RECORD: Horsburgh, James. 1829. India directory, or directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope, Brazil and the interjacent ports. 3rd edn. London: Author.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 01.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


[page i]

INDIA DIRECTORY,

OR

Directions for sailing

TO AND FROM THE

EAST INDIES,

China

NEW HOLLAND, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, BRAZIL,

AND THE

INTERJACENT PORTS:

COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM

ORIGINAL JOURNALS AT THE EAST INDIA HOUSE,

AND FROM

Observations and Remarks,

MADE DURING TWENTY-ONE YEARS EXPERIENCE NAVIGATING IN THOSE SEAS.

BY

JAMES HORSBURGH, F.R.S. A.S.

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ST. PETERSBURGH,
HYDROGRAPHER TO THE HONORABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY.

They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep. Psalm CVII. v. 23, 24.

VOLUME SECOND.

THIRD EDITION.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR,

AND SOLD BY

PARBURY, ALLEN, AND CO. BOOKSELLERS TO THE HONORABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY,

No. 7, LEADENHALL STREET.

1827.

Entered at stationers Dall.

[page ii]

PLUMMER AND BRRWIS, PRINTERS, LOVE LANK,
KASTCHEAR.

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TO THE

HONORABLE THE COURT OF DIRECTORS

OF THE

United East India Company.

HONORABLE SIRS,

PERMIT ME to dedicate to your Honorable Court, a new and much improved edition of the India Directory, which is designed to contribute to the safety and facility of the navigation to, and from India to China, and throughout the seas eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, being highly essential to the interests of the Company, as well as to the prosperity of the British Empire. As it was originally undertaken and completed under the auspices of the Honorable Court, after several years laborious and minute investigation of their maritime records, added to the experience and knowledge acquired during a very long period of navigating in those seas, the author begs leave to submit to the Honorable Directors, this corrected edition, comprising above one hundred and thirty additional pages of new and important information, as a small but sincere testimony of the esteem and respect which he entertains for their patronage and favor, and to subscribe himself

Their very faithful

And most obliged Servant,

JAMES HORSBURGH.

Hydrographical Office, East India House,
London, June 10th, 1827.

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[page v]

CONTENTS.

PAGE
EASTERN SIDE of the Bay of Bengal. Coasts of Chittagong, Aracan, and Ava, with Sailing Directions. 1st. Coast of Chittagong 1
2d. Coast of Arracan, or Aracan, from the White Cliffs to the Island Cheduba 5
3d. Directions for Sailing to the Town of Cheduba, and betwixt that Island and the main 7
4th. Coast of Ava to Cape Negrais, and the Islands adjacent 9
Coast of Pegu; Directions for Sailing to, and from Rangoon River 13
Tanassorim Archipelago, Aladin, and Seyer Islands; and that Coast from Mergui to Junkseylon, with Sailing Directions 25
Andaman Archipelago; with Sailing Directions 30
Nicobar Islands, with Sailing Directions 38
West Coast of Sumatra. 1st Achen, and the circumjacent Islands; Sailing Directions, Winds, and Currents 44
2d. Monsoons; Channels along the West Coast of Sumatra; and Sailing Directions from Achen Head to Bancoongong Bay 49
3d. Directions for Sailing along the Coast from Bancoongong to Padang; adjoining Islands and Shoals. Directions to Sail from Padang to the northward 57
4th. Coast, Islands, and Shoals, from Padang to Fort Marlborough, with Sailing Directions 71
5th. Coast from Fort Marlborough to Flat Point, with Sailing Directions 81
Principal Islands fronting the West Coast of Sumatra; with Sailing Directions, and Borneo Coral Isles 84
Sailing Directions to, and from the Strait of Sunda, and toward the Straits East of Java; North Coast of the former, and adjoining Islands 99
South side of Sunda Strait, with Sailing Directions to Batavia 108
Directions for Sailing from Batavia, and Sunda Strait, to the Strait of Banca: Islands and Dangers in the Passage 119
Strait of Banca; with Sailing Directions 125
Directions to Sail from the Northward, through the Straits of Banca and Sunda 136
Gaspar Straits, with Sailing Directions; N. E. Coast of Banca 140
Sailing Directions from Banca Strait to Pulo Aor. Islands and Dangers adjacent to the Passage. Directions for Rhio Strait 154
Directions for Sailing from Banca Strait, through the Straits of Dryon. To return southward by the same route 159
Directions for Sailing through the Straits of Durian, and Phillip's Channel 166
Strait of Malacca. 1st. Description of Winds and Currents: Directions for Sailing into, or out of the Strait 169
2d. Coast of Pedir, with Sailing Directions along this Coast to Diamond Point 174
3d. Directions for the N. E. Coast of Sumatra, from Diamond Point to Brewer's Strait and Siak River 177
4th. Malay side of the Strait, from Junkseyton to Prince of Wales' Island, with Sailing Directions 183

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PAGE
5th. Directions for Sailing from Prince of Wales Island to the Arroas, and from thence to Parcelar Hill 189
6th. Directions for Sailing from the Sambilangs, to Salangore, and through the Strait of Callam 197
7th. Instructions for Sailing from Parcelar Hill to Cape Rachado, and from thence to Malacca 200
8th. Directions for Sailing from Malacca to Singapore Strait: Coasts, Islands, Banks, and Dangers 208
9th. Singapore Strait; Directions for Sailing through it into the China Sea 214
Directions to enter Singapore Strait, and to return by it, and Malacca Strait 228
China Sea, Monsoons, Winds, Ty-Foongs, and Currents 232
Instructions for Sailing through the China Sea, to, or from Canton River, at all Seasons 236
Islands in the S.Western part of the China Sea; East Coast of Malay; with Sailing Directions 245
Sailing Directions to, and from Siam: Coast of Cambodia; Pulo Oby, Pulo Condore, and adjacent Islands, with Sailing Directions 257
Sailing Directions for the Coast of Tsiompa; Pulo Ceicer de Mer, Pulo Sapata, Catwicks, contiguous Channels, and Dangers 264
Coast of Cochin-China, from Cape Padaran to Cape Turon; Directions for Sailing into the Harbours, and along the Coast 272
Gulf of Tonking, and the Island Hainan, with Sailing Directions 281
Additional Description of the South East Coast of Hainan 287
Paracels, and the Banks or Dangers in the northern part of the China Sea 291
Islands and Harbours on the South Coast of China, westward of Canton River, with Sailing Directions 296
Islands, Channels, Bays, or Harbours, on the Coast of China, eastward of, and near Canton River; with Directions for Sailing toward that River 308
Directions for Sailing into the Typa, also from Macao Road to Bocca Tigris, and from thence into Canton River, to the Second Bar, and to Whampoa 324
Directions to accompany the Chart of Canton River, from the anchorage below the Second Bar to Whampoa Reach, shewing the Dangers of the Second Bar, First Bar, and Brunswick Rock, with marks to avoid them 335
Coast of China to the eastward of the Lema Channel, with Sailing Directions for Ta-thong-moon Passage, Mir's Bay, Harlem Bay, and Ty-poong Harbour; with brief Directions for Sailing to Amoy, Chinchew, and Chusan Harbours; and from thence to the Gulf of Petche-lee 338
Yellow Sea, and Gulf of Petche-lee; with Sailing Directions 354
Directions for Sailing between Canton River and Manilla Bay, in either Monsoon; and to Pulo Aor, and the Strait of Banca, in the N. E. Monsoon 359
Directions for Sailing to Canton River, also to, and from Manilla, by the Outer Passage. Shoals in the S. Eastern part of the China Sea, and near the Palawan Passage, and the Island Palawan 363
West and North Coasts of Luzon, or Luconia, and the Islands contiguous; with Sailing Directions 373
Islands, Channels, and Dangers to the northward of Luconia; with Sailing Directions from Canton River to New South Wales 379
Instructions for Sailing through Balabac Straits, to the Moluccas, to Sooloo, and the Islands decribed. Surigao Passage, Embocadero, and East Coast of Luconia 391
West Coast of Borneo: Directions for Sailing along it, also between it and Billiton, by the Carimata Passage, toward the Straits East of Java, or to the Strait of Macassar 402
Eastern Passage to China, through the Strait of Macassar. Directions for approaching it from southward, and to Sail from Batavia through the Strait: adjacent Headlands, Islands, and Dangers 417
Directions for Sailing from the Strait of Macassar, between Mindanao and Celebes, into the Pacific Ocean: Coasts, Channels, and Islands 431

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Page
Directions for Sailing from the Strait of Macassar to the westward of the Philippine Islands. Channels, Dangers, and Headlands adjoining 438
Directions for the returning Passage from China, on the West sides of the Philippine Islands 451
Eastern Route to China, by the Pitt's Passage. 1st Directions for Sailing from Batavia to the Straits of Salayer: adjoining Islands, Banks, and Dangers 455
2d. Instructions for Sailing through the Pitt's Passage; contiguous Islands and Coasts 467
3d. Gillolo Passage: Islands and Harbours adjacent, with Sailing Directions 474
4th. Dampier's, and Pitt's Straits, with Sailing Directions: Coasts, Islands, and contiguous Dangers 483
Instructions for Sailing from Dampier's Strait to ward China: Coasts, Islands, and Dangers, adjacent to the Passage 493
Directions for Sailing from China, outside of the Philippine Islands, and through the Pitt's Passage into the Ocean 504
Straits to the eastward of Java. 1st. North, and Eastern parts of Java: adjacent Islands, Straits of Bally, and Lombock, with Sailing Directions 509
2d. Great Pater Nosters; Straits of Allass and Sapy, with Sailing Directions 521
3d. Description of Flores; Islands, Dangers, and Straits adjacent; with Sailing Directions 528
4th. Wetter, Timor, and other Islands contiguous to the Ombay Passage; with Sailing Directions 538
Monsoons, Winds, and Weather; Islands in the Molucca, and Banda Seas; with Sailing Directions 547
Passage to China, eastward of New Holland. Van Diemen's Land, and the contiguous Ports; with Sailing Directions 558
Ports, or Places of Shelter, on the S. E. Coast of New South Wales; with Sailing Directions to, and from Port Jackson 566
Sailing Directions from Van Diemen's Land, or Port Jackson, by Northern Routes toward India or China. Contiguous Islands and Dangers 574
Passage from India toward Europe. 1st. Instructions for Sailing from India, round the Cape of Good Hope, to St. Helena 597
2d. Instructions for Sailing from St. Helena to the Island Ascension, and toward the British Channel. Description of the Islands Azores 601
3d. Directions for entering the British Channel, and to Sail inward to the Downs 605

[page vii]

Errata.

By a careful revision of the press, typographical errors have been nearly excluded from this extensive work; all that have been discovered, after a rigld examination, are the following.

Page, Line.

246–13 from bottom, for Jarra read Jarrang.

ERRATA ADDITIONAL TO VOL. I.

Page. Line3

153 – 2 for 43° 40′ do. Foot Note, line 3d, for eastward read westward.

[page 1]

EASTERN SIDE

OF THE

BAY OF BENGAL.

COASTS of CHITTAGONG, ARACAN, and AVA, with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

1st. COAST OF CHITTAGONG.

White Cliffs and adjacent coast.

WHITE SANDY CLIFFS, fronting the sea on the northern part of the coast of Aracan, begin nearly at Elephant Point in lat. 21° 10′, extending to 21° 24′ N., and are separated by the opening of Cruzcool, from Mascall Island and the Coast of Chittagong. The opening of Cruzcool, called also Coxe's Bazar, has deep water inside, but it will only admit small vessels in the channel, which is formed between a reef that fronts the main at Coxe's Bazar, and the reef that stretches from Red Crab Island a great way to the South and S. Eastward, and joining to the southern part of the large Island, Mascall. Red Crab Island, situated on the western extremity of this reef in lat. 21° 28′ N., and about 2½ miles from the S.W. end of Mascall, is a small sandy island, with some shrubs on it, having breakers extending around to a considerable distance, with very irregular soundings near them. In the channel leading to Coxe's Bazar, there are 2½ to 3½ fathoms water, between the reefs which form it, and it extends nearly due north to the S. E. point of Mascall.

January 22d, 1825, Capt. Crawford, in the Research, worked into Coxe's Bazar, with the flotilla of gun vessels in company, and the least water on the bar, was 3 fathoms hard bottom. At noon anchored in the harbour, in 12 fathoms, extremes of Mascall Island from North to N. 55° W., centre of Red Crab Tree Island Reefs N. 70° W., another Island N. 83° W., entrance of Ramoo Creek S. E. distant ¼ of a mile, Sandy Entrance Point S. 25° W., and the Outer Pagoda on a Hill S. 14° E.

From lat, 21° N. to the White Cliffs, the coast of Aracan is bold and safe to approach, with good anchorage ground. Vessels bound to Chittagong, or those that may be driven to the eastward by stress of weather in the S.W. monsoon, usually endeavour to make this part of the coast, which requires great caution, as the weather is mostly thick and stormy, and the White Cliffs low, and not easily discerned, unless the sun is shining bright to the westward; so that if a ship go so close in, as to make this part, with a strong breeze, and a tide of 4 or 5 knots on the flood, she will not be able to haul out sufficiently to clear the Kuttupdeah sands, more particularly the outer patch, and will therefore be obliged to anchor in a heavy sea, with strong tides, at all times to be avoided if possible.

Between the third and fourth of the Sandy Cliffs, coming from the northward, there is a small run of fresh water, where ships which happen to be becalmed in the fair season, might obtain a supply of that necessary article.

Directions.

If a ship make the land here, she must haul immediately to the westward, to avoid the Banks of Kuttupdeah and Mascall, which commence off the entrance of Coxe's Bazar; some

VOL. II. A

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of them are 9 or 10 miles off shore, and the outermost bank is steep on all sides, having from 15 to 20 fathoms close to, and only 6 or 8 feet on it at low water.

October 3d, 1822, Capt. Allport, sailed from Chittagong River for Bengal, and at 6 P. M. tacked in 12 fathoms, with a shoal of high breakers bearing W. S.W. about 1 mile, with discoloured water extending about 2 miles to the southward, and the shoal appeared nearly dry at low tide: this danger he made in lat. 21° 34′ N. and 14 or 15 miles west of Chittagong. Capt. Ross, the Company's Marine Surveyor, states this patch to be in lat. 21° 33′ N., and about.10 miles west of Chittagong, being steep to, from 11 to 2 fathoms at a cast; but its tail extends down to about lat a 21° 20′ N. with from 4 to 9 fathoms on its extremity, and it has lately been called the Patch Sand.

THE FLOOD sets toward the entrance of Coxe's Bazar, and the channel that separates Mascall Island from Kuttupdeah, rendering it doubly necessary to keep a good offing, after seeing the White Cliffs.

If hazy Weather prevent the White Cliffs from being discerned until a ship approach near them, when the wind is too far westerly for her to clear the shoals, a place of shelter for small vessels may be found, by sailing within the westernmost shoal, or even within Kuttupdeah if necessary. To gain this place, pass Red Crab Island in 8 fathoms, bearing East 2 or 3 miles, and from this station, steer about N. by W. in 10 to 15 fathoms until the passage between Kuttupdeah and Mascall is quite open; then steer direct for the opening, about N.E. by N., in 7 to 10 fathoms water, taking care to avoid the shoals lining the shore on both sides of the entrance; having got within the point of Kuttupdeah, you may anchor secure, in 10 fathoms soft ground. From the point of that island, a spit extends S. W. by S. several miles, with breakers on it in some places; and a bank stretches from the Mascall shore to the distance of 1¼ mile, both of which will be avoided by keeping the passage quite open as directed above. It would be improper to run 1 mile within the point of Kuttupdeah, for about 2 miles within the entrance, a bank projects from that island more than half way across the channel. The channel that separates Mascall Island from the mainland is narrow, having only 1 fathom water in some places.

Uckoia channel.

THE CHANNEL inside of Kuttupdeah, which separates it from the north part of Mascall Island and from the main, called Uckoia by the natives, is only safe for small vessels, the soundings in it being various, from 1½ or 2, to 4, 5, and 6 fathoms. The northern entrance of this channel, formed between the north end of Kuttupdeah and Cuckold's Point, is contracted by banks on each side which stretch to a considerable distance to seaward, having 1½, 2, or 3 fathoms in the passage between them. These banks are visible when the tide is low, but are overflowed in high tides, making it prudent for a vessel going in or out by this passage, to keep a boat sounding on each bow.

About 3 or 4 miles inside of Cuckold's Point, lies the entrance of Kentlaw River, having 3 or 4 fathoms between the banks that project from each side; this river affords good shelter in the S.W. monsoon for small vessels, but is not above a cable's length from side to side, and ½ a mile inside, it divides into two branches: one of these takes an easterly direction to Julkuddar Fort, where there is fresh water; the other called Khaut Colley, stretches to the West and N. Westward, and communicates with the sea a little to the northward of Cuckold's Point, by which that part of the land forms an island. Khaut Colley River or Creek, is very shoal, and will not admit vessels of any size, but the opposite entrance of Kentlaw, although narrow, forms a safe harbour.

Kuttupdeah, or

KUTTUPDEAH ISLAND is low and woody, about 4 leagues in length nearly N. by E. and S. by W., the north end being in lat. 21° 56′ N. On the south end there is fresh water close to a tope of trees, and several creeks are found on the eastern side, one of these

[page] 3

called Pilot Cotta Creek, divides the island in two pasts, having 5 or 6 fathoms water at its eastern entrance, and 5 feet on the bar where it joins the sea on the west side of the island. The south part of this island has extensive sands projecting from it, as far south as the dangerous patch in the offing.

Mascall Islands.

Mascall Island has some small elevations, and of the two, being the largest, it and Kuttupdeah, are generally known by the name of Mascall Islands.

About 3½ leagues from the north end of Kuttupdeah, and 2½ leagues from Chittagong River, is the entrance of Anghor Colley or Sunkar River, which has shoals barring it, and lining the coast from thence southward; this having a large opening, may at first be mistaken for Chittagong River.

To sail from White cliffs to Chittagong River.

A ship being abreast of the southern part of the White Cliffs, in lat. 21° 10′ N., in 18 fathoms water, and bound to Chittagong, with the wind fair, a north course will carry her clear of all the shoals, passing them in 13 or 14 fathoms, with an offing of 4 to 4½ leagues from the Mascall Islands. When the south end of Kuttupdeah bears E. by N., she will be past the north end of the outermost shoal, and may haul in more toward the shore, keeping an offing of 9 or 10 fathoms, full 2½ leagues from Kuttupdeah. When past this island, she may haul still nearer the shore, and steer along it about a league distant in 6 fathoms, until the mouth of Chittagong River is seen. The distance from Kuttupdeah to the river's mouth, is about 6 leagues, and the course N. ¾ W.; the coast between them is low and flat near the sea, but hilly 2 leagues inland. If the weather is elear, it will not be easy to mistake Anghor Colley entrance for that of Chittagong River, nor to miss the latter, which lies in lat. 22° 13′ N. The chain of hills between Kuttupdeah and the river, situated about 6 miles inland, ends in a point about 3 miles south of the parallel of the river's mouth. To the N.W. 4 or 5 miles from the end of this chain of hills, there are two small detached clusters of hills within 3 miles of the shore, the northernmost of which lies close behind the Bunder, or anchoring place, in the river.

The Fakeer's Tree is thick and bushy, situated 3 miles to the southward of Norman's Point, and 4 miles north of Anghor Colley, and being close to the shore, may be discerned although hazy weather prevail.

In clear weather, the hill called Shakbroage, with two round trees and a flagstaff on it, may be seen when abreast of the Fakeer's Tree, bearing N. ½ E. distant 10 or 11 miles; this hill terminates to the south, a chain of low hills extending parallel to the coast, in which Seetacoon Hill opposite to the Island Sun-Deep, is the highest and most remarkable, having on it a small Pagoda.

The bottom between Kuttupdeah and Chittagong River is stiff and good for anchorage, and a ship bound into the river, wanting a pilot, should anchor abreast of the Fakeer's Tree in 6 fathoms, about 1½ mile from the shore, from whence a gun may be heard at Islamabad; but in strong gales, the sea here runs very short, and often breaks all over a small vessel.

It would be dangerous to enter the river without a pilot, but the following directions may be useful, if obliged to run into it from necessity.

Directions for entering that river.

CHITTAGONG RIVER'S ENTRANCE, is formed on the N.W. side by Petunga Point, and a contiguous sandy islet fronting the sea; and on the East side by Norman's Point, which is low, and projects very little from the coast line. The breadth of the entrance between these points, is about 1¼ mile, but the channel is not more than a small quarter of a mile wide, and formed close to Petunga Point, it being contracted on the eastern side by sands dry at low water, and partly at half ebb, which extend from Norman's Point about a mile to the N.W. and Westward, and nearly 1½ mile to the S.W., where that part of the sand forms the eastern boundary of the Bar, which fronts the mouth of the channel. From the sandy islet that fronts Petunga Point, a sand projects about ½ a mile to the S. Westward, and bounds

A 2

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the entrance of the channel and the bar on the west side, the latter having 2 and 2¼ fathoms on it at low water spring tides.

When the river is well open, the best guide to enter it, seems to be, to bring Petunga Point on the N.W. side of the entrance, to bear N.½ E. or N. by E., and with this bearing continued, steer for it, as the channel leads close to that side of the entrance. When within the bar, and near Petunga Point, the channel continues in a N. by E. direction, or a little to the left of the flagstaff on a small hill on the eastern side of the river, and nearly in a direct line with some trees on small risings, to the northward of the flagstaff. Having approached the eastern shore when nearly abreast of the flagstaff, the channel is there close along this shore for about 2 miles, or until you are close to the mouth of the second creek on the eastern side, counting from the flagstaff mount. From the mouth of this creek, the channel takes a West and W. by N. direction to a point on the western shore, and it then continues close along this side of the river to the town of Islamabad, or Chittagong, where you must anchor and moor immediately, the channel being only about a cable's length across. From the anchorage Shakbroage bears North. The soundings in the channel, are usually from 2 or 2¼ fathoms, to 3 and 3½ fathoms at low water spring tides, and in October, the rise of tide is 15 feet at the flagstaff, and 13 feet outside, on the springs; and about 10 feet on the neaps. High water at the flagstaff on full and change of the moon, at 1 hour 30 minutes, and at 1 hour outside the bar, where the flood sets about N. N.W., and the ebb to the S. S. E., with a velocity of 3 to 4 miles an hour, usually, on the springs.

Directions from the River Hoogly to Chittagong.

Mr. P. G. Sinclair, Senior Branch Pilot, at Calcutta, gives the following directions for ships bound to Chittagong. The usual track from the Eastern Channel to Chittagong, is to cross the Patch Sand, and sight the White Cliffs about Coxe's Bazar, keeping to the westward of Red Crab Island, and working up betwixt the two outer sands; which track seems proper in some periods of the S.W. monsoon, when cloudy weather often prevents observations from being obtained. But in the fine weather months of either monsoon, the shortest and best passage, and having more room for working if requisite, will be found to the westward of the Patch Sand; and the best guidance thereto is, by steering E. by N. from the tail of Sagor Sand, until you shoal on the leading sand to Chittagong into 5 fathoms, then steer due East, and you will deepen gradually into 12 fathoms on the western edge of the Patch Sand: if you make the northern part of this sand, you will shoal suddenly into 5 and 3 fathoms, therefore it is advisable for all ships bound to Chittagong, to haul to the northward after getting one cast of 12 fathoms, the worst part of the Patch Sand being its northern end, which is easily discernible in blowing weather, by the agitated water upon it. At the distance of ½ a mile to the northward of it, you may cross to the eastward, carrying 7 and 8 fathoms water; and thus situated, any vessel may steer towards Chittagong River on a northerly course, with safety. There is a pilot constantly in attendance, to carry ships into the river, which has buoys placed on the sands to point out the channel.

In the S.W. monsoon, the bar of the river looks frightful, as the sea breaks over it in most places, and the eastern side of the entrance is bounded by sands which dry at half ebb, or at low water. The best time to enter the river is at high water slack; as the flood sweeps rapidly across the entrance, it is dangerous to attempt going in, while it is making. Next to high water slack, the best time to enter it, is when the ebb has begun to make, but then, there is a risk of being driven on the flat off Norman's Point.

Geo. Site of islamabad.

ISLAMABAD, in lat. 22° 21′ N. lon. 91° 45′ E. from an observation of the transit of Venus over the sun's disc, in 1761, the principal town on the coast of Chittagong, is situated about 2½ leagues up from the entrance of the river; it is a place of some trade, under the Bengal Government, there being a marine yard, where ships of considerable burthen are constructed, and good sail-cloth manufactured. Grain is procured at a very reasonable rate, the adjacent country abounding in rice.

[page] 5

Bominy Harbour.

BOMINY HARBOUR, in lat. 22° 39′ N. about 12½ leagues to the northward of Chittagong, was formerly a place of shelter for ships, which happened to be driven to the northward of Chittagong River during southerly winds, and the passage towards it, was contiguous to the coast in 6 and 5 fathoms; but the vast quantity of soil carried down the great rivers, is said to have filled up this harbour and the channel leading to it, so that the depths are not more than 2 or 3 fathoms at the present time.

2d, COAST OF ARRACAN, OR ARACAN, FROM THE WHITE CLIFFS TO THE ISLAND CHEDUBA.

Geo. Site of Elephant Point

ELEPHANT POINT, or DOMBUCK POINT, in lat. 21° 10′ N. lon. 92° 2′ E. the southern extremity of the range of white cliffs that fronts the sea on the northern part of the coast of Aracan.

Shapooree Island, and Naaf River.

SHAPOOREE ISLAND, in lat. 20° 45′ N., distant 9½ leagues to the S. S. Eastward of Elephant Point, and fronting the Naaf River, is 2 or 3 miles in extent, surrounded by shoals, which project about 2 miles to the westward, and to nearly 2 leagues distance in a southerly direction; having an intricate channel between them, about 1½ and 2 miles to the southward of the island leading into the river, the entrance to which is bounded on the east side by Cypress Point. Tek-Naaf, is a low point of land, a little to the north of Shapooree Island, and with this island, bounds the river on the western side, which extends in a N. by W. direction nearly parallel to the coast, as far as Elephant Point. Although the Naaf River bas depths of 12 to 8 and 7 fathoms, when inside of the bar and outer shoals; yet, in the opinion of Capt. Crawford, who took the Research and Flotilla into this river in January, 1825, it will always be dangerous for shipping; because, on the flood tide, the surf and swell runs too high in 3 fathoms water for ships to cross the outer bar, which has 3½ fathoms hard bottom on it at high water, and this is the safest time to pass between the outer shoals, into the river.

Geo. Site of St. Martin's Island.

ST. MARTIN'S ISLAND, in lat. 20° 34′ N., lon. 92° 17′ E., distant 10 miles south from Shapooree, and about 6 miles from the nearest shore, is low, and lined by a reef on the west side, which projects also a little way from the south point, but nearly 2 miles from the north extremity of the island in a N. by W. direction, towards the shoals which front the mouth of the river Naaf, and the Island Shapooree. There is an extensive reef with breakers, about mid-way between the main and St. Martin's Island, but near the east side of the latter, there is good anchorage in 6 or 7 fathoms, where the transports anchored in 1825, with springs of fresh water on this side of the island.

St. Martin's Reef.

ST. MARTIN'S REEF, upon which some ships have been lost, is about 2 leagues directly west from St. Martin's Island, having high breakers on it at times, and it is of considerable extent, in a N. by W. and S. by E. direction.

Close to it there are 4 and 5 fathoms, 9 and 10 fathoms at a small distance all round, with from 8 to 9 fathoms hard ground, in a safe channel between it and the island. Ships passing this reef in the night, should not come under 20 fathoms: and it may be observed, that from this part of the coast, soundings extend directly across the Bay, to Point Palmiras.

About 4 leagues to the S. E. of St. Martin's Island, and 5 or 6 miles off shore, there is a small shoal, with 8 and 7 fathoms water betwixt it and the main, and 8 fathoms close to it all around. The coast between the Naaf and Aracan Rivers, is lined by a shoal bank, having 3 or 4 fathoms on the edge of it in some places, at 2 or 3 miles distance off shore.

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Oyster Rock and Reef.

Miou River.

OYSTER ROCK, in lat. 20° 10′ N., about 6½ miles off shore, is very little above water, small, rocky, and dangerous, having a narrow bank or spit, with shoal water on it, extending about 7 miles from the Oyster Rock in a S. Easterly direction, which has been called the Oyster Reef; and there are 10 fathoms water close to them on the outside. Miou River's entrance in lat. 20° 11′ N., distant 11 miles to the eastward of the Oyster Rock, has a shoal bank on each side, with 1½ or 2 fathoms on the bar betwixt the reefs which form it. This river is of considerable size, extending inland to the northward, and it has been sometimes mistaken for Aracan River: there is a passage of 4½, 5, and 6 fathoms betwixt the Oyster Rock Reef and the bank that fronts the mouth of the Miou River.

Geo. Site of Mosque Point.

Aracan River.

MOSQUE POINT, or BHUDDER MOKHAM, in about lat. 20° 7′ N. lon. 93° 5′ E., forming the northern boundary of the entrance of Aracan River, is law, and has some rocks contiguous to it above and under water, called the Fakiers; and the coast between it and Miou River's mouth, which is distant about 5 leagues, is lined by a shoal bank, with breakers in some parts, which should not be approached under 6½ or 7 fathoms. The channel into Aracan River, is betwixt the Fakier's, and the small islets, called Savages, which lie close to the N.W. point of Bolongo, the westernmost of the Broken Islands; and the best track is to keep near to the N. west side of Bolongo, and to the northernmost of the Savages, called Passage Island, which has from 14 to 19 fathoms water almost close to its northern side, with 8 and 9 fathoms near to the Fakier's on the N.W. side of the channel. There are 3½ and 4 fathoms on the bar about 3 miles to the S.W. of Mosque Point, and 2 miles off the shore of Bolongo; and the depths are from 8 to 12 fathoms along the western coast of this island, at 2½ and 3 miles distance. When inside of Passage Island, the fair track up Aracan River, is first N. Easterly, then North and N. by W. as far as Oriatung Pagoda, which is about 6 leagues up the river, and the soundings in this track are usually from 4 to 8 or 9 fathoms.

Broken Islands.

BROKEN ISLANDS, extend nearly North and South, parallel to each other, Bolongo the westernmost about 5 leagues, which has a reef projecting from its south point, and a reef also projects from the south point of the adjacent large island.

Between, these two, Western Islands, there is good, anchorage in 8 or 10 fathoms mud, or in 5 fathoms farther up into the strait, where ships might be sheltered from all winds but those that blow from the south. This strait has been named Research Strait, which has only 2 and 1½ fathoms at the north end, between the N. E. point of Bolongo and a spit projecting from the opposite island, consequently will not admit of ships passing through, into Aracan River. These islands are mountainous, woody, and rugged, without any appearance of inhabitants or cultivation; and the whole of the coast of Aracan, both to the northward and southward of them, has a similar appearance, presenting a most dreary aspect when viewed from sea.

The south ends of the Broken Islands, although bounded by rugged black rocks, with others under water, yet as most of these are visible, and do not extend far out, they are not very dangerous. From the south end of the westernmost, island, a spit of hard ground projects to a considerable distance, having 11 fathoms on its extremity, and on each side 15 fathoms soft mud.

Terribles

Directions.

TERRIBLES, in lat. 19° 24′ to 19° 27′ N., distant from the shore about 4 leagues, are two clusters of rocks about 14 feet above water, and about 3 miles distance from each other, bearing nearly N. N. E. and opposite: from the northernmost cluster, a spit of shoal water is said to project a considerable way to the N.W., with 20 fathoms close to it on each side. The southernmost cluster bears from the south end of the outer Broken Island S. S. E.¼ E.,

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distant about 9 leagues; and from the N.W. point Of Cheduba it its about 15 leagues distance: N. N. W.¼ W., being in a. direct line between them: close to it on the west side, there are 23 fathoms water, and the depths increase regularly to 100 fathoms no ground, about 6½ leagues to the westward. Ships passing along this coast, ought not to approach the Terribles in the night under 28 or 30 fathoms; and in crossing the entrance of Aracan River, they should not borrow toward Oyster Island, or the outermost Broken Island, to less than 20 or 22 fathoms.

There is a passage inside of the Terribles, with 10 to 15 fathoms water between them and the shoals fronting the opposite coast, near to two isles called Saddle Island, and Cap Island, which are situated near the shore, off the N.W. point of Ramree; but this passage is thought to be unsafe, as a rock has lately been discovered in the fairway, with only 2¼ fathoms water on it, over which, the Guide, pilot vessel passed, drawing only one foot less water than the depth on the rock: this passage ought, therefore, not to be used.

3d. DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING TO THE TOWN OF CHEDUBA, AND BETWIXT THAT ISLAND AND THE MAIN.

Cheduba Geo. Site of the Northernmost Rocks.

CHEDUBA, or SHEDDUBA, is a middling high island, of round form, extending North and South about 6 leagues, but from both ends, reefs and islets project several miles to seaward, which ought to be approached with great caution in the night. The outermost rocks projecting from the N.W. end of the island about 3 or 4 miles, are in lat. 18° 58′ N., lon. 93° 18′ E., or 61 miles West from Diamond Island by chronometer, and are part of a reef composed of rocks and sand banks, above and under water, but there is an islet, having on it a single tall tree, that may be seen a considerable distance.

To sail from northward into Cheduba Road.

Anchorage.

Geo. Site of the town pagoda.

Ships coming in to the northward of Cheduba, ought not to approach the reef under 11 or 12 fathoms water, for near it, the bottom is mostly rocky, and the soundings not very regular. Being within the reef, the water shoals very gradually to 7, 6, and 5½ fathoms, and the course should not be more to the southward than E. by S. until well over to the eastern shore, for the soundings there, are more regular and the water deeper than on the Cheduba side, which is very flat and shoal to a considerable distance. By steering along the eastern or Ramree side at 2 to 1½ miles distance, there will seldom be less than 5 fathoms, and when to the southward of Rocky Point Bay, having brought a remarkable hummock or conical mount to bear E. by N. or more northerly, the water will deepen to 6 or 7 fathoms. Between the Ramree shore and Cheduba, about 4½ miles to the north of the anchorage, there is a very dangerous patch of rocks nearly in mid-channel, with 6 fathoms close to, and having only 10 or 11 feet water upon it, with 7 or 8 fathoms to the westward, and 5 or 6 to the eastward. The account of this danger has been transmitted by Capt. Ross, Marine Surveyor to the Company, which was not previously known, and must be avoided with great care, as it lies in the fair channel, bearing about E. ½ N. from the north point of Cheduba, and north a little westerly from the N. E. point of that island, opposite to a point on the Ramree shore, and distant from that shore about 2 miles. A ship should keep nearer to Ramree than mid-channel, when the north point of Cheduba bears W. by S.; a moderately high and round island will then be seen bearing S. by E.½ E., and by steering for it, when past the mid-channel rock mentioned above, she will shoal gradually over to the west, toward the town of Cheduba, where she may anchor in 4½ or 5 fathoms, with Round Island bearing S. 17° E., and the town Pagoda W. ¾ S. This Pagoda has on its top, a brazen image of a large bird, resembling a goose, and is situated in lat. 18° 49′ N., lon. 93° 34′ E., or 45 miles west from Diamond Island by chronometer. Capt. Ross, the Company's Marine Surveyor, lately made the anchorage 1° 59′ East from Chittagong by good chronometers, which would place the Pagoda in lon. 93° 40′ E. Captain P. Heywood anchored at the town of Cheduba in

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H. M. S. Trincomale, December, 11th, 1801, in 4½ fathoms, with the Pagoda W. 19° S., Rajah's House W. 4° S., the N. E. point of Cheduba N. 59° W., mouth of the river W. 15° S., East point of Cheduba S. 8° W., centre of Low Island S. 7° E., centre of Round Island S. 18° E., the S.W. extreme of the Easternmost Island S. 47° E., Southernmost Island on that side S. 63° E., South point of Ramree East, North extreme N. 35° W. In the road, the tide rises from 6 to 10 feet; high water about 11½ hours at full and change of the moon.

Description.

Ships may fill water at half ebb in their own boats, but it will be procured more expeditiously by the country boats. The landing place is near a small wooden bridge, at a wharf about 2 miles up the river on the starboard side, where there is a bazar well supplied with poultry, hogs, goats, fruits, and vegetables in abundance, at reasonable prices, and of excellent quality. From the entrance of the river, mud flats stretch 1½ mile out, making the approach difficult to a stranger; but inside, although narrow and winding, there is water sufficient for large boats at all times of tide.

Rawer Island and Harbour.

RAMREE, RAMRIE, or YAMBIE MEW, forming the N. E. side of Cheduba Strait, extends to the N. Westward to Saddle and Cap Isles, where an inlet or river, stretches inland to the eastward, and uniting with another branch that proceeds from Ramree Harbour, separates Ramree from the other land, giving it the character of an island, which is of moderate height near the sea. The south point of Ramree lies directly east from Cheduba anchorage, betwixt which point and the nearest island, there is a passage with from 3 to 7 and 10 fathoms, leading into the large space called Ramree Harbour; and another passage leading into it, is from the southward, along the eastern side of the chain of islands that projects from the south point of Ramree in a S. by E. direction: the largest, and nearest to the point is named Lord Amherst's Island, the next Adam's Island, the third Still's Island, and the two southernmost, Wyndham's and Harrison's Islands, which are small. These islands are lined by rocks and shoal water, and an extensive shoal projects from the eastern shore nearly over to the islands, which greatly contracts the channel, and the depths in it are generally irregular, from 7 to 4 or 3½ fathoms. When inside of Ramree Point, the depths increase, but there are several shoals, with good passages between them, in this wide inlet, which is about 3½ and 4 miles in breadth, extending about 5 leagues in a northerly direction, where it branches into several rivers, one leading to Aracan, and that on the western side forms Hasting's or Amherst Harbour, which has depths of 3½ to 4 fathoms water, and is very safe.

Winds in N. E. monsoon.

Geo. Site of Tree Island.

Although a brisk southerly wind with a northerly current, is sometimes experienced on the coasts of Aracan and Ave in the N. E. monsoon, the prevailing winds are from W. N.W. and N.W. in the day, and from northward in the night, seldom veering to N. E. It may, therefore, be preferable for a ship leaving Cheduba Road or Ramree Harbour, to proceed to sea by the southern channel when the northerly winds prevail, and not lose time beating to the northward round the reef off the north end of Cheduba. The passage best known, is between Round Island. and Flat, or False Island, to the westward, and Lord Amherst's or Ramree Chain to the eastward, afterward to the south of Tree Island, which is situated in lat. 18° 26′ N., lon. 93° 47′ E., about 5 leagues S. E. by S. from the South end of Cheduba, being the southernmost of a detached chain of islands and banks that stretch from the latter. Tree Island* is of circular form, about 1 or 1½ mile in diameter, with a small hill near the middle of it covered with trees; one of these is conspicuous, being higher than the others. From the east side of the island a spit projects, but it is steep to, on the other sides; on the bank a little to the northward of it, there are 6 and 7 fathoms rocky bottom, and to the eastward of it in the channel, from 12 to 16 fathoms.

* It is sometimes called Foul Island, and by Captain Ritchie, Christmas Island; there are on it two pools of fresh water. The name given to this island by the natives of the coast, is said to be Negamalé.

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To sail from Cheduba Road to the Southward in that season; islands and dangers.

Between Tree Island and the others off the S. E. end of Cheduba, there was thought formerly to be no safe passage over the coral bank, but H. M. sloop, Trincomale, with the Sybille frigate in company, left Cheduba Road, December 15th, 1801, and proceeded to sea between Round Island and the islands to the eastward, leaving Flat Island and the contiguous rocks near Cheduba to the northward, and Low Island and Tree Island, with the rocks and breakers near them, to the southward. After weighing from Cheduba Road, these ships steered to give a good birth td the sand projecting from Round Island to the northward, and had regular soundings mostly from 5 to 6½ fathoms in passing between the Ramree Chain and Round Island, until betwixt the latter and Low Island, the bottom became uneven and composed of coarse sand and coral; there was, however, never less than 5 fathoms in passing between it and the rocks that lie off the south point of Flat Island, which ought to be borrowed upon pretty close in coming out by this channel, after passing Round Island.

Passing out between the islands in 7½ fathoms, observed at noon in lat. 18° 34′ N. Tree Island bearing S. 28° E., outermost rock off Low Island S. 35° E., about 3 miles; centre of Low Island N. 55° E., South point of Flat Island W. 3° S., distance 2½ miles, N. E. point of the same N. 25° W., West point of Round Island N. 10° W., East point of the same N. 6° W., and the South point of Ramree N. 26° E. When the breakers were distant 5 miles, on with Tree Island, bearing S. 52° E., had 16 fathoms, and deepened to 25 fathoms, when the West point of Cheduba bore N. 34° W., Pyramid N. 23½° W., Round Island N. 15° E., and Tree Island S. 67° E.

Nearly midway, in a direct line between Tree Island and Foul Island, which is about 7 leagues to the S. S. E. there is a rocky bank of coral, with 6 or 7 fathoms, or probably less water on it in some parts, from which Foul Island bears S. S. E. about 4 leagues. On either side of this bank, between it and the island last mentioned, or between it and Tree Island, there appear to be safe channels leading from the south entrance of Cheduba Strait to seaward. In the northernmost channel, the least water found has been 12 fathoms, with Tree Island bearing N. N.W. ¾ W. distant 7 or 8 miles.

Sandoway Road and Town.

SANDOWAY ROAD, in lat. 18° 35′ N. formed inside of reefs at the mouth of the river of this name, has anchorage 4 and 5 fathoms; and Sandoway Town, which lies about 8 miles up the river in a S. E. direction, is a place of some consequence; but the channels between the reefs leading to the road, seem intricate to strangers, although there is one from the southward, and another from the northward. About 2 leagues north from Sandoway Road, there is a Town and Pagoda near the shore, opposite to which, lie the Ospray and Gungasaer Reefs, from 2 to 3½ miles off shore, having soundings of 4 to 7 fathoms between them, and near the coast from thence to Sandoway Road.

4th. COAST OF AVA TO CAPE NEGRAIS, AND THE ISLANDS ADJACENT.

Coast of Ava.

ON the main-land to the S. Eastward of Ramree, a triple ridge of regular sloping mountains divides the coasts of Aracan and Ava; the latter coast extends in a southerly direction from thence to Cape Negrais, forming several bays destitute of shelter for ships, and having some groups of islets or dangers in its vicinity.

Foul Island and coast between it and Cheduba Strait.

FOUL ISLAND, in about lat. 18° 7′ N., bears from Tree Island, on the extremity of Cheduba Reef, nearly S. S. E. ¾ E. distant 7 leagues, and from the continent abreast about 4 or 5 leagues, bearing W. by N. ¼ N. from a bluff point, having a bay on its north side, at the bottom of which there appears the entrance of a river. Foul Island may be seen 8 leagues distant, and is 3 or 4 miles long, of conical form, with a gradual declivity from the centre toward the sea, the north end terminating in a low point, with a remarkable tree on

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it, and the whole of the island is covered with trees. To the N. Eastward of Foul Island, there are other islands near the shore, with a reef of rocks partly above water, stretching southward from the outer or southernmost island about 1 or 1½ mile. Abreast of this reef, the depth at 2 miles distance is 20 fathoms; when to the northward of it, the shore may be approached to 16 fathoms, in coming from the south along the coast toward Cheduba Strait. The soundings between Foul Island and the main, are generally from 20 to 30 fathoms; within 3 miles of the point that bears E. by S. ¼ S. from it there are 21 fathoms, the bottom mostly mud, although in some parts it is hard sand, about 3 leagues off shore.* About 3 and 4 leagues south from Foul Island, the depths are from 38 to 46 fathoms, and to the westward of it, at a few miles distance, they soon increase to 55 and 60 fathoms, and a little farther out there is no ground. Ships passing outside of this island in the night, should not come under 36 or 40 fathoms; nor under the same depths in passing outside of Cheduba, and the bank and islands projecting from it to the southward; for about 4 or 5 leagues to the westward of that island, the bank has a sudden declivity from 60 or 70 fathoms, to no ground.

Geo. Site of Church Rocks,

Coast betwixt them and Foul Island.

CHURCH ROCKS, (called by Captain Ritchie, St. John's Rocks) in about lat. 17° 28′ N., lon. 94° 7′ E., bear from Foul Island nearly S. by E. ¼ E., distant 13½ leagues, and from the shore about 4 leagues; they are four in number, one of them large and high, the other three small, and lie near each other; when they bear about S.W., the large one resembles a country church with a square tower on its west end, from which they have been named. Very near these rocks on the inside, the depths are 36 and 37 fathoms soft ground, decreasing regularly toward the shore, which seems safe to approach, but near it there are several rocks and islets. The coast between Foul Island and Church Rocks, may, in some places, be borrowed on to 15 or 16 fathoms in working, which will be about 2 miles off shore; the depths from 2 to 4 leagues off are 26 to 40 fathoms, increasing fast to the westward of Church Rocks to no ground; therefore, a ship passing outside of them in the night, should keep in deep water, not under 50 or 60 fathoms.

Calventura Rocks,

CALVENTURA† ROCKS, bear from Church Rocks nearly S. or S. ¼ E. distant about 11 or 12 leagues; they form two divisions, bearing from each other N.W. by W. and opposite, distant 5 or 6 miles, the body of them being in about lat. 16° 52′ N. The N. Westernmost division is a group of seven black rocks, of different magnitudes and forms; one of them resembles an old church with a mutilated spire, another is much larger at the top than it is near the small base on which it stands. The S. Easternmost division consists of two high rocky islands, covered with trees and bushes; they are connected by a reef of rocks under water, having upon it a single rock above water, about half way between the islands. Between the Calventura Rocks and a sandy point on the main, there is a safe channel about 4 or 5 miles wide, said to have 20 and 22 fathoms soft ground in mid-channel, with 15 to 18 fathoms hard sand toward the rocks or the shore; about ¼ mile inside of the easternmost rock, there are 8 fathoms water.

Coast described.

Directions.

In passing along the coast from the Church Rocks to the southward, a ship may keep between 35 and 23 fathoms, and in the latter depth she will be about 4 miles off shore. From the sandy point abreast of the Calventuras, a rocky bank extends to the northward about a mile, and about ½ a mile distant from the shore, having within it the appearance of a river. And from the sandy point about 4 miles to the northward, and 1 mile off shore, there is a sandy island with trees on it, and a remarkable rock on the beach to the southward. A ship

* The Generous Friends, November 3d, 1803, shoaled suddenly from 14 to 7 fathoms water on a hard coral bank, Foul Island bearing S. S. E., and Tree Island N.W. ¼ N.

† Called Buffalo Rocks by Captain Ritchie, and the latter by him are called Calventura Rocks.

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passing betwixt the Calventuras and the main, should not in turning, borrow nearer to Sandy Island and Sandy Point than 13 fathoms, which is 2 or 2½ miles from the shore; and when the southernmost of the Calventuras bears nearly west, the main should not be approached under 16 fathoms, on account of a white rock, distant about a mile from the shore, with rocky bottom all round, and projecting from it about a mile to the westward, on the edge of which the water shoals from 15 soft, to 8 fathoms hard at a cast.

Ships which pass outside of the Calventura Rocks, ought to keep on the edge of soundings, and with great caution, not come under 50 or 60 fathoms in the night, which will be but a small distance from the outermost rocks, there being 44 and 46 fathoms, when they bear East about 1½ mile.

Geo. Site of the Buffalo's

Coast adjacent.

BUFFALO ROCKS, in lat. 16° 20′ to 16° 23′ N., about lon. 94° 12′ E., bear nearly S. ½ E. from the outermost Calventura Rocks, distant 10 or 11 leagues; they are a group of high rugged rocks, extending North and South, situated about 3 miles from the shore, and bearing North a little westerly from the western extremity of Cape Negrais. The coast between the Calventura and Buffalo Rocks, forms several bays, with islands fronting them and the shore; nearly midway, a reef projects from a small island about 1½ mile to the S. Westward, and a little farther northward there is a high rock, distant about a mile from the shore, to the northward of which, the coast may be approached to 16 fathoms; but from thence to the Buffalo Rocks, it should not be borrowed upon under 24 fathoms, particularly in passing the reef and small island.

On the West side of the Buffalo Rocks the soundings are regular, 20 fathoms about a mile from them, and 50 or 60 fathoms at 5 leagues distance; but they should not, without great caution, be approached in the night.

Geo. Site of Cape Negrais,

Pagoda Point.

CAPE NEGRAIS, in lat. 16° 2′ N., lon. 94° 13′ E., by chronometers and lunar observations, is the southwesternmost land of the coast of Ava, but the southernmost extremity of that coast is generally called PAGODA POINT, from a pagoda standing upon it, in lat. 15° 58′ N., bearing nearly S. E. from the former, distant 5 or 6 miles. Very near the point there is a large rock, and red cliffs stretch from it toward Cape Negrais, which are fronted by a reef, extending a considerable way out; this reef terminates at the North end of the red cliffs, and should not be approached under 8 or 9 fathoms in a large ship. To the northward of the red cliffs, the shore is more bold, there being from 11 to 12 fathoms soft ground within 2 or 3 miles of the Cape.

Ava River, Negrais Island, harbour, and contiguous coast.

AVA RIVER, called also Persaim and Basseen River, formed between Pagoda Point to the westward and Point Porian to the eastward, is navigable a great way inland: there are two channels that lead into it, one on each side of Negrais Island, and the western channel forms a good harbour betwixt that island and the West side of the river. The eastern channel is not so safe, for an extensive reef projects from the land about Point Porian to Diamond Island, and another reef projects from Negrais Island a great way to the S. West, nearly joining to the extremity of the former reef, and to Diamond Island. This river has generally been a place of resort for trading vessels from Coringa and other parts of the Coromandel Coast; when Capt. Pope was here in 1788, there were five ships under English colours in the river. He came from Rangoon River, in a boat to Ava River, by an inland navigation like the Sunderbunds in Bengal.

General Remark,

Negrais Island, situated in the entrance of the river about 4 or 5 miles inside of Pagoda Point, and nearest to the western shore, is conspicuous by a hill on it, which is the easternmost high land on the coast; Point Porian on the East side the river, being the first low land, and is covered with trees. The whole of the coast of Ava, from the extremity of the Aracan Mountains near Cheduba to Cape Negrais, is a continued ridge of scraggy land,

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tolerably high, broken into cliffs of reddish earth in many places, and generally with low trees or brush-wood upon it, without any signs of cultivation or inhabitants toward the sea.

To sail into trance of Ava River.

A ship intending to anchor under Pagoda Point, should bring it to bear N. E. ½ N. or N. E. by N., then steer for it; some hard casts of 6, or perhaps 5 fathoms, may be got on the tail of the sand that extends from Negrais Island, and when the Point bears from N. to N. W. about 1½ mile, she may anchor in 6 or 6½ fathoms mud. A ship going in for the harbour or channel between the island and western shore, should round Pagoda Point at the distance of ½ a mile in 6 or 6½ fathoms, but a little inside of the Point, the channel becomes more contracted.

Geo. Site of Diamond Island.

DIAMOND ISLAND, in lat. 15° 52′ N., lon. 94° 19′ E., by chronometers from Madras, and lunar observations, bears South a little easterly from Pagoda Point, distant 6 or 7 miles, and fronting the entrance of Ava River; it is low, covered with trees, about 1½ mile in extent, and may be seen about 5 leagues; but it should not be approached in a large vessel, on account of the reefs that surround it.*

Sunken Island.

SUNKEN ISLAND, or Drowned Island, called also La Guarda, bears from Diamond Island S. S.W. about 3½ leagues, the southern extremity of it being in lat. 15° 41′ N.; it is a very dangerous reef of rocks, level with the surface of the sea, extending N. E. and S.W. 1 mile or more, and it is very narrow; but there are detached rocks at a considerable distance from it, on some of which the sea breaks in bad weather.

Passage between it and Diamond Island.

The passage between Diamond Island and Sunken Island is certainly very dangerous, and ought not to be adopted in any ship, except in a case of very great necessity. Some ships have passed through it in former times, but the exact limits of the reefs on each side, and the true situations of several other detached sunken rocks, are very imperfectly known; consequently, this channel is very unsafe. Several ships have struck upon the sunken rocks between Diamond and Sunken Islands; one of these was H. M. S. Exeter, in November, 1748; and the Company's ship Travers, bound to Bengal, was totally lost, at 5 A. M. November 7th, 1808, on a rock bearing N. E. by N. from Sunken Island, distant about 1¼ mile; probably the same on which the Exeter struck. Ships which have passed between Diamond and Sunken Islands, have generally endeavoured to keep in 9 or 10 fathoms water, about 3 or 4 miles from the former, as a reef projects from it more than 2 miles to the S. and S. Westward; but the greatest dangers are probably near mid-way between the islands, for a sunken rock is thought to lie about 3 or 4 miles nearly S. by E. from Diamond Island, another about the same distance S. S. W. from it, in a direct line toward Sunken Island, and another to the S. Westward of it, about 2 leagues distance. It was probably on the latter, that H. M. S. Phæton struck, February 16th, 1810; which obliged her to go to Bengal to repair; and Capt. Pellew of the Phæton, thinks it is 6 or 7 miles to the S. Westward of Diamond Island, with 9 fathoms close to, 9 feet water upon it, and is of small extent.

Tides in this passage strong.

Channel outside of Sunken 1.

EXCLUSIVE OF THESE DANGERS, the bottom is chiefly uneven and rocky betwixt Diamond Island and Sunken Island, with a heavy, turbulent swell, occasioned by the sea beating upon the reefs, and the strong tides, which here set, the flood to the E. S. E. and the ebb to the W. N.W. The rise of tide is about 9 or 10 feet on the springs, high water about 11½ hours on full and change of the moon. From the heavy confused swell that generally prevails in this dangerous channel, even during calm weather, it is often called the

* At some seasons it is much frequented by turtle, but it is considered unhealthy and dangerous for people to sleep on shore, for H, M. S. Sybille lost several of her men who remained on shore during the night; those who were on the island in the day time, and returned on board in the evening, escaped the fever that speedily terminated the lives of the former.

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Race of Negrais, and certainly should be avoided by ships; for by rounding the South end of Sunken Island, they are but a few miles farther out, in a safe and spacious channel about 17 leagues wide, between it and the Island Preparis.

Marks to know when near that Island.

When the sea is smooth in the N. E. monsoon, the breakers on Sunken Island are not high, but when the weather is clear, the approach to it may always be known by the bearings of the land; for when the west end of Diamond Island is coming into contact with the east end of the hill on Negrais Island, Sunken Island is then in the same direction bearing N. N. E., and the western extreme of Cape Negrais will bear nearly North. At 4 or 5 miles distance from Sunken Island, both to the eastward and westward, the depths are generally from 15 to 17 or 18 fathoms blue mud, and to the southward of it, at the same distance, 19 and 20 fathoms. It is prudent not to approach Sunken Island nearer than 2 leagues on the East side, nor under 3 leagues on the N.W. side, on account of the rock situated to the S. Westward of Diamond Island, mentioned above. About 4 or 5 leagues to the westward, the bank shelves suddenly to no ground, but soundings extend from Sunken Island to Preparis, and the depths increase to 40 and 50 fathoms in the track between then; near to Preparis Island they are irregular in some places, but on the east side of the island, decrease to 8 fathoms within less than a mile of the shore, where there is a pool of fresh water.

Ships bound to Bengal Should not keep close to the coast of Ava, &c.

SHIPS BOUND TO BENGAL IN THE N. E. MONSOON, should not keep within sight of the coasts of Ave and Aracan, which was formerly considered indispensible to secure the passage; but experience shews, that northerly or light winds prevail greatly on these coasts, and the current sets often to the southward, rendering the progress at times very slow; it therefore, happens, that coppered ships which keep out in the open sea, at a reasonable distance from the land, generally make the best passages up the bay in this monsoon. Ships which sail indifferently, or being short of water, if they intend to adopt the passage along the coasts of Ava and Aracan, ought to keep well in with the shore where it is safe to approach, that they may benefit by the breezes from the land, when these are found to prevail; and also to preserve moderate depths for anchoring, when it falls calm, with the current unfavorable.

Severe storms are liable to happen at the setting in of the N. E. monsoon, and at times in the S.W. monsoon. November 12th, 1797, the Company's ship, Minerva, had a hurricane from the eastward, off Cheduba, which blew away all her sails, broke the topmasts, washed an anchor and some casks from her gunwalls and waist, and obliged them to cut away some of the boats, Many other ships have been dismasted, or suffered damage, in October or November, near the coasts of Aracan or Ava.

COAST of PEGU; DIRECTIONS for SAILING to, and from RANGOON RIVER.

Coast of Pegu, dangerous in the S. W. monsoon.

COAST OF PEGU, extends from Ava River to the Gulf of Martaban, and is generally low and woody, intersected by many rivers, with reefs and shoal water extending along it to a considerable distance; it is therefore, a dangerous coast in the S.W. W. monsoon, for the tides set strong, and a ship might run aground in some places before the land could be perceived.

Description.

From the entrance of Ava River, the direction of the coast is to S. Eastward 6 or 7 leagues, which part is generally considered as Porian Island, and the whole of it is fronted by Porian Reef, projecting 2 or 2½ leagues from the shore in some places, with hard ground

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close to it, 6 or 6½ fathoms. When 22 miles east from Diamond Island by chronometer in lat. 15° 40′ N., a ship will have 6½ fathoms on the edge of the reef, a low point then bearing N. 37° E., distant 8 or 9 miles. From hence, the coast stretches E. by S. and East 12 or 14 leagues to Baragu River, but the reef takes a more southerly direction in some places, where it projects 3½ and 4 leagues from the shore; about 14 leagues eastward from Diamond Island, and from thence to about 25 leagues east from the same island, the reef extends farther to the southward than at any other part of the coast, the lat. of its southern verge being here, about 15° 35′ N., where it extends from the land 4 and 5 leagues abreast of Baragu and Dalla Rivers. It is dangerous and steep to, and from 7 to 3 fathoms the distance is not more than ½ a mile, perhaps much less in some places.

Coast from Dalla River

FROM DALLA RIVER, the coast changes its direction, and stretches nearly N. E. to the entrance of Rangoon River about 20 or 22 leagues, having reefs and shoal banks as before, projecting out from it 3 or 4 leagues, which should not be approached under 5 or 6 fathoms. The whole of this space is low land, intersected by many rivers and creeks, which form numerous islands; the best guide in approaching it is the soundings, for near the verge of the reef abreast of Baragu Point and farther westward, the bottom is generally sand and shells, or hard and stony; between Dalla River and Rangoon Bar, it is mostly soft ouze; and to the eastward of the bar, it is generally stiff mud.

Exclusive of the quality of soundings, in clear weather the following land marks may be seen, which will point out the entrance of Rangoon River. The first that will be discerned in coming from the S.W., is a grove of trees about 5 or 6 leagues to the S. Westward of Rangoon River, called China Buckeer, which in some views resembles a quoin, but it is not seen until a ship get into 6 fathoms water; in approaching it from sea, bearing about North, it will be seen from the mast-head appearing like a small island, and the lat. will then be about 16° 10′ N. China Buckeer, is the mark that ships bound for Rangoon River first endeavour to see, to prevent being carried past their port to the N. Eastward by the flood tide.

Rangoon River.

Geo. Site of the Elephant.

RANGOON RIVER, is called also Sirian, and Pegu River; on the bar there are 3½ and 4 fathoms, and some parts dry at low water spring tides, are visible on the steep banks on both sides of the charnel.* This river may he easily known by the clump of cocoa-nut trees called the Elephant, or Western Grove, situated on the point of land that bounds the west side of the entrance, which, with a little help of the imagination, does somewhat resemble that animal. A little way from it there are three palmira trees on a small rising ground, and a few more between them and the point. The Elephant, by Captain Heywood's observations, is in lat. 16° 29′ N., lon. 96° 25′ E., or 2° 6′ E. from Diamond Island, by chronometer. Capt. Ross, in his late survey, made the Elephant Pagoda in lat. 16° 28′ N., lon. 96° 23¾′ E. On the east side of the entrance the trees grow thicker together, and are called sometimes the Eastern Grove; here, they are more even at top, and not so high as those on the west side, and what is very remarkable, on the N. E. side of the river, there is not one palmira tree between the N. E. point and a small mount or hillock in shore, which shews itself above the trees; although from that mount to the eastward, there are many growing at some distance from each other, all nearly double the height of the other trees which surround them.

Tides.

TIDES ON THE COAST OF PEGU, generally run very strong, the flood sets East and E. by N., and the ebb in the contrary direction, to the westward of Baragu Point; but from that point to Rangoon Bar, the flood sets N. E. and N. E. by N., and the ebb to the S.W.; farther East, between Rangoon River and the coast of Martaban, the flood runs

*The ship Janet Hutton, was wrecked in 1825, on the edge of the sands, on the western side of the channel with the Elephant Pagoda bearing about N. ½ W., distant 5¼ miles.

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N. N. E. and N. by E., strong into the bottom of the gulf, and the ebb equally strong out of it, in the opposite direction. When the rivers are swelled, and the low country inundated by the rains at the end of the S.W. monsoon, the ebb tides are much stronger and run longer than the flood tides, occasioned by freshes from the rivers; the water then, is very thick and muddy at a considerable distance from the land, which is more or less the case on this coast at all times, opposite to the numerous rivers that disembogue into the sea.

Abreast of Baragu Point, and farther westward, the velocity of the tides is not near so great as off Rangoon River and in the bottom of the gulf; for here, it is frequently in the springs 4 and 5 miles an hour, and sometimes more, near the edges of the shoal banks. After the rains, the tides off Rangoon River are subject to a circular motion, the first of the flood sets East, changing gradually to N. E. about ½ flood, and to North in the latter part. The ebb sets just the reverse, beginning to run West, it changes gradually to S.W. and South, ending at S. E., but there is no slack water at these times, the tides continuing to run 1½ or 2 knots when changing from the flood to the ebb, and the same at the opposite change.

On the west part of the coast, off Porian Reef, the perpendicular rise and fall of the tide is only 9 or 10 feet on the springs, but off Rangoon Bar it is frequently 20 or 21 feet, arid from 21 to 24 feet farther to the eastward in the bottom of the gulf, near the banks at the entrance of Sittang River; it is therefore, proper, to be careful in making free with this part of the coast, and to acquire a knowledge of the tides in order to prevent any mistake, by anchoring near high water in a situation where a ship would be aground at low water.* It is high water at the Elephant Point, and on Rangoon Bar, about 3¼ hours at full and change of the moon.

Directions to sail from west ward to Rangoon Bar in the N. F., monsoon.

SHIPS BOUND TO RANGOON from Bengal in the N. E. monsoon, should make Cape Negrais, and pass round to the southward of Sunken Island; those which come from Madras or other parts of the Coromandel coast in the same season, after beating across the bay, may pass through the channel between it and Preparis, or between the latter and Coco's Islands, as may be most convenient. In this season, from October to February, it is prudent after passing Sunken Island, to steer to the eastward for Baragu Point, endeavouring to keep well in with the coast, for at times there is very little flood, the freshes from the rivers frequently producing a constant current setting to S.W., and round to N.W.

Should a ship fall in with the land to the westward of Baragu Point, the water will shoal quickly from 20 to 16 and 10 fathoms toward the edge of the reef; and in a large ship, it would be imprudent to borrow under 9 or 10 fathoms, for in some places the edge of the reef takes a S. Easterly direction, and is steep from 6 to 3 or 3½ fathoms, when the low land is hardly discernible.

Soundings extend a great way out from this coast, there being 43 and 44 fathoms about 24 leagues South from Baragu Point, in lat. 14° 30′ N.; and from thence, soundings continue on the same parallel to the coast of Martaban.

If not affected by lateral tides, the depth will decrease in steering east, when a ship is to the westward of Baragu Point; steering the same course, it will decrease when she is to the eastward of that point, and she may then steer to the N. Eastward if the wind admit, borrowing to 7 or 8 fathoms toward the edges of the banks that line the coast. Should the wind be far eastward, rendering it necessary to tack at times, the coast may be approached to 6½ and 7 fathoms, or nearer occasionally, when to the eastward of Baragu Point and Dalla

* Captain P. Heywood, in H. M. sloop Trincomale, November 19th, 1801, anchored in 5¾ fathoms at high water, and had only 13 feet at low water, with the Elephant trees bearing N. 36° W. about 5 leagues—westernmost extreme of the land N. 78° W.—A remarkable mount on the East side of Rangoon River N. 22½° W.—N. E. extreme N. 49° E.—Martaban Hills E. N. E. This was the day preceding full moon, and the water seems to have been very shoal at 5 leagues distance from the land, but the place where this ship anchored with these bearings, was probably to the eastward of the fair channel leading to the river.

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River; the soundings over a soft bottom being then more regular, and the banks not so steep as they are to the westward. On approaching Rangoon River, a ship should haul in to get a sight of the land, and make it in about lat. 16° 10′ N.; China Buckeer may then be seen appearing like a low island, if the depth is not above 6 fathoms, and will probably bear N. by W. ½ W., or N. N. W., but it cannot be discerned when the depth of water is mote than 5¾ or 6 fathoms. After passing China Buckeer, the coast may be approached occasionally, in a small ship, to 3¾ or 4 fathoms at low water, or to 6 fathoms at high water; the Elephant will soon be perceived, and when it bears N. by W., the Eastern Grove on the opposite side of the river may be seen bearing to the eastward of North; it will then be proper to anchor, and make the signal for a pilot, or dispatch a boat with an officer into the river for one, if the weather is favorable.

Should the land not be seen when a ship gets into shoal water, the bottom be stiff mud, and the tides found to set N. N. E. or N. by E. and opposite: she will, in such case, be to the eastward of the bar, and must haul to the westward with the ebb until the bottom is soft, and the tides be found to set more to the N. E. and S. Westward; she ought then to steer in for the land, and endeavour to get sight of the Elephant and Eastern Grove, where she may anchor off the bar, and wait for a pilot.

Or from the southward.

To proceed over the bar into the river.

Ships bound to Rangoon, from Malacca Strait, Achen, or the Nicobar Islands, in the N. E. monsoon, should endeavour to pass in sight of the westernmost islands of the Mergui Archipelago, and from thence to the northward in a direct line for the entrance of Rangoon River. Should circumstances render it necessary at a ship's arrival there, to venture over the bar without a pilot, the best track is to bring the two points that form the entrance of the river, a little open, and steer in with them open about a ship's length, observing to keep, if possible, nearly in mid-channel. In proceeding to cross the bar, it ought not to be attempted before half flood, for the first of the flood sets strong to the eastward upon the Middle Ground Shoal, situated on the east side of the channel, which close to, has deep water and irregular soundings. If Ental Point, on the east side of the river, open fast with the western point of the same, a ship ought to anchor until the tide set fair into the river, which is after half flood, and that is the most favorable time to cross the bar. Coming from the S.W., when the Elephant is brought to bear N. by W., a ship ought to haul up for the channel, the Pagoda at the Elephant bearing N. by W. ½ W. to N. N.W., being a fair bearing until within 2 or 3 miles of the bar; and it may be observed, that if Ental Point is kept open with the western point of the river's entrance, she will not ground on the west side of the channel, until the shoal spit fronting the middle ground is approached, which extends from the Elephant Point 3 miles, the tail of it bearing S. E. from the Elephant Pagoda, having only 1½ fathoms on it at low water, and the channel between it and the middle ground is rather less than a mile wide.*

When within the bar, and having brought the Elephant or Western Grove to bear about south, the western shore should be borrowed on close, the channel on that side being free from danger, nearly to the distance of 3 leagues up the river.

Although the pilots have sometimes got ships upon the Middle Ground, yet, if unacquainted, it would be imprudent to attempt to cross over the bar without one, particularly in a vessel of considerable burthen, unless in a case of necessity. When Capt. Ross surveyed the river, he placed Red Buoys on the tails of the sands which lie on the west side of the channel, and Black Buoys on those which lie on the eastern side.

The town.

Refreshments.

RANGOON TOWN, is situated on the north shore of a considerable branch of the principal river, that extends to the westward, about a league, and then takes a northerly di-

* An excellent survey of Rangoon River, from below the bar to the Kemmendine or Dagon Pagoda, having been made by Capt. Ross, the Company's Marine Surveyor, in 1825, and now engraved at the expence of the Company for the benefit of navigation, every ship bound to Rangoon, ought to procure a copy of that survey at Messrs. Kingsbury and Co., Leadenhall Street.

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rection as before: the town is about 8 leagues to the northward of the bar, and it is a place of considerable trade. The country abounds with straight teak timber*, some of which is exported to Calcutta and other parts of India for ship building, and there are many ships of various dimensions built at Rangoon, although the crooked timber here is not very durable, and far inferior to that used on the Malabar coast for ship building. Rice, poultry, hogs, fruits, and vegetables, and other articles of refreshment, may be procured in abundance, and at reasonable prices. Wood oil, earth oil, wax, dammer, and other articles are exported from hence.

Geo. Site of the great pagoda.

Dagon Pagoda, is about 1¾ mile to the N. N. W. of Rangoon Town, elevated 487 feet above high water level, by the observations of Capt. Ross, who places it in lat. 16° 47′ N. lon. 96° 13′ E. by mean of chronometers from Fort William and Chittagong, corroborated by lunar observations.

At Rangoon it is high water at 5 hours 30 minutes, on full and change of the moon, rise of the tide on these days, and for two days afterward, from 20 to 21 feet, and 13 or 14 feet on the neaps. Variation 2° 48′ Easterly, by Theodolite in 1825.

To sail from the westward to Rangoon Bar in the S. W. monsoon.

If bound to Rangoon from Bengal in the S.W. monsoon, a ship should endeavour to make the Island Preparis, or rather the Cocos Islands if the wind permit; and after passing through either channel as most eligible, a course ought to be steered to fall in with the coast of Pegu about China Buckeer, or little to westward of Rangoon Bar. A ship from Madras or any other part of the Coromandel Coast in the same season, ought to make Landfall Island at the North end of the Great Andaman, if the wind be far southerly, or the Cocos Islands if it is at westward, then pass through the channel between them. From the Cocos Channel, she may steer about East to get a sight of Narcondam if the weather be clear, and then to the N. Eastward, for the land on the West side of Rangoon Bar. If by accident she should get to the eastward of the bar a few leagues, Martaban Hills will be seen if the weather is clear; and in such case, she must work to the westward with the ebb tide.

And from the southward in the same season.

Ships bound to Rangoon, from the Nicobars, Achen, or Malacca Strait, in the S.W. monsoon, ought to make the Island Narcondam, and from thence steer as before directed, to fall in with the land a little to the westward of the bar. All ships approaching the coast of Pegu in this season, ought to be well provided with ground tackle, for the weather is often dark and squally, preventing the land from being seen, and it would be (generally speaking) imprudent to borrow under 6 fathoms until some part of the coast is discerned and the situation known; ships are, therefore, necessitated at times, to ride at anchor during strong gales on the springs when the tides are very rapid; this ought to be done in 7¼ or 8 fathoms water at least, and not in shoal water near the banks which bound the coast.

To soil from Rangoon Bar in the N. E. monsoon.

DEPARTING FROM RANGOON RIVER in the N. E. monsoon, ships bound to Bengal, should steer when clear of the bar, to pass at a moderate distance outside of the shoals that stretch from the coast, then to the southward of Sunken Island; afterward, they may keep at a reasonable distance from the coasts of Ava and Aracan, in proceeding toward the River Hoogly. Those bound to Madras or other parts of the Coromandel Coast, may at discretion, pass through any of the channels between Sunken Island and Landfall Island at the North end of the Great Andaman, and then steer direct for their port, observing to fall in to the northward of it before February, and afterward, to the southward. Ships in the same season bound to Malacca Strait, ought to make the South end of Junkseylon; and if bound to Achen or the Nicobar Islands, a direct course may be pursued to the place of destination.

† The forests of large straight Teak, are situated on the low country in the vicinity of the rivers; the trees are cut down in the dry season, and when the low country is inundated by the swelling of the rivers during the rains, the felled trees are conducted to the river and floated down in large rafts to Rangoon. In the hilly country, there is probably pleuty of crooked teak timber for ship building, but the inconvenience of getting it to the rivers, has hitherto proved an obstacle too great for the natives to attempt bringing any of it to Rangoon.

VOL. II. C

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Directions for sailing from it in the S. W. monsoon.

DEPARTING FROM RANGOON RIVER in the S. W. monsoon, it is proper to work to the westward along the coast as far as Baragu Point, before a ship stand out into the open sea, whether she be bound for Bengal, the Coromandel Coast, Achen, or Malacca Strait. In coming out of the river, the pilot should not be permitted to take leave until the ship is well out, with the Elephant bearing N. by W. and in 5 fathoms water, unless those on board are well acquainted with the coast, and the exact situation known. In 5 fathoms with the Elephant N. by W., she will be near mid-channel; stretching from thence to sea, the water will soon shoal to 4½ fathoms, then she should tack and stand in shore to 6 fathoms and again tack, for the increase of depth, denotes the approach to the in-shore dangers.

When China Buckeer is brought to bear W. by S., longer tacks to seaward may be made at discretion, but it is advisable to keep near the coast, anchoring occasionally, and taking advantage of the tides, which run very strong. When in 5½ fathoms near low water, with China Buckeer bearing W. by N. 4 or 5 leagues, it may be seen appearing like a small island in the form of a quoin, and very little of any other part of the coast will then be discernible. Should it be night before a ship is abreast of China Buckeer, she ought with the ebb, be permitted to drive to windward under staysails, and the lead carefully attended to, that her situation may be known. The approach toward the shore will be shewn by the lead, the soundings being regular until a small patch of land called False China Buckeer is bearing N.N.W., or until the opening of Dalla River is abreast. Having got this far, the coast should not be borrowed on nearer than 7 or 8 fathoms; the soundings will be ouze throughout until Dalla River is passed, then sand and shells, which is a certain sign of the approach to Baragu Point. From this point, ships which sail well, if bound to Bengal, may continue to work to the westward, and pass between the Coco's and Preparis Islands, or close under lee of the latter; and from thence, if the wind keep between S. W. and S. S. W., they will probably reach Balasore road without tacking; otherwise, they must endeavour to get to the westward, by taking every advantage to tack with the favorable shifts.

Ships bound to Madras, will find it tedious and difficult to beat across the bay from the coast of Pegu during the S.W. monsoon, and those that sail indifferently, will find it impracticable; it therefore, seems advisable for them to pursue the same route as if bound to Achen. After working one or two tides to the westward of Baragu Point, a ship bound to Madras, or any port on the Coromandel Coast, to Achen, or Malacca Strait, may stand out to sea if the wind is well to the westward, and endeavour to pass near the Island Narcondam; in proceeding to the southward, care is requisite to tack occasionally, and keep well to the westward of the Archipelago of Islands fronting the coast of Tanasserim, which are little known, and form a lee shore, although between several of them there are safe channels. If bound into Malacca Strait, after rounding the South end of Junkseylon, a direct course may be steered for Prince of Wales' Island, but a ship bound for Achen, ought to keep well to the west, toward the Nicobar Islands, if that can be conveniently done; otherwise, she may stand close upon a wind to the southward and make the coast of Pedir, where a favorable current will be found setting to the westward, which will soon carry her to Achen. At this place she ought to fill up her water, if bound to the Coromandel Coast or to Ceylon, then proceed through the Bengal Passage, close round the North end of Pulo Brasse, to sea, as circumstances render convenient. When out in the open sea, every advantage should be taken to get to the S. Westward, and an indifferent sailing ship will probably have to proceed several degrees south of the equator, before she can obtain westing sufficient to reach her port with safety. Ships that sail well upon a wind, may make a more direct passage from Achen to the Coromandel Coast, which has sometimes been accomplished in less than three weeks during the strength of the S.W. monsoon, although a much longer time is often required to perform it.

Sittang River

SITTANG RIVER, about 10 or 11 leagues E. N. Eastward from Rangoon bar, is the

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easternmost and principal branch of Pegu River, and it is wider than the other generally called Rangoon River. This river forms a natural division between the low coasts of Pegu, and the high land called Zingat Mountains, or Martaban Hills, by falling into the bottom of the Gulf of Martaban.

COASTS of MARTABAN, TAVAY, and MERGUI; with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Martaban Hills.

ZINGAT MOUNTAINS, or MARTABAN HILLS, bounding the east side of the entrance of Sittang River, are distant from the mouth of Rangoon River about 17 leagues, and bear from it East. At the foot of these hills the Town of Martaban is situated on the north bank of the Mautama River, called also San-luen, or Sanloan Meyeet*, or Martaban River.

River town, and coast adjacent.

The moderately elevated Island Pooloogyoon, called formerly Bruxe or Buga, situated to the southward of Martaban Hills, is now ceded to the British Government, and said to be very fertile. This island fronts the entrance of the San-luen River, on the North side of which is situated the Town of MARTABAN, or MAUTAMA, in lat. 16° 31′ N. The proper channel leading to it is to the eastward of the island, between this and the main, having, an extensive sand, called Godwin Sand, projecting off the south end of that island, which bounds the N.W. side of the channel leading into the river; and the S. E. side is bounded by a long reef of rocks, projecting from the shore at the foot of the Kiakamu or Quekmi Mountains, where there is a pagoda and the small island Zebo close to the Pagoda Point. The distance from the bar to the town of Martaban is about 8 or 9 leagues nearly due north, but the depths in the channel are not more than 2 or 3 fathoms in several places, and the river contains many banks and dangers, which render the navigation intricate for persons unacquainted.

Geo. Site of Quekmi Pagoda.

CAPE KYAI-KAMI, KIAKAMU, or QUEKMI, called also Cape Champion, upon which the Pagoda of Quekmi is situated, bounds the entrance of the San-luen or Martaban River on the eastern side, and lies in lat. 16° 3′ N. lon. 97° 39½′ E., and being low, is not seen above 10 or 12 miles from the deck. The reef extends from it in a westerly direction 1½ mile, rendering caution necessary, for there is no good land mark to guide a ship in entering between the reef, and the Godwin Sand on the western side of the channel.

Amherst Town.

The San-luen River, having been fixed on as the boundary between the Burmese dominions and the territory lately ceded to the British Government, AMHERST TOWN, in lat. 16° 3′ N., has been founded on a peninsula to which the same name has been given, situated near the mouth of the San-luen River, and formed between another river, the Kalyen, to the eastward, and the sea, and terminating in Cape Kyai-kami. This town is expected soon to become a place of considerable trade, and the channel of the river will no doubt, be well examined and buoyed off, with the appointment of pilots to carry ships up to the anchorage of Amherst Town, which is very capacious, and forms an excellent harbour. The tides in the river are strong, and rise from 19 to 20 feet; the depths at low water in some parts of the channel, are only about 2 fathoms, and it is narrow between the reef at the entrance, and the sand to the westward; there are also some narrow gaps in the reef, one of which is called Brisbane Passage. No vessel should run into the harbour at low tide, if drawing above 10 feet wa-

* Meyeet or Myeet signifies a Great River, and Kiun an Island, in the Burmese language.

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ter, but there is sufficient depth at high water for large ships, which is probably the best time to enter, although a pilot will be required for strangers.

In coming from the westward, it is advisable to make the entrance of this river in lat. 16° N., and when on this parallel, in lon. 96° 30′ E., the Zingat Mountains will be discernible in favorable weather. If soundings of 10 or 11 fathoms are got, a vessel will be on the Martaban coast; but if they decrease to 6 or 7 fathoms, she will be on the edge of the banks fronting Rangoon River or the adjacent coast.

Coast to Tavaya Point.

From Martaban Hills at the entrance of Sittang River, the coast extends nearly S. by E. ½ E. to Tavay Point, the distance about 60 leagues, agreeably to the observations of Capt. P. Heywood, who passed along it in H. M. sloop Trincomale in 1801. The whole of the coast appeared to be a chain of high islands, having inside of several of them, probably safe channels for ships. In lat. 14½° N., soundings of 22 to 28 fathoms are got about 4 and 5 leagues to the West and S. Westward; but farther to the North, the depths decrease to 12 fathoms at the distance of 7 or 8 leagues from the land, and at the distance of 10 leagues from it in lat. 16° N. there are only 7 or 7½ fathoms at low water. In lat. 15° N. about 3 leagues off shore, there is said to be a shoal, having close to it 10 fathoms water.

Geo. Site of Ye.

YE RIVER'S Entrance in about lat. 15° 12′ N. lon. 98° 2½′ E., is fronted by a group of Islands at 4 or 5 miles distance, the southernmost, called Nai-oojoon Island, seems the largest; the central one, Thoatail, has a pagoda on it; and the northernmost is called Pootchoon Island. YE, or YEH TOWN, the capital of the small Province of this name, which has recently been ceded to the British Government, is situated in about lat. 15° 15′ N., and about 5 or 6 miles from the river's mouth, which appears not of depth sufficient to admit large vessels.

Moscos Islands.

MOSCOS, or MUSCOS ISLANDS, extend in a chain parallel to the coast from lat. 14° 24′ N. to lat. 13° 43′ N., and are distant from it 3 and 4 leagues, having a safe channel inside, between them and the coast, with soundings mostly from 10 to 20 fathoms, deepening generally near the islands, and shoaling to 8 and 7 fathoms near the main. Between the southernmost and middle groups there are safe channels, which are the largest and highest of these islands; but the northern part of the chain is composed of straggling islands of various sizes, with several rocks above water; and 1½ mile east from the northernmost isle, there is a reef under water, and another reef about 2 miles N.½ E. from the same isle, with a rock above water near the latter, called the North Rock. Between this rock and the reef, there is a channel with 17 to 19 fathoms water, and close to both these reefs the depths are 16 and 18 fathoms. The North Ledge lies 6 miles off shore, in lat. 14° 27½′ N., about 4 miles N. N. Eastward from the northernmost island, and it is a sunken reef, with depths of 13 and 14 fathoms in a safe channel, about 1½ mile wide, formed between it and the other reef to the S. Westward. Close to the North Ledge on the inside, there are 9 fathoms water, gradually decreasing to 4½ or 5 fathoms about 1½ or 2 miles off shore, near the mouth of a river that bears E. N. Eastward from the North Ledge; and 5 miles farther to the northward, there is the entrance of another river, the south point of which forms like a dolphin's nose.

Geo. Site of Tavay Point.

Anchorage.

TAVAY, or TAVOY POINT,* in lat. 13° 30′ N., lon. 98° 6′ E., or 3° 47′ East from Diamond Island by chronometer, forms the West side of Tavay River's entrance. It is moderately high, bluff, covered with trees, and may be easily known by the Cap, a small round bushy islet, bearing from it W. 8° S. distant about 1½ mile: and about 7 leagues to the N.W. of the Point, is situated the southern extremity of the south group of Mosco's

* The Kingdom of Tavoy, is called Taway or Tawai by the Siamese. The Province of Yeh, is situated between Martaban and Tavoy.

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Islands, distant 3 leagues from the shore nearest to them, which are steep, having 20 or 22 fathoms close to, on their western sides. Inside of Tavay Point, there is good anchorage over a soft even bottom, and a large ship need not bring it to the southward of S.W. by S., where she may anchor in 6 fathoms; but a small ship of light draught, may go in much farther. His Majesty's sloop Trincomale, Capt. Heywood, moored in 5 fathoms at high water, and 3¼ fathoms at low water, and had the outer part of Tavay Point bearing S. 2° W., the watering place S. 51½° W., North point of the bay on with Button Island N. 15° E., West point of White Reef N. 19° E., Reef Island N. 25° E. to N. 37° E., Tavay Island S. 11° E. to S. 17° E., off the nearest shore by measured base and angles, 953 fathoms.

Watering place.

This place is convenient for wooding and watering*; the water is filled at a small brook, a little way round to the northward of the point, and near a rocky islet which is not more than 10 or 12 yards from the shore. About 2 miles to the northward of the watering place, lies the mouth of a salt water creek, abounding with alligators; they are so numerous, that none of the people belonging to ships should be permitted to bathe either along-side or near the beach.

Directions for proceeding to the anchorage.

Ships proceeding to the anchorage under Point Tavay to procure wood or water, may with a leading wind steer toward the Cap, and pass it at any convenient distance; the soundings regularly decrease from the offing to 17 or 16 fathoms close to the Cap, which depth will continue, until Point Tavay bears nearly N. N. E.; then Reef Island up the harbour, begins to open, and the depth will decrease to 10 or 9 fathoms in hauling round to the northward. When the Cap is shut in with the point, there are 7 or 8 fathoms at the distance of a mile from the shore, and when the latter bears S.W. ½ S. or S.W. by S., they may anchor near it in 6 fathoms at high water. The tides are not very regular, but it is high water about 10 hours on full and change of the moon, and the rise is 13 or 14 feet.

Geo. Site of Tavoy Town.

TAVOY TOWN, in lat. 14° 0′ N. lon. 98° 6′ E., is situated on the east bank of the river, about 9 leagues from the entrance, where extensive rice fields are cultivated in its vicinity. An excellent survey† of the river, has been executed by Lieut. R. Moresby, of the Bombay Marine, in 1824, exhibiting numerous shoals and low islands, which render the navigation of the river intricate, as there are various channels among them, having in some places only 2 or 2½ fathoms; but in many parts, the depths are from 6 to 8, 10, and 12 fathoms.

Directions.

If a ship should round Tavay Point with a strong southerly wind, it would be unpleasant to anchor in the outer road under the point; but in such case, she may run into the river, passing Reef Island on the cast side at ½ a mile to 1 mile distant, then keep within ½ a mile of the other Islands which bound the river on the west side, and the soundings will not be less than 5 or 5½ fathoms in this track. After being 2 or 3 miles to the north of Reef Island, she may anchor close to the western shore; or she may run farther up into 4 or 4½ fathoms, about 4 or 4½ miles above Reef Island, where she will be well sheltered to the northward of the third large island, where there is fresh water at a well. The Eastern shore of the river is fronted by a shoal flat, that occupies nearly half the breadth of the river, dry at low water spring tides in some places, towards which, the depths gradually decrease from the western side of the channel.

Tavay Island.

TAVAY ISLAND, in lat. 13° 14½′ N., the North end, bears from the point of the same name, about S. by E., distant 16 miles, and is of middling height, about 5 or 6 leagues in length, stretching N. by W. and S. by E. It is the northernmost large island of that extensive chain which fronts the coast, generally called Mergui, or Tanasserim Archipelago.

* In the late war, it was much frequented by French Privateers, when they were in want of these necessary articles.

† This has been engraved for the benefit of navigation, and sold by Kingsbury and Co.

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Geo. Site of Mergui.

MERGUI, called Beit Myoo by the Burmans, in about lat. 12° 12′ N.,* lon. 98° 24′ E. by lunar observations and chronometer, measured from Prince of Wales's Island, is situated at the entrance of the principal branch of Tanasserim River, and will probably become a port of considerable trade; as it has now come into the possession of the British government; for the country is fertile, and considered to be healthy, with a safe harbour, and an excellent inland navigation, well adapted for commerce.

To soil towards it in the N. W. monsoon.

Geo. Site of Tanasserim.

Ships bound from the Coromandel Coast or Ceylon, to Mergui, in the S.W. monsoon, ought to pass through the channel between the South end of Little Andaman and the Carnicobar Islands, or between the Little and Great Andamans, if they fall to leeward of the former. Those which come from Bengal in the same season, may pass through the channels on either side of the Cocos Islands, between them and the North end of Great Andaman, or between them and Preparis; and after passing near Narcondam, they should steer for the Island Tanasserim, situated in about lat. 12° 36′ N., lon. 97° 30′ E., distant from Mergui about 18 leagues to the W. N. Westward. The same island should be made by ships which pass to the southward of the Andamans. After leaving Narcondam, soundings will soon be got in steering for the islands off Mergui, when they are nearly approached.

To sail towards Mergui in the N. E. monsoon.

Ships bound from Bengal to Mergui during the whole of the N. E. monsoon, may pass through the channel formed between Sunken Island and Preparis, then steer to make Tavay Islands or the Moscos Islands to the N.W. of Tavay Point, if the wind blow steady from the northward; they may then pass inside of Tavay Island in proceeding toward Mergui, or to the westward of that island, betwixt the islets off it, and the Canisters, and afterward betwixt it and Iron Island.

In the strength of the N. E. monsoon, ships from the Coromandel Coast should also endeavour to pass to the northward of the Andamans, and from thence take every advantage to get to the eastward.

The islands composing the Mergui Archipelago are generally high, and may he seen from 10 to 15 leagues; the bank of soundings extends a little way beyond the outermost islands, by which the approach to them may be known in the night, if the lead is kept going.

To sail through the channels amongst the islands.

Geo. Site of Cabossa.

