 W., at the distance of seven leagues, I called POINT BUCK; which also forms the south point of entrance into a found falling deep back to the east-ward, named by me CARTWRIGHT'S SOUND. Its north point of entrance, which likewise after my very particular friend and physician I named POINT HUNTER, lies from point Buck, N. 25 W., distant ten miles; and a little within this line of direction is an island near the northern shore.

Thursday 26.

From cape Henry, which we passed in the afternoon, at the distance of four or five miles, the shores, so far as we had reached by sun-set, seemed to be compact, and to take a more easterly direction. The southernmost land in fight bore by compass S. 72 E., the nearest shore N.N.E., five miles, and the northernmost land in fight N. 33 W. During the night the wind was light and variable, by which means our distance from the coast was increased greatly beyond what I had intended. At day-light the land, near the south extremity of Queen Charlotte's islands, which is named by Mr. Dixon cape St. James, was seen bearing by compass S. 87 E., the northernmost land in fight N. 68 W., and the nearest shore N. 11 W., 4 or 5 leagues distant.

With a favorable though light breeze, our course was directed along the shore, but at too great a distance to admit of our making any parti-

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cular or exact delineation of it; nor is the sketch we were enabled to obtain of these islands to be considered as correct:, or to be depended upon, because their numerous divisions would have demanded a survey that would have occupied infinitely more time than we had now to bellow. Our examination was wholly confined to the general direction of the shores, and to ascertain the position of their conspicuous projecting points. Towards cape St. James the land was very moderately elevated, but, like that on the northern part of the islands, it rose gradually to rugged and uneven mountains, which occupied the center of the country, descending towards its extremities to a less height, and is of a more uniform appearance.

The wind blew a gentle breeze from the W. N. W., attended with clear and pleasant weather. At noon our observed latitude was 52° 3½, longitude 228° 29′. In this situation cape St. James bore by compass N. 76 E., the nearest shore N. 53 E., distant 5 or 6 leagues; and the northernmost land in fight N. 42 W.; these, with other angles taken in the course of the day, shewed cape St. James, according to our observations, to be in latitude 51° 58′, longitude 229° 6½'; although by Mr. Dixon's chart it is placed in latitude 51° 48′, longitude 230°. These islands are also described by him to occupy an extent of 2° 36′ in latitude, and 3° 24′ in longitude; whereas by our estimation they include only 2° 22′ of latitude, and 2° 7′ of longitude. This difference appears to have originated in fixing the position of Rennell's found, and to have increased uniformly to cape St. James.

From cape St. James some rocks and rocky islets extend between the directions of S. 22 E. and S. 35 E., at the distance of about a league; though Mr. Gray, in the Columbia, struck and received some material damage upon a sunken rock, which he represented as lying at a much greater distance, though nearly in the same line of direction.

Friday 27.

The prevailing breeze favoring our wishes, the Chatham's signal was made to lead during the night; in which so little progress was made, that on the following morning the land about cape St. James was still in sight. At noon the observed latitude was 51° 15′, longitude 229° 4o'. The winds were still favorable, though very gentle, attended with delightfully

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pleasant weather, making a very material alteration for the better in OUT climate. This agreeable change, however, from our last year's experience, we had no great expectation would long continue. The whales, seals, and sea otters seemed to be aware of this, as great numbers of these animals had been sporting about us for the two or three previous days, enjoying the sun-shine, and probably taking their leave of the summer season.

Saturday 28.

In the evening we gained fight of the westernmost of Scot's islands, bearing by compass E. ½ N. The night was nearly calm, and the next morning the favorable breeze was succeeded by light airs from the eastward. At noon the westernmost of Scot's islands bore by compass N. 44 E., and the easternmost N. 61 E. The observed latitude 50° 45′, the longitude being at that time 230° 29′; this longitude was deduced from the above latitude, the bearings of these islands, and their position as fixed by our observations made the preceding year; which I considered to be as accurately ascertained as any station on this coast. This circumstance now afforded me an excellent opportunity of discovering the several errors of our chronometers, which were by these means proved beyond all doubt to be going very incorrectly. The longitude shewn at noon by Kendall was 230° 56′, by Arnold's No. 14, 230° 20′ 38″, and by Arnold's No. 176, 231° 12′ 37″. These being deduced from very excellent observations made both before and after noon, shewed Kendall's to be 27′ 15″, and Arnold's No. 176 to be 43′ 37″ to the east, and No. 14, to be 8′ 22″ to the west of the truth.


