RECORD: Hawkesworth, John. 1773. An account of the voyages undertaken for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow and the Endeavour drawn from the journals which were kept by the several commanders and from the papers of Joseph Banks. 3 vols. London, W. Strahan; and T. Cadell., volume 1.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 5.2013. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


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AN

ACCOUNT

OF THE

VOYAGES

UNDERTAKEN BY THE

ORDER OF HIS PRESENT MAJESTY

FOR MAKING

Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere,

And successively performed by

COMMODORE BYRON, CAPTAIN CARTERET,

CAPTAIN WALLIS, And CAPTAIN COOK,

In the DOLPHIN, the SWALLOW, and the ENDEAVOUR:

DRAWN UP

From the JOURNALS which were kept by the several COMMANDERS,
And from the Papers of JOSEPH BANKS, Esq;

By JOHN HAWKESWORTH, LL.D.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

Illustrated with CUTS, and a great Variety of CHARTS and MAPS relative to
Countries now first discovered, or hitherto but imperfectly known.

VOL. I.

LONDON:
Printed for W. STRAHAN; and T. CADELL in the Strand.
M DCC LXXIII.

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TO THE

KING.

SIR,

AFTER the great improvements that have been made in Navigation since the discovery of America, it may well be thought strange that a very considerable part of the globe on which we live should still have remained unknown; that it should still have been the subject of speculation, whether a great portion of the Southern Hemisphere is land or water; and, even where land had been discovered, that

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neither its extent nor figure should have been ascertained. But the cause has probably been, that sovereign Princes have seldom any other motive for attempting the discovery of new countries than to conquer them, that the advantages of conquering countries which must first be discovered are remote and uncertain, and that ambition has always found objects nearer home.

It is the distinguishing characteristic of Your Majesty to act from more liberal motives; and having the best fleet, and the bravest as well as most able navigators in Europe, Your Majesty has, not with a view to the acquisition of treasure, or the extent of dominion, but the improvement of commerce and the increase and diffusion of knowlege, undertaken what has so long been neglected; and under Your Majesty's auspices, in little more than seven years, discoveries have been made far greater than those of all the navigators in the world

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collectively, from the expedition of Columbus to the present time.

To have been appointed to record them, and permitted to inscribe the narrative to Your Majesty, is an honour, the sense of which will always be retained with the warmest gratitude, by

YOUR MAJESTY's

Most faithful,

and most obliged

BROMLEY, KENT,

1st May 1773.

Subject and Servant,

JOHN HAWKESWORTH

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CONTENTS

OF THE

FIRST VOLUME.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Page i
An Explanation of the Nautical Terms not generally understood which occur in this Work. xxiii
A Description of the Cuts. xxxv
COMMODORE BYRON's VOYAGE.
CHAP. I.
The Passage from the Downs to Rio de Janeiro. 3
CHAP. II.
Passage from Rio de Janeiro to Port Desire; with some Description of that Place. 8
CHAP. III.
Course from Port Desire, in Search of Pepys' Island, and afterwards to the Coast of Patagonia, with a Description of the Inhabitants. 23
CHAP. IV.
Passage up the Streight of Magellan, to Port Famine; with some Account of that Harbour, and the adjacent Coast. 33
CHAP. V.
The Course back from Port Famine to Falkland's Islands, with some Account of the Country. 41

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CHAP. VI.
The Passage through the Streight of Magellan as far as Cape Monday, with a Description of several Bays and Harbours, formed by the Coast on each Side. 58
CHAP. VII.
The Passage from Cape Monday, in the Streight of Magellan, into the South Seas; with some general Remarks on the Navigation of that Streight. 75
CHAP. VIII.
The Run from the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to the Islands of Disappointment. 86
CHAP. IX.
The Discovery of King George's Islands, with a Description of them, and an Account of several Incidents that happened there. 97
CHAP. X.
The Run from King George's Islands to the Islands of Saypan, Tinian, and Aguigan; with an Account of several Islands that were discovered in that Track. 107
CHAP. XI.
The Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian, a Description of the present Condition of that Island, and an Account of the Transactions there. 115
CHAP. XII.
The Run from Tinian to Pulo Timoan, with some Account of that Island, its Inhabitants and Productions, and thence to Batavia. 123
CHAP. XIII.
Transactions at Batavia, and Departure from that Place. 131
CHAP XIV.
The Passage from Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence to England. 135

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CHAP. I.
The Passage to the Coast of Patagonia, with some Account of the Natives. 363
CHAP. II.
The Passage through the Streight of Magellan, with some further Account of the Patagonians, and a Description of the Coast on each Side, and its Inhabitants. 379
CHAP. III.
A particular Account of the Places in which we anchored during our Passage through the Streight, and of the Shoals and Rocks that lie near them. 410
CHAP. IV.
The Passage from the Streight of Magellan, to King George the Third's Island, called Otaheite, in the South Sea, with an Account of the Discovery of several other Islands, and a Description of their Inhabitants. 419
CHAP. V.
An Account of the Discovery of King George the Third's Island, or Otaheite, and of several Incidents which happened both on board the Ship, and on Shore. 433
CHAP. VI.
The Sick sent on Shore, and a regular Trade established with the Natives; some Account of their Character and Manners, of their Visits on board the Ship, and a Variety of Incidents that happened during this Intercourse. 454

VOL. I. a

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CHAP. VII.
An Account of an Expedition to discover the inland Part of the Country, and our other Transactions, till we quitted the Island to continue our Voyage. 472
CHAP. VIII.
A more particular Account of the Inhabitants of Otaheite, and of their domestic Life, Manners, and Arts. 480
CHAP. IX.
Passage from Otaheite to Tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were discovered in the South Seas. 490
CHAP. XI *.
Some Account of the present State of the Island of Tinian, and our Employment there; with what happened in the Run from thence to Batavia. 498
CHAP. XII.
Transactions at Batavia, and an Account of the Passage from thence to the Cape of Good Hope. 507
CHAP. XIII.
An Account of our Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Return of the Dolphin to England. 513
CAPTAIN CARTERET's VOYAGE.
CHAP. I.
The Run from Plymouth to Madeira, and from thence through the Streight of Magellan. 525

*The tenth Chapter is by mistake numbered XI.

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CHAP. II.
The Passage from Cape Pillar, at the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to Masafuero; with some Account of that Island. 537
CHAP. III.
The Passage from Masafuero to Queen Charlotte's Islands; several Mistakes corrected concerning Davis's Land, and an Account of some small Islands, supposed to be the same that were seen by Quiros. 557
CHAP. IV.
An Account of the Discovery of Queen Charlotte's Island, with a Description of them and their Inhabitants, and of what happened at Egmont Island. 568
CHAP. V.
Departure from Egmont Island, and Passage to Nova Britannia; with a Description of several other Islands, and their Inhabitants. 584
CHAP. VI.
Discovery of a Streight dividing the Land called Nova Britannia into two Islands, with a Description of several small Islands that lie in the Passage, and the Land on each side, with the Inhabitants. 595
CHAP. VII.
The Passage from Saint George's Channel to the Island of Mindanao, with an Account of many Islands that were seen, and Incidents that happened by the Way. 602
CHAP. VIII.
Some Account of the Coast of Mindanao, and the Islands near it, in which several Mistakes of Dampier are corrected. 611

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CHAP. IX.
The Passage from Mindanao to the Island of Celebes, with a particular Account of the Streight of Macassar, in which many Errors are corrected. 622
CHAP. X.
Transactions off Macassar, and the Passage thence to Bonthain. 630
CHAP. XI.
Transactions at Bonthain, while the Vessel was waiting for a Wind to carry her to Batavia, with some Account of the Place, the Town of Macassar, and the adjacent Country. 638
CHAP. XII.
Passage from Bonthain Bay, in the Island of Celebes, to Batavia: Transactions there, and the Voyage round the Cape of Good Hope to England. 649

[Chart]

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

HIS Majesty, soon after his accession to the crown, formed a design of sending out vessels for making discoveries of countries hitherto unknown, and in the year 1764, the kingdom being then in a state of profound peace, he proceeded to put it into execution. The Dolphin and the Tamar were dispatched under the command of Commodore Byron, and the best account of his Majesty's motives and design that can be given, will be found in the following preamble to Commodore Byron's instructions, which are dated the 17th of June in that year.

"Whereas nothing can redound more to the honour of this nation, as a maritime power, to the dignity of the Crown of Great Britain, and to the advancement of the trade and navigation thereof, than to make discoveries of countries hitherto unknown; and whereas there is reason to believe that lands and islands of great extent, hitherto unvisited by any European power, may be found in the Atlantic Ocean, between the Cape of Good Hope and the Magellanic Streight, within the latitudes convenient for navigation, and in climates adapted to the produce of commodities useful in commerce; and whereas his Majesty's islands called Pepys' Island, and Falkland's Islands, lying within the said tract, notwithstanding their having been first discovered and visited by British navigators, have never yet been so sufficiently surveyed as that an accurate judgment may be formed of their coasts and product; his

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Majesty taking the premises into consideration, and conceiving no conjuncture so proper for an enterprize of this nature, as a time of profound peace, which his kingdoms at present happily enjoy, has thought fit that it should now be undertaken."

The Dolphin was a man of war of the sixth rate, mounting twenty-four guns: her complement was 150 men, with three Lieutenants, and thirty-seven petty officers.

The Tamar was a sloop, mounting sixteen guns: her complement was ninety men, with three Lieutenants, and two and twenty petty officers, and the command of her was given to Captain Mouat.

Commodore Byron returned in the month of May in the year 1766, and in the month of August following, the Dolphin was again sent out, under the command of Captain Wallis, with the Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret, in prosecution of the same general design of making discoveries in the southern hemisphere. The equipment of the Dolphin was the same as before. The Swallow was a sloop mounting fourteen guns; her complement was ninety men, with one Lieutenant, and twenty-two petty officers.

These vessels proceeded together till they came within sight of the South Sea, at the western entrance of the Streight of Magellan, and from thence returned by different routs to England.

In the latter part of the year 1767, it was resolved, by the Royal Society, that it would be proper to send persons into some part of the South Sea to observe a transit of the planet Venus over the fun's disk, which, according to astronomical calculation, would happen in the year 1769; and that the islands called Marquesas de Mendoza, or those of Rotter-

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dam or Amsterdam, were the properest places then known for making such observation.

In consequence of these resolutions, it was recommended to his Majesty, in a memorial from the Society, dated February 1768, that he would be pleased to order such an observation to be made; upon which his Majesty signified to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty his pleasure that a ship should be provided to carry such observers as the Society should think fit to the South Seas; and in the beginning of April following the Society received a letter from the Secretary of the Admiralty, informing them that a bark of three hundred and seventy tons had been taken up for that purpose. This vessel was called the Endeavour, and the command of her given to Lieutenant James Cook, a gentleman of undoubted abilities in astronomy and navigation, who was soon after, by the Royal Society, appointed, with Mr. Charles Green, a gentleman who had long been assistant to Dr. Bradley at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, to observe the transit.

While this vessel was getting ready for her expedition, Captain Wallis returned; and it having been recommended to him by Lord Morton, when he went out, to fix on a proper place for this astronomical observation, he, by letter, dated on board the Dolphin, the 18th of May 1768, the day before he landed at Hastings, mentioned Port Royal harbour, in an island which he had discovered, then called George's Island, and since Otaheite: the Royal Society therefore, by letter, dated the beginning of June, in answer to an application from the Admiralty to be informed whither they would have their observers sent, made choice of that place.

The Endeavour had been built for the coal trade, and a vessel of that construction was preferred for many reasons, particularly because she was what the sailors call a good sea

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boat, was more roomy, would take and lie on the ground better, and might be navigated by fewer men than other vessels of the same burden.

Her complement of officers and men was Lieutenant Cook the Commander, with two Lieutenants under him, a Master and boatswain, with each two mates, a surgeon and carpenter, with each one mate, a gunner, a cook, a clerk and steward, two quarter-masters, an armourer, a sail-maker, three midshipmen, forty-one able seamen, twelve marines, and nine servants, in all eighty-four persons, besides the Commander: she was victualled for eighteen months, and took on board ten carriage and twelve swivel guns, with good store of ammunition and other necessaries. The Endeavour also, after the astronomical observation should be made, was ordered to prosecute the design of making discoveries in the South Seas. What was effected by these vessels in their several voyages, will appear in the course of this work, of which it is now necessary to give some account.

It is drawn up from the journals that were kept by the Commanders of the several ships, which were put into my hands by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for that purpose: and, with respect to the voyage of the Endeavour, from other papers equally authentic; an assistance which I have acknowledged in an introduction to the account of her voyage.

When I first undertook the work, it was debated, whether it should be written in the first or third person: it was readily acknowledged on all hands, that a narrative in the first person would, by bringing the Adventurer and the Reader nearer together, without the intervention of a stranger, more strongly excite an interest, and consequently afford more entertainment; but it was objected, that if it was

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written in the name of the several Commanders, I could exhibit only a naked narrative, without any opinion or sentiment of my own, however fair the occasion, and without noting the similitude or dissimilitude between the opinions, customs, or manners of the people now first discovered, and those of nations that have been long known, or remarking on any other incident or particular that might occur. In answer to this objection, however, it was said, that as the manuscript would be submitted to the Gentlemen in whose names it would be written, supposing the narrative to be in the first person, and nothing published without their approbation, it would signify little who conceived the sentiments that should be expressed, and therefore I might still be at liberty to express my own. In this opinion all parties acquiesced, and it was determined that the narrative should be written in the first person, and that I might notwithstanding intersperse such sentiments and observations as my subject should suggest: they are not indeed numerous, and when they occur, are always cursory and short; for nothing would have been more absurd than to interrupt an interesting narrative, or new descriptions, by hypothesis and dissertation. They will however be found most frequent in the account of the voyage of the Endeavour, and the principal reason is, that although it stands last in the series, great part of it was printed before the others were written, so that several remarks, which would naturally have been suggested by the incidents and descriptions that would have occurred in the preceding voyages, were anticipated by similar incidents and descriptions which occurred in this.

Some particulars that are related in one voyage will perhaps appear to be repeated in another, as they would necessarily have been if the several Commanders had written the account of their voyages themselves; for a digest could not

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have been made of the whole, without invading the right of each navigator to appropriate the relation of what he had seen: these repetitions however taken together will be found to fill but a few pages of the book.

That no doubt might remain of the fidelity with which I have related the events recorded in my materials, the manuscript account of each voyage was read to the respective Commanders at the Admiralty, by the appointment of Lord Sandwich, who was himself present during much the greatest part of the time. The account of the voyage of the Endeavour was also read to Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, in whose hands, as well as in those of Captain Cook, the manuscript was left for a considerable time after the reading. Commodore Byron also, Captain Wallis and Captain Carteret, had the manuscripts of their respective voyages to peruse, after they had been read at the Admiralty in their presence, and such emendations as they suggested were made. In order thus to authenticate the voyage of Captain Cook, the account of it was first written, because it was expected when his journal was put into my hands, that he would have sailed on the voyage he is now making in less than five months.

It will probably be thought by many Readers, that I have related the nautical events too minutely; but it must be remembered, that minutely to relate these events was the great object of the work. It was in particular thought necessary to insert the situation of the ship at different hours of the day, with the bearings of different parts of the land while she was navigating seas, and examining shores that hitherto have been altogether unknown, in order to ascertain her track more minutely than could be done in any chart, however large the scale, and to describe with critical

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exactness the bays, headlands, and other irregularities of the coast; the appearance of the country, its hills, vallies, mountains, and woods, with the depth of water, and every other particular that might enable future navigators easily to find, and safely to visit every part of it. I was not indeed myself sufficiently apprised of the minuteness that was necessary in this part of the work, so that I was obliged to make many additions to it, after I had prepared my manuscript. It is however hoped, that those who read merely for entertainment will be compensated by the description of countries which no European had before visited, and manners which in many instances exhibit a new picture of human life. In this part, the relation of little circumstances requires no apology, for it is from little circumstances that the relation of great events derives its power over the mind. An account that ten thousand men perished in a battle, that twice the number were swallowed up by an earthquake, or that a whole nation was swept away by a pestilence, is read in the naked brevity of an index, without the least emotion, by those who feel themselves strongly interested even for Pamela, the imaginary heroine of a novel that is remarkable for the enumeration of particulars in themselves so trisling, that we almost wonder how they could occur to the author's mind.

This work is illustrated and adorned by a great number of cuts, from which every class of readers, whether their object is knowlege or pleasure, will find equal advantage, as they consist not only of maps and charts, drawn with great skill and attention, but of views and figures, designed and executed by the best artists in this country.

The most effectual way to prevent obscurity and confusion in relating events, is to range them in order of time, which

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however cannot be done in an unbroken series when the complicated and multifarious objects of history are to be recorded; but as each of the narratives in this work is a single thread, the transactions of every day are set down in a regular succession, and the time noted in the margin.

Great care has been taken to make the charts and the nautical part of the narrative coincide; if there should be any difference, which it is hoped will not be the case, the charts are to be consided in, as of unquestionable authority. By the charts, as well as by the narrative, especially by that: on which the tracks of the several vessels are marked, it will be seen how far the existence or non existence of a southern continent is already ascertained, and what land has in the course of these voyages been first discovered. The charts also will at one view prevent any mistake which might arise from the same name having been given to different islands by the several Commanders in these voyages, without the trouble of comparing the latitudes and longitudes assigned them in the narrative.

As it is but a very few years since the existence of a race of men above the common stature upon the coast of Patagonia, was the subject of eager dispute among all ranks of people in this country, I have brought together the whole of the evidence on the question, as I find it in a collection of voyages lately printed in France, under the title of "Histoire des Navigationes aux Terres Australes."

"It must be acknowledged, that the contrariety of the reports that have been made, by ocular witnesses, concerning a fact easy to be determined, does not deviate less from the common course of things than the gigantic stature of the people in question. It appears, that during an hundred

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years, almost all navigators, of whatever country, agree in affirming the existence of a race of giants upon the coast of Patagonia; and that during another century, the much greater number agree in denying the fact, treating their predecessors as idle fabulifts, and imputing their reports either to the terror which the rude fierceness of a savage people inspired, or to the natural propensity of mankind to assume importance, by pretending to have seen wonderful things. That men have a strange propensity to the marvelous cannot be denied, nor that fear naturally magnifies its object; but though it be allowed that the accounts of the Patagonians have in some instances been exaggerated, it is certain, that all who have affirmed their stature to be gigantic, were not under the influence of fear; and it is very strange, that nations who have an hereditary hatred to each other, and an acknowledged opposition of interest, should agree in asserting an evident falsehood.

"In the first place, it is well known to have been an opinion long established, both in our ancient world and in America, that there was once a race of giants upon earth who distinguished themselves by violence and guilt.

"Barbenais was told by the inhabitants of South America, that a deluge having laid Peru under water, the Indians retired to the mountains till the flood should subside, and that when they came again down to the plain, they found there men of an enormous stature, who attacked them with great ferocity, killing many, and driving the rest to the caves of the rocks; but that having continued in their hiding places many years, they saw in the air a young man who destroyed the giants by thunderbolts, and thus restored to them the possession of their country. His guides also showed

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him many marks upon a rock which they said were impressed by the thunderbolts, and many bones of an extraordinary size, which they believed to be remains of the giants; but they did not pretend to know when the deluge happened.

Pedro de Cieca, chap. 52. Garcilasso, Hist. du Perou, liv. 9. chap. 9.

"The Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega, in his history of Peru, relates, that according to a tradition universally received, a number of vessels or junks came to Point Saint Helena with a company of giants on board, of a stature so enormous that the natives of the country were not higher than their knees: that their eyes were as broad as the bottom of a plate, and their limbs proportionably large: that some of them were naked, and others slightly covered with the skins of beasts. That when they came on shore, they dug a pit of an astonishing depth in the rock, and each of them consuming as much provisions as would be sufficient for fifty men, the country was soon exhausted, and they were obliged to live upon fish: that they seized the women of the country, to whom their brutality was fatal, and afterwards giving themselves up to worse vices, the whole race was destroyed by fire from heaven, which however left their bones unconsumed, as a lasting memorial of Divine vengeance. Bones of an amazing size are said to have been found in this country, and fragments of teeth, which, if they were whole, must have weighed half a pound.

"Those who wish to know all the particulars of these American traditions may satisfy their curiosity by reading Torquemado, lib. 1. chap. 13 and 14. where they will find that these fables are very similar to those relative to the same subject in other parts of the world. The bones, said to have been the bones of giants, which have been found in Ame-

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rica, and which were shewn at Mexico and other places in the year 1550, are probably the bones of some animal unknown; and indeed nothing less than the fight of such a race of human beings, or of an entire skeleton, can be admitted as a proof of their existence. Turner, the naturalist, reports, that in the year 1610, the thigh bone of a man was shewn in London, who must have been of an enormous size; but this testimony is not decisive, though the author adds, that he had himself seen near the river Plata, upon the coast of Brasil, a race of giants who went stark naked; that the hinder part of their heads was flat, and not round; that the women had long black hair, as coarse as a horse's mane; that the men were excellent archers, and, besides their bow and arrows, carried two massive balls or bullets, each fastened to one end of a thong, a weapon which they used with great dexterity and force, either by striking with it, or throwing it like a stone from a sling. One of these giants, he says, was twelve feet high; but acknowledges that he saw no other so tall.

"Of this fact there are other ocular witnesses who perhaps may be thought more worthy of credit; among the Spaniards, Magellan, Loaifa, Sarmiento, and Nodal; among the English, Cavendish, Hawkins, and Knivet; among the Dutch, Sebald, de Noort, le Maire, and Spilberg; and among the French, those who went in the expedition from Marseilles, and Saint Maloes. Those who bear testimony to the contrary, are Winter, the Dutch Admiral Hermite, Froger in de Gennes's narrative, and Sir John Narborough. Winter, after having himself seen the inhabitants of Patagonia, says in direct terms, that the accounts of their being giants are falsehoods invented by the Spaniards; and it must be confessed that the testimony of these navigators at least counter-

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balances the evidence on the other side, especially as they were best acquainted with the Streight of Magellan, and the neighbouring country. Such navigators as have visited this country, and are silent with respect to the stature of the inhabitants, particularly Sir Francis Drake, must be considered as witnesses against the fact in question; for their silence is a proof that they saw nothing extraordinary. It must however be observed, in the first place, that the greater part of those who hold the affirmative in this question, speak of people that inhabited the desert coast of Patagonia to the east and west; and that, on the contrary, those who hold the negative, speak of those who inhabit the Streight upon the sides of the utmost point of America to the north and south. The nations of these two districts are certainly not the same; and if the first have sometimes been seen in the Streight, it cannot be thought strange, considering how short the distance is from Port Saint Julian, which appears to be their ordinary habitation. Magellan, and his people saw them there very often, and trafficked with them sometimes on board his ships, and sometimes on shore: nor was this all, he seized two of them, and kept them prisoners in his vessel, one of whom was baptized some time before his death, and taught several words of his language to Pigafette, who formed them into a little dictionary: these are facts than which nothing can be more positive, or less subject to illusion.

"I affirm, says Knivet, that when I was at Port Desire I measured several dead bodies that I found buried there, which were from fourteen to sixteen spans high, and saw tracks in the sand which must have been left by people of nearly the same stature. I have also frequently seen at Brazil, one of the Patagonians who had been taken at Port Saint

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Julian, and though he was but a youth, he measured no less than thirteen spans: and our English prisoners at Brazil have assured me that they had seen many men of the same stature upon the coasts of the streight." Sebald de Wert says, that when he was in the Streight, he saw giants of the same bulk, who tore up trees by the roots, that were a span in diameter, with great facility; he also saw women that were gigantic, and others of the common stature. Oliver de Noort reports, that he saw savages of a gigantic stature at Port Desire, but does not call them giants: that he took six of them prisoners, and carried them on board his ship, one of whom afterwards told him that the country was inhabited by many different nations, four of which were of the ordinary stature; but that farther within the land, in a territory called Coin, there was a gigantic people, distinguished by the name of Tiremenen, who were continually making war upon the other nations. Spilberg relates, that he saw a man of an extraordinary stature upon the coast of Terra del Fuego, but that the sepulchres which he found, had received men of the common height. Aris-Clasz, who was on board La Maire's fleet in the character of Commissary, a man well worthy of credit, declares, that having visited the sepulchres which he discovered upon the coast of Patagonia, he found the bones of men who were between ten and eleven feet high, which convinced him that the reports of former navigators were true; and here it must be confessed that the examination was made in cold blood, when it cannot be pretended that the object was magnified by fear. Some others, particularly Nodal and Sir Richard Hawkins, content themselves with saying that these savages were a head taller than the inhabitants of Europe, and of such a stature that the people on board their vessels called them giants. Such is the evidence of past times; we shall now consider that of the age

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in which we live. In 1704, the Captains Harrington and Carman, who commanded two French vessels, one from Saint Maloes, and the other from Marseilles, saw at one time seven of these giants in Possession Bay, at another time six, and at a third time they had an interview with a company of more than four hundred men, part of whom were gigantic, and part of the common stature. That Harrington and Carman reported this fact, is attested by M. Frezier, superintendant of the fortifications of Bretagne, a man well known, and universally esteemed. Frezier never saw any of these savages himself, but he says, that being upon the coast of Chili, Don Pedro Molina, Governor of the isle of Chiloë, and many other eye-witnesses, told him, that there was at a considerable distance within the country, an Indian nation, called by their neighbours Caucohues, who sometimes came down to the Spanish settlements, that were more than nine feet high, and were the same race with the Patagonians who live on the eastern coast, and have been mentioned in former relations. We are told by Reaveneau de Lussan, that the Spaniards who live upon the sea coast in South America, report that certain white Indians inhabit part of Chili, with whom they are always at war: that they are of an enormous bulk and stature, and that whenever they take a Spaniard prisoner, they force up the breast-bone, as they would the shell of a tortoise, and tear out his heart. Narborough, on the contrary, though he agrees that the Indians who inhabit the mountains near the Spanish settlements at Chili, and perpetually commit hostilities against them, are tall, expressly denies that their stature is gigantic. He had often measured the skulls and the prints of the feet of the savages on the coasts of the Streight of Magellan, which, he says, were of the common size: he had also several times seen numerous companies of them even at Port Saint Julian, and

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these he declares not to be taller or bigger than other men. Narborough is certainly a credible witness, and his evidence is directly to the point: it is confirmed by that of L'Hermite, who says, that the people he saw upon the coast of Terra del Fuego, though they were robust and well-proportioned, were not larger than the inhabitants of Europe; and lastly, M. de Gennes bears testimony that none of the people he saw at Port Famine were six feet high.

"Those who diligently consider these different relations will find reason to believe, that all the parties have spoken truth, each of them faithfully reporting what he saw, and therefore that the existence of a gigantic race in these parts is a real fact, not to be questioned merely because they were not seen by every mariner that visited the country.

"It appears to be well established, that the inhabitants of the two borders of the Streight are of the common stature; and that the race distinguished by the name of Patagonians, made their constant residence upon the desart coasts, either in some miserable hovels in the depth of the woods, or in some caverns of the rocks, scarcely accessible to any but themselves: and it appears from the account of Oliver de Noort, that when the Streight began to be frequented by European vessels, they hid themselves as soon as the ships were in sight, which accounts both for their not being seen, and for the recent marks of inhabitants upon a coast that appeared to be desart. Perhaps the frequent appearance of our ships upon this coast, at length determined them to quit it as a settled habitation, returning only at particular seasons of the year, and taking up their constant residence in the interior part of the country. Lord Anson was of opinion, that they resided statedly on the western side of the Cordeliers,

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and visited the eastern side occasionally, but not often: so that if they have been rarely seen by the vessels which have touched at the coast of Patagonia for the last hundred years, the reason probably is, that being, like other Indian nations, desirous to conceal themselves from strangers, they retired to the mountains. It is indeed to be regretted, that no skeleton of these people has been brought into Europe; and it may at first seem strange, that no such evidence of their uncommon stature should have been produced, as it is known that several of them who had been made prisoners by the Commanders of European vessels, died on board soon after they came into a hot climate; but the wonder will cease, when it is considered that all mariners have a superstitious opinion that the compass will not traverse if there is a dead body on board the vessel." Upon the whole, it may reasonably be presumed, that the concurrent testimony of late navigators, particularly Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, and Captain Carteret, Gentlemen of unquestionable veracity, who are still living, and who not only saw and conversed with these people, but measured them, will put an end to all the doubts that have been hitherto entertained of their existence.

Having thus brought together the whole of the evidence for and against a fact which has long been the object both of popular and philosophical curiosity, I shall not anticipate any opinion that the Reader may form concerning future navigations in the track which has been described by any of the vessels whose voyages are here related, except that although it is the opinion of Commodore Byron, who spent seven weeks and two days in passing through the Streight of Magellan, that it may be passed in three weeks at the proper season; yet the passage cost Captain Wallis near four

[page] xvii

months, though he performed it precisely at the time recommended by the Commodore, having reached the eastern entrance about the middle of December.

I cannot however dismiss my Readers to the following narratives, without expressing the regret with which I have recorded the destruction of poor naked savages, by our fire-arms, in the course of these expeditions, when they endeavoured to repress the invaders of their country; a regret which I am consident my Readers will participate with me: this however appears to be an evil which, if discoveries of new countries are attempted, cannot be avoided: resistance will always be made, and if those who resist are not overpowered, the attempt must be relinquished. It may perhaps be said, that the expence of life upon these occasions is more than is necessary to convince the natives that further contest is hopeless, and perhaps this may sometimes have been true: but it must be considered, that if such expeditions are undertaken, the execution of them must be intrusted to persons not exempt from human frailty; to men who are liable to provocation by sudden injury, to unpremeditated violence by sudden danger, to error by the defect of judgment or the strength of passion, and always disposed to transfer laws by which they are bound themselves, to others who are not subject to their obligation; so that every excess thus produced is also an inevitable evil.

If it should be said, that supposing these mischiefs to be inevitable in attempting discoveries, discoveries ought not to be attempted; it must be considered, that upon the only principles on which this opinion can be supported, the risk of life, for advantages of the same kind with those proposed in discovering new countries, is in every other instance unlawful. If it is not lawful to put the life of an Indian in

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hazard, by an attempt to examine the country in which he lives, with a view to increase commerce or knowlege; it is not lawful to risk the life of our own people in carrying on commerce with countries already known. If it be said that the risk of life in our own people is voluntary, and that the Indian is brought into danger without his consent, the consequence will still follow; for it is universally agreed, at least upon the principles of Christianity, that men have no more right over their own lives than over the lives of others, and suicide being deemed the worst species of murder, a man must be proportionably criminal in exposing his own life, for any purpose that would not justify his exposing the life of another. If the gratification of artificial wants, or the increase of knowlege, are justifiable causes for the risk of life, the landing by force on a newly discovered country, in order to examine its produce, may be justified; if not, every trade and profession that exposes life for advantages of the same kind is unlawful; and by what trade or profession is not life exposed? Let us examine all the multitudes that art has employed, from the refiner who sweats at the furnace to the sedentary artificer who grows pale at the loom, and perhaps none can be found in which life is not in some degree sacrificed to the artificial necessities of civil society. But will it therefore be said, that civil society, to which this sacrifice is made, is for that reason a combination contrary to the great original principles of morality, which are the basis of all duty? Will it be said, that to exercise the faculties which are the distinguishing characteristics of our nature is unnatural? and that being endowed with the various powers which in civil societies only can be brought into action, it was incongruous to the will of our Creator that any such society should be formed, and that it would be pleasing to him if, still continuing in a savage state, these powers should

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lie torpid in our nature, like life in an embrio, during the whole of our existence? This surely must appear extravagant and absurd in the highest degree, especially as it must be allowed, that although commerce and arts in some instances expose life, in others they preserve it; they supply the wants of Nature, without rapine and violence, and by producing a common interest, they prevent the inhabitants of the same country from being divided into different clans, which among savages are almost perpetually committing hostilities against each other, with a ferocious cruelty which is not to be found where civil government and literary knowlege have meliorated the manners of mankind. Upon the whole, therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude, that the increase of knowlege and commerce are ultimately common benefits; and that the loss of life which happens in the attempt, is among the partial evils which terminate in general good.

I have now only to request of such of my Readers as may be disposed to censure me for not having attributed any of the critical escapes from danger that I have recorded, to the particular interposition of Providence, that they would, in this particular, allow me the right of private judgment which I claim with the greater confidence, as the very same principle which would have determined them to have done it, has determined me to the contrary. As I firmly believe the divine precept delivered by the Author of Christianity, "there is not a sparrow falls to the ground without my Father," and cannot admit the agency of chance in the government of the world, I must necessarily refer every event to one cause, as well the danger as the escape, as well the sufferings as the enjoyments of life: and for this opinion, I have, among other respectable authorities, that of the Bible. Shall we, says Job, "receive good from the hand of God and shall we not receive evil?" The Supreme Being is equally wife and benevolent

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in the dispensation of both evil and good, as means of effecting ultimate purposes worthy of his ineffable perfections; so that whether we consider ourselves as christians or philosophers, we must acknowledge that he deserves blessing not more when he gives than when he takes away. If the fall of a sparrow, as well as its preservation, is imputed to providence, why not the fall as well as the preservation of a man? and why should we attribute to Providence only what appears to be good in its immediate effect, when we suppose that the whole concatenation of events, whether the preservation or destruction of particular parts, tends ultimately to the good of the whole? The same voice commissions the winds to plough up the deep, which at the appointed time rebukes them, saying, "Peace, be still." If the adorable Author and Preserver of Nature was such a being as Baal is represented to have been by the prophet, when he derided his worshippers; if he was sometimes on a journey, and sometimes asleep, we might with propriety say that a fire happened to break out, or a storm to rise, but that by the interposition of providence life was preserved, expressions which imply that the mischief had one origin, and the remedy another; but such language certainly derogates from the honour of the great Universal Cause, who, acting through all duration, and subsisting in all space, fills immensity with his presence, and eternity with his power.

It will perhaps be said, that in particular instances evil necessarily results from that constitution of things which is best upon the whole, and that Providence occasionally interferes, and supplies the defects of the constitution in these particulars: but this notion will appear not to be supported by those facts which are said to be providential; it will always be found that Providence interposes too late, and only moderates the mischief which it might have prevented. But

[page] xxi

who can suppose an extraordinary interposition of Providence to supply particular defects in the constitution of nature, who sees those defects supplied but in part? It is true that when the Endeavour was upon the rock off the coast of New Holland, the wind ceased, and that otherwise she must have been beaten to pieces; but either the subsiding of the wind was a mere natural event or not; if it was a natural event, providence is out of the question, at least we can with no more propriety say that providentially the wind ceased, than that providentially the sun rose in the morning. If it was not a mere natural event, but produced by an extraordinary interposition, correcting a defect in the constitution of nature, tending to mischief, it will lie upon those who maintain the position, to shew, why an extraordinary interposition did not take place rather to prevent the ship's striking, than to prevent her being beaten to pieces after she had struck: a very slight impulse upon the ship's course would have caused her to steer clear of the rock, and if all things were not equally easy to Omnipotence, we should say that this might have been done with less difficulty than a calm could be produced by suspending the general laws of Nature which had brought on the gale.

I have, however, paid my homage to the Supreme Being, consonant to my own ideas of his agency and perfections; and those who are of opinion that my notions are erroneous, must allow, that he who does what he thinks to be right, and abstains from what he thinks to be wrong, acquits himself equally of moral obligation, whether his opinions are false or true.

VOL. I. d

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AN

EXPLANATION of the NAUTICAL TERMS

not generally understood which occur in this WORK.

A.

A BACK, the situation of the sails when their surfaces are flatted against the masts by the force of the wind. The sails are said to be taken aback, when they are brought into this situation, either by a sudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in the ship's course. They are laid aback, to effect an immediate retreat, without turning to the right or left; in order to avoid some danger.

ABAFT, the hinder part of a ship.

AFT, behind, or near the stern of the ship.

ANCHOR, the principal are the sheet anchor, the best bower and the small bower, so called from their situation in the ship's bows. The smaller anchors, are the stream anchor, the kedge anchor, and the grappling.

AWNING, a canopy of canvass extending over the decks of a ship in hot weather.

AZIMUTH-COMPASS, an instrument employed to discover the magnetical azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed at sea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle.

B.

TO BALANCE, to contract a sail into a narrower compass, in a storm, by retrenching or solding up a part of it at one corner.

BEAMS, strong thick pieces of timber, stretching across the ship from side to side, to support the decks, and retain the sides at their proper distance. On the weather beam, is on the weather side of the ship.

To BELAY, to fasten a rope by winding it several times round a cleat, belaying-pin, or kevel.

BENDING a sail, fastening it to its yard or stay.

BIGHT, the double part of a rope when it is folded, in contradistinction to the end.

BIGHT, is also a small bay between two points of land.

BULGE, or BILGE, that part of the floor of a ship, on either side of the keel, which approaches nearer to an horizontal than to a perpendi-

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cular direction, and on which the ship would rest if laid on the ground: or more particularly, those parts of the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor-timbers amidships on each side of the keel. Hence, when a ship receives a fracture in this place, she is said to be bilged.

BIRTH, the station in which a ship rides at anchor.

BIRTH, also signifies the room or apartment where any particular number of the officers or ship's company usually mess and reside.

BOARD, the line over which the ship runs between tack and tack, when she is turning to windward, or sailing against the direction of the wind.

BOW, the rounding part of a ship's side forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and terminating where they close at the stem or prow.

BREAKERS, billows that break violently over rocks lying under the surface of the sea.

To BRING-TO, to check the course of a ship when she is advancing, by arranging the sails in such a manner as that they shall counter-act each other, and prevent her either from retreating or moving forward. In this situation the ship is said to lie-by, or lie-to.

BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in several places of a ship between two decks, either lengthways or across, to form and separate the various apartments.

BUOY, a sort of close cask, or block of wood, fastened by a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is situated.

C.

CABLE's-length, a hundred and twenty-fathom.

CAP, a strong, thick block of wood, used to confine two masts together, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this purpose furnished with two holes perpendicular to it's length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness; one of these is square, and the other round; the former being solidly fixed upon the upper-end of the lower-mast, whilst the latter receives the mast employed to lengthen it, and secures it in this position.

CAPSTERN, or CAPSTAN, a strong, massy column of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let down per-

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pendicularly through the decks of a ship, and is fixed in such manner, that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, may perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.

CASTING, the motion of falling off, so as to bring the direction of the wind on either side of the ship after it had blown for some time right a-head.

CHAINS, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers. They are placed at short distances from each other on the ship's outside, as being used to contain the blocks called dead-eyes, by which the shrouds of the masts are extended.

CHEEKS of the mast, the faces or projecting parts on each side of the masts, used to sustain the frame of the top, together with the top-mast, which rests immediately upon them.

CLAWING, or CLAWING-OFF, the act of beating or turning to windward from a lee shore, so as to acquire a sufficient distance from it, to escape the dangers of shipwreck.

CLEATS, pieces of wood of different shapes, used occasionally to fasten ropes upon in a ship.

CLENCH, or CLINCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fastened to the ring of the anchor.

CLOSE upon a wind, or CLOSE-HAULED, the general arrangement or trim of a ship's sails, when she endeavours to make a progress in the nearest direction possible towards that point of the compass from which the wind blows.

To CLEW, or CLUE-UP, to truss the sails up to the yards by tackles fastened to their lower corners, called their clues.

COCKSWAIN, or COXEN, the officer who manages and steers a boat, and has the command of the boat's crew.

COMPANION, a sort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair case of the master's cabin in a merchant-ship.

COURSES, a name by which the principal sails of a ship are usually distinguished, viz. the main-sail, fore-sail, and mizen.

CRANK, the quality of a ship which for want of a sufficient quantity, of ballast or cargo, is rendered incapable of carrying sail without being; exposed to the danger of overturning.

[page] xxvi

D.

Half-DECK, a space under the quarter-deck of a ship of war, contained between the foremost bulkhead of the steerage and the fore-part of the quarter-deck.

DRIVING, the state of being carried at random along the surface of the water, by a storm or current: it is generally expressed of a ship when broken loose from her anchors or moorings.

E.

To EDGE away, to decline gradually from the shore, or from the line of the course which the ship formerly steered.

F.

FALL, the loose end of a tackle; or that part upon which the people pull, or hoist, to produce the required effect.

To FILL, to brace the sails in such a manner, as that the wind, entering their cavities from behind, dilates them so as to advance the ship in her course.

FISH, is a long piece of oak, convex on one side, and concave on the other. It is used to fasten upon the outside of the lower masts, as an additional security, to strengthen them when it becomes necessary to carry an extraordinary pressure of sail. The fishes are also employed for the same purpose on any yard, which happens to be sprung or fractured.

FLAW, a sudden breeze, or gust of wind.

FLOOR, the bottom of a ship.

FOOT of a sail, lower edge or bottom.

FOOT-ROPE, the rope to which the foot of a sail is sewed.

FORE, all that part of a ship's frame and machinery which lies near the head.

G.

GAFF, a sort of boom or pole, used to extend the upper edge of the mizen. The foremost, or inner extremity of it, is furnished with two cheeks forming a semicircle, which inclose the after part of the mast so as to confine the gaff close to its respective mast whilst the sail is hoisting or lowering.

GANGWAY, a narrow platform, or range of planks, laid horizontally along the upper part of a ship's side, from the quarter-deck to the fore-castle, for the convenience of walking more expeditiously fore and aft, than by descending into the waist.

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GANGWAY, is also that part of a ship's side, both within and without, by which the passengers enter and depart. It is for this purpose provided with a sufficient number of steps, or cleats, nailed upon the ship's side, nearly as low as the surface of the water; and sometimes furnished with a railed accommodation-ladder, whose lower end projects from the ship's side, being secured in this position by iron braces, so as to render the ascent and descent convenient.

GRAPPLING, a small anchor, fitted with four or five flukes or claws, commonly used to ride a boat or other small vessel.

GUNNEL, or GUNWALE, the upper edge of a ship's side.

H.

HANDING the sails, rolling them up close to the yard or mast to which they belong.

HAMMACOES, the same with hammoc.

To HAUL, an expression peculiar to seamen, implying to pull a single rope, without the assistance of blocks, or other mechanical powers.

To HAUL the wind, to direct the ship's course nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises.

HAWSER, a large rope which holds the middle degree between the cable and tow-line.

HEAVING-sitort, is the drawing so much of the cable into the ship, by means of the capstern or windlass, as that by advancing, she will be almost perpendicularly above the anchor, and in a proper situation to set sail.

HEAVING-taught, the act of heaving about the capstern, till the rope applied thereto becomes streight and ready for action.

To HEEL, to stoop or incline to either side.

HUMMOCK, a little hill.

J.

JERKED, cured with salt.

GIB, or JIB-BOOM, a boom run out from the extremity of the bowsprit, parallel to its length, and serving to extend the bottom of the jib, and the stay of the fore-top-gallant-mast.

K.

KEDGE, a small anchor, used to keep a ship steady whilst she rides in a harbour or river.

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False KEEL, a strong, thick piece of timber, bolted to the main keel to preserve its lower-side.

KNEE, a crooked piece of timber, having two branches or arms and generally used to connect the beams of a ship with her sides or timbers.

L.

LAGOON, a lake.

LARBOARD, the left side of a ship when the eye of a spectator is directed forward.

LASHING, a piece of rope employed to fasten or secure any moveable body in a ship, or about her masts, sails, and rigging: also the act of fastening or securing any thing by means of the rope used for this purpose.

LOG, a machine used to measure the ship's head-way, or the rate of her velocity as she advances through the sea. It is composed of a reel and line, to which is fixed a small piece of wood, forming the quadrant of a circle. The term log however is more particularly applied to the latter. The log, is generally about a quarter of an inch thick, and five or six inches from the angular point to the circumference. It is balanced by a thin plate of lead, nailed upon the arch, so as to swim perpendicularly in the water, with about ⅔ impressed under the surface. The line is fastened to the log by means of two legs, one of which passes through a hole at the corner, and is knotted on the opposite side; whilst the other leg is attached to the arch by a pin, fixed in another hole, so as to draw out occasionally. By these legs the log is hung in equilibrio, and the line, which is united to it, is divided into certain spaces, which are in proportion to an equal number of geographical miles, as a half minute or quarter minute is to an hour of time.

LUG-SAIL, a square sail, hoisted occasionally on the mast of a boat, or small vessel, upon a yard which hangs nearly at right angles with the mast.

M.

To MAKE the land, is to discover it from a distant situation, in consequence of approaching it after a sea-voyage.

MIZEN, the aftermost or hindmost of the fixed sails of a ship.

[page] xxix

MOORING, the act of confining and securing a ship in a particular station, by chains or cables, which are either fastened to the adjacent shore, or to anchors in the bottom.

N.

NEAPED, the situation of a ship which is left aground on the height of a spring-tide, so that she cannot be floated off till the return of the next spring.

O.

OFFING, implies out at sea; or at a competent distance from the shore, and generally out of anchor-ground.

OPEN, is expressed of any distant object, to which the sight or passage is not intercepted by something lying, or coming between. Thus, to be open with any place, is to be opposite to it; as the entry of a port, road, or haven.

OVER-HAULING, the act of opening and extending the several parts of a tackle, or other assemblage of ropes, communicating with blocks, or dead-eyes. It is used to remove those blocks to a sufficient distance from each other, that they may be again placed in a state of action, so as to produce the effect required.

P.

PAINTER, a rope employed to fasten a boat either alongside of the ship to which she belongs, or to some wharf or key.

PALM of the anchor, the same with fluke, the broad barbed ends of the two arms at the bottom of the shank.

PARCELING, certain long narrow slips of canvas, daubed with tar, and frequently bound about a rope, in the same manner as bandages are applied to a broken limb in surgery.

To PAY, to daub or anoint the surface of any body, in order to preserve it from the injuries of the water and weather, &c.

PORTS, the embrasures or openings in the side of a ship of war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery upon the decks above and below.

HALF-PORTS, are what stops that part of the port which when the gun is pushed out is left open.

PURCHASE, any mechanical power employed in raising or removing heavy bodies, or in fixing or extending the ship's rigging.

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Q.

QUARTER, that part of a ship's side which lies towards the stern.

QUARTER-CLOTHS, long pieces of painted canvas, extended on the outside of the quarter-neting from the upper-part of the gallery to the gangway.

R.

RANGE, a sufficient length of the cable, drawn up on the deck, before the anchor is cast loose from the bow, to let it sink to the bottom, without being interrupted, that the flukes may be forced the deeper into the ground, by the additional weight which the anchor acquires in sinking.

REEF, a certain portion of a sail, comprehended between the top or bottom, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto.

To REEF, is to reduce the surface of the sail in proportion to the increase of the wind.

REEF also implies a chain of rocks, lying near the surface of the water.

RIGING, a general name given to all the ropes employed to support the masts; and to extend or reduce the sails, or arange them to the disposition of the wind.

RIGHTING, the act of restoring a ship to her upright position, after she has been laid on a careen. A ship is also said to right at sea when she rises, with her masts erected, after having been prest down on one side by the effort of her sails, or a heavy squall of wind.

S.

SCARFING, when two pieces of timber are to be joined together by the ends, if the ends are cut square, another piece is laid upon, and fastened to both, and this is called scarfing.

SETING, the act of observing the situation of any distant object by the compass, in order to discover the angle which it makes with the nearest meridian.

SHEET, a rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a sail to extend and retain it in a particular station.

SHROUDS, a range of large ropes extended from the mast-heads to the right and left side of the ship, to support the masts, and enable them to carry sail.

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SKIDS, or SKEEDS, are long compassing pieces of timber, formed so as to answer the vertical curve of a ship's side. They are notched below so as to fit closely upon the wales; and as they are intended to preserve the planks of the side, when any weighty body is hoisted or lowered, they extend from the main wale to the top of the side; and they are retained in this position by bolts or spike-nails.

SPRING, a crack or breach running transversely or obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unsafe to carry the usual quantity of sail thereon.

SPRING is also a rope passed out of one extremity of a ship and attached to a cable proceeding from the other, when she lies at anchor. It is usually done to bring the ship's broad-side, or battery of cannon, to bear upon some distant object.

SPRITSAIL, a sail attached to a yard which hangs under the bowsprit.

SQUALL, a sudden and violent blast of wind, usually occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high mountains.

STANCHION, a fort of small pillar of wood or iron used for various purposes in a ship; as to support the decks, the quarter-rails, the netings, and awnings.

STANDING, the movement by which a ship advances towards a certain object, or departs from it.

STARBOARD, the right side of a ship when the eye of the spectator is directed forward.

To STAY, the same as to tack; the contrary to wear, which fee; hence the phrase to miss stays when she sails in the operation.

STIFF, the quality by which a ship is enabled to carry a sufficient quantity of sail, without hazard of oversetting.

STREAKS, or STRAKES, the uniform ranges of planks on the bottom and sides of a ship.

To STRIKE, to run ashore, or to beat upon the ground in passing over a bank or shallow.

STUDDING-SAILS, certain light sails extended, in moderate and steady breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal sails, where they appear as wings upon the yard-arms.

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SURF, the swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or any rock lying near the surface of the water.

SWEEPING, the act of dragging the bight, or loose part of a small rope, along the surface of the ground, in a harbour or road, in order to hook and recover some anchor, wreck, or other material, sunk at the bottom. It is performed by fastening the two ends of this rope to the sides of two boats which are abreast of each other, at some distance. To the middle of the rope are suspended two cannon shot, or something which weighs heavy, in order to sink it to the ground: so that, as the boats advance by rowing ahead, the rope drags along the bottom, to hook any thing for which they are searching.

SWEEPS, are long oars sometimes used on board a ship to pull her round.

T.

TACK, a rope used to confine the foremost lowest-corners of the courses and stay-sails in a fixed position, when the wind crosses the ship's course obliquely.

TACK-CHAIN plates, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers, for the purpose of holding the rope called a tack.

MAIN-TACK, the tack of the main-sail.

TAFFAREL, the upper part of a ship's stern, being a curved piece of wood, usually ornamented with sculpture.

TAUGHT, the state of being extended or stretched out. It is usually applied to a rope or sail, in opposition to slack.

TENDING, the movement by which a ship turns or swings round her anchor in a tide-way, at the beginning of the flood or ebb.

THWART, the seat or bench of a boat whereon the rowers fit to manage the oars.

TILER, the bar or lever employed to turn the rudder in steering.

TIMBERS, the ribs of a ship.

TRANSOMS, certain beams or timbers extended acrofs the stern-post of a ship to fortify her after-part, and give it the figure most suitable to the service for which she is calculated.

[page] xxxiii

TRUSSEL or TRESTLE-TREES, two strong bars of timber fixed horizontally on the opposite sides of the lower mast-head, to support the frame of the top, and the weight of the top-mast.

TRIM, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for the several purposes of navigation.

To TREND, to run off in a certain direction.

TRIPING, the movement by which an anchor is loosened from the bottom by its cable or buoy-ropes.

V.

VEERING, the same as wearing, which see.

To VEER away the cable, is to slacken it, that it may run out of the ship.

W.

WAKE, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship on the surface of the water.

WALES, an assemblage of strong planks extending along a ship's side, throughout her whole length, at different heights, and serving to reinforce the decks, and form the curves by which the vessel appears light and graceful on the water.

WARP, a small rope employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place to another, in a port, road or river. And hence

To WARP, is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps.

WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank fixed occasionally on the top of a boat's side, so as to raise it, and be removed at pleasure. It is used to prevent the sea from breaking into the vessel, particularly when the surface is rough.

To WEATHER, is to sail to windward of some ship, bank, or headland.

To WEAR, the same as to veer, to perform the operation by which a ship, in changing her course from one board to the other, turns her stern to windward; it is the opposite to tacking, in which the head is turned to the windward and the stern to the leeward.

WINDLASS, a machine used in merchant-ships to heave up the anchors. It is a large cylindrical piece of timber, supported at the two

9

[page] xxxiv

ends by two frames of wood, placed on the opposite sides of the deck near the fore-mast, and is turned about as upon an axis, by levers called handspecs which are for this purpose thrust into holes bored through the body of the machine.

WOOLDING, the act of winding a piece of rope about a mast or yard, to support it in a place where it may have been fished or scarfed; or when it is composed of several pieces united into one solid.

Y.

YARD, a long piece of timber suspended upon the masts of a ship, to extend the sails to the wind.

YAW, the movement by which a ship deviates from the line of her course towards the right or left in steering.

[page xxxv]

A

DESCRIPTION of the CUTS.

I. A view of the Indians of Terra del Fuego in their hut.

II. A view of Matavia Bay in Otaheite; called by Captain Wallis, Port Royal Harbour in King George the Third's Island. The view is taken from One Tree Hill, and the tree is a new species of the Erythrina.

III. A view in the Island of Ulietea, with a double canoe and a boat-house.

IV. A view of the Island of Otaheite, with several vessels of that island.

V. A view in the Island of Otaheite; with the house or shed called Tupapow, under which the dead are deposited, and a representation of the person who performs the principal part in the funeral ceremony in his peculiar dress; with a man climbing the bread-fruit tree to get out of his way.

VI. A view in the Island of Huaheine; with the Ewharra no Eatua, or House of God; a small altar with its offering; and a tree called Owharra with which the houses are thatched.

VII. A view of the inside of a house in the Island of Ulietea, with the representation of a dance to the music of the country.

VIII. A military gorget worn in the South Sea Islands.

IX. The first two figures, reckoning from the left hand, are chissels or gouges; the third an adze of the smaller kind; the fourth, the instrument with which the bread-fruit is beaten into paste; the fifth, the nasal flute; the sixth, a thatching needle; the seventh, the instrument used for beating the cloth, over which is a square representing the end of it, to shew the different size of the grooves on the four sides, the number of which is expressed in figures.

X. The first figure, reckoning from the left hand, is an adze of the larger size; the second and third are different representations of the upper part of it, to shew the manner of tying the stone to the handle; the smaller figures are tattowing instruments, to pierce the skin, of different sizes with and without their handles; the last is the instrument with which they are struck for that purpose.

[page] xxxvi

XI. A branch of the bread-fruit tree with the fruit.

XII. The middle figure represents a fly-flap of the Island Ohiteroa; the two side figures, handles of the same instruments made in Otaheite. N.B. the figures in the plates IX. X. and XII. are according to a scale of one third of an inch to an inch.

XIII. The head of a New Zealander, with a comb in his hair, an ornament of green stone in his ear, and another of a fish's tooth round his neck.

XIV. Bludgeons, used as weapons by the New Zealanders, and called Patoo-patoos, as seen on the side, the edge, and the end. They are from fourteen to eighteen inches long, and broad and thick in proportion.

XV. A chest of New Zealand, as a specimen of the carving of that country.

XVI. A war canoe of New Zealand, with a view of Gable End Foreland.

XVII. A view of a perforated rock in Tolaga Bay in New Zealand.

XVIII. A fortified town on village, called a Hippah, built on a perforated rock at Tolaga in New Zealand.

XIX. A view of Endeavour River, on the coast of New Holland, where the ship was laid on shore, in order to repair the damage which she received on the rock.

XX. An animal found on the coast of New Holland called Kanguroo.

XXI. A representation of the interview between Commodore Byron and the Patagonians.

XXII. A representation of the attack of Captain Wallis in the Dolphin by the natives of Otaheite.

XXIII. A representation of the surrender of the island of Otaheite to Captain Wallis by the supposed Queen Oberea.

ERRATUM:

Vol. I. page 534. line 18. for 1, read he.

[page xxxvii]

DIRECTIONS

FOR PLACING THE

CUTS AND CHARTS.

VOLUME I.

CHART of part of the South Seas, shewing the Track and Discoveries made by all the ships, To front the Title-page.
Chart of the Streight of Magellan, To front Commodore Byron's Voyage.
Chart of Port Famine, Wood's Bay, Port Gallant and Fortescue Bay, and Cordes's Bay and Harbour,
Chart of Saint David's Cove, Island Bay, Swallow Harbour, Puzzling Bay, Cape Providence, Cape Upright Bay, and Dolphin Bay,
Chart of Elizabeth Bay, Saint David's Bay, and from York River to Three Island Bay and Harbour,
No. 23. facing Page 27
A chart of Hawkins's Maiden Land, and Falkland's Sound, to face Ch. V. 41
No. 21. facing 443
No. 22. to face 462
Views of Sir Charles Saunders's Island, Osnaburg Island, Boscawen's Island, Admiral Keppel's Island, and Wallis's Island, 491
Chart of Coco's Island, and Traytor's Island, to face 492
Chart of Wallis's Island, to face 496
View of the N.W. side of Masasuero, to face 553
A chart and views of Pitcairn's Island, to face 561

VOL. I. f

[page xxxviii]

Queen Charlotte's Islands, to face 568
The north side of the largest of Queen Charlotte's islands, Swallow Bay, and Byron's Harbour, to face 577
Nova Hibernia, with a view of the Island of Saint John, and six others, to face 588
A chart of Captain Carteret's Discoveries at New Britain, to face 595
Three views of the Admiralty Isles, and some others, to face 605
A dangerous shoal, Joseph Freewell's Island, and the south end of Mindanao, to face 609
A Draught of Bonthain Bay, 637
VOLUME II.
A view of part of the N.E. side of Terra del Fuego, with three other views, a Plan of Success Bay in Streight la Maire, and a chart of the S.E. part of Terra del Fuego, 39
No. 1. facing 55
Chart of the Island of Otaheite, 79
No. 2. facing 80
No. 11.
No. 4. facing 184
No. 8. facing 185
No. 12.
No. 10. facing 191
No. 9. facing 212
No. 5. facing 234
Chart of the Society Islands, 249
Matavai Bay in Otaheite, Ohameneno Harbour in Ulietea, Owharra Harbour in Huaheine, and Oopoa Harbour in Ulietea,
Chart of all the Islands,
No. 6. facing 252
No.3. facing 258
No. 7. facing 265
Chart of New Zealand, facing Book II. Chap. i. 281
No. 17. facing 318

8

[page xxxix]

River Thames, and Mercury Bay in New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Tolaga Bay, 323
No. 18. facing 341
Chart of Cook's Streight in New Zealand, facing 385
VOLUME III.
No. 13. facing 453
No. 15. facing 463
No. 16.
No. 14. facing 466
A chart of New South Wales on the cast coast of New Holland, 481
Entrance of Endeavour River in New South Wales, and Botany Bay, facing
No. 19. facing 557
No. 20. facing 561
Chart of part of the coast of New South Wales from Cape Tribulation to Endeavour Streight, 589
The Second Volume ends at page 410
and Vol. 3d. begins at page 411

Errata in the Description of the Cuts.

For Plate XXI. read Plate XXIII.
For XXII. read XXI.
For XXIII. read XXII.

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[page 1]

AN

ACCOUNT

OF A

VOYAGE round the WORLD,

IN THE YEARS

MDCCLXIV, MDCCLXV, and MDCCLXVI.

By the Honourable COMMODORE BYRON,

In his Majesty's Ship the DOLPHIN.

VOL. I. B

[page break]

[page 3]

CHAP. I.

The Passage from the Downs to Rio de Janeiro.

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian of London, west to 180 degrees, and east afterwards.]

1764. June.

Thursday 21.

July.

Tuesday 3.

Wednesday. 4.

Friday 6.

Thursday 12.

Friday 13.

Saturday 14,

ON the 21st of June 1764, I failed from the Downs, with his Majesty's ship the Dolphin, and the Tamar frigate, which I had received orders to take under my command: as I was coming down the river, the Dolphin got a-ground; I therefore put into Plymouth, where she was docked, but did not appear to have received any damage. At this place we changed some of our men, and having paid the people two months wages in advance, I hoisted the broad pendant, and failed again on the 3d of July; on the 4th we were off the Lizard, and made the best of our way with a fine breeze, but had the mortification to find the Tamar a very heavy failer. In the night of Friday the 6th, the officer of the first watch saw either a ship on fire, or an extraordinary phenomenon which greatly resembled it, at some distance: it continued to blaze for about half an hour, and then disappeared. In the evening of Thursday, July the 12th, we saw the rocks near the island of Madeira, which our people call the Deserters; from desertes, a name which has been given them from their barren and desolate appearance: the next day we flood in for the road of Funchiale, where, about three o'clock in the afternoon, we came to an anchor. In the morning of Saturday the 14th, I waited upon the Governor, who received me with great politeness, and saluted me with eleven

B 2

[page] 4

1764. July.

Sunday 15.

guns, which I returned from the ship. The next day, he returned my visit at the house of the Consul, upon which I saluted him with eleven guns, which he returned from the fort. I found here his Majesty's ship the Crown, and the Ferret sloop, who also saluted the broad pendant.

Thursday 19.

Saturday 21.

Thursday 26.

Having completed our water, and procured all the refreshment I was able for the companies of both the ships, every man having twenty pounds weight of onions for his sea flock, we weighed anchor on Thursday the 19th, and proceeded on our voyage. On Saturday the 21st, we made the island of Palma, one of the Canaries, and soon after examining our water, we found it would be necessary to touch at one of the Cape de Verd islands for a fresh supply. During the whole of our course from the Lizard, we observed that no fish followed the ship, which I judged to be owing to her being sheathed with copper. By the 26th, our water was become foul, and stunk intolerably, but we purified it with a machine, which had been put on board for that purpose: it was a kind of ventilator, by which air was forced through the water in a continued stream, as long as it was necessary.

Friday 27.

Saturday 28.

Sunday 29.

Monday 30.

In the morning of the 27th, we made the island of Sal, one of the Cape de Verds, and seeing several turtle upon the water, we hoisted out our jolly boat, and attempted to strike them, but they all went down before our people could come within reach of them. On the morning of the 28th, we were very near the island of Bona Vista, the next day off the Isle of May, and on Monday the 30th, we came to an anchor in Port Praya bay. The rainy season was already set in, which renders this place very unsafe; a large swell that rolls in from the southward, makes a frightful surf upon the shore, and there is reason every hour to expect a tornado,

[page] 5

1764. July.

Monday 30.

of which, as it is very violent, and blows directly in, the consequences are likely to be fatal; so that after the 15th of August no ship comes hither till the rainy season is over, which happens in November; for this reason I made all possible haste to fill my water and get away. I procured three bullocks for the people, but they were little better than carrion, and the weather was so hot, that the flesh stunk in a few hours after they were killed.

August.

Thursday 2.

On Thursday the 2d of August, we got again under fail, with a large cargo of fowls, lean goats, and monkies, which the people contrived to procure for old shirts, jackets, and other articles of the like kind. The intolerable heat, and almost incessant rain, very soon affected our health, and the men began to fall down in fevers, notwithstanding all my attention and diligence to make them shift themselves before they slept, when they were wet.

Wednes. 3.

On Wednesday the 8th, the Tamar fired a gun, upon which we shortened fail till she came up: we found that she had suffered no damage but the carrying away of her top-fail-yard; however, as we were obliged to make an easy fail till she had got up another, and the wind seemed to be coming again to the southward, we lost a good deal of way. We continued, to our great mortisication, to observe that no fish would come near enough to our copper bottom for us to strike, though we saw the sea as it were quickened with them at a little distance. Ships in these hot latitudes generally take fish in plenty, but, except sharks, we were not able to catch one.

September.

Tuesday 11.

Thursday 13.

No event worthy of notice happened till Tuesday the 11th of September, when, about three o'clock in the afternoon, we saw Cape Frio, on the coast of Brazil; and about noon, on Thursday the 13th, we anchored in eighteen fathom, in

5

[page] 6

1764. September.

Thursday 13.

the great Road of Rio de Janeiro. The city, which is large, and makes a handsome appearance, is governed by the Viceroy of Brazil, who is perhaps, in fact, as absolute a sovereign as any upon earth. When I visited him, he received me in great form; above sixty officers were drawn up before the palace, as well as a captain's guard, who were men of a good appearance, and extremely well clothed: his Excellency, with a number of persons of the first distinction, belonging to the place, met me at the head of the stairs, upon which fifteen guns were fired from the nearest port: we then entered the room of state, and after conversing about a quarter of an hour, in French, I took my leave, and was dismissed with the same form that had been used at my reception. He offered to return my visit at a house which I had hired on shore, but this I declined, and soon after he returned it on board.

The people in my own ship, who had as much fresh meat and greens as they could eat every day, were very healthy, but there being many sick on board the Tamar, I procured a place for them on shore, where they soon recovered. I also engaged a number of Portuguese caulkers, as the seams of both the ships were very open, who, after having worked some time, rendered them perfectly tight.

While we lay here, Lord Clive, in the Kent Indiaman, came to the port. This ship had sailed from England a month before us, and had not touched any where, yet she came in a month after us; so that her passage was just two months longer than ours, notwithstanding the time we lost in waiting for the Tamar, which, though the Dolphin was by no means a good sailer, failed so much worse, that we seldom spread more than half our canvas. The Kent had many of her people down in the scurvy.

2

[page] 7

1764. October.

Tuesday 16.

On Tuesday the 16th of October, we weighed anchor, being impatient to get to sea, for the heat here was intolerable; but we lay four or five days above the bar, waiting for the land breeze to carry us out, for there is no getting out with the sea breeze, and the entrance between the two first forts is so narrow, and so great a sea breaks in upon them, that it was not without much danger and difficulty we got out at last, and if we had followed the advice of the Portuguese pilot, we had certainly lost the ship. As this narrative is published for the advantage of future navigators, particularly those of our own nation, it is also necessary I should observe, that the Portuguese here, carrying on a great trade, make it their business to attend every time a boat comes on shore, and practise every artifice in their power to entice away the crew: if other methods do not succeed, they make them drunk, and immediately send them up the country, taking effectual care to prevent their return, till the ship to which they belong has left the place; by this practice I lost five of my men, and the Tamar nine: mine I never recovered, but the Tamar had the good fortune to learn where her's were detained, and by sending out a party in the night, surprised them, and brought them back.

[page] 8

CHAP. II.

Passage from Rio de Janeiro to Port Desire; with some Description of that Place.

1764. October.

Monday 22.

ON Monday the 22d, being now once more at sea, I called all hands upon deck, and informed them, that I was not, as they imagined, bound immediately to the East Indies, but upon certain discoveries, which it was thought might be of great importance to our country, in consideration of which, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty had been pleased to promise them double pay, and several other advantages, if during the voyage they should behave to my satisfaction. They all expressed the greatest joy imaginable upon the occasion, and assured me, that there was no danger or difficulty that they would not with the utmost cheerfulness undergo in the service of their country, nor any order that I could give them which they would not implicitly and zealously obey.

Monday 29.

Tuesday 30.

We continued our course till Monday the 29th, having frequently hard gales with sudden gusts, which obliged us to strike our top-gallant-masts, and get up our stumps; but this day it blew a storm, with a terrible sea, and the ship laboured so much, that, to ease her, I ordered the two foremost, and two aftermost guns to be thrown overboard: the gale continued with nearly equal violence all the rest of the day, and all night, so that we were obliged to lie to under a double-reefed main sail; but in the morning, it being more moderate, and veering from N. W. to S. by W. we made sail again, and stood to the westward. We were now in lati-

[page] 9

1764. October.

Tuesday 30.

tude 35° 50′S. and found the weather as cold as it is at the same season in England, although the month of November here is a spring month, answering to our May, and we were near twenty degrees nearer the line: to us, who within little more than a week had suffered intolerable heat, this change was most severely felt: and the men, who supposing they were to continue in a hot climate during the whole voyage, had contrived to sell not only all their warm clothes, but their bedding, at the different ports where we had touched, now applied in great distress for slops, and were all furnished for the climate.

November.

Friday 2.

Sunday 4.

Saturday 10.

On Friday the 2d of November, after administering the proper oath to the Lieutenants of both ships, I delivered them their commissions; for till this time they acted only under verbal orders from me, and expected to receive their commissions in India, whither they imagined we were bound. We now began to see a great number of birds about the ship, many of them very large, of which some were brown and white, and some black: there were among them large slocks of pintadoes, which are somewhat larger than a pigeon, and spotted with black and white. On the 4th, we saw a great quantity of rock weed, and several seals: our latitude was 38° 53′S., longitude 51° W.; the variation 13°E.: the prevailing winds here were westerly, so that being continually driven to the eastward, we foresaw that it would not be easy to get in with the coast of Patagonia. On the 10th, we observed the water to change colour, but we had no ground with one hundred and forty fathom: our latitude was now 41° 16′S.; our longitude 55° 17′W.; the variation was 18° 20′E. The next day we stood in for the land till eight in the evening, when we had ground of red sand with forty-five fathom. We steered S. W. by W. all night,

VOL. I. C

[page] 10

1764. November.

Sunday 11.

and the next morning had fifty-two fathom with the same ground: our latitude was 42° 34′S., longitude 58° 17′W.; the variation 11° ¾ E.

Monday 12.

On Monday the 12th, about four o'clock in the afternoon, as I was walking on the quarter-deck, all the people upon the forecastle called out at once "Land right ahead;" it was then very black almost round the horizon, and we had had much thunder and lightning; I looked forward under the foresail, and upon the lee bow, and saw what at first appeared to be an island, rising in two rude craggy hills, but upon looking to leeward I saw land joining to it, and running a long way to the south east: we were then steering S. W. and I sent officers to the mast-head to look out upon the weather beam, and they called out that they saw land also a great way to the windward. I immediately brought to, and sounded; we had still fifty-two fathom, but I thought that we were embayed, and rather wished than hoped that we should get clear before night. We made sail and steered E. S. E. the land still having the same appearance, and the hills looking blue, as they generally do at a little distance in dark rainy weather, and now many of the people said that they saw the sea break upon the sandy beaches; but having steered out for about an hour, what we had taken for land, vanished all at once, and to our great astonishment appeared to have been a fog-bank. Though I had been almost continually at sea for seven and twenty years, I had never seen such a deception before; others however have been equally deceived; for the master of a ship, not long since, made oath, that he had seen an island between the west end of Ireland and Newfoundland, and even distinguished the trees that grew upon it. Yet it is certain that no such island exists, at least it could never be found, though several ships were afterwards sent

[page] 11

1764. November.

Monday 12.

out on purpose to seek it. And I am sure, that if the weather had not cleared up soon enough for us to see what we had taken for land disappear, every man on board would freely have made oath, that land had been discovered in this situation. Our latitude this day was 43° 46′S., longitude 60° 5′W.; and the variation 19° 30′E.

Tuesday 13.

The next day, at four o'clock in the afternoon, the weather being extremely fine, the wind shifted at once to the S. W. and began to blow fresh, the sky at the same time becoming black to windward: in a few minutes all the people that were upon the deck were alarmed with a sudden and unusual noise, like the breaking of the sea upon the shore. I ordered the topsails to be handed immediately; but before it could be done, I saw the sea approaching at some distance, in vast billows covered with foam; I called to the people to hawl up the foresail, and let go the main sheet instantly; for I was persuaded that if we had any sail out when the gust reached us, we should either be overset, or lose all our masts. It reached us however before we could raise the main tack, and laid us upon our beam ends: the main tack was then cut, for it was become impossible to cast it off; and the main sheet struck down the First Lieutenant, bruised him dreadfully, and beat out three of his teeth: the main topsail, which was not quite handed, was split to pieces. If this squall, which came on with less warning and more violence than any I had ever seen, had taken us in the night, I think the ship must have been lost. When it came on we observed several hundred of birds flying before it, which expressed their terror by loud shrieks; it lasted about twenty minutes, and then gradually subsided. The Tamar split her main sail, but as she was to leeward of us, she had more time to prepare. In a short time it began to blow very hard

C 2

[page] 12

1764. November.

Wednes. 14.

again, so that we reefed our main sail, and lay to under it all night. As morning approached, the gale became more moderate, but we had still a great sea, and the wind shifting to S. by W. we stood to the westward under our courses. Soon after it was light, the sea appeared as red as blood, being covered with a small shell-fish of that colour, somewhat resembling our crayfish, but less, of which we took up great quantities in baskets.

Thursday 15.

At half an hour past four in the morning of Thursday the 15th of November, we saw land, which had the appearance of an island about eight or nine leagues long, there being no land in sight either to the northward or southward, though by the charts it should be Cape Saint Helena, which projects from the coast to a considerable distance, and forms two bays, one to the north, and the other to the south. As the weather was very fine, I tacked and stood in for it about ten o'clock; but as there were many sunken rocks at about two leagues distance from it, upon which the sea broke very high, and the wind seemed to be gradually dying away, I tacked again and stood off. The land appeared to be barren and rocky, without either tree or bush: when I was nearest to it I founded and had forty-five fathom, with black muddy ground. To my great misfortune, my three Lieutenants and the Master were at this time so ill as to be incapable of duty, though the rest of the ship's company were in good health. Our latitude was 45° 21′S., longitude 63° 2′W.; the variation 19° 41′E.

Friday 16.

Saturday 17.

The next day I shaped my course by the chart in the account of Lord Anson's voyage, for Cape Blanco. In the evening it blew extremely hard at S. W. by S. so that we brought to for the night under our main sail. In the morning we made sail again, but we had a great sea; and although it

I

[page] 13

1764. November.

Saturday 17.

Sunday 18.

Monday 19.

was now almost midsummer in these parts, the weather was, in every respect, much worse than it is in the Bay of Biscay at the depth of winter. About six in the evening, having carried all the sail I could, we made land, bearing about S. S. W. which as we had a good observation of the sun, we knew to be Cape Blanco; but it now began to blow with more violence than ever, and the storm continued all night, with a sea that was continually breaking over us, so that the ship laboured very much. At four in the morning, we founded and had forty fathom, with rocky ground; having stood off in the night, we now wore and stood in again, the storm still continuing with hail and snow: and about six o'clock we saw the land again, bearing S. W. by W. The ship was now so light, that in a gale of wind she drove bodily to leeward; so that I was very solicitous to get into Port Desire, that I might put her hold in order, and take in sufficient ballast, to avoid the danger of being caught upon a lce shore in her present trim. We steered in for the land with the wind at N.E. and in the evening brought to; but the wind coming to the westward, we were driven off in the night. At seven the next morning, we stood in again, steering S. W. by S. by the compass, and soon perceived the sea to break right ahead of us; we immediately sounded, and shoaled our water from thirteen to seven fathom, soon after deepening it again from seventeen to forty-two; so that we went over the end of a shoal, which a little farther to the northward might have been fatal to us. Cape Blanco at this time bore W. S. W. ½ S. distant four leagues: but we were still at a loss for Port Desire, it being impossible that any description should be more confused than that which Sir John Narborough has given of this harbour. I stood into a bay to the southward of the Cape, as he directs, but could find no such place; I therefore stood along the shore to the south-

[page] 14

1764. November.

Monday 19.

ward, the wind blowing off the land very hard, and saw several large columns of smoke rising in many places, but no tree or bush, the country resembling in appearance the barren downs of England. We observed also that the water was frequently very shallow at the distance of seven or eight miles from the shore, for we had many times not more than ten fathom.

Tuesday 20.

Wednes. 21.

We continued to stand along the shore all day as near as possible, and in the evening we saw an island at the distance of about six leagues; in the morning we stood in for it, and found that it corresponded with Narborough's description of Penguin island. As Port Desire is said to lie about three leagues north west of this island, I sent the boat to look for it, and when she returned, having found it, I stood in for the land. There were thousands of seals and penguins about the ship, and near Penguin Island several smaller islands, or rather rocks. In the evening, we saw a remarkable rock, rising from the water like a steeple, on the south side of the entrance of Port Desire; this rock is an excellent mark to know the harbour, which it would otherwise be difficult to find. At night, there being little wind, we anchored at the distance of four or five miles from the shore; and in the morning, with a breeze from the land, we turned up the harbour's mouth; we found it very narrow, with many rocks and shoals about it, and the most rapid tide I had ever known. I came to an anchor off the harbour in nine fathom, the entrance of the river being open, and bearing W.S.W.; Penguin Island S. E. ½ E. distant about three leagues; the Steeple rock S. W. by W.; the northermost land N. N. W.; and two rocks, which are covered at half tide, and lie at the southermost extremity of a reef which runs from the same land, N. E. by N. I mention all these bearings particularly, because I think it may be of importance to future navigators,

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1764. November.

Wednes. 21.

especially as the descriptions that have been given of this place, by the few who have already visited it, are extremely defective. The wind blew very hard the greater part of this day, and there ran an ugly sea where we were stationed, yet I ordered out two boats to sound the harbour, and attended in my own boat myself. We found it very narrow for near two miles, with a tide running at the rate of eight miles an hour: we found also many rocks and shoals, but all the danger shows itself above water. When we came to the shore, I landed, and walked a little way into the country, which as far as I could see was all downs, without a single tree or shrub. We saw the dung of many beasts, and had a glimpse of four, which ran away as soon as we came in sight, so that we could not certainly determine what they were; but we believed them to be Guanicoes, many of which we afterwards saw come down to the water side: they resemble our deer, but are much larger, the height of some being not less than thirteen hands; they are very shy, and very swift. After I returned to my boat, I went farther up the harbour, and landed upon an island that was covered with seals, of which we killed above fifty, and among them many that were larger than a bullock, having before half loaded our boat with different kinds of birds, of which, and seals, there are enough to supply the navy of England. Among the birds one was very remarkable: the head resembled that of an eagle, except that it had a large comb upon it; round the neck there was a white ruff, exactly resembling a lady's tippet; the feathers on the back were as black as jet, and as bright as the finest polish could render that mineral: the legs were remarkably strong and large, the talons were like those of an eagle, except that they were not so sharp, and the wings, when they were extended, measured, from point to point, no less than twelve feet.

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1764. November.

Wednes. 21.

The Tamar worked into the harbour with the tide of stood, but I kept my station with the Dolphin till I should have a leading wind, and the wind shifting to the eastward, I weighed about five o'clock in the afternoon, intending to go up with the evening stood: before I could get under sail, however, the wind shifted again to N. W. by N.; and it being low water, the ship lying but just within the harbour, and there being no tide to assist us, we were obliged to anchor near the south shore. The wind came off the land in very hard flaws, and in a short time, our anchor coming home, the ship tailed on shore against a steep gravelly beach. The anchoring ground indeed as far as we had yet sounded was bad, being very hard; so that, in this situation, if the wind blows fresh, there is always the greatest reason to fear that the anchor should come home before the ship can be brought up. While we were on shore, it began to blow very hard, and the tide running like a sluice, it was with the utmost difficulty that we could carry an anchor out to heave us off; however, after about four hours hard labour, this was effected, and the ship floated in the stream. As there was only about six or seven feet of the after part of her that touched the ground, there was reason to hope that she had suffered no damage; however, I determined to unhang the rudder, that it might be examined.

Thursday 22.

During all this night and the next morning the wind blew with great violence; we had let go our best bower anchor when we were near the shore, in hopes it would have brought us up, and had not yet been able to weigh it. We now rode in a very disagreeable situation with our small bower, and that unfortunately came home again: we therefore got a hawser out of the Tamar, who lay in the stream, and after weighing the small bower, we got out by her assist-

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1764. November.

Thursday 22.

ance, and then dropped it again, most ardently wishing for fair weather, that we might get the ship properly moored.

Friday 23.

The next day we sounded the harbour higher up, and found the ground softer, and the water not so deep; yet the wind continued to blow so hard that we could not venture to change our station. We had found a small spring of water about half a mile inland, upon the north side of the bay, but it had a brackish taste; I had also made another excursion of several miles into the country, which I found barren and desolate, in every direction, as far as the eye could reach. We had seen many guanicoes at a distance, but we could not get near enough to have a shot at them; we tracked beasts of several kinds in the soil, near a pond of salt water, and among them a very large tyger: we found also a nest of ostriches eggs, which we eat, and thought very good. It is probable that all the animals which had left marks of their feet near the salt pond, drank the water, and indeed we saw no fresh water for them. The spring that we had found, which was not perfectly fresh, was the only one of the kind that we had been able to discover; and for that we had been obliged to dig, there being no appearance of it except a slight moisture of the ground.

Saturday 24.

On the 24th, upon slack water, we carried both the ships higher up and moored them: the extreme points of the harbour's mouth at low water bore from E. by S. ¼ S. to E.; and the Steeple rock S. E. ¼ E. We had here, at low water, but six fathom; but at spring tides the water rises no less than four fathom and an half, which is seven and twenty feet. The tide indeed in this place is such as perhaps it is not in any other. It happened by some accident that one of our men fell overboard; the boats were all alongside, and the man was an exceeding good swimmer, yet before any assist-

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1764. November.

Saturday 24.

ance could be sent after him, the rapidity of the stream had hurried him almost out of sight; we had however at last the good fortune to save him. This day I was again on shore, and walked six or seven miles up the country: I saw several hares as large as a fawn; I shot one of them which weighed more than six and twenty pounds, and if I had had a good greyhound, I dare say the ship's company might have lived upon hare two days in the week. In the mean time the people on board were busy in getting up all the cables upon deck, and clearing the hold, that a proper quantity of ballast might be taken in, and the guns lowered into it, except a few which it might be thought necessary to keep above.

Sunday 25.

On the 25th, I went a good way up the harbour in the boat, and having landed on the north side, we soon after found an old oar of a very singular make, and the barrel of a musquet, with the King's broad arrow upon it. The musquet barrel had suffered so much from the weather, that it might be crumbled into dust between the fingers: I imagined it had been left there by the Wager's people, or perhaps by Sir John Narborough. Hitherto we had found no kind of vegetables except a species of wild peas; but though we had seen no inhabitants, we saw places where they had made their fires, which however did not appear to be recent. While we were on shore we shot some wild ducks, and a hare; the hare ran two miles after he was wounded, though it appeared when he was taken up that a ball had passed quite through his body. I went this day many miles up the country, and had a long chace after one of the guanicoes, which was the largest we had seen: he frequently stopped to look at us, when he had left us at a good distance behind, and made a noise that resembled the neighing of a horse; but when we came pretty near him he set out again, and at

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1764. November.

Sunday 25.

Monday 20.

last, my dog being so tired that he could not run him any longer, he got quite away from us, and we saw him no more. We shot a hare however, and a little ugly animal which stunk so intolerably that none of us could go near him. The flesh of the hares here is as white as snow, and nothing can be better tasted. A Serjeant of marines, and some others who were on shore at another part of the bay, had better success than fell to our share, for they killed two old guanicoes and a fawn; they were however obliged to leave them where they fell, not being able to bring them down to the water side, near six miles, without farther assistance, though they were but half the weight of those that are mentioned by Sir John Narborough; some however I saw which could not weigh less than seven or eight and thirty stone, which is about three hundred pounds. When we returned in the evening it blew very hard, and the deck being so full of lumber that we could not hoist the boats in, we moored them aftern. About midnight, the storm continuing, our six oared cutter filled with water and broke adrift; the boat-keeper, by whose neglect this accident happened, being on board her, very narrowly escaped drowning by catching hold of the stern ladder. As it was tide of flood when she went from the ship, we knew that she must drive up the harbour; yet as the loss of her would be an irremediable misfortune, I suffered much anxiety till I could send after her in the morning, and it was then some hours before she was brought back, having driven many miles with the stream. In the mean time, I sent another party to fetch the guanicoes which our people had shot the night before; but they found nothing left except the bones, the tygers having eaten the flesh, and even cracked the bones of the limbs to come at the marrow. Several of our people had been fifteen miles up the country in search of fresh water,

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1764. November.

Monday 26.

but could not find the least rill: we had sunk several wells to a considerable depth where the ground appeared moist, but upon visiting them, I had the mortification to find that, all together, they would not yield more than thirty gallons in twenty-four hours: this was a discouraging circumstance, especially as our people, among other expedients, had watched the guanicoes, and seen them drink at the salt ponds, therefore determined to leave the place as soon as the ship could be got into a little order, and the six oared cutter repaired, which had been hauled up upon the beach for that purpose.

Tuesday 27.

Wednes. 28.

On the 27th, some of our people, who had been ashore on the north side of the bay to try for more guanicoes, found the scull and bones of a man, which they brought off with them, and one young guanicoe alive, which we all agreed was one of the most beautiful creatures we had ever seen: it soon grew very tame, and would suck our fingers like a calf; but, notwithstanding all our care and contrivances to feed it, it died in a few days. In the afternoon of this day it blew so hard that I was obliged to keep a considerable number of hands continually by the sheet anchor, as there was too much reason to fear that our cables would part, which however did not happen. In the mean time, some of our people that were on shore with the carpenters, who were repairing the cutter on the south side of the bay, found two more springs of tolerable water about two miles from the beach, in a direct line from the ship's station. To these springs I sent twenty hands early in the morning with some small casks called Barecas, and in a few turns they brought on board a tun of water, of which we began to be in great want. In the mean time, I went myself about twelve miles up the river in my boat, and the weather then growing bad,

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1764. November.

Wednes. 28.

I went on shore: the river, as far as I could see, was very broad; there were in it a number of islands, some of which were very large, and I make no doubt but that it penetrates the country for some hundreds of miles. It was upon one of the islands that I went on shore, and I found there such a number of birds, that when they rose they literally darkened the sky, and we could not walk a step without treading upon their eggs. As they kept hovering over our heads at a little distance, the men knocked down many of them with stones and sticks, and carried off several hundreds of their eggs. After some time, I left the island and landed upon the main, where our men dressed and eat their eggs, though there were young birds in most of them. I saw no traces of inhabitants on either side of the river, but great numbers of guanicoes, in herds of sixty or seventy together: they would not however suffer us to approach them, but stood and gazed at us from the hills. In this excursion the Surgeon, who was of my party, shot a tyger-cat, a small but very fierce animal; for though it was much wounded, it maintained a very sharp contest with my dog for a considerable time before it was killed.

Thursday 29.

Friday 30.

On the 29th, we completed our ballast, which the strength of the tide, and the constant gales of wind rendered a very difficult and laborious task: we also got on board another ton of water. On the morning of the 30th, the weather was so bad that we could not send a boat on shore; but employed all hands on board in setting up the rigging. It grew more moderate however about noon, and I then sent a boat to procure more water. The two men who first came up to the well found there a large tyger lying upon the ground; having gazed at each other some time, the men, who had no fire-arms, seeing the beast treat them with as

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1764. November.

Thursday 30.

much contemptuous neglect as the lion did the knight of La Mancha, began to throw stones at him: of this insult however he did not deign to take the least notice, but continued stretched upon the ground in great tranquillity till the rest of the party came up, and then he very leisurely rose and walked away.