In coming from sea, Tanasserim Island when first perceived, makes in several hills, appearing like separate islands, which on a nearer view, are found to join. To the northward and southward of it, several islands appear of different sizes; of these, the most remarkable is the Western Canister, in lat.12° 40′ N., a high, steep, small, round island, about 2 or 3 leagues to the N. Westward of Tanasserim, by which it may be easily known. About 2 leagues N. E. by E. from the Western Canister lies Cabossa, in lat. 12° 46′ N., lon. 97° 29′ E., a middling high island, having a small islet or rock near it on the north side, and near the Western Canister are other islets. In coming from the southward, these islands may be easily known, as no others are seen to the north of Cabossa, for it is the northernmost of this range.

A ship having made this latter island, may pass to the northward, or between it and the Western Canister at discretion, then steer to the eastward in soundings from 30 to 35 fathoms; as the tides set very irregular amongst these islands, they require attention; off Cabossa it is high water about 8 hours on full and change of moon. Having passed Cabossa, the Little Canister, a high, steep, round island, covered with trees, will be seen directly to the eastward, distant about 8 leagues; it resembles the Western Canister, excepting that the north end of the latter slopes more gradually than its southern one, and forms a kind of snout. The Little Canister is bold and steep to, and may be passed on either side as most convenient, but about 3 leagues S.W. by S. from it there is said to be a rock even with the surface of the sea. The Great Canister, a high irregular island of middling size, bears from the former N.½ W., distant about 2 leagues, and is also safe to approach.

Having passed the Little Canister, a ship ought to steer East from it, between the South

* Some navigators place it several miles more to the northward.

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point of Tavay and the North end of Iron Island, in a channel about 2 leagues wide, and clear of danger; but the bottom in it being rocky, and the depths great, from 50 to 60 fathoms, with strong eddies at times, anchoring here is unsafe. Farther out, with the Little Canister bearing W. N.W. 2 leagues, there are 35 fathoms gravel and mud, and between it and Cabossa Island, the depths are generally from 35 to 22 fathoms, where a ship may anchor occasionally.

The North part of Iron Island, terminates in a point with rocks above water, having close to them 25 to SO fathoms water. From it N. ½ W. lies the South part of Tavay Island, formed by several islets and rocks, also steep to. After passing in mid-channel between these, Long Island will be seen bearing E. by S., extending nearly North and South on the edge of a rocky bank under water, that lines the coast from Tavay River's mouth to the entrance of Mergui River. The edge of this bank, or Long Island, need not be approached, but when round the North point of Iron Island, it is best to steer along its eastern side at 2 miles distance, toward King's Island bay, Which bears to the S. S. E.; and the depths will be various from 36 to 17 fathoms, decreasing toward the bank lining the coast.

There is also a channel between Iron Island and King's Island, destitute of good anchorage, the water being deep, with strong tides running in eddies; if the tide fail a ship in steering from Cabossa toward this channel, she should anchor as near to Iron Island as convenient, until the first of next flood; in entering the channel, she must keep nearest to Iron Island until past the islets and rocks that stretch out from King's Island, the outermost islet being very low and surrounded by rocks. Although this channel is safe with a steady commandiug breeze, that to the northward of Iron Island ought to be preferred.

To sail into King's island Bay.

KING'S ISLAND BAY, formed between the island of this name and Plantain Island, (two large islands that bound the west side of the channel leading to Mergui River) is a place of shelter for ships, but in entering it, care is requisite to avoid the Ly's Shoal, on which the French ship, le Ly's, touched in 1724. It bears N. N. E. about 1½ or 2 miles from the East point of King's Island, which is the North point of the bay, and it is a reef of rocks extending about a cable's length W. N.W. and E. S. E., with 19 feet on the shoalest part at high water, and only 9 feet at low water. When on it, the point of King's Island and a small islet were in one, and Panella Island on with the highest part of the N.W. point of Plantain Island, and the northernmost of the small islands betwixt Iron and King's Islands, was open about a sail's breadth from the north point of the latter. Near this shoal on the north side, the depths are 7, 10, and 15 fathoms in going from it; proceeding from it toward the point of King's Island, 6, 7, 10, and 12 fathoms; and toward Plantain Island, 6, 7, and 9 fathoms rocky ground about a cable's length off Panella, which is a small islet upon a sand bank with some trees on it, situated a little way from the N.W. point of Plantain Island, and appears as part of it when seen at a distance. To the eastward, almost joining to the islet, there is another sand bank; and a reef of rocks stretches to the S. W., part of it only visible at low water.

To enter King's Island Bay, a ship must keep the N. E. side of King's Island a league distant, by steering to the eastward until the bay is open, and two small islands at the bottom of it are visible; she may then enter, leaving the Ly's Shoal on the starboard, and Panella Islet on the larboard hand. She will pass the latter safely, provided care is taken to avoid the reef of rocks that projects to the S.W. toward the bay, for the sea seldom breaks on it, and she may be horsed toward the rocks by the turn of the tides; but the channel between the Ly's Shoal and these rocks is wide enough to pass through in safety, with proper care.

When clear of the Ly's Shoal, she must steer westward into the bay, and anchor under King's Island, opposite to a small bay into which runs a stream of excellent water, with the N. E. point of the island North or N. by W. 1½ mile, the north-west point of Plantain Island E. ¾ S., and Long Island N. by E. ½ E.

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The bay, to the southward of the anchorage is shoal, and the small creek that separates Plantain and King's Islands, is only passable in country boats. The tide rises here about 10 or 12 feet, and it is high water about 10 hours on full and change of the moon. King's Island, and most of the others are inhabited; it is infested by tigers and snakes; and on it and the other islands, there is plenty of large strait timber fit for masts, and several parts of ship building.

If by a change of wind or tide, a ship is obliged to enter King's Island bay by the channel between the N. E. part of that island and Ly's Shoal, which is at most ½ a league wide, she must keep within ½ or ¾ of a mile of the shore, before she begin to approach the N. E. point of the island, taking care not to incline to open the bay until she is within that distance of the shore; for if steering in with the point and small islet at the bottom of the bay in one, she would run directly upon the shoal.

In going out of the bay, the best track is to keep mid-channel between the N. E. point of King's Island and Panella Islet, without borrowing to the westward until past the shoal, which will be known when the second islet or rock between King's Island and Iron Island is opened with the north end of the former.

Proceeding out by the Little Passage, a ship must steer along King's Island, rounding the point that forms the bay about ½ a mile distance.

And from thence to Mergui Road.

MERGUI ANCHORAGE, off the entrance of the river, is about 5 leagues to the S.E. of King's Island bay; a ship being abreast of the latter place, and bound to the anchorage at Mergui, should pass the N. E. point of Plantain Island at 2 miles distance, then keep in mid-channel, the Little Canister must be kept open with the South point of Iron Island, and almost shut in by the North point of Plantain Island; the soundings will be soft, decreasing from 15 to 13, 12, 9, and 8 fathoms. The best anchorage for large ships, is in 6½ fathoms at low water, with the North point of Plantation Island on with the South part of the Little Canister, the South point of Iron Island N.W., open about 10° from the Little Canister, the northernmost part of Madramacan Island (which forms the S.W. side of the river's entrance) S. 3° E., distant 3 or 4 miles, and the point on the East side of the entrance S. by E. Here, it is high water about 11½ hours at full and change of moon, and the rise of tide is 14 or 15 feet.

The distance is about 2 leagues from the road to the town of Mergui; vessels of moderate size, by taking pilots, can go over the bar into the river, and anchor off the town in 5 fathoms water. Elephant's teeth, wax, wood oil, and other articles, are exported from hence in ships belonging to merchants that reside here, who in general are natives of Hindoostan. Water may be had in great plenty from a run on Madramacan Island, also on Plantain Island, and in King's Island bay.

In sailing from the road, a ship should observe the same marks as in entering, that is, to keep the Little Canister just open from the North point of Plantain Island, and pass the point at 2 miles distance, then keep the Little Canister a little open with the South point of Iron Island; and when abreast of King's Island bay, she may, as seems most convenient, go out either to the northward or southward of Iron Island.

To avoid the dangers on both sides of the channel, when sailing to, or from Mergui, Road with a contrary wind, a ship may, from the entrance of King's Island bay to the small island about half way from thence to Mergui, stand to the northward till the South point of Iron Island is on with the centre of the Little Canister, and to the southward until within a mile or rather less of Plantain Island. From the small island mentioned, to Mergui Road, she may stand to the northward until the South part of Iron Island nearly touches the Little Canister, but it is prudent to keep them a little open, to avoid the edge of the dangerous bank that fronts the coast. In standing to the southward, the North point of Plantain Island

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must be kept at least a ship's breadth open with the South point of Iron Island, to avoid a bank which projects on this side from the Island Madramacan.

Ships being off Point Tavay or the Mosco's Islands with a northerly wind, should steer for the N. E. end of Tavay Island, and will have various depths, generally from 25 to 15 fathoms over a muddy bottom, until near that part of the island: they ought then to proceed by the inner channel on the East side of Tavay Island, keeping nearer to the islets that lie contiguous to it, than to the extensive rocky bank that fronts the main, having on the edge of it a small round island, and farther to the southward Long Island, mentioned in the foregoing directions.

To sail from Mergui in either monsoon

DEPARTING from MERGUI in the N. E. monsoon, ships ought to pass through some of the channels between the North end of the Great Andaman and Sunken Island, whether bound to Bengal or the Coromandel Coast, and conform to the directions already given for sailing from Rangoon Bar in this monsoon; but if February is commenced, those bound to the Coromandel Coast ought to proceed by the channel to the southward of the Little Andaman, and make sure to fall in with the land to the southward of their port, for southerly winds begin then to prevail, with a current setting along the coast to the northward.

Ships bound to Achen, or Malacca, Strait, after rounding the outermost islands of the Archipelago, may in the former case steer direct for the Golden Mount; and if bound to Malacca Strait, they may steer for the Seyer Islands, or the South end of Junkseylon, or direct for the Nicobars, if bound there.

If a ship leave Mergui in the S.W. monsoon, she must take every advantage to work to the westward clear of the islands, and pass through the Cocos or Preparis channel, if bound to Bengal. She must stand to the southward when she can clear the islands, if bound to Malacca Strait, Achen, or the Coromandel Coast, and follow the directions given for sailing from Rangoon Bar in the S.W. monsoon. If acquainted with the coast, and finding great difficulty to get to the westward of all the islands, she might venture to pass inside of the principal groups, between them and the main, where a continued channel extends to Junkseylon, inside of the Tanasseriln,* Aladin, and Seyer Islands, with various soundings in it from 5 or 6, to 20 fathoms. There is good anchorage under many of the islands, and it is proper to keep nearer to them than to the main, but attention to the lead and a good look out will be requisite, this channel not being yet well explored.

TANASSERIM† ARCHIPELAGO, A LADIN, and SEVER ISLANDS; and that COAST from MERGUI to JUNKSEYLON, with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Caution in approaching the Tanasserim Archipelago.

THE ARCHIPELAGO of islands fronting the coast of Tanasserim are imperfectly known, ships therefore approaching, or intending to pass through any of the channels formed by these numerous islands, must proceed with caution. As there are soundings on the out-

* The ship Susannah, Captain Drysdale, from Bengal bound to Malacca Strait, fell to leeward and got among these islands during the strength of the S.V. monsoon; the weather being dark and squally, she always anchored under some island in the night, and pushed through among them in the day. Captain Forrest, in the Esther brig, fell also to leeward, went inside of Domel and all the principal islands of the Archipelago, of which he made a cursory survey.

† Called Tannau by the Siamese, and Tannethaiee by the natives.

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side of most of them, (although rather close towards some of them, with deep water) their proximity will be known by the lead if kept going, and in passing through any of the channels, or inside of the islands, a boat should be kept a-head sounding, for several unexplored dangers may perhaps exist.

Geo. Site of Tores Islands.

The Tores Islands, in lat. 11° 50′ N., lon. 97° 3′ E., are the westernmost of the Archipelago; they form a high group of two large, and several smaller islands, the outermost being largest, and are distant about 26 leagues from the coast.

In lat. 11° 21′ N., about 11 leagues S. S. E. from the westernmost, or Great Tores Island, is situated a dangerous rock, which lies about 4 leagues west from the nearest islets to the eastward; these being part of the first group to the southward of Little Clara, and to the westward of Domel.

Domel, the adjacent island, and inside channel.

LAMBEE, or DOMEL ISLAND, called also Omel, or Great Clare, is the largest island of the Archipelago, the north end of it being situated to the S. Eastward of Tares Islands, about 11 or 12 leagues, and it is thought to extend from lat. 11° 4′ to about 10° 44′ N., being 7 or 8 leagues in length, and 4 or 4½ leagues in breadth, and it is a high, uncultivated island. About 5 leagues W. S.W. from its north end, and 8 leagues S. Eastward from Tores Islands, lies Little Clara, with other islands near it; and the depths decrease from 30 fathoms on the N.W. side of it, to 18 and 16 fathoms near the north point of Domel. The channel from sea, appears wide and safe to the northward of these islands, between them and the Tores Group; and afterward, along the east side of Domel, the depths are generally from 5 or 6 to 9 fathoms, about 2 or 3 miles from that shore, where a ship is well sheltered from the S.W. monsoon. This island is distant 6 or 7 leagues from the main, which from Mergui, is mostly low, or of moderate elevation, with banks and islands fronting it; and another branch of Tanasserim River, in this space, falls into the sea. About 5 miles inside of the north point of Domel, there is good anchorage in 5 or 6 fathoms under an island, having rocks and islets between it and the principal island, where water and timber may be procured. Between Domel and the main, there are several small islets and banks, and a ship passing along the east side of Domel, must avoid the Half Moon Shoal in about lat. 11° 7′ N., off the island about 4 miles, having a safe channel of 5 and 6 fathoms between it and that shore.

From Domel to the island St. Matthew, there is a continued chain of islands, the largest and highest of which are generally those to seaward, excepting that called St. Susannah, about 5 or 6 leagues from the south end of Domel, is nearly 3 leagues in length. North and South, and about 2 leagues in breadth. To the westward of it, at 5 or 6 leagues distance, two small islets, called the Twins, front the sea in this place, bearing North and South from each other about 3 leagues, the southernmost being in lat. 10° 32′ N., and bears about S. by E. from the Tores Islands.

On the east side of the chain, between Domel and St. Susannah, the depths are Mostly from 10 to 15 fathoms, but abreast of the latter there are overfalls; and Bowen's Shoal, dry at low water, is situated 1½ or 2 miles from the east point of the island, in about lat. 10° 32′ N. About 3 miles to the southward of the same point, there is good water on the north side of Flat Island, which issues from a rocky eminence; this, and the adjacent islands abound with trees, some of them fit for masts, and plenty of oysters may be got on the rocks and islets at low tide, which rises here 11 feet, and flows till 12 o'clock at full and change of the moon.

Between St. Susannah and St. Matthew's Islands, there is thought to be several good channels among the smaller islands, through which ships might pass, and be sheltered inside of the Archipelago in cases of distress, during the S.W. monsoon, when the squalls are sometimes very severe near this coast, with dark cloudy weather and much rain. They could lie in

* The late Capt. Forrest, and Capt. Inverarity, differed from each other upward of 20 miles in the latitude of this island; and also in the latitudes of the other islands, from hence to Junkseylon, these navigators differed greatly.

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smooth water and repair their damages, and proceed by the inner passage to the southward, when the weather became favorable.

Pine Tree Island

PINE TREE ISLAND, in about lat. 10° 17′ N., nearly mid-way between St. Susannah and St. Matthew, has a dangerous reef on its West and S.W. sides; on the west side of Cat Island, which is the next to the northward, there are several rocks; and 5 miles south from the former, and about 1 mile S. S. E. from a small island there is a reef of breakers, having a group of five islands about a league to the eastward. The soundings inside, and amongst those islands situated between St. Susannah and St. Matthew, are in general from 9 to 20 fathoms, but not always regular.

St.Matthew, the harbour neighbouring Islands, and coasts.

ELEPHANT ISLAND, or ST. MATTHEW, about 6 or 7 leagues in length, or from lat. 10° 5′ N., extending S. S. W. to 9° 46′ N., is about 5 or 6 leagues from the continent, and may be seen at a great distance, the highest part of it in the middle of the island being nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea. At the north part of the island, there is a spacious bay, with soft bottom in it from 5 to 8 fathoms: by the islands off the entrance of this bay protecting it from the sea, and being sheltered from all winds, it forms an excellent harbour, which may be called Elephant Harbour, about 4 miles in length and 3 in breadth. Lieutenant Low, of the Madras army, celebrated by his scientific pursuits, and knowledge of the language and character of the Siamese, and adjacent nations, touched here in 1825; he describes it as a very spacious harbour, capable of containing the largest navy in the world, having soundings from 17, to 12, 11, and 10 fathoms nearly close to the shore in some places. It is formed to the south, by the north end of St. Matthew and the contiguous islets; by Phipp's, Russel's, and several smaller isles to the west; by Hastings, Barwell's, and several other isles to the east; and it is completely land-locked. Hastings Island abounds with wild hogs, pigeons, and excellent fresh water. About 4 miles farther to the eastward, under the N. E. point of the island, called the Dolphin's Nose, there is another bay affording shelter for boats or small vessels; and on either side of the White Rock, off the Dolphin's Nose, there is a safe passage, but it is best to give a wide birth to the N. E. part of the large island opposite, on account of a 2 fathoms shoal near it.

From the N.W. end of St. Matthew, three or four islands, (St. Andrew's, and others) extend to the westward about 4 leagues, fronting the sea in this place, and appear to be safe to approach.

On the continent opposite to the north end of St. Matthew, there is a river, and a group of islands close to the shore; several other rivers fall into the sea between it and Mergui, and the whole of the main is generally of moderate height. Nearly close to it in about lat. 9° 40′ N., opposite to the south end of St. Matthew, there is a group of islands, and probably a harbour inside of the two outermost, which are the largest; for close to these on the outside, and also between them, the depths are from 7 to 10 fathoms, increasing regularly to 15 or 16 fathoms near the island St. Matthew. About the middle of the eastern coast of the latter, there is a bay directly under the high land, formed by a point of land on the north side, and an island to the southward; here, is a cascade of fresh water, and good anchorage on the north side of the island in 8 or 10 fathoms.* Farther to the southward, near the S. E. end of St. Matthew, there are several rocks and islets with 17 and 18 fathoms water near them, decreasing regularly toward the continent in a safe channel.

Roe's Bank a late discovery.

ROE'S BANK, discovered by Capt. Roe, in the ship Henry, bound from Prince of Wales Island to Calcutta, July 31st, at 5 P. M. rocks were seen under the ship's bot-

* The Princess Royal, filled up her water at the Sandy Bay on the north end of the island, where they found wild plantains, plenty of wild yams, and ground rattans of large size. This ship did not anchor, but stood off and on, while watering.

D 2

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tom, had 8½ fathoms, kept sounding, and had 10, 12, 15, and 20 fathoms, then no ground with 80 fathoms of line. By this day's observation, made the bank in lat. 9° 59′ N. lon. 96° 50′ E. by account. Although in the latitude of the high island St. Matthew, and the evening clear, no land could be seen from the mast-head: the ship was ½ an hour in passing over the bank, going at the rate of 2 miles per hour, which makes it about 1 mile in extent North and South.

Geo.site.

Capt. Roe, in command of the transport ship, Robarts, bound from Rangoon to Madras, again got upon this bank, July 25th, 1825, at 7 A. M.; steering S. S.W. about 3 miles per hour, saw rocks under the bottom, put the helm down, and had ground 10 fathoms, when in the stays: in standing again to the northward to get off the bank, had 10 fathoms, then no ground with the hand-lead, and by the time the deep-sea lead was ready, the ship was in deep water. From this day's observation, made the northern edge of the bank in lat. 10° 2′ N. lon. 96° 45′ E. by chronometer, which is probably 5 miles too far east, and in such case, the bank will be situated in about lat. 10° 2′ N., lon. 96° 40′ E., and bears West about 75 miles from the island St. Andrew's.

As this bank is in the track of ships, passing between Bengal and the Strait of Malacca, or other eastern ports, it seems strange, that it has remained undiscovered tili the present time; and although 8½ fathoms was the least water found on it, there may probably be rather less on some patches, as the bank was not fully explored, but perhaps no part of it is dangerous.

Aladin Islands, and coast opposite,

ALADIN, or ALLEDIE ISLANDS, (named from the central Bluff Island) being a continuation of the Tanasserim Archipelago, extend from the south end of St. Matthew to lat. 9° 19′ N., and are all high, bold to approach, and may be seen a great distance; but the large southern island in lat. 9° 25′ N., has rocks off its N. W. point, and is surrounded by small islands.

Nearly in a line, about mid-way between them and the Seyers, lies Middle Island by itself in lat. 9° 3′ N., which is high, and sometimes considered as the southernmost of the Aladin Islands, although detached from them. A little inside of a direct line joining this and the southern group of these islands, there are soundings from 40 to 34 fathoms.

Perforated Island, in lat. 8° 50′ N., situated about 4 leagues South from Middle Island, and 4 leagues N. E. by N. from the northernmost of the Seyers, is another detached island, named by Capt. David Inverarity, on account of a hole that passes through it; who in the ship, Chance, worked from Junkseylon, inside of the Seyers, Perforated, and Middle Islands, and on the west side of the other groups of the Archipelago as far as Tores Islands, in his passage from China to Rangoon. Perforated Island, has soundings about 2 miles inside of it from 40 to 50 fathoms, 2 leagues E. N. E. 33 fathoms, and 5 miles S. by E. from it 35 fathoms, to the N. E. of the Great Seyer.

To Bangri,

The channel betwixt these islands and the main is about 6 leagues wide, having regular soundings in it from 20 fathoms off the northernmost Aladin's, to 8 or 9 fathoms near the islands and banks contiguous to the coast opposite to them, which there, takes a S. S.Westerly direction, and forms a large bay abreast of the islands. In about lat. 8° 53′ N., there is an inlet to a lagoon or bay, where Bangri, a place of some trade, and frequented by the coasting vessels, is situated. On the south side, this inlet is bounded by a narrow tongue of sloping land; the point on the north side is low and covered with trees, perfectly level; at the entrance there is a perpendicular rock, and about 3 miles off, a dangerous shoal on which the sea breaks; from this shoal, the southernmost or detached Aladin, called Middle Island, bears about W. ½ N., and Perforated Island, near the Seyer Islands, about W. S.W.; the depth of water about 1 ½ or 2 miles outside of this shoal, is 12 fathoms.

And Papra strait.

From Bangri Inlet the coast takes a direction, first S. by W., then South and S. ½ E. about 13 or 14 leagues to Papra Strait in lat. 8° 9′ N., which separates Junkseylon Island from the

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continent, and is closed up by a reef of rocks at the entrance, over which the sea breaks high in bad weather.

The whole extent of land bordering the sea from Tavay River to the Strait of Papra, is generally called the Coast of Tanasserim, although the narrowest part of the continent which separates Siam Gulph from the Bay of Bengal, is sometimes called the Isthmus of Kraw. In the channel inside of the Tanasserim Archipelago, the flood generally comes from southward, except opposite to some of the channels between the islands, it comes through from West or S.W., according to their direction; and the ebb mostly comes from northward, except where it sets out to the westward in some places betwixt the smaller islands: amongst some of these, eddies and irregular tides prevail, but inside of the principal islands, the flood sets northward, and the ebb in the contrary direction, from 2½ to 3 or 3½ miles per hour on the springs, and rises 10 or 11 feet.

Seyer Island.

Geo. Site.

SEYER ISLANDS, although detached, may be considered as the termination to the southward, of the Great Chain or Archipelago, fronting the coast of Tanasserim; although not so much elevated as some of the Aladin Islands, they are bold, safe to approach, and may be seen 8 or 9 leagues. By observation at noon, the northernmost island bearing E. by S. about 6 leagues, I made it in lat. 8° 43′ N.: the island next to this, called the Great Seyer, is of considerable magnitude, but the others are all small; and from the northernmost, they extend in a chain nearly south, to about lat. 8° 28′ N. They are 11 or 10. leagues west of Pulo Rajah and the south end of Junkseylon, or in lon. 97° 48′ E., and appear eight in number, with two rocky islets off the S.W. end of the Great Seyer; next to it, the two southernmost islands are the largest of this group. On the east side of the Great Seyer Island, there is anchorage near the shore, although the depth is considerable; about 2 miles to the N. E. of it there is no bottom at 35 fathoms; a little farther east, and from thence to the main, soundings are got in the channel inside of these islands, which is from 7 to 9 leagues in breadth: along the west side of Junkseylon, soundings are obtained at a moderate distance from the shore, decreasing near it to 8 or 9 fathoms.

Geo site of Junkseylon; adjaceut island,

SALANG, JUNKSEYLON, or JAN-SYLAN ISLAND, separated from the continent by Papra* Strait, extends from lat. 8° 9′ to 7° 46′ N., being 8 leagues in length, and about 3 leagues broad. There is a high regular sloping mountain on its southern part that may be seen 12 leagues, which is in lon. 98° 20′ E., or 2° ½′ West from the fort of Prince of Wales Island by chronometers, † measured by me at different times, and at another time 17° 58′ East from Madras Flagstaff. On the meridian of this mountain, and the South end of Junkseylon, in lat. 7° 36′ N., lies a high woody island, called Pulo Rajah or Pulo Taya; and 5 miles South from it, there are two other small but middling high islands, called the Brothers, with an islet near them. Between these islands and others contiguous to the South end of Junkseylon, the channel is safe, with soundings from 20 to 25 fathoms, and it may be adopted by ships coming from the westward; but the great channel to go into the bay, is on the east side of Pulo Rajah and the Brothers.

The western coast of Junkseylon, stretches nearly North and South; on the East side there are several bays, and the chief one where the harbour is situated about 4 leagues from the S. E. point of the island, is opposite to the small river, where Tarooa, Terooa, or Tha-rooa, the principal town stands about 1½ mile up the river; Tha-rooa, signifying the "Landing Place." The great passage into the harbour, is on the East side of the two Lalan Islands, which lie off the entrance in lat. 7° 56′ N.; and the anchorage is to the N. W. of them in

* Called Pak Pra, by the Siamese, signifying the "Mouth of the Deity."

† Captain Blair made the same mountain 2° 1 ¾′ West from the fort of Prince of Wales Island by chronomecer; and he made the Lalan Islands in lon. 98° 23′ East, by an eclipse of the 1st Satellite of Jupiter. Variation 2° 15′ East, in 1788.

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4 or 4½ fathoms mud, with the Little Lalan or northernmost island E. by S. 1 mile, the mouth of the river West or W. ¼ N. 3 or 4 miles, and the East point of the large island Pulo Coco, bounding the South side of the harbour S. ½ E. There is another passage into the harbour with 5 fathoms water, between the Great or South Lalan and a small islet called the Cap and Feather, off the eastern point of Pulo Coco. The great passage or North entrance, is bounded on the North side by an extensive reef of rocks dry at low water, which bears North from Little Lalan distant 2 miles. It is high water at 10 hours on full and change of the moon, the rise of tide is 11 or 12 feet, which runs about 2 miles per hour to the northward between Junkseylon and the large island Pulo Panjang to the eastward; and the ebb sets to the southward with equal velocity. At this place, water, poultry, and various articles of refreshment may be procured in abundance, and formerly it exported a considerable quantity of tin. The natives here have been generally hospitable to strangers, when it belonged to the Malay Rajah of Queda, but it has been forcibly occupied by the Siamese of Ligor. Exclusive of Terooa Bay, other harbours are formed in the North part of the gulf between the islands Junkseylon and Panjang, particularly among the Nacavsa Islands, about 5 miles to the northward of the Lalan Islands; also in the entrance of Papra Strait, but the depths inside of that strait being generally from 2 to 3½ fathoms, without any safe passage at its western entrance to seaward, prevents it from being frequented by trading vessels. The strait between Pulo Panjang and the coast, is called Callat Leheree, i. e. Throat Strait, it having only 2 feet at low water in the shoalest part. The South end of Pulo Panjang, and the islands interspersed between it and the South end of Junkseylon, are safe to approach, with soundings from 10 to 15 fathoms amongst them, decreasing toward the shores on either side of the entrance of the gulf. Pulo Panjang, i.e. Long Island, is called Ka Yau by the Siamese, who now possess Salang, and the whole of the country from Tannaserim round the coast to Queda, called by them Kedda, against which the Rajah of Ligor sent a strong force of Siamese in 1822, who made a conquest of the Rajah of Quedah's dominions, which forced him to take refuge at Penang, and place himself under the protection of that government.

ANDAMAN ARCHIPELAGO; with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Geo. Site of Preparis.

PREPARIS ISLAND, extending nearly N. by E. and S. by W. from lat, 14° 49′ N. to 14° 56′ N., being 7 or 8 miles long, and 2 broad, and in lon. 93° 40′ E., or 33 miles to the westward of Cape Negrais by chronometer, is of moderate height, sloping gradually all round toward the sea, covered with wood, steep to, on the East side, having 7 fathoms water near the shore. At the North end, there are two small islets called the Cow and Calf, apparently steep to, and on the West side, two other small islets, situated on a Great Reef that stretches out from Preparis Island to the westward, and 4 leagues southward from its southern extremity, part of the rocks are visible above water.

This reef seems to be of greater extent, and more dangerous than hitherto supposed, as will be perceived by the following account of it, transmitted to me by Capt. Balston, of the country ship James Drummond.

August 13th, 1815, steering to the S. E. to check the N. E. current, and to give a birth to the reef which projects from the South end of Preparis Island, when a rock above water was seen bearing S. E., and shortly after, a flag displayed on it: immediately sent the cutter, which passed through a great surf, and returned afterward, with Capt. Daniels, Mr. White

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first officer, and eight men belonging to the brig Athena, wrecked three days previously on this reef.* In steering to the S. E. after saving these people, saw breakers about 5 or 6 miles distant from the rock on which the brig was wrecked, so that this reef extends much farther from the South end of Preparis Island than generally represented; I made the northern extreme of the island in lat. 15° 7′ N., † the southern extremity of the breakers in lat. 14° 44′ N., but the extent of the breakers to the eastward was riot visible in the evening from the mast head.

Capt. Nairne, passed through the channel to the south of the reef, in the General Kyd, October 8th, 1817, and is of opinion, that the reef extends 12 miles to the southward of Preparis Island, and that probably the water is shoal much farther out. The breakers ran very high at this time.

It is therefore, only on the East side of Preparis Island, where ships can safely anchor, in 12 or 14 fathoms; or a small vessel may anchor in 8 or 9 fathoms with the extremes of the island from N. 2° E. to S. 65° W., the extremity of the reef projecting from the South end of it S. 35° E., and the two islets off the North end N. 3° E. to N. 8° E. about a large ½ mile from the shore. A few paces from a fine sandy beach formed between two ledges of rocks, there is a pond of fresh water very convenient for watering, where boats may land with safety; it is in one with the highest part of the island bearing N.W. which is not inhabited. About 2 miles from the east side of the island there are 24 fathoms, and close to the reef at the southern extremity 30 to 36 fathoms; farther tp the southward, no ground is got with 100 fathom line in mid channel between it and the Cocos Islands, but when the latter are approached within 2 or 3 leagues, bearing to, the S. S.W., there is ground from 36 to 32 fathoms. In the channel between Preparis and Sunken Island, the soundings vary from 40 and 44 fathoms near mid channel, to 24 or 22 fathoms near the former, and 17 or 18 fathoms near Sunken Island.

Geo. Site of Great Coco.

GREAT COCO, bearing from Preparis Island S. 17° W., distant 46 miles, and extending from lat. 14° 2′ N. to 14° 8′ N., ‡ is in lon. 93° 26½′ E; by chronometer and lunar observations. It is nearly 6 miles in length North and South, and 2 miles in breadth, covered with trees, some of which near the sea are cocoa-nut trees; and being of moderate height, a little uneven in its contour, may be seen at the distance of 6 or 7 leagues. Off the North end, there are two islets called the Table and Slipper from their aspect; and another islet is connected with the South end by a reef of rocks just covered at high water, that projects a considerable way into the sea. A ship may anchor on the East side of the Great Coco in from 14 to 20 fathoms, also on the West side, but there is little inducement to land here, firewood being the only article procurable, and perhaps a little water in some parts, by digging pits.

Little Coco.

Channel between them.

LITTLE COCO, bears from the great one S. 48° W., distant about 3 leagues, and N. N. E. from Cape Price, the N. E. point of Great Andaman, distant 9 leagues, the centre of it being in lat. 13° 58½′ N., and it is about 2½ miles long North and South, and ½ a mile broad; it is low, or rather moderately elevated, of an even appearance, and may be seen 6 or 6½ leagues. Trees cover it in every part, some of which facing the sea, are cocoa-nut or palmyra trees, and there is said to be fresh water on the East side, where a ship might anchor in moderate depths; at the N.W. end there is also anchorage with regular soundings toward

* Eighteen men had left the rock on two small rafts, before the 13th of August, in hope that the N. E. current would drift them to the coast of Tanasserim, but as they had neither a sail, oars, nor provision, they probably all perished.

† This is considerably to the northward of the situation assigned to that part of the island by other navigators, and may probably not be very correct.

‡ By Capt. J. Ritchie, but Capt. Hall, made the Great Coco in lat. 14° 11′ N., lon. 93° 25′ E.

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the shore, and a fine sandy bay on the West side where boats may land, but no fresh water is procurable there. From the south end of the island, a reef projects to a considerable distance, which ought to be avoided in passing, particularly in the night. These islands, and Preparis, abound with monkies and squirrels; larger animals have not been seen upon them. Around, and between the Cocos Islands, the soundings vary from 8 to 30 fathoms, deepening as the distance from them is increased to the East or Westward, suddenly to no ground. The Margaret passed through the channel between them, April 25th, 1802, and the least water she had was 8 fathoms. The Company's ship Nassau, went through this channel in 1779, and had regular soundings of 24 to 36 fathoms.

The Bridgewater, Capt. Manderson, August 9th, 1825, from Bengal, bound to China, went through the channel between the Great and Little Coco, and carried regular soundings of 30, 25, and 21 fathoms, in passing nearest to the Little Coco, with the wind at S.W, The General Kyd, Capt. Nairne, and Hythe, Capt. Wilson, also passed through this channel, after the Bridgewater, and on the same day: the channel appeared about 3 leagues wide, and clear of danger.

Channel between little Coco and Landfall Island.

The channel between the Little Coco, and Landfall Island off the North end of the Great Andaman, is about 6 leagues wide, and hitherto thought to be very safe,* with soundings 30 or 35 fathoms near the former, and from 40 to 56 fathoms about mid-channel, decreasing to 20 and 18 fathoms near Landfall Island and the ledges of rocks to the eastward of it: the bank of soundings is about 4½ or 5 leagues broad East and West, the bottom mostly coral, but in some places it is sand and mud. During the N. E. monsoon, the current sets frequently through this channel to the N.W.; in the S.W. monsoon it sets mostly to the eastward, although in fine settled weather, tides prevail among these islands, the flood setting to N. N. E., and the ebb to the S. S.Westward.

Geo Site of the North end of Great Andaman.

Islands.

GREAT ANDAMAN, extending from Cape Price, its N. Eastern extremity, in lat. 13° 34′ N., lon. 93° 9′ E., to the S. E. point in lat. 11° 30′ N. lon. 92° 56′ E., or nearly S. W., about 42 leagues in length, and from 6 to 10 leagues in breadth; although generally considered as one large island, it is in reality composed of three islands, separated from each other by two narrow straits, one in about lat. 12° 50′ N., and the other in 12° 10′ N.; there is thought to be depth sufficient in these straits for a vessel not drawing much water, but they are too contracted to be navigated except by boats, or very small vessels. About 6 or 7 miles to the W. S.W. of Cape Price, is situated Cape Thornhill, the N.W. extremity of the island, off which at a small distance, there are two islets called Cliff and Reef Islands, and 3 miles to the northward of these, lies West Island: about 6 miles to the N. Eastward of the latter, in lat. 13° 39′ N., is situated Landfall Island, fronting the North end of the Andaman, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles, the East part of it bearing nearly North from Cape Price. It is the largest of these islands, of level aspect, and may be seen about 6 leagues; there is off its eastern point an islet called East Island, and both are encompassed by a reef having 3 fathoms on its western verge, which should not be approached under 18 or 20 fathoms in any part, particularly in the night or thick weather.

Channels.

The channel between Landfall Island and the North end of the Andaman, should not be attempted, being dangerous and very narrow, † having in the middle of it Cleugh's Reef, with

* But Capt. Henderson, and Capt. Bennett, both experienced commanders in the country trade, have informed me, that, in 1809, the brig Daphne, although drawing only 10 feet water, struck lately on a sunken rock which lies 6 miles south of the Little Coco. An extract from the Daphne's journal, lately received from Capt. Ashmore, states that the S. E. end of the Little Coco bore N. by E. about 5 miles when she struck on a small rock, and saw the rocks under water along side; at this time the surf on the shore of the Little Coco was not visible from the deck.

† It is sometimes called Pondicherry Passage, the French ship of that name having forced her way through it in 1750. The Admiral Pocock, Captain Cleugh, also went through it in December 1764; and Captain Heath-thorne passed through it not long ago, but it ought not to be. attempted except in a case of great necessity.

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rocky ground and overfalls on either side of that shoal. The soundings in this channel vary from 18 to 10 fathoms in the western and middle parts, increasing to 25 and 30 fathoms at the eastern entrance. The flood sets through to the eastward and the ebb to the westward, high water about 5 hours on full and change of the moon.

Dangers.

Ranger's Ledge, bears East about 3 miles from East Island, and close to it on the outside lies Jackson's Ledge, both dangerous shoals; to the S. Eastward of these about 7 miles, and nearly 3 leagues E. by S. from Cape Price, lies Union's Ledge in lat. 13° 20′ N., another dangerous shoal. Between the Andaman and these shoals, the bottom is mostly rocky with great overfalls; ships ought, therefore, to pass always outside of the shoals, in deep water, for at a small distance to the eastward of Jackson's Ledge, there are from 18 to 20 fathoms, and near Union's Ledge 30 and 40 fathoms. The edge of the bank of soundings extends only about a league outside of this ledge, rendering the approach to it dangerous in the night, or in thick weather, when the land is not visible.

Port Cornwallis.

PORT CORNWALLIS, in lat. 13° 18′ N., about 16 miles to the southward of Cape Price, is an excellent bay or harbour, extending about 2 leagues into the land in a N.Westerly direction, and in breadth about 1 league. There are in it several small islands, of which the most conspicuous is Chatham Island, about 2 miles long; it contains also several creeks and coves; high water at 4½ hours on full and change of the moon. The entrance is about ¾ mile wide, with 18 fathoms in mid-channel, formed between an islet at the North point and a reef projecting from the South point; the depths within, decrease from 12 regularly to 7 and 6 fathoms, and the lease water in the harbour is 5 fathoms.* To the northward of this harbour, near the shore, there is a group of islands surrounded by a reef; and about 4 or 5 miles to the southward, lie Ragged Islands, being four islets contiguous to the shore, with regular soundings 13 and 15 fathoms near them, and 25 to 29 fathoms, about 3 miles distance.

To approach it from the westward.

Ships coming from the westward with a fair wind, and intending to stop at Port Cornwallis, ought to keep at 4 miles distance from West Island and Landfall Island, and at least 2 miles from the North point of the latter; having steered from hence, East 9 or 10 miles, they may haul to the southward and pass outside of Ranger's, Jackson's, and Union's Ledges. In thick weather during the S.W. monsoon, it will be prudent, after making Landfall Island, and passing to the northward of it at a moderate distance, to steer East until out of soundings; or to keep in deep water on the outer verge of the bank, to round the Ledges with safety, for Union's Ledge is about 3 leagues from the shore, and not far within the edge of the bank of soundings.

Saddle Mountain.

About 3 leagues to the southward of Port Cornwallis, is situated Saddle Mountain, the sedate highest on these islands, which is discernible at 20 leagues distance; it appears in the form of a saddle when viewed either from the East or Westward, and its North peak is in lat. 13° 10′ N.

Coast to the southward

About 5 leagues to the southward of the Saddle Mountain, lies Sound Island, fronting the East entrance of Andaman Strait, called Stuart's Sound, having 70 and 80 fathoms very near it, and no soundings about a league off shore; and the whole of the East coast, from Saddle Mountain to lat. 12° 36′ N. is steep and mountainous.

* This excellent harbour being land locked on every side, and surrounded by lofty mountains covered with impenetrable forests, is very secure from all winds, and the scenery of nature is here uncommonly grand. A Colony from Bengal first settled at Port Chatham near the South end of the island in 1791, which was removed (by advice of Admiral Cornwallis) in 1793, to port Cornwallis; but the impenetrable forests being unfavorable to cultivation, with incessant rain in the S.W. monsoon, rendering the place unhealthy, the Colony was withdrawn after a few years residence on the island. The inhabitants of these islands are Negroes of small stature, very black, but strong and well shaped; they subsist chiefly on what fish they kill with darts, or shell fish procured among the rocks; but in tempestuous weather these are not always obtained, and hunger and cold sometimes deprive those miserable savages of existence.

VOL. II. E.

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Diligent Strait.

Adjacent Islands.

DILIGENT STRAIT, is formed between the East coast of Great Andaman and some contiguous islands, and a group or chain of larger islands about 3 to 5 leagues off it, extending from lat. 11° 48′ to 12° 20 N. It is 2 and 3 leagues wide, except toward the middle, it is only about 2 or 3 miles in breadth betwixt the nearest islands, where the least water found, was 8 fathoms; and from 17 to 25 fathoms in the northern part of the strait, and in the southern part from 30 to 40 fathoms. The islands which form the East side of this strait, are generally high, covered with wood, and connected together by reefs; a bank of soundings extends a few miles around them, and along the coast of Andaman Opposite, but a few leagues to the southward, this coast becomes very steep. At the north part of Diligent Strait, there are several shoals, and reefs project from some of the islands; the anchorage in the middle of it is good, with shelter from all winds. Opposite to these islands, in lat. 12° 2′ N. lies the eastern entrance of Middle Strait, which divides the Middle Island of Great Andaman from the Southern Island; and 3 or 4 miles farther South, Port Medows, a small harbour, is situated, with another bay or inlet near it.

Port Chatham.

PORT CHATHAM, in lat. 11° 41′ N. and 4 leagues from the South end of Great Andaman, extends a considerable way inland, having 13 fathoms in the entrance, near the islet fronting it, called Ross Island, and there are other islets and reefs inside. From thence to the South point, the coast is bold, with various depths on the bank of soundings lining the shore.

West coast of Great Andaman.

Bank off it.

WEST COAST of Great Andaman, has a bank with various depths, stretching along it, and extending much farther out in some parts than the soundings on the eastern coast. Nearly West from the Saddle Mountain, about 8 or 9 leagues from the West side of the island, there is an extensive part of the bank, which is very shoal, and probably dangerous; although its dimensions and true position are very imperfectly known. Captain William Richardson, states, that his chief officer ran West on it 2 leagues in soundings from 6 to 4½ fathoms he supposed that to be its breadth, and the length to extend North and South, parallel to the coast. A country ship from Masulipatam bound to Pegu, at day light, September 20th, 1792, saw the Great Andaman bearing East, and observed at noon in lat. 13° 0′ N, then distant from the island 9 or 10 leagues. From hence she steered 3 or 4 miles to the eastward with a light breeze, and at 2 P. M. coral rocks were perceived under her, covered apparently with so little water, that the rudder seemed nearly to touch them, they hauled instantly to the westward, and soon got into deep water. In May, 1795, the Company's ship Pitt, bound from Bengal to England, had the Saddle Mountain bearing East 9 or 10 leagues, and the extremes of the Great Andaman from N. E. by E. to S. E. by S., she then tacked in 14 fathoms, and had 8 fathoms coral rocks in stays. Standing to the northward with a light breeze, she had 11, 7½, 14, 16, 24, 18, 12, to 9 fathoms, in the first part of the right, then tacked and stood S.W. by S., deepening gradually till day-light. At sun-rise the mountain bore E. N. E., and the extremes of the land from N. E. by N. to S. E. by S., distant 9 or 10 leagues, then in 60 fathoms. Between the shoal bank and the coast, the soundings vary from 40 to 20 fathoms, and 15 fathoms near the land.

Port Andaman.

Interview Island

PORT ANDAMAN, situated about 14 leagues to the southward of West Island, is formed between the West entrance of Andaman Strait and a long island fronting it at a small distance, called Interview Island, that extends from lat. 12° 47′ N. to 13° 1′ N. About 5 miles off its North end, there is a small island with an extensive reef projecting from it toward the North point of the former, betwixt which and the reef, there is a passage. A reef projects from the South end of Interview Island, with 14 fathoms close to, and also within it, in the entrance of the Port; and to the northward betwixt that island and the coast, from lie several islets and rocks; other small islands are interspersed along the coast, from

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Interview Island to the N.W. end of the Andaman, with soundings near them, from 12 to 25 fathoms.

Coast from thence southward.

From Port Andaman, to the western entrance of the Middle Strait, in lat. 12° 12′ N., some islets and reefs line the shore. About 5 leagues off; in lat. 12° 30′ N., opposite to an island near the shore called Flat Island, there is a bank with 12 fathoms on it, and 30 to 40 fathoms between it and the land. In lat. 11° 56′ N. there is an inlet called Port Campbell, with some islets at the entrance, and 6 or 7 fathoms inside. About 7 leagues farther to the southward, there is a group of small islands connected by reefs, called the Labyrinth, that projects around the S.W. end of Great Andaman.

Geo site of North Centinel.

NORTH CENTINEL, about 8 leagues distant from the S.W. part of the Andaman, and bearing West from the Labyrinth, is a level island covered with trees, about 5 or 6 miles in extent North and South, and may be discerned about 6 leagues off. The shore is rocky, and two islets lie at the South end, and one at the N.W. end of the principal island. The centre of it is in lat. 11° 33′ N., lon. 92° 24′ E., or 5° 56′ West of the South end of Junkseylon, by chronometers, measured by me in 1800. Captain Clarke, of the True Briton, made it in lon. 92° 24′ E. by chronometers, measured from Madras observatory in 1801, and Captain P. Heywood, in 1802, made it also in 92° 24′ East by chronometers and lunar observations. There is said to be fresh water upon this island. The bank of soundings extends from the West coast of the Andaman a little beyond the North Centinel, with various depths on it from 20 or 30, to 50 fathoms, the bottom sand and coral toward the shore; but in 40 and 50 fathoms it is generally ouze.

South Centinel.

SOUTH, or LITTLE CENTINEL, in lat. 11° 0′ N., bearing from the former about S. ½ E. distant 11 leagues, and 7 or 8 leagues distant from the N.W. part of Little Andaman, is a small woody island about a mile in extent East and West, that may be seen about 6 leagues. From each end of it coral reefs project about two cables lengths, on which the sea breaks high in the S.W. monsoon. Abreast of the East end of the island, about ¼ mile off, we had no ground 40 fathoms, but about half way between it and the N.W. part of the Little Andaman, there is ground, 45 and 50 fathoms, decreasing to 13 and-10 fathoms within 1 or 2 miles off that shore.

Rutland Islands contiguous islands and coast.

RUTLAND ISLAND, near 3 leagues in length, 2 in breadth, and of considerable height, is separated from the South end of Great Andaman by a narrow strait, called Mac-Pherson's Strait, although formerly considered as part of that island. This strait is scarcely 1/3 of a mile wide at the North point of Rutland Island, having 10 and 12 fathoms at the West entrance, and generally from 16 to 19 fathoms all the way through.

At a small distance from the West point of Rutland Island, there are two small islands called the Twins, with a reef projecting from them a. little way to the West and Southward, near to which, the depths vary from 12 to 22 fathoms; and off the S. E. point of the same island, there is a group called the Five Islands, and in some charts, Angue Islands, which are moderately elevated. Between the point of Rutland Island and the nearest of these, distant from it about a mile, there is a safe passage with deep water in it, 45 to 60 fathoms. Along the South side of the island, there are regular soundings, of 13 to 18 fathoms about 2 or 3 miles off; but nearly 2 leagues to the westward of the South point, and the same distance S. Westward from the Twins, there is a bank of coral rocks with 7 fathoms on it, and probably less water. The South end of Rutland Island is in about lat. 11° 24′ N. Var. 1° 10′ East, off it in 1791.

Duncan's Passage.

DUNCAN'S PASSAGE, formed by the islands, which extend from the Five Islands off

E 2

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Small one.

Geo. Site of the Sisters.

Brothers.

the S. E. point of Rutland Island to the north end of Little Andaman, is very safe and commodious.

The northern or small passage, through which Captain P. Duncan returned from Manilla, in January, 1760, is formed on the north side by the Five Islands, and on the south side by Passage Island and the Sisters, being 3 or 4 miles wide, with soundings from 25 to 14 fathoms. The southern extremity of the Five Islands is in lat. 11° 17′ N., from which projects a reef to a small distance around these islands. Passage Island, of middling height, lies to the S. S. Westward 4 or 5 miles from these, and the Sisters about 7 or 8 miles to the S. S. Eastward. The latter are two small islands near each other; the southernmost in lat. 11° 10′ N., lon. 92° 58′ E., is sometimes from its shape, called Round Island. In coming from the west toward the Great Passage, the Sisters are on with each other until they bear N. 20° E., then they begin to open, and the North Brother is on the same transit line bearing from them S. 20° W., distant 11 miles, or in lat. 10° 59½′ N. The Brothers are two small islands, when in one bearing S. 36° W., separated about 2 or 3 miles, and distant from the N. E. part of the Little Andaman from 4 or 5, to 8 miles; they are not so high as the other islands, the trees on the southernmost are ragged, but on the North Brother they are perfectly level, which on this account is sometimes called Flat Island.

Great Passage; with directions.

The Great Passage, through which Captain Duncan went, in his passage to Manila, formed between the South or Round Sister and the North or Flat Brother, is about 10 or 11 miles wide, and very safe by day or night, if not too dark to see the land when near it; there being no danger, unless a reef projecting about ½ a mile from the north end of Flat Island be considered one, which by the water breaking on it, is always visible. If it be too dark, a ship may anchor in 12 to 17 fathoms sandy bottom in the channel, for the depths are generally from 12 to 20 fathoms sandy bottom, on the bank extending between Rutland Island and the north end of Little Andaman. This bank projects only a few miles to the eastward of the Brothers and Sisters, and 4 or 5 leagues to the westward of them, where it shelves suddenly to no ground, forming a deep concavity between the Centinels; for it takes a sharp bend from the north part of Little Andaman to the westward, and from Rutland Island it stretches out round the Great Centinel, joining the bank on the west side of the Great Andaman.

As reefs project from each of the Brothers, the space between them probably affords no safe passage for a large ship; but between the South Brother and the N. E. end of the Little Andaman, there is a passage with 6, 8, and 10 fathoms in it, through which H. M. sloop, Ariel, went in 1790. It is about a mile in breadth, bounded by reefs projecting from the South Brother and Andaman, and being narrow, it should not be entered except from necessity:—the passage to the northward of the Brothers, ought always to be chosen in preference.

In light breezes and fine weather, a kind of tides set through the channels among these islands to the east and westward, but at times currents prevail, which are generally governed by the wind. In the N. E. monsoon, on both sides of the islands, the current sets mostly to the S.W. or southward; a ship running for Duncan's Passage, should therefore, endeavour to keep a little to the northward in this season, and to the southward in the opposite monsoon, according to the prevailing wind, that she may preserve a leading breeze to pass through the channel.

Geo. site of Little Andaman.

LITTLE ANDAMAN, extends from lat. 10° 53′ N., to the S. E. point in lat. 10° 26′ N., being 9 leagues in length north and south, and about 5 leagues in breadth at the middle of the island; the south-east point is in lon. 92° 40′ E., or 16 miles east from the North Centinel by chronometer. This island has an even appearance, a little convex, sloping from the centre toward the sea all round, and may be seen 6½ or 7 leagues from the deck of a large ship. Like all the other islands, it is well clothed with trees, and two small runs of water

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fall into the sea, one at the north end, the other in a small bay at the N.W. part.* The soundings along the east and west sides of the island, are mostly from 10 to 18 fathoms about 1 or 2 miles off, deepening about 5 or 6 miles off to 50 or 55 fathoms, then no ground; the south side is more steep, there being no ground about 3 or 4 miles off shore, and 38 or 40 fathoms within 1 or 2 miles of it, a little to the eastward of the S.W. point of the island. From this point S. 79° W., 5 or 6 miles distant, there is a bank of coral rocks with 7 or 8 fathoms on it, or probably less water; which may be avoided by keeping farther out, or between it and the S.W. point of the island, in a good channel, having 13 and 14 fathoms near the sandy point, and deepening to 20 or 25 fathoms toward the coral bank.

Invisible Bank.

INVISIBLE BANK, named so by Captain Blair, as the water did not seem discoloured upon it, lies east from Duncan's Passage, distant from the Sisters 14 or 15 leagues, extending north and south about 10 leagues, or from lat. 10° 56′ to 11° 27′ N., and is nearly from 2 to 3 leagues in breadth. The soundings on this bank vary from 17 or 18, to 40 or 50 fathoms near its outer edges, where in deep water the ground is sometimes ouze or sand, but well in upon the bank, frequently foul and rocky, particularly near the dangerous rock now to be described.

Geo. Site of Flat Rock.

Directions to avoid it.

FLAT ROCK, in lat. 11° 8′ N., about lon. 93° 40′ E., † bearing nearly east from the Sisters in Duncan's Passage, distant 14 leagues, is very dangerous, being only 8 or 10 feet above water, of circular form, about 30 yards in diameter, with rocky foul ground stretching out from it about twice its length, on which the sea breaks in bad weather. This dangerous rock being situated upon the Invisible Bank, a little to the southward of its centre, the lead if kept going will denote the near approach to it, for soundings extend from it all round to a small distance, but farthest to the north, and southward. At a small distance from the rock, the depths are from 13 to 20 fathoms, coral and sand, increasing in standing from it all round to 30 or 40 fathoms toward the edge of the bank; but as the soundings are not always regular, it would be dangerous to approach the rock in the night or in thick weather; for at such times, when a ship is in the vicinity of the bank, the lead should be kept briskly going, and if soundings are obtained, she ought to tack or haul out immediately into deep water. The Flat Rock being directly opposite to Duncan's Passage, is much in the way of ships from Mergui proceeding by that passage in the N. E. monsoon, but with common attention it may always be avoided.

Geo. Site of Barren Island.

BARREN ISLAND, in lat. 12° 15½′ to 12° 17′ N., lon: 93° 54′ E., or 4° 24′ West from the south end of Junkseylon by chronometers, measured by me in 1803; and in 93° 54′ East, by Captain Hall's chronometers, in the Worcester, in 1795, is high, of an even appearance when viewed at a considerable distance, and may be seen from 12 to 13 leagues from the deck. It is of small extent, covered with trees, except near the crater of the volcano. ‡

* Like the Great Andaman, it is thinly inhabited, the natives depending chiefly on what fish they can procure for subsistence. The inhabitants of these islands were long considered as cannibals, but it is now known, that if ever they deserved such appellation, it arose probably from excessive hunger, and not from choice. It is however, prudent, for boats lauding at these islands to be on their guard, for a few years back, the boat of an American ship in landing on the Great Andaman was assailed by a shower of darts from the natives in ambush behind the bushes, who rushed out and endeavoured to hold fast the boat. After firing some musket shots at them, they fled, but several of the sailors were wounded by the darts, one gentleman who went in the boat for amusement, very severely between the ribs.

† Capt. W. Owen, in H. M. sloop, Seaflower, made the breakers on the Flat Rock in lat. 11° 17′ N., lon. 93° 29′ E. and some other navigators, place it nearly in this longitude.

‡ It was not generally known that Barren Island was in an igneous state until 1791, when we passed close to it in the King George, and perceived the crater of the volcano, with a quantity of very white smoke close to it. Since that time it has continued in the igneous state, subject to violent eruptions in the S. W. monsoon, or rainy season. In November, 1803, the volcano was observed to explode regularly every 10 minutes, projecting each time a column of black smoke perpendicularly to a great height; and in the night, a fire of considerable size continued to burn on the east side of the crater, which was then exposed to our view. The crater is large, nearly in the middle, or rather toward the north side of the island, and only seen from that side; close to it on the west side there is a small hill, but the contour of the island seems not to have altered in 25 years, although the volcano has been subject to great explosions, and the crater is of great dimensions when compared with the extent of the island. The Thetis made Barren Island in lon. 93° 53′ E., and the Morning ton made it in 93° 54′ E. by chronometer from Prince of Wales Island.

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Captain Almes, who landed on it in 1801, found no soundings within 10 yards of the shore; firewood could be got with difficulty, but he saw no runs of water.

With Barren Island bearing N. N.W. 5 or, 6 leagues, there is said to be a bank, where Captain Sharrington, in the Bahar, saw the rocks along-side, and had 4 fathoms water. This account is rendered doubtful, for no signs of a shoal-bank in the situation described, have been discovered for many years.

Geo. Site of Narcondam.

NARCONDAM, in lat. 13° 24′ N., lon. 94° 12′ E.,* bears about N. 14° East, from Barren Island, distant 70 miles, by observations taken when passing between them; Captain Hall, made it in lon. 94° 11′ E., by chronometers, and it is about 22 leagues distant from the nearest part of the Great Andaman. When in 21 fathoms close to Jackson's Ledge, off Landfall Island, Narcondam was in sight from our mizen shrouds; and on the same day, when the observed lat. at noon was 12° 55′ N., the Andaman seen from the deck, bore from W. by S. ½ S. to W. N.W., Gap of Saddle Mountain W. by N. ½ N., Narcondam N. E. ¼ N., and Barren Island not much elevated above the horizon S. by E. ½ E. Narcondam may be seen about 14 or 15 leagues from the deck, being higher than Barren Island, and appears in the form of a cone or pyramid with its summit broken off. Close to it on the east side there is an islet or rock, and another at the south point; but it is bold and safe to approach all round, and, like Barren Island, of small extent.

NICOBAR ISLANDS, with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Nicobar Islands.

THE CHAIN, or Archipelago, called Nicobars, and by the Malays, Sambilangs, (Nine Islands) extends N. N.W. ¼ W. and S. S. E. ¼ E., about 53 leagues, having several safe channels among them: eight or nine of them are of considerable size, the others, nine or ten in number, generally small.

Geo. Site of Car-Nicobar.

CAR-NICOBAR, the northernmost of these islands, bears from the S. E. point of the Little Andaman about S. by E., distant 80 miles, its centre being in lat. 9° 10′ N., lon, 92° 56′ E., or 12° 34′ E. by chronometers from Madras. It is about 6 miles in length North and South, and 5 in breadth, very little elevated above the sea, except at the west side, and near the S. E. point, there are small risings. The middle of the island is covered with long rich grass, where multitudes of hogs are bred; near the coast there are fruit trees of various kinds, particularly, orange, citron, lemon, and lime trees; plantains, yams, and sweet potatoes may be also procured, but cocoa-nuts are in the greatest abundance, on which all the animals are fed, there being no sort of grain. Ships from the Coromandel Coast, stop here at times, to load with cocoa-nuts, which they receive in barter for coarse blue cloth, or other piece goods; and with the cargo procured here, they proceed to Rangoon, where they receive for it in exchange, a cargo of plank for ship building.

* Capt. Corry, of the Royal Navy, made it in lon. 94° 20 ½ E. or 6° 1 ½′ West of the Fort of Prince of Wales Island.

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The inhabitants of this island are usually hospitable to strangers, and inoffensive to each other; they live in small villages near the sea on the different sides of the island, for the conveniency of carrying their cocoa-nuts to ships. A ship having a scorbutic crew, may touch here for a supply of hogs, or other necessary refreshments, and she may anchor on either side of the island in from 12 to 30 fathoms, near some of the villages; but soundings do not extend far out, the bank being steep, and the bottom mostly sand, or sand and coral, makes the anchorage indifferent. The most eligible place to anchor at, is in a bay at the N. W. end of the island in 10 or 12 fathoms, abreast of the watering place and village. The Minerva, in January, 1803, anchored in 8 fathoms, about ½ a mile off shore, with the village on the west side of the island bearing east, and procured a few hogs. The same ship returning from Bengal, anchored April 13th, 1803, in 11 fathoms, with the extremes of the island from N. E. by N. to S.W. and a village S. by E. 1 mile, where she remained three days during calms and light airs, filling up her water.*

The City of London, November 15th, 1800, anchored at 10 P. M. in 15 fathoms, and at day-light the extremes of the island bore from E. ½ N. to S.W. ½ S., the hill South, off shore about 2 miles. She filled up with good water, procured some fresh provisions, cocoa-nuts, limes, &c. for her scorbutic and sick people, and sailed on the 18th.

The Ganges anchored November 9th, 1805, in 15 fathoms, at the N. E. part of the island, bearing from West to S. by E. ½ E., and a village S.W. ½ S., off shore 1 ½ mile; here she remained two days procuring about 15 butts of water, the wells being nearly dry, and the surf rendering it difficult to get the casks from the shore; so the other side of the island seems preferable, when the season will permit a ship to anchor there.

The channel betwixt this island and the Little Andaman, generally called the Ten Degrees Channel, is spacious, and clear from danger.

Batty Malve.

BATTY MALVE, in lat. 8° 46 ½′ N., bearing from the south end of Car-Nicobar about S. by E. ¼ E., distant 7 leagues, is about 1 ½ mile length East and West, and half that breadth. It is destitute of water or inhabitants, being composed of an entire rock, covered with a thin stratum of soil, which gives root to some shrubs and scraggy trees. At the west end, it is of moderate height, sloping in the form of a wedge to the eastward, and has, therefore, been sometimes called the Quoin. At the S.W. end, about a mile distant, there are soundings from 25 to 35 fathoms, and 40 fathoms about ½ a mile off the west end of the island.

Chowry.

CHOWRY, in lat. 8° 28 ½′ N., bearing S. 32° East from Batty Malve, distant about 7 leagues, is of square form, scarcely 14 mile in extent. The S. E. angle consists of a large rock rising perpendicularly from the sea to a considerable height above the tops of the trees that grow on the island, which excepting this rock, is low and level, and not elevated more than 6 or 8 feet above the surface of the sea.

Contiguous to the shore, cocoa-nut trees abound, and the whole of the level part of the island is a continued orchard of tropical fruit trees, oranges, citron, limes, &c. The natives rear also hogs and poultry, and like those on Car-Nicobar, are generally friendly to such ships as stop at the island:—cocoa-nuts may also be procured here for the Pegu market. Soundings project out 1 or 2 miles from the shore, particularly off the S.W. end of the island, ships may

* Capt. Hay, of the Inglis, who touched here for refreshments, January 28th, 1813, advises not to round the N.W. point of the island too close, as he got into broken water, at 1 ½ mile distant from it; and that a large ship ought not to come under 12 or 14 fathoms, as he did for the convenience of getting refreshments quick on board, having anchored abreast of the village in 9 ½ fathoms 1 mile distant, the North point N. E. ½ N., South point W. by S.; with:30 fathoms of cable out, a rock was seen under the ship, having only 7 ½ fathoms water on it. A ship ought to anchor about half way between the N.W. point and the village, in 12 or 14 fathoms sand, but on no account borrow so near the village as did the Inglis,

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anchor in 15 to 25 fathoms. On the N. E. side there is a village, with anchorage abreast, in 20 or 30 fathoms, sandy bottom.

Terressa;

Geo. Site.

TERRESSA, extending N.W. and S. E., between lat. 8° 12′ and 8° 22′ N., is about 4 leagues in length, and 5 miles broad at the N.W. end, but scarcely half so much at the S.E. end; the North end bears from the nearest part of Chowry S. S. E. ½ E., distant 6 miles. Terressa, when viewed at a considerable distance, appears like two islands, the land toward each end, particularly the North part, being much higher than in the middle. Its animal and vegetable productions are the same as on Car-Nicobar, but it is less populous. There is anchorage both on the East and West sides of the island; on the West side, the depths are from 30 to 40 fathoms within ¼ or ½ mile of the shore; at the South point, where a reef projects out into the sea, it is not so steep, for a ship may anchor in 30 fathoms coarse sand, near the S. E. point of the island, This point I made in lon. 93° 20′ East, or 12° 58′ East from Madras, by chronometers.

Bompoka.

BOMPOKA, separated from the S. E. end of Terressa by a channel about 2 miles wide, is a small island, formed of a mountain partly covered with wood. Its summit is a sharp ridge, extending North and South about half the length of the island, from which the declivity on all sides is regular to the water's edge. This island it noted for its women being more fair, and more handsome, than any of the Nicobarians. In the channel betwixt it and Terressa there is said to be safe anchorage, particularly inside, in 15 or 20 fathoms under Bompoka.

Katchall.

Geo. Site.

KATCHALL, or Tillongchool, situated to the S. Eastward of the south end of Terressa and Bompoka, and separated from them by a fine safe channel about 5 ½ leagues wide, is of triangular form, each side being about 3 leagues in extent. The north and west sides are moderately elevated, of level appearance, but toward the middle, and S. E. part of the island, the land is higher, and may be discerned about 8 leagues. It is covered with wood, and along the N.W. side there is anchorage in 15 to 25 fathoms coarse sand, from 1 to 2 miles off shore, but the N. E. side is steep, having no ground 100 fathoms about ½ a mile from it. The west end of Katchall is in about lat. 7° 54′ N., lon. 93° 29′ East, or 13° 7′ East from Madras by chronometers, measured by me in 1798; and Capt. C. C. M'Intosh made it 13° 6′ East from Madras by chronometers, in 1797.

Ships may pass at discretion, through any of the channels between Car-Nicobar and Katchall, being all very safe. Steering, in the Anna, for the Sombreiro Channel in August, we were horsed to the northward by a current, and saw Katchall bearing E. S. E.; then bore away to the northward of it, and Camorta, and passed between the latter and Tillangchong, through an excellent channel.

Geo. Site of Noncowry Harbour.

NONCOWRY HARBOUR, in lat. 8° 0′ N., lon. 93° 41′ E., distant from the east side of Katchall 4 or 5 miles, formed by a narrow channel that separates the island Noncowry from the south part of the island Camorta, is very capacious, and will shelter a large fleet of ships from all winds. Having an entrance at each end, one to the eastward, another to the westward, with soundings close to them, where ships may anchor occasionally, makes it very convenient; and they may enter or depart from it in every month in the year. The western entrance about 1/8 of a mile, or 100 fathoms wide, is formed between two steep points of high land, and the depths in it are generally from 27 to 35 fathoms: outside of it, a sand-bank with irregular soundings from 6 to 12 fathoms, and patches of rocky bottom, project a little way from the S.W. point of Camorta. The eastern entrance is very little wider than the former, being contracted by rocky banks which line the shore on each side, having 12 and 14 fathoms close to them, and from 18 to 20 fathoms in mid-channel. Outside of this narrow

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part of the entrance, there is less water in the outer part, betwixt the south end of the island Trincutte and the N. E. end of Noncowry; but in. mid-channel, never less than 6 fathoms, and generally 5 or 6 fathoms, close to the rocky banks that bound it on each side.

The tide runs strong with eddies through the western entrance in the springs, but it is safe with a steady fair wind, particularly when departing from the harbour. The eastern entrance is preferable for going in, being rather wider, with less, water; and there is safe anchorage outside of the narrow part, in the space betwixt Trincutte and the East side of Camorta, which is called False Harbour, having various depths, from 6 to 10 fathoms, but it becomes very shoal to the northward.

The harbour is separated into two parts by two points of land facing each other; the easternmost, called Cross Harbour, from its form, is smallest, and contains several shelves of rock in the southern arm of it, with 5 or 6 fathoms close to them; here ships might be hove down to their own guns, the water being perfectly smooth in all kinds of weather. The western or largest part of the harbour is a great bason, of an oblong square form, about 2 miles long and 1 in breadth, with a cove on the West side, and another at the South end. In the N.W. part there is a rocky bank, with 5 and 6 fathoms water on it, but the depths throughout the harbour are generally 10 or 12 fathoms near the shore, and 18 or 20 fathoms in the middle, except near the western entrance there are from 27 to 34 fathoms. The bottom is all soft, good holding ground. The flood sets through the harbour to the eastward, but with very little velocity inside; high water at 9 ½ hours, on full and change of the moon, and the tide rises 8 or 9 feet. Var. 1° 30′ East, in 1791.

Direction.

Ships going in or out by either entrance, should endeavour to keep in mid-channel between the Points, with people on the fore, or fore-topsail yard, to look out for the edges of the rocky banks that line the shores.

A few Danish, or Moravian Missionaries, were settled here many years, for the purpose of converting the natives to Christianity; the village at Cross Harbour, where they resided, was called by them, Herman. There is little to be got here, the land being hilly and not cultivated, although on the North side of the harbour the soil is good, and will admit of cultivation. Water is got in wells, although it is rather scarce in the dry season. The Bellona and Isabella went into the harbour, in November, 1795, and could only procure a small supply of water, a few hogs, and one or two bullocks; although the Danish Chief gave them Lis assistance. The natives will barter what refreshments they have for tobacco, in preference to cash, and shag from Java, they are very fond of.

Noncowry Island.

NONCOWRY, which gives name to the harbour, and bounds it on the South side, is Noneowry about 4 miles in extent, of triangular form, rugged and uneven, almost covered with wood. It abounds with lime stone, is thinly inhabited, and little can be procured from it excepting timber, and some hogs.

The harbour is considered unhealthy, by the noxious vapours arising from the impervious forests, and impregnating the surrounding atmosphere. The largest of the Nicobar Islands, are in general, from the same cause, liable to the same disadvantage; and the fever that prevails, called the Nicobar fever, (or jungle fever of the continent) frequently proves fatal to Europeans who remain at these islands.

Camorta.

CAMORTA, or Car-Morta, on the north side of the harbour, is about 16 miles in length North and South, extending to lat. 8° 15′ N., and from 2 to 5 miles broad. The north end, mud middle of this island, are flat and not much elevated, but about the harbour it is high, particularly on the west side, where stands the principal village at the foot of a perpendicular ridge. There is said to be several sorts of poon trees fit for masts, which grow on the island; and there are several places of pasturage, with a rich soil, producing yams, pine apples, plantains, guavas; and sugar-canes are said to grow without cultivation, notwithstanding, it is

VOL. II.F

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thinly inhabited. About 3 miles from the S.W. point, lies the mouth of a lagoon, which extends into the island a great way. Along the West side, there are soundings near the shore, and from the N.W. point, projects a reef of rocks, with shoal water about 3 miles off.

Trincutte.

TRINCUTTE, a low, level island, covered with beetle-nut and cocoa-nut trees, about 2 leagues in length, near to, and fronting the East side of Camorta, is separated from it by a narrow space; which excepting the southern part, is shoal, and forms the first large opening in entering Noncowry Harbour from the eastward. There are soundings along the East side of this island at a small distance from it, 15 to 20 fathoms, and good anchorage in 8 or 9 fathoms at the North end, between it and the N. E. part of Camorta.

Tillangchong.

TILLANGCHONG, including the small islands adjoining to its South end, extends from lat. 8° 22′ to 8° 33′ N., being 2 or 3 miles in breadth, and lies to the N. N. E. of Camorta, 3 or 4 leagues distant. It is a high, oblong, rugged mountain, that may be seen 12 leagues off, in many parts covered with trees, and inhabited only by such persons as have been banished from the other islands. The East side of the island is steep, but close to the islets and rocks that line its western shore, and near those chained to its South end, the depths are from 36 to 42 fathoms. Betwixt the latter and the North end of Camorta, the channel is 3 leagues wide and very safe, with a bank of soundings stretching from the islets off Tillangthong to the Islands Camorta and Trincutte, on which there are 42 and 45 fathoms near the former, from 40 to 65 fathoms in mid-channel, and 18 or 20 fathoms near to Camorta.

Sombreiro Channel.

Geo. Site of Meroe.

With direction.

SOMBREIRO CHANNEL, bounded on the North side by the Islands Katchall and Noncowry, and by Meroe or Passage Island on the South side, is very safe, and about 7 leagues wide. Meroe is a low small island, about 3 leagues to the N.W. of the Little Nicobar, and bears from the S. E. point of Katchall S. 13° E., distant 7 ½ leagues, being situated in lat. 7° 29′ N., lon. 93° 46′ E., or 13° 24′ East from Madras by chronometers. About 3 leagues South from the S. E. end of Katchall, there is a coral bank with various depths; the least water found on it has been 9 and 10 fathoms, but both to the northward and southward of it, there is no ground in the channel. Ships steering for it, if not certain of their latitude, should endeavour to fall in with the land on the windward side, according to the prevailing monsoon; and they may pass through without hesitation, by night as well as by day, if the weather is not too dark at the time.

About 4 miles E. by S. from Meroe, and nearly the same distance from the North end of the Little Nicobar, there is a small island, called Track, and another close to it on the East side, called Trice, which are surrounded by rocks. Betwixt them and Meroe, the passage is safe, said to have soundings from 12 to 20 fathoms; but the Prince Regent, sailed through this passage, August 8th, 1820, at half past 5 A. M., and had no soundings with 30 fathoms line. Betwixt these small islands and the Nicobar, there is said to be a narrow and critical passage, with soundings from 7 to 12 fathoms, which should never be attempted.

The two large islands to the southward of the Sombreiro Channel, are sometimes called the Great and Little Sambilangs, but generally the Great and Little Nicobars; the former being the largest and southernmost of all the islands which form this chain.

Little Nicobar.

LITTLE NICOBAR, extends nearly N. E. and S.W. from lat. 7° 13′ to 7° 26′ N., being about 4 leagues in length, and half that breadth; it is moderately elevated and hilly, covered with wood, and steep to seaward; but there are soundings all round, near the shore. On the N.W. side, a little to the westward of an island adjoining the shore, there is said to be anchorage off a small bay, where there is a run of water; but although this island and the Great Nicobar are said to have many inhabitants, they are more imperfectly known than the other islands; the natives being shy of strangers, seldom or never venture on board of ships

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passing. They are, however, thought to be inoffensive, and have sometimes treated with lenity, the people belonging to vessels that had the misfortune to be shipwrecked there.

St. George's channel.

Directions.

ST. GEORGE'S CHANNEL, formed between the Great and Little Nicobar, is from 3 to 6 miles wide, and extending E. N. E. and W. S.W., about 5 or 6 leagues in length, with deep water in it, except near the western entrance. The bottom in general is foul, with strong tides or currents running in eddies through this channel; therefore, of late years, few ships have passed through it, unless accidently carried into it by an unexpected current. A little inside of the western entrance, the Island Condul is situated, nearest to the southern shore, and between them there is no safe passage. From the North end of the same island a reef projects considerably, betwixt which and the northern shore, is the proper channel, and ships that intend to proceed through, should keep nearest to the North side, or Little Nicobar shore, where there is said to be soundings, but none in mid-channel. The rocky bottom, deep water, and strong eddies, will however, always make it imprudent to anchor, except to the westward of Condul Island, where the depths are moderate. On the South side of the eastern entrance, off the N. E. end of Great Nicobar, is situated the small island Cabra, of middling height; and on the North side, the Island Monthoule, near the East end of Little Nicobar. The entrance into the channel, is between these two small islands.

The current.

THE CURRENT sometimes sets strong to leeward for several days together, through the various channels between the South end of the Little Andaman and the southernmost Nico-bars, according to the strength of the prevailing monsoon; but at times it slacks, or sets to windward, particularly when the winds are light and variable. Under lee of the different islands, there is frequently a kind of tides prevailing, when the current is setting strong to leeward through the channels between them.

Great Nicobar.

Geo. Site.

GREAT NICOBAR, extends N. by W. and S. by E., about 10 leagues in length, and 4 or 5 leagues broad at the North part and middle of the island, where the land is high, and may be discerned 11 or 12 leagues off. The South part becomes narrow, projecting out into a low level point about 1 ½ or 2 miles broad, covered with trees, and having a sandy beach facing the sea. This point is in lat. 6° 45′ N., lon. 94° 0′ E., or 10° 34 ½′ West from Pulo Aor by two chronometers exactly agreeing. By three chronometers agreeing to ½ a mile, I made it 21° 1′ East from Bombay Castle, and Captain McIntosh made it 21° 4′ East from the same, by good chronometers; the mean 21° 2 ½′ East, will place it in lon. 94° 0′ 10″ E., allowing Bombay Castle in 72° 57′ 40″ East of Greenwich, as described in Vol. First of this work.

Captain P. Heywood, in 1804, made the South Point of the Great Nicobar in lon. 94° 0 ½′ E., by chronometers from Madras, allowing the latter to be in lon. 80° 21 ½′ E., and he made it in 94° 2′ E., by lunar observations.

The highest part of this island is in lat. 7° 8′ N., and in general, the whole of it is covered with trees. Soundings from 17 to 24 fathoms extend along the West coast, about 2 and 3 miles off shore; from the S.W. side, the bank projects out about 2 leagues, or more, the depths on it being from 25 to 30 fathoms about 5 or 6 miles from the shore. From the South point a reef projects a considerable way into the sea, and lines the shore on the West side, with soundings near it of moderate depths, over a bottom of coarse sand and shells; the S. E. side of the point is thought to be more steep, although it seems probable, that soundings extend along the East side of the island, near the shore, which part is generally avoided by ships.

F 2

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WEST COAST of SUMATRA.

1st. ACHEN, AND THE CIRCUMJACENT ISLANDS; SAILING DIRECTIONS, WINDS, AND CURRENTS.

As the GREAT ENTRANCE leading to MALACCA STRAIT from the westward, is formed between the South end of the Great Nicobar and Pulo Rondo, (the northernmost of the Islands off Achen) it seems expedient to endeavour to approximate their true situations; for they are often seen by ships approaching the Strait, or used as stations of departure in sailing from it, when bound to the westward.

Geo. Site of Pulo Rondo.

PULO* RONDO, is in lat. 6° 4 ½′ N., lon. 95° 14′ E., or 3° 47′ West from Pulo Pera, measured by me twice, by good chronometers. Captain P. Heywood, made it 14° 52′ East of Madras by chronometers, † which places it in lon. 95° 14′ E., and he made it 5° 9′ West from the fort of Prince of Wales' Island, which would place it in lon. 95° 13′ East.

From the South end of Great Nicobar it bears S. 61° E., distant 84 miles, and being a high perpendicular rock of round form, may be seen 8 leagues from the deck of a large ship. On the North side it is steep without soundings, which is the case all round; but to the southward, distant from it about 2 miles or more, there is a ledge of rocks above water, betwixt which and the N.W. end of Pulo Way, there is a safe channel about 3 or 3½ leagues wide.

Pulo Way,

PULO WAY, the largest of the Achen Islands, distant about 4 leagues to the S. Eastward of Pulo Rondo, extends in the same direction about 3 leagues in length. Being high and uneven, it may be seen 12 leagues; and along the South side of it, in some parts, there are soundings near the shore.

Malacca Passage.

MALACCA PASSAGE, formed between Pulo Way and the Sumatra coast, is about 3 leagues broad, having in it the small Island Malora, or Pulo Buroo, nearly 1/3 channel over from the Sumatra shore. The passage on either side of this island is very safe, but between it and Pulo Way the water is deep; whereas, that inside, has moderate depths for anchoring occasionally, 14 to 16 fathoms near Pulo Malora, and 9 or 10 fathoms near the Sumatra shore, which in passing Point Pedro must not be approached under 10 fathoms. Captain Bradshaw, says, that the passage between Pulo Malora and the main is only about 1 ½ mile wide, and he recommends, in working through, in the night, to keep the lead going quick, standing to 10 fathoms and not under this depth, towards Point Pedro: the water deepens very quick from 12 to 17 fathoms in standing toward Malora, then from 12 to 8 fathoms within ½ a mile of it, which ought not to be approached nearer, as a reef projects from the East side of it a large ¼ mile. This is the best passage to approach Achen, in coining from the N. E. or Eastward.

Geo. Site of Pulo Brasse; islets adjoing.

PULO BRASSE, and PULO NANCY, are high, and they are the principal islands of the group contiguous to Achen Head. Pulo Brasse fronts the sea to the N.W., and is very high, of an even aspect, the North end being in lat. 5° 46′ N., lon. 95° 6′ E., bearing from Pulo Rondo about S. S.W. distant nearly 7 leagues. Off the North end of it there are four rocky islets, the northernmost of which is about 3 or 3 ½ miles distant, and is about 25 feet

* Pulo, or Pooloo, signifies an Island in the Malay language.

† The Princess Amelia, in 1811, made it 14° 51′ East of Madras by chronometers.

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above water, with regular soundings near it, 25 to 28 fathoms mud, from 1 to 2 miles to the eastward and northward, but a reef projects from the North end of Pulo Brasse toward the other islets. The outer islet is bold to approach on the East, North, and West sides; and there is a safe passage between it and the next islet, but a reef surrounds the latter to the distance of a cable's length, upon which the sea breaks high in moderate breezes.

Along the East side of Pulo Brasse, there are 20 or 25 fathoms sandy bottom, at a moderate distance from the shore, where ships may occasionally anchor; and with the outer islet bearing S. ¾ W. distant 2 miles there are 23 fathoms.

Bengal Passage.

BENGAL PASSAGE, formed between Pulo Brasse and Pulo Way, is about 4 leagues wide, and very convenient for ships sailing from Achen to the northward, as the current generally sets out, in that direction. Ships bound into Achen Road, seldom proceed through this passage, unless with a steady commanding breeze: there being no anchorage in it except near Pulo Brasse, the Malacca passage is thought preferable; ships coming from the S.Westward, generally to save time, adopt the Surat passage, but the Bengal passage is favorable for ships bound out from Achen Road to the westward, as the current in the S.W. monsoon sets round Pulo Brasse to the westward from 25 to 40 miles in 24 hours.

Pulo Nancy.

PULO NANCY, nearly joins to the S. E. point of Pulo Brasse, but between them on the West side, there is Middle Island of considerable size, with some islets or rocks near it on the South side. Very near the West point of Pulo Nancy there is a reef of rocks, which bounds the West end of Cedar passage on the North side, having 10 and 12 fathoms close to it outside, and 14 fathoms betwixt it and the point of Pulo Nancy, although it lies near the point.

Cedar Passage.

CEDAR, or SEDRE PASSAGE, formed between Pulo Nancy to the northward, and Stony Island and Pulo Gomez to the southward, is little frequented, although wider than Passage. the Surat Passage, and safer than generally supposed, there being soundings in it from 17 to 20 fathoms in mid-channel, The only dangers are at the West entrance, rocks projecting out from Pulo Gomez to the westward, on which the sea breaks high in bad weather, and the rocks on the North side, close to the West point of Pulo Nancy already mentioned; there is also a reef that projects from the West end of Stony Island to the N. Westward a considerable way into the channel. If a ship proceed through this passage, it will be prudent to keep a boat a-head, sounding occasionally.

On the South side of Pulo Nancy, about a large mile inside of the West point, there is good anchorage in 6 or 7 to 10 fathoms in a small bay; on the West side of which, fresh water may be procured, and plenty of firewood. The narrowest part of the passage, is betwixt the reef projecting from the West end of Stony Island and the shore of Pulo Nancy, and there, it is about a mile broad. Between that reef and the N. E. end of Pulo Gomez, there are 14 and 16 fathoms in a channel of communication from Cedar Passage into the Surat Passage. Stony Island and Pulo Chinchin, are steep on the North sides, having from 11 to 14 fathoms close to them: from the East point of Pulo Nancy, rocks project a little way, and close to them there are 15 fathoms water.

Surat Passage and contiguous land.

SURAT PASSAGE, is separated on the North side from Cedar Passage, by Pulo Gomez, Stony Island and Pulo Chinchin, which extend in the line of the passages, and the two latter are chained together by rocks. On the South side, it is bounded by KING'S POINT, the western extremity of the land generally called Achen Head, situated in lat. 5° 36′ N., and very little to the eastward of Pulo Rondo; it, is a high bluff headland, and forms the N. Western extremity of Sumatra. In approaching it from the S.W., no opening is perceived, the contiguous islands, Gomez, Nancy, and Brasse, appearing to join the mainland, when

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seen from that direction. To the southward of King's Point at 5 miles distance, on the South side of a low green point, there is a sandy bay, which at a considerable distance may be mistaken for the Surat Passage or a strait, the land there, being low near the sea, and covered with trees. In this bay there is a rocky islet, and at its South point, two rocks above water on which the sea breaks, with 12 and 14 fathoms near them, and the bay is lined by a reef fronting the sea. From hence, King's Point appears like a steep hill; Pulo Gomez then resembles two paps, its western point being very low, with an islet adjoining, and breakers projecting a considerable way to the westward, To avoid these, ships steering for the Surat Passage, should keep nearest to King's Point, which is bold with regular soundings 12 and 14 fathoms sandy bottom at a moderate distance from it: and they may anchor occasionally to stop tide, near that shore, in 7 or 8, to 10 fathoms water. The South side of Pule Gomez, is also safe to approach; the depths are 24 to 15 fathoms when its South point bears East from 1 to ½ a mile, 18 fathoms with it E. by N. 2 miles, 14 fathoms when E. by N. ¾ of a mile, and 13 fathoms when it bears E. N. E. about 1 mile; and regular soundings from 20 to 35 fathoms, extend about 2 leagues to the westward of it and King's Point.

Directions.

If a ship about to enter the Surat Passage find the tide unfavorable, she ought to anchor under King's Point until the flood is made, which sets directly through the passage to the N. Eastward and the ebb in the opposite direction; after weighing with the flood, she ought to keep nearest to King's Point in passing between it and Pulo Gomez, where there are regular soundings and good anchoring ground, from 10 to 17 fathoms. The narrow gut or gateway, at the East end of the passage, formed between Achen Head or the eastern extremity of King's Point, and the opposite island, is only about 80 or 90 fathoms wide, with 30 and 35 fathoms rocky bottom, and the tide sets through it with great rapidity, 5 and 6 wiles an hour in the springs. If the wind be contrary, a ship may back and fill through this narrow part, with her head toward the windward shore, keeping rather nearest to King's Point, which is perpendicular and steep to; whereas, the shore of the opposite island, is not so bold. Proceeding to sea in the S.W. monsoon, she may enter it with the first of the ebb, with the maintopsail aback, and her head toward the Sumatra shore if the wind is at S. Westward; but the eddies occasioned by the rapid tides, sometimes carry a ship's head round in every direction, when driving through this narrow pass, particularly in light winds. Being formed between two points, and of little extent, a ship is soon drifted through; and as there is anchorage on each side of the entrance at a small distance, this passage has been sometimes used by large ships,* but it must always be attended with some risk. Although ships have been recommended to back and fill through the Surat Passage, when the wind is contrary, yet, the Harriet, Capt. Bean, in doing so, was carried by the eddies on the rocks, and wrecked. Capt. Bradshaw, is of opinion, that the safest way to proceed through this passage to the southward, with a contrary wind, is to reduce sail to three topsails when the northern entrance is approached, then keep the ship before the wind, letting her drift through; by this means she will be under the influence of the helm; whereas, in backing and filling, should an eddy strike the ship on either bow, she might be on the rocks before she could be checked by the bead yards.

The Castle Eden, bound to Bengal in a fleet, anchored November 3d, 1800, at 8 P.M. in 13 fathoms, at the West entrance of the Surat Passage. At day-light she weighed and stood for it with the wind at S. E., shoaling gradually to 7 fathoms, and deepening afterward to 25 fathoms no ground. She was in the narrowest part of the passage at this time, when the tide turned to the S.W., and set her fast astern; she was permitted to drop into 8 fathoms fine sand, then anchored with Pulo Gomez S. 65° W., King's Point from S.16° W.

* The China fleet homeward bound, touched at Achen, and proceeded to sea by the Surat Passage; the fleet bound to Bengal also went through it, and stopped at Achen for water, in November 1800.

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to the easternmost extreme of the passage N. 75° East. At 4 P. M. November 4th, she weighed with the flood, and went through the passage, then steered about E. N. E. to the anchorage at Achen, shoaling from 20 to 10 fathoms at 6 P. M. when she anchored with the river's mouth bearing S. E. ¼ E., distant about 1 ½ mile. In the Surat Passage, it is high water about 8 hours, on full and change of the moon.

Geo. Site of Achen.

Anchorage.