Saturday 5.

From hence our course was directed in the best manner we were able towards Nootka, then lying S. 58 E., at the distance of 45 leagues. Such however was the tardiness of our progress from adverse winds, calms, squally, or thick rainy, or foggy weather; that it was not until about noon on the 5th of October that we reached that port.

The usual ceremonies of salutes, and other formalities having passed; accompanied by Mr. Puget I waited on Senr Saavadra, the commandant of the port; who informed me, that he had not received any intelligence, either from Europe or from New Spain, since our departure from hence in the spring; and that neither the Dædalus, nor any other ship

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with stores addressed to me, had been, there. The Dædalus I had some expectation of meeting here, in the event of her having made a good passage to port Jackson, and not having been there detained.

The only vessel we found at Nootka, was the San Carlos laid up for the winter; but Senr. Saavadra gave me to understand, that in the course of the summer the port had been visited by a French ship called La Flavia, having on board a very valuable Cargo of European commodities, which was carried to Kampschatka, there to be disposed of to the Russians for furs, with which a cargo of tea was to have been purchased in China; but that their expedition hitherto had not answered their expectations.

Senr. Saavadra further stated, that whilst the vessel remained at Nootka the crew had been very mutinous; and so unruly, that the commandant had been on the point of employing force to compel them to due obedience of their commanders orders, to which at length they seemed to be tolerably well reconciled, and departed for China less disorderly inclined. Some few American vessels had also arrived in our absence; but in a most deplorable condition, totally in want of provisions, naval stores, and even such articles of merchandize as were necessary for trading with the natives.

Sunday 6.

Tuesday 8.

A strong gale of wind from the S. E. the next morning obliged us to strike the top-gallant-masts. The carpenters were employed on shore in cutting down a new main boom, a gaff spritsail-yard, and other spars that were wanted; whilst the rest of the respective crews were engaged in the several other duties that now required attention. These fully occupied our time until tuesday morning, when, having requested the favor of Senr. avadra to take charge of a letter containing instructions for the guidance of the commander of the Dædalus, or of any other vessel that might arrive at Nootka with dispatches for me, or with stores for our service; we failed from that port with a light northerly wind, paying and receiving from the fort the usual compliments.

On the preceding day I procured some excellent observations, both before and after noon, for ascertaining the error of our chronometers at this place. The mean result of which shewed that Kendall's was 34′

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1793. October.

50″; Arnold's No. 176, 47′ 21″ to the east; and that No. 14, was 18′ 20″ to the west of the truth. These observations, with those made when off Scots' islands, completely manifested the increase of error in that lapse of time, by which means a new rate of going was pretty well ascertained; and which having been adopted in calculating and correcting the longitude assigned to the several stations between port Stewart and Nootka as before mentioned, I trust will be found liable to little objection.

The error and rate of the chronometers as resulting from the before mentioned observations, shewed Kendall's at noon on the 7th, to be fast of mean time at Greenwich, 2h 51′ 4″ ′
And to be gaining per day at the rate of, 22 23
Arnold's No. 176, ditto, ditto 6 11 14
And to be gaining per day at the rate of, 40 45
Arnold's No. 14, ditto, ditto 2 38 59
And to be gaining per day at the rate of, 21 37

These rates will regulate our further observations, until we may have an opportunity of ascertaining the errors more correctly.

[page] 431


Passage to the southward—The Chatham sent to port Bodega—Arrival of the Discovery at port Francisco—Chatham arrives there—Account of her proceedings—Proceed to Monterrey—Joined by the Dædalus—Conduct of the governor—Proceed to the southward—Anchor at Sta Barbara—Visit Bueno Ventura—Proceed along the coast to the southward—Arrive at St. Diego and the adjacent islands—Astronomical and nautical observations.

1793. October

Tuesday 8.

ON leaving the port of Nootka, our progress was so much impeded by the want of wind, and by the influence of those very extraordinary counter tides or currents already noticed, that by six in the evening of the 8th we were not more than 2 leagues to the southward of point Breakers, about which time a strange vessel was seen from the mast head to windward; but as the night was approaching, and as I wished to avoid any delay, we took no other notice of her, but continued our course to the S. E., agreeably to my former determination of recommencing our researches on the southern parts of New Albion, and of procuring such of the necessary refreshments as those countries afford, and which we now very perceptibly began to require.