December.

Saturday 1.

On the 1st of December, our cutter being thoroughly repaired, we took her on board, but the weather was so bad that we could not get off any water: the next day we struck the tents which had been set up at the watering-place, and got all ready for sea. The two wells from which we got our water bear about S.S.E. of the Steeple rock, from which they are distant about two miles and an half; but I fixed a mark near them, that they might be still more easily found than by their bearings. During our stay in this harbour, we sounded every part of it with great care, as high as a ship could go, and found that there is no danger but what may be seen at low water; so that now fresh water is found, though at some distance from the beach, it would be a very convenient place for ships to touch at, if it were not for the rapidity of the tide. The country about the bay abounds with guanicoes, and a great variety of wild fowl, particularly ducks, geese, widgeon, and sea-pies, besides many others for which we have no name. Here is also such plenty of excellent muscles, that a boat may be loaded with them every time it is low water. Wood indeed is scarce, however in some parts of this coast there are bushes, which in a case of necessity might produce a tolerable supply of fuel.

Wednes. 5.

On Wednesday the 5th of December, I unmoored, in order to get out, but the best bower came up foul, and before we could heave short upon the small bower, the tide of ebb made strong; for at this place slack water scarcely continues

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1764. December.

Wednes. 5.

ten minutes; so that we were obliged to wait till it should be low water. Between five and six in the evening, we weighed, and steered out E. N. E. with a fresh gale at N. N. W.

CHAP. III.

Course from Port Desire, in Search of Pepys' Island, and afterwards to the Coast of Patagonia, with a Description of the Inhabitants.

AS soon as we were out of the bay, we steered for Pepys' Island, which is said to lie in latitude 47° S. Our latitude was now 47° 22′S., longitude 65° 49′W.; Port Desire bore S. 66 W. distant twenty-three leagues; and Pepys' Island, according to Halley's Chart, E. ¾ N. distant thirty-four leagues. The variation here was 19° E.

Thursday 6.

Friday 7.

We continued our course the next day with a pleasant gale and fine weather, so that we began to think that this part of the world was not wholly without a summer. On the 7th, I found myself much farther to the northward than I expected, and therefore supposed the ship's way had been influenced by a current. I had now made eighty degrees easting, which is the distance from the main at which Pepys' Island is placed in Halley's chart, but unhappily we have no certain account of the place. The only person who pretends to have seen it, is Cowley, the account of whose voyage is now before me; and all he says of its situation is, that it lies in latitude 47 S.; for he says nothing of its longitude: he says, indeed, that it has a fine harbour; but he adds, that

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1764. December.

Friday 7.

Saturday 8.

Sunday 9.

Monday 10.

Tuesday 11.

the wind blew so hard he could not get into it, and that he therefore stood away to the southward. At this time I also was steering southward; for the weather being extremely fine, I could see very far to the northward of the situation in which it is laid down. As I supposed it must lie to the eastward of us, if indeed it had any existence, I made the Tamar's signal to spread early in the afternoon; and as the weather continued to be very clear, we could see, between us, at least twenty leagues. We steered S. E. by the compass, and at night brought to, being by my account in latitude 47° 18′S. The next morning it blew very hard at N. W. by N. and I still thought the island might lie to the eastward; I therefore intended to stand about thirty leagues that way, and if I found no island, to return into the latitude of 47 again. But a hard gale coming on, with a great sea, I brought to about six o'clock in the evening under the main-sail; and at six o'clock the next morning, the wind being at W. S. W. we made sail again under our courses to the northward. I now judged myself to be about sixteen leagues to the eastward of the track I had run before: Port Desire bore S. 80° 53′W. distant ninety-four leagues; and in this situation I saw a great quantity of rock-weed, and many birds. We continued to stand to the northward the next day under our courses, with a hard gale from S. W. to N. W. and a great sea. At night, being in latitude 46° 50 S., I wore ship, and stood in to the westward again, our ships having spread every day as far as they could be seen by each other: and on the 11th at noon, being now certain that there could be no such island as is mentioned by Cowley, and laid down by Halley under the name of Pepys' Island, I resolved to stand in for the main, and take in wood and water, of which both ships were in great want, at the first convenient place I could

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1764. December.

Tuesday 11.

Saturday 15.

find, especially as the season was advancing very fast, and we had no time to lose. From this time we continued to haul in for the land as the winds would permit, and kept a look-out for the islands of Sebald de Wert, which, by all the charts we had on board, could not be far from our track: a great number of birds were every day about the ship, and large whales were continually swimming by her. The weather in general was fine, but very cold, and we all agreed, notwithstanding the hope we had once formed, that the only difference between the middle of summer here, and the middle of winter in England, lies in the length of the days. On Saturday the 15th, being in latitude 50° 33′S. longitude 66° 59′W. we were overtaken about six in the evening by the hardest gale at S. W. that I was ever in, with a sea still higher than any I had seen in going round Cape Horn with Lord Anson: I expected every moment that it would fill us, our ship being much too deep waisted for such a voyage: it would have been safest to put before it under our bare poles, but our stock of fresh water was not sufficient, and I was afraid of being driven so far off the land as not to be able to recover it before the whole was exhausted; we therefore lay to under a balanced mizen, and shipped many heavy seas, though we found our skreen bulk-heads of infinite service.

Sunday 16.

Tuesday 18.

The storm continued with unabated violence the whole night, but about eight in the morning, began to subside. At ten, we made sail under our courses, and continued to steer for the land till Tuesday the 18th, when, at four in the morning, we saw it from the mast-head. Our latitude was now 51° 8'S. our longitude 71° 4'W. and Cape Virgin Mary, the north entrance of the streight of Magellan, bore S. 19° 50' W. distant nineteen leagues. As we had little or no wind, we could not get in with the land this day; the

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1764. December.

Wednes. 19.

next morning, however, it being northerly, I stood in to a deep bay, at the bottom of which there appeared to be a harbour, but I found it barred, the sea breaking quite from one side of it to the other; and at low water I could perceive that it was rocky, and almost all dry: the water was shoal at a good distance from it, and I was in six fathom before I stood out again. In this place there seemed to be plenty of fish, and we saw many porpoises swimming after them, that were as white as snow, with black spots; a very uncommon and beautiful sight. The land here has the same appearance as about Port Desire, all downs, without a single tree.

Thursday 20.

At break of day, on the 20th, we were off Cape Fair-weather, which bore about west at the distance of four leagues, and we had here but thirteen fathom water, so that it appears necessary to give that Cape a good birth. From this place I ran close in shore to Cape Virgin Mary, but I found the coast to lie S. S. E. very different from Sir John Narborough's description, and a long spit of sand running to the southward of the Cape for above a league: in the evening I worked up close to this spit of sand, having seen many guanicoes feeding in the vallies as we went along, and a great smoke all the afternoon, about four or five leagues up the streight, upon the north shore. At this place I came to an anchor in fifteen fathom water, but the Tamar was so far to leeward, that she could not fetch the anchoring ground, and therefore kept under way all night.

Friday 21.

The next morning, at day-break, I got again under fail, and feeing the same smoke that I had observed the day before, I stood in for it, and anchored about two miles from the shore. This is the place where the crew of the Wager, as they were passing the Streight in their boat, after the lols of the vessel, saw a number of horsemen, who waved what ap-

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

peared to be white handkerchiefs, inviting them to come on shore, which they were very desirous to have done, but it blew so hard that they were obliged to stand out to sea. Bulkeley, the Gunner of the Wager, who has published some account of her voyage, says, that they were in doubt whether these people were Europeans who had been shipwrecked upon the coast, or native inhabitants of the country about the river Gallagoes. Just as we came to an anchor, I saw with my glass exactly what was seen by the people in the Wager, a number of horsemen riding backward and forward, directly a breast of the ship, and waving somewhat white, as an invitation to us to come on shore. As I was very desirous to know what these people were, I ordered out my twelve oar'd boat, and went towards the beach, with Mr. Marshall, my Second Lieutenant, and a party of men, very well armed; Mr. Cumming, my First Lieutenant, following in the six oar'd cutter. When we came within a little distance of the shore, we saw, as near as I can guess, about five hundred people, some on foot, but the greater part on horseback: they drew up upon a stoney spit, which ran a good way into the sea, and upon which it was very bad landing, for the water was shallow, and the stones very large. The people on shore kept waving and hallooing, which, as we understood, were invitations to land; I could not perceive that they had any weapons among them, however I made signs that they should retire to a little distance, with which they immediately complied: they continued to shout with great vociferation, and in a short time we landed, though not without great difficulty, most of the boat's crew being up to the middle in water. I drew up my people upon the beach, with my officers at their head, and gave orders that none of them should move from that station, till I should either call or beckon to them. I then went forward

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

alone, towards the Indians, but perceiving that they retired as I advanced, I made signs that one of them should come near: as it happened, my signals were understood, and one of them, who afterwards appeared to be a Chief, came towards me: he was of a gigantic stature, and seemed to realize the tales of monsters in a human shape: he had the skin of some wild beast thrown over his shoulders, as a Scotch Highlander wears his plaid, and was painted so as to make the most hideous appearance I ever beheld: round one eye was a large circle of white, a circle of black surrounded the other, and the rest of his face was streaked with paint of different colours; I did not measure him, but is I may judge of his height by the proportion of his stature to my own, it could not be much less than seven feet. When this frightful Colossus came up, we muttered somewhat to each other as a salutation, and I then walked with him towards his companions, to whom, as I advanced, I made signs that they should sit down, and they all readily complied: there were among them many women, who seemed to be proportionably large; and few of the men were less than the Chief who had come forward to meet me. I had heard their voices very loud at a distance, and when I came near, I perceived a good number of very old men, who were chanting some unintelligible words in the most doleful cadence I ever heard, with an air of serious solemnity, which inclined me to think that it was a religious ceremony: they were all painted and clothed nearly in the same manner; the circles round the two eyes were in no instance of one colour, but they were not universally black and white, some being white and red, and some red and black; their teeth were as white as ivory, remarkably even and well set; but except the skins, which they wore with the hair inwards, most of them were naked, a sew only having upon their legs a kind of

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

boot, with a short pointed stick fastened to each heel, which served as a spur. Having looked round upon these enormous goblins with no small astonishment, and with some difficulty made those that were still galloping up sit down with the rest, I took out a quantity of yellow and white beads, which I distributed among them, and which they received with very strong expressions of pleasure: I then took out a whole piece of green silk riband, and giving the end of it into the hands of one of them, I made the person that sat next take hold of it, and so on as far as it would reach: all this while they sat very quietly, nor did any of those that held the riband attempt to pull it from the rest, though I perceived that they were still more delighted with it, than with the beads. While the riband was thus extended, I took out a pair of scissars, and cut it between each two of the Indians that held it, so that I left about a yard in the possession of every one, which I afterwards tied about their heads, where they suffered it to remain without so much as touching it while I was with them. Their peaceable and orderly behaviour on this occasion certainly did them honour, especially as my presents could not extend to the whole company: neither impatience to share the new finery, nor curiosity to gain a nearer view of me and what I was doing, brought any one of them from the station that I had allotted him. It would be very natural for those who have read Gay's fables, if they form an idea of an Indian almost naked, returning to his fellows in the woods adorned with European trinkets, to think of the monkey that had seen the world; yet before we despise their fondness for glass, beads, ribands, and other things, which among us are held in no estimation, we should consider that, in themselves, the ornaments of savage and civil life are equal, and that those who live nearly in a state of nature, have nothing that resembles glass, so much

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

as glass resembles a diamond; the value which we set upon a diamond, therefore, is more capricious than the value which they set upon glass. The love of ornament seems to be a universal principle in human nature, and the splendid transparency of glass, and the regular figure of a bead, are among the qualities that by the constitution of our nature excite pleasing ideas; and although in one of these qualities the diamond excels glass, its value is much more than in proportion to the difference: the pleasure which it gives among us is, principally, by conferring distinction, and gratifying vanity, which is independant of natural taste, that is gratified by certain hues and figures, to which for that reason we give the name of beauty: it must be remembered also, that an Indian is more distinguished by a glass button or a bead, than any individual among us by a diamond, though perhaps the same sacrifice is not made to his vanity, as the possession of his finery is rather a testimony of his good fortune, than of his influence or power in consequence of his having what, as the common medium of all earthly possessions, is supposed to confer virtual superiority, and intrinfic advantage. The people, however, whom I had now adorned, were not wholly strangers to European commodities, for upon a closer attention, I perceived among them one woman who had bracelets either of brass, or very pale gold, upon her arms, and some beads of blue glass, strung upon two long queues of hair, which being parted at the top, hung down over each shoulder before her: she was of a most enormous size, and her face was, if possible, more frightfully painted than the rest. I had a great desire to learn where she got her beads and bracelets, and enquired by all the signs I could devise, but found it impossible to make myself understood. One of the men shewed me the bowl of a tobacco pipe, which was made of a red earth, but

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

I soon found that they had no tobacco among them; and this person made me understand that he wanted some: upon this I beckoned to my people, who remained upon the beach, drawn up as I had left them, and three or four of them ran forward, imagining that I wanted them. The Indians, who, as I had observed, kept their eyes almost continually upon them, no sooner saw some of them advance, than they all rose up with a great clamour, and were leaving the place, as I supposed to get their arms, which were probably left at a little distance: to prevent mischief, therefore, and put an end to the alarm, which had thus accidentally been spread among them, I ran to meet the people who were, in consequence of my signal, coming from the beach, and as soon as I was within hearing I hallooed to them, and told them that I would have only one come up with all the tobacco that he could collect from the rest. As soon as the Indians saw this, they recovered from their surprize, and every one returned to his station, except a very old man, who came up to me, and sung a long song, which I much regretted my not being able to understand: before the song was well finished, Mr. Cumming came up with the tobacco, and I could not but smile at the astonishment which I saw expressed in his countenance, upon perceiving himself, though six feet two inches high, become at once a pigmy among giants; for these people may indeed more properly be called giants than tall men: of the few among us who are full six feet high, scarcely any are broad and muscular in proportion to their stature, but look rather like men of the common bulk, run up accidentally to an unusual height; and a man who should measure only six feet two inches, and equally exceed a stout well-set man of the common stature in breadth and muscle, would strike us rather as being of a gigantic race, than as an individual accidentally

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1764. December.

Friday 21.

anomalous; our sensations therefore, upon seeing five hundred people, the shortest of whom were at least four inches taller, and bulky in proportion, may be easily imagined. After I had presented the tobacco, four or five of the chief men came up to me, and, as I understood by the signs they made, wanted me to mount one of the horses, and go with them to their habitations, but as it would upon every account have been imprudent to comply, I made signs in return that I must go back to the ship; at this they expressed great concern, and sat down in their stations again. During our pantomimiccal conference, an old man often laid his head down upon the stones, and shutting his eyes for about half a minute, afterwards pointed first to his mouth, and then to the hills, meaning, as I imagined, that if I would stay with them till the morning, they would furnish me with some provisions, but this offer I was obliged to decline. When I left them, not one of them offered to follow us, but as long as I could see them, continued to sit quietly in their places. I observed that they had with them a great number of dogs, with which I suppose they chase the wild animals which serve them for food. The horses were not large, nor in good case, yet they appeared to be nimble, and well broken. The bridle was a leathern thong, with a small piece of wood that served for a bit, and the saddles resembled the pads that are in use among the country people in England. The women rode astride, and both men and women without stirrups; yet they gallopped fearlessly over the spit upon which we landed, the stones of which were large, loose, and slippery.

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CHAP. IV.

Passage up the Streight of Magellan, to Port Famine; with some Account of that Harbour, and the adjacent Coast.

1764. December.

Friday 21.

SOON after I returned on board, I got under way, and worked up the Streight, which is here about nine leagues broad, with the flood, not with a view to pass through it, but in search of some place where I might get a supply of wood and water, not chusing to trust wholly to the sinding of Falkland's Islands, which I determined afterwards to seek. About eight in the evening, the tide of ebb beginning to make, I anchored in five and twenty fathom. Point Possession bore N.N.E. at about three miles distance, and some remarkable hummocks on the north, which Bulkeley, from their appearance, has called the Asses Ears, W. ½ N.

Saturday 22.

At three in the morning, of the 22d, we weighed with the wind at E. and steered S. W. by W. about twelve miles. During this course we went over a bank, of which no notice has hitherto been taken: at one time we had but six fathom and a half, but in two or three cafts we had thirteen. When our water was shalloweft, the Asses Ears bore N. W. by W. ½ W. distant three leagues, and the north point of the first Narrow W. by S. distant between five and six miles. We then steered S. W. by S. near six miles to the entrance of the first Narrow, and afterwards S. S. W. about six miles, which brought us through: the tide here was so strong, that the passage was very rapid. During this course we saw a single

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1764. December.

Saturday 22.

Indian upon the south shore, who kept waving to us as long as we were in sight: we saw also some guanicoes upon the hills, though Wood, in the account of his voyage, says there were none upon that shore. As soon as we had passed the first Narrow, we entered a little sea, for we did not come in sight of the entrance of the second Narrow till we had run two leagues. The distance from the first to the second Narrow is about eight leagues, and the course S. W. by W. The land is very high on the north side of the second Narrow, which continues for about five leagues, and we steered through it S. W. ½ W. with soundings from twenty to five and twenty fathom: we went out of the west end of this Narrow about noon, and steered south about three leagues for Elizabeth's island; but the wind then coming right against us, we anchored in seven fathom. The island bore S. S. E. distant about a mile, and Bartholomew's Island bore E. S. E. In the evening, six Indians upon the Island came down to the water side, and continued waving and hallooing to us for a long time; but as my people wanted rest, I was unwilling to employ them in hoisting out a boat, and the Indians seeing their labour fruitless, at length went away. While we were steering from Point Possession to the first Narrow, the flood set to the southward, but as soon as we entered the Narrow, it set strongly over to the north shore: it flows here at the full and change of the moon about ten o'clock. Between the first and the second Narrow the flood sets to the S. W. and the ebb to the N. E.: after the west end of the second Narrow is past, the course, with a leading wind, is S. by E. three leagues. Between the islands of Elizabeth and Saint Bartholomew, the channel is about half a mile over, and the water is deep: we found the flood set very strongly to the southward, with a great rippling, but round the Islands the tides set many different ways.

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1764. December.

Sunday 23.

In the morning of the 23d, we weighed with the wind at S. by W. and worked between Elizabeth and Bartholomew's island: before the tide was spent, we got over upon the north shore, and anchored in ten fathom. Saint George's Island then bore N.E. by N. distant three leagues; a point of land, which I called PORPOIS POINT, N. by W. distant about five miles; and the southermost land S. by E. distant about two miles. In the evening, we weighed and steered S. by E. about five miles along the north shore, at about one mile's distance, with regular soundings, from seven to thirteen fathom, and every where good ground. At ten o'clock at night, we anchored in thirteen fathom; Sandy Point then bearing S. by E. distant four miles; Porpois Point W.N.W. three leagues; and Saint George's Island N.E. four leagues. All along this shore the slood sets to the southward; at the full and change of the moon, it flows about eleven o'clock, and the water rises about fifteen feet.

Monday 24.

The next morning, I went out in my boat in search of Fresh Water Bay; I landed with my Second Lieutenant upon Sandy Point, and having sent the boat along the shore, we walked abreast of her. Upon the Point we found plenty of wood, and very good water, and for four or five miles the shore was exceedingly pleasant. Over the Point there is a fine level country, with a soil that, to all appearance, is extremely rich; for the ground was covered with flowers of various kinds, that perfumed the air with their fragrance; and among them there were berries, almost innumerable, where the blossoms had been shed: we observed that the grass was very good, and that it was intermixed with a great number of peas in blossom. Among this luxuriance of herbage we saw many hundreds of birds feeding, which from their form, and the uncommon beauty of their plumage, we called

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1764. December.

Monday 24.

painted geese. We walked more than twelve miles, and found great plenty of fine fresh water, but not the bay that we sought; for we saw no part of the shore, in all our walk from Sandy Point, where a boat could land without the utmost hazard, the water being every where shoal, and the sea breaking very high. We fell in with a great number of the huts or wigwams of the Indians, which appeared to have been very lately deserted, for in some of them the fires which they had kindled were scarcely extinguished; they were in little recesses of the woods, and always close to fresh water. In many places we found plenty of wild celery, and a variety of plants, which probably would be of great benefit to seamen after a long voyage. In the evening, we walked back again, and found the ships at anchor in Sandy Point Bay, at the distance of about half a mile from the shore. The keen air of this place made our people so voraciously hungry that they could have eaten three times their allowance; I was therefore very glad to find some of them employed in hauling the seine, and others on shore with their guns: sixty very large mullets were just taken with the seine, as I came up; and the gunners had good sport, for the place abounded with geese, teale, snipes, and other birds, that were excellent food.

Tuesday 25.

On the 25th, Christmas day, we observed by two altitudes, and found the latitude of Sandy Point to be 53° 10′S. At eight in the morning, we weighed, and having failed five leagues from Sandy Point, in the direction of S. by E. ½ E. we anchored again in thirty-two fathom, about a mile from the shore; the south point of Fresh Water Bay then bearing N.N.W. distant about four miles; and the southermost land S. E. by S. As we failed along the shore, at about two miles distance, we had no ground with sixty fathom; but at the distance of one mile, we had from twenty to thirty-two fa-

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1764. December.

Tuesday 25.

thom. At the full and change of the moon, the tide flows off Fresh Water Bay at twelve o'clock; it runs but little, yet flows very much by the shore.

Wednes. 26.

On the 26th, at eight o'clock in the morning, we weighed, with the wind at E. N. E. and steered S. S. E. for Port Famine. At noon, St. Anne's Point, which is the northermost point of that port, bore S. by E. ½ E. distant three leagues. Along this shore, at the distance of two or three miles, we had very deep water; but within a mile had ground with twenty-five or thirty fathom. From St. Anne's Point a reef of rocks runs out S. E. by E. about two miles; and at the distance of two cables length from thie reef the water will suddenly shoal from sixty-five to thirty-five and twenty fathom. The Point itself is very steep, so that there is no sounding till it is approached very near, and great care must be taken in standing into Port Famine, especially if the ship is as far southward as Sedger river; for the water will shoal at once from thirty to twenty, fifteen, and twelve fathom; and at about two cables length farther in, at more than a mile from the shore, there is but nine feet water, when the tide is out. By hauling close round St. Anne's Point, soundings will soon be got; and as the water shoals very fast, it is not safe to go farther in, when there is no more than seven fathom; the streight here is not more than four leagues wide.

Thursday 27.

The next day at noon, having had little wind, and calms, we anchored in Port Famine, close to the shore, and found our situation very safe and convenient: we had shelter from all winds except the S. E. which seldom blows, and if a ship should be driven ashore in the bottom of the bay, she could receive no damage, for it is all fine soft ground. We found drift wood here sufficient to have furnished a thousand fail,

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1764. December.

Thursday 27.

so that we had no need to take the trouble of cutting green. The water of Sedger river is excellent, but the boats cannot get in till about two hours flood, because at low water it is very shallow for about three quarters of a mile. I went up it about four miles in my boat, and the fallen trees then rendered it impossible to go farther: I found it, indeed, not only difficult but dangerous to get up thus far. The stream is very rapid, and many stumps of trees lie hidden under it: one of these made its way through the bottom of my boat, and in an instant she was full of water. We got on shore as well as we could; and afterwards, with great difficulty, hauled her up upon the side of the river: here we contrived to stop the hole in her bottom, so as that we made a shift to get her down to the river's mouth, where she was soon properly repaired by the carpenter. On each side of this river there are the finest trees I ever saw, and I make no doubt but that they would supply the British navy with the best masts in the world. Some of them are of a great height, and more than eight feet in diameter, which is proportionably more than eight yards in circumference; so that four men, joining hand in hand, could not compass them: among others, we found the pepper tree, or winter's bark, in great plenty. Among these woods, notwithstanding the coldness of the climate, there are innumerable parrots, and other birds of the most beautiful plumage. I shot every day geese and ducks enough to serve my own table and several others, and every body on board might have done the same: we had indeed great plenty of fresh provisions of all kinds; for we caught as much fish every day as served the companies of both ships. As I was much on shore here, I tracked many wild beasts in the sand, but never saw one; we also found many huts or wigwams, but never met with an Indian. The country between this Port and Cape For-

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1764. December.

Thursday 27.

ward which is distant about four leagues, is extremely fine; the soil appears to be very good, and there are no less than three pretty large rivers, besides several brooks.

While we lay here, I went one day to Cape Forward, and when I set out I intended to have gone farther; but the weather became so bad, with heavy rain, that we were glad to stop there, and make a great fire to dry our clothes, which were wet through. From the place where we stopped, the Indians had been gone so lately, that the wood, which lay half burnt, where they had made their fire, was still warm; and soon after our fire was kindled, we perceived that another was kindled directly opposite to it, on the Terra del Fuego shore; probably as a signal, which, if we had been Indians, we should have understood. After we were dried and refreshed at our fire, the rain having abated, I walked cross the Cape, to see how the Streight ran, which I found to be about W.N.W. The hills, as far as I could fee, were of an immense height, very craggy, and covered with snow quite from the summit to the base. I made also another excursion along the shore to the northward, and found the country for many miles exceedingly pleasant, the ground being, in many places, covered with flowers, which were not inferior to those that are commonly found in our gardens, either in beauty or fragrance; and if it were not for the severity of the cold in winter, this country might, in my opinion, be made, by cultivation, one of the finest in the world. I had set up a small tent at the bottom of this bay, close to a little rivulet, and just at the skirts of a wood, soon after the ship came to an anchor, where three men were employed in washing: they slept on shore; but soon after sunset were awakened out of their first sleep by the roaring of some wild beasts, which the darkness of the night, and the solitariness of their situation in this path-

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1764. December.

Thursday 27.

less desart, rendered horrid beyond imagination: the tone was hollow and deep, so that the beasts, of whatever kind, were certainly large, and the poor fellows perceived that they drew nearer and nearer, as the found every minute became more loud. From this time sleep was renounced for the night, a large fire was immediately kindled, and a constant blaze kept up: this prevented the beasts from invading the tent; but they continued to prowl round it at a little distance, with incessant howlings, till the day broke, and then, to the great comfort of the affrighted sailors, they disappeared.

At this place, not far from where the ship lay, there is a hill that has been cleared of wood, and we supposed this to be the spot where the Spaniards formerly had a settlement*. One of the men, as he was passing over this hill, perceived that, in a particular part, the ground returned the sound of his foot, as if it was hollow: he therefore repassed it several times, and finding the effect still the same, he conceived a strong notion that something was buried there; when he came on board, he related what he had remarked to me, and I went myself to the spot, with a small party, furnished with spades and pickaxes, and saw the spot opened to a considerable depth, but we found nothing, nor did there appear to be any hollow or vault as was expected. As we were returning through the woods, we found two very large skulls, which, by the teeth, appeared to have belonged to some beasts of prey, but of what kind we could not guess.

1765. January.

Friday 4.

Having continued here till Friday the 4th of January, and completed the wood and water of both ships, for which purpose I had entered the Streight, I determined to steer back again in search of Falkland's Islands.

* See some account of this settlement in the Voyage of Captain Wallis, chap. iii. p. 411.

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[page] 41

CHAP. V.

The Course back from Port Famine to Falkland's Islands, with some Account of the Country.

1765. January.

Friday 4.

Saturday 5.

WE weighed anchor at four o'clock in the morning, and worked to windward out of the harbour: the wind continued contrary at N. N. E. till about one o'clock the next day, when it shifted to W. S. W. and blew a fresh gale. We steered N. W. by N. four leagues, and then three leagues north, between Elizabeth and Bartholomew islands: we then steered from the islands N. by E. three leagues, to the second Narrow; and steered through N. E. ½ E. continuing the fame course from the second Narrow to the first, which was a run of eight leagues. As the wind still continued to blow fresh, we steered through the first Narrow against the flood, in the direction of N. N. E.; but about ten o'clock at night, the wind dying away, the flood set us back again into the entrance of the first Narrow, where we were obliged to anchor, in forty fathom, within two cables length of the shore. The tide flows here, at the full and change of the moon, about two o'clock, and runs full fix knots an hour.

Sunday. 6.

At one o'clock the next morning, we weighed, with a light northerly breeze; and about three, we passed the first Narrow a second time. Having now seen the ship safe through, and being quite exhausted with fatigue, as I had been upon the deck all the preceding day, and all night, I went into my cabbin to get some rest. I lay down, and soon fell asleep;

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Sunday 6.

but in less than half an hour, I was awakened by the beating of the ship upon a bank: I instantly started up, and ran upon the deck, where I soon found that we had grounded upon a hard sand. It was happy for us, that at this time it was stark calm; and I immediately ordered out the boats to carry an anchor astern, where the water was deepest: the anchor took the ground, but before we could work the cap-stern, in order to heave the ship off to it, she went off, by the mere rising of the tide. It happened fortunately to be just low water when she went aground, and there was fifteen feet forward, and fix fathom a very little way astern. The Master told me, that at the last cast of the lead, before we were aground, he had thirteen fathom; so that the water shoaled at once no less than sixty-three feet.

This bank, which has not been mentioned by any navigator who has passed the Streight, is extremely dangerous; especially as it lies directly in the fair way between Cape Virgin Mary and the first Narrow, and just in the middle between the south and north shores. It is more than two leagues long, and full as broad; in many places also it is very steep. When we were upon it, Point Possession bore N. E. distant three leagues; and the entrance of the narrow S. W. distant two leagues. I afterwards saw many parts of it dry, and the sea breaking very high over other parts of it, where the water was shallow. A ship that should ground upon this shoal in a gale of wind, would probably be very soon beaten to pieces.

About six o'clock in the morning, we anchored in fifteen fathom, the shoal bearing N. N. W. ½ W. at the distance of about half a mile. At noon, we weighed with a light breeze at N. E. and worked with the ebb tide till two, but finding the water shoal, we anchored again in six fathom and an

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1765. January.

Sunday 6.

half, at about the distance of half a mile from the south side of the shoal. The Asses Ears then bearing N. W. by W. distant four leagues, and the south point of the entrance of the first Narrow W. S. W. distant about three leagues. At this time the opening of the Narrow was shut in, and upon sending out the boats to found, they discovered a channel between the shoal and the south shore of the Streight. The Tamar in the mean time, as she was endeavouring to come near us, was very near going on shore, having once got into three fathom, but soon after came to an anchor in the channel between the shoal and the north shore.

Monday 7.

The next morning, about eight o'clock, we weighed, with little wind at W. S. W. and steered about half a mile S. E. by E. when, having deepened our water to thirteen fathom, we steered between the E. and E. N. E. along the south side of the shoal, at the distance of about seven miles from the south shore, keeping two boats at some distance, one on each bow, to found. The depth of water was very irregular, varying continually between nine and fifteen fathom; and upon hauling nearer to the shoal, we had very soon no more than seven fathom: the boats went over a bank, upon which they had six fathom and an half; it being then low water, but within the bank they had thirteen fathom. At noon, we were to the eastward of the shoal, and as we hauled over to the north shore, we soon deepened our water to twenty fathom. Point Possession at this time bore N. N. W. distant between four and five leagues, the Asses Ears W. N. W. distant six leagues, and Cape Virgin Mary N. E. ½ E. distant about seven leagues. From this situation we steered N. E. by E. for the south end of the spit which runs to the southward of the Cape, and had no soundings with five and twenty fathom. At four in the afternoon, Cape Virgin Mary bore N. E. and the south end of the spit N. E. by E. distant three leagues. At

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1765. January.

Tuesday 8.

eight the next morning, the Cape bore N. by W. distant two leagues. Our latitude was 51° 50′, and our soundings were eleven and twelve fathom. We now brought to for the Tamar, who had come through the north channel, and was some leagues astern of us, and while we were waiting for her coming up, the officer of the watch informed me that the head of the main mast was sprung: I immediately went up to look at it myself, and found it split almost in a strait line perpendicularly for a considerable length, but I could not discover exactly how far the fissure went, for the cheeks that were upon the mast. We imagined this to have happened in the very hard gale that had overtaken us some time before, but as it was of more importance to contrive how to repair the damage, than discover how it happened, we immediately put on a strong fish, and woolded it so well, that we had reason to hope the mast would be as serviceable as ever. Cape Virgin Mary now bore S. 62 W. distant twenty-one leagues, and our latitude was 51° 50′S., longitude 69° 56′W.; the variation 20° E.

Wednes. 9.

On the 9th, having sailed S. 67 E. our latitude was 52° 8′S. our longitude 68° 31′W. and Cape Virgin Mary bore S. 83 W. distant thirty-three leagues.

Thursday 10.

On the 10th, there having been little wind for the last twenty-four hours, between the north and east, with thick foggy weather, our course was N. 18 W. for thirty-nine miles. Our latitude was 51° 31′S. longitude 68° 44′W.; variation 20° E. and Cape Virgin Mary bore S. 60 W. distant thirty-three leagues.

Friday 11.

On the 11th, we had strong gales at S. W. with a great sea; our course was N. 87 E. for ninety-nine miles. Our latitude was 51° 24′S. longitude 66° 10′W. Cape Virgin Mary bore S. 73° 8′W. distant sixty-five leagues, and Cape Fairweather

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1765. January.

Friday 11.

Saturday 12.

Sunday 13.

W. 2 S. distant seventy leagues; the variation was now 19° E. About seven in the evening, I thought I saw land a-head of us, but the Tamar being some leagues a-stern, I wore ship, and made an easy sail off: the next morning, at break of day, I stood in again, the wind having shifted in the night to N. W. and about four o'clock, I recovered sight of the land a-head, which had the appearance of three islands: I imagined they might be the islands of Sebald de Wert, but intending to stand between them, I found that the land which had appeared to be separated, was joined by some very low ground, which formed a deep bay. As soon as I had made this discovery, I tacked and stood out again, and at the same time saw land a great way to the southward, which I made no doubt was the same that is mentioned in the charts by the name of the New Islands. As I was hauling out of this bay, I saw a long, low shoal of rocks, stretching out for more than a league to the northward of us, and another of the same kind lying between that and what we had taken for the northermost of De Wert's islands. This land, except the low part, which is not seen till it is approached near, consists of high, craggy, barren rocks, which in appearance very much resemble Staten Land. When I had got so near as to discover the low land, I was quite embayed, and if it had blown hard at S. W. so great a sea must have rolled in here as would have rendered it almost impossible to claw off the shore; all ships, therefore, that may hereafter navigate these parts, should avoid falling in with it. The seals and birds here are innumerable; we saw also many whales spouting about us, several of which were of an enormous size. Our latitude now was 51° 27′S., longitude 63° 54° W.; the variation was 23° 30′E. In the evening we brought to, and at day-break the next morning, stood in for the north part of the island by the coast of which

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1765. January.

Sunday 13.

we had been embayed: when we had got about four miles to the eastward, it fell calm, and rained with great violence, during which there arose such a swell as I never remember to have seen: it came from the westward, and ran so quick and so high, that I expected every moment it would break: it set us very fast towards the shore, which is as dangerous as any in the world, and I could see the surge breaking at some distance from it, mountains high: happily for us a fresh gale sprung up at south east, with which, to our great joy, we were able to stand off; and it behoves whoever shall afterwards come this way, to give the north part of this island a good birth. After I had got to some distance, the weather being thick, and it raining very hard, I brought to. Our latitude was now 51° S. and longitude 63° 22′W.

Monday 14.

Tuesday 15.

On Monday the 14th, the weather having cleared up, and the wind shifted to the S. S. W. we steered along the shore S. E. by E. four miles, and saw a low flat island full of high tufts of grass, resembling bushes, bearing south, at the distance of two or three leagues, the northermost land at the same time bearing west, distant about six leagues: we had here thirty-eight fathom, with rocky ground. We continued our course along the shore six leagues farther, and then saw a low rocky island bearing S. E. by E. distant about five miles: here we brought to, and having sounded, we had forty fathom water, with a bottom of white sand. This island is about three leagues distant from the land we were coasting, which here forms a very deep bay, and bears E. by N. of the other island on which we had seen the long tufts of grass: we saw the sea break at a good distance from the shore, and during the night stood off and on. The next morning at three o'clock we made fail, and stood in for the land to look for a harbour. At fix, the east end of the rocky island bore W. S. W. distant about three miles, and our found-

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1765. January.

Tuesday 15.

ings then were sixteen fathom, with rocky ground, but when we got within the island we had twenty fathom, with fine white sand. The coast from this rocky island lies E. by S. distant about seven or eight leagues, where there are two low islands, which make the eastermost land in sight. At eight o'clock we saw an opening, which had the appearance of an harbour, bearing E. S. E. and being between two and three leagues distant. Upon this discovery we brought to, and sent a boat from each of the ships to examine the opening; but it beginning to blow very hard soon after, and the weather growing thick, with heavy rain, we were obliged to stand out to sea with both the ships, and it was not without great difficulty that we cleared the two rocky islands which were to the eastward of us. We had now a great sea, and I began to be under much concern lest we should be blown off, and our people in the boats left behind: however, about three in the afternoon, the weather clearing up, I tacked and stood in again, and presently after had the satisfaction to see one of the boats, though it was a long way to leeward of us. I immediately bore down to her, and found her to be the Tamar's boat, with Mr. Hindman, the Second Lieutenant, on board, who having been on shore in the opening, had ventured off, not-withstanding the great sea and bad weather, to inform me that he had found a fine harbour: we immediately stood in for it, and found it equally beyond his report and our expectations: the entrance is about a mile over, and every part of it is perfectly safe, the depth of water, close to the shore, being from ten to seven fathom. We found this harbour to consist of two little bays on the starboard side, where ships may anchor in great safety, and in each of which there is a fine rivulet of fresh water. Soon after we entered an harbour of much greater extent, which I called PORT EGMONT,

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1765. January.

Tuesday 15.

in honour of the earl, who was then First Lord of the Admiralty; and I think it is one of the finest harbours in the world. The mouth of it is S. E. distant seven leagues from the low rocky island, which is a good mark to know it by: within the island, and at the distance of about two miles from the shore, there is between seventeen and eighteen fathom water; and about three leagues to the westward of the harbour, there is a remarkable white sandy beach, off which a ship may anchor till there is an opportunity to run in. In standing in for this sandy beach, the two low rocky islands, which we found it difficult to clear when the weather obliged us to stand off, appear to the eastward, and Port Egmont is about sixteen leagues from the north end of these islands. We moored in ten fathom, with fine holding ground. The northermost point of the western shore was distant two miles and an half, the watering-place on that shore bore W. N. W. ½ W. and was distant half a mile, and the islands on the east side bore E. by S. and were distant four miles. The whole navy of England might ride here in perfect security from all winds. Soon after the ship came to an anchor, the other boat which had remained on shore when Mr. Hindman put off, came on board. In the southermost part of the harbour there are several islands, but there is no passage out for a ship; I went, however, through in my boat, about seven leagues distant from where the ship lay, and entered a large found, which is too much exposed to a westerly wind for ships to lie in it safely; and the Master of the Tamar, who had been round in her boat, and entered this sound from without, reported that many shoals lay off it, so that if the harbour was ever so good, it would not be prudent to attempt getting in. In every part of Port Egmont there is fresh water in the greatest plenty, and geese, ducks, snipes, and other birds are so numerous that

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1765. January.

our people grew tired of them: it was a common thing for a boat to bring off sixty or seventy fine geese, without expending a single charge of powder and shot, for the men knocked down as many as they pleased with stones: wood however, is wanting here, except a little that is found adrift along the shore, which I imagined came from the Streight of Magellan. Among other refreshments, which are in the highest degree salutary to those who have contracted scorbutic disorders, during a long voyage, here are wild celery, and wood sorrel, in the greatest abundance; nor is there any want of mussels, clams, cockles, and limpets: the seals and penguins are innumerable, so that it is impossible to walk upon the beach without first driving them away: and the coast abounds with sea lions, many of which are of an enormous size. We found this animal very formidable; I was once attacked by one of them very unexpectedly, and it was with the utmost difficulty that I could disengage myself from him: at other times we had many battles with them, and it has sometimes afforded a dozen of us an hour's work to dispatch one of them; I had with me a very fine mastiff dog, and a bite of one of these creatures almost tore him to pieces. Nor were these the only dangerous animals that we found here, for the Master having been sent out one day to sound the coast upon the south shore, reported, at his return, that four creatures of great fierceness, resembling wolves, ran up to their bellies in the water to attack the people in his boat, and that as they happened to have no fire-arms with them, they had immediately put the boat off into deep water. The next morning after this happened, I went upon the southern shore myself, where we found one of the largest sea lions I had ever seen: as the boat's crew were now well armed, they immediately engaged him, and during the contest one of the other animals was seen running towards us: he was

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1765. January.

fired at before he came up, and was presently killed, though I afterwards wished that we had endeavoured to take him alive, which, if we had been aware of his attack, I dare say might easily have been done. When any of these creatures got sight of our people, though at ever so great a distance, they ran directly at them; and no less than five of them were killed this day. They were always called wolves by the ship's company, but except in their size, and the shape of the tail, I think they bore a greater resemblance to a fox. They are as big as a middle-sized mastiff, and their fangs are remarkably long and sharp. There are great numbers of them upon this coast, though it is not perhaps easy to guess how they first came hither, for these islands are at least one hundred leagues distant from the main: they burrow in the ground like a fox, and we have frequently seen pieces of seal which they have mangled, and the skins of penguins, lie scattered about the mouth of their holes. To get rid of these creatures, our people set fire to the grass, so that the country was in a blaze as far as the eye could reach, for several days, and we could see them running in great numbers to seek other quarters. I dug holes in many places, about two feet deep, to examine the soil, which I found first a black mould, and then a light clay. While we lay here, we set up the armourer's forge on shore, and completed a great deal of iron work that was much wanted. Our people had every morning an excellent breakfast made of portable soup, and wild celery, thickened with oatmeal: neither was our attention confined wholly to ourselves, for the Surgeon of the Tamar surrounded a piece of ground near the watering-place with a fence of turf, and planted it with many esculent vegetables as a garden, for the benefit of those who might hereafter come to this place. Of this harbour, and all the neighbouring islands, I took possession for his Majesty

[page] 51

1765. January.

King George the Third of Great Britain, by the name of FALKLAND'S ISLANDS; and there is I think little reason to doubt that they are the same land to which Cowley gave the name of Pepys's Island.

In the printed account of Cowley's voyage, he says, "we held our course S. W. till we came into the latitude of forty-seven degrees, where we saw land, the same being an island, not before known, lying to the westward of us: it was not inhabited, and I gave it the name of PEPYS'S ISLAND. We found it a very commodious place for ships to water at, and take in wood, and it has a very good harbour, where a thousand sail of ships may safely ride. Here is great plenty of fowls, and, we judge, abundance of fish, by reason of the grounds being nothing but rocks and sands."

To this account there is annexed a representation of Pepys's Island, in which names are given to several points and head lands, and the harbour is called Admiralty Bay; yet it appears that Cowley had only a distant view of it, for he immediately adds, "the wind being so extraordinary high that we could not get into it to water, we stood to the southward, shaping our course S. S. W. till we came into the latitude of 53;" and though he says that "it was commodious to take in wood," and it is known that there is no wood on Falkland's Islands, Pepys's Island and Falkland's Islands may notwithstanding be the same; for upon Falkland's Islands there are immense quantities of flags with narrow leaves, reeds and rushes which grow in clusters, so as to form bushes about three feet high, and then shoot about six or seven feet higher: these at a distance have greatly the appearance of wood, and were taken for wood by the French, who landed there in the year

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1765. January.

1764, as appears by Pernetty's account of their voyage. It has been suggested that the latitude of Pepys's Island might, in the M. S. from which the account of Cowley's voyage was printed, be expressed in figures, which, if ill made, might equally resemble forty-seven, and fifty-one; and therefore as there is no island in these seas in latitude forty-seven, and as Falkland's Islands lie nearly in fifty-one, that fifty-one might reasonably be concluded to be the number for which the figures were intended to stand: recourse therefore was had to the British Mufæum, and a manuscript journal of Cowley's was there found. In this manuscript no mention is made of an island not before known, to which he gave the name of Pepys's Island, but land is mentioned in latitude forty-seven degrees, forty minutes, expressed in words at length, which exactly answers to the description of what is called Pepys's Island in the printed account, and which here, he says, he supposed to be the islands of Sebald de Wert. This part of the manuscript is in the following words: "January 1633, This month wee were in the latitude of forty-seaven degrees and forty minnetts, where wee espyed an island bearing west from us, wee having the wind at east north east, wee bore away for it, it being too late for us to goe on shoare, wee lay by all night. The island seemed very pleasant to the eye, with many woods, I may as well say the whole land was woods. There being a rock lying above water to the eastward of it, where an innumerable company of fowles, being of the bignesse of a small goose, which fowles would strike at our men as they were aloft: some of them wee killed and eat: they seemed to us very good, only tasted somewhat fishly. I sailed along that island to the southward, and about the south west side of the island there seemed to me to be a good place for shipps to ride; I

[page] 53

1765. January.

would have had the boat out to have gone into the harbour, but the wind blew fresh and they would not agree to go with it. Sailing a litle further, keeping the lead, and having fix and twenty, and seaven and twenty fathoms water, untill wee came to a place where wee saw the weeds ride, having the lead againe, found but seaven fathoms water. Fearing danger went about the shipp there, were then fearefull to stay by the land any longer, it being all rocky ground, but the harbour seemed to be a good place for shipps to ride there; in the island seeming likewife to have water enough, there seemed to me to be harbour for five hundred saile of shipps. The going in but narrow, and the north side of the entrance shallow water that I could see, but I verily believe that there is water enough for any shipp to goe in on the south side, for there cannot be so great a lack of water, but must needs scowre a channell away at the ebbe deepe enough for shipping to goe in. I would have had them stood upon a wind all night, but they told me they were not come out to goe upon discovery. Wee saw likewife another island by this that night, which made me thinke them to be the Sibble D'wards.

The same night wee steered our course againe west south west, which was but our south west, the compasse having two and twenty degrees variation eastwardly, keeping that course till wee came in the latitude of three and fifty degrees."

In both the printed and manuscript account, this land is said to lie in latitude forty-seven, to be situated to the westward of the ship when first discovered, to appear woody, to have an harbour where a great number of ships might ride in safety, and to be frequented by innumerable birds. It

[page] 54

1765. January.

appears also by both accounts, that the weather prevented his going on shore, and that he steered from it W. S. W. till he came into latitude fifty-three: there can therefore be little doubt but that Cowley gave the name of Pepys's Island after he came home, to what he really supposed to be the island of Sebald de Wert, for which it is not difficult to assign several reasons; and though the supposition of a mistake of the figures does not appear to be well grounded, yet, there being no land in forty-seven, the evidence that what Cowley saw was Falkland's Islands, is very strong. The description of the country agrees in almost every particular, and even the map is of the same general figure, with a streight running up the middle. The chart of Falkland's that accompanies this narrative, was laid down from the journals and drawings of Captain Macbride, who was dispatched thither after my return, and circumnavigated the whole coast: the two principal islands were probably called Falkland's Islands by Strong, about the year 1689, as he is known to have given the name of Falkland's Sound to part of the streight which divides them. The journal of this navigator is still unprinted in the British Musæum. The first who saw these islands is supposed to be Captain Davies, the associate of Cavendish, in 1592. In 1594, Sir Richard Hawkins saw land, supposed to be the same, and in honour of his mistress, Queen Elizabeth, called them HAWKINS'S MAIDEN LAND. Long afterwards, they were seen by some French ships from Saint Maloes, and Frezier, probably for that reason, called them the Malouins, a name which has been since adopted by the Spaniards.

Sunday 27.

Having continued in the harbour which I had called Port Egmont till Sunday the 27th of January, we sailed again at eight o'clock in the morning with the wind at S. S. W.; but

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1765. January.

Sunday 27.

we were scarcely got out of the Port before it began to blow very hard, and the weather became so thick that we could not see the rocky islands. I now most heartily wished myself again at anchor in the harbour we had quitted; but in a short time we had the satisfaction to see the weather become clear, though it continued to blow very hard the whole day. At nine the entrance of Port Egmont harbour bore E. S. E. distant two leagues; the two low islands to the northward E. by N. distant between three and four miles; and the Rocky island W. ½ N. distant four leagues. At ten the two low islands bore S. S. E. distant four or five miles; and we then steered along the shore east by the compass, and after having run about five leagues, we saw a remarkable headland, with a rock at a little distance from it, bearing E. S. E. ½ E. distant three leagues. This head-land I called CAPE TAMAR. Having continued the same course five leagues farther, we saw a rock about five miles from the main bearing N. E. at the distance of four or five leagues: this rock I called the EDISTONE, and then steered between it and a remarkable head-land which I called CAPE DOLPHIN, in the direction of E. N. E. five leagues farther. From Cape Tamar to Cape Dolphin, a distance of about eight leagues, the land forms, what I thought, a deep sound, and called CARLISLE SOUND, but what has since appeared to be the northern entrance of the Streight between the two principal islands. In the part that I supposed to be the bottom of the sound, we saw an opening, which had the appearance of a harbour. From Cape Dolphin we steered along the shore E. ½ N. sixteen leagues, to a low flat cape or head-land, and then brought to. In this day's run the land, for the most part, resembled the east side of the coast of Patagonia, not having so much as a single tree, or even a bush, being all downs, with here and there a few of the high tufts of grass that we had seen

[page] 56

1765. January.

Sunday 27.

at Port Egmont; and in this account I am sure I am not mistaken, for I frequently sailed within two miles of the shore; so that if there had been a shrub as big as a goose-berry bush, I should have seen it. During the night we had forty fathom water with rocky ground.

Monday 28.

The next morning, at four o'clock, we made sail, the low flat cape then bearing S. E. by E. distant five leagues: at half an hour after five it bore S.S.E. distant two leagues; and we then steered from it E. S. E. five leagues, to three low rocky islands which lie about two miles from the main. From these islands we steered S. S. E. four leagues, to two other low islands, which lie at the distance of about one mile from the main. Between these islands the land forms a very deep found, which I called BERKELEY'S SOUND. In the south part of this sound there is an opening, which has the appearance of a harbour; and about three or four miles to the southward of the south point of it, at the distance of about four miles from the main, some rocks appear above the water, upon which the sea breaks very high, there being here a great swell from the southward. When we were abreast of these breakers, we steered S. W. by S. about two leagues, when the southermost land in sight, which I took to be the southermost part of Falkland's Islands, bore W. S. W. distant five leagues. The coast now began to be very dangerous, there being, in all directions, rocks and breakers at a great distance from the shore. The country also inland had a more rude and desolate appearance; the high ground, as far as we could see, being all barren, craggy rocks, very much resembling that part of Terra del Fuego which lies near Cape Horn. As the sea now rose every moment, I was afraid of being caught here upon a lee shore, in which case there would have been very little chance of my getting off,

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1765. January.

Monday 28.

and therefore I tacked and stood to the northward; the latitude of the southermost point in sight being about 52° 3′S. As we had now run no less than seventy leagues along the coast of this island it must certainly be of very considerable extent. It has been said by some former navigators to be about two hundred miles in circumference, but I made no doubt of its being nearer seven. Having hauled the wind, I stood to the northward about noon; the entrance of Berkeley's Sound at three o'clock bore S. W. by W. distant about six leagues. At eight in evening, the wind shifting to the S. W. we stood to the westward.

VOL. I. I

[page] 58

CHAP. VI.

The Passage through the Streight of Magellan as far as Cape Monday, with a Description of several Bays and Harbours, formed by the Coast on each Side.

1765. February.

Wednes. 6.

WE continued to make sail for Port Desire till Wednesday the 6th of February, when about one o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, and stood in for the Port. During the run from Falkland's Islands to this place, the number of whales about the ship was so great as to render the navigation dangerous; we were very near striking upon one, and another blew the water in upon the quarter deck: they were much larger than any we had seen. As we were standing in for Port Desire, we saw the Florida, a store-ship that we expected from England; and at four we came to an anchor off the harbour's mouth.

Thursday 7.

The next morning, Mr. Dean, the Master of the store-ship, came on board; and finding from his report that his foremast was sprung, and his ship little better than a wreck, I determined to go into the harbour, and try to unload her there, although the narrowness of the place, and the rapidity of the tides, render it a very dangerous situation. We got in in the evening, but it blowing very hard in the night, both the Tamar and the store-ship made signals of distress; I immediately sent my boats to their assistance, who found that, notwithstanding they were moored, they had been driven up the harbour, and were in the greatest danger of

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1765. February.

Thursday 7.

being on shore. They were got off, not without great difficulty, and the very next night they drove again, and were again saved by the same efforts, from the same danger. As I now found that the store-ship was continually driving about the harbour, and every moment in danger of being lost, I gave up, with whatever reluctance, my design of taking the provisions out of her, and sent all our carpenters on board, to fish the mast, and make such other repairs as they could. I also lent her my forge to complete such iron work as they wanted, and determined, the moment she was in a condition to put to sea, to take her with us into the Streight of Magellan, and unload her there. While this was doing, Captain Mouat, who commanded the Tamar, informed me that his rudder was sprung, and that he had reason to fear it would in a short time become wholly unserviceable. Upon this I ordered the carpenter of the Dolphin on board the Tamar, to examine the rudder, and he reported it to be so bad that in his opinion the vessel could not proceed in her voyage without a new one. A new one however it was not in our power to procure at this place, and I therefore desired Captain Mouat to get his forge on shore, and secure his rudder with iron clamps in the best manner he could, hoping that in the Streight a piece of timber might be found which would furnish him with a better.

Wednes. 13.

On Wednesday the 13th, the store-ship being ready for sea, I put on board her one of my petty officers, who was well acquainted with the Streight, and three or four of my seamen to assist in navigating her; I also lent her two of my boats, and took those belonging to her, which were staved, on board to get them repaired, and then I ordered her Master, to put to sea directly, and make the best of his way to Port Famine; though I did not doubt but that I

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1765. February.

Wednes. 13.

should come up with her long before she got thither, as I intended to follow her as soon as the Tamar was ready, and Captain Mouat had told me that, the rudder having been patched together by the joint labour and skill of the carpenter and smith, he should be in a condition to proceed with me the next morning.

Thursday 14.

The next morning we accordingly put to sea, and a few hours afterwards being abreast of Penguin Island, we saw the store-ship a long way to the eastward.

Saturday 16.

On Saturday the 16th, about six o'clock in the morning, we saw Cape Fairweather bearing W. S. W. at the distance of five or six leagues; and at nine, we saw a strange sail to the N. W. standing after us.

Sunday 17.

On the 17th, at six in the morning, Cape Virgin Mary bearing south, distant five miles, we hauled in for the Streight, and the strange ship still followed us.

Monday 13.

On the 18th we passed the first Narrow, and as I perceived the strange ship to have shaped the same course that we had, from the time she had first seen us, shortening or making sail as we did, she became the subject of much speculation; and as I was obliged, after I had got through the first Narrow, to bring to for the store-ship, which was a great way astern, I imagined she would speak with us, and therefore I put the ship in the best order I could. As soon as he had passed the Narrow, and saw me lying to, he did the same about four miles to windward of me. In this situation we remained till night came on, and the tide setting us over to the south shore, we came to an anchor; the wind however shifted before morning, and at day-break I saw our satellite at anchor about three leagues to leeward of us. As it was then tide of flood, I thought of working through the second Narrow;

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1765. February.

Monday 18.

but seeing the stranger get under way, and work up towards us, I ran directly over into Gregory Bay, and brought the ship to an anchor, with a spring upon our cable: I also got eight of our guns, which were all we could get at, out of the hold, and brought them over on one side. In the mean time the ship continued to work up towards us, and various were our conjectures about her, for she showed no colours, neither did we. It happened about this time that the store-ship, as she was endeavouring to come to an anchor near us, ran aground; upon which the stranger came to an anchor a little way astern, at the same time hoisting French colours, and sending his launch, and another boat, with an anchor to assist her. Still however I showed no colours, but sent my own boats, and a boat of the Tamar's, to assist the store-ship, giving orders at the same time to the officers, not to suffer the French boats to come on board her, but to thank them in polite terms for the assistance they intended. These orders were punctually obeyed, and with the assistance of our own boats only, the store-ship was soon after got off: my people reported that the French ship was full of men, and seemed to have a great number of officers on board.

At six o'clock in the evening, I made the signal and weighed; we worked through the second Narrow, and at ten o'clock passed the west end of it: at eleven, we anchored in seven fathom off Elizabeth's Island; and the French ship at the same time anchored in a bad situation, to the southward of Saint Bartholomew's Island, which convinced me that she was not acquainted with the channel.

Tuesday 10.

At six o'clock the next morning, I weighed and sailed between Elizabeth and Bartholomew Islands, with the wind at N. W. and after steering S. S. W. five or six miles, we crossed a bank, where among the weeds we had seven fathom

[page] 62

1765. February.

Tuesday 19.

Wednes. 20.

water. This bank lies W. S. W. five or six miles from the middle of George's Island, and it is said in some former accounts that in many places there is not three fathom water upon it: the danger here therefore is considerable, and to avoid it, it is necessary to keep near Elizabeth's Island till the western shore is but at a short distance, and then a southern course may be steered with great safety, till the reef, which lies about four miles to the northward of Saint Anne's Point, is in sight. At noon this day, the north point of Fresh Water Bay bore W. by N.; and Saint Anne's Point S. by E. ½ E. The French ship still steered after us, and we imagined that she was either from Falkland's Islands, where the French had then a settlement, to get wood, or upon a survey of the Streight. The remaining part of this day, and the next morning, we had variable winds with calms; in the afternoon therefore I hoisted out the boats, and towed round Saint Anne's Point into Port Famine: at six in the evening we anchored, and soon after the French ship passed by us to the southward.

Monday 25.

Here we continued till Monday the 25th, when both the Dolphin and Tamar having taken out of the store-ship as much provision as they could stow, I gave the Master of her, orders to return to England as soon as he could get ready, and with the Tamar sailed from Port Famine, intending to push through the Streight before the season should be too far advanced. At noon, we were three leagues distant from Saint Anne's Point, which bore N. W. and three or four miles distant from Point Shutup, which bore S. S. W. Point Shutup bears from Saint Anne's Point S. ½ E. by the compass, and they are about four or five leagues asunder. Between these two Points there is a flat shoal, which runs from Port Famine before Sedger river, and three or four miles to the southward.

[page] 63

1765. February.

Monday 25.

Tuesday 26.

We steered S. S. W. with little wind, along the shore, from Point Shutup towards Cape Forward; and about three o'clock in the afternoon we passed by the French ship, which we saw in a little cove, about two leagues to the southward of Point Shutup. She had hauled her stern close into the woods, and we could see large piles of the wood which she had cut down, lying on each side of her; so that I made no doubt of her having been sent out to procure that necessary for their new settlement, though I could not conceive why they should have come so far into the Streight for that purpose. After my return to England, I learnt that this vessel was the Eagle, commanded by M. Bougainville, and that her business in the Streight was, as I conjectured, to cut wood, for the French settlement in Falkland's Islands. From Cape Shutup to Cape Forward the course by compass is S. W. by S.; and the distance is seven leagues. At eight o'clock in the evening, Cape Forward bore N. W. ½ W. and was distant about a mile, and we brought to for the night. This part of the Streight is about eight miles over, and off the Cape we had forty fathom within half a cable's length of the shore. About four o'clock in the morning, we made sail; and at eight, having had light airs almost quite round the compass, Cape Forward bore N. E. by E. distant about four miles; and Cape Holland W.N.W. ½ W. distant about five leagues. At ten we had fresh gales at W. N. W. and at intervals sudden squalls, so violent as to oblige us to clew all up every time they came on. We kept however working to windward, and looking out for an anchoring-place, endeavouring at the same time to reach a bay about two leagues to the westward of Cape Forward. At five o'clock I sent a boat with an officer into this bay to sound, who finding it fit for our purpose, we entered it, and about six o'clock anchored in nine fathom: Cape Forward bore E. ½ S. distant

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1765. February.

Tuesday 26.

five miles; a small island which lies in the middle of the bay, and is about a mile distant from the shore, W. by S. distant about half a mile; and a rivulet of fresh water N. W. by W. distant three quarters of a mile.

Wednes. 27.

At six o'clock the next morning, we weighed and continued our course through the Streight: from Cape Holland to Cape Gallant, which are distant about eight leagues, the coast lies W. ½ S. by the compass: Cape Gallant is very high and steep, and between this and Cape Holland lies a reach about three leagues over, called English Reach. About five miles south of Cape Gallant lies a large island, called Charles's Island, which it is necessary to keep to the northward of: we sailed along the north shore of it, at about two miles distance, and sometimes much less. A little to the eastward of Cape Holland is a fair sandy bay, called Wood's Bay, in which there is good anchoring. The mountains on each side the Streight are, I think, higher, and of a more desolate appearance, than any other in the world; except perhaps the Cordeliers, both being rude, craggy, and steep, and covered with snow from the top to the bottom.

From Cape Gallant to Passage Point, which are distant about three leagues, the coast lies W. by N. by compass. Passage Point is the east point of Elizabeth's bay, and is low land, with a rock lying off it. Between this and Cape Gallant there are several islands, some of them are very small; but the eastermost, which is Charles's Island, that has been just mentioned, is two leagues long; the next is called Monmouth's Island, and the westermost, Rupert's Island: Rupert's Island lies S. by E. of Point Passage. These islands make the Streight narrow; between Point Passage and Rupert's Island it is not more than two miles over, and it is necessary to go to the northward of them all, keeping the north shore on

[page] 65

1765. February.

Wednes. 27.

board: we sailed within two cables' length of it, and had no ground with forty fathom. At six in the evening, the wind shifted to the westward, upon which we stood in for Elizabeth's Bay, and anchored in ten fathom with very good ground; the best anchoring however is in thirteen fathom, for there was but three or four fathom about a cable's length within us. In this Bay there is a good rivulet of fresh water. We found the flood here set very strong to the eastward; and according to our calculation, it flows at the full and change of the moon about twelve o'clock. We found the variation two points easterly.

Thursday 28.

At two o'clock in the afternoon, of Thursday the 28th, the wind being between the N.W. and W. with fresh gales and squalls, we made the signal to weigh, and just as we had got the ship over the anchor, a violent gust brought it home; the ship immediately drove into shoal water, within two cables' length of the shore, upon which we let go the small bower in four fathom, and had but three fathom under our stern: the stream anchor was carried out with all possible expedition, and by applying a purchase to the capstern, the ship was drawn towards it: we then heaved up both the bower anchors, slipt the stream cable, and with the gibb and stay-sails ran out into ten fathom, and anchored with the best bower exactly in the situation from which we had been driven.

March.

Friday 1.

At five o'clock the next morning, the wind being northerly, and the weather moderate, we weighed again, and at seven passed Muscle bay, which lies on the southern shore, about a league to the westward of Elizabeth's Bay. At eight, we were abreast of Bachelor's River, which is on the north shore, about two leagues W. by N. from Elizabeth's Bay. At nine, we passed St. Jerom's Sound, the entrance of which is about a league from Bachelor's River: when St. Jerom's Sound

VOL. I. K

[page] 66

1765. March.

Friday 1.

was open, it bore N. W. We then steered W. S. W. by the compass for Cape Quod, which is three leagues distant from the southermost point of the Sound. Between Elizabeth Bay and Cape Quod, is a reach about four miles over, called Crooked Reach. At the entrance of Jerom's Sound, on the north side, we saw three or four fires, and soon afterwards, perceived two or three canoes paddling after us. At noon, Cape Quod bore W. S. W. ½ W. distant four or five miles, and soon after, having light airs and calms, we drove to the eastward with the slood tide; in the mean time the canoes came up, and after having paddled about us some time, one of them had the resolution to come on board. The canoe was of bark, very ill made, and the people on board, which were four men, two women, and a boy, were the poorest wretches I had ever seen. They were all naked, except a stinking seal skin that was thrown loosely over their shoulders; they were armed, however, with bows and arrows, which they readily gave me in return for a few beads, and other trifles. The arrows were made of a reed, and pointed with a green stone: they were about two feet long, and the bows were three feet: the cord of the bow was the dried gut of some animal. In the evening, we anchored abreast of Bachelor's River, in fourteen fathom. The entrance of the River bore N. by E. distant one mile, and the northermost point of Saint Jerom's Sound W. N. W. distant three miles. About three quarters of a mile eastward of Bachelor's River, is a shoal, upon which there is not more than six feet water when the tide is out: it is distant about half a mile from the shore, and may be known by the weeds that are upon it. The tide flows here, at the full and change of the moon, about one o'clock. Soon after we were at anchor, several Indians came on board us, and I made them all presents of beads, ribands, and other trifles, with which they appeared to be greatly

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1765. March.

Friday 1.

delighted. This visit I returned by going on shore among them, taking only a few people with me in my jolly boat, that I might not alarm them by numbers. They received us with great expressions of kindness, and to make us welcome, they brought us some berries which they had gathered for that purpose, and which, with a few muscles, seem to be a principal part, if not the whole of their subsistence.

Saturday 2.

Sunday 3.

At five o'clock, in the morning of the 2d, we weighed, and towed with the tide, but at ten, having no wind, and finding that we drove again to the eastward, we anchored, with the stream anchor in fifteen fathom, upon a bank which lies about half a mile from the north shore: after veering about two-thirds of a cable, we had five and forty fathom along-side, and still deeper water at a little distance. The south point of Saint Jerom's Sound bore N.N.E. distant two miles, and Cape Quod W.S.W. distant about eight miles. From the south point of Saint Jerom's Sound, to Cape Quod, is three leagues, in the direction of S.W. by W. The tides in this Reach are exceedingly strong, though very irregular: we found them set to the eastward from nine o'clock in the morning till five o'clock the next morning, and the other four hours, from five to nine, they set to the westward. At twelve o'clock at night, it began to blow very hard at W.N.W. and at two in the morning, the ship drove off the bank: we immediately hove the anchor up, and found both the flukes broken off: till three o'clock we had no ground, and then we drove into sixteen fathom, at the entrance of Saint Jerom's Sound; as it still blew a storm, we immediately let go the best bower, and veered to half a cable. The anchor brought the ship up at so critical a moment, that we had but five fathom, and even that depth was among breakers. We let go the small bower under foot, and at five, finding the tide set to the westward, and the weather

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1765. March.

Sunday 3.

more moderate, we got up both the anchors, and kept working to windward. At ten, we found the tide setting again strongly to the eastward, and we therefore sent the boat back to seek for an anchoring-place, which she found in a bay on the north shore, about four miles to the eastward of Cape Quod, and a little way within some small islands: we endeavoured to get into this bay, but the tide rushed out of it with such violence, that we found it impossible, and at noon, bore away for York Road, at the entrance of Bachelor's River, where we anchored about an hour afterwards.

Monday 4.

At six o'clock the next morning, we weighed, and worked with the tide, which set the same as the day before, but we could not gain an anchoring-place, so that at noon we bore away for York Road again. I took this opportunity to go up Bachelor's River in my jolly boat, as high as I could, which was about four miles: in some places I found it very wide and deep, and the water was good, but near the mouth it is so shallow at low water, that even a small boat cannot get into it.

Tuesday 5.

At six o'clock on the 5th, we weighed again, and at eight, it being stark calm, we sent the boats a-head to tow; at eleven, however, the tide set so strong from the westward, that we could not gain the bay on the north shore, which the boat had found for us on the 4th, and which was an excellent harbour, fit to receive five or six sail: we were therefore obliged to anchor upon a bank, in forty-five fathom, with the stream anchor, Cape Quod bearing W. S. W. distant five or six miles, the south point of the island that lies to the east of the Cape, being just in one with the pitch of it, and a remarkable stone patch on the north shore bearing N. ½ W. distant half a mile. Close to the shore here, the depth of water was seventy-five fathom. As soon as we were at an-

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1765. March.

Tuesday 5.

Wednes. 6.

Thursday 7.

chor, I sent an officer to the westward to look out for a harbour, but he did not succeed. It was calm the rest of the day, and all night, the tide setting to the eastward from the time we anchored till six o'clock the next morning, when we weighed, and were towed by the boats to the westward. At eight, a fresh breeze sprung up at W. S. W. and W. and at noon, Cape Quod bore E. by S. at the distance of about five miles. In this situation I sent the boats out again to look for an anchoring-place, and about noon, by their direction, we anchored in a little bay on the south shore, opposite to Cape Quod, in five and twenty fathom, with very good ground. A small rocky island bore W. by N. at the distance of about two cables' length, the eastermost point E. ½ S. and Cape Quod N. E. by N. distant about three miles: in this place we had shell-fish of various kinds in great plenty. The Tamar, not being able to work up to us, anchored about two o'clock in the bay on the north shore, about six miles to the eastward of Cape Quod, which has been mentioned already. During the night, it was stark calm, but in the morning, having little airs of wind westerly, I weighed about eight o'clock, and worked with the tide. At noon, Cape Quod bore E. by S. distant between two and three leagues, and Cape Monday, which is the westermost land in sight on the south shore, W. by N. distant about ten or eleven leagues. This part of the Streight lies W. N. W. ½ W. by the compass, and is but four miles over; so that the craggy mountains which bound it on each side, towering above the clouds, and covered with everlasting snow, give it the most dreary and desolate appearance that can be imagined. The tides here are not very strong; the ebb sets to the westward, but with an irregularity for which it is very difficult to account. About one o'clock, the Tamar anchored in the bay on the south shore, opposite to Cape Quod, which

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1765. March.

Thursday 7.

Friday 8.

we had just left, and we continued working to windward till seven in the evening, when we anchored in a small bay on the north shore, about five leagues to the westward of Cape Quod, with very good ground. This bay may be known by two large rocks that appear above water, and a low point which makes the east part of the bay. The anchoring-place is between the two rocks, the eastermost bearing N. E. ½ E. distant about two cables' length, and the westermost, which is near the point, W. N. W. ½ W. at about the same distance: there is also a small rock which shows itself among the weeds at low water, and bears E. ½ N. distant about two cables' length. If there are more ships than one, they may anchor farther out in deeper water. During the night it was calm, and the weather became very foggy; but about ten in the morning it cleared up, and I went on shore. I found abundance of shell-fish, but saw no traces of people. In the afternoon, while the people were filling water, I went up a deep lagoon, which lies just round the westermost rock: at the head of it I found a very fine fall of water, and on the east side several little coves, where ships of the greatest draught may lie in perfect security. We saw nothing else worthy of notice, and therefore, having filled our boat with very large muscles, we returned.

Saturday 9.

Sunday 10.

At seven o'clock the next morning, we weighed and towed out of the bay, and at eight, saw the Tamar very far astern, steering after us. At noon, we had little wind at E. N. E. but at five o'clock, it shifted to W. N. W. and blew fresh. At fix, we were abreast of Cape Monday, and at fix the next morning, Cape Upright bore E. by S. distant three leagues. From Cape Monday to Cape Upright, which are both on the south shore, and distant from each other about five leagues, the course is W. by N. by the compass: the shore on each side is rocky, with broken ground. At about half an hour after

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1765. March.

Sunday 10.

Monday 11.

seven, we had a very hard squall, and the weather being then exceedingly thick, we suddenly perceived a reef of rocks close under our lee bow, upon which the sea broke very high: we had but just time to tack clear of them, and if the ship had missed stays, every soul on board must inevitably have perished. These rocks lie at a great distance from the south shore, and are about three leagues to the north of Cape Upright. At nine, the weather cleared a little, and we saw the entrance of Long Reach, upon which we bore away, keeping nearest the south shore, in hopes of finding an anchoring-place. At ten, we had strong gales and thick weather, with hard rain, and at noon, we were again abreast of Cape Monday, but could find no anchoring-place, which, however, we continued to seek, still steering along the south shore, and were soon after joined by the Tamar, who had been six or seven leagues to the eastward of us all night. At six in the evening, we anchored in a deep bay, about three leagues to the eastward of Cape Monday: we let go the anchor in five and twenty fathom, near an island in the bottom of the bay; but before we could bring up the ship, we were driven off, and the anchor took the ground in about fifty fathom. The extream points of the bay bore from N. W. to N. E. by E. and the island W. ½ S.: we veered to a whole cable, and the anchor was about a cable's length from the nearest shore. In the night, we had fresh gales westerly, with sudden squalls and hard rain; but in the morning, the weather became more moderate, though it was still thick, and the rain continued. As a great swell set into this place, and broke very high upon the rocks, near which we lay, I got up the anchor, and warped the ship to a bank where the Tamar was riding: we let go our anchor in fourteen fathom, and moored with the stream anchor to the eastward, in forty-five fathom. In the bottom of this

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1765. March.

Monday 11.

bay there is a bason, at the entrance of which there is but three fathom and an half at low water, but within there is ten fathom, and room enough for six or seven fail to lie where no wind can hurt them.

Thursday 12.

Thursday 14.

We continued here till Friday the 15th, and during all that time had one continued storm, with impenetrable fogs, and incessant rain. On the 12th, I sent out the boat, with an officer, to look for harbours on the southern shore: the boat was absent till the 14th, and then returned, with an account that there were five bays between the ship's station and Cape Upright, where we might anchor in great safety. The officer told me, that near Cape Upright he had fallen in with a few Indians, who had given him a dog, and that one of the women had offered him a child which was sucking at her breast. It is scarcely necessary to say that he refused it, but the offer seems to degrade these poor forlorn savages more than any thing in their appearance or manner of life: it must be a strange depravity of nature that leaves them destitute of affection for their offspring, or a most deplorable situation that impresses necessities upon them by which it is surmounted. Some hills, which, when we first came to this place, had no snow upon them, were now covered, and the winter of this dreary and inhospitable region seemed to have set in at once: the poor seamen not only suffered much by the cold, but had scarcely ever a dry thread about them: I therefore distributed among the crews of both the ships, not excepting the officers, two bales of a thick woollen stuff, called Fearnought, which is provided by the government, so that every body on board had now a warm jacket, which at this time was found both comfortable and salutary.

Friday 15.

At eight o'clock in the morning of the 15th, we weighed and made sail, and at three o'clock in the afternoon, we were

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1765. March.

Friday 15.

once more abreast of Cape Monday, and at five, we anchored in a bay on the east side of it. The pitch of the Cape bore N. W. distant half a mile, and the extream points of the bay from E. to N. by W. We lay at about half a cable's length from the nearest shore, which was a low island between the ship and the Cape.

Saturday 16.

At six o'clock the next morning, we weighed, and found that the palm was gone from the small bower anchor. The wind was at W. N. W. with hard rain: at eight o'clock, we found a strong current setting us to the eastward, and at noon, Cape Monday bore W. N. W. distant two miles. The Tamar being to windward of us, fetched into the bay, and anchored again. We continued to lose ground upon every tack, and therefore, at two o'clock, anchored upon the southern shore in sixteen fathom, about five miles to the eastward of Cape Monday. At three, however, I weighed again, for the boat having sounded round the ship, found the ground rocky. The wind was N. W. with hard rain, and we continued working all the rest of the day, and all night, every man on board being upon deck the whole time, and every one wet to the skin, for the rain, or rather sheets of water that came down, did not cease a moment.

Sunday 17.

In the morning, we had again the mortification to find that, notwithstanding all our labour, we had lost ground upon every tack, in consequence of the current, which continued to set with great force to the eastward. At eight o'clock, we bore away, and at nine, anchored in the same bay from which we sailed on the 15th.

Monday 18.

Tuesday 19.

The wind continued W. and W. N. W. without any tide to the westward, all the 18th and 19th, and the weather was exceedingly bad, with hard squalls and heavy rain. In the mean time I had sent an officer with a boat to sound a bay

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1765. March.

Wednes. 20.

Thursday 21.

Friday 22.

on the north shore, but he found no anchorage in it. On the 20th, at six o'clock in the morning, a hard squall coming on, the ship drove, and brought the anchor off the bank into forty fathom, but by heaving up the bower, and carrying out the kedge anchor, we got the ship on the bank again. At eight, the day following, though the wind was from W. N. W. to S. W. we weighed, and once more stood out of the bay; the current still set very strongly to the eastward, but at noon, we found that we had gained about a mile and a half in a contrary direction. The wind now became variable, from S. W. to N. W. and at five in the afternoon, the ship had gained about four miles to the westward; but not being able to find an anchoring-place, and the wind dying away, we drove again very fast to the eastward with the current. At six, however, we anchored in forty fathom, with very good ground, in a bay about two miles to the westward of that from which we sailed in the morning. A swell rolled in here all night, so that our situation was by no means desirable, and therefore, although the wind was still at W. S. W. we weighed and made sail about eight o'clock the next day: we had still incessant rain, so that the people were continually wet, which was a great aggravation of their fatigue; yet they were still cheerful, and, what was yet less to be expected, still healthy. This day, to our great joy, we found the current setting to the westward, and we gained ground very fast. At six in the evening, we anchored in the bay on the east side of Cape Monday, where the Tamar lay in eighteen fathom, the pitch of the Cape bearing W. by N. distant half a mile. We found this place very safe, the ground being excellent, and there being room enough for two or three ships of the line to moor.

[page] 75

CHAP. VII.

The Passage from Cape Monday, in the Streight of Magellan, into the South Seas; with some general Remarks on the Navigation of that Streight.

1765. March.

Saturday 23.

AT eight the next morning we weighed, and soon after we made sail opened the South Sea, from which such a swell rolled in upon us as I have seldom seen. At four o'clock in the afternoon, we anchored in a very good bay, with a deep found at the bottom, by which it may be known, about a league to the eastward of Cape Upright, in fourteen fathom. The extream point of the bay bore from N. W. to N. E. by E. and Cape Upright W. N. W. about a cable's length to the eastward of a low island which makes the bay.

Sunday 24.

At three o'clock in the morning of the 24th, I sent a boat, with an officer from each ship, to look for anchoring-places to the westward; but at four in the afternoon they returned, without having been able to get round Cape Upright.

Monday 25.

Tuesday 26.

The next morning I sent the boats again to the westward, and about six in the evening they returned, having been about four leagues, and found two anchoring-places, but neither of them were very good. We made sail, however, about eight in the forenoon of the next day, and at three, Cape Upright bore E. S. E. distant about three leagues, a remarkable cape on the north shore at the same time bearing N. E. distant four or five miles. This cape, which is very lofty and steep, lies N. N. W. by compass from Cape Upright,

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1765. March.

Tuesday 26.

Wednes. 27.

at the distance of about three leagues. The south shore in this place had a very bad appearance, many sunken rocks lying about it to a considerable distance, upon which the sea breaks very high. At four the weather became very thick, and in less than half an hour we saw the south shore at the distance of about a mile, but could get no anchoring-place; we therefore tacked, and stood over to the north shore. At half an hour after six I made the Tamar's signal to come under our stern, and ordered her to keep ahead of us all night, and to show lights, and fire a gun every time she changed her tack. At seven, it cleared up for a moment just to show us the north shore, bearing W. by N.; we tacked immediately, and at eight the wind shifted from N. N. W. to W. N. W. and blew with great violence. Our situation was now very alarming; the storm increased every minute, the weather was extremely thick, the rain seemed to threaten another deluge, we had a long dark night before us, we were in a narrow channel, and surrounded on every side by rocks and breakers. We attempted to clew up the mizentopsail, but before this service could be done it was blown all to rags: we then brought to, with the main and fore-top-sail close reefed, and upon the cap, keeping the ship's head to the south west; but there being a prodigious sea, it broke over us so often that the whole deck was almost continually under water. At nine, by an accidental breaking of the fog, we saw the high Cape on the north shore that has been just mentioned, bearing east, at about a mile distance, but had entirely lost sight of the Tamar. At half an hour after three in the morning, we suddenly perceived ourselves close to a high land on the south shore, upon which we wore, and brought to to the northward. The gale still continued, if possible, with increasing violence, and the rain poured down in torrents, so that we were, in a manner, immersed in wa-

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1765. March.

Wednes. 27.

ter, and expected every moment to be among the breakers. The long wished-for day at length broke, but the weather was still so thick that no land was to be seen, though we knew it could not be far distant, till after six, when we saw the south shore at about the distance of two miles; and soon after, to our great satisfaction, we saw the Tamar: at this time Cape Monday bore S.E. distant about four miles, and the violence of the gale not abating, we bore away. About seven, both ships came to an anchor in the bay which lies to the eastward of Cape Monday, notwithstanding the sea that rolled in; for we were glad to get anchorage any where. We had now been twice within four leagues of Tuesday's Bay, at the western entrance of the Streight, and had been twice driven back ten or twelve leagues by such storms as we had now just experienced. When the season is so far advanced as it was when we attempted the passage of this Streight, it is a most difficult and dangerous undertaking, as it blows a hurricane incessantly night and day, and the rain is as violent and constant as the wind, with such fogs as often render it impossible to discover any object at the distance of twice the ship's length. This day our best bower cable being quite rubbed to pieces, we cut it into junk, and bent a new one, which we rounded with old rigging eight fathom from the anchor.

Thursday 28.

In the afternoon of the day following, the Tamar parted a new best bower cable, it being cut by the rock, and drove over to the east side of the bay, where the was brought up at a very little distance from some rocks, against which the must otherwise have been dashed to pieces.

Friday 29.

At seven o'clock in the morning of the 29th, we weighed and found our small bower cable very much rubbed by the foul ground, so that we were obliged to cut no less than six

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[page] 78

1765. March.

Friday 29.

Saturday 30.

Sunday 31.

and twenty fathom of it off, and bend it again. In about half an hour, the Tamar, being very near the rocks, and not being able to purchase her anchor, made signals of distress. I was therefore obliged to stand into the bay again, and having anchored, I sent hawsers on board the Tamar, and heaved her up while she purchased her anchor, after which we heaved her to windward, and at noon, being got into a proper birth, she anchored again. We continued in our station all night, and the next morning a gale came on at W. N. W. which was still more violent than any that had preceded it; the water was torn up all round us, and carried much higher than the masts heads, a dreadful sea at the same time rolling in; so that, knowing the ground to be foul, we were in constant apprehension of parting our cables, in which case we must have been almost instantly dashed to atoms against the rocks that were just to leeward of us, and upon which the sea broke with inconceivable fury, and a noise not less loud than thunder. We lowered all the main and fore yards, let go the small bower, veered a cable and an half on the best bower, and having bent the sheet cable, stood by the anchor all the rest of the day, and till midnight, the sea often breaking half-way up our main shrouds. About one in the morning, the weather became somewhat more moderate, but continued to be very dark, rainy, and tempestuous, till midnight, when the wind shifted to the S. W. and soon afterwards it became comparatively calm and clear.

April.

Monday 1.

The next morning, which was the first of April, we had a stark calm, with now and then some light airs from the eastward; but the weather was again thick with hard rain, and we found a current setting strongly to the eastward. At four o'clock we got up the lower yards, unbent the sheet cable, and weighed the small bower; at eight we weighed

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1765. April.

Monday 1.

the best bower, and found the cable very much rubbed in several places, which we considered as a great misfortune, it being a fine new cable, which never had been wet before. At eleven, we hove short on the stream anchor; but soon after, it being calm, and a thick fog coming on with hard rain, we veered away the stream cable, and with a warp to the Tamar, heaved the ship upon the bank again, and let go the small bower in two and twenty fathom.

Wednes. 3.

At six in the evening, we had strong gales at W. N. W. with violent squalls and much rain, and continued in our station till the morning of the 3d, when I sent the Tamar's boat, with an officer from each ship, to the westward, in search of anchoring-places on the south shore; and at the same time I sent my own cutter with an officer to seek anchoring-places on the north shore.

Thursday 4.

The cutter returned the next morning at six o'clock, having been about five leagues to the westward upon the north shore, and found two anchoring-places. The officer reported, that having been on shore, he had fallen in with some Indians, who had with them a canoe of a construction very different from any that they had seen in the Streight before; this vessel consisted of planks sewed together, but all the others were nothing more than the bark of large trees, tied together at the ends, and kept open by short pieces of wood, which were thrust in transversely between the two sides, like the boats which children make of a bean shell. The people, he said, were the nearest to brutes in their manner and appearance of any he had seen: they were, like some which we had met with before, quite naked, notwithstanding the severity of the weather, except part of a seal skin which was thrown over their shoulders; and they eat their food, which was such as no other animal but a hog would touch,

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Thursday 4.

without any dressing: they had with them a large piece of whale blubber, which stunk intolerably, and one of them tore it to pieces with his teeth, and gave it about to the rest, who devoured it with the voracity of a wild beast. They did not however look upon what they saw in the possession of our people with indifference; for while one of them was asleep, they cut off the hinder part of his jacket with a sharp flint which they use as a knife.

About eight o'clock, we made sail, and found little or no current. At noon, Cape Upright bore W. S. W. distant three leagues; and at six in the evening, we anchored in the bay, on the southern shore, which lies about a league to the eastward of the Cape, and had fifteen fathom water.

While we were lying here, and taking in wood and water, seven or eight Indians in a canoe came round the western point of the bay, and having landed opposite to the ship, made a fire. We invited them to come on board by all the signs we could devise, but without success; I therefore took the jolly boat, and went on shore to them. I introduced myself by making them presents of several trifles, with which they seemed to be much gratified, and we became very intimate in a few minutes: after we had spent some time together, I sent away my people, in the boat, for some bread, and remained on shore with them alone. When the boat returned with the bread, I divided it among them, and I remarked with equal pleasure and surprise, that if a bit of the biscuit happened to fall, not one of them offered to touch it till I gave my consent. In the mean time some of my people were cutting a little grass for two or three sheep which I had still left on board, and at length the Indians perceiving what they were doing, ran immediately, and tearing up all the weeds they could get, carried them to the

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Thursday 4.

boat, which in a very short time was filled almost up to her gunwale. I was much gratified by this token of their goodwill, and I could perceive that they were pleased with the pleasure that I expressed upon the occasion: they had indeed taken such a fancy to us, that when I returned on board the boat, they all got into their canoe, and followed me. When we came near the ship, however, they stopped, and gazed at her as if held in surprise by a mixture of astonishment and terror; but at last, though not without some difficulty, I prevailed upon four or five of them to venture on board. As soon as they entered the ship I made them several presents, and in a very little time they appeared to be perfectly at ease. As I was very desirous to entertain them, one of the midshipmen played upon the violin, and some of my people danced; at this they were so much delighted, and so impatient to show their gratitude, that one of them went over the ship's side into the canoe, and fetched up a seal skin bag of red paint, and immediately smeared the fiddler's face all over with it: he was very desirous to pay me the same compliment, which however I thought fit to decline; but he made many very vigorous efforts to get the better of my modesty, and it was not without some difficulty that I defended myself from receiving the honour he designed me in my own despight. After having diverted and entertained them several hours, I intimated that it would be proper for them to go on shore; but their attachment was such, that it was by no means an easy matter to get them out of the ship. Their canoe was not of bark, but of planks sewed together.