ACHEN, in lat. 5° 35′ N., lon. 95° 26′ E.,* distant about 2 ½ leagues from the eastern end of the Surat Passage, is a considerable town situated on the banks of a river, which falls into the sea by several branches, separating the low country into islands; and this low plain formed between the foot of the mountains and the sea, is partly inundated during the rainy season. This was formerly a place of great trade, frequented by ships from the different countries in Europe, as well as those from China, and all parts of India, when the kingdom of Achen was powerful and flourishing; but it is now become feeble and much reduced, many of the Rajahs or Chiefs, who formerly were tributary to the King of Achen, being now independent. Gold, camphor, pepper, sulphur, beetlenut, &c. used to be exported, and there is still some trade carried on by small vessels from different parts of India, but large ships seldom touch here, unless to procure refreshments. Rice, bullocks, poultry, vegetables and fruits, may be generally got in abundance, and plenty of fresh water. The principal entrance of the river has a shoal bar, which a boat can hardly pass at low water; but vessels from 20 to 30 tons burthen may enter the river at high water, when the rise of tide is about 7 feet on the springs, high water at 9 hours on full and change of the moon, subject to irregularities from winds or other causes: The common anchorage of the road, is in 8 or 9, to 10 or 14 fathoms water, Anchorage. about 2 or 3 miles off the entrance of the river, in lat. 5° 38′ W. N., with it bearing S. ½ E. to S. E. Here, vessels are well sheltered from the S.W. monsoon, which generally prevails from April to November; in the other season, the easterly winds are seldom strong, but northwesters happen at times; these blow into the Bengal passage with great force, and require good ground-tackle to ride secure against them. In the road and near the shore, land and sea breezes are often experienced in both seasons, but the land breezes are very partial, seldom extending beyond the islands. The king of Achen resides generally at Tulosamaway, and Achen being seldom visited by him, it has in consequence, been little frequented lately by trading vessels; the chief places of trade to the eastward of Achen, are Pedir, Bourou, and Tulosamaway. Ships trading here, ought to be on their guard, and not put too much confidence in the people with whom they trade, nor suffer them to be much in their debt; when this has been the case, many ships have been cut off, as the easiest manner of settling their engagements. During these last 30 years, the king of Achen has been at war with some one or other of his subjects; and his fleet, consisting of 12 or 14 snows and brigs, usually cruized from Tulosamaway round to Soosoo on the West coast.

Geo. Site of the Golden Mountain.

GOLDEN MOUNTAIN, or QUEEN'S MOUNTAIN, situated a little way inland about 7 or 8 leagues to the eastward of Achen, in lat. 5° 27′ N., lon. 95° 49′ E., or 1° 49′ East from the South end of Great Nicobar, by chronometers, is a high regular cone about 6900 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen about 92 miles from the deck of a ship in dear weather. When it bore S. S.W., distant from us 88 miles, the summit was seen from the deck a little elevated above the horizon. In clear weather, this beautiful mountain when visible, is a good mark for pointing out a ship's situation in entering Malacca Strait, when her distance from the islands is too great to admit any of them, or the land near King's Point, to be discerned. There is a small mountain close to the Golden Mountain, called in some old journals the Orphan: the natives know these mountains by the appellation of Ya Mura, Ya Muree.

* Capt. Basil Hall, of the Royal Navy, in 1814, made Achen Road in lat. 5° 36 ½′ N., lon. 95° 24′ E. by lunar observations. Capt. Bradshaw, made the Flagstaff in lat. 5° 35′ N.

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To sail from Achen.

Ships departing from Achen, may, if bound to the northward, pass out by the Bengal, or Malacca Passage, as circumstances render prudent; those bound to the westward in the S.W. monsoon, may proceed through the Surat Passage, if the weather be very favorable; otherwise, through the Bengal Passage, keeping close to the islets off the North end of Pulo Brasse, where a current will assist them in getting to the westward. This has been already observed in Volume First of this work, near the end, where directions are given for sailing to, and from Malacca Strait and Achen in the S.W. monsoon;* and a general description of winds and currents near Achen Head and the Nicobar Islands, will he found in an early section of the same volume; nevertheless, a brief statement of the prevailing winds and currents, may here be more comprehensive, and of greater utility.

S. W. monsoon.

Current.

To work out of the Strait of Malacca, in that season.

S. W. MONSOON, generally begins about the end of April, or rather early in May, between Achen Head and the Nicobar Islands, and abates in October; although in October, and also in November, westerly winds frequently prevail. During the strength of this monsoon, from May to September, the weather is often cloudy, with squalls and heavy showers of rain at times: the current then generally sets with the wind to the eastward into Malacca Strait, but more commonly to N. Eastward; it is, however, liable to change, and set to the southward at times, particularly when the wind is light and veers to the westward. When the current in the S.W. monsoon is running in betwixt the South Nicobar and the islands off Achen, to the N. Eastward, there is generally a contra or eddy current setting along the coast of Pedir to the westward, which continues to set in that direction amongst the Achen Islands to seaward: therefore, all ships bound from Malacca to the westward, should in this season keep near the coast of Pedir, and after reaching Achen they may go out by the Surat Passage, if the weather be very favorable, or through the Bengal Passage in preference, observing to keep close round the islets off the North end of Pulo Brasse, then take every advantage to tack with the shifts of wind that are favorable for getting to the S. Westward.

The King George, by beating in the open sea between Pulo Rondo and the Nicobars in July, 1791, was 14 days getting a few leagues to the westward of Pulo Brasse; had she passed inside of Pulo Way, and proceeded through the Bengal Passage, she probably would have saved most of that time.

The Worcester, in May, 1795, bound to Bencoolen, working in the same manner, too far out from Sumatra, could not get round Achen Head, and returned to Prince of Wales's Island. She sailed again from thence June 16th, steered along the Pedir Coast, anchored at Achen on the 26th, and from that place got speedily out of the Strait, by passing close round Pulo Brasse.

Many other ships have been greatly delayed by endeavouring to work out between the Nicobars and Pulo Rondo, against strong winds and N. Easterly currents in the S.W. monsoon; not knowing that a favorable current generally prevails close to the Sumatra Coast, and among the islands.

N. E. monsoon.

N. E. MONSOON, mostly prevails in the entrance of Malacca Strait, between Achen Head and the Nicobar Islands, from November to May, which is the fair season. In October and November the winds are variable, frequently at N.W. and Westward; although in some seasons, the N. E. winds set in regularly in November. From this period to March, the N. E. monsoon is strongest, but at times it is liable to veer to the northward or N.W.; and westerly breezes of one or two days duration, have been experienced in every month when the N. E. monsoon should prevail. Late in March, or early in April, the N. E. and Northerly winds, become light and variable. When the N. E. monsoon blows steady, the current generally runs with the wind out of the strait to the westward. When the wind draws

* See also, directions relative to sailing to, or from Achen, in the two sections of this work, where Rangoon and Mergui Rivers are described, with sailing directions.

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Current.

to the northward, the current a little outside of the Achen Islands, sets to the southward between them and the Nicobars; and when the wind veers to West or S. W. it generally runs into the strait, or to the North eastward; so that the current there, is in its direction and velocity, mostly governed by the wind. This is, however, not always the case, for at times the current is found to run oblique, or contrary to the wind, which requires the navigator to be cautious when no observations are obtained for the latitude; more particularly, when running for the entrance of the Strait during thick weather, in the S.W. monsoon.

Directions.

Ships leaving the Strait in October or November, when westerly winds are found to prevail, should follow the track already recommended for ships bound out in the S.W. monsoon, that they may benefit by the westerly set on the coast of Pedir and among the islands, or at least avoid the current running into the Strait in the offing.

The Thames, in November, 1800, bound out of the Strait to Europe, had the winds from S.W., with a current setting in between Pulo Rondo and the South Nicobar, which prevented her getting out to the southward of the latter; she was therefore obliged to stand to the North-westward, and passed out betwixt the Car-Nicobar and the Little Andaman: from thence, she made a good passage to St. Helena.*

The Camden, from Prince of Wales's Island in 1805, could not get out to sea between Pulo Rondo and the Nicobars, owing to light winds, and currents setting into the Strait; and she was obliged to bear away, November 5th, for Prince of Wales's Island, to get an additional supply of provisions.

The Rockingham and fleet, having arrived at Achen by the Surat Passage, remained there eight days, procuring water and other necessary supplies. November 15th, 1800, she sailed from thence through the Bengal Passage, with a current setting out of it; and on the following day (having been close hauled with the wind at W. S. W. and S. W.) made the Nicobar. bearing W. N., distant 8 leagues, the current having run 44 miles to the N. Eastward during the 24 hours.

In the entrance of Malacca Strait, near the Nicobar and Achen Islands, and betwixt them and Junkseylon, there are often very strong Ripplings, particularly in the S.W. monsoon; these are alarming to persons unacquainted, for the broken water makes a great noise when a ship is passing through the Ripplings in the night. In most places, Ripplings are thought to be produced by strong currents, but here they are frequently seen when there is no perceptible current. Although there is often no perceptible current experienced, so as to produce an error in the course and distance sailed, yet the surface of the water is impelled forward, by some undiscovered cause. The Ripplings are seen in calm weather approaching from a distance, and in the night, their noise is heard a considerable time before they come near. They beat against the sides of a ship with great violence, and pass on, the spray sometimes coming on deck, and a small boat could not always resist the turbulence of these remarkable Ripplings.

2d. MONSOONS; CHANNELS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF SUMATRA; AND SAILING DIRECTIONS FROM ACHEN HEAD TO BANCOONGONG BAY.

West Coast of Sumatra.

FROM KING'S POINT, the general direction of the West Coast of Sumatra to Flat Point, its southern extremity in lat. 5° 55′ S., is about S. E. ½ S., and the distance 294 leagues, the equator dividing it nearly in equal parts. Numerous small islands, and danger-

* Captain Williams, of the Thames, observes, that notwithstanding he beat down the China Sea against the S.W. monsoon in August and September, had he not lost much time endeavouring to work round the islands off Achen Head, he most probably would have reached St. Helena as soon as the ships which left China about two months before him, and pursued the eastern route.

VOL. II. G

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Periodical Winds.

ous shoals, are interspersed along different parts. of this extensive coast, and a chain of large islands farther out, stretches parallel to it, at the distance of 18 or 20 leagues, between some of which islands, there are safe channels. The winds are here denominated the S. E. and N. W. monsoons, agreeably to the direction in which the periodical winds are experienced to blow in South latitude, but they are subject to great irregularities on this coast, on account of the numerous islands in its vicinity; and the two extremities being far distant, on different sides of the equator, the same winds cannot be expected at all times to prevail along the whole of the coast. Whilst the North part of the coast enjoys fine weather from October to April, N. W. winds with rain and squally weather, prevail on the South part; and in the opposite season, when the S. E. monsoon is blowing on the South part of the coast, the N. W. monsoon prevails with squalls and rain, close to the coast in North latitude; but outside of the islands, in the open sea, the wind is then generally between South and S. W.

S. E. monsoon.

To approach the coast in that season.

THE S. E. MONSOON, or dry season, generally begins in May and continues till October. In this season, when the southerly winds blow more steady and with greater force than usual, which is from June until late in September, there are no land breezes; at other times, brisk sea breezes prevail from S. W. and Southward in the day, and variable breezes from the land, or from the northward, in the night. Ships coming from sea in this monsoon, the coast should, if bound to Bencoolen, or any other place well to the southward of the equator, endeavour not to fall in with the coast to the northward of their port, for several days may be lost in reaching it, when the southerly winds prevail. The Herculean, bound to Bencoolen, fell in with the Poggy Islands so late as the 18th of September, 1803, and was seven days getting to that place, the winds being constantly from S. Eastward.

N. Westers render the Inner passage tedious when bound northward.

Although the S. E. or Southerly monsoon prevails most on this coast to the southward of the equator, North-westers are liable to blow for a few days at times, particularly about the full or change of the moon.* These North-westers are more common in North latitude, with southerly currents and frequent calms, rendering the navigation by the Inner Passage close along the coast, very tedious and troublesome; more particularly, as ships are in many places, obliged to anchor in the night on account of surrounding dangers; and in the day, by the prevalence of faint breezes, calms, and contrary currents.

The Royal George, bound to Malacca Strait and China, left Padang, July 1st, 1803, and proceeded along the coast by the Inner Passage; she made very slow progress, N. W. winds and southerly currents made anchoring so often indispensible, that it was the 12th before she reached the equator, and the 6th of August, when she got to Achen Head.

The frigate, Bombay, and Lady Castlereagh in company, in 1804, were all July and part of August, getting from Bencoolen along the coast to the northward by the Inner Passage; and the latter ship struck on one of the rocky shoals about 10 miles off shore, in lat, 3° 4′ N.

The passage outside the islands preferable.

THE INNER PASSAGE, has been generally recommended to navigators, but it certainly ought not; probably no ship should adopt it, unless when trading at different places on the coast, and it should seldom be chosen by ships bound to the northward in either mansoon. The Outer Passage, to the westward of all the islands, in the open sea, is far preferable; for there, S. W. and Southerly winds often prevail, when N.W. squalls and variable baffling winds may be experienced close to the land.

The Arniston, bound to China by Malacca Strait, left Bencoolen, June 25th, 1802, stood directly to the westward into the open sea, where she got brisk southerly winds, which enabled

* The N. Westers sometimes blow strong between Bencoolen and the entrance of Sunda Strait in December and January. The Rochester, and King William, were obliged to ride three days with top-masts struck, from the 15th to the 18th of January, 1717, during a violent North-wester, about 14 leagues to the southward of Bencoolen.

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ber to pass Pulo Rondo, July 8th. Had she proceeded close along the coast, her passage might have been greatly prolonged, as happened to the ships mentioned above.

We were in the King George from the 26th of July to the 11th of August, 1791, getting from Pulo Rondo to the equator, when bound to Bombay by the Southern Passage; the winds in the open sea to the westward of the islands, being then constantly between S. W. and South.

N.W. monsoon.

Land and sea breezes.

N.W. MONSOON, prevails on the West coast of Sumatra, (particularly in South latitude) from October to April; in some seasons N. W. winds begin early in October, but from this month to the middle of January, they generally blow strongest, attended often by much thunder, lightning, and rain. In March, the hard rains abate, and the weather becomes more favorable. When the land and sea breezes prevail on this coast, which may happen at times, in either monsoon, the sea breeze sets in between 10 A. M. and noon, subsequent to a calm, and declines with the setting sun. The land breeze begins early in the night and continues until 8 or 9 o'clock in the morning, subject to many irregularities. To the southward of the Equator, unsettled land winds, squally weather and rain, prevail greatly in the night during the N.W. monsoon; with sea breezes at N. W., W. N. W., or West, in the day, veering to W. S. W. and S. W. about the middle of March, or early in April.

In most parts of India to the northward of the equator, the N. E. monsoon prevails when the sun is in the southern hemisphere, but on the West coast of Sumatra, it is changed to a N. W. monsoon by the direction of the land. From December to April, the weather is often settled and fine in North latitude, with land and sea breezes; at other times, particularly in the springs, N. Westers prevail, which blow stronger than any other winds upon this coast. They generally produce a considerable sea, rendering it precarious to ride at anchor in any of the open roads on the coast, when they blow strong; and it is very difficult to work to the northward, whilst they continue in force.

Alfred made little progress to the northward, inside the islands.

The Alfred, bound to Prince of Wales' Island and China, left Bencoolen, October 22d, 1807; having a southerly wind at the time, Captain Welstead steered to the northward, intending to pass out into the open sea between the North end of Se Beroo and Pule Mintao. The wind shifted to N. Westward, with frequent hard squalls, much rain, intervening calms, and southerly currents; with this unfavorable weather, very little progress was made to the northward, and many of the people being disabled from duty by the heavy rains, they were obliged on the 29th, after seven days loss of time, to bear away, and pass out, round the southern limit of the islands, opposite to Bencoolen.

Outside passage preferable.

It seems advisable at all times, for large ships bound from Bencoolen to Malacca Strait, to steer to the westward far outside of all the islands, where, in both monsoons, they will certainly get much quicker to the northward by keeping in the open sea, than by following any of the routes inside of the islands.

Current.

THE CURRENT on the West coast of Sumatra is influenced greatly by the winds, and seldom runs to the northward, in either monsoon, except when the wind is blowing strong from southward, which will happen at times, particularly in South latitude. When N. westers prevail, the current runs with the wind to the S. Eastward, and it generally sets in this direction along the coast in both monsoons, particularly in North latitude. To the northward of the equator, when the current is setting to the southward betwixt the coast and the islands, it is frequently at the same time running to the northward, in the open sea, far outside of them. In October, November, and December, it is generally tedious getting to the northward, particularly from the equator to Achen Head, for baffling N.W. winds and southerly currents, are often found to extend a great way out from the coast in these months, particularly in the channels among the large islands in the offing, the current sets to the South, and S. Westward. But in June and July, between Analaboo and Achen Head, the current has been found to set to the N. Westward from 20 to 30 miles per day.

G 2

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To the southward of the equator, when at times the southerly winds blow with considerable strength from June to October, a drain of current is impelled to the northward, at which times it is rather tedious and difficult to work to the southward along the coast.

The rise of tide on most parts of the coast does not exceed 2 or 3 feet in the springs; and in places not far distant from the equator, it is high water about 6 hours at full and change, or when the moon is in the horizon. There is generally a considerable surf on most parts of the coast, which is highest in the southerly monsoon, during the spring tides.

Channels or routes parallel to the coast.

Dangerous shoals.

THE CHANNELS, or ROUTES, along the West coast of Sumatra, may be considered as three in number. That to the westward of all the islands in the open sea, recommended as the best at all times, has been described above, as the OUTER PASSAGE. The space between the chain of large islands in the offing, and those smaller islands contiguous to, and interspersed along the coast, may be called the MIDDLE PASSAGE, which is generally from 4 to 10 leagues distant from the shore of Sumatra, and is connected with the INNER PASSAGE in some places. This route should not be followed when bound to the northward, nor at any time, if it can be avoided without inconveniency, for ships are liable to be drifted about by currents when the winds are faint and baffling, there being no anchorage; and in some parts toward the main, dangerous coral shoals from 1 to 2 and 3 fathoms under the surface, shoot up from deep water at the edge of soundings. The Inner Passage, close along the coast, and betwixt some of the islands near it, having in many places moderate depths for anchoring occasionally, is preferable to the Middle one; but on account of the numerous small islands, and many dangerous shoals, the true positions of which are not correctly determined, it is to persons unacquainted, an intricate and embarrassing passage, and should only be adopted by vessels trading to different parts of the coast. Ships proceeding by it are generally obliged to anchor during the night, but the Middle Passage being wide, with few dangers, they may run in it night or day, when the weather is clear and favorable.

It has been said, that all the shoals on this coast are white coral rocks, discernible from the mast-head a mile off in the day time, even when they art 3 fathoms under water. This is certainly a great mistake, for many of the shoals consist of black rocks, not discernible until close to them, although covered only with 8 or 10 feet water. Several ships have, therefore, grounded upon these shoals in the day time, before they could be perceived. A good look out from the mast-head is nevertheless useful, particularly when the sun shines, for many of the dangers will then be discernible before they are approached very close.

To steer for the coast in coming from seaward.

Ships bound to parts of the coast situated betwixt Bencoolen and Tappanooly, may in coming from sea, pass through some of the channels formed by the principal islands in the offing, adopting a safe and convenient one, according to the season and prevailing winds: an account of these channels will be found in one of the following sections, where the islands are described. Ships bound to the northern part of the coast, any where betwixt Tappanooly and Achen Head, should pass to the northward of Hog Island, and make the land near to their port; but when northerly winds prevail, they ought to keep well to windward, and after making the land, coast along at a moderate distance to the place to which they are bound.

Coast from Achen Head southward.

FROM the land of ACHEN HEAD, the coast extends about 4 or 5 leagues nearly S. ½ E., to a cove on the North side of a small point of land called Siddo Harbour, where cattle may be obtained; and from 12 to 25 fathoms are good depths to preserve in coasting along. Off this place, and to the northward, lie some rocky islets at a small distance, the largest of which is called Pulo Roosa; and 3 leagues farther southward, lies Saddle Island, with contiguous rocks above water, distant 1 or 2 miles from the shore. There is a peaked hill inland, to the eastward of Saddle Island, and two bays between it and Siddo Point. The coast

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is low near the sea, to the southward of Saddle Island, and extends about S. by E. 10 or 11 leagues to a point of land with an inlet and two hills near it to the eastward, one called China Hat, and the other Cleft Hill, from their appearance. Several isles extending to lat. 4° 30′ N., are interspersed along this part of the coast, about 1 or 2 miles off shore, with 15 and 20 fathoms water near them. Cocoa-nut Island, about 2 leagues to the northward of the point, is the largest, and Cap Island, in lat. 4° 36½′ N., lies farther out, being about a league to the S.W. of the point, with apparently a safe passage between it and a group of islets surrounding the point.

Capt. Bradshaw, says, that Pulo Rhio by observation is in lat. 4° 52′ N., distant 9 miles to the northward of Cocoa-nut Island, and easily known, being a long low island, of a reddish colour, with some cocoa-nut trees on the summit, and a rocky islet off its north-west point, which may be passed within ½ a mile, in small vessels proceeding to the anchorage between the island and the main. This island yields from 2000 to 3000 pecules of pepper annually, but a ship touching here, must be always guarded against the inhabitants, who are Achenese, not to be trusted. There are seven or eight small islands between Cap Island and Pulo Rhio, but the latter may always be known, by the remarkable spot near the sea resembling a Chinese hat. With Pulo Rhio bearing East 1 mile distant there are 17 fathoms water, and Cap Island may be passed at 1 mile distance in 19 fathoms.

Lieut. Henning, states Pulo Rhio to be in lat. 4° 48′ N., that it is safe to approach, having 14 fathoms near the islet at its N. Western end, and when the island bears E. S. E. you may stand in for the anchorage, keeping about ½ a mile from it, and anchor in 8 or 9 fathoms mud, with the extremes of the island bearing W. S.W. or S. W. to S. S. E., the northern extremity of the coast will then bear about N.N.W ½ W., and the passage between the island and the main just open. This passage is very narrow, with 5 and 6 fathoms water in it, having a coral rock, with 2 fathoms water over it, rather nearer the main than mid-channel: there is good anchorage to the southward of Pulo Rhio, where you are sheltered from N.W. winds. This is the northernmost of the Pepper Ports, which is procured from three small villages in the bay to the northward of the island. In coasting between Pulo Roosa and Pulo Rhio, 18 or 20 fathoms are good depths to preserve, about 4 miles off shore, where the bottom is soft, but farther in, it is generally foul. Betwixt Pulo Rhio and Analaboo, there is a place called Qualla or Kola Oyla, little frequented.

Capt. Bradshaw, anchored under five of the small islands in 11 fathoms mud, with the north point of the inner one N. ½ W., centre one N.W. ¼ W., Cap Island W.N.W., off the group 1 mile, China Hat N.N.W. ¼ W., and he made the centre of these five islands in lat. 4° 35′ 3″ N. There is a small place within them called Chelimgan, but vessels do not touch there; and in lat. 4° 27′ N. there is an extensive river.

There is said to be a good harbour sheltered from all winds called Batoe Tootoong, capable of containing a fleet; the entrance of this harbour bore N. ¾ W., when Pulo Roosa bore N. E.¼ N., Arigas Hill N.E. ¾ N., Arigas Bay N.E. ½ E., and Pulo Kalang (the smallest and southernmost island) bore then East.

In about lat. 5° 0′ N. there is a coral bank about 3 or 4 leagues off shore, said to have 5 fathoms water on it, and 30 fathoms close to it all round. Capt. Bennet says, it bears about N.W. from Pulo Roosa, with only 4 fathoms rocks on it in some places, and that he had passed over it several times in a small vessel.

POINT BUBON, or BOOBOOANG, in lat. 4° 14½′ N., and about 4 leagues to the N.W. of Analaboo, is conspicuous from a dark cluster of trees upon it resembling a bonnet; and the coast here is safe to approach to 12 fathoms. If bound to the Village of Boobooang, bring the woods to the south of it to bear north, then steer in for it till in 3½ fathoms, if in a small vessel.

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Geo. Site of Analaboo.

ANALABOO, or NALABOO, in lat. 4° 8′ 32″ N., lon. 96° 15′ E.*, distant 13 or 14 leagues S.E. ½ E. of Cap Island, may be known by a grove of cocoa-nut trees on the low rocky point that forms the North side of the road, appearing like an island when first seen, the land being low along this part of the coast. A ship may anchor here with the point bearing about N.W. in 7 or 8 fathoms, on the South side of a reef that projects a considerable way from the North side of a small rivulet, and procure wood, plenty of fresh water, or other refreshments. Capt. Bennet says, you may anchor in 5 fathoms with the point of Cocoa-nut Trees W. ¼ S., distant about ½ a mile, and will then be sheltered from North westers. A reef projects a ¼ mile from the point, which is steep to, with only 5 feet water on it, and the sea does not break over it except in blowing weather. A considerable trade is carried on here in pepper, and several American and other ships procure full cargoes in the season. The Rajah is favorably inclined towards ships which come to trade at this place.

Soundings.

The soundings from the land of Achen Head to Cap Island, are in some places irregular over a rocky bottom, the depths generally 18 to 30 fathoms from 1 to 3 leagues off shore. In this space, ships should keep 2 or 3 leagues from the land in the night, to give a proper birth to the rocky isles scattered along the coast. From Cap Island to Analaboo, the soundings are more regular, and the bottom soft; here, a ship may approach the shore to 11 or 12 fathoms, and occasionally to 9 fathoms, but do not come under this depth in passing Analaboo Point, as 1½ mile S.W. from it lies a coral shoal, after passing which you may stand into the bay and anchor in 5 fathoms with the River's Point N. ¼ E., China House N. by W. ¾ W.

From Analaboo to Cape Felix or Oujong Rajah, the course is S.E. ½ E. to S.E. by S., distance 10 or 11 leagues, and the coast may be approached to 11 or 12 fathoms, from 2, to 7 or 8 miles off shore: near Cape Felix, and about 4 or 5 miles from the shore, the water deepens suddenly to 26 or 28 fathoms, and the coast trends from it eastward to Soosoo.

With Cape Felix bearing S.E. by E. ¼ E. about 10 miles, the Countess of Loudon shoaled quick from 11, 10, and 9, to 3 fathoms on a shoal of very small extent, and immediately after tacking on it had 9 fathoms.

Geo. Site of Cape Felix.

CAPE FELIX, or OOJANG RAJAH, in lat. 3° 43′ N., lon. 96° 40′ E. by Captain Ashmore's observations, is a low level headland, bold to approach, bearing from Soosoo town W. ¼ N., distant 5 or 5½ leagues, and forms the western, extremity of the bay.

Soosoo Bay.

To sail into the road;

Auchorage.

SOOSOO BAY contains several dangerous shoals, covered with 1, 2, and 2½ fathoms water; there is also much foul ground in it, with overfalls from 20 to 10 fathoms, but the channel is wide and safe between the shoals on the West side of the bay, and those to the southward of Soosoo Point. A ship bound into the road, after coasting along about 2 or 3 leagues off, in 28 to 35 fathoms, when the road is approached, ought to keep a boat a-head to sound, if unacquainted, and steer in with Soosoo Point or the entrance of the river, bearing about N.E. or the town N.E. ½ E. Pulo Khio, a small point close to the beach, lies 1½ or 2 miles to the westward of Soosoo Point, and resembles it when first seen; it has the appearance of an island. A ship may anchor in 18 or 20 fathoms, with the houses of Soosoo N.E. by E, about 2 miles off shore; or by choosing a clear birth with the boat, she may move into 9 or 10 fathoms near the entrance of the river, and anchor with Soosoo Point E.N.E. Soosoo Point, appears with two or three trees close to the houses, like a small island; steering in with it about N.E. ½ E., a tall tree near the middle of the bottom of the bay will be seen, which bring N.E. ½ N., and steer direct for it until in 10 or 11 fathoms soft ground, then anchor within a ¼ mile of Soosoo Point. The Royal George, at anchor in

* Lieut. Freeman made the Point of Analaboo in lat. 4° 7′ N., lon. 96° 8′ E. by chronometers from King's Point, Achen Head.

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18 fathoms, had Cape Felix W. ½ N., the southernmost extreme of the land S.E. by S., and Soosoo town E.N.E., distant about 1 mile: Soosoo town is in lat. 3° 41′ N. lon. 96° 52′ E.

Geo. Site.

Quallo Batoo.

QUALLO BATOO, now the chief port, is about 3 miles to the W.N.W. of Soosoo; and in coasting along in 28 to 30 fathoms, when Soosoo Point is seen, you may steer towards it until the houses at Qualla Batoo bear N. ½ E., then steer direct for them, which will carry you mid-channel between the shoals, three of them on the left hand, the southernmost of which bears S.W. by W. from Pulo Khio, and one on the right hand about a mile distant from Pulo Khio: the sea generally breaks on them. The anchorage at Qualla Batoo is in 20 to 22 fathoms, with Pulo Khio E.S.E., the River's mouth N. ½ W., and Cape Felix about W. ¼ S. About 4 or 5 miles to the westward of Qualla Batoo, there is a shoal, which lies in a direct line between Cape Felix and Soosoo Point.

Small ships frequent this place, to procure pepper and other articles of trade, but it is prudent to be always guarded against the perfidy of the natives, who have been several times successful, in assaulting and taking possession of ships which came to trade with them.

About 2½ leagues to the S.E. of Soosoo, on the east of a bluff point of Arrow Trees, there is a place called Mangien, with anchorage in 9½ fathoms, inside of a rocky shoal that lies about 1½ mile about S. by W. from the bluff point. Laboan Hadgee, about half way between Mangien and Muckay, is also an anchoring place for procuring pepper, having a sand bank, and other dangers fronting it.

Muckay.

MUCKAY, in lat. 3° 28′ N., is a small place where the coasting vessels stop at times to trade: if bound into this place, bring the low point that forms the western arm of the bay of Muckay to bear N.E., and steer for it on this bearing till within ½ a mile of it, which will clear the shoals, but the anchorage is not very good if you go within the N.W. point.

There are two shoals off Muckay in 23 fathoms, one bearing W.S.W. about 2½ miles from the southern bluff point of Muckay Bay, the other S.W. 3 miles from the same point, and bearing nearly North and South of each other; the former has only 11 feet on it, and the latter 2½ fathoms. A course S.W. from Muckay will carry you between the shoals, and when in 27 fathoms you are outside of them.

The course from Cape Felix to Muckay is S.E. by E. ½ E., in which track do not come under 27 fathoms water, as there are several dangerous shoals within this depth, and also many on the outside, some of which are also dangerous.

Tellapoe.

TELLAPOE, or TELLOK POW, in lat. 3° 22′ N., and 8 miles S. Eastward from Muckay, is a place where pepper is sometimes got: the best anchorage is with the point N. by E. in 17 fathoms, under which depth the ground is frequently foul. Labanacky is a small place in lat. 3° 20′ N.

Geo. Site of Tumpat Tuan.

TUMPAT TUAN POINT, the southern extreme of the high land seen from Soosoo, distant from it about 12 leagues, is in lat. 3° 15′ N., lon. 97° 20′ E., having a reef projecting 1 mile from the Point to seaward, with anchorage in 15 to 20 fathoms close on the East side of the Point, with it bearing about West, and the village N. by W., distant 1 mile.

About 1 mile W. by N. from Tumpat Tuan Point, lies a small round rock, like a boat, with a rock visible off the extreme point, which may be rounded close, having 27 fathoms at a small distance from it. In the bottom of the bay, there is a reef on which the sea usually breaks, rendering it unsafe with southerly winds.

Along this part of the coast between Achen Head and Soosoo, the weather is generally settled and fine in the northerly monsoon, with frequent land and sea breezes.

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Point Labou, dangerous shoals from thence southward.

POINT LABON, or OOJONG CALOAT, in about lat. 3° 3′ N., is 19 or 20 leagues to the S.E. of Cape Felix, and in sailing between them, great care is requisite to avoid several shoals interspersed along the coast. The Lord Castlereagh struck on one of them in lat. 3° 4′ N., distant about 10 miles from the shore, and had no ground 40 fathoms close to it. This seems to be the shoal called Lagootsong by the natives, bearing S.W. from Tumpat Tuan Point, with only 10 feet water on its shoalest part, (as stated by Capt. Bennet, who struck on it, in one of his voyages from Bengal to this coast). Betwixt lat. 3° and 3° 50′ N., he was very close to several other shoals, before they were observed. In lat. 3° 30′ N., the Royal George passed over the tail of a shoal,* in 6 fathoms, when the rocks were seen alongside; a little outside of it, they had no ground 85 fathoms, and 45 fathoms close to it on the inside; the depth from thence decreased gradually to 26 fathoms steering N. by W. toward Soosoo Bay. In lat. 3° 14′ N., there is another shoal with 4 fathoms, or less water on it, and 20 fathoms at a small distance inside: when at anchor on it in 5 fathoms, the extremes of the coast bore from N.N.W. to S.E. by E., and the White Rock N.N.E. ¾ E., distance off shore about 3 leagues.

From Tumpat Tuan to Oujong Camarang (the point to the N. Westward of Bancoongong Bay) the course is about S.E. 8 leagues, and a ship should keep 2½ or 3 miles off shore in 25 to 20 fathoms: when you rise the Point the small isle, called Pulo Monkier, will be perceived, from which Pulo Dooa bears E. by S. about.5 miles.

Bancoongong Bay.

Geo. Site.

BANCOONGONG, or BACOONGON BAY, about 6 leagues to the S. Eastward of Point Labon, where ships may lie sheltered from N. Westers, has some rocks off its western extremity; and there is a shoal on the edge of soundings, about 3 or 4 leagues to the southward. The river and village of Bancoongong in lat. 2° 52′ N., lon. 97° 38′ E., may be known by two small islands, the northernmost called Pulo Dooa, the other Pulo Kayoo, which have a safe channel between them of 10 and 12 fathoms, and are situated near the river's mouth; there is also a mountain close to the sea, nearly as high as the others, which is formed like a saddle, with the highest end to the southward, and Bancoongong lies close under its northern end, and 3 or 3½ miles to the N.W. of the village Sebadies. A large ship may anchor in 15 fathoms soft ground about ½ a mile off shore, with the entrance of the river bearing N. 22° E., where she will be well sheltered from N.W. winds: vessels sometimes touch at this place to trade, there being a river and village on the East side of the point; and 2½ miles West from the Point lies Pulo Monkier, a small isle with eight cocoa-nut trees on it.

Campong Arra.

Sebadies,

There is a shoal 1 mile S.S.E. from Pulo Kayoo, and S.S.W. 1 mile from it Campong Arra, a small islet with reefs; but off the village Sebadies, which lies East 2 miles from Pulo Dooa, there is good anchorage in 12 fathoms about 1 mile from the shore, sheltered from N.W. winds. If bound into this road, and being about 3 miles off shore in 25 fathoms, bring the village Sebadies to bear N. by E., steer in with this bearing, and anchor in 10 or 12 fathoms, the village N. by E., 1 or 1½ mile, and Pulo Dooa, about W. by N. 2½ or 3 miles.

and other places.

Lieut. Henning, says, there is a passage between Pulo Kayoo and the small Isle Campong Arra, but nearly in mid-channel there is a shoal with ¾ of a fathom on it, and another shoal E. ¼ S. from Campong Arra ¾ of a mile, which always breaks. About, ½ a mile W. by N: from Pulo Dooa there is also a shoal. Under Pulo Dooa is the best harbour amongst the Northern Pepper Ports, the anchorage being well sheltered in 13 fathoms with that island bearing West about ½ a mile.

Touroumang

TOUROUMANG, or TAROOMON, is 6 or.6½ miles to the E.S.E. of Sebadies, where a vessel may anchor, but W. by N. ½ N., or W.N.W. 2½ miles from it there is a reef, on which the sea sometimes breaks, with 8 fathoms close to it.

* This appears to be the same bank on which the Albion had 5 fathoms in lat. 3° 30′ N., and 4 or 5 leagues off shore; she hauled to the S.W., and soon deepened to 50 fathoms no ground.

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In the vicinity of Touroumang Bay, there are several dangerous shoals, one of which is in lat. 2° 47′ N., bearing from Pulo Dooa S.W. ½ W. about 8 miles, and W. by S. from the highest Peak of a Saddle Hill situated to the northward of Touroumang: this shoal has only 11 feet water on it, with 30 fathoms close to it on the outside. The brig, Hammudy, struck upon it in the night, steering S.S.W. in 28 fathoms. There is said to be a shoal in 24 fathoms, bearing from Pulo Dooa S. 50° W. 3 miles. One bearing N. 15° W. from Pulo Touroumang, distant about 2 miles, and another about W. by S. 2 miles from the same place.

Touroumang affords, at present, the largest quantity of pepper of any place on the coast; in approaching which, care should be taken to avoid the shoal bearing N. 15° W. from it, on which the sea sometimes breaks, as it is only covered with 9 feet water. The isle near the shore to the southward of the anchorage, should be brought to bear E.S.E., then steer towards it, and pass at a moderate distance round its northern end, from which a spit projects about ½ a cable's length. The anchorage is usually in 7 fathoms sandy bottom, off the mouth of the river, but good ground tackling is requisite, it being exposed to the N. Westers. Some vessels anchor under the island, although it is inconvenient to be so far from the mouth of the river. There is a passage to the southward of the island, between it and the shore, which is seldom used; as a reef lies nearly South about 1½ or 2 miles from the island; but Capt. Ross says, this inside passage is safe, by rounding the point to the southward of Touroumang in 5 fathoms, and from thence, the track close along shore, inside of all the shoals to Sinkell, is safe, and preferable to the outside track by Passage Island.

3d. DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING ALONG THE COAST FROM BANCOONGONG TO PADANG; ADJOINING ISLANDS AND SHOALS. DIRECTIONS TO SAIL FROM PADANG TO THE NORTHWARD.

Directions.

IN sailing from the northward, ships bound to Sinkel, or other ports North of the equator, ought to proceed by the Inner Passage between Pulo Banjack (or Baniak) and the main, and near to Passage Island. The land between Bancoongong Bay and Cape Sitoe, is mostly low near the sea, and hilly inland.

A rocky shoal,

In coasting along, keep about 3 or 4 leagues from the shore, to avoid the shoals, and when Passage Island is seen, steer toward it. Within 2 or 2½ miles of the main, with Baniak Peak bearing W.S.W. about 7 leagues, there is a rocky shoal, having only from 2 to 3 fathoms on it in some parts, with a safe channel of 8 and 9 fathoms between it and the Sumatra shore.

Passage within it.

Of this channel close along the coast, inside of the rocky shoal, the Cadogan's journal Passage gives the following description. December 5th, 1729, passed in 8, 9, and 10 fathoms regular soundings within a mile of the shore, between Cape Sitoe and the rocky shoal which lies off it, and at times could see a small breaker on the sunken rocks, which appeared to be 2 miles distant from the Cape, and makes this passage probably safer than the other between the shoal and Passage Island, because you may venture within ½ a mile of the shore.

Capt. Ross says, this Inner Passage is very safe, he having adopted it from the notice here given in the Cadogan's journal, and had 12 fathoms water near to Oojong Petecallo, and from thence passed close along the coast to Taroomon Road.

Passage Island,

PASSAGE ISLAND, called Javoe Javee by the natives, in about lat. 2° 22′ N.,* and about 3 leagues to the westward of Cape Sitoe, (or Oojong Petecallo) is low and sandy, with few shrubs, but one large tree of the Banian species may be seen at a great distance, and the island may be discerned from the deck 4 or 5 leagues in clear weather.

* Capt. Ashmore made it in lat. 2° 24½′ N. in 1821.

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adjacent channel, and dangers.

The channel between the coast of Sumatra and Passage Island, is rendered intricate by the dangerous shoals mentioned above, having only 2 and 3 fathoms rocks on them in some places, and situated nearly mid-way betwixt the island and the main. Although there is a safe passage inside of these shoals, mentioned above, by keeping close to the Sumatra shore, yet the channel between Passage Island and the shoals, is commonly adopted.

To sail through the channel, from the northward,

In steering for this channel, keep about 3 leagues off the coast until Passage Island is seen, then steer toward it, observing never to bring it more easterly than S.E., to prevent getting near the shoals and irregular soundings, that project from its outside to a considerable distance; one of which shoals is said to be 3 or 4 miles W.N.W. from the island. Having approached Passage Island within 3 miles, bring it to bear S.E. by S., or S.S.E., which are good bearings, and when ¾ or ½ a mile off it with these bearings, keep about the same distance in sailing along its eastern side, but not more than ¾ of a mile from it, to avoid the shoals situated mid-way between it and Cape Sitoe: on account of these, the island must be borrowed upon, but not under ½ a mile, for the flat is dry all round to the distance of a cable's length at low water, and projects about a ¼ mile, or rather more in some places, but is not visible at high water. By preserving the distance mentioned, the soundings will be pretty regular, and the depths never less than 10 and 12 fathoms, mostly rocky bottom. When Passage Island is in one with the Peak of Baniak they bear S.W. by W. ½ W., and it cannot be mistaken, there being no other island betwixt it and the main. A good look out from the mast-head is requisite when passing through this channel, as the coral shoals may be discerned in clear weather, but the flat surrounding Passage Island cannot be always distinguished. When through the channel, which is about a mile in length, the island must be kept between N.N.W. and N.W. by N., in steering from it to the southward, where a ship may anchor if the wind or tide is unfavorable; but to the northward of the island do not anchor under 20 fathoms, for the ground there, is rocky under that depth.

and from the southward.

From Sinkel Road to Passage Island the course is N.W., and in coming from the southward, when Passage Island bears S.W. you are at the entrance of the channel, steer N.W. in 12, 13, and 14 fathoms, and pass on the East side of the island at the distance of ¾ of a mile: if you borrow under ½ a mile, the water shoals suddenly from 11 or 12, to 6 fathoms, on the edge of the reef that surrounds the island.

Channel West of Passage Island.

There is a channel to the westward of Passage Island, by keeping near to Pulo Sago and the other islands that line the eastern side of Baniak, as several dangerous shoals extend two-thirds of the channel over from Passage Island toward Pulo Sago. Those who intend to adopt this channel in coming from the northward, should never in working, bring the southernmost island to the southward of S. 4° E. in standing toward the shoals, or even then, if the water shoal suddenly, tack immediately, as the shoals are steep to. The depths in this channel are irregular from 17 or 18, to 33 fathoms, and it is about 2 miles wide in the narrowest part abreast of the eastern side of Pulo Sago, between some shoals that project about ½ a mile from the N.E. point of this island, and, the other shoals which occupy the eastern side of the channel toward Passage Island.

In proceeding through this channel, a good look out from the mast-head is proper to discover the shoals, not having been well explored, and formerly no passage was known to exist here, but several of the ships which trade to this coast, have lately passed through it with safety, and Capt. Ashmore has given a plan of it in his Chart of the Northern Pepper Ports, on the West Coast of Sumatra, published at the Hydrographical Office, East India House.

Sinkel River and Road.

SINKEL RIVER, in lat. 2° 13′ N., about 4 leagues to the S. Eastward of Passage Island, and subject to the king of Achen, was formerly a place of considerable trade, the principal exports, benzoin, camphor, wax, and gold. A ship bound to this place, should, after leaving Passage Island, steer about S.S.E. or S.E. by S., taking care not to bring the island to the westward of N.W. by N., by keeping 6 or 7 miles from the main; the shoals between

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them will then be avoided, and having brought the low point on the North side of Sinkel River, (which is covered with palmira trees) to bear about E. by N., she may haul in, and anchor in from 12 to 17 fathoms, with the mouth of the river N.E., distant 1 mile. Sinkel Road, is inside of the reef that lies to the S.E. of the river.

Breakers project a little way from the points that form its entrance, and the town is well up the river; but when a ship is known to have anchored to trade, the merchants will come off to her. No person should be permitted on board, except the principal merchants, deprived of offensive weapons, and caution is requisite to repel or prevent any attack that the natives may be inclined to make. A snow, belonging to Bengal, was cut off here in 1782, since which time, few European traders have touched at this place, but it is said to be in a reviving state, by such persons as have visited it lately.

Se Leaga Bay.

To sail into the latter place.

SE LEAGA BAY, about 3 leagues eastward from the mouth of Sinkel River, is sometimes chosen by ships trading to Sinkel, on account of the shelter there. If bound into it, steer from Sinkel Point along the coast at a moderate distance to the West point of the bay, taking care to avoid a shoal or rock, said to lie in 20 fathoms, S.W. from the island in Se Leaga Bay. Oojong Rajah, the West point of the bay, has a long flat projecting about 2 leagues, which may be crossed about 3 miles from the shore in 8 or 9 fathoms hard ground, and when the bottom becomes soft to the eastward of it, haul up N.N.E., and pass on the West side of a low sandy island, and anchor between it and the western shore. If you are to remain a considerable time, run into 5 fathoms mud, and anchor on the West side of the small island Se Leaga, which is covered with trees; here, you will be sheltered by the land from westerly winds, and from S.E. winds by the reefs of breakers in that direction, at the entrance of the bay.

Islands and shoals from hence to Baroos.

Several islands and shoals are scattered along the coast from hence to Baroos, and there are some places on it, such as Bankole and Tapoos, frequented by the small trading vessels. The land in this space is generally low near the sea.

Geo. Site of Pulo Lacotta. Bird Island.

PULO LACOTTA, in about lat. 1° 44′ N.,* lon. 98° 7′ E., by Capt. Cameron, of the London, distant 9 or 10 leagues from Sinkel River, is a small low island, covered with trees; having at 4 miles distance, bearing N. by W. from it, a low islet or sand bank, in about 36 fathoms water, called Bird Island, from being a place of refuge to the feathered race, and it is not discerned farther than 3 leagues. A reef projects from. it about 1 mile to the N.W. and S.E., and when it is visible to an eye at 15 feet elevation above the sea, bearing S.E., 7 miles distant, and Pulo Lacotta S.S.E. ¼ E., there is a shoal with only 1 fathom water on it. With Bird Island W.S.W. 5 miles, Lacotta S.W. ½ W., and Mensular bearing E.S.E. to S.E. by E. ½ E., there is a shoal with 11 feet on it, and from 30 to 25 fathoms around it at a small distance.

To sail from Sinkel to Baroos Road.

A ship departing from Sinkel, should steer out into 23 or 26 fathoms, then S. Eastward for Bird Island, which may be approached on the North side within 1 or 1½ mile. The water deepens near these islands, but the soundings are not every where regular, and 34 fathoms is too close to Bird Island; the best track to keep, is from 26 to 30 fathoms water. Great prudence is requisite to pass them in the night, which should only be done in clear favorable weather, taking care not to borrow nearer to the shoals fronting the coast than 27 fathoms, nor too close to Bird Island, on account of the shoal to the North westward, and another betwixt it and Pulo Lacotta. Having passed Bird Island, a ship may haul in E. by S. and East for the main land, and pass Pulo Carangua, a small island covered with trees, at 2 miles distance on the South side, or less if requisite, and anchor in Baroos Road in 10

* By noon observation, 9th October, 1814, Capt. Henderson, of the Resourse, made it in lat. 1° 50′ N. He passed within 2½ miles of Bird Island, and got no ground with 30 fathoms of line.

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fathoms mud, with the Flagstaff N.N.E. near 2 leagues, and Pulo Carangua W.N.W. about 2 or 3 miles.

Baroos.

BAROOS, in about lat. 1° 56′ N., is a place of some trade, the principal exports camphor and benzoin; good fresh water may be procured, but it is dangerous for a ship's boat to enter the river, except one of the natives.is used as a guide. Wood and water may also be got at Pulo Lassey, about 2 leagues to the N.W., near the West point of Tapoos Bay, by anchoring under that island, with it bearing N.W. by W. about a mile.

To sail from it to Tappanooly Bay.

The course from Pulo Carangua to Pulo Sokum is S.E. by E. about 6 leagues; in sailing toward Tappanooly Bay, the channel between Mensular and the main is about 3 leagues wide, with regular soundings, and safe, to sail through at all times, there being good anchorage. The only known* danger is a shoal of coral rocks, with 9 feet water on it, situated about 3 miles off the main, and 4 or 5 miles N.W. ½ W. from Pulo Sokum, or 2/3 of the distance from it toward Battoo Barroo Point, which is of considerable height, and forms the western extreme of Tappanooly Bay. This shoal is small, said to bear W.N.W. from Battoo Barroo Point, and lies in 9 or 10 fathoms, so that a ship should not come under 12 or 13 fathoms until near the point, which is distant about 6 leagues to the E.S. Eastward of Pulo Sokum; she may then round the point in 9 or 10 fathoms, keeping it pretty close aboard, and the Island Ponchang Cacheel will be seen to the N.N. Eastward, which is the nearest island to the point. This island may be passed on either side as most convenient, and after bringing it to bear about S.W., or the hill on which the colours are hoisted S. by W.½ W., she may anchor in 7 or 7½ fathoms soft ground, about a cable's length from the island, and carry a hawser on shore to steady her, where she will be land-locked.

To approach the latter from Bencoolen.

The following directions for ships bound to Tappanooly from Bencoolen, were given by Mr. Prince, the Resident at the former place, and it is said they may be trusted to, with confidence. Make the land at the South end of Pulo Nias, which pass at a few miles distance, steer for Natal, and after discerning the Hill, which is rather low and sloping, being in 25 or 26 fathoms, steer N.N.W. and N. by W. for the Sugar Loaf. Between Natal and the Tabooyong Islands (21 to 24 miles distant) there are dangers in shore, therefore do not approach it nearer than 20 fathoms, but from Tabooyong and the Sugar Loaf, the land may be approached at discretion, as the passage is quite clear.

Gen Site of Tappanooly.

TAPPANOOLY BAY, forms an extensive harbour, or is rather subdivided into many coves or harbours, by the different islands in it, where ships may lie sheltered from all winds. Ponchang Cacheel, a little inside of the entrance, where ships generally moor, is situated in lat. 1° 40′ N., † lon. 98° 55′ E. by Capt. Cameron's chronometers. Between it and Pulo Panjang, the next island to the northward, there are 7 and 8 fathoms in a passage about ½ a mile wide. On the East side of Panjang, the harbour is spacious, the depths from 7 to 4 fathoms, with a watering place on the main to the northward: there is also good shelter to the westward of the same island, but reefs project from the North end of it and the adjoining shores, and also from the other islands beyond it, in the northern arm of the bay; notwithstanding, there are safe passages and good shelter among them, in depths from 3 to 5 fathoms. Variation 1° 18′ 33″ E. in 1822.

The village of Tappanooly is at the northern part of the bay, about 4 miles from Ponchang Cacheel; from thence, this extensive bay is continued to the westward, by a narrow channel that opens into a large lagoon, with depths in it from 2 to 3 fathoms.

* There is said to be a coral shoal, about mid-channel between Mensular and the main, with only 3½ fathoms on it, the situation of which is not correctly known. Pulo Sokum is the first small island on the coast to the northward of Tappanooly.

† The astronomers from Madras, who visited this place in 1822, made Tappanooly Island in lat. 1° 43′ 46″ N., by Stars north and south of the zenith, and in lon. 98° 41′ 17″ E. by chronometers from Madras.

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Ponchang Gadang, on the East side of the entrance of the bay, is the largest island in it, and has some steep hills covered with large timber; near the foot of these, there are several springs of fresh water. The passage betwixt this island and Ponchang Cacheel is a mile wide, with 6 or 7 fathoms close to either island, and 10 fathoms in mid-channel; between these two islands and Pulo Seeroodoot, situated about 1½ mile to the N. Eastward, the depths are from 7 to 9 fathoms, regular soundings, and the channels safe. There is good anchorage near the N.E. side of Ponchang Gadang, in 7 or 8 fathoms, to the eastward of a small island off its North end; around which, and the West, South, and East sides of Gadang, a reef projects some distance. An excellent cove stretches into the land to the eastward of Pulo Seeroodoot, having 4 and 5 fathoms water inside, and the same depths in the entrance, between the South end of that island and the main land.

Island Mensular, and harbour.

To sail between it and the islands and shoals in the offing.

MENSULAR, or MASSULAR, in lat. 1° 32′ N., is about 4 leagues in extent East and West, situated to the westward of Tappanooly Bay: it is a high island with several inlets on the North side, and contiguous to its S. E. end there is a group of islets which form a harbour, with various depths in it from 22 to 14 fathoms, over a bottom of soft white mud; and between the entrance and the group of islands near it to the southward, the depths are from 24 to, 30 fathoms, in two safe channels leading from the Eastward, and S. Westward. This harbour furnishes excellent fresh water, and the surrounding land of Mensular and adjoining islands, abound with poon spars, fit for masts or yards of any size that may be required. It is high water at.6 hours on full and change of the moon, the rise of, the tide only about 4 feet. At the North-west end of the island, there is a considerable waterfall, which issues from a high hill. If a ship coming from the northward is not bound to Tappanooly, she may, after passing Bird Island, steer for the N.W. end of Mensular, and proceed along the West side of it, which is a bold shore; but she ought not to stand far out, on account of Pulo Doa and the adjacent shoals. These are a larger and smaller isle, with some dangers near them, distant 3 and 4 leagues to the S.W. of Mensular; other dangers lie to the northward, between them and Pulo Lacotta, which are avoided by keeping well to the eastward after passing Bird Island.

The Claudine, April 12th, 1817, struck on a reef extending about 1½ mile E. by S. and W. by N., the Sugar Loaf bearing N.E. by E. about 5½ or 6 leagues, the Westernmost point of Mensular N. by E. ½ E., and Pulo Doa N.W. by N., about a cable's length from it she had 38 fathoms, and only 11 feet where she struck, which was within half a cable's length of a patch level with the water's edge, that appeared to be the eastern extremity of the reef. In a S.W. direction, at the same time, a very extensive reef of breakers was seen, with a rock above water 4 or 5 miles distant.

Sugar Loaf; to sail from Tappanooly Harbour by the southern channel.

SUGAR LOAF, in lat. 1° 34′ 54″ N. (called Nassy See Tounkas by the Malays) a small conical island bearing S.S.W. 9 miles from Ponchang Cacheel in Tappanooly Harbour, is the leading mark for ships bound out of that harbour to the southward, it being conspicuous and is the southernmost of the islands in the south part of the Great Bay of Tappanooly, situated nearly mid-way between Batoo Mama, the southern extremity of the bay, and the East end of Mensular. To the eastward of the Sugar Loaf, betwixt it and Batoo Mama Point, and Pulo Baccar, the nearest island to the N. Eastward, there is an open passage, with soundings from 14 to 19 fathoms; but as a rock lies betwixt the point and Baccar, on the East side of this passage, and from the N.W. side of the latter, likewise from the N.E. side of the Sugar Loaf, reefs project about a cable's length, the passage to the westward is generally preferred.

Departing from Tappanooly Harbour, a ship should steer about S.S.W. for the Sugar Loaf, which may be passed on either side; but the western channel betwixt it and the entrance of Mensular Harbour, is the best, being nearly 5 miles wide, with regular soundings

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22 and 23 fathoms from side to side; the Sugar Loaf being steep at the West end, with 21 and 22 fathoms close to it. When abreast of it, a southerly course should be steered until in 25 fathoms, observing not to bring it to the westward of North till this depth is obtained, to avoid a shoal of coral rocks, said to lie about 3 or 4 miles to the S. East of it.

Pulo Ely.

PULO ELY, or ILLY, an island near the main, about a mile in length, moderately high and even, bears from the Sugar Loaf about S. by E. ¾ E., distant 6 leagues; from 26 to 22 fathoms, are good depths to preserve in coasting between them, and Pulo Ely may be passed in 18 or 20 fathoms, or farther off in 24 or 25 fathoms, distant from it 4 or 5 miles. There is anchorage under this island, and it affords wood, and good water.

Zelody Islands; to sail clear of the heals on this part of the coast.

ZELODY* ISLANDS (the northernmost), are about 5 or 6 leagues to the southward of Pulo Ely; in passing along here, 24 and 25 fathoms are good depths to preserve, and as the outermost Zelody Island is a considerable way from the main, with 20 or 21 fathoms near it, a ship ought to give it a birth of 3 or 4 miles, to avoid the shoals in its vicinity. There is anchorage and shelter under these islands (being three in number) from N. Westers, with good water and cocoa-nuts upon them; but the coast between them and Cara-cara Point, is generally avoided, there being several shoals at a considerable distance from it; with Pulo Tellore, and Pulo Capechong, two small islands lying in the bight inside of them. One of the outermost and most dangerous of these shoals, on which the Syren struck, bears S. ½ E. distant 3½ leagues from the outer Zelody Island, having only 7 feet water on it, and is not always visible in fine weather. There is a passage inside of it, with anchorage, by keeping in 14 and 15 fathoms, but that on the outside is preferable. To avoid it, a ship after passing the Zelody Islands at 4 or 5 miles distance, should steer to the southward, observing to keep the outer island to the eastward of North, and not to come under 23 or 24 fathoms soft ground, until Cara-cara Point bear about E.S.E., which will carry her 2 or 3 miles outside of it, as the shoal lies in 201 fathoms water.

Natal Hill, situated on the North side of the river, appears like a gunner's quoin when it bears S. E. by E., and may be known by its barren aspect, and having low land on each side; after it is seen, it ought to be kept open with Cara-cara Point, to avoid the shoal, and a ship if not bound into Natal, should keep out in 21 or 22 fathoms in passing the shoals that front the bay. There is a coral bank about 7 leagues off Mensular, on which the Success Gally got a-ground, and had 35 fathoms close to. When on the edge of the shoal in 24 fathoms, observed lat. 1° 3½′ N., the Sugar Loaf bearing N. by E. ½ E., Pulo Illy (supposed) E. ¼ S., Pulo Nyas from W. ¼ N. to W. ½ S. distant 6 or 7 leagues.

Shoals of Natal Bay.

NATAL BAY, having in it many dangerous shoals, and the outermost of these extending nearly 2 leagues off shore into 17 or 18 fathoms water, render great care necessary, in sailing to or from the anchorage, for many ships have struck on these shoals.

The Royal Bishop's Shoal, on which the ship of that name struck, is small, with only 14 feet on the shoalest part, and lies in 17 fathoms. Cara-cara Point bears from it N.E. ¼ N., Natal Flagstaff E. ¼ S., and Pulo Tamong S. S. E. ½ E. From another shoal, having 13 or 14 feet coral on it, Cara-cara Point bears N. ¾ E., Natal Flagstaff E. by N. ¼ N., and Pulo Tamong S. by E. ½ E. The Shaftsbury Reef, on which the ship of that name was lost, is situated farther in, on the East side of the channel, and Natal Flagstaff bears from the West end of it E. by N. ¼ N. Cara-cara Shoal, on the West side of the channel, bears from Shaftsbury Reef N. by W. near 3 miles, being situated about 1½ mile S. E. ½ S. from Pulo Cara-cara, the small island near the shore to the eastward of Cara-cara Point. There are

* Properly Keladee or Cloddy, the name of a species of wild yam, with which they are said to abound.

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other shoals, the positions of which are not correctly known; ships, therefore, should keep a boat a-head sounding, when bound into the bay.

To sail into it.

Anchorage.

Ships coming from the northward, bound to the Road of Natal, after Cara-cara Point bears about E. S. E., in 19 or 20 fathoms, may steer to round it at 3 or 4 miles distance, by keeping Natal Flagstaff about E. by S., which will carry them nearly in mid-channel between the Shaftsbury and Cara-cara Shoals. When Pulo Cara-cara bears N. E. by N. they will be clear of the shoal that projects from it (betwixt which and the island there is a small channel) and may continue to steer directly toward Natal Hill until near the road, then edge a little to the southward, and anchor with the Flagstaff East or E. by N. Ships coming from the southward may pass either inside or outside of the Royal Bishop's Shoal; if they keep in 14 or 15 fathoms, soft ground, they will pass inside of it, or by keeping in 19 fathoms it will be passed on the outside; after bringing Natal Hill or Flagstaff about E. by S., (but never to the southward of E. by S. ½ S. when in 14 fathoms) they may steer in for the road as directed above. The common anchorage is from 5 to 6 fathoms, with the Flagstaff East to E. by N. ¼ N., and nearly in a direct line between Cara-cara Point and Racatt Point, which bear about N.N.W. and S.S.E. from each other, the latter forming the East side of the anchorage; and in this station, the distance from Racatt Point will be 1½ or 2 miles, and from Natal 2½ or 3 miles.

Capt. Thornhill, of the David Scott, who was at Natal in May 1825, is of opinion, that so long as the centre of Natal Hill bears between E. by S. and E. by S. ½ S. by compass, a ship will pass into the road with safety: do not approach nearer than 2½ or 3 miles to Cara-cara Point and the island of this name, to avoid the shoal that lies off the island, and when the point bears N. by W., you are within the shoals, and may then edge away gradually to the southward, until Natal Flagstaff bear E. by N., then anchor in 6 or 5 fathoms, but not under the latter depth in a large ship.

Capt. Thornhill, sounded on the edge of Cara-cara Shoal, and from 5 fathoms, shoaled suddenly to 6 feet coral rocks, Natal Hill bearing E. by S. ¾ S.

When on Racatt Shoal, in 5 feet coral bottom, Natal Hill bore N. E. ¾ N., Pulo Tamong S. ¾ E., Durian Point S. E. ¼ S., Cara-cara Hill N. by E. ¼ E., off Racatt Point about 1 or 1¼ mile.

Geo Site of Natal.

Natal is in lat. 0° 33′ 26″ N., and about lon. 99° 1¾′ E. by chronometers from Madras. Camphor, benzoin, and gold-dust, are the principal articles of export; the imports, opium, iron in flat bars, salt, piece-goods of various kinds, stick-lack, gun-powder, &c. But the road is one of the worst on the coast, being much exposed to N.W. and westerly winds.

Pulo Tamong; to sail into the Road.

PULO TAMONG, about 3½ leagues to the southward of Natal Road, near the coast, has good anchorage in 8 or 9 fathoms, between it and the main. Small vessels bound from Natal Road to the anchorage at Pulo Tamong, sometimes pass inside of the shoals, keeping near Point Racatt, and Durian Point, a little to the southward of the road; taking care not to deepen above 6 fathoms till past the latter point, on account of two shoals that lie out in 7 and 8 fathoms. It is best in a large ship, to steer out to the westward through the proper channel into 14 fathoms, and preserve this depth until Pulo Tamong is brought to bear E. S. E. or E. by S., she may then steer for the North part of that island, and after rounding it at a moderate distance, anchor with the body of it bearing about West in 6½ or 7 fathoms, distant ¼ mile from the shore. The well, containing good water, is then abreast, on the low land neat a small white sandy beach; here, fire-wood may also be got, and a ship is sheltered from westerly winds. In sailing into, or out of this place, it is prudent to keep a boat sounding a-head on the edge of the reef, that stretches out 2 or 2½ cables' lengths from the island in some parts, with 6 fathoms close to it. There is a safe passage betwixt the South end of the island and the main.

Small ships coming from the southward intending to enter Natal Road by the inner pas-

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sage, may pass in mid-channel between Pulo Tamong and the main, in 6 to 8 fathoms. When through, the course is N. by W. and N. ½ W. for Durian Point, observing not to come under 9 fathoms in passing about mid-way between it and Pulo Tamong, on account of a shoal of coral rock with 10 and 11 feet water on it, which lies in 7 or 8 fathoms. When near Durian Point, borrow into 5 or 5½ fathoms; and in steering the same course toward the road, do not exceed 6 fathoms at the utmost, in passing it and Racatt Point, on account of the shoals that lie off these points, in 6½ to 8 fathoms. The Snow Marlbro', in 1791, struck, and beat off her rudder on one of these shoals, with Racatt Point E. ½ S., Durian Point S. E. easterly, Cara-cara Hill North, Natal Hill N. E. by E., outer extreme of Pulo Tamong S.½ E., and another shoal with breakers S.W. by W. After getting off, she anchored in 7 fathoms soft ground betwixt these shoals, about 2 miles distant from Racatt Point.

Ayer Bongy Bay, adjacent islands and shoals.

AYER BONGY BAY, situated about 4 or 5 leagues to the S. Eastward of Pulo Tamong, has several islands and shoals fronting it; ships which do not intend to touch at Ayer Bongy, should keep well out in 26 to 30 fathoms water after passing Pulo Tamong, or nearer to the islets and shoals off the East end of Pulo Batoa, than to the main, to avoid a shoal or bank, with irregular soundings from 15 to 4 fathoms coral on it, or probably less, and 20 fathoms close to. It is extensive, and situated about 3 leagues S.W. by S. from Pulo Tamong, nearly mid-way betwixt the main of Sumatra and the small islands adjoining to the S. E. end of Pulo Batoa, the latter being a large island in the offing. There are three small islands off the S. E. end of Pulo Batoa, and a dangerous shoal with some of the rocks above water, about 4 miles distant from the islands; when the rocks are on with the centre of the islands, they bear S. S.W, and about a league inside of them, there are 24 fathoms hard ground.

Geo. Site.

Directions.

Ayer Bongy is in lat. 0° 11′ 42″ N. lon. 99° 21¼′ E. by chronometers, measured from Madras; and if bound there, from the anchorage under Pulo Tamong, steer about S. S. W. between the main and the island in 5 and 6 fathoms soft ground, keeping rather nearest to the latter; from this island to Oojong Lalloo, the West point of Ayer Bongy Bay, pass inside of the shoal mentioned above, by steering along the coast in 9 or 10 fathoms, which will be about 1½ or 2 miles off shore. By keeping in these depths, the shoal to the S. W. of Pulo Tamong will be avoided, and the shore, which in this space contains some bays or concavities, is safe to approach to 5½ or 6 fathoms.

The sea breaks on some of the shoals off Ayer Bongy Bay, when there is much swell, and between most of them there are safe channels, but the shoals are not always discernible when the sea is smooth. About 4 miles off Oojong Lalloo, with Pulo Pancal E. S. E.½ S., there is a dangerous shoal, having only 9 feet on the shoalest part, and 14 to 17 fathoms near it on the outside. The Prince Henry struck, and beat off her rudder on this shoal in the night when running for Aver Bongy, after having anchored in the evening in 17 fathoms hard ground, and parted from two anchors, by the rocks cutting the cables in blowing weather. Great care is requisite in passing Oojong Lalloo, for several shoals front this part of the coast, the situations of which are imperfectly known. The ship Sylph beat off her rudder upon one of them in 1796, with the outer extreme of Pulo Tamong bearing N. N. W., and the point with a small island near it, commonly called Oojong Lalloo, N. by W. westerly, 2 or 3 miles distant. Most of these shoals are from 2 to 4 miles off Oojong Lalloo, and bear between S. by E. and S. S. E. from Pulo Tamong. There is a passage inside of all of them, by keeping within 1½ or 2 miles of the main, in from 4 to 6 fathoms soft ground, when passing Oojong Lalloo and the two next points to the S. Eastward, then proceeding between Pulo Panjang and the main, to the anchorage under that island. This passage seems improper for large ships, and vessels of every description, by whatever channel they enter Ayer Bongy Bay, must keep a good look out for the numerous shoal. Pulo Panjang, in lat.

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0° 12′ N., lon. 99° 17′ 10″ E. by chronometers from Madras in 1822, is the largest island in the bay.

Anchorage.

The small Island Pulo Tanca, lies near Oojong Lalloo, betwixt which and Pulo Panca, or Pancal, situated about a league southward from the former, the passage is safe, and the depths 10 or 11 fathoms soft bottom; the passage into the bay is also safe to the eastward of Pulo Pancal, between it and Pulo Tellore, in lat. 0° 7′ 16″ N., situated at the S. E. part of the bay; and there is also a channel with 6 and 7 fathoms water in it, betwixt that island and Oojong Seecarboa, the S. Eastern extremity of the bay. A ship having entered the bay by the most convenient passage, may steer for Ayer Bongy Flagstaff, situated on a bluff point or hill at the S. E. part of the bay, close to the North end of which, is the river and landing place. The common anchorage is abreast of the river bearing E. by N. ½ N., distant about a league, in 4½ or 5 fathoms good ground. There is also anchorage under Pulo Panjang, the largest island in the bay, bearing about W. by S. from Ayer Bongy River, having a reef with breakers to the northward of it about a mile. Betwixt this island and Pulo Jambo or Sambo, a small island to the westward, there is said to be a clear passage. To the northward of Pullo Tellore there is a reef with breakers, and another to the eastward near the main, which require care in passing through the channels contiguous to that island.

Shoals to the southward of it.

To the southward of Ayer Bongy South point, which is of bluff appearance, there are several shoals; ships bound from that anchorage to the S. Eastward, generally keep inside near the coast, until clear of them. Two of these shoals bear S. E. ¾ E. from Pulo Tellore,* and lie close together; from a small hill to the southward of Oojong Seecarbo (called also Oojong Gading), they bear S. S. W., and are distant from the point about 4 miles. There is a channel between these and another small shoal bearing S. S. E. 1 mile from them, having in it 14 and 16 fathoms. H. M. S. Drake, September 1st, 1809, struck on a small coral shoal, with the peak of Mount Ophir E. by N., Pulo Tellore North, Lalloo Point N. W., off shore 3 leagues, having close to it 23 fathoms soft mud.

Geo. Site of Mount Ophir

MOUNT OPHIR, in lat. 0° 4′ 58″ N., lon. 100° 0′ 15″ E. by chronometers from Madras, situated about 8 leagues inland, to the eastward of Oojong Seecarboa, appears like an obtuse cone by itself, separated from the chain of other mountains, and may be seen 110 miles in clear weather, it being the highest mountain on Sumatra visible from the sea. A Volcano Mountain to the southward, about 9 or 10 leagues inland, is somewhat less elevated.

Shoals in the offing.

To the southward of Ayer Bongy Shoals, there appear to be other shoals in the offing abreast of Passamane Bay, one of which about 2 cables lengths in diameter, is thought to have 3 fathoms on the shoalest part, with 21 and 22 fathoms close to it all round; the Prince Henry got on it and saw the rocks along side, with Oojong Seecarboa bearing N. by W. ½ W., the largest of Ooojong Massing Hills E. by S., and a small hummock East, taken for the true point, the trees on the low land just visible from the deck, distant about 5 leagues. This shoal, consisting of black coral, is not easily discerned.

In the Luconia, high breakers were seen on another shoal, bearing about S. W. by W. from Oojong Massing, which was thought to be about 6 leagues off shore, but Captain Bennet thinks it lies 8 or 9 leagues from the shore. With the largest of the Massing Hills E. by N., there is said to be a shoal with breakers about 5 miles off shore, in 15 or 16 fathoms water.

Oojong Massang and hills.

OOJONG MASSANG (or Point Massang), situated in lat. 0° 17′ S. nearly, and about 10 leagues S. E. by E. from Ayer Bongy Bay, has a reef of foul ground stretching out about 2 or 2½ miles, which should not be approached under 17 fathoms; and near the point, are the three Massing Hills, the middle or largest having a tabular form, and the others resemble

* These shoals are said by another navigator, to bear S. E. by S. from Pulo Tellore in a line; the southern most, distant from it about 4 miles. There are others about 6 miles to the S. Eastward of that island.

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hay-cocks. Between this place and the South point of Ayer Bongy Bay, which is of middling height, the coast is low, and forms the Bay of Passamane.

To pass inside the shoals;

If a ship departing from Ayer Bongy Road, intend to proceed to the southward inside of the shoals, where the lead is a good guide and the anchorage safe, she ought to keep in from 5 to 8 fathoms, within 2 miles of the shore until abreast of Oojong Seecarboa, and pass this point about 1 mile distant; she may then in day-light, borrow toward the shoals to 12 fathoms, but not under 9 fathoms toward the main, after the point bears about N. N. E., when turning to windward. When 3 leagues to the S. E. of Pulo Tellore, she may stand out to 15 or 16 fathoms, and keep in these depths, or steer a course for Oojong Massang, without hauling into Passamane Bay under 12 fathoms, or approaching too near the shoals in the offing, observing not to come under 17 fathoms in passing Oojong Massang.

and outside of them.

To pass outside of the dangers, after being clear of the shoal 3 leagues S. W. by S. from Pulo Tamong, a ship ought to keep well out in 25 or 26 fathoms, gradually rounding the shoals off Ayer Bongy; having cleared these, she should haul to the eastward to make Oojong Massang Hills, and round that point at 3 miles distance in 17 or 18 fathoms, then keep in 17 to 20 fathoms for the outer Ticoo Island, observing to round it on the West side within a mile, in 16 or 17 fathoms. A ship departing from Ayer Bongy Bay, should, if this passage be adopted, sail out between Pulo Pancal and Pulo Tellore, then steer S. by E. and S. S. E. until in 24 or 25 fathoms, and not come under 20 fathoms until near Oojong Massang; a good look out is necessary, for the 3 fathoms shoal of the Prince Henry, mentioned above.

Ticoo Islands channels, and dangers near them.

TICOO ISLANDS, distant about 3 leagues to the S. E. of Oojong Massang, are three in number, small and woody, about 1½ mile apart, and the innermost is the same distance from the main. The proper channel is within a mile of the West and South sides of the outer island, in 15 to 17 fathoms, to avoid a shoal bearing from it about S.W. by W. 4 miles in 25 fathoms, over which the swell may be seen to roll when it is abreast, if there is much sea: another shoal lies S. W. about 5 leagues from the outer Ticoo Island, no ground.50 fathoms near it. Should night be approaching, a ship may anchor in 9 or 10 fathoms, with the outermost island bearing West, distant about ½ a mile. This island is in lat. 0° 23′ S., and bears S. E. ½ S. from Oojong Seecarboa:

In coming near to these islands from the southward, breakers appear, which seem to deny any safe passage among them; but betwixt the inner and middle islands, there is a safe channel on either side of a small coral bank about a cable's length in diameter, situated about ¼ of a mile from the innermost, and about a ¼ of a mile from the middle island. It is steep to, all round, with 7, 8, and 9 fathoms betwixt it and the middle island, but the passage on this side is very much contracted by a spit projecting near 2 cables' lengths from the N. E. end of the island. This passage between it and the inner island has good room for anchoring occasionally, with soundings 6½ and 7 fathoms near the small bank, to 6 and 5 fathoms close to the island, over a soft bottom. From the South end of the inner island a shoal stretches out near a ¼ mile, with 5½ fathoms soft ground close to, which must be avoided by a ship that adopts the inner channel, just described. To the southward of the middle island, distant about ½ a mile, the sea breaks on some rocks, to which a proper birth must be given, in ships that run under these islands for shelter from N. W. winds.

Dangers from thence southwards.

To the southward of the Ticoo Islands there are several shoals, and a great many others well out in the offing, lie scattered from hence to the southward of Priaman, which may be considered the most dangerous part of the coast.

Pulo Cassey, the passage and shoals, with directions.

PULO CASSEY, or Cassiqua, in about lat. 0° 36′ S., bearing about S. E. 6 or 7 leagues from the Ticoo Islands, is covered with trees, very small, with a sandy beach, and distant about a league from the main. The passage in this track, inside of the principal shoals, is generally considered the best, by keeping in from 16 to 12 or 10 fathoms, and the coast is

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safe to approach to 6 or 7 fathoms in many places: Some navigators state, that there are no shoals under 16 fathoms on this part of the coast; others assert that some shoals are situated near it in 5 or 6 fathoms. The best guide, therefore, is, after leaving the Ticoo Islands, to keep in soft ground from 16 to 10 or 11 fathoms, for the bottom is all soft, except when near a shoal.

The coast from the Ticoo Islands to Pulo Cassey is a little hilly, and lies about S. E. by E. A shoal flat projects out nearly 2 miles in some places, on which the depths decrease regularly to 5 fathoms about 2 miles off shore. Exclusive of the shoal to the S. Westward of the outer Ticoo Island, already mentioned, the others bounding the passage on the West side, are one bearing about S. S. E. from the outer Ticoo Island, and nearly N. W. by W. from Pulo Cassey; when the breakers on it bore from West to N. W., distant about 2 miles, the depth was 16 fathoms; another, on which the sea sometimes breaks, bearing about S. E. by S. from the outer Ticoo Island, and nearly N. W. by W. from Pulo Cassey, with 20 fathoms close to it on the East side; and there is one with 3 fathoms on it, bearing S. S. E. southerly from the outer Ticoo Island, and N. W. ¾ W. from the northernmost of the three Priaman Islands, being that nearest to Pulo Cassey. Betwixt some of these shoals, there are safe channels; the Duke had no ground 35 fathoms in passing between two of them, about 5 leagues S. S. E. from the Ticoo Islands.

Priaman Islands, the channels and adjacent shoals.

PRIAMAN ISLANDS, three in number, situated abreast of the settlement of the same name on the main, about a league distant, afford shelter from N. W. or Westerly winds, and the northernmost has on it a well of fresh water, where ships are supplied. From this, the middle island is distant about 1½ mile to the S. S. W., with 7 fathoms water in the channel between them; but a reef of breakers projects about 2 cables' lengths from the West part of the northern island, with 7 fathoms close to it. The channel inside of the northernmost island having only 3½ fathoms near the island, and decreasing gradually toward the main, is only fit for small ships. From the middle island, the southernmost one is distant 2 miles to the S. S. Eastward; and each of them is about ½ a mile in extent. There are several shoals about 2 or 3 miles to the westward of these islands, on which the sea breaks in bad weather, having 14 or 15 fathoms near them; but betwixt them and the islands the passage is safe, by keeping near the latter, in from 10, to 6 or 7 fathoms. The northernmost of this chain or group of shoals, bears West from Pulo Cassey 2 or 3 miles, with a safe channel betwixt it and that island, in soundings 12 or 14 fathoms. On the East side of Pulo Cassey there is also a safe channel, with 6 fathoms near the island, decreasing regularly from 5 fathoms about ½ a mile from it, to 3 and 2 fathoms about ½ a mile from the main. To the N. N. E. of this island, more than half way to the main, there is said to be some rocks, with 4 fathoms on the outside of them.

Priaman River.

PRIAMAN FLAGSTAFF, in about lat. 0° 40′ S., bears nearly S. E. ½ E., 8 miles from Pulo Cassey; the river is small, and the entrance so shoal, that a pinnace cannot go in until near high water, and even then not without danger. A little way out from the mouth of the river there is a bank, having on its North and South ends two patches of sand above water; within it, there are 2 fathoms sandy bottom.

To sail from the Ticoo Islands, to Priaman and Padang by the Inner Passage.

If you intend to proceed by the inner passage from the Ticoo Islands to Priaman or Padang, after having steered along the coast in from 16 to 8 or 10 fathoms, you may, when Pulo Cassey is approached, pass on either side of it at a small distance, as the wind will best permit, then steer through betwixt the middle and northernmost Priaman Islands, and anchor inside, under the shelter of them. If bound to Padang, continue to keep near to the East sides of the middle and southernmost islands in passing them, and steer along the coast at a moderate distance until Pulo Ayer is approached, there being no danger in this part.

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There is a passage inside of that island, but it is advisable to pass about 2 or 3 miles distance on the outside, to avoid a shoal said to lie S. S. W. from it; when clear of this shoal, a direct course may be steered for Padang Flagstaff, or for the anchorage under Pulo Pisang, should unfavorable weather be apprehended, where ships are sheltered from N. W. and Westerly winds, this being the proper road.

Pulo Ayer, or Sow Island (called also Pulo Carong), distant about 1½ mile from the shore, and 3 leagues to the N. W. of Padang Head, is small, with a reef projecting from its South end about a ¼ mile: a shoal is thought to lie S. E. from it, and another to the S. S. Westward, stretching out a great way.

Padang Islands.

PADANG ISLANDS are situated well out in the offing, seven in number, having several dangers amongst them. They are named numerally, Pulo Sato or 1st, Pulo Dua 2d, Pulo Teega 3d, Pulo Ampat 4th, Pulo Leema.5th, Pulo Annam 6th, and Puloo Toojoo the 7th.

Pulo Sato, the easternmost, is small, high, and flat, distant about 2½ leagues to the W. N. W. of Pulo Pisang, and has a reef off its N. E. point about a mile, or rather an island just forming, called Pulo Passier.

Pulo Dua is a little larger than Sato, and lies to the S. W., having a safe passage between them.

Pulo Teega, about 4 miles to the southward of Dua, and 3 leagues to the W. S. W. of Pisang, is the largest of these islands, breakers and foul ground stretch from it a great way to the N. Eastward, nearly shutting up the passage betwixt it and Pulo Dua, which is thought to he dangerous.

Pulo Ampat, about the size of Dua, lies to the westward, bearing from Pulb Leema S.W. ½ S.

Pulo Leema, one of the innermost islands, bearing about N. W. from Pulo Pisang and Pulo Sato, is small; a reef is said to project from it about 2 miles to the S. W.; another to lie 2 or 3 miles to the N. E.; one navigator says, E. S. E. 2 miles from it; but on the North side it is clear, and there is thought to be a safe passage betwixt it and Pulo Sato.

Pulo Annam, bearing from Pulo Leema W. ½ S., is of considerable size, and appears the last island in coming from the southward, as Toojoo is not then in sight; to the northward, and also betwixt it and Ampat, there is said to be shoals.

Pulo Toojoo, the northernmost of these islands, is nearly of the size of the former, and bears S. S.W. ½ W. from Pulo Cassey, to the northward of the Priamans. A coral bank, bearing N.W. by W. about 3 leagues from it, should be approached with caution; for it is steep from no ground to 10, 7 and 5 fathoms, and there may be less water on it. Close to, and amongst all these islands, the water is deep, and there is no good anchorage.

Geo. Site of Padang Head, the river, and adjacent coast.

PADANG HEAD, in lat. 0° 56′ S., about lon. 100° 12′ E., having on it the Flagstaff, is a high bluff head-land, with a rock close to it called the Whale, and forms the S. W. side of the river's entrance; about a mile up on the North bank, the fort and town are situated, but there are also houses and gardens on the opposite side. Bullocks, poultry, various fruits, and vegetables, may be got here at moderate prices; and excellent water issuing from the rocks on the South side of the river, which is conveyed in spouts to the boats.

The river is only navigable by boats or small vessels in fine weather, the depths at low water being 8 and 9 feet at the entrance, and from 9 to 14 feet a little way inside, and the rise of tide is about 2½ feet on the springs. It is very dangerous to enter the river when the wind blows strong at West or N. W., for the sea then breaks entirely across the entrance, and a continued breaker extends from Padang Head to the S. W. point of the shoal that stretches nearly from it to within ½ a mile of the North end of Pulo Pisang. This place is

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in possession of the Dutch,* from which gold-dust, benzoin, and other articles are exported, in exchange for opium, blue and white cloth, and other piece-goods.

In approaching it from the offing, the head will easily be known by its bluff aspect, and the coast from it southward, being all bold high land; whereas, the land near the sea to the northward of the river is low, and all the coast is low from thence to Priaman, but far in the country the land is generally high.

Anchorage.

A ship arriving when the weather is favorable, and intending to remain very little time, may anchor in 12 or 13 fathoms soft ground, with the flagstaff bearing E. ½ N. or East, distant from the bluff headland 1¼ or 1½ mile. If the weather is threatening, or the stay to be 3 or 4 days, it will be prudent to proceed to the proper road, under Pulo Pisang.

Pulo Pisang.

PULO PISANG, about 2 miles S. by W. from Padang Head, is a small island about ½ a mile in diameter, where water may be got by digging wells 4 or 5 feet deep, at the foot of the hills; which although soft and pleasant to taste, is said to be impregnated with salt petre, and not very wholesome: the firewood is also indifferent. The rocky coral bank stretching about 40 yards from the shore of this island, is steep to, all round, and at the N. E. part there is a wharf for the convenience of landing: ships trading to Padang, moor close to the East and S. E. sides of the island, sheltered from N. W. and. Westerly winds. When these winds prevail, boats cannot pass between Padang River and the ships under Pulo Pisang, on account of the breakers stretching across the passage.

The Channels.

To sail to the anchorage.

All round Pulo Pisang there is a safe passage of 6 and 7 fathoms, but it is narrow in some places, particularly betwixt the North end of the island and the extensive shoal bank that occupies most of the space between it and Padang Head, on the shoalest part of which are only 2¼ and 2½ fathoms hard sand; this passage is not above ⅓ of a mile wide, and is seldom used by large ships. The deepest water is close, or near to Pulo Pisang; a ship to enter by the North channel, must bring the island well to the eastward, and round the North end in 7 or 8 fathoms about the distance of a cable's length, or little more: the water will shoal as she runs in, to 6 and 5 fathoms, which is the least near the island; but toward the main, and Pulo Pisang Kecheel (or Little Pulo Pisang) lying near it to the eastward, the depths decrease to 4 and 3 fathoms hard sand. Having rounded the island close, and brought the wharf to bear W. by N. or W. N.W., she may moor in 5½ or 6 fathoms, about 2 cables' lengths from the island. Large ships should always use the other channel in proceeding to the anchorage under Pulo Pisang, by steering direct for the West side of the island, and rounding it on the South side about a ¼ mile distant; after bringing the body of the island to bear about N.W. by W., they may anchor and moor in 5 or 5 ½ fathoms mud, about 2 cables' lengths from it, where they will be well sheltered from westerly winds.

To sail from Ticoo Islands, outside the other islands to Pulo Pisang.

DEPARTING from the TICOO ISLANDS for Padang, if not intending to touch at Priaman, ships frequently pass outside of the Priaman Islands and shoals, which is by some persons thought the best route. If it is adopted, keep in from 16 to 12 fathoms until within 5 or 6 miles of Pulo Cassey, then steer out betwixt the shoals which lie to the westward of that island, and those to the southward of the Ticoo Islands, until in 35 or 40 fathoms, and from hence steer to the southward for Pulo Toojoo; after passing near it on the East side, steer to pass Pulo Leema and Pulo Sato, also on the same sides, and from thence to the anchorage under Pulo Pisang. If the wind is contrary, you ought not in working inside of these islands, to borrow toward the main in the bight to the southward of Pulo Ayer, where there is said to be a shoal; nor too near the other shoal, to the S. S. Westward of that island

* And the whole of the settlements on the Coast of Sumatra are now possessed by the Dutch, in conformity with the late treaty.

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And from Oojong Lalloo to it.

OUTER PASSAGE, from Oojong Lalloo (the West point of Ayer Bongy Bay) to Padang, seems preferable to any other with a fair wind, but as the current near this coast generally runs with it, this passage is not to be recommended in contrary winds, particularly when bound to the northward, for it is destitute of anchorage. If you adopt this route, at passing Pulo Tamong, keep well over toward the islets off the S. E. end of Pulo Batoa, to avoid the bank nearly mid-way betwixt them and the main: having brought them to bear about N. W., steer to fall in with Pulo Toojoo. You may pass to the eastward of it, Pulo Leema, and Pulo Sato, then steer for the anchorage under Pulo Pisang, as directed above; or if it seem preferable with the prevailing wind, you may steer to the southward, outside of Pulo Toojoo, Pulo Annam, and Pulo Ampat, then to the eastward betwixt Pulo Dua and Pulo Sato, keeping near to the latter in passing, to avoid the 2 fathoms shoal, that lies about 4 miles S. by E. ¼ E. from it, and from the South point of Pulo Pisang W. by S. southerly 2 leagues. From Pulo Sato, steer direct for the anchorage under Pulo Pisang. It would be imprudent to attempt to pass betwixt Pulo Dua and Pulo Teega, for the rocks stretching across, seem to deny any safe passage that way.

or to Moco Moco.

If bound to Moco Moco, and not to touch at Padang, you should continue to keep outside of all the inner islands adjoining to the coast, between which and the chain of large islands in the offing, there is a safe channel from 10 to 12 leagues wide; but a small dry sand, about a or 4 leagues N. W. from Pulo Musquito, and nearly the same distance from Pulo Toojoo, must be avoided. It will be proper to keep nearest to the inner islands, and make Indrapour Point, to prevent being driven to leeward when northerly winds prevail.

To sail from Padang to the northward.

TO SAIL from PULO PISANG to the NORTHWARD by the MIDDLE PASSAGE, the course is N. W. by N., to pass between Pulo Leema and Pulo Ayer about mid-channel, in soundings 22 to 26 fathoms; by which, the shoal projecting E. S. E. 2 miles from Pulo Leema, and the coral patches near Pulo Ayer, will be avoided. Having passed these islands, there is no more danger till the Priaman Islands are approached, and the coast may be borrowed, on to 10 or 12 fathoms, when it is necessary to anchor.

On drawing near to the Priaman Islands, it is requisite to haul out for pulo Toojoo, to avoid a large shoal bearing W. S.W. 2 miles from the outer Priaman Island. When well over toward Pulo Toojoo, a N. W. ½ W. or N. W. by W. course should be steered, to avoid the shoal bearing W. N.W. from that island, and others lying in 30 and 35 fathoms, toward the shore. When 5 leagues to the N.W. of Pulo Toojoo, it is requisite to haul in again toward the main, to make the outer Ticoo Island, for a shoal bears S.W. from it about 5 leagues, having no ground near it with 50 fathoms line; and another shoal bears W. S. W. from it about 3 miles.* Being clear of these, a course about N.W. by W. should be steered to pass between the small islands off the S. E. end of Pulo Batoa and Oojong Lalloo, taking care to keep between 25 and 30 fathoms, for in 20 and 22 fathoms, lie several shoals; and in 34 fathoms, a very large and dangerous one. The soundings, therefore, must be the principal guide, in this run of about 15 leagues; which may be pursued night or day, with proper attention to the lead, and preserving the depths mentioned.

When Pulo Batoa is seen bearing about N.W. by W. or W. N. W., it is proper to steer well over for the islands off its S. E. end, the depths will be from 16 to 20 fathoms, and when within 4 or 5 miles of them, a course about N.W. by N. should be steered until past the shoals off Natal; for it would be imprudent to come under 22 fathoms between Pulo Batoa and the Sugar Loaf, at the South entrance of Tappanooly Bay. If not bound into that port, Mensular may be passed on the outside at a small distance, to avoid the shoals in the offing. There is no danger in the channel inside of that island, except a shoal in 9 or 10

* Another account places it S.W. by W. 4 miles, and Capt. Bennet says it lies S.W. 4 miles from the Ticoo Islands.