As I had little doubt that the store ship would join us before we should have quitted those shores, and as St. Diego appeared to me to be the most likely harbour to answer several purposes, I intended to unload her there, and to give our vessels such necessary repair and re-equipment as each might demand.

With variable winds from the N.W. and S. E. we made the best of our way. These winds, particularly the former, though blowing a moderate


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Monday 14.

breeze, was frequently attended with very foggy weather; we however made so good a progress, that by the afternoon of the 14th we passed cape Orford; to the southward of which, as we proceeded along the coast, we observed on the eminences and hills that form the shores, at certain distances, large fires burning throughout the whole night; a circumstance that had not before occurred to my observation on this coast.

Tuesday 15.

Being anxious to obtain some certain information respecting the port of Bodega, of which the inclemency of the weather the preceding season had disappointed me, I directed Mr. Puget to make the best of his way thither, whilst I proceeded to St. Francisco, in the hope of meeting Senr Quadra there, or at Monterrey, with sufficient credentials for settling the business depending about Nootka; which, it was not improbable, might render our return thither immediately necessary. Mr. Puget having received his directions, and having appointed St. Francisco as a rendezvous where he would either meet or hear from me, he immediately departed for the port of Bodega; and as there was not the least probability of Mr. Menzies being able to visit that part of the coast by any other opportunity, he accompanied Mr. Puget in pursuit of botanical information.

Wednes. 16.

Thursday 17.

In the evening cape Mendocino was seen bearing S. E. at the distance of 7 or 8 leagues. During the night, and all the next day, the wind was light and very baffling, attended with a thick fog, or hazy weather, that continued until the morning of the 17th, when, with a fine breeze from the N.N.W., we steered along the coast to the south-east of cape Mendocino. At noon the observed latitude was 39° 18′; the coast then in sight extending by compass from north to E. S. E.; the nearest shore N. E. distant about a league.

In the afternoon we passed point Barro de Arena, and to the north-west of it some breakers were now seen, about two miles from the shore, that had not been noticed on our former visit.

The Chatham, though at some distance before us, was yet in sight, and kept close to the land; but we directed our course for point de los Reys. Light baffling winds attended by fogs or thick weather, prevented our

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1793. October

Saturday 19.

reaching that distance until noon of the 19th; when we passed that promontory with a pleasant breeze from the N.N.W., which by seven in the evening brought us to an anchor in port St. Francisco, near our former birth off the Presidio.

We were soon hailed from the shore, upon which a boat was dispatched thither, and immediately returned with our civil and attentive friend Senr. Sal; who, in addition to the offers of his services and hospitality, gratified us by communicating the interesting intelligence of the state of Europe, up to so late a date as the preceding february; which, as may be naturally expected, had long been an object of our most anxious curiosity. After supper Senr. Sal retired to the shore, and the next morning I received from him two letters: the one requesting, in an official form, that I would acquaint him in writing of our arrival in port St. Francisco, of the supplies we should want, and of the time I intended to remain in that port,, in order that he might immediately communicate the same to the governor of the province: the other slating that, under the superior orders by which alone his conduct could be governed, he was obliged to make known to me, that no individual could be permitted to come on shore, but for the purposes of procuring wood and water, excepting myself and one officer, or midshipman, who might pass to the Presidio, where I should be received and attended as on our former visit.

These restrictions were of a nature so unexpected, ungracious, and degrading, that I could not but consider them as little short of a dismission from St. Francisco, and I was left in the greatest perplexity to account for a reception so totally different from what we had experienced on a former occasion, and so contrary to what I had been taught to expect, by the letters with which I had been honored from the viceroy of New Spain, in return to my letter of thanks for the great civilities that had been conferred upon us.

I was given to understand, that a captain in the Spanish infantry, named Arrillaga, had arrived at Monterrey some time in the course of the preceding spring; and being the senior officer, had taken upon himself

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the jurisdiction of the: province, with sentiments apparently not the most favorable towards foreign visitors.

In support of this opinion, and in justice to our worthy friend Senr. Sal, it is necessary to remark, that it evidently appeared to be with the utmost repugnance that he was compelled to deliver, in compliance was the orders of his senior officer, these injunctions. In reply to which, Istatedbriefly to Senr. Sal, that I had put into port St. Francisco to recruit our wood and water, to procure such refreshments as the country might afford, and to wait the arrival of our consort the Chatham; with which vessel this port had been appointed our next rendezvous previous to our parting company. That as soon as we should have obtained our necessary supplies, which would not occupy more than two or three days, we should depart; and that he might be allured the restrictions contained in his other letter, respecting our communication with the shore, should be duly observed.