Sunday 7.

On Sunday the 7th, at six o'clock in the morning, we weighed, with a moderate breeze at E. N. E. and fine weather. At seven, we were abreast of Cape Upright; and at noon, it bore E. S. E. distant four leagues: soon after we tried

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Sunday 7.

the current, and found it set to the eastward at the rate of a knot and an half an hour. At three it fell calm, and the current driving us to the eastward very fast, we dropped an anchor, which before it took the ground was in one hundred and twenty fathom.

This day, and not before, the Tamar's boat returned from the westward: she had been within two or three leagues of Cape Pillar, and had found several very good anchoring-places on the south shore.

Monday 8.

At one o'clock the next morning, having a fresh gale at west, we weighed, notwithstanding the weather was thick, and made fail; at eleven it blew very hard, with violent rain and a great sea, and as we perceived that we rather lost than gained ground, we stood in for a bay on the south shore, about four leagues to the westward of Cape Upright, and anchored in twenty fathom: the ground was not good, but in other respects this was one of the best harbours that we had met with in the Streight, for it was impossible that any wind should hurt us. There being less wind in the afternoon, and it inclining a little towards the south, we unmoored at two, and at four, the wind having then come round to the S. S. E. and being a moderate breeze, we weighed and steered to the westward: we made about two leagues and an half, but night then coming on, we anchored, not without great difficulty, in a very good bay on the south shore in twenty fathom. As very violent gusts came from the land, we were very near being driven off before we could let go an anchor, and if we had not at last succeeded we must have passed a dreadful night in the Streight; for it blew a hurricane from the time we came to an anchor till the morning, with violent rain, which was sometimes intermingled with snow.

[page] 83

1765. April.

Tuesday 9.

At six o'clock, the wind being still fresh and squally at S. S. E. we weighed and steered W. by N. along the south shore. At eleven, we were abreast of Cape Pillar, which by compass is about fourteen leagues W. ½ N. from Cape Upright. Cape Pillar may be known by a large gap upon the top, and when it bears W.S.W. an island appears off it which has an appearance somewhat like a hay-stack, and about which lie several rocks. The Streight to the eastward of the Cape is between seven and eight leagues over; the land on each side is of a moderate height, but it is lowest on the north shore, the south shore being much the boldest, though both are craggy and broken. Westminster Island is nearer to the north than the south shore; and, by the compass, lies N. E. from Cape Pillar. The land on the north shore, near the west end of the Streight, makes in many islands and rocks, upon which the sea breaks in a tremendous manner. The land about Cape Victory is distant from Cape Pillar about ten or eleven leagues, in the direction of N. W. by N. From the Cape westward, the coast trends S. S. W. ½ W. to Cape Defeada, a low point, off which lie innumerable rocks and breakers. About four leagues W. S. W. from Cape Defeada lie some dangerous rocks, called by Sir John Narborough the Judges, upon which a mountainous surf always breaks with inconceivable fury. Four small islands, called the Islands of Direction, are distant from Cape Pillar about eight leagues, in the direction of N.W. by W. When we were off this Cape it was stark calm; but I never saw such a swell as rolled in here, nor such a surge as broke on each shore. I expected every moment that the wind would spring up from its usual quarter, and that the best which could happen to us would be to be driven many leagues up the Streight again. Contrary however to all expectation, a

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1765. April.

Tuesday 9.

fine steady gale sprung up at S. E. to which I spread all the sail that it was possible for the ship to bear, and ran off from this frightful and desolate coast at the rate of nine miles an hour; so that by eight o'clock in the evening we had left it twenty leagues behind us. And now to make the ship as stiff as possible, I knocked down our after bulk-head, and got two of the boats under the half-deck, I also placed my twelve oared cutter under the boom; so that we had nothing upon the skids but the jolly boat; and the alteration which this made in the vessel is inconceivable: for the weight of the boats upon the skids made her crank, and in a great sea they were also in danger of being lost.

It is probable, that whoever shall read this account of the difficulties and dangers which attended our passage through the Streight of Magellan, will conclude, that it ought never to be attempted again; but that all ships which shall hereafter sail a western course from Europe into the South Seas ought to go round Cape Horn. I, however, who have been twice round Cape Horn, am of a different opinion. I think that at a proper season of the year, not only a single vessel, but a large squadron might pass the Streight in less than three weeks; and I think, to take the proper season, they should be at the eastern entrance some time in the month of December. One great advantage of this passage, is the facility with which fish is almost every where to be procured, with wild celery, scurvy-grass, berries, and many other vegetables in great abundance; for to this I impute the heathiness of my ship's company, not a single man being affected with the scurvy in the slightest degree, nor upon the sick list for any other disorder, notwithstanding the hardship and labour which they endured in the passage, which cost us seven weeks and two days, as we entered

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1765. April.

Tuesday 9.

the Streight on Sunday the 17th of February, and quitted it on Tuesday the 9th of April. Wood and water are also to be procured almost at every anchoring-place beyond Fresh Water Bay. Our sufferings I impute wholly to our passing the Streight just as the sun approached the equinox, when, in this high latitude, the worst weather was to be expected; and indeed the weather we had was dreadful beyond all description.

[page] 86

CHAP. VIII.

The Run from the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to the Islands of Disappointment.

1765. April.

Friday 26.

HAVING cleared the Streight, we pursued our course to the westward, as appears by the track in the chart, till Friday, April the 26th, when we discovered the island of Masafuero bearing W. N. W. ½ W. distant about sixteen leagues; but as to the northward it was hazey, the island of Don Juan Fernandes was not in sight. During this run, the variation had gradually decreased from 22° to 9° 36′E.

Saturday 27.

We bore away for Masafuero, and at sun-set, being within about seven leagues of it, we brought to, and afterwards kept the wind all night. At day-break the next day, we bore away again for the island, at the same time sending an officer, with a boat from each ship, to sound the eastern side of it. About noon, the middle of the island bore W. distant about three miles, and as I saw the boats run along the shore, without being able to land any where for the surf, I bore down to the north part of the island, off which a reef runs for the distance of about two miles, and lay by for them. This island is very high, and the greater part of it is covered with wood; but towards the north end, where I lay, some spots seemed to have been cleared, upon which great numbers of goats were feeding, and they had a green and pleasant appearance. When the boats returned, the officer informed me that he had found a bank, on the east side of the island nearest to the south point, at a considerable distance from the shore, where we might anchor, and op-

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Saturday 27.

posite to which there was a fine fall of fresh water; but near the north point, he said, he could find no anchorage. The boats brought off a great quantity of very fine fish, which they had caught with hook and line near the shore; and as soon as we had taken them on board, which was late in the afternoon, we made sail, and worked to windward in the night.

Sunday 28.

At seven o'clock in the morning, we anchored with the small bower, on the bank which the boats had discovered, in twenty-four fathom, with black sandy ground. The extream points bore from S. to N. W. and the fall of water bore S. S. W. distant about a mile from the ship's station. This part of the island lies north and south, and is about four miles long: the soundings are very regular, from twenty to fifteen fathom, within two cables' length of the shore. Soon after we were come to an anchor, I sent out the boats to endeavour to get some wood and water, but as I observed the shore to be rocky, and a surf to break with great violence upon it, I ordered all the men to put on cork jackets, which had been sent with us to be made use of upon such occasions. By the help of these jackets, which not only assisted the men in swimming, but prevented their being bruised against the rocks, we got off a considerable quantity of water and wood, which, without such assistance, we could not have done: there was, however, another species of danger here, against which cork jackets afforded no defence, for the sea abounded with sharks of an enormous size, which, when they saw a man in the water, would dart into the very surf to seize him: our people, however, happily escaped them, though they were many times very near: one of them, which was upwards of twenty feet long, came close to one of the boats that was watering, and having seized a large seal, instantly devoured it at one mouthful; and I myself saw another

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Sunday 28.

of nearly the same size, do the same thing under the ship's stern. Our people killed and sent off several of the goats, which we thought as good as the best venison in England; and I observed, that one of them appeared to have been caught and marked, its right ear being slit in a manner that could not have happened by accident. We had also fish in such plenty, that one boat would, with hooks and lines, catch, in a few hours, as much as would serve a large ship's company two days: they were of various sorts, all excellent in their kind, and many of them weighed from twenty to thirty pounds.

This evening, the surf running very high, the gunner and one of the seamen who were on shore with the waterers, were afraid to venture off, and the boat therefore, when she came on board the last time, left them behind her.

Monday 29.

The next day we found a more convenient watering-place, about a mile and a half to the northward of the ship, and about the middle-way between the north and south points of the island, there being at this place less surf than where the boats first went on shore. The tide here set twelve hours to the northward, and twelve to the southward, which we found very convenient, for as the wind was southerly, with a great swell, the boats could not otherwise have got on board with their water. We got off ten tons of water from the new watering-place this day, and in the afternoon, I sent a boat to fetch off the gunner and seaman, who had been left on shore at the old watering-place the night before; but the surf was still so great, that the seaman, who could not swim, was afraid to venture: he was therefore again left behind, and the gunner stayed with him.

As soon as this was reported to me, I sent another boat to inform them that as, by the appearances of the weather,

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Monday 29.

there was reason to believe it would soon blow hard, I was afraid I might be driven off the bank in the night, the consequence of which would be that they must be left behind upon the island. When the boat came to the surf, the people on board delivered my message, upon which the gunner swam through the surf, and got on board her; but the seaman, though he had a cork jacket on, said he was sure he should be drowned if he attempted to get off to the boat, and that, chusing rather to die a natural death, he was determined at all events to remain upon the island: he then took an affectionate leave of the people, wishing them all happiness, and the people on board returned his good wishes. One of the midshipmen, however, just as the boat was about to return, took the end of a rope in his hand, jumped into the sea, and swam through the surf to the beach, where poor John still continued ruminating upon his situation, in a dejected attitude, and with a most disconsolate length of countenance. The midshipman began to expostulate with him upon the strange resolution he had taken, and in the mean time having made a running knot in his rope, he dexterously contrived to throw it round his body, calling out to his companions in the boat, who had hold of the other end of it, to haul away; they instantly took the hint, and the poor seceder was very soon dragged through the surf into the boat: he had, however, swallowed so great a quantity of water, that he was to all appearance dead, but being held up by the heels, he soon recovered his speech and motion, and was perfectly well the next day. In the evening, I removed Captain Mouat from the Tamar, and appointed him Captain of the Dolphin, under me; Mr. Cumming, my First Lieutenant, I appointed Captain of the Tamar, taking Mr. Carteret, her First Lieutenant, on board

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in his room, and gave Mr. Kendal, one of the mates of the Dolphin, a commission as Second Lieutenant of the Tamar.

Tuesday 30.

May.

Wednes. 1.

Thursday 2.

Thursday 9.

On the 30th, at seven o'clock in the morning, we weighed, and steered to the northward, along the east and north east side of the island, but could find no anchoring-place; we bore away therefore, with a fresh gale at S. E. and hazey weather, and at noon, the middle of the island was distant eight leagues, in the direction of S. S. E. I continued to steer N. 3° W. the next day, and at noon on the 2d of May, I changed my course, and steered W. intending, if possible, to make the land, which is called Davis's Land in the charts, and is laid down in latitude 27° 30′S. and about five hundred leagues west of Copiapo in Chili; but on the 9th, finding little prospect of getting to the westward, in the latitude which I at first proposed, being then in latitude 26° 46′S., longitude 94° 45′W. and having a great run to make, I determined to steer a north west course till I got the true trade-wind, and then to stand to the westward till I should fall in with Solomon's Islands, if any such there were, or make some new discovery.

Friday 10.

Saturday 11.

On the 10th, we saw several dolphins and bonettas about the ship, and the next day some straggling birds, which were brown on the back and the upper part of their wings, and white on the rest of the body, with a short beak, and a short pointed tail. The variation was now decreased to 4° 45′E. our latitude was 24° 30′S. our longitude 97° 45′W.

Tuesday 14.

On the 14th, we saw several grampuses, and more of the birds which have just been described, so that, imagining we might be near some land, we kept a good look-out, but saw nothing. In latitude 23° 2′S. longitude 101° 28′W. the variation, by azimuth, was 3° 20′E.

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1765. May.

Thursday 16.

On the morning of the 16th, we saw two very remarkable birds; they flew very high, were as large as geese, and all over as white as snow, except their legs, which were black: I now began to imagine that I had passed some land, or islands, which lay to the southward of us, for the last night we observed, that, although we had generally a great swell from that quarter, the water became quite smooth for a few hours, after which the swell returned.

Wednes. 22.

On the 22d, being in latitude 20° 52′S., longitude 115° 38′W. with a faint breeze at E.S.E. we had so great a swell from the southward, that we were in perpetual danger of our masts rolling over the ship's side, so that I was obliged to haul more to the northward, as well to ease the ship, as in hopes of getting the true trade-wind, which we had not yet; and now to my great concern some of my best men began to complain of the scurvy. This day, for the first time, we caught two bonettas; we also saw several tropic birds about the ship, and observed that they were larger than any we had seen before; their whole plumage was white, and they had two long feathers in the tail. The variation now had changed its direction, and was 19′W.

Sunday 26.

On the 26th, we saw two large birds about the ship, which were all black, except the neck and the beak, which were white; they had long wings, and long feathers in their tail, yet we observed that they flew heavily, and therefore imagined that they were of a species which did not usually fly far from the shore. I had flattered myself, that, before we had run six degrees to the northward of Masafuero, we should have found a settled trade-wind to the S.E. but the winds still continued to the north, though we had a mountainous swell from the S.W. Our latitude was now 16° 55′S., longitude 127° 55′W. and here the needle, at this time, had no variation.

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1765. May.

Tuesday 28.

On the 28th, we saw two fine large birds about the ship, one of which was brown and white, and the other black and white; they wanted much to settle upon the yards, but the working of the ship frighted them.

Friday 31.

On the 31st, the wind shifted from N. by W. to N. W. by W. and the number of birds that were now about the ship was very great; from these circumstances, and our having lost the great south west swell, I imagined some land to be near, and we looked out for it with great diligence, for our people began now to fall down with the scurvy very fast.

June.

Friday 7.

We saw no land however till one o'clock in the morning of Friday the 7th of June, when we were in latitude 14° 5′S., longitude 144° 58′W.; and observed the variation to be 4° 30′E. After making the land, I hauled upon a wind under an easy sail till the morning, and then a low small island bore from us W. S. W. at the distance of about two leagues. In a very short time we saw another island to windward of us, bearing E. S. E. distant between three and four leagues: this appeared to be much larger than that which we first discovered, and we must have passed very near it in the night.

I stood for the small island, which as we drew near it had a most beautiful appearance; it was surrounded by a beach of the finest white sand, and within, it was covered with tall trees, which extended their shade to a great distance, and formed the most delightful groves that can be imagined, without underwood. We judged this island to be about five miles in circumference, and from each end of it we saw a spit running out into the sea, upon which the surge broke with great fury; there was also a great surf all round it. We soon perceived that it was inhabited; for many of the natives appeared upon the beach, with spears in their hands

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that were at least sixteen feet long. They presently made several large fires, which we supposed to be a signal; for we immediately perceived several fires upon the larger island that was to windward of us, by which we knew that also to be inhabited. I sent the boat with an officer to look for an anchoring-place, who, to our great regret and disappointment, returned with an account that he had been all round the island, and that no bottom could be found within less than a cable's length of the shore, which was surrounded close to the beach with a steep coral rock. The scurvy by this time had made dreadful havock among us, many of my best men being now confined to their hammocks; the poor wretches who were able to crawl upon the deck, stood gazing at this little paradise which Nature had forbidden them to enter, with sensations which cannot easily be conceived; they saw cocoa-nuts in great abundance, the milk of which is perhaps the most powerful antiscorbutic in the world: they had reason to suppose that there were limes, bananas, and other fruits which are generally found between the tropics; and to increase their mortification they saw the shells of many turtle scattered about the shore. These refreshments, indeed, for want of which they were languishing to death, were as effectually beyond their reach as if there had been half the circumference of the world between them; yet their being in sight, was no inconsiderable increase of the distress which they suffered by the want of them. Their situation in itself indeed was no worse than it would have been if the obstacle to their wishes had been distance, and not a reef of rocks; and both being alike insuperable, a Being wholly under the influence of reason, would, by both, have been equally affected; but this is a situation, among many others, that may be remarked by a diligent observer, in which reason cannot preserve man-

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kind from the power which fancy is perpetually exerting to aggravate the calamities of life. When I knew the soundings, I could not forbear standing close round the island with the ship, though I also knew it was impossible to procure any of the refreshments which it produced. The natives ran along the shore abreast of the ship, shouting and dancing; they also frequently brandished their long spears, and then threw themselves backward, and lay a few minutes motionless, as if they had been dead: this we understood as a menace that they would kill us, if we ventured to go on shore. As we were sailing along the coast, we took notice that in one place the natives had fixed upright in the sand two spears, to the top of which they had fastened several things that fluttered in the air, and that some of them were every moment kneeling down before them, as we supposed, invoking the assistance of some invisible Being to defend them against us. While I was thus circumnavigating the island with the ship, I sent the boats out again to sound, and when they came near the shore, the Indians set up one of the most hideous yells I had ever heard, pointing at the same time to their spears, and poising in their hands large stones which they took up from the beach. Our men on the contrary made all the signs of amity and good-will that they could devise, and at the same time threw them bread and many other things, none of which they vouchsafed so much as to touch, but with great expedition hauled five or six large canoes, which we saw lying upon the beach, up into the wood. When this was done, they waded into the water, and seemed to watch for an opportunity of laying hold of the boat, that they might drag her on shore: the people on board her, apprehending that this was their design, and that if they got them on shore they would certainly put them to death, were very impatient to be before-hand with them,

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and would fain have fired upon them; but the officer on board, having no permission from me to commit any hostilities, restrained them. I should indeed have thought myself at liberty to have obtained by force the refreshments, for want of which our people were dying, if it had been possible to have come to an anchor, supposing we could not have made these poor savages our friends; but nothing could justify the taking away their lives for a mere imaginary or intentional injury, without procuring the least advantage to ourselves. They were of a deep copper colour, exceedingly stout and well limbed, and remarkably nimble and active, for I never saw men run so fast in my life. This island lies in latitude 14° 5′S., longitude 145° 4′W. from the meridian of London. As the boats reported a second time that there was no anchoring ground about this island, I determined to work up to the other, which was accordingly done all the rest of the day and the following night.

Saturday 8.

At six o'clock in the morning of the 8th, we brought to on the west side of it, at the distance of about three quarters of a mile from the shore, but we had no soundings with one hundred and forty fathom of line. We now perceived several other low islands, or rather peninsulas, most of them being joined one to the other by a neck of land, very narrow, and almost level with the surface of the water, which breaks high over it. In approaching these islands the cocoanut trees are first discovered, as they are higher than any part of the surface. I sent a boat with an officer from each ship to sound the lee-side of these islands for an anchoring-place; and as soon as they left the ship, I saw the Indians run down to the beach in great numbers, armed with long spears and clubs: they kept abreast of the boats as they went sounding along the shore, and used many threatening

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Saturday 8.

gestures to prevent their landing, I therefore fired a nine pound shot from the ship over their heads, upon which they ran into the woods with great precipitation. At ten o'clock the boats returned, but could get no soundings close in with the surf, which broke very high upon the shore. The middle of this cluster of islands lies in latitude 14° 10′S., longitude 144° 52′W.; the variation of the compass was here 4° 30′E.

At half an hour after ten, we bore away and made sail to the westward, finding it impossible to procure at these islands any refreshment for our sick, whose situation was becoming more deplorable every hour, and I therefore called them the ISLANDS OF DISAPPOINTMENT.

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CHAP. IX.

The Discovery of King George's Islands, with a Description of them, and an Account of several Incidents that happened there.

1765. June.

Sunday 9.

Monday 10.

AT half an hour after five o'clock in the afternoon of the 9th, we saw land again, bearing W. S. W. at the distance of six or seven leagues; and at seven we brought to for the night. In the morning, being within three miles of the shore, we discovered it to be a long low island, with a white beach, of a pleasant appearance, full of cocoa-nut and other trees, and surrounded with a rock of red coral. We stood along the north east side of it, within half a mile of the shore; and the savages, as soon as they saw us, made great fires, as we supposed, to alarm the distant inhabitants of the island, and ran along the beach, abreast of the ship, in great numbers, armed in the same manner as the natives of the Islands of Disappointment. Over the land on this side of the island we could see a large lake of salt water, or lagoon, which appeared to be two or three leagues wide, and to reach within a small distance of the opposite shore. Into this lagoon we saw a small inlet about a league from the south west point, off which we brought to. At this place the natives have built a little town, under the shade of a fine grove of cocoa-nut trees. I immediately sent off the boats, with an officer in each; to sound; but they could find no anchorage, the shore being every where as steep as a wall, except at the very mouth of the inlet, which was

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scarcely a ship's length wide, and there they had thirteen fathom, with a bottom of coral rock. We stood close in with the ships, and saw hundreds of the savages, ranged in very good order, and standing up to their waists in water; they were all armed in the same manner as those that we had seen at the other islands, and one of them carried a piece of mat fastened to the top of a pole, which we imagined was an ensign. They made a most hideous and incessant noise, and in a short time many large canoes came down the lake to join them. Our boats were still out, and the people on board them made all the signs of friendship that they could invent, upon which some of the canoes came through the inlet and drew near them. We now began to hope that a friendly intercourse might be established; but we soon discovered that the Indians had no other design than to haul the boats on shore: many of them leaped off the rocks, and swam to them; and one of them got into that which belonged to the Tamar, and in the twinkling of an eye seized a seaman's jacket, and jumping overboard with it, never once appeared above water till he was close in shore among his companions. Another of them got hold of a midshipman's hat, but not knowing how to take it off, he pulled it downward instead of lifting it up; so that the owner had time to prevent its being taken away, otherwise it would probably have disappeared as suddenly as the jacket; our men bore all this with much patience, and the Indians seemed to triumph in their impunity.

About noon, finding there was no anchorage here, I bore away and steered along the shore to the westermost point of the island: the boats immediately followed us, and kept sounding close to the beach, but could get no ground.

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1765. June.

Monday 10.

When we came to the westermost point of this island, we saw another, bearing S. W. by W. about four leagues distant. We were at this time about a league beyond the inlet where we had left the natives, but they were not satisfied with having got rid of us quietly; for I now perceived two large double canoes sailing after the ship, with about thirty men in each, all armed after the manner of their country. The boats were a good way to leeward of us, and the canoes, passing between the ship and the shore, seemed very eagerly to give them chace. Upon this I made the signal for the boats to speak with the canoes, and as soon as they perceived it, they turned, and made towards the Indians, who seeing this, were seized with a sudden pannic, and immediately hauling down their sails, paddled back again at a surprising rate. Our boats however came up with them; but notwithstanding the dreadful surf that broke upon the shore, the canoes pushed through it, and the Indians immediately hauled them up upon the beach. Our boats followed them, and the Indians, dreading an invasion of their coast, prepared to defend it with clubs and stones, upon which our men fired, and killed two or three of them: one of them received three balls which went quite through his body; yet he afterwards took up a large stone, and died in the action of throwing it against his enemy. This man fell close to our boats, so that the Indians who remained unhurt did not dare to attempt the carrying off his body, which gave us an opportunity to examine it; but they carried off the rest of their dead, and made the best of their way back to their companions at the inlet. Our boats then returned, and brought off the two canoes which they had pursued. One of them was thirty-two feet long, and the other somewhat less, but they were both of a very curious construction, and

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must have cost those who made them infinite labour. They consisted of planks exceedingly well wrought, and in many places adorned with carving; these planks were sewed together, and over every seam there was a strip of tortoise-shell, very artificially fastened, to keep out the weather: their bottoms were as sharp as a wedge, and they were very narrow; and therefore two of them were joined laterally together by a couple of strong spars, so that there was a space of about six or eight feet between them: a mast was hoisted in each of them, and the sail was spread between the masts: the sail, which I preserved, and which is now in my possession, is made of matting, and is as neat a piece of work as ever I saw: their paddles were very curious, and their cordage was as good and as well laid as any in England, though it appeared to be made of the outer covering of the cocoanut. When these vessels sail, several men sit upon the spars which hold the canoes together.

As the surf which broke very high upon the shore rendered it impossible to procure refreshments for the sick in this part of the island, I hauled the wind, and worked back to the inlet, being determined to try once more what could be done there.

I recovered that station in the afternoon, and immediately sent the boats to sound the inlet again, but they confirmed the account which had been made before, that it afforded no anchorage for a ship. While the boats were absent, I observed a great number of the natives upon the point near the spot where we had left them in the morning, and they seemed to be very busy in loading a great number of large canoes which lay close to the beach. As I thought they might be troublesome, and was unwilling that they should suffer

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by another unequal contest with our people, I fired a shot over their heads which produced the effect I intended, for they all disappeared in a moment.

Tuesday 11.

Just before the evening closed in, our boats landed, and got a few cocoa-nuts which they brought off, but saw none of the inhabitants. In the night, during which we had rain and hard squalls, I stood off and on with the ships, and at seven o'clock in the morning brought to off the inlet. I immediately sent the boats on shore in search of refreshments, and made all the men who were not so ill of the scurvy as to be laid up, go in them; I also went on shore myself, and continued there the whole day. We saw many houses or wigwams of the natives, but they were totally deserted, except by the dogs, who kept an incessant howling from the time we came on shore till we returned to the ship: they were low mean hovels, thatched with cocoa-nut branches; but they were most delightfully situated in a fine grove of stately trees, many of which were the cocoa-nut, and many such as we were utterly unacquainted with. The cocoa-nut trees seem to furnish them with almost all the necessaries of life; particularly food, sails, cordage, timber, and vessels to hold water; so that probably these people always fix their habitations where the trees abound. We observed the shore to be covered with coral, and the shells of very large pearl oysters; so that I make no doubt but that as profitable a pearl fishery might be established here as any in the world. We saw but little of the people, except at a distance; we could however perceive that the women had a piece of cloth of some kind, probably fabricated of the same stuff as their sail, hanging from the waist as low as the knee; the men were naked.

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1765. June.

Tuesday 11.

Our people, in rummaging some of the huts, found the carved head of a rudder, which had manifestly belonged to a Dutch longboat, and was very old and worm-eaten. They found also a piece of hammered-iron, a piece of brass, and some small iron tools, which the ancestors of the present inhabitants of this place probably obtained from the Dutch ship to which the longboat had belonged, all which I brought away with me. Whether these people found means to cut off the ship, or whether she was lost upon the island or after she left it, cannot be known; but there is reason to believe that she never returned to Europe, because no account of her voyage, or of any discoveries that she made, is extant. If the ship sailed from this place in safety, it is not perhaps easy to account for her leaving the rudder of her longboat behind her; and if she was cut off by the natives, there must be much more considerable remains of her in the island, especially of her iron-work, upon which all Indian nations, who have no metal, set the highest value; we had no opportunities however to examine this matter farther. The hammered-iron, brass, and iron tools, I brought away with me; but we found a tool exactly in the form of a carpenter's adze, the blade of which was a pearl oyster-shell; possibly this might have been made in imitation of an adze which had belonged to the carpenter of the Dutch ship, for among the tools that I brought away there was one which seemed to be the remains of such an implement, though it was worn away almost to nothing.

Close to the houses of these people, we saw buildings of another kind, which appeared to be burying-places, and from which we judged that they had great veneration for their dead. They were situated under lofty trees, that gave a thick shade; the sides and tops were of stone; and in their

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Tuesday 11.

figure they somewhat resembled the square tombs, with a flat top, which are always to be found in our country church-yards. Near these buildings we found many neat boxes full of human bones, and upon the branches of the trees which shaded them, hung a great number of the heads and bones of turtle, and a variety of fish, inclosed in a kind of basket-work of reeds: some of the fish we took down, and found that nothing remained but the skin and the teeth; the bones and entrails seemed to have been extracted, and the muscular flesh dried away.

We sent off several boat-loads of cocoa-nuts, and a great quantity of scurvy-grass, with which the island is covered; refreshments which were of infinite service to us, as by this time I believe there was not a man among us wholly untouched by the scurvy.

The fresh water here is very good, but it is scarce; the wells which supply the natives are so small, that when two or three cocoa-nut shells have been filled from them, they are dry for a few minutes; but as they presently fill again, if a little pains were taken to enlarge them, they would abundantly supply any ship with water.

We saw no venomous creature here; but the flies were an intolerable torment, they covered us from head to foot, and filled not only the boat, but the ships. We saw great numbers of parrots and parroquets, and several other birds which were altogether unknown to us; we saw also a beautiful kind of dove, so tame that some of them frequently came close to us, and even followed us into the Indian huts.

All this day the natives kept themselves closely concealed, and did not even make a smoke upon any part of the islands as far as we could see; probably fearing that a smoke might

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Tuesday 11.

discover the place of their retreat. In the evening, we all returned on board the ship.

This part of the island lies in latitude 14° 29′S., longitude 148° 50′W. and after I got on board, I hauled a little way farther from the shore, intending to visit the other island in the morning, which had been seen to the westward of that before which the ship lay, and which is distant about sixty-nine leagues from the Islands of Disappointment, in the direction of W. ½ S.

Wednes. 12.

The next morning, at six o'clock, I made sail for the island which I intended to visit, and when I reached it, I steered S. W. by W. close along the north east side of it, but could get no soundings: this side is about six or seven leagues long, and the whole makes much the same appearance as the other, having a large salt water lake in the middle of it. As soon as the ship came in sight, the natives ran down to the beach in great numbers: they were armed in the same manner as those that we had seen upon the other island, and kept abreast of the ship for several leagues. As the heat of this climate is very great, they seemed to suffer much by running so far in the sun, for they sometimes plunged into the sea, and sometimes fell flat upon the sand, that the surf might break over them, after which they renewed the race with great vigour. Our boats were at this time sounding along the shore, as usual, but I had given strict orders to the officers who commanded them never to molest the natives, except it should become absolutely necessary for their own defence, but to try all possible means to obtain their confidence and good-will: our people therefore went as near to the shore as they durst for the surf, and made signs that they wanted water; the Indians readily understood them, and directed them to run down farther along the shore,

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1765. June.

Wednes. 12.

which they did, till they came abreast of such a cluster of houses as we had just left upon the other island; to this place the Indians still followed them, and were there joined by many others: the boats immediately hauled close into the surf, and we brought to, with the ships, at a little distance from the shore, upon which a stout old man, with a long white beard, that gave him a very venerable appearance, came down from the houses to the beach. He was attended by a young man, and appeared to have the authority of a Chief or King: the rest of the Indians, at a signal which he made, retired to a little distance, and he then advanced quite to the water's edge; in one hand he held the green branch of a tree, and in the other he grasped his beard, which he pressed to his bosom; in this attitude he made a long oration, or rather song, for it had a musical cadence which was by no means disagreeable. We regretted infinitely that we could not understand what he said to us, and not less that he could not understand any thing which we should say to him; to shew our good-will, however, we threw him some trifling presents, while he was yet speaking, but he would neither touch them himself, nor suffer them to be touched by others till he had done: he then walked into the water, and threw our people the green branch, after which he took up the things which had been thrown from the boats. Every thing now having a friendly appearance, our people made signs that they should lay down their arms, and most of them having complied, one of the midshipmen, encouraged by this testimony of confidence and friendship, leaped out of the boat with his clothes on, and swam through the surf to the shore. The Indians immediately gathered round him, and began to examine his clothes with great curiosity; they seemed particularly to admire his waistcoat, and being willing to gratify his new friends, he took it off, and pre-

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sented it to them; this courtesy, however, produced a disagreeable effect, for he had no sooner given away his waistcoat, than one of the Indians very ingeniously untied his cravat, and the next moment snatched it from his neck, and ran away with it. Our adventurer, therefore, to prevent his being stripped by piece-meal, made the best of his way back again to the boat: still, however, we were upon good terms, and several of the Indians swam off to our people, some of them bringing a cocoa-nut, and others a little fresh water in a cocoa-nut shell. But the principal object of our boats, was to obtain some pearls; and the men, to assist them in explaining their meaning, had taken with them some of the pearl oyster shells which they had found in great numbers upon the coast; but all their endeavours were ineffectual, for they could not, even with this assistance, at all make themselves understood. It is indeed probable that we should have succeeded better, if an intercourse of any kind could have been established between us, but it was our misfortune that no anchorage could be found for the ships. As all Indians are fond of beads, it can scarcely be supposed that the pearls, which the oysters at this place contained, were overlooked by the natives, and it is more than probable that if we could have continued here a few weeks, we might have obtained some of great value in exchange for nails, hatchets, and bill-hooks, upon which the natives, with more reason, set a much higher value. We observed, that in the lake, or lagoon, there were two or three very large vessels, one of which had two masts, and some cordage aloft to support them.

K. George's Islands.

To these two islands, I gave the name of KING GEORGE'S ISLANDS, in honour of his Majesty. That which we last visited, lies in latitude 14° 41′S., longitude 149° 15′W.; the variation of the compass here was 5° E.

[page] 107

CHAP. X.

The Run from King George's Islands to the Islands of Saypan, Tinian, and Aguigan; with an Account of several Islands that were discovered in that Track.

1765. June.

Thursday 13.

Prince of Wales's Island.

WE pursued our course to the westward the same day, and the next, about three o'clock in the afternoon, we saw land again, bearing S. S. W. distant about six leagues. We immediately stood for it, and found it to be a low and very narrow island, lying east and west: we ran along the south side of it, which had a green and pleasant appearance, but a dreadful surf breaks upon every part of it, with foul ground at some distance, and many rocks and small islands scattered at about three leagues from the shore. We found it about twenty leagues in length, and it appeared to abound with inhabitants, though we could get only a transient glance of them as we passed along. To this place I gave the name of the PRINCE OF WALES'S ISLAND. It lies in latitude 15° S. and the westermost end of it in longitude 151° 53′W. It is distant from King George's Islands about eight and forty leagues, in the direction of S. 80 W.; the variation here was 5° 30′E.

Sunday 16.

From the western extremity of this island, we steered N. 82 W. and at noon on the 16th, were in latitude 14° 28′S., longitude 156° 23′W.; the variation being 7° 40′E. The wind was now easterly, and we had again the same mountainous swell from the southward that we had before we made the Islands of Direction, and which, from that time to

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Sunday 16.

this day we had lost: when we lost that swell, and for some days before, we saw vast flocks of birds, which we observed always took their flight to the southward when evening was coming on. These appearances persuaded me that there was land in the same direction, and I am of opinion, that if the winds had not failed me in the higher latitudes, I should have fallen in with it: I would indeed at this time have hauled away to the southward, and attempted the discovery, if our people had been healthy, for having observed that all the islands we had seen were full of inhabitants, I was still more confirmed in my opinion; as I could account for their being peopled only by supposing a chain of islands reaching to a continent; but the sickness of the crews, in both ships, was an insuperable impediment.

Monday 17.

Tuesday 18.

Wednes. 19.

Thursday 20.

Friday 21.

The next day, we again saw many birds of various sorts about the ship, and therefore supposed that some other island was not far distant, for the swell continuing, I concluded that the land was not of very great extent: I proceeded, however, with caution, for the islands in this part of the ocean render the navigation very dangerous, they being so low, that a ship may be close in with them before they are seen. We saw nothing, however, on the 18th, the 19th, nor the 20th, during which we continued to steer the same course, though the birds still continued about the vessel in great numbers. Our latitude was now 12° 33′S., longitude 167° 47′W. The Prince of Wales's Island was distant three hundred and thirteen leagues, and the variation of the needle was 9° 15′E. The next morning, about seven o'clock, we discovered a most dangerous reef of breakers, bearing S.S.W. and not farther distant than a single league. In about half an hour afterwards, land was seen from the mast-head, bearing W.N.W. and distant about eight leagues: it had the appearance of three islands, with rocks and broken

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Friday 21.

ground between them. The south east side of these islands lies N. E. by N. and S. W. by S. and is about three leagues in length between the extream points, from both which a reef runs out, upon which the sea breaks to a tremendous height. We sailed round the north end, and upon the north west and west side, saw innumerable rocks and shoals, which stretched near two leagues into the sea, and were extremely dangerous. The islands themselves had a more fertile and beautiful appearance than any we had seen before, and, like the rest, swarmed with people, whose habitations we saw standing in clusters all along the coast. We saw also a large vessel under sail, at a little distance from the shore; but to our unspeakable regret we were obliged to leave the place without farther examination, for it was surrounded in every direction by rocks and breakers, which rendered the hazard more than equivalent to every advantage we might procure. At this time, I took these for part of the islands called Solomon's Islands, and was in hopes that I should fall in with others of them, in some of which we might find an harbour.

The reef of rocks which we first saw as we approached these islands, lies in latitude 10° 15′S., longitude 169° 28′W. and it bears from Prince of Wales's Island N. 76° 48′W. distant 352 leagues. The islands bear from the reef W. N. W. distant nine leagues: I called them the ISLANDS OF DANGER, and steered from them N. W. by W. allowing for the variation.

After having seen the breakers soon after it was light in the morning, I told my officers that I apprehended we should have frequent alarms in the night; at night, therefore, every body was upon the watch, which a very hard squall of wind, with rain, rendered the more necessary. About nine o'clock, having just gone down into my cabbin, I heard a

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Friday 21.

great noise above, and when I enquired what was the matter, I was told that the Tamar, who was ahead, had fired a gun, and that our people saw breakers to leeward: I ran instantly upon deck, and soon perceived that what had been taken for breakers was nothing more than the undulating reflection of the moon, which was going down, and shone faintly from behind a cloud in the horizon; we therefore bore away after the Tamar, but did not get sight of her till an hour afterwards.

Monday 24.

Nothing worthy of notice happened till Monday the 24th, when, about ten o'clock in the morning, we discovered another island, bearing S. S. W. distant about seven or eight leagues: we steered for it, and found it to be low, but covered with wood, among which were cocoa-nut trees in great abundance. It had a pleasant appearance, and a large lake in the middle, like King George's Island: it is near thirty miles in circumference, a dreadful sea breaks upon almost every part of the coast, and a great deal of foul ground lies about it. We sailed quite round it, and when we were on the lee-side, sent out boats to sound, in hopes of finding anchorage: no soundings, however, were to be got near the shore, but I sent the boats out a second time, with orders to land, if it were possible, and procure some refreshments for the sick: they landed with great difficulty, and brought off about two hundred cocoa-nuts, which, to persons in our circumstances, were an inestimable treasure. The people who were on shore, reported that there were no signs of its having ever been inhabited, but that they found thousands of sea fowl sitting upon their nests, which were built in high trees: these birds were so tame that they suffered themselves to be knocked down without leaving their nests: the ground was covered with land crabs, but our people saw no other animal. At first I was inclined to be-

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Monday 24.

Duke of York's Island.

lieve that this island was the same that in the Neptune François is called Maluita, and laid down about a degree to the eastward of the great island of Saint Elizabeth, which is the principal of the Solomon's Islands; but being afterwards convinced of the contrary, I called it the DUKE of YORK'S ISLAND, in honour of his late Royal Highness, and I am of opinion that we were the first human beings who ever saw it. There is indeed great reason to believe that there is no good authority for laying down Solomon's Islands in the situation that is assigned to them by the French: the only person who has pretended to have seen them is Quiros, and I doubt whether he left behind him any account of them by which they might be found by future navigators.

Saturday 29.

We continued our course till the 29th, in the track of these islands, and being then ten degrees to the westward of their situation in the chart, without having seen any thing of them, I hauled to the northward, in order to cross the equinoxial, and afterwards shape my course for the Ladrone Islands, which, though a long run, I hoped to accomplish before I should be distressed for water, notwithstanding it now began to fall short. Our latitude, this day, was 8° 13′S., longitude 176° 20′E. and the variation was 10° 10′E.

July.

Tuesday 2.

Wednes. 3.

On Tuesday the 2d of July, we again saw many birds about the ship, and at four o'clock in the afternoon, discovered an island bearing north, and distant about six leagues: we stood for it till sun-set, when it was distant about four leagues, and then kept off and on for the night. In the morning, we found it a low flat island, of a most delightful appearance, and full of wood, among which the cocoa-nut tree was very conspicuous: we saw, however, to our great regret, much foul ground about it, upon which the sea broke with a dreadful surf. We steered along the

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Wednes. 3.

south west side of it, which we judged to be about four leagues in length, and soon perceived not only that it was inhabited, but very populous; for presently after the ship came in sight, we saw at least a thousand of the natives assembled upon the beach, and in a very short time more than sixty canoes, or rather proas, put off from the shore, and made towards us. We lay by to receive them, and they were very soon ranged in a circle round us. These vessels were very neatly made, and so clean that they appeared to be quite new: none of them had fewer than three persons on board, nor any of them more than six. After these Indians had gazed at us some time, one of them suddenly jumped out of his proa, swam to the ship, and ran up the side like a cat: as soon as he had stepped over the gunwale, he sat down upon it, and burst into a violent fit of laughter, then started up, and ran all over the ship, attempting to steal whatever he could lay his hands upon, but without success, for being stark naked, it was impossible to conceal his booty for a moment. Our seamen put him on a jacket and trowsers, which produced great merriment, for he had all the gestures of a monkey newly dressed; we also gave him bread, which he eat with a voracious appetite, and after having played a thousand antic tricks, he leaped overboard, jacket and trowsers and all, and swam back again to his proa; after this several others swam to the ship, ran up the side to the gun-room ports, and having crept in, snatched up whatever lay in their reach, and immediately leaped again into the sea, and swam away at a great rate, though some of them, having both hands full, held up their arms quite out of the water, to prevent their plunder from being spoiled. These people are tall, well proportioned, and clean-limbed: their skin is a bright copper colour, their features are extremely good, and there is a mixture of intrepidity

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Wednes. 3.

and cheerfulness in their countenances that is very striking. They have long black hair, which some of them wore tied up behind in a great bunch, others in three knots: some of them had long beards, some only whiskers, and some nothing more than a small tuft at the point of the chin. They were all of them stark naked, except their ornaments, which consisted of shells, very prettily disposed and strung together, and were worn round their necks, wrists, and waists: all their ears were bored, but they had no ornaments in them when we saw them: such ornaments as they wear, when they wear any, are probably very heavy, for their ears hang down almost to their shoulders, and some of them were quite split through. One of these men, who appeared to be a person of some consequence, had a string of human teeth about his waist, which was probably a trophy of his military prowess, for he would not part with it in exchange for any thing that I could offer him. Some of them were unarmed, but others had one of the most dangerous weapons I had ever seen: it was a kind of spear, very broad at the end, and stuck full of shark's teeth, which are as sharp as a lancet, at the sides, for about three feet of its length. We shewed them some cocoa-nuts, and made signs that we wanted more; but instead of giving any intimation that they could supply us, they endeavoured to take away those we had.

Byron's Island.

I sent out the boats to sound soon after we brought to off the island, and when they came back, they reported that there was ground at the depth of thirty fathom, within two cables' length of the shore; but as the bottom was coral rock, and the soundings much too near the breakers for a ship to lie in safety, I was obliged again to make sail, without procuring any refreshments for the sick. This island, to which my officers gave the name of BYRON'S ISLAND, lies in lati-

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Wednes. 3.

tude 1° 18′S., longitude 173° 46′E.; the variation of the compass here, was one point E.

In our course from this place, we saw, for several days, abundance of fish, but we could take only sharks, which were become a good dish even at my own table. Many of the people now began to fall down with fluxes, which the Surgeon imputed to the excessive heat, and almost perpetual rains.

Sunday 21.

By the 21st, all our cocoa-nuts being expended, our people began to fall down again with the scurvy. The effect of these nuts alone, in checking this disease, is astonishing: many whose limbs were become as black as ink, who could not move without the assistance of two men, and who, besides total debility, suffered excruciating pain, were in a few days, by eating these nuts, although at sea, so far recovered as to do their duty, and could even go aloft as well as they did before the distemper seized them. For several days, about this time, we had only faint breezes, with smooth water, so that we made but little way, and as we were now not far from the Ladrone Islands, where we hoped some refreshments might be procured, we most ardently wished for a fresh gale, especially as the heat was still intolerable, the glass for a long time having never been lower than eighty-one, but often up to eighty-four; and I am of opinion that this is the hottest, the longest, and most dangerous run that ever was made.

Monday 22.

On the 18th, we were in latitude 13° 9′N., longitude 158° 50′E., and on the 22d, in latitude 14° 25′N., longitude 153° 11′E. during which time we had a northerly current. Being now nearly in the latitude of Tinian, I shaped my course for that island.

[page] 115

CHAP. XI.

The Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian, a Description of the present Condition of that Island, and an Account of the Transactions there.

1765. July.

Sunday 28.

Tuesday 30.

Wednes. 31.

ON the 28th, we saw a great number of birds about the ship, which continued till the 30th, when about two o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, bearing W. ½ N. which proved to be the islands Saypan, Tinian, and Aiguigan. At sunset, the extremes of them bore from N. W. ½ N. westward to S. W.; and the three islands had the appearance of one. At seven, we hauled the wind, and stood off and on all night; and at six the next morning, the extremes of the islands, which still made in one, bore from N. W. by N. to S. W. by S. distant five leagues. The east side of these islands lies N. E. by N. and S. W. by S. Saypan is the northermost; and from the north east point of that island to the south west point of Aiguigan, the distance is about seventeen leagues. These three islands are between two and three leagues distant from each other; Saypan is the largest, and Aiguigan, which is high and round, the smallest. We steered along the east side of them, and at noon hauled round the south point of Tinian, between that island and Aiguigan, and anchored at the south west end of it, in sixteen fathom water, with a bottom of hard sand and coral rock, opposite to a white sandy bay, about a mile and a quarter from the shore, and about three quarters of a mile from a reef of rocks that lies at a good distance from the shore, in the very

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Wednes. 31.

spot where Lord Anson lay in the Centurion. The water at this place is so very clear that the bottom is plainly to be seen at the depth of four and twenty fathom, which is no less than one hundred and forty-four feet.

As soon as the ship was secured, I went on shore, to fix upon a place where tents might be erected for the sick, which were now very numerous; not a single man being wholly free from the scurvy, and many in the last stage of it. We found several huts which had been left by the Spaniards and Indians the year before; for this year none of them had as yet been at the place, nor was it probable that they should come for some months, the sun being now almost vertical, and the rainy season set in. After I had fixed upon a spot for the tents, six or seven of us endeavoured to push through the woods, that we might come at the beautiful lawns and meadows of which there is so luxuriant a description in the Account of Lord Anson's Voyage, and if possible kill some cattle. The trees stood so thick, and the place was so overgrown with underwood, that we could not see three yards before us, we therefore were obliged to keep continually hallooing to each other, to prevent our being separately lost in this trackless wilderness. As the weather was intolerably hot, we had nothing on besides our shoes, except our shirts and trowsers, and these were in a very short time torn all to rags by the bushes and brambles; at last, however, with incredible difficulty and labour, we got through; but, to our great surprise and disappointment, we found the country very different from the account we had read of it: the lawns were entirely overgrown with a stubborn kind of reed or brush, in many places higher than our heads, and no where lower than our middles, which continually entangled our legs, and cut us like whipcord; our

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stockings perhaps might have suffered still more, but we wore none. During this march we were also covered with flies from head to foot, and whenever we offered to speak we were sure of having a mouthful, many of which never failed to get down our throats. After we had walked about three or four miles, we got sight of a bull, which we killed, and a little before night got back to the beach, as wet as if we had been dipt in water, and so fatigued that we were scarcely able to stand. We immediately sent out a party to fetch the bull, and found that during our excursion some tents had been got up, and the sick brought on shore.

August.

Thursday 1.

The next day our people were employed in setting up more tents, getting the water-casks on shore, and clearing the well at which they were to be filled. This well I imagined to be the same that the Centurion watered at; but it was the worst that we had met with during the voyage, for the water was not only brackish, but full of worms. The Road also where the ships lay was a dangerous situation at this season, for the bottom is hard sand and large coral rocks, and the anchor having no hold in the sand, is in perpetual danger of being cut to pieces by the coral; to prevent which as much as possible, I rounded the cables, and buoyed them up with empty water casks. Another precaution also was taught me by experience, for at first I moored, but finding the cables much damaged, I resolved to lie single for the future, that by veering away or heaving in, as we should have more or less wind, we might always keep them from being slack, and consequently from rubbing, and this expedient succeeded to my wish. At the full and change of the moon, a prodigious swell tumbles in here, so that I never saw ships at anchor roll so much as ours did while we lay here; and it once drove in from the westward with such

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violence, and broke so high upon the reef, that I was obliged to put to sea for a week; for if our cable had parted in the night, and the wind had been upon the shore, which sometimes happens for two or three days together, the ship must inevitably have been lost upon the rocks.

As I was myself very ill with the scurvy, I ordered a tent to be pitched for me, and took up my residence on shore; where we also erected the armourer's forge, and began to repair the iron-work of both the ships. I soon found that the island produced limes, sour oranges, cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit*, guavas, and paupaus in great abundance; but we found no water-melons, scurvy-grass, or sorrel.

Notwithstanding the fatigue and distress that we had endured, and the various climates we had passed through, neither of the ships had yet lost a single man since their sailing from England; but while we lay here two died of fevers, a disease with which many were seized, though we all recovered very fast from the scurvy. I am indeed of opinion that this is one of the most unhealthy spots in the world, at least during the season in which we were here. The rains were violent, and almost incessant, and the heat was so great as to threaten us with suffocation. The thermometer, which was kept on board the ship, generally stood at eighty-six, which is but nine degrees less than the heat of the blood at the heart; and if it had been on shore it would have risen much higher. I had been upon the coast of Guinea, in the West Indies, and upon the island of Saint Thomas, which is under the Line, but I had never felt any such heat as I felt here. Besides the inconvenience which we suffered from the weather, we were incessantly tormented by the flies in the

* See a particular description of the bread-fruit, vol. ii. p. 80.

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day, and by the musquitos in the night. The island also swarms with centipieds and scorpions, and a large black ant, scarcely inferior to either in the malignity of its bite. Besides these, there were venomous insects without number, altogether unknown to us, by which many of us suffered so severely, that we were afraid to lie down in our beds; nor were those on board in a much better situation than those on shore, for great numbers of these creatures being carried into the ship with the wood, they took possession of every birth, and left the poor seamen no place of rest either below or upon the deck.

As soon as we were settled in our new habitations, I sent out parties to discover the haunts of the cattle, some of which were found, but at a great distance from the tents, and the beasts were so shy that it was very difficult to get a shot at them. Some of the parties which, when their haunts had been discovered, were sent out to kill them, were absent three days and nights before they could succeed; and when a bullock had been dragged seven or eight miles through such woods and lawns as have just been described, to the tents, it was generally full of fly-blows, and stunk so as to be unfit for use: nor was this the worst, for the fatigue of the men in bringing down the carcass, and the intolerable heat they suffered from the climate and the labour, frequently brought on fevers which laid them up. Poultry however we procured upon easier terms: there was great plenty of birds, and they were easily killed; but the flesh of the best of them was very ill-tasted, and such was the heat of the climate that within an hour after they were killed it was as green as grass, and swarmed with maggots. Our principal resource for fresh meat, was the wild hog, with which the island abounds. These creatures are very fierce,

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and some of them so large that a carcass frequently weighed two hundred pounds. We killed them without much difficulty, but a Black belonging to the Tamar contrived a method to snare them, so that we took great numbers of them alive, which was an unspeakable advantage; for it not only ensured our eating the flesh while it was sweet, but enabled us to send a good number of them on board as sea-stores.

In the mean time we were very desirous of procuring some beef in an eatable state, with less risk and labour, and Mr. Gore, one of our Mates, at last, discovered a pleasant spot upon the north west part of the island, where cattle were in great plenty, and whence they might be brought to the tents by sea. To this place therefore I dispatched a party, with a tent for their accommodation, and sent the boats every day to fetch what they should kill; sometimes however there broke such a sea upon the rocks that it was impossible to approach them, and the Tamar's boat unhappily lost three of her best men by attempting it. We were now, upon the whole, pretty well supplied with provisions, especially as we baked fresh bread every day for the sick; and the fatigue of our people being less, there were fewer ill with the fever: but several of them were so much disordered by eating of a very fine looking fish which we caught here, that their recovery was for a long time doubtful. The Author of the Account of Lord Anson's Voyage says, that the people on board the Centurion thought it prudent to abstain from fish, as the few which they caught at their first arrival surfeited those who eat of them. But not attending sufficiently to this caution, and too hastily taking the word surfeit in its literal and common acceptation, we imagined that those who tasted the fish when Lord Anson first came hither, were made sick merely by eating too much;

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whereas, if that had been the case, there would have been no reason for totally abstaining afterwards, but only eating temperately. We however bought our knowlege by experience, which we might have had cheaper; for though all our people who tasted this fish, eat sparingly, they were all soon afterwards dangerously ill.

Besides the fruit that has been mentioned already, this island produces cotton and indigo in abundance, and would certainly be of great value if it was situated in the West Indies. The Surgeon of the Tamar enclosed a large spot of ground here, and made a very pretty garden; but we did not stay long enough to derive any advantage from it.

While we lay here, I sent the Tamar to examine the island of Saypan, which is much larger than Tinian, rises higher, and, in my opinion, has a much pleasanter appearance. She anchored to the leeward of it, at the distance of a mile from the shore, and in about ten fathom water, with much the same kind of ground as we had in the road of Tinian. Her people landed upon a fine sandy beach which is six or seven miles long, and walked up into the woods, where they saw many trees which were very fit for topmasts. They saw no fowls, nor any tracks of cattle; but of hogs and guanicoes there was plenty. They found no fresh water near the beach, but saw a large pond inland, which they did not examine. They saw large heaps of pearl oyster-shells thrown up together, and other signs of people having been there not long before: possibly the Spaniards may go thither at some seasons of the year, and carry on a pearl fishery. They also saw many of those square pyramidal pillars which are to be found at Tinian, and which are particularly described in the Account of Lord Anson's Voyage.

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1765. September.

Monday 30.

October.

Tuesday 1.

Wednes. 2.

Thursday 3.

On Monday the 30th of September, having now been here nine weeks, and our sick being pretty well recovered, I ordered the tents to be struck, and with the forge and oven carried back to the ship; I also laid in about two thousand cocoa-nuts, which I had experienced to be so powerful a remedy for the scurvy, and the next day I weighed, hoping that before we should get the length of the Bashé Islands, the N. E. monsoon would be set in. I stood along the shore to take in the beef-hunters; but we had very little wind this day and the next till the evening, when it came to the westward and blew fresh: I then stood to the northward till the morning of the 3d, when we made Anatacan, an island that is remarkable high, and the same that was first fallen in with by Lord Anson.

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CHAP. XII.

The Run from Tinian to Pulo Timoan, with some Account of that Island, its Inhabitants and Productions, and thence to Batavia.

1765. October.

Thursday 10.

WE continued our course till Thursday the 10th, when being in latitude 18° 33′N., longitude 136° 50′E. we found the ship two and twenty miles to the southward of her account, which must have been the effect of a strong current in that direction. The variation here was 5° 10′E. and for some time we found it regularly decreasing, so that on the 19th, being in latitude 21° 10′N., longitude 124° 17′E. the needle pointed due north.

Friday 18.

On the 18th, we had found the ship eighteen miles to the northward of her account, and saw several land birds about the ship, which appeared to be very much tired: we caught one as it was resting upon the booms, and found it very remarkable. It was about as big as a goose, and all over as white as snow, except the legs and beak which were black; the beak was curved, and of so great a length and thickness, that it is not easy to conceive how the muscles of the neck, which was about a foot long and as small as that of a crane, could support it. We kept it about four months upon biscuit and water, but it then died, apparently for want of nourishment, being almost as light as a bladder. It was very different from every species of the Toucan that is represented by Edwards, and I believe has never been de-

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1765. October.

Friday 18.

scribed. These birds appeared to have been blown off some island to the northward of us, that is not laid down in the charts.

Tuesday 22.

The needle continued to point due north till the 22d, when, at six o'clock in the morning, Grafton's Island, the northermost of the Bashé Islands bore south, distant six leagues. As I had designed to touch at these islands, I stood for that in sight; but as the navigation from hence to the Streight of Banca is very dangerous, and we had now both a fine morning and a fine gale, I thought it best to proceed on our way, and therefore steered westward again. The principal of these islands are five in number, and by a good observation Grafton's Island lies in latitude 21° 8′N., longitude 118° 14′E. The variation of the compass was now 1° 20′W.

Thursday 24.

Wednes. 30.

Thursday 31.

November.

Saturday 2.

On the 24th, being in latitude 16° 59′N., longitude 113° 1′E. we kept a good look-out for the Triangles, which lie without the north end of the Prasil, and form a most dangerous shoal. On the 30th, we saw several trees and large bamboos floating about the ship, and upon sounding had three and twenty fathom, with dark brown sand, and small pieces of shells. Our latitude was now 7° 17′N., longitude 104° 21′E.; the variation was 30′W. The next day we found the ship thirteen miles to the northward of her account, which we judged to be the effect of a current; and on the 2d of November, we found her thirty-eight miles to the southward of her account. Our latitude by observation was 3° 54′N., longitude 103° 20′E. We had here soundings at forty-two and forty-three fathom, with soft mud.

Sunday 3.

At seven o'clock the next morning, we saw the island of Timoan, bearing S. W. by W. distant about twelve leagues. As Dampier has mentioned Pulo Timoan as a place where

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1765. November.

Sunday 3.

Tuesday 5.

some refreshments are to be procured, I endeavoured to touch there, having lived upon salt provisions, which were now become bad ever since we were at Tinian; but light airs, calms, and a southerly current, prevented our coming to an anchor till late in the evening of the 5th. We had sixteen fathom at about the distance of two miles from the shore, in a bay on the east side of the island.

Wednes. 6.

The next day I landed to see what was to be got, and found the inhabitants, who are Malays, a surly insolent set of people. As soon as they saw us approaching the shore, they came down to the beach in great numbers, having a long knife in one hand, a spear headed with iron in the other, and a cressit or dagger by their side. We went on shore, however, notwithstanding these hostile appearances, and a treaty soon commenced between us; but all we could procure, was about a dozen of fowls, and a goat and kid. We had offered them knives, hatchets, bill hooks, and other things of the same kind; but these they refused with great contempt, and demanded rupees: as we had no rupees, we were at first much at a loss how to pay for our purchase; but at last we bethought ourselves of some pocket handkerchiefs, and these they vouchsafed to accept, though they would take only the best.

These people are of a small stature, but extremely well made, and of a dark copper colour. We saw among them one old man who was dressed somewhat in the manner of the Persians; but all the rest were naked, except a handkerchief, which they wore as a kind of turban upon their heads, and some pieces of cloth which were fastened with a silver plate or clasp round their middles. We saw none of their women, and probably some care was taken to keep them out of our sight. The habitations are very neatly

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1765. November.

Wednes. 6.

built of slit bamboo, and are raised upon posts about eight feet from the ground. Their boats are also well made, and we saw some of a large size, in which we supposed that they carried on a trade to Malacca.

Thursday 7.

The island is mountainous and woody, but we found it pleasant when we were ashore; it produces the cabbage and cocoa-nut tree in great plenty, but the natives did not chuse to let us have any of the fruit. We saw also some rice grounds, but what other vegetable productions Nature has favoured them with, we had no opportunity to learn, as we staid here but two nights and one day. In the bay where the ship rode there is excellent fishing, though the surf runs very high: we hauled our seine with great success, but could easily perceive that it gave umbrage to the inhabitants, who consider all the fish about these islands as their own. There are two fine rivers that run into this bay, and the water is excellent: it was indeed so much better than what we had on board, that I filled as many casks with it as loaded the boat twice. While we lay here, some of the natives brought down an animal which had the body of a hare, and the legs of a deer; one of our officers bought it, and we should have been glad to have kept it alive, but it was impossible for us to procure for it such food as it would eat; it was therefore killed, and we found it very good food. All the while we lay here, we had the most violent thunder, lightning and rain, that I had ever known; and finding that nothing more was to be procured, we sailed again on Thursday morning, with a fine breeze off the land. In the afternoon, we tried the current, and found it set S. E. at the rate of a mile an hour. The variation here was 38′W. We certainly made this passage at an improper season of the year; for after we came into the latitude of Pulo Condore,

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1765. November.

we had nothing but light airs, calms, and tornados, with violent rain, thunder and lightning.

Sunday 10.

At seven o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 10th, we saw the east end of the island of Lingen, bearing S. W. by W. distant eleven or twelve leagues. The current set E. S. E. at the rate of a mile an hour. At noon, it fell calm, and I anchored with the kedge in twenty fathom. At one o'clock, the weather having cleared up, we saw a small island bearing S. W. ½ S. distant ten or eleven leagues.

Monday 11.

At one o'clock the next morning, we weighed and made sail; and at six, the small island bore W. S. W. distant about seven leagues, and some very small islands, which we supposed to be Domines islands, W. ½ N. distant about seven or eight leagues, a remarkable double peak on the island of Lingen, bearing at same time W. by N. distant about ten or twelve leagues. Our latitude by observation was now 18′S. The latitude of the east end of Lingen is 10′S., longitude 105° 15′E. Pulo Taya bears from it nearly S. by W. and is distant about twelve leagues.

Tuesday 12.

At ten o'clock in the morning of Tuesday the 12th, we saw a small Chinese junk to the north east; and at seven the next morning a small island, called Pulo Toté, bearing S. E. by E. distant about twelve leagues. A little to the northward of Pulo Taya is a very small island, called Pulo Toupoa.

Wednes. 13.

The next day, at four in the afternoon, there being no wind, we came to an anchor in fourteen fathom with soft ground, Pulo Taya bearing N. W. distant about seven leagues. We tried the current, and found it set E. by S. at the rate of two knots two fathom an hour. We saw a sloop at anchor about four miles from us, which hoisted Dutch

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1765. November.

Wednes. 13.

Thursday 14.

colours. In the night, we had violent rain, with hard squalls, during one of which we parted the stream cable, and therefore let go the small bower. At eight in the morning, the wind became moderate and variable, from N. N. W. to W. S. W. We got out our longboat and weighed the stream anchor, and at nine made sail. We found the current still very strong to the eastward; and at two, we anchored again in fourteen fathom, Pulo Taya bearing N. W. ½ N. distant between seven and eight leagues. The vessel which we had seen the day before under Dutch colours, still lying at anchor in the same place, I sent a boat with an officer to speak with her: the officer was received on board with great civility; but was extremely surprised to find that he could not make himself understood, for the people on board were Malays, without a single white man among them: they made tea for our men immediately, and behaved with great chearfulness and hospitality. The vessel was of a very singular construction; her deck was of slit bamboo, and she was steered, not by a rudder, but by two large pieces of timber, one upon each quarter.

Friday 15.

Saturday 16.

The next morning, at six o'clock, we weighed and made sail: at two, Monopin Hill bore S. by E. distant about ten or eleven leagues, and had the appearance of a small island. It bears S. by W. from the seven islands, and is distant from them about twelve leagues: its latitude is 2° South. From the seven islands we steered S. W. by S. and had regular soundings from twelve to seven fathom, and soon after saw the coast of Sumatra, bearing from W. S. W. to W. by N. at the distance of about seven leagues. In the evening, we anchored in seven fathom; and the next morning at four, we made sail again, and continued our course S. by E. till the peak of Monopin Hill bore east, and Bata-

6

[page] 129

1765. November.

Saturday 16.

carang Point, on the Sumatra shore, S. W. to avoid a shoal, called Frederick Hendrick, which is about mid-way between the Banca and Sumatra shore: the soundings were thirteen and fourteen fathom. We then steered E. S. E. and kept mid-channel to avoid the banks of Palambam River, and that which lies off the westermost point of Banca. When we were abreast of Palambam River, we regularly shoaled our water from fourteen to seven fathom; and when we had passed it, we deepened it again to fifteen and sixteen fathom. We continued to steer E. S. E. between the Third and Fourth Points of Sumatra, which are about ten leagues distant from each other: the soundings, nearest to the Sumatra shore, were all along from eleven to thirteen fathom; and the high land of Queda Banca appeared over the Third Point of Sumatra, bearing E. S. E. From the Third Point to the Second, the course is S. E. by S. at the distance of about eleven or twelve leagues. The high land of Queda Banca, and the Second Point of Sumatra bear E. N. E. and W. S. W. of each other. The Streight is about five leagues over, and in the mid-channel there is twenty-four fathom. At six o'clock in the evening, we anchored in thirteen fathom; Monopin Hill bearing N. ½ W.; and the Third Point of Sumatra, S. E. by E. distant between two and three leagues. Many small vessels were in sight, and most of them hoisted Dutch colours. In the night we had fresh gales and squalls, with thunder and lightning, and hard rain; but, as our ables were good, we were in no danger, for in this place the anchor is buried in a stiff clay.

Sunday 1.

In the morning the current or tide set to the S. E. at the rate of three knots; at five we weighed, with a moderate gale at west and hazey weather, and in the night the tide shifted, and ran as strongly to the N. W.; so that it ebbs and flows here twelve hours.

VOL. I. S

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1765. November.

Tuesday 19.

Wednes. 20.

Tuesday 27.

On the 19th, we spoke with an English snow, belonging to the East India Company, which was bound from Bencoolen to Malacca and Bengal. We had now nothing to eat but the ship's provisions, which were become very bad, for all our beef and pork stunk intolerably, and our bread was rotten and full of worms; but as soon as the Master of this snow learnt our situation, he generously sent me a sheep, a dozen fowls, and a turtle, which I verily believe was half his stock, besides two gallons of arrack, and would accept nothing but our thanks in return. It is with great pleasure that I pay this tribute to his liberality, and am very sorry that I cannot recollect his name, or the name of his vessel. In the afternoon, we worked round the First Point of Sumatra, and our soundings on the north-side, at the distance of about a mile and a half from the shore, were fourteen fathom. At half an hour after three we anchored, and sent a boat to sound for the shoals which lie to the northward of the island called Lasipara, which bore from us S. E. by S. distant about six leagues. Little wind, and a strong tide of stood to the northward, prevented our working between these shoals and the coast of Sumatra till the afternoon of the twentieth: the soundings were very regular, being nine or ten fathom as we stood over to the island, and five or six when we stood over to Sumatra. As this Streight has been often navigated, and is well known, it is not necessary to insert all the particulars of our passage through it; I shall therefore only say, that at six o'clock in the evening of Tuesday the 27th, we steered between the islands Edam and Horn, and entered the road of Batavia. At eight, we anchored without the ships, Onrust bearing W. N. W. distant five or six miles.

[page] 131

CHAP. XIII.

Transactions at Batavia, and Departure from that Place.

1765. November.

Wednes. 28.

THE next day, which by our account was the 28th, but by the account of the Dutch at this place, was the 29th, we having lost a day by having steered westward a year, we anchored nearer to the town, and saluted the water fort with eleven guns, which were returned. We found here above a hundred sail great and small, and among others, a large English ship belonging to Bombay, which saluted us with thirteen guns.

There is always lying here a Dutch Commodore belonging to the Company, who, among his countrymen, is a person of very great consequence. This gentleman thought fit to send his boat on board of me, with only the cockswain in her, who was a very dirty ragged fellow: as soon as he was brought to me, he asked whence I came, whither I was bound, and many other questions, which I thought equally impertinent, at the same time pulling out a book, and pen and ink, that he might set down the answers; but as I was impatient to save him this trouble, he was desired immediately to walk over the ship's side, and put off his boat, with which he was graciously pleased to comply.

When we came to this place, we had not one man sick in either of the ships; but as I knew it to be more unhealthy than any other part of the East Indies, as the rainy season was at hand, and arrack was to be procured in great plenty I determined to make my stay here as short as possible. I went on shore to wait upon the Dutch Governor, but was

S 2

[page] 132

1765. November.

told that he was at his country house, about four miles distant from the town. I met however with an officer, called a shebander, who is a kind of master of the ceremonies, and he acquainted me, that if I chose to go to the Governor immediately, rather than wait for his coming to town, he would attend me; I accepted his offer, and we set out together in his chariot. The Governor received me with great politeness, and told me, that I might either take a house in any part of the city that I should like, or be provided with lodgings at the hotel. This hotel is a licensed lodging-house, the only one in the place, and kept by a Frenchman, an artful fellow, who is put in by the Governor himself. It has indeed more the appearance of a palace than a house of entertainment, being the most magnificent building in Batavia; nor would a small edifice answer the purpose, for as there is a penalty of five hundred dollars upon any person in the city who shall suffer a stranger to steep a single night at his house, the strangers who make it their residence are never few: all the houses indeed have a stately appearance on the outside, and are elegantly fitted up within, and we were told that the Chinese, of whom there are great numbers at this place, were the architects. The city is large, and the streets well laid out, but they have greatly the appearance of those in the cities of Holland, for a canal runs through most of them, with a row of trees planted on each side: this is convenient for the merchants, who have every thing brought up to their own doors by water, but it probably contributes to the unhealthiness of the place; the canal, indeed, as the city is built in a swamp, might be necessary as a drain, but the trees, though they have a pleasant appearance, must certainly prevent the noxious vapours that are perpetually arising, from being dispersed, by obstructing the circulation of the air.

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1765. November.

The number of people here is incredible, and they are of almost every nation in the world, Dutch, Portuguese, Chinese, Persians, Moors, Malays, Javanese, and many others: the Chinese, however, have a large town to themselves, without the walls, and carry on a considerable trade, for they have annually ten or twelve large junks from China; and to these the opulence of the Dutch at Batavia is in a great measure owing. The beef here is bad, and the mutton scarce, but the poultry and fish are excellent and in great plenty. Here are also the greatest variety and abundance of the finest fruit in the world, but the musquitos, centipieds, scorpions, and other noxious vermin, which are innumerable, prevent all enjoyment, and even rest, as well by night as by day. The roads, for many miles about the city, are as good as any in England: they are very broad, and by the side of them runs a canal, shaded by tall trees, which is navigable for vessels of a very large size: on the other side of the canal are gardens, of a very pleasant appearance, and country houses of the citizens, where they spend as much of their time as possible, the situation being less unwholesome than the city; and there are so few of them who do not keep a carriage, that it is almost a disgrace to be seen on foot.

December.

Monday 10.

Friday 14.

At this place I continued from the 28th of November to the 10th of December, when, having procured what refreshments I could for my people, and taken on board a sufficient quantity of rice and arrack, to serve for the rest of the voyage, I weighed anchor and made sail. The fort saluted me with eleven guns, and the Dutch Commodore with thirteen, which I returned; we were saluted also by the English ship. We worked down to Prince's Island, in the Streight of Sunda, and came to an anchor there on the 14th. In this passage, the boats came off to us from the Java shore, and supplied us with turtle in such plenty, that neither of the

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1765. December.

Wednes. 19.

ships' companies eat any thing else. We lay at Prince's Island till the 19th, and during all that time we subsisted wholly upon the same food, which was procured from the inhabitants at a very reasonable rate. Having now taken on board as much wood and water as we could stow, we weighed, and got without Java Head before night: but by this time a dangerous putrid fever had broken out among us; three of my people had died, and many others now lay in so dangerous a condition that there were little hopes of their recovery: we did not, however, bury one at Batavia, which, notwithstanding our stay was so short, was thought to be a very extraordinary instance of good fortune; and our sick gradually recovered after we had been a week or two at sea.

[page] 135

CHAP. XIV.

The Passage from Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence to England.

1766. February.

Monday 10.

WE continued our course, without any event worthy of notice, except that one of my best men unhappily fell overboard and was drowned, till Monday the 10th of February, when, at six o'clock in the morning, we saw the coast of Africa, bearing from N. N. W. to N. E. distant about seven leagues: it made in several high hills, and white sandy cliffs, and its latitude was 34° 15′S., longitude 21° 45′E.; the variation here was 22° W. and our depth of water fifty-three fathom, with a bottom of coarse brown sand.

I stood in for the land, and when I was within about two leagues of it, I saw a great smoke rising from a sandy beach. I imagined the smoke to be made by the Hottentots; yet I was astonished at their chusing this part of the coast for their residence, for it consisted of nothing but sand banks as far as we could see, without the least bush or a single blade of verdure, and so heavy a sea broke upon the coast, that it was impossible to catch any fish.

Wednes. 12.

Thursday 13.

On Wednesday the 12th, at three o'clock in the afternoon, we were abreast of Cape Lagullas, from which the coast lies W. N. W. to the Cape of Good Hope, which is distant about thirty leagues. The next day, we passed between Penguin

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1766. February.

Thursday 13.

Island and Green Point, and worked into Table Bay with our top-sails close reefed, there being a strong gale, with hard squalls at S. S. E. At three o'clock in the afternoon, we anchored, and saluted the fort, which was returned. The Dutch told me, that none of their ships could have worked in in such a gale of wind, and that we seemed to come in faster than they were generally able to do when the wind was fair.

Friday 14.

The next morning, I waited upon the Governor, who had sent his coach and six to the water-side for me. He is an old man, but is a favourite with all ranks of people: he received me with the greatest politeness, and not only offered me the Company's house in the garden for my residence while I should continue at the Cape, but his coach whenever I should think fit to use it. As I was one day at dinner with him, and some other gentlemen, I took occasion to mention the smoke that I had seen upon one of the sandy beaches on a desolate part of the coast, and the surprise with which it had struck me: they then told me that another ship, some time before, had fallen in with that part of the coast, and had seen large smokes as I had done, although the place was uninhabited, and supposed to be an island: to account for the smokes, however, they told me also, that two Dutch East Indiamen had, about two years before, sailed from Batavia for the Cape, and had never afterwards been heard of; and it was supposed that one or both of them had been shipwrecked there, and that the smokes which had been seen, were made by some of the unfortunate crew: they added, that they had more than once sent out vessels to look for them, but that there broke so dreadful a sea upon the coast, they were obliged to return without attempting to go on

[page] 137

1766. February.

shore. When I heard this melancholy account, I could only regret that I had not known it before, for I would then certainly have made every effort in my power to have found these unhappy wretches, and taken them from a place where now, in all probability, they must miserably perish.

The Cape is certainly a most excellent place for ships to touch at; it is a healthy climate, a fine country, and abounds with refreshments of every kind. The Company's garden is a delightful spot, and at the end of it there is a paddock belonging to the Governor, in which are kept a great number of rare and curious animals, and among others, when I was there, were three fine ostriches, and four zebras of an uncommon size. I gave all the people leave to go on shore by turns, and they always contrived to get very drunk with Cape wine before they came back. Many ships came in while we lay here; some were Dutch, some French, some Danes, but all were outward bound.

March.

Thursday 6,

Friday 7.

Having continued here three weeks, and during that time refreshed our men, and completed our water, I took leave of the good old Governor on the 6th of March, and on the 7th, failed out of the bay, with a fine breeze at S. E.

Sunday 16.

On Sunday the 16th, at six in the morning, we saw the island of Saint Helena, bearing W. by N. at the distance of about sixteen leagues, and about noon, a large ship, which shewed French colours. We pursued our course, and a few days afterwards, as we were sailing with a fine gale, and at a great distance from land, the ship suddenly received a rude shock, as if she had struck the ground: this instantly brought all who were below upon the deck in great consternation, and upon looking out we saw the water, to a very large extent, tinged with blood; this put an end to our

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1766. March.

Sunday 16.

fears, and we concluded that we must have struck either a whale or a grampus, from which the ship was not likely to receive much damage, not in fact did the receive any. About this time also we had the misfortune to bury our carpenter's mate, a very ingenious and diligent young man, who had never been well after our leaving Batavia.

Tuesday 25.

On the 25th, we crossed the equator, in longitude 17° 10′W. and the next morning, Captain Cumming came on board, and informed me that the Tamar's three lower rudder braces on the stern were broken off, which rendered the rudder unserviceable. I immediately sent the carpenter on board, who found the condition of the braces even worse than had been reported, so that the rudder could not possibly be new hung; he therefore went to work upon a machine, like that which had been fixed to the Ipswich, and by which she was steered home: this machine in about five days he completed, and with some little alterations of his own, it was an excellent piece of work. The Tamar steered very well with it, but thinking that it might not be sufficient to secure her in bad weather, or upon a lee shore, I ordered Captain Cumming to run down to Antigua, that he might there heave the ship down, and get the rudder new hung, with a fresh set of braces which he had with him for that purpose; for the braces with which the ship went out, being of iron, were not expected to last as long as our's, the lower ones, with the sheathing, being of copper.

April.

Tuesday 1.

Pursuant to these orders, the Tamar parted company with us on the 1st of April, and steered for the Caribbee Islands. When we came into latitude 34° N., longitude 35° W. we had strong gales from W. S. W. to W. N. W. with a great sea, which broke over us continually for six days successively, and

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[page] 139-360

1766. May.

Thursday 7.

Saturday 9.

run us into latitude 48° N., longitude 14° W. On the 7th of May, at seven o'clock in the morning, we made the Islands of Scilly, having been just nine weeks coming from the Cape of Good Hope, and somewhat more than two and twenty months upon the voyage; the 9th, the ship came to anchor in the Downs, and on the same day I landed at Deal, and set out for London.

[page break]

[page 361]

AN

ACCOUNT

OF A

VOYAGE round the WORLD,

IN THE YEARS

MDCCLXVI, MDCCLXVII, and MDCCLXVIII.

By SAMUEL WALLIS, Efq;

Commander of his Majesty's Ship the DOLPHIN.

VOL. I. A a a

[page break]

[page 363]

CHAP. I.

The Passage to the coast of Patagonia, with some account of the Natives.

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian of London.]

1766. June 19.

HAVING received my commission, which was dated the 19th of June 1766, I went on board the same day, hoisted the pendant, and began to enter seamen, but, according to my orders, took no boys either for myself or any of the officers.

Sat. July 26.

Sat. Aug. 16.

The ship was fitted for the sea with all possible expedition, during which the articles of war, and the act of parliament were read to the ship's company: on the 26th of July we failed down the river, and on the 16th of August, at eight o'clock in the morning, anchored in Plymouth Sound.

Tuesday 19.

On the 19th I received my failing orders, with directions to take the Swallow sloop, and the Prince Frederick store-ship under my command: and this day I took on board, among other things, three thousand weight of portable soup, and a bale of cork jackets. Every part of the ship was filled with stores and necessaries of various kinds, even to the steerage and state-room, which were allotted to the slops and portable soup. The surgeon offered to purchase an extraordinary quantity of medicines, and medical necessaries, which, as the ship's company might become sickly,

A a a 2

[page] 364

1766. August.

he said would in that case be of great service, if room could be found to stow them in; I therefore gave him leave to put them into my cabbin, the only place in the ship where they could be received, as they consisted of three large boxes.

Friday 22.

On the 22d, at four o'clock in the morning, I weighed and made sail in company with the Swallow and Prince Frederick, and had soon the mortification to find that the Swallow was a very bad sailer.

September.

Sunday 7.

We proceeded in our voyage, without any remarkable incident, till Sunday the seventh of September, when, about eight o'clock in the morning, we saw the island of Porto Santo, bearing west; and about noon saw the east-end of the island of Madeira.

About five o'clock we ran between this end of the island and the Deserters. On the side next the Deserters is a low flat island, and near it a needle rock; the side next to Madeira is full of broken rocks, and for that reason it is not safe to come within less than two miles of it.

Monday 8.

At six in the evening we anchored in Madeira Road, about two-thirds of a mile from the shore, in 24 fathom with a muddy bottom: about eight the Swallow and Prince Frederick also came to an anchor; and I sent an officer on shore to the Governor, to let him know that I would salute him, if he would return an equal number of guns, which he promised to do; the next morning therefore, at fix o'clock, I saluted him with thirteen guns, and he returned thirteen as he had promised.

Friday 12.

Having taken in a proper quantity of water at this place, with four pipes and ten puncheons of wine, some fresh beef, and a large quantity of onions, we weighed anchor on the 12th, and continued our voyage.

[page] 365

1766. September.

Tuesday 16.

At six o'clock in the morning, of Tuesday the 16th, we saw the island of Palma, and found the ship 15 miles to the southward of her reckoning. As we were sailing along this island, at the rate of no less than eight miles an hour, with the wind at east, it died away at once; so that within less than two minutes the ship had no motion, though we were at least four leagues distant from the shore. Palma lies in lat. 28° 40′N. long. 17° 48′W.

Saturday 20.

On the 20th we tried the current, and found it set S. W. by W. one mile an hour: this day we saw two herons flying to the eastward, and a great number of bonettos about the ship, of which we caught eight.

Sunday 21.

Monday 22.

Tuesday 23.

In the night between the 21st and 22d we lost our companion the Swallow, and about eight in the morning we saw the island of Sal, bearing S. ½ W.; at noon it bore S. ¾ W. distant 8 leagues; and at noon on the 23d, the nearest land of the island of Bonavista bore from S. to W. S. W. distant seven or eight miles, the east-end, at the same time, bearing W. distant two leagues. In this situation we founded, and had only 15 fathom, with rocky ground; at the same time we saw a very great rippling, which we supposed to be caused by a reef, stretching off the point about E. S. E. three miles, and breakers without us, distant also about three miles in the direction of S. E. We steered between the rippling and the breakers, but after hauling the ship off about half a mile, we had no soundings. The Prince Frederick passed very near the breakers, in the S. E. but had no soundings; yet these breakers are supposed to be dangerous. The middle of the isle of Sal is in lat. 16° 55′N. long. 21° 59° W.; the middle of Bonavista is in lat. 16° 10′long. 23° W.

[page] 366

1766. September.

Wedn. 24.

On the next day, at six in the morning, the isle of May bore from W. to S. W. six leagues; and soon after the Swallow again joined company. At half an hour after 10 the west-end of the isle of May bore north at the distance of five miles, and we found a current here, setting to the south-ward at the rate of twenty miles in four and twenty hours. The latitude of this island is 15° 10′N. longitude 22° 25′W.

Thurs. 25.

At noon the south-end of the island St. Iago bore S. W. by W. distant four leagues; and the north-end N. W. distant five leagues. At half an hour after three we anchored in Port Praya, in that island, in company with the Swallow and Prince Frederick, in eight fathom water, upon sandy ground. We had much rain and lightning in the night, and early in the morning I sent to the commanding-officer at the fort, for leave to get off some water, and other refreshments, which he granted.

We soon learnt that this was the sickly season, and that the rains were so great as to render it extremely difficult to get any thing down from the country to the ships: it happened also, unfortunately, that the small-pox, which is extremely fatal here, was at this time epidemic; so that I permitted no man to go ashore who had not had that distemper, and I would not suffer even those that had to go into any house.

We procured, however, a supply of water and some cattle from the shore, and caught abundance of fish with the seine, which was hauled twice every day: we found also in the valley where we got our water, a kind of large purslain, growing wild in amazing quantities: this was a most welcome refreshment both raw as a sallad, and boiled with the

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broth and pease; and when we left the place we carried away enough of it to serve us a week.

Sunday 28.

On the 28th, at half an hour after twelve we weighed and put to sea; at half an hour after six in the evening the peak of Fuego bore W. N. W. distant 12 leagues, and in the night the burning mountain was very visible.

This day I ordered hooks and lines to be served to all the ship's company, that they might catch fish for themselves; but at the same time I also ordered that no man should keep his fish more than four and twenty hours before it was eaten, for I had observed that stale, and even dried fish, had made the people sickly, and tainted the air in the ship.

October.

Wednes. 1.

Friday 3.

Tuesday 7.

On the first of October, in lat. 10° 37′N. we lost the true trade-wind, and had only light and variable gales; and this day we found that the ship was set twelve miles to the northward by a current; on the third we found a current run S. by E. at the rate of six fathom an hour, or about twenty miles and a half a day: on the seventh we found the ship 19 miles to the southward of her reckoning.

Monday 20.

On the 20th, our butter and cheese being all expended, we began to serve the ship's company with oil, and I gave orders that they should also be served with mustard and vinegar once a fortnight during the rest of the voyage.

Wednes. 22.

On the 22d we saw an incredible number of birds, and among the rest a man of war bird, which inclined us to think that some land was not more than 60 leagues distant: this day we crossed the equator in longitude 23° 40′W.

Friday 24.

Sunday 26.

On the 24th I ordered the ship's company to be served with brandy, and reserved the wine for the sick and convalescent. On the 26th the Prince Frederick made signals of distress, upon which we bore down to her, and found than she had

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carried away her fore-top-sail-yard. To supply this loss we gave her our sprit-sail-top-sail-yard, which we could spare, and she hoisted it immediately.

Monday 27.

On the 27th the again made signals of distress, upon which I brought to, and sent the carpenter on board her, who returned with an account that she had sprung a leak under the larboard cheek forward, and that it was impossible to do any thing to it till we had better weather. Upon speaking with Lieutenant Brine, who commanded her, he informed me that his crew were sickly; that the fatigue of working the pumps, and constantly standing by the sails, had worn them down; that their provisions were not good, that they had nothing to drink but water, and that he feared it would be impossible for him to keep company with me except I could spare him some assistance. For the badness of their provision I had no remedy, but I sent on board a carpenter and fix seamen to assist in pumping and working the ship.

November.

Saturday 8.

On the eighth of November, being in latitude 25° 52′S. longitude 39° 38′we sounded with 160 fathom, but had no ground: on the ninth, having seen a great number of birds, called albatrosses, we founded again with 180 fathom, but had no ground.

Tuesday 11.

On the 11th, having by signal brought the store-ship under our stern, I sent the carpenter, with proper assistants, on board to stop the leak; but they found that very little could be done: we then compleated our provisions, and those of the Swallow, from her stores, and put on board her all our staves, iron hoops, and empty oil jars. The next day I sent a carpenter and six seamen to relieve the men that had been sent to assist her on the 27th of October, who, by this time, began to suffer much by their fatigue. Several of her crew having the appearance of the scurvy, I sent

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the surgeon on board her with some medicines for the sick. This day, having seen some albatrosses, turtles, and weeds, we founded, but had no ground with 180 fathom.