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fathoms near the main, about 1/3 of the distance from Battoo Barroo Point, toward Pulo Sokum. From Mensular, the best course is about W. N. W., preserving soundings of 26 to 27 fathoms, by which the Triangle Shoals, and several others in shore, will be avoided. When the depths increase to 28 or 29 fathoms, a N.W. course will be proper, not coming under 22 or 23 fathoms: Pulo Lacotta will be seen, and the small sand bank bearing N. ½ W. from it, called Bird Island, is said to lie in 31 fathoms, having a reef extending to the N.W. 1 ½ or 2 miles. Sinkel Point, forming a bluff, covered with trees, will be next discerned, which may be passed about the distance of 4 miles, the depths then decreasing to 18 or 19 fathoms. Passage Island will soon be seen to the N. Westward, and the greatest caution is requisite in this part, particularly if the wind is contrary; sailing toward the island, it should be kept between N. N. W. and N. W. by N., in soundings 16 to 14 fathoms, for about ½ way betwixt it and the main, the middle bank extends nearly N. W. and S. E., having great overfalls upon it, in some places only 2 ½ fathoms rocks. With a leading wind, Passage Island N.W. by N. is the best bearing until within about ½ a mile of it, and then it may be rounded about this distance on the East side. Being through this intricate passage, a course about N. W. should be steered, then toward any of the northern ports, as circumstances require; but great care is requisite in passing between lat. 3° to 4° N., for there are many shoals interspersed along the coast adjacent to Soosoo Bay, and to the southward of it; and some others lie 9 or 10 miles off shore, with no ground 50 and 60 fathoms close to them on the outside. These outer shoals seem to lie on the edge of the bank of soundings, one of them is in lat. 3° 4′, and another in 3° 30′ N., already mentioned in the preceding section.

4th. COAST, ISLANDS, AND SHOALS, FROM PADANG TO FORTMARLBOROUGH, WITH SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Coast from Padang southward.

FROM PADANG, to the distance of 8 or 9 leagues southward, the coast is intersected by numerous bays and inlets, several of which, being protected from the sea by the islands contiguous to them, form excellent harbours. The land near the sea is generally of moderate height, and farther in the country, it is more elevated.

Boongas bay contiguous isles and dangers.

BOONGAS BAY, about 5 or 6 miles to the S. E. of Pulo Pisang is a safe harbour, with 14 or 15 fathoms in the entrance, and from 10 to 6 fathoms inside; but there being a shoal; nearly in the middle of the bay, about a large. ¼ mile to the eastward of the small island Pulo Cassee, it is proper for a ship going in, to keep near the North point, and anchor between that side and the island, where she will be well sheltered. There is a shoal to the N. N. E. of Pulo Cassee, near the North side of the bay; but a ship may, by keeping near the island, pass in safety between it and either of those shoals, and anchor to the eastward of it, if she is to go so far inside. At the S. E. angle of the bay there is a harbour or cove with 12 to 6 fathoms in it, secured from all winds, having shoal water projecting from the point and island that form the N. E. side of its entrance. There are villages all round this bay, and from thence to Padang. About W. by N. 1 ¾ mile from the North point of the bay, lies a dangerous rock, with 15 and 16 fathoms close to it, between which and Pulo Teloor, a small island about a mile to the N. E. there is a safe passage; but it is best to pass outside of the rock in 17 or 18 fathoms, and after bringing the entrance of Boongas Bay to bear East, or the middle of a small hill at the bottom of it, on with a high hill inland, a ship is clear to the southward of the rock, and may steer direct for the bay; and when in the entrance, she must borrow toward the northern aide, to avoid the shoal a little inside, already mentioned.

There is a point of land about 2 miles to the E. S. E. of Pulo Pisang, that forms the North extreme of Brandy Wine Bay, opposite to Pulo Teloor; when that point is in one with a small hill near it, bearing N. by E. easterly, the same transit line passes over the rock

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mentioned above, and touches the West part of Pulo Seronda, or Bobeck, then on the opposite bearing.

Pulo senaro and surrouning dangers.

PULO SENARO, or LACRONE, bears S. S. W. westerly from Pulo Pisang, distant about 6 miles, from which a reef, always visible, bears S.W. by W. westerly about a league, being nearly mid-way between it and the 2 fathoms shoal, mentioned to the southward of Pulo Sato in the preceding section. The water is deep, from 35 to 40 fathoms around these shoals, and between them and the adjoining islands; if therefore, the shoals are seen, or their positions known, a ship may pass between them with safety.

From Pulo Senaro about a large mile to the N. E., there is another shoal, having on it 3 fathoms, and about 2 miles S. E. by S. from the same island, there is a shoal nearly midway betwixt it and Pulo Seronda; another shoal is said to lie about a league nearly S. by W. from the former island.

To sail from Pulo Pisang to seaward;

Being bound from Pulo Pisang to the southward, and wishing to run out speedily clear of the islands into the open sea, a ship may steer to the S. W. to pass close on the N.W. side of Pulo Senaro, betwixt it and the reef that is always visible, observing, when the island is approached within 2 miles on the N. E. side, to give a birth to the 3 fathoms shoal, by edging a little to the westward, and avoiding a direct line that passes through Pulo Pisang and Padang Head, which also passes through the shoal. To pass out to the southward of Pulo Senaro, when distant 2 miles, it should be brought to bear S. W. by W. or W. S. W., a direct course (about S.W.) may then be steered to pass close to its South point, and the same course continued about 2 or 3 miles beyond it, will carry a ship clear of the two shoals mentioned to the S. E. and southward.

The snow, Marlbro', struck on a shoal, with only from 6 to 9 feet water over the coral rock, Pulo Pisang bearing N. N. W., Pulo Senaro S. W. ½ W., distance off the main 3 miles. The same vessel saw a sandy patch above water, surrounded by a large coral reef, bearing in one with Pulo Senaro S. E. ½ E., distant from that island 4 or 5 miles, Padang Head bore at the same time N. E. by E.

The Research found only 2 ¼ fathoms on a shoal, with Pulo Senaro bearing North, and Pulo Pergany E. S. E. This vessel had ¼ less 4 fathoms on another shoal, with Pulo Senaro bearing N. W., distant 2 ½ miles, and Pulo Seronda S. E. ½ S. Pulo Pergany bearing East 4 or 5 miles, saw breakers on a shoal in one with Padang Head N. by E. Had 5 fathoms rocks on another shoal, with Pulo Niamo bearing N.W., Pulo Ayer Besar E. by S., and Pulo Baby Besar about E. N. E.

or from it to the southward.

THE BEST ROUTE from Pulo Pisang when bound southward, is to steer, for Pulo Seronda (or Bobeck) bearing from it nearly South, distant 8 miles, taking care with a working wind to keep Pulo Pisang to the northward of N. N. W. in standing toward the rock off Boongas Bay. When near Pulo Seronda she may steer about S. S. W. along the West sides of it, Pulo Bintango, and Pulo Marra, the next islands to the southward, and on either side of Pulo Niamo, or Musquito, a small island in the offing, distant about 3 leagues S. by W. ¾ W. from Pulo Seronda. There is also a narrow, but bold and safe passage inside of these islands, which, having soundings from 20 to 36 fathoms, is generally adopted as the best; the only known danger in it is a shoal near ½ a mile E. N. Eastward from Pulo Oolar, a small island about mid-channel between Bintango and Marra. Betwixt the shoal and a spit projecting from the North point of Pulo Oolar, there is a safe passage, and it lies rather nearer to the islands on the East side of the channel than to Pulo Oolar; but the channel outside of Pulo Oolar, between it Bintango and Marra, is clear of danger.

Pulo Marra and the adjoining islands.

PULO MARRA, in about lat. 1° 12′ S., and 1 ¼ mile in extent, is inhabited, and affords good water; there is anchorage in a small bay, formed between the N. E. point and a reef

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that projects from an islet to the southward. There is also anchorage under Pulo Bintango, or Pergany, the middle island on the outside of the channel; and under all those contiguous to the main, that form the East side of the channel, there is anchorage from 10 to 20 fathoms, and shelter from N.W. or westerly winds.

Soongey Peesang Bay.

Opposite to these islands there are three bays or harbours on the main of Sumatra; the northernmost, Soongey Peesang Bay, bearing about E. by N. from Pulo Seronda, has two rocks in the entrance, with 1¼ and 2 fathoms water on them; between them and the northern shore, close to the latter, there is a narrow passage with 15 and 17 fathoms, decreasing inside to 8 and 9 fathoms: there is also a narrow passage between the islets that lie off its entrance and the southern point of the bay, but this place is not very safe for large ships.

Soongey Peenang Bay.

Soongey Peenang Bay, bearing about N. E. from Pulo Marra, is safe to enter, by steering in about mid-channel, or borrowing toward the northern side at discretion; in this bay a ship is sheltered from mostly every wind, it being only a little open to S. S.Westward, and the depths are from 16 fathoms in the middle, to 7 or 8 near the shore, decreasing to 4 and 3 fathoms in the North part.

Pulo Saytan Harbour to sail into it.

PULO SAYTAN HARBOUR, formed inside of the two large islands Pulo Sabadda and Pulo Troosan, is about 5 miles in extent, N.W. and S. E., and very safe, the depths in it generally from 16 to 8 or 9 fathoms, soft bottom. There are two passages into it, the northern one about 1/3 of a mile wide, bearing East northerly from the North end of Pulo Marra, and close to the mouth of Soongey Peenang Bay; to enter the harbour by this passage, a ship must keep to the northward into the mouth of that bay, to avoid a 2 fathoms rocky shoal about a large ½ mile West from the North bluff point of Pulo Sabadda, which forms the South side of the entrance. This bluff point, the rocky shoal, and North point of Pulo Marra, are on the same transit line, bearing nearly East and West of each other, a ship must therefore, keep to the northward of that line in approaching the entrance of the harbour, which is safe after having passed the shoal. The South entrance, about E. S. E. from the South end of Pulo Marra, has in it two islands, and an islet farther out close to Pulo Sabadda, which forms the North side, as Pulo Troosan does the opposite: the best passage is betwixt the two islands in the entrance, that between the southernmost and Pulo Troosan is also safe, with soundings from 10 to 20 fathoms, and they are about 1/6 of a mile wide; between the northernmost island and Pulo Sabadda, there is no passage. Pulo Troosan appears as a projecting part of the main, and is separated from it by a very narrow passage, with 3 feet water in it. Pulo Saytan, in the middle of the harbour, is nearly surrounded by shoal water and islets; the N. E. arm of the harbour to the northward of that island, is full of shoals, and should be avoided. E. by N. from it, upon the main, and close to the shore, there is a watering place.

To sail from Pulo Marra southward,

to Pulo Chence.

DEPARTING from PULO MARRA, it is proper to steer to the S. Eastward, passing near the West point of Pulo Troosan, and from thence on either side of Pulo Babee-kecheet, a small island about 2½ miles to the southward of Troosan. Having passed near to this island, to avoid the shoal in the offing, a S. Easterly course may be continued between Pulo Babee besar and Pulo Ayer, in moderate depths from 25 to 16 fathoms: from these islands, the Flagstaff of Pulo Chenco may be seen upon a round hill to the E. N. E., toward which, a ship intending to touch there ought to steer, leaving the small islands Samanky and Cassee, to the northward, and she may anchor off Pulo Chenco in 12 fathoms. There is a harbour or cove inside of the island, with two passages leading to it; the proper one on the South side of the island, has 9 and 10 fathoms water, and there are from 7 to 4, or 5 fathoms inside, in the harbour. This is a place of considerable trade, and has a wharf for the convenience of lading and unlading goods. To the northward lies Chenco Bay, containing regular soundings, and good anchorage at the N.W. part, close to Loompoor Village.

VOL. II. K

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Pulo Ayer neighbouring islands and channels.

PULO AYER BESAR, in lat. 1° 24′ S., is the residence of a Malay Chief, and bas on it a conspicuous round hill; on the South side of it, is Pulo Ayer kecheel, also inhabited, and a rocky shoal projects from it nearly to the former island. The channel inside of these islands, and to the southward of Pulo Babee besar and the two small islands to the eastward, is 3 miles wide, and very safe. There is also a safe passage contiguous to the main, inside of Pulo Babee besar, Samanky and Cassee, by keeping nearest to the island, in from 7 to 10, or 12 fathoms. Pulo Babee Bay, to the northward of the islands of that pane, and on the East side of Pulo Troosan, has regular soundings, and is sheltered from N.W and West winds. At Pulo Babee besar, wood and water, poultry and sheep, may be procured.

Coral shoals.

About a league South from Pulo Marra, and about the same distance E. N. E. from Pulo Niamo, or Muskito, a small isle in the offing, there is a rocky bank with 17 and 20 fathoms on it, and 40 fathoms a little way outside; but the only known danger near the passage between Pulo Marra and Pulo Ayer besar, is a coral shoal with 2 fathoms on it, and from 27 to 33 fathoms around. From this shoal the West point of Pulo Troosan bears N. 2° E., Pulo Babee kecheel N. E. by N. ¼ N. about 4 miles, which is the nearest island to it, the South Point of Pulo Babee besar N. E. by E. ½ E., and the top of the hill on Pulo Ayer besar E. by S. From this island S. 3° W., distant 4 or 5 miles, lies a small dangerous shoal, over which the sea is seen to roll when there is much swell.

Several Bays.

Orange Island.

To the eastward of the island last mentioned, there are the two bays of Battuwang, and Teloo Cassee, on the main, both containing good anchorage in moderate depths, but open to westerly winds: About 2 leagues farther to the S. E. is situated Batang Capay Bay, having also good ground for anchoring, but open to S. Westerly winds. Nearly West from this bay 3 ½ leagues, and 22 leagues to the S. S.W. of Pulo Ayer besar, lies Pulo Panneu, or Orange Island, which is small, with 40 and 43 fathoms close to it on the outside. Captain Kirton places a shoal 2 miles E. by N. from it, the existence of which seems doubtful.

Other islands and shoals near the coast.

The other islands from thence to Ayer Raja, that front the coast at 2 to 5 leagues distance, are Pulo Tellore, in about lat. 1° 38′ S., distant 2½ leagues to the S. E. of Orange Island, and about the same distance from Tellore bluff Point, on the opposite shore; to the northward of which, lie some rocks near the main, dry at low water; and about a league N. by W. from Pulo Tellore, there is said to be a shoal; from that island breakers also project ¼ of a mile. Pulo Ayer is about 5 miles to the S.W. of Pulo Tellore; to the N.W. of it about a league, there is said to be a shoal, and another about 1½ mile to the southward. Sandy Island bears S. E. by E., about.7 miles from Pulo Ayer, and Tree Island bears about S. S.W. 2½ leagues from Sandy Island, having a reef of breakers to the N. Westward of it about a league.

Pulo Bringen and shoals.

PULO BRINGEN, or RINGEN the southernmost of this chain of islands, in about lat. 1° 58′ S., is 4 leagues from the main, and 3 or 4 miles E. by S. ¼ S. from Tree Island; there is a 2½ fathoms shoal about 1½ mile to the N. N.W. of it, and S. by E. from it about 5 miles there are 3 fathoms on another rocky shoal. From one of the reefs of breakers, Pulo Bringen is said to bear S. S. E. ¾ E., and Tree Island S. ¾ E. When in 24 fathoms about 2 leagues off shore, with the Volcano Mount E. ¼ N., and Pulo Bringen South, a sand in one with breakers bore N.W. ¾ W., others breakers S.W. ¾ W., and a reef on which breakers were visible at times, W. ¼ N.

There is also a reef under water to the E. N. E. of Tree Island, rendering the passage between it and Pulo Bringen unsafe.

Opposite to those dangers in the offing, there is a reef within 2 or 3 miles of the coast, on which the sea breaks in bad weather; it bears from Pulo Bringen N. 64° E., distant 16 miles, and is on with Tellore Bluff Point, bearing N. N.W. ¼ W. About 4 miles to the westward of it, there are 15 and 16 fathoms water, and 24 fathoms near the dangers in the offing.

To sail from Pulo Chenco, to

Departing from Pulo Chenco, or having passed through between it and Pulo Ayer besar, if a ship is bound to Ayer Raja, it will be prudent in coasting along, to keep 4 or 5 miles off

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shore, in soundings from 20 to 25 fathoms, to avoid, the dangers near it; care will also be requisite, to give a proper birth in passing, to the shoals and islands in the offing described above; more particularly in the night, for in the day, with a good look out, most of the dangers will be visible, and a ship may then borrow occasionally to 15 or 16 fathoms: When Pulo Bringen bears about W. S. W., she may haul to the eastward for the anchorage of Ayer Raja, which is not much frequented, being considered unsafe with N. W. and westerly winds.

Ayer Raja.

Anchorage

AYER RAJA, is not easily known, the village being about 2 miles up the river, but a flag is sometimes hoisted near the entrance. It may be known by a remarkable round hill covered with trees, near the sea, about 4 miles to the northward of the river's mouth, called by some Volcano Mount: when at anchor in 5½ fathoms soft clay, with the Flagstaff at the mouth of the river bearing E. by N. northerly, near 2 miles, this mount will bear E. N. E. ¾ N., and Pulo Bringen W. ¾ N. It is prudent not to anchor under 8 fathoms, with the Flagstaff East, Pulo Bringen W. ½ N., and Indrapour Point S. ½ W., off shore about 2½, miles. If north-westers are apprehended, a ship may anchor out in 12 or 13 fathoms, in order to clear Indrapour Point, should she be unable to ride.

It is dangerous to enter the river with a boat at low water, particularly when there is much swell, for the surf is then high on the bar.

Geo. Site of Indrapour Point.

INDRAPOUR POINT, in lat. 2° 5′ S.,* lon. 100° 55′ E., by Capt. Wm. Owen's observations, or 1° 28′ West of Rat Island by chronometers, and 4½ leagues to the southward of Ayer Raja, is low, and its extremity covered with trees; as foul ground projects out a little way, it should not be approached too close, From this point the coast stretches to N. Eastward, and forms an extensive open bay between it and Ayer Raja, with Indrapour River at the bottom of it, a little to the southward of the latter place. From hence to Fort Marlborough, there are no islands near the coast, Pulo Bringen being the southernmost of the chain or long range, which may be said to commence at Passage Island, near Sinkel.

To pass it and proceed to the southward.

Leaving Ayer Raja, or the channel betwixt it and Pulo Bringen, a ship should haul out of the bay, and pass Indrapour Point at 3 or 4 miles distance; if the wind be steady, and bound to Bencoolen, a direct course may be steered along the coast, keeping from 2, to 4 or 5 leagues off; but with light winds, it will be proper to preserve moderate depths from 15 to 25 fathoms, for anchoring if requisite, never exceeding 30 fathoms, nor borrowing under 10 fathoms toward the shore, in case of getting into rocky ground.

Moco Moco.

Anchorage.

A shoal.

MOCO MOCO, in about lat. 2° 34′ S., distant 11 or 12 leagues to the S. Eastward of Indrapour Point, situated at the bottom of a small bay, is a place of some trade; the two points that form it are covered with tall trees, and about 4 or 5 leagues to the N. Westward, a remarkable gap in the trees may be discerned in coming from that direction, Having passed Indrapour Point about 4 miles distance, a ship bound to Moco Moco should coast along about the same distance until near it, the houses and flag-staff will then be discerned, and she may anchor in 10 fathoms soft ground, with the latter bearing E. by N., and a remarkable peak inland N. E. ¼ N., off shore 2½ or 3 miles. Small vessels may, if requisite, anchor in 6, 7, or 8 fathoms. The country boats must be employed in landing, for a ship's boat cannot, without great danger, on account of the surf. Near to Moco Moco River, is situated that of Mandoota, the mouth of which may be seen in coming from the southward. About 3 or 4 leagues W. N.W. from Moco Moco, there is a bank of rocks and sand, having on it from 18 to 11 fathoms in most parts; but by some navigators it is thought to be dangerous, the sea breaking on it in blowing weather, old said to have only 2½ or 3 fathoms water on the shoalest part; consequently, it should be approached with caution.

* Some navigators place it in lat. 2° 10′ to 2° 12′ S.

K 2

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Ayer Dicket.

AYER DICKET, situated about 3 or 4 leagues to the southward of Moen Moco, and a little southward from a bluff point clothed with trees, may be known by a clump of tall trees, growing thicker on each side of the mouth of the river than any where else. There being a dangerous bar, the river is unnavigable, even for boats. A ship may anchor off it, in 8 or 10 fathoms.

Adjoining coast.

A ship bound from the southward to Moco Moco, may round the bluff point to the North of Ayer Dicket in 8 or 9 fathoms, when the southerly monsoon prevails, and haul gradually into the bay, to prevent being driven to leeward. Between that point and Moco Moco, a shoal bank projects several miles from the shore, said to have only 4 and 5 fathoms rocky bottom on it in some places; and the coast is lined with a sandy beach, toward which, a great swell generally rolls, and this is the case on most parts of it, particularly to the south of the equator.

Bantall;

anchorage,

BANTALL RIVER, situated in a bay about 4½ leagues to the S. Eastward of Ayer Dicket, may be known by two white cliffs a little to the northward of it, appearing from the offing like boats' sails: in coming from the north toward it, a ship may coast along in 10 to 15 fathoms, taking care not to borrow on the shore where the bottom is found rocky. The best anchorage in the road, is in 8 or 9 fathoms ouze and sandy bottom, with the white cliffs N. N. E., and the rivers mouth N. E.

rivers, and contiguous coast.

Between Bantall and Ipoe there are the three rivers, Triamang, Ayer Etam, and Ayer Ruttah; Triamang, the northernmost, may be known by a small red cliff forming the low point on the North side of the entrance; the coast, embracing those rivers, may be approached to 12 or 14 fathoms, regular soundings in most places.

Ipoe and the coast adjacent.

AYPOUR, or IPOE, situated about 6½ leagues to the S. E. of Bantall, where there is another river in the bottom of a bay, may be known by three red cliffs to the southward, and three green hills near the sea; with the central one of these bearing N. E. by E., large ships should not anchor under 9 or 10 fathoms, where the road is tolerably clear; farther in, the bottom is foul, and the water shoal.

A bank, and dangerous rock.

How to avoid it.

From the shore to the southward of Ipoe, a bank of foul ground projects nearly 2 leagues to seaward, having on it from 6 to 10 fathoms, coral and coarse sand; and on its outer edge there is a coral rock on which the Swallowfield struck, bearing S. W. by S. 2 leagues from Ipoe, covered with only 14 feet water, and having from 8 to 16 fathoms all round. It should not be approached under 10 or 12 fathoms, being very steep; there are but a little way outside of it, 30, 40, and 50 fathoms, then no ground. When Ipoe bears N. E. by E., a ship is clear to the northward of the bank and rock, and may then haul nearer to the land if coming from the southward, but when abreast of this danger, she ought to keep about 3 leagues off shore.

Caytone; the coast and dangers near it.

Directions to sail along shore.

CAYTONE, in about lat. 3° 29′ S., distant about 6 leagues to the S. Eastward of Ipoe, has a white cliff to the southward like a castle, and breakers to the northward near a mile from the shore. Rocky ground with irregular soundings project about 2 leagues out from Directions this place, and from hence northward, toward Ipoe; a ship ought, therefore, to keep well out to sail along in sailing between them, for about 4 leagues off this part of the coast where no soundings are got, the water will shoal suddenly if she stand toward the shore. Nearly mid-way between Ipoe and Caytone, there is a small place called Sablat, appearing like an opening betwixt reddish cliffs; and Caytone has a similar appearance.

And form Caytone to Fort Mariborough.

From Caytone the distance is 8 or 9 leagues S. Eastward to Fort Marlborough, and the coast in this space is safe to approach occasionally to 11 or 12 fathoms, the soundings being more regular than farther to the northward; from 12 to 20 fathoms are good depths to preserve in sailing along.

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Laye and

Polley.

LAYE, a small place about 2 leagues to the southward of Caytone, has regular soundings off it; when in 9 fathoms with the Sugar Loaf bearing E. by N., Laye House situated in a small bay, bears N. E. ¼ N. Polley, another small place, lies 1½ or 2 leagues more to the southward, having some red cliffs between it and the former place.

A rock off Songy Lamo Point must be avoided.

Songy Lamo Point, about 2 leagues southward from Polley, and near 5 miles to the north ward of Fort Marlborough, ought not to be approached under 10 fathoms, for a rock with Pent only 2 or 2½ fathoms on it, and 7 fathoms close to, is distant about 1½ mile from the point, bearing from it and the Sugar Loaf when in the same transit line with each other, S.W. by W., and from the flagstaff on the steeple about N.W. by W.

Bencoolen River.

BENCOOLEN RIVER'S entrance, situated at the bottom of the bay, about 1½ mile to the N. Eastward of the point on which Fort Marlborough is built, has from 4 to 6 feet the bar, and from 8 to 12 feet inside. The English at first formed their settlement here, but they considered it unhealthy, and removed to the South point of the bay where Fort Marlborough now stands, on ground a little more elevated than the former, and has been recently relinquished to the Dutch, according to the treaty with the Netherland's Government.

Geo. Site of Fort Marlborough.

FORT MARLBOROUGH, vulgo, Bencoolen, is in lat. 3° 48′ S., lon. 102° 28′ E.*, by mean of lunar observations taken by several navigators, and combined with chronometers. Captain William Rees made it 22° 7′ E. from Point de Gale, by four chronometers, their greatest difference 4 miles after a speedy passage from thence, which will place it in lon. 102° 27′ E. By the same chronometers, he made 4° 25′ E. from Fort Marlborough to Batavia, which will also place it in lon. 102° 27′ E., allowing Batavia to be in 106° 52′ E. The Fort and Town are built on Oojong Carrang, a point of land having a level appearance, and moderately elevated; but the land in the country to the North-eastward is high, and hilly; one of these having a conical form, called the Sugar Loaf, is the most conspicuous, serving as a mark to avoid the shoals adjoining to this place.

The common anchorage in the road, is about mid-way betwixt Rat Island and the town, in 11 or 12 fathoms; under 11 fathoms the bottom is generally rocky, and also farther out, it is foul in some parts. The York anchored in 10½ fathoms with the flagstaff E. by N. ¼ N., Poolo Point S. S. E., and the Sugar Loaf N. E. ¼ N., distant about 3 miles from the Fort, and had her cable cut through by the rocks. She afterward anchored in 12 fathoms clear ground, with the flagstaff E. N. E., Poolo Point about S. E. by S., and Rat Island S. W. by S. In the Atlas, we lay 20 days in April and May, in 11 fathoms clear ground, Rat Island S.W., Sugar Loaf N. E., Flagstaff E. N. E. ½ N., Black Rock Breakers S. E., and Poolo Point S. S. E. ¾ E. A ship ought not to go under 11 fathoms, and if she is to remain in the road for a few days, it may be prudent to examine the bottom, by sounding about her in the boat within the range of the cable, for ships do not moor, unless it be with a hawser and small anchor, to steady them.

Anchorage under Rat Island.

Close to the entrance of Rat Island Bason, and fronting it to the distance of a mile N. Anchorage Eastward, the bottom is generally soft, where ships may anchor in 13½ or 14 fathoms under the reef that surrounds it, in the southerly monsoon. When the N.W. winds prevail strong, from September to March, a heavy sea frequently rolls into the road, making ships labour greatly at their anchors.

Captain Huddart, advises ships that do not go into Poolo Bay, or Rat Island Bason, in this season, to anchor to the eastward within a mile of the island, in about 15 fathoms, where the sea will be partly broken by the reef. The same business may be done from this station

* In 1822, the difference of longitude measured from Madras by mean of two chronometers, made Fort Marlborough in lon. 102° 16′ E., which seems too much westerly. And by mean of Northern and Southern Stars, and the Sun, the Turret of the Fort was found to be in lat. 3° 47′ 38″ S.

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in favorable weather, as if a ship were in the road, for sailing boats passing to and from Fort Marlborough, are confined to one trip in 24 hours by the land and sea breezes; besides, the N.W. winds are those only to be dreaded, and if a ship part her cables, she may run far Poolo Bay with little or no canvass spread.

Inner Road.

A caution relative to passing the North and South breakers.

There is an inner road with 4 and 4½ fathoms water, a little to the northward of the Fort, and inside of the North and South breakers, which is sometimes frequented by small vessels in the fair season, for the convenience of loading and unloading. But if unacquainted, it is imprudent for boats or vessels of any kind, to venture inside without a guide, for several boats have been lost upon the North or South breakers, which are not always visible when the sea is smooth; for then, a high surge is only at times seen to roll over the rocks, which would prove fatal to any boat that unfortunately got into it.

to proceed going in with a boat.

To pass from the road in a boat, through the channel between the North and South breakers, steer from Rat Island toward the Sugar Loaf, keeping this rather on the starboard bow until the steeple appear on the West, or Sea-Face, of the nearest bastion; or until a very conspicuous tree appear behind the South end of the N.W. or Sea-Curtain, of the Fort; the boat will then in either case, be inside, or past the breakers, and may haul in close to the shore reef, keeping along the edge of it until within the Fort, and opposite to the landing wharf.

With a northerly wind, it is best to pass to the North and Eastward of the North breaker, by keeping 2 miles to the N. Westward of the Fort until the conspicuous tree is brought behind the N. E. end of the N.W., or Sea-Curtain; or bring the steeple behind the N.W. Face of the West Bastion, and you will avoid the North breaker, by passing to the N. Eastward of it.

With a southerly wind, when coming from the road, it is best to steer for the town, and pass to the southward of the South breaker, and close along the edge of the shore reef, from its outer extremity to the landing place.

Close to the North and South breakers, there are 7 and 8 fathoms on the outside, and 6 fathoms inside of them. Nearly abreast of the Fort, a little outside of the landing place, there is a shoal patch in 3½ fathoms, at a small distance from the edge of the shore reef, which is avoided by keeping close to the latter; or that patch may be passed on the North side, by keeping a low white house near the beach and the bushy tree nearly in a line with each other, when steering in for the landing place. This is protected from the sea by a rocky ledge fronting it at the distance of 150 yards; boats pass round the eastern point of this, and then haul in the southward for the wharf.

Bullocks, poultry, fruits and vegetables of various kinds, may be got here, and the country around has a pleasant appearance. The variation of the compass here, was 1° 31′ East in 1782.

Rat Island.

and bason.

RAT ISLAND, in lat. 3° 51′ S., bearing S.W. by W. from Fort Marlborough, distant about 6 miles, is surrounded by an extensive coral reef, partly dry at low water; which projects 1¼ mile to the N.W. of the island, and to the southward of it about ¾ of a mile. The island. is low and small, having on it a few palmira trees, and some godowns, or houses for receiving pepper, with a small battery of guns for its protection, To the northward of the island, there is an excellent gut or bason in the N. E. side of the reef, with 5, 6, and 7 fathoms in it, and, 3 or 2½ fathoms at its upper end. Ships requiring repair, or having a cargo to receive or deriver at Fort Marlborough, generally go into this bason, where they moor head and stern, to anchors laid upon the bank on each side, or nearly in a N.W. and S. E. line, directly across the bason.

The passage into the bason is close to the edge of the reef on the West side of the entrance, for several detached, rocky patches bound the East side, with 7 and 8 fathoms water close to them.

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The bottom in the bason is soft mud and sand, and the coral bank on each side being a soft perpendicular wall, no injury is sustained if during the strong N.W. gales, a ship part her mooring junk or cable, and is driven against the S. E. side. Ships proceeding to the bason, generally anchor at the entrance, and warp into it; from this place, goods may be conveyed to, or from Fort Marlborough, with the same facility as from the road, the boats being able to make a trip daily with the land and sea breezes. Here, a ship is completely sheltered from the sea by the reef; whereas, it often runs so high in the road, that goods are unsafe in the boats alongside, and they are frequently forced to run for shelter into Poolo Bay, the Northwesters sometimes giving very short warning of their approach.

Poolo Bay.

To run from the road clear of the black rocks and from thence to the bay.

Anchorage.

POOLO BAY, situated about 3 leagues to the southward of Fort Marlborough, is an excellent harbour, secured from the sea by a neck of land on the North and West sides, which is generally called Poolo Point; that part fronting the sea is called the West point; and the eastern extremity, the East point; the latter is low and sandy, and forms the North side of the bay. When ships at anchor in the road, are unable to ride during strong they slip their cables if it is day-light, and run for Poolo Bay. In doing so, they should steer South and S. by E., taking care not to come under 12 fathoms until past the Black Rock, and False Black Rock, as they may not be always discernible in blowing weather, the sea breaks much in the channel. They lie about half way between the road and the bay. Poolo Point, or 4 miles from the latter, and if the low sandy point of the bay is not brought to the southward of S. E., they will be avoided. When clear of the Black Rocks, a ship should haul to the eastward for Sillebar on the East side of the bay, and the depth will decrease gradually to 8 fathoms as the low sandy point that forms the opposite side is approached; which at low water may be rounded very close, and when it is high water, at the distance of a cable's length; she must then haul up under the South side of it, and anchor in 7 fathoms with the extremity bearing about North, distant from the company's pepper godowns a large ¼ mile. Near the shore, the South side of the bay is shoal and rocky, and it would be imprudent to run too far into the western angle of it, where there is a 4 feet rocky shoal, the only one in the bay.

If destitute of anchors a ship may run on shore.

If a ship happen to lose all her anchors, she ought to haul close round the point, and when well inside of it, she may run on shore in the mud without fear, opposite to the nearest tree, having previously prepared a hawser to make fast to it with the boat.

Thought unhealthy, and the water poraicious.

Sillebar River's entrance, to the N.W. of the bay, has 4 feet water on the bar; from whence it stretches both northward and southward, near, and parallel to the shore, the southern branch leading to a great lake contiguous to the sea, to the S. Eastward of Poolo Bay. The tide rises from 3½ to 5 feet in the springs, high water about 6 hours on full and change of the moon; the bay being surrounded with low swampy ground, is generally considered to, be very unhealthy, and the water also of a pernicious quality;* it is, therefore, little frequented by ships.

Unsafe to run for in the night.

Ships driven from their anchorage in the night, cannot run for Poolo Bay without the risk of getting on the low sandy point that forms it, for it will not be visible, nor do the soundings the answer as a proper guide, there being 8 and 8½ fathoms very close to it, and nearly the same depths in a direct line from it to the N.N.Westward; it therefore, seems advisable, if a ship cannot ride during the night, to run out to sea, betwixt Rat Island and the Asia Shoal.

* The Royal Bishop moored in Rat Island Basop, in 1784, having her mizen-mast sprung, she sent the long boat with an officer and 19 men to Poolo Bay, for the mast of the Myrtle transport, that ship having been condemned there, on her passage from Bengal to England. They had provisions and 3 butts of good water, and were cautioned not to drink the water of Poolo Bay, notwithstanding, many of them whilst on shore drank of it, rather than take the trouble of going to the boat, which proved of fatal consequence to many of them; for the officer was confined to his bed during the passage home, and the boatswain, one quarter-master, and 8 men, died during that passage. Poolo Bay is thought to be most unhealthy during the southerly monsoon.

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DANGERS contiguous to this place, exclusive of the rock off Songy Lamo Point, and the North and South breakers off Fort Marlborough Point, already mentioned, are the following.

Middle Shoal.

Middle Shoal, with 4¾ fathoms rocks on it, is situated nearly mid-way between the South breaker and Black Rock, and is on with the Sugar Loaf bearing about N. 42° E.; close to it on the outside, there are 9 and 10 fathoms, and 8½ fathoms inside.

Black Rock, and

False one.

How to avoid them.

CARRANG LAM POOYANG, or BLACK ROCK, about 1½ mile to the S. E. of the former, and nearly South from Marlborough 3½ or 4 miles, is generally discernible by the sea breaking on it; inside of it the depths are 8 and 9 fathoms, and the same outside, in a small channel betwixt it and the False Black Rock, which lies about a mile West from the other, with 3¾ fathoms water on it. This danger is on with the Sugar Loaf bearing N.E. by N., and in one with the Flagstaff on the steeple, bearing from N. 3° E. to N. 7° E. These shoals are avoided on the outside by keeping in above 8 fathoms, and by keeping in about 8 fathoms or rather less, a small vessel may occasionally pass inside of them.

Other shoals near Rat Island.

To avoid them,

and steer in by the North channel.

Carrang Byang Byang, and Carrang Ikan Tandoo, are two rocky shoals close together, with 5 and 6 fathoms water on them, bearing from Rat Island between West and W. N.W., distant 2 or 2½ miles; and betwixt them and the reef surrounding the island, there is a passage nearly a mile wide, with 16 and 17 fathoms water. To avoid these shoals, Rat Island should not be approached nearer than 3 miles when it bears from East to E. S. E.; and as the Sugar Loaf bears from them N. E. ½ E., it should, in coming from seaward, be kept to the eastward of that bearing until Rat Island bears S. E., by a ship bound to the road or to Rat Island Bason, through the northern channel, which is spacious and safe. In working to, or from the road by this channel, a ship may stand near the edge of Rat Island Reef on the southward tack, and to 10 fathoms toward Sony Lembo Rock and the main.

Other dangers.

aud to a avoid them.

Carrang Ikan Chaby, are two small shoals with 4½ and 5 fathoms rocks on them, distant about a mile E. N. E, from Rat Island, having a narrow channel with 10 and 12 fathoms betwixt them and Rat Island Reef; a vessel to pass through it, must keep within less than 150 fathoms of the Island Reef; or a full mile off Rat Island Reef, to pass outside of these shoals.

Asia shoal.

CARRANG LEBAR, or ASIA SHOAL, extends East and West 1½ mile, and is about a mile in breadth; although 4 fathoms is the least water that has been found on it, the bottom being coral and sand, there is a heavy ground swell on it, which sometimes breaks in bad weather; it ought therefore to be carefully avoided, more particularly, as it lies much in the way of ships approaching the road from the southward, and there may probably be less water on some spots, than 4 fathoms. From Rat Island, the East end of the shoal bears S. S. E. and the West or outer part S. by E., distant 5 miles; and from the West Point of Poolo Bay, the nearest part of the shoal bears about W. by S.½ S., distant 3 miles. The Sugar Loaf bears from the East end of it N. N. E. easterly, and from the West end N. E. by N. northerly.

To sail through the channels on either side of it.

To approach the road or Rat Island by the outside channel, between the island and shoal, a ship ought not to bring the island to the westward of N.½ W. until within 3 miles of it, then she may haul in for it and the road; or directly to the eastward, for Poolo Bay, if bound there. The depths between the shoal and Rat Island are from 22 to 17 fathoms, and in the other channel betwixt it and the main, generally 17 and 18 fathoms. Coming from the southward through this channel, a ship must keep within 2 miles of the West point of Poolo Bay until it bear East, acid may then steer for the island: the point may he approached within ½, or ¾ of a mile occasionally in working, but a reef projects from it about 1/3 of a mile, with 3 fathoms on its outer edge, and 13 or 14 fathoms close to.

To avoid the Asia Shoal fully on the West side, when going in or out by that channel, the

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island may in passing the shoal, be kept bearing North. The approach to this shoal may be known by the overfalls toward the outer edges of it, if the lead is kept going.

5th. COAST FROM MARLBOROUGH TO FLAT POINT, WITH SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Buffalo Point,

coast from thence to Flat Point.

BUFFALO POINT, in about lat. 3° 58′ S. a round bluff headland covered with trees, discernible from the Road of Fort Marlborough, is about 2½ miles to the southward of the West Point of Poolo Bay, and they are frequently considered as one and the same. From Buffalo Point, the coast of Sumatra extends S. E. about 58 leagues to the West part of Flat Point, which is the South point of this large island, and forms the North side of the entrance of Sunda Strait. The whole of this extent of coast, is generally bold and safe to approach, and the land mountainous a little in the country; soundings reach out from the shore about Fort Marlborough and Poolo Bay, to the distance of 4 or 5 leagues: and from thence to Manna, regular soundings over a sandy bottom are found, where a ship may occasionally anchor in moderate depths, if it fall calm and the current be unfavorable; but farther to the southward, the coast becomes more steep, the soundings extending out only a short distance, until Little Fortune Island near Flat Point is approached, where soundings are got nearly 2 leagues from the main.

Manna Point and placens adjacent.

MANNA POINT, in lat. 4° 33′ S., bearing nearly S. E. from Buffalo Point distant 17 leagues, may be known by being a small hill with palmira trees on it, and is the next head land that projects considerably into the sea. Betwixt them, there are several small places; Moreallatm, about 4 or 5 leagues from Buffalo Point; Saloomale, about 2 leagues farther; Pring in lat. 4° 21′S., distant 11 leagues from Buffalo Point; Alass, 2 leagues more to the S. E.; and Penoo, near Manna. The coast in this space may be approached to 15 or 20 fathoms, and in some parts to 11 or 12 fathoms; but from 18 to 35 fathoms, are good depths to preserve in sailing along.

About 4 miles to the S. Eastward of Buffalo Point, there is a narrow spit with 7 fathoms rocks on it, 15 fathoms close to, on the outside, and 12 fathoms soft ground between it and the shore, from which it is distant about 2 miles. The spit extends parallel to the shore about ¼ mile, opposite to a low point of land, and the least water found on it has been 7 fathoms.

Anchorage at Pring,

At Pring, the Company's ships used sometimes to anchor to receive pepper; the best anchorage is in 12 fathoms muddy bottom; for farther in, the ground is foul and rocky on the edge of a shoal, projecting about 2 or 3 miles off shore. With the resident's house bearing N.E. by E.¼ E. distant about 3 miles, the Kent shoaled at once from 9 to 7 fathoms, and anchored during a strong gale, where she had the best bower cable cut to pieces in one night: about ¾ a mile from the ship, the boat had 7 fathoms very rocky, and farther in, found the water shoal suddenly, the sea breaking there, when blowing fresh.

and at Manna.

Manna, is situated near the point of that name; at which place the Company's ships used at to touch, to take in pepper from thence and Penoo, and generally anchored in 10 or 12 fathoms. The Europa, at anchor taking in pepper at Penoo, had the house at Penoo bearing N.½ E., and Manna E. by N. A small cascade falls perpendicularly from the steep cliffs, which line the shore near Manna, to which the Elgin East India ship dispatched a boat for water; but the boat was lost, and the crew perished in the tremendous surf, that generally prevails along this coast.

Manna Point may be rounded in 14 fathoms, but not nearer, as a reef is said to project from it about a mile; to the southward of the point, there are 12 and 14 fathoms about 1½ nile from it; but no ground 50 fathoms at the distance of 2½ or 3 miles, for the coast to the

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S. Eastward becomes more steep. About 5 leagues S. E. from Manna, there is a place called Pathang, or Padang.

Cawoor, and the adjacent coast.

CAWOOR, in lat. 4° 56′ S., distant about 11 or 12 leagues to the S. E. of Manna, is situated near the South part of a concavity in the land about 5 miles in length, where, in the small bay of Cawoor, ships are sheltered from southerly winds; and, in Sambat Bay, which forms the North part of the concavity, there is good shelter from N.W. and Westerly winds in 9 or 10 fathoms, sand and muddy bottom. From Sambat River on the East side, to Secooniet or Bandar Point, that forms the western extremity, this bay is about 2½ miles wide, having the village Bandar at the N.W. side, where there is a small river, and a level country.

From the anchorage in the bay, Mount Poogong may be seen over the other land bearing E. S. E.

The anchorage at Cawoor is in 11 or 12 fathoms, with the resident's house bearing about E. N, E., distant 1 mile, the South point of the bay S. by E. or S. ¾ E., 1½ mile, and the western extreme of the land W. N.W., about 3½ miles.

The passage for boats going to the factory, is betwixt two coral banks, and very narrow, with breakers on each side; about 100 yards to the westward of the factory, there is a small black rock, on the western bank, which must be kept very near on the larboard hand. Steering out from the anchorage to the westward, the depth increases regularly, but rather suddenly, from 14 fathoms in the road, to 42 fathoms sand and shells, a little way outside of the bay. About ½ a mile from the shore, outside of the South point, there are 40 fathoms water, and 20 fathoms close to the breakers.

Geo. Site of Pulo Pisang.

Anchorage,

PULO PISANG, in lat. 5° 8′ S., lon. 104° 6½′ E., by Captain William Oven's observantions, bears from the South point of Cawoor Bay about S. E. by E., distant 8 leagues; the coast between them is steep, and no soundings got except very close in. Point Poogong, about 3 leagues from Pulo Pisang, projects a little into the sea; and Mount Poogong in lat. 5° 4′ S., is a high remarkable mountain, situated near the sea, which bears nearly North from the same island, and may be discerned a great way from the offing. Pulo Pisang is of round form, about a mile in diameter, consisting chiefly of a bed of rock chrystal, and on the East side between it and the main, there is good anchorage and shelter from N.W. and Westerly winds, in 12 or 15 fathoms. The Revenge moored in 16 fathoms with the island bearing from S.W. ½ S. to W. N.W., Sillaloo Rock at Crooe S. E. ½ E., extremes of Sumatra from S. S. E. to W. N.W. ½ N., and the rocks about 50 yards off the S. E. part of the island S.W. by S. Southerly, distance from the island three cables' lengths, and from the main ¾ of a mile.

and contiguous shoals.

To the northward of the island, about ½ way between it and the main, there is a reef of rocks on which the sea generally breaks, having 12 and 16 fathoms on the South side, 20 fathoms on the West side, 12 fathoms foul ground to the northward; and about North or N. by W. from the reef, there is a patch of coral rock with 2 fathoms on it, seeming to preclude any safe passage for large ships betwixt the reef and Sumatra shore. Between the N.W. end of the island and reef, the depths are from 10 to 18 fathoms; but to the eastward of the latter, the water is shoal; with foul ground, generally from 4 or 4 ½ to 3 fathoms on the visible patches of coral rock. This shoal water and foul ground, extends from the North part of the island in a N. N. Easterly direction toward the main, so that it would be imprudent for a ship drawing much water to endeavour to pass between the island and the Sumatra shore; but a small ship by keeping about two cables' lengths from the island, pray come in from the northward, or pass out that way. Wood and water may be got on the main, to the N. E. of the island, and the soundings are regular in the road, from the East side of the island close to the shore of Sumatra. A reef lines the outside of the island,

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stretching to a small distance, from which the depth increases quickly in standing to the southward, there being 36 and 40 fathoms about a ¼ mile off.

Crooe and the adjoining coast.

CROOE, in lat. 5° 15′ S., about 7 miles S. E. by E. from Pulo Pisang, is situated at the bottom of the bay, on the bank of a small river, close to the northward of Sillaloo Rock, navigable by small boats at high water. All round the bay, from abreast of Pulo Pisang to Crooe, soundings of 35 fathoms are got about a ¼ mile from the shore, and they extend farther out from the latter place: but care is required, if working into Crooe Road, to avoid a dangerous rocky shoal, discovered by Mr. M'Kellar, of H. M. S. Billequeux, which ship touched here, and procured good water, bullocks, buffalos, and other refreshments.

This shoal bears about N. ¼ W. from Sillaloo Rock 1¼ mile, from a remarkable tree near the shore at the bottom of the bay it bears S. W., and is about ½ a mile distant from the nearest shore, and from the anchorage of Crooe about N. by W. ¾ of a mile. There is 1½ fathom water upon this rocky shoal, 14 and 15 fathoms inside of it, and 18 or 20 fathoms to the southward, between it and the anchorage of Crooe.

Sillaloo Rock, appears like an island when seen at a distance; foul ground projects from it about 2 cables' lengths into 10 fathoms, from thence sandy bottom to 54 fathoms about ¾ mile off shore. The anchorage is safe here, in the S. E. monsoon, being well sheltered from these winds by Carrang Pingan, the point that forms the South side of the bay, off which there are no soundings about 2 cables' lengths from the breakers, and 40 fathoms close to.

Bencoonat.

BENCOONAT, in lat. 5° 35′ S., bearing about S. E. from Pulo Pisang, 8 or 9 leagues, is a small town or village subject to Crooe, situated on the North side of a low point, having on it palmira trees: the bay here, is interspersed with rocks, which stretch out near a league from the point, but there is a passage for boats or very small vessels, close along the shore. Siggen Point, about 3 leagues to the N.W., forming the western extremity of the bay, has a reef projecting about a mile or more, with 20 fathoms close to; and between Crooe Bay and that of Bencoonat, soundings extend a little way from the land. The coast hereabout, and farther to the southward, is generally low fronting the sea, but inland the country is mountainous. A ship intending to touch at Bencoonat, should anchor well out, to avoid the rocky ground.

Little Fortune Island.

LITTLE FORTUNE ISLAND, called by the natives PULO BATOA KETCHEEL, in lat. 5° 54′ S., distant about 4 miles from the main, bears nearly S. E. by S. from Bencoonat 8 leagues; and it is low and woody, about a mile in diameter. Along the coast between them, soundings are found 3 or 4 miles from the shore; and in the vicinity of the island, the bank becomes more regular, and extends farther out, having soundings on it from 2 to 3 leagues off the main. About 4 leagues to the northward of Little Fortune Island, a low point of land forms the northern extreme of a bay, where there is a village. When that Point bears North Easterly, the Sugar Loaf N. E. ¾ E., and the island S. E. ¼ S. 10 miles, there are 27 fathoms sandy bottom, about 3 miles off shore.

Anchorage under it and at Billimbing Bay.

This island is environed by a reef, but there is good anchorage about a mile to the eastward of it, in 8 or 9 fathoms, and a passage betwixt it and the main, with various depths, from 5 or 6, to 12 and 13 fathoms. There is also good anchorage in BILLIMBING BAY on the opposite shore, a little to the northward of the South end of Sumatra, where a ship may lie in 7 or 8 fathoms at the entrance of the bay, and small vessels may lie in 3 fathoms inside, sheltered from all winds. The small river Billimbing is on the East side of the bay, and there is fresh water at the S.W. side, inside of the point that forms it, from which a reef projects to the northward about ¼ mile. Capt. W. Owen at anchor in this bay, in H.M.S. Baracouta, observed in lat. 5° 54′ S., Samanca Peak E. by N. ½ N., Billimbing Point S. E. ½ S., outer breaker of its reef S. S. E. ¼ E., Little Fortune Island W. ¼ S.

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The soundings are a guide in passing outside of the island in the night, and from thence round Flat Point, for they extend rather more than 2 leagues off shore; and the bank is very flat round the island. A ship coasting along with the wind from the land, and favorable weather, may borrow into 15 fathoms occasionally if the lead is kept going; in the Atlas, we borrowed to 12 fathoms, when passing Fortune Island and the land about Flat Point, during the night; but that seems too near, particularly in a large ship.

Bank of soundings.

The bank of soundings extends far South from Flat Point, otherwise there must be a detached bank a great way out from it, on which the two following ships had soundings, as will appear by an extract from their journals.

Bridgewater, February 7th, 1816, observed at noon in lat. 6° 15′ S., the body of Keysers Island bearing N. 24° E., Low or Flat Point N. 17° E., southern extreme of Princes Island S. 47° E., sounded and had ground 54 fathoms.

Atlas, February 7th, 1816, with the island Crockatoa bearing E. by N. ¾ N., and the low land about Flat Point, on Sumatra, N. by E. at noon, had soundings of 50 fathoms, having steered 2 miles S.W. by W. from being in 28 fathoms at 11 A. M. About 5 leagues W. S.W. from Flat Point, there is a coral bank of 30 fathoms placed in some Dutch charts.

Geo. Site of Flat Point, the land around.

FLAT POINT, in lat. 6° 0′ S., lon. 104° 40′ E., distant about 3 leagues to the S. Eastward of Little Fortune Island, is the S. Westernmost extremity of Sumatra, bounding the entrance of Sunda Strait on the North side; and the narrow neck of land by which it is formed, separates the deep inlet called Keyser's Bay, on the East side, from Billimbing Bay and Fortune Island on the opposite side. The South part of this neck of land is low and woody, extending 3 leagues nearly East and West, the East end of it bounding the entrance of Keyser's Bay, and called Tanjong Chinna, by others Flat Point; but the West end of this low land, is here, considered as Flat Point, and lies about 30 miles to the westward of Java Head. The ship Speke, in 1793, anchored on the East side of Flat Point in 17 fathoms sand, about ¾ of a mile from the shore, where she filled up her water, and was sheltered from N. Westers.

PRINCIPAL ISLANDS fronting the WEST COAST of SUMATRA, with SAILING DIRECTIONS; and BORNEO CORAL ISLES.

Bale of Cotton Rock.

PRIOR to a description of the islands fronting the West coast of Sumatra, it seems proper to notice some imaginary dangers, one of which, called the BALE OF COTTON ROCK, has been long dreaded by navigators; although its non-existence is now almost certain.

This imaginary danger, said to have been seen in the country ship London, bound from Bengal to Bombay in 1767, which ship passed within ½ a mile of it, at noon, May 5th, and made it in lat. 5° 22′ N., lon. 87° 57′ E. by account, from Point Palmiras. It appeared about 2 feet above water, 40 feet long, half that breadth, of a dark brown colour, and had something like moss upon it. They had no soundings in passing, nor did they send a boat to examine whether it was really a rock.

This is the substance of a letter from Mr. Callendar, then on board the London; although another account states, that he was upon the rock, which is inconsistent with his letter.

Mr. Douglas, an officer in the Countess of Errol, country ship, is said to have been upon

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the Bale of Cotton Rock, in 1794, who made it in lat. 5° 25′ N., lon, 87° 48′ E., and found it formed like a ship's bottom, covered with barnacles, about 230 yards in length, and nearly 6 feet above water, having soundings 120 and 130 fathoms on the East side, and on the N.W. and South sides, no ground.

Captain Le Meme, of the La Unie, French privateer, has stated, that he was on the Bale of Cotton Rock, in December, 1797, and made it in lat. 5° 18′ N., lon. 90° 40′ E., from Greenwich, by chronometer and lunar observations. He described it to be a small island, 25 or 30 feet above the surface of the sea, about 50 or 60 feet long, and 20 feet in breadth, situated on a sand bank extending about 300 feet in a N. E. and S.W. direction.

Another doubtful danger.

Another danger or reef, is said to have been seen by Le Meme, in January, 1797, which he made in lat. 1° 20′ N., lon. 94° 20′ E. Night approaching, the boat could not land upon it, but it appeared to be 8 or 10 feet above water, about a mile long from East to West, and no soundings.1 mile from it. The above statements are now considered to be either imaginary, or fabrications not entitled to belief.

Unfortunately for navigation, some persons through timidity, or other causes, are ready to discover dangers where none really exist, and few that see an imaginary danger, examine it sufficiently to ascertain its real existence beyond doubt.

Capt. Walker, of the Teignmouth, cruizer, was instructed by the Bengal government, to search for the supposed Bale of Cotton Rock, which he continued to do from the 24th of May to the 9th of June, 1817, between lon. 86° E. and 90½° E. in the latitudes assigned to it, and he is convinced that it cannot exist in those parallels of latitude.

The late Marine Surveyor, Capt. Court, and his 1st assistant, Capt. Maxfield, have recently searched several times in vain for this imaginary danger, in the Company's Surveying Vessels belonging to the Bengal establishment, by which its non-existence seems established.

Geo. Site of Cocos Islands.

COCOS, in lat. 3° 6′ N., about lon. 95° 40′ E., or 17½ miles West of the N.W. extremity of Hog Island, bearing from it N.W., distant about 7 leagues, are two small, low islands, covered with trees, separated from each other by a channel 1½ or 2 miles wide, which is probably not safe, as breakers project out a little way from the islands, with some islets or rocks dose to the northernmost.

Channel between them and Hog Island unsafe.

The channel between the North end of Hog Island and the Cocos, should be approached with great caution in a large ship, as a shoal bank is described in the journal of the ship, Jane, to extend about 4 leagues in a S. S. E. direction from the largest Coco Island, on which, steering to the N. E. she shoaled suddenly to 7 and 6½ fathoms. At sun-set, on the 13th of June, 1812, the Cocos Islands bore N. ¾ W., and the N.W. point of Hog Island East, when rocks were observed under the bottom, had ¼ less 7 fathoms hard sand, then 6½ fathoms: wore, and stood to the southward, increasing the depth regularly from 6½ to 8, 10, 12, 14, 20, and to 28 fathoms, sand and small black stones.

The following extract from the Greyhound packet's journal, also shews, that the above mentioned channel is dangerous, unless a ship borrow toward Hog Island.

February 24th, 1783, at 1 P. M. saw breakers bearing E. S. E. ½ S., and to appearance, there is broken or shoal water all the way from these breakers to the Cocos, which then bore N. E. by N., and the North end of Hog Island, East. We stood within 1½ mile of the breakers, which are very dangerous, and if a ship stand in to the eastward between Hog island and the Cocos, she ought never to bring the southernmost Coco to the northward of N. E. unless her distance from it is above 4 leagues.

Although ripplings occasioned by the currents or tides among these islands, sometimes resemble breakers, and are liable to deceive navigators; yet, it appears, by the above description taken from the journals of these two ships, that the channel between the North end of Hog Island and the Cocos, should not be chosen until better explored.

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Geo. Site of Hog Island.

HOG ISLAND, the northernmost of the large islands fronting the West coast of Sumatra, distant from it 17 or 18 leagues, extends nearly N.W. by W. and S. E. by E. about 15 leagues, the North point in lat. 2° 50′ N., lon. 95° 58′ E.,* the South end in lat. 2° 21′ N., and it is about 3 to 4 leagues broad, high, hilly, covered with trees, and may be seen 9 or 10 leagues; several islets lie near the shore on both sides, and 3 or 4 leagues from the South point, in lat. 2° 10′ N. lie the two Flat Islands, betwixt which and the South end of Hog Island, there is a good passage about 3½ or 4 leagues wide, having no soundings at 70 fathoms, within 2 miles of the northernmost Flat Island, but the ship Baring found 26 fathoms in mid-channel, coral soundings. The water is in general deep near these islands, but on both sides of Hog Island, there are sudden overfalls on several coral patches, that lie 1 or 2 leagues off shore. On one of these, which bears about South from the S.W. point, there are very irregular soundings, from 30, 20, to 7 fathoms, or probably less water: about 2½ miles outside of one of the islets that front the East end of the island, there is a 2 fathoms coral shoal, with 90 fathoms no ground close to it. As there is no inducement for a ship to stop at this island, nor any safe anchorage about it known to navigators, they seldom or never land there, although it is probable, there may be a harbour within some of the islets that line its eastern side. There is about 4 or 5 miles to the westward of the North point of the island, and 2 miles from two islets off that part, a coral shoal with 4 or 5 fathoms on it, or perhaps less water.

Capt. Lamb, in the Baring, experienced strong N.W. winds and southerly currents late in December, 1815, which prevented him from gaining ground to the northward, on the West side of Hog Island: but after passing round its southern extremity, he got the wind favorable for proceeding to the northward, and found no southerly current in coasting along the eastern side of the island.

Pulo Baniak and adjacent islets.

PULO BANIAK, or BANIA,† distant 10 or 11 leagues E. S. Eastward from the South end of Hog Island, consist of two principal islands a little separated, one lying to the N. Eastward of the other, with several small ones contiguous to them. From the S. E. side of the easternmost, or large island, a chain of islets, and some shoals project considerably, but by keeping near the Baniaks, there is a safe channel between them and Passage Island, which is the easternmost of the chain, already mentioned in the preceding section 3d, where Passage Island is described. At the North end of Baniak, there is a bay in lat. 2° 18′ N., with coral shoals and a group of islands fronting it; there is a passage into it betwixt the two westernmost islands, and shelter inside, in from 16 to 9 fathoms water; a ship may also anchor outside of these islands, but the soundings are very irregular, and the bottom generally coral. The North end of Baniak, and the adjoining islands that form this bay, bear nearly East from the two Flat Islands off the South end of Hog Island, and there is a channel between them, 8 leagues broad. On the northernmost Baniak Island, there is a peaked hill like a sugar loaf. The southern extremity of the S. Westernmost island is in lat. 2° 0′ N., and East from this extreme, there is a passage betwixt the 1st and 2d island that lie off the S. E. end of the N. Easternmost large island, with irregular soundings in it, corally bottom. And 3d island Which is round and high, of the same appearance ns the 2d, lies to the southward of it 5 or 6 miles, and there are various depths in a safe passage betwixt them, generally from 36 to 28 and 19 fathoms, by keeping nearly in mid-channel. Ships coming from the N. Westward, if bound direct to Tappanooly with a fair wind, may steer for these islands, and pass to the southward of them, or between the two southernmost, then proceed to the eastward for Bird Island, leaving it on the starboard hand; having cleared the latter, and

* The Alfred's chronometers, corresponding nearly with observations taken by Capt. Heywood, and with the London's chronometers, made it 9 leagues more westerly, but probably the above stated longitude is nearest tits truth.

† Pulo Bania, i. e. many islands.

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To pass them and sail toward Tappanooly.

the shoal to the N.W. of it, a direct course may be steered for the North entrance of Tappanooly Bay. Some persons adopt the channel to the northward of Pulo Baniak, and from thence steer East, to go between Passage Island and the coast, as the channel between Pulo Baniak and Hog Island, and that between the former and the North end of Pulo Nyas, are equally safe: but the channel to the South of Pulo Nias is considered the best when bound to Tappanooly, for which brief directions are given in section 3d, preceding the description of the bay of this name.

Geo. Site of Pulo Nyas.

Description.

PULO NYAS, NAYS, or NIAS, the largest of the islands off the West coast of Sumatra, extends from about lat. 1° 36′ N., lon. 96° 55′ E. its northern pert, nearly in a S. E. direction to about lat. 0° 38′ N., lon. 97° 59′ E., and is 6 or 7 leagues in breadth. The norms them extreme bears South from Pulo Baniak, about 9 or 10 leagues, and about 3 leagues to the N. N. E. of this extremity, lies the small island Pulo Baby, with a 40 fathoms bank close to it on the South side, and a safe channel between it and the North end of Pulo Nyas. Many other small islands line the shores of the principal one, at different places, some of which, particularly on the West side, stretch out about 3 leagues, also a shoal at the same distance from the N.W. part of the island. Although the coast is steep in some places, there is anchorage inside of the group of small islands on the S.W. side, at the entrance of Seirombo River; also at a harbour close to the South point, there is good anchorage in an excellent bay, where bullocks, buffalos, goats, and poultry, are in great abundance, and water easily procured. The natives are said to be friendly, and of a different character from the generality of Malays. There is anchorage inside of the islands and shoals at the East point of the principal island, at the mouth of Nyas River: there is also, other places where a ship might anchor occasionally on the N. E. side, and betwixt the East and South points of the island. There is a fine river, about S. S. E. from Pulo Baby, where a ship may anchor in 10 or 11 fathoms, about North from the river. In general, the land is high, well clothed with trees, partly cultivated by the natives for rice, and this island was formerly well inhabited: the people are of small stature, and fairer than those of the adjacent coast, the women more particularly, have always been in great demand at Batavia, and other Dutch settlements; therefore, from 500 to 600 of the natives have been annually purchased here, and carried away in the small vessels employed on this trade.

The Dragon, brig, from Bengal, bound to New South Wales, touched at Seirombo for refreshments, in June, 1819, and Capt. Murat, who was in that vessel, has communicated the following information relative to this place.

At anchor in 9½ fathoms mud, with the mouth of the river bearing N. E. ½ E., Northwest point of the bay N.W. ¼ W., and isle in the middle of the bay, called Pulo Ache by the natives, E. by N. ¼ N. 1½ mile, two pyramidal islands, one E. by S. ¼ S. and the other S. E. by E. ¼ E., the group of islands in the offing from S. by W. ¼ W. to W. ¾ S. As a heavy surf then rolled over Seirombo Bar, the Rajah of the islands in the offing came on board, when we weighed, made sail, and afterward anchored in 17 fathoms mud and sand, with Silorongang village S. ¼ E. 1 mile, extremes of ditto island from S.W. by W. ½ W. to S. S. E. ¼ E., Noko village (a famous place for hogs) N. ¾ W. 2 miles, extremes of Noko Island N. by E. ¼ E. to N.W. by W. ½ W., Pulo Ache N. E. ¼ N. 5 miles, a small isle (the easternmost of the group) in one with the North-west point of Seirombo Bay N. N. E. ¾ E.

Silorongang village lies in a small bay faced with coral rocks, which renders the inside of them smooth for proas. Proceeding to the landing in a small boat, steer in shore from the northward, and pass between the coral rocks and the shore; but in a cutter or launch, steer or the breakers on the South side of the bay, betwixt which and the reef to the northward, steer for the South end of the village, with a man at the bow of the boat to direct her, for many patches of coral rock lie under the surface of the water. To the southward of the village, fresh water is got from a small stream in the same bay.

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The group of islands fronting Seirombo Bay, shelters it from the sea; but as some sand banks lie on the western side of the islands, it may be prudent to pass on the eastern side of them in coming from the northward, then sail into the bay. If you approach from the southward, you may enter without difficulty, as the South channel is safe, between the South extreme of the group and Pulo Ache; but two shoals which break at times, lie nearer to Pulo Ache than to the other side of the passage, which require caution in coming from the southward. To the northward of the N.W. point of Seirombo Bay, lies a large shoal, for which a good look out is requisite in coming from the northward, and 10 fathoms is a good track to round the point.

On the West side of Pulo Nyas, in lat. 1° 9′ N. is a group of four or five low islands, which have reefs extending a long way to the S. Westward of them, and it is probable there may be no safe passage inside of these.

The East coast has moderate depths, with good anchorage, and some fine rivers; especially one in lat. 0° 51′ N., where trade is carried on in proas: many isles line the coast here, as on the western side, but the sea being more smooth on the eastern coast, this part of Pulo Nyas is certainly the safest.

Bank of soundings.

Capt. Thornhill, in the David Scott, at 1 P. M., May 19th, 1825, sounded on a bank stretching out from Pulo Nias, not previously known, on which he had 18 fathoms sand and shells, with Pulo Nias bearing from North to N.W. ½ W., distant from the nearest shore 10 or 12 miles: steering to the eastward with light northerly breezes, had the same soundings till 3 P. M., when the depth increased suddenly to 35 fathoms no ground.

Pulo Nyas bearing from E. N. E. to E. by S., 8 or 9 leagues estimated distance, at 10 A. M. 31st October, 1812, Capt. Bean, of the ship Lady Barlow, saw breakers from the poop bearing E. N. E., distant only 2 miles. Steered S. S. E. 5 miles till noon, when the observed lat. was 0° 37′ N., lon. 96° 32′ E., by a good chronometer.

If this was a real danger, seen by Capt. Bean, it lies much farther from Pulo Nyas than the situation hitherto assigned to any of the reefs fronting the West side of that island. It seems probable, that the supposed danger here stated, might be the effect of strong currents or tides, producing ripplings like breakers, but it will be proper to keep a good look out in this situation.

Geo. Site of Clapps Island.

CLAPPS ISLAND, (called Clappers Island by the Dutch) situated on the equator, in clapps about lon. 98° 7′ E., distant about 10 or 11 leagues S. by E. from the South end of Pulo Nyas, and 7 or 8 leagues West from the N.W. end of Pulo Mintao, is low, covered with trees, and having some gaps in it, give it the appearance of several small isles, when first seen above the horizon. On the 6th and 7th of March, 1783, the Greyhound packet was near it, and describes a very dangerous ridge of breakers to extend along the island to the distance of 3 or 4 miles. Capt. Forrest also saw it in the night, and called it a low flat island. The brig, Olive Branch, got near to it, September 26th, 1808, and states it to be a low island with gaps in it: the wind then blowing very hard at N.W., she lost her main-mast, and was forced to bear away through the channel between Mintao and Se Beeroo, to refit at Padang. In February and March, the current sets strong out to the S.W. in the vicinity of these islands.

Geo. Site of Mintao.

PULO MINTAO, named so by the Portuguese, called formerly by the English NANTIAN, but BATOA* is said to be the name given to it by the natives, is the next large island to the S. Eastward of Pulo Nyas, extending from lat. 0° 1′ S., lon. 98° 10′ E., in a southerly direction to lat. 0° 41′ S., being about 14 leagues in length, and 5 or 6 in breadth. This, like the other large islands, is moderately elevated and hilly, covered with trees, and many small islands line its shores both on the East and West sides, with moderate depths

* Europeans generally apply this name to the island inside, between it and the coast of Sumatra.

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among them, and some of them form safe bays or harbours, little known to Europeans. The N. E. point of the island is a bluff, with a reef projecting a ¼ mile from it, and a few miles to the southward, on the East side, is formed a bay, called Lams Bay by the Dutch, in about lat. 0° 5′ S., where the Greyhound packet lay several days in March, 1783, and procured a few poultry, pigs, and cocoa-nuts, at a dear rate, from some natives who came from the North part of the island, and the water got in a creek on the Mintao shore, was brackish.

The Greyhound, when moored in 16 fathoms sand and shells, nearly in mid-channel between Mintao and the island that forms the East side of the bay, had the extremes of Mintao bearing from N.35° W., to S. 28′ E., the island forming the East side of the bay from S. 36° E. to S. 80° E., off the N. E. end of which projects a long reef, dry at low water; two other islands from N. 5° E. to N. 67° E., off the nearest shore ½ a mile. The mouth of an inlet also bore S. 64° W., which was found to be an arm of the sea, separating a low island about 3 miles round, from Mintao; and the other mouth of the inlet, is nearly opposite to the South point of the island on the East side of the bay, distant from each other a ½ mile.

After leaving this bay, the Greyhound, in steering for the N. E. point of Mintao, found the deepest water by keeping from the Mintao shore, toward the small island on the East side of the channel, having never less than 9 fathoms, except one cast of 7 fathoms; and this is said to be the only channel into Lams Bay, there being no passage in, to the southward.

The North part of the island does not extend above 11 or 12 miles East and West, forming a bay between the bluff point and another point about 3 miles West of it, which is foul on the East side near 2 cable's lengths from the shore, but the reef on the West side can be approached close. Two ships may be sheltered in this bay from southerly winds, but it is open to the northerly monsoon; and the Greyhound could not find any fresh water here, although it is the best place for refreshments, this part being inhabited, which is not the case at Lams Bay. The Greyhound anchored in 18 fathoms sand, off the bluff point 1½ mile, Mintao from S. E.¾ S., to W. by S. ¼ S., the outer small isle W. by N. ½ N., Pulo Penir from E. ¾ N. to N. E.½ N.

She weighed from hence March 26th, 1783, steered to the eastward for the bluff N. E. point of the island, and rounded the reef in 7 fathoms, at noon, within ½ a mile of the point, observed lat. 0° 1′ N. At 3 P. M. anchored in 10 fathoms good ground, about ¼ mile to the southward of the first small island in shore, to the southward of the point, and about 3 miles nearer to it than when in Lams Bay, extremes of Mintao from N. 32° W. to S. 31° E., Pulo Penir from N. 66° E. to the North end, shut in with a small island N. 20° E., the Watering Creek's mouth S. 19° W., distant ½ a mile. Here, she moored, unbent sails, and lay upward of a month, caulking the upperworks, &c., procured plenty of firewood, and water in the creek, which is probably scarce in the dry season, as the boat was obliged to go 3 miles up the creek on spring tides to fill the water, which was then indifferent; and few supplies were obtained from the natives, although the chief of the island visited the ship, so that she was obliged to go to Natal for supplies.

It is said the Padang boats go annually to Mintao for dammer and oil.

The West coast of the island extends about North and South nearly 40 miles, fronted by a chain of about 18 or 20 isles of various sizes, some of them several miles distant from the main island, dangerous to approach, being lined with reefs and high breakers, and no soundings very near them: About a league from the South point of the main island, there is a small sloping island, situated in about lat. 0° 45′ S., said to have soundings of 30 to 40 fathoms between it and the point, with reefs to the S. E. and southward, between it and the N. W. end of Se Beeroo.

Pulo Batoa.

PULO BATOA, called also Penir or Pingey, but Cassanie is said to be the name given to it by the natives, situated about 6 or 7 leagues to the N. Eastward of the North end of Mintao, nearly mid-way between it and Natal, is of considerable extent, stretching nearly

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East and West, having some islets and shoals off its S. E. end, which have been already mentioned in the description of the coast of Sumatra, and a chain of islands and shoals extend from it over toward Mintao. The South end of Batoa bears E. by N. from the N. E. point of Mintao.

A ship coming from the westward, and bound to Natal, may proceed through the great channel formed between the South end of Pulo Nyas and these islands, leaving Mintao and Batoa to the southward. This channel is safe with a good look out, but the prudent navigator will be cautious when near any of the islands during the night, as they are not yet sufficiently explored.

Geo. Site of Se Beeroo.

Channel between it and Mintao

To Sail through it.

SE BEEROO, or NORTH PORA, called Great Fortune, by the Dutch, extends nearly N.W. and S. E. about 23 leagues, the North point being in lat. 0° 56′ S., lon. 98° 38′ E., by lunar observations, and bears nearly S. E. from the South end of Pulo Mintao, distant about 8 or 9 leagues, which is the breadth of SE BEEROO CHANNEL, formed between these islands, but directly in the middle of it there is an extensive reef of breakers, which is in one with the small island off the South end of Pulo Mintao bearing N.W. and N.W. by N. This reef is very extensive, for the brig Olive Branch, in passing to the southward of it September 27th, 1808, saw the breakers extend toward Mintao as far as they could be discerned from the mast-head, and the southern part of them seemed to be about mid-channel between Mintao and Se Beeroo. When the breakers bore E. by N. ¼ N., distant about 1 mile, she had no ground 70 fathoms; but after passing the reef and bringing it to bear to the westward, she got on a rocky bank with overfalls from 15 to 20 fathoms, when the South part of Mintao bore N. W. by W. about 5 leagues, and the extremes of Se Beeroo from S. ½ W. to E. S. E.; steering from thence eastward, at a moderate distance from Se Beeroo, the depths increased to 25 and 30 fathoms, and shortly afterward to no ground. The proper channel, from the reef to the North end of Se Beroo, is about 4 leagues broad, having soundings from 15 to 26 fathoms in it, by keeping within 3 or 4 miles of Se Beeroo: a little to the westward of a direct line drawn from the West end of the reef to the N.W. part of that island, there are no soundings, nor any to the eastward of the North point of the island, at the distance of 3 miles from the shore. The N. W. point of Se Beeroo is in lat. 1° 0′ S., and 5 or 6 leagues to the westward of its North point, forming the entrance of the channel on the South side. Although little frequented, this appears to be a good channel, convenient for ships bound from the westward to Padang, because it lies opposite to that place. When N. W. winds prevail, a ship steering for it ought to keep well to the northward, and make the South end of Pulo Mintao, then steer to the S. Eastward for the N. W. part of Se Beeroo, to give a birth to the reef between them; afterward, she may keep within 3 or 4 miles of the northern side of the latter island, in steering to the eastward through the channel; a stranger, however, ought not to run through it in the night, unless in a case of necessity.

This channel has been lately more frequented than formerly; the ship, Elizabeth, Captain Wells, went through it February 3d, 1755, and Capt. G. Hayter, then 2d mate of that ship, made a plan of it. Capt. Bennet has gone through it several times; Capt. Owen, also made a plan of this channel, in his passage through it in January, 1812, in H. M. S. Cornelia. The ship, Hermes, of Calcutta, Capt. Holl, was unfortunately wrecked on the reef South of Mintao, that bounds the North side of the channel, a few years ago, by not keeping over toward the North end of Se Beeroo. The Cornelia, got soundings of 27 fathoms, about 5 miles W. by N. from the N. W. point of Se Beeroo, and by keeping within 4 miles of the North coast of this island, she carried regular soundings of 20 and 19 fathoms through the channel, and the breakers on the mid-channel shoal, were only seen from the mast-head.

Se Beeroo, is generally high land, covered with wood, higher in the middle than toward the extremities, with a sandy beach in many parts, and a great surf breaking often upon the shore. On the N: E. side, some small islands are said to lie a little way off; others are

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situated near the S. W. side and South point: betwixt these and the principal island, there is a channel with regular soundings from 16 to 20 fathoms, according to the description of the snow, Jenny, which vessel, in January, 1769, went through it, between the small islands and Se Beeroo; and to pass through it, her directions are nearly as follows.

Channel close to the S. W. part of Se Beeroo

A ship intending to proceed for the Sumatra Coast, by the channel between Mintao and Se Beeroo, and having been forced to leeward of it by N. W. winds, may occasionally pass through the strait to the southward of the latter. Steer in for the West side of Se Beeroo, with the highest part of the land bearing about E. N. E., but not more to the northward until in 17 or 18 fathoms white clay, which soundings will continue by keeping about mid-channel between it and the small islands that front its S. W. end. Haying run along until the 3d island (counting from N. Westward) is brought to bear about West, the North point of the strait will be seen to the eastward. A boat may be kept a-head in steering to the eastward, and the point on the South side of the strait, will soon be discerned, known by two tall trees about half a cable's length from the other trees, standing on the extremity of the point among the rocks. The passage is clear until abreast of this point, but in steering from it to the eastward, a good look out from the mast-head is requisite, with a boat a-head sounding, for in this part of the passage there are many rocks on both sides, projecting from the islands that lie contiguous to the passage. The easternmost island near Se Pora, may be approached close in passing, to avoid great overfalls and shoal soundings on the North side of the strait, and a reef of breakers projecting from the S. Easternmost island off Se Beeroo. When this reef is brought to bear N. W. by W., the depth will be 45 fathoms, and farther eastward, no ground.

On the S.W. side of Se Beeroo, there are white cliffs a little to the northward of the N. Westernmost island that forms the channel, and this island has breakers and foul ground stretching from it to the N. W. and Westward.

Geo. Site of the S.W. point of Se Beeroo.

S. W. point of Se Beeroo, is in lat. 1° 47′ S., lon. 99° 2′ E. by Captain Torin's observations, agreeing nearly with others taken in the Walpole; and the southern extremity is about 3 leagues more to the eastward, and a little farther south.

Seaflower's Channel.

Geo. Site.

SEAFLOWER'S CHANNEL, situated between the islands Se Beeroo and Se Pora, to English navigators appears to be a new discovery, made by Capt. W. Owen, who passed through it in H. M. Brig, Seaflower, November 10th, 1806, during the night. Being in lat. 2° 18′ S., lon. 99° 5′ E. at noon, with the appearance of a clear passage open to the N. Eastward, between the islands Se Beeroo and Se Pora, he steered for it N. E. by E., and afterward N. E. in passing through the channel, which he entered in the evening, and got clear of it about 10 P. M. This channel is bounded on the West side by an islet that lies near the S. E. point of Se Beeroo, and on the East side by the N.W. end of Se Pora and an islet near the North end of the latter. These islets bear about E. ½ N. and W. ½ S. of each other, distant 12 or 13 miles, and when about half way between them in mid-channel at 8½ P. M. the Seaflower's place was lat. 2° 0′ S., lon. 99° 33′ E., or 1° 20½′ W. from Indrapour Point by chronometer. The islet off Se Beeroo that forms the West side of the channel, appeared to be in lat. 2° 1′ S. deduced from noon observation, and 1° 26′ West from Indrapour Point. Capt. Owen, describes this channel to be 8 miles wide, clear of danger, and they got no soundings at 30 fathoms in passing through.

The Seaflower, went through this channel again, in 1808, steering about N. by E. ½ E. until clear of it to the Eastward; and several ships have passed through it since that time.

These observations of Capt. Owen, make the South end of Se Beeroo about 11 or 12 miles to the southward of Capt. Torins's observations.

The Seaflower's Channel, described above, certainly cannot be that through which the Jenny passed, as the latter was found to be intricate and winding, not above a mile wide in some parts, with soundings of 16, 20, and 25 fathoms; whereas, the Seaflower's Channel is

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8 miles wide, and apparently clear of danger. The Jenny, therefore, must have passed close to the S. W. and South end of Se Beeroo, within the islands which front this part of it, and form the N. W. and West sides of Seaflower's Channel; otherwise, there must be a gut or strait through Se Beeroo, in about lat. 1° 45′ S., through which this vessel went, if her description be correct.

Geo. Site of Se Pora.

Muriocks Bay.

SE PORA, or SOUTH PORA, extends from the N. W. point in about lat. 2° 0′ S., in a direction nearly S. E. to Point Marlborough, in lat. 2° 23′ S., lon. 99° 58′ E., which is the South point of the island; it being about 12 leagues in length, and nearly half that breadth at the North part, decreasing gradually to the southern extremity. It is mostly covered with wood, rather less elevated than Se Beeroo, and both these islands are distant about 17 leagues from the coast of Sumatra. A little eastward of the N. W. point of Se Pore, HURLOCKS BAY is situated, directly South of the small islands which front the shore, with soft ground in it, and moderate depths for anchorage; and there is a narrow channel leading from it to an inner bay or harbour, farther inland to the S. W. The outer bay being open to N. E. winds, the inner one must be preferred, and in passing through the narrow channel, the starboard shore should be approached more close than the opposite side, which is rocky. This harbour is sheltered from all winds, inside of the point on the starboard side, where there is a red sandy beach, and anchorage in 8 to 10 fathoms, or in 5 or 6 fathoms, close to the shore; the depths in the narrow passage going in, are from 4, to 6 or 7 fathoms. Capt. Whiteway, who discovered this bay, makes the North coast of Se Pora extend East and E. S. Eastward from it about 3½ leagues to Cape Tilleroo, the N. E. extreme of the island, with a small island called Pulo Se Gere, adjoining to the coast, from which to the entrance of Hurlocks Bay, a reef projects a great way out from the shore.

The East coast of Se Pora, extends from Cape Tilleroo S. S. E. about 10 leagues to Point Marlborough, and in this space, contains two considerable bays; Se Ooban Bay, about 3 leagues to the southward of Cape Tilleroo, and Se Labba Bay, 7 or 8 miles more to the southward.

See Ooban Bay.

Se Ooban Bay, may be known by a large tuft of trees on the starboard side going in; the course into it is S. W., and a ship should keep in mid-channel, (where there are from 24 to 30 fathoms), to avoid the rocks projecting from the points on each side of the entrance. There is a brook of fresh water at the N. W. part of the bay, but the best anchorage is in the South part, with the point on the South side of the entrance bearing about N. E., in moderate depths from 8 to 12 or 14 fathoms. After a ship has anchored, it will be proper to examine the bottom around her, by sounding in the boat, for in some parts there are patches of coral rock.

Se Labba Bay.

Se Labba Bay, is known by a round peaked hill close to its South side, called Turk's Cap, situated in lat. 2° 17′ S., which is seen from both sides of the island. In entering this bay the course is about S. W., and the depths 45 and 40 fathoms, decreasing to 14 or 12 fathoms inside. Rocks project from both points, but farthest from that on the South side of the entrance, which must have a good birth in passing. There is a coral shoal nearly in the middle of the bay, even with the water's edge, to the southward of which, the bottom is mud, and proper for anchorage. At either of these bays, a ship may be supplied with wood, water, a few hogs, yams, some poultry, and cocoa-nuts, from the people of the few straggling villages on this side of the island; but the West side, is said to be destitute of inhabitants.

Between Cape Tilleroo and Point Marlborough, the East coast of Se Pora is generally steep, but rocks project a considerable way from the shore in some places, particularly to the southward of the Turk's Cap; and from abreast of it, soundings extend along the coast toward Point Marlborough.

The West coast is also rocky, with some small islands adjoining, and the sea breaks high upon the shore; two of these islands, situated about 4 leagues to the westward of Point

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Marlborough, lie close to the shore, and near each other; they are low and flat, covered with cocoa-nuts, and rocky to seaward.

The channel between the South end of Se Pora and North Poggy Island, is about 3 leagues broad, and very safe; there are soundings from 20 to 40 fathoms on a coral bank that stretches across betwixt the islands, when the Turk's Cap and Point Marlborough are in one, bearing about N.W. by N.; and a little farther to the eastward, there is no ground. Point Marlborough is bluff, and moderately elevated, fronted by adjoining rocks.

North Poggy

NORTH POGGY, or NORTH NASSAU ISLAND, is about 7 leagues long from N. N.W. to S. S. E., and about half that breadth; the North point, called Cape Cuddalore, being in lat. 2° 32′ S., and bearing S. E. from Point Marlborough on Se Pora, distant about 10 miles; the South point situated in lat. 2° 52′ S., forms the West side of Se Cockup Strait, which separates the North and South Poggy Islands from each other. They are both high, covered with wood, and may be seen 14 or 15 leagues.

the adjoining islands.

On the West coast of North Poggy, there is a group of islands, with passages and anchorage between the northernmost of them, called Pulo Laubo Laubo; but the best channel to the anchorage, is round the North end of this island, from which projects a reef; and on the East side, betwixt the island and the Poggy shore, is the road, where a ship may anchor in 12 or 13 fathoms, sheltered from all winds excepting those that blow from northward. Se Laubo Laubo village, is situated on the side of a rivulet at the S. E. side of the bay, where water may be procured.

and Se Cockup Strait.

Battoo Mongo, another village, lies near the S.W. point of the island, which is low land, and Se and from thence to the South entrance of the Strait of Se Cockup, the coast stretches nearly East about 3 leagues, and is very rocky, with high breakers upon the shore. This Strait is of semicircular form, containing several small islands at the southern part, and one at the other end, which opens to the eastward; and although safe, it is not a mile wide in some places. The passage to enter from the southward is between the islands off its mouth, one called Pulo Serasso contiguous to North Poggy, and two called Pulo Supaw, near South Poggy, by keeping in mid-channel; and on the West side of the other islands inside, where the depths are from 10 to 15 fathoms. On both sides of the N.W. point of South Poggy, which projects out into the middle of the strait, there are small bays or coves, with soft bottom and regular soundings, where a ship may occasionally anchor out of the tide; for it runs 3 knots at times, in the middle of the passage.

Timber for masts.

Capt. J. C. Ross, anchored in this Strait, in 1823, and cut a new foremast for his ship, the Borneo, near the shore of the North Poggy Island, of an excellent species of timber. The tree is called Katooka by the natives, and although the size required was 68 feet, the chief difficulty was to find a tree small enough, those of an inferior size near the shore, having been cut down by the natives, to split into planks for the Padang and Bencoolen markets, where the timber of late years has come into repute. The first tree cut down, measured 97 feet below the branches, and 28 inches diameter at the smallest part, and this being too large, Capt. Ross was obliged to select a smaller one, which foremast has been carefully examined in the Borneo, in August 1826, whilst lying in the river Thames, and found to be perfectly sound.

Se Cockup River, is opposite to the N.W. point of South Poggy, on the western shore, where fresh water may be procured, and the village of that name is several miles up the river; there is also fresh water under the high land at North Poggy S. E. point, which forms the North side of the eastern entrance of the strait. This entrance is very narrow, the small

* Capt. Ross, is of opinion, that the shores of this strait, furnish the best, and most conveniently obtained spars, of any place known in those seas. The natives assisted in cutting the spar, and getting it on board, and thought themselves amply remunerated, by a present of coarse cutlery, beads, and small checked handkerchiefs, of about 10 dollars value, altogether.

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Island Tongo being mid-way between the points, and both these and the island having rocks projecting a little way from them; but there are 20 fathoms in the middle of the narrow passage, betwixt the island and South Poggy Point. A little outside of the strait, about ½ a mile eastward from the point on the North side, there is a reef of rocks even with the water's edge. Pulo Serasso at the South end of the strait, is separated from North Poggy by a very narrow channel, with from 5 to 10 feet water in it, fronting which there is a small island, having a rock upon it resembling a thatched house, when viewed from the S.W. The sea breaks with great violence upon the rock, and upon the low rocky shore to the westward.

Geo. Site of South Poggy

SOUTH POGGY, or SOUTH NASSAU ISLAND, extends from the North point at the East end of Se Cockup Strait, in lat. 2° 50′ S., about S. E. by S. 11 or 12 leagues to the South point in lat. 3° 20′ S., about lon. 100° 34′ E.;* and it is from 3 to 4 leagues in breadth. Several small islands lie contiguous to the western coast, and on the East side, a little to the northward of the South point of the island, four small islands form a circular group, with a harbour inside of them: the channel between the two northernmost islands has 10 fathoms in it, and there are from 6 to 14 fathoms inside the harbour. This is generally called Southeast Harbour, which is the only place of shelter on the East side of South Poggy, but soundings extend along it to the North point, where a vessel may occasionally anchor, opposite to some of the small villages.

The sea coast of the Poggy Islands, in several places where the land is low, abounds with cocoa-nuts; some small spots have been planted with pepper vines, but the natives are averse to labour. It is said, that on each of the three large islands, North, and South Poggy, and Se Pora, there were about 800 inhabitants, when Captain Forrest was there about 40 years ago. The tide among these, and the other islands which form the chain, rises from 3 to 5 feet in the springs; but currents are often found to run with the prevailing winds.