Monday 21.

This port, however, was the rendezvous of the Chatham; and as I had not been denied the privilege of procuring some fresh beef, I determined to remain until she should arrive. This took place however much earlier than I could have expected from the nature of the service on which she had been dispatched, as we had the pleasure of feeing her at St. Francisco the next day.

Wednes 23.

Thursday 24.

Our water had been procured, when we were here before, just behind the beach, in a low space covered with spiry grass, which was at that time flooded by the rain; this being now quite dry, we were obliged to resort to a small stream of most excellent water; but as this was surrounded by a loose morass, through which we were obliged to pass, the accomplishment of this object was rendered so tedious, as to detain us here until the evening of the 23d, when we prepared for our departure; and at four the next morning, having the ebb tide, and a fresh breeze from the N. W. we turned out of the port. The wind in the offing was very light and baffling, but we directed our course with it in the best manner we were able towards Monterrey; where I expected to find the deserters of the Chatham, and where, by explaining the peculiar nature of our situation to Senr. Arrillaga, the acting commandant of the province, I was in

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hopes of meeting a reception worthy of our situation, notwithstanding his former restrictive orders.

It appeared by Mr. Puget's journal, that from light variable winds, calms and fogs, he did not reach the entrance into port Bodega until the morning of the 20th, when he stood in between its north point, and the flat rock lying off it, noticed on the 13th of february, 1792; and anchored in 6 fathoms water, the flat rock bearing by compass S. W.; and an opening in the land supposed to be the mouth of the harbour, W.N W. Here Mr. Puget remarks, that in gaining this station it was again his misfortune to he inconvenienced by a thick fog: but as such impediments had already detained him far beyond his expectations, he had embraced the opportunity of the first clear interval to bear away for this narrow passage, and found the depth of water from 10 to 4 fathoms; the flat rock was found to lie from the north point of the port, S. 63 E., distant a quarter of a mile. About a mile from the flat rock a reef of rocks extends S. 18 W.; off its north point is a shoal two or three ship's lengths in extent; this ought not be nearer approached than the foundings of 4 fathoms will admit, and is discoverable by the weeds it produces. The best passage through this narrow channel to the anchorage which the Chatham occupied, is found by keeping the northern or continental shore on board; at which station Mr. Puget inserts the following account of his transactions.

" Immediately after the vessel was secured Mr. Johnstone was sent, accompanied by Mr. Menzies, to examine port Bodega, which they accomplished by noon, having rounded out the sandy bay to the northward in 9 and 12 fathoms water. The entrance of the harbour is obstructed by a most of sand, on which the greatest depth is 9 feet at the last quarter's flood, Mr. Johnstone went through this passage close to the high land, and at the back of the low spit before us he found an extensive lagoon, which also had the same soundings as in the entrance. On landing they were joined by some Indians, who had previously made a large fire on the north corner of the bay. These people in their manners and conduct were perfectly inoffensive; their numbers did not exceed thirty. of all ages and of both sexes; some few had bows and arrows, which they disposed of to our party for beads and trinkets: the language they

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spoke was a mixture of Spanish and their own provincial dialect, and from this we may infer, that they were either subordinate to the Spaniards, or that they had a constant connection with the settlement at St. Francisco.

" On the bluff of the entrance is fixed in a conspicuous place a pole, having a slave lashed across its upper end, which was conjectured to be the Spanish token of possession; indeed by the Indians our party learned, if they were rightly understood, that some of that nation were actually there, at the extremity or north-west end of the lagoon.

" Mr. Johnstone observed the men to be in general naked, but the women wore skins of animals about their shoulders and waists, and were as much tatooed, or punctured, as any of the females of the Sandwich islands; the hair of both sexes was black, which they wore clubbed behind.

"The soil is sandy, and in general covered with bushes and different forts of verdure; the country, inland, is of a moderate height; but as their examination was confined to the beach and its environs, they remained ignorant of the vegetable productions the more inland parts afforded.

"Great numbers of the feathered tribe were seen, white and brown pelicans, gulls, plover, and a variety of aquatic fowl; on the shores they observed eagles, hawks, the red-breasted lark, crows and ravens. No quadrupeds were seen, they only distinguished the track, and saw the dung, of what was considered to be black cattle.