Wednes. 12.

On the 12th, being now in latitude 30 south, we began to find it very cold; we therefore got up our quarter cloths, and fitted them to their proper places, and the seamen put on their thick jackets. This day we saw a turtle, and several albatrosses, but still had no ground with 180 fathom.

Tuesday 18.

We continued to see weeds and birds on board the ship, but had no ground till the 18th, when we found a soft muddy bottom at the depth of 54 fathom. We were now in lat. 35° 40′S. long. 49° 54′W.; and this was the first sounding we had after our coming upon the coast of Brazil.

Wednes. 19.

Thursday 20.

On the 19th, about eight o'clock in the evening, we saw a meteor of a very extraordinary appearance in the northeast, which, soon after we had observed it, flew off in a horizontal line to the south-west, with amazing rapidity: it was near a minute in its progress, and it left a train of light behind it so strong, that the deck was not less illuminated than at noon-day. This day we saw a great number of seals about the ship, and had soundings at 55 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The next day the seals continued, and we had soundings at 53 fathom, with a dark coloured sand; upon which we bent our cables.

Friday 21.

On the 21st we had no ground with 150 fathom. Our lat. at noon was 37° 40′S. long. 51° 24′W.

Saturday 22.

On the 22d we had soundings again at 70 fathom, with a dark brown sand, and saw many whales and seals about the ship, with a great number of butterflies, and birds, among which were snipes and plover. Our lat. at noon was 38° 55′long. 56° 47′W.

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Monday 8.

Tuesday 9.

Our soundings continued from 40 to 70 fathom, till the eighth of December, when, about six o'clock in the morning, we saw land bearing from S. W. to W. by S. and appearing like many small islands. At noon it bore from W. by S. to S. S. W. distant 8 leagues; our latitude then being 47° 16′S. long. 64° 58′W. About three o'clock Cape Blanco bore W. N. W. distant six leagues, and a remarkable double saddle W. S. W. distant about three leagues. We had now soundings from 20 to 16 fathom, sometimes with coarse sand and gravel, sometimes with small black stones and shells. At eight in the evening the Tower rock at Port Desire bore S. W. by W. distant about three leagues; and the extreams of the land from S. by E. to N. W. by N. At nine, Penguin Island bore S. W. by W. ½ W. distant two leagues; and at four o'clock in the morning of the ninth, the land seen from the masthead bore from S. W. to W. by N.

At noon Penguin island bore S. by E. distant 57 miles; our latitude being 48° 56′S. longitude 65° 6′W. This day we saw such a quantity of red shrimps about the ship, that the sea was coloured with them.

Wednes. 10.

At noon the next day, Wednesday the 10th, the extreams of the land bore from S. W. to N. W. and Wood's Mount, near the entrance of Saint Julian's, bore S. W. by W. distant three or four leagues. Our latitude was 49° 16′S. our longitude 66° 48′W.; and our soundings were from 40 to 45 fathom, sometimes sine sand, sometimes soft mud.

Tuesday 11.

At noon, on Thursday the 11th, Penguin island bore N. N. E. distant 58 leagues. Our latitude was 50° 48′S. our longitude 67° 10′W.

Saturday 13.

We continued our course till Saturday the 13th, when our latitude being 50° 34′S. and our longitude 68° 15′W.

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the extreams of the land bore from N. ½ E. to S. S. W. ½ W. and the ship was about five or six miles distant from the shore. Cape Beachy-head, the northermost cape, was found to lie in latitude 50° 16′S. and Cape Fairweather, the southermost cape, in latitude 50° 50′S.

Sunday 14.

On Sunday the 14th, at four in the morning, Cape Beachy-head bore N. W. ½ N. distant about eight leagues; and at noon, our latitude being 50° 52′S. and longitude 68° 10′W. Penguin island bore N. 35° E. distant 68 leagues. We were six leagues from the shore, and the extreams of the land were from N. W. to W. S. W.

Monday 15.

Tuesday 16.

At eight o'clock in the morning, of Monday the 15th, being about six miles from the shore, the extreams of the land bore from S. by E. to N. by E. and the entrance of the river Saint Croix S. W. ½ W. We had 20 fathom quite cross the opening, the distance from point to point being about seven miles, and afterwards keeping at the distance of about four miles from each cape, we had from 22 to 24 fathom. The land on the north shore is high, and appears in three capes; that on the south shore is low and flat. At seven in the evening, Cape Fairweather bore S. W. ½ S. distant about four leagues, a low point running out from it S.S.W. ¾ W. We stood off and on all night, and had from 30 to 22 fathom water, with a bottom of sand and mud. At seven the next morning, Tuesday the 16th, we shoaled gradually into 12 fathom, with a bottom of sine sand, and soon after into six: we then hauled off S. E. by S. somewhat more than a mile; then steered east five miles, then E. by N. and deepened into 12 fathom. Cape Fairweather at this time bore W. ½ S. distant four leagues, and the northermost extremity of the land W. N. W. When we first came into shoal water, Cape Fairweather bore W. ½ N. and a low point without it W. S. W.

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distant about four miles. At noon Cape Fairweather bore W. N. W. ½ W. distant six leagues, and a large hummock S. W. ½ W. distant seven leagues. At this time our lat. was 51° 52′S. long. 68° W.

At one o'clock, being about two leagues distant from the shore the extreams of three remarkable round hills bore from S. W. by W. to W. S. W. At four, Cape Virgin Mary bore S. E. by S. distant about four leagues. At eight, we were very near the Cape, and upon the point of it saw several men riding, who made signs for us to come on shore. In about half an hour we anchored in a bay, close under the south side of the Cape, in ten fathom water, with a gravelly bottom. The Swallow and store-ship anchored soon after between us and the Cape, which then bore N. by W. ½ W. and a low sandy point like Dungeness S. by W. From the Cape there runs a shoal, to the distance of about half a league, which may be easily known by the weeds that are upon it. We found it high water at half an hour after eleven, and the tide rose twenty foot.

Wednes. 17.

The natives continued abreast of the ship all night, making several great fires, and frequently shouting very loud. As soon as it was light, on Wednesday morning the 17th, we saw great numbers of them in motion, who made signs for us to land. About five o'clock I made the signal for the boats belonging to the Swallow and the Prince Frederick to come on board, and in the mean time hoisted out our own. These boats being all manned and armed, I took a party of marines, and rowed towards the shore, having left orders with the master to bring the ship's broad-side to bear upon the landing place, and to keep the guns loaded with round shot. We reached the beach about six o'clock, and before we went from the boat, I made signs to the natives to retire

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Wednes. 17.

to some distance: they immediately complied, and I then landed with the captain of the Swallow, and several of the officers: the marines were drawn up, and the boats were brought to a grappling near the shore. I then made signs to the natives to come near, and directed them to sit down in a semicircle, which they did with great order and chearfulness. When this was done, I distributed among them several knives, scissars, buttons, beads, combs, and other toys, particularly some ribands to the women, which they received with a very becoming mixture of pleasure and respect. Having distributed my presents, I endeavoured to make them understand that I had other things which I would part with, but for which I expected somewhat in return. I shewed them some hatchets and bill-hooks, and pointed to some guanicoes, which happened to be near, and some ostriches which I saw dead among them; making signs at the same time that I wanted to eat; but they either could not, or would not understand me: for though they seemed very desirous of the hatchets and the bill-hooks, they did not give the least intimation that they would part with any previsions; no traffick therefore was carried on between us.

Each of these people, both men and women, had a horse, with a decent saddle, stirrups, and bridle. The men had wooden spurs, except one, who had a large pair of such as are worn in Spain, brass stirrups, and a Spanish cimeter, without a scabbard; but notwithstanding these distinctions, he did not appear to have any authority over the rest: the women had no spurs. The horses appeared to be well made, and nimble, and were about 14 hands high. The people had also many dogs with them, which, as well as the horses, appeared to be of a Spanish breed.

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Wednes. 17.

As I had two measuring rods with me, we went round and measured those that appeared to be tallest among them. One of these was six feet seven inches high, several more were six feet five, and six feet six inches; but the stature of the greater part of them was from five feet ten to six feet. Their complexion is a dark copper colour, like that of the Indians in North America; their hair is strait, and nearly as harsh as hog's bristles: it is tied back with a cotton string, but neither sex wears any head-dress. They are well made, robust, and boney; but their hands and feet are remarkably small. They are cloathed with the skins of the guanico, sewed together into pieces about six foot long, and five wide: these are wrapped round the body, and fastened with a girdle, with the hairy side inwards; some of them had also what the Spaniards have called a puncho, a square piece of cloth made of the downy hair of the guanico, through which a hole being cut for the head, the rest hangs round them about as low as the knee. The guanico is an animal that in size, make, and colour, resembles a deer, but it has a hump on its back, and no horns. These people wear also a kind of drawers, which they pull up very tight, and buskins, which reach from the mid-leg to the instep before, and behind are brought under the heel; the rest of the foot is without any covering. We observed that several of the men had a red circle painted round the left eye, and that others were painted on their arms, and on different parts of the face; the eye-lids of all the young women were painted black. They talked much, and some of them called out Ca-pi-ta-ne; but when they were spoken to in Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Dutch, they made no reply. Of their own language we could distinguish only one word, which was chevoro: we supposed it to be a salutation, as they always

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pronounced it when they shook hands with us, and when, by signs, they asked us to give them any thing. When they were spoken to in English, they repeated the words after us as plainly as we could do; and they soon got by heart the words "Englishmen come on shore." Every one had a missile weapon of a singular kind, tucked into the girdle. It consisted of two round stones, covered with leather, each weighing about a pound, which were fastened to the two ends of a string about eight feet long. This is used as a sling, one stone being kept in the hand, and the other whirled round the head till it is supposed to have acquired sufficient force, and then discharged at the object. They are so expert in the management of this double-headed shot, that they will hit a mark, not bigger than a shilling, with both the stones, at the distance of fifteen yards; it is not their custom, however, to strike either the guanico or the ostrich with them in the chace, but they discharge them so that the cord comes against the legs of the ostrich, or two of the legs of the guanico, and is twisted round them by the force and swing of the balls, so that the animal being unable to run, becomes an easy prey to the hunter.

While we stayed on shore, we saw them eat some of their flesh meat raw, particularly the paunch of an ostrich, without any other preparation or cleaning than just turning it inside out, and shaking it. We observed among them several beads, such as I gave them, and two pieces of red baize, which we supposed had been left there, or in the neighbouring country, by Commodore Byron.

After I had spent about four hours with these people, I made signs to them that I was going on board, and that I would take some of them with me if they were desirous to go. As soon as I had made myself understood, above an hundred

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Wednes. 17.

eagerly offered to visit the ship; but I did not chuse to indulge more than eight of the number. They jumped into the boats with the joy and alacrity of children going to a fair, and having no intention of mischief against us, had not the least suspicion that we intended any mischief against them. They sung several of their country songs while they were in the boat, and when they came on board did not express either the curiosity or wonder which the multiplicity of objects, to them equally strange and stupendous, that at once presented themselves, might be supposed to excite. I took them down into the cabbin, where they looked about them with an unaccountable indifference, till one of them happened to cast his eyes upon a looking-glass: this however excited no more astonishment than the prodigies which offer themselves to our imagination in a dream, when we converse with the dead, fly in the air, and walk upon the sea, without reflecting that the laws of nature are violated; but it afforded them infinite diversion: they advanced, retreated, and played a thousand tricks before it, laughing violently, and talking with great emphasis to each other. I gave them some beef, pork, biscuit, and other articles of the ship's provisions: they eat, indiscriminately, whatever was offered to them, but they would drink nothing but water. From the cabbin I carried them all over the ship, but they looked at nothing with much attention, except the animals which we had on board as live stock: they examined the hogs and sheep with some curiosity, and were exceedingly delighted with the Guinea hens and turkies; they did not seem to desire any thing that they saw except our apparel, and only one of them, an old man, asked for that: we gratified him with a pair of shoes and buckles, and to each of the others I gave a canvas bag, in which I put some needles ready threaded, a few slips of cloth, a knife, a pair of scissars, some twine, a

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Wednes. 17.

few beads, a comb, and a looking-glass, with some new sixpences and halfpence, through which a hole had been drilled, that was fitted with a riband to hang round the neck. We offered them some leaves of tobacco, rolled up into what are called segars, and they smoked a little, but did not seem fond of it. I showed them the great guns, but they did not appear to have any notion of their use. After I had carried them through the ship, I ordered the marines to be drawn up, and go through part of their exercise. When the first volley was fired, they were struck with astonishment and terror; the old man in particular, threw himself down upon the deck, pointed to the muskets, and then striking his breast with his hand, lay some time motionless, with his eyes shut: by this we supposed he intended to shew us that he was not unacquainted with fire-arms, and their fatal effect. The rest seeing our people merry, and finding themselves unhurt, soon resumed their cheerfulness and good humour, and heard the second and third volley fired without much emotion; but the old man continued prostrate upon the deck some time, and never recovered his spirits till the siring was over. About noon, the tide being out, I acquainted them by signs that the ship was proceeding farther, and that they must go on shore: this I soon perceived they were very unwilling to do; all however, except the old man and one more, were got into the boat without much difficulty; but these stopped at the gang-way, where the old man turned about, and went aft to the companion ladder, where he stood some time without speaking a word; lie then uttered what we supposed to be a prayer; for he many times lifted up his hands and his eyes to the heavens, and spoke in a manner and tone very different from what we had observed in their conversation: his oraison seemed to be rather sung than said, so that we found it impossible to distinguish one

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word from another. When I again intimated that it was proper for him to go into the boat, he pointed to the fun, and then moving his hand round to the west, he paused, looked in my face, laughed, and pointed to the shore: by this it was easy to understand that he wished to stay on board till fun-set, and I took no little pains to convince him that we could not stay so long upon that part of the coast, before he could be prevailed upon to go into the boat; at length however he went over the ship's side with his companion, and when the boat put off they all began to sing, and continued their merriment till they got on shore. When they landed, great numbers of those on shore pressed eagerly to get into the boat; but the officer on board, having positive orders to bring none of them off, prevented them, though not without great difficulty, and apparently to their extream mortification and disappointment.

When the boat returned on board, I sent her off again with the master, to found the shoal that runs off from the point: he found it about three miles broad from north to south, and that to avoid it, it was necessary to keep four miles off the Cape, in twelve or thirteen fathom water.

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CHAP. II.

The Passage through the Streight of Magellan, with some further account of the Patagonians, and a description of the Coast on each side, and its Inhabitants.

1766. December.

Wednes. 17.

ABOUT one o'clock, on Wednesday the 17th of December, I made the signal and weighed, ordering the Swallow to go a-head, and the store-ship to bring up the rear. The wind was right against us, and blew fresh, so that we were obliged to turn into the Streight of Magellan with the flood-tide, between Cape Virgin Mary and the Sandy Point that resembles Dungeness. When we got a-breast of this Point, we stood close into the shore, where we saw two guanicoes, and many of the natives on horseback, who seemed to be in pursuit of them: when the horsemen came near, they ran up the country at a great rate, and were pursued by the hunters, with their slings in their hands ready for the cast; but neither of them was taken while they were within the reach of our sight.

When we got about two leagues to the west of Dungeness, and were standing off shore, we fell in with a shoal upon which we had but seven fathom water at half flood: this obliged us to make short tacks, and keep continually heaving the lead. At half an hour after eight in the evening, we anchored about three miles from the shore, in 20 fathom, with a muddy bottom: Cape Virgin Mary then bearing N. E. by E. ½ E.; Point Possession W. ½ S. at the distance of about five leagues.

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Wednes. 17.

Thursday 18.

About half an hour after we had cast anchor, the natives made several large fires a-breast of the ship, and at break of day we saw about four hundred of them encamped in a fine green valley, between two hills, with their horses feeding beside them. About six o'clock in the morning, the tide being done, we got again under sail: it's course here is from east to west; it rises and falls thirty feet, and its strength is equal to about three knots an hour. About noon there being little wind, and the ebb running with great force, the Swallow, who was a-head, made the signal and came to an anchor; upon which I did the same, and so did the store-ship, that was a-stern.

As we saw great numbers of the natives on horseback a-breast of the ship, and as Captain Carteret informed me that this was the place where Commodore Byron had the conference with the tall men, I sent the lieutenants of the Swallow and the store-ship to the shore, but with orders not to land, as the ships were at too great a distance to protect them. When these gentlemen returned, they told me that the boat having lain upon her oars very near the beach, the natives came down in great numbers, whom they knew to be the same persons they had seen the day before, with many others, particularly women and children; that when they perceived our people had no design to land, they seemed to be greatly disappointed, and those who had been on board the ship waded off to the boat, making signs for it to advance, and pronouncing the words they had been taught, "Englishmen come on shore," very loud, many times; that when they found they could not get the people to land, they would fain have got into the boat, and that it was with great difficulty they were prevented. That they presented them

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with some bread, tobacco, and a few toys, pointing at the same time to some guanicoes and ostriches, and making signs that they wanted them as provisions, but that they could not make themselves understood; that finding they could obtain no refreshment, they rowed along the shore in search of fresh water, but that seeing no appearance of a rivulet, they returned on board.

Friday 19.

At six o'clock the next morning, we weighed, the Swallow being still a-head, and at noon we anchored in Possession bay, having twelve fathom, with a clean sandy bottom. Point Possession at this time bore East, distant three leagues; the Asses Ears west, and the entrance of the Narrows S. W. ½ W.: the bottom of the bay, which was the nearest land to the ship, was distant about three miles. We saw a great number of Indians upon the Point, and at night, large fires on the Terra del Fuego shore.

Monday 22.

From this time, to the 22d, we had strong gales and heavy seas, so that we got on but slowly; and we now anchored in 18 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The Asses Ears bore N. W. by W. ½ W. Point Possession N. E. by E. and the point of the Narrows, on the south side, S. S. W. distant between three and four leagues. In this situation, our longitude, by observation, was 70° 20′W. latitude 52° 30′S. The tide here sets S.E. by S. and N.E. by N. at the rate of about three knots an hour; the water rises four and twenty feet, and at this time it was high water at four in the morning.

Tuesday 23.

In the morning of the 23d, we made sail, turning to windward, but the tide was so strong, that the Swallow was set one way, the Dolphin another, and the store-ship a third: there was a fresh breeze, but not one of the vessels would answer her helm. We had various soundings, and saw the rippling in the middle ground: in these circumstances,

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Tuesday 23.

Wednes. 24.

sometimes backing, sometimes filling, we entered the first Narrows. About six o'clock in the evening, the tide being done, we anchored on the south shore, in 40 fathom, with a sandy bottom; the Swallow anchored on the north shore, and the store-ship not a cable's length from a sand bank, about two miles to the eastward. The streight here is only three miles wide, and at midnight, the tide being slack, we weighed and towed the ship through. A breeze sprung up soon afterwards, which continued till seven in the morning, and then died away. We steered from the first Narrows to the second S. W. and had 19 fathom, with a muddy bottom. At eight we anchored two leagues from the shore, in 24 fathom, Cape Gregory bearing W. ½ N. and Sweepstakes Foreland S. W. ½ W. The tide here ran seven knots an hour, and such bores sometimes came down, with immense quantities of weeds, that we expected every moment to be adrift.

Thursday 25.

The next day, being Christmas day, we sailed through the second Narrows. In turning through this part of the Streight we had 12 fathom within half a mile of the shore on each side, and in the middle 17 fathom, 22 fathom, and no ground. At five o'clock in the evening, the ship suddenly shoaled from 17 fathom to 5, St. Bartholomew's island then bearing S. ½ W. distant between three and four miles, and Elizabeth island S. S. W. ½ W. distant five or six miles. About half an hour after eight o'clock, the weather being rainy and tempestuous, we anchored under Elizabeth island in 24 fathom, with hard gravelly ground. Upon this island we found great quantities of celery, which, by the direction of the surgeon, was given to the people, with boiled wheat and portable soup, for breakfast every morning. Some of the officers who went ashore with their guns, saw two small dogs, and several places where fires had been recently

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made, with many fresh shells of muscles and limpets lying about them: they saw also several wigwams or huts, consisting of young trees, which, being sharpened at one end, and thrust into the ground in a circular form, the other ends were brought to meet, and fastened together at the top; but they saw none of the natives.

From this place we saw many high mountains, bearing from S. to W. S. W.; several parts of the summits were covered with snow, though it was the midst of summer in this part of the world: they were clothed with wood about three parts of their height, and above with herbage, except where the snow was not yet melted. This was the first place where we had seen wood in all South America.

Friday 26.

At two o'clock in the morning of the 26th, we weighed, and having a fair wind, were a-breast of the north end of Elizabeth's island at three: at half an hour after five, being about mid-way between Elizabeth's island and St. George's island, we suddenly shoaled our water from 17 fathom to six: we struck the ground once, but the next cast had no bottom with 20 fathom. When we were upon this shoal, Cape Porpoise bore W.S.W. ½ W. the south-end of Elizabeth's island W. N. W. ½ W. distant three leagues, and the south-end of Saint George's island N. E. distant four leagues. The store-ship, which was about half a league to the southward of us, had once no more than four fathom, and for a considerable time not seven; the Swallow, which was three or four miles to the southward, had deep water, for she kept near to St. George's island. In my opinion it is safest to run down from the north-end of Elizabeth's island, about two or three miles from the shore, and so on all the way to Port Famine. At noon, a low point bore E. ½ N. Fresh-water Bay S. W. ½ W. At this time we were about three miles distant

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from the north shore, and had no ground with 80 fathom. Our longitude, by observation, which was made over the shoal, was 71° 20′W. our latitude 53° 12′S.

About four o'clock we anchored in Port Famine Bay, in 13 fathom, and there being little wind, sent all the boats, and towed in the Swallow and Prince Frederick.

Saturday 27.

The next morning, the weather being squally, we warped the ship farther into the harbour, and moored her with a cable each way in nine fathom. I then sent a party of men to pitch two large tents in the bottom of the bay, for the sick, the wooders, and the sail-makers, who were soon after sent on shore with the surgeon, the gunner, and some midshipmen. Cape St. Anne now bore N. E. by E. distant three quarters of a mile, and Sedger River S.½ W.

Sunday 28.

On the 28th we unbent all the sails, and sent them on shore to be repaired, erected tents upon the banks of Sedger River, and sent all the empty casks on shore, with the coopers to trim them, and a mate and ten men to wash and fill them. We also hauled the seine, and caught fish in great plenty: some of them resembled a mullet, but the flesh was very soft; and among them were a few smelts, some of which were twenty inches long, and weighed four and twenty ounces.

During our whole stay in this place, we caught fish enough to furnish one meal a day both for the sick and the well: we found also great plenty of celery and pea-tops, which were boiled with the pease and portable soup: besides these, we gathered great quantities of fruit that resembled the cranberry, and the leaves of a shrub somewhat like our thorn, which were remarkably four. When we arrived, all our people began to look pale and meagre; many had the scurvy to a great degree, and upon others there were manifest signs of its approach; yet in a fortnight there was not

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a scorbutic person in either of the ships. Their recovery was effected by their being on shore, eating plenty of vegetables, being obliged to wash their apparel, and keep their persons clean by daily bathing in the sea.

Monday 29.

The next day we set up the forge on shore; and from this time, the armourers, carpenters, and the rest of the people were employed in refitting the ship, and making her ready for the sea.

In the mean time, a considerable quantity of wood was cut, and put on board the store-ship, to be sent to Falkland's island; and as I well knew there was no wood growing there, I caused some thousands of young trees to be carefully taken up with their roots, and a proper quantity of earth; and packing them in the best manner I could, I put them also on board the store-ship, with orders to deliver them to the commanding officer at Port Egmont, and to sail for that place with the first fair wind, putting on board two of my seamen, who being in an ill state of health when they first came on board, were now altogether unfit to proceed in the voyage.

1767. January.

Wednes. 14.

On Wednesday the 14th of January, we got all our people and tents on board; having taken in seventy-five tons of water from the shore, and twelve months provisions of all kinds, at whole allowance, for ourselves, and ten months for the Swallow, from on board the store-ship, I sent the master in the cutter, which was victualed for a week, to look out for anchoring places on the north shore of the Streight.

Saturday 17.

After several attempts to fail, the weather obliged us to continue in our old station till Saturday the 17th, when the Prince Frederick Victualer sailed for Falkland's island, and

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the master returned from his expedition. The master reported that he had found four places, in which there was good anchorage, between the place where we lay and Cape Froward: that he had been on shore at several places, where he had found plenty of wood and water close to the beach, with abundance of cranberries and wild celery. He reported also, that he had seen a great number of currant bushes full of fruit, though none of it was ripe, and a great variety of beautiful shrubs in full blossom, bearing flowers of different colours, particularly red, purple, yellow, and white, besides great plenty of the winter's bark, a grateful spice which is well known to the botanists of Europe. He shot several wild ducks, geese, gulls, a hawk, and two or three of the birds which the sailors call a Race-Horse.

Sunday 18.

At five o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 18th, we made sail, and at noon, being about two miles from the shore, Cape Froward bore N. by E. a bluff point N. N. W. and Cape Holland W. ½ S. Our latitude at this place, by observation, was 54° 3′S. and we found the Streight to be about six miles wide. Soon after I sent a boat into Snug bay, to lie at the anchoring place, but the wind coming from the land, I stood off again all night; and at a mile from the shore, we had no ground with 140 fathom.

Monday 19.

In the morning of Monday the 19th, the Swallow having made the signal for anchoring under Cape Holland, we ran in, and anchored in 10 fathom, with a clear sandy bottom. Upon sending the boats out to found, we discovered that we were very near a reef of rocks; we therefore tripped the anchor, and dropped farther out, where we had 12 fathom, and were about half a mile from the shore, just opposite to a large stream of water which falls with great rapidity from

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the mountains, for the land here is of a stupendous height. Cape Holland bore W. S. W. ½ W. distant two miles, and Cape Froward E. Our latitude, by observation, was 53° 58′S.

Tuesday 20.

The next morning we got off some water, and great plenty of wild celery, but could get no fish, except a few muscles. I sent off the boats to sound, and found that there was good anchorage at about half a mile from the shore, quite from the Cape to four miles below it; and close by the Cape a good harbour, where a ship might refresh with more safety than at Port Famine, and avail herself of a large river of fresh water, with plenty of wood, celery, and berries; though the place affords no fish except muscles.

Thurs. 22.

Having completed our wood and water, we sailed from this place on the 22d, about three o'clock in the afternoon. At nine in the evening, the ship being about two miles distant from the shore, Cape Gallant bore W. ½ N. distant two leagues, Cape Holland E. by N. distant six leagues; Cape Gallant and Cape Holland being nearly in one: a white patch in Monmouth's island bore S.S.W. ¾ W. Rupert's island W.S. W. At this place the Streight is not more than five miles over; and we found a tide which produced a very unusual effect, for it became impossible to keep the ship's head upon any point.

Friday 23.

At six the next morning, the Swallow made the signal for having found anchorage; and at eight we anchored in a bay under Cape Gallant, in 10 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The east point of Cape Gallant bore S. W. by W. ¼ W. the extream point of the eastermost land E. by S. a point making the mouth of a river N. by W. and the white patch on Charles's island S. W. The boats being sent out to found, found good anchorage every where, except within two cables length S. W. of the ship, where it was coral, and

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deepened to 16 fathom. In the afternoon I sent out the master to examine the bay and a large lagoon; and he reported that the lagoon was the most commodious harbour we had yet seen in the Streight, having five fathom at the entrance, and from four to five in the middle; that it was capable of receiving a great number of vessels, had three large fresh water rivers, and plenty of wood and celery. We had here the misfortune to have a seine spoiled, by being entangled with the wood that lies sunk at the mouth of these rivers; but though we caught but little fish, we had an incredible number of wild ducks, which we found a very good succedaneum.

The mountains are here very lofty, and the master of the Swallow climbed one of the highest, hoping that from the summit he should obtain a fight of the South Sea; but he found his view intercepted by mountains still higher on the southern shore: before he descended, however, he erected a pyramid, within which he deposited a bottle containing a shilling, and a paper on which was written the ship's name and the date of the year; a memorial which possibly may remain there as long as the world endures.

Saturday 24.

In the morning of the 24th we took two boats and examined Cordes bay, which we found very much inferior to that in which the ship lay; it had indeed a larger lagoon, but the entrance of it was very narrow, and barred by a shoal, on which there was not sufficient depth of water for a ship of burden to float: the entrance of the bay also was rocky, and within it the ground was foul.

In this place we saw an animal that resembled an ass, but it had a cloven hoof, as we discovered afterwards by tracking it, and was as swift as a deer. This was the first animal we had seen in the Streight, except at the entrance, where we

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found the guanicoes that we would fain have trafficked for with the Indians. We shot at this creature, but we could not hit it; probably it is altogether unknown to the naturalists of Europe.

The country about this place has the most dreary and forlorn appearance that can be imagined; the mountains on each side the Streight are of an immense height: about one fourth of the ascent is covered with trees of a considerable size; in the space from thence to the middle of the mountain there is nothing but withered shrubs; above these are patches of snow, and fragments of broken rock; and the summit is altogether rude and naked, towering above the clouds in vast crags that are piled upon each other, and look like the ruins of Nature devoted to everlasting sterility and desolation.

We went over in two boats to the Royal Islands, and sounded, but found no bottom: a very rapid tide set through wherever there was an opening; and they cannot be approached by shipping without the most imminent danger. Whoever navigates this part of the Streight, should keep the north shore close on board all the way, and not venture more than a mile from it till the Royal Islands are passed. The current sets easterly through the whole four and twenty hours, and the indraught should by all means be avoided. The latitude of Cape Gallant road is 53° 50′S.

Tuesday 27.

Wednes. 28.

We continued in this station, taking in wood and water, and gathering muscles and herbs, till the morning of the 27th, when a boat that had been sent to try the current, returned with an account that it set nearly at the rate of two miles an hour, but that the wind being northerly, we might probably get round to Elizabeth bay or York road before night; we therefore weighed with all expedition. At noon on the 28th, the west point of Cape Gallant bore W. N. W.

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distant half a mile, and the white patch on Charles's island S. E. by S. We had fresh gales and heavy flaws off the land; and at two o'clock the west point of Cape Gallant bore E. distant three leagues, and York Point W. N. W. distant five leagues. At five, we opened York road, the Point bearing N. W. at the distance of half a mile: at this time the ship was taken a-back, and a strong current with a heavy squall drove us so far to leeward, that it was with great difficulty we got into Elizabeth bay, and anchored in 12 fathom near a river. The Swallow being at anchor off the point of the bay, and very near the rocks, I sent all the boats with anchors and hausers to her assistance, and at last she was happily warped to windward into good anchorage. York Point now bore W. by N. a shoal with weeds upon it W. N. W. at the distance of a cable's length, Point Passage S. E. ½ E. distant half a mile, a rock near Rupert's isle S. ½ E. and a rivulet on the bay N. E. by E. distant about three cable's length. Soon after sun-set we saw a great smoke on the southern shore, and another on Prince Rupert's island.

Thursday 29.

Early in the morning I sent the boats on shore for water, and soon after our people landed, three canoes put off from the south shore, and landed sixteen of the natives on the east point of the bay. When they came within about a hundred yards of our people they stopt, called out, and made signs of friendship; our people did the same, shewing them some beads and other toys. At this they seemed pleased, and began to shout; our people imitated the noise they made, and shouted in return: the Indians then advanced, still shouting and laughing very loud. When the parties met they shook hands, and our men presented the Indians with several of the toys which they had shewn them at a distance. They were covered with seal skins, which stunk abominably, and some of them were eating the rotten flesh and blubber raw,

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with a keen appetite and great seeming satisfaction. Their complexion was the same as that of the people we had seen before, but they were low of stature, the tallest of them not being more than five foot six: they appeared to be perishing with cold, and immediately kindled several fires. How they subsist in winter, it is not perhaps easy to guess, for the weather was at this time so severe, that we had frequent falls of snow. They were armed with bows, arrows, and javelins: the arrows and javelins were pointed with flint, which was wrought into the shape of a serpent's tongue; and they discharged both with great force and dexterity, scarce ever failing to hit a mark at a considerable distance. To kindle a fire they strike a pebble against a piece of mundic, holding under it, to catch the sparks, some moss or down, mixed with a whitish earth, which takes fire like tinder: they then take some dry grass, of which there is every where plenty, and putting the lighted moss into it, wave it to and fro, and in about a minute it blazes.

When the boat returned she brought three of them on board the ship, but they seemed to regard nothing with any degree of curiosity except our cloaths and a looking-glass; the looking-glass afforded them as much diversion as it had done the Patagonians, and it seemed to surprize them more: when they first peeped into it they started back, first looking at us, and then at each other; they then took another peep, as it were by stealth, starting back as before, and then eagerly looking behind it: when by degrees they became familiar with it, they smiled, and seeing the image smile in return, they were exceedingly delighted, and burst into sits of the most violent laughter. They left this however, and every thing else, with perfect indifference, the little they possessed being to all appearance equal to their desires. They

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eat whatever was given them, but would drink nothing but water.

When they left the ship I went on shore with them, and by this time several of their wives and children were come to the watering-place. I distributed some trinkets among them, with which they seemed pleased for a moment, and they gave us some of their arms in return; they gave us also several pieces of mundic, such as is found in the tin mines of Cornwall: they made us understand that they found it in the mountains, where there are probably mines of tin, and perhaps of more valuable metal. As this seems to be the most dreary and inhospitable country in the world, not excepting the worst parts of Sweden and Norway, the people seem to be the lowest and most deplorable of all human beings. Their perfect indifference to every thing they saw, which marked the disparity between our state and their own, though it may preserve them from the regret and anguish of unsatisfied desires, seems, notwithstanding, to imply a defect in their nature; for those who are satisfied with the gratifications of a brute, can have little pretension to the prerogatives of men. When they left us and embarked in their canoes, they hoisted a seal skin for a sail, and steered for the southern shore, where we saw many of their hovels; and we remarked that not one of them looked behind, either at us or at the ship, so little impression had the wonders they had seen made upon their minds, and so much did they appear to be absorbed in the present, without any habitual exercise of their power to reflect upon the past.

Tuesday 3.

In this station we continued till Tuesday the 3d of February. At about half an hour past twelve we weighed, and in a sudden squall were taken a-back, so as that both ships were in the most imminent danger of being driven ashore

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on a reef of rocks; the wind however suddenly shifted, and we happily got off without damage. At five o'clock in the afternoon, the tide being done, and the wind coming about to the west, we bore away for York road, and at length anchored in it: the Swallow at the same time being very near Island bay, under Cape Quod, endeavoured to get in there, but was by the tide obliged to return to York road. In this situation Cape Quod bore W. ½ S. distant 19 miles, York Point E. S. E. distant one mile, Bachelor's River N. N. W. three quarters of a mile, the entrance of Jerom's Sound N. W. by W. and a small island on the south shore W. by S. We found the tide here very rapid and uncertain; in the stream it generally set to the eastward, but it sometimes, though rarely, set westward six hours together. This evening we saw five Indian canoes come out of Bachelor's River, and go up Jerom's Sound.

Wednes. 4.

In the morning, the boats which I had sent out to found both the shores of the Streight and all parts of the bay, returned with an account that there was good anchorage within Jerom's Sound, and all the way thither from the ship's station at the distance of about half a mile from the shore; also between Elizabeth and York Point, near York Point, at the distance of a cable and a half's length from the weeds, in 16 fathom with a muddy bottom. There were also several places under the islands on the south shore where a ship might anchor; but the force and uncertainty of the tides, and the heavy gusts of wind that came off the high lands, by which these situations were surrounded, rendered them unsafe. Soon after the boats returned, I put fresh hands into them and went myself up Bachelor's River: we found a bar at the entrance, which at certain times of the tide must be dangerous. We hauled the seine, and should have caught plenty of fish if it had not been for the weeds and

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stumps of trees at the bottom of the river. We then went ashore, where we saw many wigwams of the natives, and several of their dogs, who, as soon as we came in sight, ran away. We also saw some ostriches, but they were beyond the reach of our pieces: we gathered muscles, limpets, sea-eggs, celery, and nettles in great abundance. About three miles up this river, on the west side, between Mount Misery and another mountain of a stupendous height, there is a cataract which has a very striking appearance: it is precipitated from an elevation of above four hundred yards; half the way it rolls over a very steep declivity, and the other half is a perpendicular fall. The found of this cataract is not less awful than the sight.

Saturday 14.

In this place, contrary winds detained us till 10 o'clock in the morning of Saturday the 14th, when we weighed, and in half an hour the current set the ship towards Bachelor's River: we then put her in stays, and while she was coming about, which she was long in doing, we drove over a shoal where we had little more than 16 feet water with rocky ground; so that our danger was very great, for the ship drew 16 feet 9 inches aft, and 15 feet one inch forward: as soon as the ship gathered way, we happily deepened into three fathom; within two cables' length we had five, and in a very short time we got into deep water. We continued plying to windward till four o'clock in the afternoon, and then finding that we had lost ground, we returned to our station, and again anchored in York road.

Tuesday 17.

Here we remained till five o'clock in the morning of the 17th, when we weighed, and towed out of the road. At nine, though we had a sine breeze at west, the ship was carried with great violence by a current towards the south shore: the boats were all towing a-head, and the fails asleep, yet we

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drove so close to the rock, that the oars of the boats were entangled in the weeds. In this manner we were hurried along near three quarters of an hour, expecting every moment to be dashed to pieces against the cliff, from which we were seldom farther than a ship's length, and very often not half so much. We founded on both sides, and found that next the shore we had from 14 to 20 fathom, and on the other side of the ship no bottom: as all our efforts were ineffectual, we resigned ourselves to our fate, and waited the event in a state of suspense very little different from despair. At length, however, we opened Saint David's Sound, and a current that rushed out of it set us into the mid-channel. During all this time the Swallow was on the north shore, and consequently could know nothing of our danger till it was past. We now sent the boats out to look for an anchoring place; and at noon Cape Quod bore N. N. E. and Saint David's head S. E.

About one o'clock the boats returned, having found an anchoring place in a small bay, to which we gave the name of Butler's bay, it having been discovered by Mr. Butler one of the mates. It lies to the west of Rider's bay on the south shore of the Streight, which is here about two miles wide. We ran in with the tide which set fast to the westward, and anchored in 16 fathom water. The extreams of the bay from W. by N. to N. ½ W. are about a quarter of a mile asunder; a small rivulet, at the distance of somewhat less than two cables' length, bore S. ½ W. and Cape Quod N. at the distance of four miles. At this time the Swallow was at anchor in Island bay on the north shore, at about six miles distance.

I now sent all the boats out to sound round the ship and in the neighbouring bays; and they returned with an ac-

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count that they could find no place fit to receive the ship, neither could any such place be found between Cape Quod and Cape Notch.

Friday 20.

Saturday 21.

In this place we remained till Friday the 20th, when about noon the clouds gathered very thick to the westward, and before one it blew a storm, with such rain and hail as we had scarcely ever seen. We immediately struck the yards and top-masts, and having run out two hausers to a rock, we hove the ship up to it: we then let go the small bower; and veered away, and brought both cables a-head; at the same time we carried out two more hausers, and made them fast to two other rocks, making use of every expedient in our power to keep the ship steady. The gale continued to increase till six o'clock in the evening, and to our great astonishment the sea broke quite over the fore-castle in upon the quarter-deck, which, considering the narrowness of the Streight, and the smallness of the bay in which we were stationed, might well have been thought impossible. Our danger here was very great, for if the cables had parted, as we could not run out with a sail, and as we had not room to bring the ship up with any other anchor, we must have been dashed to pieces in a few minutes, and in such a situation it is highly probable that every soul would immediately have perished; however, by eight o'clock the gale was become somewhat more moderate, and gradually decreasing during the night, we had tolerable weather the next morning. Upon heaving the anchor, we had the satisfaction to find that our cable was found, though our hausers were much rubbed by the rocks, notwithstanding they were parcelled with old hammacocs, and other things. The first thing I did after performing the necessary operations about the ship, was to send a boat to the Swallow to enquire how she had fared during the gale: the boat returned with an account that she had felt but

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Saturday 21.

little of the gale, but that she had been very near being lost, in pushing through the Islands two days before, by the rapidity of the tide: that notwithstanding an alteration which had been made in her rudder, she steered and worked so ill, that every time they got under way they were apprehensive that she could never safely be brought to an anchor again; I was therefore requested, in the name of the captain, to consider that she could be of very little service to the expedition, and to direct what I thought would be best for the service. I answered, that as the Lords of the Admiralty had appointed her to accompany the Dolphin, she must continue to do it as long as it was possible; that as her condition rendered her a bad sailer, I would wait her time, and attend her motions, and that if any disaster should happen to either of us, the other should be ready to afford such assistance as might be in her power.

We continued here eight days, during which time we completed our wood and water, dried our fails, and sent great part of the ship's company on shore, to wash their cloathes and stretch their legs, which was the more necessary, as the cold, snowy, and tempestuous weather had confined them too much below. We caught muscles and limpets, and gathered celery and nettles in great abundance. The muscles were the largest we had ever seen, many of them being from five to six inches long: we caught also great plenty of a fine, firm, red fish, not unlike a gurnet, most of which, were from four to five pounds weight. At the same time, we made it part of the employment of every day to try the current, which we found constantly setting to the eastward.

The master having been sent out to look for anchoring places, returned with an account that he could find no shelter, except near the shore, where it should not be fought but in

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Saturday 21.

cases of the most pressing necessity. He landed upon a large island on the north side of Snow Sound, and being almost perished with cold, the first thing he did was to make a large fire, with some small trees which he found upon the spot. He then climbed one of the rocky mountains, with Mr. Pickersgill, a midshipman, and one of the seamen, to take a view of the Streight, and the dismal regions that surround it. He found the entrance of the Sound to be full as broad as several parts of the Streight, and to grow but very little narrower, for several miles in land on the Terra del Fuego side. The country on the south of it was still more dreary and horrid than any he had yet seen: it consisted of craggy mountains, much higher than the clouds, that were altogether naked from the base to the summit, there not being a single shrub, nor even a blade of grass to be seen upon them; nor were the vallies between them less desolate, being intirely covered with deep beds of snow, except here and there where it had been washed away, or converted into ice, by the torrents which were precipitated from the fissures and crags of the mountain above, where the snow had been dissolved; and even these vallies, in the patches that were tree from snow, were as destitute of verdure as the rocks between which they lay.

March.

Sunday 1.

On Sunday the first of March, at half an hour after four o'clock in the morning, we saw the Swallow under sail, on the north shore of Cape Quod. At seven we weighed, and stood out of Butler's bay, but it falling calm soon afterwards, the boats were obliged to take the vessel in tow, having with much difficulty kept clear of the rocks: the passage being very narrow, we sent the boats, about noon, to seek for anchorage on the north shore. At this time, Cape Notch bore W. by N. ½ N. distant between three and four leagues, and Cape Quod E. ½ N. distant three leagues.

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About three o'clock in the afternoon, there being little wind, we anchored, with the Swallow, under the north shore, in a small bay, where there is a high, steep, rocky mountain, the top of which resembles the head of a lion, for which reason we called the bay Lion's Cove. We had here 40 fathom, with deep water close to the shore, and at half a cable's length without the ship, no ground. We sent the boats to the westward in search of anchoring places, and at midnight they returned with an account that there was an indifferent bay at the distance of about four miles, and that Goodluck bay was three leagues to the westward.

Monday 2.

At half an hour after 12 the next day, the wind being northerly, we made sail from Lion's Cove, and at five anchored in Good Luck bay, at the distance of about half a cable's length from the rocks, in 28 fathom water. A rocky island at the west extremity of the bay bore N.W. by W. distant about a cable's length and a half, and a low point, which makes the eastern extremity of the bay, bore E. S. E. distant about a mile. Between this point and the ship, there were many shoals, and in the bottom of the bay two rocks, the largest of which bore N. E. by N. the smallest N. by E. From these rocks, shoals run out to the S. E. which may be known by the weeds that are upon them; the ship was within a cable's length of them: when she swung with her stern in shore, we had 16 fathom, with coral rock; when she swung off, we had 50 fathom, with sandy ground. Cape Notch bore from us W. by S. ½ W. distant about one league; and in the intermediate space there was a large lagoon which we could not found, the wind blowing too hard all the while we lay here. After we had moored the ship, we sent two boats to assist the Swallow, and one to look out for anchorage beyond Cape Notch. The boats that were sent to assist the Swallow, towed her into a small bay, where,

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as the wind was southerly, and blew fresh, she was in great danger, for the Cove was not only small, but full of rocks, and open to the south-easterly winds.

Tuesday 3.

Wednes. 4.

Saturday 7.

Sunday 8.

All the day following, and all the night, we had hard gales, with a great sea, and much hail and rain. The next morning we had gusts so violent, that it was impossible to stand the deck; they brought whole sheets of water all the way from Cape Notch, which was a league distant, quite over the deck. They did not last more than a minute, but were so frequent, that the cables were kept in a constant strain, and there was the greatest reason to fear that they would give way. It was a general opinion that the Swallow could not possibly ride it out, and some of the men were so strongly prepossessed with the notion of her being lost, that they fancied they saw some of her people coming over the rocks towards our ship. The weather continued so bad, till Saturday the seventh, that we could send no boat to enquire after her; but the gale being then more moderate, a boat was dispatched about four o'clock in the morning, which, about the same hour in the afternoon, returned with an account that the ship was safe, but that the fatigue of the people had been incredible, the whole crew having been upon the deck near three days and three nights. At midnight the gusts returned, though not with equal violence, with hail, sleet and snow. The weather being now extremely cold, and the people never dry, I got up, the next morning, eleven bales of thick woollen stuff, called Fearnought, which is provided by the government, and set all the taylors to work to make them into jackets, of which every man in the ship had one.

I ordered these jackets to be made very large, allowing, one with another, two yards and thirty-four inches of the cloth

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to each jacket. I sent also seven bales of the same cloth to the Swallow, which made every man on board a jacket of the same kind; and I cut up three bales of finer cloth, and made jackets for the officers of both ships, which I had the pleasure to find were very acceptable.

In this situation we were obliged to continue a week, during which time, I put both my own ship, and the Swallow, upon two-thirds allowance, except brandy; but continued the breakfast as long as greens and water were plenty.

Sunday 15.

On Sunday the 15th, about noon, we saw the Swallow under sail, and it being calm, we sent our launch to assist her. In the evening the launch returned, having towed her into a very good harbour on the south shore, opposite to where we lay. The account that we received of this harbour, determined us to get into it as soon as possible; the next morning therefore, at eight o'clock, we sailed from Good Luck bay, and thought ourselves happy to get safe out of it. When we got a-breast of the harbour where the Swallow lay, we fired several guns, as signals for her boats to assist us in getting in; and in a short time the master came on board us, and piloted us to a very commodious station, where we anchored in 28 fathom, with a muddy bottom. This harbour, which is sheltered from all winds, and excellent in every respect, we called SWALLOW HARBOUR. There are two channels into it, which are both narrow, but not dangerous, as the rocks are easily discovered by the weeds that grow upon them.

Monday 16.

At nine o'clock the next morning, the wind coming easterly, we weighed, and failed from Swallow harbour. At noon we took the Swallow in tow, but at five there being little wind, we cast off the tow. At eight in the evening, the boats which had been sent out to look for anchorage,

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returned with an account that they could find none: at nine we had fresh gales, and at midnight Cape Upright bore S. S. W ½ W.

Tuesday 17.

At seven the next morning, we took the Swallow again in tow, but was again obliged to cast her off and tack, as the weather became very thick, with a great swell, and we saw land close under our lee. As no place for anchorage could be found, Captain Carteret advised me to bear away for Upright bay, to which I consented; and as he was acquainted with the place, he went a-head: the boats were ordered to go between him and the shore, and we followed. At eleven o'clock, there being little wind, we opened a large lagoon, and a current setting strongly into it, the Swallow was driven among the breakers close upon the lee shore: to aggravate the misfortune, the weather was very hazey, there was no anchorage, and the surf ran very high. In this dreadful situation she made signals of distress, and we immediately sent our launch, and other boats, to her assistance: the boats took her in tow, but their utmost efforts to save her would have been ineffectual, if a breeze had not suddenly come down from a mountain, and wasted her off.

As a great swell came on about noon, we hauled over to the north shore. We soon found ourselves surrounded with islands, but the fog was so thick, that we knew not where we were, nor which way to steer. Among these islands the boats were sent to cast the lead, but no anchorage was to be found; we then conjectured that we were in the bay of islands, and that we had no chance to escape shipwreck, but by hauling directly out: this, however, was no easy task, for I was obliged to tack, almost continually, to weather some island or rock. At four o'clock in the afternoon, it happily cleared up for a minute, just to shew us Cape Up-

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right, for which we directly steered, and at half an hour after five anchored, with the Swallow, in the bay. When we dropped the anchor, we were in 24 fathom, and after we had veered away a whole cable, in 46, with a muddy bottom. In this situation, a high bluff on the north shore bore N. W. ½ N. distant five leagues, and a small island within us S. by E. ½ E. Soon after we had anchored, the Swallow drove to leeward, notwithstanding she had two anchors a-head, but was at last brought up, in 70 fathom, about a cable's length a-stern of us. At four o'clock in the morning I sent the boats, with a considerable number of men, and some hausers and anchors, on board her, to weigh her anchors, and warp her up to windward. When her best bower anchor was weighed, it was found entangled with the small one; I therefore found it necessary to send the stream cable on board, and the ship was hung up by it. To clear her anchors, and warp her into a proper birth, cost us the whole day, and was not at last effected without the utmost difficulty and labour.

Wednes. 18.

On the 18th we had fresh breezes, and sent the boats to sound cross the Streight. Within half a mile of the ship, they had 40, 45, 50, 70, 100 fathom, and then had no ground, till within a cable's length of the lee shore, where they had 90 fathom. We now moored the ship in 78 fathom, with the stream anchor.

Thursday 19

The next morning, while our people were employed in getting wood and water, and gathering celery and muscles, two canoes, full of Indians, came along side of the ship. They had much the same appearance as the poor wretches whom we had seen before in Elizabeth's bay. They had on board some seal's flesh, blubber, and penguins, all which they eat raw. Some of our people, who were fishing with a

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Thursday 19.

hook and line, gave one of them a fish, somewhat bigger than a herring, alive, just as it came out of the water. The Indian took it hastily, as a dog would take a bone, and instantly killed it, by giving it a bite near the gills: he then proceeded to eat it, beginning with the head, and going on to the tail, without rejecting either the bones, fins, scales, or entrails. They eat every thing that was given them, indifferently, whether salt or fresh, dressed or raw, but would drink nothing but water. They shivered with cold, yet had nothing to cover them but a seal skin; thrown loosely over their shoulders, which did not reach to their middle; and we observed, that when they were rowing, they threw even this by, and fat stark naked. They had with them some javelins, rudely pointed with bone, which they used to strike seals, fish, and penguins, and we observed that one of them had a piece of iron, about the size of a common chissel, which was fastened to a piece of wood, and seemed to be intended rather for a tool than a weapon. They had all sore eyes, which we imputed to their sitting over the smoke of their fires, and they smelt more offensively than a fox, which perhaps was in part owing to their diet, and in part to their nastiness. Their canoes were about fifteen foot long, three broad, and nearly three deep: they were made of the bark of trees, sewn together, either with the sinews of some beast, or thongs cut out of a hide. Some kind of rush was laid into the seams, and the outside was smeared with a resin, or gum, which prevented the water from soaking into the bark. Fifteen slender branches, bent into an arch, were sewed transversely to the bottom and sides, and some strait pieces were placed cross the top, from gunwale to gunwale, and securely lashed at each end: upon the whole, however, it was poorly made, nor had these people any thing among them in which there was the least appearance of ingenuity.

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Thursday 19.

I gave them a hatchet or two, with some beads, and a few other toys, with which they went away to the southward, and we saw no more of them.

While we lay here, we sent out the boats, as usual, in search of anchoring places, and having been 10 leagues to the westward, they found but two: one was to the westward of Cape Upright, in the Bay of Islands, but was very difficult to enter and get out of; the other was called Dolphin bay, at 10 leagues distance, which was a good harbour, with even ground in all parts. They saw several small coves, which were all dangerous, as in them it would be necessary to let go the anchor within half a cable's length of a lee shore, and steady the ship with halsers fastened to the rocks. The people belonging to one of the boats, spent a night upon an island, upon which, while they were there, six canoes landed about thirty Indians. The Indians ran immediately to the boat, and were carrying away every thing they found in her: our people discovered what they were doing, just time enough to prevent them. As soon as they found themselves opposed, they went to their canoes, and armed themselves with long poles, and javelins pointed with the bones of fish. They did not begin an attack, but stood in a threatening manner: our people, who were two and twenty in number, acted only on the defensive, and by parting with a few trifles to them, they became friends, and behaved peaceably the rest of the time they staid.

For many days, we had hail, lightning, rain, and hard gales, with a heavy sea, so that we thought it impossible for the ship to hold, though she had two anchors a-head, and two cables an end. The men, however, were sent frequently on shore for exercise, which contributed greatly to

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their health, and procured an almost constant supply of muscles and greens. Among other damages that we had sustained, our fire-place was broken to pieces, we therefore found it necessary to set up the forge, and employ the armourers to make a new back; we also made lime of burnt shells, and once more put it into a useful condition.

Monday 30.

Tuesday 31.

On Monday the 30th, we had the first interval of moderate weather, and we improved it in drying the sails, which, though much mildewed, we had not before been able to loose, for fear of setting the ship adrift: we also aired the spare fails, which we found much injured by the rats, and employed the fail-makers to mend them. Captain Carteret having represented that his fire-place, as well as ours, had been broken to pieces, our armourers made him also a new back, and set it up with lime that we made upon the spot, in the same manner as had been done on board our own ship. This day we saw several canoes, full of Indians, put to shore on the east side of the bay, and the next morning several of them came on board, and proved to be the same that our people, who were out in the boat, had met with on shore. They behaved very peaceably, and we dismissed them with a few toys, as usual.

April.

Wednes. 1.

The day following, several other Indians came off to the ship, and brought with them some of the birds called Race-Horses. Our people purchased the birds for a few trisles, and I made them a present of several hatchets and knives.

Thursday 2.

On Thursday, the second of April, the master of the Swallow, who had been sent out to seek for anchoring places, returned, and reported that he had found three on the north shore, which were very good; one about four miles to the castward of Cape Providence, another under the east side of

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Thursday 2.

Cape Tamer, and the third about four miles to the eastward of it; but he said that he found no place to anchor in under Cape Providence, the ground being rocky.

This day two canoes came on board, with four men and three young children in each. The men were somewhat more decently dressed than those that we had seen before, but the children were stark naked. They were somewhat fairer than the men, who seemed to pay a very tender attention to them, especially in lifting them in and out of the canoes. To these young visitors I gave necklaces and bracelets, with which they seemed mightily pleased. It happened that while some of these people were on board, and the rest waiting in their canoes by the ship's side, the boat was sent on shore for wood and water. The Indians who were in the canoes, kept their eyes fixed upon the boat while she was manning, and the moment she put off from the ship, they called out with great vociferation to those that were on board, who seemed to be much alarmed, and hastily handing down the children, leaped into their canoes, without uttering a word. None of us could guess at the cause of this sudden emotion, but we saw the men in the canoes pull after the boat with all their might, hallooing and shouting with great appearance of perturbation and distress. The boat outrowed them, and when she came near the shore, the people on board discovered some women gathering muscles among the rocks. This at once explained the mystery; the poor Indians were afraid that the strangers, either by force or favour, should violate the prerogative of a husband, of which they seemed to be more jealous than the natives of some other countries, who in their appearance are less savage and sordid. Our people, to make them easy, immediately lay upon their oars, and suffered the canoes to pass them. The Indians, however, still continued to call

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out to their women, till they took the alarm and ran out of sight, and as soon as they got to land, drew their canoes upon the beach, and followed them with the utmost expedition.

Sunday 5.

We continued daily to gather muscles till the 5th, when several of the people being seized with fluxes, the surgeon desired that no more muscles might be brought into the ship.

Friday 10.

Saturday 11.

The weather being still tempestuous and unsettled, we remained at anchor till 10 o'clock in the morning of Friday the 10th, and then, in company with the Swallow, we made sail. At noon, Cape Providence bore N. N. W. distant four or five miles; at four in the afternoon Cape Tamer bore N. W. by W. ½ W. distant three leagues, Cape Upright E. S. E. ½ S. distant three leagues, and Cape Pillar W. distant 10 leagues. We steered about W. ½ N. all night, and at six o'clock in the morning, had run eight and thirty miles by the log. At this time Cape Pillar bore S. W. distant half a mile, and the Swallow was about three miles a-stern of us. At this time there being but little wind, we were obliged to make all the sail we could, to get without the Streight's mouth. At 11 o'clock I would have shortened sail for the Swallow, but it was not in my power, for as a current set us strongly down upon the Isles of Direction, and the wind came to the west, it became absolutely necessary for me to carry sail, that I might clear them. Soon after we lost sight of the Swallow, and never saw her afterwards. At first I was inclined to have gone back into the Streight, but a fog coming on, and the sea rising very fast, we were all of opinion that it was indispensibly necessary to get an offing as soon as possible; for except we pressed the ship with sail, before the sea rose too high, it would be impracticable either to weather Terra del Fuego on one tack, or Cape Victory on

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Saturday 11.

the other. At noon, the Islands of Direction bore N. 21′W. distant three leagues, Saint Paul's cupola and Cape Victory in one, N. distant seven leagues, and Cape Pillar E. distant six leagues.

Our latitude, by observation, was 52° 38′and we computed our longitude to be 76° W.

Thus we quitted a dreary and inhospitable region, where we were in almost perpetual danger of shipwreck for near four months, having entered the Streight on the 17th of December 1766, and quitted it on the 11th of April 1767; a region where, in the midst of summer, the weather was cold, gloomy, and tempestuous, where the prospects had more the appearance of a chaos than of Nature, and where, for the most part, the vallies were without herbage, and the hills without wood.

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CHAP. III.

A particular Account of the Places in which we anchored during our Passage through the Streight, and of the Shoals and Rocks that lie near them.

HAVING cleared the Streight, we steered a western course. But before I continue the narrative of our voyage, I shall give a more particular account of the several places where we anchored, plans of which are deposited in the Admiralty Office for the use of future navigators, with the shoals and rocks that lie near them, the latitude, longitude, tides, and variation of the compass.

I. CAPE VIRGIN MARY. The bay under this Cape is a good harbour, when the wind is westerly. There is a shoal lying off the Cape, but that may easily be known by the rock weed that grows upon it: the Cape is a steep white cliff, not unlike the South Foreland. Its latitude, by observation, is 52° 24′S. and its longitude, by account, 68° 22′W. The variation of the needle, by the medium of five azimuths and one amplitude, was 24° 30′E. In this place we saw no appearance either of wood or water. We anchored in 10 fathom, with coarse sandy ground, about a mile from the shore, Cape Virgin Mary bearing N. by W. ½ W. distant about two miles, and Dungeness Point S. S. W. distant four miles. We anchored here on the 17th of December, and sailed the next day. There is good landing, on a fine sandy beach, all along the shore.

II. POSSESSION BAY. In sailing into this bay, it is necessary to give the point a good birth, because there is a reef

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that runs right off it about a short mile. The soundings are very irregular all over the bay, but the ground is every where a fine soft mud and clay, so that the cables can come to no damage. The Point lies in latitude 52° 23′S. longitude, by account, 68° 57′W.: the variation is two points easterly. In the bay the tide rises and falls between four and five fathom, and runs at the rate of about a mile an hour; in the mid-channel without the bay, it runs nearly three miles an hour. In this place we saw no appearance either of wood or water. The landing appeared to be good, but we did not go on shore. We anchored here on the 19th of December, and sailed again on the 22d.

III. PORT FAMINE. At this place, the Spaniards, in the year 1581, built a town, which they called Phillippeville, and left in it a colony, consisting of 400 persons. When our celebrated navigator, Cavendish, arrived here in 1587, he found one of these unhappy wretches, the only one that remained, upon the beach: they had all perished for want of subsistence, except twenty-four; twenty-three of these set out for the river Plata, and were never afterwards heard of. This man, whose name was Hernando, was brought to England by Cavendish, who called the place where he had taken him up, Port Famine. It is a very sine bay, in which there is room and conveniency for many ships to moor in great safety. We moored in nine fathom, having brought Cape St. Anne N. E. by E. and Sedger River S. ½ W. which perhaps is the best situation, though the whole bay is good ground. In this place there is very good wooding and watering; we caught many fine small fish with a hook and line off the ship's side, and hauled the seine with great success, in a fine sandy bay, a little to the southward of Sedger River: we also shot a great number of birds, of various kinds, particularly geese, ducks, teal, snipes, plover, and race-horses, and we

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found wild celery in great plenty. The latitude of this place is 53° 42′S. longitude, by observation, 71° 28′W.; the variation is two points easterly. We anchored here the 27th of December 1766, and sailed again the 18th of January 1767.

IV. CAPE HOLLAND BAY. There is no danger in sailing into this bay, and there is good anchoring ground in every part of it. We lay at about three cables' length from the shore, in 10 fathom, the ground coarse sand and shells, Cape Holland bearing W. S. W. ½ W. distant three miles, Cape Froward a little to the N. of the E. Right a-breast of the ship there was a very fine rivulet, and close under Cape Holland a large river, navigable for boats many miles: the shore also affords fire wood in great plenty. We found abundance of wild celery and cranberries, muscles and limpets, but caught very little fish, either with hook and line, or the seine. We killed some geese, ducks, teal, and race-horses, but they were not plenty. This bay lies in latitude 53° 57′S. longitude, by account, 72° 34′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rose about eight feet; we found, however, no regular tide, but for the most part a strong current setting to the eastward. We anchored here on the 19th of January, and sailed again on the 23d.

V. CAPE GALLLANT BAY. In this bay, which may be entered with great safety, there is a sine large lagoon, where a fleet of ships may moor in perfect security. There is a depth of four fathom in every part of it, with a soft muddy ground. In the bay, the best anchoring is on the east side, where there is from six to ten fathom. Here is good watering from two rivers, and plenty of wood. The lagoon abounded with wild fowl, and we found wild celery, muscles, and limpets in plenty. We did not haul the seine, having torn one to pieces, and the other being unpacked,

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but if we had, there is reason to believe that we should have been well supplied with fish. The landing is good. The latitude of the bay and lagoon is 53° 50′S. longitude, by account, 73° 9′W.; the variation is two points easterly. I observed the water to rise and fall about nine feet, but the tide was very irregular. We anchored here the 23d of January, and sailed again the 28th.

VI. ELIZABETH's BAY. At the entrance of this bay there are two small reefs, which appear above water. The most dangerous lies off the east point of the bay, but this may easily be avoided, by keeping at the distance of about two cables' length from the point. There is good landing all round the bay, but it is much exposed to the westerly winds. The best place for anchoring is Passage Point, at half a mile distance, bearing S. E. and the river bearing N. E. by E. distant three cables' length; in this situation, a bank or shoal, which may be known by the weeds, bears W. N. W. distant a cable's length: the ground is coarse sand, with shells. Sufficient wood is to be procured here for the use of ships, and there is good watering at a small river. We found a little celery and a few cranberries, but neither fish nor fowl. The latitude of this place is 53° 43′S. the longitude, by account, 73° 24′W.; the variation is two points easterly. We anchored here the 29th of January, and sailed the 4th of February.

VII. YORK ROAD. The only danger of sailing into the bay, that is formed by two points in this road, arises from a reef that runs off to about a cable's length from the western point, which once known, may be easily avoided. To anchor in this bay, it is safest to bring York Point E. S. E. Bachelor's River N. by W. ½ W. the west point of the bay or reef N. W. ½ W. and St. Jerom's Sound W. N. W. at the distance of

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half a mile from the shore. There is good watering about a mile up Bachelor's River, and good wooding all round the bay, where the landing also is, in all parts, very good. We found plenty of celery, cranberries, muscles, and limpets, many wild fowl, and some fish, but not enough to supply the ship's company with a fresh meal. The latitude here is 53° 39′S. longitude, by account, 73° 52′W.; the variation two points easterly. The water rises and falls about eight feet, but the tide is irregular. The master, who crossed the Streight many times to examine the bays, frequently found the current setting in three different directions. We anchored here on the 4th of February, and sailed again the 11th.

VIII. BUTLER's BAY. This is a small bay, intirely surrounded by rocks, so that no ship should anchor here if she can possibly avoid it. We found, however, sufficient wood and water to keep up our stock, muscles and limpets in plenty, some good rock-fish, and a few wild fowl, but celery and cranberries were very scarce. This bay lies in latitude 53° 37′S. longitude, by account, 74° 9′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rises and falls here about four feet, but the current always sets to the eastward. We anchored here the 18th of February, and sailed the 1st of March.

IX. LION COVE. This is a small bay, and surrounded by rocks. The water is deep, but the ground is good. It is not a bad place for one ship, nor a good one for two. Here is good watering up a small creek, but no wood. There is good landing at the watering-place, but no where else. We found no refreshment but a few muscles, limpets, and rock-fish, with a little celery. The latitude is 35° 26′S. longitude, by account, 74° 25′W.; the variation was two points easterly. The water, as far as we could judge by the appearance of

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the rocks, rises and falls about five feet, and the current sets at the rate of about two knots an hour. We anchored here on the 2d of March, and sailed the next day.

X. GOOD-LUCK BAY. This is a small bay, and like several others in this Streight, intirely surrounded by rocks. The ground is very coarse, and the cable of our best bower anchor was so much rubbed, that we were obliged to condemn it, and bend a new one. At this place there is a little wood, and plenty of good water, but the rocks render it very difficult of access. No man that sees this part of the coast, can expect to find any kind of refreshment upon it; and indeed we caught nothing except a few rock-fish, with hook and line. There may be circumstances in which it may be good luck to get into this bay, but we thought it very good luck to get out of it. It lies in latitude 53° 23′S. longitude, by account, 74° 33′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rises and falls between three and four feet, though whenever we had an opportunity of trying the current, we found it run easterly. We anchored here the 3d of March, and sailed the 15th.

XI. SWALLOW HARBOUR. This harbour, when once entered, is very safe, being sheltered from all winds, but the entrance is narrow and rocky; the rocks, however, may be easily avoided by keeping a good look-out, as there are large bunches of rock-weed upon them all. We found here a sufficient supply of wood and water, the wood however was very small. As the water is constantly smooth here, the landing is every where good; but we found no supply of provisions, except a few muscles and rock-fish. The mountains round it have the most horrid appearance, and seem to be altogether deserted by every thing that has life. The latitude is 53° 29′S. the longitude, by account, 74° 35′W.; the

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variation is two points easterly, and the tide rises and falls between four and five feet. We anchored here the 15th of March, and left the place the next day.

XII. UPRIGHT BAY. This bay may be safely entered, as there is no obstruction but what is above water. The wood here is very small, but we found sufficient to keep up our stock. The water is excellent, and in great plenty. As to provisions, we got only a few wild fowl, rock-fishes, and muscles. The landing is bad. The latitude of this place, is 53° 8′S. longitude 75° 35′W.; the variation two points easterly. The water rises and falls about five feet, but the tide or current is very irregular. We anchored here on the 18th of March, and sailed again on the 10th of April.

There are three very good bays a little beyond Cape Shutup, which we called RIVER BAY, LODGING BAY, and WALLIS's BAY. Wallis's bay is the best.

About half way between Elizabeth's bay and York road; lies Muscle bay, where there is very good anchorage with a westerly wind. There is also a bay, with good anchorage, opposite to York road, and another to the eastward of Cape Cross-tide, but this will hold only a single ship. Between Cape Cross and Saint David's Head, lies Saint David's Sound, on the south side of which we found a bank of coarse sand and shells, with a depth of water from 19 to 30 fathom, where a ship might anchor in case of necessity; and the Master of the Swallow found a very good small bay a little to the eastward of Saint David's Head. A little to the eastward of Cape Quod, lies Island bay, where the Swallow lay some time, but it is by no means an eligible situation. The ground of Chance bay is very rocky and uneven, and for that reason should be avoided.

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As all the violent gales by which we suffered in this navigation, blew from the westward, it is proper to stand about a hundred leagues or more to the westward, after sailing out of the Streight, that the ship may not be endangered on a lee shore, which at present is wholly unknown.

The following table shews the courses and distances, from point to point, in the Streight of Magellan, by compass.

Courses and Distances from Point to Point, in the Streight of Magellan, by Compass.

Cape Virgin Mary lies in latitude 52° 24′S. and longitude 68° 22′W.

From Courses Miles Latitude Long.
Cape Virgin Mary to Dungeness Point S. by W. 5 52° 28′ 68° 28′
Dungeness Point to Point Possession W. ¾ S. 18 52 23 68 57
Point Possession to the S. side of the 1st Narrows S. W. ¼ S. 27 52 35 69 38
The N. to the S. end of the Narrows S. S. W. 9
The S. end of the Narrows to Cape Gregory W. S. W. ¼ W. 25 52 39 70 31
Cape Gregory to Sweepstakes Foreland S. 30° W. 12⅓
Cape Gregory to Dolphin's Foreland S. W. ½ W. 14 52 43 70 53
Dolphin's Foreland to the N. end of Elizabeth's island S. ½ W. 14⅔ 52 56 71 6
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to St. Bartholomew's island E. N. E. 52 56 71 4
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to St. George's island S. E. 8
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to Porpuss Point S. by W. 12 53 6 71 17
Porpuss Point to Fresh-water bay S. ½ E. 22⅔
Fresh-water bay to Cape St. Ann, or Port Famine S. S. E. ¼ E. 13⅔ 53 42 71 28
Cape St. Ann to the entry of a great sound on the south shore N. E.
Cape St. Ann to Cape Shut-up S. by E. 12 53 54 71 32
Cape Shut-up to Dolphin's island S. S. W. 7 53 59 71 41
Dolphin's island to Cape Froward, the souther-most in all America S. 47 W. 11 54 3 71 59
Cape Froward to Snug bay Point W. ½ N. 8
Snug bay Point to Cape Holland W. by S. 13½ 53 57 72 34

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From Courses Miles Latitude Long.
Cape Holland to Cape Gallant W. ¼ S. 21½ 53° 50′ 73° 9′
Cape Gallant to Elizabeth bay W. N. W. ½ W. 11⅔ 53 43 73 24
Elizabeth's bay to York Point W. N. W. ½ W. 6⅓ 53 39 73 32
York road to Cape Cross-tide W. ¾ S. 10
York road to Cape Quod W. ½ S. 21 53 33 74 6
Cape Quod to St. David's Head S. E.
Cape Quod to Butler's bay S. ¼ W. 4 53 37 74 9
Cape Quod to Chance bay S. S. W. 5
Cape Quod to Great Mussel bay S. W. ½ S. 6
Cape Quod to Snow Sound W. S. W. ½ W. 10
Cape Quod to Lion's Cove W. N. W. ¾ W. 12 53 26 74 25
Lion's Cove to Good-Luck bay W. N. W. ¾ W. 6 53 23 74 33
Cape Quod to Cape Notch W. N. W. ¾ W. 21 53 22 74 36
Cape Notch to Swallow harbour S. S. E. 7 53 29 74 36
Cape Notch to Piss-pot bay W. ¼ S. 23
Cape Notch to Cape Monday W. 28 53 12 75 20
Cape Monday to Cape Upright W. by N. 13 53 6 75 38
Cape Monday to a great Sound on the N. shore N. 7
Cape Upright to Cape Providence N. by W. ½ W. 9 52 57 75 37
Cape Upright to Cape Tamer N. W. by W. ½ W. 18
Cape Upright to Cape Pillar W. ½ N. 50 52 43 76 52
Cape Pillar to Westminster island N. E. ½ N. 15
Cape Pillar to Cape Victory N. W. ½ N. 28
Cape Pillar to the Islds of Direction W. N. W. 23 52 27 77 19

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CHAP. IV.

The Passage from the Streight of Magellan, to King George the Third's Island, called Otaheite, in the South Sea, with an account of the Discovery of several other Islands, and a description of their Inhabitants.

1767. April.

Sunday 12.

AS we continued our course to the westward, after having cleared the Streight, we saw a great number of gannets, sheerwaters, pintado birds, and many others, about the ship, and had for the most part strong gales, hazy weather, and heavy seas, so that we were frequently brought under our courses, and there was not a dry place in the ship for some weeks together.

Wednes. 22.

At eight in the morning of the 22d, we had an observation, by which we found our longitude to be 95° 46′W. and at noon, our latitude was 42° 24′S. and the variation, by azimuth, 11° 6′E.

Friday 24.

By the 24th, the men began to fall down very fast in colds and fevers, in consequence of the upper works being open, and their cloaths and beds continually wet.

Sunday 26.

Monday 27.

On the 26th, at four in the afternoon, the variation, by azimuth, was 10° 20′E. and at six in the morning of the next day, it was 9° 8′E. Our latitude, on the 27th at noon, was 36° 54′S. our longitude, by account, 100° W. This day, the weather being moderate and fair, we dried all the people's cloaths, and got the sick upon deck, to whom we gave salop,

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and wheat boiled with portable soup, every morning for breakfast, and all the ship's company had as much vinegar and mustard as they could use; portable soup was also constantly boiled in their pease and oatmeal.

The hard gales, with frequent and violent squalls, and a heavy sea, soon returned, and continued with very little intermission. The ship pitched so much, that we were afraid she would carry away her masts, and the men were again wet in their beds.

Thursday 30.

On the 30th, the variation, by azimuth, was 8° 30′E. our latitude was 32° 50′; longitude, by account, 100′W. I began now to keep the ship to the northward, as we had no chance of getting westing in this latitude; and the surgeon was of opinion, that in a little time the sick would so much increase, that we should want hands to work the ship, if we could not get into better weather.

May.

Sunday 3.

Monday 4.

Tuesday 5.

On the third of May, about four in the afternoon, we had an observation of the sun and moon, by which we found our longitude to be 96° 26′W. the variation by the azimuth was 5° 44′E. at six in the evening, and at six the next morning, it was 5° 58′E. Our latitude, this day at noon, was 28° 20′S. At four in the afternoon we had several observations for the longitude, and found it to be 96° 21′W.; at seven in the evening, the variation was 6° 40′E. by the azimuth, and the next morning at 10 it was, by amplitude, 5° 48′E.; at three in the afternoon, the variation, by amplitude, was 7° 40′E. This day we saw a tropic bird.

Friday 8.

Saturday 9.

At six o'clock in the morning, of Friday the eighth of May, the variation of the needle, by amplitude, was 7° 11′E. In the afternoon we saw several sheerwaters and sea swallows. At eight in the morning of the 9th, the variation by

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Monday 11.

Tuesday 12.

azimuth was 6° 34′E. and in the morning of the 11th, by azimuth and amplitude, it was 4° 40′E. Our latitude was 27° 28′S. longitude, by account, 106° W. This day, and the next, we saw several sea swallows, sheerwaters, and porpoises, about the ship.

Thursday 14.

On the 14th of May, the variation, by four azimuths, was 2° E. About four o'clock in the afternoon, we saw a large flock of brown birds, flying to the eastward, and something which had the appearance of high land, in the same quarter. We bore away for it till sun-set, and it still having the same appearance, we continued our course; but at two in the morning, having run 18 leagues without making it, we hauled the wind, and at day-light nothing was to be seen. We had now the satisfaction to find our ailing people mend apace. Our latitude was 24° 50′S. our longitude, by account, 106° W. During all this time, we were looking out for the Swallow.

Saturday 16.

At four in the afternoon of the 16th, the variation, by azimuth and amplitude, was 6° E. and at six the next morning, by four azimuths, it was 3° 20′.

Monday 18.

The carpenters were now employed in caulking the upper works of the ship, and repairing and painting the boats, and on the 18th, I gave a sheep among the people that were sick and recovering.

Wednes. 20.

Thursday 21.

On Wednesday the 20th, we found our longitude, by observation, to be 106° 47′W. and our latitude 20° 52′S. The next day we saw several flying fish, which were the first we had seen in these seas.

Friday 22.

On the 22d, our longitude, by observation, was 111° W. and our latitude 20° 18′S. and this day we saw some bonettoes, dolphins, and tropic birds.

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The people who had been recovering from colds and fevers, now began to fall down in the scurvy, upon which, at the surgeon's representation, wine was served to them: wort was also made for them of malt, and each man had half a pint of pickled cabbage every day. The variation from 4 to 5 E.

Tuesday 26.

Thursday 28.

Friday 29.

On the 26th we saw two grampuses; on the 28th we saw another, and the next day several birds, among which was one about the size of a swallow, which some of us thought was a land bird.

Our men now began to look very pale and sickly, and to fall down very fast in the scurvy, notwithstanding all our care and attention to prevent it. They had vinegar and mustard without limitation, wine instead of spirits, sweet wort and salop. Portable soup was still constantly boiled in their peas and oatmeal; their birth and cloaths were kept perfectly clean; the hammocks were constantly brought upon the deck at eight o'clock in the morning, and carried down at four in the afternoon. Some of the beds and hammocks were washed every day; the water was rendered wholesome by ventilation, and every part between decks frequently washed with vinegar.

Sunday 31.

On Sunday the 31st of May, our longitude, by observation, was 127° 45′W. our latitude 29° 38′S. and the variation, by azimuth and amplitude, 5° 9′E.

June.

Monday 1.

The next day, at three in the afternoon, our longitude, by observation, was 129° 15′W. and our latitude 19° 34′S. We had squally weather, with much lightning and rain, and saw several men of war birds.

Wednes. 3.

On the 3d, we saw several gannets, which, with the uncertainty of the weather, inclined us to hope that land was not

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Thursday 4.

Friday 5.

Saturday 6.

very far distant. The next day a turtle swam close by the ship; on the 5th we saw many birds, which confirmed our hope that some place of refreshment was near, and at 11 o'clock in the forenoon of the 6th, Jonathan Puller, a sea-man, called out from the mast-head, "Land in the W. N. W." At noon it was seen plainly from the deck, and found to be a low island, at about five or six leagues distance. The joy which every one on board felt at this discovery, can be conceived by those only who have experienced the danger, sickness, and fatigue of such a voyage as we had performed.

Whitsunday 7.

When we were within about five miles of this island, we saw another, bearing N. W. by W. About three o'clock in the afternoon, being very near the island that was first discovered, we brought to, and I sent Mr. Furneaux, my second lieutenant, my first lieutenant being very ill, with the boats manned and armed, to the shore. As he approached it, we saw two canoes put off, and paddle away with great expedition towards the island that lay to leeward. At seven in the evening the boats returned, and brought with them several cocoa nuts, and a considerable quantity of scurvy-grass; they brought also some fish hooks, that were made of oyster-shells, and some of the shells of which they were made. They reported that they had seen none of the inhabitants, but had visited three huts, or rather sheds, consisting only of a roof, neatly thatched with cocoa nut and palm leaves, supported upon posts, and open all round. They saw also several canoes building, but found no fresh water, nor any fruit but cocoa nuts. They sounded, but found no anchorage, and it was with great difficulty that they got on shore, as the surf ran very high. Having received this account, I stood off and on all night, and early the next morning I sent the boats out again to sound, with orders, if possible, to find a place where the ship might come to an

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Whitsunday 7.

Whitsun-island.

anchor; but at 11 o'clock they returned, with no better success than before. The people told me that the whole island was surrounded by a reef, and that although on the weather side of the island there was an opening through it, into a large bason, that extended to the middle of the island, yet they found it so full of breakers, that they could not venture in; neither indeed had they been able to land on any part of the island, the surf running still higher than it had done the day before. As it would therefore answer no purpose to continue here, I hoisted the boats in, and stood away for the other island, which bore S. 22° E. distant about four leagues. The island which I now quitted, having been discovered on Whitsun-eve, I called it WHITSUN ISLAND. It is about four miles long, and three wide. Its latitude is 19° 26′S. and its longitude, by observation, 137° 56′W.

When we came under the lee of the other island, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux, with the boats manned and armed, to the shore, where I saw about fifty of the natives armed with long pikes, and several of them running about with fire-brands in their hands. I ordered Mr. Furneaux to go to that part of the beach where we saw the people, and endeavour to traffick with them for fruit and water, or whatever else might be useful; at the same time, being particularly careful to give them no offence. I ordered him also to employ the boats in sounding for anchorage. About seven o'clock he returned, and told me that he could find no ground with the line, till he came within half a cable's length of the shore, and that there it consisted of sharp rocks, and lay very deep.

As the boat approached the shore, the Indians thronged down towards the beach, and put themselves upon their guard with their long pikes, as if to dispute the landing. Our men then lay upon their oars, and made signs of friend-

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Whitsunday 7.

ship, shewing at the same time several strings of beads, ribands, knives, and other trinkets. The Indians still made signs to our people that they should depart, but at the same time eyed the trinkets with a kind of wishful curiosity. Soon after some of them advanced a few steps into the sea, and our people making signs that they wanted cocoa nuts and water, some of them brought down a small quantity of both, and ventured to hand them into the boat: the water was in cocoa nut-shells, and the fruit was stripped of its outward covering, which is probably used for various purposes. For this supply they were paid with the trinkets that had been shewed them, and some nails, upon which they seemed to set a much greater value. During this traffick, one of the Indians found means to steal a silk handkerchief, in which some of our small merchandize was wrapped up, and carried it clear off, with its contents, so dexterously, that no body observed him. Our people made signs that a handkerchief had been stolen, but they either could not, or would not understand them. The boat continued about the beach, sounding for anchorage, till it was dark; and having many times endeavoured to persuade the natives to bring down some scurvy-grass, without success, she returned on board.

Monday 8.

I stood off and on with the ship all night, and as soon as the day broke, I sent the boats again, with orders to make a landing, but without giving any offence to the natives, that could possibly be avoided. When our boats came near the shore, the officer was greatly surprised to see seven large canoes, with two stout masts in each, lying just in the surf, with all the inhabitants upon the beach, ready to embark. They made signs to our people to go higher up; they readily complied, and as soon as they went ashore, all the Indians embarked, and sailed away to the westward, being joined

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Monday 8.

by two other canoes at the west end of the island. About noon, the boats returned, laden with cocoa nuts, palm nuts, and scurvy-grass. Mr. Furneaux, who commanded the expedition, told me that the Indians had left nothing behind them but four or five canoes. He found a well of very good water, and described the island as being sandy and level, full of trees, but without underwood, and abounding with scurvy-grass. The canoes, which steered about W. S. W. as long as they could be seen from the mast-head, appeared to be about thirty feet long, four feet broad, and three and an half deep. Two of these being brought along fide of each other, were fastened together, at the distance of about three feet asunder, by cross beams, passing from the larboard gunwale of one, to the starboard gunwale of the other, in the middle and near to each end.

The inhabitants of this island were of a middle stature, and dark complexion, with long black hair, which hung loose over their shoulders. The men were well made, and the women handsome. Their cloathing was a kind of coarse cloth or matting, which was fastened about their middle, and seemed capable of being brought up round their shoulders.

Queen Charlotte's Island.

In the afternoon, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux with the boats again on shore. He had with him a mate and twenty men, who were to make a rolling way for getting the casks down to the beach from the well. I gave orders that he should take possession of the island, in the name of King George the Third, and give it the name of QUEEN CHARLOTTE's ISLAND, in honour of her Majesty. The boats returned freighted with cocoa nuts and scurvy-grass, and the officer told me that he had found two more wells of good water, not far from the beach. I was at this time very ill, yet I went ashore with the Surgeon, and several of the people,

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Monday 8.

who were enfeebled by the scurvy, to take a walk. I found the wells so convenient, that I left the mate and twenty men on shore to fill water, and ordered a week's provisions to be sent them from the ship, they being already furnished with arms and ammunition. In the evening I returned on board, with the Surgeon and the sick, leaving only the waterers on shore. As we had not been able to find any anchorage, I stood off and on all night.

Tuesday 9.

Wednes. 10.

In the morning, I sent all the empty water casks on shore: the Surgeon and the sick were also sent for the benefit of another airing, but I gave them strict orders that they should keep near the water-side, and in the shade; that they should not pull down or injure any of the houses, nor, for the sake of the fruit, destroy the cocoa trees, which I appointed proper persons to climb. At noon, the rolling-way being made, the cutter returned laden with water, but it was with great difficulty got off the beach, as it is all rock, and the surf that breaks upon it, is often very great. At four, I received another boat-load of water, and a fresh supply of cocoa nuts, palm nuts, and scurvy-grass; the Surgeon also returned with the sick men, who received much benefit from their walk. The next morning, as soon as it was light, I dispatched orders to the mate, to send all the water that was filled on board, and to be ready to come off with his people when the boats should return again, bringing with them as many cocoa nuts, and as much scurvy-grass as they could procure. About eight o'clock, all the boats and people came on board, with the water and refreshments, but the cutter, in coming off, shipped a sea, which almost filled her with water: the barge was happily near enough to assist her, by taking great part of her crew on board, while the rest freed her, without any other damage than the loss of the cocoa nuts, and greens that were on

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Wednes. 10.

board. At noon, I hoisted the boats in, and there being a great sea, with a dreadful surf rolling in upon the shore, and no anchorage, I thought it prudent to leave this place, with such refreshments as we had got. The people who had resided on shore, saw no appearance of metal of any kind, but several tools, which were made of shells and stones, sharpened and fitted into handles, like adzes, chissels, and awls. They saw several canoes building, which are formed of planks, sewed together, and fastened to several small timbers, that pass transversely along the bottom and up the sides. They saw several repositories of the dead, in which the body was left to putrefy under a canopy, and not put into the ground.

When we failed, we left a union jack flying upon the island, with the ship's name, the time of our being here, and an account of our taking possession of this place, and Whitsun Island, in the name of his Britannic Majesty, cut on a piece of wood, and in the bark of several trees. We also left some hatchets, nails, glass bottles, beads, shillings, sixpences, and halfpence, as presents to the natives, and an atonement for the disturbance we had given them. Queen Charlotte's Island is about six miles long, and one mile wide; lies in latitude 19° 18′S. longitude, by observation, 138° 4′W. and we found the variation here to be 4° 46′E.