Islands Larg and Borgen.

LAAGE, or LARG,† and BERGEN, are two small islands situated to the East, and S. Eastward of the South end of South Poggy; Larg bearing from it about S. E. by E. 9 leagues, in lat. 3° 30′ S., lon. 1° 12′ West from Rat Island by chronometers, and a small round island with trees on it, lies nearly close to the East side of Larg, joined to the reef which surrounds them. Bergen bears about N. W. by N. from Larg distant 4 or 4½ leagues, and the channel between them is safe.

Coral banks adjacent.

There appear to be some CORAL BANKS to the westward of Larg, very little known, which probably are not dangerous. The Europa, May 2d, 1797, steering E. S. E. to pass to the southward of Larg, at 11 A. M. had ground 33 fathoms, next cast 17, 10, 9, 8, and 7 fathoms; she then hauled off S.W. and deepened in half an hour to 65 fathoms no ground. When in 7 fathoms, upon this coral shoal, the East point of Larg bore E. by N. about 3 leagues; and at noon it bore E. by N. 4 leagues, the observed lat. 3° 32′ S. Until this shoal is better known, it will be prudent to keep 4 leagues from the West side of Larg, in steering to pass it to the southward.

The Georgina, from Calcutta, towards Bencoolen, February 24th, 1824, at 6 P. M. had the South point of South Poggy bearing N. ½ E. about 5 or 6 leagues, lon. 100° 11′ E. by chronometers, steered East 18 miles till 12 P. M., had then soundings of 26 fathoms sand and stones. She steered from this position South 5 miles in 26 to 25 fathoms, then East 4 miles in 26 fathoms regular soundings till 3½ A. M. 25th, and at 4 A. M. lost soundings with 50 fathoms line.

* Capt. W. Owen made the South end of this Island in lat. 3° 21′S. and 1° 34′ West of Rat Island by chronometer, when passing in H. M. Sloops Baracouta and Samarang in February, 1811.

† In the Dutch charts, these two islands, are marked Laage and Bergen, signifying that the former is Low and the other High, which have been transmuted by the English into real names, by the corruption of into Larg.

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The David Scott, Capt. Thornhill, May 3d, 1825, had 25 fathoms hard bottom, the centre of Larg bearing N.W. ½ N. distant at least 3 leagues, and the small Isle off the East end of Larg N. N. W. ½ W. about 10 miles; being nearly calm, sent the boat to sound two or three cables' lengths from the ship, and she found the same bottom. As other coral spots may probably exist in the vicinity of Larg, not yet discovered, it seems prudent to give this island a good birth on all sides.

The channel between Larg and South Poggy, seems wide and safe, according to the account of the ship Addington, which passed through it in July, 1804, or rather the channel between Larg and Bergen, which Capt. Owen passed through in H. M. Sloop Baracouta in February, 1811.

Geo. Site of Trieste Island.

TRIESTE, or REEFS ISLAND, in lat. 4° 3′ S., lon. 101° 20′ E., or 22 leagues to the westward of Fort Marlborough,* may be seen about 5 leagues from the deck of a large ship. It is small, extending about 1½ mile N. E. by N. and S. W. by S., nearly environed by a reef, but there is a coral bank of soundings stretching 3 or 4 miles from it on the West side, and also on the East side, where a vessel may anchor occasionally in 25 or 30 fathoms, if drifted near it by the current during calm weather; and some fresh water may be got upon the island, in the rainy season. With Trieste bearing N. N. E. about 12 miles, Capt. Thornhill, in the David Scott, had soundings from 65 to 85 fathoms, when passing in May 1825. The channel between this island and Larg, is spacious and safe.

Island Engano.

ENGANO, the southernmost of the large islands fronting the West coast of Sumatra, and distant from it about 20 leagues, is from 6 to 8 leagues in extent, of triangular form, having a level appearance when viewed far off, and may be discerned about 7 or 8 leagues from the deck. It is fortified by a rocky shore, with high breakers mostly all round, the rocky ledges projecting out 2 or 3 miles in some places, with irregular soundings about a league farther out, over a bottom of coral rock. When passing the South end of the island in the Atlas, about 2 leagues distance, we had 23 fathoms red and yellow coral rock; at the same time, high breakers on the reefs appeared about mid-way between us and the shore. On the East side, to the northward of the S. E. point, there is a bay inside of four small islands, with anchorage over a sandy bottom, and shelter from most winds in the upper part of it, which extends considerably into the land. The islands are surrounded by rocks, except the innermost small one, of a sandy soil, has 3 or 4 fathoms close to, on the inside; and there is anchorage near it, over a sandy bottom. The channel leading into the bay, is betwixt the two outermost islands, having 18 fathoms coral rock in mid-channel, and 7 to 4 fathoms white sand inside, between the inner island and the North point of the bay, and here it is narrow, and bounded by rocks. To the northward of the bay, there is a small stream of fresh water, but the landing in most parts is difficult; it abounds with good timber, fine fish, yams, and cocoa-nuts. Capt. Owen, visited this island in November, 1806, in H. M. Sloop Seaflower; and H. M. Ship Dover, grounded near Amsterdam Island, the argest of those fronting the bay, November 24th, 1809. When at anchor in 5 fathoms beween the islands, for the convenience of watering, observed lat. 5° 27′ S. the S. E. point of Engano bearing S. by W.¼ W., East Point N. by W. ¼ W., Eastern Island North to N. N. E. ¾ E., Western Island S. ¾ E., Small Green Islet S.W. ¾ S., Watering Place S.W. W. Whilst watering here, the crews of the Dover's boats were attacked by the natives, nd several of the people speared.

Geo. Site.

Capt. Owen's observations, agree with those of the Dover in placing the anchorage beveen the islands in lat. 5° 27′ S., lon. 102° 38′ E.: the North point of the principal island

* Capt. Owen, made it in lat. 4° 3½′ S. and about 1° 8′ West of Rat Island.

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he made in lat. 5° 12′ S., lon. 102° 20′ E., and the South point appeared to be in lat. 5° 39′S. lon. 102° 26′ E. or 5 miles East of Rat Island, Fort Marlborough.

The Snow Fancy, made the South point in lat. 5° 33′ S., and Capt. Napier made it in latitude 5° 31′ S. or 8 miles less than Capt. Owen. The island is well inhabited, by people nearly of the same colour, but stouter, and more active thin the Malays, and go without clothing. They are armed with spears made of hard wood, pointed with bone or iron, which they use for striking fish, and they have canoes that carry 6 or 8 men.

Capt. John Napier, in the ship, Good Hope, in 1816, was sent from Fort Marlborough, in search of the survivors of the crew of the ship Union, Capt. Barker, who were retained in captivity by the inhabitants of this island, after the ship was wrecked there. Capt. Napier made a sketch of the island, which was engraved at Calcutta in 1817, accompanied by the following remarks and observations.

Geo. Site of the North Point.

North Point of Engano is in lat. 5° 15′ S., lon. 102° 25′ E., and the Northern coast is the bold, having no soundings from 3 to 5 miles off; the beach consists mostly of sand, but in some places the shore is rocky.

Contiguous Islands.

From the North Point the coast extends E. by S. ¾ S. 15 miles, to a point in lat. 5° 20′S. lon. 102° 39′ E., and from this another point bears S. S. E. 2½ miles. South 3 miles of the latter lies North Island, covered with trees, and excepting a small opening on the West side, it is surrounded by a coral reef of considerable extent, partly dry at low water, but having deep water close to it all round. South Island, distant 3 miles S. by W. from North Island, is also covered with trees, and surrounded by a reef, excepting the Western side, which has a sandy beach bold to approach. Middle Island is very conspicuous from the sea, having a high sandy beach, with a tuft of trees on the centre. A reef extends from this island to the S. S. E. and Eastward, but it is bolder to approach on the North and West sides. Sandy Island, bearing N. N.W. a small ½ mile from Middle Island, is not more than 6 feet above the surface of the sea, and a reef projects from it both to the East and Westward; but on the North side it is bold, with 8 fathoms close to the beach.

Passage between them.

The reef of the main Island projects far out toward Sandy Island, rendering the passage narrow, though perfectly safe, the reefs being steep-to, on both sides, with 10 and 11 fathoms water in the channel. The passage between Sandy and Middle Islands, is still narrower, with 11 fathoms water, and equally safe. The passage between Middle and South Islands has 16 and 17 fathoms water, and is also safe, by keeping near to South Island until it bear to the N. Eastward.

Between South Island and the low S. E. point of the main Island, there is no passage even for a boat. The passage between North Island and the main should not be attempted, as the reef extends far out from the coast, rendering the passage very narrow.

Anchorage.

Outside of Middle and Sandy Islands, there is shelter from the prevailing winds in either monsoon, in 12 to 14 fathoms sand, good anchorage, and plenty of wood may be got from either of the outer islands; but as water can only be procured in the Inner Bay to the Northward of the village, a ship requiring a supply should anchor there, to protect her boats and people, the natives being very treacherous. You may anchor in 4, 5, or 6 fathoms sand and mud, within little more than a mile of the creek, keeping nearest the South shore, which has in most places a sandy beach, bold to approach, the trees growing quite into the water in some parts.

Geo. Site of S. E. Point.

The S. E. Point of Engano, in lat. 5° 30¼′ S., lon. 102° 38¼′ E. is low and sandy, covered partly by a range of palmira trees. The reef projects from this point 2 miles to the S. E. and Eastward, and joins that from South Island, having very high breakers.

South Point.

South Point, in lat. 5° 30′ 50′ S., lon. 102° 29¼′ E., distant 9 miles West, a little Southerly from the S. E. point, projects out in an acute angle, having about a mile distant to the S. Eastward, a Pyramid or Black Rock, about 8 feet above water. Between these points the

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coast forms a concavity, fronted by the coral reef, at from 1 to 12 mile distant, upon which the sea breaks high in many places. In ranging along this part of the coast at 4 miles distance, no danger could be seen from the mast-head, excepting the reef, which is steep-to; and it was here, about 3 miles Eastward of the South Point, that the Union was said to have been lost.

and West Point.

West Point in lat. 5° 21′ S., lon. 102° 19½′ E., by chronometer from Rat Island, allowing the latter to be in lon. 102° 26½′ E. bears from the South point N.W. distance 14 miles, but the coast between them forms a concavity, having a small island near it in lat.5° 26′ S., lon. 102° 26′ E., surrounded by a coral reef to seaward, projecting above ½ a mile, with high breakers. Here we remained four days, and anchored several times in 25 fathoms coral and sand, in coasting along this part, where the greater part of the Union's crew were procured; which is higher, seems better cultivated, with more inhabitants than any other part of the coast. The coral reef, that fortifies this coast, must be very dangerous to approach in strong S.W. winds.

From the West Point, the North Point of the island bears N. E. a little Easterly distant 8 miles, the coast between them forming two intermediate points, from which the reef projects above a mile, with soundings from 35 to 25 fathoms near it; and soundings of 35 to 15 fathoms, are obtained on most parts of the Southern coast, at the distance of ¼ to 1½ or 2 miles from the reef.

Ships steering for Sunda Strait during the N.W. monsoon, generally endeavour to make this island, when not certain of their longitude.

Cocos, or Keeling Islands.

COCOS, or KEELING ISLANDS, have been briefly described in Volume 1st of this work, but their value to navigators has hitherto remained unknown, until Capt. J. C. Ross visited the Southern Group in the ship Borneo, and found a good harbour, where he lay from the 5th to the 9th December 1825, putting the ship in a proper state to encounter the stormy weather that might he expected on the passage to England, as she had been found rather crank after leaving Padang.

Borneo Coral Isles.

PortRefuge.

Surrounding Islands.

Description.

As there are two groups of islands, in those seas, known by the general name of Cocos, viz. one near the Great Andaman, and another near Hog Island, off the West coast of Sumatra, Capt. Ross has distinguished the islands of the Southern group by different names, in his plan of the harbour which he explored within this circular chain. KEELING, is the original name of these islands, which Capt. Ross proposes to continue to the North Island, it being far detached from the Southern group. This group, named BORNEO CORAL ISLES, consists of a circular chain of islands almost touching each other, lined on the exterior side by a steep coral reef, and forming inside an extensive lagoon or harbour, named PORT REFUGE, having only one entrance for ships at the northern extremity, which is about 3 miles wide, bounded on the west side by Horsburgh's Island, the northernmost of the chain, and considerably detached from the others, and Direction Island bounds the entrance on the east side. Straggling rocks, and an extensive reef, called Turk's Reef, stretches from Horsburgh's Island to the South and S. S. Westward, nearly uniting with Ross's Island, which is the next to the S. S.W., and 5 or 6 miles in length. Nearly joining to the south end of this, is Hare's Island, then Fairlie's Island, at the east end of which, there is a gap containing some islets; and close to these, Scott's Island is situated in the form of a crescent, at the S. E. angle of the harbour, the south and western side of which, is bounded by the above named coral formations. From the north end of Scott's Island, the east side of the harbour is bounded by a close succession of small isles, stretching to Clunie's Island, which approaches near to Direction Island, there being only a few islets between them. This coral chain of islands, or rather, wall, which forms Port Refuge, in the middle of the ocean, is only from 3 to 10 feet elevated above the sea, at high water spring tides, but most of the isles are covered with cocoa-nut trees, and two other species, one of them soft, white, and spongy;

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the other heavy, hard, dark looking timber. The cocoa-nuts contiguous to the sea are saltish to the taste, and small, but those in the middle of the islands are good. The beaches abound with land crabs, and aquatic birds, and Capt. Ross procured some turtle; the ground on Direction Island, was found too hard, on trial, to admit of digging to any considerable depth, with the view of getting fresh water.

Directions.

A ship intending to enter Port Refuge, should pass near to the north end of Direction Island, to avoid the reef on the western side of the entrance; soundings will be got suddenly, when on a transit line joining the two islands that form it, and when inside about a mile, having brought the north extreme of Direction Island to bear about E. N. E. or N. E. by E., she ought to anchor in 6 or 6½ fathoms in the outer anchorage, which is perfectly smooth, and not proceed farther until after having examined the channels leading to the East or West harbours' inside, which harbours are separated by a large rocky shoal in the middle of the port, called Dymoke's Shoal, or Middle Ground, having on it from 1¼ to 2½ fathoms water. The southern extremity of the port also, is all very shoal.

The outer anchorage is sufficiently capacious to contain a great number of ships, but in some parts, spotted with mushroom coral, which may easily be avoided in anchoring, as the water is very clear. The bar or flat, inside of the outer anchorage, is extensive, also spotted widely with coral, and all the rocks are of this substance.

Ships drawing above 18 feet water, should not attempt to sail in over the bar, but if on an emergency they do so, the coral patches may be avoided, by a careful person on the fore yard, directing the ship's course. These patches are elevated two or three feet above the natural level of the ground, and being of the mushroom species, of a darkish colour, are easily discerned at ¾ of a cable's length distance, as the water is extremely clear, and the sandy bottom of snowy whiteness.

Ships drawing about 21 or 22 feet water, intending to go inside, may warp over the bar, and afterward, chuse either the Eastern or Western harbours at discretion, taking care to avoid Dymoke's Shoal, which is an extensive coral flat, with overfalls near its edges, and lying on dark bottom, is not easily discernible, The depths on the bar are 3½, 3¾ to 4 fathoms, and the best track is a little nearer to the islands on the eastern side than mid-channel, the depth increasing when over the bar to 5, 6, 7, or 8 fathoms in approaching the inner harbour, on either side of Dymoke's Shoal.

Geo. Site.

Capt. Ross, made the extent of the Borneo Coral Isles about 6 leagues from north to south, the extremity of the reef that projects to the N.W. about ¼ mile from Horsburgh's Island, being in lat. 12° 3′ S., and the southern extremity of the reef fronting Scott's and Fairlie's Islands, is in lat. 12° 21′S., and their extreme breadth is about 4 leagues.

Capt. Driscoll, of the Lonach, from Port Jackson bound to Bombay, Nov. 24th, 1825, passed close to the northernmost of the Borneo Coral Isles, and sent a boat to that called Horsburgh's Island by Capt. Ross, which Capt. Driscoll made in lat. 12° 3′ S. by noon observation taken two hours previously, and in lon. 97° 54′ E. by chronometers, allowing Bald Head on the S. Western coast of New Holland to be in lon. 118° 23′ E.—and he made it in lon. 97° 2½′ E. by observations of Sun and Moon, which agrees very exact with the position assigned to these islands in the first volume of this work. The Lonach's boat landed on a fine white sandy beach, covered with crabs, and aquatic birds, and a path was perceived where the branches were parted, and the leaves trodden down, leading into the jungle; several snakes were also seen, and a large mast, with a bowsprit and teak canine, the remains of a wreck.

The tide or flood, runs into Port Refuge, about 1½ mile per hour over the bar, rises from 5 to 6 feet, high water about 4 hours on the full and change of the moon.

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SAILING DIRECTIONS to, and from the STRAIT of SUNDA, and toward the STRAITS EAST of JAVA: NORTH COAST of the former, and adjoiningISLANDS.

To Sail from Hindoostan to Sunda Strait, between Mareb and October:

SHIPS proceeding from Ceylon or the Coromandel Coast for Sunda Strait, whilst the S.W. monsoon is prevailing in North latitude, and the S. E. monsoon in South latitude, from March to October, ought to run down great part of their easting with the S.W. monsoon, before they cross the equator. If they cross it in lon. 93° or 94° E., Southerly and S. S. Westerly winds, with variable squalls, may be expected to carry them to the S. Eastward, and a reasonable distance from the islands off the West coast of Sumatra may be preserved, by making a tack to the S. Westward at times, when the wind veers to the S. E. A drain of current to the northward may sometimes be experienced, but a ship will generally make considerable progress to the S. Eastward by taking every advantage of the shifts of wind; for, in the vicinity of the islands, or within a few degrees of them, the winds hang much from South and S. S. Westward; whereas, in the ocean, far to the westward, the monsoon will be found to prevail from the S. E. as a ship advances into South latitude, which will greatly prolong her passage, should she have crossed the equator far to the westward.

If bound to Fort Marlborough, it will be prudent to get into the parallel of that place before the islands are approached, then steer in for the coast to the southward of Trieste Island, or betwixt it and Larg, as the winds may render necessary. If a ship is bound direct to Sunda Strait, it will be proper to keep well out from the land until she reach the entrance of the strait, where her progress will generally be more speedy than by keeping near the shore; although a fast sailing vessel may pass along the coast backward and forward, between Fort Marlborough and Sunda Strait, in either monsoon.

and during the opposite season.

SHIPS bound to Sunda Strait, from October to Mardi, when the N.W. monsoon generally prevails to the southward of the equator, may follow nearly the same track recommended above for the opposite season, if they depart from the Coromandel Coast, and are enabled to run down a considerable part of their easting with the N. E. monsoon, before they cross the equator.

Ships departing from Ceylon, in October, November, March, and April (when N.W. winds are seldom found to prevail muck in South latitude), ought to stand off nearly close to the wind, if it blow from the N. E. quarter; and endeavour to make several degrees of easting before they are forced close to the equator by the N. E. monsoon, which they will probably experience in November, and March, at leaving Ceylon. In December, January, and February, this may not be always necessary, for the N.W. monsoon generally blows strongest in these months to the southward of the equatot, particularly in the latter part of December, all January, and part of February. In these months, ships may shape a direct course from the South, or S. E. part of Ceylon, toward the entrance of Sunda Strait; but, even at this time, it is prudent to stand to the E. S. Eastward with the N. E. monsoon, until the bay is well open, to avoid strong westerly currents and light winds, which are liable to prevail in November and December, on the meridian of Ceylon, nearly to the equator; and in the space comprised between that meridian and the Maldiva Islands.

To steer for the straits East of Java.

SHIPS bound to any of the straits East of Java, ought, in the strength of the N.W. monsoon, to make the Island Noesa Baron, in order to correct their reckoning; for in December

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and January, the weather is often thick near the South coast of Java, with strong westerly winds and easterly currents. Should a ship fall in with that coast much farther to the westward, and coast along it at the distance of 4 or 5 leagues, she will generally have the winds more brisk near the shore, than if farther out in the offing.

Captain J. A. Pope, in the ship Minerva, bound from Bombay to China, with the Ardasier in company, left Ceylon, December 11th, 1808, and fell in with Steep Point on the 31st; they steered a direct course from Ceylon, and were considerably delayed by light winds. On the South coast of Java, they had fine weather and light breezes, which enabled them to make the following observations in coasting along.

From Steep Point, in lon. 107° 23′ E. by chronometer, a course E. by S. will carry a ship in sight of a remarkable bold headland, in lon. 111° 6′E., which appears to be the easternmost point of a very deep bay, called in some charts, Inland Bay. About 80 miles E. by S. from this headland, is situated the point and islets of Tangala, and two remarkable hills near the shore to the westward.

From the isles of Tangala, the course is E. by S. ½ S. 70 miles to Noesa Baron, which the Minerva passed near, made the East point of Java, January 5th, 1809, and anchored on the 9th, at Bally Town, in the Strait of Allass.

In November and December strong westerly curents South of Ceylon.

The Anna, bound to China by Sunda Strait, was embarrassed a considerable time in November and December, to the southward of Ceylon, by light winds and strong westerly currents; and she did not reach Sunda Strait, till the 3d of January, 1793.

The Britannia left Ceylon for Amboina, December 6th, 1800, and with North, N.W., and West winds, she only reached lat. 3° 0′ N., lon. 81° 0′ E., on the 11th, having experienced a daily current of 60 miles, and sometimes more, setting to the W. N.W. and Westward.* The current then abated, and changed to the eastward on the 12th; she crossed the equator on the 16th, and with a continuance of W. N. W. and W. S.W. winds and changeable currents, mostly setting to the eastward, she saw the South coast of Java on the 26th; had then strong westerly winds, squally weather, and rain, with a current of 30 miles on some days to the eastward, with which she anchored in Sapy Bay, January 1st, 1801.

Abstracts of passages from Ceylon to the Island Java.

The Canton, and fleet for China, in company, left Ceylon, December 30th, 1796, made the S. E. part of Java, January 27th, 1797, and anchored in Allas Strait on the 29th.

In the latter part of November, and the first part of December, 1794, the Woodford, and fleet, for China, had brisk westerly winds steering direct from Ceylon to Sunda Strait.

In the Atlas, we left Point de Galle for Batavia, January 8th, 1786, and for two days kept nearly close hauled to the N. E. monsoon, blowing then fresh at N. E. by E., which decreased on the day following, and was succeeded by variable breezes. On the 12th, in lat. 2° 40′ N., lon. 83½° E., a strong N. N.W. monsoon commenced, with which we crossed the equator on the 15th, in lon. 91° E.; the wind veered afterward to West, and continued mostly between N.W. and S. W., with cloudy weather and much rain, until in lat. 5½° S., lon. 100° E., we had faint breezes three days: strong N.W. winds returned, with which we passed Engano on the 25th, and entered Sunda Strait on the following day.

In February, light winds are often experienced in the track between Ceylon and the N.W. end of Sumatra; if, therefore, a ship, after leaving that island, meet with light winds in North latitude, she should approach the equator without loss of time, where N. Westerly and variable winds may generally be expected in February, and part of March.

* Although the Anna, Britannia, and some other ships, have experienced strong westerly currents to the southward of Ceylon in November and December, which prolonged their passage, and the former had very light winds; this does not always happen, for the Behar left Cape Comorin on the 16th of December, steered from thence S. S. E., crossed the equator on the 20th; here, she got strong N.W. winds, and made a quick passage to Sunda Strait. The Sulivan, several years after, followed the same track as the Bahar did, and was equally fortunate.

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Instructions for approaching Java Head,

INSTRUCTIONS for approaching JAVA HEAD, throughout the year, are given in Vol. 1st of this work, under the title "Directions to sail from St. Paul, to the Strait of Sunda." Nevertheless, it may sometimes be expedient, to deviate in some degree from general rules, as the winds and currents are liable to differ in some months of one year, from their direction in the corresponding months of another year, as may be seen by the following examples.

In May and June, it is always thought safe to fall in with the land to the eastward of Java Head, if bound into Sunda Strait, as the S. E. monsoon generally prevails in these months along the South coast of Java. The Cadogan, however, fell in with Java Head, May 24th, 1729, and experienced variable winds from the westward, with S. Easterly currents, which kept her working in sight of the head till the 10th of June, and prevented her from reaching Bencoolen until the 20th of this month.

The Montagu, bound to Amoy in China, fell in with the South coast of Java well to the eastward of Java Head, October 8th, 1703, where she had variable baffling winds, and a constant current of 2 to 2½ miles per hour setting to the eastward. She got soundings generally within 3 or 4 leagues of the coast, excepting in the great bay to the East of Java Head, no ground was obtained with 100 fathoms line within a mile of the shore. Although she frequently anchored, to prevent losing ground by the current, and ultimately got S. E. and Easterly winds, yet she did not get round Java Head, into the strait until the 22d of that month. It is therefore advisable, to steer nearly direct for Java Head, in most seasons, if bound to the Strait of Sunda, and the ship's longitude be correctly known, borrowing a little to the eastward or westward when it is approached, as may be required by the prevailing wind, or other circumstances at the time. If bound to Bencoolen, a direct course to make Engano will probably be found the most speedy in May, June, and part of July, and from thence direct for Bencoolen, as the winds admit, because in these months the winds are often at N. Westward, with southerly and easterly currents.

and to soil toward Hindoostan.

SHIPS bound from JAVA HEAD for Bombay, ought to run down their westing in the S. E. trade, and adopt the southern route; between the Chagos and Seychelle Islands, from March to September. If they approach near the equator early in April, or in October, when N.W. and Northerly winds prevail in North latitude at the changing of the monsoons, they may, if the wind incline from the West and N.W., steer to the northward on the East side of the Maldiva Islands, and endeavour not to fall in with the Malabar Coast until past Calicut or Mount Dilly. But if they are several degrees to the westward of the Maldiva Islands when the equator is approached, the best passage to Bombay may be expected in April, part of September, and October, by keeping to the westward of the islands, and avoiding the coast.

From October till March, it will be advisable to cross the equator nearly on the meridian of the South end of Ceylon, as westerly winds are liable to prevail near the equator, and from thence a few degrees to the northward, which will be favorable for steering to fall in with the land about Dondre Head or Point de Galle; afterward they may cross the Gulf of Manar, and follow the directions for sailing along the Malabar Coast, given in the first volume of this work, under the head "Monsoons, Land and Sea Breezes, and Currents, on the Western side of Hindoostan."

Ships bound from Java Head to Madras in the S.W. monsoon, ought to make the Friar's Hood on the East part of Ceylon, or at all events not fall to the northward of their port. If bound to Madras or Bengal in the N. E. monsoon, they ought to burrow within 3° or 4° of Hog Island or Achen Head, in passing into the Bay of Bengal, and follow the directions given for ships proceeding from Europe by the "Outer Passage, to places on either side the Bay of Bengal."

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of Sunda strait.

SUNDA STRAIT, has two channels which lead into it from the westward, the small channel between the West end of Java and Prince's Island, and the great channel to the northward of this island, betwixt it and the South coast of Sumatra, now to be described; this coast is indented by two large bays, and several islands and rocks front it, of various sizes.

Keyser's Bay and contiguous land.

SEMANKO, or KEYSER'S BAY, formed to the North and N. E. of Tanjong Chinna, projects into the land about 5 leagues in a N. Westerly direction, and is about 3 leagues wide, having various depths from 50 to 100 fathoms at the entrance, to 10 and 15 fathoms inside, along the western shore, and at the upper part, where the anchorage is good over a muddy bottom: the village of Borne stands close to the N.W. end of the bay, where there are some shoal rivulets; the shores are generally low, and the land marshy near the sea, but in some places there are pepper plantations. The ship Speke, in 1793, anchored in 15 fathoms about 1½ mile E. N. E. from the mouth of Borne rivulet, which the long-boat could not enter; here, refreshments of all kinds were procured from the Dutch Resident. A little inland from the N.W. angle of the bay, stands a high conical mountain, called Samanca or Semanko Peak, also Keyser's Peak; and to the eastward, between it and Lampoon Bay, there are other mountains, the highest of them called Lampoon Peak: these mountains are discernible a great way at sea, in clear weather, by ships running for Sunda Strait.

Keyser's Island.

Tubooan, or Keyser's Island, situated in the middle of the entrance of the bay, is high, bold, and safe to approach, the channel on either side of it being spacious and clear of danger; but the water is deep, and the bottom rocky in some places. On the N. E. side of the island there is anchorage in 15 or 16 fathoms, sandy bottom, about a mile from the shore; and near the East point, there is a salt water creek, having 6 feet water at the entrance, with fresh water at its head, where a supply may be procured. There are some pepper plantations on the island, and tall trees at the East end, fit for masts.

Caloombyan Harbour

CALOOMBYAN HARBOUR, situated on the Eastern side of Keyser's Bay, at the entrance of Sunda Strait, has recently been surveyed by Lieuts. Hull and Johnston, of the Royal Navy, and found to be small but very safe, sheltered from all winds, with sufficient depths of water for large ships, and well adapted for a fleet in want of refreshments, as every supply may be obtained, and the delay in the S. E. Monsoon would not be so great here as by touching at Batavia.

This harbour lies nearly East from the North end of Keyser's Island (or Pulo Tubooan), and may easily be discerned by Pulo Eeyoo and Pulo Clappa, two small islands, lying about a mile outside of the entrance, and having a safe channel, with 25 fathoms water between them.

The inner harbour is convenient for the native trade, as small vessels can load and unload along side of the beach, and the village is ¾ mile from the landing place, situated in a valley, apparently a healthy spot.

By a few guns properly placed upon Pulo Clappa, Pulo Eeyoo, and the South point of the harbour, this place might be rendered secure against the strongest force.

Directions.

To sail into the harbour in the N.W. monsoon, enter by the Western passage formed between Pulo Clappa and the North point, called Tanjong Napal, where the depths are front 30 to 22 fathoms.

In the S. E. monsoon, enter between Pulo Clappa and Pulo Eeyoo, if you have a steady breeze.

The Eastern passage between Pulo Ecyoo and the main is only safe for small vessels: both the islands are bold, having 22 fathoms water close to them. When abreast of Pulo Clappa, the South point of Keyser's Island should be kept well open to the southward of Pulo Clappa, and with this mark steer in till Oogooron Point bears North, which forms the North side of

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the entrance of the inner harbour, then anchor in 9 or 10 fathoms black mud; but in all parts of the harbour a ship may safely anchor, there being no danger that is not visible above water.

There is a small cove farther to the eastward, near Tanjong Tekoos.

Lampoon Bay and th islands adjoiuing.

LAMPOON BAY, formed between Tanjong Tekoos to the West, and Rajah Bassa to the eastward, is very extensive, being 6 or 7 leagues wide at the entrance, stretching northward into the land nearly the same distance. From Tanjong Tekoos, which is the West point of the bay, a chain of islands extends a considerable way to the eastward, having channels betwixt some of them, and between them and the point, with soundings from 40 to 20 fathoms. Other islands line the western shores of the bay inside, between which and the main, there are several good roads or places of shelter, formed by the adjoining islands and shoals, with some villages opposite to them on the main.

Pulo Lagooudy

PULO LAGOONDY, or GOONDY, the outermost and largest island, is separated from Tanjong Tekoos by Goondy Strait, or Owen's Channel, about ½ or ¾ of a mile wide, with 30 or 40 fathoms in it, and no soundings outside in the entrance, which seems to render it rather intricate for large ships, as it is formed by high land, liable to produce eddy winds, accompanied at times by strong currents. But with a leading land-breeze in the morning, a ship might run out through it with safety.

The fleet from China, having watered at Rajah Bassa, worked across Lampoon Bay, to keep in smooth water on the weather shore, intending to pass out at the West side of the bay between Tanjong Tekoos and Pulo Goondy, but the Arniston having struck on a rock about ½ a mile to the N. E. of the small island Oomowoomang, which lies near the North end of Pulo Goondy, induced the fleet to pass out to the eastward of it and the adjoining islands, in a good channel formed by these on the West side, and the small isle Pulo Saradong to the eastward, called also Tims Islet, which on the East side is covered with brush-wood. When in this channel, Crockatoa Peak bore South.

The Waterloo, Capt. Alsager, in April, 1822, homeward-bound from China, came from Rajah Bassa, inside the islands off Lampoon Bay, and then between Pulo Goondy and the main, through Owen's Channel, which was considered safe. When in mid-channel and in the narrowest part, a cannon-ball fired off from each side of the ship, reached the shore on both sides of the passage; and at 8 A. M., in the centre of the channel, soundings of 40 fathoms were got, with Pulo Sarasat East, and Tanjong Tekoos bearing West. The Waterloo passed through this channel in the morning, having anchored during the preceding night in Pedada Bay, which affords good shelter.

Nangga Harbour.

On the North side of Pulo Goondy, a small bay is formed called Nangga Harbour, with the small island Pulo Patappan in the middle of the entrance, on the East side of which is the best passage into the harbour, by borrowing near the shore of Pulo Goondy; here, the depths are from 15 to 10 fathoms, and from 12 to 7 fathoms inside the harbour, where a ship might moor secured from all winds, and careen if necessary.

Capt. Owen, careened His Majesty's sloop Baracouta here, in February, 1811, and moored with the West extreme of the harbour bearing N.W: 1 mile, East extreme N. E. ½ N. 1 mile, West extreme of Pulo Patappan N. by W. 2 cables' lengths, East extreme of the same N. N. E. 2 cables' lengths, distant from the bottom of the harbour 1 mile, and from the reef 1 cable's length. Observed lat. 5° 46′ S., lon. 105° 4′ E.

Geo. Site.

Rajah Bassa Road.

RAJAH BASSA ROAD, situated directly under the high land, called Refreshment Head, that forms the East side of Lampoon Bay, has frequently been visited by the homeward-bound China ships, it being an excellent place for procuring good water with facility, and turtle at 1 dollar each; a few fowls, buffalos, oranges, and plantains, may be got for coarse cutlery, as the natives seemed to care little for dollars, when the fleet touched here in

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February, 1815, under convoy of H. M. S. Grampus. The Winchelsea* anchored in 12 fathoms blue mud, with Rajah Bassa Peak N. E. by E. ½ E., extremes from N. ¼ E. to S. E. ½ E., off shore 1½ mile, which is a good birth for watering, there being two runs of fine water issuing from the high land nearly abreast, and another to the eastward of Cocoa-nut Point, either of which would supply a fleet of ships.

The fleet from China, under convoy of H. M. S. Cornelia, Capt. William Owen, anchored here January 21st, 1813; the Neptune in 16 fathoms blue mud, had the westernmost of the Three Brothers bearing S. 56° W., Crockatoa Peak in one with the high land of Pulo Sebese S. 20° W., off the nearest of the Three Brothers 3½ miles, and from the Rajah Bassa shore 3 miles. Large ships ought not to anchor under 11 or 10 futhoms, for although the soundings decrease regularly over a soft bottom to 7 or 8 fathoms in general, yet, the shore is fronted by a rocky bank, which projects out to 5 or 6 fathoms in some places, and is very steep to.

Geo. Site.

Rajah Bassa Peak, called also Ejow Peak, is about 1600 feet high, the anchorage of the road opposite, Capt. Owen made by observation in lat. 5° 50′ S., and it is about 7 miles East of Crockatoa Peak, or in lon. 105° 32′E. The water deepens to 25 and 27 fathoms toward the Three Brothers, which isles lie about 4 miles W. by N. from Cocoa-nut Point; and there are 18 fathoms in the gut between the Middle and South Brothers: these three islands appear as one in coming from eastward, and do not begin to open until Rajah Bassa Road is approached. The depths from Rajah Bassa Road across Lampoon Bay to Pulo Goody, are from 13 to 19 fathoms, regular soundings and good anchorage.

The South extreme of Rajah Bassa Road, called Cocoa-nut Point, is low, with cocoa-nut trees overhanging it, from whence the coast trends easterly, forming a concavity between it and Hog Point; the land is rather low near the latter, but rises gradually to an elevated peak, about a league eastward of Cocoa-nut Point.

Geo. Site of Hog Point.

TANJONG TOCA, or HOG POINT, situated about 4 leagues to the S. Eastward of the East point of Lampoon Bay, in lat. 5° 54′ S., lon. 105° 43½′ E., or 1° 8½′ West from Batavia, by chronometer, is the S. Easternmost extremity of Sumatra, and bounds the Strait of Sunda on the North side.

Adjacent Rocks.

There is a rock 6 or 7 feet above water, distant 2 miles N. W. from Hog Point, called Collier's Rock, being about 50 feet in circuit; and 50 feet distant from it, lies a coral rock under water. These are about a mile distant from the shore, with 50 or 55 fathoms water close to, on the outside. There is another rock above water, bearing South from Hog Point, distant ⅔ of a mile, with 65 or 70 fathoms outside of it, and deep water between it and the point, which seems steep to, as no bottom could be got with the hand-lead in sounding close to it with a boat.

Zutphen Islands, and the neighbouring coast.

Anchorage.

ZUTPHEN ISLANDS, called also HOUNDS, or HOG ISLANDS, front the coast of Sumatra to the N. Eastward of Hog Point; there are several shoals and islets between them and the main, among which there is said to be anchorage in some places. The largest of these islands, and part of the coast adjacent, is high land, mostly covered with wood; to the southward they are very steep, having from 40 to 50 fathoms water very near them, where they ought not to be approached close; but toward the northernmost, there are from 23 to 30 fathoms, and here, ships might occasionally anchor, particularly off the North end of this island, which lies in lat. 5° 50′ S. The Pigot anchored here, in January, 1770, in 20 fathoms mud and sand, Bantam Point bearing E. by S. ½ S., Fourth Point of Java S. ¼ E., West extreme of Thwart-the-way S. by E. ¼ E., North Island N. by E. ¼ E., Hog Island S. W., distant from a small island (that lies near the North extreme of the Zutphen) about 1 mile. The

* Capt. William Moffat, of the Winchelsea, at this time, made an excellent survey of Rajah Bassa Road, with the soundings from thence to Hog Point.

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boat had regular soundings from the ship to the entrance of a river on the coast of Sumatra, which bore from her N. N.W.; she was launched over the bar, and they went about 1½ mile up the river, where Tangrea village stands, with rice fields about it, cattle, poultry, and plenty of cocoa-nuts. Here, it is thought, some bullocks and poultry may be procured for dollars, but Europeans landing on any part of the coast of Sumatra hereabout, must be always on their guard, for the natives are seldom to be trusted.

The Lascelles, in December, 1792, anchored in 15 fathoms, North Island bearing N. by E. ½ E., the outermost point of Hog Islands S. ¾ W., and the watering place S. W. by W. ¼ W., off shore 2 miles. The water they got here, although not brackish, was very soft, and fit only for culinary purposes. Capt. Jameson, of the Balcarras, says, the best anchorage in Hound's Bay, is to bring the Zutphen Islands in one, in 11 fathoms.

Reef off Hout's Island and dangerous current.

From the South Zutphen Island, called Houts, or Woody Island, there is a reef of rocks, distant about 2 cable's lengths, with 10 and 12 fathoms in the narrow gut between it and the island. February 12th, 1815, the China fleet in passing these islands, found a current sweeping round them to the westward, at the rate of 4½ miles per hour, with strong ripplings rushing in among the islands, which horsed some of the ships close to danger: the Bombay, after dropping two anchors, was driven upon the reef off the South Zutphen Island, where she lay till the 12th, and after throwing part of her cargo overboard, all her guns, &c., with great exertions of the fleet, she was hove off the reef into the deep gut between it and the island, with great damage, which made it necessary to proceed to Bombay, where she underwent a complete repair. When aground on the reef, Stroom Rock bore S. 36½° E., Thwart-the-Way from S. 31° E., to S. 53½° E., Button E. 8° S. St. Nicholas Point East, North Island N. 10° E., islet off the northernmost Zutphen N. 6° E., and the S. E. point of Houts or Woody Island S. 31° W., being then on the inside of the reef of rocks, and 150 fathoms distant from the shore of Houts Island.

The Castle Huntly, brought up with two anchors in 14 fathoms rocks, about a cable's length N. 47° E. from the Bombay aground, with a reef off the N. E. end of Houts Island in one with the extreme of Long Island or North Zutphen bearing N. 37° W.; from this dangerous situation, she got clear, by slipping one cable, and with springs on the other, cut it, and sheered out clear of the reef.

On account of the rapid currents, which are experienced near these islands at times, in the Westerly monsoon, ships ought not to approach them at the South and S. E. parts, nearer than 1½ or 1¼ mile, particularly in passing Houts Island.

Great channel at the entrance of Sunda Strait.

GREAT CHANNEL, to the northward of Prince's Island, at the West entrance of the Strait of Sunda, is separated into several passages, by three large islands situated betwixt Prince's Island and the land on the East side of Lampoon Bay. The southernmost of these channels is about 6 or 6½ leagues broad, formed between the North end of Prince's Island and Crockatoa; although destitute of soundings or anchorage, it is much frequented, being the widest passage into the strait, and is considered clear of danger.

A sunken rock was placed in some old charts, about 5 or 6 miles to the S. S.W. of Crockatoa, said to have been seen by Lieut. M'Cluer; and Capt. Drury, of the Navy, is said to have examined it a few years ago, and found it to be a rock near the water's edge. There is, however, great cause to think there is no rock existing in this place, and that the channel is clear from the South end of Crockatoa to the North end of Princes Island.

Crockatoa.

CROCKATOA, or KRAKATOA, extending nearly N.W. and S. E., about 6 or 7 miles, and 4 or 5 miles in breadth, is a high island, steep to, on the South side, but a reef of rocks projects a little way from the S. E. point.* Near the S. E. end of the island, is

* As the Peak of Crockatoa may be considered the Fairway Mark in entering the Strait of Sunda from the Westward, its latitude ought to be correctly known, and although the latitude stated above, is thought to be very near the truth, it being the result of correct observations taken by Capt. Lestock Wilson, corresponding with those of several navigators; yet, other officers, esteemed careful observers, differ more in the latitude of this peak, than could have been expected, in a period of improved nautical astronomy. Capt. T. Lynn, made the Peak by observation in lat. 6° 12′ S. † Captains Milliken Craig and Bampton, made it in 6° 10′ S., and some Dutch charts place it in the same latitude. I made it in lat. 6° 9′ S., by indifferent observation. Capt. L. Wilson made it in lat. 6° 8′ 3″S., Capt. Balston in 6° 9′ S., Capt. Denniston in 6° 7′ S., and Capt. W. Owen, of the Royal Navy, made it only in lat. 6° 3′ S., or 9 miles less than Capt. Lynn's observation, although these two officers are known to be careful observers, and good astronomers!

VOL. II. O

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Geo. Site of the peak.

situated a conical peak in lat. 6° 8½′ S., lon. 105° 25½′ E., or 1° 26½°′ West from Batavia by chronometers, bearing about N. E. by N. from the N. E. end of Princes Island, distant 7 or 7½ leagues. Several small islands lie contiguous to the West and northern sides of the principal island, of which Verlatens or Forsaken Island at the N.W. end, and Long Island at the N. E. end, are the largest.

Anchorage.

A bank of soft mud extends out from the East side of Crockatoa and Long Island about 3 miles, when the peak bears W. S.W. to S.W. by W., affording excellent shelter from westerly gales, by anchoring in from 20 to 23 fathoms about 1½ to 2½ miles off shore. The peak bearing S.W. by W. is the best birth, but do not anchor with the North end of the island to the southward of West, or you will be exposed to a heavy sea rolling in from the westward between Crockatoa and Pulo Bessy, during a westerly gale. The Princess Amelia, with the fleet from China, took shelter here December 28th, 1815, where they remained till the 4th of January, 1816, during a continued gale from the westward, in very smooth water; while a Swedish ship was driven into Welcome Bay, and rode with two anchors down against a very heavy sea. On the N. E. end of Long Island, a swamp was found, with apparently a little rain water, as no spring was discovered: a very small spring of fresh water was found on Crockatoa, opposite to the South end of Long Island, but it could only be approached by boats at high water; directly abreast of Long Island, on the N. E. side of Crockatoa, a hot spring was observed, in which the thermometer rose to 154°. No inhabitants were seen on these islands, nor any trace of a village, and Capt. Balston, of the Princess Amelia, thinks, no ship ought to depend on watering at Crockatoa. A wild hog was shot on Long Island, and there are also some small deer on it.

The S. E. end of Crockatoa and East end of Long Island bear N. ¼ E. and S. ¼ W. of each other, forming a bay with a coral reef projecting ¾ of a mile, and a rock 2 feet under water, lies nearly a mile off the South end of Long Island. A reef extends half way across from the South end of Long Island toward Crockatoa, and although regular soundings of 28 to 32 fathoms were found in the channel between these islands, it is too narrow to be navigated by a large ship, and rendered more dangerous by eddy winds: the North end of this strait is fronted by a small island, and a reef of rocks nearly even with the water's edge, extends from the N.W. end of Long Island, above ½ a mile in a westerly direction toward the North end of Crockatoa.

Pulo Bessy.

PULO BESSY, or TAMARIND ISLAND, bearing about N. by E. from Crockatoa Peak, distant 3½ or 4 leagues, and nearly of the same size, has also a high peak resembling a sugar loaf, it being more acute than the former, situated in lat. 5° 57′ S., and 3 miles East of Crockatoa Peak: some islets and rocks adjoin to the North end of the principal island, but it is bold to approach in most places, having 11 and 12 fathoms regular soundings near to the North and East sides, and 16 or 17 fathoms near the western part. In February, 1821, when blowing strong from S.W. by W., the General Kyd ran under Pulo Bessy, and anchored in 13 fathoms mud and sand, off shore about 2 miles, with the Peak bearing W. by S., and had smooth water.

Channel between it and Crockatoa.

The channel betwixt the South end of this island and those adjoining to the North end of Crockatoa, having regular soundings in it from 18 to 28 fathoms mud, and being about 2

† Capt. Lynn, afterward, in 1817, made it in lat. 6° 8′ S. Capt. Hamilton, in 1820, made it in lat. 6° 9′ 42″ S.

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leagues wide, where ships can occasionally anchor to stop tide, or otherwise, it is often preferred to the channel betwixt the latter and Prince's Island, particularly by ships working out against the westerly monsoon. HINDOSTAN ROCK, is the only known danger, on which the ship of this name struck in 1791; and it is of a spiral form, being only 6 or 8 feet in diameter, with 15 feet water on its summit, and 10 fathoms close to. About half way between it and the bushy S. E. point of Pulo Bessy, the depths are 8 and 10 fathoms, and it is distant from the South end of this island about 1½ mile. When upon the Hindostan Rock, Crockatoa Peak bore S. 15° W., the West extreme of Verlaten's Island S. 45° W., the East extreme of Long Island S. 2° W., Pulo Bessy from N. 44° E., to N. 2° W., the peak of Keyser's Island W. 12° N., and Zee Klip, or Gap Rock W. 5° N., well open to the southward of Keyser's Island.

Hindostan Rock.

Zee Klip

ZEE KLIP,* is a small group, containing two or three steep pyramidal rocks, situated about 5 miles westward from the South end of Pulo Bessy, the largest of which having a cleft in it, is called sometimes Gap Rock.

Directions to avoid the Hindostan Rock.

To avoid the Hindostan Rock, a ship ought to keep at least 2 miles from the South end of Pulo Bessy, but the best mark in proceeding through this channel, is never to bring the Gap Rock open to the southward of Keyser's Island. When the Gap Rock is in one with the South point of this island, it bears W. 12° N.; W. 15° N. when on with the centre; and W. 17° N. when in one with the North point.

The islands on the South side may be approached within 1½ or 2 miles, there being 23 fathoms mud about ¼ mile from the North point of Long Island, and 15 fathoms sand within a ship's length of the beach; but a reef of rocks, above water, projects from the N.W. part of the island, ½ mile or more to the W. N. Westward.

Pulo Sebooko.

PULO SEBOOKO, or SAMBOORICO, in lat. 5° 53½′ S., lies to the N. N. E. Pulo Bessy, leaving a safe channel nearly a league wide between them, and it is situated nearly mid-way between the latter and the S. E. point of Rajah Bassa Road: it is high, covered with wood, and some islets and rocks lie contiguous to the North and East sides, with good anchorage off the East part of the island, in 10 or 12 fathoms near the small islets. A reef projects a little way from the South end of the island, and also from the S.W. part, but on the North side there are 30 fathoms water between it and the Three Brothers, which passage seems to be safe, although not frequented.

Geo. Site of Thwart-the-Way;

THWART-THE-WAY, or Middle Island, called Pulo Renyang by the Malays, situated in the middle of the narrowest part of Sunda Strait, but rather nearer to Hog Point than to the Java shore, is of considerable size, being 4 miles long and moderately elevated; it lies about 7 leagues to the eastward of the islands last mentioned, the N. E. end being in lat. 5° 55½′ S., and 1° 1′ W. from Batavia by chronometers, or in lon. 105° 51′ E. A reef projects a little way from the South side of it, and the bottom is generally rocky near this island, with inconvenient depths for anchoring; there being from 40 to 60 fathoms about a league to the northward of it, but less water near its South and South West sides.

channel between and Sumatra.

The channel between Thwart-the-way and Sumatra, is much frequented in the westerly monsoon, by ships from Banca Strait bound to the westward, being shorter, although more contracted than the other channel betwixt Thwart-the-way and Java. The northern channel may be adopted with a steady wind, for in such case, with the westerly current, a ship will get speedily through; but in light baffling winds, she is liable to be drifted about by strong tides or currents near the Stroom Rock, where there is no anchorage except in deep water from 40 to 60 fathoms.

* i. e. Sea Rock.

O 2

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Stroom Rock.

Directions.

STROOM ROCK, situated about 1½ or 2 miles to the N.W. of Thwart-the-way, is a group of three or four rocks, visible above the sea at high water, and then discernible only at a short distance; at other times, it appears about the height of a long boat. Although the passage betwixt this rock and Thwart-the-way is safe, the channel to the northward is preferable, by keeping within 1½ mile of the Zutphen Islands when the wind inclines from the Sumatra side, and giving a birth to the Rock off Hog Point. The Stroom Rock, Button, and Bantam Point, are nearly in one, bearing E. 10° N.: when in one with the northern extreme of Thwart-the-way, it bears E. by S. ½ S., and when on with the S. Western extreme of that island, it bears S. E. by S.

SOUTH SIDE of SUNDA STRAIT, with SAILING DIRECTIONS to BATAVIA.

Geo. Site of Prince's Island.

Anchorage,

PRINCE'S ISLAND, or PULO PONTANGH, separated from the West part of Java by a channel about 4 miles broad, is the largest island at the entrance of Sunda Strait, being of triangular form, 4 or 5 leagues in extent: the North end is in lat. 6° 27′ S., the peaked hill at the S. E. side, in lat. 6° 35′ S., lon. 105° 15′ E., or 1° 37′* West from Batavia, by my chronometers, and it is about 4 miles to the eastward of Java Head. The middle of the island is hilly, but in some parts, particularly at the West end, the land is level and low fronting the sea, and all the island abounds with wood. A reef projects from the West point, betwixt which and the South point of the island, an extensive bay called Casuaris Bay, stretches a great way inland, having soundings of various depths, and anchorage at its upper end; but being open to seaward, it is not frequented, consequently little known. The North side of the island has soundings from 20 to 12 or 10 fathoms near the shore, but the anchorage is destitute of shelter, and too near the land for ships to lie in safety. With the peaked hill on the S. E. part bearing from S.W. to N. N.W., there is anchoring ground in 36 to 44 fathoms about a mile off the eastern shore; and with the same hill bearing from N. ½ W. to W. by N., there are from 10 to 30 fathoms coarse sand, shells, and coral, little more than a cable's length off shore. The common anchorage is on the East side of the island, with the hill bearing about S.W. by W., and the northern extreme N. ½ E., in 38 fathoms fine sand, about ¾ mile off shore; but as this road is inconvenient for watering, the Peaked Hill may be brought to bear about N.W. by N., where a ship, in want of water, should anchor in 35 fathoms soft ground, about ½ a mile from the shore. Here, is a small sandy bay, and at its eastern part; a run of fresh water, where the casks must be filled about 100 yards up, (the higher the better) otherwise the water will be brackish. It is only during the westerly monsoon that ships can conveniently procure water here, for the springs are nearly dry in the S. E. monsoon, when there is little rain; the strong winds also, which blow in this season over the West part of Java, render the anchorage at the East end of Prince's Island unpleasant, it being then a lee shore.

and adjoining dangers.

From the N. E. end of the island, a reef extends along the shore on each side; some rocks and breakers also lie at the S. E. side of it, in a bay to the S. Westward of the peaked hill; but the rocks called the CARPENTERS, are most in the way of ships that pass betwixt Java and Prince's Island. These are a group of large rocks projecting from the South point of the island nearly a mile, having no anchorage near them, there being 50 fathoms close to, and about two ships lengths from them no ground.

* Captain L. Wilson made the Peak 1° 38¾′ West from Batavia by chronometers, or 1¾ mile more than stated above.

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Prince's Strait

PRINCE'S STRAIT, the BEHOUDEN, or Safe Passage of the Dutch, formed between Prince's Island and Java, is the small or southern channel leading into Sunda Strait; it was formerly much frequented, and recommended as the best passage, both to enter and depart from that strait; and although still chosen by many ships, the preference is now generally given to the great channel betwixt Prince's Island and Crockatoa, or to that between the latter and Tamarind Island, with a steady fair wind, unless a ship intend to water at Mew Bay, which is more convenient than Prince's Island for that purpose.

First Point

FIRST POINT of Java, or TANJONG ALONG-AJANG, is the South point of the entrance of Prince's Strait, easily known by a remarkable rock off it, called the FRIAR, that lies nearly S. E. by S. about 5 miles from the Carpenters, which bound the other side of the strait. The West end of Java extends nearly 5 leagues about N. by W. and S. by E., steep high land, projecting a little to the northward of the middle part, which is generally considered as Java Head, already mentioned in the First Volume of this work. The First Point is in lat. 6° 44′ S., distant nearly 2 leagues to the northward of the Head, and the coast between them which forms a bight, is fronted by high rocks in some places, stretching out about a mile. On these rocks, also on the Friar, and Carpenters, the sea breaks high during westerly winds, or in bad weather.

Directions.

Ships proceeding through Prince's Strait, in the N. W. monsoon, should keep near to Prince's Island and the Carpenters, particularly in working out against westerly winds; a current will then, sometimes, be found setting out in their favor. During the other monsoon, when S. E. and southerly winds prevail, they ought to keep nearest to the Java shore, and the Friar, which rock may be approached within 1 or 2 cables' lengths, with a steady southerly wind.

A ship may sometimes get quickly out to the westward through Prince's Strait, in the N.W. monsoon, during squally weather, when it would be difficult to beat out to the northward of Prince's Island. Captain John Cowman, in the Magdalen, beat out through this strait against a westerly gale, by carrying a press of sail, and tacking between the squalls, at a time when the heavy sea made it impossible to tack the ship in the Great Channel between Crockatoa and Prince's Island; notwithstanding, he was only 36 hours from North Island until clear out of the strait, while other ships from China, anchored for shelter under Crockatoa. The Elphinstone, of 1200 tons burthen, Capt. Milliken Craig, bound to China, entered Prince's Strait in the afternoon of the 3d of August, and passed through it in the night without anchoring.

Mew Island.

Watering Place.

MEW ISLAND, in lat. 6° 43′ S., called also CANTAE, situated in Mew Bay, about a league eastward of the First Point of Java, is small and hilly, abounding with wood; betwixt it and the First Point, there is an islet near the Java shore, and regular soundings over a sandy bottom are found to stretch along this side of Prince's Strait. There is a safe, but narrow channel betwixt Mew Island and Java, with various soundings from 5 to 8 and 10 fathoms, over a sandy bottom, nearest to the island, where a ship may lie land locked, and be sheltered from all winds. South, from the body of the island, but nearest to the Java shore, there is a rocky shoal, which is avoided by keeping nearest to the island; and in every other part, a little nearer the island than mid-channel, is the best track for vessels passing through, or taking shelter here. The shore is rocky on the outside of Mew Island, but safe to approach, the soundings decreasing gradually to 8 or 9 fathoms. On the Java shore to the eastward of the island, there is an excellent watering place, during the southerly monsoon, being then preferable to that at Prince's Island, where the water is sometimes scarce, and the wind blowing upon the shore: whereas, the water pours from the rocks here in great abundance, of superior quality to that of Anger, North Island, or the Nanka Islands.

Anchorage.

A ship proceeding to the watering place at Mew Island, must give a birth to a reef of

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rocks, which bears about N. by W. nearly ½ mile from the watering place. She may run betwixt it and the island, borrowing toward the latter, and anchor in 10 or 12 fathoms inside, in the channel formed between the island and Java; or she may anchor farther out in 14 fathoms water, over a bottom of fine sand, with the peak on Prince's Island N. 13° W., the extremity of Mew Island W. 8° S., distant from the Java shore about 1¼ mile, and from the watering place 1½ mile. The Royal George at anchor in 18 fathoms, had Prince's Peak bearing N. 15° W., North extreme of Prince's Island N.2° W., North extreme of Java N. 42° E., Southern extreme of the Carpenters N. 70° W., Mew Island from S. 15° W. to S. 88° W., distant ½ a mile, and the Watering Place S. 21° E., distant 1¼ mile. This ship and the Thames, watered here, March 26th, 1813. H. M. S. Grampus, with the fleet from China, also watered here, May 1st, 1811. When the William Pitt watered here in May, 1820, the wood had grown over the cascade, that it could not be perceived at high water, but was found by the noise of the water falling into the sea.

Mew Island is not inhabited, but ships touching there, sometimes procure a small supply of turtle, fowls, and cocoa-nuts, at an exorbitant price, from the people of Prince's Island, who bring them over in their proas. Plenty of wood may be got upon the island, or on the opposite shore of Java, near the watering place, but the shore party ought to be on their guard against any hidden assault from the natives. The water is clear and good, and falls in a cascade from the land, upon the beach; with the assistance of a hose, it may be filled into boats without landing the casks. Inland, a considerable way from the watering place, there are some huts or villages, but none contiguous to the sea on this part of the coast.

It is high water here, about 6 hours on full and change of the moon.

Second Point, and coast; with sailing directions,

SECOND POINT, or TANJONG GOOKOOLANG, in about lat. 6° 36′ S., and 3 leagues N. Eastward from Mew Island, may be approached to 15 or 16 fathoms, about 1½ or 2 miles distance; and a ship may keep in moderate depths for anchoring, in passing along the coast between them, there being no danger unless near the shore, On the East side of the point, lies Welcome Bay, extending a great way into the land, and containing several islets and shoals; the outermost of these shoals, extends E. N. E. and W. S. W. about two cables' lengths, and is half that breadth, having only 9 feet water on it in some places. From this shoal, the Second Point is said to bear W. N.W. about 5 miles, then on with the northernmost peak of Prince's Island, and the Third Point N. E. ½ E. About a cable's length outside of it, there are 19 fathoms water, so that care is required not to stand into the bay, in working, when near this shoal; and with a fair wind, a direct course should be steered from the one point to the other, without borrowing into the bay. The eastern side is more clear, with good shelter in the S. Easterly monsoon, but in the westerly monsoon this bay ought to be avoided.

to the Third Point.

Anchorage at Seriguy.

THIRD POINT, or TANJONG LUSSONG, in lat. 6° 27′ S., separates Welcome Bay from Pepper Bay, the latter being situated on the East side of this point, and it bears nearly N. E. by E. ½ E., 5 or 6 leagues from the Second Point. To the eastward of the point, there is an islet inside of Pepper Bay, with a shoal to the North westward, rendering the approach to it dangerous; which is the case throughout this bay, the water being generally shoal. A ship being abreast of the Third Point, about a league distant, the small island Seriguy or Pulo Papale, at the N. E. part of Pepper Bay, may be seen bearing about E. by N., but will then be confounded with the contiguous coast; if she is to touch there, it will be prudent to steer across the bay, keeping the island on the starboard bow, and not borrow toward the shoal water near the Java shore. She may anchor about 2 or 3 miles from Seriguy in 7 or 8 fathoms, with it bearing about S. S. E., where refreshments may be procured from the village on the main; but at high prices. A reef projects from the island about a mile to the northward, and it stretches from thence to the Java shore.

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Fourth Point; to sail clear of the dangers.

FOURTH POINT, or TANJONG CIECORANG, situated about 4½ or 5 leagues N. by E. from Seriguy, is low to seaward, and most part of the coast betwixt it and Welcome Bay is low, interspersed with hills in some places, and abounding with cocoa-nuts. In coasting along betwixt Seriguy and the Fourth Point, a ship should keep about 3 miles or more from the shore, in soundings from 20 to 30 fathoms, to be enabled to anchor, if calms and contrary currents render it necessary. About half way from Seriguy toward the point, it would be imprudent to borrow too near the shore, for reefs stretch out nearly a mile in some places: and from the Fourth Point, a reef projects about a mile, with 20 fathoms very near it. Near the same point, there is said to be a reef of rocks adjoining to the shore, and a sand bank stretching off from the reef about ½ a mile, on which the Catherine was lost.* From the outside of it in 12 fathoms water, the Button bears N. N. E. ½ E., Thwart-the-way N. ½ E., Crockatoa West, and the nearest part of the Java shore S. E. by E., about 2 or 2½ miles.

To soil from Second Point to the Fourth Point.

If a ship having entered by Prince's Strait, is abreast of the Second Point, she ought to steer a direct course for the Fourth Point, bearing nearly N. E. from the former, distant about 13 leagues; or having entered by the great channel, to the northward of Prince's Island, a course should be steered for the same point, if she intend to stop at Anger Road, or is bound to Batavia: for it will be prudent to keep near the Java coast during the southerly monsoon, and pass betwixt it and Thwart-the-way, whether bound to Batavia, or Banca Strait. From the Second Point to the Fourth Point, there is generally good ground for anchoring occasionally, in 18 to 25 or 30 fathoms.

Geo. Site of Anger,

Anchorage,

ANGER, or ANJERE VILLAGE, in lat. 6° 3½′ S., lon. 105° 55′ E., about 2 leagues eastward of the Fourth Point, is not easily perceived in coming from the westward; being situated in a bay, where the houses or huts are scattered amongst the cocoa-nut trees, it is nearly obscured by them, and by the chain of high hills inland. The easternmost of these is a sharp peaked hill, called Anger Peak, directly over the village, and is on with it bearing S. S. E.; from the S.W. point of Thwart-the-way, the village bears S. E., and from the eastern extreme of the same island, it bears S. 30° E. Ships frequently touch at this place in the southerly monsoon, to procure refreshments; but the road is not considered safe nor convenient, in the opposite season, for it is then dangerous landing on account of the high surf. The surf is sometimes high, even in the southerly monsoon, for, on May 20th, 1820, the Company's ship, William Pitt, anchored here, and could not procure any supplies, without waiting two days, until they could be brought from the country; and finding it impracticable to get fresh water from the shore, on account of the heavy swell rolling into the road, she proceeded to Mew Bay to fill up her water. The Company's ship Charles Grant, bound homeward from China, anchored at Anger, April 10th, 1826, and on the following morning, parted from all her anchors, in a hard gale from the westward, was driven on the rocky shore, and did not get off till the 16th, after having lightened the ship, and with the loss of her rudder, and otherwise sustaining great injury. This shews, that Anger Road is not safe in the month of April, and should be avoided by the homeward bound ships. Buffalos, some hogs, poultry, vegetables, and frequently turtles, may be procured here; water may be had by employing the shore boats. The common anchorage in Anger Road, is in from 9 to 14 fathoms, abreast of the village. The Raymond in 9 fathoms, had the Flagstaff bearing S. by E. about ¾ of a mile. The Ceres, June 28th, 1802, anchored in 13 fathoms about ¾ mile from the shore, with the Flagstaff bearing S. 37° E. Thwart-the-way from N. 28°

* By this ship's journal, it appears, that she struck on a sunken rock about 2 miles off the shore at the Fourth Point, between 11 and 12 A. M., September 20th, 1716, where she bilged, but floated off, and was run on shore to save the treasure, and part of the cargo. Capt. Hunter, of the Catherine, went with the treasure in the long boat to Batavia, and the governor gave every assistance, by sending sloops to take out the cargo, which was carried to Edam Island. The Javians afterward, burnt the hull of the ship to procure the iron.

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W. to N. 43° W., the Button N, 7° E., the Cap N. 20° E., and the N. E. extreme of Java N. 32° E.

Betwixt the Fourth Point and Anger Road, the soundings are irregular and the coast steep, the depths from 30 to 35 fathoms about 3 miles off, decreasing to 8 and 10 fathoms about ½ a mile from the shores of Anger Bay.

Cap.

CAP. or SMALL CAP, called Pulo Oolar, or Snake Island by the Malays, is a little round isle, bearing N. N. E. from Anger Village about 4 or 5 miles, and nearly E. S. E. from the South part of Thwart-the-way; between it and the latter island is the proper channel, having various depths in it from 20 to 50 fathoms, over an uneven, and generally rocky bottom. There is a passage betwixt the Cap and the Java shore, but ships proceed not through it, on account of Brouwer's Sand, bounding it to the eastward.

Button.

Tides.

BUTTON, or GREAT CAP, situated in lat. 5° 53′ S., and 2 leagues North from the Small Cap, of similar appearance, but larger and higher, is steep and covered with small trees. From Anger Road, nearly to St. Nicholas Point, there is anchorage in 20 to 16 fathoms by borrowing toward the Java shore; but outside, the depths are great, and the bottom unfavorable for that purpose, where ships are liable to be drifted about by the strong tides; if the wind fail them, for the tide runs through this narrow part of the strait, with great velocity during the springs. Betwixt Thwart-the-way, and the Java shore, and off the Button, the tides or currents, set generally strong through the strait to the S. Westward in the southeast monsoon; and in the opposite direction, during the westerly monsoon.

Brouwer's Sand.

BROUWER'S SAND, bounds the channel on the inside, and stretches a considerable way parallel to the coast of Java, having an islet and a small passage between it and the shore; it is a dangerous shoal, steep to seaward, there being deep water very near it on the outside. When the Harrison's boat was on it in 1½ and 2 fathoms water, the Cap bore S.W. ½ S., Thwart-the-way W. by N., the Button N.W. ½ N., the point of an island near the shore, (supposed Pulo Merak) which shut in Bantam Point, N. by E., and an isle close in shore, (or Little Pulo Merak) E. N. E. To avoid this shoal, a ship should keep nearly in mid-channel between the Button and the Java shore, taking care not to bring the Cap in a line with the point on the West side of Anger Bay, generally called Anger Point, or Fourth Point.

Pulo Merak.

PULO MERAK, KETCHEEL, (Little Pulo Merak) lies near the shore inside of the Brouwer's Sand, and Pulo Merak Besar, (Great Pulo Merak) to the northward of it: between this island and the main, Merak harbour is formed, having 6, 8, and 9 fathoms water in it, being about a ¼ mile in extent, which was surveyed by Capt. Rayley in H. M. Sloop Baracouta, in September, 1812, and seems to afford good shelter for small ships.

Geo. Site of Bantam Point.

BANTAM POINT, or ST. NICHOLAS POINT, in lat. 5° 52′ S., lon. 106° 2′ E., or 50 miles West from Batavia by chronometers, is a high bold headland, and bears from the Button E. 9° N., distant 7 miles. Close to the shore, on each side of it, there are some small islands, Pulo Tampasa to the S.W., and Pulo Saleyra in the bay on the East side: the soundings off this part of the coast are mostly regular, and ships may anchor in some places, in 20 fathoms clay or sand, about 2 or 3 miles from the point; but it appears that the depths do not decrease regularly close to this point, for the Scaleby Castle had 38 fathoms hard bottom, with it bearing South, distant 1 mile, where 18 fathoms is marked in some charts, and even 12 fathoms in the Dutch charts.

The coast between it and Anger, is high, with indifferent anchorage in the channel until Bantam Point is approached; but there are spots between it and the Button, where a ship

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may occasionally anchor to stop tide, particularly toward the Java shore, where the depths decrease in most places:*

Pangoriang

PANGORIANG, a small place about 4 miles to the East of St. Nicholas Point, has a small rivulet of good water and convenient anchorage, where ships may easily procure a supply of that article, and other refreshments may be got at times: this place was frequented by H. M. ships, when Java belonged to the British Government, and the anchorage is in from 10 to 16 fathoms. December 7th, 1812, Capt. Owen, in H. M. S. Cornelia, anchored in 13 fathoms mud, with Ejow, or Rajah Bassa Peak bearing W. 10° N., St. Nicholas Point W. 2° N., Pulo Saleyra or Roben Island W. 3° S., Goonong Laoo, or highest hill near the ship S. 18° W., Pulo Kaly S. 26° E. to S. 45° E., Great Pulo Mady S. 64° E., Pulo Pontangh S. 68° E., centre of Pulo Baby N. 72° E., and the watering place S. 33° W., off shore about 1¼ mile.

Pulo Kaly are two small islands, having a passage of 4 fathoms within them, affording good shelter for small vessels; they lie about half way between Pangoriang and the Red arid bluff extreme, that forms the West side of Bantam Bay; from whence, all the shore is rocky to the sandy bay of Saleyra, situated on the S. E. side of St. Nicholas Point. Pulo Saleyra, fronting this bay, is low and woody with a sandy beach, having 2 fathoms water inside of it, and 22 fathoms near it on the outside.

To Soil from Anger to the eastward.

A ship sailing from Anger Road, or being abreast of it, should steer to pass outside of the Cap, and inside of the Button, at any discretional distance from either, taking care not to borrow too close to the Brouwer's Sand in passing; when clear of that shoal, and the Button, she may steer N. N. Eastward for the Two Brothers, if bound to Banca Strait; or to pass Bantam Point within 2 or 3 miles, if bound to Batavia, or Bantam.

Tides.

THE TIDES, in the narrow part of Sunda Strait, seem to be greatly influenced by the winds; and frequently resemble currents more than regular tides. In Anger Road, the ebb tide sets often from 1 to 2 miles per hour to the westward during the S. E. monsson; continuing to run sometimes about 14 hours at a time, with a slack or flood, of 6 hours. Off Thwart-the-way and the Button, in the same season, it often runs 14 hours at a time to the S. Westward, from 2 to 3½ miles per hour; then changes and sets to N.W. and northward, with much less velocity. At other times, the ebb sets about 6 hours to S.W., and the flood 6 hours to the N. E., with nearly equal velocity, about 3 or 3½ miles per hour, when strongest on the springs, which we experienced in the Anna, in July and August.

During the westerly monsoon, betwixt Java and Thwart-the-way, the tide has also been found to run 3 and 3½ miles per hour when at its greatest velocity, the ebb 6 hours to the S. Westward, and the flood the same length of time to the N. E.; but during strong gales from the westward, the flood frequently runs longest into the strait. In this season, the tide or current on the opposite side of the strait, slants off from the Sumatra coast about the Zutphen Islands, toward the middle of the strait, or the Java shore: and from December to February, the ebb tide along the Sumatra coast between North Island and Hog Point, has been experienced to run generally to the southward from 4 o'clock in the morning until 6 in the evening, and the flood weakly to the northward during the night. In February and March, a rapid current of 4 to 4½ miles per hour, sets sometimes in among the Zutphen Islands to the W. S. Westward, or round them toward Hog Point, which requires great caution in ships passing those islands, or between Hog Point and the Stroom Rock.

Bantam Bay.

BANTAM BAY, about 2½ leagues S. Eastward from St. Nicholas Point, is extensive,

* With the Button bearing W. ¼ N. 2 miles, we anchored in the Anna in 28 fathoms, to stop tide during the night, and had 20 fathoms nearer to the Java shore. At another time, we anchored in the night in 37 fathoms, with the Button bearing S. by W. ½ W., but here the ground was hard.

vol. II. P

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To sail to the anchorage.

and contains several islands; of which, Pulo Panjang, a long flat island, covered with trees, in the West part of the entrance, is the largest. A ship may pass on either side of this island, if bound to the anchorage at Bantam, but the eastern channel between it and Great Pulo Mady is to be preferred, having 8 or 9 fathoms water, and is much wider than the western channel: this is formed between the point that bounds the West side of the bay, and the West end of Pulo Panjang, and the depths in it are 6 and 7 fathoms. If a ship pass through this channel, she must give a birth to a reef that projects from the South side of Pulo Panjang, and others which extend from the small islands in the western part of the bay. If she enter by the channel to the eastward of Pulo Panjang, Bantam Hill (of round form) will be seen, which is on with the town bearing S. S.W., and when the flagstaff of Bantam bears S. S.W., it is open a little to the westward of Little Pulo Mady: with either of these marks on, she may steer for the town, passing on the West side of Great and Little Pulo Mady, and anchor off the town in 5 or 6 fathoms mud. There is a passage to the eastward of these islands, but the channel betwixt them and Pulo Panjang has the deepest water. Pontangh Point is bluff, and forms the East side of Bantam Bay, from which a reef projects a great way to seaward, with a regular decrease of depth toward its outer edges. The perpendicular rise and fall of tide is 5 or 6 feet in Bantam Bay, and along this part of the coas.

Bulo Baby, and islands to the eastward.

PULO BABY, extends about 4 miles nearly East and West; its West end is in lat. 5° 48′ S., and bears from St. Nicholas Point E. 19° N., distant 13 miles. This island is woody and bold to approach, excepting the East end, from which projects a reef. About 5 leagues nearly East from it, lies the westernmost island of the group called Hoorn's Islands; this is the largest of the group, also called Pulo Tidong, or Wapen Island, the West end of which bears about N. ½ W. from Maneater's Island, distant 4 leagues; and to the S. Eastward of these, the Great and Little Cambuys are situated. Pulo Baby, and these islands, with their adjoining shoals, bound the North side of the passage leading to Batavia; and the shoals which stretch along the Java shore, from that off the East point of Bantam Bay, to that projecting from Maneater's Point, bound the opposite side of the passage. The coast of Java, in this space, is low near the sea.

Maneater's Island, situated near the N.W. end of the shoal of that name, which extends a great way out from Java, is level and low, and bears from the West end of Pulo Baby E. 29° S., distant about 7 leagues, and 5 or 6 miles W. S. W. from the Great Cambuys. There is a conspicuous tree on the latter, and both it and the Little Cambuys are moderately elevated.

To soil from St. Nicholas Point toward Batavia,

A SHIP bound to BATAVIA being abreast of St. Nicholas Point, about 3 miles distance, ought, with a fair wind, to steer about E. by S., to pass mid-channel between Pulo Baby and the shoal projecting from the East point of Bantam Bay; and the same course continued, will carry her in the fair channel toward Maneater's Island, if not affected by an oblique tide, which generally sets nearly East and West along this part of the coast: but if the wind is off the land, a course a little more southerly may be requisite. The best track is to keep in 14 and 15 fathoms when a ship is under sail during the night, taking care not to borrow under 12 fathoms toward the Java shore, nor to deepen above 18 fathoms in the offing. For strangers to run in the night, it may sometimes be imprudent, but they can never be at a loss for anchorage, after reaching St. Nicholas Point, there being moderate depths for that purpose, from hence to Batavia.

When the Great Cambuys is approached, the channel becomes contracted, and bounded by shoals, which ought to be passed only in day-light: one of these has 16 feet water on it, and is about the size of a ship; the West end of Pulo Tidong bears from it N. ½ E., and the East end N. N. E. ½ E., Great Cambuys E. S. E. Southerly, and Maneater's Island S. E. ½

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E. There are various channels amongst the islands from hence to Batavia, but that adjoining to the coast of Java, is most frequented by ships of moderate size.

by the outer Channel.

OUTER CHANNEL, is on the North side of the Great and Little Cambuys, and a ship intending to adopt it, should keep within a mile of the great one, to avoid the shoals to the northward, nor ought she to approach the East end of the same island under ½ a mile, for a spit projects from it. After passing these islands, she must edge to the southward until they are on with each other, then steer about E. N. E. for the small island called Pulo Dapour, or Duffen's Island, keeping it a little on the starboard bow. By steering toward it, she will pass betwixt two shoals, separated about 1½ mile from each other, on which beacons have sometimes been placed; it will, however, be prudent to keep a boat a-head sounding, if unacquainted, for few of the shoals have beacons; the depths in this track are generally about 12, 13, and 14 fathoms. Having passed Pulo Dapour on the South side, she must steer to the E. S. Eastward for Edam, to enter Batavia Road by the great channel, leaving Edam and Enkhuysen to the eastward, and Haerlem and Hoorn Islands to the westward. When Edam Island is approached, the depths will be 10 or 11 fathoms, and a course about South should then be steered, to pass betwixt Hoorn and Enkhuysen; when clear of these islands, the dome of Batavia church may be brought to bear S. ¼ E., and this bearing continued, will carry a ship betwixt the Rynland Shoal and Eastern Reef, directly to the road, among the shipping.

Ships do not always pass to the northward of the Cambuys, when proceeding to Batavia Road by the great channel, for some ships pass to the southward of them, then steer to the eastward on the North sides of Middleburgh, Amsterdam, and Haerlem; the shoals that lie contiguous to this track are near the North side of Middleburgh, and to the N. Westward of that island; in passing which, a boat should be kept a-head to sound, by those who are strangers to the channels.

Betwixt the Great and Little Cambuys there is a safe passage, through which we came in the Atlas; having in running from Pulo Baby with the land-wind in the night, got too far from the Java shore, in soundings from 18 to 22 fathoms; we stood along the North side of Great Cambuys in the morning, kept nearest to the little one in passing between them, and had never less than 10 fathoms. We did not see the 3 fathoms shoal placed in some charts, nearly mid-way between these islands; but there is a shoal with 2¾ fathoms least water on it, from which the Little Cambuys bears N.W. ¼ W. distant 2¼ miles, and Edam Island just in sight, open to the northward of Amsterdam and Middleburgh Islands in one.

To sail to Batavia by the Inner Channal;

INNER CHANNEL, leading to Batavia, is generally called the DUTCH CHANNEL being generally used by their ships; and with proper care, it may be considered safe.

Contiguous Islands and shoals.

To proceed through this channel, a ship should pass between Maneater's Island and the Great Cambuys, which can only be done with safety in day-light, on account of the shoals stretching from these islands. Maneater's Shoal projects about a mile to the N.W. and northward of the island of that name, and 1½ mile to the N. Eastward, where the water shoals on the edge of it from 9 to 5 fathoms at a cast of the lead; and on this part of it, there is sometimes a beacon, which is in one with the South point of the island bearing W. ¼ S. Opposite to the extremity of Maneater's Shoal, the passage is bounded on the outside by a reef that projects a considerable way to the westward from the West end of Great Cambuys. A beacon is sometimes seen upon this reef, and another on a shoal a little detached from it to the westward; at other times, they are destitute of beacons. It is proper to mention, that all ships proceeding through any of the channels toward Batavia, must be careful to avoid the shoals, for many which are marked in the old charts with beacons, have none upon

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them. The beacons are stolen at times by predatory fishermen, at other times, washed away by the sea during the N.W. monsoon, and not replaced for a great length of time, or probably in some cases, not at all. They are not conspicuous, consisting only of a single tree, with a small piece of wood in the form of a cross, nailed on some of them.

The depths are 9 and 10 fathoms in the passage between Maneater's Shoal and the reef off Great Cambuys, and the best track, if no beacons are seen, is to borrow nearer to the former island than to the latter. When past Maneater's Island, a direct course should be steered to pass to the southward of Middleburgh Island, bearing from it about E. ¾ S., 4 or 4½ leagues; the coast betwixt them forms a bight which is safe to approach, the soundings decreasing regularly toward the Java shore; and nearly in the middle of the bight, there is a place of some trade, called Songy Lampoon. From 9 to 10 fathoms, are the common depths in passing through this part of the channel.

Ontong Java Point, bounding the East side of the bight, is a sloping headland, covered with trees, and surrounded by an extensive shoal or sand bank, called Ontong Java Reef, which extends a great way out toward the opposite islands. On the northern extremity of the reef, there is a small beacon with a piece of wood sometimes nailed to it in the form of a cross, betwixt which and the Island Middleburgh is the channel, about ½ a mile broad, with regular soundings in it from 8 to 10 fathoms. On the other side of this channel, there is sometimes a beacon placed near the S. E. point of Middleburgh, on a spit projecting a very little way from that point, but too close to be considered dangerous.

Nearly West from Middleburgh, there are some shoal patches that bound the North side of the channel, one of which is distant 1½ mile from the island, bearing West from it; these patches are generally destitute of beacons, but there is often a buoy upon the Mynderk Shoal, which lies about 2 miles W. by N. from the West end of Middleburgh Island.

To avoid these shoals, keep the Flagstaff of Middleburgh, or the South part of that island, at least 3° to the northward of East, until the beacon is seen on the point of Ontong Java Reef; then steer to pass midway between it and Middleburgh. At low water, the sea may be sometimes seen to break on Ontong Java Reef, close inside of the beacon, it being steep to, there, and on the West side; but on the eastern edge of it, opposite to Schiedam, and Onrust, the water shoals regularly. Having passed between the Islands Middleburgh and Amsterdam on one side, and Ontong Java Reef on the other, steer to the southward for the Islands Schiedam and Onrust; when abreast of Schiedam, borrow toward Ontong Java Reef, and run to the southward along the edge of it in 5 fathoms, until the passage between Onrust and Kuyper's Island is fairly open, in order to avoid a Rock or Knowl nearly in mid-channel, on which many ships have grounded. This knowl is small, with only 2 ½ fathoms on its shoalest part; 5¼ and 5 1//2 fathoms close to it on the West side; and 6 or 7 fathoms between it and Onrust. There is frequently a buoy upon it, which is sometimes sunk, or taken away.

When upon the knowl, the piles of Onrust are on with the White House of Kuyper's Island; when the piles are open a little with it either way, the knowl is avoided.

There seem to be other shoal spots to the northward of this knowl, or between it and Onrust, by the account of Capt. Neish, of the Auspicious, which ship grounded on one of them, March 26th, 1816, on her passage from Batavia toward England, with Onrust and Kuyper's Island in one; extremes of the former from S. S. E.¼ E. to S. by W.½ W., and Ontong Java Point W. by N. ¼ N. When aground had 5 fathoms at the stern, and 3 fathoms at the fore-chains, apparently a soft coral rock of small extent, as the Ganges drawing more water, and sailing right a-head of the Auspicious at the time, passed clear of it. Hove off with the stream anchor, and touched the ground lightly twice after, by which Capt. Neish, infers, that the passage between the knowl and Onrust is not safe for large ships, and that the only safe channel is to the westward between the knowl and Ontong Java Reef.

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As the depth decreases gradually on the edge of the flats to the eastward of Ontong Java Point, this is the safe side of the channel when abreast of Schiedam, and a ship may borrow, with care, to 4½ fathoms; at all events, she must not deepen above 5 fathoms in passing the knowl to the N.Westward of Onrust, or until the passage between it and Kuyper's Island is fairly open; being then clear of the knowl, she must haul over for Kuyper's Island, and pass near it on the S.W. side; a beacon will then probably be perceived, standing on a shoal toward the Java shore, which must be left to the southward in passing.

It is said, that the flat has considerably extended lately from Ontong Java to the eastward, and that the depths in the Inner Channel have decreased, for the ship, Good Success, had not more than 4 and 3¾ fathoms in mid-channel, at low water, in passing through. And in borrowing on the edge of Ontong Java flat, the Castlereagh grounded, January 1st, 1825, at 2 P. M., the East end of Amsterdam Island bearing N. 8° W., and Onrust Island E. S. E. After heaving off the flat, she anchored in 4 fathoms, with Onrust bearing S. E. by E., and the beacon on the Knob Shoal East.

Purmerant Island, situated to the eastward of Kuyper's Island, has an extensive rocky reef projecting from it nearly 1½ mile to the eastward, and about ½ a mile to the southward; on the eastern part of this reef there is sometimes a beacon, and formerly there was one on the South end; the sea breaks on some parts of it at low water, or when there is much swell.

When a ship has rounded Kuyper's Island, and no beacons are perceived on Purmerant Reef, or on the shoal adjacent to the main, she ought to steer a direct course for the outer part of the shipping in Batavia Road, bearing about S. 54° E. from Kuyper's Island, distant 2 leagues. In passing along, several beacons will probably be discerned on shoal spots toward the Java shore, all of which must be left to the southward; and the depths will generally be from 7 to 5 fathoms, in the fair track. When the road is approached within 3 miles, a beacon to the eastward may probably be discerned on the Rynland Shoal; this bears from Kuyper's Island E. S. E. ½ S., and from the shipping in the road about N. by W., not far distant, which may be left to the northward id standing into the road; and here, a ship should anchor in 4, 5, or 6 fathoms, at discretion, off shore about 2 miles, with the dome of the church from South to S. by W.

To sail into Batavia Road by the Middle Channel.

MIDDLE CHANNEL, through which we passed three times, in the Anna, is very safe, and with some winds, preferable to the Inner Channel. To sail into Batavia Road by it, a ship must pass to the southward of the Islands Middleburgh and Amsterdam, betwixt them and Ontong Java Reef, as already directed; having passed the latter island, instead of hauling to the southward for the Inner Channel between the islands and the main, she must steer directly eastward for the small Island Haerlem, leaving Schiedam to the southward. When Haerlem is approached, she must edge away to the S. E., betwixt it and Rotterdam, and betwixt the latter and Hoorn; keeping nearest to Hoorn, on account of a reef that projects from the Island Rotterdam a small distance to the S. Eastward. Having rounded the S.W. point of Hoorn Island pretty close, it is prudent to steer S. Eastward until the dome of Batavia church is brought to bear S. ½ E. or S.¼ E., to give a good birth to Purmerant Reef, already mentioned, which projects a great way eastward from the island of that name, and bears about N. by W. ½ W. from Batavia church.

After passing the Island Hoorn, and having brought the dome to bear between S.½ E. and South, she may steer direct for it, with either of these bearings, until she anchor in the road; by keeping the dome of Batavia church S.¼ E., she will pass mid-way between the Rynland Shoal and Eastern Reef. The soundings throughout this channel, after passing Amsterdam Island, are generally 9, 10, and 11 fathoms, until the depths decrease regularly near the road.

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The eastern channels.

EASTERN CHANNELS, leading to, or from Batavia Road, are also safe and convenient. We passed through that formed between Edam, the outermost island, and Alkmaar, the next island to the southward, in regular soundings, 9, 10, and 11 fathoms; and at two other times, we passed in the Anna, through the Leyden Channel, leaving the island of that name to the southward, and Alkmaar and Enkhuysen Islands to the northward, in 10 and 11 fathoms regular soundings. The channel between Leyden and the coast of Java is not frequented by large ships, but is considered safe, if a ship keep near the island, to avoid the reefs between it and the main. One of these about mid-way between Leyden and the Java shore, is delineated on the plans of Batavia Road, as an island of considerable size, with trees on it, called Vader Smith; no such island has existed these last 40 years, there being only a reef under water in the situation assigned to it. To clear Vader Smith's Shoal a large white house with a red top bearing S. S.W., will carry a ship into 7 or 8 fathoms in the road.

Shoals adjacent to the Road of Batavia.

The shoals nearest to Batavia Road, and most in the way of ships approaching it from the northward, are the Rynland Shoal, and Eastern Reef; the latter may be considered as the western extremity of that called Vader Smith, or is separated from it only by a very small channel.

The Eastern Reef is composed of rocks and sand, partly dry at low water spring tides, but there is no break upon it at high water, when the sea is smooth. On the West end of this reef there is generally a beacon, which is discernible from Batavia Road, and bears N. E. ¼ N. when in one with the body of Leyden Island. All ships pass to the westward of this beacon, there being no safe channel to the eastward of it, for a large vessel.

The Rynland Shoal is rocky, with only 10 feet water on it; and is of round form, about the length of a large ship in diameter. It bears N. by W. from the shipping in the road, distant about a mile, and bears also N. by W. or.N.¾ W. from Batavia church; although directly fronting the road, it is at times destitute of a beacon, which was the case twice when we were at Batavia, in the Anna. In 1793, a floating beacon framed of several pieces of timber, was placed on this shoal, more conspicuous than any of the other beacons. Ships generally pass inside of the Rynland Shoal, when they sail through the Inner, or Onrust Channel; but ships sailing to, or from the road by any of the northern channels, mostly pass between it and the Eastern Reef beacon, which passage is safe, with the dome of Batavia church bearing from South to S.½ E.; or this may be kept S.¼ E., which is the best bearing for sailing to, or from the road, betwixt these shoals; this has been already mentioned, in the directions for approaching Batavia by the outer, and middle channels.

Geo. Site of Batavia.