" Having completed their examination of this part of the bay, and seeing no likelihood of a favorable change in the weather, we weighed at two in the afternoon, it being my intention immediately to proceed to the examination of the next opening; but the wind coming to the S.W., with a very threatening appearance from that quarter, when we were off it, deterred me from pursuing my first plan.

" This opening is formed by two apparently low points, from which extends a vast deal of broken water; but whether there was a passage between them we could not determine. I should be inclined to think there is not; for which reason I did not think it prudent to stand too far in; as, from the direction of the wind, we should not have been able to have

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hauled out clear of the land; had we met with shoal water, our depth in that situation being 7 fathom, having from our anchorage to a-breast of this opening had from that depth to 13 fathoms, irregular hard bottom, but not rocky; and as this part of the coast does not afford any known safe shelter, from whence we could have dispatched the boats, and left the vessel in perfect security; I therefore judged it best, from such circumstances, and the continual thickness and bad appearance of the weather, to give up the examination until a more favorable opportunity should offer, and make the best of my way to join the Discovery at St. Fancisco"

I was much disappointed that these untoward circumstances had prevented Mr. Puget from completing his survey of port Bodega; and I should certainly have given directions for a second attempt, had it not been for the reception we had met at St. Francisco; which had probably arisen, either from the jealousy or too general instructions of the acting governor of the province; whose displeasure, under our present circumstances, I did not think prudent to excite, especially as I had understood that the Spaniards had it in contemplation to make an establishment at port Bodega, in which cafe a second visit might have been productive of offence.

Friday 23

In proceeding towards Monterrey we made so little progress, that we were still at no great distance from St. Francisco the next morning; when a vessel was descried to the N. N.W. and on standing towards her, the proved to be the Dædalus.

About noon Lieutenant Hanson came on board, and informed me that he had pursued the route I had directed towards New South-Wales. That he had taken from New Zealand two of the natives, in order that they might instruct the inhabitants of port Jackson in the use and management of the flax plant. That he had arrived at the settlement on the 20th of april, 1793, and was in readiness to depart on the 20th of june, but that he did not receive orders from Major Grose until the end of that month; when he put to sea, and passed to the westward of the Society islands, in fight of the island of Scilly, the only land seen between port Jackson and Owhyhee, which was in fight on the 1st of september; and that, after procuring some refreshments amongst those

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1793. October.

islands, he took his departure on the 8th of that month for Nootka, which land was made the evening we left that port; the Dædalus being the vessel we then saw to the westward. She anchored in Friendly cove the next morning; and having obtained a supply of wood, water, and other necessaries, Mr. Hanson failed from thence on the 13th of October, agreeably to the directions I had there left for his future proceedings.

Mr. Hanson brought a supply of provisions, and such parts of the store' which I had demanded, as could be procured. From him I learned that Major Grose was very solicitous that I Should again attempt the introduction of the cattle of this country into New South Wales; notwithstanding, that out of the number I had before sent thither in the Dædalus, one cow, three ewes, and a ram only, had survived the voyage. The failure of the rest had been attributed to their being too old, and it was therefore hoped that an assortment of young ones would be more successful. With respect to the swine, Mr. Hanson's endeavours had been attended with greater success, as he had carried from Otaheite, and had landed at port Jackson, seventy of those animals, which, from the excellency of the breed, muff necessarily prove a mod valuable acquisition.

Monday 28.


Friday 1.

The wind continued variable between the south and cast, blowing a moderate breeze, and sometimes accompanied with foggy weather; in which, on the evening and night of the 28th, although many guns were fired to denote our situation, we parted company with the Chatham; but the Dædalus kept her station near us. This unpleasant weather continued with little alteration, attended generally by adverse winds, until the morning of the ill of november: when with a breeze at W.S.W., and thick hazy weather, we reached Monterrey, where we anchored with the Dædalus about, eleven in the forenoon, and moored nearly in out former station. Here we found our consort, which, notwithstanding the disadvantages of the weather, had reached this place on the 30th of the preceding month.

Whilst we were employed in securing the Slip, I sent an officer to acquaint the governor of our arrival, and of the object of my visit, and also

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1793. November.

with an offer on my part to salute the garrison, if an equal compliment would be returned.

This being assented to, I waited on Senr. Arrillaga the commandant, and was received with the ceremony usual on such occasions; as soon as this was ended, I was preparing to state my reasons for having entered the ports under his government, when he stopped me from proceeding further, and begged that the subject might be referred to a written correspondence, by which mode he conceived matters would be more fully explained. I then made inquiries after the deserters from the Chatham, and was given to unde