We made sail with a fine breeze, and about one o'clock, saw an island W. by S. Queen Charlotte's Island, at this time bearing E. by N. distant 15 miles. At half an hour after three, we were within about three quarters of a mile of the east end of the island, and ran close along the shore, but had no soundings. The east and west ends are joined to each other by a reef of rocks, over which the sea breaks into a lagoon, in the middle of the island, which, therefore, had

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Wednes. 10.

Egmont Island.

the appearance of two islands, and seemed to be about six miles long, and four broad. The whole of it is low land, full of trees, but we saw not a single cocoa nut, nor any huts: we found, however, at the westermost end, all the canoes and people who had fled, at our approach, from Queen Charlotte's Island, and some more. We counted eight double canoes, and about fourscore people, men, women, and children. The canoes were drawn upon the beach, the women and children were placed near them, and the men advanced with their pikes and firebrands, making a great noise, and dancing in a strange manner. We observed that this island was sandy, and that under the trees there was no verdure. As the shore was every where rocky, as there was no anchorage, and as we had no prospect of obtaining any refreshment here, I set sail at six o'clock in the evening, from this island, to which I gave the name of EGMONT ISLAND, in honour of the Earl of Egmont, who was then first Lord of the Admiralty. It lies in latitude 19° 20′S. longitude, by observation, 138° 30′W.

Thursday 11.

At one o'clock, on the 11th, we saw an island in the W. S. W. and stood for it. At four in the afternoon, we were within a quarter of a mile of the shore, and ran along it, sounding continually, but could get no ground. It is surrounded on every side by rocks, on which the sea breaks very high. It is full of trees, but not one cocoa nut, and has much the same appearance with Egmont island, but is much narrower. Among the rocks, at the west end, we saw about sixteen of the natives, but no canoes: they carried long pikes or poles in their hands, and seemed to be, in every respect, the same kind of people that we had seen before. As nothing was to be had here, and it blew very hard, I made sail till eight in the evening, and then brought to. To this island, which is about six miles long, and from

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Gloucester Island.

one mile to one quarter of a mile broad, I gave the name of GLOUCESTER ISLAND, in honour of his Royal Highness the Duke. It lies in latitude 19° 11′S. and longitude, by observation, 140° 4′W.

Friday 12.

Cumberland Island.

At five o'clock in the morning, we made sail, and soon after saw another island. At 10 o'clock, the weather being tempestuous, with much rain, we saw a long reef, with breakers on each side of the island, and therefore brought the ship to, with her head off the shore. To this island, which lies in latitude 19° 18′S. longitude, by observation, 140° 36′W. I gave the name of CUMBERLAND ISLAND, in honour of his Royal Highness the Duke. It lies low, and is about the same size as Queen Charlotte's Island. We found the variation of the needle here to be 7° 10′E. As I had no hope of finding any refreshment here, I stood on to the westward.

Saturday 13.

Prince William Henry's Island.

At day-break, on Saturday the 13th, we saw another small low island, in the N. N. W. right to windward. It had the appearance of small slat keys. This place I called PRINCE WILLIAM HENRY'S ISLAND, in honour of his Majesty's third son. It lies in latitude 19° S. longitude, by observation, 141° 6′W. I made no stay here, hoping, that to the westward I should find higher land, where the ship might come to an anchor, and such refreshments as we wanted be procured.

Wednes. 17.

Soon after day-light, on the 17th, we saw land bearing W. by N. and making in a small round hummock. At noon, when it bore N. 64 W. distant about five leagues, its appearance greatly resembled the Mewstone in Plymouth Sound, but it seemed to be much larger. We found the ship this day, 20 miles to the northward of her reckoning, which I imputed to a great S. W. swell.

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Wednes. 17.

At five in the evening, this island bore N. W. distant about eight miles. I then hauled the wind, and stood on and off all night. At ten, we saw a light upon the shore, which, though the island was small, proved that it was inhabited, and gave us hopes that we should find anchorage near it. We observed with great pleasure, that the land was very high, and covered with cocoa trees; a sure sign that there was water.

Thursday 18.

The next morning, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux to the shore, with the boats manned and armed, and all kinds of trinkets, to establish a traffick with the natives, for such refreshment as the place would afford. I gave him orders also to find, if possible, an anchoring place for the ship. While we were getting out the boats, several canoes put off from the island, but as soon as the people on board saw them make towards the shore, they put back. At noon, the boats returned, and brought with them a pig and a cock, with a few plantains and cocoa nuts. Mr. Furneaux reported, that he had seen at least an hundred of the inhabitants, and believed there were many more upon the island; but that having been all round it, he could find no anchorage, nor scarcely a landing-place for the boat. When he reached the shore, he came to a grapling, and threw a warp to the Indians upon the beach, who caught it and held it fast. He then began to converse with them by signs, and observed that they had no weapon among them, but that some of them had white sticks, which seemed to be ensigns of authority, as the people who bore them kept the rest of the natives back. In return for the pig and the cock, he gave them some beads, a looking-glass, a few combs, with several other trinkets, and a hatchet. The women, who had been kept at a distance, as soon as they saw the trinkets, ran down in a croud to the beach, with great eagerness, but were soon driven away by

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Thursday 18.

Osnaburgh Island.

the men, at which they expressed much disappointment and vexation. While this traffick was carrying on, a man came secretly round a rock, and diving down, took up the boat's grappling, and at the same time, the people on shore who held the warp, made an effort to draw her into the surf. As soon as this was perceived by the people on board, they fired a musket over the man's head who had taken up the grappling, upon which he instantly let it go, with marks of great terror and astonishment; the people on shore also let go the rope. The boats after this, lay some time upon their oars, but the officer finding that he could get nothing more, returned on board. Mr. Furneaux told me that both the men and women were cloathed, and he brought a piece of their cloth away with him. The inhabitants appeared to him to be more numerous than the island could support, and for this reason, especially as he saw some large double canoes upon the beach, he imagined there were islands of larger extent, not far distant, where refreshments in greater plenty might be procured, and hoped that they might be less difficult of access. As I thought this a reasonable conjecture, I hoisted in the boats, and determined to run farther to the westward. To this place, which is nearly circular, and about two miles over, I gave the name of OSNABURGH ISLAND, in honour of Prince Frederick, who is bishop of that fee. It lies in latitude 17° 51′S. and longitude 147° 30′W.; the variation here was 7° 10′E.

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CHAP. V.

An Account of the Discovery of King George the Third's Island, or Otaheite, and of several Incidents which happened both on board the Ship, and on Shore.

1767. June.

Thursday 18.

Friday 19.

AT two o'clock, the same day, we bore away, and in about half an hour, discovered very high land in the W. S. W. At seven in the evening, Osnaburgh Island bore E. N. E. and the new discovered land, from W. N. W. to W. by S. As the weather was thick and squally, we brought to for the night, or at least till the fog should break away. At two in the morning, it being very clear, we made sail again; at day-break we saw the land, at about five leagues distance, and steered directly for it; but at eight o'clock, when we were close under it, the fog obliged us again to lie to, and when it cleared away, we were much surprised to find ourselves surrounded by some hundreds of canoes. They were of different sizes, and had on board different numbers, from one to ten, so that in all of them together, there could not be less than eight hundred people. When they came within pistol shot of the ship, they lay by, gazing at us with great astonishment, and by turns conferring with each other. In the mean time we shewed them trinkets of various kinds, and invited them on board. Soon after, they drew together, and held a kind of council, to determine what should be done: then they all paddled round the ship, making signs of friendship, and one of them holding up a branch of the plantain tree, made a speech that lasted near a quarter of an

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hour, and then threw it into the sea. Soon after, as we continued to make signs of invitation, a sine, stout, lively young man ventured on board: he came up by the mizen chains, and jumped out of the shrouds upon the top of the awning. We made signs to him to come down upon the quarter-deck, and handed up some trinkets to him: he looked pleased, but would accept of nothing till some of the Indians came along side, and after much talk, threw a few branches of plantain tree on board the ship. He then accepted our presents, and several others very soon came on board, at different parts of the ship, not knowing the proper entrance. As one of these Indians was standing near the gang-way, on the larboard side of the quarter-deck, one of our goats butted him upon the haunches: being surprised at the blow, he turned hastily about, and saw the goat raised upon his hind-legs, ready to repeat the blow. The appearance of this animal, so different from any he had ever seen, struck him with such terror, that he instantly leaped over board; and all the rest, upon seeing what had happened, followed his example with the utmost precipitation: they recovered however, in a short time, from their fright, and returned on board. After having a little reconciled them to our goats and sheep, I shewed them our hogs and poultry, and they immediately made signs that they had such animals as these. I then distributed trinkets and nails among them, and made signs that they should go on shore and bring us some of their hogs, fowls and fruit, but they did not seem to understand my meaning: they were, in the mean time, watching an opportunity to steal some of the things that happened to lie in their way, but we generally detected them in the attempt. At last, however, one of the midshipmen happened to come where they were standing, with a new laced hat upon his head, and began to talk to

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one of them by signs: while he was thus engaged, another of them came behind him, and suddenly snatching off the hat, leaped over the taffarel into the sea, and swam away with it.

As we had no anchorage here, we stood along the shore, sending the boats at the same time to sound at a less distance. As none of these canoes had sails, they could not keep up with us, and therefore soon paddled back towards the shore. The country has the most delightful and romantic appearance that can be imagined: towards the sea it is level, and is covered with fruit trees of various kinds, particularly the cocoa nut. Among these are the houses of the inhabitants, consisting only of a roof, and at a distance having greatly the appearance of a long barn. The country within, at about the distance of three miles, rises into lofty hills, that are crowned with wood, and terminate in peaks, from which large rivers are precipitated into the sea. We saw no shoals, but found the island skirted by a reef of rocks, through which there are several openings into deep water. About three o'clock in the afternoon, we brought to, a-breast of a large bay, where there was an appearance of anchorage. The boats were immediately sent to sound it, and while they were thus employed, I observed a great number of canoes gather round them. I suspected that the Indians had a design to attack them, and as I was very desirous to prevent mischief, I made the signal for the boats to come aboard, and at the same time, to intimidate the Indians, I fired a nine pounder over their heads. As soon as the cutter began to stand towards the ship, the Indians in their canoes, though they had been startled by the thunder of our nine pounder, endeavoured to cut her off. The boat, however, sailing faster than the canoes could paddle, soon got clear of those that were about her; but some others, that

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Friday 19.

were full of men, way-laid her in her course, and threw several stones into her, which wounded some of the people. Upon this, the officer on board fired a musquet, loaded with buck-shot, at the man who threw the first stone, and wounded him in the shoulder. The rest of the people in the canoes, as soon as they perceived their companion wounded, leapt into the sea, and the other canoes paddled away, in great terror and confusion. As soon as the boats reached the ship, they were hoisted on board, and just as she was about to stand on, we observed a large canoe, under fail, making after us. As I thought she might have some Chief on board, or might have been dispatched to bring me a message from some Chief, I determined to wait for her. She sailed very fast, and was soon along side of the ship, but we did not observe among those on board, any one that seemed to have an authority over the rest. One of them, however, stood up, and having made a speech, which continued about five minutes, threw on board a branch of the plantain tree. We understood this to be a token of peace, and we returned it, by handing over one of the branches of plantain that had been left on board by our first visitors: with this and some toys, that were afterwards presented to him, he appeared to be much gratified, and after a short time, went away.

The officers who had been sent out with the boats, informed me that they had sounded close to the reef, and found as great a depth of water as at the other islands: however, as I was now on the weather side of the island, I had reason to expect anchorage in running to leeward. I therefore took this course, but finding breakers that ran off to a great distance from the south-end of the island, I hauled the wind, and continued turning to windward all night, in order to run down on the east side of the island.

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Saturday 20.

Sunday 21.

At five o'clock in the morning, we made sail, the land bearing N. W. by W. distant 10 leagues; and there seemed to be land five leagues beyond it, to the N. E.; a remarkable peak, like a sugar loaf, bore N. N. E. when we were about two leagues from the shore, which afforded a most delightful prospect, and was full of houses and inhabitants. We saw several large canoes near the shore, under fail, but they did not steer towards the ship. At noon, we were within two or three miles of the island, and it then bore from S. ¾ W. to N. W. by W. We continued our course along the shore, sometimes at the distance of half a mile, and sometimes at the distance of four or five miles, but hitherto had got no soundings. At six o'clock in the evening, we were a-breast of a fine river, and the coast having a better appearance here than in any other part that we had seen, I determined to stand off and on all night, and try for anchorage in the morning. As soon as it was dark, we saw a great number of lights all along the shore. At day-break, we sent out the boats to sound, and soon after, they made the signal for 20 fathom. This produced an universal joy, which it is not easy to describe, and we immediately ran in, and came to an anchor in 17 fathom, with a clear sandy bottom. We lay about a mile distant from the shore, opposite to a fine run of water; the extreams of the land bearing from E. S. E. to N. W. by W. As soon as we had secured the ship, I sent the boats to sound along the coast, and look at the place where we saw the water. At this time, a considerable number of canoes came off to the ship, and brought with them hogs, fowls, and fruit in great plenty, which we purchased for trinkets and nails. But when the boats made towards the shore, the canoes, most of which were double, and very large, sailed after them. At first they kept at a distance, but as the boats approached the

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1767. June.

Sunday 21.

shore, they grew bolder, and at last three of the largest ran at the cutter, staved in her quarter, and carried away her out-rigger, the Indians preparing at the same time to board her, with their clubs and paddles in their hands. Our people being thus pressed, were obliged to fire, by which one of the assailants was killed, and another much wounded. Upon receiving the shot, they both fell overboard, and all the people who were in the same canoe, instantly leaped into the sea after them: the other two canoes dropped a-stern, and our boats went on without any farther interruption. As soon as the Indians, who were in the water, saw that the boats stood on without attempting to do them any farther hurt, they recovered their canoe, and hauled in their wounded companions. They set them both upon their feet to see if they could stand, and finding they could not, they tried whether they could sit upright: one of them could, and him they supported in that posture, but perceiving that the other was quite dead, they laid the body along at the bottom of the canoe. After this some of the canoes went ashore, and others returned again to the ship to traffick, which is a proof that our conduct had convinced them that while they behaved peaceably they had nothing to fear and that they were conscious they had brought the mischief which had just happened upon themselves.

The boats continued sounding till noon, when they returned with an account that the ground was very clear; that it was at the depth of five fathom, within a quarter of a mile of the shore, but that there was a very great surf where we had seen the water. The officers told me, that the inhabitants swarmed upon the beach, and that many of them swam off to the boat with fruit, and bamboos filled with water. They said that they were very importunate with them to come on shore, particularly the women, who came down to the

[page] 439

1767. June.

Sunday 21.

beach, and stripping themselves naked, endeavoured to allure them by many wanton gestures, the meaning of which could not possibly be mistaken. At this time, however, our people resisted the temptation.

In the afternoon, I sent the boats again to the shore, with some barecas, or small casks, which are filled at the head, and have a handle by which they are carried, to endeavour to procure some water, of which we began to be in great want. In the mean time, many of the canoes continued about the ship, but the Indians had been guilty of so many thefts, that I would not suffer any more of them to come on board.

At five in the evening, the boats returned with only two barecas of water, which the natives had filled for them; and as a compensation for their trouble, they thought fit to detain all the rest. Our people, who did not leave their boat, tried every expedient they could think of to induce the Indians to return their water vessels, but without success; and the Indians, in their turn, were very pressing for our people to come on shore, which they thought it prudent to decline. There were many thousands of the inhabitants of both sexes, and a great number of children on the beach, when our boats came away.

Monday 22.

The next morning, I sent the boats on shore again for water, with nails, hatchets, and such other things as I thought most likely to gain the friendship of the inhabitants. In the mean time, a great number of canoes came off to the ship, with bread-fruit*, plantains, a fruit resembling an apple only better, fowls, and hogs, which we purchased with beads, nails, knives, and other articles of the like kind, so

* See a description of this fruit in the Account of the Voyage of the Endeavour.

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1767. June.

Monday 22.

that we procured pork enough to serve the ship's company two days, at a pound a man.

When the boats returned, they brought us only a few calibashes of water, for the number of people on the beach was so great, that they would not venture to land, though the young women repeated the allurements which they had practised the day before, with still more wanton, and, if possible, less equivocal gestures. Fruit and provisions of various kinds were brought down and ranged upon the beach, of which our people were also invited to partake, as an additional inducement for them to leave the boat. They continued, however, inexorable, and shewing the Indians the barecas on board, made signs that they should bring down those which had been detained the day before: to this the Indians were inexorable in their turn, and our people therefore weighed their grapplings, and sounded all round the place, to see whether the ship could come in near enough to cover the waterers, in which case they might venture on shore, in defiance of the whole island. When they put off, the women pelted them with apples and bananas, shouting, and shewing every mark of derision and contempt that they could devise. They reported, that the ship might ride in four fathom water, with sandy ground, at two cables' length from the shore, and in five fathom water at three cables' length. The wind here blew right along the shore, raising a great surf on the side of the vessel, and on the beach.

Tuesday 23.

At day-break, the next morning, we weighed, with a design to anchor off the watering-place. As we were standing off, to get farther to windward, we discovered a bay about six or eight miles to leeward, over the land, from the

[page] 441

1767. June.

Tuesday 23.

mast-head, and immediately bore away for it, sending the boats a-head to sound. At nine o'clock, the boats making the signal for 12 fathom, we hauled round a reef, and stood in, with a design to come to an anchor; but when we came near the boats, one of which was on each bow, the ship struck. Her head continued immoveable, but her stern was free; and, upon casting the lead, we found the depth of water, upon the reef or shoal, to be from 17 fathom to two and a half: we clewed all up as fast as possible, and cleared the ship of what lumber there happened to be upon the deck, at the same time getting out the long-boat, with the stream and kedge anchors, the stream cable and hauser, in order to carry them without the reef, that when they had taken ground, the ship might be drawn off towards them, by applying a great force to the capstern, but unhappily without the reef we had no bottom. Our condition was now very alarming, the ship continued beating against the rock with great force, and we were surrounded by many hundred canoes, full of men: they did not, however, attempt to come on board us, but seemed to wait in expectation of our shipwreck. In the anxiety and terror of such a situation we continued near an hour, without being able to do any thing for our deliverance, except staving some water casks in the fore-hold, when a breeze happily springing up from the shore, the ship's head swung off. We immediately pressed her with all the sail we could make; upon which she began to move, and was very soon once more in deep water.

We now stood off, and the boats being sent to leeward, found that the reef ran down to the westward about a mile and a half, and that beyond it there was a very good harbour. The master, after having placed a boat at the end of the reef, and furnished the long-boat with anchor and hausers,

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Tuesday 23.

and a guard to defend her from an attack of the Indians, came on board, and piloted the ship round the reef into the harbour, where, about twelve o'clock, she came to an anchor in 17 fathom water, with a fine bottom of black sand.

The place where the ship struck appeared, upon farther examination, to be a reef of sharp coral rock, with very unequal soundings, from six fathom to two; and it happened unfortunately to lie between the two boats that were placed as a direction to the ship, the weathermost boat having 12 fathom, and the leewardmost nine. The wind freshened almost as soon as we got off, and though it soon became calm again, the surf ran so high, and broke with such violence upon the rock, that if the ship had continued fast half an hour longer, she must inevitably have been beaten to pieces. Upon examining her bottom, we could not discover that she had received any damage, except that a small piece was beaten off the bottom of the rudder. She did not appear to admit any water, but the trussle-trees, at the head of all the masts, were broken short, which we supposed to have happened while she was beating against the rock. Our boats lost their grapplings upon the reef, but as we had reason to hope that the ship was found, they gave us very little concern. As soon as the ship was secured, I sent the master, with all the boats manned and armed, to sound the upper part of the bay, that if he found good anchorage we might warp the ship up within the reef, and anchor her in safety. The weather was now very pleasant, a great number of canoes were upon the reef, and the shore was crouded with people.

About four in the afternoon the master returned, and reported, that there was every where good anchorage; I therefore determined to warp the ship up the bay early in

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[page] 443

1767. June.

Tuesday 23.

the morning, and in the mean time, I put the people at four watches, one watch to be always under arms; loaded and primed all the guns, fixed musquetoons in all the boats, and ordered all the people who were not upon the watch, to repair to the quarters assigned them, at a moment's warning there being a great number of canoes, some of them very large, and full of men, hovering upon the shore, and many smaller venturing to the ship, with hogs, fowls, and fruit, which we purchased of them, much to the satisfaction of both parties; and at sun-set, all the canoes rowed in to the shore.

Wednes. 14.

At six o'clock the next morning, we began to warp the ship up the harbour, and soon after, a great number of canoes came under her stern. As I perceived that they had hogs, fowls, and fruit on board, I ordered the gunner, and two midshipmen, to purchase them for knives, nails, beads, and other trinkets, at the same time prohibiting the trade to all other persons on board. By eight o'clock, the number of canoes was greatly increased, and those that came last up were double, of a very large size, with twelve or fifteen stout men in each. I observed, with some concern, that they appeared to be furnished rather for war than trade, having very little on board except round pebble stones; I therefore sent for Mr. Furneaux, my first lieutenant being still very ill, and ordered him to keep the fourth watch constantly at their arms, while the rest of the people were warping the ship. In the mean time more canoes were continually coming off from the shore, which were freighted very differently from the rest, for they had on board a number of women who were placed in a row, and who, when they came near the ship, made all the wanton gestures that can be conceived. While these ladies were practising their allurements, the large canoes, which were freighted with

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[page] 444

1767. June.

Wednes. 24.

stones, drew together very close round the ship, some of the men on board singing in a hoarse voice, some blowing conchs, and some playing on a flute. After some time, a man who sat upon a canopy that was fixed on one of the large double canoes, made signs that he wished to come up to the ship's side; I immediately intimated my consent, and when he came along side, he gave one of the men a bunch of red and yellow feathers, making signs that he should carry it to me. I received it with expressions of amity, and immediately got some trinkets to present him in return, but to my great surprise he had put off to a little distance from the ship, and upon his throwing up the branch of a cocoa-nut tree, there was an universal shout from all the canoes, which at once moved towards the ship, and a shower of stones was poured into her on every side. As an attack was now begun, in which our arms only could render us superior to the multitude that assailed us, especially as great part of the ship's company was in a sick and feeble condition, I ordered the guard to fire; two of the quarter-deck guns, which I had loaded with small shot, were also fired nearly at the same time, and the Indians appeared to be thrown into some confusion: in a few minutes, however, they renewed the attack, and all our people that were able to come upon deck, having by this time got to their quarters, I ordered them to fire the great guns, and to play some of them constantly at a place on shore, where a great number of canoes were still taking in men, and pushing off towards the ship with the utmost expedition. When the great guns began to fire, there were not less than three hundred canoes about the ship, having on board at least two thousand men; many thousands were also upon the shore, and more canoes coming from every quarter: the firing, however, soon drove away the canoes that were about the ship, and put a stop to the

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[page] 445

1767. June.

Wednes. 24.

coming off of others. As soon as I saw some of them retreating, and the rest quiet, I ordered the firing to cease, hoping that they were sufficiently convinced of our superiority, not to renew the contest. In this, however, I was unhappily mistaken: a great number of the canoes that had been dispersed, soon drew together again, and lay some time on their paddles, looking at the ship from the distance of about a quarter of a mile, and then suddenly hoisting white streamers, pulled towards the ship's stern, and began again to throw stones, with great force and dexterity, by the help of slings, from a considerable distance: each of these stones weighed about two pounds, and many of them wounded the people on board, who would have suffered much more, if an awning had not been spread over the whole deck to keep out the sun, and the hammocks placed in the nettings. At the same time several canoes, well manned, were making towards the ship's bow, having probably taken notice that no shot had been fired from this part: I therefore ordered some guns forward, to be well pointed and fired at these canoes; at the same time running out two guns abaft, and pointing them well at the canoes that were making the attack. Among the canoes that were coming toward the bow, there was one which appeared to have some Chief on board, as it was by signals made from her, that the others had been called together: it happened that a shot, fired from the guns forward, hit this canoe so full as to cut it asunder. As soon as this was observed by the rest, they dispersed with such haste that in half an hour there was not a single canoe to be seen; the people also who had crouded the shore, immediately sled over the hills with the utmost precipitation.

Having now no reason to fear any further interruption, we warped the ship up the harbour, and by noon, we were

[page] 446

1767. June.

Wednes. 21.

Thursday 25.

not more than half a mile from the upper part of the bay, within less than two cables' length of a fine river, and about two and a half of the reef. We had here nine fathom water, and close to the shore there were five. We moored the ship, and carried out the stream-anchor, with the two shroud hausers, for a spring, to keep the ship's broad-side a-breast of the river; we also got up and mounted the eight guns which had been put into the hold. As soon as this was done, the boats were employed in sounding all round the bay, and in examining the shore where any of the inhabitants appeared, in order to discover, whether it was probable that they would give us any further disturbance. All the afternoon, and part of the next morning, was spent in this service; and about noon, the master returned, with a tolerable survey of the place, and reported, that there were no canoes in sight; that there was good landing on every part of the beach; that there was nothing in the bay from which danger could be apprehended, except the reef, and some rocks at the upper end, which appeared above water; and that the river, though it emptied itself on the other side of the point, was fresh water.

Soon after the master had brought me this account, I sent Mr. Furneaux again, with all the boats manned and armed, the marines being also put on board, with orders to land opposite to our station, and secure himself, under cover of the boats and the ship, in the clearest ground he could find. About two o'clock the boats landed without any opposition, and Mr. Furneaux stuck up a staff, upon which he hoisted a pendant, turned a turf, and took possession of the island in his Majesty's name, in honour of whom he called it KING GEORGE THE THIRD's ISLAND: he then went to the river, and tasted the water, which he found excellent, and mixing some of it with rum, every man drank his Majesty's health.

[page] 447

1767. June.

Thursday 25.

While he was at the river, which was about twelve yards wide, and fordable, he saw two old men on the opposite side of it, who perceiving that they were discovered, put themselves in a supplicatory posture, and seemed to be in great terror and confusion. Mr. Furneaux made signs that they should come over the river, and one of them complied. When he landed, he came forward, creeping upon his hands and knees, but Mr. Furneaux raised him up, and while he stood trembling, shewed him some of the stones that were thrown at the ship, and endeavoured to make him apprehend that if the natives attempted no mischief against us, we should do no harm to them. He ordered two of the water casks to be filled, to shew the Indian that we wanted water, and produced some hatchets, and other things, to intimate that he wished to trade for provisions. The old man, during this pantomimical conversation, in some degree recovered his spirits; and Mr. Furneaux, to confirm his professions of friendship, gave him a hatchet, some nails, beads, and other trifles; after which he reimbarked on board the boats, and left the pendant flying. As soon as the boats were put off, the old man went up to the pendant, and danced round it a considerable time: he then retired, but soon after returned with some green boughs, which he threw down, and retired a second time: it was not long, however, before he appeared again, with about a dozen of the inhabitants, and putting themselves in a supplicating posture, they all approached the pendant in a slow pace, but the wind happening to move it, when they were got close to it, they suddenly retreated with the greatest precipitation. After standing some time at a distance, and gazing at it, they went away, but in a short time came back, with two large hogs alive, which they laid down at the foot of the staff, and at length taking courage, they began to dance. When they had per-

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1767. June.

Thursday 25.

formed this ceremony, they brought the hogs down to the water side, launched a canoe, and put them on board. The old man, who had a large white beard, then embarked with them alone, and brought them to the ship: when he came along side, he made a set speech, and afterwards handed in several green plantain leaves, one by one, uttering a sentence, in a solemn slow tone, with each of them as he delivered it; after this he sent on board the two hogs, and then turning round, pointed to the land. I ordered some presents to be given him, but he would accept of nothing; and soon after put off his canoe, and went on shore.

Friday 26.

At night, soon after it was dark, we heard the noise of many drums, with conchs, and other wind instruments, and saw a multitude of lights all along the coast. At six in the morning, seeing none of the natives on shore, and observing that the pendant was taken away, which probably they had learnt to despise, as the frogs in the fable did King Log, I ordered the lieutenant to take a guard on shore, and if all was well, to send off, that we might begin watering: in a short time I had the satisfaction to find that he had sent off for water casks, and by eight o'clock, we had four tons of water on board. While our people were employed in silling the casks, several of the natives appeared on the opposite side of the river, with the old man whom the officer had seen the day before; and soon after he came over, and brought with him a little fruit, and a few fowls, which were also sent off to the ship. At this time, having been very ill for near a fortnight, I was so weak that I could scarcely crawl about; however, I employed my glasses to see what was doing on shore. At near half an hour after eight o'clock, I perceived a multitude of the natives coming over a hill at about the distance of a mile, and at the same time a great number of canoes making round the western point, and

[page] 449

1767. June.

Friday 26.

keeping close along the shore. I then looked at the watering-place, and saw at the back of it, where it was clear, a very numerous party of the natives creeping along behind the bushes; I saw also many thousands in the woods, pushing along towards the watering-place, and canoes coming very fast round the other point of the bay to the eastward. Being alarmed at these appearances, I dispatched a boat, to acquaint the officer on shore with what I had seen, and order him immediately to come on board with his men, and leave the casks behind him: he had, however, discovered his danger, and embarked before the boat reached him. Having perceived the Indians that were creeping towards him under shelter of the wood, he immediately dispatched the old man to them, making signs that they should keep at a distance, and that he wanted nothing but water. As soon as they perceived that they were discovered, they began to shout, and advanced with greater speed. The officer immediately repaired to the boats with his people, and the Indians, in the mean time having crossed the river, took possession of the water casks, with great appearance of exultation and joy. The canoes now pulled along the shore, towards the place, with the utmost expedition, all the people on land keeping pace with them, except a multitude of women and children, who seated themselves upon a hill which overlooked the bay and the beach. The canoes from each point of the bay, as they drew nearer to that part of it where the ship was at anchor, put on shore, and took in more men, who had great bags in their hands, which afterwards appeared to be filled with stones. All the canoes that had come round the points, and many others that had put off from the shore within the bay, now made towards the ship, so that I had no doubt but that they intended to try

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Friday 26.

their fortune in a second attack. As to shorten the contest would certainly lessen the mischief, I determined to make this action decisive, and put an end to hostilities at once; I therefore ordered the people, who were all at their quarters, to fire first upon the canoes which were drawn together in groups: this was immediately done so effectually, that those which were to the westward made towards the shore as fast as possible, and those to the eastward, getting round the reef, were soon beyond the reach of our guns. I then directed the fire into the wood in different parts, which soon drove the Indians out of it, who ran up the hill where the women and children had seated themselves to see the battle. Upon this hill there were now several thousands who thought themselves in perfect security; but to convince them of the contrary, and hoping that when they saw the shot fall much farther than they could think possible, they would suppose it could reach them at any distance, I ordered some of the guns to be let down as low as they would admit, and fired four shot towards them. Two of the balls fell close by a tree where a great number of these people were sitting, and struck them with such terror and consternation, that in less than two minutes not one of them was to be seen. Having thus cleared the coast, I manned and armed the boats, and putting a strong guard on board, I sent all the carpenters with their axes, and ordered them to destroy every canoe that had been run ashore. Before noon, this service was effectually performed, and more than fifty canoes, many of which were sixty feet long, and three broad, and lashed together, were cut to pieces. Nothing was found in them but stones and slings, except a little fruit, and a few fowls and hogs, which were on board two or three canoes of a much smaller size.

[page] 451

1767. June.

Friday 26.

At two o'clock in the afternoon, about ten of the natives came out of the wood with green boughs in their hands, which they stuck up near the water side, and retired. After a short time, they appeared again, and brought with them several hogs, with their legs tied, which they placed near the green boughs, and retired a second time. After this they brought down several more hogs, and some dogs, with their fore legs tied over their heads, and going again into the woods, brought back several bundles of the cloth which they use for apparel, and which has some resemblance to Indian paper. These they placed upon the beach, and called to us on board to fetch them away. As we were at the distance of about three cables' length, we could not then perfectly discover of what this peace-offering consisted: we guessed at the hogs and the cloth, but seeing the dogs, with their fore legs appearing over the hinder part of the neck, rise up several times, and run a little way in an erect posture, we took them for some strange unknown animal, and were very impatient to have a nearer view of them. The boat was therefore sent on shore with all expedition, and our wonder was soon at an end. Our people found nine good hogs, besides the dogs and the cloth: the hogs were brought off, but the dogs were turned loose, and with the cloth left behind. In return for the hogs, our people left upon the shore some hatchets, nails, and other things, making signs to some of the Indians who were in sight, to take them away with their cloth. Soon after the boat had come on board, the Indians brought down two more hogs, and called to us to fetch them; the boat therefore returned, and fetched off the two hogs, but still left the cloth, though the Indians made signs that we should take it. Our people reported, that they had not touched any of the things which

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Friday 26.

they had left upon the beach for them, and somebody suggesting that they would not take our offering because we had not accepted their cloth, I gave orders that it should be fetched away. The event proved that the conjecture was true, for the moment the boat had taken the cloth on board, the Indians came down, and with every possible demonstration of joy, carried away all I had sent them into the wood. Our boats then went to the watering-place, and filled and brought off all the casks, to the amount of about six tons. We found that they had suffered no injury while they had been in the possession of the Indians, but some leathern buckets and funnels which had been taken away with the casks, were not returned.

Saturday 27.

The next morning I sent the boats on shore, with a guard, to fill some more casks with water, and soon after the people were on shore, the same old man who had come over the river to them the first day, came again to the farther side of it, where he made a long speech, and then crossed the water. When he came up to the waterers, the officer shewed him the stones that were piled up like cannon balls upon the shore, and had been brought thither since our first landing, and some of the bags that had been taken out of the canoes which I had ordered to be destroyed, filled with stones, and endeavoured to make him understand that the Indians had been the aggressors, and that the mischief we had done them was in our own defence. The old man seemed to apprehend his meaning, but not to admit it: he immediately made a speech to the people, pointing to the stones, slings, and bags, with great emotion, and sometimes his looks, gestures, and voice were so furious as to be frightful. His passions, however, subsided by degrees, and the officer, who to his great regret could not understand one

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1767. June.

Saturday 27.

word of all that he had said, endeavoured to convince him, by all the signs he could devise, that we wished to live in friendship with them, and were disposed to shew them every mark of kindness in our power. He then shook hands with him, and embraced him, giving him at the same time several such trinkets as he thought would be most acceptable. He contrived also to make the old man understand that we wished to traffick for provisions, that the Indians should not come down in great numbers, and that they should keep on one side of the river and we on the other. After this the old man went away with great appearance of satisfaction, and before noon a trade was established, which furnished us with hogs, fowls, and fruit in great abundance, so that all the ship's company, whether sick or well, had as much as they could use.

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CHAP. VI.

The Sick sent on Shore, and a regular Trade established with the Natives; some Account of their Character and Manners, of their Visits on board the Ship, and a Variety of Incidents that happened during this Intercourse.

1767. June.

Saturday 27.

MATTERS being thus happily settled, I sent the Surgeon, with the Second Lieutenant, to examine the country, and fix upon some place where the sick might take up their residence on shore. When they returned, they said, that with respect to health and convenience, all the places that they had seen upon the island seemed to be equally proper; but that with respect to safety, they could recommend none but the watering-place, as they would be there under the protection of the ship and the guard, and would easily be prevented from straggling into the country, and brought off to their meals. To the watering place therefore I sent them, with those that were employed in filling the casks, and appointed the gunner to command the party that was to be their guard. A tent was erected for them as a shelter both from the sun and the rain, and the Surgeon was sent to superintend their conduct, and give his advice if it should be wanted. It happened that walking out with his gun, after he had seen the sick properly disposed of in the tent, a wild duck flew over his head, which he shot, and it fell dead among some of the natives who were on the other side of the river. This threw them into a panic, and

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Saturday 27.

they all ran away: when they got to some distance they stopped, and he made signs to them to bring the duck over: this one of them at last ventured to do, and, pale and trembling, laid it down at his feet. Several other ducks happening at the instant to fly over the spot where they were standing, he fired again, and fortunately brought down three more. This incident gave the natives such a dread of a gun, that if a musquet was pointed at a thousand of them, they would all run away like a flock of sheep; and probably the ease with which they were afterwards kept at a distance, and their orderly behaviour in their traffick, was in a great measure owing to their having upon this occasion seen the instrument of which before they had only felt the effects.

As I foresaw that a private traffick would probably commence between such of our people as were on shore, and the natives, and that if it was left to their own caprice, perpetual quarrels and mischief would ensue, I ordered that all matters of traffick should be tranfacted by the gunner, on behalf of both parties, and I directed him to see that no injury was done to the natives, either by violence or fraud, and by all possible means to attach the old man to his interest. This service he performed with great diligence and fidelity, nor did he neglect to complain of those who transgressed my orders, which was of infinite advantage to all parties; for as I punished the first offenders with a necessary severity, many irregularities, that would otherwise have produced the most disagreeable consequences, were prevented: we were also indebted for many advantages to the old man, whose caution kept our people perpetually upon their guard, and soon brought back those who straggled from the party. The natives would indeed sometimes pilfer, but by the terror of a gun, without using it, he always found means to make them bring back what was stolen. A fellow had one day the

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dexterity and address to cross the river unperceived, and steal a hatchet; the gunner, as soon as he missed it, made the old man understand what had happened, and got his party ready, as if he would have gone into the woods after the thief: the old man, however, made signs that he would save him the trouble, and immediately setting off, returned in a very short time with the hatchet. The gunner then insisted that the offender should be delivered up, and with this also the old man, though not without great reluctance, complied. When the fellow was brought down, the gunner knew him to be an old offender, and therefore sent him prisoner on board. I had no intention to punish him otherwise, than by the fear of punishment, and therefore, after great entreaty and intercession, I gave him his liberty, and sent him on shore. When the natives saw him return in safety, it is hard to say whether their astonishment or joy was greatest; they received him with universal acclamations, and immediately carried him off into the woods: the next day, however, he returned, and as a propitiation to the gunner, he brought him a considerable quantity of bread-fruit, and a large hog, ready roasted.

At this time, the people on board were employed in caulking and painting the weather-work, over-hauling the rigging, stowing the hold, and doing other necessary business, but my disorder, which was a bilious cholic, increased so much, that this day I was obliged to take to my bed; my First Lieutenant also still continued very ill, and the Purser was incapable of his duty. The whole command devolved upon Mr. Furneaux, the Second Lieutenant, to whom I gave general directions, and recommended a particular attention to the people on shore. I also ordered that fruit and fresh provisions should be served to the ship's company as long as they could be procured, and that the boats should never be

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Saturday 27.

absent from the ship after sun-set. These directions were fulfilled with such prudence and punctuality, that during all my sickness I was not troubled with any business, nor had the mortification to hear a single complaint or appeal. The men were constantly served with fresh pork, fowls, and fruit, in such plenty, that when I left my bed, after having been confined to it near a fortnight, my ship's company looked so fresh and healthy, that I could scarcely believe them to be the same people.

Sunday 28.

Monday 29.

Sunday the 28th was marked by no incident; but on Monday the 29th, one of the gunner's party found a piece of saltpetre near as big as an egg. As this was an object of equal curiosity and importance, diligent enquiry was immediately made from whence it came. The surgeon asked every one of the people on shore, separately, whether he had brought it from the ship; every one on board also was asked whether he had carried it on shore, but all declared that they had never had such a thing in their possession. Application was then made to the natives, but the meaning of both parties was so imperfectly conveyed by signs, that nothing could be learnt of them about it: during our whole stay here, however, we saw no more than this one piece.

While the gunner was trafficking for provisions on shore, we sometimes hauled the seine, but we caught no fish; we also frequently trawled, but with no better success: the disappointment, however, was not felt, for the produce of the island enabled our people to "fare sumptuously every day."

July.

Thursday .

All matters continued in the same situation till the 2d of July, when our old man being absent, the supply of fresh provisions and fruit fell short; we had, however, enough to

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serve most of the messes, reserving plenty for the sick and convalescent.

Friday 3.

On the 3d, we heeled the ship, and looked at her bottom, which we found as clean as when she came out of dock, and to our great satisfaction, as sound. During all this time, none of the natives came near our boats, or the ship, in their canoes. This day, about noon, we caught a very large shark, and when the boats went to fetch the people on board to dinner, we sent it on shore. When the boats were putting off again, the gunner seeing some of the natives on the other side of the river, beckoned them to come over; they immediately complied, and he gave them the shark, which they soon cut to pieces, and carried away with great appearance of satisfaction.

Sunday 5.

On Sunday the 5th, the old man returned to the market-tent, and made the gunner understand that he had been up the country, to prevail upon the people to bring down their hogs, poultry, and fruit, of which the parts near the watering-place were now nearly exhausted. The good effects of his expedition soon appeared, for several Indians, whom our people had never seen before, came in with some hogs that were larger than any that had been yet brought to market. In the mean time, the old man ventured off in his canoe, to the ship, and brought with him, as a present to me, a hog ready roasted. I was much pleased with his attention and liberality, and gave him, in return for his hog, an iron pot, a looking-glass, a drinking-glass, and several other things, which no man in the island was in possession of but himself.

While our people were on shore, several young women were permitted to cross the river, who, though they were not averse to the granting of personal favours, knew the

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Sunday 5.

value of them too well not to stipulate for a consideration: the price, indeed, was not great, yet it was such as our men were not always able to pay, and under this temptation they stole nails and other iron from the ship. The nails that we brought for traffick, were not always in their reach, and therefore they drew several out of different parts of the vessel, particularly those that fastened the cleats to the ship's side. This was productive of a double mischief; damage to the ship, and a considerable rise at market. When the gunner offered, as usual, small nails for hogs of a middling size, the natives refused to take them, and produced large spikes, intimating that they expected such nails as these. A most diligent enquiry was set on foot to discover the offenders, but all to no purpose; and though a large reward was offered to procure intelligence, none was obtained. I was mortified at the disappointment, but I was still more mortified at a fraud which I found some of our people had practised upon the natives. When no nails were to be procured, they had stolen lead, and cut it up in the shape of nails. Many of the natives who had been paid with this base money, brought their leaden nails, with great simplicity, to the gunner, and requested him to give them iron in their stead. With this request, however reasonable, he could not comply; because, by rendering lead current, it would have encouraged the stealing it, and the market would have been as effectually spoiled by those who could not procure nails, as by those who could; it was therefore necessary, upon every account, to render this leaden currency of no value, though for our honour I should have been glad to have called it in.

Tuesday 7.

On Tuesday the 7th, I sent one of the mates, with thirty men, to a village at a little distance from the market, hoping

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Tuesday 7.

that refreshments might there be bought at the original price; but here they were obliged to give still more than at the water-side. In the mean time, being this day able to get up for the first time, and the weather being fine, I went into a boat, and rowed about four miles down the coast. I found the country populous, and pleasant in the highest degree, and saw many canoes on the shore; but not one came off to us, nor did the people seem to take the least notice of us as we passed along. About noon I returned to the ship.

The commerce which our men had found means to establish with the women of the island, rendered them much less obedient to the orders that had been given for the regulation of their conduct on shore, than they were at first. I found it necessary therefore, to read the articles of war, and I punished James Proctor, the corporal of marines, who had not only quitted his station, and insulted the officer, but struck the Master at Arms such a blow as brought him to the ground.

Wednes. 8.

The next day, I sent a party up the country to cut wood, and they met with some of the natives, who treated them with great kindness and hospitality. Several of these friendly Indians came on board in our boat, and seemed, both by their dress and behaviour, to be of a superior rank. To these people I paid a particular attention, and to discover what present would most gratify them, I laid down before them a Johannes, a guinea, a crown piece, a Spanish dollar, a few shillings, some new halfpence, and two large nails, making signs that they should take what they liked best. The nails were first seized, with great eagerness, and then a few of the halfpence, but the silver and gold lay neglected. Having presented them, therefore, with some nails and halfpence, I sent them on shore superlatively happy.

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Wednes. 8.

From this time, our market was very ill supplied, the Indians refusing to sell provisions at the usual price, and making signs for large nails. It was now thought necessary to look more diligently about the ship, to discover what nails had been drawn; and it was soon found that all the belaying cleats had been ripped off, and that there was scarcely one of the hammock nails left. All hands were now ordered up, and I practised every artifice I could think of to discover the thieves, but without success. I then told them that till the thieves were discovered, not a single man should go on shore: this however produced no effect, except that Proctor, the corporal, behaved in a mutinous manner, for which he was instantly punished.

Saturday 11.

On Saturday the 11th, in the afternoon, the gunner came on board with a tall woman, who seemed to be about five and forty years of age, of a pleasing countenance and majestic deportment. He told me that she was but just come into that part of the country, and that seeing great respect paid her by the rest of the natives, he had made her some presents; in return for which she had invited him to her house, which was about two miles up the valley, and given him some large hogs; after which she returned with him to the watering-place, and expressed a desire to go on board the ship, in which he had thought it proper, on all accounts, that she should be gratified. She seemed to be under no restraint, either from diffidence or fear, when she first came into the ship; and she behaved, all the while she was on board, with an easy freedom, that always distinguishes conscious superiority and habitual command. I gave her a large blue mantle, that reached from her shoulders to her feet, which I threw over her, and tied on with ribands; I gave her also a looking-glass, beads of several sorts, and many other things, of which she accepted with a very good

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Saturday 11.

grace, and much pleasure. She took notice that I had been ill, and pointed to the shore. I understood that she meant I should go thither to perfect my recovery, and I made signs that I would go thither the next morning. When she intimated an inclination to return, I ordered the gunner to go with her, who, having set her on shore, attended her to her habitation, which he described as being very large and well built. He said, that in this house she had many guards and domesticks, and that she had another at a little distance, which was enclosed in lattice-work.

Sunday 12.

The next morning I went on shore for the first time, and my princess, or rather queen, for such by her authority she appeared to be, soon after came to me, followed by many of her attendants. As she perceived that my disorder had left me very weak, she ordered her people to take me in their arms, and carry me not only over the river, but all the way to her house; and observing that some of the people who were with me, particularly the First Lieutenant and Purser, had also been sick, she caused them also to be carried in the same manner, and a guard, which I had ordered out upon the occasion, followed. In our way, a vast multitude crouded about us, but upon her waving her hand, without speaking a word, they withdrew, and left us a free passage. When we approached near her house, a great number of both sexes came out to meet her: these she presented to me, after having intimated by signs that they were her relations, and taking hold of my hand, she made them kiss it. We then entered the house, which covered a piece of ground 327 feet long, and 42 feet broad. It consisted of a roof, thatched with palm leaves, and raised upon 39 pillars on each side, and 14 in the middle. The ridge of the thatch, on the inside, was 30 feet high, and the sides of the house, to the edge of the roof, were 12 feet high; all below the

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Sunday 12.

roof being open. As soon as we entered the house, she made us sit down, and then calling four young girls, she assisted them to take off my shoes, draw down my stockings, and pull off my coat, and then directed them to smooth down the skin, and gently chafe it with their hands: the same operation was also performed upon the First Lieutenant and the Purser, but upon none of those who appeared to be in health. While this was doing, our Surgeon, who had walked till he was very warm, took off his wig to cool and refresh himself: a sudden exclamation of one of the Indians who saw it, drew the attention of the rest, and in a moment every eye was fixed upon the prodigy, and every operation was suspended: the whole assembly stood some time motionless, in silent astonishment, which could not have been more strongly expressed if they had discovered that our friend's limbs had been screwed on to the trunk; in a short time, however, the young women who were chasing us, resumed their employment, and having continued it for about half an hour, they dressed us again, but in this they were, as may easily be imagined, very aukward; I found great benefit, however, from the chafing, and so did the Lieutenant and Purser. After a little time, our generous benefactress ordered some bales of Indian cloth to be brought out, with which she clothed me, and all that were with me, according to the fashion of the country. At first I declined the acceptance of this favour, but being unwilling not to seem pleased with what was intended to please me, I acquiesced. When we went away, she ordered a very large sow, big with young, to be taken down to the boat, and accompanied us thither herself. She had given directions to her people to carry me, as they had done when I came, but as I chose rather to walk, she took me by the arm, and whenever we came to a plash of water or dirt, she lifted me over with as

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little trouble as it would have cost me to have lifted over a child if I had been well.

Monday 13.

The next morning I sent her by the gunner, six hatchets, six bill-hooks, and several other things; and when he returned, he told me that he found her giving an entertainment to a great number of people, which, he supposed, could not be less than a thousand. The messes were all brought to her by the servants that prepared them, the meat being put into the shells of cocoa nuts, and the shells into wooden trays, somewhat like those used by our butchers, and she distributed them with her own hands to the guests, who were seated in rows round the great house. When this was done, she sat down herself, upon a place somewhat elevated above the rest, and two women, placing themselves one on each side of her, fed her, she opening her mouth as they brought their hands up with the food. When she saw the gunner, she ordered a mess for him; he could not certainly tell what it was, but he believed it to be fowl picked small, with apples cut among it, and seasoned with salt water; it was, however, very well tasted. She accepted the things that I sent her, and seemed to be much pleased with them. After this correspondence was established with the queen, provisions of every kind became much more plenty at market; but though fowls and hogs were every day brought in, we were still obliged to pay more for them than at the first, the market having been spoiled by the nails which our men had stolen and given to the women; I therefore gave orders that every man should be searched before he went on shore, and that no woman should be suffered to cross the river.

Tuesday 14.

On the 14th, the gunner being on shore to trade, perceived an old woman on the other side of the river, weeping

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Tuesday 14.

bitterly: when she saw that she had drawn his attention upon her, she sent a young man, who stood by her, over the river to him, with a branch of the plantain tree in his hand. When he came up, he made a long speech, and then laid down his bough at the gunner's feet: after this he went back and brought over the old woman, another man at the same time bringing over two large fat hogs. The woman looked round upon our people with great attention, fixing her eyes sometimes upon one, and sometimes upon another, and at last burst into tears. The young man who brought her over the river, perceiving the gunner's concern and astonishment, made another speech, longer than the first: still, however, the woman's distress was a mystery, but at length she made him understand that her husband, and three of her sons, had been killed in the attack of the ship. During this explanation, she was so affected that at last she sunk down unable to speak, and the two young men, who endeavoured to support her, appeared to be nearly in the same condition: they were probably two more of her sons, or some very near relations. The gunner did all in his power to sooth and comfort her, and when she had in some measure recovered her recollection, she ordered the two hogs to be delivered to him, and gave him her hand in token of friendship, but would accept nothing in return, though he offered her ten times as much as would have purchased the hogs at market.

Wednes. 15.

The next morning, I sent the Second Lieutenant, with all the boats, and sixty men, to the westward, to look at the country, and try what was to be got. About noon he returned, having marched along the shore near fix miles. He found the country very pleasant and populous, and abounding as well with hogs and fowls, as fruit, and other vegetables of various kinds. The inhabitants offered him no molestation,

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Wednes. 15.

but did not seem willing to part with any of the provisions which our people were most desirous to purchase: they gave them, however, a few cocoa-nuts and plantains, and at length sold them nine hogs and a few fowls. The Lieutenant was of opinion, that they might be brought to trade freely by degrees, but the distance from the ship was so great, that too many men would be necessary for a guard. He saw a great number of very large canoes upon the beach, and some that were building. He observed that all their tools were made of stone, shells, and bone, and very justly inferred, that they had no metal of any kind. He found no quadrupeds among them, besides hogs and dogs, nor any earthen vessel, so that all their food is either baked or roasted. Having no vessel in which water could be subjected to the action of fire, they had no more idea that it could be made hot, than that it could be made solid. As the queen was one morning at breakfast with us on board the ship, one of her attendants, a man of some note, and one of those that we thought were priests, saw the Surgeon fill the tea-pot by turning the cock of an urn that stood upon the table: having remarked this with great curiosity and attention, he presently turned the cock, and received the water upon his hand: as soon as he felt himself sealded, he roared out, and began to dance about the cabbin with the most extravagant and ridiculous expressions of pain and astonishment: the other Indians, not being able to conceive what was the matter with him, stood staring at him in amaze, and not without some mixture of terror. The Surgeon, however, who had innocently been the cause of the mischief, applied a remedy, though it was some time before the poor fellow was easy.

Thursday 16.

On Thursday the 16th, Mr. Furneaux, my Second Lieutenant, was taken very ill, which distressed me greatly, as

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Thursday 16.

the First Lieutenant was not yet recovered, and I was still in a very weak state myself: I was this day also obliged once more to punish Proctor, the corporal of marines, for mutinous behaviour. The queen had now been absent several days, but the natives made us understand, by signs, that the next day she would be with us again.

Friday 17.

Accordingly the next morning she came down to the beach, and soon after a great number of people, whom we had never seen before, brought to market provisions of every kind; and the gunner sent off fourteen hogs, and fruit in great plenty.

Saturday 18.

In the afternoon of the next day, the queen came on board, with a present of two large hogs, for she never condescended to barter, and in the evening she returned on shore. I sent a present with her, by the Master, and as soon as they landed, she took him by the hand, and having made a long speech to the people that flocked round them, she led him to her house, where she clothed him, as she had before done me, according to the fashion of the country.

Sunday 19.

The next morning, he sent off a greater quantity of stock than we had ever procured in one day before; it consisted of forty-eight hogs and pigs, four dozen of fowls, with bread-fruit, bananas, apples, and cocoa-nuts, almost without number.

Monday 20.

On the 20th, we continued to trade with good success, but in the afternoon it was discovered that Francis Pinckney, one of the seamen, had drawn the cleats to which the main sheet was belayed, and, after stealing the spikes, thrown them over board. Having secured the offender, I called all the people together upon the deck, and after taking some pains to explain his crime, with all its aggravations, I ordered that he should be whipped with nettles while he ran

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Monday 20.

the gauntlet thrice round the deck: my rhetoric, however, had very little effect, for most of the crew being equally criminal with himself, he was handled so tenderly, that others were rather encouraged to repeat the offence by the hope of impunity, than deterred by the fear of punishment. To preserve the ship, therefore, from being pulled to pieces, and the price of refreshments from being raised so high as soon to exhaust our articles of trade, I ordered that no man, except the wooders and waterers, with their guard, should be permitted to go on shore.

Tuesday 21.

On the 21st, the queen came again on board, and brought several large hogs as a present, for which, as usual, she would accept of no return. When she was about to leave the ship, she expressed a desire that I should go on shore with her, to which I consented, taking several of the officers with me. When we arrived at her house, she made us all sit down, and taking off my hat, she tied to it a bunch or tuft of feathers of various colours, such as I had seen no person on shore wear but herself, which produced by no means a disagreeable effect. She also tied round my hat, and the hats of those who were with me, wreaths of braided or plaited hair, and gave us to understand that both the hair and workmanship were her own: she also presented us with some matts, that were very curiously wrought. In the evening she accompanied us back to the beach, and when we were getting into the boat, she put on board a fine large sow, big with young, and a great quantity of fruit. As we were parting, I made signs that I should quit the island in seven days: she immediately comprehended my meaning, and made signs that I should stay twenty days; that I should go two days journey into the country, stay there a few days, bring down plenty of hogs and poultry, and after that leave the island. I again made signs that I must go in seven days;

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Wednes. 22.

upon which she burst into tears, and it was not without great difficulty that she was pacified.

The next morning, the gunner sent off no less than twenty hogs, with great plenty of fruit. Our decks were now quite full of hogs and poultry, of which we killed only the small ones, and kept the others for sea stores; we found, however, to our great mortification, that neither the fowls nor the hogs could, without great difficulty, be brought to eat any thing but fruit, which made it necessary to kill them faster than we should otherwise have done: two, however, a boar and a sow, were brought alive to England, of which I made a present to Mr. Stephens, Secretary to the Admiralty; the sow afterwards died in pigging, but the boar is still alive.

Thursday 23.

On the 23d, we had very heavy rain, with a storm of wind that blew down several trees on shore, though very little of it was felt where the ship lay.

Friday 24.

The next day, I sent the old man, who had been of great service to the gunner at the market-tent, another iron pot, some hatchets and bills, and a piece of cloth. I also sent the queen two turkies, two geese, three Guinea hens, a cat big with kitten, some china, looking-glasses, glass bottles, shirts, needles, thread, cloth, ribands, peas, some small white kidney beans, called callivances, and about sixteen different sorts of garden seeds, and a shovel, besides a considerable quantity of cutlery wares, consisting of knives, scissars, bill-hooks, and other things. We had already planted several sorts of the garden seeds, and some peas in several places, and had the pleasure to see them come up in a very flourishing state, yet there were no remains of them when Captain Cook left the island. I sent her also two iron pots, and a few spoons. In return for these things, the gunner brought off eighteen hogs, and some fruit.

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Saturday 25.

In the morning of the 25th, I ordered Mr. Gore, one of the mates, with all the marines, forty seamen, and four midshipmen, to go up the valley by the river as high as they could, and examine the soil and produce of the country, noting the trees and plants which they should find, and when they saw any stream from the mountains, to trace it to its source, and observe whether it was tinctured with any mineral or ore. I cautioned them also to keep continually upon their guard against the natives, and directed them to make a sire, as a signal, if they should be attacked. At the same time, I took a guard on shore, and erected a tent on a point of land, to observe an eclipse of the sun, which, the morning being very clear, was done with great accuracy.

Hours. Min. Seconds.
The immersion began, by true time, at 6 51 50
The emersion, by true time, was at 8 1 0
The duration of the eclipse was 1 9 10

The latitude of the point, on which the observation was made, was 17° 30′S. the sun's declination was 19° 40′N. and the variation of the needle 5° 36′E.

After the observation was taken, I went to the queen's house, and shewed her the telescope, which was a reflector. After she had admired its structure, I endeavoured to make her comprehend its use, and fixing it so as to command several distant objects, with which she was well acquainted, but which could not be distinguished with the naked eye, I made her look through it. As soon as she saw them, she started back with astonishment, and directing her eye as the glass was pointed, stood some time motionless and silent; she then looked through the glass again, and again sought in vain, with the naked eye, for the objects which it discovered. As they by turns vanished and re-appeared, her

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Saturday 25.

countenance and gestures expressed a mixture of wonder and delight which no language can describe. When the glass was removed, I invited her, and several of the Chiefs that were with her, to go with me on board the ship, in which I had a view to the security of the party that I had sent out; for I thought that while the queen, and the principal people were known to be in my power, nothing would be attempted against any person belonging to the ship on shore. When we got on board, I ordered a good dinner for their entertainment, but the queen would neither eat nor drink; the people that were with her eat very heartily of whatever was set before them, but would drink only plain water.

In the evening our people returned from their excursion, and came down to the beach, upon which I put the queen and her attendants into the boats, and sent them on shore. As she was going over the ship's side, she asked, by signs, whether I still persisted in my resolution of leaving the island at the time I had fixed; and when I made her understand that it was impossible I should stay longer, she expressed her regret by a flood of tears, which for a while took away her speech. As soon as her passion subsided, she told me that she would come on board again the next day; and thus we parted.

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CHAP. VII.

An Account of an Expedition to discover the inland Part of the Country, and our other Transactions, till we quitted the Island to continue our Voyage.

1767. July.

Saturday 25.

AFTER the mate came on board, he gave me a written account of his expedition, to the following effect:

"At four o'clock in the morning, of Saturday the 25th of June, I landed, with four midshipmen, a serjeant and twelve marines, and twenty-four seamen, all armed, besides four who carried hatchets and other articles of traffick, and four who were loaded with ammunition and provisions, the rest being left with the boat: every man had his day's allowance of brandy, and the hatchet men two small kegs, to give out when I should think proper.

"As soon as I got on shore, I called upon our old man, and took him with us: we then followed the course of the river in two parties, one marching on each side. For the first two miles it flowed through a valley of considerable width, in which were many habitations, with gardens walled in, and abundance of hogs, poultry, and fruit; the soil here seemed to be a rich fat earth, and was of a blackish colour. After this the valley became very narrow, and the ground rising abruptly on one side of the river, we were all obliged to march on the other. Where the stream was precipitated from the hills, channels had been cut to lead the water into gardens and plantations of fruit trees: in these gardens we found an herb which had never been brought down to the

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Saturday 25.

water-side, and which we perceived the inhabitants eat raw. I tasted it, and found it pleasant, its flavour somewhat resembling that of the West Indian spinnage, called Calleloor, though its leaf was very different. The ground was fenced off so as to make a very pretty appearance; the bread-fruit and apple trees were planted in rows on the declivity of the hills, and the cocoa nut and plantain, which require more moisture, on the level ground: under the trees, both on the sides and at the foot of the hills, there was very good grass, but no underwood. As we advanced, the windings of the stream became innumerable, the hills on each side swelled into mountains, and vast crags every where projected over our heads. Travelling now became difficult, and when we had proceeded about four miles, the road for the last mile having been very bad, we sat down to rest ourselves, and take the refreshment of our breakfast; we ranged ourselves upon the ground under a large apple tree, in a very pleasant spot; but just as we were about to begin our repast, we were suddenly alarmed by a confused sound of many voices, and a great shouting, and presently afterwards saw a multitude of men, women, and children upon the hill above us; our old man seeing us rise hastily, and look to our arms, beckoned to us to sit still, and immediately went up to the people that had surprised us. As soon as he joined them they were silent, and soon after disappeared; in a short time, however, they returned, and brought with them a large hog ready roasted, with plenty of bread-fruit, yams, and other refreshments, which they gave to the old man, who distributed them among our people. In return for this treat, I gave them some nails, buttons, and other things, with which they were greatly delighted. After this we proceeded up the valley as far as we could, searching all the runs of water, and all the places where water had run, for

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appearances of metal or ore, but could find none, except what I have brought back with me. I shewed all the people that we met with, the piece of saltpetre which had been picked up in the island, and which I had taken with me for that purpose, but none of them took any notice of it, nor could I learn from them any thing about it. The old man began now to be weary, and there being a mountain before us, he made signs that he would go home: before he left us, however, he made the people who had so liberally supplied us with provisions, take the baggage, with the fruit that had not been eaten, and some cocoa nut-shells full of fresh water, and made signs that they should follow us up the side of the mountain. As soon as he was gone, they gathered green branches from the neighbouring trees, and with many ceremonies, of which we did not know the meaning, laid them down before us: after this they took some small berries with which they painted themselves red, and the bark of a tree that contained a yellow juice, with which they stained their garments in different parts. We began to climb the mountain while our old man was still in sight, and he, perceiving that we made our way with difficulty through the weeds and brush-wood, which grew very thick, turned back, and said something to the natives in a firm loud tone; upon which twenty or thirty of the men went before us, and cleared us a very good path; they also refreshed us with water and fruit as we went along, and assisted us to climb the most difficult places, which we should otherwise have found altogether impracticable. We began to ascend this hill at the distance of about six miles from the place where we landed, and I reckoned the top of it to be near a mile above the river that runs through the valley below. When we arrived at the summit, we again sat down to rest and refresh ourselves. While we were

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climbing we flattered ourselves that from the top we should command the whole island, but we now saw mountains before us so much higher than our situation, that with respect to them we appeared to be in a valley; towards the ship indeed the view was enchanting: the sides of the hills were beautifully clothed with wood, villages were every where interspersed, and the vallies between them afforded a still richer prospect; the houses stood thicker, and the verdure was more luxuriant. We saw very few habitations above us, but discovered smoke in many places ascending from between the highest hills that were in sight, and therefore I conjecture that the most elevated parts of the country are by no means without inhabitants. As we ascended the mountain, we saw many springs gush from fissures on the side of it, and when we had reached the summit, we found many houses that we did not discover as we passed them. No part of these mountains is naked; the summits of the highest that we could see were crowned with wood, but of what kind I know not: those that were of the same height with that which we had climbed, were woody on the sides, but on the summit were rocky and covered with fern. Upon the flats that appeared below these, there grew a sedgy kind of grass and weeds: in general the soil here, as well as in the valley, seemed to be rich. We saw several bushes of sugar-cane, which was very large and very good, growing wild, without the least culture. I likewise found ginger and turmerick, and have brought samples of both, but could not procure seeds of any tree, most of them being in blossom. After traversing the top of this mountain to a good distance, I found a tree exactly like a fern, except that it was 14 or 15 feet high. This tree I cut down, and found the inside of it also like a fern: I would have brought a piece of it with me, but found it too cumbersome, and I knew not

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[page] 476

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Saturday 25.

what difficulties we might meet with before we got back to the ship, which we judged to be now at a great distance. After having again recruited our strength by refreshment and rest, we began to descend the mountain, being still attended by the people to whose care we had been recommended by our old man. We kept our general direction towards the ship, but sometimes deviated a little to the right and left in the plains and vallies, when we saw any houses that were pleasantly situated, the inhabitants being every where ready to accommodate us with whatever they had. We saw no beast, except a few hogs, nor any birds, except parrots, parroquets, and green doves; by the river, however, there was plenty of ducks, and every place that was planted and cultivated, appeared to flourish with great luxuriance, though in the midst of what had the appearance of barren ground. I planted the stones of peaches, cherries, and plums, with a great variety of garden seeds, where I thought it was most probable that they would thrive, and limes, lemons, and oranges, in situations which resembled those in which they are found in the West Indies. In the afternoon, we arrived at a very pleasant spot, within about three miles of the ship, where we procured two hogs and some fowls, which the natives dressed for us very well, and with great expedition. Here we continued till the cool of the evening, and then made the best of our way for the ship, having liberally rewarded our guides, and the people who had provided us so good a dinner. Our men behaved through the whole day with the greatest decency and order, and we parted with our Indian friends in perfect good-humour with each other."

Sunday 26.

About 10 o'clock, the next morning, the queen came on board according to her promise, with a present of hogs and sowls, but went on shore again soon afterwards. This day,

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Sunday 26.

the Gunner sent off near thirty hogs, with great plenty of fowls and fruit. We completed our wood and water, and got all ready for sea. More inhabitants came down to the beach, from the inland country, than we had seen before, and many of them appeared, by the respect that was paid them, to be of a superior rank. About three o'clock in the afternoon, the queen came again down to the beach, very well dressed, and followed by a great number of people. Having crossed the river with her attendants and our old man, she came once more on board the ship. She brought with her some very fine fruit, and renewed her solicitation, that I would stay ten days longer, with great earnestness, intimating that she would go into the country, and bring me plenty of hogs, fowls, and fruit. I endeavoured to express a proper sense of her kindness and bounty, but assured her that I should certainly sail the next morning. This, as usual, threw her into tears, and after she recovered, she enquired by signs when I should return: I endeavoured to express fifty days, and she made signs for thirty: but the sign for fifty being constantly repeated, she seemed satisfied. She stayed on board till night, and it was then with the greatest difficulty that she could be prevailed upon to go on shore. When she was told that the boat was ready, she threw herself down upon the arm-chest, and wept a long time with an excess of passion that could not be pacified; at last, however, though with the greatest reluctance, she went into the boat, and was followed by her attendants and the old man. The old man had often intimated that his son, a lad about fourteen years of age, should go with us, and the boy seemed to be willing: he had, however, now disappeared for two days; I enquired after him when I first missed him, and the old man gave me to understand that he was gone into the country to see his friends, and would return time

[page] 478

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Sunday 26.

enough to go with us; but I have reason to think that, when the time drew near, the father's courage failed, and that to keep his child he secreted him till the ship was gone, for we never saw him afterwards.

Monday 27.

At break of day, on Monday the 27th, we unmoored, and at the same time I sent the barge and cutter to fill the few water-casks that were now empty. When they came near the shore, they saw, to their great surprise, the whole beach covered with inhabitants, and having some doubt whether it would be prudent to venture themselves among such a multitude, they were about to pull back again for the ship. As soon as this was perceived from the shore, the queen came forward, and beckoned them; at the same time guessing the reason of what had happened, she made the natives retire to the other side of the river: the boats then proceeded to the shore, and filled the casks, in the mean time she put some hogs and fruit on board, and when they were putting off would fain have returned with them to the ship. The officer, however, who had received orders to bring off none of the natives, would not permit her; upon which she presently launched a double canoe, and was rowed off by her own people. Her canoe was immediately followed by fifteen or sixteen more, and all of them came up to the ship. The queen came on board, but not being able to speak, she sat down and gave vent to her passion by weeping. After she had been on board about an hour, a breeze springing up, we weighed anchor and made sail. Finding it now necessary to return into her canoe, she embraced us all in the most affectionate manner, and with many tears; all her attendants also expressed great sorrow at our departure. Soon after it fell calm, and I sent the boats a-head to tow, upon which all the canoes returned to the ship, and that which had the queen on board came up to the gun-room port, where her

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Monday 27.

people made it fast. In a few minutes she came into the bow of her canoe, where she sat weeping with inconsolable sorrow. I gave her many things which I thought would be of great use to her, and some for ornament; she silently accepted of all, but took little notice of any thing. About 10 o'clock we were got without the reef, and a fresh breeze springing up, our Indian friends, and particularly the queen, once more bade us farewel, with such tenderness of affection and grief, as filled both my heart and my eyes.

At noon, the harbour from which we sailed bore S. E. ½E. distant about twelve miles. It lies in latitude 17° 30′S. longitude 150° W. and I gave it the name of Port Royal Harbour.

[page] 480

CHAP. VIII.

A more particular Account of the Inhabitants of Otaheite, and of their domestic Life, Manners, and Arts.

1767. July.

Monday 27.

HAVING lain off this island from the 24th of June to the 27th of July, I shall now give the best account of its inhabitants, with their manners and arts, that I can; but having been in a very bad state of health the whole time, and for great part of it consined to my bed, it will of necessity be much less accurate and particular than I might otherwise have made it.

The inhabitants of this island are a stout, well-made, active, and comely people. The stature of the men, in general, is from five feet seven to five feet ten inches, though a few individuals are taller, and a few shorter; that of the women from five feet to five feet six. The complexion of the men is tawney, but those that go upon the water are much redder than those who live on shore. Their hair in general is black, but in some it is brown, in some red, and in others flaxen, which is remarkable, because the hair of all other natives of Asia, Africa, and America, is black, without a single exception. It is generally tied up, either in one bunch, in the middle of the head, or in two, one on each side, but some wear it loose, and it then curls very strongly: in the children of both sexes it is generally flaxen. They have no combs, yet their hair is very neatly dressed, and those who had combs from us, made good use of them. It is a universal custom to anoint the head with cocoa-nut oil, in

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which a root has been scraped that smells something like roses. The women are all handsome, and some of them extremely beautiful. Chastity does not seem to be considered as a virtue among them, for they not only readily and openly trafficked with our people for personal favours, but were brought down by their fathers and brothers for that purpose: they were, however, conscious of the value of beauty, and the size of the nail that was demanded for the enjoyment of the lady, was always in proportion to her charms. The men who came down to the side of the river, at the same time that they presented the girl, shewed a stick of the size of the nail that was to be her price, and if our people agreed, she was sent over to them, for the men were not permitted to cross the river. This commerce was carried on a considerable time before the officers discovered it, for while some straggled a little way to receive the lady, the others kept a look-out. When I was acquainted with it, I no longer wondered that the ship was in danger of being pulled to pieces for the nails and iron that held her together, which I had before puzzled myself to account for in vain, the whole ship's company having daily as much fresh provision and fruit as they could eat. Both men and women are not only decently but gracefully clothed, in a kind of white cloth, that is made of the bark of a shrub, and very much resembles coarse China paper. Their dress consists of two pieces of this cloth: one of them, a hole having been made in the middle to put the head through, hangs down from the shoulders to the mid-leg before and behind; another piece, which is between four and five yards long, and about one yard broad, they wrap round the body in a very easy manner. This cloth is not woven, but is made, like paper, of the macerated fibres of an inner bark, spread out and beaten together. Their ornaments are feathers, flowers,

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pieces of shells, and pearls: the pearls are worn chiefly by the women, from whom I purchased about two dozen of a small size: they were of a good colour, but were all spoiled by boring. Mr. Furneaux saw several in his excursion to the west, but he could purchase none with any thing he had to offer. I observed, that it was here a universal custom both for men and women to have the hinder part of their thighs and loins marked very thick with black lines in various forms. These marks were made by striking the teeth of an instrument, somewhat like a comb, just through the skin, and rubbing into the punctures a kind of paste made of soot and oil, which leaves an indelible stain. The boys and girls under twelve years of age, are not marked; but we observed a few of the men whose legs were marked in chequers by the same method, and they appeared to be persons of superior rank and authority. One of the principal attendants upon the queen, appeared much more disposed to imitate our manners than the rest; and our people, with whom he soon became a favourite, distinguished him by the name of Jonathan. This man, Mr. Furneaux clothed completely in an English dress, and it sat very easy upon him. Our officers were always carried on shore, it being shoal water where we landed, and Jonathan, assuming new state with his new finery, made some of his people carry him on shore in the same manner. He very soon attempted to use a knife and fork at his meals, but at first, when he had stuck a morsel upon his fork, and tried to feed himself with that instrument, he could not guide it, but by the mere force of habit his hand came to his mouth, and the victuals at the end of the fork went away to his car.

Their food consists of pork, poultry, dog's flesh, and fish, bread-fruit, bananas, plantains, yams, apples, and a sour fruit which, though not pleasant by itself, gives an agree-

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able relish to roasted bread-fruit, with which it is frequently beaten up. They have abundance of rats, but, as far as I could discover, these make no part of their food. The river affords them good mullet, but they are neither large nor in plenty. They find conchs, muscles, and other shell-fish on the reef, which they gather at low water, and eat raw with bread-fruit before they come on shore. They have also very fine cray-fish, and they catch with lines, and hooks of mother of pearl, at a little distance from the shore, parrot-fish, groopers, and many other sorts, of which they are so fond that we could seldom prevail upon them to sell us a few at any price. They have also nets of an enormous size, with very small meshes, and with these they catch abundance of small fish about the size of sardines; but while they were using both nets and lines with great success, we could not catch a single fish with either. We procured some of their hooks and lines, but for want of their art we were still disappointed.

The manner in which they dress their food is this: they kindle a fire by rubbing the end of one piece of dry wood upon the side of another, in the same manner as our carpenters whet a chissel; then they dig a pit about half a foot deep, and two or three yards in circumference: they pave the bottom with large pebble stones, which they lay down very smooth and even, and then kindle a fire in it with dry wood, leaves, and the husks of the cocoa-nut. When the stones are sufficiently heated, they take out the embers, and rake up the ashes on every side; then they cover the stones with a layer of green cocoa-nut-tree leaves, and wrap up the animal that is to be dressed in the leaves of the plantain; if it is a small hog they wrap it up whole, if a large one they split it. When it is placed in the pit, they cover it with the hot embers, and lay upon them bread-fruit and yams, which are

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also wrapped up in the leaves of the plantain; over these they spread the remainder of the embers, mixing among them some of the hot stones, with more cocoa-nut-tree leaves upon them, and then close all up with earth, so that the heat is kept in. After a time proportioned to the size of what is dressing, the oven is opened, and the meat taken out, which is tender, full of gravy, and, in my opinion, better in every respect than when it is dressed any other way. Excepting the fruit, they have no sauce but salt water, nor any knives but shells, with which they carve very dexterously, always cutting from them. It is impossible to describe the astonishment they expressed when they saw the Gunner, who, while he kept the market, used to dine on shore, dress his pork and poultry by boiling them in a pot, having, as I have before observed, no vessel that would bear the fire, they had no idea of hot water or its effects: but from the time that the old man was in possession of an iron pot, he and his friends eat boiled meat every day. The iron pots which I afterwards gave to the queen, and several of the Chiefs, were also in constant use, and brought as many people together, as a monster or a puppet-show in a country fair. They appeared to have no liquor for drinking but water, and to be happily ignorant of the art of fermenting the juice of any vegetable, so as to give it an intoxicating quality: they have, as has been already observed, the sugar-cane, but they seemed to make no other use of it than to chew, which they do not do habitually, but only break a piece off when they happen to pass by a place where it is growing.

Of their domestic life and amusements, we had not sufficient opportunity to obtain much knowlege, but they appear sometimes to have wars with each other, not only from their weapons, but the scars with which many of them were

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marked, and some of which appeared to be the remains of very considerable wounds, made with stones, bludgeons, or some other obtuse weapon: by these scars also they appear to be no inconsiderable proficients in surgery, of which indeed we happened to have more direct evidence. One of our seamen, when he was on shore, run a large splinter into his foot, and the Surgeon being on board, one of his comrades endeavoured to take it out with a penknife; but after putting the poor fellow to a good deal of pain, was obliged to give it over. Our good old Indian, who happened to be present, then called over one of his countrymen that was standing on the opposite side of the river, who having looked at the seaman's foot, went immediately down to the beach, and taking up a shell, broke it to a point with his teeth; with this instrument, in little more than a minute, he laid open the place, and extracted the splinter; in the mean time the old man, who, as soon as he had called the other over, went a little way into the wood, returned with some gum, which he applied to the wound upon a piece of the cloth that was wrapped round him, and in two days time it was perfectly healed. We afterwards learned that this gum was produced by the apple tree, and our Surgeon procured some of it, and used it as a vulnerary balsam with great success.

The habitations of these happy people I have described already; and besides these, we saw several sheds inclosed within a wall, on the outside of which there were several uncouth figures of men, women, hogs, and dogs, carved on posts, that were driven into the ground. Several of the natives were from time to time seen to enter these places, with a slow pace and dejected countenance, from which we conjectured that they were repositories of the dead. The area within the walls of these places, was generally well paved

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with large round stones, but it appeared not to be much trodden, for the grass every where grew up between them. I endeavoured, with particular attention, to discover whether they had a religious worship among them, but never could find the least traces of any.

The boats or canoes of these people, are of three different sorts. Some are made out of a single tree, and carry from two to six men: these are used chiefly for fishing, and we constantly saw many of them busy upon the reef: some were constructed of planks, very dexterously sewed together: these were of different sizes, and would carry from ten to forty men. Two of them were generally lashed together, and two masts set up between them; if they were single, they had an out-rigger on one side, and only one mast in the middle. With these vessels they sail far beyond the sight of land, probably to other islands, and bring home plantains, bananas, and yams, which seem also to be more plenty upon other parts of this island, than that off which the ship lay. A third sort seem to be intended principally for pleasure and show: they are very large, but have no sail, and in shape resemble the gondolas of Venice: the middle is covered with a large awning, and some of the people sit upon it, some under it. None of these vessels came near the ship, except on the first and second day after our arrival; but we saw, three or four times a week, a procession of eight or ten of them passing at a distance, with streamers flying, and a great number of small canoes attending them, while many hundreds of people ran abreast of them along the shore. They generally rowed to the outward point of a reef which lay about four miles to the westward of us, where they stayed about an hour, and then returned. These processions, however, are never made but in fine weather, and all

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the people on board are dressed; though in the other canoes they have only a piece of cloth wrapped round their middle. Those who rowed and steered were dressed in white; those who sat upon the awning and under it in white and red, and two men who were mounted on the prow of each vessel, were dressed in red only. We sometimes went out to observe them in our boats, and though we were never nearer than a mile, we saw them with our glasses as distinctly as if we had been upon the spot.

The plank of which these vessels are constructed, is made by splitting a tree, with the grain, into as many thin pieces as they can. They first fell the tree with a kind of hatchet, or adze, made of a tough greenish kind of stone, very dexterously fitted into a handle; it is then cut into such lengths as are required for the plank, one end of which is heated till it begins to crack, and then with wedges of hard wood they split it down: some of these planks are two feet broad, and from 15 to 20 feet long. The sides are smoothed with adzes of the same materials and construction, but of a smaller size. Six or eight men are sometimes at work upon the same plank together, and, as their tools presently lose their edge, every man has by him a cocoa nut-shell filled with water, and a flat stone, with which he sharpens his adze almost every minute. These planks are generally brought to the thickness of about an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with the same exactness that would be expected from an expert joiner. To fasten these planks together, holes are bored with a piece of bone that is fixed into a stick for that purpose, a use to which our nails were afterwards applied with great advantage, and through these holes a kind of plaited cordage is passed, so as to hold the planks strongly together: the seams are caulked with dried rushes, and the whole outside of the vessel is paid with a

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gummy juice, which some of their trees produce in great plenty, and which is a very good succedaneum for pitch.

The wood which they use for their large canoes, is that of the apple tree, which grows very tall and strait. Several of them that we measured, were near eight feet in the girth, and from 20 to 40 to the branches, with very little diminution in the size. Our carpenter said, that in other respects it was not a good wood for the purpose, being very light. The small canoes are nothing more than the hollowed trunk of the bread-fruit tree, which is still more light and spongy. The trunk of the bread-fruit tree is six feet in girth, and about 20 feet to the branches.

Their principal weapons are stones, thrown either with the hand or sling, and bludgeons; for though they have bows and arrows, the arrows are only fit to knock down a bird, none of them being pointed, but headed only with a round stone.

I did not see one turtle all the while I lay off this island, but upon shewing some small ones which I brought from Queen Charlotte's Island, to the inhabitants, they made signs that they had them of a much larger size. I very much regretted my having lost our he-goat, which died soon after we left Saint Iago, and that neither of our she-goats, of which we had two, were with kid. If the he-goat had lived, I would have put them all on shore at this place, and I would have left a she-goat here if either of them had been with kid; and I doubt not, but that in a few years they would have stocked the island.

The climate here appears to be very good, and the island to be one of the most healthy as well as delightful spots in the world. We saw no appearance of disease among the inhabitants. The hills are covered with wood, and the vallies

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1767. July.

with herbage; and the air in general is so pure, that, notwithstanding the heat, our flesh meat kept very well two days, and our fish one. We met with no frog, toad, scorpion, centipied, or serpent of any kind: and the only trouble-some insects that we saw were ants, of which there were but few.

The south-east part of the island seems to be better cultivated and inhabited than where we lay, for we saw every day boats come round from thence laden with plantains and other fruit, and we always found greater plenty, and a lower price, soon after their arrival, than before.

The tide rises and falls very little, and being governed by the winds, is very uncertain; though they generally blow from the E. to the S.S.E. and for the most part a pleasant breeze.

The benefit that we received while we lay off this island, with respect to the health of the ship's company, was beyond our most sanguine expectations, for we had not now an invalid on board, except the two Lieutenants and myself, and we were recovering, though still in a very feeble condition.

It is certain that none of our people contracted the venereal disease here, and therefore, as they had free commerce with great numbers of the women, there is the greatest probability that it was not then known in the country. It was however, found here by Captain Cook, in the Endeavour, and as no European vessel is known to have visited this island before Captain Cook's arrival, but the Dolphin, and the Boudeuse and Etoil, commanded by M. Bougainville, the reproach of having contaminated with that dreadful pest, a race of happy people, to whom its miseries had till then been unknown, must be due either to him or to me, to England or to France; and I think myself happy to be able to exculpate myself and my country beyond the possibility of doubt.

VOL. I. R r r

[page] 490

1767. July.

It is well known, that the Surgeon on board his Majesty's ships keeps a list of the persons who are sick on board, specifying their diseases, and the times when they came under his care, and when they were discharged. It happened that I was once at the pay-table on board a ship, when several sailors objected to the payment of the Surgeon, alleging, that although he had discharged them from the list, and reported them to be cured, yet their cure was incomplete. From this time, it has been my constant practice when the Surgeon reported a man to be cured, who had been upon the sick list, to call the man before me, and ask him whether the report was true: if he alleged that any symptoms of his complaint remained, I continued him upon the list; if not, I required him, as a confirmation of the Surgeon's report, to sign the book, which was always done in my presence. A copy of the sick list on board the Dolphin, during this voyage, signed by every man in my presence, when he was discharged well, in confirmation of the Surgeon's report, written in my own hand, and confirmed by my affidavit, I have deposited in the Admiralty; by which it appears, that the last man on board the ship, in her voyage outward, who was upon the sick list for the venereal disease, except one who was sent to England in the Store ship, was discharged cured, and signed the book on the 27th of December 1766, near six months before our arrival at Otaheite, which was on the 19th of June 1767; and that the first man who was upon the list for that disease, in our return home, was entered on the 26th of February 1768, six months after we left the island, which was on the 26th of July 1767, so that the ship's company was intirely free fourteen months within one day, the very middle of which time we spent at Otaheite; and the man who was first entered as a venereal patient, on our return home, was known to have contracted the disease at the Cape of Good Hope, where we then lay.

[page break]

[page] 491

CHAP. IX.

Passage from Otaheite to Tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were discovered in the South Seas.

1767. July.

Monday 27.

HAVING made sail from King George the Third's Island, we proceeded along the shore of the Duke of York's Island, at the distance of about two miles. There appeared to be good bays in every part of it, and in the middle a fine harbour; but I did not think it worth while to go on shore. The middle and west end is very mountainous, the east end is lower, and the coast just within the beach is covered with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, apple, and plantain trees.

Tuesday 28.

Sir Charles Saunders's Island.

At day-light, the next morning, we saw land, for which we made sail, and ran along the lee-side of it. On the weather-side there were very great breakers, and the lee-side was rocky, but in many places there appeared to be good anchorage. We saw but few inhabitants, and they appeared to live in a manner very different from those of King George's Island, their habitations being only small huts. We saw many cocoa-nut and other trees upon the shore; but all of them had their heads blown away, probably in a hurricane. This island is about six miles long, and has a mountain of considerable height in the middle, which seems to be fertile. It lies in latitude 17° 28′S. and longitude, by our last observation, 151° 4′W. and I called it SIR CHARLES SAUNDER'S ISLAND.

Wednes. 29.

Thursday 30.

On the 29th, the variation of the compass, by azimuth, was 7° 52′E.; and early the next morning, at day-break, we saw land bearing from N. by E. to N. W. We stood for it, but could find no anchorage, the whole island being sur-

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1767. July.

Thursday 30.

Lord How's Island.

rounded by breakers. We saw smoke in two places, but no inhabitants. A few cocoa-nut trees were growing on the lee-part of it, and I called it LORD HOW'S ISLAND. It is about ten miles long, and four broad, and lies in latitude 16° 46′S. longitude, by observation, 154° 13′W.

In the afternoon, we saw land bearing W. by N. and stood for it. At five o'clock, we saw breakers running a great way out to the southward, and soon after, low land to the S. W. and breakers all about it in every direction.

Scilly Islands.

We turned to windward all night, and as soon as it was light, crowded sail to get round these shoals. At nine we got round them, and named them SCILLY ISLANDS. They are a group of islands or shoals extremely dangerous; for in the night, however clear the weather, and by day, if it is hazey, a ship may run upon them without seeing land. They lie in latitude 16° 28′S. longitude 155° 30′W.