BATAVIA OBSERVATORY, in lat. 6° 9′ S., lon. 106° 51¾′ E., by astronomical observations made by Johan Mauritz Mohr, and this longitude is considered to be very correct.* Here, a ship may procure all kinds of necessary supplies; poultry, excellent fruits, and vegetables are plentiful, and sold at moderate prices. The city is spacious, and many of the houses well built, but the low marshy coast around the bay, and the stagnant water in the canals, which intersect the streets, generate noxious vapours, rendering this place very unhealthy at all times to strangers. The most unhealthy time, is when the canals have lost much of their waters, about the latter part of the dry season, from September to December. Strangers ought never to sleep on shore, if it can be avoided.†

*By mean of observation of Sun and Stars on both sides the Moon, taken in three different voyages, I made Batavia in lon. 106° 54½′ E.; but that of the Dutch astronomer, stated above, is probably nearest the truth. Captain Ashmore, in October, 1822, made it in lon. 106° 51′ 45″ E., by one chronometer, and 106° 52′ 13″ E. by another.

† A tea-spoon full of red bark taken in a glass of port wine, or other cordial, at rising in the morning, has been thought an excellent preventative against the damp vapours, which occasion the Batavia fever. I generally used some preventative of this kind, and never slept on shore, during four voyages to this place, and always escaped the fever, which proves fatal to thousands.

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A few miles inland from Batavia, toward the hills, the country is healthy; and the Europeans who reside there, differ much in appearance from those who inhabit the city, for the latter have in general, a sickly and emaciated aspect.

Batavia is a place of considerable trade, but all foreign ships must obtain permission from the Shahbunder, before they can trade with private merchants. The principal exports are sugar, coffee, spices, &c. The imports, opium, iron, and piece goods, of various kinds.

Fronting the small river or canal that leads to the city, there is a bar of hard bottom, mixed with mud, a little way out, on which there is about 2 or 3 feet at low water. The channel for boats to enter the river, is to the eastward of the bar; and there is at times, a surf upon the bar at low water, when blowing strong in the N.W. monsoon, and strangers ought not then to send their boats to the river, for some small boats have been overset upon the bar, and the people devoured by the crocodiles, which are here, of large size, and very numerous.*

Anchorage.

Ships seldom moor in the road, for the anchors are generally buried in the soft mud; small vessels anchor in 3½ or 4 fathoms, about a mile off shore; and large ships in 5 or 6 fathoms, about 1½ or 2 miles off, with the dome of the church from S. to S. by W. If a ship ground on the main, no danger is to be apprehended, the mud flat being very soft; and the rise and fall of tide, is not more than 6 feet on the springs. There is little or no variation at present in the road of Batavia, or in the seas adjacent.

Island fronting the Road.

The small island Edam, the outermost of those opposite to Batavia, is in lat. 5° 57′ S., and bears from Batavia Observatory N. 10° E.; there is a Flagstaff upon it, and like most of the other islands, it is clothed with trees. Hoorn Island, bears from the road N. by W.; Onrust is the great marine depot, where the ships are hove down by cranes erected upon the wharfs, when they require repairs; and this small island, being the naval arsenal and dock yard, abounds with inhabitants.

The N.W. monsoon generally sets in at Batavia and along the coast of Java, about the beginning of November; and the subsequent strong winds, and heavy rains, greatly cool the atmosphere.

DIRECTIONS for SAILING from BATAVIA, and SUNDA STRAIT, to the STRAIT of BANCA: ISLANDS and DANGERS in the PASSAGE.

To sail from Batavia Road,

To the South Watcher.

DEPARTING from BATAVIA, and bound to Banca Strait, a ship should steer out of the road with the dome of the church S. ¼ E. or S. ½ E., which will carry her between the Rynland Shoal and Eastern Reef: from thence, with the dome of the church from South to S.½ E., she may continue to steer to the northward, through the Great, or Edam Channel, leaving the islands Hoorn, Monnikendam, and Haerlem, to the westward; and Enkhuysen, Edam, and the other islands to the eastward. From Edam she ought to steer for the SOUTH WATCHER (Zuyder Watcher) in lat. 5° 41½′ S., and 8½ miles West from Batavia, by chronometer, bearing about N. 34° W. from Edam, distant 19 miles; and when it is approached within 3 leagues, it should be brought to bear to the northward of N.W., to avoid a small doubtful shoal, called by the Dutch, Nasomver Droogte, situated about 2 leagues S. Eastward from the island. Having passed on either side of the South Watcher, at 2 or 2½ miles distance, a course may be steered to the North and N. N.West for the North Watcher, giving the easternmost of the Thousand Islands a birth of 3 or 4 leagues.

* A jetty, or wooden pier, has lately been carried out from the canal over the bar.

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Thousand Islands.

THOUSAND ISLANDS, are a group or chain of numerous small islands, extending nearly N.W. and S. E., and bounding the West side of the passage betwixt the South and North Watcher. The northernmost island of the chain, is in about lat. 5° 22′ S., and as the southernmost islands, to the westward of the South Watcher, have shoals surrounding them, it is prudent to give a birth of at least 2 or 3 leagues to them in passing. The westernmost isle of the group is separated from the others, and called Pulo Estam, or West Island. In sailing betwixt the North and South Watchers, care is also requisite to avoid the following shoals, to the eastward of the passage, their situations not being very correctly known.

Brewer's Droogte.

Moolenwerf.

Pruysen's Droogte.

BREWER'S DROOGTE, the southernmost of these shoals, is said to be a sand above water, thought to lie in about lat. 5° 22′ S., nearly on the meridian of Edam, and in a N. Easterly direction from the South Watcher. MOOLENWERF, another shoal, thought to be 3½ or 4 leagues to the northward of Brewer's Droogte, is probably the danger seen by the Arabella in 1715, which she made in lat. 5° 11′ S. PRUYSEN'S DROOGTE, said to be dry at low water, and situated 4½ or 5 leagues to the W. N.W. of Brewer's Droogte, may be passed on either side, the depths between them being from 15 to 20 fathoms, and between Pruysen's Droogte and the Thousand Islands to the westward, from 15 to 22 fathoms.

Goe. Site.

One of these shoals was seen by the Elphinstone, August 27th, 1812. At 8 A. M. the South Watcher bore S. 24° W., distant 5 or 6 leagues, steered N. N. E. 9 miles till noon, when breakers, supposed to be on the Pruysen's Droogte, bore N. 48° W., about 6 miles, but no part of it visible above water. When the breakers on the shoal bore E. 8°S., distant 3 miles, the Alnwick Castle, August 27th, 1812, observed at noon in lat. 5° 17′ S., lon. 106° 53′ E., by chronometers from Batavia. Scaleby Castle, May 22d, 1815, at 9 A. M., when Pruysen's.Droogte bore West 1½ mile, had soundings 12½ fathoms. At ½ past 10 A. M., one of the Thousand Islands in sight from the mast-head bearing S.W.½ S. At noon observed lat. 5° 16′ S., Pruysen's Droogte bearing W: 12° N., distant 5 or 6 miles. The shoal seen by these three ships, appears to be one and the same, or that called Pruysen's Droogte, situated by their observations in lat. 5° 17′ S., and bearing from the South Watcher N.10° E., distant 25 miles.*

Armuyden Bank.

ARMUYDEN BANK, in lit. 5° 13½′ S., and bearing from the North Watcher E. 5° S., distant 5 or 5½ leagues, is an island or bank consisting of loose coral, elevated 10 feet above the sea, and about a mile in circuit, environed by a reef of rocks, according to an examination made of it by H. M. ship, Psyche, in 1812, when her boats landed there; and from its highest part, the North Watcher was just visible bearing W.¼ N: This bank abounds with birds' eggs in some seasons; the soundings within 1 or 2 cable's lengths of it, are 9 and 10 fathoms, and from 10 to 14 fathoms in the channel between it and the North Watcher.

When the Armuyden Bank bore E. by N.½ N., distant 3 miles, the Wycombe saw another sand bank bearing S. S. E.; the Dutch place also a shoal 6 miles to the S.W. of the North Watcher, but probably some of these are doubtful. Those which really exist, are not discernible above 5 miles from a ship's deck in a clear day.

Geo. Site of North Watcher.

NORTH WATCHER, in lat. 5° 12½′ S., lon. 106° 32′ E., or 19¾ miles West from Batavia by chronometer, may be passed on the East or West sides, at 1, 2, or 3 miles distance: about ¾ of a mile from its West side, the soundings are regular from 11½ to 12½ fathoms, but a coral reef with only 6 feet water in some parts, stretches around the South end of the

* The Duke of Dorset, May 20th, 1715, sent her boat to sound near the rock, stated in the journal, to bear about N. E. from the South Watcher, distant supposed about 2 leagues; and it was found to be a little above water, not ½ a ship's length in extent, having close to it 13 fathoms water. This must be a different shoal from that described above, or its distance estimated from the South Watcher is erroneous in the Duke of Dorset's journal.

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island to the distance of about ½ a mile, with a rock in one place above water. Both this and the South Watcher are small, covered with trees, and may be seen at the distance of 6 or 7 leagues,

To Sail from the South Watcher toward Banca Strait.

From the South Watcher, if the wind be easterly, a ship may steer about North, giving a wide birth to the Thousand Islands, and afterward pass to the eastward of the Armuyden Bank and North Watcher. Having got into about lat. 5° S., or being clear of the North Watcher and the adjacent shoals, she may shape a course for Lucepara, at the entrance of Banca Strait, which bears from the North Watcher N. 10° W., distant 40 or 41 leagues. If the wind incline at S. W. and Westward, it will be prudent to steer more westerly, borrowing toward the banks which project from the Sumatra Coast to 9, 10, and 11 fathoms; but these ought not to be approached under 8 or 9 fathoms, particularly in the night.

The soundings in this track, however, are not always a sufficient guide, the depths varying from 13 to 10, or 9 fathoms, in a direct line between the North Watcher and Banca Strait, and being nearly the same in the track between that island and Gasper Strait. In lat. 3° 45′ S. there is a Five Fathoms Bank, distant about 11 leagues from the Sumatra Coast, which might be mistaken for the shore bank, were a ship to get upon it in the night. As the soundings are not a sufficient guide, it may be prudent to keep well to the westward in day-light, and get a sight of the Sumatra Coast at times, edging out in the night as circumstances require.

Geo. Site of North Island.

NORTH ISLAND, in lat. 5° 41′ S., lon. 105° 49′ E., or 1° 21′ West from Batavia by chronometer, and about a mile or more from the Sumatra shore, is small, of an even aspect, and may be seen about 7 or 8 leagues. Off its South point, there is a small islet, with a spit projecting a little way, which must have a birth in passing; and with the body of this island bearing N. W. about ¾ of a mile, the Royal Charlotte grounded on a knowl, January 18th, 1813, with 3½ fathoms water on it, and from 4½ to 5 fathoms close to it on both sides. This island is on the meridian of the West part of Thwart-the-way, and is distant about 10 miles N. 16° E. from the highest of the Zutphen Islands.

Three Sisters and adjacent coast.

THREE SISTERS, are three small islands near the Sumatra shore, about a league to the S. S. Westward of North Island; there are two white cliffs on the low coast between them, with a watering place upon the main, a little to the southward of the southernmost White Cliff, and fire-wood contiguous, where ships sometimes used to fill up their water in the westerly monsoon, particularly those bound from China to Europe, by Banca Strait. The coast forms a bay between North Island and the Sisters, and here, ships in want of water, used to anchor in 8, 10, to 12 fathoms, a little to the northward of the North Sister, with North Island bearing about N. by E. or N. 14° E., off the main 1½ or 2 miles. The best situation, however, for obtaining a speedy supply of water, is to anchor in 7 or 8 fathoms mud, abreast of the middle of the opening between the South and North Sisters; for the best watering place being abreast of the latter, close to the southernmost White Cliff, the boats will make two trips here, for one that they could accomplish to the place where ships commonly anchor, as the tide runs chiefly to the southward in this season.

Amongst the Sisters, the depths are from 2 to 3 fathoms, and the coast of this bay is generally lined by a shoal mud flat. About a mile from the North Sister, with the North end of it bearing W. S.W., the water shoals from 12 to 6 fathoms at one cast of the lead, in standing to the southward; and when the North end of the North Sister is on with the White Bluff Cliff, bearing about W.½ N., there are overfalls from 13 to 7 fathoms. There is an islet near the main, about 2 miles southward from the Sisters.

Geo. Site of the Two Brothers.

TWO BROTHERS, in lat. 5° 9½′ S., (the northern one) lon. 106° 5′ E., or 46¾ miles West of Batavia by chronometer, bears from North Island N. 27° E., distant nearly 12 leagues, and from the North Watcher W. 6½° N., about 27 miles; these are two small islands

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near each other, covered with trees, of similar appearance, and may be seen 6 or 7 leagues off. They are in one bearing N. by E. and S. by W., and lie about 6 leagues from the Sumatra Coast. From each end of these islands, a reef projects to a small distance, which lines also their East and West sides, but they may be approached on the West side occasionally within ½ a mile, in soundings of 10 or 11 fathoms: there is said to be a small channel with deep water between them.

To sail from Sunda Strait to the Two Brothers.

SHIPS having passed through Sunda Strait, either between Thwart-the-way and the to the Zutphen Islands, or by the channel betwixt Java and the Button, should steer from these islands, (or after rounding the Button) a direct course for the Two Brothers, if bound to Banca Strait. The depths will soon decrease in steering to the northward, and after passing North Island, 11 or 12 fathoms are good depths to preserve, particularly with a westerly wind; for it is prudent to keep within a moderate distance of the Sumatra Coast, to avoid several dangers in the offing. With a working wind, a good mark in day-light, when standing toward the main, is to tack when North Island and the High Zutphen Island are in one; the depth will then be generally 7 or 8 fathoms, and a large ship ought not to go under these depths, in working betwixt North Island and the Two Brothers. The latter, may be passed on either side within a few miles, to avoid the adjacent shoals, some of which are very dangerous.

Shahbunder Shoal.

SHAHBUNDER SHOAL, named from a Dutch ship that narrowly escaped being lost on it, lies about 7 miles W. by N. ½ N. from the South Brother; but it is extensive, formed of various patches, and seems to be the outer extremity of the shoal bank that projects along, and far out from this part of the Sumatra Coast. The French ship, Jupiter, returning from China, grounded, and had part of her keel broken off upon this shoal. The Sandwich grounded on one of the patches, returning from China in January, 1749, by borrowing too near the coast; when aground in 17 feet water, the northernmost part of Sumatra in sight bore N. by W., the southernmost part W. S. W.½ S., and the North Brother E. N. E. Easterly, distant about 3 leagues. She struck very hard, and after being lightened by starting the water, and throwing some lumber overboard, she was forced over the shoal with a brisk wind, after grounding three times on the different patches. As the depths decrease gradually toward this shoal, the lead if attended to, will indicate its proximity; and a ship passing between it and the Brothers, should keep within 1, 2, or at most 3 miles of the latter, taking care not to borrow under 9 fathoms toward the coast, which in day-light, may be kept in sight, if the weather be clear. The only high land near the shore on this part of the Sumatra Coast, is a sloping hill with a knob on its summit, situated in lat. 5° 20′ S., generally called Knob Hill.*

DANGERS to be avoided by ships steering a direct course between Sunda Strait and the North Watcher, or in sailing between this island and the Brothers, are the following.

Jason Rock.

JASON ROCK, on which the ship of this name struck in 1742, is said to lie W. N. W., 2 leagues from the westernmost isle of the Thousand Islands, and 6 leagues S. Westward from the North Watcher, but the Warren Hastings' boat could not find it in this situation. This rock is not laid down in some Dutch charts, which have a shoal placed on them about 6 miles S. W. from the North Watcher; its true position seems, therefore, very imperfectly known.

Dolphin Rock.

DOLPHIN ROCK, or SHOAL, where the ship of this name was aground, is said to be nearly even with the water's edge, and situated about 2 leagues S. S. E. from the South end of the Two Brothers; but the true place of this shoal, seems also, not correctly determined.

* Not very conspicuous in some views.

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Lynn Shoal.

LYNN SHOAL, is about a cable's length in extent. North and South, having only 2 feet coral rocks on it in some places, and from 14 to 9 fathoms around. When the ship Lynn was aground on it in 1748, the Two Brother bore from W. by N. ¾.to W. N. W. ½ N., distant about 3 leagues. The Bridgewater's boat examined this shoal, and found it to bear from the South Brother E. S. E., distant 8 or 9 miles. Capt. Waterman, saw this shoal in the ship Volunteer, July 29th, 1813, when blowing strong with a considerable sea, yet the breakers on it were not high, nor will it be visible when the sea is smooth. When the South Brother and it were in one, they bore W. by N.½ N., the North Watcher E. ¼ S., then distant from the shoal ¾ of a mile.

The Company's ship, General Hewitt, grounded on this shoal, at 9½ P. M., August 5th, 1820, and did not get off till 9 A. M. next morning: when she first struck, 2 feet water was found on the shoal, but a considerable part of it was dry at low water, about 6 A. M.; and it was found to be nearly a cable's length in extent, composed of hard clay, broken coral, with some small rocks on the northern extremity: the soundings close to it all round are from 10 to 15 fathoms. When aground upon the shoal, the North Brother bore W. 20½° N., South Brother W. 13½° N., and the North Watcher E. 5° S.

Brouwer's shoals.

BROUWER'S SHOALS, in lat. 5° 5′ S., are composed of two coral reefs separated about ¼ mile, with a dry patch of sand and coral on each, which are in one bearing N.17° E., and opposite. They are distant from the Two Brothers 10 or 12 miles, the North end of the shoal bearing from the North Brother N. 64° E., and the Southern extremity bears N. 63° E. from the South Brother. From the North Watcher, the North part of the shoal bears N. 52½° W., and the southern dry patch bears N. 55½° W. from the same island. The whole extent of this shoal, is about a mile and ¼ mile in breadth; in the swatch betwixt the dry patches, there are irregular soundings, from ¼ less 5 to 15 fathoms; and hard ground stretches out from the North and South ends of the shoal. To the eastward and westward of the shoal, at a small distance, the bottom is soft, and the depths are generally 14¼ and 15 fathoms regular soundings, about 1 or 1½ mile to the eastward of it.

Capt. Montgomery Hamilton, of the Duneira, April 23d, 1819, sent a boat with an officer to the shoal, and when on the S.W. patch of it, the North Watcher bore S. E. by E., North Brother W. by S. ½ S., South Brother W. by S. ¾ S.; which appeared to make that part of the shoal to bear N. 69° East, about 15 miles from the South Brother, and N. 54° W., about 13 or 134 miles from the North Watcher.

Direction.

To avoid the Brouwer's and Lynn Shoals on the East side, keep nearer to the North Watcher than to the Two Brothers; or within 2 or 3 miles of the latter, if you intend to pass to the westward of these shoals. To avoid the Dolphin Rock, a ship passing between it and the Two Brothers, should not bring these islands to the westward of North.

Coast and banks from the Two Brothers to Lucepara.

SUMATRA COAST, between the Two Brothers and Lucepara Island, at the entrance of Banca Strait, is low land, clothed with trees; several rivers in this space fall into the sea, and shoal banks project out 2 or 3 leagues from the land, in some places. The most considerable of these rivers, called Tollongbouang, in about lat. 4° 23′ S., is fronted by an extensive bank, with very shoal water on it, stretching nearly 3 leagues off; and several miles parallel to the coast.

Farther North, in about lat. 4° S., another extensive bank projects to a greater distance from the coast than the former, with various shoal soundings on it, and several dry patches. This is generally called the Bank or Shoals off Tree Island, being situated to the East and S. Eastward of a point of laud having tall trees on it, which is thought to be separated from the main by a small channel, and therefore called Tree Island. About 7 leagues E. N. Eastward from Tree Island Bank, and 10 or 11 leagues to the S. S. E. of Lucepara, in about lat. 3° 45′ S., there is a bank (already mentioned) with 5 or 4½ fathoms on it, or probably less

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water in some parts, which several ships have mistaken for the former: this outer bank consists of fine grey sand, and the edge of Tree Island Bank of coarse sand and gravel. The depths betwixt these banks are generally from 9 to 11 fathoms, but great care is requisite when sailing hereabout in the night, as several ships by borrowing too close to the coast after coming through Banca Strait, have grounded on Tree Island Bank, and were in great danger.

Geo. Site of this Island.

LUCEPARA ISLAND, about a mile in extent North and South, situated at the southern entrance of Banca Strait, is in lat. 3° 13′ S., lon. 106° 10′ E., or 5* miles East from the Two Brothers by chronometer, bearing from them N. 2½° E., distant 39 leagues. It is covered with tall trees, having a small peak on it at one part, and a little rising at the other end, when viewed from the S. Eastward, and may be seen about 5½ leagues from the deck.

A reef projects from the island 2 miles to the S. S. E., and shoal spits of sand extend 4 leagues to the N.W. and N. N. Westward; a reef also lines the North and East sides to 1/3 of a mile distance, with 3 fathoms close to it, from whence the depths increase gradually to the N. E. and Eastward, but there are 6 or 7 fathoms within ¾ of a mile of its S. Western side. January 4th, 1813, the Discovery anchored in 6¼ fathoms blue mud, with the island bearing S.W. ½ S., distant 1½ mile, and Capt. Ross, landed in the boat, on a sandy beach, on the East side, a little way to the southward of a projecting rock with a tree on it. No fresh water was found, nor could any turtle be procured, although people were stationed on the beach at night; but the island abounded with green and cream coloured pigeons, of which 46 were shot.

Capt. Torin, of the Coutts, sent his boat in 1798, to the S. W. side of the island, where a fine spring of fresh water was seen, which appeared to be frequented, probably by the Malay proas.

Tosail from then Two Brothers to Banca Strait.

A ship bound to Banca Strait, having approached the Two Brothers bearing to the east ward of North, should pass near them on the West side, if the wind be favorable; from thence, she may steer N. ½ E. to N. by E. ½ E. for Lucepara, endeavouring to keep in soundings from 9 to 12 fathoms, as a direct course cannot be depended upon, on account of irregular currents, or tides setting out from the rivers. Neither can the soundings in this tract be implicitly trusted to, being irregular, from 8½, to 11 or 12 fathoms in some places, particularly contiguous to Tree Island Bank, and the edges of the other banks projecting from the coast of Sumatra; also in the vicinity of the 4½ or 5 fathoms bank in the offing. It is, however, prudent, to borrow toward the main, if the depths increase to 12 or 13 fathoms; and to haul off from it, if they decrease to 8½ or 9 fathoms toward the banks that line the coast. Near these, the soundings are generally hard and more irregular, than farther out from the land in 12 and 13 fathoms; but in the latter depths, a ship will be too far off the coast with a westerly wind.

When the weather is very clear, during the day; it may be proper to get a sight of the coast from the poop deck of a large ship, at times, edging out occasionally in the night, or when the depths decrease to 8½ or 9 fathoms.

Having passed the bank off Tree Island, the coast may be approached with greater safety, and the depths will decrease regularly steering to the northward for Lucepara, to 5½ fathoms when it bears N.½ E., distant about 3 or 3½ leagues. The S.W. point of Banca, situated in lat. 3° 6′ S., is fronted by extensive banks and overfalls, some of them distant 4 or 5 leagues to the South and S. S. Westward, with soundings of 9 to 14 fathoms between them. Ships which steer from the Two Brothers to give a wide birth to the banks adjoining to the

* Captain Lestock Wilson, made the difference of longitude 5 miles, by excellent chronometers, which is probably near the truth. Capt. Ross, in his survey of the shoals to the northward of Lucepara, made this island in lat. 3° 13½ S. by observations taken on it, and in lon, 106° 12′ E., or 42½ miles West of Entrance Point, at the S. E. part of Banca, by chronometers.

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Sumatra Coast, by keeping in 12 and 13 fathoms, are liable to fall in with the banks which front the South end of Banca; which, although not considered dangerous, 7 or 8 fathoms may be got upon them, when the land is seen to the northward, distant 7 or 8 leagues, but the coast of Sumatra will not be discernible; in such case, they must haul to the westward to round Lucepara, the channel betwixt that island and Banca, not being considered safe, except for small vessels. There may, however, be a safe channel to the eastward of Lucepara, near the Banca shore, for Commodore Watson passed to the eastward of the island Lucepara during the night, in the Revenge, and had never less than 5½ fathoms water; but Capt. Ross, in his late examination of this place, found several shoal spits separated by gaps of deep water; and he is of opinion, that no large ship ought to attempt the passage between Lucepara and Banca, for she would probably ground upon some of the shoal spits which extend 5½ leagues North of Lucepara, and have 1½ to 3 fathoms water upon them, and from 7 to 10 fathoms close to.

If a ship, sailing in the night between the Two Brothers and Banca Strait, should get into shoal water, or be uncertain of her situation, it will be prudent to anchor immediately, and wait for day-light; for the depths are moderate, and the bottom throughout this track, generally favorable for that purpose.

STRAIT of BANCA; with SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Bance Strait.

STRAIT OF BANCA, bounded by the island Banca to the East, and by the coast of Sumatra on the West side, extends from the island Lucepara about 34 leagues, with an undulating course to the N. Westward. The Sumatra coast being low marshy land, inundated at high water, and only the trees discernible, navigators are liable to estimate their distance from it greater than the truth; but it ought not to be approached too close, on account of a shoal mud bank, which extends in some places 2 or 3 miles from the shore. Many ships, at different times, have grounded upon this mud bank, adjoining to the coast, and got off with great difficulty after much labour, and sometimes with loss of anchors.

The island of Banca is more elevated, having a chain of hills generally called St. Paul's Mountains, contiguous to its South end; but Parmasang, and Monopin Hills, on the West side of the island, are more conspicuous. Exclusive of the dangers between Lucepara and Banca, Pulo Laboang Dapper, bearing from Lucepara E. N. E. is a small island situated near the Banca shore.

Tides in the Strait.

TIDES, in Banca Strait, are very irregular, and influenced greatly by the prevailing winds: in favorable weather, the flood runs in, at both ends of the strait, to the Nanka Islands nearly in the middle of it, where they meet. During the westerly monsoon, when rains prevail, the freshes set out of the rivers on the Sumatra coast toward the opposite side, which should be guarded against in the night.

There are sometimes, two floods and two ebbs in 24 hours; at other times, only one flood and one ebb during the same interval. When strong S. Easterly winds prevail, the flood runs strong into the southern part of the strait, frequently for 14 or 16 hours; and the ebb in the opposite direction, for 8 or 10 hours. During the opposite season, particularly in December, and January, when N.W. and northerly winds predominate, the ebb, or rather current, sometimes runs strong out of the southern part of the strait for 12, 14, and even 18 hours; and during the remainder of the 24 hours, there is only a slack or weak indraught,

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when the water rises over the ground. In this season, it is almost impossible for an indifferent sailing ship to get through the strait to the northward.

In August, and also in other months, the flood has been experienced at times, to run in, about 12 hours, and the ebb out of the strait for the same length of time, taking a turn all round the compass during their change. The velocity of the tide on the springs, is sometimes from 3 to 4 miles per hour, when the wind is strong; and the perpendicular rise, from 9 to 12* feet, both within the strait and to the southward of Lucepara. In the channel, between this island and Sumatra, where the bottom is soft over an extensive flat, the rise and fall of tide has seldom been found more than 9 or 10 feet; notwithstanding, the water is so shoal there, that large ships, deeply laden, are liable to touch the ground at low water.

Western channel.

Caution requisite.

WESTERN CHANNEL, formed between the island Lucepara and a low green point on the Sumatra coast opposite, called Lucepara Point, is generally chosen by vessels proceeding through Banca Strait. In this channel, and to the distance of 3 leagues southward from Lucepara, the water is shoal on an extensive flat; the depths on which, are generally from 4½ or 4¾ fathoms, to 5 and 5½ fathoms. The West side of the channel is bounded by a mud flat, projecting 2 or 3 miles in some places from the coast; and on the East side, several dangerous spits or shoals lie to the North and N. Westward of Lucepara, which greatly contract the channel. The distance from the island to the coast is about 3 leagues or more, but the fair channel for ships, is not more than 2 or 2½ miles wide in some places, particularly to the N.W. of Lucepara, where the shoals in the offing approach nearest to the mud flat that fronts the coast. Navigators, if unacquainted, should send a boat a-head to sound in this part of the strait, keeping in 4 and 4½ fathoms on the edge of the flat that bounds the Sumatra coast: or she may sound occasionally on the edge of the westernmost shoals in the offing, as circumstances require.

In passing through the channel, the bottom will generally, though not always, be hard sand, if a ship draw near the shoals adjacent to Lucepara; and usually soft mud, on the edge of the flat bounding the West side of the channel. Although close to the edge of the N. Westernmost Lucepara shoal, there are 5½ and 6 fathoms soft ground, yet it is generally hard on the edges of these shoals; a ship ought, therefore, to keep in soundings, if possible, neither hard, nor too soft, to preserve the mid-channel track.

Shoals on the East side of the channel.

THE SHOALS, to the N. W. and northward of Lucepara, that bound the channel on the East side, are mostly long narrow spits extending N. N. W. and N.W. from that island; excepting a round dangerous bank with 2½ to 1½ fathoms on it, situated near to the southern edge of the extensive narrow spit that lines the East side of the channel. The Western point of this round dangerous bank bears by compass N. 55° W. from Lucepara 8 miles, and S. S. E. ¼ E. from the First Point about 9 miles, having 4 and 5 fathoms very near its edge, with 6 fathoms about a mile to the westward, or nearly in mid-channel, which is here very little more than 2 miles wide between the coast flat, and this dangerous bank on the eastern side of the passage.

The Cuffnels grounded on the East side,

The Cuffnels, homeward bound, being too far from the Sumatra shore, grounded upon the N. E. side of one of the long narrow spits, February 21st, 1803, Lucepara bearing S. 32° E., Lucepara Point S. 32° W., and the First Point N.W. After getting afloat, and warping the length of four hawsers to the N. N. E., she anchored in 10 fathoms mud; Lucepara Island then bore S. 29° E., Lucepara Point S. S.W. ½ W., First Point of Sumatra N. 49° W., St. Paul's Mountains N. 78° E., Pulo Laboang Dapper E. 3° S., observed lat. 3° 4′ S. From this station, the North end of the spit or shoal was found on examination, to extend N. N.W.

* It has been stated, that the tides in Banca Strait have been known to rise and fall about 18 feet; if this ever happen, it must arise from some unusual and irregular cause.

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about 1½ mile from the ship; and to round it, she steered N. N. E. 2 miles in 10 fathoms mud, then westward, to get into the proper channel, decreasing the depth to 5 fathoms about 3 miles from the Sumatra shore.

and other ships.

Captain Egeberg, was aground on its western edge in 3 fathoms, in a Swedish ship, cepara bearing S. E. by S.; the Camfall, a Portuguese ship, had the island bearing the same, when aground. Captain Torin, places the part of the round bank on which he was aground in the Coutts, in 2¾ fathoms, about 8 or 9 miles N. 42° W. from Lucepara, the First Point then bearing N. N. W. ¼ W., open a little with the western extremity of the Parmasang Hills.

H. M. S. Billiqueux, grounded in 3½ fathoms, and had hard soundings from 2 to 5 fathoms on the round dangerous shoal, Island Lucepara bearing S. 48° E., Lucepara Point S. 42° W., First Point N. 26½° W.

The Inglis, homeward bound, December 11th, 1821, got aground on the N. E. point of the westernmost spit that bounds the east side of the channel, about 2½ miles to the northward of the round dangerous Bank, Lucepara Island bearing from the ship aground S. E. ½ S., Lucepara Point S. by W., and the First Point N.W. ½ N. Here she lay three days, upon uneven knowls of hard sand, having only 12 and 14 feet on some of them at low tide, and after having been lightened, by taking out the guns, starting the water, throwing overboard the lumber, and teas from the orlop deck, exclusive of 700 to 800 chests of teas from the hold, she got off the sand on the 14th, with the aid of two Dutch vessels that came to her assistance.

The channel greatly contracted by shoals.

These dangers extending farther to the westward than generally supposed, and the mud flat projecting a great way out from the opposite coast, render the channel very contracted in this part, as stated above, which may be farther proved by the following extract taken from Captain Cowman's journal, who passed close to these shoals in the ship Magdalen, August 12th, 1806. At 10 A. M. the Island Lucepara S. E. ½ E., First Point N. N.W. ½ W., in 3 fathoms, distant about 100 fathoms from an extensive shoal, steered along its western edge several miles in from 3 to 5 fathoms, hard bottom. When the island bore S. E. ¾ E., and the First Point N. N.W. ½ W., had 4½ fathoms hard ground, close to the shoal. The island S. E. ½ E., and First Point N. by W. ½ W., had 6 fathoms soft, about 100 fathoms distant from the shoal. The Island S. 54° E., First Point N. 15° W., had 8 fathoms, about 200 fathoms to the northward of the shoal, and carried from 12 to 14 fathoms from its steep northern verge, to the First Point. This shoal is extensive, and shewed itself very plain, and the flat stretching from the opposite coast of Sumatra was nearly dry, the tide being very low: the channel between them, did not appear to be more than 1¾ or 2 miles broad.

Sailing directions.

In entering the strait, a ship ought not to bring the island to the southward of S. 54° E., until the First Point bears N. 15° W., which will bring her pretty near the Mud Flat; she may then steer North and N. by E. to round the First Point at 3 miles distance.

SHIPS, bound into the strait from southward, generally fall in with the Island Lucepara bearing between N. by E. and N. W., in soundings from 5½ to 8 or 9 fathoms; if seen bearing to the westward of North, steer toward the Sumatra coast until Lucepara is brought to bear North, distant 3 or 4 leagues. From hence, steer to the N. W., and keep about 1 to 2 leagues from the island, till you draw it well to the eastward, then keep in mid-channel between it and the coast about Lucepara Point, which bears nearly West from the island about 3 or 3¼ leagues. It seems advisable to take the soundings from the West side of the channel in this part, when the wind is westerly, keeping in soft ground from 4¼ to 5¼ fathoms; but the depths increase to 6 and 7 fathoms near Lucepara, when it bears between E. N. E. and S. E. by E., and it may be approached in working, within 2 miles with these bearings.

When Lucepara bears E. N. E., Parmasang Hills will be discerned if the weather is clear:

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with the western extremity of these hills bearing N. by W. ½ W., is the fair channel, and by the time Lucepara is brought to bear E. by S. ½ S., the First Point ought to be in one with the western extreme of Parmasang Hills, bearing about N. by W. W.: you will now have 5 or 5¼ fathoms, soon after 4¾ or probably 4½ fathoms, for a little way. With the West end of Parmasang Hills kept on with the First Point, steer N. by W. to N. N. W., so as to bring the highest Parmasang Hill nearly on with it when Lucepara bears S.59° E.; here, you will have 6 or 6½ fathoms, being past the shoalest water, and in the narrowest part of the channel, abreast of the western extremity of the shoals in the offing, and the mud spit projecting from the coast. Continue to steer about N. by W. still observing to keep the First Point in one with the western extremity of the Parmasang Hills, until Lucepara bears S. 50° E.; being now clear of the shoals in the offing, steer about N. by E., to round the First Point at 2 or 3 miles distance, in 10 or 12 fathoms water. The West extreme of Parmasang Hills kept on with the First Point, is a safe leading mark to avoid the shoals on the East side of the channel, as stated by Capt. Torin, of the Coutts.

If the weather be cloudy, with the Parmasang Hills not visible, keep within 3 or 4 miles of the Sumatra shore, observing not to bring Lucepara to the southward of S. 54° E., until the First Point bears N. by W. ½ W.: when within 5 or 6 miles of the latter, edge out a little, to avoid the shoal flat to the southward of that point, being then clear of the western extremity of the shoals in the offing; but do not bring the First Point to bear so much northerly as N. by W. ¼ W., when it is approached within the distance mentioned above, as the Hindoostan's boat had 3¼ fathoms on the shoal flat, with this bearing.

Hindostan's Shoal.

From the First Point, E. by N. about 6 miles, lies the HINDOSTAN'S SHOAL, a small bank with 3 fathoms water on it, and 4½ or 5 fathoms all round; the Hindostan got upon this spot, May 7th, 1798, and when aground, the southernmost hill of Mount Parmasang bore N. 31° W., low land about Point Lalary N. 54° W., low land about the First Point S. 72° W., lucepara S. 12° E., a hill like an island on Banes S. 68° E., and a rocky point nearly East. From the First Point East 2½ miles, 7 fathoms water is the depth, on a spit which extends in a S. S. E. direction about 1½ mile, having from 6 to 5 fathoms on it generally; but there is a patch at its southern extremity of only 4½ fathoms, which bears E. S. E. from the First Point about 3¼ miles.

West side of the channel.

Several ships have grounded there.

THE MUD FLAT, that lines the coast of Sumatra, although not so dangerous as the shoals on the East side of the channel, should nevertheless, be approached with great caution, for to the southward of the First Point, it projects about 2 miles from the shore; and its verge here, directly opposite to the N.W. extremity of those shoals, is steep to. September 1st, 1803, the Ganges grounded on the Mud Flat to the southward of the First Point, this point bearing N. by W. and the Island Lucepara S. E. by E. ¼ E., off shore 2 or 3 miles. This part of the flat appeared to be a spit, for the boats found 8 and 9 fathoms to the W.S. W., with very irregular soundings about the ship.

She lay 20 hours in the mud, was obliged to carry out a bower and stream anchor, which were lost, with two men. The Cuffnels, March 7th, 1811, at 2 P. M. grounded on the Sumatra flat, after having shoaled regularly to 4 fathoms, island of Lucepara bearing S. E., coast of Sumatra from the First Point N. by W. ½ W. to South, and Parmasang Mount just open with the Point. Carried out the stream anchor astern, and hove off at 2 A. M. being then high water, and anchored about ½ a mile to the N. E. of the edge of the flat. Other ships, when aground on this mud flat, have been obliged to start part of their water, before they could be floated off.

In the Hindostan's journal, April 20th, 1800, Captain Millett, made the following remarks relative to the bank. To the southward of the First Point of Sumatra, a mud bank projects about 2 miles from a green point of land: when Lucepara bore S. E. ¼ S., just in sight, First Point N. by W. ¼ W., and the point from whence this bank extends farthest out

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S. by W. ¾ W., the boat had 3¼ fathoms; and standing off from it, the water deepened suddenly to 5½ fathoms. The Madras put her helm down in 5½ fathoms, and grounded; this bank ought not to be approached under 6½ or 7 fathoms.

The Buckinghamshire, December 20th, 1816, after passing the First Point in 11 fathoms, steering S. E. by E. at 3 P. M. shoaled from 11 fathoms suddenly to 6, 4 and ¼ less 4 fathoms, then grounded on the Sumatra flat, with the First Point bearing N. 20° W. about a sail's breadth open of a small hill that joins the western part of Parmasang Hill, the highest part of which bore N. 18° W. a point to the southward of the First Point S. 84° W., Southern extreme of Sumatra S. 3° W., Lucepara Island S. 42° E., distance off the nearest shore about 2 miles. The bank consisted of soft mud, from which the ship was hove off at high water.

The Waterloo, December 16th, 1817, after passing the First Point, grounded on the Sumatra mud flat, Lucepara Island bearing S. 45° E., and the First Point N. 21° W., and open considerably with the extremity of Parmasang Hill; and the point was on with the second hummock to the westward of that hill. This ship lay aground nine days, and floated off the bank on the 25th, after being greatly lightened by the Winchelsea, in company, having received her guns, shot, and part of the cargo.

The Bridgewater, January 21st, 1818, grounded on the Sumatra flat to the Southward of the First Point, with the western extreme of Parmasang Hill N. 19° W., First Point N. 21° W., Lucepara Island S. 40° E., Lucepara Point S. 4° W. After the tide rose, hove clear of the bank, by four 10-inch hawsers, made fast to the Lowther Castle at anchor about three cables' lengths distant, in 71/5 fathoms water.

August 30th, 1803, the Coutts anchored in 5 fathoms soft mud, Lucepara Point S. 40° W., the Island E. 22½° S., and the First Point N. 9½° W., distant from the nearest shore 3½ miles; at low water she had only 3½ fathoms, and grounded, the tide having fallen 1½ fathom. She was nearly in the fair channel at this time, but rather a little toward the Sumatra side; for 4½ fathoms is generally the least water in the fair track, with Lucepara bearing E. S. Eastward, which is the shoalest part of the channel. Farther to the northward, the depth increases toward the shoals in the offing, and also toward the mud flat that projects from the coast near the First Point.

Brief Directions.

BRIEF DIRECTIONS for Sailing through the LUCEPARA PASSAGE. If entering it from the southward, and having passed about mid-channel between Lucepara Island and the Sumatra coast, as soon as the First Point is seen, bring it to bear N. by W. ½ W., or just touching the western extremity of Parmasang Hill if the latter is visible, and keeping Lucepara Point to the westward of S. 5° W. until the Island of Lucepara bears S. 54° E.: being then within 7 or 8 miles of the First Point, edge out a little to bring it to the westward of N. 22° W., well open with the western extremity of Parmasang Hill; or even touching, or just opening with Point Lalary, to avoid the Sumatra Flat which projects out 2 miles or more. Another guide is, to keep Lucepara Point between S. 5° W. and S. 10° W., and not to bring Lucepara Island to the southward of S. 36° E. till within 4½ or 4 miles of the First Point; being then to the northward of the outer shoals, this point may be opened considerably with Point Lalary, as you approach to round it at 2 or 3 miles distance.

ENTERING FROM THE NORTHWARD, and having rounded the First Point at 2 or 3 miles distance, keep Point Lalary open with it, or the western extremity of Parmasang Hill well open with the First Point, observing to keep the latter to the westward of N. 22° W. till Lucepara Island is brought to bear S. 50° E.: being then about 7 miles to the southward of the First Point, and having passed the projecting part of the Sumatra Flat, where many ships have grounded, the western extremity of Parmasang Hill should be gradually drawn into contact with the First Point bearing N. by W. ½ W. Or Lucepara Point

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kept bearing between S. 5° W. and S. 10° W. appears also to be a safe guide for the narrow part of the channel, between the projecting part of the Sumatra Flat and the shoals situated 2½ and 3 leagues to the N. Westward of Lucepara. When this island is brought to bear E. S. E. you may haul over towards it, as the deepest water is found in that side of the channel, and you may pass it at 2 miles distance if necessary, in steering to the southward, until 2½ or 3 miles to the southward of Lucepara; being then clear of the long reef which extends from it in that direction, you may haul more to the eastward at discretion if needful.

Geo. Site of First Point.

FIRST POINT, in lat. 3° 0′ S., lon. 103° 58′ E., bearing N. 42° W. from Lucepara Island, distant 17 miles, is low and level, the trees on it being of equal height; and it bears North a little easterly from Lucepara Point. The Mud Flat projecting from this point, is steep, and should not be approached under 10 or 12 fathoms, particularly on the N. E. side, which depths are about 1 or 1½ mile off: neither ought a ship to stand too far out to the eastward, on account of the Hindostan's Bank, already mentioned.

Point Lalary.

TANJONG PANGONG, or POINT LALARY, on the Island Banca, bears N.W. by N. from the First Point, distant 10½ miles; and the coast of Sumatra takes a westerly direction from the First Point about 5 or 6 leagues, then northerly about 4 leagues to the Second Point, known by a high tree a little inland, very conspicuous above the others. The coast betwixt the First and Second Points forms a deep bight, which is bounded by two interjacent points; that nearest to the First Point being generally called the False First Point, and the other to the northward, the False Second Point. The whole of the coast here, as in other parts, is fronted by a shoal mud flat, projecting from it about 2 miles in some places.

Secoud Point.

Carang timbaga.

SECOND POINT, in lat. 2° 41′ S., bears from the First Point nearly N.W., distant 9 leagues; the Sumatra coast in this place, may be approached to 11 or 12 fathoms, about 2 or 3 miles off, but ships seldom stand above ½ or 2/3 channel over toward Banca, on account of an extensive shoal near that side of the strait, opposite to the Second Point. This shoal, called CARANG TIMBAGA, although formerly not considered dangerous, is now ascertained to have several dangerous places on it: the ship Good Hope, June 28th, 1814, having shoaled suddenly on its edge from 19 to 10 fathoms, the anchor was let go, she had then 6 fathoms rocks under the stern, 4½ fathoms on another spot, and 8 fathoms sand at the main chains, Second Point of Sumatra bore then W. 3° S., Point Lalary S. 35° E., Parmasang Peak N. 43½° E., a rock above water S. 70° E., distant 2 miles. Capt. Napier, of this ship, describes the shoal to be a long narrow ridge of rocks and sand, stretching N. W. and S. E. about 2 miles. The first of the flood sets strong to the N. N. E. across the shoal, with ripplings, and the latter part to N. N. W. The boat found regular soundings of 12 and 13 fathoms between the shoal and the rock, with 7 fathoms close to the latter, from which the Second Point bore West, and Point Lalary S. S. E.

The following danger, seen by Capt. Rush, of the Royal Charlotte, January 15th, 1813, seems to be on the Carang Timbaga Shoal. Past noon, saw a reef of rocks a little above the surface of the sea, (but probably covered at high water), distant about 2 miles from the Banca shore, and extending about ¾ of a mile, Parmasang Hill bearing then N. E., Point Lalary S. E. ½ S., Second Point W. ¾ N., and the reef East from us, distant about 2 miles.

Capt. Ross, of the Discovery, in his survey of the shoals to the northward of Lucepara, ascertained the foregoing shoal to be dangerous. December 29th, 1812, saw some rocks above water, which were on with Point Lalary bearing S. 33° E., anchored in 10 fathoms, and had 7¼ fathoms in the chains, coral rock, on the edge of the shoal. Sent the boat to sound toward the rocks, and the depths decreased to 2 and 1½ fathoms, alternately rocks, sand, and mud. When on the rocks, the Second Point bore W. ½ N., tree on ditto W. 5° S.,

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Directions.

White Rock N. 4½° E., Parmasang Point N. 8° E., the peak N. 26° E., Point Lalary S. 32½° E., Great Nanca Island N. 16° W.

The best track in passing from the First to the Second Point, is to keep in from 12 to 18. fathoms, mostly regular soundings, and not to stand above mid-channel, or at farthest 2/3 channel toward Banca, keeping within 5 or 6 miles of the Sumatra shore.

The General Hewitt, in June, 1816, whilst working between the Second and Third Points, shoaled to 7 fathoms when standing towards the Sumatra coast, when the helm was instantly put down, and she had 6 fathoms in stays, distant at least 4 miles from the Sumatra shore.

The brig Shannon, bound from Singapore to Batavia, March 27th, 1825, had shoal soundings of 4 to 3, and 2¾ fathoms, with Parmasang Hill E. ¼ N., northernmost Nanka Island N. ¾ E., Second Point S. E. by S.—and she had 4½ fathoms with the northernmost Nanka Island N. N. E. ½ E., and the Third Point N.W. ¾ N.

Parmasang Point, on the Banca side of the strait, projecting out from the hills of this name, is steep to, having 5 fathoms very near it, and a rocky islet a little to the northward; between it and Nanka Point, the coast of Banca forms a deep bay, having overfalls and foul ground in this part, rendering it necessary to avoid this side of the strait, and to keep nearest to the Second Point of Sumatra, in passing.

Third Point with sailing directions.

THIRD POINT, in lat. 2° 23′ S., bears from the Second Point about N. W. by N., distant 20 miles, and W. N. W. ¾ N. from the highest Parmasang Hill; it is a little higher than the others, having 13 fathoms about 1 mile off when it bears S.W. ½ S., and only 3 feet at ¼ mile distance. The coast of Sumatra betwixt these points, forms a deep bay, having a shoal flat stretching across it, and projecting about 4 miles from the shore. To avoid the overfalls on the Banca side, and the flat that lines the Sumatra coast, a ship should round the Second Point about 3 or 4 miles distance, then steer northward for the Nanka Islands, keeping in mid-channel; the soundings in this track, will be generally from 20 to 16 fathoms, decreasing toward the Nanka Islands, and being abreast of these at 4 miles distance, haul to the westward for the Third Point, to pass it at the distance of 2 or 3 miles.

Geo. Site of Nanka Islands.

NANKA ISLANDS, in lat. 2° 25′ S., lon. 105° 48½ E.,* by chronometers from Batavia, are three in number, situated about 4 or 5 miles from the Banca shore; the middle one is low, but the outermost, or Little Nanka, and also the large, or Great Nanka, next to Banca, are moderately elevated. The latter is high in the middle, sloping to a point at each end when viewed from the southward, and is about 1½ mile in extent.

Wood and water.

Ships in want of wood or water, frequently touch here, to procure a supply, which may be got conveniently on the largest island; small ships may anchor occasionally on the North side of the islands in 3½ or 4 fathoms, but here, the ground is not very good. The Company's ships, bound homeward, anchor to the Southward or S.W. of them, where they fill up their water, as these islands are preferable for this purpose, to the watering place at North Island, but not so convenient, as at Rajah Bassa.

The Discovery, December 28th, 1812, anchored in 7½ fathoms clay, with Great Nanka bearing from N. 18½° E. to N. 59½° E., distant about 2 miles, Little Nanka N. 20½° W. to N. 25½° W., Third Point of Sumatra W. 13° N., Parmasang Point S. 30° E., Parmasang Peak S. 47° E., and a large tree on Sumatra, supposed to be that near the Second Point S. 3° W. The Wexford anchored in 6¼ fathoms, about a mile off Great Nanka bearing from N. 12° W. to N. 33° E., and Parmasang Peak S. 42° E.

Amongst these islands, there are some rocks, and other rocks or reefs, stretch from them to the Banca shore, having only 2 or 2½ fathoms water between them, precluding any safe

* Capt. Ross, makes them 1° 13½′ East from the East end of Pulo Aor by mean of four chronometers, which agrees exactly with the lon. stated above.

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passage for vessels inside the islands. From the N. West side of Great Nanka, a reef projects about 2 cables' lengths, with rocks above and under water, but the N. E. side is safe to approach with boats, where are several coves with white sand; that where the watering place is, consists of brownish sand, and the run of water, which is good, may be seen when the tide is low, but at other times, it cannot be perceived without landing. There is a spring of water near the S. E. point of the island, not so good as the former, nor sufficient for more than one or two ships: there are also some springs in a bay, with a sandy beach, on the West side of the island, where H. M. S. Billiqueux, and convoy of seven sail from China, filled up their water in March, 1811. The tide rises here 12 feet perpendicular, during the springs, and sometimes more.

Fourth Point.

Coast, and shoal bank.

Several ships have grounded on it.

How to be avoided.

FOURTH POINT, in lat. 2° 20′ S., bears from the Third Point about W. ½ N., distant 7 leagues; the coast betwixt them forms a concavity, lined by a shoal bank, which may be approached occasionally to 7 or 8 fathoms, regular soundings, but you may keep 3 or 4 miles off shore, not coming nearer the edge of the bank than 10 fathoms. This is considered the safe side of the strait, the Banca side having in some places foul ground and overfalls, and forming a deep bight between the Nanka Islands and Mintow Point, is seldom borrowed on very close; for ships generally keep within 5 or 6 miles of the Sumatra coast, in regular soundings from 9 to 12 fathoms. The Fourth Point may be approached occasionally to 10 fathoms, at the distance of ½ or ¾ of a mile. From the Fourth Point, the coast stretches nearly West about 7 or 8 leagues, and in this space the different branches of PALAMBAN RIVER fall into the sea. Shoal banks project 3 or 4 miles out from these rivers, which are very steep to, from 8 or 9 fathoms, and ought never to be approached under these depths, night or day. This may be considered as a continued bank extending N. W. and Westward from the Fourth Point, projecting from it about 2 miles, but much farther out, a little to the westward of the point, and opposite to Palamban Rivers. Several ships have grounded on this bank, by borrowing too close. The Wycombe, after rounding the Fourth Point about 2 or 2½ miles distance, in 10 fathoms, continued to keep 10 and 11 fathoms until the lead was overhove, and before another cast could be got, she grounded on the edge of the bank, the extremes of Sumatra bearing from W. 6° S. to E. 19° S., Fourth Point S. 58° E.. Monopin Hill N. 1° E., easternmost part of Banca in sight N. 45° E., off the Sumatra shore 3 miles. A little way inside the ship, the boats had 10, 7, and 3 feet water, and the whole of the bank toward the shore and the Fourth Point, seemed very little covered at low tide. About ½ a cable's length outside, the water deepened to 8 fathoms, and in this depth an anchor was laid, by which she hove off the bank on the following tide. The bank is hard sand, covered with a thin stratum of black mud; and as there are 8 fathoms on its steep edge, and 11 fathoms very near, it ought not to be approached under 11 or 10 fathoms, with the lead kept going. To avoid it, in day-light; the Fourth Point should not be brought to the Eastward of S. E. by S. or S. E. ½ S., nor should the point be passed nearer than 3 miles; when to the westward of the point, a ship ought to keep at least 4 miles from the shore. Off Palamban River, it is high water at 8 hours on full and change of the moon, rise of tide 7 or 8 feet.

Geo. Site of Batacarang point.

BATACARANG POINT, in lat. 2° 0′ S., lon. 104° 53′ E., bearing N. W. by W. 11 or 11½ leagues from the Fourth Point, is surrounded by shoals, stretching out about 2 leagues, and known by a clump of trees which gives it a bluff appearance; the False Point is more sloping and flat, and lies about 6 or 7 miles farther southward, between which, and the Fourth Point, the land forms a deep concavity, where the branches of Palamban River disembogue into the strait. Salsee River, situated nearest to the Fourth Point, is the easternmost branch, the next is generally called False River, the third Palamban River, and the westernmost Salt River. These rivers have inside, from 3 to 8 or 10 fathoms; and 1½ or 2

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fathoms outside, in the channels through the bank that fronts them. During the rainy season, large drifts are brought down these rivers by the freshes, which then set strong over toward the West end of Banca; and as the flood sets strong into them, on the springs, great care is requisite in this part of the strait, to avoid being driven too near either shore, both sides being fronted by dangers. PALAMBAN TOWN is about 14 leagues up the river, where the chief trade is tin, procured from the Island Banca, with some pepper, and rattans, the produce of Sumatra.

Small ships, or vessels, passing through Banca Strait, or Gaspar Straits, should be always on their guard, to repel any attack from the piratical proas, which often lurk about the strait to surprise defenceless vessels.

Geo. Site of Monopin Hill.

Mintow Town and Bank.

Directions.

MONOPIN, or MANOOMBING HILL, in lat. 2° 0′ S., lon. 105° 14′ E., by mean of chronometers from Batavia and Pulo Aor, is situated on the West end of Banca; and its summit ending in a peak, which may be seen at a considerable distance, answers as a guide in approaching to, or departing from the North end of the Strait. About 2 leagues S. 35° W. from the hill, is situated Tanjong Colean, or Mintow Point, the western extremity of Banca, having a fort on it; and the town of Mintow is a little farther eastward. Mintow Bank is composed of hard sand, with soundings from 2 or 3, to 5 fathoms, and it extends a considerable way, nearly parallel to the coast; inside of it there are 10 and 12 fathoms, decreasing regularly toward the shore, where ships anchor in Mintow Road. A ship working through the strait, to keep clear of the outside of Mintow Bank, should not bring Mintow Point to the westward of N. W. by N.

Carang Bram Shoal.

CARANG BRAM, an extensive shoal of rocks and sand, dry in some places, forms the, eastern extremity of Mintow Bank, and lies 4 or 5 miles from the shore, off a point of Banca, called Tanjong Pooni; and this shoal when on with the Peak of Monopin Hill, bears N. 39° W.

Amelia's Bank.

AMELIA'S BANK, of 3¼ fathoms, hard ground, lies about 1½ or 2 miles outside of Carang Bram Shoal, on which the Walmer Castle grounded, and the Princess Amelia touched, when homeward-bound from China, in 1816: Monopin Hill bears from it N. by W. ¾ W., and the eastern extreme of Carang Bram Shoal, E. ¼ N., distant 2½ miles, according to a plan of it, by Capt. Balston, of the last mentioned ship. The Hope passed inside, between it and Carang Bram, in soundings from 5, to 10 and 12 fathoms: the depths increased gradually from 4½, to 7, 8, and 10 fathoms in a westerly direction from it; and to the southward of it, at the distance of about ½ a mile, the Warley carried regular soundings of 8 and 9 fathoms, and it ought not to be approached under 7 or 8 fathoms.

The Bridgwater, at 4 P. M., January 19th, 1818, grounded on the Amelia's Bank, Monopin Hill bearing N. 20° W,, Woody Point N. 43° E., Carang Bram Rocks N. 80° E., extremes of Banca from N. 40° W. to N. 68° E. Found the least water 19 feet, under the larboard fore-chains, and deepest to the S. S. E., in which direction laid out two kedge anchors, and at 11 P. M., when the tide began to flow strong to the eastward, the water rose, and at 1 A. M. the ship floated off the bank.

Carang Hodjee.

CARANG HODJEE, is another dangerous shoal, close to the West end of Mintow Bank, and its outer part is distant 5 or 6 miles from Mintow Point, being in one with Monopin Peak bearing from N. E. ½ N. to N. E. ¾ E., and it is very extensive. The rocks on it are all covered at high water, but many of them are visible at ½ tide; close to it on the North and West sides, the depths are irregular, from 16 to 30 fathoms. From Tanjong Colean, or Mintow Point, the northern rock of Carang Hodjee bears W. ¼ S., distant 2 miles; other rocks on the shoal, bear W. by S. to W. S. W. from the same point.

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To sail into Mintow Road.

TO SAIL into MINTOW ROAD, you may pass on either side of Carang Hodjee; if on the East side, Monopin Peak must be brought N. N. E., and with this bearing, steer for Mintow Town, which will carry you about a mile or more to the southward of Carang Hodjee, in about 5 or 6 fathoms hard sand, upon Mintow Bank.* When over it, the water will deepen to 12 or 13 fathoms, and shoal again quickly toward the inner bank and the shore; the best anchorage is in 10 or 11 fathoms, about 2 or 3 miles off the town, Monopin Peak bearing N. 10° E., Tanjong Pooni S. 75° E., and Mintow Point N. 82° W. No ship can pass over Mintow Bank with safety, if the hill bear to the westward of North, for on the eastern part, toward Carang Bram, it dries in many places. With the hill bearing North, a ship steering for Mintow Road, will cross over the bank in about 3 or 3¼ fathoms at low water spring tides, the bottom hard sand, coral, and shells. With a working wind, keep the hill between North and N. N. E. The Inner Bank is about 1¼ mile off the shore of Mintow, having only 1 fathom water on it, 2 fathoms inside, and 8 fathoms is close to it on the outside.

If a ship coming from the northward, intend to enter Mintow Road on that side of Carang Hodjee, she ought to bring Monopin Peak E. N. E., which will carry her between Frederic Hendric and Carang Hodjee; and she may pass betwixt the latter and Banca, in a channel about 1½ mile wide, in 18 to 15 fathoms water, borrowing toward the Banca shore, but not under 8 or 9 fathoms. Carang Hodjee must be avoided, for it is steep to, with overfalls near it, and rocky ground, from 16 to 30 fathoms. She may pass Mintow Point within ½ a cable's length, then haul out to a convenient distance from the shore, and proceed to the anchorage abreast the town.

Coast and dangers to the northward of Mintow Point.

TANJONG OULAR, is a point about 5 or 6 miles to the northward of Mintow Point, having rocks projecting 3 or 4 miles from it, the outermost of which, are on with Monopin tow Point. Peak bearing S. 70° E.

Inner Channel.

Tanjong Beeat, a little farther northward, has also dangerous reefs of rocks projecting about 4 miles out; when on with Monopin Peak, the outermost of these bears S. 28° E. Betwixt these rocks, and the others called Frederic Hendric, situated about 3½ leagues off the Banca shore, there is a channel near 2 leagues wide, which is seldom frequented except by country traders; and it ought not to be chosen by strangers, for the number and true positions of the Frederic Hendric Rocks are not correctly known. A vessel to proceed by it, should not come under 14 fathoms toward Banca, nor stand farther out than to bring the easternmost land in sight, called Poonyabang, and appearing like an island, to bear N. E.½ E.; with this bearing, and Monopin Hill about S. 70° E., a ship will have 18 fathoms hard sand and overfalls, near Frederic Hendric.

Frederic Hendric Rocks.

FREDERIC HENDRIC, has generally been considered a single rock, situated nearly mid-way between the West end of Banca and Batacarang Point, but there is great cause to think, that several spiral rocks, separated from each other, exist in that situation, which have been mistaken for one and the same rock; this will be perceived by the following remarks.

The Nonsuch, July 29th, 1789, after tacking in 5 fathoms on the edge of the bank off Batacarang Point, stood E. ½ S. to 12 fathoms, then tacked in 11 fathoms, and immediately grounded, Monopin Hill bearing E. 13° S., off the Banca shore 3 or 3½ leagues, and about 4 leagues from the Sumatra shore. Under the bowsprit, had only 1½ fathom, and 5 fathoms abaft. The tide flowing, she got off, after being lightened forward. The rock on which she grounded, was thought to be the true Frederic Hendric. Farther to the northward, she had

* The Mintow Bank is said to be filling up, for in August, 1816, the Surat Castle, in crossing it with Monopin Hill bearing N. N. E., had only 4 and ¼ less 4 fathoms; and with the Hill bearing the same, at leaving Mintow Road, she had two casts of only 3¼ fathoms, in crossing the bank; where formerly 5 and 6 fathoms were found.

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previously tacked in overfalls, from 74 to 12 fathoms bard ground, on the same side of the channel.

The Charlotte, in 1786, explored another shoal, of considerable extent, thought to be Frederic Hendric, with soundings on it from 2 to 5 fathoms, rocks and sand. The boat at anchor in 1½. fathom on the shoalest part, had Monopin Peak bearing E. 23° S., southernmost extreme of Banca S. 18° E., extreme of the Little Caramanaches N. 43° E., northern extreme of the land E. 35° N., the westernmost island N. 38° E., and a bluff rock near the shore E. 18° S.

The Cæsar anchored in 16 fathoms, had 10 fathoms after veering out cable, and at ½ a cable's length from her, the boat had 2¾. fathoms, Monopin Hill bearing E. S. E. 4 leagues.

A Portuguese ship aground, had the West point of Banca E. S. E., and a point on Sumatra W. ½ N., thought to be Batacarang Point.

Capt. Waterman, of the ship Volunteer, went in his boat to examine Frederic Hendric Rocks in July, 1813, where be perceived white water, but the current setting strong into the strait, carried him past the North part of the shoal. When upon the South part of it, in 3 fathoms bard sand, Monopin Hill bore E. 13° S., Mintow Point E. 35° S., high trees of Batacarang Point W. 10° S., and at the distance of a ship's length, had 19 fathoms. That part of the shoal where he sounded was very white hard sand, which discoloured the water by the current running over it, as the white water extended out to 17 fathoms, at a considerable distance from the shoal. This navigator thinks the shoal is not above 6 miles distant from the nearest part of Sumatra, and that no ship should deepen above 10 or 11 fathoms, as the water deepens very suddenly from 12 fathoms, which is near the steep edge of the shoal.

Another navigator says, that Frederic Hendric Rock is in one with Monopin Peak bearing E. 20° S., and distant 3½ leagues from Banca. It is generally thought, that 8 or 9 feet is the least water on this rock, but some persons assert, that its summit appears above water at times, when the tide is very low. This may probably happen, as the perpendicular rise and fall of tide is about 2 fathoms on the springs; notwithstanding, navigators in passing, seldom discern it, or perceive breakers upon any of these dangers, which go by the name of Frederic Hendric. To avoid them, ships passing through the fair channel, ought to keep in 6 or 7 fathoms, on the edge of Batacarang Bank, and never deepen to the eastward above 9 fathoms, when Monopin Hill bears from East to E. S. E. ¼ S.

and proceed from the Fourth Point out of the Strait.

A SHIP bound out of the strait, having passed the Fourth Point at 3 or 4 miles distance, in soundings 11 or 12, but not under 10 fathoms, should steer about N.W. by W. for Batacarang Point, attending to the tides, which sometimes run strong into, or out of Palamban rivers. The banks fronting these rivers should not be approached under 10 fathoms, nor ought a ship to deepen above 12 or 14 fathoms toward Carang Bram, and Mintow Bank, on the Banca side. In the fair track, there are some small sandy spots, which might alarm strangers, or be mistaken for the shoals on the Banca side, should a ship get upon them in the night; but the least water on any of them is 6 fathoms. When abreast of an island at the entrance of the False River, with a passage on each side of it appearing open, a cast of 6 fathoms may probably be got upon one of these spots. Another patch with 7 fathoms, bears nearly S. ½ W., distant about 6 miles from Mintow Point. When on another 7 fathoms bank, Monopin Hill bore N. 20° W., and the Fourth Point S.W. ½ S., distant about 2 leagues. From another bank of 9 fathoms, Monopin Hill bears N. by W. ½ W., and the Fourth Point S. by W. about 6 miles. The best track is about mid-way between the Banca and Sumatra shores, or rather nearest to the latter, during the night, where the bank fronting the coast is safe to approach to 9 or 10 fathoms, if the lead is kept briskly going.

Steering about N.W. by W. for Batacarang Point, the depths will probably increase to 15 or 16 fathoms to the S. Westward of Mintow Point, and decrease as the western shore and Batacarang Point is approached. Before Monopin Hill is brought to bear East, a ship ought

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to borrow toward the edge of the Sumatra Bank, to 8 or 9 fathoms, and when the hill bears between E. by S. and E. S. E. ¼ S., she must keep as near as possible in 6½ and 7 fathoms mud, on the edge of the bank projecting from Batacarang Point, in order to avoid the Frederic Hendric Rocks. With a working wind, a ship should not deepen above 7½ or 8 fathoms, toward these rocks; but she may stand on the western tack, to 5 fathoms on the edge of Batacarang Bank. The channel here, is about 4 or 5 miles wide, and if a ship deepen to 10 fathoms, she will be very near the Frederic Hendric Rocks. Having brought Monopin Hill to bear E. S. E. ½ S., she will be clear of these rocks, and of the North end of Banca Strait, and may steer about N. by E. to pass between the Seven Islands and Pulo Taya, (which are high islands), if bound into the China Sea.

Tides.

When northerly winds blow from the China Sea, from October to February, the current or flood frequently sets strong to the S. E. into the North entrance of Banca Strait, for 18 hours at a time; and in the same direction to the eastward of the island of Banca. When S. E. winds prevail, the ebb generally runs strong out of the strait, continuing longer than the flood; although the Volunteer, in July, 1813, worked into the entrance of the strait with a strong current setting to the southward. In settled weather, there are two floods and two ebbs every 24 hours, but they are greatly influenced by the winds.

DIRECTIONS to SAIL from the NORTHWARD, through the STRAITS of BANCA and SUNDA.

To enter Banca Strait from the northward and to

WHEN BOUND from the NORTHWARD to BANCA STRAIT, haul in for the Sumatra Coast into 6 or 7 fathoms mud, on the edge of the bank fronting Batacarang Point, before Monopin Hill is brought to bear E. S. E. ½ S.; preserve that depth, or keep from 5½ to 7 fathoms if the wind be westerly, until the hill bear about East, which will carry you well to the westward of Frederic Hendric Rocks: steer then about S. S. E. for 4 or 5 miles, till abreast of Carang Hodjee Shoal, afterward S. E. to E. S. E., or as the tides render necessary, to pass in mid-channel; because, the flood running into Palamban rivers, may drift you on the banks projecting 3 or 4 miles from them, if too near the Sumatra shore; or the strong freshes from them at other times, may set you over toward the shoals adjacent to Banca. It is, therefore, imprudent for strangers to run in the night, unless the weather be very clear, and the land visible.

proceed in the Fourth and Third Points, and to the Nanka Islands

After leaving the bank off Batacarang Point, the depths will increase, and from 10 to 12 fathoms, are the best depths to preserve in passing the bank off Palamban rivers, and the Fourth Point. The bank to the westward of this point, being steep from 8 to 2 fathoms, it must not be approached under 10 fathoms, and the point having a mud bank projecting 3 miles from it, should be passed at 4, to 5 or 6 miles distance, in 10 or 12 fathoms, steer then about E. 2 ½ S. for the Third Point, in 10 to 14 fathoms, not coming under 10 fathoms toward the bank fronting the Sumatra shore, or about 3 miles distance; and do not stand farther off than 6 or 7 miles. The Third Point may be passed at 2 or 3 miles distance, in 10 or 11 fathoms; from thence, an easterly course should be steered toward the Nanka Islands, for the deep bight betwixt the Third and Second Points being occupied by an extensive flat, projecting about 4 miles off, you ought to keep about mid-channel in this part, or 6 miles distant from the Sumatra shore.

WHEN near the NANKA ISLANDS, a southerly course should be steered for the Second Point, known by a tree near it, very conspicuous above the others; the depths will be

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From thence to the Second and first Points.

from 16 to 20 fathoms in this track, and the Second Point ought to be passed at 3 or 4 miles distance. From hence to the First Point, the best track is not to stand above ½ or 2/3 channel over toward Banca, to avoid the overfalls and dangers on that side; from 12 to 18 fathoms are the best depths to preserve, keeping within 5 or 6 miles of the Sumatra shore, and not borrowing nearer it than 3 miles.

To sail from it, through the Lucepara Passage,

The First Point should not be rounded nearer than 2½ or 3 miles, in 10 to 12 fathoms, and after passing it, the Island Lucepara will be seen to the S. Eastward. From the First Point, a southerly course must be steered, keeping at least 3 miles, but not more than 4 or 4½ miles from the Sumatra shore, in 6 to 7 fathoms soft ground, until 4 or 5 miles southward of the point; for the mud spit to the South of the First Point, projects at least 2 or 2¼ miles, having 5½ fathoms close to its edge. Having proceeded about 2 leagues to the southward of the point, or before Lucepara is brought to bear S. 50° E.; borrow on the Sumatra shore to 3 miles distance, to give a birth to the western extremity of the dangers in the offing. This is best effected by bringing the First Point to bear N. by W. ½ W., or if Parmasang Hills are visible, keep the point on with their western extremity; when Lucepara is brought to bear about S. 54° E., the highest hill may be brought on with the First Point, and continued so, until the island bears about S. 60° E. Being then clear of the western extremity of the shoals in the offing, steer to the southward with the First Point bearing about N. by W. ½ W., in one with the western extremity of Parmasang Hills, keeping about 3 miles off the coast until Lucepara bear about East; you may then edge out from the coast to the S. Eastward, to deepen the water, and the island may be approached within 2 or 3 miles if necessary; when it is brought to bear North, at 3 or 4 leagues distance, you will be clear of the strait, and have 5½ or 6 fathoms water. When to the N. Westward of the island, if hard soundings are got toward the shoals adjacent to Lucepara, haul to the westward into soft ground, in the fair channel. With a working wind, from 4½ or 5 fathoms on the Sumatra side, to 6 or 7 fathoms toward the shoals, are good soundings, and do not open the First Point with the West end of Parmasang Hills, nor bring the point to bear N. N. W. till Lucepara bears S. E. by E. ½ E.*

Proceeding from the First Point, through this narrow part of the strait, it is advisable for persons unacquainted, to keep a boat a-head sounding along the edge of the mud bank that lines the coast, the channel being only about 2 miles wide between it and the western extremity of the shoals in the offing, and so flat to the West and W. N. Westward of Lucepara, that ships seldom find more than 5, and sometimes only 4½ or 4¾ fathoms, in the fair track. By keeping a boat sounding in 4 and 4¼ fathoms on the edge of the mud bank, a ship will be enabled to pass through in the proper channel, when other marks are not always discernible. It is necessary when off the First Point, to borrow on the Sumatra side, for the ebb tide here, sets strong to the E. S. E., and a strong current sets in this direction out of the strait, in the latter part of the N. E. monsoon, from February to April, liable to horse a ship among the shoals to the N. W. of Lucepara.

and from thence to the Two Brothers.

AFTER bringing LUCEPARA to bear about N. by W. ½ W., distant 5 leagues, the depth will increase to 6 or 6½ fathoms, and from thence steer S. S. E. and S. by E. to avoid the shoal banks off Tree Island. As the currents are sometimes irregular, the course cannot be always depended upon, neither are the soundings very regular, for there is a 5 fathoms bank about 10 leagues S. S. Eastward of Lucepara, which some ships have mistaken in the night for the bank adjacent to the coast. In day-light, you may borrow toward the Sumatra Bank to 9 fathoms, occasionally getting a sight of the land; if the depths decrease under 9 fathoms, haul more out, and endeavour to keep in 10 or 11 fathoms, night or day; and should they increase to 12 fathoms, edge in toward the coast until you regain the depth of 10 or 11 fathoms.

* Brief Directions for the Lucepara Passage have been given in a preceding page.

VOL. II. S

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Having got into about lat. 4° 40′ S., or being within 8 or 10 leagues of the Two Brothers, keep as near as possible in 9 to 10 fathoms, in order to make these islands bearing to the southward; for if the depth is more than 11 fathoms when they are first seen, you may find difficulty in passing to the westward of them with a westerly wind; more so, as the current generally sets to the S. Eastward during the westerly monsoon. Should you get in 11 fathoms or upward, and fall to leeward of the Two Brothers, be careful to give a birth to the Brouwer's Shoals, situated to the E. N. Eastward of these islands. And if you fall in with the North Watcher, take care in working to the S. Westward, to avoid the Jason Rock, or other dangers, described in a preceding section, where directions are given for sailing from Batavia and Sunda Strait, to the Strait of Banca.

Or to Batavia.

Caution requisite in approaching

SHIPS from BANCA STRAIT, bound to Batavia, after falling in with the North Watcher, generally steer for the South Watcher, giving a birth to the Thousand Islands in passing; and from the South Watcher, they steer direct for Batavia Road. The dangers in this track may be avoided, by attending to the directions above mentioned, The Two Brothers appear in one when viewed from the northward, and may be seen 6 or 7 leagues; some ships have nearly run into danger by mistaking Knob Hill on Sumatra for the Two Brothers, when discerned in the evening at a great distance; it is therefore, proper, to have a good sight of them, if they are to be passed in the night: and if not plainly seen before dark, it will be prudent to anchor, or keep standing off, and on, during the night, for the Shahbunder Shoal to the westward of these islands, extends a great way from the coast, and is dangerous to approach.

or passing the Two Brothers.

To sail from thence to Island.

If bound to Sunda Strait, by keeping sight of the coast at times, in clear weather, and preserving the depth of 9 or 9½ fathoms, on drawing near the Two Brothers, steer to pass on the West side of them, at from 1 to 3 miles distance, observing not to borrow under 9 fathoms toward the Shahbunder, or other shoals fronting the coast, nor to exceed the distance of 3 miles from the Two Brothers in passing. Should you pass them on the outside, keep within 2, or at most 3 miles of them, until they bear to the eastward of North, by which means the Brouwer's Shoals, Lynn Shoal, and Dolphin Rock, will be avoided. Having passed the Two Brothers, a South westerly course should be steered, to get in with the coast about North Island; which, with the high Zutphen Island, will be seen soon after losing sight of the Two Brothers, if the weather is clear. Betwixt the latter and North Island, you may stand toward the Sumatra shore to 8 fathoms, with a working wind; in day-light, a good mark is to tack when North Island comes on with the High Zutphen Island, you will then generally have 7½ or 8 fathoms soft ground.

Route along the Java Coast disused.

From North Island, ships used formerly to steer over for St. Nicholas Point, and then along the Java Coast inside of the Button, which route is now disused, being circuitous, and the leeward side of the strait in the westerly monsoon; but during the easterly monsoon, ships ought to prefer the Java side,* and pass out of the strait between Prince's Island and Crockatoa, if they do not intend to stop for a supply of water at Mew Bay: in such case, they may go out of the strait betwixt Prince's Island and Java.

To proceed from North Island,

If bound out in the westerly monsoon, give a birth of 1 mile to the islet and spit at the Island, South-east end of North Island, and if not to stop to fill up your water at the Three Sisters, stand along the coast, keeping about 2 miles off shore, until the Zutphen Islands are approached, and anchor in Hound's Bay, at the North part of these islands, if the day is far gone. From hence, weigh early in the morning, and although the wind be scant, you will probably reach good anchorage under Pulo Bessy, or Crockatna, before the tide shift; which

* But it is advisable not to stop at Anger Road in April, or even in May, with the hope of procuring water, as the surf is often high in these months, and the Company's ship, Charles Grant, was driven on shore, April 10th, 1826, and nearly wrecked, after having parted from all her anchors.

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in this season, generally sets to the southward and S.W., from 4 o'clock in the morning until the evening, and sometimes to the N. E., or northward, during the night.

Having weighed from Hound's Bay, or being near the northernmost Zutphen Island at daylight, pass it at 1½ mile distant, and with the land wind, steer to pass the S. E. island, called lout's Island, at the distance of 1½, or not under 1¼ mile.

The indraughts between these islands, produce strong eddies, which render ships ungovernable at times, when the wind is light, and in February and March, the current or tide, sweeps round them to the S.W. and W. S.W., until past Hog Point, with a velocity of 4 and 4½ miles per hour on the springs; this makes it necessary not to borrow too close in rounding Hout Island, to prevent being drifted upon the reef that projects a little way from it, where the Bombay was nearly wrecked.

Round the Zutphen Islands,

and Hog Point,

to Rajah Bassa Road.

When past Hout Island, or when it bears W. N.W., steer to the W. S. Westward, so as to round Hog Point at 1½ or 2 miles distance, where you will have strong ripplings, but no danger to be apprehended in the day time. Having rounded the rock off Hog Point, when it bears North, haul up W. N.W., and gradually to N.W., if you intend to touch at Rajah Bassa Road for water or refreshments, giving a birth to Collier's Rock, by keeping 2 or 3 miles off shore as you get to the northward. If the wind be at North, or off the land, haul nearer to the shore, but you will not get moderate depths until within 3 or 4 miles of Cocoanut Point, and you may. round it in 12 to 18 fathoms, at 1½ to 2 miles distance, then haul up N. N.W. and N. by W. for Rajah Bassa Road, and anchor with the peak E. N. E. or E. N. E. ½ N., in from 12 to 14 fathoms blue mud, off shore 1½ or 2 miles.

After getting 4 miles to the northward of Hog Point, a ship in working, may safely stand in to 12, and off shore to 20 fathoms.

The boats proceeding to Rajah Bassa for water, will perceive a hut at a small distance to the right of the river, which should be kept on the starboard bow, in order to pass in, clear of the projecting coral rocks.

To sail from Hog Point.

After rounding the Zutphen Islands and Hog Point, if not to touch at Rajah Bassa, steer Pulo Bessy, making an allowance for the tide, which generally sets over toward Java, in this season; and as the wind prevails from westward, ships are frequently obliged to work from the Zutphen Islands out of the strait: nevertheless, if they round these islands in the morning, they generally get close to Pulo Bessy or Crockatoa, into good anchorage, before the tide shifts. The passage between the Zutphen Islands and Stroom Rock, should not be attempted in the night, as the strong tides are liable to horse a ship toward the latter, and Thwart-the-way; where deep water, and rocky bottom, render the anchorage very unsafe.

Between Pulo Bessy and Crockatoa.

In blowing weather, a ship may anchor under Crockatoa, where she will be sheltered from westerly winds: or having approached Pulo Bessy, the channel between it and Crockatoa ought to be preferred to that betwixt the latter and Prince's Island, because there is good anchorage, should calms or contrary currents make it necessary to anchor, which cannot be done in the channel to the southward of Crockatoa.

Out of Sunda Strait.

With a fair wind, keep nearly in mid-channel, and if working through with a westerly wind, stand within 2½ miles of the islands on either side, but not nearer to the South end of Pulo Bessy than 2 miles, in order to avoid the Hindostan Rock; taking care not to bring Zee Klip, or Gap Rock, open to the southward of Keyser's Island, as directed in the section, marked "Strait of Sunda, "with farther instructions relative to these channels, under the descriptions of their adjacent islands. When clear of Crockatoa, steer about West, which will carry you directly out of the strait, if the wind be favorable. With a westerly wind, make some short tacks toward the coast of Sumatra, borrowing on that side of the strait until you can pass clear out, well to the northward of Prince's Island; and when clear of it, steer S. Westward, to round Java Head, if bound to Europe, or to the Cape of Good Hope.

When strong winds blow into the strait with a heavy sea, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to beat out to the westward, by the large channels to the North of Princes

S 2

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Island; although at such times, little difficulty has been experienced, by several ships which have proceeded out through Prince's Strait, as Prince's Island protected them from the heavy sea until they cleared, the strait. But the entrance of the strait should be kept open, until a ship get a proper offing, to prevent the heavy swell from driving her near the steep shore of Java Head, if the wind should happen to fail.

GASPAR STRAITS, with SAILING DIRECTIONS; N. E. COAST of BANCA.

Gaspar Straits.

GASPAR STRAITS, formed between the large islands Banca and Billiton, were named after the Spanish captain from Manilla, who passed through them in 1724; but Captain Hurle, returning from China in the English ship, Macclesfield, had previously passed through them, in March, 1702. Pulo Leat, separates these straits into two principal branches; that to the westward, betwixt it and the S. E. part of Banca, is often called MACCLESFIELD STRAIT; and the eastern branch, situated betwixt Middle Island, and Long Island, near Billiton, is generally called CLEMENTS' STRAIT, after Captain Clements, who commanded the fleet from China, that went through this branch in July, 1781.

Many navigators, now prefer these straits to that of Banca, when returning from China late in the season, as the route by them is shorter, and the water much deeper than in the Lucepara Channel, with generally more wind. Were it not for many dangerous shoals near the water's edge, which are interspersed about these straits, they would be preferable at all times to Banca Strait; and there is sometimes less risk of small vessels encountering pirates in these straits, than to the westward of Banca.

Macclesfield Strait.

Geo. Site of Entrance Point, with directions.

MACCLESFIELD STRAIT, being wider and better known than Clements' Strait, is more frequented than the latter, by ships that proceed to the eastward of Banca. The South entrance is bounded on the West side by the S. E. point of Banca, called ENTRANCE POINT, situated in lat. 3° 2′ S., lon. 106° 54′ E., or 2 miles East from Batavia by chronometers, and bearing from the Two Brothers N. 21° E., distant 46 leagues. If bound through Macclesfield Strait, in the southerly monsoon, pass to the eastward of the Two Brothers, then steer for the strait, giving a birth to the Brouwer's Shoals: the soundings will generally be regular in the fair track, from 10 to 15 fathoms soft bottom. The South end of Banca, having great overfalls from 20 to 5 fathoms off it in some places, should not be approached nearer than 4½ leagues; for there is a 4½ fathoms bank in lat. 3° 19′ S., distant about 13 miles from the nearest part of Banca, and bearing South from a remarkable hummock. About 3 leagues N. N. E. and N. Eastward from this bank, there are two 5 fathoms banks, one of which bears from Entrance Point S.W. by S., and the southernmost S. 15° W.: the remarkable hummock, standing upon a long low point of Banca, when clear of the high land bearing N. 25° W., is a mark for both these banks. To avoid them, and the other shoal banks off this coast, keep the low land of Banca which joins the hills, sunk from the deck until Entrance Point bears N. by E.; then steer to the N. N. Eastward for the strait, observing not to bring Entrance Point to the eastward of N. by E., or N. ½ E. The Royal George, in March, 1813, steering out of the strait S.W. by W., shoaled gradually to 5¼ fathoms, then tacked to the eastward with Entrance Point bearing N. by W., Rocky Point N. ½ W., and the West point of Pulo Leat N. 20° E.

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Geo. Site of Fairlie Rock.

FAIRLIE ROCK, in lat. 3° 27′ S., lon. 107° 1′ E., bearing about S. by E.½ E., 8½ or 9 leagues from Entrance Point, or 7 miles East of the Point, is the southernmost danger on the East side of the passage, in approaching the strait from S. Westward. This danger was discovered by the company's ship Fairlie, at 1 A. M., April 21st, 1813, when she grounded on it; and on examination, it was found to be a coral shoal about ½or ¾ of a cable's length in diameter, with only 6, 5, and 4 feet water on its centre, and overfalls of 7 fathoms to 16 fathoms rocky bottom, close to it all round.

When at anchor in 62 fathoms at day-light, very near the rock bearing from S. S.W. to S.W., the southernmost extreme of Banca bore N. by W.½ W., and Shoal Water Island N. E. by E., just in sight from the deck.

This rock was also examined by Capt. Ross, in the company's surveying ship, Discovery, July 5th, 1814, who found 8, 9, and 12 fathoms water within 50 yards of it, decreasing to 7½ fathoms at the distance of ¾ a mile to the S. S. Westward; the ground was soft about the rock, but sandy at a little distance all round, and the sea shewed small breakers over it at this time.

When at anchor in 7¼ fathoms, about ¾ mile from the breakers, bearing N. 25° E., Shoal Water Island bore N. 56¾° E., and by observations at noon, with four sextants, made the rock in lat. 3° 27′13″ S., lon. 107° 2′ 53″ E., or 9′ 3″ East of the Island Edam, by mean of five chronometers agreeing within a few seconds of longitude.

To avoid this danger, in leaving Macclesfield Strait in the evening, when clear of the 2½ fathoms bank, a S. ½ W., or S. by W. course ought to be made good, till at least 10 leagues past Entrance Point (for in April the current was found to set to the eastward), taking care to sink Shoal Water Island from the deck of a large ship by the time it bears N. E. by E., it being the only land distinctly seen from the Fairlie Rock.

Two &Half Fathoms Bank.

TWO AND HALF FATHOMS BANK, discovered by Capt. Ross, and bearing South 6 or 6½ miles from Entrance Point, is much in the way of ships approaching from the southward in thick weather, and other patches of 5 and 6 fathoms, lie near it to the N. Westward. The channel is about 7 or 8 miles wide between the Two and Half Fathoms Bank and the Vansittart's Shoals; and the soundings decrease to 9, 8, and 7 fathoms close to the former, and deepen to 20 or 24 fathoms on the eastern side near to the Vansittart's Shoals.

Vansittart's Shoals.

VANSITTART'S SHOALS, situated about 4 leagues E. S. Eastward from Entrance Point (together with the last mentioned danger), render the approach to the strait very dangerous in thick weather, for although the sea breaks on several of them at low water, they are not visible when the tide is high. They consist of nine or ten different patches, stretching from lat. 3° 4′ to 3° 10½″ S., and are 4 or 4½ miles in breadth at the South part, where at the S. E. extremity, one of the patches is dry at ½ ebb. Sandy Island on with the eastern extreme of Pulo Leat, and the south points of South and Saddle Islands touching, is on the N. E. extremity of these shoals. To the eastward and southward of them, the soundings are irregular from 10 to 20 fathoms; on the West side, the depths near them are generally from 22 to 28 fathoms, decreasing toward Banca, the bottom mostly coarse sand, shells, and stones. For marks to avoid these shoals, it may be useful to describe briefly, the adjacent islands.

PULO PONGOH, (vulgo) PULO LEAT, or Middle Island, extending from lat. 2° 49′ to 2° 54¾′ S., is the principal island which separates Macclesfield Strait from Clements' Strait, and has several hills upon it, making it appear like different islands when first seen, and it is of considerable size, encircled by reefs; of which the following is most in the way of ships.

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Alceste Rock.

Coral spits near Pulo Leat.

ALCESTE ROCK, upon which H. M. S. of this name struck and was wrecked, about 7 A. M. February 18th, 1817, when returning from China with Lord Amherst and suite on board, is a small coral shoal, with about 2 fathoms water on its shoalest part at low tide, from which part the West side of Gaspar Island bore N. 8° E., North end of Pulo Leat S. 40° E., and Saddle Island,* or the small island at the West part of Pub Leat S. 5° W., distance from the nearest part of Pub Leat between 3 and 4 miles. This dangerous rock has close to it 17 and 18 fathoms water, which are the usual depths to the Northward between it and Gaspar Island, and although it lies in the hitherto supposed fair track of ships steering down on the East side of that island for Macclesfield Strait, yet to the officers of the Alceste, it appeared to be only the outer or N. Westernmost patch of the coral spits which project far out from the N. and N.W. parts of Pulo Leat, having gaps of deep water between some of them.

This discovery of the Alceste Rock, at the North part of Macclesfield Strait, and the coral spits having been found to project much further out from Pub Leat than formerly supposed, together with Discovery Rock, situated nearly in the middle of the strait, renders great caution indispensable here; and it is not improbable, that other sunken rocks may exist about these straits yet undiscovered. †

Directions to enter Macclesfield Strait from the Northward.

Ships coming from the North towards Macclesfield Strait, when N.W. winds prevail, and strong S. E. currents, setting through between Gaspar Island and Pulo Leat, in January, February, and March, should, if they do not pass on the West side of Gaspar Island, borrow near its Eastern side, and after rounding it, haul in to the westward for Tanjong Brekat, in order to counteract the S. E. current, and give a birth to the Alceste Rock: therefore, do not approach the North part of Pulo Leat within 4 or 5 miles until the small island at its western extremity is bearing to the Eastward of South, and keep it so, in steering southward for the narrow part of the strait, formed by Discovery Rock to the West, and the small island off Pulo Leat to the Eastward, the latter of which may be passed at the distance of 1½ or 2 miles.

S. E. end of Banca, is a separate Island.

The S. E. projection of the island of Banca, called Entrance Point, and Rocky Point, which forms the western boundary of Macclesfield Strait, was explored by Lieut. Robinson, when Master Attendant of Banca, and found to be an island called by the Malays Pulo Lepa, separated from Banca by a small channel navigable for boats.

Islands contiguous to the straits.

LONG ISLAND about 6 leagues to the eastward of Middle Island, and contiguous to the West coast of Billiton, bounds Clements' Strait on the East side; it is of considerable extent, with several islets and dangers around. To the southward of the latter, there is a group of low islands, and another long low island close to the S.W. end of Billiton. The other islands which lie to the S. Eastward of Middle Island, form the South entrance of Clements' Strait, and have been named from their situation and aspect as follows. Sandy Island, about 5 miles S. by E. from the South-east end of Middle Island, is small and low, and about 1½ mile E. by N. from it, lies Barn Island. South Island, about 6 miles E. by S. from Barn Island, is in lat. 3° 0′ S., and North Island bears from South Island North, about 2 miles. Table Island, bears about E. ½ S., distant 3 miles from South Island. The proper channel into Clements' Strait, is bounded by these three islands on the East side, and by Barn Island and Saddle Island to the westward. Saddle Island, named from two hills on it,

* Called by Capt. Ross, West Island, and by the Malays Pulo Chellaka, i. e. Misfortune Island. The crew of the Alceste remained on Pulo Leat about fourteen days (except the cutter and barge, with Lord Amherst and suite, arrived at Batavia in three days after the loss of the frigate), and were taken off from it by the Ternate, Lieutenant Davidson, sent from Batavia, who had much difficulty in getting into the South entrance of the Strait against strong Southerly currents.

† This has been verified by the late discovery of a dangerous rocky shoal, by the Company's ship Canning, about 3¼ leagues to the Eastward of Gaspar Island.

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is about 3 miles to the S. E. of Barn Island, and 4 miles from South Island, with Low Island about a mile to the westward.

Shoal Water Island.

SHOAL WATER ISLAND, in about lat. 3° 20′ S., are two small islands close together, bearing South westerly, about 7 leagues from South Island; they are surrounded by a shoal, and other shoals project nearly 4 leagues to the southward, with breakers on them, and are partly dry at low water.

To avoid the Vansittart's Shoals,

If bound into Macclesfield Strait from the southward, to avoid the Fairlie Rock, steer for the S. E. part of Bence, and having brought Entrance Point to bear about North, or N. ½ W., steer N. by E. and N. N. E. for the strait, keeping Entrance Point to the westward of N. ½ W. or N. by W. when within 3 leagues of it, to avoid the 2½ fathoms bank; or the highest part of the trees within Rocky Point kept open to the eastward of Entrance Point, leads clear of the 2½ fathoms bank, and also of a 5 fathoms bank, about 2 miles north of it. With a working wind, to avoid Vansittart's Shoals, do not bring Entrance Point to the westward of N.W. ½ N., until the Peak of Saddle Island bears N. E. by E., or by keeping Middle Island a little to the eastward of North, they will be avoided. When near the N.W. part of these shoals, the West end of Middle Island may be brought N. ½ W.; but not more westerly until South Island is open to the northward of Saddle, and Low Islands; with the northern extremes of these, and the South part of South Island in one bearing E. 19° N., is just clear of the northernmost shoals. The S. Eastern extremity of Vansittart's Shoals, bears S.4½° W. from Barn Island, and N. 33° W. from Shoal Water Island. The S. Western extremity of them bears S. 26° W. from Barn Island, and N. 48° W. from Shoal Water Island.

and enter Macclesfield Strait.

Having entered the channel betwixt Entrance Point and these shoals, which is about 3 leagues wide, a course should be steered for the small island at the West point of Middle Island, to avoid the dangers contiguous to the Banca shore. One of these is a bank to the northward of Entrance Point, but the reefs off Rocky Point are most in the way of ships, particularly the following danger situated nearly in mid-channel.

Discovery Rock.

DISCOVERY ROCK, on which a Portuguese ship from Macao was wrecked in 1816, and the Alnwick Castle narrowly escaped, by tacking on the edge of it in 5¾ fathoms, in 1810; but its existence was not exactly known, until Capt. Ross explored it in the company's surveying ship, Discovery, January 18th, 1813, and of which he gives the following description.

I once before passed very near the situation of this rock, without perceiving any indication of danger; but while passing at this time, observed a breaker, at low water spring tide, which on examination, was found to be on a sunken coral rock, in diameter about 30 yards, having only 2 feet water upon it, with perpendicular sides, as within a boat's length of it, there are 7 fathoms water.

Although there was so little water over the rock, and a small swell at this time, yet the sea did not break upon it above once in an hour. The depth about the rock is 20 fathoms but a rocky bank or ridge projects from it to the eastward about a ¼ mile, with 6, 7, 10, and 15 fathoms on its eastern extremity.

From the rock, Entrance Point bears S. 17° W., False Rocky Point (which is situated between the True Rocky Point and Entrance Point) S. 22° 51′ W., Saddle Island S. 59° 36′ E., South point of Pulo Leat or Middle Island S. 80° 46′ E., Highest Tuft of Trees on Pulo Leat N. 89° 39′ E., North end of Pulo Leat N. 59° 39′ E., Hummock over Tanjong Brekat N. 18° 30′ E., and it is distant 4 miles from the small island that lies close to the West, point of Pulo Lear, and 4 miles from Rocky Point.

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Rocky Point.

ROCKY POINT, is about 2 leagues to the northward of Entrance Point,* from which clusters of rocks, with gaps of deep water of 8 and 10 fathoms between them, stretch out to N. Eastward nearly 3 miles; they are of considerable extent, covered at high water, but at low tide, many of the rocks are visible. It is advisable to approach them no nearer than 16 fathoms, for the Warren Hastings struck on one of them with Entrance Point bearing S. S.W., and the North extreme of the three islands to the N.W. of Rocky Point N.W. by W. ½ W., having shoaled from 15 fathoms to 4 fathoms at one cast of the lead.

To pass clear of the reefs off it.

In passing the eastern extremity of these rocks, Entrance Point should not be brought to the southward of S. 31° W., until abreast of the West point of Pulo Leat, where the soundings are generally from 20 to 28 fathoms, if not too near the Discovery Rock, and decreasing to either side. The small island off the West point of Pulo Leat is joined to it by a reef, which should have a birth of 1 or 2 miles in passing, but not more than 2 or 2½ miles, in order to avoid the Discovery Rock; and from the North point of Pulo Leat, a reef projects to the northward, and another to the westward about 1½ mile. A ship will clear the latter, if the West point of the small island contiguous to Pulo Leat, is not brought to the westward of S. 7° W.

Tanjong Brekat;

to avoid the shoal nearit.

TANJONG BREKAT, in lat. 2° 35′ S, a long projecting point with a hummock close over it, is about 7 leagues nearly N. ½ W. from Rocky Point; the coast of Banca between these points, forms a very deep and extensive bay, having in it shoal water and several dangers, with three islands already mentioned, at the southern part. About 4 miles to the S. S. E. of Tanjong Brekat, lies a 3 fathoms bank which must be avoided, and borrow not into the bay, in passing from Pulo Leat to the northward. About 4½ or 5 leagues inland to the westward of Tanjong Brekat, there is a mountain on Banca, very conspicuous, usually called Tanjong Brekat Mountain.

Geo. Site of Gaspar Island.

PULO GLASSA, or GASPAR ISLAND, in lat. 2° 25½′ S., lon. 107° 6′ E., or 14 miles East from Batavia by chronometers, bears North from the East part of Pulo Leat, distant 8 leagues, and lies about 5½ leagues N. E. by E. from Tanjong Brekat. It is the principal mark in sailing to, or from the northern part of these straits, for avoiding the shoals, having a peaked hill on it, that may be seen about 10 leagues. There is a rocky islet with some trees on it, and rocks contiguous, distant about 1½ or 2 miles from the West side of Gaspar Island, which is on with the peak bearing E. 5° S.

Canning's Rock.

Geo. Site.

CANNING'S ROCK, discovered in the company's ship Canning, Capt. P. Baylis, upon which that ship grounded, April 11th, 1825, during her passage homeward from China, is situated in the direct route of ships which proceed through the Straits of Gaspar; therefore, very dangerous for large ships, as there are only 3¼ or 3 fathoms water on its shoalest part. When aground upon the rock, the peak of Gaspar Island bore S. 78° W. distant 9½ or 10 miles; Tanjong Brekat S. 64° W.; Tanjong Brekat Mountain to the westward of Tanjong Brekat S. 74° W.; Long Island S. 23° E.; islet off Long Island S. 16° E.; which makes it in latitude 2° 23′ or 2° 23½′ S., lon. 107° 14′ E. by chronometers. Mr. Smith, the officer sent to examine the extent of the danger, found it to be composed of large patches of coral, extending about 100 yards in a N. E. and S.W. direction, and not more than 50 yards from

* If a ship be in want of fresh water, she may anchor about a mile to the N. E. of Entrance Point, and get water from some of the small rivers in the bight between Entrance Point and Rocky Point, where there are sandy beaches: but an armed boat should be there, ready to protect the watering party, in case of any piratical proas coming round Rocky Point from the westward. Capt. Ross took in water from the creek or small river about 2 miles to the north of Entrance Point, which was a little tinged with a red colour, but produced no pernicious effect.

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East to West, steep to, having from 17 to 20 fathoms water close to its edge all round. When aground, the soundings under the ship's larboard fore chains were 9 fathoms; at the starboard main chains 5¼ fathoms; at the larboard main chains 3¼ fathoms; close under the counter 4 fathoms; and about 20 yards from the larboard quarter 3 fathoms, or 19 feet water, upon a small patch. This danger was not visible from the main top at a ¼ mile distant, and being greatly in the way of ships approaching the Straits of Gaspar from the northward, in thick weather, they ought to endeavour, after passing the latitude of the Magdalen's Shoal, to make Gaspar Island bearing well to the southward, then hauling within 5 or 6 miles, or nearer, before it bears W. S.W., in order to give a wide birth to this recently discovered danger.

Tree Island.

TREE ISLAND,* bearing from Gaspar Peak W. 28° S., distant 7 miles, is a barren rock with two or three trees on its summit, giving it the appearance of a ship under sail, and making it visible about 5 leagues. A reef extends to the North and southward from it about ½ a mile, and a rock about the height of a long boat, lies the same distance from it to the S. Eastward.

Tides.

There appears to be a great rise and fall of tide, sometimes at these islands, for the Vansittart's boat landed at Tree Island, and found a rise of about 3 fathoms perpendicular, between 8 A. M. and 5 P. M.; and it appeared to be high water at 5 or 6 o'clock in the evening, the moon then 1½ day past change. During the strength of the N. E. monsoon, in the China sea, the winds betwixt Banca and the S.W. part of Borneo, generally prevail from N. Westward; and the current sets then along the East coast of Banca through Gaspar Straits to the S. Eastward, sometimes from 2 to 3 miles per hour. In fine weather, and light winds, a kind of tides are experienced in the straits, which are seldom very regular.

To steer from Pulo Leat, through the Strait.

Being in Macclesfield Strait, abreast of the small island at the West point of Pulo Leat, at 1½ to 2½ miles distance, steer about North, observing not to bring Tanjong Brekat to the northward of N. N.W. ½ W., nor to shoal under 14 or 15 fathoms in the entrance of the great bay between it and Rocky Point. When Tree Island is seen, steer to pass to the eastward of Gaspar Island, at any convenient distance from 2 or 3, to 5 miles, but not more than 6 or 7 miles at most, on account of the Canning's Rock, then steer to the northward, observing not to bring Gaspar Island to the eastward of South while it is visible, in order to avoid the following shoals, which render the passage to the westward of these islands rather intricate. The passage to the eastward of Gaspar Island is generally chosen, for, excepting the Canning's Rock, it is thought free of danger from that island across to the isles which lie off the N.W. end of Billiton.

Warren Hasting's Shoal.

WARREN HASTING'S SHOAL, is about 2½ miles in extent, nearly N. by W. and S. by E., with only 1½ fathom on it in some places: the Warren Hastings, when aground on shoal a projecting part at its eastern edge, had the high land of Banca bearing S. 58° W., South extreme of Banca, or Tanjong Brekat S. 22° W., centre of Gaspar Island E. 20° S., and Tree Island S. 17° E., distant about 7 miles. To avoid this shoal on the West side, if passing between it and Banca, Tree Island must be kept to the eastward of S. S. E., when Gaspar Island bears from E. by S. to E. S. E., or until at least 3½ leagues to the N.Westward of Tree Island. Another good mark is, to steer to the northward with Tanjong Brekat bearing between South and S. by W., and not bring it to the westward of the latter bearing, when passing the shoal. Having passed to the westward of the Warren Hasting's Shoal, steer a

* There is a cave here, where the Malays come to collect birds nests, which they also probably find on the other Islands.

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North course from Tanjong Brekat, to pass betwixt the Vansittart's Shoal,* (on which the ship of that name was lost) and the Belvidere's Shoals.

Belvidere's Shoals.

BELVIDERE'S SHOALS, the S.W. end is in lat. 2° 15′ S., and bears from Gaspar Island Peak N. 27° W., distant about 10 or 10½ miles; they extend from thence, to the N. Eastward about 4 miles, being composed of several coral patches, with from 6 to 10 feet water on them; and a Black Rock above water, at the N. Eastern extremity. The sea breaks on them when there is much swell, and they may be easily avoided in day-light, with a good look out, particularly as some of the patches are dry at low water. An American ship, however, belonging to Mr. Astor of New York, was wrecked on these shoals, a few years ago; and not long after, a large Chinese Junk was wrecked there, part of her people floated to Gaspar Island, and some of them were found floating about on pieces of wood, and other fragments of wreck, who were saved by the laudable exertions of a country ship belonging to Calcutta, that fell in with them at the time.

Vansittart's Shoal.

VANSITTART'S SHOAL,* in lat. 2° 11′ S., bearing from Gaspar Island Peak N. 56° W., distant 25 miles, and 5 leagues to the westward of the Belvidere's Shoals, is composed of coral rock and very dangerous, the depths on it being 3 and 3½ fathoms; the water over it is not always discoloured, consequently, the danger is not visible.

Directions.

To pass betwixt the Belvidere's Shoals and the Vansittart's Shoal, when Gaspar Island is visible, the Peak kept between S. E. by S. and S. E. E., will guide you safely through; afterward, steer between N.W. by N. and N. N.W., to avoid several other dangers near Banca, and the Magdalen's Shoal to the eastward. These shoals to the northward and N. Westward of Gaspar Island, are mostly all steep to, having from 17 to 20 fathoms water close to their edges, and nearly the same depths in the channels between them; but in approaching the shoals adjacent to Banca, the water generally shoals to 12 or 14 fathoms, rocky bottom; you ought, therefore, not to borrow under 14 or 15 fathoms toward Banca,† after having passed Gaspar Island, if the passage to the westward of the outer or northern shoals is followed; but this is not advisable, the passage to the eastward of them and Gaspar Island, being preferable.

Magdalen's Shoal.

MAGDALEN'S SHOAL, discovered by Captain John Cowman, November 24th, 1806, on his passage from China toward New York, in the American ship Magdalen, is the outermost shoal discovered to the northward of Gaspar Straits, and greatly in the way of ships coming from the northward in thick weather toward the straits. He was within ½ a cable's length of the shoal before it was perceived, which was found to consist of two patches of coral rock, about 80 fathoms in length, and 15 fathoms in breadth, with deep water between them. The boat found 12 feet water upon them, although in some parts, there may be less. About ½ a cable's length from the shoal, they had 19, 20, and 21 fathoms water; and being noon at the time, observed the lat. 1° 56½′ S., the summit of Gaspar Island Peak then in

* The Vansittart was lost by striking on this shoal, after having nearly completed a survey of Macclesfield Strait, on her passage toward China, in 1789: since Captain L. Wilson made that survey, other dangers have been discovered farther to the northward, which render the passage West of Gaspar Island unsafe in thick weather; and it is not improbable, that more undiscovered shoals may exist in this dangerous sea to the eastward of Banca.

† Although this caution has been hitherto thought necessary, Captain Robert Scott, states, that in the ship Warren Hastings, he hauled in with the coast of Banca a little to the northward of Tanjong Brekat, then coasted along to the northward, keeping generally in 11 fathoms water, without perceiving any appearance of shoals, nor any danger except contiguous to the shore, although a constant look out was kept at the mast-head. There are, however, dangers in 12 or 13 fathoms, to the northward of Pulo Panjang, and off Tanjang Ryah, shortly to be described.

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sight from the deck, bearing S. 10° E., distant 10½ leagues. By keeping Gaspar Peak S. ½ E. or South, the shoal will be left to the southward in passing, but Gaspar Peak will not be discernible from the shoal unless the weather is clear.

Capt. Ross, in July 1814, endeavoured to find this shoal, without success, but during his survey of Gaspar Straits, in 1818, he explored the Magdalen's Shoal or Rock, which was ascertained to be of small extent, and situated in lat. 2° 0′ S., bearing from Gaspar Island N. 8° 45′ W. by compass.

Severn's Shoal.

SEVERN'S SHOAL, discovered by Captain John Whetton, in the American ship Severn, from New York, May 23d, 1802, is much in the way of ships running from Pulo Toty toward Gaspar Island, and it is the northernmost of the discovered shoals off the East coast of Banca. At sun-set, Gaspar Peak bore S. E. ¾ S., distant 4½ or 5 leagues; from this situation they steered N.W.½ N., 35 miles to day-light, then struck on a coral shoal, and got off it on the following flood, after lightning the ship of 30 tons of ballast, and carrying out a bower anchor. The shoal appeared to extend N. N. E. and S. S.W., about 2 or 3 miles, and on that part where the ship grounded, there was only 10 feet on a rock, which was the least water they found. When aground, lat. observed 1° 40′ S., and the hills on Banca appeared detached from each other, like islands, bearing from S.W. by S. ¼ S., to S.W. by W.; the mountain Goonong Marass, was seen inland beyond the other hills, and the nearest land seemed distant about 7 leagues from the shoal. The Colombian, American ship, belonging to New York, returning from Canton in March, 1824, in working to the southward for the Straits of Gaspar, grounded on the Severn's Shoal, and bilged:—the crew reached Mintow on Banca, in the long boat, after suffering much fatigue.

Other Shoals near Banca.

OTHER SHOALS, whose positions are not correctly known, lie nearer to the coast of near Banca than those last mentioned, which are avoided by not coming under 16 fathoms; the bottom in such case, will be mostly mud, but generally foul and rocky under 15 fathoms. The Sulivan, from China, hauling in to get a sight of Banca, December 25th, 1784, during thick weather, after shoaling to 13½ fathoms rocky bottom, saw three shoals with breakers, one bearing S. S.W. 3 miles, one S. E. by S. 3 miles, another E. N. E. about 4 miles; and there appeared amongst the breakers, some rocks above water. These dangers seem to be about 4 leagues off Banca, and in about lat. 2° 3′ S., a little to the northward of Pulo Panjang,* but the weather being very thick, the land was not seen at the time the shoals were visible.

The Hillsborough, returning from China, toward Macclesfield Strait, by keeping too close to the coast of Banca, struck upon a rock at 4 P. M., March 27th, 1788, having only 3 feet water on the shoalest part; and when the ship was aground forward, there were 13 fathoms at the main chains on both sides. After getting off, she anchored in 14 fathoms a little to the westward of the reef, extremes of Banca from W. N. W. to S. E., five small islands bearing South, and the lat. about 2° 3′ S.; the boat on the South end of the reef, bore from the ship about S. E., and when on the other end, about N. E.

The five islands bearing South from the ship, when at anchor near the reef, must have been Pulo Panjang, the islet near it, and three others at a little distance to the South-eastward; it seems, therefore, very probable, that the reef on which this ship struck, was one of those seen in the Sulivan; and if not the same as those encountered by the General Elliot, it must be situated very near them.

* With the small island off Pulo Panjang bearing S. by W. ¼ W., 5 miles distant, and the eastern extreme of Banca S. S. E. ½ E., being the toe of the mountain over Tanjong Brekat, the General Elliot got entangled with shoals, and had 8 fathoms close to them, in the situation described above; as the Sulivan had deeper water, the shoals seen by her, may be others at a greater distance from the coast, although they are probably the same, and do not lie so far off shore as mentioned above.

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A little farther to the northward, about 4 leagues off Banca, in lat. 1° 55′ S., there is a Bank with overfalls from 13 to 7 fathoms, and probably less water, over which the General Elliot passed.

Palmer's shoal.

PALMER'S SHOAL, is probably the bank last-mentioned, and the following description of it, is given by Capt. Roddam, of the ship Palmer. August 27th, 1811, at 45 minutes P. M., the ship suddenly struck, having sounded about 5 minutes before in 14 fathoms; saw discoloured water on both sides under the quarters, had then 10 fathoms by the lead, the ship having passed rapidly over the shoal; next cast, had 11, 10, 11 fathoms, then anchored, the wind blowing fresh from S. E. against us. When, at anchor, Tanjong Ryah bore W. ¾ N.W., distant about 5 leagues, the southernmost low islands of Pulo Panjang S. S.W. ¾ W. distant 12 or 14 miles, the shoal on which we struck bearing about N. N. E. 2½ miles, according to the distance run until anchoring.

N. E. coast of Banca

Geo. Site of Goonong Marass.

NORTH EAST COAST OF BANCA, although surveyed, and correctly delineated of Banta. by Lieut. James Robinson, in his excellent chart of the northern part of the island, a brief description here, may not be improper. There are many hills interspersed along this coast, near the sea, and some mountains inland; one of these, is about 4 leagues West from Tanjong Brekat; and about 6 leagues to the westward of Tanjong Ryah, in lat. 1° 53′ S., lon 105° 52′ E., stands the double peaked mountain, GOONONG MARASS, the largest on the North part of Banca.

Pulo Panjang.

Marawan.

From Tanjong Brekat, the coast extends in a W. N.W. direction, about 14 leagues to Pulo Panjang, in lat. 2° 9′ S., which is about 2 leagues off shore, surrounded by reefs, and having the small island Pulo Ponjoon near it on the east side, with a great reef and foul ground stretching 4 leagues in a S. Easterly direction, upon which are several islands; Pulo Colowy, in lat. 2° 17′ S., being the Easternmost of these, and N. E. by N. from it about 5 miles, lies a rocky shoal of 1½ fathoms, from which Vansittart's Shoal bears about E. ½ N., distant 4 leagues. From Pulo Panjang to Tanjong Ryah, the coast trends to the north, and is fortified by reefs and rocky patches to the distance of 2 and 3 leagues; Marawan river, a place affording tin, being situated about W. by N. from Pulo Panjang, cannot be approached by ships on account of surrounding dangers.

A brig, that went from Mintow to Marawan for tin, got entangled by the numerous shoals, near that place, and grounded on one of them, although she had a Malay pilot on board, which obliged her to lie near Pulo Panjang, distant about 10 miles from Marawan, where she took in tin.

Gen. Site of Tanjong Ryab.

TANJONG RYAH, in lat. 1 ° 55′ S., lon, 106° 14′ E., bearing from Tanjong nearly N.W., distant about 19 leagues, has two hummocks on it, and the coast between these headlands forms a concavity, with several islands in it, and the dangers already mentioned.

Black Rock Reef.

Black Rock Reef, situated 4 or 5 miles to the South and S. S. Eastward of Tanjong Ryah, is very extensive, with only 3 feet water, rocky bottom in some places; but there are also rocks above water on it about 14 feet high. This shoal, and also the reef fronting Tanjong Ryah, have 9 and 10 fathoms water near to them, both of which were examined by Captain Waterman, when he anchored in Songy Leat Bay in July, 1813, in the ship Volunteer. From the highest rock of Black Rock Reef, Goonong Marass was open to the southward of Tanjong Ryah Hills bearing W. 7° N., easternmost hill of Tanjong Ryah N. 53° W., Tanjong Tuan N. 30° W., Songy Leat Bay S. E. extreme N. 39° W., Inner Pulo Panjang S. 12° E., Outer ditto S. 22° E.

Songy Leat.

SONGY LEAT BAY, in lat. 1° 50′ S., situated to the N.W. of Tanjong Ryah, has good anchorage, and shelter from southerly winds. The Volunteer, at anchor in 5 fathoms

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white stiff clay, about ¾ of a mile from the shore, had Goonong Marass bearing W. 6° S., Tanjong Laing, the North point of the Bay, and Tanjong Tuan in one N. N. W., Tanjong Ryah Point S. E. ½ S, and Songy Leat River W. ¼ N. In entering the bay from the northward, care must be taken of a Rocky Shoal, with only 1 fathom water on it, bearing about E. ½ S: 3½ miles from the North point of the bay; and a 4 fathoms patch lies about 2 miles E. S. E. from the same point.

Fresh water is difficult to be got here, as boats can only enter the river when the tide is high: wood may be cut close to the beach; and spars of any dimensions may be got with little difficulty, in the South part of the bay, within ½ a mile of the shore. From the river nearly to the S. E. point of the bay, a fine sandy beach lines the shore, the soundings decreasing gradually toward it, over a clear bottom; this bay and the adjacent coast abounds with fine fish. The tide rises 9 feet at full and change of the moon, and flows till 5 P. M. only once in 24 hours.

and other places.

The coast about Pulo Panjang, and from thence to Soogy Leat Bay, is dangerous to approach, but from the latter place to Tanjong Muncooda, it is more safe, and from thence westerly near to Clabat Bay, where it becomes dangerous at the East part of this bay, near the islands at its entrance.

Tanjong Tuan, in lat. 1° 38′ S., has a hill on it with several others inland, and may be approached within ½ a mile; it bears from Tanjong Ryah nearly N. N.W. ½ W., about 6 leagues, the coast to the South of it forming a bay, with Pulo Simbaug, a small island, about 2 leagues S. S. Eastward from Tanjong Tuan, and Pulo Ponigh, another small island, close to the latter.

Anchorage at Calabat Bay.

Tanjong Muncooda in lat. 1° 28½′ S., is the northernmost point of Banca, and bears from Tanjong Tuan about N.W. by W. 5 or 6 leagues, and has a small island near it, called Pulo Muncooda, with a 2 fathoms shoal about 3 miles West from the latter, and 1½ mile offshore. About 3 leagues W. by S. from Pulo Muncooda, lies the entrance of Clabat or Calabat Bay, having several islands in it, and Pulo Punyosoo close to Tanjong Punyosoo, the point that bounds the East side of the entrance. The bottom of Calabat Bay, is said to communicate with an extensive Lagoon inland, in which there are 16 fathoms water. Country ships anchor to procure tin, at the entrance of the bay, in 9½ or 10 fathoms, about 2 miles from Pulo Bay. Punyosoo, on with Goonong Marass, bearing S. 28° E., Goonong Calabat S. 28° W., Tanjong Malaloo, the West point of the bay W. 15° S., the hill over it called Goonong Malaloo W. 20° S., and Pulo Muncooda E. 7° N.

Serveral rock's and islands.

Tanjong Goonting, in lat. 1° 43′ S., forms the North Point of SONGY BOOLOO BAY, and is on with Monopin Hill, bearing S. 22° W.: it is about 6½ leagues to the S.Westward of the West point of Calabat Bay, and between them, there are several other points, also two islands, called Pulo Pamooja, and Pulo Proute; and two rocks, called Carang-Malan-Toole, and Carang-Malan-Dooyong, which lie about a league off shore.

Carang-Malan-Doovong, the easternmost of these rocks, is the largest, being as high as a small vessel's hull, and bears W. 28° N. from the West point of Calabat Bay, distant 4 or 5 miles; and when on with Goonong Marass and a little hill, it bears S. 35° E.

Carang-Malan-Toole, about the height of a boat above water, is 3 or 4 miles off shore, and about the scone distance W. 17° S. from the rock last mentioned, and bears from Pulo Proute N. 6° E. Nearer the shore, lies another rock, called Carang Malan-Goonting, which bears from Pulo Proute E. 18° N., and from Carang-Malan-Dooyong W. 12° S.

Anchorage to the eastward of them.

The soundings about 2 or 3 miles outside of these rocks, vary from 17 to 26 fathoms, and they are steep to, but a ship may anchor to the eastward of them, off Tanjong Malaloo, in 13 fathoms, with that point S. 61° W., Pulo Proute S. 66° W., Carang-Malan-Dooyong W. 3° S., Carang-Malan-Toole W. 18° S., and Carang-Malau Goonting W. 20° S.

Songy Booloo.

SONGY BOOLOO, bearing S. 65° E., about 5 miles from Tanjong Goonting, is the

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principal town near the North end of Banca, and frequented by the country traders: the bay is about 4 leagues in extent from Tanjong Goonting to Tanjong Beeat, but occupied by shoal water to the distance of 3 miles from the shore.

Ships in want of water, may anchor under Tanjong Goonting in 5 or 6 fathoms, with it bearing N. 18° E., the S.W. extreme of the bay, (a long low point) S. 32° W., Songy Booloo S. 83° E., and the watering place, which is about 1½ mile inside of Tanjong Goonting, N. 61° E. Or a ship may anchor in 5 fathoms, abreast of Songy Booloo, bearing N. 52° E., Tanjong Goonting N. 20° W., Monopin Hill S. 33° IV., and Tanjong Beeat the westernmost extreme S. 49° W., off shore about 3 miles.

To sail through the Middle Passage of Gaspar Straits,

and from thence into the China Sea.

MIDDLE PASSAGE, formed between Macclesfield and Clement's Straits, has formerly been adopted by several ships which proceeded betwixt Banca and Billiton; but it is now little frequented, being more intricate than Macclesfield Strait. A ship intending to proceed through it, should, in coming from S.Westward, steer betwixt Entrance Point and Vansittart's Shoals, toward Middle Island, borrowing on the East side of the channel until Sandy Island is approached. There are two shoals between Barn Island and the S. E. part of Middle Island, and a passage nearly in mid-channel, by leaving a shoal on each side; but the best passage is to the eastward of them: keep therefore within a mile of the West side of Sandy Island, and bring it to bear S.W. by S.; by keeping it on this bearing, but nothing to the southward, you will pass clear to the eastward of the outer shoal, which will be easily discerned by the discoloured water, for it is dry at low tide. Having passed this shoal, a northerly course should be steered, keeping at least a league from the East side of Middle Island; if the weather is clear, Gaspar Island will soon be seen bearing about N. by W., which should be passed on the East side at the distance of 2, 3, to 5 or 6 miles. Whilst Gaspar Island is visible, do not bring it to the eastward of South, which will lead in the fair channel to the eastward of the Magdalen's Shoal. Being clear of the latter, by sinking Gaspar Island under the horizon, if the weather is clear, or getting into lat. 1° 50′ S., a direct course about N. N.W. may be steered, if bound into the China Sea, to pass between Pulo Aor and Pulo Domar, the latter bearing from Gaspar Island N. 19° W., distant 110 leagues. The depths in this track, will increase from 18 and 20 fathoms near Gaspar Island and the adjacent shoals, to 26 or 28 fathoms eastward of Pulo Lingin, and to 30 or 34 fathoms, in approaching Palo Aor, or Pulo Domar.

Directions for sailing through Clement's Strait.

CLEMENT'S STRAIT, may be adopted occasionally, if winds or other circumstances favor the passage through it, although the preference is usually given to Macclesfield Strait. If a ship, however, coming from the southward, intend to proceed through Clement's Strait, and the wind be at S. Eastward, she ought to steer up to the westward of Shoal-Water-Island and the shoals to the southward of it, giving them a birth of 3 or 4 miles in passing: when clear of that island, to. avoid the S. Eastern extremity of the Vansittart's Shoals, she must haul to the eastward until the peak of Saddle Island bears N. by E., then steer for it, and pass mid-channel betwixt it and South Island, to avoid a reef, dry at low water, distant 1¼ mile N. E. by E. from Saddle Island.

There is a channel about 2 miles wide, betwixt the N. E. end of Vansittart's Shoals and Low Island,* through which a ship may proceed into Macclesfield Strait, or into the Middle Passage, if circumstances should render that necessary; and in such case, she may pass to the westward of Low Island, giving it a birth of 2 miles.

But to proceed through Clements' Strait, after passing about mid-channel betwixt Saddle Island and South Island, a course about N. by W. or N. N.W. will be proper, to pass nearer

* If the passage between Low Island and Barn Island be adopted, there are some dangerous spots to be avoided, which extend from Barn Island nearly to mid-channel in a South and S. by W. direction.

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to Barn Island than to North Island, which track is requisite to avoid a SUNKEN ROCK* about 6 or 8 fathoms in diameter, having only 1½ fathom water upon it, and 8 to 10 fathoms all round. Saddle Island bears from it S. by W. ¼ W. 3¼ miles, North Island E. by N. 2¼ miles, Barn Island W. by S. 3¼ miles, and it bears North from the reef that lies about 1¼ mile eastward of Saddle Island. Having passed through this narrow part of the strait, with North Island bearing East or E. by S. 3 or 3½ miles, a direct course about North may be steered to pass on the East side of Gaspar Island, if bound into the China Sea, giving a birth to the General Hewitt's Rock; and when clear of it steer to the N. Eastward, if bound to the coast of Borneo, taking care to give a birth of at least 2 leagues to the N.W. coast of Billiton, as sunken rocks are interspersed throughout Treacherous Bay, which is situated between Long Island and the group of islands at the N.W. end of Billiton.

General Hewitt's Rock.

GENERAL HEWITT'S ROCK, discovered by the ship of this name, August 7th, 1820, on her passage towards China, is situated in the fair channel, at the northern part of Clements' Strait, upon which she struck at 11½ A. M., August 7th, 1820, and lay aground about 15 minutes. This rock was found to extend about a ship's length, and to be 8 or 10 fathoms in breadth, the coral rocks visible under the ship's bottom, having 15 or 16 feet water over them, at the shoalest part, with from 12 to 15 fathoms water close to it all round. When aground upon the rock, the westernmost part of South Island was just visible, on with the West end of North Island, extremes of Pulo Leat from N. 67° W. to S. 77° W., Barn Island S. 34° W., the Mountain of Tanjong Brekat well clear of the North end of Pulo Leat. This rock is 4 or 4½ miles distant from North Island, and it will be avoided, by keeping the high part of South Island open with the West end of North Island.

Excepting Macclesfield Strait, Clements' Strait may be considered the best passage amongst the islands which lie between the S. E. point of Banca and Billiton, if a ship keep in the fair channel, where the depths are generally from 16 to 20 fathoms.

Directions, and Geo. Site of Shoe Island.

If coming from the East, and bound to the northward through any of these straits, to make SHOE ISLAND, situated in lat. 3° 47½′ S., lon.108° 2′ E. by chronometers from Batavia: from thence, steer N.W. which will lead you betwixt Shoal-Water-Island and a long low island off the S.W. part of Billiton, where the water will deepen to 22 and 24 fathoms sandy bottom. If you make the S. E. part of Billiton, coast along in 11 or 12 fathoms until Shoal-Water-Island is seen bearing about West, 4 leagues distant; the water will then deepen, and when Saddle Island is discerned to the N, N.W., steer to pass mid-way between it and South Island, if bound through Clements' Strait; but if Macclesfield Strait is to be chosen, steer a little more westerly, to pass betwixt the North end of the Vansittart's Shoals and Low, and Sandy Islands, keeping within 2 miles of the West sides of these islands in passing, then steer near the West side of Pulo Leat, conforming to the directions in the beginning of this section, for proceeding through Macclesfield Strait. It is sometimes very difficult to get to the northward through any of these straits in the northerly monsoon, and even so late as March, calms and faint airs, with a constant southerly current, have been known to prevent ships from making any progress to the northward, and obliged them to lie at anchor for several days together. At this season it is improper to attempt the passage to the northward, through any of these straits; in a small ship, the passage close along the West coast of Borneo ought to be prefered. The Grenville, bound to China, reached Macclesfield Strait, February 28th, 1816, and met with constant southerly currents, and N, N.W. winds, which obliged her to lie mostly at anchor, to prevent being drifted to the southward, and she did not pass Gaspar Island till March 13th; saw the Great Natuna on the 30th, and she, then proceeded to Malacca for a supply of water.

* Sandy Island shut in behind Barn Island, and half of Table Island open with the North end of South Island, is on this sunken rock. The passage between it and North Island is equally safe as that between it and Barn Island, (although not so wide) by keeping within a mile of North Island when passing the rock.

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Geo. Site of Pulo Toty; and directions to sail from the northward through Macclesfield Strait, in the northerly monsoon.

SHIPS from CHINA, intending to pass through Gaspar Straits, may proceed by the westernmost one, called Macclesfield Strait, if not very late in the season; and in departing from the from Pulo Domar, a course may be steered for Pulo Toty, in lat. 0° 58′ S., lon. 105° 42′ E., bearing from Pulo Domar, S. 6° E., distant 75 leagues, or 23 miles East from the latter by chronometer; if a southerly current is experienced after leaving Pulo Domar, it will probably set to the S. Eastward, as the distance is increased to the South of the equator, for which make allowance in thick weather, when observations are not obtained, or when the wind draws to N.Westward. Pulo Docan bears nearly S.W. by W., about 3 leagues from Pulo Toty, and the depths are from 20 to 15 fathoms mud, in a safe channel between them; but pass to the East of Pulo Toty at 4 to 6 leagues distance, or even farther, if the wind incline from N. Eastward.

Having passed Pulo Toty, from which Gaspar Island bears S. 44° E., distant 40 leagues, steer an E. S. Easterly course, to get on the meridian of the latter island before you reach lat. 1° 50′ S., in order to pass to the East of the Magdalen's Shoal, and all the dangers adjacent to the coast of Banca; then enter the straits on either side of, and near to Gaspar Island: afterward, haul to the S. Westward, to avoid the Alceste Rock, and pass on the West side of Pulo Leat, within l½ or 2 miles, to avoid the Discovery Rock.

Geo. Site of Low Pyramidal Rocks.

The foregoing directions, are only applicable to ships which come from China very early in the season, when N. Westerly winds sometimes prevail, and then Banca Strait is preferable:* but the best route to pursue, in general, particularly in the latter part of the northerly monsoon, when S. E. and Easterly winds are often experienced between Banca and Billiton, is to steer for the North Natunas if not certain of your longitude, and pass 5 or 6 leagues to the westward of them, and the islands which lie off the western part of the Great Natuna, in order to give a birth to two shoals that lie from 2 to 3½ leagues S. S. Westerly from N.W.Island; taking care to keep a good look out for the Low Pyramidal Rocks, situated in lat. 4° 8′ N., lon. 107° 27′ E., distant about 12 leagues to the westward of the Great Natuna. From hence, steer to pass to the West of Haycock Island, to avoid Diana's Shoal, and proceed to the southward, leaving Victory and Barren Islands to the West, and Camel Island, St. Julian, and St. Esprit Islands to the eastward, if the wind admit; otherwise, you may pass through the most convenient channel between these islands, which are all thought to be safe, with soundings from 20 to 35 fathoms. Having passed the St. Esprit Islands, steer to fall in with St. Barbe Island, and pass it on the West side at about 3 leagues distance; then steer to make Gaspar Island, taking care to get to the East of its meridian before you pass the Magdalen's Shoal, which should not be passed in the night, as Gaspar Island is the only guide, in clear weather, to avoid that shoal: the soundings in this track are generally from 20 to 27 fathoms. When Gaspar Island is discerned bearing from South to S. S.W., steer to pass it on the East side, within 1 or 2 miles distance, to avoid the Canning's Rock, and to prevent being set over toward the Alceste Rock and reefs at the North end of Pulo Leat, and pass Pulo Leat on the West side, within 1½ or 2 miles, nor stand farther than 2½ miles at most from it in working, when abreast of the Discovery Shoal. A good look out should be kept for the Belvidere's Shoals, in running to the southward for Gaspar Island, as the rock at their northern extreme, or some of the dry patches may be seen in clear weather, if

* The Bombay, and Charles Grant, in company, homeward-bound from China, in December, 1817, saw Pulo Aor in thick weather, intending to pass through the Strait of Banca; but by steering a course to give a wide birth to the Dogger Banks in the night, they were carried far to the eastward of Banca, by a strong easterly current, having strong West and W. S. W. winds at the time. They made Gaspar Island bearing S. by W., and anchored, to prevent being driven farther to the eastward, but the Bombay parted from two anchors in the night, by the force of the short heavy sea. Neither of these ships were able to effect a passage through the Straits of Gaspar, but were driven to the eastward of Billiton, by the strong easterly current, and westerly winds, and both proceeded to the southward through the Carimata Passage. From hence, the Charles Grant worked to the westward, and proceeded out through the Strait of Sunda; but the Bombay went through the Strait of Allass, and they arrived at St. Helena on the same day.

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Gaspar Island is kept bearing nearly South, which is proper, to prevent being carried to the eastward by the currents.

Having brought the West point of Pulo Leat to bear N. by E., steer out of the strait with this bearing, or in working, it may be kept between North and N. by E. ½ E. If working out between Vansittart's Shoals, and the shoal patches off the South end of Banca, Entrance Point must be kept between N. ½ W. and N.W. by N., or that point bearing N. ½ W. to N. by W., is a safe guide with a leading wind. With either of these marks, steer S. by W. until the low land that joins the hills on Banca, is sunk under the horizon; and to avoid the Fairlie Rock, sink Shoal Water Island by the time it bears N. E. by E., observing that Entrance Point must not bear to the westward of N. by W. when the distance from it is increased to 8 leagues. When this point is distant 5½ or 6 leagues, bearing to the northward, a direct course may be steered to fall in with the Two Brothers, if N. Westerly winds prevail; but it will be prudent to make the North Watcher, when the winds are S. Easterly.

Proceeding through Macclesfield Strait, when S. E. winds predominate, borrow near to Pulo Leat and the East side of the channel, to be enabled to pass clear out, without falling to leeward upon the 2½ fathoms bank, or the shoal banks and overfalls projecting from the South end of Banca. The soundings in the strait, are generally 17 and 18 fathoms in mid-channel, increasing abreast of the West point of Pulo Leat to 24 or 28 fathoms; from thence, the depths decrease to 12 and 11 fathoms, in passing out of the strait to the southward of Entrance Point. The bottom in many places is mud, but often it consists of coarse sand, shells, and stones, and in some places rocky, particularly near the shoals on the Banca side. About 1½ mile westward from the small island Pulo Chellaka, adjoining to the West Point of Pulo Leat, the bottom is also rocky and improper for anchorage, nor should it be approached to less distance, on account of two rocks with only 1 fathom water over them, which are ¾ of a mile to the westward of the small island.

To sail from the northward through Clements' Strait late in the Season.

RETURNING FROM CHINA, very late in the season, S. S. Westerly winds in the southern part of the China Sea, are liable to set you over to the eastward amongst the islands adjacent to the coast of Borneo. Should this happen so late as June, it would be tedious getting to the southward; in such case, you may steer for the N.W. end of Billiton, and pass through Clements' Strait. The island of Billiton is high uneven land, and its coasts, which have never been well explored, are lined with many dangers, and islands of various sizes. The outermost island of the group, adjoining to the N.W. end of Billiton, is in lat. 2° 35′ S., and bears nearly S.W. ½ S. from the Island Souroutou, distant about 23 leagues.

Having approached the N.W. end of Billiton, (which may be seen about 8 leagues) give a birth of 4 or 5 miles to the group of islands contiguous to it, and a direct course must be steered to the S.W., to pass the N.W. end of Long Island, about the same distance; for TREACHEROUS BAY, fronting the coast of Billiton is very dangerous, having many sunken rocks at 4 and 5 miles distance from the shore, and the coast is barren and destitute of fresh water. The fleet under Captain Clements, went into this bay in search of fresh water, in July, 1781; and the Mansfield and Pilot both struck, and lay some time upon the sunken rocks, N.W. Island then bearing N. 20° E. 6 or 7 miles, outer extreme of Long Island S. 50° W., Gaspar Island N. 67° W., off Billiton 4 or 5 miles.

After passing the N.W. end of Long Island, to avoid the General Hewitt's Rock, a S. S. Westerly course should be followed toward North Island, and pass to the West of it about a mile distant, to avoid the Sunken Rock 24¼ miles W. by S. from North Island, then keep nearly in mid-channel, betwixt South and Saddle Islands. When through the channel between these islands, continue a southerly course, taking care not to bring Saddle Island to the eastward of N. by E., until you are 10 or 11 miles to the southward of it, in order to avoid the S. E. angle of Vansittart's Shoals, then steer westerly to give a birth to Shoal Water Island and the shoals to the South of it, and particularly to Fairlie Rock, by leaving all these

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dangers to the S. Eastward; when clear of them, steer a direct course to fall in with the North Watcher.

PARTICULAR INSTRUCTIONS for sailing through Clements' Strait, are given in the preceding pages; and the islands and dangers contiguous to it and the other branches of the Straits of Gaspar, are described at the beginning of this section.

SAILING DIRECTIONS from BANCA STRAIT to PULO AOR. ISLANDS and DANGERS adjacent to the PASSAGE. DIRECTIONS for RHIO STRAIT.

WHEN CLEAR of Frederic Hendric Rocks at the North end of Banca Strait, and bound into the China Sea, steer N. by E. to pass between the Seven Islands and Pulo Taya, in regular soundings, increasing from 7, to 12 or 14 fathoms as the islands are approached.

To soil from Banca Strait to the northword.

In thick weather, or in the night, the lead may be useful as a guide, to discover if there is any oblique current, for the depth will generally decrease over a bottom of ouze mixed with sand toward the Sumatra Coast, and increase near the Seven Islands over an ouzy or muddy bottom; but these islands must be approached with caution in the night, on account of the rock near the westernmost of them, for the soundings do not always to a certainty, point out its proximity.

Geo. Site of the Seven Islands.

Pulo Docan.

PULO TOOJOO, i. e. SEVEN ISLANDS, lie in two groups, extending 7 or 8 miles in latitude, the southernmost consisting of three islands, being separated from the others of the northern group: by Capt. Ross's observations, the N. Westernmost of these islands are in lat. 1° 8′ S., lon. 105° 24′ E., or about 10 miles East of Monopin Hill.* Some of them are seen from the northern extremity of Banca, being generally high, and may be discerned 8 or 9 leagues: they are all covered with trees except the westernmost, which is a Barren Rocky Islet, with a small rock just above water to the W. N.W. of it, distant 1 or 2 mile; this Palo renders a cautious approach necessary in the night, or in thick weather. Pulo Docan, bears about E. N. E. from the Seven Islands 4 or 5 leagues, and the channel between it and them, has 15 and 16 fathoms regular soundings. But a rock has been discovered about 1½ mile S. E. from Pulo Docan, upon which the ship Mary struck, in January, 1823, although drawing only 10 feet water, then on her passage from Mintow to Singapore.†

Geo. Site of Pulo Taya.

PULO TAYA, or SAIA, in lat. 0° 45½′ S., lon. 104° 58′ E., distant 34 miles N. 50½° W. from the N. Westernmost of the Seven Islands, bears from Pulo Docan W. by N. ¼ N.; it is high, and may be seen 11 or 12 leagues in clear weather, and near it on the N. East side, lie two rocky islets.

Ilchester Shoal.

ILCHESTER SHOAL, to the northward of Pulo Taya, is much in the way of ships steering from Pulo Taya toward the East point of Lingin. The Ilchester returning from China in 1754, had thick weather after passing Pulo Aor, and in hauling to the W. S.W.,

* Capt. Ross, December 22d, 1812, by chronometers and cross bearings, made the N. Westernmost of the Seven Islands 11¼ miles East of Monopin Hill; whereas, Capt. Lestock Wilson's observations in 1789, placed the westernmost rock, nearly on the meridian of that hill: Mr. Fulton, in 1821, made the N.W. Island on the meridian of Monopin Hill, agreeing With Capt. Wilson.

† Cotnmunicated by Capt. Norquoy, from that ship's journal.

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struck on a shoal, December 12th, at 4 P.M., on which there were 2¾ fathoms sand and mud; she got off, by throwing the sails a-back, after being about 10 minutes aground. When on the shoal, the weather was thick, but two hummocks bearing N. N. Westerly, thought to be near the East point of Lingin, or the islands contiguous to it, was the only land visible; and by computation from the succeeding noon observation, the shoal appeared to lie in lat. 0° 28′ S. After anchoring near it on the West side, in 18 fathoms, and weighing on the following morning, she steered S. S.W. and S.W. by S. 6 or 7 leagues, made Pulo Taya bearing S. E. by S. about 3 leagues, and passed to the westward of it; having experienced about 20 miles of westerly current from leaving Pulo Aor.

The brig, Tweed, in December, 1799, shoaled suddenly in working into Lingin Bay, from 18 to 3 fathoms hard ground, on the western part of the Ilchester Shoal, with Pulo Taya bearing S. ¾ W., distant 4½ leagues; tacked immediately and steered S. S. E., deepening to 8 fathoms, then steered W. by S., and had overfalls from 20, to 10, 9, and 8 fathoms.

The Forth, in 1803, grounded on the West part of the Ilchester Shoal, with the small island off the East point of Lingin bearing N. by E. ½ E., distant about 12 miles.

This danger was examined by Capt. Ross, during his survey of the China Sea, and parts adjacent, who found it to be in lat. 0° 26½′ S., extending N. by E. and S. by W. about 2¼ miles, and 1½ mile in breadth, having 1 fathom water on its shoalest parts, with Pulo Taya bearing S. 4½° W., the islet off the East point of Lingin N. 13½° E., East point of Lingin N. 6¾ E., distant 8 or 9 miles. The depth of water decreases nearly all around, from 18, 16, or 15 fathoms, suddenly to 5 and 3 fathoms on the edge of the shoal.

To avoid this shoal, the small islet off the East point of Lingin must not be brought to the eastward of North, and Pulo Taya should be kept to the westward of S. by W. in passing the danger: in coming from the northward, after passing Lingin Point, it seems advisable not to haul to the westward to make Pulo Taya until near its parallel, or after having passed lat. 0° 32′ S.

Lingin.

Geo. Site.

Isles contiguous.

LINGIN, or LINGA, is a large island, extending E. S. E. and W, N.W. about 16 leagues, the equator passing through it. There is a mountain on its southern part, with two remarkable peaks* near each other, rising like spires from its summit, and Tanjong Eang the S. E. or eastern extremity of the island projects out into a point, in lat. 0° 18′ S., lon. 105° 4′ E., having islets and rocks around; it is formed of a hill, joined to the high land in the interior by a neck of low land, and often mistaken for an island. The N. E. side of Lingin has several islands near it, and those called the Dominos in lat. 0° 9′ or 0° 10′ S., are moderately elevated, the outermost of which, or East Domino, bears about North 3 leagues from Lingin East Point, and nearly the same distance from the opposite shore, having rocks projecting from it to the South, and close to the eastward of this small island, the depth is 14 fathoms: about 3 leagues off the N. E. part of Lingin, from 10 to 15 fathoms are the common depths; and irregular, from 14 to 22 fathoms, close to the rocks at the East Point.

To sail into Lingin Road.

Coming from N. Eastward, and bound into Lingin Road, round the East point of the island at a moderate distance, then steer westward for the anchorage, observing not to borrow too near the South coast, as the Stirling Castle was wrecked on a shoal that projects from the Third Point, counting Westward from the East point of the island, which has 16 feet water on it, and 12 or 14 fathoms close to. If coming from Banca Strait, pass to the westward of Pulo Taya, and steer for the high land to the eastward of Lingin Peak, giving a moderate birth to Pulo Sinkep, which forms the West side of the channel, and in working, it may be approached within 3 miles in 6 or 5 fathoms: the soundings are not always regular, but they will decrease gradually as the road is approached. The anchorage is 5 or 6 miles off shore, in 5 or 4½ fathoms mud, with Pulo Taya bearing about S. S. E., the East

* Called sometimes, the Asses Ears.

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point of Lingin East southerly, about 2½ or 3 miles to the S. Eastward of Pulo Kelumbo, a small island that lies about 4 miles S. S. Eastward from the mouth of the river, which issues from the peak, and upon its banks the town of Lingin is situated. The country traders, touch here at times with opium, for which in return, they receive tin, pepper, rattans, and some gold; but the inhabitants being treacherous, and addicted to piracy, caution is necessary, and a ship intending to touch here, must be well armed, constantly prepared to repel any assault that may be made by their armed proas.

Lingin Bay, is of semicircular form, exposed to southerly and easterly winds, and large ships are obliged to lie far out, on account of shoal water extending from the mouth of the river, around Pulo Kelumbo and its adjoining islets.

Ships may also steer for the bay, by passing to the eastward of Pulo Taya, the channel being 4 or 5 leagues wide between it and the Ilchester Shoal; in such case, borrow near Pulo Taya, then steer N.W. by W. and N.W., afterward, more northerly for the road.

Pulo Sinkep and other Islands.

PULO SINKEP, PULO SLIAR, and PULO POONOOBOO, form a group of three islands, with some adjoining islets, stretching from the S.W. part of Lingin 6 or 7 leagues to the southward; Pulo Sinkep, the easternmost of these, is high, and being separated from each other by narrow inlets, they appear as one large island.

Strait of Dassee, with sailing directions.

STRAIT OF DASSEE, called also Labooan Dadong, formed between this group and the S.W. end of Lingin, has soundings generally from 7 to 14 fathoms, and may be navigated with care, in ships of moderate size, as this is a short route from Lingin Road to the Straits of Dryon. If bound from Lingin Road to the westward, through the Strait of Dassee, steer out to the South and S. Westward, till near the N. E. part of Pulo Sinkep, to give a birth to the islets off Tanjong Datoo, the West point of Lingin Bay, and the extensive shoal which stretches from thence to the road. Having passed about mid-channel between the islets off Tanjong Datoo and those near the southern shore, steer for the S. West Point of Lingin, and the depths will be 12 and 14 fathoms near the islets and rocks on the South side of the strait, and 9 or 10 fathoms toward the Lingin shore; the bottom hard in the eastern part of the strait, and soft to the westward. Having passed the S. W. point of Lingin, steer about West in soundings of 11, to 9, and 8 fathoms soft ground, and pass to the northward of Wright's Island, about 2 miles distant, in 7, 8, or 9 fathoms, then steer to the N.West for the Straits of Dryon. Wright's Island is in lat. 0° 15′ S., and 2 miles to the North of Pulo Selinsing or Green Island, which are the outermost islands on the South side of the channel; there is a passage with 9 to 11 fathoms between them, and another about 2 miles wide to the S. E. of Green Island, with 10 to 19 fathoms, formed between it and the N.W. extremity of Pulo Sliar, or the islands contiguous to the latter, which are fronted by a reef on the North side.

Geldria's Shoal.

GELDRIA'S SHOAL, (or DOGGER BANK), named by Jurian Verburg, who was sent in the Bark Ryder from Batavia, to examine Banca Strait in 1761: he had only 1 and 1½ fathoms water on it, coarse sand with shells, and 7 fathoms at its extremity. From the shoal, Pulo Panjang bore N.W. by N. northerly, distant about 14 miles, and Ragged Island N. 18° W., and a rock above water appearing like a boat N. N.W.

The Crown Prince, Danish Indiaman, struck on it in 1748, and had seen Pulo Panjang about ½ an hour before, bearing N.W. by N.; the soundings near it decreased from 25, to 24, 23, and 19 fathoms coarse sand, close to the edge of the bank, on which ripplings were seen when she struck.

Captain Dempster, returning from China in the Ganges, struck on this shoal at 9 P. M. May 27th, 1784; the helm was immediately put down, and the ship came about in 3½ fathoms rocks; stood off N. E. by E., and anchored in 20 fathoms sand, the water having

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deepened as fast as the lead could be hove. At day-light, Pulo Panjang in sight from the deck bearing N.W. by N., two small islands W. by S., with several small hummocks between it and them, appearing like low islands; the rippling on the shoal then S.W. about ½ a mile. The danger appeared to stretch E. N. E. and W. S.W. about a mile, and half that breadth, having on it great overfalls from 2 to 6 fathoms, and the boat on one part, found only 6 feet coral rock. At a small distance to the southward, the boat had 17 and 18 fathoms, to the northward 20 and 22 fathoms, and 16 fathoms close to the shoal.

Geo. Site.

Capt. Ross, in 1819, examined this shoal, and made it in lat. 0° 48′ N., lon. 104° 59′ E., and its extent in a N. E. and S.W. direction is about 1¾ of a mile, having from 1½ to 4 fathoms water on it, 19 or 20 fathoms nearly close to the eastern part, from 8 to 11 and 12 fathoms irregular depths near the S.W. and western sides, deepening to 15 fathoms close to the BOAT ROCK, which is formed of three low rocks, visible about 4 miles from a ship's deck. From Geldria's Shoal the Boat Rock bears N.W. by N. and N. N.W. ½ W. about 2½ miles, Ragged Island N. N.W. 8½ miles, Pulo Panjang N.W. by N. 5 leagues, Saddle Island West 8 miles, and South Island W. S. W., which has several small islets near it, and are situated near the S. Eastern part of the land of Bintang. Saddle Island is in lat. 0° 48′ N., and appears in a double hummock bearing about West, when seen from Geldria's Shoal. Ragged Island, in lat. 0° 56½′ N., lon. 104° 56½′ E., is small, but high, and may be seen 7 or 8 leagues in clear weather; it lies about 6 miles to the S. E. of Pulo Panjang, and is the easternmost of all the islands which are situated to the East and S. Eastward of the large Island Bintang.

To sail from Banca Strait to Pulo Aor.

FROM BANCA STRAIT, if bound into the China sea, after having steered about N. by E., and having passed between the Seven Islands and Pulo Taya, when 4 or 5 leagues to the eastward of the latter, steer N. N. E., keeping the east point of Lingin to the westward of north when seen, to give a birth to the Ilchester Shoal, and to cross the equator in 20 or 21 fathoms. From hence, steer about N. N. E., until past Geldria's Bank or Shoal, observing in the night, not to come under 23 or 24 fathoms between lat. 0° 40′ N. and 0° 50′ N., to avoid that danger; but in the day, when Ragged Island is seen, keep it to the westward of N. W. by N., which will lead clear to the eastward of the shoal. Having got into the latitude last mentioned, or in 24 or 25 fathoms water, steer N. N. W. until in lat. 1° 0′ N.; being then abreast of Ragged Island, and Palo Panjang, a N. N. W. course will lead you fair to the eastward of Pulo Aor, if there be no lateral current, in soundings from 29 to 34 fathoms fine grey sand, or sometimes sand and mud.

To sail from the southward into Rhio Strait.

Port of Rhio.

TO ENTER RHIO STRAIT, when coming from the S. E. or Southward, pass along the East coast of Lingin at any convenient distance, in soundings from 14 to 18 fathoms, giving a birth of 3 or 4 miles to the islands off its N. E. part. Having passed these, steer to the N. W. for Pulo Rodong, or Radang, which may be approached within 1 or 2 miles at the N. E. and North parts, in soundings of 10 to 12 fathoms: this island is of considerable size, with a peaked hill situated in lat. 0° 25′ N., and bears North from the northern part of Lingin, distant 3 or 4 leagues. From Pulo Rodong, steer N. Westerly toward the entrance of the strait, keeping Table Hill a little on the larboard bow, which is flat at the summit, and stands on the South part of Pulo Gallatt. In entering the strait, borrow toward the islets near Pulo Gallatt, as the Topies or Five Islands, forming the East side of the entrance, have shoals extending 3 or 4 miles to the S. S. W., and 1 or 2 miles from their western sides: the soundings will decrease to 8 and 10 fathoms inside, and in some parts to 5½ or 6 fathoms. When clear of the Five Islands, which lie to the W. N. W. of Long Island, (and between which is a passage, but not so wide as the western channel,) steer North and N. by E. for Rhio Town, and pass between the island off the S. W. point of Bintang, and Pulo Sootoo the other island to the westward; for shoals extend from the latter in a N. Westerly

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direction, nearly to the West side of the strait, and a shoal mud bank projects from it to the S. S. Westward. The S.W. point of Bintang Island, called Tanjong Bantang, is 5 or 6 miles to the southward of Rhio, and after passing it, continue to steer northward until abreast of Rhio Point, if to stop there; the common anchorage is in 5 or 6 fathoms to the northward of the point, under Palo Beringa, in lat. 0° 57′ N. Rhio was formerly a port of great trade, but having suffered severely at various times, by requisitions of the Dutch, and piratical invasion, it affords few articles of merchandize at present; and is not frequented, except by small country traders, with the view of procuring a little pepper, or tin.

To sail from it into Singapore Strarit.

DEPARTING FROM RHIO, and bound to the northward, avoid the shoal to the westward of Pulo Beringa, by borrowing on the East side of the strait, toward it and close to Pulo Tercoli, the next island, as the rocky banks to the southward of the latter, are not always easily discerned. From the North part of the largest bank, dry at low water, Capt. Robert Scott, had Bintang Hill bearing N. 27° E., the East part of Pulo Tercoli low and sandy N. 21° W., distant 3½ miles, West part of ditto N. 30° W., First Hill to the southward of the strait W.5° S.

From the N.W. part of the bank, the East point of Pulo Tercoli bore N. 11° W., West point of ditto N. 23° W., distant from this island not more than 3 miles, the first hill to the southward of the strait W. 3° N., Little Luban N. 61° W., Bintang Hill N. 31° E. These banks are very dangerous, particularly in coming from the northward with a flood tide, if you do not keep near to Pulo Tercoli, as the channel is greatly contracted by them, and the following newly discovered shoal.

Minerva Shoal.

MINERVA SHOAL, discovered by Capt. Bell, in the Minerva, on the passage from Port Jackson and Batavia to Singapore, May 27th, 1825, when at 10 A. M. with Bintang Hill N. E. ½ N., Pulo Luban W. by N., and Pulo Tercoli N.W. ½ N. distant 1½ mile, shoaled from 5 to 3 fathoms at a cast of the lead, and grounded against the edge of a shoal, composed of hard sand, extending about 200 feet in a W. N. W. direction, and about 60 feet broad. The least water found on it was 2¼ fathoms hard sand, and all around 5 fathoms soft ground.

Having passed Pulo Tercoli, steer westward, the depth will increase as Pulo Luban is approached, and after rounding the West end of this island, and Little Luban, at a moderate distance, the course is about North, to pass nearly in mid-channel toward the North entrance of the strait, till the Pan Shoal is approached, in various soundings from 10 to 20 fathoms. There are several shoals contiguous to the shores on each side, which render it necessary for those unacquainted to keep a boat sounding a-head, when sailing through this strait.

Pan Shoal.

PAN SHOAL, however, situated at the North entrance of the strait, nearly in mid-channel, is the greatest danger, being extensive and rocky, sometimes visible at low water. There is a safe passage on either side of it, but that on the West side, between it and Pulo Battam, is not near so wide as the other to the eastward between it and Bintang, although, with proper caution, the western passage might be adopted if necessary. When the North extreme of Bintang bore E. by N., the North extreme of Pulo Battam W. N. W., Barbucit Hill N. ½ E., the Pan Shoal was in one with Bintang Hill bearing E. by S. ¼ S., distant about ½ a mile. Its eastern extremity bears S. 4° W. from Barbucit Hill, and its western extremity S. by E. ½ E. from Johore Hill, and its centre bears E. S. E. from the N. E. point of Pulo Battam. To avoid this shoal, it is best to proceed by the eastern channel, keeping within 3 or 4 miles of the Bintang shore, in soundings of 13 or 14 fathoms, to 18 and 20 fathoms toward the shoal; and when the North extreme of Pulo Batang is brought to bear W. by S., you are clear of it, and entered into the Strait of Singapore. Barbucit Hill, kept

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North or N. ¼ W., leads clear of it to the eastward; and Johore Hill bearing about N. by W., leads clear of it to the westward.

The Minerva, in May, 1825, went through the western passage, and thought it safe; but neither the Pan Shoal, nor the Battam shore, ought to be approached too close, as the latter, in some places, is fronted by patches of rocks under water, projecting about 1 and 1½ mile out, with an islet and some rocks above water near the N. E. point of Battam. The Dolphin, Capt. East, April 18th, 1821, steering into Rhio Strait by the western passage, saw two rocks about 2 feet under water nearly close to the vessel, hauled out instantly, had 3¼ fathoms rocks, the rudder just clearing them, with Johore Hill then bearing N. by W. ½ W., Barbucit Hill N. by E., a large dry rock S. S. W., Battam N. E. point and islet in one W. by N. ½ N., Pulo Luban S. S. E., north part of Bintang E. ¾ N., Bintang Hill E. by S. ½ S., Pan Shoal S. E. by E., off the Battam shore about 1½ or 2 miles. These rocks appeared to be detached from the shore, and the Dolphin in hauling off from them deepened into 7 fathoms, then to 9 fathoms over to the Pan Shoal. The ship George Crutenden, afterward grounded on rocks a little farther to the southward, Battam Point bearing N.W. ½ N., north point of Bintang E. by N. ½ N., Barbucit Hill N. by E. ¼ E., Pan Shoal E. ½ N., Pulo Luban S. S. E. ¼ E., off the Battam shore 1½ or 2 miles:—had only 2 feet water on these rocks at low tide, and 6 fathoms within them; the Crutenden lay 13 hours on the rocks, before she was hove clear of them.

To return into the Strait of Rhio.

Coming from the northward into Rhio Strait, to pass to the eastward of the Pan Shoal, bring Johore Hill to bear N. N. W., or Barbucit Hill N. ¼ W., then steer South, taking care not to bring the latter to the eastward of North; for in such case, you would be very near the Pan Shoal. Having passed it, and fairly entered the strait, the course is about South to round Little Luban about 2 or 3 cables' lengths distance; then E. by S. and E. S. E., and pass at a small distance on the West side of Pulo Tercoli and Pulo Beringa, giving a birth to the Minerva Shoal.

DIRECTIONS for SAILING from BANCA STRAIT, through the STRAITS of DRYON.— To return SOUTHWARD, by the same ROUTE.

Straits of Dryon.

STRAITS OF DRYON, or DURIAN, with the passage to the southward of these Straits, is above 40 leagues in length from Pulo Varela to the Carimons; and bounded on the West side by the coast of Sumatra, False Durian, Sabon, and the contiguous islands; on the East side, it is bounded by the islands off the South and West sides of Lingin, Great and Little Durian, and the adjacent islands.

To sail from Banca Strait to the former.

Channels.

Departing from Banca Strait, and being abreast of Batacarang Point in 7 fathoms, bound to the Straits of Dryon, steer about N. N.W. ½ W. toward Pulo Varela, distant about 22 leagues; but the bank along the Sumatra coast in this space being very flat, the soundings former are usually the best guide, by keeping in from 5½ to 7 fathoms; and in working, the coast may be approached to 5 fathoms. The tides near the shore, are generally strong; in the offing they are irregular, and currents sometimes prevail.

Geo Site of Pulo Varela.

PULO VARELA, VERELLAH, or BARALLAH, in lat. 0° 50′ S., lon. 104° 28′ E., bearing W. ¾ S. from Pulo Taya about 11 leagues, is of middling height, having a hill on its western part which may be seen 7 or 8 leagues. You may anchor at the S.W. side, and

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procure water, which is got on the island; but this ought only to be done in case of necessity, as the piratical proas which lurk here about, have been known to assault and massacre the crews of boats, sent on shore to procure water at this island.* Near to Pulo Varela on the south and eastern sides, there are some islets and rocks, the largest of which is Anak Barellah, to the N. E. about a mile distant, having 7, 8, and 9 fathoms water between it and the principal island; and 1 mile north from Anak Barellah, lies a rock with 17 fathoms close to it, having a channel 2 miles wide with 10 to 16 fathoms, between it and others, named Mid Channel Rocks, situated 5 miles N. E. by N. from Pulo Varela, or nearly midway from the latter, towards the islets which front the south end of Pulo Sinkep. These channels to the northward, between Pulo Varela and the small islands contiguous to the South end of Pulo Sinkep, seem to be safe, with soundings from 10 to 16 fathoms water, by giving a birth to the rocks and the islets which bound the N. W. part of the passage; but the channel to the southward of Pulo Varela is wider, and that mostly frequented by ships. TANJONG BON, or JABON, which bounds it on the south, is in lat. 0° 59½′ S. bearing S. by W.½ W. 10 miles from Pulo Varela, and like other parts of the East coast of Sumatra, is formed of low land.

Directions.

In passing through the South channel, keep in 11 or 12 fathoms toward Pulo Varela, to give a birth to the bank of hard ground projecting from Tanjong Bon, and from thence along the coast to the westward, which is steep from 6 or 5 fathoms; but in working, it may be approached occasionally, with care, to 8 or 7 fathoms. Being through the narrow part of the passage between Tanjong Bon and Pulo Varela, which is about 6 or 6½ miles wide, a course N.W. by W. should be steered for the Calantigas, keeping along the coast in 9 to 12 fathoms; with a working wind, the Sumatra coast may be approached to 6 or 7 fathoms. In this track, the tides must be particularly attended to, for they are often irregular, sometimes setting out of Jambee River to the N. Eastward 2½ or 3 miles per hour: and the Coast Bank to the westward of Tanjong Bon to the distance of 4 or 5 leagues, is nearly dry at low spring tides in some places, 4 or 5 miles from the shore..

Pulo Serah, or Reef Island, in lat. 0° 38½′ S., distant about 5 leagues N. Westward from Pulo Varela, is a flat low island, sometimes mistaken for the latter, in coming from the northward. Some rocky islets called Anak Serah, lie about 2½ miles N. by E. from Reef Island, with a safe passage between them, and also between Anak Serah and the coast of Pulo Sinkep. When steering toward the Calantigas, the southernmost of these islands must not be brought more westerly than N.W. by N., until Reef Island is bearing to the southward of E. by S., to avoid the SPEKE ROCK, which the ship of this name struck upon. This danger bears S. E. from the South Calantiga distant 6 miles, and W. ¾ N. from Reef Island, having 10 fathoms water close to it; and a small black rock is sometimes visible, about the height of a boat, over the submerged part. Betwixt the Speke Rock and Reef Island and also between the former and the Calantigas, there is a safe passage on the East side of these islands, by rounding the northernmost at any convenient distance, or about 1½ mile off, in 6 or 7 fathoms. The soundings in this passage are generally from 7 to 9 fathoms muddy bottom, sometimes sand, but the western channel is preferable.

Geo.Site of Calantiga.

Directions.

CALANTIGA, or ALLANG TEEGA, in lat. 0° 29′ to 0° 31½′ S., lon. 104° 5′ E., bearing nearly N.W. by W. from Pulo Varela distant 10 leagues, are three high islands extending about 3 miles nearly N. 15° E. and opposite, and having some islets contiguous to them. The three principal islands are high, and may be seen 8 leagues, and the others, 4 or 5 leagues from the deck. There are 7 fathoms close to these islands, and ½ a mile off the North end of the southernmost, lie two rocks, each about the size of a long boat: when bear-

* The ship Herculus, was attacked by 17 large proas near this place, and narrowly escaped being taken by them.

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ing N. N. E. and N. by E., the islands are in one with each other, and they open when the southernmost bears N. by W. ½ W. Having approached these islands, they may be passed on the West side at 1 or 2 miles distance, the depths will be mostly from 64½ to 8 or 9 fathoms mud in the fair channel: in working, the coast may be approached to 6 fathoms, and from this depth to 8 or 9 fathoms toward the islands is a fair track, although the soundings are not always regular, 7 fathoms being the general depth directly west from the islands until near the main land.

Having passed the Calantiga, a course about North and N. ½ W. should be steered for the southernmost of the Three Brothers, bearing N. ½ W. distant about 22 leagues: the Sumatra coast may be approached in working to 8 or 9 fathoms in some places, but the spit that stretches out from Tanjong Bassoo, to the N. Westward of the Calantiga, being steep to, ought to have a birth in passing. The best guide, is to keep in 14 to 16 fathoms, taking care not to deepen above 18 or 19 fathoms to the eastward, particularly as the distance from the Calantiga is increased, for the ground on that side is foul and improper for anchorage

Geo. Site of Tanjong Bassoo.

TANJONG BASSOO, or BACCOWN, in lat. 0° 20′ S., lon. 103° 48′ E., distant 19 miles N.W. by W. from the Calantigas, projects far out to the eastward from the other low land, by which the Bay of Indigiri is formed on the north, between it and Tajong Barroo; into which bay, the River Indigiri disembogues through several channels, fronted by an extensive shoal which fills the southern part of the bay. The outer edge of this shoal extends from Tanjong Bassoo in a N. N. E. and N. by E. direction full 3 leagues, being very steep to, having 10 or 11 fathoms within ½ a mile of it in some places, then quickly 5 or 4 fathoms, to l½ or 1 fathom upon it; which requires great caution in attending to the lead, when approaching this part of the coast in the night.

TANJONG BARROO, or DATTOO, in lat. 0° 1′ N., bearing from Tanjong Bassoo North a little easterly, distant 7 leagues, forms the N. Eastern boundary of lndigiri Bay, and may be approached within 1½ mile occasionally in working, or to 8 or 9 fathoms. From this low headland the coast stretches N. by W. and N. N.W. towards the Straits of Dryon, fronted by a shoal bank, which may be approached by the soundings; from its edge, they gradually decrease to 6, 5, 4, and 3 fathoms.

Three Brothers.

THREE BROTHERS, extend nearly North and South about 6 miles, the southernmost being the largest and highest, about a mile in length, may be seen at 6 leagues distance, and lies in lat. 0° 34′ N., lon. 103° 48′ E.: there is a white cliff or rock on the N. E. side, which makes this island remarkable. The Middle Brother is not so high as the southern one, and from its north point, lies North about 1½ mile. The North Brother is smaller and lower than the others, and is sometimes called the Round Brother: it lies to the N. N. Westward of the middle one about 3 miles; and betwixt them, there is a safe passage with 11 to 17 fathoms water, now frequently used. Ships passing through it, should haul close round the Middle Brother, to give a birth to the rock above water, situated at the extremity of a reef of straggling rocks, that projects from the North Brother about a mile to the S. E., and is partly dry at low water; but there are gaps of deep water between the rocks in some parts.

Between the South and Middle Brother, there is also a safe passage about 2/3 of a mile wide, with soundings in it from 9 to 12 or 13 fathoms; and both these islands may be approached pretty close all round, except at the South point of the South Brother, rocks project considerably.

EASTERN BANK, bounding the channel to the eastward of the Brothers, is composed of hard sand, having irregular depths on it from 6 to 4, 3, 2, and 1½ fathoms, with 10 and 12 fathoms close to its western edge. From the North Brother, its southern extremity bears

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East southerly about 5 miles, and its western edge extends from thence about N. by W. ½ W. 3 miles, rounding afterward to the North, and N. Eastward.

Great and Little Durian.

GREAT and LITTLE DRYON, or DURIAN,* situated about N. by W. and N. N.W. from the Brothers, separated from each other by a narrow creek, are two high islands, bounding the straits on the N. E. side, False Durian (to the westward of the Brothers), and the contiguous islets, bound the straits on the S.W. side, and has a peak on it; but the conical peak of Great Durian, being higher than any of the other land, is first discerned in coming from the southward.

As the islands hereabout have a similar appearance, strangers ought to be careful in coming from the southward, not to mistake one for the other, for some ships have not been able to discern the proper passage.†

To sail toward the Brothers;

When the peak of Great Durian is seen bearing about N. ½ W. or N. by W., you will be in the fair track, steer for the South Brother, which in one with Great Durian Peak, bears N. by W. The channel betwixt the Eastern Bank and the North Brother is about 4 miles wide, having various depths from 15 and 16 to 10 or 11 fathoms. The channel to the westward of the Three Brothers, betwixt them and False Durian, has from 8 to 14 fathoms water, and is equally safe as that to the eastward of them, although not so wide.

and through the eastern channel.

TO SAIL through the EASTERN CHANNEL, a birth of 1 or 2 miles may be given to the South and Middle Brothers, by rounding them in 10 or 12 fathoms, and on drawing near the North Brother, give a proper birth to the reef that projects from it to the S. Eastward, but care must be taken not to stand far over toward the Eastern Shoal. This will not be approached too close, if the beach on the Middle Brother be kept well in sight from the deck; or in working, if you get on the edge of the overfalls in standing to the eastward, immediately tack, and stand toward the Brothers to 10 or 11 fathoms. When the southern point of Great or South Durian is approached, three islets near it, called the Tombs, will be discerned, and Sabon Hill bearing about W. 20° N. making like two islands, which may be mistaken for the Carimons. Having passed the North Brother on the East side, at 1½ or 2 miles distance, haul to the westward, giving a birth of 1 or 1½ mile to the Tombs and the southern part of Durian, as some rocks under water lies about a large ½ mile to the S. W. of the Tombs.

To sail through the western Channel.

TO SAIL through the WESTERN CHANNEL, after the South Brother is approached, steer to the westward of it at 1½ or 2 miles distance, and proceed to the northward in 8 to 12 or 14 fathoms, about mid-channel between the other Brothers and the eastern part of False Durian, to avoid the foul ground contiguous to the Brothers, and the rocky islet contiguous to the East end of False Durian.

Having cleared the Brothers by either of these channels, Passage Islands will be seen to the N.W., which are two small islands on the East side of the passage, having a flat island on the West side of the passage called Prince's Island, opposite to the North Passage Island. There is a channel to the eastward, betwixt the Passage Islands and Little Durian, which is not frequented, not being so convenient as the former; but in a case of necessity, you may sail betwixt any of these islands, giving them a birth of 1 mile, as their points are generally rocky and foul ground.

* Great Durian, is called Pulo Sanglar by the Malays.

† H. M. ship Buffalo, in October, 1803, coming from the southward, and not being able to discover the proper passage, she got to the eastward of Great Durian, then stood to the northward amongst the islands, betwixt Durian and Pulo Mogo to the westward, and Pulo Soogee to the eastward, through Salat Mogo, a safe passage with regular soundings, 6 fathoms mud, the least water; although no navigable passage amongst these islands to the eastward of Durian, was formerly thought to exist.

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and to passage Islands.

After leaving the Brothers, steer for the Passage Islands; in mid-channel, the depths will be generally from 17 to 22 fathoms. When they are approached, Red Island will be discerned, which lies about 6 miles north from the North Passage Island, and known by two islets to the N. E. of it, called the Twins. There is a safe passage, with care, in day-light, between the Middleburg Shoal and Red Island, but as a sunken rock lies W. by S. ½ a mile from the latter, and the depths being from 17 to 26 fathoms, with some overfalls, the channel to the westward is preferable. There is a narrow passage with 15 fathoms water betwixt Red Island and the sunken rock just mentioned; also a passage close on the East side of Red Island, but as rocks lie about a mile N.W from the Twins, and others to the E. S. E. of Red Island about ½ a mile, which bound this passage on the East side, it ought not to be attempted by a stranger.

Middleburg Shoal.

MIDDLEBURG SHOAL, situated nearly mid-way between Red Island and.Pulo Booroo, the large island that fronts the Sabon shore, is about ¼ mile in extent, steep to, on both sides. When the two Passage Islands are nearly in one, they are in a line with the shoal bearing S. 34° E.,* the rocks on it are dry at ½ ebb, and with a good look out, it will generally be visible at high water. From the centre of the shoal, Red Island bears E. 15° N., Sabon Peak W. 15° N., and the peak of the Little Carimon about N.W. by N., the Twins then open considerably to the North of Red Island. If the passage to the eastward of the shoal be adopted, the best track is about mid-way betwixt it and Red Island in 19 to 16 fathoms mud, which channel is 2 miles wide, from the Middleburg Shoal to the shoal or sunken rock detached about ½ a wile from the N.W. part of Red Island, having 19 and 20 fathoms close to it on the West side, and 15 to 19 fathoms in the narrow passage betwixt it and Red Island. The country ship, Warren Hastings, passed between Red Island and this detached shoal, March 31st, 1789, at 11 A. M.: when in mid-channel between Red Island and a reef of rocks to the westward of it, they bore E. by N. ½ N. and W. by S. ½ W., about a large mile distant from each. This narrow passage ought not to be followed; and the other between the Middleburg Shoal and the reef to the West of Red Island also requires care. When the Middleburg Shoal is conspicuous, you may borrow toward it with a commanding breeze; otherwise, it will be prudent to keep mid-channel between it and Red Island. The peak of Great Durian bearing S. E. ½ S., or the northern Passage Island in one with the West end of the peak of False Durian, will lead fair through the channel betwixt Red Island and Middleburg Shoal. In working, do not bring the peak of False Durian above a ship's length open to the westward of the northernmost Passage Island, nor nearer to the reef off Red Island, than to bring that peak nearly on with the southernmost Passage Island. Here, the tides are very strong, between Middleburg Shoal and Red Island, the flood setting to the southward, and the ebb to the northward, from 3 to 4 knots on the springs, high water about 5 hours at full and change of the moon.

To sail from Passage Islands,

to the Little Carimon.

The channel to the westward of the Middleburg Shoal is preferable, being about 2½ miles wide, with mostly regular soundings from 16 and 17 fathoms close to the shoal, decreasing gradually toward the Sabon shore over a bottom of soft mud, proper for anchorage. When clear of the North Passage Island, haul to the westward for the Sabon shore, then steer about N. N.W. along it, in 7 fathoms, which will lead in the fair track betwixt that shore and the Middleburg Shoal. In working, do not deepen above 8½ fathoms, as there are 9 fathoms very near the western edge of the shoal; but the Sabon shore may be approached to 5½, or to 5, or even 4½ fathoms in a small ship. After steering along the Sabon shore in abort 7

* Lieutenant Boyce, of the Nautilis, sent his boat to the shoal, and when upon a patch of 4½ feet rocks, the two Passage Islands were in one bearing about S. 29° E., Sabon Peak W. 15° N., Red Island E. 14° N., the southern Twin about a ship's length open with Red Island, and the same distance from the other Twin. Perhaps these bearings are not very correct, arising from the motion of the boat.

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fathoms until Red Island bear East or E. by S., edge out a little, about N. by W., or North, and deepen to 10 or 12 fathoms; continuing to keep in these depths, steer to the northward, taking care to give a good birth to the South end of the Great Carimon, for a bank of 2¾, 3, and 3½ fathoms sand and mud, projects 2½ or 3 miles out from the South point of that island. When abreast of this point, the distance of 4 or 5 miles should be preserved from the East side of the Great Carimon, and the Little Carimon may be rounded at any convenient distance, if bound to the northward.

The bank of sand off the South end of the Great Carimon, extends N.W. by N. about 5 miles, with 4 and 4½ fathoms on it in most places, and 2¾ on the western part; betwixt which and the shore there are 5½, 6, and 7 fathoms. About 2 miles S. E. from the S. E. point of the Little Carimon, there are 3¾ fathoms on another bank, which stretches in a S. E. direction, nearly joining to the former bank, and the general depths on it are from 4 to 5 fathoms.

Sabon and the adjacent Islands.

SABON, is the principal island on the West side of the channel, and lies nearest to the Great Carimon, but the whole of the western shore from False Durian to the Carimons, formed of numerous low islands, is generally called the Sabon shore; for they are separated from Sabon, and from each other, only by very narrow channels, and therefore, appear as one continued island; and of these, Pulo Booroo, fronting the Sabon shore, is the largest, having Pulo Pandan, two small islands, about a mile to the north of it, and near to the N.E. end of Sabon.

Rocks, partly dry at ½ tide, project from the Sabon shore about ½ a mile, with Sabon Hill bearing West to W. ½ N., which is easily avoided by edging out a little. This hill or peak cannot easily be mistaken, being the only hill on the West side of the channel to the southward of the Great Carimon; which island has on it two high peaked hills, and the Little Carimon, one. The latter, is the northernmost of the islands on the West side of the channel, and together with the Great Carimon, are much higher land than any of the islands to the southward. All the islands adjacent, to the straits of Dryon, are covered with trees, and the whole of the N. E. part of Sumatra, is woody, and low land.

Strait of Sabon, Mandol,

STRAITS of SABON, and MANDOL. are very intricate, and never attempted by European navigators. The former is contiguous to the West sides of False Durian, Sabon, and the Great Carimon; that of Mandol, is along the Sumatra coast, having part of this coast, the Islands Mandol, and Pantjoor, and the entrance of Brewer's Strait on the West side; and several islets and reefs on the East side, which separate it from Sabon Strait. As both these straits are bordered by reefs, with shoal water in some places, they appear to be only navigable by proas or small vessels.

and Brewer's.

BREWER'S STRAIT, or SALAT PANJANG, is a narrow arm of the sea, which extends from the former straits to the westward; and joining Siak River, falls into Malacca Strait nearly opposite to the town of that name, by which the coast of Sumatra, to the westward of the Carimons, is formed of several islands. Pantjoor is the largest, and with the others, is considered by navigators as the main land. Although Brewer's Strait is narrow, there is said to be good depth of water in it, but it is only navigated by the country proas.

To sail from Carimons to the southward through the straite of Dryon.

IF BOUND to the SOUTHWARD, through the Straits of Dryon, steer from the Little Carimon about S. S. E. ½ E., observing not to come under 9 or 10 fathoms until past the South extreme of the Great Carimon, which ought to have a birth of 4 miles on account of the shoal bank. When this extreme bears W. by N., or when the strait between it and Sabon is fairly open, haul in S. by E., or South, until in 7 fathoms, then keep along the Sabon shore in this depth, which will carry you in the fair channel, to the westward of the Middle-

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burg Shoal. In working, deepen not above 8 or 8½ fathoms abreast of the shoal. When Red Island is bearing N. E. by E., and the Twins nearly on with its South point, you will be clear to the southward of Middleburg Shoal, and should haul over gradually for the Passage Islands. Leaving Prince's Island to the westward, and the two Passage Islands to the eastward, the depths will be irregular from 16 to 22 fathoms; and being through this channel, steer for the westernmost of the islets off the South end of Durian, called the Tombs, keeping nearest the eastern shore. The Tombs must have a birth of 1 mile in passing, for the sunken rocks to the S.W. of them, ought not to be approached too close: the depths in this part of the channel are irregular, from 17 to 26 fathoms. If to proceed through the western channel, betwixt the Brothers and False Durian, steer for the East end of the latter, and pass about mid-channel between it and the North Brother: proceeding to the southward, continue to keep in about mid-channel, between the other Brothers and the East side of False Durian; but with a working wind, either side of the channel may be borrowed on.

To pass to the eastward of the Brothers, after rounding the Tombs, steer East or E. by S., keeping 2 miles from the North Brother in passing it on the North and East sides, where the water will shoal to 12 or 13 fathoms; then steer about S. by E., attending to the set of the tide, to pass the Middle and South Brothers at the same distance, not borrowing nearer to them than 10 or 12 fathoms, With a working wind, care must be taken not to stand too far over toward the Eastern Bank, but tack immediately, if irregular soundings are got on the overfalls near it; nor stand so far out, as to sink the beach of the Middle Brother from the deck. The depths in this channel will be mostly from 10 or 12 fathoms near the Brothers, to 16 or 18 fathoms near the overfalls on the edge of the Eastern Bank or Shoal.

BEING abreast of the South or Great Brother, about 3 miles distance, steer South or S. by W. until the Brother is brought to bear N. N.W.; and whether you have passed to the eastward or westward of the Three Brothers, after having brought the South Brother to bear N. N.W. or North, steer for the Calantiga's about a South and S. by E. course, and endeavour to keep in from 14 to 16 fathoms. With a working wind, the best track is to stand to the eastward until in 17 fathoms, about mid-channel; and into 12 fathoms toward the Sumatra shore; but not under this depth, in passing Tanjong Barroo, and Tanjong Bassoo, as the shoal fronting the latter is steep to, with 8 to 14 fathoms near its edge. After passing Tanjong Bassoo, the coast may be approached occasionally to 6 or 7 fathoms; but the best track with a fair wind, is about mid-ehannel betwixt it and the Calantiga's, or pass to the westward of these islands about 2 or 2½ miles, at discretion.

Having passed the Calantiga's, the southernmost of these islands must be kept to the northward of N.W. by N. until Reef Island bears East or E. ½ N., to avoid the Speke Rock, bearing S. E. from the South Calantiga; the proper track is, to keep along the Sumatra Coast in 9 to 12 fathoms, in steering from the Calantiga's to Pulo Varela, borrowing to 6 or 7 fathoms toward the coast, with a working wind. Great care is, however, necessary, if running here in thick weather, or in the night, on account of strong tides setting into, or out of the rivers; for the Princess Charlotte, at 1 A. M. April 11th, 1813, steering S. E. by E., shoaled suddenly from 14, to 8 and 5 fathoms, then grounded on a bottom of sand and mud, on the great bank that fronts the coast to the westward of Tanjong Bon and Pulo Varela, opposite to the mouth of Jambee or Sambir River. At day-light Pulo Varela bore E. N. E., Lingin Peak N. N. E. ½ E., Tanjong Bon S. E. by E. ½ E., the Sumatra shore distant about 2 or 2½ leagues, observed lat. 0° 55′ S. Having grounded at high water, the tide fell from 18 to 10 feet, and with every exertion, by rafting the spars along side, starting water, and throwing 1332 bags of rice overboard, to lighten the ship, she could not be floated off until the 15th, four days after she grounded on the bank.