August.

Thursday 13.

Boscawen's Island.

Keppel's Isle.

We continued to steer our course westward, till day-break on the 13th of August, when we saw land bearing W. by S. and hauled towards it. At 11 o'clock in the forenoon, we saw more land in the W. S. W. At noon, the first land that we saw, which proved to be an island, bore W.½ S. distant about five leagues, and had the appearance of a sugar loaf; the middle of the other land, which was also an island, and appeared in a peak, bore W. S. W. distant six leagues. To the first, which is nearly circular, and three miles over, I gave the name of BOSCAWEN'S ISLAND; and the other, which is three miles and a half long, and two broad, I called KEPPEL'S ISLE. Port Royal at this time bore E. 4° 10′S. distant 478 leagues.

At two o'clock, being about two miles distant from Boscawen's Island, we saw several of the inhabitants; but Keppel's Isle being to windward, and appearing more likely to assord us anchorage, we hauled up for it. At six, it was not

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1767. August.

Thursday 13.

more than a mile and an half distant, and, with our glasses, we saw many of the inhabitants upon the beach; but there being breakers at a considerable distance from the shore, we stood off and on all night.

Friday 14.

At four o'clock the next morning, we sent off the boats to sound, and visit the island; and as soon as it was light, we ran down and lay over-against the middle of it. At noon, the boats returned, and reported that they had run within a cable's length of the island, but could find no ground: that seeing a reef of rocks lie off it, they had hauled round it, and got into a large deep bay which was full of rocks: that they then sounded without the bay, and found anchorage from 14 to 20 fathom, with a bottom of sand and coral: that afterwards they went again into the bay, and found a rivulet of water, but the shore being rocky, went in search of a better landing-place, which they found about half a mile farther, and went ashore. They reported also, that from the water to this landing-place, a good rolling-way might be made for supplying the ship, but that a strong guard would be necessary, to prevent molestation from the inhabitants. They saw no hogs, but brought off two fowls and some cocoa-nuts, plantains and bananas. While the boats were on shore, two canoes came up to them with six men: they seemed to be peaceably inclined, and were much the same kind of people as the inhabitants of King George's Island, but they were clothed in a kind of matting, and the first joint of their little fingers had been taken off; at the same time about fifty more came down from the country, to within about an hundred yards of them, but would advance no farther. When our people had made what observations they could, they put off, and three of the natives from the canoes came into one of the boats, but when she got about half a mile from the shore, they all suddenly jumped overboard and swam back again.

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1767. August.

Friday 14.

Having received this account, I considered that the watering here would be tedious, and attended with great fatigue: that it was now the depth of winter in the southern hemisphere, that the ship was leaky, that the rudder shook the stern very much, and that what other damage she might have received in her bottom could not be known. That for these reasons, she was very unfit for the bad weather which she would certainly meet with either in going round Cape Horn, or through the Streight of Magellan: that if she should get safely through the Streight, or round the Cape, it would be absolutely necessary for her to refresh in some port, but in that case no port would be in her reach; I therefore determined to make the best of my way to Tinian, Batavia, and so to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope. By this rout, as far as we could judge, we should sooner be at home; and if the ship should prove not to be in a condition to make the whole voyage, we should still save our lives, as from this place to Batavia we should probably have a calm sea, and be not far from a port.

In consequence of this resolution, at noon I bore away, and passed Boscawen's Island without visiting it. It is a high round island, abounding in wood, and full of people; but Keppel's Isle is by far the largest and the best of the two.

Boscawen's Island lies in latitude 15° 50′S. longitude 175° W. and Keppel's Isle in latitude 15° 55′S. longitude 175° 3′W.

Sunday 16.

We continued a W.N.W. course till 10 o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 16th, when we saw land bearing N. by E. and hauled up for it. At noon, we were within three leagues of it: the land within shore appeared to be high, but at the water-side it was low, and had a pleasant appearance; the whole seemed to be surrounded by reefs, that ran two or three miles into the sea. As we failed along the shore, which was covered with cocoa-nut trees,

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1767. August.

Sunday 16.

we saw a few huts, and smoke in several parts up the country. Soon after we hauled without a reef of rocks, to get round the lee-side of the island, and at the same time sent out the boats to sound, and examine the coast.

The boats rowed close along the shore, and found it rocky, with trees growing close down to the water-side. These trees were of different sorts, many of them very large, but had no fruit: on the lee-side, however, there were a few cocoa-nuts, but not a single habitation was to be seen. They discovered several small rills of water, which, by clearing, might have been made to run in a larger stream. Soon after they had got close to the shore, several canoes came up to them, each having six or eight men on board. They appeared to be a robust, active people, and were quite naked, except a kind of mat that was wrapped round their middle. They were armed with large maces or clubs, such as Hercules is represented with, two of which they sold to the Master for a nail or two, and some trinkets. As our people had seen no animal, either bird or beast, except sea-fowl, they were very desirous to learn of the natives whether they had either, but could not make themselves understood. It appears that during this conference, a design was formed to seize our cutter, for one of the Indians suddenly laid hold of her painter, and hauled her upon the rocks. Our people endeavoured, in vain, to make them desist, till they fired a musket cross the nose of the man that was most active in the mischief. No hurt was done; but the fire and report so affrighted them, that they made off with great precipitation. Both our boats then put off, but the water had fallen so suddenly that they found it very difficult to get back to the ship; for when they came into deep water they found the points of rocks standing up, and the whole reef, except in one part, was now dry, and a great sea broke over it. The Indians probably perceived their distress, for they turned back, and

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1767. August.

Sunday 16.

followed them in their canoes all along the reef till they got to the breach, and then seeing them clear, and making way fast towards the ship, they returned.

About six in the evening, it being then dark, the boats returned, and the Master told me, that all within the reef was rocky, but that in two or three places, at about two cables' length without it, there was anchorage in 18, 14, and 12 fathom, upon sand and coral. The breach in the reef he found to be about 60 fathom broad, and here, if pressed by necessity, he said a ship might anchor or moor in 8 fathom; but that it would not be safe to moor with a greater length than half a cable.

Wallis's Island.

When I had hoisted the boats in, I ran down four miles to leeward, where we lay till the morning; and then, finding that the current had set us out of sight of the island, I made fail. The officers did me the honour to call this island after my name. WALLIS'S ISLAND lies in latitude 13° 18′S. longitude 177° W.

As the latitudes and longitudes of all these islands are accurately laid down, and plans of them delivered in to the Admiralty, it will be easy for any ship, that shall hereafter navigate these seas, to find any of them, either to refresh or to make farther discoveries of their produce.

I thought it very remarkable, that although we found no kind of metal in any of these islands, yet the inhabitants of all of them, the moment they got a piece of iron in their possession, began to sharpen it, but made no such attempt on brass or copper.

Friday 28.

We continued to steer N. westerly, and many birds were from time to time seen about the ship till the 28th, when her longitude being, by observation, 187° 24′W. we crossed the line into North latitude. Among the birds that came about the ship, one which we caught exactly resembled a dove in size, shape, and colour. It had red legs,

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1767. August.

and was web-footed. We also saw several plantain leaves, and cocoa-nuts, pass by the ship.

Saturday 29.

On Saturday the 29th, about two o'clock in the afternoon, being in latitude 2° 50′N. longitude 188° W. we crossed a great rippling, which stretched from the N. E. to the S. W. as far as the eye could reach from the mast-head. We sounded, but had no bottom with a line of two hundred fathoms.

September.

Thursday 3.

On Thursday the 3d of September, at five o'clock in the morning, we saw land bearing E. N. E. distant about five miles: in about half an hour we saw more land in the N. W. and at six, saw in the N. E. an Indian proa, such as is described in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. Perceiving that she stood towards us, we hoisted Spanish colours; but when she came within about two miles of us, she tacked, and stood from us to the N. N. W. and in a short time was out of sight.

At eight o'clock, the islands which I judged to be two of the Piscadores, bore from S. W. by W. to W. and to windward, from N. by E. to N. E. and had the appearance of small flat keys. They were distant about three leagues; but many others, much farther off, were in sight. The latitude of one of those islands is 11° N. longitude 192° 30′W.; and the other 11° 20′N. longitude 192° 58′W.

Monday 7.

On the 7th, we saw a curlieu and a pewit, and on the 9th we caught a land-bird, very much resembling a starling.

Thursday 17.

Friday 18.

On the 17th, we saw two gannets, and judged the island of Tinian to bear West, at about one and thirty leagues distance; our latitude being 15° N. and our longitude 212° 30′W. At six o'clock, the next morning, we saw the island of Saypan, bearing W. by N. distant about ten leagues. In

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1767. September.

Saturday 19.

the afternoon, we saw Tinian, and made sail for the road; where, at nine o'clock in the morning, of Saturday the 19th, we came to an anchor in two and twenty fathom, sandy ground, at about a mile distant from the shore, and half a mile from the reef.

CHAP. XI.

Some Account of the present State of the Island of Tinian, and our Employment there; with what happened in the Run from thence to Batavia.

AS soon as the ship was secured, I sent the boats on shore to erect tents, and bring off some refreshments; and about noon they returned, with some cocoa-nuts, limes, and oranges.

In the evening, the tents being erected, I sent the Surgeon, and all the invalids on shore, with two months provisions, of every kind, for forty men, the smith's forge, and a chest of carpenter's tools. I then landed myself, with the First Lieutenant, both of us being in a very sickly condition, taking with us also a mate, and twelve men, to go up the country and hunt for cattle.

Sunday 20.

When we first came to an anchor, the North part of the bay bore N. 39° W. Cocoa Point N. 7° W. the landing-place N.E. by N. and the south end of the island S. 28° E.; but next morning, the Master having sounded all the bay, and being of opinion that there was a better situation to the southward, we warped the ship a little way up, and moored with a cable each way.

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1767. September.

Sunday 20.

At six in the evening, the hunters brought in a fine young bull, of near four hundred weight: part of it we kept on shore, and sent the rest on board, with bread-fruit, limes, and oranges.

Monday 21.

Early the next morning, the carpenters were set at work to caulk the ship all over, and put every thing in repair as far as possible. All the sails were also got on shore, and the sail-makers employed to mend them: the armourers at the same time were busy in repairing the iron-work, and making new chains for the rudder. The number of people now on shore, sick and well, was fifty-three.

In this place we got beef, pork, poultry, papaw apples, bread-fruit, limes, oranges, and every refreshment that is mentioned in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. The sick began to recover from the day they first went on shore: the air, however, was so different here from what we found it in King George's Island, that flesh meat, which there kept sweet two days, could here be scarcely kept sweet one. There had been many cocoa-nut trees near the landing-place, but they had been all wastefully cut down for the fruit, and none being grown up in their stead, we were forced to go three miles into the country before a single nut could be procured. The hunters also suffered incredible fatigue, for they were frequently obliged to go ten or twelve miles through one continued thicket, and the cattle were so wild that it was very difficult to come near them, so that I was obliged to relieve one party by another; and it being reported that cattle were more plenty at the North end of the island, but that the hunters being quite exhausted with fatigue when they got thither, were not able to kill them, much less to bring them down, I sent Mr. Gore, with fourteen men, to establish themselves in that part of the island, and ordered that a boat should go every morning, at day-break, to bring in what

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1767. September.

Monday 21.

October.

Thursday 15.

they should kill. In the mean time, the ship was laid by the stern to get at some of the copper sheathing which had been much torn; and in repairing the copper, the carpenter discovered and stopped a large leak under the lining of the knee of the head, by which we had reason to hope most of the water that the vessel had lately admitted in bad weather, came in. During our stay here, I ordered all the people on shore by turns, and by the 15th of October, all the sick being recovered, our wood and water completed, and the ship made fit for the sea, we got every thing off the shore, and embarked all our men from the watering-place, each having, at least, five hundred limes, and there being several tubs full on the quarter-deck, for every one to squeeze into his water as he should think fit.

Friday 16.

At break of day, on Friday the 16th, we weighed, and sailed out of the bay, sending the boats at the same time to the North end of the island, to bring off Mr. Gore and his hunters. At noon, we received them and their tents on board, with a fine large bull which they had just killed.

While we lay at anchor in this place, we had many observations for the latitude and longitude, from which we drew up the following table:

Latitude of the ship, as she lay at anchor 14° 55′ N.long. 214° 15′W.
Latitude of the watering-place 14 59 N.
Longitude of the body of Tinian 214 W.
Longitude of Tinian Road 214 8 W.
Medium of longitude, observed at Tinian 214 7

Wednes. 21.

Thursday 22.

We continued a westerly course, inclining somewhat to the North, till the 21st, when, Tinian bearing S. 71° 40′E. distant 277 leagues, we saw many birds; and the next day, saw three resembling gannets, of the same kind that we had seen when we were within about thirty leagues of Tinian.

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1767. October.

Friday 23.

Saturday 24.

Sunday 25.

On the 23d, we had much thunder, lightning, and rain, with strong gales and a great sea. The ship laboured very much, and the rudder being loose again, shook the stern as much as ever. The next day, we saw several small land birds, and the gales continuing, we split the gib and main-top-mast-stay-sail; the wind increased all the remainder of the day, and all night, and on Sunday it blew a storm. The fore-sail and mizen-sail were torn to pieces, and lost; and having bent others, we wore and stood under a reefed fore-sail, and balanced mizen. We had the mortification to find the ship admit more water than usual. We got the top-gallant masts down upon the deck, and took the gib-boom in; soon after which a sea struck the ship upon the bow, and washed away the round-houses, with all the rails of the head, and every thing that was upon the fore-castle: we were, however, obliged to carry as much sail as the ship would bear, being, by Lord Anson's account, very near the Bashee Islands, and, by Mr. Byron's, not more than thirty leagues, with a lee-shore.

Monday 26.

The next morning, we saw several ducks and shags, some small land birds, and a great number of horse-flies about the ship; but had no ground with 160 fathom. The incessant and heavy rain had kept every man on board constantly wet to the skin for more than two days and two nights; the weather was still very dark, and the sea was continually breaking over the ship.

Tuesday 27.

On the 27th, the darkness, rain, and tempest continuing, a mountainous sea that broke over us, staved all the half-ports to pieces on the starboard-side, broke all the iron stanchions on the gunwale, washed the boat off the skids, and carried many things overboard. We had, however, this day, a gleam of sunshine, sufficient to determine our lati-

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1767. October.

tude, which we found to be 20° 50′N. and the ship appeared to be fifty minutes North of her reckoning.

Wednes. 28.

The weather now became more moderate. At noon, on the 28th, we altered our course, steering S. by W.; and at half an hour after one, we saw the Bashee Islands bearing from S. by E. to S. S. E. distant about six leagues. These islands are all high, but the northermost is higher than the rest. By an observation made this day, we found Grafton Island to lie in the longitude of 239° W. and in latitude of 21° 4′N. At midnight, the weather being very dark, with sudden gusts of wind, we missed Edmund Morgan, a marine taylor, whom we supposed to have fallen overboard, having reason to fear that he had drunk more than his allowance.

November.

Tuesday 3.

From this time, to the 3d of November, we found the ship every day from ten to fifteen miles North of her reckoning. The day before we had seen several gannets; but upon sounding many times during the day and the next night, we had no ground with 160 fathom. This morning, at seven o'clock, we saw a ledge of breakers bearing S. W. at the distance of about three miles: we hauled off from them, and at eleven saw more breakers bearing S. W. by S. distant about five miles. At noon, we hauled off the east end of them, from which we were not distant more than a quarter of a mile.

The first shoal lies in latitude 11° 8′N.; longitude, from Bashee Islands, 8° W.

The second shoal lies in latitude 10° 46′N.; longitude of the N. E. end, from Bashee Islands, 8° 13′W.

We saw much foul ground to the S. and S. S. E. but had no bottom with 150 fathom. Before one, however, we saw shoal water on the larboard bow, and standing from it, passed

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1767. November.

Tuesday 3.

Sandy Isle.

Small Key.

Long Island.

another ledge at two. At three, we saw a low sandy point, which I called SANDY ISLE, bearing N. ½ E. distant about two miles. At five, we saw a small island, which I called SMALL KEY, bearing N. by E. distant about five miles; and soon after, another larger, which I called LONG ISLAND, beyond it. At six in the evening, the largest island being distant between two and three leagues, we brought to, and stood off and on from mid-night till break of day, continually sounding, but having no ground.

Wednes. 4.

New Island.

At seven in the morning, of Wednesday the 4th, we saw another island, which I called NEW ISLAND, bearing S. E. by E. and a large reef of rocks bearing S. ½ W. distant six miles. At ten, we saw breakers from W. S. W. to W. by N. At noon, the North end of the great reef bore S. E. by E. distant two leagues, and another reef bore W. N. W. at about the same distance.

The latitudes and longitudes of these islands and shoals, appear by the following table:

Lat. N. Long. W.
Sandy Isle 10° 40′ 247° 12′
Small Key 10 37 247 16
Long Island 10 20 247 24
New Island 10 10 247 40
First Shoal 10 14 247 36
Second Shoal 10 4 247 45
Third Shoal 10 5 247 50

Soon after we saw another reef in latitude 10° 15′, longitude 248°.

Thursday 5.

The next day, we found the ship, which had for some time been to the northward of her reckoning, eight miles to the southward.

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1767. November.

Saturday 7.

We continued our course, often sounding, but finding no bottom. On the 7th, we passed through several ripplings of a current, and saw great quantities of drift-wood, cocoa-nut leaves, things like cones of firs, and weed, which swam in a stream N. E. and S. W. We had now soundings at sixty-five fathom, with brown sand, small shells, and stones; and at noon, found the ship again to the northward of her reckoning ten miles, and had decreased our soundings to twenty-eight fathom, with the same ground. Our latitude was 8° 36′N. longitude 253° W. At two o'clock, we saw the island of Condore, from the mast-head, bearing W. ½ N. At four, we had ground with twenty fathom; the island bearing from W. to N. W. by W. distant about thirteen leagues, and having the appearance of high hummocks. The latitude of this island is 8° 40′N.; longitude, by our reckoning, 254° 15′.

Sunday 8.

We now altered our course; and the next morning, I took from the petty officers and seamen, all the log and journal books relative to the voyage.

Tuesday 10.

Friday 13.

On the 10th, being in latitude 5° 20′N. longitude 255° W. we found a current setting four fathom an hour S. by W.; and during our course to the islands Timoun, Aros, and Pesang, which we saw about six in the afternoon of the 13th, we were every day from ten to twenty miles southward of our reckoning.

Monday 16.

On the 16th, at ten in the morning, we crossed the line again into South latitude, in longitude 255°; and soon after we saw two islands, one bearing S. by E. distant five leagues, the other S. by W. distant seven leagues.

Tuesday 17.

The next morning, the weather became very dark and tempestuous, with heavy rain; we therefore clewed all up,

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1767. November.

Wednes. 18.

and lay by till we could see about us. The two islands proved to be Pulo Toté, and Pulo Weste; and having made sail till one o'clock, we saw the Seven Islands. We continued our course till two the next morning, the weather being very dark, with heavy squalls of wind, and much lightning and rain. While one of these blasts was blowing with all its violence, and the darkness was so thick that we could not see from one part of the ship to the other, we suddenly discovered, by a flash of lightning, a large vessel close aboard of us. The steersman instantly put the helm a-lec, and the ship answering her rudder, we just cleared each other. This was the first ship we had seen since we parted with the Swallow; and it blew so hard, that not being able to understand any thing that was said, we could not learn to what nation she belonged.

At six, the weather having cleared up, we saw a sail at anchor in the E. S. E.; and at noon, we saw land in the W. N. W. which proved to be Pulo Taya, Pulo Toté bearing S.35°E. Pulo Weste S. 13° E. At six in the evening, we anchored in fifteen fathom, with sandy ground; and observed a current running E. N. E. at the rate of five fathom an hour.

Thursday 19.

At six in the morning, we weighed and made sail, and soon after saw two vessels a-head; but at six in the evening, finding that we lost much ground, we came again to an anchor in fifteen fathom, with a fine sandy bottom.

Friday 20.

At six o'clock the next morning, the current being slack, we hove short on the small bower, which soon after parted at a third from the clench. We immediately took in the cable, and perceived that, although we had sounded with great care before we anchored, and found the bottom clear, it had been cut through by the rocks. After some time, the cur-

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1767. November.

Friday 20.

rent becoming strong, a fresh gale springing up, and the ship being a great way to the leeward, I made sail, in hopes to get up and recover the anchor; but I found at last that it was impossible, without anchoring again; and being afraid of the consequences of doing that in foul ground, I determined to stand on, especially as the weather was become squally.

Saturday 21.

Sunday 22.

Monday 30.

We were, however, able to make very little way till the next day, when, about three in the afternoon, we saw Monopin Hill bearing S. ¾ E. and advancing very little, saw the coast of Sumatra at half an hour after six the next morning. We continued to suffer great delay by currents and calms, but on Monday the 30th of November, we anchored in Batavia Road.

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CHAP. XII.

Transactions at Batavia, and an Account of the Passage from thence to the Cape of Good Hope.

1767. December.

WE found here fourteen sail of Dutch East India ships, a great number of small vessels, and his Majesty's ship the Falmouth, lying upon the mud in a rotten condition.

Tuesday 1.

I sent an officer on shore, to acquaint the Governor of our arrival, to obtain his permission to purchase refreshments, and to tell him that I would salute him, if he would engage to return an equal number of guns. The Governor readily agreed; and at sun-rise, on Tuesday the 1st of December, I saluted him with thirteen guns, which he returned with fourteen from the fort. Soon after, the Purser sent off some fresh beef, and plenty of vegetables, which I ordered to be served immediately; at the same time I called the ship's company together, and told them that I would not suffer any liquor to come on board, and would severely punish those who should attempt to bring any: and I took some pains to reconcile them to this regulation, by affuring them that in this country intemperance would inevitably destroy them. As a further preservative, I suffered not a man to go on shore, except those who were upon duty; and took care that none even of these straggled into the town.

Wednes. 2.

On the 2d, I sent the boatswain and the carpenter, with the carpenter of the Falmouth, to look at such of her stores as had been landed at Onrust, with orders, that if any were

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1767. December.

Wednes. 2.

fit for our use they should be bought. At their return, they informed me that all the stores they had seen were rotten, and unfit for use, except one pair of tacks, which they brought with them: the masts, yards, and cables were all dropping to pieces, and even the iron work was so rusty that it was worth nothing. They also went on board the Falmouth to examine her hulk, and found her in so shattered a condition, that in their opinion she could not be kept together during the next monsoon. Many of her ports were washed into one, the stern-post was quite decayed, and there was no place in her where a man could be sheltered from the weather. The few people who belonged to her were in as bad a state as their vessel, being quite broken and worn down, and expecting to be drowned as soon as the monsoon should set in.

Saturday 5.

Among other necessaries, we were in want of an anchor, having lost two, and of three inch rope for rounding the cables; but the officers whom I had sent to procure these articles, reported, that the price which had been demanded for them was so exorbitant, that they had not agreed to give it. On Saturday the 5th, therefore, I went on shore myself, for the first time, and visited the different storehouses and arsenals, but found it impossible to make a better bargain than my officers. I suspected that the dealers took advantage of our apparent necessity, and supposing that we could not sail without what we had offered to purchase, determined to extort from us more than four times its value. I was, however, resolved to make any shift rather than submit to what I thought a shameful imposition, and therefore told them that I should certainly sail on the next Tuesday; that if they would agree to my terms in the mean time, I would take the things I had treated for; if not, that I would sail without them.

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1767. December.

Saturday 5.

Soon after I returned on board, I received a petition from the Warrant-Officers of the Falmouth, representing, that there was nothing for them to look after: that the Gunner had been long dead, and his stores spoiled, particularly the powder, which, by order of the Dutch, had been thrown into the sea: that the boatswain, by vexation and distress, had lost his senses, and was then a deplorable object in a Dutch hospital: that all his stores had been long spoiled and rotten, the roof of the storehouse having fallen in during a wet monsoon, and left them exposed many months, all endeavours to procure another place to put them in being ineffectual: that the carpenter was in a dying condition, and the cook a wounded cripple. For these reasons, they requested that I would take them home, or at least dismiss them from their charge. It was with the greatest regret and compassion that I told these unhappy people it was not in my power to relieve them, and that as they had received charge of stores, they must wait orders from home. They replied, that they had never received a single order from England since they had been left here, and earnestly intreated that I would make their distress known, that it might be relieved. They had, they said, ten years pay due, in the expectation of which they were grown old, and which now they would be content to forfeit, and go home sweepers, rather than continue to suffer the miseries of their present situation, which were indeed very great. They were not suffered to spend a single night on shore, whatever was their condition, and when they were sick, no one visited them on board; they were, besides, robbed by the Malays, and in perpetual dread of being destroyed by them, as they had a short time before burnt the Siam prize. I assured them that I would do my utmost to procure them relief, and they left me with tears in their eyes.

5

[page] 510

1767. December.

Saturday 5.

Tuesday 8.

As I heard nothing more of the anchor and rope for which I had been in treaty, I made all ready for sea. The ship's company had continued healthy and sober, and been served with fresh beef every day, from the time of our first coming to an anchor in the Road; we had also some beef, and a live ox, to carry out with us. We had now only one man upon the sick list, except a seaman, who had been afflicted with rheumatic pains ever since our leaving the Streight of Magellan: and at six o'clock in the morning, of Tuesday the 8th of December, after a stay of just one week, we set sail.

Friday 11.

Saturday 12.

On the 11th, at noon, we were off a small island called the Cap, between the coasts of Sumatra and Java, and several of our people fell down with colds and fluxes. The next day, a Dutch boat came on board, and sold us some turtle, which was served to the ship's company. At night, being at the distance of about two miles from the Java shore, we saw an incredible number of lights upon the beach, which we supposed were intended to draw the fish near it, as we had seen the same appearence at other places.

Monday 14.

Tuesday 5.

Saturday 19.

Sunday 20.

On Monday the 14th, we anchored off Prince's Island, and began to take in wood and water. The next morning, the natives came in with turtle, poultry, and hog-deer, which we bought at a reasonable price. We continued here, fitting the ship for the sea, till the 19th, during which time many of the people began to complain of intermitting disorders, something like an ague. At six o'clock the next morning, having completed our wood, and taken on board seventy-six tons of water, we made sail.

While we lay here, one of the seamen fell from the main yard into the barge, which lay along side the ship. His body was dreadfully bruised, and many of his bones were broken: it happened also, that in his fall he struck two other

7

[page] 511

1767. December.

Thursday 24.

January.

Friday 1.

men, one of whom was so much hurt that he continued speechless till the 24th, and then died, though the other had only one of his toes broken. We had now no less than sixteen upon the sick list, and by the 1st of January, the number was increased to forty; we had buried three, among whom was the Quarter-Master, George Lewis, who was a diligent, sober man, and the more useful, as he spoke both the Spanish and Portuguese languages. The diseases by which we suffered, were fluxes, and fevers of the putrid kind, which are always contagious, and, for that reason alone, would be more fatal on board a ship than any other. The Surgeon's mate was very soon laid up, and those who were appointed to attend the sick, were always taken ill in a day or two after they had been upon that service. To remedy this evil, as much as it was in my power, I made a very large birth for the sick, by removing a great number of people from below to the half deck, which I hung with painted canvass, keeping it constantly clean, and directing it to be washed with vinegar, and fumigated once or twice a day. Our water was well tasted, and was kept constantly ventilated; a large piece of iron also, used for the melting of tar, and called a loggerhead, was heated red hot, and quenched in it before it was given out to be drank. The sick had also wine instead of grog, and salep or sago every morning for breakfast: two days in a week they had mutton broth, and had a fowl or two given them on the intermediate days; they had, besides, plenty of rice and sugar, and frequently malt meshed; so that perhaps people in a sickly ship had never so many refreshments before: the Surgeon also was indefatigable; yet, with all these advantages, the sickness on board gained ground. In the mean time, to aggravate our misfortune, the ship made more than three

[page] 512

1768. January.

feet water in a watch; and all her upper works were very open and loose.

Sunday 10.

By the 10th of January, the sickness began, in some degree, to abate, but more than half the company were so feeble, that they could scarcely crawl about. On this day, being in latitude 22° 41′S. longitude, by account, 300° 47′W. we saw many tropic birds about the ship.

Sunday 17.

On the 17th, being in latitude 27° 32′S. longitude 310° 36′W. we saw several all atrosses, and caught some bonettas. The ship was this day ten miles to the southward of her account.

Sunday 24.

On the 24th, in latitude 33° 40′S. longitude, by account, 328° 17′W. we met with a violent gale, which split the main-top-sail and the main-top mast-stay-sail all to pieces. The sea broke over the ship in a dreadful manner, the starboard rudder-chain was broken, and many of the booms were washed overboard. During the storm we saw several birds and butterflies; and our first attention, after it subsided, was to dry the bedding of the sick: at the same time, every one on board who could handle a needle was employed in repairing the sails, which were now in a shattered condition.

Tuesday 26.

Wednes. 27.

On the 26th and 27th, being in latitude 34° 16′, and becalmed, we had several observations, by which we determined the longitude of the ship to be 323° 30′; and it appeared that we were several degrees to the Eastward of our reckoning.

Saturday 30.

February.

Thursday 4

At six in the evening, of the 30th of January, we saw land, and on the 4th of February, we anchored in Table Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope.

Our run from Prince's Island to the Cape was, by our reckoning, 89 degrees longitude, which makes the longitude

[page] 513

1768. February.

of the Cape 345° W.; but the longitude of the Cape being, by observation, 342° 4′, it appeared that the ship was three degrees to the Eastward of her reckoning.

CHAP. XIII.

An Account of our Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Return of the Dolphin to England.

AS soon as the ship was at anchor, I sent an officer on shore, with the usual compliments to the Governor, who received him with great civility, telling him that we were welcome to all the refreshments and assistance that the Cape afforded, and that he would return our salute with the same number of guns.

We found riding here a Dutch Commodore, with sixteen sail of Dutch East Indiamen, a French East India ship, and the Admiral Watson, Captain Griffin, an East India packet boat, for Bengal. We saluted the Governor with thirteen guns, and he returned the same number; the Admiral Watson saluted us with eleven guns, and we returned nine; the French ship afterwards saluted us with nine guns, and we returned seven.

Having got off some mutton for the ship's company, with plenty of greens, I sent the Surgeon on shore to hire quarters for the sick, but he could procure none for less than two shillings a day, and a stipulation to pay more, if any of them should take the small-pox, which was then in almost every house, in proportion to the malignity of the disease.

VOL. I. U u u

[page] 514

1768. February.

The first expence being great, and it appearing, upon enquiry, that many of our people had never had the small-pox, so that the increase was likely to be considerable, besides the danger, I requested the Governor's permission to erect a tent upon a spacious plain, at about two miles distance from the town, called Green Point, and to send my people on shore thither during the day, under the care of an officer, to prevent their straggling. This permission the Governor immediately granted, and gave orders that they should suffer no molestation.

In this place, therefore, I ordered tents to be erected, and the Surgeon and his mate, with proper officers, to attend; at the same time strictly charging that no man should be suffered to go into the town, and that no liquor should be brought to the tents. All the sick, except two, left the ship early in the morning, with their provisions and firing; and for those that were reduced to great weakness, I ordered the Surgeon to procure such extraordinary provisions as he should think proper, particularly milk, though it was sold at an excessive price. About six in the evening, they returned on board, and seemed to be greatly refreshed. At the same time, being extremely ill myself, I was obliged to be put on shore, and carried about eight miles up the country, where I continued all the time the ship lay here; and when she was ready to sail, returned on board without having received the least benefit.

No time, however, was lost in refitting the vessel: the sails were all unbent, the yards and top-masts struck, the forge was set up, the carpenters were employed in caulking, the sail makers in mending the sails, the cooper in repairing the casks, the people in over-hauling the rigging, and the boats in filling water.

2

[page] 515

1768. February.

Wednes. 10.

By the 10th of February, the heavy work being nearly dispatched, twenty of the men who had had the small-pox, were permitted to go ashore at the town, and others, who were still liable to the distemper, were landed at some distance, with orders to go into the country, and return in the evening, which they punctually obeyed: this liberty, therefore, was continued to them all the while the vessel lay at this port, which produced so good an effect, that the ship's company, except the sick, who recovered very fast, had a more healthy and vigorous appearance than when they left England. We purchased here the necessaries that we endeavoured to procure at Batavia, at a reasonable price, besides canvas and other stores; we also procured fresh water by distillation, principally to shew the captains of the India-men, and their officers, that, upon an emergency, wholesome water might be procured at sea. At five o'clock in the morning, we put fifty-six gallons of salt water into the still, at seven it began to run, and in about five hours and a quarter afforded us six and thirty gallons of fresh water, at an expence of nine pounds of wood, and sixty-nine pounds of coals. Thirteen gallons and two quarts remained in the still, and that which came off had no ill taste, nor, as we had often experienced, any hurtful quality. I thought the shewing this experiment of the more consequence, as the being able to allow plenty of water not only for drink, but for boiling any kind of provision, and even for making tea and coffee, especially during long voyages, and in hot climates, conduces greatly to health, and is the means of saving many lives. I never once put my people to an allowance of water during this whole voyage, always using the still when we were reduced to five and forty tons, and preserving the rain water with the utmost diligence. I did not, however, allow water to be fetched away at pleasure, but the officer of

U u u 2

[page] 516

1768. February.

the watch had orders to give such as brought provisions of any kind, water sufficient to dress it, and a proper quantity also to such as brought tea and coffee.

Thursday 25.

Friday 26.

Saturday 27.

March.

Thursday 3.

On the 25th, the wood and water being nearly completed, and the ship almost ready for the sea, I ordered every body to go on board, and the sick tents to be brought off; the people being so well recovered, that in the whole ship's company there were but three men unable to do duty, and happily, since our leaving Batavia, we had lost but three. The next day, and the day following, the carpenters finished caulking all the out-works, the fore-castle, and the main-deck; we got all our bread on board from the shore, with a considerable quantity of straw, and thirty-four sheep for sea-stores. In the mean time I came on board, and having unmoored, lay waiting for a wind till the evening of Thursday the 3d of March, when a breeze springing up, we got under sail. While we were on shore at Green Point, we had an opportunity of making many celestial observations, by which, we determined Table Bay to lie in latitude 34° 2′S. longitude, from Greenwich, 18° 8′E. The variation of the needle, at this place, was 19° 30′W.

Monday 7.

On the 7th, being in latitude 29° 33′S. longitude, by account, 347° 38′the ship was eight miles to the Northward of her dead reckoning.

Sunday 13.

On the 13th, having sailed westward 360 degrees from the meridian of London, we had lost a day; I therefore called the latter part of this day Monday, March 14th.

Wednes. 16.

Thursday 17.

At six o'clock in the evening, of Wednesday the 16th, we saw the Island of Saint Helena, at the distance of about fourteen leagues; and at one the next morning, brought to. At break of day, we made sail for the island, and at nine, anchored in the bay. The fort saluted us with thirteen guns,

[page] 517

1768. March.

Thursday 17.

and we returned the same number. We found riding here the Northumberland Indiaman, Captain Milford, who saluted us with eleven guns, and we returned nine. We got out all the boats as soon as possible, and sent the empty casks to be filled with water; at the same time several of the people were employed to gather purslain, which grows here in great plenty. About two o'clock, I went on shore myself, and was saluted by the fort with thirteen guns, which I returned. The Governor and the principal gentlemen of the island did me the honour to meet me at the water-side, and having conducted me to the fort, told me, that it was expected I should make it my home during my stay.

Friday 18.

By noon the next day, our water was completed, and the ship was made ready for sea; soon after, she was unmoored, to take advantage of the first breeze, and at five in the afternoon, I returned on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was saluted with thirteen guns, and soon after, upon getting under way, I was saluted with thirteen more, both which I returned; the Northumberland Indiaman then saluted me with thirteen guns, so did the Osterly, which arrived here the evening before I made sail, and I returned the compliment with the same number.

Monday 21.

Tuesday 22.

Wednes. 23.

On the 21st, in the evening, we saw several men of war birds; and at midnight, heard many birds about the ship. At five o'clock in the morning of the 23d, we saw the Island of Ascension; and at eight, discovered a ship to the Eastward, who brought to, and hoisted a jack at her main-topmast-head, upon which we shewed our colours, and she then stood in for the land again. We ran down close along the north-east side of the island, and looked into the bay, but seeing no ship there, and it blowing a stiff gale, I made the best of my way.

Monday 28.

On Monday the 28th, we crossed the equator, and got again into North latitude.

6

[page] 518

1768. April.

Wednes. 13.

Sunday 17.

Tuesday 19.

On Wednesday, the 13th of April, we passed a great quantity of gulph weed; and on the 17th, we passed a great deal more. On the 19th, we saw two flocks of birds, and observing the water to be discoloured, we thought the ground might be reached, but, upon sounding, could find no bottom.

Sunday 24.

At five o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 24th, we saw the peak of the Island of Pico bearing N. N. E. at the distance of about eighteen leagues. We found, by observation, that Fyal lies in latitude 38° 20′N. longitude 28° 30′W. from London.

May. Wednes. 11.

No incident worth recording happened till about noon on the 11th of May, when, being in latitude 48° 44′N. longitude 7° 16′W. we saw a ship in chace of a floop, at which she fired several guns. We bore away, and at three, fired a gun at the chace, and brought her to; the ship to windward, being near the chace, immediately sent a boat on board her, and soon after, Captain Hammond, of his Majesty's sloop the Savage, came on board of me, and told me that the vessel he had chaced, when he first saw her, was in company with an Irish wherry, and that as soon as they discovered him to be a man of war, they took different ways; the wherry hauled the wind, and the other vessel bore away. That he at first hauled the wind, and stood after the wherry, but finding that he gained no ground, he bore away after the other vessel, which probably would also have escaped, if I had not stopped her, for that he gained very little ground in the chace. She appeared to be laden with tea, brandy, and other goods, from Roscoe in France; and though she was steering a south-west course, pretended to be bound to Bergen in Norway. She belonged to Liverpool, was called the Jenny, and commanded by one Robert Christian. Her brandy and tea were in small kegs and bags; and all ap-

[page] 519

1768. May.

pearances being strongly against her, I detained her, in order to be sent to England.

Friday 13.

Thursday 19.

Friday 20.

At half an hour after five, on the 13th, we saw the Islands of Scilly; on the 19th, I landed at Hastings in Sussex; and at four the next morning, the ship anchored safely in the Downs, it being just 637 days since her weighing anchor in Plymouth Sound. To this narrative, I have only to add, that the object of the voyage being discovery, it was my constant practice, during the whole time of my navigating those parts of the sea which are not perfectly known, to lie to every night, and make sail only in the day, that nothing might escape me.

[page] 520

A

TABLE

OF THE

LATITUDES and the LONGITUDES West of LONDON, with the Variation of the Needle, at several Ports, and Situations at Sea, from Observations made on board his Majesty's Ship the DOLPHIN; and her Nautical Reckoning during the Voyage which she made round the World in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768, under the Command of Captain SAMUEL WALLIS.

NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1766.
Lizard August 22. 50° 0′N. 5° 14′W. 21° 0′W.
Funchall Road, Madeira Sept. 8. 32 35 N. 18 0 W. 16° 40′W. 14 10 W.
Port Praja, St. Jaga Sept. 24. 14 53 N. 23 50 W. 8 20 W.
Port Desire Dec. 8. 47 56 S. 67 20 W. 66 24 W. 23 15 E.
Cape Virgin Mary Dec. 17. 52 24 S. 70 4 W. 69 6 W. 23 0 E.
Point Possession Dec. 23. 52 30 S. 70 11 W. 69 50 W. 22 40 E.
Point Porpass Dec. 26. 53 8 S. 71 0 W. 71 30 W. 22 50 E.
Port Famine Dec. 27. 53 43 S. 71 0 W. 71 32 W. 22 30 E.
1767.
Cape Froward Jan. 19. 54 3 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Holland Jan. 20. 53 58 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Gallant Jan. 23. 53 50 S. 22 40 E.
York Road Feb. 4. 53 40 S. 22 30 E.
Cape Quod Feb. 17. 53 33 S. 32 35 E.
Cape Notch March 4. 53 22 S. 23 0 E.
Cape Upright March 18. 53 5 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Pillar April 11. 52 46 S. 76 0 W. 23 0 E.
At Sea April 21. 42 30 S. 96 30 W. 95 46 W. 12 0 E.
At Sea May 4. 28 12 S. 99 0 W. 96 30 W. 6 0 E.
At Sea May 20. 21 0 S. 110 0 W. 106 47 W. 5 0 E.
At Sea May 23. 20 20 S. 116 54 W. 112 6 W. 5 0 E.
At Sea June 1. 20 38 S. 132 0 W. 127 45 W. 5 9 E.

[page] 521

TABLE of the LATITUDES and LONGITUDEs, &c continued.
NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1767.
At Sea June 3. 19° 30′S. 132° 30′W. 129° 50′W. 5° 40′E.
Whitsunday Island June 7. 19 26 S. 141 0 W. 137 56 W. 6 0 E.
Queen Charlotte's Island June 8. 19 18 S. 141 4 W. 138 4 W. 5 20 E.
Egmont Island June 11. 19 20 S. 141 27 W. 138 30 W. 6 0 E.
D. of Glocester's Island June 12. 19 11 S. 143 8 W. 140 6 W. 7 10 E.
D. of Cumberland's Island June 13. 19 18 S. 143 44 W. 140 34 W. 7 0 E.
Prince William Henry's Isl. June 13. 19 0 S. 144 4 W. 141 6 W. 7 0 E.
Osnaburgh Island June 17. 17 51 S. 150 27 W. 147 30 W. 6 0 E.
King George IIId's Island S. E. End June 19. 17 48 S. 151 30 W. 149 15 W. 6 0 E.
July 4. 17 30 S. 152 0 W. 150 0 W. 5 30 E.
Duke of York's Island July 27. 17 28 S. 152 12 W. 150 16 W. 6 0 E.
Sir C. Saunders's Island July 28. 17 28 S. 153 2 W. 151 4 W. 6 30 E.
Lord Howe's Island July 30. 16 46 S. 156 38 W. 154 13 W. 7 40 E.
Scilly Island July 31. 16 28 S. 157 22 W. 155 30 W. 8 0 E.
Boscawen's Island August 13. 15 50 S. 177 20 W. 175 10 W. 9 0 E.
Augustus Keppel's Island August 13. 15 53 S. 177 23 W. 175 13 W. 10 0 E.
Wallis's Island August 17. 13 18 S. 180 0 W. 177 0 W. 10 0 E.
Piscadores Islands South End Sept. 3. 11 0 N. 195 0 W. 192 30 W. 10 0 E.
11 20 N. 195 35 W. 193 0 W. 10 0
Tinian Sept. 30. 14 58 N. 215 40 W. 214 10 W. 6 20 E.
At Sea Oct. 17. 16 10 N. 218 0 W. 216 25 W. 5 15 E.
Grafton's Island Oct. 29. 21 4 N. 241 0 W. 239 0 W. 1 3 W.
Pulo Aroe Nov. 15. 2 28 N. 258 0 W. 255 0 W. 1 0 W.
Lucipara Nov. 26. 4 10 S. 254 46 W. None.
Batavia Dec. 1. 6 8 S. 254 30 W. 1 25 W.
Prince's Island Dec. 16. 1768. 6 41 S. 256 0 W. 256 30 W. 1 0 W.
1768.
At Sea Jan. 26. 34 24 S. 328 0 W. 323 30 W. 24 0 W.
At Sea Jan. 27. 34 14 S. 324 0 W. 323 13 W. 24 0 W.
Cape of Good Hope Feb. 11. 34 0 S. 345 0 W. 342 0 W. 19 30 W.
At Sea March 15. 16 44 S. 3 0 W. 2 0 W. 13 0 W.

VOL. I. X x x

[page] 522

TABLE of the LATITUDES and LONGITUDES, &c. concluded.
NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1768.
At Sea March 15. 16° 36′S. 2° 0′W. 2° 5′W. 12° 50′W.
St. Helena March 19. 15 57 S. 5 49 W. 5 40 W. 12 47 W.
Ascension March 23. 7 58 S. 14 18 W. 14 4 W. 9 53 W.
At Sea March 24. 7 28 S. 14 30 W. 14 38 W. 10 0 W.
At Sea April 8. 15 4 N. 30 0 W. 34 30 W. 4 48 W.
At Sea April 11. 21 28 N. 36 0 W. 36 37 W. 4 30 W.
At Sea April 21. 33 55 N. 32 0 W. 33 0 W. 11 34 W.
At Sea April 23. 36 15 N. 30 0 W. 29 31 W. 14 30 W.
At Sea May 10. 49 43 N. 6 0 W. 7 52 W. 22 30 W.
At Sea May 11. 48 48 N. 7 30 W. 8 19 W.
St. Agnus's Light-house May 13. 49 58 N. 7 14 W. 7 8 W. 20 0 W.

[page 523]

AN

ACCOUNT

OF A

VOYAGE round the WORLD,

IN THE YEARS

MDCCLXVI, MDCCLXVII, MDCCLXVIII, and MDCCLXIX.

By PHILIP CARTERET, Esquire,

Commander of his Majesty's Sloop the SWALLOW.

X x x 2

[page break]

[page 525]

CHAP. I.

The Run from Plymouth to Madeira, and from thence through the Streight of Magellan.

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from London westward to 180, and eastward afterwards.]

1766. August.

SOON after I returned from a voyage round the world with the Honourable Commodore Byron, I was appointed to the command of his Majesty's sloop the Swallow, by a commission bearing date the 1st of July 1766; the Swallow then lay at Chatham, and I was ordered to fit her out with all possible expedition. She was an old ship, having been in the service thirty years, and was in my opinion by no means fit for a long voyage, having only a slight thin sheathing upon her bottom, which was not even filled with nails to supply the want of a covering that would more effectually keep out the worm. I had been given to understand that I was to go out with the Dolphin; but the disparity of the two ships, and the difference in their equipment, made me think that they could not be intended for the same duty; the Dolphin, which was sheathed with copper, being supplied with every thing that was requisite for a long and dangerous navigation; and the Swallow having only a scanty supply of common necessaries. However, I ventured to apply for a forge, some iron, a small skiff, and several other things

[page] 526

1766. August.

which I knew by experience would be of the utmost importance, if it was intended that I should make another voyage round the world; but I was told that the vessel and her equipment were very fit for the service she was to perform, and none of the requisites for which I applied were allowed me. I was therefore confirmed in my opinion, that, if the Dolphin was to go round the world, it could never be intended that I should go farther than Falkland's Islands, where the Jason, a fine frigate, which was, like the Dolphin, sheathed with copper, and amply equipped, would supply my place. I was however deficient in junk, an article which is essentially necessary in every voyage, and for this I applied when I got to Plymouth, but I was told that a quantity sufficient for both the ships had been put on board the Dolphin.

Friday 22.

September. Sunday 7.

On Friday the 22d of August, 1766, the ship's company having the evening before received two months pay, I weighed, and made sail from Plymouth sound in company with the Dolphin, under the command of Captain Wallis, and the Prince Frederic store-ship, commanded by Lieutenant James Brine. We proceeded together without any remarkable incident till the 7th of September, when we came to an anchor in Madeira road.

While I lay at this place, not being yet acquainted with my destination, I represented my want of junk, and the reply that had been made to my application for a supply by the commissioner at Plymouth, in a letter to Captain Wallis, who sent me five hundred weight. This quantity however was so inadequate to my wants, that I was soon afterwards reduced to the disagreeable necessity of cutting off some of my cables to save my rigging.

[page] 527

1766. September.

Tuesday 9.

On the 9th, very early in the morning, the Lieutenant acquainted me that, in the night, nine of my best men had secretly set off from the ship to swim on shore, having stripped themselves naked and left all their clothes behind them, taking only their money, which they had secured in a handkerchief that was tied round their waist; that they proceeded together till they came very near the surf, which breaks high upon the shore, and that one of them, being then terrified at the sound, had swum back again to the ship, and been taken on board, but that the rest had ventured through. As the loss of these men would have been very severely felt, I immediately sat down to write a letter to the Consul, entreating his assistance to recover them; but, before I had finished it, he sent me word, that all of them having, to the great astonishment of the natives, been found naked on the beach, they had been taken into custody, and would be delivered up to my order. The boat was dispatched immediately, and as soon as I heard they were on board, I went upon the deck. I was greatly pleased to see a contrition in their countenances, which at once secretly determined me not to inflict the punishment by which they seemed most heartily willing to expiate their fault; but I asked them what could have induced them to quit the ship, and desert the service of their country, at the risk of being devoured by sharks, or dashed to pieces by the surf against the shore. They answered, that though they had indeed at such risks ventured to swim on shore, they never had any intention of deserting the ship, which they were determined to stand by as long as she could swim; but that being well assured they were going a long voyage, and none being able to tell who might live, or who might die, they thought it hard not to have an opportunity of spending their own money, and therefore determined, as they said, once more to

1

[page] 528

1766. September.

Tuesday 9.

get a skinful of liquor, and then swim back to the ship, which they hoped to have done before they were missed, As I had resolved to remit their punishment, I did not too severely scrutinize their apology, which the rest of the ship's company, who stood round them, seemed very much to approve; but, observing that with a skinful of liquor they would have been in a very unfit condition to swim through the surf to the ship, I told them that hoping they would for the future expose their lives only upon more important occasions, and that their conduct would thenceforward give me no cause of complaint, I would for this time be satisfied with the shame and regret which I perceived they suffered from a sense of their misbehaviour: I then admonished them to put on their clothes, and lie down, as I was confident they wanted rest; and added, that as I might possibly during the course of the voyage have occasion for good swimmers, I was very glad that I knew to whom I might apply. Having thus dismissed these honest fellows from their fears, I was infinitely gratified by the murmur of satisfaction which instantly ran through the ship's company; and was afterwards amply rewarded for my lenity, there being no service during all the toils and dangers of the voyage which they did not perform, with a zeal and alacrity that were much to their honour and my advantage, as an example to the rest.

Friday 12.

We sailed again on the 12th, and I was then first acquainted with the particulars of our voyage by Captain Wallis, who gave me a copy of his instructions, and appointed Port Famine in the Streight of Magellan to be the place of rendezvous, if we should happen to be separated.

I was now convinced that I had been sent upon a service to which my vessel and her equipment were by no means

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1766. November.

equal, but I determined at all events to perform it in the best manner I was able.

We proceeded on our voyage without any remarkable event till we anchored off Cape Virgin Mary, where we saw the Patagonians, of which I have given some account in a letter to Dr. Matty, which was published in the sixtieth volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society, and which it is not necessary here to repeat, as it is in general the same as those which have been given by Commodore Byron and Captain Wallis.

December.

Friday 26.

When we entered the Streight, I was ordered to keep ahead of the Dolphin and the storeship, to pilot them through the shoals; but my ship worked so ill, that we could but very seldom make her tack without the help of a boat to tow her round: however, with much labour, and at no inconsiderable risk, we anchored in Port Famine on Friday the 26th of December. At this place we unhung our rudder, and added a piece of wood to it, in hopes that by making it broader, we should obtain some advantage in working the ship; in which however we were altogether disappointed.

1767. February.

Tuesday 17.

After many difficulties and dangers, we got into Island Bay on the 17th of February; and before we made sail again, I represented the condition of my ship by letter to Captain Wallis, and requested him to consider what was best for his Majesty's service, whether she should be dismissed, or continue the voyage. Captain Wallis replied, that as the Lords of the Admiralty had ordered the Swallow on this service, with the nature of which I was well acquainted, he did not think himself at liberty to alter her destination.

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[page] 530

1767. February.

We continued therefore for some time to navigate the Streight together, and as I had passed it before, I was ordered to keep ahead and lead the way, with liberty to anchor and weigh when I thought proper; but perceiving that the bad sailing of the Swallow would so much retard the Dolphin as probably to make her lose the season for getting into high southern latitudes, and defeat the intention of the voyage, I proposed to Captain Wallis, that he should lay the Swallow up in some cove or bay, and that I should attend and assist him with her boats till the Streight should be passed, which would probably be in much less time than if he continued to be retarded by my ship, and I urged as an additional advantage that he might complete not only his stock of provisions and stores, but his company, out of her, and then send her back to England, with such of his crew as sickness had rendered unfit for the voyage: proposing also, that in my way home, I would examine the eastern coast of Patagonia, or attempt such other discoveries as he should think proper. If this was not approved, and my knowlege of the South Seas was thought necessary to the success of the voyage, I offered to go with him on board the Dolphin, and give up the Swallow to be commanded by his First Lieutenant, whose duty I would perform during the rest of the voyage, or to make the voyage myself with only the Dolphin, if he would take the Swallow back to Europe; but Captain Wallis was still of opinion that the voyage should be prosecuted by the two ships jointly, pursuant to the orders that had been given.

April. Friday 10.

The Swallow was now become so foul, that with all the sails she could set she could not make so much way as the Dolphin, with only her top-sails and a reef in them: we continued in company, however, till Friday the 10th of

[page] 531

1767. April.

Friday 10.

Saturday 11.

April, when the western entrance of the Streight was open, and the great South Sea in sight. Hitherto I had, pursuant to my directions, kept ahead, but now the Dolphin being nearly abreast of us, set her foresail, which soon carried her ahead of us; and before nine o'clock in the evening, as she shewed no lights, we lost sight of her. We had a fine eastern breeze, of which we made the best use we could during the night, carrying all our small sails, even to the top-gallant studding sails, notwithstanding the danger to which it exposed us; but at day-break the next morning, we could but just see the Dolphin's top-sails above the horizon, we could perceive, however, that she had studding sails set, and at nine o'clock, we had entirely lost sight of her; we judged that she was then clear of the Streight's mouth, but we, who were still under the land, had but light and variable airs. From this time, I gave up all hope of seeing the Dolphin again till we should arrive in England, no plan of operation having been settled, nor any place of rendezvous appointed, as had been done from England to the Streight. I thought myself the more unfortunate in this separation, as no part of the woollen cloth, linen, beads, scissars, knives, and other cutlery-ware, and toys, which were intended for the use of both ships, and were so necessary to obtain refreshments from Indians, had, during the nine months we had sailed together, been put on board the Swallow, and as we were not provided either with a forge or iron, which many circumstances might render absolutely necessary to the preservation of the ship: I had the satisfaction, however, to see no marks of despondency among my people, whom I encouraged, by telling them, that although the Dolphin was the best ship, I did not doubt but that I should find more than equivalent advantages in their courage, ability, and good conduct.

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[page] 532

1767. April.

Saturday 11.

Sunday 12.

At noon, this day, we were abreast of Cape Pillar, when, a gale springing up at S. W. we were obliged to take down our small sails, reef our top-sails, and haul close to the wind: soon after it freshened to the W.S.W. blowing right in from the sea, and after making two boards, we had the mortification to find that we could not weather the land on either tack. It was now almost dark, the gale increased, driving before it a hollow swell, and a fog came on, with violent rain; we therefore got close under the south shore, and sent our boat a-head to find out Tuesday's Bay, which is said by Sir John Narborough to lie about four leagues within the Streight, or to find out any other place in which we might come to an anchor. At five o'clock, we could not see the land, notwithstanding its extream height, though we were within less than half a mile of it, and at six, the thickness of the weather having rendered the night so dark that we could not see half the ship's length, I brought to for the boat, and was indeed, with good reason, under great concern for her safety: we hoisted lights, and every now and then made a false fire, but still doubting whether they could be seen through the fog and rain, I fired a gun every half hour, and at last had the satisfaction to take her on board, though she had made no discovery either of Tuesday's Bay, or any other anchoring-place. We made sail the rest of the night, endeavouring to keep near the south shore, and our ground to the westward as much as possible; and as soon as it was light the next morning, I sent the Master again out in the cutter, in search of anchorage on the south shore. I waited in a state of the most painful suspense for her return, till five o'clock in the afternoon, fearing that we should be obliged to keep out in this dangerous pass another night, but I then saw her sounding a bay, and immediately stood in after her: in a short time the Master came on board, and

[page] 533

1767. April.

Sunday 12.

to our unspeakable comfort, reported that we might here come safely to an anchor; this, with the help of our boat, was effected about six o'clock, and I went down into my cabbin to take some rest: I had, however, scarcely lain down, before I was alarmed with a universal shout and tumult among the people, all that were below running hastily upon the deck, and joining the clamour of those above: I instantly started up, imagining that a gust had forced the ship from her anchor, and that she was driving out of the bay, but when I came upon the deck, I heard the people cry out, the Dolphin! the Dolphin! in a transport of surprize and joy which appeared to be little short of distraction: a few minutes, however, convinced us that what had been taken for a sail was nothing more than the water which had been forced up, and whirled about in the air, by one of the violent gusts that were continually coming off the high land, and which, through the haze, had a most deceitful appearance. The people were for a few minutes somewhat dejected by their disappointment, but before I went down, I had the pleasure to see their usual fortitude and cheerfulness return.

The little bay where we were now at anchor, lies about three leagues E. by S. from Cape Pillar: it is the first place which has any appearance of a bay within that Cape, and bears S. by E. about four leagues from the island which Sir John Narborough called Westminster Hall, from its resemblance to that building in a distant view. The western point of this bay makes a very remarkable appearance, being a perpendicular plane like the wall of a house. There are three islands about two cables' length within its entrance, and within those islands a very good harbour, with anchorage in between twenty-five and thirty fathom, with a bottom of soft mud. We anchored without the islands, the passage

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1767. April.

on each side of them being not more than one-fourth of a cable's length wide. Our little bay is about two cables' length broad, the points bearing east and west of each other: in the inner part there is from sixteen to eighteen fathom, but where we lay it is deeper; we had one anchor in seventeen fathom, and the other in forty-five, with great over-falls between them, and rocks in several places. Here we rode out a very hard gale, and the ground being extremely uneven, we expected our cables to be cut in two every minute, yet when we weighed, to our great surprize, they did not appear to have been rubbed in any part, though we found it very difficult to heave them clear of the rocks. The land round this bay and harbour is all high, and as the current sets continually into it, I doubt not but it has another communication with the sea to the south of Cape Deseada. The Master said he went up it four miles in a boat, and could not then be above four miles from the Western Ocean, yet I still saw a wide entrance to the S. W. The landing is every where good, there is plenty of wood and water, and muscles and wild geese in abundance.

From the north shore of the western end of the Streight of Magellan, which lies in about latitude 52° ½ S. to latitude 48°, the land, which is the western coast of Patagonia, runs nearly north and south, and consists wholly of broken islands, among which are those that Sharp has laid down by the name of the Duke of York's Islands; he has indeed placed them at a considerable distance from the coast, but if there had been many islands in that situation, it is impossible but that the Dolphin, the Tamar, or the Swallow, must have seen them, as we ran near their supposed meridian, and so did the Dolphin and the Tamar the last voyage. Till we came into this latitude, we had tolerable weather, and little

[page] 535

1767. April.

or no current in any direction, but when we came to the northward of 48°, we found a current setting strongly to the north, so that probably we then opened the great bay, which is said to be ninety leagues deep. We found here a vast swell from the N. W. and the winds generally blew from the same quarter; yet we were set every day twelve or fifteen miles to the northward of our account.

Wednes. 15.

On Wednesday the 15th, at about four o'clock in the morning, after surmounting many dangers and difficulties, we once more got abreast of Cape Pillar, with a light breeze at S. E. and a great swell. Between five and six o'clock, just as we opened Cape Deseada, the wind suddenly shifted to S. and S. by W. and blew so hard that it was with great difficulty we could carry the reefed top-sails: the sudden changing of the wind, and its excessive violence, produced a sea so dreadfully hollow, that great quantities of water were thrown in upon our deck, so that we were in the utmost danger of foundering; yet we did not dare to shorten sail, it being necessary to carry all we could spread, in order to weather the rocky islands, which Sir John Narborough has called the Islands of Direction, for we could not now run back again into the Streight, without falling down among the broken land, and incurring the dangers of the northern shore, which was to leeward; towards this broken land, however, and lee shore, the ship settled very fast, notwithstanding our utmost efforts: in this pressing emergency we were obliged to stave all the water-casks upon the deck, and between decks, to clear the vessel, and to make her carry better sail, and at length happily escaped the danger which threatened us. After we got clear of these islands, and drew off from the Streight's mouth and the land, we found

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1767. April.

Wednes. 15.

the sea run more regularly from the S. W. and the wind soon after coming from S. S. W. to S. S. E. we had by noon got a pretty good offing, about nine leagues from Cape Victory, which is on the north shore. Thus we cleared the western entrance of this Streight, which, in my opinion, is too dangerous for navigation; a deliverance which happened in the very crisis of our fate, for almost immediately afterwards the wind came again to the S. W. and if it had continued in that quarter, our destruction would have been inevitable.

[page] 537

CHAP. II.

The Passage from Cape Pillar, at the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to Masafuero; with some Account of that Island.

1767. April.

Wednes. 15.

I TOOK my departure from Cape Pillar, which I make to lie in the latitude of 52° 45′S., and in the longitude 75° 10′W. of the meridian of London, and as soon as I got clear of the Streight, steered to the northward along the coast of Chili. Upon examining what quantity of fresh water we had now on board, I found that it amounted only to between four and five and twenty tons, which I thought not sufficient for so long a voyage as was probably before us; I therefore hauled to the northward, intending to make the island of Juan Fernandes, or Masafuero, that we might increase our stock before we sailed to the westward.

Thursday 16.

Saturday 18.

In the middle of the night of the 16th, we had the wind first to the S. S. E. and then to the S. E. with which we kept away N. W. and N. N. W. in high spirits, hoping that in a short time we should be in a more temperate climate: we had the misfortune, however, very soon to find ourselves disappointed, for on the 18th, the wind came to the N. N. W. and blew directly from the point upon which we were steering. We had now got about a hundred leagues from the Streight's mouth; our latitude was 48° 39′S., and we were, by account, 4° 33′W. of Cape Pillar; but from this time, till the 8th of May, the wind continued unfavourable, and blew a continued storm, with sudden gufts still more

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1767. April.

Saturday 18

violent, and much rain and hail, or rather fragments of half melted ice: at intervals also we had thunder and lightning, more dreadful than all the past, and a sea which frequently laid the whole vessel under water.

From the time of our clearing the Streight, and during our passage along this coast, we saw a great number of sea birds, particularly albatrosses, gannets, sheerwaters, and a thick lumpish bird, about as big as a large pigeon, which the sailors call a Cape of Good Hope hen: they are of a dark brown or blackish colour, and are therefore sometimes called the black gull: we saw also a great many pintado birds, of nearly the same size, which are prettily spotted with black and white, and constantly on the wing, though they frequently appear as if they were walking upon the water, like the peterels, to which sailors have given the name of Mother Carey's chickens; and we saw also many of these.

Monday 17.

Wednes. 29.

In the evening of Monday the 27th, which was very dark, as we were standing to the westward under our courses, and a close reefed top-sail, the wind, in a hard squall, suddenly shifted, and took the vessel right ahead; the violent jerk with which the sails were instantly thrown a back, was very near carrying the masts away by the board, and oversetting the ship: the sails being at this time extremely wet, and the gale in the highest degree violent, they clung so fast to the masts and rigging, that it was scarcely possible to get them either up or down; yet by the dexterous activity of our people, we got the main-sail up, clewed up the main top-sail, and got the ship's head round without receiving much damage. The violence of the wind continued several hours, but before morning it veered again to the N. W. and continued in that quarter till the afternoon of the 29th, when

[page] 539

1767. April.

Wednes. 29.

Thursday 30.

May. Friday 1.

it died away, and we had a dead calm for six hours. During this time we had a high sea, which ran in great confusion from all quarters, and broke against the ship in a strange manner, making her roll with so violent and sudden a motion, that I expected every moment to lose our masts. The wind afterwards sprung up at W. S. W. which was fair, and we carried all the sail we could set to make the most of it. It blew very hard in this direction, with heavy rain for a few hours, but by noon on the 30th, it returned to its usual quarter, the N. W. and was so violent as to bring us again under our courses, there being at the same time a prodigious swell, which frequently broke over us. At five o'clock the next morning, as we were lying to under the reefed main-sail and balanced mizen, a vast sea broke over the quarter where the ship's oars were lashed, and carried away six of them, with the weather-cloth; it also broke the mizen gaff close where the sail was reefed, and the iron strap of one of the main dead eyes, laying the whole vessel for some time under water: we were however fortunate enough to haul up the main sail without splitting, though it blew a hurricane, and a deluge of rain, or rather of half melted ice, at the same time poured down upon us. The wind soon after shifted again from N. W. to S. W. and for about an hour blew, if possible, stronger than ever. This wind made the ship come up with her head right against the vast sea which the north west wind had raised, and at every pitch which she made against it, the end of the bowsprit was under water, and the surge broke over the forecastle as far aft as the main-mast, in the same manner as it would have broke over a rock, so that there was the greatest reason to apprehend she would founder. With all her defects she was indeed a good sea boat, and if she had not, it would have been impossible for her to have outlived this storm, in which,

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[page] 540

1767. May.

Friday 1.

as well as on several other occasions, we experienced the benefit of the bulk-heads which we had fixed on the fore-part of the half deck, and to the after-part of the forecastle.

Notwithstanding this wind was fair, we durst not venture to put the ship before it, for if in wearing, any of these enormous seas had broken on her side, it would inevitably have carried away all before it. After some time, however, it became more moderate, and we then got up our yards and made sail, steering N. by W.; and now the men having been up all night, and being wet to the skin, I ordered every one of them a dram.

Saturday 2.

By the next morning, the 2d of May, the wind came again to the N. W. and N. N. W. but by this time we had got down the broken mizen gaff, repaired it as well as we could, got it up again in its place, and bent the sail to it; but we now most sensibly felt the want of a forge and iron.

Sunday 3.

Monday 4.

On the 3d, at day-break, we found the rudder-chain broken, and upon this occasion we again most feelingly regretted the want of a forge; we made, however, the best shift we could, and the next day, the weather being more moderate, though the wind was still contrary, we repaired our rigging, and the carpenters fixed a new dead eye where the old one had been broken; the sail-maker also was busy in mending the sails that had been split.

Tuesday 5.

Wednes 6.

On the 5th, we were again brought under our courses by a hurricane from the N. by W. and N. N. W. and the ship was tossed about with such violence that we had no command of her. During this storm, two of our chain-plates were broken, and we continued toiling in a confused hollow sea till midnight, when a light gale sprung up at N. W. which soon blew very hard; but at two in the morning, we were again taken right ahead by a sudden and violent squall at

[page] 541

1767. May.

Wednes. 6.

west, which at once threw all our sails aback, and before we could get the ship round, was very near carrying all by the board. With this gale we stood north, and in the forenoon the carpenters fixed new chain-plates to the main shrouds, and one to the fore shrouds, in the place of those which had been broken in the squall during the night. This was another occasion on which it was impossible not to regret the want of a forge and iron.

Thursday 7.

Friday 8.

Saturday 9.

Sunday 10.

The gale continued in this direction till eight in the morning of the 7th, when it returned to the N.W. with unsettled weather. On the 8th, it came to south, and this was a fine day, the first we had seen after our leaving the Streight of Magellan. Our latitude at noon was 36° 39′S., and we were about five degrees to the westward of Cape Pillar. The next day we made the island of Masafuero, and on the 10th, the island of Juan Fernandes: in the afternoon we got close to the eastermost part of it, and soon after hauled round the north end, and opened Cumberland Bay. As I did not know that the Spaniards had fortified this island, I was greatly surprized to see a considerable number of men about the beach, with a house and four pieces of cannon near the water-side, and a fort about three hundred yards farther from the sea, just upon the rising of the hill, with Spanish colours flying on the top of it. This fort, which is faced with stone, has eighteen or twenty embrasures, and within it a long house, which I supposed to be barracks for the garrison: five and twenty or thirty houses of different kinds are scattered round it, and we saw much cattle feeding on the brow of the hills, which seemed to be cultivated, as many spots were divided by enclosures from each other; we saw also two large boats lying on the beach. The gusts of wind which came right out of this bay, prevented my going so near as I intended, for they were so violent as to oblige us

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1767. May.

Sunday 10.

many times to let fly our top-sail sheets, though the sails were close reefed; and I think it is impossible to work a ship into this bay when the wind blows hard from the southward. As we stood cross the bay to the westward, one of the boats put off from the shore, and rowed towards us; but perceiving that the gusts, or flaws, made us lie at a considerable distance from the land, she went in again. We then opened West Bay, on the east part of which, close to the sea side, is a small house, which I took for a guard-house, and two pieces of cannon mounted upon their carriages, without any works about them. We now wore, and stood again for Cumberland Bay, but as soon as we opened it, the boat again put off, and made towards us: as the hard gusts would not permit us to come any nearer to the land than before, we stood along it to the eastward, the boat still making after us till she was very far out of the bay: at length it grew dark, and we lost sight of her, upon which we made all the sail we could to the eastward.

During all this time I hoisted no colours, having none but English on board, which at this time I did not think it proper to shew.

Tuesday 12.

As I was disappointed of wood and water at this place, and of the refreshments, of which, after the dangers and fatigue of our voyage through the Streight, and our passage from it, we stood in the most pressing need, I made all the sail I could for the island of Masafuero. On the 12th of May we arrived off the south eastermost part of it, but it blowing hard, with a great sea, we did not dare to come near it on this side, and therefore went round to the west side, where, in the evening, we cast anchor upon an excellent bank, sit to receive a fleet of ships, which, in the summer, might ride here with great advantage. I sent out both the boats to en-

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1767. May.

Tuesday 12.

deavour to get some water, but they found it impossible to land, for the beach is rocky, and the surf at this time was so great, that the swimmers could not get through the breakers: this was the more mortifying, as we saw a fine run of fresh water from the ship, with plenty of trees fit for fire-wood, and a great number of goats upon the hills.

Wednes. 13.

The next morning, as soon as it was light, I sent the boats out again, to examine any place where they could get on shore. They returned with a few casks of water, which they had filled at a small rill, and reported, that the wind being at S. E. blew so strong on the east side of the island, and raised so great a sea, that they could not come near the shore.

Friday 15.

Saturday 16.

We continued here till the 15th, at day-break, and then, the weather becoming more moderate, we weighed, and in the evening, just at sun-set, we anchored on the east side of the island, in the same place where Commodore Byron had anchored about two years before. We lost no time, but immediately got off fifteen casks of water, and sent a number of men on shore with others, that were empty, to be filled against the next morning, and a strong party to cut wood: but it happened that about two o'clock in the morning a hard gale of wind came on from the N. W. with violent gusts from the shore, which drove us off the bank, though we had two anchors ahead, which were in the utmost danger of being lost; we got them up, however, with great difficulty, and immediately set the sails, and worked under the lee of the island, keeping as near the shore as we could; the weather soon afterwards became more moderate, so that we could carry double reefed top-sails; we had also very smooth water, yet we could not make the ship tack, and were forced to wear her every time we wanted to go about.

[page] 544

1767. May.

Saturday 16.

At day-break, though we were at a good distance from the shore, I sent the cutter to get off a load of water, before the surf should be so great upon the beach as to prevent her landing. About ten o'clock, the wind came to the N. N. E. which enabled us to get within a little distance of the watering-place, and we might have recovered our anchoring ground upon the bank from which we had been driven, but the weather had so bad an appearance, and the gale freshened so fast, that we did not think it prudent to venture: we brought to, however, as near the shore as possible, for the advantage of smooth water to unload the cutter, which soon after came along-side with twelve casks of water. As soon as we had taken these on board, I sent the cutter again for another freight, and as we were at a very little distance from land, I ventured to send our long-boat, a clumsey, heavy, four-oared vessel, with provisions for the people on shore, and orders to bring back a load of water, if she could get it: as soon as these boats were dispatched, we made a tack off to keep our ground. At noon it blew hard, with heavy rain and thick weather, and at one, as we were standing in again, we saw the boats running along the shore, for the lee part of the island, this side being open to the wind; we therefore followed them, and brought to as near the shore as possible, to favour their coming on board: they presently made towards us, and we hoisted them in, but the sea was now risen so high, that in doing it they received considerable damage, and we soon learnt that they found the surf so great as not to be able even to land their empty water casks. We continued to lie to, under a balanced mizen, off the lee part of the island all the afternoon, and although all hands had been constantly employed ever since the ship had been driven off her anchoring ground, the carpenters worked all night in repairing the boats.

[page] 545

1767. May.

Sunday 17.

At four o'clock in the morning, the island bore west of us, being four leagues distant, and right to windward: we had now a fine gale and smooth water, and about ten o'clock we fetched very near to the south part of it, and with the help of the boat made the ship tack. As it was not probable that with such a vessel we could regain the anchoring-ground, I took advantage of our being so near the shore, though at a good distance from the watering-place, to send the cutter for another load. In the mean time I stood on and off with the ship, and about four o'clock in the afternoon the cutter brought her freight of water on board. I enquired of the Lieutenant after the people on shore, and he told me, that the violent rain which had fallen in the night, had suddenly brought down such torrents of water through the hollow or gully where they had taken up their station, that they were in the utmost danger of being swept away before it, and though with great difficulty they saved themselves, several of the casks were intirely lost. It was now too late for the boat to make another turn to the place where we had hitherto got our water; but Mr. Erasmus Gower, the Lieutenant, whose diligence and ability in all our dangers and distress I cannot sufficiently commend, having, as he returned with the cutter, observed that many runs of water had been made by the night's rain, on that part of the island which was nearest to us, and knowing how impatient I was of delay, offered to go thither with the boat, and fill as many casks as she could bring back. I gladly accepted this offer, Mr. Gower went away in the boat, and in the mean time I made a tack off with the ship; but before they had been gone an hour, the weather began to grow gloomy, and the wind to freshen, a heavy black cloud at the same time settled over the island so as to hide the tops of the hills, and soon after it began to thunder and lighten at a dreadful

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1767. May.

Sunday 17.

rate: as these appearances were very threatening, I stood in again towards the island in hopes of meeting with the boat; but though we ran in as close as we durst, we saw nothing of her. In the mean time night came on, which the thickness of the weather rendered extremely dark, the gale increased, and it began to rain with great violence: in this situation I lay to under a balanced mizen, firing guns, and burning false fires, as a guide to the boat; and not being able to account for her delay, I suffered the most distressful anxiety, and had indeed but too much reason to fear that she was lost. About seven o'clock, however, to my unspeakable satisfaction she came safe alongside, and as I had long seen a storm gathering, which I expected every moment to burst upon us, we got her in with all possible expedition. It was indeed happy for us all that no time was lost, for before she could be got into her place, the squall came on, which in a moment laid the ship down in a surprising manner, and broke the mizen gaff just where the sail was reefed; so that if another minute had passed before the boat had been got in, we must inevitably have lost her, and every soul on board would have perished. This wind and weather continued till midnight, when it became somewhat more moderate, so that we were able to set our courses and top-sails. In the mean time I had enquired of Mr. Gower how it came to be so long before he returned to the ship, and he told me, that after he had got to the place where he intended to fill the casks, three of the boat's crew had swum ashore with them for that purpose; but that within a few minutes, the surf had risen so high, and broke with such fury on the shore, that it was impossible for them to get back to the boat: that being unwilling to leave them behind, especially as they were stark naked, he had waited in hopes that an opportunity might be found for their coming on

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1767. May.

Sunday 17.

board; but that being intimidated by the appearance of the weather, and the uncommon darkness of the night, he had at last, with whatever reluctance, been obliged to come on board without them. The situation of these poor fellows now furnished another subject of solicitude and anxiety; they were naked, upon a desolate island, at a great distance from the watering-place where their ship-mates had a tent, without food, and without shelter, in a night of violent and incessant rain, with such thunder and lightning as in Europe is altogether unknown. In the evening of the 19th, however, I had the satisfaction to receive them on board, and to hear an account of their adventures from their own lips. As long as it was light they flattered themselves, like their friends in the boat, that they should find an opportunity to return on board her; but afterwards when the darkness of the night was broken only by the flashes of lightning, and the tempest became every moment more violent, they knew that to reach the boat was impossible, if it still remained in its station; and that most probably the people on board had provided for their own safety, by returning on board the ship: to reach the tent of their ship-mates, during the darkness and tempest, was equally beyond their power, and they were reduced to the necessity of passing such a night, in such a place, without the least defence against either the rain or the cold, which now began to be severely felt. Necessity is said to be ingenious, and they contrived to procure a temporary succedaneum both for apparel and a shed, by lying one upon another, each man alternately placing himself between the other two; in this situation it may easily be believed that they longed most ardently for the dawn, and as soon as it appeared they set out for the tent: they were obliged however to make their way along the sea shore, for the inland country was impassable; nor was this the worst,

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1767. May.

Sunday 17.

for they were frequently stopped by high steep bluff points, which they were obliged to swim round at a considerable distance, for if they had not taken a compass, they would have been dashed to pieces against the rocks by the surf, and as it was, they were every moment in danger of being devoured by a shark. About ten o'clock in the morning, however, they reached the tents, almost perished with hunger and cold, and were received with equal surprise and joy by their ship-mates, who immediately shared with them such provisions and clothes as they had. When they came on board, I gave orders that they should have such refreshments as were proper, and remain in their hammocks the whole night. The next day they were as hearty as if nothing had happened, nor did they suffer any farther inconvenience from the accident. These were three of the honest fellows who had swum naked from the ship at the island of Madeira to get a skinful of liquor. I now return to my narrative in the order of time.

Monday 18.

Tuesday 19.

On the 18th, the weather was moderate, and in the evening we were within half a mile of the anchoring-ground from which we had been driven; but the wind suddenly sailing, and a current making against us, we could not reach it: we took advantage however of being so near the waterer's tent to send a boat on shore to enquire after the three men whose adventure has been just related, and soon after she brought them on board. The carpenters were all this time employed in making a new mizen-gaff, out of a gib-boom, and in the mean while we were obliged to make shift with the old one, keeping the sail balanced. It continued a stark calm all the night, so that in the morning we found the current and the swell had driven us no less than nine miles from the land: the weather however being good,

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1767. May.

Tuesday 19.

Wednes. 20.

Thursday 21.

I sent the cutter for a load of water, which she brought on board about one o'clock. Soon after a breeze sprung up at N. N. W. and as we now approached the land very fast, I sent the boat on shore again for water; it happened however that before we could reach our anchoring-ground, it again fell calm, and we were again kept off by the current: the boat in the mean time, as she rowed along the shore, caught as much fish with hook and line as served all the ship's company, which was some alleviation of our disappointment. At eight o'clock in the evening, it began again to blow hard with sudden squalls, so that we passed another toil-some and dangerous night. In the morning, having a stiff gale at N. W. we made towards our anchoring-ground with all the sail we could spread, and happily regained it about four o'clock in the afternoon, when we anchored, at two cables' length from the beach, in eighteen fathom, with a bottom of fine sand, and moored with a small anchor in shore. By the time the ship was properly secured, it was too late to proceed with our watering; the long-boat however was sent along the shore to fish, and though before seven o'clock it blew so hard that she was obliged to return, she brought fish enough on board to serve all the people. In the night we had foul weather, with hard squalls and much rain; and in the morning, the wind blowing with great violence along the shore, we frequently drove, though we had not less than two hundred fathom of cable out; for the bank is a loose fine sand that easily gives way. We rode out the storm however without damage, but the rain was so violent, and the sea ran so high, that nothing could be done with the boats, which was the more mortifying as it was for the sake of completing our watering that we had endured almost incessant labour for five days and nights to regain the situation in which we now lay. About eight in the

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1767. May.

Thursday 21.

evening, the wind became more moderate, and though it was then too late to fetch off any water, we got out one of the boats, and sent three men on shore, right abreast of the ship, to kill seals, and make oil of their fat, for burning in lamps and other uses on board the ship.

Friday 22.

Saturday 23.

The wind blew very hard the next morning, as it had done all night, but being at W. N. W. which was off the land, we sent the boats away soon after it was light, and about ten, they returned with each of them a load of water, and a great number of pintado birds: these birds they got from the people on shore, who told them, that when a gale of wind happened in the night they flew faster into their fire than they could well take them out, so that during the gale of the last night, they got no less than seven hundred of them. The boats were employed in getting water on board all this day, although the surf was so great that several of the casks were staved and lost: they were sent out again a little before it was light the next day, and by seven o'clock a few casks only were wanting to complete our stock. The threatening appearances of the weather made me now very impatient to get the people on board, with the casks that were still at the watering-place; as soon therefore as he boats were cleared of their loading, I dispatched them again, with orders to bring off all the hands, with the tent, and every thing else that was on shore, with all possible expedition. From this time the wind increased, very fast, and by eleven o'clock it blew so hard, with violent gusts from the land, that the ship began to drive off the bank: we heaved the small anchor up, and got it in out of the way of the other; the gale still increased, but as it was right off the land, I was in no pain about the ship, which continued to drive, still dragging the anchor through the sand, with two hundred fathom of cable

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1767. May.

Saturday 23.

out; for being very solicitous to give the boats time to bring all on board before we were quite off the bank, I would not weigh. At two o'clock, however, the anchor was quite off the ground, and the ship was in deep water; we were now therefore obliged to bring the cable to the capstern, and with great difficulty we got the anchor up. The gusts off the land were so violent that, not daring to show any canvas, we lay to under our bare poles, and the water was frequently torn up, and whirled round in the air much higher than our masts heads. As the ship now drove from the island at a great rate, and night was coming on, I began to be in great pain for the boats, in which, besides my Lieutenant, there were eight and twenty of my best men; but just in the dusk of the evening, I perceived one of them scudding before the seas and making towards the ship: this proved to be the longboat, which in spight of all the efforts of those on board, had been forced from her grappling, and driven off the land. We took the best opportunity that offered to get her on board, but notwithstanding all our care, she received considerable damage as we were hoisting her in. She had on board ten of my people, who informed me, that when they were first driven from the shore, they had some fire wood on board, but that they were obliged to throw that, and every thing else, into the sea, to lighten the boat. As we had yet seen nothing of the cutter, and had reason to fear that she also, with the tents, and the other eighteen people, besides the Lieutenant, had been driven off the island, I gave her up for lost; knowing that if the night, which was now at hand, should overtake her in such a storm she must inevitably perish. It was however possible that the people might be ashore, and therefore that if the boat should be lost, they might still be preserved; for this reason, I determined to regain the land as soon as possible. At mid-

[page] 552

1767. May.

Sunday 24.

night, the weather became more moderate, so that we could carry our courses and topsails, and at four o'clock in the morning we crowded all the sail we could make. At ten o'clock, we were very near the shore; to our great concern, we saw nothing of the cutter, yet we continued to stand on till about noon, when we happily discovered her at a grappling, close under the land: we immediately ran to our glasses, by the help of which we saw the people getting into her, and about three o'clock, to our mutual and inexpressible joy, she came safe on board with all her people: they were however so exhausted with fatigue, that they could scarcely get up the ship's side. The Lieutenant told me, that the night before he had attempted to come off, but that as soon as he had left the shore, a sudden squall so nearly filled the boat with water that she was very near going to the bottom; but that all hands bailing with the utmost diligence and activity, they happily cleared her: that he then made for the land again, which, with the utmost difficulty, he regained, and having left a sufficient number on board the boat, to watch her, and keep her free from water, he with the rest of the people went on shore. That having passed the night in a state of inexpressible anxiety and distress, they looked out for the ship with the first dawn of the morning, and seeing nothing of her, concluded that she had perished in the storm, which they had never seen exceeded. They did not however sit down torpid in despair, but began immediately to clear the ground near the beach of brushes and weeds, and cut down several trees of which they made rollers to assist them in hauling up the boat, in order to secure her; intending, as they had no hope of the ship's return, to wait till the summer season, and then attempt to make the island of Juan Fernandes. They had now better hopes, and all sense of the dangers that were before us

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1767. May.

was for a while obliterated by the joy of our escape from those that were past.

From the 16th, when we were first driven from our anchoring ground, to this time, we suffered an uninterrupted series of danger, fatigue, and misfortunes. The ship worked and sailed very ill, the weather was dark and tempestuous, with thunder, lightning, and rain, and the boats, which I was obliged to keep always employed, even when we were under sail, to procure us water, were in continual danger of being loft, as well by the hard gales which constantly blew, as by the sudden gusts which frequently rushed upon us with a violence that is scarcely to be conceived. This distress was the more severe as it was unexpected, for I had experienced very different weather in these parts about two years before with Commodore Byron. It has generally been thought, that upon this coast the winds are constantly from the S. to the S. W. though Frazier mentions his having had strong gales and high seas from the N. N. W. and N. W. quarter, which was unhappily my case.

Having once more got my people and boats safe on board, I made sail from this turbulent climate, and thought myself fortunate not to have left any thing behind me except the wood, which our people had cut for firing.

The island of Masafuero lies in latitude 33° 45′S., longitude 80° 46′W. of London. Its situation is west-of Juan Fernandes, both being nearly in the same latitude, and by the globe, it is distant about thirty-one leagues. It is very high and mountainous, and at a distance appears like one hill or rock: it is of a triangular form, and about seven or eight leagues in circumference. The south part, which we saw when we first made the island, at the distance of three and twenty leagues.

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1767. May.

is much the highest: on the north end there are several spots of clear ground, which perhaps might admit of cultivation.

The author of the account of Lord Anson's voyage mentions only one part of this island as affording anchorage, which is on the north side, and in deep water, but we saw no part where there was not anchorage: on the west side in particular there is anchorage at about a mile from the shore in twenty fathom, and at about two miles and a half in forty, and forty-five fathom, with a fine black sand at the bottom. This author also says, that "there is a reef of rocks running off the eastern point of the island about two miles in length, which may be seen by the sea's breaking over them;" but in this he is mistaken, there is no reef of rocks, or shoal running off the eastern point, but there is a reef of rocks and sand running off the western side, near the south end of it. He is also mistaken as to the distance of this island from Juan Fernandes, and its direction, for he says the distance is twenty-two leagues, and the direction W. by S., but we found the distance nearly one-third more, and the direction is due west, for, as I have before observed, the latitude of both islands is nearly the same. The goats that he mentions we found upon it in the same abundance, and equally easy to be caught.

On the south west point of the island there is a remarkable rock, with a hole in it, which is a good mark to come to an anchor on the western side, where there is the best bank of any about the place. About a mile and a half to the northward of this hole, there is a low point of land, and from this point runs the reef that has been just mentioned, in the direction of W. by S. to the distance of about three quarters of a mile, where the sea continually breaks upon it. To an-

[page] 555

1767. May.

chor, run in till the hole in the rock is shut in, about a cable's length upon this low point of land, then bearing S. by E. ½ E. and anchor in twenty and twenty-two fathom, sine black sand and shells: there is anchorage also at several places on the other sides of the island, particularly off the north point, in fourteen and fifteen fathom, with fine sand.

There is plenty of wood and water all round the island, but they are not to be procured without much difficulty, a great quantity of stones, and large fragments of the rock have fallen from the high land all round the island, and upon these there breaks such a surf that a boat cannot safely come within a cable's length of the shore; there is therefore no landing here but by swimming from the boat, and then mooring her without the rocks, nor is there any method of getting off the wood and water but by hauling them to the boat with ropes: there are however many places where it would be very easy to make a commodious landing by building a wharf, which it would be worth while even for a single ship to do if she was to continue any time at the island.

This part of Masafuero is a very good place for refreshment, especially in the summer season: the goats have been mentioned already, and there is all round the island such plenty of fish, that a boat may, with three hooks and lines, catch as much as will serve an hundred people: among others we caught excellent coal fish, cavallies, cod, hallibut, and crayfish. We took a king-fisher that weighed eighty-seven pounds, and was five feet and an half long, and the sharks were so ravenous, that when we were sounding one of them swallowed the lead, by which we hauled him above water, but as he then disgorged it, we lost him. The seals were so numerous, that I verily think if many thousands of

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1767. May.

them were killed in a night, they would not be missed in the morning: we were obliged to kill great numbers of them, as, when we walked the shore, they were continually running against us, making at the same time a most horrible noise. These animals yield excellent train oil, and their hearts and plucks are very good eating, being in taste something like those of a hog, and their skins are covered with the finest fur I ever saw of the kind. There are many birds here, and among others some very large hawks. Of the pintado birds, our people, as I have before observed, caught no less than seven hundred in one night. We had not much opportunity to examine the place for vegetable productions, but we saw several leaves of the mountain cabbage, which is a proof that the tree grows here.

[page] 557

CHAP. III.

The Passage from Masafuero to Queen Charlotte's Islands; several Mistakes corrected concerning Davis's Land, and an Account of some small Islands, supposed to be the same that were seen by Quiros.

1767. May.

WHEN we took our departure from Masafuero, we had a great sea from the N. W. with a swell of long billows from the southward, and the wind, which was from the S. W. to the W. N. W. obliged me to stand to the northward, in hope of getting the south east trade-wind, for the ship was so dull a sailer, that there was no making her go without a strong wind in her favour. Having thus run farther to the northward than at first I intended, and finding myself not far from the parallel of latitude which has been assigned to two islands called Saint Ambrose, and Saint Felix or Saint Paul, I thought I should perform an acceptable service by examining if they were sit for shipping to refresh at, especially as the Spaniards having fortified Juan Fernandes, they might be found convenient for Great Britain, if she should hereafter be engaged in a Spanish war. These islands are laid down in Green's charts, which were published in the year 1753, from latitude 26° 20′, to 27° S. and from 1°¼ to 2°½ W. of Masafuero; I therefore hauled up with a design to keep in that latitude, but soon afterwards consulting Robertson's Elements of Navigation, I found the island of Saint Ambrose there laid down in latitude 25° 30′S., and 82° 20′longitude west of London, and supposing that islands of so

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1767. May.

small an extent, might be laid down with more exactness in this work than in the chart, I bore away more northward for that latitude; the event, however, proved that I should not have trusted him so far: I missed the islands, and as I saw great numbers of birds and fish, which are certain indications of land not far off, there is the greatest reason to conclude that I went to the northward of them. I am sorry to say that upon a farther examination of Robertson's tables of latitudes and longitudes, I found them erroneous in many particulars: this censure, however, if I had not thought it necessary to prevent future mischief, should have been suppressed.

Upon examining the account that is given by Wafer, who was Surgeon on board Captain Davis's ship, I think it is probable that these two islands are the land that Davis fell in with in his way to the southward from the Gallapago islands, and that the land laid down in all the sea charts under the name of Davis's Land, has no existence, notwithstanding what is said in the account of Roggewein's voyage, which was made in 1722, of land that they called Eastern Island, which some have imagined to be a confirmation of Davis's discovery, and the same land to which his name has been given.

It is manifest from Wafer's narrative, that little credit is due to the account kept on board Davis's ship, except with respect to the latitude, for he acknowledges that they had like to have perished by their making an allowance for the variation of the needle westward, instead of eastward: he tells us also that they steered S. by E. ½ E. from the Gallapagos, till they made land in latitude 27° 20′S. but it is evident that such a course would carry them not to the westward but to the eastward of the Gallapagos, and set them at about the

3

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1767. May.

distance of two hundred leagues from Capiapo, and not five hundred leagues as he has alleged, for the variation here is not more than half a point to the eastward now, and it must have been still less then, it having been increasing to the eastward on all this coast. The course that Davis steered therefore, if the distance between the islands of St. Ambrose and St. Felix, and the Gallapagos, as laid down in all our sea charts, is right, must have brought him within sight of St. Ambrose and St. Felix, when he had run the distance he mentions. The truth is, that if there had been any such place as Davis's Land in the situation which has been allotted to it in our sea charts, I must have sailed over it, or at least have seen it, as will appear in the course of this narrative.

I kept between the latitude 25° 50′and 25° 30′, in search of the islands I intended to examine, till I got five degrees to the westward of our departure, and then seeing no land, and the birds having left us, I hauled more to the southward, and got into latitude 27° 20′S. where I continued till we got between seventeen and eighteen degrees to the westward of our departure. In this parallel we had light airs and foul winds, with a strong northerly current, which made me conjecture that we were near this Davis's Land, for which we looked out with great diligence, but a fair wind springing up again, we steered west by south, which gradually brought us into the latitude of 28° ½S. so that it is evident I must have sailed over this land, or at least have seen it if there had been any such place. I afterwards kept in the latitude of 28° for forty degrees to the westward of my departure, or, according to my account, 121 degrees west of London, this being the highest south latitude the winds and weather would permit me to keep, so that I must have gone to the southward of the situation assigned to the supposed continent called Davis's Land in all our charts.

[page] 560

1767. June.

Wednes. 17.

We continued our search till Wednesday the 17th of June, when, in latitude 28° S., longitude 112° W. we saw many sea birds, which slew in flocks, and some rock weed, which made me conjecture that we were approaching, or had passed by some land. At this time the wind blew hard from the northward, which made a great sea, but we had notwithstanding long rolling billows from the southward, so that whatever land was in that quarter, could be only small rocky islands; and I am inclined to believe that if there was land at all it was to the northward, possibly it might be Roggewein's eastern island, which he has placed in latitude 27° S. and which some geographers have supposed to be about seven hundred leagues distant from the continent of South America, if indeed any credit is to be given to his account.

It was now the depth of winter in these parts, and we had hard gales and high seas that frequently brought us under our courses and low sails: the winds were also variable, and though we were near the tropic, the weather was dark, hazey, and cold, with frequent thunder and lightning, sleet and rain. The sun was above the horizon about ten hours in the four and twenty, but we frequently passed many days together without seeing him; and the weather was so thick, that when he was below the horizon the darkness was dreadful: the gloominess of the weather was indeed not only a disagreeable but a most dangerous circumstance, as we were often long without being able to make an observation, and were, notwithstanding, obliged to carry all the sail we could spread, day and night, our ship being so bad a sailer, and our voyage so long, to prevent our perishing by hunger, which, with all its concomitant horrors, would otherwise be inevitable.

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[page] 561

1767. July.

Thursday 2.

We continued our course westward till the evening of Thursday the 2d of July, when we discovered land to the northward of us. Upon approaching it the next day, it appeared like a great rock rising out of the sea: it was not more than five miles in circumference, and seemed to be uninhabited; it was, however, covered with trees, and we saw a small stream of fresh water running down one side of it. I would have landed upon it, but the surf, which at this season broke upon it with great violence, rendered it impossible. I got soundings on the west side of it, at somewhat less than a mile from the shore, in twenty-five fathom, with a bottom of coral and sand; and it is probable that in fine summer weather landing here may not only be practicable but easy. We saw a great number of sea birds hovering about it, at somewhat less than a mile from the shore, and the sea here seemed to have fish. It lies in latitude 20° 2′S., longitude 133° 21′W. and about a thousand leagues to the westward of the continent of America. It is so high that we saw it at the distance of more than fifteen leagues, and it having been discovered by a young gentleman, son to Major Pitcairn of the marines, who was unfortunately lost in the Aurora, we called it PITCAIRN'S ISLAND.

Pitcairn's Island.

While we were in the neighbourhood of this island, the weather was extremely tempestuous, with long rolling billows from the southward, larger and higher than any I had seen before. The winds were variable, but blew chiefly from the S. S. W. W. and W. N. W. We had very seldom a gale to the eastward, so that we were prevented from keeping in a high south latitude, and were continually driving to the northward.

Saturday 4.

On the 4th, we found that the ship made a good deal of water, for having been so long labouring in high

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1767. July.

Saturday 4.

and turbulent seas, she was become very crazy; our sails also being much worn, were continually splitting, so that it was become necessary to keep the sail-maker constantly at work. The people had hitherto enjoyed good health, but they now began to be affected with the scurvy. While we were in the Streight of Magellan, I caused a little awning to be made, which I covered with a clean painted canvas, that had been allowed me for a floor-cloth to my cabbin, and with this we caught so much rain water, with but little trouble or attendance, that the people were never put to a short allowance of this important article: the awning also afforded shelter from the inclemency of the weather, and to these precautions I imputed our having escaped the scurvy so long, though perhaps it was in some measure owing to the mixture of spirit of vitriol with the water that was thus preserved, our Surgeon putting a small quantity into every cask when it was filled up.

Saturday 11.

Osnaburgh Island.

On Saturday the 11th, we discovered a small, low, flat island, which appeared to be almost level with the water's edge, and was covered with green trees: as it was to the south, and directly to windward of us, we could not fetch it. It lies in latitude 22° S., and longitude 141° 34′W.; and we called it the BISHOP OF OSNABURGH'S ISLAND, in honour of his Majesty's second son *.

Sunday 12.

On the 12th, we fell in with two more small islands, which were covered with green trees, but appeared to be uninhabited. We were close in with the southermost, which proved to be a slip of land in the form of a half moon, low, flat, and sandy: from the south end of it a reef runs out to the distance of about half a mile, on which the sea breaks

* There is another island of this name, among those that were discovered by Captain Wallis.

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1767. July.

Sunday 12.

Duke of Gloucester's Islands.

Monday 13.

with great fury. We found no anchorage, but the boat landed. It had a pleasant appearance, but afforded neither vegetables nor water; there were however many birds upon it, so tame that they suffered themselves to be taken by hand. The other island very much resembles this, and is distant from it about five or six leagues: they lie W. N. W. and E. S. E. of each other. One of them is in latitude 20° 38′S., longitude 146° W.; the other 20° 34′S., longitude 146° 15′W. and we called them the DUKE OF GLOUCESTER's ISLANDS; the variation here is five degrees east. These islands are probably the land seen by Quiros, as the situation is nearly the same; but if not, the land he saw could not be more considerable: whatever it was we went to the southward of it, and the long billows we had here convinced us that there was no land near us in that direction. The wind here being to the eastward, I hauled to the southward again, and the next day, Monday the 13th, in the evening, as we were steering W. S. W. we observed that we lost the long southerly billows, and that we got them again at seven o'clock the next day. When we lost them we were in latitude 21° 7′S., longitude 147° 4′W. and when we got them again we were in latitude 21° 43′S., longitude 149° 48′W. so that I imagine there was then some land to the southward, not far distant.

Thursday 16.

Monday 20.

From this time, to the 16th, the winds were variable from N. E. round by the N. the N. W. and S. W. and blew very hard, with violent gusts, one of which was very near being fatal to us, with thick weather and hard rain. We were then in latitude 22° S., and 70° 30′W. of our departure, where we found the variation 6° 30′E. and the tempestuous gales were succeeded by a dead calm. After some time, however, the wind sprung up again at west, and at length settled in the W. S. W. which soon drove us again to the northward, so that on the 20th we were in latitude 19° S.,

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1767. July.

longitude 75° 30′W. of our departure: the variation was here 6° E.

Wednes. 22.

On the 22d, we were got into latitude 18° S., longitude 161° W. which was about one thousand eight hundred leagues to the westward of the continent of America, and in all this track we had no indication of a continent. The men now began to be very sickly, the scurvy having made great progress among them, and as I found that all my endeavours to keep in a high southern latitude at this time, were ineffectual, and that the badness of the weather, the variableness of the winds, and above all the defects of the ship, rendered our progress slow, I thought it absolutely necessary to fix upon that course which was most likely to preserve the vessel and the crew; instead therefore of attempting to return back by the south east, in which, considering our condition, and the advanced season of the year, it was scarcely possible that we should succeed, I bore away to the northward, that I might get into the trade-wind, keeping still in such a track as, if the charts were to be trusted, was most likely to bring me to some island, where the refreshments of which we stood so much in need might be procured; intending then, if the ship could be put into a proper condition, to have pursued the voyage to the southward, when the fit season should return, to have attempted farther discoveries in this track; and, if I should discover a continent, and procure a sufficient supply of provisions there, to keep along the coast to the southward till the sun had crossed the equinoctial, and then, getting into a high southern latitude, either have gone west about to the Cape of Good Hope, or returned to the eastward, and having touched at Falkland's Islands if necessary, made the best of my way from thence back to Europe.

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1767. July.

Wednes. 22.

Saturday 25.

Sunday 26.

August. Monday 3.

When I got into latitude 16° S. and not before, I found the true trade-wind; and as we proceeded to the north west, and the northward, we found the variation increase very fast; for when we had advanced to latitude 18° 15′S. and were in longitude 80° ¼ W. of our departure, it was 7° 30′E. We had bad weather, with hard gales, and a great sea from the eastward till the 25th, when being in latitude 12° 15′S. we saw many birds flying in flocks, and supposed ourselves to be near some land, particularly several islands that are laid down in the charts, and one which was seen by Commodore Byron in 1765, and called the Island of Danger; none of these islands however could we see. At this time it blew so hard that, although we went before the wind, we were obliged to reef our topsails, and the weather was still very thick and rainy. The next morning, being in latitude 10° S., longitude 167° W. we kept nearly in the same parallel, in hopes to have fallen in with some of the islands called Solomon's Islands, this being the latitude in which the southermost of them is laid down. We had here the trade wind strong, with violent squalls and much rain, and continuing our course till Monday the 3d of August, we were then in latitude 10° 18′S., longitude by account 177° ½ E.; our distance west from the continent of America about twenty-one hundred leagues, and we were five degrees to the westward of the situation of those islands in the charts. It was not our good fortune however to fall in with any land; probably we might pass near some, which the thick weather prevented our seeing; for in this run great numbers of sea-birds were often about the ship: however, as Commodore Byron in his last voyage sailed over the northern limits of that part of the ocean in which the islands of Solomon are said to lie, and as I sailed over the southern limits without seeing them, there is great reason to con-

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1767. August.

Monday 3.

clude that, if there are any such islands, their situation in all our charts is erroneously laid down.

Wednes. 5.

Saturday 8.

From the latitude 14° S., longitude 163° 46′W. we had a strong gale from the S. E. which made a great sea after us, and from that time I did not observe the long billows from the southward till we got into latitude 10° 18′S., longitude 177° 30′E. and then it returned from the S. W. and S. S. W. and we found a current setting to the southward, although a current in the contrary direction had attended us almost all the way from the Streight of Magellan; I conjectured therefore that here the passage opened between New Zealand and New Holland. The variation here was 11° 14′E. On the 5th, being in latitude 10° ½ S., longitude 175° 44′E.; the variation was 11° 15′E.; and on the 8th, in latitude 11° S., longitude 171° 14′E. it was 11° ½ E.

About this time we found our stock of log-lines nearly expended, though we had already converted all our fishing lines to the same use. I was some time in great perplexity how to supply this defect, but upon a very diligent enquiry found that we had, by chance, a few fathom of thick untarred rope. This, which in our situation was an inestimable treasure, I ordered to be untwisted; but as the yarns were found to be too thick for our purpose, it became necessary to pick them into oakham: and when this was done, the most difficult part of the work remained; for this oakham could not be spun into yarn, till, by combing, it was brought into hemp, its original state. This was not seamen's work, and if it had, we should have been at a loss how to perform it for want of combs; one difficulty therefore rose upon another, and it was necessary to make combs, before we could try our skill in making hemp. Upon this trying occasion we were again sensible of the danger to which we

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were exposed by the want of a forge: necessity, however, the fruitful mother of invention, suggested an expedient. The armourer was set to work to file nails down to a smooth point, with which we produced a tolerable succedaneum for a comb; and one of the Quartermasters was found sufficiently skilled in the use of this instrument to render the oakham so smooth and even that we contrived to spin it into yarn, as fine as our coarse implements would admit; and thus we made tolerable log-lines, although we found it much more difficult than to make cordage of our old cables, after they had been converted into junk, which was an expedient that we had been obliged to practise long before. We had also long before used all our sewing sail twine, and if, knowing that the quantity with which I had been supplied was altogether inadequate to the wants of such a voyage, I had not taken the whole quantity that had been put on board to repair the seine into my own custody, this deficiency might have been fatal to us all.

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CHAP. IV.

An Account of the Discovery of Queen Charlotte's Islands, with a Description of them and their Inhabitants, and of what happened at Egmont Island.

1767. August.

Monday 10.

Wednes. 12.

THE scurvy still continued to make great progress among us, and those hands that were not rendered useless by disease, were worn down by excessive labour; our vessel, which at best was a dull sailer, had been long in so bad a condition that she would not work; and on the 10th, to render our condition still more distressful and alarming, she sprung a leak in the bows, which being under water it was impossible to get at while we were at sea. Such was our situation, when on the 12th, at break of day, we discovered land: the sudden transport of hope and joy which this inspired can perhaps be equalled only by that which a criminal feels who hears the cry of a reprieve at the place of execution. The land proved to be a cluster of islands, of which I counted seven, and believe there were many more. We kept on for two of them, which were right ahead when land was first discovered, and seemed to lie close together; in the evening we anchored on the north east side of one of them, which was the largest and the highest of the two, in about thirty fathom, with a good bottom, and at the distance of about three cables' length from the shore. We soon after saw too of the natives, who were black, with woolly heads, and stark naked; I immediately sent the Master out with the boat to fix upon a

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1767. August.

Wednes. 12.

watering-place, and speak to them, but they disappeared before she could reach the shore. The boat soon after returned with an account that there was a fine run of fresh water abreast of the ship and close to the beach, but that the whole country in that part being an almost impenetrable forest quite to the water's edge, the watering would be very difficult, and even dangerous, if the natives should come down to prevent it: that there were no esculent vegetables, for the refreshment of the sick, nor any habitations as far as the country had been examined, which was wild, forlorn, and mountainous.

Having considered this account, and finding that a swell, which came round the eastern part of the bay, would render watering troublesome and inconvenient, exclusive of the danger that might be apprehended from the natives, if they should attack us from ambushes in the wood, I determined to try whether a better situation could not be found.

Thursday 13.

The next morning, therefore, as soon as it was light, I dispatched the Master with fifteen men in the cutter, well armed and provided, to examine the coast to the westward, our present situation being on the lee of the island, for a place where we might more conveniently be supplied with wood and water, and at the same time procure some refreshments for the sick, and lay the ship by the stern to examine and stop the leak. I gave him some beads, ribbons, and other trifles, which by chance I happened to have on board, to conciliate the good-will of the natives, if he should happen to meet with any of them; but at the same time enjoined him to run no risk, and gave him particular orders immediately to return to the ship if any number of canoes should approach him which might bring on hostilities; and if he should meet the Indians in small parties, either at sea

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Thursday 13.

or upon shore, to treat them with all possible kindness, so as to establish a friendly intercourse with them; charging him, on no account to leave the boat himself, nor to suffer more than two men to go on shore at a time, while the rest stood ready for their defence; recommending to him, in the strongest terms, an application to his duty, without regarding any other object, as the finding a proper place for the ship was of the utmost importance to us all; and conjuring him to return as soon as this service should be performed, with all possible speed.

Soon after I had dispatched the cutter on this expedition, I sent the longboat with ten men on board well armed to the shore, who before eight o'clock brought off a tun of water. About nine, I sent her off again, but soon after seeing some of the natives advancing along the shore towards the place where the men landed, I made the signal for them to return, not knowing to what number they would be exposed, and having no boat to send off with assistance if they should be attacked.

Our men had not long returned on board, when we saw three of the natives sit down under the trees abreast of the ship. As they continued there gazing at us till the afternoon, as soon as the cutter came in sight, not caring that both the boats should be absent at the same time, I sent my Lieutenant in the longboat, with a few beads, ribbons, and trinkets, to endeavour to establish some kind of intercourse with them, and by their means with the rest of the inhabitants; these men, however, before the boat could reach the shore, quitted their station, and proceeded along the beach. As the trees would soon prevent their being seen by our people who were making towards the land, we kept our eyes fixed upon them from the ship, and very soon perceived that they

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1767. August.

Thursday 13.

were met by three others. After some conversation, the first three went on, and those who met them proceeded towards the boat with a hasty pace. Upon this I made the signal to the Lieutenant to be upon his guard, and as soon as he saw the Indians, observing that there were no more than three, he backed the boat in to the shore, and making signs of friendship, held up to them the beads and ribbons which I had given him as presents, our people at the same time carefully concealing their arms. The Indians, however, taking no notice of the beads and ribbons, resolutely advanced within bow-shot, and then suddenly discharged their arrows, which happily went over the boat without doing any mischief; they did not prepare for a second discharge, but instantly ran away into the woods, and our people discharged some musquets after them, but none of them were wounded by the shot. Soon after this happened, the cutter came under the ship's side, and the first person that I particularly noticed was the Master, with three arrows sticking in his body. No other evidence was necessary to convict him of having acted contrary to my orders, which appeared indeed more fully from his own account of the matter, which it is reasonable to suppose was as favourable to himself as he could make it. He said, that having seen some Indian houses with only five or six of the inhabitants, at a place about fourteen or fifteen miles to the westward of the ship's station, where he had sounded some bays, he came to a grappling, and veered the boat to the beach, where he landed with four men, armed with musquets and pistols: that the Indians at first were afraid of him, and retired, but that soon after they came down to him, and he gave them some beads and other trifles, with which they seemed to be much pleased: that he then made signs to them for some cocoa-nuts, which they brought him, and with great appearance of friendship and

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Thursday 13.

hospitality, gave him a broiled fish and some boiled yams: that he then proceeded with his party to the houses, which, he said, were not more than fifteen or twenty yards from the water side, and soon after saw a great number of canoes coming round the western point of the bay, and many Indians among the trees: that being alarmed at these appearances, he hastily left the house where they had been received, and with the men, made the best of his way towards the boat; but that, before he could get on board, the Indians attacked as well those that were with him as those that were in the boat, both from the canoes and the shore. Their number, he said, was between three and four hundred; their weapons were bows and arrows, the bows were six feet five inches long, and the arrows four feet four, which they discharged in platoons, as regularly as the best disciplined troops in Europe: that it being necessary to defend himself and his people when they were thus attacked, they fired among the Indians to favour their getting into their boat, and did great execution, killing many and wounding more: that they were not however discouraged, but continued to press forward, still discharging their arrows by platoons in almost one continued flight: that the grappling being foul, occasioned a delay in hauling off the boat, during which time he, and half of the boat's crew, were desperately wounded: that at last they cut the rope, and ran off under their foresail, still keeping up their fire with blunderbusses, each loaded with eight or ten pistol balls, which the Indians returned with their arrows, those on shore wading after them breast high into the sea: when they had got clear of these, the canoes pursued them with great fortitude and vigour, till one of them was sunk, and the numbers on board the rest greatly reduced by the fire, and then they returned to the shore.

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1767. August.

Thursday 13.

Such was the story of the Master, who, with three of my best seamen, died some time afterwards of the wounds they had received; but culpable as he appears to have been by his own account, he appears to have been still more so by the testimony of those who survived him. They said, that the Indians behaved with the greatest confidence and friendship till he gave them just cause of offence, by ordering the people that were with him, who had been regaled in one of their houses, to cut down a cocoa-nut tree, and insisting upon the execution of his order, notwithstanding the displeasure which the Indians strongly expressed upon the occasion: as soon as the tree fell, all of them except one, who seemed to be a person of authority, went away; and in a short time a great number of them were observed to draw together into a body among the trees, by a Midshipman who was one of the party that were on shore, and who immediately acquainted the Master with what he had seen, and told him, that from the behaviour of the people he imagined an attack was intended: that the Master made light of the intelligence, and instead of repairing immediately to the boat, as he was urged to do, fired one of his pistols at a mark: that the Indian who had till that time continued with them then left them abruptly, and joined the body in the wood: that the Master, even after this, by an infatuation that is altogether unaccountable, continued to trifle away his time on shore, and did not attempt to recover the boat till the attack was begun.

Friday 14.

As the expedition to find a better place for the ship had issued thus unhappily, I determined to try what could be done, where we lay; the next day therefore, the ship was brought down by the stern, as far as we could effect it, and the carpenter, the only one of the crew who

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1767. August.

Friday 14.

was in tolerable health, caulked the bows, as far down as he could come at the bottom; and though he did not quite stop the leak, he very much reduced it. In the afternoon a fresh gale set right into the bay, which made the ship ride with her stern very near the shore, and we observed a great number of the natives sculking among the trees upon the beach, who probably expected that the wind would have forced the ship on shore.

Saturday 15.

The next morning, the weather being fine, we veered the ship close in shore, with a spring upon our cable, so that we brought our broadside to bear upon the watering-place, for the protection of the boats that were to be employed there. As there was reason to suppose that the natives whom we had seen among the trees the night before, were not now far distant, I fired a couple of shot into the wood, before I sent the waterers ashore; I also sent the Lieutenant in the cutter, well manned and armed, with the boat that carried them, and ordered him and his people to keep on board, and lie close to the beach to cover the watering-boat while she was loading, and to keep discharging musquets into the wood on each side of the party that were filling the water. These orders were well executed, the beach was steep, so that the boats could lie close to the people that were at work, and the Lieutenant from the cutter fired three or four vollies of small arms into the woods before any of the men went on shore, and none of the natives appearing, the waterers landed and went to work. But notwithstanding all these precautions, before they had been on shore a quarter of an hour, a flight of arrows was discharged among them, one of which dangerously wounded a man that was filling water in the breast, and another stuck into a bareca on which Mr. Pitcairn was sitting. The people on board the cutter imme-

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1767. August.

Saturday 15.

diately fired several vollies of small arms into that part of the wood from which the arrows came, and I recalled the boats that I might more effectually drive the Indians from their ambuscades with grape-shot from the ship's guns. When the boats and people were on board, we began to fire, and soon after saw about two hundred men rush out of the woods, and run along the beach with the utmost precipitation. We judged the coast to be now effectually cleared, but in a little time we perceived that a great number had got together on the westermost point of the bay, where they probably thought themselves beyond our reach: to convince them therefore of the contrary, I ordered a gun to be fired at them with round shot; the ball just grazing the water rose again, and fell in the middle of them, upon which they dispersed with great hurry and confusion, and we saw no more of them. After this we watered without any farther molestation, but all the while our boats were on shore, we had the precaution to keep firing the ship's guns into the wood on both sides of them, and the cutter which lay close to the beach, as she did before, kept up a constant fire of small arms in platoons at the same time. As we saw none of the natives during all this firing, we should have thought that none of them had ventured back into the wood, if our people had not reported that they heard groans from several parts of it, like those of dying men.

Hitherto, though I had been long ill of an inflammatory and bilious disorder, I had been able to keep the deck; but this evening, the symptoms became so much more threatening that I could keep up no longer, and I was for some time afterwards confined to my bed. The Master was dying of the wounds he received in his quarrel with the Indians, the Lieutenant also was very ill, the Gunner and thirty of my men incapable of duty, among whom were seven of the

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1767. August.

Saturday 15.

Monday 17.

Egmont Island.

most vigorous and healthy, that had been wounded with the Master, and three of them mortally, and there was no hope of obtaining such refreshments as we most needed in this place. These were discouraging circumstances, and not only put an end to my hopes of prosecuting the voyage farther to the southward, but greatly dispirited the people; except myself, the Master, and the Lieutenant, there was no body on board capable of navigating the ship home; the Master was known to be a dying man, and the recovery of myself and the Lieutenant was very doubtful. I would however have made a further effort to obtain refreshments here, if I had been furnished with any toys, iron tools, or cutlery-ware, which might have enabled me to recover the good-will of the natives, and establish a traffic with them for such necessaries as they could have furnished us with; but I had no such articles, and but very few others fit for an Indian trade, and not being in a condition to risk the loss of any more of the few men who were capable of doing duty, I weighed anchor at day-break on Monday the 17th, and stood along the shore for that part of the island to which I had sent the cutter. To the island I had given the name of EGMONT ISLAND, in honour of the Earl: it certainly is the same to which the Spaniards have given the name of Santa Cruz, as appears by the accounts which their writers have given of it, and I called the place in which we had lain, SWALLOW BAY. From the eastermost point of this bay, which I called SWALLOW POINT, to the north east point of the island which I called CAPE BYRON, is about seven miles east, and from the westermost point of the bay, which I called HANWAY'S POINT, to Cape Byron, is about ten or eleven miles. Between Swallow Point and Hanway's Point, in the bottom of the bay, there is a third point, which does not run out so far; and a little to the westward of this point

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1767. August.

Monday 17.

is the best anchoring-place, but it is necessary to give it birth, as the ground near it is shoaly. When we were at anchor in this bay, Swallow Point bore E. by N. and Hanway's Point W. N. W. From this Point there runs a reef, on which the sea breaks very high: the outer part of this reef bore N. W. by W. and an island which has the appearance of a volcano, was just over the breakers. Soon after we had passed Hanway's Point, we saw a small village, which stands upon the beach, and is surrounded by cocoa-nut trees. It is situated in a bay between Hanway's Point and another, to which I gave the name of How's POINT. The distance from Hanway's Point to How's Point is between four and five miles: close to the shore there is about thirty fathom of water, but in crossing the bay at the distance of about two miles, we had no bottom. Having passed How's Point, we opened another bay, or harbour, which had the appearance of a deep lagoon, and which we called CARLISLE HARBOUR. Over-against the entrance of Carlisle Harbour, and north of the coast, we found a small island, which we called PORTLAND'S ISLAND. On the west side of this island there is a reef of rocks that runs to the main, the passage into the harbour therefore is on the east side of it, and runs in and out E. N. E. and W. S. W.: it is about two cables' length wide, and has about eight fathom water. I believe the harbour within it to be good, but a ship would be obliged to warp both in and out, and would after all be in danger of an attack by the natives, who are bold even to temerity, and have a perseverance which is not common among undisciplined savages. When the ship was a mile from the shore, we had no ground with fifty fathom. About four or five miles west from Portland's Island, is a fine, small, round harbour, just big enough to receive three ships, which we called BYRON'S HARBOUR. When we were abreast of the entrance of it, it

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1767. August.

Monday 17.

bore from us S. by E. ½ E. and the Volcano Island bore N. W. ½ W. Our boat entered it, and found two runs of water, one fresh and the other salt; by the run of salt water we judged that it had a communication with Carlisle Harbour. When we had proceeded about three leagues from the harbour, we opened the bay where the cutter had been attacked by the Indians, to which, for that reason, we gave the name of BLOODY BAY. In this Bay is a small rivulet of fresh water, and here we saw many houses regularly built: close to the water-side stood one much longer than any of the rest, which seemed to be a kind of common-hall, or council-house, and was neatly built and thatched. This was the building in which our people had been received who were on shore here with the Master, and they told me that both the sides and floor were lined with a kind of fine matting, and a great number of arrows, made up into bundles, were hung up in it ready for use. They told me also, that at this place there were many gardens, or plantations, which were enclosed by a fence of stone, and planted with cocoa-nut trees, bananas, plantains, yams, and other vegetables: the cocoa-nut trees we saw from the ship, in great numbers, among the houses of the village. About three miles to the westward of this town, we saw another of considerable extent, in the front of which, next to the water-side, there was a breast-work of stone, about four feet six inches high, not in a strait line, but in angles, like a fortification; and there is great reason to suppose, from the weapons of these people, and their military courage, which must in great measure be the effect of habit, that they have frequent wars among themselves. As we proceeded westward from this place, we found, at the distance of two or three miles, a small bight, forming a kind of bay, in which a river empties itself. Upon taking a view of this river from the mast-head, it appeared to run very far into the country,

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Monday 17.

and at the entrance, at least, to be navigable for small vessels. This river we called GRANVILLE'S RIVER, and to the westward of it is a point, to which we gave the name of FERRERS'S POINT. From this point the land forms a large bay, and near it is a town of great extent, which seemed to swarm like a bee-hive: an incredible multitude came out of it as the ship passed by, holding something in their hands which looked like a whisp of green grass, with which they seemed to stroke each other, at the same time dancing, or running in a ring. About seven miles to the westward of Point Ferrers, is another, that was called CARTERET POINT, from which a reef of rocks, that appears above water, runs out to the distance of about a cable's length. Upon this point we saw a large canoe, with an awning or shade built over it; and a little to the westward, another large town, fronted, and probably surrounded, with a breast-work of stone like the last: here also the people thronged to the beach as the ship was passing, and performed the same kind of circular dance. After a little time they launched several canoes, and made towards us; upon which we lay to, that they might have time to come up, and we conceived great hopes that we should prevail upon them to come on board, but when they came near enough to have a more distinct view of us, they lay upon their paddles and gazed at us, but seemed to have no design of advancing farther, and therefore we made sail, and left them behind us. About half a mile from Carteret Point, we had sixty fathom, with a bottom of sand and coral. From this point the land trends away W. S. W. and S. W. forming a deep lagoon, at the mouth of which lies an island, that with the main forms two entrances into it: the island we called TREVANION'S ISLAND. This entrance is about two miles wide, and the lagoon, if there is anchorage in it, is certainly a fine harbour for ship-

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1767. August.

Monday 17.

ping. After crossing the first entrance, and coming off the north west part of Trevanion's Island, which we called CAPE TREVANION, we saw a great rippling, and therefore sent the boat off to sound; we had, however, no bottom with fifty fathom, the rippling being caused only by the meeting of the tides. Having hauled round this Cape, we found the land trend to the southward, and we continued to stand along the shore, till we opened the western passage into the lagoon between Trevanion's Island and the main. In this place, both the main and the island appeared to be one continued town, and the inhabitants were innumerable. We sent a boat to examine this entrance or passage, and found the bottom to be coral and rock, with very irregular soundings over it. As soon as the natives saw the boat leave the ship, they sent off several armed canoes to attack her: the first that came within bow-shot discharged her arrows at the people on board, who being ready, fired a volley, by which one of the Indians was killed, and another wounded; at the same time we fired a great gun from the ship, loaded with grape-shot, among them, upon which they all pulled back to the shore with great precipitation, except the canoe which began the attack, and that being secured by the boat's crew, with the wounded man in her, was brought to the ship. I immediately ordered the Indian to be taken on board, and the Surgeon to examine his wounds: it appeared that one shot had gone through his head, and that his arm was broken by another: the Surgeon was of opinion that the wound in his head was mortal, I therefore ordered him to be put again into his canoe, and, notwithstanding his condition, he paddled away towards the shore. He was a young man, with a woolly head, like that of the negroes, and a small beard, but he was well-featured, and not so black as the natives of Guinea: he was of the common stature, and,

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1767. August.

Monday 17.

like all the rest of the people whom we had seen upon this island, quite naked. His canoe was very small, and of rude workmanship, being nothing more than part of the trunk of a tree made hollow; it had, however, an outrigger, but none of them had sails.

We found this place to be the western extremity of the island on the north side, and that it lay in exactly the same latitude as the eastern extremity on the same side. The distance between them is about fifty miles due east and west, and a strong current sets westward along the shore.

I was still confined to my bed, and it was with infinite regret that I gave up the hopes of obtaining refreshments at this place, especially as our people told me they saw hogs and poultry in great plenty as we sailed along the shore, with cocoa-nut trees, plantains, bananas, and a variety of other vegetable productions, which would soon have restored to us the health and vigour we had lost, by the fatigue and hardships of a long voyage; but no friendly intercourse with the natives could now be expected, and I was not in a situation to obtain what I wanted by force. I was myself dangerously ill, great part of my crew, as I have already observed, was disabled, and the rest dispirited by disappointment and vexation, and if the men had been all in health and spirits, I had not officers to lead them on or direct them in any enterprize, nor even to superintend the duties that were to be performed on board the ship. These disadvantages, which prevented my obtaining refreshments at this island, prevented me also from examining the rest that were near it. Our little strength was every minute becoming less; I was not in a condition to pursue the voyage to the southward, and was in danger of losing the monsoon, so that no time was now to be lost; I therefore gave orders to

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1767. August.

Monday 17.

steer northward, hoping to refresh at the country which Dampier has called Nova Britannia. I shall, however, give the best account I can of the appearance and situation of the islands that I left behind me.

I gave the general name of QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S ISLANDS to the whole cluster, as well to those that I did not see distinctly, as to those that I did; and I gave several of them particular names as I approached them.

Lord How's Island.

Volcano Island.

Keppel's Island.

Lord Edgcomb's Island.

Ourry's Island.

To the southermost of the two, which when we first discovered land were right ahead, I gave the name of LORD How's ISLAND, and the other was Egmont Island, of which some account has already been given. The latitude of Lord How's Island is 11° 10′S., longitude 164° 43′E.: the latitude of Cape Byron, the north east point of Egmont island, is 10° 40′S., longitude 164° 49′E. The east sides of these two islands, which lie exactly in a line with each other, about N. by W. and S. by E. including the passage between them, extend about eleven leagues, and the passage is about four miles broad; both of them appear to be fertile, and have a pleasant appearance, being covered with tall trees, of a beautiful verdure. Lord How's Island, though more flat and even than the other, is notwithstanding high land. About thirteen leagues W. N. W. ½ N. by compass, from Cape Byron, there is an island of a stupendous height, and a conical figure. The top of it is shaped like a funnel, from which we saw smoke issue, though no flame; it is, however, certainly a volcano, and therefore I called it VOLCANO ISLAND. To a long slat island that, when How's and Egmont's Islands were right ahead, bore N. W. I gave the name of KEPPEL'S ISLAND. It lies in latitude 10° 15′S., longitude, by account, 165° 4′E. The largest of two others to the S. E. I called LORD EDGCOMB'S ISLAND, the small one I called OURRY'S

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1767. August.

ISLAND. Edgcomb's Island has a fine pleasant appearance, and lies in latitude 11° 10′S., longitude 165° 14′E. The latitude of Ourry's Island is 11° 10′S., longitude 165° 19′E. The other islands, of which there were several, I did not particularly name.

The inhabitants of Egmont Island, whose persons have been described already, are extremely nimble, vigorous, and active, and seem to be almost as well qualified to live in the water as upon the land, for they were in and out of their canoes almost every minute. The canoes that came out against us from the west end of the island, were all like that which our people brought on board, and might probably, upon occasion, carry about a dozen men, though three or four manage them with amazing dexterity: we saw, however, others of a large size upon the beach, with awnings or shades over them.

We got two of their bows, and a bundle of their arrows, from the canoe that was taken with the wounded man; and with these weapons they do execution at an incredible distance. One of them went through the boat's washboard, and dangerously wounded a midshipman in the thigh. Their arrows were pointed with flint, and we saw among them no appearance of any metal. The country in general is woody and mountainous, with many vallies intermixed; several small rivers slow from the interior part of the country into the sea, and there are many harbours upon the coast. The variation here was about 11° 15′E.

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CHAP. V.

Departure from Egmont Island, and Passage to Nova Britannia; with a Description of several other Islands, and their Inhabitants.

1767. August.

Tuesday 18.

WE made sail from this island in the evening of Tuesday the 18th of August, with a fresh trade-wind from the eastward, and a few squalls at times. At first we only hauled up W. N. W. for I was not without hope of falling in with some other islands, where we might be more fortunate than we had been at those we left, before we got the length of Nova Britannia.

Thursday 20.

Gower's Island.

Friday 21.

Simpson's Island.

On the 20th, we discovered a small, flat, low island, and got up with it in the evening: it lies in latitude 7° 56′S., longitude 158° 56′E. and I gave it the name of GOWER'S ISLAND. To our great mortification we found no anchorage here, and could procure only a few cocoa-nuts from the inhabitants, who were much the same kind of people that we had seen at Isle Egmont, in exchange for nails, and such trifles as we had; they promised, by signs, to bring us more the next day, and we kept off and on all night: the night was extremely dark, and the next morning, at day-break, we found that a current had set us considerably to the southward of the island, and brought us within sight of two more. They were situated nearly east and west of each other, and were distant about two miles. That to the castward is much the smallest, and this we called SIMPSON'S ISLAND: to the other, which is lofty, and has a stately appearance, we gave

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1767. August.

Thursday 20.

Carteret's Island.

the name of CARTERET'S ISLAND. The east end of it bears about south from Gower's Island, and the distance between them is about ten or eleven leagues. Carteret's Island lies in about the latitude 8° 26′S., longitude 159° 14′E. and its length from east to west is about six leagues: we found the variation here 8° 30′E. Both these islands were right to windward of us, and we bore down to Gower's Island. It is about two leagues and a half long on the western side, which makes in bays: the whole is well wooded, and many of the trees are cocoa-nut. We found here a considerable number of the Indians, with two boats or canoes, which we supposed to belong to Carteret's Island, and to have brought the people hither only to fish. We sent the boat on shore, which the natives endeavoured to cut off, and hostilities being thus commenced, we seized their canoe, in which we found about an hundred cocoa-nuts, which were very acceptable; we saw some turtle near the beach, but were not fortunate enough to take any of them. The canoe, or boat, was large enough to carry eight or ten men, and was very neatly built, with planks well jointed: it was adorned with shell-work, and figures rudely painted, and the seams were covered with a substance somewhat like our black putty, but it appeared to me to be of a better consistence. The people were armed with bows, arrows, and spears; the spears and arrows were pointed with flint. By some signs which they made, pointing to our muskets, we imagined they were not wholly unacquainted with fire-arms. They are much the same kind of people as we had seen at Egmont Island, and like them, were quite naked; but their canoes were of a very different structure, and a much larger size, though we did not discover that any of them had sails. The cocoa-nuts which we got here, and at Egmont Island, were of infinite advantage to the sick.

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1767. August.

From the time of our leaving Egmont Island, we had observed a current setting strongly to the southward, and in the neighbourhood of these islands we found its force greatly increased: this determined me, when I sailed from Gower's Island, to steer N. W. fearing we might otherwise fall in with the main land too far to the southward; for if we had got into any gulph or deep bay, our crew was so sickly, and our ship so bad, that it would have been impossible for us to have got out again.

Saturday 22.

About eight o'clock in the morning of the 22d, as we were continuing our course with a fine fresh gale, Patrick Dwyer, one of the marines, who was doing something over the ship's quarter, by some accident missed his hold and fell into the sea; we instantly threw overboard the canoe which we had seized at Gower's island, brought the ship to, and hoisted out the cutter with all possible expedition, but the poor fellow, though remarkably strong and healthy, sunk at once, and we saw him no more. We took the canoe on board again, but she had received so much damage by striking against one of the guns, as the people were hoisting her overboard, that we were obliged to cut her up.

Monday 24.

In the night of Monday the 24th, we fell in with nine islands; they stretch nearly N. W. by W. and S. E. by E. about fifteen leagues, and lie in latitude 4° 36′S., longitude 154° 17′E. according to the ship's account. I imagine these to be the islands which are called Ohang Java, and were discovered by Tasman; for the situation answers very nearly to their place in the French chart, which in the year 1756 was corrected for the King's ships. The other islands, Carteret's, Gower's, and Simpson's, I believe had never been seen by an European navigator before. There is certainly much land in this part of the ocean not yet known.

I

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1767. August.

Monday 24.

One of these islands is of considerable extent, the other eight are scarcely better than large rocks; but though they are low and flat, they are well covered with wood, and abound with inhabitants. The people are black, and woolly-headed, like the Negroes of Africa: their weapons are bows and arrows; and they have large canoes which they navigate with a sail, one of which came near us, but would not venture on board.

Sir Charles Hardy's Island.

We went to the northward of these islands, and steered W. by S. with a strong south westerly current. At eleven o'clock at night, we fell in with another island of a considerable extent, flat, green, and of a pleasant appearance; we saw none of its inhabitants, but it appeared by the many fires which we saw in the night to be well peopled. It lies in latitude 4° 50′S. and bears west fifteen leagues from the northermost of the Nine Islands, and we called it SIR CHARLES HARDY'S ISLAND.

Tuesday 25.

Winchelsea's Island.

At day-break the next morning, we discovered another large high island, which, rising in three considerable hills, had, at a distance, the appearance of three islands. We gave it the name of WINCHELSEA'S ISLAND; it is distant from Sir Charles Hardy's Island about ten leagues, in the direction of S. by E. We had here the wind squally, with unsettled weather, and a very strong westerly current.

Wednes. 26.

Thursday 27.

About ten o'clock in the morning of the 26th, we saw another large island to the northward, which I supposed to be the same that was discovered by Schouten, and called the island of Saint John. Soon after we saw high land to the westward, which proved to be Nova Britannia, and as we approached it we found a very strong S. S. westerly current, setting at the rate of no less than thirty-two miles a day. The next day, having only light winds, a north westerly

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1767. August.

Thursday 27.

current set us into a deep bay or gulph, which proved to be that which Dampier has distinguished by the name of Saint George's Bay.

Friday 28.

Wallis's Island.

Saturday 29.

On the 28th, we anchored in a bay near a little island at the distance of about three leagues to the N. W. of Cape Saint George, which was called WALLIS'S ISLAND. I found the latitude of this Cape to be about 5° S. and its longitude by account 152° 19′E. which is about two thousand five hundred leagues due west from the Continent of America, and about one degree and an half more to the eastward than its place in the French chart which has been just mentioned. In the afternoon I sent the cutter to examine the coast, and the other boat to get some cocoa-nuts, and hawl the seine. The people in this boat caught no fish, but they brought on board about an hundred and fifty cocoa-nuts, which were distributed to the men at the surgeon's discretion. We had seen some turtle as we were coming into the bay, and hoping that some of them might repair to the island in the night, especially as it was sandy, barren, and uninhabited, like the places these animals most frequent, I sent a few men on shore to watch for them, but they returned in the morning without success.

We anchored here only to wait till the boats could find a fit place for our purpose, and several very good harbours being discovered not far distant, we now endeavoured to weigh anchor, but, with the united strength of our whole company, were not able: this was an alarming proof of our debility, and with heavy hearts we had recourse to an additional purchase; with this assistance, and our utmost efforts, we got the anchor just clear of the bottom, but the ship casting in shore, it almost immediately hooked again in foul ground. Our task was now to begin again, and though all

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[page] 589

1767. August.

Saturday 29.

Sunday 30.

hands that were able to move applied their utmost force, the whole remaining part of the day, with the greatest purchase we could make, we were not able to stir it: we were very unwilling to cut the cable, for though it was much worn, we could at this time ill sustain the loss of it, as we intended to make small cord, which we much wanted, of the best part of it. We therefore, with whatever reluctance, desisted for the night, and the next day, having a little recruited our strength, we were more successful; we got the anchor up, but we found it so much injured as to be wholly unserviceable, the palm being broken.

From this place we failed to a little cove about three or four miles distant, to which we gave the name of ENGLISH COVE: here we anchored, and immediately began to get wood and water, which we found in great plenty, besides ballaft; I also sent the boat out every day to different places with the seine, but though there was plenty of fish, we were able to catch very little; a misfortune which was probably owing in part to the clearness of the water, in part to the rockiness of the beach, and perhaps in some degree also to our want of skill: we plied this labour day and night, notwithstanding the want of success, and at the same time had recourse to the hook and line, but to our great mortification not a single fish would take the bait. We saw a few turtle, but they were so shy that we could not catch one of them; here therefore we were condemned to the curse of Tantalus, perpetually in the sight of what our appetites most importunately craved, and perpetually disappointed in our attempts to reach it. We got, however, from the rocks at low water, a few rock oysters, and cockles of a very large size; and from the shore some cocoa-nuts, and the upper part of the tree that bears them, which is called the cabbage: this cab-

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1767. August.

bage is a white, crisp, juicy substance, which, eaten raw, tastes somewhat like a chesnut, but when boiled is superior to the best parsnip; we cut it small into the broth that we made of our portable soup, which was afterwards thickened with oatmeal, and made a most comfortable mess: for each of these cabbages however we were forced to cut down a tree, and it was with great regret that we destroyed, in the parent stock, so much fruit, which perhaps is the most powerful antiscorbutic in the world; but necessity has no law. This supply of fresh vegetables, and especially the milk, or rather the water of the nut, recovered our sick very fast. They also received great benefit and pleasure from the fruit of a tall tree, that resembles a plum, and particularly that which in the West Indies is called the Jamaica plum; our men gave it the same name; it has a pleasant tartish taste, but is a little woody probably only for want of culture: these plums were not plenty, so that having the two qualities of a dainty, scarcity and excellence, it is no wonder that they were held in the highest estimation.

The shore about this place is rocky, and the country high and mountainous, but covered with trees of various kinds, some of which are of an enormous growth, and probably would be useful for many purposes. Among others, we found the nutmeg tree in great plenty, and I gathered a few of the nuts, but they were not ripe: they did not indeed appear to be the best fort, but perhaps that is owing partly to their growing wild, and partly to their being too much in the shade of taller trees. The cocoa-nut tree is in great perfection, but does not abound. Here are, I believe, all the different kinds of palm, with the beetle-nut tree, various species of the aloe, canes, bamboos, and rattans, with many trees, shrubs and plants altogether unknown to me; but no

[page] 591

1767. August.

esculent vegetable of any kind. The woods abound with pigeons, doves, rooks, parrots, and a large bird with black plumage, that makes a noise somewhat like the barking of a dog; with many others which I can neither name nor describe. Our people saw no quadruped but two of a small size that they took for dogs; the carpenter and another man got a transient glimpse of them in the woods as they were cutting spars for the ship's use, and said that they were very wild, and ran away the moment they saw them with great swiftness. We saw centipieds, scorpions, and a few serpents of different kinds; but no inhabitants. We fell in however with several deserted habitations, and by the shells that were scattered about them, and seemed not long to have been taken out of the water, and some sticks half burnt, the remains of a fire, there is reason to conclude that the people had but just left the place when we arrived. If we may judge of the people by that which had been their dwelling, they must stand low even in the scale of savage life; for it was the most miserable hovel we had ever seen.

While we lay here, having cleared and lightened the ship, we heeled her so as to come at her leak, which the carpenter stopped as well as he could; we found the sheathing greatly decayed, and the bottom much eaten by the worms, but we payed it as far as we could get at it with a mixture of hot pitch and tar boiled together. The carpenter also cut down many spars, for studding-sail booms, having but few left of those which he had brought from England.

English Cove lies N. E. ½ N. three or four miles from Wallis's Island; there is a small shoal on the starboard hand going in, which will be easily seen by the sea's breaking upon it. The water ebbs and flows once in four and twenty hours; the flood came in about nine or ten o'clock, and it

[page] 592

1767. August.

was high water between three and four in the afternoon, after which it ebbed all night, and was low water about six in the morning. The water rises and falls between eight or nine feet, sometimes more, sometimes less; but I doubt whether this fluctuation is not rather the effect of the sea and land breeze, than of a regular tide. We anchored here with our best bower in twenty-seven fathom water, with a bottom of sand and mud; we veered into the cove a cable and a half from the anchor, moored head and stern with the stream anchor, and steadied with hawsers on each bow; the ship then lay in ten fathom, at the distance of a cable's length from the shore at the bottom of the Cove, Wallis's Point bearing S. W. ½ S. distant about three or four miles. At this place there is plenty of excellent wood and water, and good shingle ballast. The variation was 6° ½ E.

September.

Monday 7.

On Monday the 7th of September, I weighed anchor, but before I sailed, I took possession of this country, with all its islands, bays, ports, and harbours, for his Majesty George the Third, King of Great Britain; and we nailed upon a high tree a piece of board, faced with lead, on which was engraved the English Union, with the name of the ship, and her Commander, the name of the Cove, and the time of her coming in and sailing out of it. While we lay here, I sent the boat out to examine the harbours upon the coast, from one of which expeditions she returned with a load of cocoa-nuts, which she procured in a fine little harbour, about four leagues W. N. W. from the station we were in. The officer on board reported that the trees grew where he had gathered the fruit in great plenty; but as he had observed that several of them were marked, and that there were many huts of the natives near them, I did not think it proper that the boat should return: but the refreshment which now offered

[page] 593

1767. September.

Monday 7.

Wednes. 9.

was of such importance to the sick, that I determined to go into the harbour with the ship, and place her so as to protect the men who should be employed to fell the trees, and cut off the cabbages and the fruit. We failed from English Cove with the land breeze early in the morning, and in the evening secured the ship abreast of the grove, where the cocoa-nuts had been gathered, and at very little distance from the shore. Here we procured above a thousand cocoa-nuts, and as many of the cabbages as we could use while they were good, and I would have staid long enough to have given my people all the refreshments they wanted, but the season of the year made the shortest delay dangerous. There was too much reason to suppose that the lives of all on board depended upon our getting to Batavia while the monsoon continued to blow from the eastward; there was indeed time enough for any other ship to have gone three times the distance, but I knew it was scarcely sufficient for the Swallow in her present condition; and that if we should be obliged to continue here another season, it would probably become impossible to navigate her at all, especially as she had but a single sheathing, and her bottom was not silled with nails, so that the worms would have eaten through it; besides that our provision would long before that time have been totally exhausted. I therefore weighed anchor and quitted this station, which was much the best that had been our lot during the whole run from the Streight of Magellan, on the 9th in the morning, at break of day, with a light breeze from the land.

Cocoa-nut Island.

To this place we gave the name of CARTERET'S HARBOUR; it is about W. N. W. four leagues from English Cove, and formed by two islands and the main; the largest, which is to the N.W. we called COCOA-NUT ISLAND, and the other,

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1767. September.

Wednes. 9.

Leigh's Island.

which is to the S.E. we called LEIGH'S ISLAND. Between these two islands there is shoal water, and each of them forms an entrance into the harbour; the south east or weather entrance is formed by Leigh's Island, and in this there is a rock that appears above water, to which we gave the name of BOOBY ROCK; the passage is between the rock and the island, nor is the rock dangerous, there being deep water close to it. The north west, or lee entrance, is formed by Cocoa-nut Island, and this is the best, because there is good anchorage in it, the water in the other being too deep: we entered the harbour by the south east passage, and went out of it by the north west. At the south east end of the harbour there is a large cove, which is secure from all winds, and sit to haul a ship into. Into this cove a river seemed to empty itself, but our boats did not examine it. In the north west part of the harbour there is another cove, which our boat did examine, and from which she brought us very good water: this also is fit for a ship to haul into, and very convenient for wooding and watering: she may lie in any depth from thirty to five fathom, and at any distance from the shore, with a bottom of soft mud. The harbour runs about S. E. by S. and N. W. by N. and is about three miles long, and four cables' length broad. We anchored in thirty fathom, near the north west entrance, and abreast of the trees on Cocoa-nut Island.

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[page] 595

CHAP. VI.

Discovery of a Streight dividing the Land called Nova Britannia into two Islands, with a Description of several small Islands that lie in the Passage, and the Land on each Side, with the Inhabitants.

1767. September.

Wednes. 9.

WHEN we got about four leagues off the land, after leaving this harbour, we met with a strong gale at E. S. E. a direction just contrary to that which would have favoured our getting round the land, and doubling Cape Saint Maria. We found at the same time a strong current, setting us to the N. W. into a deep bay or gulph, which Dampier calls Saint George's Bay, and which lies between Cape Saint George and Cape Orford. As it was impossible to get round the land, against both the wind and current, and follow the track of Dampier, I was under the necessity of attempting a passage to the westward by this gulph, and the current gave me hopes that I should succeed. When I had got, therefore, about five miles to the south west of Cocoa-nut Island, I steered to the N. W. and the N. N. W. as the land trends, and had soon good reason to believe that what has been called Saint George's Bay, and thought to be formed by two points of the same island, was indeed a channel between two islands, and so the event proved it to be.

Before it was dark, we found this channel divided by a pretty large island which I called the DUKE OF YORK'S ISLAND,

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1767. September.

Wednes. 9.

Isle of Man.

and some smaller islands that were scattered about it. On the southermost side of the main, or the largest of the two islands that are divided by the channel or streight, which I left in possession of its ancient name, New Britain, there is some high land, and three remarkable hills close to each other, which I called the MOTHER AND DAUGHTERS. The Mother is the middlemost and largest, and behind them we saw a vast column of smoke, so that probably one of them is a volcano: they are easily seen in clear weather at the distance of twenty leagues, and will then, by those who do not know them, be taken for islands: they seem to lie far inland, and the Mother bears about west from the Duke of York's Island. To the east of these hills there is a point making like a cape land, which I called CAPE PALLISER; and another to the westward, which I called CAPE STEPHENS. Cape Stephens is the northermost part of New Britain. North of this Cape is an island, which I called the ISLE OF MAN. Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens bear about N.W. and S.E. of each other; and between them is a bay, the land of which near the water-side is low, pleasant, and level, and gradually rises, as it retires towards the Mother and Daughters, into very lofty hills, in general covered with vast woods, but having many clear spots like plantations intermixed. Upon this part of the country we saw many fires in the night, and have therefore reason to suppose that it is well inhabited. The Duke of York's Island lies between the two points, Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens. As it was not safe to attempt either of the passages into which the Streight was divided by this island in the dark, we brought to for the night, and kept sounding, but had no ground with one hundred and forty fathom. The Streight here, including the two passages, is about fifteen leagues broad. The land of the Duke of York's Island

[page] 597

1767. September.

Wednes. 9.

Thursday 10.

Friday 11.

St. George's Channel.

New Ireland.

is level, and has a delightful appearance: inland it is covered with lofty woods, and near the water-side are the houses of the natives, which stand not far from each other, among groves of cocoa-nut trees, so that the whole forms a prospect the most beautiful and romantic that can be imagined. We saw many of their canoes, which are very neatly made, and in the morning, soon after I made sail, some of them came off towards the ship; but as we had a fresh gale at that time, we could not stay for them. The latitude of this island is 4° 9′S., longitude 151° 20′E.; and it is five and twenty leagues distant from Cape George. As I coasted not New Britain, but the northermost coast of the Streight, I passed through the passage that is formed by that coast, and the corresponding side of the Duke of York's Island, which is about eight leagues broad, and may be considered as the First Narrow of the Streight; and then steering N. W. by W. all night, we found at day-break that we had lost fight of the southermost island, or New Britain, and having now ascertained the supposed bay to be a Streight, I called it SAINT GEORGE'S CHANNEL, and to the northern island I gave the name of NOVA HIBERNIA, or NEW IRELAND. The weather being hazey, with a strong gale and sudden gusts, I continued to steer along the coast of New Ireland at about the distance of six leagues from the shore, till I came off the west end of it, and then, altering our course, I steered W. N. W. I could plainly perceive, that we were set along the shore by a strong westerly current. At noon, we found by observation that we were much to the northward of the log; but as it was impossible the current could set due north, as that would be right against the land, I was obliged, for the correction of my account, to allow no less than four and twenty miles W. N. W. which is nearly as the land lies along the shore. At this time we had about half a point

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1767. September.

Friday 11.

Saturday 12.

Sandwich Island.

east variation; and at night we discovered a fine large island, forming a streight or passage with New Ireland. As it was very dark and squally, with rain, we brought to, not knowing to what danger the navigation of this streight might expose us. The night was tempestuous, with much thunder and lightning, but about two in the morning the weather cleared: the gusts settled into a light breeze, and the the moon shone very bright. At this time therefore we made sail again, and found a strong current setting us to the westward, through the passage of the Second Narrow, which is about five leagues wide. The island, which has a pleasant appearance, and is very populous, I called SANDWICH ISLAND, in honour of the Earl, now First Lord of the Admiralty: it is larger than the Duke of York's Island, and there seems to be some good bays and harbours upon the coast. On the north part of it there is a remarkable peak, like a sugar loaf; and opposite to it, upon the coast of New Ireland, there is just such another: they are distant about five leagues, in the direction of S. by E. ½ E. and N. by W. ½ W. All the while we lay to off this island, we heard an incessant noise in the night, like the beating of a drum: and being becalmed just as we got through the Streight, ten canoes put off from New Ireland, with about one hundred and fifty men on board, and rowed towards the ship; they came near enough to exchange some trifles with us, which were conveyed at the end of a long stick, but none of them would venture on board. They seemed to prefer such iron as we gave them to every thing else, though none of it was manufactured except nails; for, as I observed before, we had no cutlery ware on board. The canoes were very long and very narrow, with an outrigger, and some of them were very neatly made: one of them could not be less than ninety feet long, for it was very little shorter than the ship; it was,

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1767. September.

Saturday 12.

notwithstanding, formed of a single tree; it had some carved ornaments about it, and was rowed or paddled by three and thirty men: we saw no appearance of sails. The people are black, and woolly-headed, like Negroes, but have not the flat nose and thick lips; and we thought them much the same people as the inhabitants of Egmont's Island: like them, they were all stark naked, except a few ornaments made of shells upon their arms and legs. They had, however, adopted a practice without which none of our belles and beaus are supposed to be completely dreft, for the hair, or rather the wool upon their heads, was very abundantly powdered with white powder: the fashion of wearing powder, therefore, is probably of higher antiquity than it is generally supposed to be, as well as of more extensive influence; it is indeed carried farther among these people than among any of the inhabitants of Europe, for they powder not only their heads but their beards too. Their heads however were decorated with more showy ornaments, for I observed that most of them had, just above one ear, stuck a feather, which appeared to have been taken from the tail of the common dunghil cock; so that these gentlemen are not without poultry for their table. They were armed with spears, and long sticks or poles, like the quarter-staff; but we did not see any bows and arrows among them: possibly they might have them on board, and think proper to keep them out of sight. On my part, I kept every body at their quarters while they were hovering about the ship, and I observed that they had a very watchful eye upon our guns, as if they apprehended danger from them; so that possibly they are not wholly unacquainted with the effect of firearms. They had fishing nets with them, which as well as their cordage, seemed to be very well made. After they had

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1767. September.

Saturday 12.

been some time with us, a breeze sprung up, and they returned to the shore.

Cape Byron.

New Hanover.

Byron's Island.

The peak upon Sandwich Island lies in latitude 2° 53′S., longitude 149° 17′E. After the Indians had left us, we steered nearly west, and soon after saw a point of land, which proved to be the south west extremity of New Ireland, to which I gave the name of CAPE BYRON: it lies in latitude 2° 33′S., longitude 149° 2′E. Over-against the coast of New Ireland, to the westward of Cape Byron, lies a fine large island, to which I gave the name of NEW HANOVER. Between this island and New Ireland, there is a streight or passage, which turns away to the N. E. In this passage lie several small islands, upon one of which there is a remarkable peak: this island I called BYRON'S ISLAND, and the passage, or streight, I called BYRON'S STREIGHT. The land of New Hanover is high; it is finely covered with trees, among which are many plantations, and the whole has a most beautiful appearance. The south west point of it, which is a high bluff point, I called QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S FORELAND, in honour of her Majesty. This foreland, and the land about it, is remarkable for a great number of little hummocks or hills, but night coming on, with thick weather, hard squalls, and much rain, we could not see more of it distinctly enough to describe its appearance.

Sunday 13.

Duke of Portland's Islands.

We steered westward all night, and in the morning, the weather being still thick, our view of New Hanover was very imperfect; but we saw, about eight leagues to the westward of it, six or seven small islands, which I called the DUKE OF PORTLAND'S ISLANDS, two of which are pretty large. I now perceived by the swell of the sea that we were clear of all the land, and I found Saint George's Channel to

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1767. September.

Sunday 13.

be a much better and shorter passage, whether from the eastward or the westward, than round all the land and islands to the northward; the distress therefore which pushed me upon this discovery, may probably be, in its consequences, of great advantage to future navigators, especially as there can be no doubt but that refreshments of every kind may easily be procured from the natives who inhabit either of the coasts of the channel, or the islands that lie near them, for beads, ribands, looking-glasses, and especially iron tools and cutlery-ware, of which they are immoderately fond, and with which, to our great misfortune, we were not furnished.

Queen Charlotte's Foreland, the south west part of New Hanover, lies in latitude 2° 29′S., longitude 148° 27′E.; and the middle of Portland's Islands in latitude 2° 27′S., longitude 148° 3′E. The length of this streight or channel, from Cape Saint George to Cape Byron, the south west extremity of New Ireland, is above eighty leagues; the distance from Cape Byron to Queen Charlotte's Foreland is about twelve leagues, and from the Foreland to Portland's Islands about eight leagues; so that the whole length of Saint George's Channel is about one hundred leagues, or three hundred miles.

Though we cleared the Streight in the morning of Sunday the 13th of September, we had no observation of the sun till the 15th, which I could not but greatly regret, as it prevented my being so exact in my latitude and longitude as might be expected. The description also of the country, its productions and people, would have been much more full and circumstantial, if I had not been so much infeebled and dispirited by sickness, as almost to sink under the duty that for want of officers devolved upon me, being obliged, when I was scarcely able to crawl, to keep watch and watch, and

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Sunday 13.

share other duties with my Lieutenant, whose health also was greatly impaired.

CHAP. VII.

The Passage from Saint George's Channel to the Island of Mindanao, with an Account of many Islands that were seen, and Incidents that happened by the Way.

Tuesday 15.

AS soon as we had cleared Saint George's Channel, we steered westward, and the next day we discovered land bearing W. N. W. and hauled up for it; it proved to be an island of considerable extent, and soon afterwards we saw another to the north east of it, but this appeared to be little more than a large rock above water. As I had here strong currents, and for several days had not been able to get an observation of the sun, I cannot so exactly ascertain the situation of these islands as I might otherwise have done. As we proceeded to the westward, we discovered more land, consisting of many islands lying to the southward of the large one which we had first discovered. As the nights were now moonlight, we kept on till eleven o'clock, and the Lieutenant, who was then officer of the watch, finding that the course we were steering would carry us among them, and not being willing to awaken me till it was my turn to watch, hauled off S. by E. and S. S. E. I came upon deck about midnight, and at one in the morning, perceiving that we were clear of them, I bore away again to the westward with an easy sail: the islands, however, were not far distant, and about six o'clock, a considerable number of canoes, with several hundred people on board, came off, and paddled

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Tuesday 15.

toward the ship: one of them, with seven men on board, came near enough to hail us, and made us several signs which we could not perfectly understand, but repeated, as near as we could, to shew that whatever they meant to us we meant to them; however, the better to bespeak their good-will, and invite them on board, we held up to them several of the few trifles we had: upon this they drew nearer to the ship, and I flattered myself that they were coming on board; but on the contrary, as soon as they came within reach of us they threw their lances, with great force, where we stood thickest upon the deck. As I thought it better to prevent than to repress a general attack, in which, as the number would be more, the mischief would be greater, and having now no doubt of their hostile intentions, I fired some muskets, and one of the swivel guns, upon which, some of them being killed or wounded, they rowed off and joined the other canoes, of which there were twelve or fourteen, with several hundred men on board. I then brought to, waiting for the issue, and had the satisfaction to see, that, after having long consulted together, they made for the shore: that I might still farther intimidate them, and more effectually prevent their return, I fired a round shot from one of my six-pounders, so as to fall into the water beyond them: this seemed to have a good effect, for they not only used their paddles more nimbly, but hoisted sail, still standing towards the shore. Soon after, however, several more canoes put off from another part of the island, and came towards us very fast: they stopped at about the same distance as the other had done, and one of them also in the same manner came forward: to the people on board this vessel we made all the signs of friendship we could devise, shewing them every thing we had which we thought would please them, opening our arms, and inviting them on board: but

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our rhetoric was to no effect, for as soon as they came within a east of the ship, they poured in a shower of darts and lances, which, however, did us no harm. We returned the assault by firing some muskets, and one man being killed, the rest precipitately leaped into the sea, and swimming to the others, who waited at a distance, all returned together from whence they came. As soon as the canoe was deserted, we got out our boat and brought it on board: it was full fifty feet long, though one of the smallest that came against us; it was very rudely made out of one tree, but had an outrigger. We found in it fix fine fish, and a turtle, some yams, one cocoa-nut, and a bag full of a small kind of apple or plum, of a sweetish taste and farinaceous substance; it had a flattish kernel, and was wholly different from every thing we have seen either before or since: it was eatable raw, but much better boiled, or roasted in the embers: we found also two large earthen pots, shaped somewhat like a jug, with a wide mouth, but without handles, and a considerable quantity of matting, which these people use both for sails and awning, spreading it over bent sticks, much in the same manner as the tilts of the London wherries. From the contents of this vessel we judged that it had been fishing, and we observed that the people had a fire on board, with one of their pots on it, in which they were boiling their provision. When we had satisfied our curiosity by examining it, we cut it up for fire-wood.

These Indians were the same kind of people that we had seen before on the coast of New Ireland, and at Egmont Island: they were of a very dark copper colour, nearly black, with woolly heads. They chew beetle-nut, and go quite naked, except the rude ornaments of shells strung together, which they wear round their legs and arms: they were also pow-

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Tuesday 15.

dered like our last visitors, and had, besides, their faces painted with white streaks; but I did not observe that they had any beards. Their lances were pointed with a kind of bluish flint.

Admiralty Islands.

Having disengaged ourselves from this fierce and unfriendly people, we pursued our course along the other islands, which are between twenty and thirty in number, and of considerable extent; one in particular would alone make a large kingdom. I called them the ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, and should have been glad to have examined them, if my ship had been in a better condition, and I had been provided with such articles as are proper for an Indian trade, especially as their appearance is very inviting: they are clothed with the most beautiful verdure; the woods are lofty and luxuriant, interspersed with spots that have been cleared for plantations, groves of cocoa-nut trees, and houses of the natives, who seem to be very numerous. Nothing would be more easy than to establish an amicable intercourse with them, as they would soon be sensible that our superiority would render contest vain, and traffic advantageous. I judge the middle of the largest to lie in latitude 2° 18′S., longitude 146° 44′E. and at the distance of five and thirty leagues from Queen Charlotte's Foreland in New Hanover, in the direction of W. ½ N. On the south side of this island, there is a small one, which rises conically in a high peak. The latitude of this peak is 2° 27′S. and it lies five degrees and an half westward of Cape Saint George in New Ireland. As we ran along the south side of the large island, we found it to be eighteen leagues long, in the direction of east and west; how far it runs to the northward, I do not know, but by its appearance there is reason to suppose a very considerable distance. I think it probable, in the highest degree, that these islands produce many valuable

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Tuesday 15.

articles of trade, particularly spices, especially as they lie in the same climate and latitude as the Malaccas, and as I found the nutmeg-tree in a soil comparatively rocky and barren upon the coast of New Ireland.

Wednes. 16.

Having passed these islands, we continued our course W. by N. with a fine eastern breeze, and smooth water. On the 16th in the morning, we found the variation, by a medium of several azimuths, to be 6° 30′E, our latitude being 2° 19′S., and our longitude 145° 40′E. by observation. I was surprised to find the variation on this side the land of New Britain and New Ireland so much, as we had found it gradually decreasing during our progress to the N. W. but I recollected that about two years before I had found nearly the same variation in this meridian, about the island of Tinian.

Saturday 19.

Dorour's Island.

Matty's Island.

Tuesday 22.

On Saturday evening the 19th, we discovered two small islands, both low land, level, and green: one of them we saw only from the main-top-gallant-mast head; this I called DUROUR'S ISLAND. Its latitude is about 1° 14′or 16′S., its longitude 143° 21′E. The other island, which I called MATTY'S ISLAND, we coasted during the night, and saw the inhabitants, in great numbers, run along the beach, abreast of the ship, with lights: the side along which we sailed seemed to be about six miles in length, E. by N. and W. by S. As it was dark we could see no more of it, and having a fine breeze, which we could not afford to lose, we kept on. Its latitude is about 1° 45′S., and its longitude about 143° 2′E.: the variation here was 4° 40′E. and we found a strong north westerly current. We had now fresh gales and squalls, with rain, the wind blowing very unsteadily from E. S. E. to E. N. E. till the 22d, when it became variable. Our latitude was then 53′S., longitude 140° 5′E.; the variation was 4° 40′E.

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Thursday 24.

On the 24th, we saw two small islands to the south west, but it being calm, with light airs, and a strong westerly current, we could not get nearer to them than four or five leagues: they had a green, pleasant appearance, and were well covered with trees; but whether they are inhabited I do not know. They run about N.W. by W.S.E. by E. One is about three miles long, and the other about six: the passage between them appeared to be about two miles broad. They lie in latitude 22′S. longitude 138° 39′E. and I gave them the name of STEPHENS'S ISLANDS. We kept steering N.W. by W. with a light variable wind, and a strong north west current.

Friday 25.

On the 25th, we saw land ahead, which proved to be three small islands; and before it was dark, we got pretty near them. Several canoes soon came off, filled with the natives, who, after making signs of peace, came on board without the least appearance of fear or distrust: they had nothing with them but a few cocoa-nuts, which they sold with great joy for a few pieces of an iron hoop; we soon found that they were not unacquainted with that metal, which they called Parram, and they made us understand, by signs, that a ship like ours sometimes touched at their islands for refreshment. I gave one of them three pieces of an old iron hoop, each about four inches long, which threw him into an extasy little short of distraction: I could not but sympathize in his joy, nor observe, without great pleasure, the changes of countenance, and extravagance of gesture, by which it was expressed. All these people indeed appeared to be more fond of iron than any we had seen before, and I am sure, that for iron tools, we might have purchased every thing upon the islands which we could have brought away. They are of the Indian copper colour, the first of that com-

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Friday 25.

plexion that we had seen in these parts, with fine long black hair, and little beards, for we observed that they were continually plucking the hair from their chin and upper lip by the roots. Their features are pleasing, and their teeth remarkably white and even: they were of the common stature, but nimble, vigorous, and active in a surprising degree, running up to the mast-head much faster than our own people. Their disposition was free and open, they eat and drank whatever was given them, went without hesitation into every part of the ship, and were as familiar and merry with the crew as if they had been of long and intimate acquaintance. They were not, like the people on all the other islands that we had visited, quite naked, though they had only a slight covering for the waist, which consisted of a narrow piece of fine matting. Their canoes were very well and neatly made, having a hollow tree for the bottom, and planks for the sides, with a fail of fine matting, and an outrigger: their ropes and netting were also very good. They urged us strongly to go on shore, offering to leave an equal number of their own people behind, as a pledge of their safe return; and indeed I would gladly have consented if it had been in my power, but a strong westerly current hurried me to so great a distance, that I had no opportunity to seek for anchorage, and night coming on, we pursued our course. When our visitors perceived this, one of them insisted upon going with us, and, notwithstanding all that I and his companions could say or do, obstinately refused to go on shore. As I thought it possible that this man might be the means of our making some useful discovery, I did not put him ashore by force, but indulged him in his desire: we learnt from him that there were other islands to the northward, the inhabitants of which he said had iron, and always

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Friday 25.

Freewill Island.

killed his countrymen when they could catch them out at sea. It was with great concern that I perceived this poor fellow, whom I called Joseph Freewill, from his readiness to go with us, become gradually sickly after he had been some time at sea: he lived till I got to the island of Celebes, and there died. As the islands from which I had taken him were very small and low, the largest being not more than five miles in compass, I was surprised to fee with how many of the productions of Celebes he was acquainted; beside the cocoa-nut and palm, he knew the beetle-nut and the lime, and the moment he got a bread-fruit, he went to the fire and roasted it in the embers. He made us understand also, that in his country they had plenty of fish, and turtle in their season. It is however very probable, notwithstanding the number of people who subsist upon these islands, that they have no fresh water but what falls in rain: how they catch and preserve it, I had no opportunity to learn, but I never met with a spring in a spot so small and low, and in such a spot I believe no spring was ever found. The largest of these islands, which the natives call Pegan, and to which I gave the name of FREEWILL ISLAND, lies fifty minutes north of the line, and in 137° 51′east longitude. They are all surrounded by a reef of rocks. The chart of these islands I drew from the Indians' description, who delineated them with chalk upon the deck, and ascertained the depth of water by stretching his arms as a fathom.

I now steered N. W. by N. to get from under the sun, and had light winds at E. S. E. with which almost any ship but the Swallow would have made good way, but with every possible advantage she went at a heavy rate. We now found our variation begin again to decrease, as will appear by the following table:

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Friday 25.

Latitude. Longitude from Queen Charlotte's Fore-land. Variation.
40′S. 8° 36′W. 4° 40′E.
Upon the line. 9 40 W. 4 17 E.
30′N. 10 30 W. 3 10 E.
2° N. 11 40 W. 2 30 E.
2° 50′N. 12 10 W. 2 E.

Monday 28.

On the 28th, being in latitude 2° 53′N, longitude 136° 10′E. we fell in with a very dangerous shoal, which is about eleven or twelve miles in circuit, and surrounded with small stones that just shew themselves above water. We found here a strong northerly current, but could not determine whether it inclined to the east or west.

In the evening, we discovered from the mast-head another island to the southward of us: the east end of it seemed to rife in a peak, and had the appearance of a sail, but we did not go near enough to see any thing of it from the deck. I suppose its latitude to be about 2° 50′N., and its longitude, east of London, about 136° 10′E.

October.

Monday 5.

We continued to have a current to the northward, till Monday the 5th of October, when, being in latitude 4° 30′N. I found it southerly, and very strong. I had, among other deficiencies and misfortunes, no small boat on board, so that I could not try these currents, which I had a great desire to do; but I am of opinion, that when the current set southward it inclined to the east, and that when it set northward it inclined to the west.

Monday 12.

Current Island.

On Monday the 12th, we discovered a small island with trees upon it, though scarcely bigger than a rock, and I called it CURRENT ISLAND: It lies in latitude 4° 40′N., longitude 14° 24′W. of Queen Charlotte's Fore-land. The next day, we discovered two other small islands, which

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Monday 12.

Saint Andrew's Islands.

Tuesday 20.

I called SAINT ANDREW'S ISLANDS: they lie in latitude 5° 18′N, longitude 14° 47′W. of Queen Charlotte's Foreland. I called the small island Current island, because we had here a southerly current so strong that it set us from twenty-four to thirty miles southward every day, besides the difference it might make in our longitude. The wind was now variable, blowing by turns from every point in the compass, with much rain, and hard squalls. On Tuesday the 20th, being in latitude 8° N. it blew with such violence that we were obliged to lie to sixty-four hours. This gale, which made a very great sea, I supposed to be the shifting of the monsoon, and notwithstanding the southerly current, it drove us, while we lay to, as far as nine degrees northward.

CHAP. VIII.

Some Account of the Coast of Mindanao, and the Islands near it, in which several Mistakes of Dampier are corrected.

Monday 26.

Tuesday 27.

ON the 26th, we discovered land again, but not being able to make an observation, we could ascertain our latitude and longitude only by our dead reckoning; the next day, however, was more favourable, and I then found the effect of the current had been so great, that I was obliged to add to the log S. W. by S. no less than 64 miles for the last two days. We now knew that the land we had seen was the north east part of the island of Mindanao: as I had many sick people on board, and was in the most pressing need of re-

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Tuesday 27.

November.

Monday 2.

freshments, I determined to try what could be procured in a bay which Dampier has described as lying on the south east part of the island, and which, he says, furnished him with great plenty of deer from a savannah. I therefore coasted that side of the island, and that I might be sure not to miss the bay, I sent out the Lieutenant with the boat and a proper number of hands, to keep in shore ahead of the ship. No such bay however was to be found, but at the very southermost extremity of the island they opened a little nook at the bottom of which was a town, and a fort. As soon as our boat was discovered by the people on shore, they fired a great gun, and sent off three boats or canoes full of people. As the Lieutenant had not a sufficient force to oppose them, he immediately made towards the ship, and the canoes chaced him till they came within sight of her, and being then over-matched in their turn, they thought fit to go back. Being thus disappointed in my search of Dampier's Bay and Savannah, I would have anchored off this town, notwithstanding these hostile appearances, if it had not been necessary first to get up some guns from the hold, and make a few necessary repairs in the rigging; this however being the cafe, I ran a little to the eastward, where, on the 2d of November, I came to an anchor in a little bay, having a bottom of soft mud, and seven fathom of water, at the distance of a cable's length from the shore; the westermost point of the bay bore W.S.W. distant about three miles; the eastermost point E. by S. distant about one mile; a river, which empties itself into the bay, about N.W. and the peak of an island, called Hummock Island, S. 7° E. distant about five leagues. Before it was dark the same day, our two boats went to the river, and brought off their loads of water: they saw no signs of inhabitants where they were on shore, but we observed a canoe come round the westermost point of the

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Monday 2.

bay, which we supposed had been dispatched from the town, to learn what we were, or at least to see what we were doing. As soon as I discovered this canoe, I hoisted English colours, and was not without hope that she would come on board, but after viewing us some time, she returned. As we had seen no inhabitants, nor any signs of inhabitants, where we got our water, I intended to procure a further supply the next day from the same place, and endeavour also to recruit our wood; but about nine o'clock at night, we were suddenly surprised by a loud noise on that part of the shore which was abreast of the ship: it was made by a great number of human voices, and very much resembled the war-whoop of the American Savages, a hideous shout which they give at the moment of their attack, and in which all who have heard it agree there is something inexpressibly terrifying and horrid.

Tuesday 3.

As I was now farther convinced that it was necessary to dispose of our little force to the greatest advantage, we began the next day by getting the guns up from the hold, and making the necessary repairs to our rigging. At eleven o'clock, not having seen any thing of the people, who had endeavoured to terrify us by their yells in the night, I sent the longboat on shore for more water; but, as I thought it probable that they might have concealed themselves in the woods, I kept the cutter manned and armed, with the Lieutenant on board, that immediate succour might be sent to the waterers, if any danger should threaten them. It soon appeared that my conjectures were well founded, for our people had no sooner left their boat, than a number of armed men rushed out of the woods, one of whom held up somewhat white, which I took to be a signal of peace. Upon this occasion I was again sensible of the mortifying deficiency in the ship's equipment, which I had so often experi-

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Tuesday 3.

enced before. I had no white slag on board, and therefore, as the best expedient in my power, I ordered the Lieutenant, whom I sent on shore in the cutter, to display one of my table-cloths: as soon as the officer landed, the standard-bearer and another came down to him unarmed, and received him with great appearance of friendship. One of them addressed him in Dutch, which none of our people understood; he then spoke a few words in Spanish, in which one of the persons of the cutter was a considerable proficient: the Indian however spoke it so very imperfectly, that it was with great difficulty, and by the help of many signs, he made himself understood; possibly if any of our people had spoken Dutch, he might have been found equally deficient in that language. He asked for the Captain however by the name of the skipper, and enquired whether we were Hollanders; whether our ship was intended for merchandize or for war; how many guns and men she carried; and whether she had been, or was going to Batavia. When we had satisfied him in all these particulars, he said that we should go to the town, and that he would introduce us to the Governor, whom he distinguished by the title of Raja. The Lieutenant then told him, that we intended to go to the town, but that we were in immediate want of water, and therefore desired permission to sill some casks; he also requested that the people who were armed with bows and arrows might be ordered to a greater distance. With both these requisitions the Indian, who seemed to be invested with considerable authority, complied; and as he seemed to take particular notice of a silk handkerchief which the Lieutenant had tied round his neck, it was immediately presented to him; in return for which he desired him to accept a kind of cravat, made of coarse callico, which was tied round his own, his dress being somewhat

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Tuesday 3.

after the Dutch fashion. After this interchange of cravats, he enquired of the officer whether the ship was furnished with any articles for trade; to which he answered that she was sufficiently furnished to trade for provisions, but nothing more: the Chief replied, that whatever we wanted we should have. After this conference, which I considered as an earnest of every advantage which this place could assord us, the boats returned on board laden with water, and we went cheerfully on with our business on board the ship. In about two hours, however, we saw, with equal surprise and concern, many hundreds of armed men, posting themselves in parties at different places among the trees, upon the beach, abreast of the ship; their weapons were musquets, bows and arrows, long pikes or spears, broad swords, a kind of hanger called a cress, and targets: we observed also, that they hauled a canoe, which lay under a shed upon the beach, up into the woods. These were not friendly appearances, and they were succeeded by others that were still more hostile; for these people spent all the remainder of the day in entering and rushing out of the woods, as if they had been making sallies to attack an enemy; sometimes shooting their arrows, and throwing their lances into the water towards the ship; and sometimes lifting their targets, and brandishing their swords at us in a menacing manner. In the mean time we were not idle on board: we got up our guns, repaired our rigging, and put every thing in order before evening, and then, being ready to sail, I determined, if possible, to get another conference with the people on shore, and learn the reason of so sudden and unaccountable a change of behaviour. The Lieutenant therefore was again dispatched, and as a testimony that our disposition was still peaceable, the table-cloth was again displayed as a flag of truce. I had the precaution, however, to order the boat

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to a part of the beach which was clear of wood, that the people on board might not be liable to mischief from enemies whom they could not see; I also ordered that nobody should go on shore. When the Indians saw the boat come to the beach, and observed that nobody landed, one of them came out of the wood with a bow and arrows in his hand, and made signs for the boat to come to the place where he stood. This the officer very prudently declined, as he would then have been within bow-shot of an ambuscade, and after waiting some time, and finding that a conference could be procured upon no other terms, he returned back to the ship. It was certainly in my power to have destroyed many of these unfriendly people, by firing my great guns into the wood, but it would have answered no good purpose: we could not afterwards have procured wood and water here without risking the loss of our own people, and I still hoped that refreshment might be procured upon friendly terms at the town, which, now I was in a condition to defend myself against a sudden assault, I resolved to visit.

Wednes. 4.

The next morning therefore, as soon as it was light, I sailed from this place, which I called DECEITFUL BAY, with a light land breeze, and betweeen ten and eleven o'clock we got off the bay or nook, at the bottom of which our boats had discovered the town and fort. It happened however that just at this time the weather became thick, with heavy rain, and it began to blow hard from a quarter which made the land here a lee shore; this obliged me to stand off, and having no time to lose, I stood away to the westward that I might reach Batavia before the season was past.

I shall now give a more particular account of our navigating the sea that washes the coasts of this island, the rather as Dampier's description is in several particulars erroneous.

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1767. November.

Having seen the north east part of the island on the twenty-sixth of October, without certainly knowing whether it was Mindanao or Saint John's, we got nearer to it the next day, and made what we knew to be Saint Augustina, the south eastermost part of the island, which rises in little hummocks, that run down to a low point at the water's edge; it bears N. 40 E. at the distance of two and twenty leagues from a little island, which is distinguished from the other islands that lie off the southermost point of Mindanao by a hill or hummock, and which for that reason I called HUMMOCK ISLAND. All this land is very high, one ridge of mountains rising behind another, so that at a great distance it appears not like one island but several. After our first discovery of the island, we kept turning along the east side from the northward to Cape Saint Augustina, nearly S. by W. ½ W. and N. by E. ½ E. for about twenty leagues. The wind was to the southward along the shore, and as we approached the land, we stood in for an opening which had the appearance of a good bay, where we intended to anchor; but we found that it was too deep for our purpose, and that some shoals rendered the entrance of it dangerous. To this bay, which lies about eight or ten leagues N. by E. from Cape Saint Augustina, the south east extremity of the island, I gave the name of DISAPPOINTMENT BAY. When we were in the offing standing in for this Bay, we observed a large hummock, which had the appearance of an island, but which I believe to be a peninsula, joined by a low isthmus to the main; this hummock formed the northermost part of the entrance, and another high bluff point opposite to it formed the southermost part; between these two points are the shoals that have been mentioned; and several small islands, only one of which can be seen till they are approached very near. On this part of the

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coast we saw no signs of inhabitants; the land is of a stupendous height, with mountains piled upon mountains till the summits are hidden in the clouds: in the offing therefore it is almost impossible to estimate its distance, for what appear then to be small hillocks, just emerging from the water, in comparison of the mountains that are seen over them, swell into high hills as they are approached, and the distance is found to be thrice as much as it was imagined; perhaps this will account for the land here being so ill laid down, and in situations so very different as it appears to be in all our English charts. We found here a strong current setting to the southward along the shore, as the land trended. The high land that is to the north of Saint Augustina, becomes gradually lower towards the Cape, a low flat point in which it terminates, and off which, at a very little distance, lie two large rocks. Its latitude is 6° 15′N. and the longitude by account 127° 20′E.

From this Cape the land trends away W. and W. by S. for six or seven leagues, and then turns up to the N. W. making a very deep bay, the bottom of which, as we crossed it from Saint Augustina to the high land on the other side, which is not less than twelve leagues, we could not see. The coast on the farther side of it, coming up from the bottom, trend first to the S. and S. S. W. and then to the S. W. by W. towards the south extremity of the island.

Off this southern extremity, which Dampier calls the south east by mistake, the south east being Saint Augustina, at the distance of five, six, and seven leagues, lie ten or twelve islands, though Dampier says there are only two, and that together they are about five leagues round. The islands that I saw could not be contained in a circuit of less than fifteen leagues, and from the number of boats that I saw

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1767. November.

Hummock Island.

among them I imagine they are well inhabited. The largest of these lies to the S. W. of the others, and makes in a remarkable peak, so that it is first seen in coming in with the land, and is indeed visible at a very great distance. Its latitude I make 5° 24′N. and its longitude by account 126° 37′E. This island, which I called HUMMOCK ISLAND, bears from Saint Augustina S. 40 W. at the distance of between twenty and two and twenty leagues; and from the same Cape, the southermost part of the island Mindanao bears S. W. ¾ W. at the distance of between twenty-one and twenty-three leagues. This southermost extremity consists of three or four points, which bear east and west of each other for about seven miles. They lie in latitude 5° 34′N., longitude 126° 25′E. according to my account. The variation here was one point east.

I passed between these Islands and the main, and found the passage good, the current setting to the westward. Dampier has placed his Bay and Savannah four leagues N. W. from the eastermost island, and there I sought it, as indeed I did on all the S. E. part of the island till we came to the little creek which ran up to the town.

All the southern part of Mindanao is extremely pleasant, with many spots where the woods had been cleared for plantations, and fine lawns of a beautiful verdure: this part also is well inhabited, as well as the neighbouring islands. Of the town I can give no account, as the weather was so thick that I could not see it; neither could I sufficiently distinguish the land to set off the points, at which I was not a little mortified.

When I came to open the land to the westward of the southermost point, I found it trend from that point W. N. W. and N. W. by W. forming first a point at the distance of

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1767. November.

about seven or eight leagues, and then a very deep bay running so far in to the N. and N. E. that I could not see the bottom of it. The westermost point of this bay is low, but the land soon rises again, and runs along to the N. W. by W. which seems to be the direction of this coast, from the southermost point of the island towards the city of Mindanao.

To the westward of this deep bay, the land is all flat, and in comparison of the other parts of the island, but thinly wooded. Over this flat appears a peak of stupendous height, which rises into the clouds like a tower. Between the entrance of this bay and the south point of the island there is another very high hill, the top of which has the funnel shape of a volcano, but I did not perceive that it emitted either fire or smoke. It is possible that this deep bay is that which Dampier mentions, and that it is misplaced by an error of the press; for, if instead of saying it bore N. W. four leagues from the eastermost of the islands, he had said it bore N. W. fourteen leagues from the westermost of the islands, it would correspond well with his description, the bearings being the same, and the land on the east side of it high, and low on the west: he is also nearly right in the latitude of his islands, which he makes 5° 10′N.; for probably some parts of the southermost of them may lie in that latitude; but as I did not go to the southward of them, this is only conjecture.

Between Hummock Island, which is the largest and westermost of them, and the islands to the eastward of it, which are all slat and even, is a passage running north and south, which appears to be clear. The north eastermost of these islands is small, low, and flat, with a white sandy beach all round it, and a great many trees in the middle.

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1767. November.

East, or north east of this island, there are shoals and breakers; and I saw no other appearance of danger in these parts. Neither did I see any of the islands which are mentioned by Dampier, and laid down in all the charts, near Mindanao in the offing: perhaps they are at a more remote distance than is commonly supposed; for without great attention navigators will be much deceived in this particular by the height of the land, as I have observed already. As I coasted this island, I found the current set very strong to the southward along the shore, till I came to the south end of it, where I found it run N. W. and N. W. by W. which is nearly as the land trends. We had the winds commonly from S. W. to N. W. with light airs, frequent rain, and unsettled weather.

We now bid farewel to Mindanao greatly disappointed in our hope of obtaining refreshments, which at first the inhabitants so readily promised to furnish. We suspected that there were Dutchmen, or at least Dutch partisans in the town; and that, having discovered us to be English, they had dispatched an armed party to prevent our having any intercourse with the natives, who arrived about two hours after our friendly conference, and were the people that defied us from the shore.

[page] 622

CHAP. IX.

The Passage from Mindanao to the Island of Celebes, with a particular Account of the Streight of Macassar, in which many Errors are corrected.

1767. November.

Saturday 14.

AFTER leaving Mindanao, I stood to the westward for the passage between the islands of Borneo and Celebes, called the Streight of Macassar, and made it on Saturday the fourteenth. I observed, that during the whole of this run we had a strong north westerly current; but that while we were nearer to Mindanao than Celebes, it ran rather towards the north than the west; and that when we came nearer to Celebes than we were to Mindanao, it ran rather towards the west than the north. The land of Celebes on the north end runs along to the entrance of the passage, is very lofty, and seems to trend away about W. by S. to a remarkable point in the passage, which makes in a hummock, and which at first we took for an island. I believe it to be the same which in the French charts is called Stroomen Point, but I gave it the name of HUMMOCK POINT. Its latitude according to my account is 1° 20′N., longitude 121° 39′E.; and it is a good mark for those to know the passage that fall in with the land coming from the eastward, who, if possible, should always make this side of the passage. From Hummock Point the land trends more away to the southward, about S. W. by W. and to the southward of it there is a deep bay, full of islands and rocks, which appeared to me to be very dangerous. Just off the Point

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1767. November.

Saturday 14.

there are two rocks, which, though they are above water, cannot be seen from a ship till she is close to the land. To the eastward of this Point, close to the shore, are two islands, one of them very flat, long, and even, and the other swelling into a hill: both these islands, as well as the adjacent country, are well covered with trees: I stood close in a little to the eastward of them, and had no ground with an hundred fathom, within half a mile of the shore, which seemed to be rocky. A little to the westward of these islands, we saw no less than sixty boats, which were fishing on some shoals that lie between them and Hummock Point. This part of the shore appeared to be foul, and I think should not be approached without great caution. In this place I found the currents various and uncertain, sometimes setting to the southward, and sometimes to the northward, and sometimes there was no current at all; the weather also was very unsettled, and so was the wind; it blew, however, chiefly to the south and south west quarter, but we had sometimes sudden and violent gusts, and tornadoes from the N.W. with thunder, lightning, and rain: these generally lasted about an hour, when they were succeeded by a dead calm, and the wind would afterwards spring up fresh from the S.W. or S.S.W. which was right against us, and blow strong. From these appearances I conjectured that the shifting reason had commenced, and that the west monsoon would soon set in. The ship sailed so ill that we made very little way; we frequently founded in this passage, but could get no ground.

Saturday 21

On the 21st of November, as we were standing towards Borneo, we made two small islands, which I judged to be the same that in the French chart are called Taba Islands: they are very small, and covered with trees. By my account, they lie in latitude 1° 44′N., longitude 7° 32′W. of the south end of Mindanao, and are distant from Hummock,

[page] 624

1767. November.

Saturday 21.

Friday 27.

or Stroomen Point, about fifty-eight leagues. The weather was now hazy, but happening suddenly to clear up, we saw a shoal, with breakers, at the distance of about five or six miles, from the south to the north west. Off the north end of this shoal we saw four hummocks close together, which we took for small islands, and seven more from the S. ½ W. to the W. ½ S.: whether these are really islands, or some hills on the island of Borneo, I could not determine. This shoal is certainly very dangerous, but may be avoided by going to the westward of Taba Islands, where the passage is clear and broad. In the French chart of Monsieur D'Apres de Mandevillette, published in 1745, two shoals are laid down, to the eastward, and a little to the north of these islands: one of them is called Vanloorif, and the other, on which are placed two islands, Harings; but these shoals and islands have certainly no existence, as I turned through this part of the passage from side to side, and sailed over the very spot where they are supposed to lie. In the same chart seven small islands are also laid down within half a degree to the northward of the line, and exactly in the middle of the narrowest part of this passage; but neither have these islands any existence, except upon paper, though I believe there may be some small islands close to the main land of Borneo: we thought we had seen two, which we took to be those that are laid down in the charts off Porto Tubo, but of this I am not certain. The southermost and narrowest part of this passage is about eighteen or twenty leagues broad, with high lands on each side. We continued labouring in it till the 27th, before we crossed the line, so that we were a fortnight in sailing eight and twenty leagues, the distance from the north entrance of the streight, which we made on the 14th. After we got to the southward of the line, we found a flight current setting against us to the northward, which

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1767. November.

Friday 27.

December.

Thursday 3.

daily increased: the weather was still unsettled, with much wet: the winds were chiefly S. W. and W. S. W. and very seldom farther to the northward than W. N. W. except in the tornadoes, which grew more frequent and violent; and by them we got nothing but hard labour, as they obliged us to hand all our sails, which indeed with our utmost effort we were scarcely able to do, our debility daily increasing by the falling sick of the few that were well, or the death of some among the many that were sick. Under these circumstances we used our utmost endeavours to get hold of the land on the Borneo side, but were not able, and continued to struggle with our misfortunes till the 3d of December, when we fell in with the small islands and shoals called the Little Paternosters, the southermost of which, according to my account, lies in latitude 2° 31′S. and the northermost in 2° 15′S. the longitude of the northermost I made 117° 12′E.: they bear about S. E. ¼ S. and N. W. ¼ N. of each other, distant eight leagues, and between them are the others; the number of the whole is eight. They lie very near the Celebes side of the streight, and being unable either to weather them, or get to the westward of them, we were obliged to go between them and the island. We had here tempestuous weather and contrary winds, with sudden and impetuous gusts, which, as we had not a number of hands sufficient to bend the sails, often endangered our masts and yards, and did great damage to our sails and rigging, especially at this time, as we were obliged to carry all the sail we could to prevent our falling into a deep bight, on the Celebes shore. The ravages of the scurvy were now universal, there not being one individual among us that was free, and the winds and currents being so hard against us, that we could neither get westing nor southing to reach any place of refreshment; the mind participated in the sufferings of the body, and a universal

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1767. December.

Thursday 10.

despondency was reflected from one countenance to another, especially among those who were not able to come upon the deck. In this deplorable situation we continued till the 10th, and it is not perhaps very easy for the most fertile imagination to conceive by what our danger and distress could possibly be increased; yet debilitated, sick, and dying as we were, in sight of land that we could not reach, and exposed to tempests which we could not resist, we had the additional misfortune to be attacked by a pirate: that this unexpected mischief might lose none of its force, it happened at midnight, when the darkness that might almost be felt could not fail to co-operate with whatever tended to produce confusion and terror. This sudden attack, however, rather rouzed than depressed us, and though our enemy attempted to board us, before we could have the least apprehension that an enemy was near, we defeated his purpose: he then plied us with what we supposed to be swivel-guns, and small arms, very briskly; but though he had the start of us, we soon returned his salute with such effect, that shortly after he sunk, and all the unhappy wretches on board perished. It was a small vessel, but of what country, or how manned, it was impossible for us to know. The Lieutenant, and one of the men, were wounded, though not dangerously; part of our running rigging was cut, and we received some other flight damage. We knew this pirate to be a vessel which we had seen in the dusk of the evening, and we afterwards learnt that she belonged to a freebooter, who had more than thirty such vessels under his command. The smallness of our vessel encouraged the attack, and her strength being so much more than in proportion to her size, supposing her a merchantman, rendered it fatal.

Saturday 12.

On Saturday the 12th, we fell in with the dangerous shoals called the Spera Mondes, and had the mortification to

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1767. December.

Saturday 12.

find that the westerly monsoon was now set in, against which, and the current, it was impossible for any ship to get as far westward as Batavia. As it was now necessary to wait till the return of the eastern monsoon, and the shifting of the current; as we had buried thirteen of our crew, and no less than thirty more were at the point of death; as all the petty officers were among the sick, and the Lieutenant and myself, who did all duties, in a feeble condition; it was impossible that we should keep the sea, and we had no chance of preserving those who were still alive, but by getting on shore at some place, where rest and refreshment might be procured; I therefore determined that I would take advantage of our being so far to the southward, and endeavour to reach Macassar, the principal settlement of the Dutch upon the island of Celebes.

Sunday 13.

The next day, we made some islands which lie not far from that place, and saw, what sometimes we took for shoals, and sometimes for boats, with men on board, but what afterwards appeared to be trees, and other drift floating about, with birds sitting upon them; we suddenly found ourselves twenty miles farther to the southward than we expected, for the current, which had for some time set us to the northward, had set us to the southward during the night. We now hauled up east, and E. ½ N. intending to have gone to the northward of a shoal, which has no name in our East India Pilot, but which the Dutch call the Thumb: by noon, however, we found ourselves upon it, our water shallowing at once to four fathom, with rocky ground. We now hauled off to the south west, and keeping the boat ahead to sound, ran round the west side of the shoal in ten and twelve fathom; our water deepening when we hauled off to the west, and shallowing when we hauled off east.

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1767. December.

Sunday 13.

Our latitude, by observation, when we were upon the shoal, was 5° 20′S. and the northermost of the islands, called the Three Brothers, then bore S. 81 E. at the distance of five or six leagues. This island is, in the English Pilot, called Don Dinanga, but by the Dutch the North Brother.

Between the Three Brothers, and the main of Celebes, there is another island, much larger than either of them, called the Island of Tonikiky; but none of them are inhabited, though there are a few huts belonging to fishermen upon them all. The passage between the shoal and this island is clear and good, with from ten to thirteen fathom, and a sandy bottom; but the soundings are to be kept on the side of the island in twelve fathom, and never under ten: it is, however, very difficult and dangerous for ships to fall in with the land this way without a pilot on board, for there are many shoals and rocks under water. I ran in by a chart in the English East India Pilot, which upon the whole I found a good one, though the names of the islands, points, and bays, differ very much from those by which they are now known. When we got near to the Celebes shore, we had land and sea breezes, which obliged us to edge along the coast, though our strength was so much reduced, that it was with the utmost difficulty we could work the stream anchor.

Tuesday 15.

In the evening of Tuesday the 15th, we anchored at about the distance of four miles from the town of Macassar, which, according to my account, lies in latitude 5° 10′or 5° 12′S., longitude 117° 28′E. having spent no less than five and thirty weeks in our passage from the Streight of Magellan.

I have been the more particular in my description of as much as I saw of this Streight, because all the charts, both English and French, that I consulted, are extremely deficient

[page] 629

1767. December.

Tuesday 15.

and erroneous, and because an exact knowlege of it may be of great service to our China trade: the ships by which that trade is carried on, may pass this way with as little danger as by the common one, which lies along the Prassel shoals; and when they miss their passage to China, in the south east monsoon, and lose the season, they may be sure of a clear channel here, and fair winds at W. S. W. W. and round to W. N. W. in November, December, and the four following months: I am also of opinion, that it is a better and shorter way to go to the N. E. and eastward of the Phillipine Islands, than to thread the Moluccas, or coast New Guinea, where there are shoals, currents, and innumerable other dangers, as they were forced to do when the French were cruizing for them in the common passage during the last war.

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CHAP. X.

Transactions off Macassar, and the Passage thence to Bonthain.

1767. December.

Tuesday 15.

THE same night that we came to an anchor, at about eleven o'clock, a Dutchman came on board, who had been dispatched by the Governor, to learn who we were. When I made him understand that the ship was an English man of war, he seemed to be greatly alarmed, no man of war belonging to the King of Great Britain having ever been there before, and I could not by any means persuade him to leave the deck, and go down into the cabbin; we parted, however, to all appearance, good friends.

Wednes. 16.

The next morning, at break of day, I sent the Lieutenant to the town, with a letter to the Governor, in which I acquainted him with the reason of my coming thither, and requested the liberty of the port to procure refreshments for my ship's company, who were in a dying condition, and shelter for the vessel against the approaching storms, till the return of a fit season for sailing to the westward. I ordered that this letter should, without good reason to the contrary, be delivered into the Governor's own hand; but when my officer got to the wharf of the town, neither he nor any other person in the boat was suffered to land. Upon his refusal to deliver the letter to a messenger, the Governor was made acquainted with it, and two officers, called the she-bander and the fiscal, were sent down to him, who, as a reason why he could not deliver the letter to the Governor himself, pretended that he was sick, and said, that they

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1767. December.

Wednes. 16.

came by his express order to fetch it; upon this the letter was at length delivered to them, and they went away. While they were gone, the officer and men were kept on board their boat, exposed to the burning heat of the sun, which was almost vertical at noon, and none of the country boats were suffered to come near enough to sell them any refreshment. In the mean time, our people observed a great hurry and bustle on shore, and all the sloops and vessels that were proper for war were fitted out with the utmost expedition: we should, however, I believe, have been an overmatch for their whole sea force, if all our people had been well. In the mean time I intended to have gone and anchored close to the town, but now the boat was absent, our united strength was not sufficient to weigh the anchor, though a small one. After waiting five hours in the boat, the Lieutenant was told that the Governor had ordered two gentlemen to wait upon me with an answer to my letter. Soon after he had returned, and made this report, the two gentlemen came on board, and we afterwards learnt that one of them was an ensign of the garrison, named Le Cerf, and the other Mr. Douglas, a writer of the Dutch East India Company: they delivered me the Governor's letter, but it proved to be written in Dutch, a language which not a single person on board could understand: the two gentlemen who brought it, however, both spoke French, and one of them interpreted the contents to me in that language. The purport of it was "that I should instantly depart from the port, without coming any nearer to the town; that I should not anchor on any part of the coast, or permit any of my people to land in any place that was under his jurisdiction." Before I made any reply to this letter, I shewed the gentlemen who brought it the number of my sick: at the fight of so many unhappy wretches, who were dying of lan-

[page] 632

1767. December.

Wednes. 16.

guor and disease, they seemed to be much affected, and I then urged again the pressing necessity I was under of procuring refreshment, to which they had been witnesses, the cruelty and injustice of refusing to supply me, which was not only contrary to treaty, as we were in a King's ship, but to the laws of Nature as we were human beings: they seemed to admit the force of this reasoning, but they had a short and final answer ready, "that they had absolute and indispensible orders from their masters, not to suffer any ship, of whatever nation, to stay at this port, and that these orders they must implicitly obey." To this I replied, that persons in our situation had nothing worse to fear than what they suffered, and that therefore if they did not immediately allow me the liberty of the port, to purchase refreshments, and procure shelter, I would, as soon as the wind would permit, in defiance of all their menaces, and all their force, go and anchor close to the town; that if at last I should find myself unable to compel them to comply with requisitions, the reasonableness of which could not be controverted, I would run the ship aground under their walls, and, after selling our lives as dearly as we could, bring upon them the disgrace of having reduced a friend and ally to so dreadful an extremity. At this they seemed to be alarmed, as our situation alone was sufficient to convince them that I was in earnest, and urged me with great emotion to remain where I was, at least till I had heard again from the Governor: to this, after some altercation, I consented, upon condition that I heard from the Governor before the sea-breeze set in the next day.

Thursday 17.

We passed all the remainder of this day, and all the night, in a state of anxiety, not unmixed with indignation, that greatly aggravated our distress; and very early the next morning, we had the mortification to see a sloop that

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1767 December.

Thursday. 17.

mounted eight carriage-guns, and one of the vessels of the country, sitted out for war, with a great number of soldiers on board, come from the town, and anchor under each of our bows. I immediately sent my boat to speak with them, but they would make no reply to any thing that was said. About noon, the sea breeze set in, and not having then heard again from the Governor, I got under sail, and proceeded towards the town, according to my declaration, resolving, if the vessels that had anchored under our bows, should oppose us, to repress force with force as far as we were able: these two vessels, however, happily both for us and for them, contented themselves with weighing anchor, and attending our motions.

Very soon after we had got under sail, a handsome vessel, with a band of musick, and several gentlemen on board, made up to us, and told us that they were sent by the Governor, but could not come aboard if we did not drop our anchor again; our anchor therefore was immediately dropped, and the gentlemen came on board: they proved to be Mr. Blydenburg, the fiscal, Mr. Voll, the shebander, an officer called the licence master, or master of the port, and Mr. Douglas the writer, who has been mentioned already. They expressed some surprize at my having got under sail, and asked me what I intended to have done; I told them that I intended, neither more nor less than to fulfill the declarations I had made the day before; that justified by the common rights of mankind, which were superior to every other law, I would, rather than have put again to sea, where our destruction either by shipwreck, sickness, or famine was inevitable, have come up to their walls, and either have compelled them to furnish the necessaries we wanted, or have run the ship on shore, since it was better to perish at once in a just contest, than to suffer the lingering misery of

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1767. December.

Thursday. 17.

anticipating the perdition that we could not avoid. I observed also, that no civilized people had ever suffered even the captives of war to perish for want of the necessaries of life, much less the subjects of an ally, who asked nothing but permission to purchase food with their money. They readily allowed the truth of all I had said, but seemed to think I had been too hasty: I then observed that I had waited the full time of my stipulation, and they in return made some excuse for their not having come sooner, telling me, that, as a proof of their having admitted my claim, they had brought me such provisions as their country would afford. These were immediately taken on board, and consisted of two sheep, an elk ready killed, and a few fowls, with some vegetables and fruit. This most welcome supply was divided among the people, and that most salutary, and to us exquisite dainty, broth, made for the sick. Another letter from the Governor was then produced, in which, to my great disappointment, I was again ordered to leave the port, and to justify the order, it was alleged, that to suffer a ship of any nation to stay and trade either at this port, or any other part of the island, was contrary to the agreement which had been made by the East India Company with the native Kings and Governors of the country, who had already expressed some displeasure on our account; and for farther particulars I was referred to the gentlemen that brought the letter, whom the Governor stiled his commissaries. To these gentlemen I immediately observed, that no stipulation concerning trade could affect us, as we were a King's ship; at the same time I produced my commission, it not being possible to bring under the article of trade the selling us food and refreshments for our money, without the utmost violence to language and common sense. After this they made me several propositions, which I rejected, because my departure

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1767 December.

Thursday 17

from this place, before the return of the season, was included in them all. I then recurred to my former declaration, and to enforce it, shewed them the corpse of a man who had died that morning, and whose life would probably have been saved, if they had afforded us refreshments when we first came to an anchor upon their coast. This put them to a stand, but after a short pause, they enquired very particularly whether I had been among the spice islands; I answered them in the negative, and they appeared to be convinced that I spoke truth. After this we came to a better understanding, and they told me, that though they could not, without disobedience to the most direct and positive orders of the Company, suffer us to remain here, yet that I was welcome to go to a little bay not far distant, where I should find effectual shelter from the bad monsoon, and might erect an hospital for my sick, assuring me at the same time that provision and refreshments were more plenty there than at Macassar, from whence, whatever else I wanted should be sent me, and offering me a good pilot to carry me to my station. To this I gladly consented, upon condition that what they had offered should be confirmed to me by the Governor and Council of Macassar, that I might be considered as under the protection of the Dutch nation, and that no violence should be offered to my people: for all this they engaged their honour on behalf of the Governor and Council, promising me the assurance I had required on the next day, and requesting that in the mean time I would remain where I was. I then enquired why the two vessels which were at anchor under our bows were allotted to that slation, and they told me, for no other reason than to prevent the people of the country from offering us any violence. When matters were thus far settled between us, I expressed my concern that, except a glass of wine, I could present them with

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1767. December.

Thursday 17.

nothing better then bad salt meat, and bread full of weavels, upon which they very politely desired that I would permit their servants to bring in the victuals which had been dressing in their own vessel; I readily consented, and a very genteel dinner was soon served up, consisting of fish, flesh, vegetables, and fruit. It is with the greatest pleasure that I take this opportunity of acknowledging my obligations to these Gentlemen for the politeness and humanity of their behaviour in their private capacity, and particularly to Mr. Douglas, who being qualified by his knowlege of the French language to interpret between us, undertook that office with a courtesy and politeness which very much increased the value of the favour. After this we parted, and at their leaving the ship, I saluted them with nine guns.

Friday 18.

The next morning the Shebander was sent to acquaint me, that the Governor and Council had confirmed the engagement which had been made with me on their behalf. Every thing was now settled much to my satisfaction, except the procuring money for my bills upon the government of Great Britain, which the Shebander said he would solicit. At eight o'clock in the evening, he came on board again, to let me know that there was not any person in the town who had money to remit to Europe, and that there was not a dollar in the Company's chest. I answered, that as I was not permitted to go on shore to negociate my bills myself, I hoped they would give me credit, offering him bills for any debt I should contract, or to pay it at Batavia. To this the Shebander replied, that the Resident at Bonthain, the place to which I was going, would receive orders to supply me with whatever I should want, and would be glad to take my bills in return, as he had money to remit, and was himself to go to Europe the next season. He told me

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1767. December.

Friday 18.

also, that he had considerable property in England, being a denison of that country; "and, said the Shebander, he has "also money in my hands, with which I will purchase such things as you want from Macassar, and see that they are sent after you." Having specified what these articles were to be, and agreed with him for the quantity and the price, we parted.

Saturday 19.

The next day, in the afternoon, I received a letter, signed by the Governor and Council of Macassar, containing the reasons why I was sent to Bonthain, and confirming the verbal agreement which subsisted between us.

Soon after, the Ensign M. le Cerf, the Secretary of the Council, and a pilot, came on board to attend us to Bonthain. Le Cerf was to command the soldiers who were on board the guard-boats; and the Secretary, as we afterwards discovered, was to be a check upon the resident, whose name was Swellingrabel. This Gentleman's father died Second Governor at the Cape of Good Hope, where he married an English lady of the name of Fothergill. Mr. Swellingrabel, the Resident here, married the daughter of Cornelius Sinkclaar, who had been Governor of Macassar, and died about two years ago in England, having come hither to see some of his mother's relations.

CHAP.

[page] 638

CHAP. XI.

Transactions at Bonthain, while the Vessel was waiting for a Wind to carry her to Batavia, with some Account of the Place, the Town of Macassar, and the adjacent Country.

1767. December.

Sunday 20.

Monday 21.

THE next morning at day-break we sailed, and the day following in the afternoon we anchored in Bonthain road with our two guard-boats, which were immediately moored close in to the shore, to prevent the country boats from coming near us, and our boats from going near them. As soon as I arrived at this place, I altered our reckoning. I had lost about eighteen hours, in coming by the west, and the Europeans that we found here having come by the east had gained about six, so that the difference was just a day.

I immediately waited upon the Resident, Mr. Swellingrabel, who spoke English but very imperfectly, and having settled with him all matters relating to money and provisions, a house was allotted me near the sea-side, and close to a little pallisadoed fort of eight guns, the only one in this place, which I converted into an hospital, under the direction of the Surgeon; to this place I immediately sent all the people who were thought incapable of recovering on board, and reserved the rest as a security against accidents. As soon as our people were on shore, a guard of thirty-six private men, two Serjeants, and two Corporals, all under the command of Ensign

[page] 639

1767. December.

Le Cerf, was set over them; and none of them were suffered to go more than thirty yards from the hospital, nor were any of the country people allowed to come near enough to sell them any thing; so that our men got nothing of them, but through the hands of the Dutch soldiers, who abused their power very shamefully. When they saw any of the country people carrying what they thought our invalids would purchase, they first took it away, and then asked the price: what was demanded signified little, the soldier gave what he thought proper, which was seldom one fourth of the value; and if the countryman ventured to express any discontent, he gave him immediately an earnest of perfect satisfaction, by flourishing his broad-sword over his head; this was always sufficient to silence complaint, and send the sufferer quietly away; after which the soldier sold what he had thus acquired for profit of sometimes more than a thousand per Cent. This behaviour was so cruel to the natives, and so injurious to us, that I ventured to complain of it to the Resident, and the other two Gentlemen, Le Cerf and the Secretary. The Resident, with becoming spirit, reprimanded the soldiers; but it produced so little effect that I could not help entertaining suspicions that le Cerf connived at these practises, and shared the advantages which they produced. I suspected him also of selling arrack to my people, of which I complained, but without redress, and I know that his slaves were employed to buy things at the market which his wife afterwards sold to us for more than twice as much as they cost. The soldiers were indeed guilty of many other irregularities: it was the duty of one of them by rotation to procure the day's provision for the whole guard, a service which he constantly performed by going into the country with his musquet and a bag; nor was the honest providetor always content with what the bag would contain, for one of

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1767. December.

them, without any ceremony, drove down a young bufsalo that belonged to some of the country people, and his comrades not having wood at hand to dress it when it was killed, supplied themselves by pulling down some of the pallisadoes of the fort. When this was reported to me, I thought it so extraordinary that I went on shore to see the breach, and found the poor black people repairing it.

Saturday 26.

Sunday 27.

On the 26th, a sloop laden with rice was sent out from this place in order to land her cargo at Macassar; but after having attempted it three days she was forced to return. The weather was now exceedingly tempestuous, and all navigation at an end from east to west till the return of the eastern monsoon. On the same day two large sloops that were bound to the eastward anchored here, and the next morning also a large ship from Batavia, with troops on board for the Banda Islands; but none of the crew of any of these vessels were suffered to speak to any of our people, our boats being restrained from going on board them, and theirs from coming on board us. As this was a mortifying restriction we requested Mr. Swellingrabel to buy us some salt meat from the large ship; and he was so obliging as to procure us four casks of very good European meat, two of pork and two of beef.

Monday 28.

On the 28th a sleet of more than an hundred sail of the small country vessels, called Proas, anchored here; their burden is from twelve to eighteen and twenty ton, and they carry from sixteen to twenty men. I was told that they carried on a fishery round the Island, going out with one monsoon, and coming back with the other, so as always to keep under the lee of the land: the fish was sent to the China market, and I observed that all these vessels carried Dutch colours.

[page] 641

1768. January.

Monday 18.

Thursday 28.

No event worthy of notice happened till the 18th of January, and then I learnt by a letter from Macassar that the Dolphin had been at Batavia. On the 28th the Secretary of the Council, who had been sent hither with Le Cerf, as we supposed to be a check upon the Resident, was recalled to Macassar. By this time our carpenter, having in a great degree recovered his health, examined the state of our vessel, and to our great regret she appeared to be very leaky: our main yard also was found not only to be sprung, but to be rotten and unserviceable. We got it down and patched it up as well as we could, without either iron or a forge, so that we hoped it would serve us till we got to Batavia, for no wood was to be procured here of which a new one could be made. To our leaks very little could be done, and we were therefore reduced to an intire dependance upon our pumps.

February.

Friday 19.

March.

Monday 7.

Wednes. 9.

On Friday the 19th of February, Le Cerf, the military officer who commanded the soldiers on shore, was recalled, as it was said, to fit out an expedition for the island of Bally; on the 7th of March, the largest of our guard-boats, a sloop about forty-five tons, was ordered back to Macassar with part of the soldiers; and on the 9th, the Resident, Mr. Swellingrabel, received a letter from the Governor of that place, enquiring when I should sail for Batavia. I must confess, that I was surprised at the recal of the officer and the guardboat; but I was much more surprised at the contents of the Governor's letter, because he knew that it was impossible I should sail till May, as the eastern monsoon would not sooner set in. All matters however remained in the same situation till near the end of the month, when some of my people took notice, that for a short time past a small canoe had gone round us several times at different hours of the night, and had disappeared as soon as those on board per-

VOL. I. 4 N

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1767. March.

Tuesday 29.

ceived any body stirring in the ship. On the 29th, while these things were the subjects of speculation, one of my officers who came from the shore brought me a letter, which he said had been delivered to him by a black man: it was directed, "To the Commander of the English ship at Bonthyn." That the Reader may understand this letter, it is necessary to acquaint him, that the island of Celebes is divided into several districts, which are distinct sovereignties of the native Princes. The town of Macassar is in a district called also Macassar, or Bony, the King of which is in alliance with the Dutch, who have been many times repulsed in an attempt to reduce other parts of the island, one of which is inhabited by a people called Buggueses, and another is called Waggs or Tosora. The town of Tosora is fortified with cannon, for the natives had been long furnished with fire arms from Europe, before the Dutch settled themselves at Macassar in the room of the Portuguese.

The letter acquainted me, that a design had been formed by the Dutch, in conjunction with the King of Bony, to cut us off: that the Dutch however were not to appear in it: that the business was to be done by a son of the King of Bony, who was, besides a gratuity from the Dutch, to receive the plunder of the vessel for his reward, and who, with eight hundred men, was then at Bonthain for that purpose: that the motive was jealousy of our forming a connection with the Buggueses, and other people of the country, who were at enmity with the Dutch and their allies, and driving them out of the island; or at least a suspicion that, if we got back to England, some project of that kind might be founded upon the intelligence we should give, no English man of war, as I have already observed, having ever been known to have visited the island before.

[page] 643

1768. March.

Tuesday 29.

Wednes. 30.

This letter was a new subject of surprise and speculation. It was extremely ill written with respect to the style and manner, yet it did not therefore the less deserve notice. How far the intelligence which it contained was true or false, I was utterly unable to determine: it was possible that the writer might be deceived himself; it was also possible, that he might have some view in wilfully deceiving me: the falshood might procure some little reward for the kindness and zeal which it placed to his account, or it might give him an importance which would at least be a gratification to his vanity. It behoved me however to take the same measures as if I had known it to be true; and I must confess, that I was not perfectly at case when I recollected the recal of the Secretary and Le Cerf, with the large sloop, and part of the soldiers, who were said to have been sent hither for no other reason than to guard us against the insults of the country people; the assembling an armed force at Macassar, as it was said, for an expedition to Bally; and the little canoe that we had seen rowing round us in the night, not to mention the Governor's enquiry by letter, when we intended to leave the island. However, whether either our intelligence or conjectures were true or false, we immediately went to work: we rigged the ship, bent the sails, unmoored, got springs upon our cables, loaded all our guns, and barricadoed the deck. At night every body slept under arms, and the next day we warped the vessel farther off from the bottom of the bay, towards the eastern shore, that we might have more room, sixed four swivel guns on the forepart of the quarter-deck, and took every other measure that appeared to be necessary for our defence.

The Resident, Mr. Swellingrabel, was at this time absent twenty miles up the country upon the Company's business, but had told me, that he should certainly return on the 1st of

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[page] 644

1768. March.

Thursday 31

April.

Monday 4.

Tuesday 5.

April, a day which I now expected with great impatience, especially as an old drunken Serjeant was the most respectable person at the fort. In the evening of the 31st, a packet of letters for him arrived here from Macassar, which I considered as a good omen, and a pledge of his return at the time appointed; but I conceived very different sentiments when I learnt that they were sent to him. I did not suspect that he was privy to any such design as had been intimated to me by the letter; but I could not help doubting, whether he was not kept in the country that he might be out of the way when it should be executed. In this state of anxiety and suspense I sent a message to the fort, desiring that an express might be dispatched to him, to acquaint him that I wished to see him immediately upon business of great importance, which would admit of no delay. Whether my message was forwarded to him or not, I cannot tell; but having waited till the 4th of April, without having seen him or received any answer, I wrote him a letter, requesting to speak with him, in the most pressing terms, and the next day he came on board. A few minutes convinced me that he was wholly a stranger to any such design as I had been made to apprehend; and he was clearly of opinion that no such design had been formed. He said, indeed, that one Tomilaly, a counsellor or minister of the King of Bony, had lately paid him a visit, and had not well accounted for his being in this part of the country; and, at my request, he very readily undertook to make farther enquiries concerning him and his people. The Resident and his attendants took notice that the ship was put into a state of defence, and that every thing was ready for immediate action; and he told us, that the people on shore had acquainted him, before he came on board, with our vigilance and activity, and in particular, with our having exercised the ship's company at small arms every day. I in-

5

[page] 645

1768. April.

Tuesday 5.

formed him, that we should, at all events, continue upon our guard, which he seemed to approve, and we parted with mutual protestations of friendship and good faith. After a few days, he sent me word that having made a very strict enquiry, whether any other persons belonging to the King of Bony had been at Bonthain, he had been credibly informed that one of the Princes of that kingdom had been there in disguise; but that of the eight hundred men who were said in my intelligence to be with him, he could find no traces; so that, except they too, like the troops of the King of Brentford, were an army in disguise, I knew that no such people could be in that country.

Saturday 16.

On the 16th, in the morning, the Resident sent me word, that M. Le Cerf was returned from Macassar with another officer, and that they would come on board and dine with me. When dinner was over, I asked Le Cerf, among other conversation, while we were taking our wine, what was become of his expedition to Bally, to which he answered drily, that it was laid aside, without saying any thing more upon the subject. On the 23d, he returned to Macassar by sea, and the other officer, who was also an ensign, remained to take the command of the soldiers that were still left at this place.

The season now approached in which navigation to the westward would be again practicable, which gave us all great pleasure; especially as putrid diseases had begun to make their appearance among us, and a putrid fever had carried off one of our people.

May.

Saturday 7.

On the 7th of May, the Resident gave me a long letter from the Governor of Macassar, which was written in Dutch, and of which he gave me the best interpretation he was

[page] 646

1768. May.

Saturday 7.

able. The general purport of it was, that he had heard a letter had been sent to me, charging him, in conjunction the king of Bony, with a design to cut us off: that the letter was altogether false, exculpating himself with the most solemn protestations, and requiring the letter to be delivered up, that the writer might be brought to such punishment as he deserved. It is scarcely necessary to say that I did not deliver up the letter, because the writer would certainly have been punished with equal severity whether it was true or false; but I returned the Governor a polite answer, in which I justified the measures I had taken, without imputing any evil design to him or his allies; and indeed there is the greatest reason to believe, that there was not sufficient ground for the charge contained in the letter, though it is not equally probable that the writer believed it to be false.

Sunday 22.

At day-break on Sunday the 22d of May, we sailed from this place, of which, and of the town of Macassar, and the adjacent country, I shall say but little, there being many accounts of the island of Celebes and its inhabitants already extant. The town is built upon a kind of point or neck of land, and is watered by a river or two which either run through, or very near it. It seems to be large, and there is water for a ship to come within half cannon shot of the walls: the country about it is level, and has a most beautiful appearance; it abounds with plantations, and groves of cocoa-nut trees, with a great number of houses interspersed, by which it appears to abound with people. At a distance inland, the country rises into hills of a great height, and becomes rude and mountainous. The town lies in latitude 5° 10′, or 5° 12′ S. and longitude by account 117° 28′E. of London.

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[page] 647

1768. May.

Bonthain is a large bay, where ships may lie in perfect security during both the monsoons: the soundings are good and regular, and the bottom soft mud; nor is there any danger coming in, but a ledge of rocks which are above water, and are a good mark for anchoring. The highest land in sight here is called Bonthain hill, and when a ship is in the offing at the distance of two or three miles from the land, she should bring this hill north, or N. ½ W. and then run in with it and anchor. We lay right under it, at the distance of about a mile from the shore. In this bay there are several small towns; that which is called Bonthain lies in the north east part of the bay, and here is the small pallisadoed fort that has been mentioned already, on which there are mounted eight guns that carry a ball of about eight pounds weight: it is just sufficient to keep the country people in subjection, and is intended for no other purpose: it lies on the south side of a small river, and there is water for a ship to come close to it. The Dutch Resident has the command of the place, and of Bullocomba, another town which lies about twenty miles farther to the eastward, where there is such another fort, and a few soldiers, who at the proper season are employed in gathering the rice, which the people pay as a tax to the Dutch.

Wood and water are to be procured here in great plenty; we cut our wood near the river, under Bonthain hill: our water was procured partly from that river, and partly from another; when from the other, our boat went above the fort with the casks that were to be silled, where there is a good rolling way; but as the river is small, and has a bar, the boat, after it is loaded, can come out only at high water. There are several other small rivers in the bay, from which water may be got upon occasion.

[page] 648

1768. May.

We procured plenty of fresh provisions all the while we lay here at a reasonable rate: the beef is excellent; but it would be difficult to procure enough of it for a squadron. Rice may be had in any quantity, so may fowls and fruit: there are also abundance of wild hogs in the woods, which may be purchased at a low price, as the natives, being Mahometans, never eat them. Fish may be caught with the seine, and the natives, at times, supplied us with turtle; for this, like pork, is a dainty which they never touch.

Celebes is the key of the Molucca, or spice islands, which, whoever is in possession of it, must necessarily command: most of the ships that are bound to them, or to Banda, touch here, and always go between this island and that of Solayer. The bullocks here are the breed that have the bunch on the back, besides which the island produces horses, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and deer. The arrack and sugar that are consumed here are brought from Batavia.

The latitude of Bonthain hill is 5° 30′ S., longitude by account 117° 53′ E. The variation of the compass while we were here was 1° 16′ W. The tides are very irregular; commonly it is but once high water and once low water in four and twenty hours, and there is seldom six feet difference between them.

CHAP.

[page] 649

CHAP. XII.

Passage from Bonthain Bay, in the Island of Celebes, to Batavia; Transactions there, and the Voyage round the Cape of Good Hope to England.

1763. May.

Sunday 22.

Monday 23.

WHEN we left Bonthain Bay, we kept along the shore, at the distance of two or three miles, till evening, and then anchored for the night, in the passage between the two islands of Celebes and Tonikaky, in seven fathom and a half, with a bottom of soft mud. The next morning, we got again under sail, and took our departure from Tonikaky, which, according to my account, lies in latitude 5° 31′ S, longitude 117° 17′ E.; the variation here was 1° W. We went to the southward of Tonikaky, and stood to the west-ward. About three o'clock in the afternoon, we were abreast of the eastermost of the islands which in the Dutch charts are called Tonyn's Islands. This island bore from us about N. by W. at the distance of four miles, and the two westermost were in sight. These three islands make a kind of right angle triangle with each other: the distance between the eastermost and westermost is about eleven miles, and their relative bearings are very nearly east and west. The distance between the two westermost is nearly the same, and they bear to each other S. by E. and N. by W. About six o'clock, having just sounded, and got no ground, we suddenly found ourselves upon a shoal, with not three fathom, and the water being smooth and clear, we could see great crags of coral rocks under our bottom: we immediately threw all the sails aback, and happily got off with-

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1768. May.

Monday. 23.

out damage: we had just passed over the eastermost edge of it, which is as steep as a wall, for we had not gone back two cables' length before we were out of soundings again. At this time, we had the two westermost of the Tonyn Islands in one, bearing N. by W. at the distance of somewhat more than four miles from the nearest. This is a very dangerous shoal, and is not laid down in any chart that I have seen: it seemed to extend itself to the southward and westward, all round the two westermost of these three islands, for near six miles, but about the eastermost island there seemed to be no danger; there was also a clear passage between this island and the other two. The latitude of the eastermost and westermost of these islands is 5° 31′ S. The eastermost is distant thirty-four miles due west from Tonikaky, and the westermost lies ten miles farther.

Wednes. 25.

In the afternoon of the 25th, we found the water much discoloured, upon which we sounded, and had five and thirty fathom with soft mud: soon after we went over the northermost part of a shoal, and had no more than ten fathom, with soft mud. In this place, where we found the water shallowest, it was very foul; it seemed to be still shallower to the southward, but to the northward of us it appeared to be clear. We had no observation this day, by which I could asccrtain the latitude, but I believe this to be the northermost part of the shoals that lie to the eastward of the island Madura, and in the English East India Pilot are called Bralleron's Shoals, the same which in the Dutch charts are called Kalcain's Eylandens. By my reckoning, the part that we went over lies in 5° 50′ or 5° 52′ S. and 3° 36′ to the westward of the island Tonikaky, or S. 84° 27 W. distance sixty-nine leagues. At eleven o'clock the same night, we saw, to the northward of us, the southermost of the islands Salombo. I make its latitude to be 5° 33′ S. and

[page] 651

1768. May.

Wednes. 25

its longitude west of Tonikaky 4° 4′, at the distance of about eighty-two or eighty-three leagues. It bears from the last shoal N. W. by W. ¾ W. at the distance of about fourteen leagues. It is to be remarked, that hereabout, off the island of Madura, the winds of the monsoons are commonly a month later in settling than at Celebes. The variation here was not more than half a degree west, and we found the current, which before set to the southward, now setting to the N. W.

Thursday 26.

In the afternoon of the 26th, we saw from the mast-head the island of Luback, and had soundings from thirty-five to forty fathom, with a bottom of bluish clay. The latitude of this island is 5° 43′ S. and its longitude, 5° 36′ west of Tonikaky, from which it is distant about one hundred and twelve leagues. Its distance west from the islands of Salombo, is thirty-one leagues: we went to the northward of this island, and found a current setting to the W.N.W.

Sunday 29.

In the evening of Sunday the 29th, we saw the cluster of small islands called Carimon-Java. The latitude of the eastermost, which is also the largest, is 5° 48′S. and its longitude, west of Tonikaky, 7° 52′. From this island it is distant about 158 leagues, and forty-five leagues from Luback.

June.

Thursday 2.

On Thursday the 2d of June, we hauled in and made the land of Java, which proved to be that part of the island which makes the eastermost point of the bay of Batavia, called Carawawang Point. When we first got sight of the land, we had gradually decreased our soundings from forty to eight and twenty fathom, with a bottom of bluish mud. As we steered along the shore for Batavia, we decreased them gradually, still farther, to thirteen fathom, the depth in which, night coming on, we anchored near the two small islands called Leyden and Alkmar, in sight of Batavia; and

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[page] 652

1768. June.

Friday 3.

in the afternoon of the next day, we anchored in the Road, which is so good that it may well be considered as an harbour. We had now great reason to congratulate ourselves upon our situation, for during the whole of our passage from Celebes, the ship admitted so much water by her leaks, that it was all we could do to keep her from finking, with two pumps constantly going.

Saturday 4.

We found here eleven large Dutch ships, besides several that were less, one Spanish ship, a Portuguese snow, and several Chinese junks. The next morning we saluted the town with eleven guns, and the same number was returned. As this was the birth-day of his Britannick Majesty, our Sovereign, we afterwards fired one and twenty guns more on that occasion. We found the variation here to be less than half a degree to the westward.

In the afternoon, I waited upon the Governor, and acquainted him with the condition of the ship, desiring liberty to repair her defects, to which he replied, that I must petition the Council.

Monday 6.

Tuesday 7.

On the 6th therefore, which was Council-day, I addressed a letter to the Governor and Council, setting forth more particularly the condition of the ship; and after requesting leave to repair her, I added, that I hoped they would allow me the use of such wharss and store houses as should be necessary. In the afternoon of the next day, the shebander, with Mr Garrison, a merchant of the place, as interpreter, and another person, came to me. After the first compliments, the shebander said, that he was sent by the Governor and Council for a letter which they had heard I had received when I was at Bonthain, acquainting me, that a design had been formed to cut off my ship, that the author of it, who had injured both me, and their nation, in the person of the

9

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1768. June.

Tuesday 7.

Thursday 9.

Governor of that place, might be punished. I readily acknowledged that I had received such information, but said, that I had never told any body it was by letter. The shebander then asked me if I would take an oath that I had received no such letter as he had been directed to demand; to which I answered, that I was surprised at the question, and desired, that if the Council had any such uncommon requisition to make of me, it might be in writing, and I would give such reply, as, upon mature consideration, I should think proper. I then desired to know what answer he had been instructed to give to my letter, concerning the resitting of the ship; upon which he told me, that the Council had taken offence at my having used the word hope, and not written in the stile of request, which had been invariably adopted by all merchants upon the like occasion: I replied, that no offence was intended on my part, and that I had used the first words which occurred to me, as proper to express my meaning. Thus we parted, and I heard nothing more of them till the afternoon of the 9th, when the shebander, and the same two gentlemen, came to me a second time. The shebander said, that he was then commissioned from the council, to require a writing under my hand, signifying that I believed the report of an intention formed at the island of Celebes to cut off my ship, was false and malicious, saying that he hoped I had a better opinion of the Dutch nation than to suppose them capable of suffering so execrable a fact to be perpetrated under their Government. Mr. Garrison then read me a certificate, which, by order of the council, had been drawn up for me to sign: as, whatever was my opinion, I did not think it advisable to sign such a certisicate, especially as it appeared to be made a condition of complying with my request by the delay of an answer during this solicitation, I desired the shebander to shew me

[page] 654

1763. June.

Thursday 9.

his authority for the requisition he had made: he replied, that he had no testimony of authority but the notoriety of his being a public officer, and the evidence of the gentlemen that were with him, confirming his own declaration, that he acted in this particular by the express order of Council. I then repeated my request, that whatever the Council required of me might be given me in writing, that the sense of it might be fixed and certain, and that I might have time to consider of my reply; but he gave me to understand that he could not do this without an order from the Council, and I then absolutely refused to sign the paper, at the same time desiring an answer to my letter, which they not being prepared to give, we parted, not in very good humour with each other.

Wednes. 15.

Thursday 16.

After this, I waited in a fruitless expectation till the 15th, when the same three gentlemen came to me the third time, and said they had been sent to tell me that the Council had protested against my behaviour at Macassar, and my having resused to sign the certisicate which had been required of me, as an insult upon them, and an act of injustice to their nation. I replied, that I was not conscious of having in any instance acted contrary to the treaties subsisting between the two kingdoms, unworthy of my character as an officer, honoured with a commission of his Britannic Majesty, or unsuitable to the trust reposed in me, though I did not think I had been used by the Governor of Macassar as the subject of a friend and ally; desiring that if they had any thing to allege against me, it might be reduced to writing, and laid before the King my master, to whom alone I thought myself amenable. With this answer they again departed, and the next day, having not yet received any answer to my letter, I wrote a second, directed like the first, in which I represented that the ship's leaks were every day increasing,

4

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1768. June.

Thursday 16.

and urged, in more pressing terms, my request that she might be repaired, and that the use of wharss and store-houses might be afsorded me.

Saturday 18.

On the 18th, the shebander came again to me, and acquainted me, that the Council had given orders for the repair of the ship at Onrust, and as there was no store-house empty, had appointed one of the Company's vessels to attend me, and take in my stores. I enquired whether there was not an answer to my letter in writing; to which he answered in the negative, adding, that it was not usual, a message by him, or some other officer, having been always thought sufficient.

After this I was supplied, for my money, with every thing I could desire, from the Company's stores, without any further difficulty.

Wednes. 22.

July.

Sunday 24.

A pilot was ordered to attend me, and on the 22d, we anchored at Onrust, where, having cleared the ship, and put her stores on board the Company's vessel, we found the bowsprit and cap, as well as the main yard, rotten, and altogether unserviceable, the sheathing every where eaten off by the worms, and the main planks of the ship's bottom so much damaged and decayed, that it was absolutely necessary to heave her down, before she could be sufficiently repaired to sail for Europe; but as other ships were already heaved down, and consequently the wharss at this time preoccupied, the carpenters could not begin their work till the 24th of July.

August.

Tuesday 16.

Under the hands of these people the ship continued till Tuesday the 16th of August. When they came to examine her bottom, they found it so bad that they were unanimoufly of opinion it should be shisted: this, however, I strenuously opposed; I knew she was an old ship, and I was afraid that

[page] 656

1763. August.

Tuesday 16.

if her bottom was opened it might be found still worse than it was thought, and possibly so bad as that, like the Falmouth, she might be condemned; I therefore desired that a good sheathing only might be put over all; but the bawse, or master carpenter, would not consent, except I would certify under my hand, that what should be done to the ship was not according to his judgment but my own, which he said was necessary for his justification, if, after such repairs only as I thought sit to direct had been made, the ship should come short of her port. As I thought this a reasonable proposition, I readily complied; but as I was now become answerable for the fate of the ship, I had her carefully examined by my own carpenter and his mate, myself and officers always attending. The but ends of the planks that joined to the stern were so open, that a man's hand might be thrust in between; seven chain-plates were broken and decayed, the iron work, in general, was in a very bad state; several of the knees were loose, and some of them were broken.

While I remained here, two ships belonging to our India Company put into this port, and we found, among other private ships from India, one called the Dudly, from Bengal, which had proved so leaky that it was impossible to carry her back. Application had been made to the Governor and Council for leave to careen her, which had been granted; but as the wharfs had been kept in continual use, she had been put off above four months. The Captain, not without reason, was apprehensive that he might be kept here till the worms had eaten through the bottom of his vessel, and knowing that I had received particular civilities from Admiral Houting, applied to me to intercede for him, which I was very happy to do with such success, that a whars was immediately allotted her. M. Houting is an old man, and

[page] 657

1768. August.

an Admiral in the service of the States, with the rank of Commander in Chief of their marine, and the ships belonging to the Company in India. He received his first maritime knowlege on board an English man of war, speaks English and French extremely well, and does honour to the service both by his abilities and politeness: he was so obliging as to give me a general invitation to his table, in consequence of which I was often with him, and it is with pleasure that I take this opportunity of making a public acknowledgment of the favours I received from him, and bearing this testimony to his public and private merit: he was indeed the only officer belonging to the Company from whom I received any civility, or with whom I had the least communication; for I found them, in general, a reserved and supercilious set of people. The Governor, although the servant of a republic, takes upon himself more state, in some particulars, than any fovereign prince in Europe. Whenever he goes abroad, he is attended by a party of horse guards, and two black men go before his coach, in the manner of running footmen, each having a large cane in his hand, with which they not only clear the way, but severely chastise all who do not pay the homage that is expected from people of all ranks, as well those belonging to the country as strangers. Almost every body in this place keeps a carriage, which is drawn by two horses, and driven by a man upon a box, like our chariots, but is open in front: whoever, in such a carriage, meets the Governor, either in the town or upon the road, is expected not only to draw it on one side, but to get out of it, and make a most respectful obeisance while his Excellency's coach goes by; nor must any carriage that follows him drive past on any account, but keep behind him, however pressing be the necessity for haste. A very mortifying homage, of the same kind, is also exacted by the

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[page] 658

1768. August.

members of the Council, called Edele Heeren, for whoever meets them is obliged to stop his coach, and, though not to get out, to stand up in it, and make his reverence: these Edele Heeren are preceded by one black man with a stick, nor must any person presume to pass their carriage any more than that of the Governor. These ceremonies are generally complied with by the Captains of Indiamen, and other trading ships; but having the honour to bear his Majesty's commission, I did not think myself at liberty to pay to a Dutch Governor, any homage which is not paid to my own Sovereign: it is, however, constantly required of the King's officers; and two or three days after I came hither, the landlord of the hotel where I lodged told me, he had been ordered by the shebander to let me know that my carriage, as well as others, must stop, if I should meet the Governor or any of the Council; but I desired him to acquaint the shebander that I could not consent to perform any such ceremony; and upon his intimating somewhat about the black men with sticks, I told him that if any insult should be offered me, I knew how to defend myself, and would take care to be upon my guard; at the same time pointing to my pistols, which then happened to lie upon the table: upon this he went away, and about three hours afterwards he returned, and told me he had orders from the Governor to acquaint me that I might do as I pleased. The hotel at which I resided is licensed by the Governor and Council, and all strangers are obliged to take up their abode there, except officers in his Majesty's service, who are allowed private lodgings, which, however, I did not chuse.

At this place I continued between three and four months, and during all that time I had the honour to see the Governor but twice: the first time was at my arrival, when I waited upon him at one of his houses, a little way in the country;

[page] 659

1768. August.

the next was in town, as he was walking before his house there, when I addressed him upon a particular occasion. Soon after the news of the Prince of Orange's marriage arrived here, he gave a public entertainment, to which I had the honour of being invited; but having heard that Commodore Tinker, upon a like occafion, finding that he was to be placed below the gentlemen of the Dutch Council, had abruptly left the room, and was followed by all the Captains of his squadron; and being willing to avoid the disagreeable dilemma of either sitting below the Council, or following the Commodore's example, I applied to the Governor to know the station that would be allotted me, before I accepted his invitation, and finding that I could not be permitted to take place of the Council, I declined it. On both these occasions I spoke to his Excellency by an English merchant, who acted as an interpreter. The first time he had not the civility to offer me the least refreshment, nor did he the last time so much as ask me to go into the house.

The defects of the ship were at length repaired, much to my satisfaction, and I thought she might then safely proceed to Europe, though the Dutch carpenters were of a different opinion. The proper season for sailing was not yet arrived, and my worthy friend, Admiral Houting, represented that if I went to sea before the proper time, I should meet with such weather off the Cape of Good Hope as would make me repent it; but being very ill myself, and the people being fickly, I thought it better to run the risk of a few hard gales off the Cape, than remain longer in this unhealthy place, especially as the west monsoon was setting in, during which the mortality here is yet greater than at other times.

September.

Wednes. 15

On Wednesday the 15th of September, therefore, we set sail from Onrust, where the ship had been refitted, without

4 P 2

[page] 660

1768. September.

Wednes. 15.

returning, as is usual, into Batavia Road; and as I was not well, I sent my Lieutenant to take leave of the Governor on my behalf, and offer my service, if he had any dispatches for Europe. It was happy for me that I was able to procure a supply of English seamen here, otherwife I should not at last have been able to bring the ship home, for I had now lost no less than four and twenty of the hands I had brought out of Europe, and had four and twenty more so ill, that seven of them died in our passage to the Cape.

Monday 20.

Friday 25.

On the 20th, we anchored on the south east side of Prince's Island, in the Streight of Sunda, and the next morning, I sent out the boats for wood and water: of water, however, we could not get a sufficient quantity to complete our stock, for there had not yet been rain enough to supply the springs, the wet monsoon having but just set in. At this time we had the wind so fresh from the south east, which made this part of the island a lee shore, that I could not get under sail till the 25th, when, it being more moderate, we weighed, and worked over to the Java shore. In the evening, we anchored in a bay called by some New Bay, and by others Canty Bay, which is formed by an island of the same name. We had fourteen fathom water, with a sine sandy bottom. The peak of Prince's Island bore N. 13 W. the westermost point of New Island S. 82 W. and the eastermost point of Java that was in fight, N. E. Our distance from the Java shore was about a mile and a quarter, and from the watering-place a mile and an half. New Bay is the best place for wooding and watering of any in these parts: the water is extremely clear, and so good that I made my people stave all that we had taken in at Batavia and Prince's Island, and supply it from this place. It is procured from a fine strong run on the Java shore, which falls down from the land into the sea, and by means of a hoase it may be laded into the boats,

[page] 661

1768. September.

Friday 25.

and the casks filled without putting them on shore, which renders the work very easy and expeditious. There is a little reef of rocks within which the boats go, and lie in as smooth water, and as effectually sheltered from any swell, as if they were in a mill-pond; nor does the reef run out so far as to be dangerous to shipping, though the contrary is asserted in Herbert's Directory; and if a ship, when lying there, should be driven from her anchors by a wind that blows upon the shore, she may, with the greatest ease, run up the passage between New Island and Java, where there is sufficient depth of water for the largest vessel, and a harbour, in which, being land-locked, she will find perfect security. Wood may be had any where either upon Java or New Island, neither of which, in this part, are inhabited.

Having in a few days completed our wood and water, we weighed and stood out of the Streight of Sunda, with a fine fresh gale at South East, which did not leave us till the island of Java was seven hundred leagues behind us.

November.

Monday 23.

Saturday 28.

On Monday the 23d of November, we discovered the coast of Africa; at day-break on the 28th we made the Table Land of the Cape of Good Hope, and the same evening anchored in the bay. We found here only a Dutch ship from Europe, and a snow belonging to the place, which however was in the Company's service, for the inhabitants are not permitted to have any shipping.

Table Bay is a good harbour in summer, but not in winter so that the Dutch will not permit any of their vessels to lie here longer than the 15th of May, which answers to our November. After that time, all ships go to False Bay, which is well sheltered from the north west winds, which blow here with great violence.

[page] 662

1768. November.

At this place we breathed a pure air, had wholesome food, and went freely about the country which is extremely pleasant, so that I began to think myself already in Europe. We found the inhabitants open, hospitable and polite, there being scarcely a Gentleman in the place, either in a public or private station, from whom I did not receive some civility; and I should very ill deserve the favours they bestowed, if I did not particularly mention the First and Second Governor, and the Fiscal.

1769. January.

Wednes. 6.

The recovery of my people made it necessary to continue here till the 6th of January 1769; in the evening of this day I set sail, and before it was dark cleared the land.

Wednes. 20.

Sunday 24.

Saturday 30.

On the 20th, after a fine and pleasant passage, we made the island of Saint Helena; and set sail again on the morning of the 24th. At midnight on the 30th, we made the north east part of the Island of Ascension, and brought to till day-light, when we ran in close to it. I sent a boat out to discover the anchoring-place which is called Cross-hill Bay, while we kept running along the north east and north side of the island, till we came to the north west extremity of it, and in the afternoon anchored in the bay we sought. The way to find this place at once, is to bring the largest and most conspicuous hill upon the island to bear S. E.; when the ship is in this position, the Bay will be open, right in the middle between two other hills, the westermost of which is called Cross-hill, and gives name to the Bay. Upon this hill there is a flag-staff, which if a ship brings to bear S. S. E. ½ E. or S. E. by E. and runs in, keeping it so till the is in ten fathom water, she will be in the best part of the Bay. In our run along the north east side of the island, I observed several other small sandy bays, in some of which my boat found good anchor-

[page] 663

1769. January.

Saturday 30.

February.

Monday 1.

age, and saw plenty of turtle, though they are not so convenient as this, where we had plenty of turtle too. The beach here is a fine white sand; the landing-place is at some rocks, which lie about the middle of the Bay, and may be known by a ladder of ropes which hangs from the top to mount them by. In the evening I landed a few men to turn the turtle that should come on shore during the night, and in the morning I found that they had thus secured no less than eighteen, from four hundred to six hundred weight each, and these were as many as we could well stow on the deck. As there are no inhabitants upon this island, it is a custom for the ships that touch at it to leave a letter in a bottle, with their names and destination, the date, and a few other particulars. We complied with this custom, and in the evening of Monday the 1st of February, we weighed anchor and set sail.

Friday 19.

On Friday the 19th, we discovered a ship at a considerable distance to leeward in the south west quarter, which hoisted French colours; she continued in sight all day, and the next morning we perceived that she had greatly outsailed us during the night; she made a tack however in order to get farther to windward, and as it is not usual for ships to turn to windward in these parts, it was evident that she had tacked in order to speak with us. By noon she was near enough to hail us, and, to my great surprise, made use both of my name and that of the ship, enquiring after my health, and telling me, that after the return of the Dolphin to Europe, it was believed we had suffered shipwreck in the Streight of Magellan, and that two ships had been sent out in quest of us. I asked, in my turn, who it was that was so well acquainted with me and my ship, and with the opinions that had been formed of us in Europe after the return of our

5

[page] 664

1769. February.

Friday 19.

companion, and how this knowledge had been acquired. I was answered that the ship which hailed us was in the service of the French East India Company, commanded by M. Bougainville; that she was returning to England from the Isle of France; that what was thought of the Swallow in England, had been learnt from the French Gazette at the Cape of Good Hope; and that we were known to be that vessel by the letter which had been found in the bottle at the Island of Ascension a few days after we had left that place. An offer was then made of supplying me with refreshments, if I wanted any, and I was asked if I had any letters to send to France. I returned thanks for the offer of refreshments, which however was a mere verbal civility, as it was known that I had lately sailed from the places where M. Bougainville himself had been supplied; but I said that I had received letters for France from some Gentlemen of that country at the Cape, and if he would send his boat on board they should be delivered to his messenger. Thus was an occasion furnished for what I have reason to believe was the principal object of M. Bougainville in speaking with us: a boat was immediately sent on board, and in her a young officer, drest in a waistcoat and trowsers; whether he was thus dressed by design I shall not determine, but I soon perceived that his rank was much superior to his appearance. He came down to me in my cabbin, and after the usual compliments had passed, I asked him how he came to go home so soon in the season; to which he replied, that there had been some disagreement between the Governor and inhabitants of the Isle of France, and that he had been sent home in haste with dispatches: this story was the more plausible, as I had heard of the dispute between the Governor and inhabitants of the Isle of France, from a French Gentleman, who came from thence, at the Cape of Good

8

[page] 665

1769. February.

Friday 19.

Hope; yet I was not perfectly satisfied: for, supposing M. Bougainville to have been sent in haste to Europe with dispatches, I could not account for his losing the time which it cost him to speak with me; I therefore observed to this Gentleman, that although he had accounted for his coming before the usual time from the Isle of France, he had not accounted for his coming at an unusual time from India, which must have been the case. To this, however, he readily replied, that they had made only a short trading voyage on the western coast of Sumatra. I then enquired, what commodities he had brought from thence; and he answered, cocoa-nut oil, and rattans: but, said I, these are commodities which it is not usual to bring into Europe; it is true, said he, but these commodities we left at the Isle of France, the oil for the use of the island, and the rattans for ships which were to touch there in their way to China, and in exchange we took in another freight for Europe; this freight I think he said was pepper, and his whole tale being at least possible, I asked him no more questions. He then told me, he had heard at the Cape, that I had been with Commodore Byron at Falkland's Islands; and, said he, I was on board the French ship that met you in the Streight of Magellan, which must have been true, for he mentioned several incidents that it was otherwise highly improbable he should know, particularly the store-ship's running aground, and many of the difficulties that occurred in that part of the Streight which we passed together: by this conversation he contrived to introduce several enquiries, concerning the western part of the Streight, the time it cost me to get through, and the difficulties of the navigation; but perceiving that I declined giving any account of these particulars, he changed his subject. He said, he had head that

VOL. I. 4 Q

[page] 666

1769. February.

Friday 19.

we lost an officer and some men in an engagement with the Indians; and taking notice that my ship was small, and a bad sailer, he insinuated that we must have suffered great hardship in so long a voyage; but, said he, it is thought to be safer and pleasanter sailing in the South Sea than any where else. As I perceived that he waited for a reply, I said, that the great ocean, called the South Sea, extended almost from one pole to the other; and therefore, although that part of it which lay between the Tropics might justly be called the Pacific, on account of the trade-winds that blow there all the year; yet without the Tropics, on either side, the winds were variable, and the seas turbulent. In all this he readily acquieseed, and finding that he could not draw from me any thing to satisfy his curiosity, by starting leading subjects of conversation, he began to propose his questions in direct terms, and desired to know on which side the equator I had crossed the South Seas. A3 I did not think proper to answer this question, and wished to prevent others of the same kind, I rose up somewhat abruptly, and I believe with some marks of displeasure: at this he seemed to be a little disconcerted, and I believe was about to make an apology for his curiosity, but I prevented him, by desiring that he would make my compliments to his Captain, and in return for his obliging civilities present him with one of the arrows that had wounded my men, which I immediately went into my bedroom to fetch: he followed me, looking about him with great curiosity, as indeed he had done from the time of his first coming on board, and having received the arrow, he took his leave.

After he was gone, and we had made fail, I went upon the deck, where my Lieutenant asked me, if my visitor had entertained me with an account of his voyage. This led me

8

[page] 667

1769. February.

Friday 19.

to tell him the general purport of our conversation, upon which he assured me that the tale I had heard was a fiction, for, says he, the boat's crew could not keep their secret so well as their officer, but after a little conversation told one of our people, who was born at Quebec, and spoke French, that they had been round the globe as well as we. This naturally excited a general curiosity, and with a very little difficulty we learnt that they had sailed from Europe in company with another ship, which, wanting some repair, had been left at the Isle of France; that they had attempted to pass the Streight of Magellan the first summer, but not being able, had gone back, and wintered in the river De la Plata; that the summer afterwards they had been more successful, and having passed the Streight, spent two months at the island of Juan Fernandes. My Lieutenant told me also, that a boy in the French boat said he had been upon that island two years, and that while he was there, an English frigate put into the road, but did not anchor, mentioning the time as well as he could recollect, by which it appeared that the frigate he had seen was the Swallow. On the boy's being asked how he came to be so long upon the island of Juan Fernandes, he said that he had been taken upon the Spanish coast in the West Indies in a smuggling party, and sent thither by the Spaniards; but that by the French ship, in whose boat he came on board us, having touched there, he had regained his liberty. After having received this information from my Lieutenant, I could easily account for M. Bougainville's having made a tack to speak to me, and for the conversation and behaviour of my visitor; but I was now more displeased at the questions he had asked me than before, for if it was improper for him to communicate an account of his voyage to me, it was equally improper for me to communicate an account of my voyage to him; and I

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1769. February.

Friday 19.

thought an artful attempt to draw me into a breach of my obligation to secrecy, while he imposed upon me by a fiction that he might not violate his own, was neither liberal nor just. As what the boat's crew told my people, differs in several particulars from the account printed by M. Bougainville, I shall not pretend to determine how much of it is true; but I was then very sorry that the Lieutenant had not communicated to me the intelligence he received, such as it was, before my guest left me, and I was now very desirous to speak with him again, but this was impossible; for though the French ship was foul from a long voyage, and we had just been cleaned, she shot by us as if we had been at anchor, notwithstanding we had a fine fresh gale and all our fails set.

March.

Sunday 7.

Thursday 11.

Tuesday 16.

Thursday 18.

Friday 19.

Saturday 20.

On the 7th of March, we made the Western Islands, and went between Saint Michael and Tercera; in this situation we found the variation 13° 36′ W. and the winds began to blow from the S. W. The gale, as we got farther to the westward, increased, and on the 11th, having got to W.N.W. it blew very hard, with a great sea; we scudded before it with the foresail only, the foot rope of which suddenly breaking, the sail blew all to pieces, before we could get the yard down, though it was done instantly. This obliged us to bring the ship to, but having, with all possible expedition, bent a new foresail, and got the yard up, we bore away again; this was the last accident that happened to us during the voyage. On the 16th, being in latitude 49° 15′ N. we got soundings. On the 18th, I knew by the depth of water that we were in the Channel, but the wind being to the northward, we could not make land till the next day, when we saw the Start Point; and on the 20th, to our great joy, we anchored at Spithead, after a very fine passage, and a fair wind all the way from the Cape of Good Hope.

[page] 669

A

TABLE

OF THE

VARIATION of the COMPASS,

As observed on board of the SWALLOW, in her Voyage round the Globe, in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769.

N. B. The days of the month in this Table, are not by the Nautical Account, as is the custom; but, for the convenience of those that are not used to that way of reckoning, are reduced to the Civil Account: A.M. denotes, that the observation was made in the forenoon, and P.M. in the afternoon, of that day on the noon of which the latitude and longitude of the ship were taken.

TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS:
North. West. West.
1766. August English Channel 22° 30′ From the Downs to the Island of Madeira.
30. P.M. 45° 22′ 13° 17′ 20 25
Septem. 3. P.M. 38 36 13 40 19 04
4. A.M. 37 27 14 12 20 17
Island Madeira 32 34 16 35 16 00
17. A.M. 24 33 19 22 13 00
21. A.M. 17 19 22 19 11 14 The island of Sall, in fight, S. by W. ten leagues.
22. P.M. 16 34 22 29 8 20 Was then between the Island of Sall and the Island of May.
Porto Praya 15 00 23 00 8 00 Island of Saint Jago.
October 10. P.M. 6 34 21 41 5 36 On the passage from the island of Saint Jago to the Streights of Magellan.
11. P.M. 6 40 21 35 6 00
South.
22. A.M. 0 06 25 03 6 23
25. P.M. 4 14 27 23 4 30
27. A.M. 7 03 28 49 3 52
28. P.M. 8 46 29 14 1 50
30. P.M. 10 57 30 09 0 30
31. A.M. 12 30 30 30 No var.

[page] 670

A Table of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS:
1766. South. West. East.
October 31. P.M. 12° 56′ 30° 46 1° 24′ Coast of Patagonia.
Novem. 2. P.M. 17 22 32 09 1 40
7. A.M. 23 54 38 10 4 56
P.M. 5 56
8. P.M. 25 49 39 21 6 45
11. A.M. 29 57 42 27 8 50
15. A.M. 34 12 46 41 12 00
16. A.M. 34 38 47 58 12 36
17. A.M. 34 46 48 28 13 03
P.M. 14 20
18. A.M. 35 37 49 49 14 30 Soundings 54 fathoms of water, with a bottom of fine black sand, rather muddy.
P.M. 15 45 Ditto depth and bottom.
20. P.M. 36 57 51 48 15 33 Ditto depth, fine sand, but not so black, with small shells.
21. A.M. 37 40 51 05 15 52 Had no bottom with 80 fathoms of line.
38 53 53 12 Had soundings at 70 fathoms water.
40 34 53 47 No bottom with 90 fathoms of line.
41 34 55 39 45 fathoms, dark brown sandy bottom.
41 57 56 06 42 fathoms, fine grey sand.
41 06 57 18 46 fathoms, fine dark brown sand.
28. A.M. 41 14 56 48 19 00 39 fathoms ditto bottom, here we caught very good fish with honks and lines.
29. A.M. 42 08 58 41 19 02 32 fathoms of water, with ditto bottom.
P.M. 19 45 33 fathoms depth.
43 18 58 56 Depth 45 fathoms, the same bottom; we had here a calm, and we caught good fish.
44 04 58 53 52 fathoms water, the same bottom.
45 00 59 34 53 fathoms, fine light brown sand.
December 4. P.M. 47 00 60 51 20 20
47 15 61 10 60 fathoms, fine dark sand.
5. A.M. 48 01 61 28 20 40 56 fathoms, with ditto bottom, and grains of sparkling sand mixed with it.
6. A.M. 47 35 62 50 20 34
47 30 63 08 45 fathoms of water, dark sand, with small stones, and in going west about 10 miles, we had 52 fathom, a bottom of soft mud.

[page] 671

A Table of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS:
1766. South. West. East.
December 7. A.M. 47° 14′ 63° 37′ 19° 40′ 54 fathoms, soft mud, with small stones; at this time the land was seen from the mast-heads, somewhere about Cape Blanco.
8. P.M. 48 54 64 14 20 30
9. A.M. 49 12 65 31 20 35
51 15 66 02 53 fathoms, dark grey sand, with small stones.
17. Cape Virgin Mary, Eastermost entrance of the Streight.
Magellan 52 23 68 02 22 50 In the Streights of Magellan.
Elizabeth Island 22 36
Port Famine 22 22
Off Cape Froward 22 10
York Road Ditto
Swallow's Harb. 22 00
Off Cape Notch
1767. Off Cape Upright
Off Cape Pillar 52 45 75 10 21 50 Westermost entrance of the Str.
April 18. P.M. 49 18 79 06 17 36 Coast of Chili in the South Sea.
20. A.M. 48 04 80 56 17 20
26. P.M. 45 57 81 22 16 17
28. P.M. 44 27 81 24 15 10
May 33 40 78 52 11 00 East end of the Isl. Juan Fernandes.
33 45 80 46 10 24 Island of Massafuero.
28. P.M. 29 45 79 50 9 40 In crossing the South Sea.
31. P.M. 26 26 82 15 8 10
June 1. P.M. 25 51 84 23 8 8
7. P.M. 27 23 97 16 5 45
8. A.M. 27 20 97 51 5 45
10. A.M. 26 30 98 25 5 40
12. P.M. 26 53 100 21 4 13
16. P.M. 28 11 111 15 2 00
17. A.M. 28 04 112 37 1 51
18. P.M. 28 07 113 55 2 00
20. A.M. 28 04 116 29 2 09
30. P.M. 26 00 130 55 2 32

[page] 672

A TABLE of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS.
1767. South. West. East.
July 2. P.M. 25° 02′ 133° 38′ 2° 46′ Off Pitcairn's Island.
3. 25 00 136 16 2 30 Crossing the South Sea.
4. A.M. 25 24 137 18 3 43
5. A.M. 24 56 137 23 5 24
6. A.M. 24 32 138 31 4 16
7. A.M. 24 10 139 55 5 12
P.M. 4 02
8. A.M. 23 46 139 55 5 56
10. P.M. 21 38 141 36 4 20
12. A.M. 20 36 145 39 4 40
20 38 146 00 5 00
13. P.M. 21 07 147 44 5 46
15. A.M. 21 46 150 50 6 23
16. P.M. 22 02 151 09 6 34
19. P.M. 19 50 153 59 6 08
20. P.M. 19 08 156 15 7 09
21. P.M. 18 43 158 27 7 38
23. P.M. 16 22 162 32 6 05
24. P.M. 14 19 163 34 6 29
25. A.M. 12 13 164 50 9 30
P.M. 9 40
26. A.M. 10 01 166 52 9 00
28. A.M. 9 50 171 26 9 04
30. A.M. 9 50 175 38 9 32
P.M. 9 00
August I. A.M. 9 53 179 33 10 04
East.
2. A.M. 10 09 178 58 10 30
4. A.M. 10 22 177 10 10 54
5. A.M. 10 35 175 50 11 14
P.M. 10 52
7. P.M. 10 52 172 23 11 17

3

[page] 673

A TABLE of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS.
1767. South. East. East.
August 8. P.M. 11° 02′ 171° 15′ 10° 27′
9. A.M. 10 56 171 00 10 02
11. P.M. 10 49 167 00 10 38
Cape Byron 10 40 164 49 11 00 N.E. end of Egmont, one of the Charlotte Islands.
18. P.M. 9 58 162 57 8 30
19. P.M. 8 52 160 41 8 30
20. A.M. 7 53 158 56 8 31
7 56 158 56 8 20 Off of Carteret's and Gower's Isl.
22. P.M. 6 24 157 32 7 42
24. P.M. 5 07 155 08 6 25
26. P.M. 4 46 153 17 7 14
In sight and on the west side of Nova Britannia 6 30
Cape St. George 5 00 152 19 5 20 Nova Hibernia.
In St. George's Channel 4 40 Nova Britannia. Here the land seemed to have an effect on the needle.
Septem. 16. A.M. 2 19 145 31 6 30 Off the Admiralty Islands.
19. A.M. 1 57 143 28 5 26 From the Admiralty Islands to the Island Mindanao.
1 45 143 02 4 40
20. P.M. 1 33 142 22 4 40
21. A.M. 1 20 141 29 4 54
22. P.M. 0 52 139 56 4 30
23. P.M. 0 05 138 56 4 17
North.
24. P.M. 0 05 138 41 3 08
27. A.M. 2 13 136 41 2 30
P.M. 2 09
2 50 136 17 2 00
30. A.M. 4 25 134 37 1 41
October 3. A.M. 4 41 132 51 3 09
P.M. 3 14
5. P.M. 4 31 132 39 3 10
6. A.M. 4 21 132 45 3 33

VOL. I. 4 R

[page] 674

A TABLE of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS.
1767. North. East. East.
October 8. A.M. 3° 53′ 134° 13′ 3° 38′ From the Admiralty Islands to the Island Mindanao.
9. A.M. 4 03 134 04 3 11
12. P.M. 4 49 133 42 2 19
13. P.M. 5 12 133 27 2 20
16. A.M. 5 54 133 10 2 34
27. P.M. 6 35 127 56 2 10
Cape St. Augustain 6 15 127 20 1 45 Island of Mindanao.
South End 5 34 126 25 1 20 Off the Island Mindanao.
Novem. 6. A.M. 5 34 125 40 0 48 From the Island Mindanao to the Streights of Maccassar.
P.M. 0 49
7. P.M. 5 37 125 23 0 39
8. P.M. 5 30 124 41 0 50
14. A.M. 1 57 122 04 0 06
West.
26. P.M. 0 04 118 15 0 19
South.
27. A.M. 0 14 117 45 0 12
December 7. 3 26 116 45 0 27
Bonthain 5 30 117 53 1 16 At the Island of Celebes.
Island Tonikaky 5 31 117 17 1 00 Off the S.E. end of the Island Celebes.
1768. May 29. P.M. 5 29 110 23 0 56
Off Madura 0 30 On the N.E. part of the Island of Java.
Batavia 0 25
Septem. 30. P.M. 7 41 101 36 0 51 From the Streights of Sunda to the Cape of Good Hope.
October 2. P.M. 10 37 97 19 2 06
4. P.M. 12 13 93 56 3 12
12. P.M. 19 50 76 40 3 30
14. P.M. 21 47 72 47 6 26
15. P.M. 22 53 70 47 8 09
17. A.M. 24 23 68 02 9 36
P.M. 11 20
18. P.M. 25 08 67 21 11 50
19. P.M. 25 08 67 08 12 49

[page] 675

A TABLE of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS.
1768. South. East. West.
Octob. 20. A.M. 24° 59′ 66° 35′ 12° 54′ From the Streights of Sunda to the Cape of Good Hope.
P.M. 11 48
24. A.M. 23 21 64 31 12 54
25. P.M. 23 23 63 35 12 39
26. A.M. 23 32 62 43 13 42
28. P.M. 24 52 60 14 16 10
30. P.M. 25 40 56 50 18 18
31. P.M. 26 31 54 49 18 24
Novem. 1. A.M. 27 05 52 57 20 12
P.M. 20 20
3. A.M. 27 40 50 55 20 58
P.M. 21 23
4. P.M. 27 42 50 10 21 15
5. P.M. 27 44 49 01 21 09
6. P.M. 28 58 46 23 22 38
7. A.M. 29 59 43 55 24 40
P.M. 24 55
8. P.M. 30 12 42 51 25 39
9. A.M. 30 19 41 37 25 50
10. P.M. 30 37 40 48 25 32
11. A.M. 32 02 38 47 25 08
12. P.M. 32 39 37 17 25 02
13. P.M. 33 21 35 27 25 05
19. P.M. 35 17 28 38 22 32
20. P.M. 35 42 27 22 22 46
21. P.M. 35 46 27 00 22 18
22. P.M. 35 04 26 29 22 50
23. P.M. 34 57 25 46 21 39
24. P.M. 34 52 25 28 21 44
Cape of Good Hope 34 24 18 30 19 30
1769. Jan. 9. P.M. 30 37 13 08 19 20 From the Cape to the Island of St. Helena.
14. P.M. 22 16 4 52 16 19

9

[page] 676

A TABLE of the VARIATION of the COMPASS, &c. continued.
TIME. Latitude in at Noon. Longitude in at Noon from London. Variation. REMARKS.
1769. South. East. West.
Jan. 15. P.M. 21° 04′ 3° 54′ 16° 31′ From the Cape to the Island of St. Helena.
18. P.M. 17 05 0 10 14 38
West.
19. P.M. 16 06 1 38 13 46
25. P.M. 14 22 7 04 12 30 From the Island St. Helena to the Island of Ascension.
26. P.M. 12 54 8 05 11 47
27. P.M. 11 36 9 25 11 40
28. P.M. 10 26 10 36 10 46
Feb. 2. P.M. 6 45 14 42 9 34 From the Island of Ascension to England.
3. P.M. 5 04 15 45 9 04
4. A.M. 3 26 16 49 9 10
5. P.M. 2 01 17 34 8 58
6. P.M. 0 20 18 27 8 32
North.
7. P.M. 0 58 19 24 8 37
8. A.M. 1 56 20 16 8 25
10. P.M. 2 39 28 58 7 21
15. P.M. 6 38 32 40 4 35
16. P.M. 8 03 24 18 6 09
19. P.M. 12 06 24 34 6 48
21. P.M. 11 39 27 15 6 12
26. A.M. 23 54 28 15 6 00
March 3. P.M. 32 33 23 35 13 26
4. A.M. 34 02 22 32 13 43
5. P.M. 35 30 21 56 14 53
6. A.M. 36 46 21 23 15 15
P.M. 14 58
Between the Islands of Tereera and St. Michael 13 36
28. P.M. 39 09 19 02 16 46 From this Day till my Arrival in England the weather was so bad that we had no opportunity of making any observation of the Variation.
N.B. The ill sailing of the Swallow prevented me from getting a sufficient number of Soundings to make a separate Table.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.


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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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