Pulo Varela, bears about S. E. by E. 10 leagues from the Calantiga's, and may be passed about 2 or 3 miles distance in 10 or 12 fathoms; but the spit surrounding Tanjong Bon, on

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the opposite side of the channel, although steep from 5 fathoms, may be approached to 7, or even to 6 fathoms in working.

From Pulo Varela to Batacarang Point, at the entrance of Banca Strait, the course is about S. S. E. ½ E. 22 leagues, and the whole of the bank fronting the coast, is in this space very flat, with regular soundings upon it; the best guide, therefore, is, after leaving Pulo Varela, to keep along the coast in from 5½ to 7 fathoms, until Batacarang Point is approached; and 6½ or 7 fathoms are the proper depths to preserve, when passing this point and entering into Banca Strait, to avoid the Frederic Hendric Rocks, on the East side of the channel: with a working wind, the point may be approached to 5½ or 5 fathoms.

DIRECTIONS for SAILING through the STRAITS of DURIAN, and PHILLIP'S CHANNEL.*

Directions from the Little Carimon to the southward.

A SHIP being abreast of the Little Carimon, with its North end bearing West from 2 to 2½ miles, the course is S. S. E. ½ E. with a fair wind, which will carry her clear of the Mud Banks fronting the low land of the Great Carimon, in soundings from 7 to 8 fathoms, until the North end of Pulo Pandan is on with the North end of Sabon, then the strait between the Great Carimon and Sabon will be open. With a working wind, from the Little Carimon, the soundings are the best guide in standing towards the mud banks fronting the Great Carimon, which ought not to be approached under 6 fathoms, and in this line of soundings the Little Carimon will bear N.W. ¾ N.: the depths in the offing ark from 14 to 16 fathoms, mud.

When the strait between the Great Carimon and Sabon is open, the soundings become irregular, and here, caution is requisite with a working wind, as the tides set strong through this strait to the westward at times. When the North end of Pulo Pandan is on with the North end of Sabon, and distant from the former 3 miles, in 7 fathoms, a course S. by E. will carry a vessel clear of the mud bank that fronts Pulo Booroo, and mid-way between it and the Middleburg Shoal, till the North end of Red Island is on with the South end of the South Twin, and the soundings will be irregular, from 5 to 9 fathoms.

Pulo Booroo.

Bank.

Directoins.

Pulo Booroo is a low island, about 4½ miles in length, crowned with high trees, and having a few inhabitants, who collect great quantities of mangostans, durians, and other fruits, which flourish here in a wild and luxuriant state. Fresh water may also be got with convenience. From Pulo Pandan, a bank extends along the eastern shore of Pulo Booroo to the distance of about ¾ of a mile, with several rocky reefs on it, dry at low tide; and here the soundings are very irregular. In working, a vessel may stand out to a moderate distance at discretion, but she must not approach the shore of Pulo Booroo nearer than 1 or 1¼ mile, in 5 to 6 fathoms. The mud bank extends southward as far as Deep Water Point, a projection of the Island Sabon, about 5 miles to the S. S. Eastward of the South end of Pulo Booroo; and the soundings decrease regularly on the edge of the mud bank, when the South end of Pulo Booroo bears West, which has a small isle called Clay Island, covered with straggling trees, close to this end of Booroo, and appears to join to it. With this bearing, the mud bank may be borrowed on to any depth at discretion. In standing off towards the Middleburg Shoal, go not farther towards Red Island, than to bring the West end of the North Passage Island to

* By Lieutenants Collinson, Hawkins, and Moresby, of the Bombay Marine, who, by the instructions of the government of Prince of Wales Island, examined these straits, and made an excellent survey of them, and the passage towards Banca Strait, in 1822 and 1823, which surveys have been engraved, and placed for disposal with Messrs. Kingsbury and Co., No. 7, Leadenhall Street.

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touch the East end of South Passage Island, when the North end of Red Island is on with the bluff headland, which transit line leads to the northward of the shoal, and when the North end of Red Island is touching the South end of the Twin, which transit leads to the southward of the shoal: with these bearings you will be distant ½ or ¾ of a mile from the shoal, in 10 or 11 fathoms, towards which the water deepens, it being steep to, all round. To prevent being horsed upon it in light winds, caution is requisite, as the tides run here from 3 to 4 miles an hour at times, with strong ripplings, liable to prevent a vessel from steering.

Middleburg Shoal.

MIDDLEBURG SHOAL, is a reef of coral rocks 300 yards in extent, of circular form, partly dry about 1 foot above the sea at low water spring tides, its sides being almost perpendicular, with 7 and 9 fathoms close to the rocks, and from 17 to 20 fathoms about 200 yards off. When on the centre of the shoal, the Passage Islands were in one, their East ends bearing S. 33° 15′ E. by Theodolite, a rocky islet with a tree on it off the North end of Red Island, nearly on with the North brow of the North Twin, the Twins open to the northward of Red Island, the South end of Red Island N. 75° 57′ E., Sabon Hill N. 74° 39′ W., Clay Island W. 1° 42′ N., Peak of Great Durian S, 47° 42′ E., and the Peak of False Durian S. 27° 14′ E.

Passage East of it.

The passage between the Middleburg Shoal and the patch of rocks off the West end of Red Island is 2¼ miles broad, with irregular soundings from 16 to 22 fathoms: with a fair wind, the best leading mark is, to keep the East end of the North Passage Island on with the Peak of False Durian, and stand no nearer the Middleburg Shoal, than to bring the East end of North Passage Island on with the West end of South Passage Island, nor nearer to Red Island than 1 mile, when the West end of South Passage Island will be on with the peak of False Durian, in 25 or 27 fathoms.

Rocky Patch.

The small patch of rocks ½ a mile W. by S. from the South end of Red Island, is dry at low tide, with deep water all round, and between it and the island. When on the centre of the patch, the N.W. brow of Red Island is on with the South end of the North Twin, and the East end of South Passage Island very little to the eastward of the peak of False Durian.

Geo. Site of Red Island.

Rocks.

Rocky Islet.

RED ISLAND, by observations taken upon it, is situated in lat. 0° 50′ 50″ N., lon. 103° 38′ 15″ E., or 3° 16′ 50″ East from Prince of Wales' Island by chronometers. Variation by Theodolite 1° 56′ E. High water at 10 hours on full and change of moon, and the tide rises 10 or 11 feet. This island is of an oblong shape, covered with trees, of moderate height, and may be seen at 15 miles distance. The passage between it and the Twins, ought not to be attempted, for in mid-channel lies a dangerous rock, level with the surface of the sea at low water spring tides, and the soundings are irregular, affording no guide. When upon this rock, the N. E. end of Red Island is on with the South Peak of the Great Carimon, and the centre of the Twins N. ¾ E. From the West end of Red Island, North ¼ of a mile, there is a small rocky islet with a tree on it, environed by rocks dry at low water, between which and Red Island there are depths of 15 and 16 fathoms.

Twins.

Rocky Shoal.

The Twins, two small islands, situated a large mile to the N. E. of Red Island, bear N. N. E. and S. S.W. of each other, are of round form, and of moderate height. Distant ¾ of a mile to the N.W. of the North Twin, there lies a dangerous and extensive rocky shoal of coral, dry at low water spring tides, having from 10 to 17 fathoms all round: when upon it, the North Passage Island bore South, the N.W. end of Dolphin's Island (a rocky point) a little to the West of the Peak of Great Durian, and the East end of Red Island S. 11° W.

Dolphin's Island

Shoal.

Dolphin's Island is about 1¼ mile in extent,* fronted by a coral reef projecting 200 yards from it to the westward, near to which the water deepens irregularly from 13 to 20 fathoms. There is a shoal to the westward of Dolphin's Island 400 yards in extent, of an oval form,

* The North end of Pulo Mogo, approaches near to Dolphin's Island, from whence it extends S. Eastward nearly to Great Durian, it being a high large island.

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steep all round, and dry at low water spring tides. When on the centre of this shoal, the South end of Red Island bore N. 20° 48′ W. by Theodolite, the centre of North Passage Island S. 4° 17′ W., the S.W. point of Dolphin's Island on with a sandy point of Pulo Mogo, Sabon Hill N. 74° 21′ W., distant from Dolphin's Island 1 mile.

Directions.

When clear of the Middleburg Shoal, as the straits to the southward are free from danger, a direct course may be steered for the eastern end of False Durian; the Passage Islands, and also Prince's Island, a low flat island near the western shore, may be approached to any convenient distance. The soundings throughout are very irregular, decreasing towards the western shore, where there is good anchorage.

When distant 1¼ mile from the N. Westernmost and largest of two rocky islets which lie off the N.W. end of False Durian, and it being on with the peak of the latter, there is a bank of hard sand and stones ¾ mile in extent, having 4½ fathoms the least water on it, and from 10 to 6 fathoms close to; and when on it, South Passage Island is in one with the North end of Little Durian.

Tides.

In standing towards the South end of Great Durian, come no nearer the Tombs than 1 mile, when the South Passage Island will bear N.W. by W. ¼ W., as a small reef of coral rocks lies ½ a mile from the South Tomb, near to which the soundings are from 20 to 29 fathoms. The best anchorage in this part of the straits will be found near the eastern shore of False Durian, in 12 to 14 fathoms, ¾ of a mile off shore. With a working wind, keep near False Durian, where the tides are much stronger than in mid-channel; but throughout these straits the tides are very irregular, rendering it difficult to ascertain either their direction or velocity. In August and September, the rise and fall was found generally to be between 10 and 11 feet, sometimes running from 3 to 4 knots per hour during the springs, at other times not more than 2½ knots at the same period. This irregularity, appears to be produced by the prevailing winds in the North or South entrance of the straits, forcing the tides through in one direction, for 12 or 18 hours at a time, although the rise and fall on the shore was regular. But sometimes the tides run with regularity.

Ripplings.

The ripplings might be alarming to a stranger; they appear to be caused by the uneven bottom, and the resistance the tides meet with, from the steep reefs and numerous small islands.

Phillip's Channel described.

Directions.

PHILLIP'S CHANNEL, or the N.E. ENTRANCE of the STRAITS of DURIAN, formed between the eastern shore and Long and Round Islands, appears to be free from danger, with good anchorage, and is a short route for vessels proceeding to, or from Singapore. Long and Round Islands being lined by rocky reefs, ought not to be approached under ¾ of a mile: if standing to the westward of the South end of Round Island, go no farther in that direction than to bring the N.W. end of Long Island on with the centre of the Rabbit, as four rocky reefs lie to the S.W. of Red Island. When upon the S. E. end of the southern one, Red Island is in one with the Rabbit, and the centre of Round Island bearing E. 5° S.: between the latter island and these shoals the soundings are irregular.

Cap Island.

Cap Island, named from its appearance, is a rock about 40 feet in height, with a flat top, and perpendicular sides, surrounded by a reef to the distance of about 300 yards, near to which the depths are 10 and 11 fathoms, with 14 fathoms a little farther out. It would be imprudent to pass to the eastward of Cap Island, as a reef of rocks is situated between it and the bluff headland to the eastward.

Pulo Doncan.

Sunken Rocks.

Pulo Doncan, about 4 miles to the southward of Cap Island, are two low woody islands, fronting a deep bay, which is formed by a group of beautiful islands, some of which are inhabited: as Pulo Doncan is environed by reefs, it ought not to be approached nearer than a mile.

Tree Island.

TREE ISLAND, or REEF, at the western entrance of the Straits of Singapore, is

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formed of sand and rocks, with two small trees on it, which are all that is visible at high water spring tides, as the sand is then overflowed. The reef projects out from it to the N. W. nearly a mile, with 9 and 10 fathoms close to the rocks. From the South brow of the Rabbit, off Barn Island, the N. W. part of the reef off Tree Island, is on with the North Peak of the Great Carimon bearing S. 80° 27′ W. Between Tree, and Red Islands, there are two sunken rocks, that nearest Tree Island being distant 1 mile from the S. E. Tree, and bearing S. 83° E. from that tree, and from Red Island N. 54° 53′ W. nearly 2 miles, the North end of the latter being on with the North end of Long Island, and the South brow of the Rabbit bears N. 71° 15′ E. from this rock, which is about 30 or 40 feet in circuit, with not more than 3 feet on it at low water spring tides: the depths close to it are from 7 to 10 fathoms, and a little way off it from 15 to 20 fathoms.

The other, thought to be the KENT ROCK, is longer than the former, distant from it ½ a mile, and has 1½ fathoms on it at low water spring tides; from which the S. E. tree on Tree Island bears W. 9° 24′ N. about 1¼ mile large, the centre of Red Island on with the North end of Long Island S. 57° 41′ E., and the South brow of the Rabbit N. 64° 55′ E.: the soundings near it are from 5 to 10 fathoms, deepening quickly to 15 and 16 fathoms. The places of these rocks may easily be perceived when the tides run strong, by the strong ripplings over them;* observing, that the danger is situated in the smooth part, close to the break of the rippling. These rocks render the passage between Tree Island and Red Island, narrow and unsafe, and it ought not to be attempted in ships.

Sailing Directions.

TO SAIL from the Straits of Durian, by PHILLIP'S CHANNEL, toward the Straits of Singapore; after having passed the Middleburg Shoal, either to the eastward or westward, steer direct for Cap Island, which bears N. E. by N. from the centre of that shoal, and N. N. E. ¼ E. from the centre of Red Island, taking care to give a birth to the rocky shoal that lies to the N.W. of the Twins nearly a mile distant, described in a preceding page; and in passing to the westward of Pulo Doncan, approach not nearer than a mile, on account of its contiguous reefs. From hence Cap Island will be seen, which bears North 4½ miles from Pulo Doncan, the soundings are from 12 to 17 fathoms. When abreast of Cap Island, Long, and Round Islands, the Rabbit and Coney may be distinctly seen, and a direct course may be steered, to pass in mid-channel between Round Island and the eastern shore, which is 3½ miles wide; and the soundings are from 17 to 22 fathoms. Long, and Round Islands, must not be approached under ¾ of a mile, on account of the reefs that surround them. After passing these islands, Singapore will be seen, and a course ought then to be steered for St. Johns, giving a birth to the Buffalo Rock, and a patch of rocks to the S.W. of the latter, a little above the surface of the sea.

STRAIT OF MALACCA.

1st. DESCRIPTION OF WINDS AND CURRENTS: DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING INTO, OR OUT OF THE STRAIT.

Navigation of Malacca Strait.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION of the prevailing winds, and currents, near Achen Head, and the Nicobar Islands, is given in Volume First of this work, under the head of "Directions for the Outer Passage, to places on either side the Bay of Bengal, &c." and directions

* Small fishing boats may often be seen on these rocks.

VOL. II. Y

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for sailing to, and from Achen and Malacca Strait, are given under the title "Directions for Sailing from Bengal, Madras, and other parts of the Bay, &c." and also in the section before it, some instructions will be found. Farther directions, with a more particular account of winds and currents at the entrance of the strait, have been given in this present volume, under the title "West Coast of Sumatra," in Section 1st, where Achen and the circumjacent islands are described; and here, it seems necessary, to give a brief summary of the winds and currents which prevail inside of the strait; with some additional instructions for sailing into, or out of it, when ships come from, or are bound to, the Coromandel Coast, or Ceylon.

S.W. monsoon.

S.W. MONSOON, prevails outside of Achen Head from April to October, and seldom blows far into the strait, particularly near the Sumatra side, for the force of the monsoon, being repelled by the mountains and high land stretching from Achen along the coast of Pedir, it is succeeded by light variable winds and calms, with sometimes land breezes, or hard sudden squalls from the Sumatra Coast in the night, which require great caution. A ship passing Pulo Rondo with a strong S.W. monsoon, will be liable to lose it when she gets to the eastward of Pulo Way, and brings Achen Head in the direction of the wind.

To enter the strait by the Pedir Coast.

Some navigators, prefer the track from Pulo Rondo along the coast of Sumatra to Diamond Point, and from thence to Pulo Varela and the Arroas. Sometimes, speedy passages have been made by this route, both early and late in the season and a ship adopting it, should keep close along the Pedir Coast, to benefit by the land and sea breezes, which are found to blow only near the shore, the latter, not farther than a few miles from it: light airs and calms likewise, prevail greatly in the offing, and the current generally setting strong along the coast of Pedir to the westward in the S.W. monsoon, a ship will probably be drifted about, or carried back toward the entrance of the strait, unless she keep close to the coast, where there is anchorage in many places within 1 or 2 miles of the shore.

Route along the Malay side preferable.

This track is now, however, nearly exploded, for exclusive of the prevailing light baffling winds and westerly currents, it is also subject to dangerous lightning, and sudden severe squalls from the land in the night. The route on the other side of the strait, adjacent to the Malay Coast, is therefore prefered, because, there is less lightning on this side, seldom any severe squalls, few calms; but generally variable winds, or land and sea breezes, and sometimes a favorable current, with regular tides near the land, as a ship proceeds to the eastward. The middle of the strait should, if possible, always be avoided, especially about Pulo Pera,* where calms predominate in the S.W. monsoon.

S. E. and Southerly winds, prevail much throughout the strait during the S.W. monsoon, but they vary frequently in every direction, although those between S. E. and S.W. generally predominate.

Sumatras.

SUMATRAS, or squalls from south-westward, are often experienced in the S.W. monsoon; also North-westers, or squalls from this direction, are then more common than in the other season. Sumatras generally come off the land during the first part of the night, and are sometimes sudden and severe,† accompanied with loud thunder, lightning, and rain; they are experienced throughout the strait, particularly in the vicinity of the Pedir Coast, and between Parcelar Hill and the Carimons. Here, they often blow for 6 or 8 hours at a time, either in a strong or moderate gale, the commencement being mostly sudden and severe; for in Malacca Road, where they generally begin between 7 or 8 P. M. and midnight, many ships part their cables, and some have been driven on the mud bank that lines the shore, by these squalls.

* Near this island, many ships have been six or eight days delayed by calms, during the S.W. monsoon.

† Ships are liable to lose top-masts in these squalls; one ship lost all her top-masts, the commander having been erroneously informed, that no squalls in Malacca Strait required precaution, excepting those which came from N. Westward.

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North westers.

To benefit by them.

NORTH-WESTERS, do not prevail so much as the Sumatras, and although most common in the northern part of the strait, between Achen Head and the Arroas, they sometimes blow through it to the Carimons; or even through Singapore Strait to Pedro Branco. These winds blow sometimes severe at their approach, but their strength soon abates; they are mostly preceded by a black cloudy arch, rising rapidly from the horizon toward the zenith, allowing not more than sufficient time to reduce sail after its first appearance; but at other times, the approach of these squalls is more slow. Like Sumatras, the North-westers are sometimes accompanied by thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. If a ship be at anchor stopping tide, during a calm or otherwise, and a black cloud begin to rise, indicating a Northwester, the anchor ought to be instantly weighed, if bound to the southward, before the squall reach her; as the first part of these squalls generally blow strong, she may find it impossible to weigh the anchor, and therefore be deprived of benefiting by them.

The passage through the strait, is greatly facilitated by running in the night, for steady breezes often prevail during the absence of the sun, when calms and faint airs are experienced in the day.

Remarks on the navigation of the Strait.

To persons unacquainted, Malacca Strait appears an intricate navigation, but as the channels are mostly spacious, with good anchorage, it is certainly not dangerous, if common prudence is observed. Many ships keep under way day and night, in most parts of the strait, and often pass through, without anchoring above once or twice. To persons a little acquainted, or even to strangers, there is little danger by keeping under way with clear weather during the night, in any part of the strait, except when passing the Two and a Half Fathoms Bank, between the Arroas and Parcelar Hill; passing Tree Island when coming from the northward; from thence to St. John's, if not very clear; and going out betwixt Pedro Branco and the reef off Point Romania. Ships which sail well, will gain ground during neap tides, with a moderate working wind in most parts of the strait, against the tide or current, if every advantage is taken of the favorable shifts of wind. If the wind is directly contrary, it may be found impossible to gain ground at times, even against neap tides, between the Arroas and Mount Mora, where they run with greater strength than in any other part of the strait. A stream anchor is very convenient for stopping tide, in most parts of the strait; and in calms, during the day, a kedge is sometimes sufficient for that purpose, where the tides are not strong.

N. E. monsoon.

N. E. MONSOON, may be considered the fair season through Malacca Strait, for the weather is then generally settled; seldom are any hard squalls experienced, and there is less thunder, lightning, and rain, than in the other season. Northerly and N. E. winds then prevail, particularly near the Malay side of the strait, breezes usually blow from that shore during the night. These North and N. E. winds, frequently blow strong betwixt Pulo Jarra and the islands at the North end of the strait; ships, therefore, coming from the southward, and bound into the harbour of Prince of Wales' Island in this monsoon, should, after passing Dinding, keep along the edge of the mud bank which lines the coast, that they may not be delayed in reaching the harbour with the strong N. E. winds and short sea, liable to prevail in the offing, when near Prince of Wales' Island.

Ships can proceed through the strait in both monsoons, whether bound to the northward or southward; but those going to the northward, generally make the quickest passages, and sometimes get through, without anchoring above once or twice.

Current and tides.

THE CURRENT, in Malacca Strait, where tides do not prevail, sets often to the northward; in the middle of the strait, it generally sets in that direction, from the Arroas to Junkseylon and Pulo Rondo, in both monsoons; but sometimes to the southward, along the Malay side, during the N. E. monsoon. In the entrance of the strait, betwixt the Pedir Coast, Pulo Bouton, and Junkseylon, the general course of the current is to the northward

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all the year round: but along the Malay Coast, and amongst the islands contiguous to it, regular tides mostly prevail. The current runs along the coast of Pedir, out of the strait to the westward during the S.W. monsoon, whilst it is setting to the northward between Pulo Rondo and Junkseylon; but close in with the Sumatra Coast, there are tides from Diamond Point to the S. Eastward. About the Arroas, the current sets often strong to the N. Westward, with a slack, or weak flood at times, setting to S. Eastward; from thence to the Carimons, regular tides prevail throughout the strait from one side to the other, and the ebb which sets to the N.W. runs longer, and is stronger than the flood. The flood sets to the S. E. as far as the Carimons, and between the North end of the Little Carimon and Tree Island, meets with the flood running in from the China Sea through Singapore Strait; after this junction, the flood sets to the South, toward the Straits of Dryon.

To sail from Madras or Ceylon, to Malacca Strait in the N. W. monsoon,

SHIPS from MADRAS or CEYLON, if bound to Malacca Strait in the N. E. monsoon, will be liable to have a tedious passage; they ought to tack at times with the favorable shifts, and if possible, keep well to the northward, to be enabled to pass between the Little Andaman and Car-Nicobar Islands, or through the Sombreiro Channel, if they come from Madras. Those which come from Ceylon in this season, will probably have a long passage of 20 to 30 days, even if they sail tolerably: they ought to keep well toward the South end of the Great Nicobar, in entering the strait, if the wind admit; but may enter it by the Surat Passage, if they fall to leeward of Pulo Brasse, and find difficulty in getting round the islands off Acheu.

During the strength of the N. E. monsoon, in December and January, it is frequently very difficult in an indifferent sailing ship, to get from Achen along the coast of Pedir to Diamond Point,* as the current mostly runs to the westward there, whilst it is setting to the northward in the offing; therefore, ships in these months, ought to stand off from the Pedir Coast, and endeavour to get in with Junkseylon Head, or near the islands on the Malay side, where favorable winds and land breezes will be found, to carry them along that coast to the S. Eastward.

and in the S.W. monsoon.

SHIPS bound from Madras in the S.W. monsoon, have the choice of passing to the southward of the Nicobars, or through any of the channels between these islands and the Little Andaman; the Sombreiro Channel being safe, and the most direct route, is preferable when observations are obtained; a ship ought to borrow toward the South side of the entrance in approaching it, because the currents near, and among these islands, run mostly to the northward in the S.W. monsoon. Ships which come from any part of the Coromandel Coast to the northward of Madras, should pass betwixt the South end of the Little Andaman and Car-Nicobar, and the same channel may be adopted by them in the N. E. monsoon, borrowing in either case, towards the windward shore; when through it, steer a course to give a proper birth to Junkseylon Head, and to pass Pulo Bouton at a moderate distance.

SHIPS from Ceylon, bound into Malacca Strait during the S.W. monsoon, should steer to pass nearly mid-channel between Pulo Rondo and the South end of the Great Nicobar, keeping in about lat. 6° 20′ N., when passing through the channel. If the weather be cloudy, and the wind strong from S. W. or S. S.W., borrow toward the islands off Achen, if the latitude is not known by observation, in case of a northerly current; but when the wind prevails from westward, the current sometimes sets southerly; great caution is, therefore, requisite, if the latitude is not known near the truth, when running into the entrance of the strait in the night, during dark blowing weather.

A ship bound to Acheu, in this season, ought to keep well to the southward, to fall in with

* The Surat Castle, got round Achen Head in December, 1807, and was nearly six weeks from thence to Diamond Point, and from the latter place, she got to Prince of Wales' Island in two days.

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Achen Head, then proceed through the Surat Passage, or preferable through the Bengal Passage, close round the North end of Pulo Brasse, and along the East side of that island to the road.

To enter the Strait, and proceed along the Malay side to the Arroas.

WHETHER the Sombreiro Channel, or that to the southward of the Great Nicobar be chosen, in order to avoid baffling light winds adjacent to the coast, inside of Achen Head, give a wide birth to the islands off it, and steer eastward for Pulo Bouton. By keeping well out from the land of Sumatra, and falling in with Pulo Bouton bearing about East or E. by sometimes brisk westerly winds will continue up to Prince of Wales' Island, when calms and faint breezes prevail near the coast of Pedir. This does not always occur, for light airs prevail at times, from the coast of Pedir directly across to the Malay side; it is, however, the preferable route, for considerable advantage is generally experienced, by avoiding the islands off Achen, and the coast of Sumatra, during the strength of the S.W. monsoon. When the winds are light and baffling from southward, a ship may sometimes be carried to the northward of Pulo Bouton in steering for it, by the northerly current prevailing in the entrance of the strait; but after approaching the islands on the Malay side, she will get to the south eastward along that coast without difficulty, and find there, N. Westerly and variable breezes. After passing to the westward of Pulo Bouton at any convenient distance, from 2 to 7 leagues, steer for the Sambilangs, if not bound to Prince of Wales' Island, keeping within a moderate distance of the coast, in soundings of 35 to 20 fathoms. With a working wind, the West side of this island may be approached to 10 or 12 fathoms, and the extensive mud bank that stretches along the coast from thence to Pulo Dinding, may be borrowed on, to the same depths, if the lead is kept briskly going; observing, that the water shoals rapidly on the edge of it when under 15 fathoms. This bank is all soft mud, and projects in some places about 3 and 4 leagues to seaward from the low coast of Perah; small vessels may borrow on it to 7 or 8 fathoms, but if the helm is put down in a large ship in 9 or 10 fathoms, when standing toward the bank with a fresh breeze, she will in some parts be in 7 or 8 fathoms before the sails are trimmed on the other tack.

After passing betwixt the Sambilangs and Pulo Jarra, at any discretional distance from either side, as circumstances require, with a fair wind, a S. S. E. course will be proper to get soundings on the western extremity of the North sand, or to get sight of the Arroas bearing to the S. Eastward. With a contrary wind, it is prudent to keep near the coast, from the Sambilangs a considerable way to the southward, then edge out, to round the West end of the North Sand, and get a sight of the Arroas; afterward, work near the edge of the sand to benefit by the tides, and preserve moderate depths for anchorage, borrowing on it occasionally to 10 or 11 fathoms,

To sail from the Strait, toward Madras or the coromandel Coast in the N. E. monsoon;

SHIPS from MALACCA STRAIT, bound to Madras or the Coromandel Coast, during the N. E. monsoon, should keep near the Malay side and the adjacent islands, until they reach Junkseylon; which, with the islands off its southern extremity, may be rounded at any convenient distance. From Junkseylon, a course to pass betwixt the Car-Nicobar and the South end of the Little Andaman may be adopted, if early in the season; or the Sombreiro channel may be chosen at discretion, if not bound to the northward of Madras; and in December and January, care must be taken to fall in with the coast a little to the northward of the intended port.

and in the S. W. monsoon.

Ships bound to Madras in the S.W. monsoon, must adopt the Sumatra side of the strait, keeping near the Pedir Coast, to benefit by the westerly or eddy current contiguous to it; they ought to go out by the Bengal Passage,* after reaching Achen, proceeding close along

*The Surat Passage, is not perfectly safe for large ships working out in the S, W. monsoon, which has been verified, by the loss of the ship Harriot of Calcutta, not along ago.

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the East side of Pulo Brasse, and rounding the islands at its North end. The passage will generally be tedious in this monsoon, after clearing Achen Head, although some ships have reached Madras in 14 or 15 days from that place, during the strength of the S.W. monsoon, by taking advantage of every favorable change of wind to get to the westward, and tacking with those changes as most expedient.

Also toward Ceylon during the S.W. monsoon.

SHIPS bound to Ceylon in this season, after clearing Achen Head, must endeavour to get to the South of the equator, giving the islands off the West coast of Sumatra a wide birth, if possible. Having got into S. Easterly winds, a westerly course must be pursued until on the meridian of the intended port; then a North course for it, may be followed, observing to fall in with the land on the West side of Point de Galle, if bound there; or with the south-east part of the island, if bound to Baticolo or Trincomale; for strong westerly winds, and easterly currents, prevail along the South coast of Ceylon during the S.W. monsoon. Ships seldom sail from Malacca Strait to Madras or Ceylon in this season, and it may sometimes be found impracticable to accomplish the passage, in those which sail indifferently by the wind.

and in the N. E. monsoon.

Where to make the Island, &c.

Ships bound to Ceylon during the N. E. monsoon, usually experience favorable weather, and a fair wind. In proceeding out of the strait, they may pass on either side of Pulo Pera at discretion, and borrow toward Pulo Rondo, or toward the South end of the Great Nicobar, as seems expedient; if they fall accidentally to leeward of Pub Rondo, they may pass safely through the channel formed betwixt the ledge of rocks lying about 2 miles to the southward of it, and Pulo Way. After taking a departure from Pulo Rondo, or the South end of Great Nicobar, a direct course should be steered to fall in with Ceylon to the north ward of Trincomale, if bound to that port. If bound to Point de Galle, Colombo, or the Malabar coast, the land should be made to the northward of the Little Basses, particularly in the night; for there, the lead, if kept going, will give sufficient warning before the land is approached too close. In day-light, you may steer direct for the Great Basses, if the wind blow steady at N. Eastward, allowing for a probable southerly current running along the coast; and, as this current generally prevails in the strength of the N. E. monsoon, along the East side of Ceylon, it is prudent, even in day-light, to fall in with the coast a little to the northward of the Great Basses; or to the northward of the Little Basses, when the wind hangs northerly, or when it inclines to be light and variable. After rounding the Basses, ships bound to the Malabar coast ought to keep close to Ceylon, as if they were bound to Point de Galle, or Colombo; and they ought to coast along nearly to the latter place, before they stretch off for Cape Comorin.

2d. COAST OF PEDIR, WITH SAILING DIRECTIONS ALONG THIS COAST TO DIAMOND POINT.

and adjacent coast.

THE NORTH PART of SUMATRA, called the Coast of Pedir, extends from Point Pedro, the northernmost point of the island, nearly E. ¾ S., about 44 leagues to Diamond Point, its eastern boundary. This coast is low in several places close to the sea, but the country a little inland is all very high, with some remarkable mountains.

TANJONG BATOO, generally called Point Pedro, situated about 4 or 5 leagues E. N. Eastward from Achen Road, terminates in a gentle slope, and is covered with large trees; the coast between it and Achen, may with safety be approached to 10 fathoms, but the point must not be borrowed on under this depth, as it is fronted by foul ground. Yet in passing Point Pedro during the night, it is not advisable to go outside of 16 or 17 fathoms, that Pulo Malora may have a proper birth to the northward; for this small island lies to the N. East-

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ward of Achen Road, and rather nearer to Point Pedro than to Pulo Way. Tanjong Batoo Pootie, is known by a large white rock off it, and bears E. 5° S. from Tanjon Batoo, distant about 4 leagues. Between these points lies Deep Bay, or Back Bay, having soundings of 20 fathoms in it, about 1 or 1½ mile off shore; but there is no ground, when the distance from it exceeds 4 or 5 miles, more particularly about Tanjong Batoo Pootie, the coast is nearly steep to.

Geo. Site of Pedir Point.

To sail from thouce

PEDIR POINT, in about lat. 5° 29′ N-, lon. 96° 10′ E., bearing from Tanjong Batoo Pootie S. 67° E., distant 5 or 6 leagues, may be known by some bushy trees on its extremity, by the Golden Mountain, which bears from it W. by S. ½S. nearly, and by the land trending from it to the S. S. Eastward. In sailing from Achen along this part of the coast, keep near it, where in most parts, you may anchor if necessary, for there is seldom any hidden danger above ½ a mile from the shore; and as the bank is steep to, with westerly and variable currents outside, here you are more liable to calms than in soundings, and may lose much ground by getting out of anchorage.

to the Read.

Pedir Point may be borrowed on to 10 fathoms, within ½ a mile; from hence, the course is S. S. E. and S. E. by S. to the road of Pedir, where the anchorage is in 10 fathoms, with the point bearing N.W., Golden Mount W. ½ N., and the entrance of the river (which is not conspicuous) S. ½ W. to S. S.W., distant 1½ or 2 miles: or small ships may anchor in 7 fathoms, about a mile off shore. Boats can enter the river at low water neap tides, but not until a ¼ flood on the springs, for then, there is a considerable surf on the bar. Pedir, exports great quantities of beetle-nut, cultivated here, and pepper brought from places of less consequence, which makes the trade of the whole coast take its name after this port. Pedir Village is in lat. 5° 22½′ N., and 26 miles East of the Golden Mountain, or in lon. 96° 15′ E,

Oujong Rajah Point.

Coast and villages adjacent.

OUJONG, or UJAM RAJAH POINT, bears from Pedir Point E. 16° S., distant about 12 leagues, and in working between them, you may stand into 12 or 14 fathoms, although in some places, these depths are not above ½ a mile from the shore; when near Oujong Rajah Point, go not under 20 fathoms, for contiguous to it, there is said to be foul ground. There are several villages along this part of the coast; Barrong, in lat. 5° 20′ N., about 5 or 6 miles E. S. Eastward from Pedir, situated near the entrance of a river, from whence the bushy tree on Pedir Point is just visible from the deck, has now become the chief place on the coast for trade, and is much frequented by Chulia vessels from the Coromandel coast. Burrong, is also called Gingham, but Gingham River stretches westerly from it toward Pedir. Ayerlaboo is an inconsiderable place, 3 miles eastward from Burrong, and Sawang, 4 or 5 miles farther, may be known by a grove of trees, very conspicuous. Merdoo, about 4 leagues eastward of Sawang, may be known by some huts and straggling trees, and a large tree on the point of the river, the entrance of which is not conspicuous; but a run of water, resembling a path in the valley between the hills, appears very plain in the rainy season. Sambelangan, about 2 leagues to the eastward of Merdoo, has a small fort on each side of the river, and lies in a bight betwixt Merdoo Point and Oujong Rajah Point; ships may anchor at any of these places, the coast being bold and safe to approach, but excepting Burrong and Sambelangan, these villages produce very few articles of trade. The anchorage at Sambelangan, is in 12 to 15 fathoms, with Merdoo Point bearing W: by N. Oujong Rajah Point E. by N., distance off shore 1 or 1½ mile.

Passangan Point.

PASSANGAN POINT, bearing from Oujong Rajah Point E. 13° N., distant 6 leagues, is bluff, known by a grove of cocoa-nut trees on its extremity, which is divided by the mouth of a river; the coast between these places is much indented, soundings do not extend off above 2 miles, and 8 or 9 miles eastward from Oujong Rajah, are very irregular; you then

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find a bank about 1 or 2 miles from the shore, with 10 fathoms on its edge all the way to Passangan. This bank, shoals gradually to the shore, but ½ a mile beyond its verge, there is no bottom at 50 or 60 fathoms.

Elephant Mountain.

Elephant Mountain, in lon. 96° 50′ E., called also Friar's Hood, bearing S.W. ½ S., when in one with Pansangan Point, is situated several leagues inland, and may easily be known by its abrupt and singular aspect; it will point out when Pansangan Point is approached, which may be rounded within the distance of a mile with the land wind, for although the sea generally breaks upon the point, there is no ground at 30 fathoms about 2 cables' lengths outside of the breakers.

Passangan River, falls into the bay, to the eastward of the point, off which, you may anchor in 15 to 20 fathoms about ½ a mile from the shore, with the point bearing W. by N.

Rocky Point and contiguous coast.

GUM GUMA, or Rocky Point, bears E. 5° N. from Passangan River, distant about 3½ or 4 leagues, and the soundings between them, do not extend far out: in working here, stand in to 20 fathoms, but not under this depth off Rocky Point (which is known by a clump of trees at its extremity, somewhat higher than the rest), as a reef projects from it.

Geo. Site of Tooloo-Samwoi Point.

TOOLOO SAMWOI POINT, in lat. 5° 13′ N., about lon. 97° 14′ E., is 2 or 3 leagues E. S. Eastward of Rocky Point, the coast between them very steep, having 25 fathoms about ½ a mile off, and the water shoals quick from that depth toward the shore. On the extremity of the former point, there is a square clump of trees, which makes it resemble an island when first seen.

Tooloo-Samwoi.

Caution requisite.

TOOLOO-SAMWOI, or Tulosamaway, in lat. 5° 10′ N., at the bottom of the bay to the S. Eastward of the point, is a place of some trade, where there is a fort and village near the mouth of the river. Ships which stop here to trade, or to procure water and refreshments, must be constantly guarded against the perfidy of the natives, and those of the other towns along this coast, who have been too successful, at various times, in surprising small ships or two-masted vessels, and massacring their crews.

If bound into the road, from the westward, round the point at any convenient distance, keeping the western side of the bay close aboard, if the wind be westerly; and anchor in 10 or 11 fathoms with the point N. 15° W., Passier Grove S. 74° E.; and the High Table Mountain to the S. W. of Diamond Point S. E. by S., about ½ a mile from the western shore.

Betwixt Tooloo-Samwoi and Diamond Point, lies the river and village of Courtay, or Curtoy, and the whole of this part of the coast is clear of danger, except when Diamond Point is approached; for a shoal, with 1½ and 2 fathoms on it, bears about W. ½ S. from the point, and North from the village Courtay, distant 2 or 3 miles from the shore. Close to this shoal on the outside, there are 11 fathoms, and between it and the shore, 5, 4, and 3 fathoms.

Sumatra coast from Diamond Point to the Arroas;

SUMATRA COAST, from Diamond Point to the Arroa Islands, is low and woody, fronting the sea, containing several rivers, towns, and villages, frequented seldom but by coasting prows, or other small vessels.

The flood sets along this coast to the S. E. and the ebb to the N.W., varying a point or two, according to the direction of the coast: the ebb is generally strongest, and of longer duration than the flood, but seldom runs above 1½ mile per hour, when the distance from the shore is considerable. The soundings along the coast, are somewhat irregular, with foul ground in many places under 30 fathoms; but outside of this depth, the bottom consists of mud, or mud and sand; and it is of the same quality, in the middle of the strait.

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with sailing directions.

Although the Malay side of the strait is preferable to the other, yet if a ship happen to be off Diamond Point with a steady N.W. gale, she may steer along the Sumatra coast at a moderate distance, toward Palo Varela and the Arroas. This route is shorter than the common one along the Malay side; and the best depths to preserve after passing Diamond Point, are from 30 to 36 fathoms, not borrowing under 20 or 25 fathoms toward the Sumatra shore, in working; but she may stand out into the middle of the strait, to any distance required.

The coast may be approached occasionally, in some places, to 12 or 14 fathoms, if you intend to anchor off any of the rivers.

3d. DIRECTIONS FOR THE N. E. COAST OF SUMATRA, FROM DIAMOND POINT TO BREWER'S STRAIT AND SIAK RIVER.*

Geo. Site of Diamond Point.

DIAMOND POINT, JAMBIE AYER, or TANJONG GOERE, in lat. 5° 17′ N. lon. 97° 33′ E.† by chronometers, forming the eastern extremity of the coast of Pedir, is low and woody, but the trees on it being of unequal height, and higher than those of the contiguous land, make the point appear like a low sloping island, when viewed at a considerable distance, although the ground is very little elevated above the sea at high water spring tides. A reef extends from the point about 1 mile in a northerly direction, having 3 fathoms sand on its outer edge, and shoaling gradually to the point; come no nearer the latter than 2 miles, nor under 12 fathoms in passing it, and the shoal to the westward; for the water shoals quick under this depth, to the westward of the point. This place is frequented in the fair season by fishermen from the coast of Pedir. Inland, to the S. S. Westward, there is a High Table Mountain, visible from the offing in clear weather.

Tides.

Soundings.

Although the tides along the Pedir coast are weak, and only perceptible near the shore (there being a current usually setting to the westward in the offing during the S.W. monsoon), they begin to run strong at Diamond Point, the flood to the S. Eastward, and the ebb to the S. Westward, about 2 miles per hour, and rise and fall 9 or 10 feet on the springs. At the western part of the coast of Pedir, it is high water about 10½ hours, on full and change of the moon; and at 12 hours off Diamond Point. The soundings are not very regular in the offing, the depths being from 20 to 35 or 40 fathoms, about 3 miles, to 5 or 6 leagues from the point; and soundings extend from hence across to Pulo Pera, from the latter to the Ladda Islands, and to Prince of Wales' Island. A little outside of Pulo Pera, there are no soundings.

Geo. Site of Prauhilah Point.

PRAUHILAH POINT, in lat. 4° 53′ N., lon. 97° 55′ E. by chronometer, bearing from Diamond Point nearly S. E. about 10 or 11 leagues, has a reef projecting from it about 3 miles to the North and N. N.W., upon which the soundings are very irregular; but between it and Diamond Point, they are regular at a small distance from the shore. There are 4½ fathoms mud, about 3½ miles from Prauhilah Point, on the north side of which, is the entrance into the river, almost dry at low water; but inside of it, there are 2 fathoms for several miles up, with a small fishing village a considerable distance from the entrance.

LANKSA BAY.

LANKSA BAY, distant about 7 leagues S. E. by S. from Prauhilah Point, formed by Oujong Byan to the northward, and Oujong Quala Lanksa to the S.W., is about 4 miles wide, containing numerous shoals, with narrow channels leading into the different rivers which fall into this bay. Near Oujong Quala Lanksa, lies Palo Telaggy Tujou, a small

* Chiefly from the exploration of this Coast, by Lieutenants Rose and Moresby, of the Bombay Marine, in the Company's cruiser, Nautilus, in 1822.

† It has been placed by some navigators, 12 or 14 miles more to the eastward.

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island about a mile in extent, having a channel about 300 yards wide, with 6 and 7 fathoms water, between it and Oujong Quala Lanksa. This island cannot be distinguished from the main land, in coming from the northward; the entrance into Lanksa River, bears from it about South, having a safe but narrow channel on either side of the island, although the best is from the N. E. between the island and Oujong Quala Lanksa, having 2½ fathoms the least water.

In the entrance of the river, there are two small islands, and the town is said to be at a considerable distance inside, containing a number of inhabitants, who cultivate rice, pepper, and rattans. There are only 3 fathoms, mud, about 6 miles distant from the bottom of the bay, and the reefs extend 3½ or 4 miles from the nearest land.

About 5 leagues S. Eastward of Lanksa Bay stands Oujong Tannaug, or Tamiang, the coast between them being safe to approach. having from 15 to 20 fathoms about 2 miles off shore, excepting a reef of breakers at Pulo Rouquit, and at Oujong Tannang, which project out about 1 mile.

Geo. Site of QualaBubon.

QUALA* BUBON, in lat. 4° 1′ N., lon. 98° 29′ E., is situated at the S. E. extremity of a deep bay, formed between it and Oujong Tannang, which is not easily perceived from the offing, as Pulo Tempelee, and Pulo Lampatuah, two large islands fronting the bay, appear as part of the main land, unless when close in shore. Between these islands, there is said to be a safe channel for small vessels, that leads to Kaya-la-pun River. From the mouth of Quala Bubon, a bank extends about 4 miles to the N. N. E. and Northward, having dry patches on it, with breakers in some places. About 4½ miles off the entrance of the river, the depth is 3 fathoms mud, and the tide rises and falls about 9 feet on the springs, high water at 3 hours on full and change of the moon.

About 4 leagues to the S. Eastward of Quala Bubon, there is an island close to Oujong Lankat-tuah, which is safe to approach, and forms the northern extreme of the concavity of the land where Delhi River is situated.

Geo. Site of Delhi River.

DELHI RIVER, in lat. 3° 46′ 30″ N., lon. 98° 42′ 30″ E., is fronted by an extensive mud flat to the distance of 5 miles in some places, upon which the depths decrease regularly. The mouth of the river is about ¼ mile wide, having only 4 feet at high water on some parts, but inside deepens to 2 fathoms: about 3 miles from the entrance, it has a sharp turn to the S. E. and becomes narrow, and after forming three very short turnings or reaches, having only 3 or 4 feet water in some of them, stands the town of Delhi, consisting of scattered huts, containing about 500 inhabitants, who cultivate some rice and pepper. Here the river is only 40 yards wide, and a fresh water stream descends always at this place.

Bulu China River.

Bulu China River's entrance, is about ¼ mile to the northward of Delhi River, and between them a sand bank, dry at low water, projects about 1 mile, having close to it 1½, 2, and 3 fathoms. The entrance of Bulu China river is about 300 yards wide, and much deeper than Delhi river, having 1 fathom on the bar at low water, with 3½ and 4 fathoms inside; and about 3½ miles up, this river branches off to the westward, having a communication with Delhi by a channel to the S. E., in which there are 1½ and 2 fathoms water. Here, the rise and fall of tide is from 8 to 9 feet, high water at 4 hours on full and change of the moon.

Tanjong Mattie.

From Delhi, to Tanjong Mattie, which forms the northern part of Battoo Barra Bay, the coast extends about S. E. by E., having regular soundings to 4½ fathoms, within 1½ mile of the low sandy beach that lines this part of the coast. Off Tanjong Mattie to the northward, the depth increases to 12 and 14 fathoms, and shoals suddenly to 5, 3, and 2 fathoms, on a sandy spit which projects about a mile from that point; and about 5 miles to the eastward

* Quala, is the name for River, Songy for Bay, Oujong or Tanjong for a Cape or Headland, and Goonoong for a Mountain or Hill, in the Malay language.

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of it, and the same distance to the northward of Battoo Barra, there is an extensive and dangerous sand bank, having upon it only 1 and 1½ fathoms; and there is a safe channel betwixt it and the main land.

Geo. Sito of Battoo Barra.

BATTOO BARRA RIVER, in lat. 3° 13′ 15″ N., lon. 99° 37′ E., and the coast for some miles eastward, is fronted by an extensive mud flat, having regular soundings on it, and it stretches out within 3 miles of the South Brother. The river is about 300 yards wide, and the soundings are regular to the dry banks at its mouth; where a little way inside, it forms into two branches, one to the eastward, and the other to the westward. About 1 mile up the western branch, is situated the town, where the Chief Rajah resides, apparently well inhabited; and on the banks of the eastern branch, stands another town, with a number of inhabitants: there are other towns, said to be situated farther up the river, all subject to the Rajah of Battoo Barra, who is tributary to the Rajah of Siak. They cultivate rice and rattans, and manufacture from China raw silk, small quantities of a kind of tartan, much esteemed by the neighbouring Malays. Opium, fire-arms, and gun-powder, appear to be in great request. Elephants abound inland, but the natives are ignorant of the method of catching them: horses are also plentiful, but neglected, on account of the heavy duty charged by the Rajahs, and European vessels having discontinued to visit this place for many years, owing to the perfidious conduct of the Malays, who have formerly cut off several vessels that touched here to trade. Nevertheless, the people of Battoo Barra, appear more industrious, and better inclined to trade, than is usually experienced with the other inhabitants of this coast; and they carry in their own proas to Prince of Wales' Island and Malacca, the rattans, pepper, or other articles produced here. Goats, and poultry, are plentiful at reasonable prices.

Geo. Site of Assarhan River.

ASSARHAN RIVER, in lat. 5° 1½′N., lon. 99° 52′ E., has a mud flat extending from its entrance about 7 miles to the N. Eastward, upon which the soundings regularly decrease. From hence to Reccan River, care is required not to approach the coast too near, as several mud flats extend to a considerable distance, upon the verge of which, the water shoals suddenly; particularly about 5 or 6 leagues to the S. E. of Assarhan River, fronting the Bay of Songy Lidang and its contiguous rivers, the flat extends 3 and 4 leagues from the shore at the bottom of that bay.

Reccan River Geo. Site.

RECCAN, RAKAN, or RUKAN RIVER, has at the entrance two islands, Pulo La lang Besar, in lat. 2° 10′ N., lon. 100° 37′ E., being the largest, from which the other, Pulo Lalang Kecheel, bears S. 16° E. about 2¾ miles, and there is a shoal channel between them, leading into the river: they are low, and woody, and not discernible above 10 miles distance. Having passed between these islands, and being a little to the eastward of them, the entrance into the river bears S. 36° E., which extends in this direction about 30 miles, then a small and shoal bank projects to the westward, called Banka: but the main branch takes a S. E. direction, and is called Tanah Putie River, having a town of the same name at the mouth of this branch, which is here, about 1½ mile wide, and said to take its rise from the mountains. It is shoal and dangerous, from the rapidity of the tides; although several large and populous villages are said to stand on its banks, subject to the Rajah of Siak.

The greatest breadth of the mouth of Reccan River is about 15 miles, and about 8 or 9 miles up it decreases to 4 miles, afterward to 2 miles, and continues this, breadth till it forms the two branches mentioned above. It is almost dry at low water spring tides, and rendered exceedingly dangerous by their excessive rapidity, of 7 miles per hour, producing a bore on the springs, and having a rise and fall of 30 feet.*

* The Nautilus anchored about 17 miles up the river in 6¼ fathoms, and while the ebb tide was running about 2 miles per hour, the Bore was seen approaching in three large waves, and the instant it touched the vessel, then lying aground in 4 feet water, it was past in less than a minute, and increased the depth to 2¼ fathoms.

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On the bank of the river, the Nautilus found a straggling village, from whence the inhabitants came off in great numbers, and entreated to be admitted on board, under the pretence of friendship, which was refused, excepting to a very few of them: and they afterward, without the least provocation, endeavoured to cut off one of the boats, which had got adrift by the excessive rapidity of the tide.

At the mouth of the river, it is high water at 6 hours on full and change of the moon, the rise and fall of tide about 26 feet, and here the velocity of the stream is about 5½ miles per hour, but it becomes much greater a few miles up.

Ougong Perbabean, and adjacent coast.

From Reccan River, the land of the eastern bank projects to the N.W., forming the headland called Oujong Perbabean, in lat. 2° 15′ N., from which a mud flat extends to the N.W. and N. N.W. about 11 and 12 miles, and upon this flat the soundings decrease regularly. When clear to the eastward of this bank, and having Oujong Perbabean bearing S. W. and Parcelar Hill N. 43° E., you enter upon the most dangerous part of this coast, which has various sand banks extending from it over to the South Sands, with gaps and narrow channels of mud soundings between them.

As the soundings afford no guide in approaching these banks, the depth decreasing suddenly upon them, it is necessary for a vessel intending to puss between them, to have a boat a-head sounding, and a good look out kept from the fore yard, for the shoal banks are plainly seen when the sky is clear in the day time.

Pulo Roupat; Geo. Site.

PULO ROUPAT North Point, called Oujong Bantan, in. 2° 6′ N., lon. 101° 42′ E., is bold to approach, having 30 fathoms within 1½ mile of the shore, and the eastern side of this island is bold until the entrance of Brewer's Strait is approached, then a mud bank extends out from the shore of Pulo Roupat about 5 miles. Between the north point of Pulo Roupat and Oujong Perbabean, an extensive shoal bank fronts the bight which embraces this part of the coast; and this bank, together with those in the offing, mentioned above, render this part of the Sumatra side of the strait very intricate and dangerous.

Brewer's Strait.

BREWER'S STRAIT, or SALAT PANJANG, the North Entrance, is formed between the main land of Sumatra and Pulo Bucalisse, Tanjong Jattee, the north end of the latter, being in lat. 1° 36′ N., lon. 102° 0′ E. The northern part of this strait is about 5 miles wide, with soundings of 8 to 15 and 20 fathoms mud; and about 8 miles from the entrance, on the western shore, the Town of Bookit Battoo is situated upon the banks of a very narrow river of the same name, not easily perceived, the houses being scattered among, and hid by the trees; but it may be known by a tree formed like an umbrella, near the entrance of the river.

At Oujong Ballai, a point of Sumatra about 3 leagues to the S. E. of Bookit Battoo river, the strait becomes contracted to 3 or 4 miles in breadth; and opposite to the point, is the entrance of the narrow strait called Salat Padang, affording a safe passage for boats, which is formed between Pulo Bucalisse and Pulo Padang. From Oujong Ballai, Brewer's Strait turns from a S. E. direction, to South, till opposite the mouth of Siak River.

Geo. Site of Siak River.

SIAK RIVER'S ENTRANCE, situated in lat. 1° 13′ N. lon. 102° 10′ E., on the western side of Brewer's Strait, is about ¾ of a mile wide, having a sandy spit nearly dry at low water, extending almost across, but leaving a safe, although very narrow channel, close to Oujong Liang, the eastern point of the entrance leading into the river; which becomes narrow with deep soundings inside, and is said to have its source in the mountains. The town of Siak is situated at a considerable distance from the mouth of the river, the Rajah of which is very powerful, his authority extending to Lankat, a town situated on the banks of Bubon River. The Nautilus anchored in 6 fathoms mud within ¼ mile of the mouth of Siak river, and found the time of high water at full and change of the moon to be 9 hours, the rise and fall of tide then about 12 feet, and the velocity 2¼ miles per hour.

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Brewer's Strait sontinued.

From the entrance of Siak river, Brewer's Strait extends S. S. E. to the western end of Pulo Rantow, where it contracts to 1 mile in breadth, with regular mud soundings from 8 to10 fathoms. Between Pulo Rantow and Pulo Padang, is formed a channel leading to the sea, called Salat Ringit by the natives, and said to be used only by boats. From the western end of Palo Rantow, the strait takes an easterly direction about 20 miles, with depths from 10 to 15 fathoms, till a small island in mid-straits is approached, on each side of which, the passage is practicable, taking care to avoid the stream of the island, as a mud flat extends from it to the westward about 2½ miles in the middle of the strait. From hence, the direction of the strait is to the S. Eastward, and after passing three small islands on the left hand, the southern entrance opens, off which there are a great number of islands.

The safest channel out, appears to be between Rantow Point and Pulo Senappoo, having regular, but shoal soundings of only one fathom at low water in some parts.

Geo. Site of Campou River.

CAMPOU RIVER, in lat. 0° 35′ N. lon. 103° 8′ E., is fronted by an extensive mud flat, almost dry at low water; and it is little frequented, on account of the rapidity of the tides, occasioning a bore at times, similar to that of Reccan River, which it resembles in several respects. In approaching the southern entrance of Brewer's Strait, the tides are greatly influenced by this river, producing a strong eddy round some of the islands, so that while the tide is running to the southward on one side of an island, it may often be found running to the northward on the other side. The rise and fall of the tide near the southern entrance of Brewer's Strait, is about 15 feet in some parts, with a velocity of about 3½ miles per hour, but much greater when near the entrance of Campou River.

Islands that form Brewer's Strait, and shoals off them.

The three islands, Pulo Bucalisse, Pulo Padang, and Pulo Rantow, which form Brewer's Strait, and also Palo Panjore, ought not to be approached, but with great caution, at their eastern sides, as they are fronted by an extensive mud flat, with dangerous sand banks, in some places, having only 1½ fathom water on them. And these form, what is usually called the Sumatra Bank, or Third Bank in Malacca Strait, to the N. Westward of the Carimons.

Geo. Site et Pulo Varela.

PULO VARELA, in lat. 3° 47′ N., lon. 99° 33′ E., bearing from Diamond Point S. 49° E., distant 140 miles, and about 6 leagues from the Sumatra shore, is high, and may be seen at 8 leagues distance. At its South end, in a little cove, water may be procured from a small run, but not always in sufficient quantity; and you may anchor at the S. E. part of the island in 12 to 18 fathoms, about a mile off, and procure plenty of fire-wood: off the N.W. point, lies an islet or rock, and another off the South end. Boats landing here, ought to be guarded against the perfidy of the Battoo-barra people, from the adjacent coast, who frequently lurk about it with a few proas, in search of plunder, or to dry their nets; and they have more than once, massacred, or carried into captivity, the crews of boats, which had landed here to procure wood and water.*

The depths of water near the island on the is side, are 18 to 24 fathoms, decreasing toward the Sumatra Coast, but not always regular, as several banks are known to exist here; of which, the following is dangerous.

VarelaReef

VARELA REEF, bearing W. ¾ S. from the island, distant 5 or 5½ leagues, has sometimes breakers on its southern part, from whence a long spit, or bank of sand, extends to N. N. Westward. The American ship, William, Capt. Bodin, September 2d, 1811, shoaled to 7 fathoms hard sand on this bank, and shortly after saw breakers bearing S. E. by E., which were brought to bear E. ¾ N., distant about 2 miles, when in one with Pulo Varela, the latter just visible from the deck, then in 12 fathoms water. Anchored afterward, in 7 fathoms on the bank, with the breakers bearing S. E. ½ E., and Pulo Varela E. by S., and

* In 1788, the boat belonging to the ship, Dadaloy, Capt. Richardson, was cut off at this island, where she was sent to procure water.

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after weighing, steered E. by S. 3 miles, then shoaling suddenly to 3¾ fathoms, steered W.N.W. and anchored in 6 fathoms, with Pulo Varela E. 2° N., a high grove of trees on Sumatra, thought to be at the mouth of Delhi River W.S.W.½ S., and the breakers S. S. E. After weighing a second time, steered E. by S. about 2 miles, and shoaling again to 3 fathoms, wore to the W.N.W. and N.W., deepening very slowly till Pulo Varela bore East, then had 7 fathoms, and steered N. E., increasing the depth to 9, 10, 12, and 13 fathoms in a few casts of the lead.

Banks, thought not dangerous.

There is a bank about 4 or 5 miles to the S.W. of Pulo Varela, on which the American ship, William, had 9 fathoms; and 10 miles to the W. S. Westward of the island, and 4 or 5 miles in a S. E. direction from Varela Reef, she had 9 fathoms on another bank; on a third bank, about 4 or 4½ leagues S. by W. from the same island, she had 9 and 8 fathoms, with soundings from 18 to 26 fathoms between them.

Another bank, bearing about N.W. by N. 3 leagues from Pulo Varela, is said to have only 2 fathoms on it, but 7 or 8 fathoms, appears to be the least water that has been found in the situation assigned to it. About 4 leagues to the N. Eastward of Pulo Varela, the depths are from 32 to 35 fathoms.

Geo. site of the Two Brothers.

TWO BROTHERS, bearing nearly N. N. E. and S. S.W., 4 or 5 miles from each other, are covered with wood, and much lower than Pulo Varela; the northernmost, called Pulo Pandan, is in lat. 3° 24′ N., about lon. 99° 49′ E., bearing from Pulo Varela S. E. ½ S., distant 8½ or 9 leagues. The southernmost, called Salanama, is largest; the soundings about 4 or 5 miles to the northward of Pulo Pandan, are 26 and 27 fathoms; but to the N.W. and westward of it, at the distance of 4, to 8 or 9 miles, the American ship, William, had from 7 fathoms the least water, to 9 or 10 fathoms, sometimes sandy bottom, at other times soft mud.

Sailing directions.

From Diamond Point, having proceeded along the Sumatra side of the strait, you may pass on either side of Pulo Varela, giving a birth to the reef, if you pass inside, then steer toward the Brothers, and pass to the northward of them, as the channel betwixt the South Brother and the coast is not frequented, being only 3 or 4 miles wide from this island to Battoo Barra Flat: besides, the passage outside, is more direct toward the channel formed between the Arroas and the North Sand. The Long Arroa bears about S. E. by E. 19 leagues from the Northernmost Brother, and after passing the latter, steer more easterly, to make the Arroa bearing well to the South, or to get soundings on the western end of the North Sands; then, proceed through the channel between the North and South Sands, toward Parcelar Hill.

Sumatra Coast and channels.

To Siak River, nearly opposite to Malacca, the coast of Sumatra has been already described; it is mostly all low land, covered with trees, and intersected by several rivers, and shoal banks stretch out a great way from the shore, in some places. The channel along this coast, to the southward of the Arroas and South Sands, has been found, by the late examination of the Nautilus, to be intricate and unsafe: the land being low and level, destitute of proper marks, no ship ought to adopt this channel; and a boat must be kept sounding a-head, if a ship be obliged to push through it in a case of emergency.

The East and West Channel, formed between the North and South Sands, from the Arroas to Parcelar Hill, and then betwixt the Malay Coast and South Sands, is frequented by ships of every description; and it is far preferable to the passage along the Sumatra side of the strait. It has been said, that 7 leagues W. by N. from the Long Arroa, there is a bank even with the water's edge, but most probably, no such bank exists.

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4th. MALAY SIDE OF THE STRAIT, FROM JUNKSEYLON TO PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND, WITH SAILING DIRECTIONS.

Malay Coast and Islands; directions for the Inner Passage.

MALAY COAST, between Junkseylon and Prince of Wales' Island, now occupied by the Siamese, is fronted by many islands of various sizes; and inside most of the groups, and between them, there are passages for small vessels, but large ships generally sail outside.

A small vessel proceeding from Junkseylon during the N. E. monsoon, may pass on either side of the outer groups to the S. E. of Pulo Panjang, as most convenient: the first of these, called the Vogels, is a group of small islands about 6 leagues from Panjang, with 14 and 16 fathoms water inside, and 25 to 30 fathoms outside of them.

The Pilgrims, is the next group, about 4 or 5 leagues farther to the S. Eastward, which is composed of very small islands, and bears nearly East, about 9 leagues from the Brothers, off Junkseylon. Some persons call the largest island of this group, Slipper Island, but Sapata or Slipper Island, seems to belong to a group of two or three islands, situated 4 or 5 leagues farther to the S. Eastward. The latter, are called Pulo Allang, by the Malays, but navigators give to the largest, the various names of Pulo Mohea, Tupia, or Slipper Island. Betwixt these islands, and many others which lie contiguous to the coast, the depths are from 20 to 12 fathoms; and there is good anchorage amongst them; some articles of refreshment may be got at Pulo Telibon, which lies close to the shore in lat. 7° 14′ N., where vessels may anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms, off its western side; but the harbour is narrow and requires care in entering it. From Telibon, a chain of high rocky islands, stretches along the coast to the North end of Pulo Trotto, having a good passage of 8, 9, and 10 fathoms water on the outside; and if bound to Queda, a small vessel may pass inside of the large islands Trotto, Lancava, Ladda's, between them and the main, in various soundings from 4 or 5 fathoms near the coast, to 8 and 10 fathoms, by keeping nearest these islands; for the shore opposite, is lined by a shoal mud bank, extending a great way over toward the islands. From thence, she may haul into 5 or 6 fathoms water near the coast, and anchor in 5½ or 6 fathoms, with Queda River's entrance E. by N. Northerly, Elephant Mount N. E. ¼ N., Boonting Islands about S. S. E., and the Rocky Islands, called Payers, or Peers, about 4 or 5 leagues to the westward, bearing W. by S. Southerly. There is very little trade here, since the establishment of the English at Pulo Penang, more particularly since it became subjected to the Siamese. Queda Town, in lat. 6° 6′ N., is built on both sides of the entrance of the river, which, although fronted by a mud flat, has sufficient depth of water within, for sloops and brigs to anchor, where the Rajah resides, about 10 or 12 miles above the town. The tide rises here, about 5 or 6 feet, and flows to nearly 12 hours at full and change of the moon. Elephant Mount, is situated near the shore, in lat. 6° 10½′ N., and in lat. 6° 21′ N. lies Parlis River, off which, the coasting vessels anchor in 3 fathoms, to the S.W. of four islands that lie near the main, and with a Haycock Mount bearing to the N. N. Eastward, as the mud bank lining the coast is here very flat. There are several rivers between Junkseylon and Queda; Phoonga to the S. S. Eastward of Junkseylon, is a river of some importance, where the Siamese build proas and boats at the town, which is a considerable way up the river. Trang River, inside of Telibon or Telibong, is also navigable by proas, or small vessels.

Little Passage.

LITTLE PASSAGE, is preferable to that last mentioned, inside of the principal islands; and if you intend to proceed by it, after rounding the Brothers at 3 or 4 miles distance, steer East and E. by S. for Pulo Mohea, which will carry you outside of the Pilgrims, and about 8 or 9 miles to the eastward of the Guilder Rock, if there be no oblique current.

Guilder Rock.

SANGALD, ST. GELDE, or GUILDER ROCK, in lat. 7° 10′ N., is a reef elevated about 2 or 3 feet above water, having 30 and 33 fathoms to the N. Eastward, and from 36

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to 40 fathoms water very close to it on the outside; it bears about South 5 leagues from the Pilgrims, and the same distance W. by S. ½ S. from Pulo Mohea, and requires great care, if soundings are got near it in the night, particularly, as it is said to be visible only in the N. E. monsoon, or dry season.

and other dangers adjacent to the Passage.

Having approached Pulo Mohea, it may be passed on the West side, at 4 or 5 miles distance, by which the Guilder Rock will have a birth of 3 leagues to the westward: from Pulo Mohea steer about S. E. by E. for Edam, which is the easternmost of three small islands of middling height, situated nearly mid-way between Pulo Bouton and Trotto; in passing betwixt Trotto and Edam, borrow on the latter, to avoid the Black Rock that lies 4 or 5 miles off the N.W. side of Trotto, nearly even with the surface at low water. There is also a dangerous reef of rocks fronting the S. E. end of Bouton, on which the sea breaks, having a passage with 16 fathoms water between them and Edam Islands, which may be chosen if necessary.

From Edam, steer S. Easterly for the S.W. end of the Laddas, which pass in 16 fathoms if the wind be North or N. Easterly; from hence, steer about E. by S. for the Peers, and pass to the westward of them, giving a birth of 3 miles to Rotta, the westernmost islet. Having passed the Peers, steer E. S. Easterly for the Boonting Islands, and pass them on the outside at a moderate distance, if bound to Prince of Wales' Island.

The passage between Trotto and the Laddas is also safe, with depths from 14, to 9 and 8 fathoms, and along the West side of the former, the depths are 7 and 6 fathoms near the shore: about 1/3 passage over from the S. E. point of Trotto, lies a Pyramidal Rock with 15 fathoms close to it, and near the point there is a smaller rock and an islet. Having passed these, borrow afterward near to the Ladda shore, to give a birth to the shoal mud bank that stretches from the main land far over toward the islands.

Lancava Islands.

Geo. Site of the Laddas.

LANCAVA, or LOUCAVA GROUP, consists of three large islands, and many smaller ones bordering them to the East and Southward; and they extend nearly N.W. and S. E. from the South part of Pulo Ladda,* in lat. 6° 8′ N., to the North end of Trotto in lat. 6° 49′ N. They are high bold islands, particularly Lancava the central one, which has on it a high peaked hill: there is also upon Pulo Ladda, to the S. Eastward, a peaked hill resembling the former, in about lat. 6° 21′ N., lon. 99° 50′ E., which is generally called Ladda Peak.

The Laddas, which form the South and East parts of the group, are high rugged islands, of barren aspect; and betwixt the two largest islands, situated at their southern extremity, there is a safe harbour, called Bass Harbour, by Captain Forrest. The channel leading to it from the N.W., is along the S.W. end of Lancava, where the depths are from 7 to 12 fathoms; and there are from 4 or 5, to 9 and 10 fathoms water, in the channel betwixt the islands leading into the harbour from the southward. The South part of Lancava, about 3 or 4 miles to the northward of Bass Harbour, is partly cleared, and inhabited by Malays and Chinese; but there being no trade at these islands, the harbour is not frequented.

Trotto, the northernmost large island of the group, has a cove or small harbour, at its N. E. end; and the channel that separates Lancava from this island, contains soundings from 8 to 14 fathoms, as mentioned above. About 3 or 4 leagues outside of these islands, the depths are from 24 to 30 fathoms, and close to them from 8 to 12, or 16 fathoms, but

* Captain Forrest calls the large central Island Pulo Ladda, which generally bears the name Lancava; and to the easternmost large island, commonly called Pulo Ladda, he gives the name of Lancaway. Strangers landing on any of these islands, ought to be cautious if they penetrate inland, for they may be liable to see some snakes, which are here very large. When the Princess Royal's boat landed on Trotto, the crew killed a snake 22 feet in length, the skin of which I afterward saw at Canton. These islands are a rendezvous for pirates, who are on the look out to attack trading proas or small vessels, when coasting along hereabout; and these freebooters have sometimes been known to lurk about the entrance of Penang Harbour.

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not very regular. There are tides among, and inside of them, but currents prevail frequently in the offing, setting mostly to the northward in the S.W. monsoon, and to the southward during the N. E. monsoon.

Geo. Site of Pulo Bouton.

PULO BOUTON, is formed of two large and high islands, very near each other, with some contiguous islets, and a reef of rocks off their S. E. extremity. The large islands are both high, and the easternmost is formed of a regular sloping pyramidal mountain, generally called Bouton Dome, which may be seen about 17 or 18 leagues. By mean of observations, taken when passing at various times, I made the Dome in lat. 6° 33′ N., lon. 99° 20½′ E.,* or 19½ miles to the eastward of the meridian of Pulo Pera; and the body of the two islands (which appear as one when seen from the westward) in lat. 6° 34′ N.

This group, is farther from the coast than any of the other islands which front the eastern side of the strait; the depths close to Pulo Benton, are from 17 to 26 fathoms; 3 or 4 leagues outside of it from 30 to 35 fathoms; and mid-way between it and Pulo Pera, generally from 40 to 50 fathoms.

Geo. Site of Pulo Pera.

PULO PERA, in lat. 5° 42′ N., lon. 99° 1′ E.,† is a high round barren rock, situated nearly mid-way between Diamond Point and the Coast of Queda, and may be discerned 6 or 7 leagues from a ship's deck. At leaving the strait, sometimes a departure is taken from this island, and when the weather is cloudy, during the S.W. monsoon, it is not unfrequently the first land seen after running into the entrance of the strait; for Pulo Rondo, or the South end of the Great Nicobar, is not always discerned in passing.

This island being steep to, with soundings from 40 to 50 fathoms very near it all round, should be avoided, in the S.W. monsoon, particularly; for then, calms and faint airs are liable to prevail in its neighbourhood, during which, some ships have been carried by the currents toward it at different times, and were obliged to anchor in deep water, to prevent being driven against the steep rock. The soundings to the distance of 5 or 6 miles from it, in all directions, are from 40 to 60 fathoms; but 6 or 7 leagues to the westward of it, there are none to be got with 60 or 70 fathoms of line.

Prince of Wales' Island.

PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND, is called by the natives Pulo Penang, its centre bearing from Pulo Pera E. 13° S., distant 25 leagues, and the soundings decrease regularly from 45 or 50 fathoms near the latter, to 30 and 25 fathoms within 5 or 6 leagues of the former, which extends from lat. 5° 16′ to 5° 30′ N., being nearly 5 leagues in length, and 7 or 8 miles in breadth; the West coast forms a small indentation, with a space of woody low land fronting the sea, and two small islands adjacent to the S.W. point, the northernmost of which, is bold to approach, having from 5 to 7 fathoms very near it: opposite to this islet, water may be got, under a point of the principal island.

The N.W. end of the island is high uneven land, and excepting the South part, and the eastern side, where the town is built, and where there is a considerable track of low land cultivated contiguous to the sea, the rest of the island is all high, and covered with trees. When viewed at a great distance from the offing, it has a regular oblong appearance, discernible about 20 leagues in clear weather.

* Captain Heywood made it in lon. 99° 20′ E., by lunar observations and chronometers.

† From the S. part of Junkseylon, I measured 0° 38½′ E. by chron. to Pulo Pera, making it in 98° 58′

From Malacca 3 10½ W. do. do. 99 4¾

From the South end of Nicobar 5 1½ E. do. do. 99 1½ Meam 99° 1′ Lon.

From Golden Mount 3 12 E. do. do. 99 1

From Malacca, Captain Mackintosh 3 15 W. do. do. 99 0

From Madras, Captain P. Heywood 18 39 E. do. do. 99 0½

The mean of observations in my possession, taken by seven other persons, correspond with this mean, placing Pulo Pera in lon. 99° 1′ E.

VOL. II. A a

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About 5¼ miles directly West from the Fort Flagstaff, stands the mountain on which signals are displayed for ships approaching the island; by mean of trigonometrical, and barometrical admeasurement, I made it to be 2170 feet in perpendicular height above the level of the sea; and at a small distance from it, an adjoining summit appeared to be about 60 or 80 feet higher than the signal mountain.

This island was presented by the King of Queda to Captain F. Light, and taken possession of by him, in 1786, for the East India Company; the Company have also obtained a grant, of a considerable track of the main land fronting the island, which is all low near the sea, except a small hill a little inland, contiguous to Praya River.

Geo. site of the Fort.

Fort Cornwallis, is built on the N. E. point of the island, close to the town, which is called George Town by the Europeans, or Tanjang Panaique by the Malays, and twenty years ago, contained 4000 or 5000 inhabitants. The principal articles exported, are pepper, beetle-nut, rattans, tin, and some gold, brought here from the main, from Sumatra, Java, and other islands to the eastward, by the Malay proas; and for which they receive opium, piece-goods, arrack, dollars, &c. Water and fire-wood may be procured here, at moderate prices; also bullocks and poultry, are brought from the coasts of Perah and Queda, which sell high, and are scarce when the harbour abounds with ships. Most of the trade of Junkseylon, Queda, Sanlangore, and other Malay ports, is now concentrated here; and very little business can be done at any of those places.

The Flagstaff of the Fort, by good observations, I made in lat; 5° 24½′,* lon. 100° 21½′ E., by mean of lunar observations, and 2° 1½′ E. from the South end of Junkseylon by chronometers.

The harbour, is nearly 2 miles in breadth from the Fort Point to the main, with soundings of 12 to 14 fathoms in the middle, 6 and 7 fathoms near the Malay shore, and 9 or 10 fathoms near the Fort Point, which is pretty steep to. The best birth to moor in a large ship, is about ¼ mile to the southward of the point in 9 or 10 fathoms, and closer to the town in small vessels; as the tides are more regular here, than abreast of the point, where ships are liable to take turns in their cables, in tending.

Tides.

It is high water on the shore about 2 hours, on full and change of the moon, but the flood runs to the southward until near 3 hours in the middle of the harbour; the velocity of the tides, is from 2 to 3 knots during the springs, and the perpendicular rise, from 7 to 9 feet.

Directions l'er sailing into the harbour.

TO SAIL into the HARBOUR, all ships that come from the northward, approach it by the North, or Great Channel; and this channel, is preferable at all times for large ships, because the South Channel is dangerous to proceed through, without a pilot; or unless the navigator is acquainted with it, and his vessel not large.

If bound in with a westerly wind, steer for the North end of Prince of Wales' Island, which is high, bold, and safe to approach; if the wind is at N. E. or Northward, borrow toward the Ladda Islands and Peers, and after rounding them at 2 or 3 leagues distance, steer between S. E. by E. and E. S. E. for the BOONTING ISLANDS. These are of moderate height, four in number, with an islet between them; and they extend along the Queda shore nearly North and South, about 4 or 5 leagues to the northward of the North end of Prince of Wales' Island. Pulo Boonting, the northernmost and largest, lies opposite to the High Land or Peak of Queda, the second is called Sesson, the third Pangel, the southernmost Bidan, which is in lat. 5° 45′ N., and to the E. S. E. of it, is the River Marboo, having a bank of shoal water stretching from it close to Bidan: the deepest water inside of this island is 4 and 5 fathoms, 6 and 7 fathoms inside of the others; excepting Pulo Boonting, which has only 2 or 2½ fathoms inside of it, being nearest to the shore. These islands may be approached to 14 or 15 fathoms in the night, or to any distance thought proper in

* Captain P. Heywood made it in lat. 5° 25′ N. lon. 100° 21′ E. by mean of lunar observations, and 19° 59′ E. from Madras Flagstaff, by mean of chronometers in four different voyages.

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the day, there being no danger but what is visible. Having passed them, the course is about S. S. E., to keep mid-way betwixt the North part of Prince of Wales' Island and the main, for an extensive flat Bank or Bar, stretches from side to side, on which the deepest water is about mid-channel, or rather nearest to the Malay shore. The least water on this bank, is 4 fathoms at low water spring tides, very even soundings; yet, it is unpleasant passing over it in a large ship at low water, if drawing upward of 20 feet, particularly with much swell, but this seldom happens.

The N. E. point of the island, is about 4 miles to the N. West of the Fort Point, having at a small distance outside of it, the rocky islet Pulo Teecoos, with some rocks around; when abreast of this islet, the water deepens gradually toward the harbour. The bay formed betwixt the Fort Point and the N. E. Point, is occupied by a shoal mud flat, steep from 5 to 4, then 3 and 2 fathoms.

Steering toward the entrance of the harbour in day-light, Pulo Bidan, kept about N. by W. is a good mark: during the night, there is no danger running in, if the weather be clear, and the land distinctly seen; for in such case, even with a contrary wind, persons a little acquainted may work into the harbour without fear, as far as Pulo Teecoos, or even a little farther.

When passing over the fiat bank, between the North part of the island and the main, the soundings are not a sufficient guide, the depths being nearly equal from side to side, until either shore is approached within 1½ mile; therefore, in the night, attend particularly to the appearance of the land, to enable you to keep in the proper track. The shore of the main, being low, and covered with trees, will not be so conspicuous as the high land of the island; consequently, the latter will generally appear nearest, when you are in mid-channel between them.

When Pulo Teecoos is approached, the water will gradually deepen, as you are then over the shoalest part of the bank, and ought to make short tacks in working up to the harbour; for here, the channel becomes more contracted than farther out. The rocks that project a little way from Pulo Teecoos, are steep to, and may be approached to 5 or 5½ fathoms, at low water; and in 5½ to 6 fathoms, will be proper depths to tack from the edge of the mud bank that lines the shore of the island, from thence nearly to the Fort Point. In standing toward the main, tack when the depths decrease a little under those found in mid-channel; abreast of the fort, and 2 or 3 miles to the northward of it, about 7 fathoms is a good depth to tack in, from the Queda shore.

In the night, do not run amongst the shipping; unless well acquainted, anchor a breast of Pulo Teecoos, or betwixt it and the Fort Point, until day-light.

DEPARTING from the HARBOUR, large ships generally go out by the North Channel, even when bound to the southward, although this occasions a loss sometimes of one or two days, when Northwesters prevail in the S.W. monsoon. The directions given above, will answer either for sailing out, or in, by this channel.

South Channel and coutoguous banks.

A large ship ought not to adopt the South Channel, unless a good pilot be procured, for several ships have grounded on the sands which bound it, and were in danger;* navigators in charge of large ships, deeply laden, are therefore, in general, averse to go out by the South Channel.

On the West side, the South Channel is bounded by the Long Sand, which begins about ¾ of a mile to the southward of the Fort Point, and stretches nearly to the North point of Pulo Jerajah, having a small channel of 3, 4, and 5 fathoms water betwixt it and the western shore.

* The Lowajee, from Bombay, bound to China, going out by the South Channel, with a pilot on board, and drawing 21 feet water, got upon the Praya Sand nearly at high tide; here, she lay 12 hours, and strained considerably, by heeling off the bank, and the danger would have been great, had she not fortunately floated on the following tide.

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Pulo Jerajah, to the southward of the Long Sand, and adjoining to Prince of Wales' Island, extends about 2 miles to the southward, and is a high bold island, rising in a pyramidal form, betwixt which and the western shore, there are 5 and 6 fathoms water in the small channel continued from the inside of the Long Sand.

The East side of Pub Jerajah is bold, steep to approach, and forms the West side of the proper channel to the South of the Long Sand; farther southward, the S. E. end of Prince of Wales' Island, and Pub Ramio off it, bound the West side of the channel at its southern entrance, which are both safe to approach.

The South Channel is bounded on the East side by Praya Sand, the Middle Ground or Spit, and Kio Flat: Praya Sand extends about 2½ miles North and South, parallel to the Long Sand about ¾ of a mile distant; and the North end of it bears S. 15° E. from the Fort Flagstaff, distant about 2 miles, and is very steep to, having 9 and 10 fathoms at the distance of a cable's length: it should not be approached nearer than this distance, being the most dangerous part of the channel. Prays River extends a considerable way inland, with 2½ and 3 fathoms water at the entrance, which is about a mile N. Eastward of the North end of Praya Sand. The Middle Ground or Spit, is a narrow ridge of sand, stretching about N. N.W. within ½ of a mile of the East side of the Long Sand; the narrow space between them is called the Bar, having 3¼ and 3½ fathoms on it at low water, and the least water on the Middle Ground at low water spring tides, is 17 feet. The South ends of the Middle Ground, and Praya Sand, join; and both terminate in the northern extremity of Kio Flat, a very extensive mud bank, which bounds the East side of the channel front thence to seaward, and is named from Pub Kio, situated near the Malay shore. This fiat is a soft mud bank, stretching from the coast nearly to the S. E. end of Prince of Wales' Island, having from 2½, to 3 and 4 fathoms irregular soundings on its edge, where it bounds the East side of the channel.

Buoys, were first placed on the eastern edge of the Long Sand, on each end of the Prays Sand, and on the North point of the spit, to point out the bar and channel: these having been destroyed or taken away by the Malays, were afterward replaced by beacons, which are also sometimes wanting.

Remarks for proceeding by it to seaward.

SHIPS BOUND OUT, by the South Channel, generally weigh about ½ flood, and steer S. by E. and South, to enter the channel between the Long Sand and Praya Sand; when the bar is approached, it will be proper to keep near the eastern edge of the Long Sand, and the depth in crossing it is ¼ less 5, or nearly 5 fathoms at high water spring tides. When over the bar, a South course should be steered, the water will deepen instantly to 7 fathoms, and afterward shoal to 5½ fathoms betwixt the North end of Palo Jerajah and Kio Flat. When the North point of Pulo Jerajah bears to the northward, the depth will decrease to 6 and 7 fathoms, it will then be proper to haul near that island, and these depths will continue through the channel, in steering past the S. E. end of Prince of Wales' Island and Palo Ramio, to seaward. The greatest depths, are near the East sides of the islands, which are steep to; but on the East side of the channel, the water shoals suddenly upon the edge of Kio Flat. After passing Palo Ramio close on the East side, the course is about S. S.W. or S. by W., according to the set of the tide, to proceed through the fair channel, betwixt Kio Flat and the mud bank on the West side of the entrance.

The leading mark is, to keep the body of Palo Jerajah on with the East end of Palo Ramio, which will carry a ship fairly out: if Pub Jerajah is shutting in with Pulo Ramio, she will be in the West side; and if entirely open with it, she will be in the East side of the channel.

Information has been received from Prince of Wales' Island, stating, that the South Channel may be entered by ships drawing under 18 feet water, pilots having been lately stationed at Pub Jerajah, who will come out on the proper signal being made, and carry such ships into the harbour.

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5th. DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING FROM PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND TO THE ARROAS, AND FROM THENCE TO PARCELAR HILL.

Sailing directions from Prince of Wale's Island, to the southward.

FROM the S.W. end of Prince of Wales' Island, Pulo Dinding bears nearly S. S. E.; distant about 60 miles, and the coast between them, which is mostly low and woody near the sea, forms a bight; but high mountains appear inland, in the kingdom of Perah. There are also some hills near the sea, to the northward of Pulo Dinding, which greatly resemble it in coming from that direction, and have therefore, been called False Dinding.

The whole of the coast of Perah is lined by a shoal mud bank, extending out from 2 to 3½ leagues; the depth decreases suddenly on the edge of it, when under 15 fathoms, but you may occasionally stand into 9 or 10 fathoms in working, with the lead kept briskly going; it would be imprudent to borrow under these depths, particularly in the night.*

If abreast of the N.W. end of Prince of Wales' Island with a fair wind, steer along the coast at a moderate distance, in soundings from 16 to 25 or 30 fathoms; in working, you may approach the island to 10 or 12 fathoms, and the edge of the mud bank that fronts the coast between it and Pulo Dinding, may be approached to the same depths, in the day time. By keeping in with the coast, the westerly current usually prevailing in the offing, will be partly avoided; the winds may be also expected more favorable, and if necessary to anchor occasionally, this can be done with more convenience, than in deeper water.

Pulo Dinding;

PULO DINDING, in lat. 4° 16′ N., is high and woody, situated near the main, and appears with a hill at each end, when first seen; close to it on the S.W. side, lies Little Pulo Dinding, with two islets at its western part near the South point, to the W. S. Westward of which, at 4 or 5 miles distance, there is a spit or bank of mud, probably not dangerous. We shoaled suddenly from 14 to 6½ fathoms on its edge, and although probably about 6 fathoms may be the least water on it, a proper birth ought to be given in passing. There is a shoal to the northward of Great Dinding, which is avoided by keeping out in 9 or 10 fathoms.

to sail to the anchorage.

At the East end of Great Dinding, there is fresh water near the ruins of a fort, where formerly the Dutch had a settlement. If you wish to procure water at this place, pass be twixt the northernmost Sambilangs and Little Dinding, where the depths are mostly from 20 to 26 fathoms. There is a rock above water, nearly mid-way betwixt Great Dinding and the Sambilangs, having a safe channel on either side, which is best avoided by attending to the tide, and steering close along the bold South shore of Dinding to the East point, where you may anchor in 8 or 10 fathoms close to the East of the point, or to the southward of it, as seems most convenient.

Sambilangs

Geo. Site of the southernmost

SAMBILANGS (NINE ISLANDS), situated to the southward of Dinding, extend 7 or 8 miles nearly N. E. and S.W.; they are mostly small, high bluff islands, covered with trees, and may be seen about 7 leagues. The South Sambilang, or outermost of these islands, is in lat. 4° 3′ N., lon. 100° 35′ E. bearing E. 5° N. from Pulo Jarra distant about 7 leagues. To the N. Westward of it about 1 or 1½ mile, there is a rock speckled black and white, which appears all white when the sun shines on it; and about 2 miles to the N. N.W. of the same island, and 1 mile from the former rock, there is a black rock, not much elevated above wa-

* The Alfred and True Briton, at 8 P.M. September 29th, 1799, grounded on the edge of the bank, not far to the southward of Prince of Wales' Island, the South point of it bearing N. N.W., Saddle Island N. N.W. ½ W., off the low land on the Malay shore about 7 miles. From that time, they were employed carrying out their stream and kedge anchors, and heaving the ships up to them each tide at high water, through the soft mild, until the 4th of October, when both ships got fairly afloat. This case, evinces the propriety of not making too free with the edge of the bank in the night. See the directions in Section I. for sailing into the strait.

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ter. These rocks should not be approached close in the night, being steep to, for the soundings near them, and 1 or 2 miles outside, are generally from 23 to 26 fathoms, and the same depths are found very near and amongst the Sambilangs. There is a safe channel inside of these islands, with soundings of 15 to 23 fathoms, and the channels betwixt some of them, are also safe, but rather narrow.

l'erahRiver.

PERAH RIVER, extends a considerable way into the country, having a wide entrance directly East from the Sambilangs, but the middle and South side of the entrance is very shoal, dry in many pieces at low water; the shoal flat, continues to stretch along the coast about Tanjong Ooloor (the point of land abreast of the Sambilangs), and from thence South, toward Salangore. The proper channel into Perah River, is to the S. Eastward of Pulo Dinding, by borrowing near the North point of the entrance, and keeping along the low bank on that side of the river, where the depths are irregular from 3 to 7 fathoms. The tides inside, have a velocity about 4 or 5 miles per hour during the springs.

Geo. Site of Pulo Jarra.

PULO JARRA, in lat. 4° 0′ N., lon. 100° 12′ E., bearing from the centre of Prince of Wales' Island S. 2° W., distant 27 leagues, is small, covered with trees, and may be discerned about 7 leagues. It is steep to, having from 33 to 36 fathoms very near it in every direction, and the same depths between it and Pulo Varela: mid-channel betwixt it and the Sambilangs, there are generally from 30 to 32 fathoms, decreasing to 25 or 26 fathoms near the latter islands.

Although a ship, may, at discretion, pass on either side of Pulo Jarra, the channel betwixt it and the Sambilangs is always prefered when circumstances admit, for the current often sets strong to the N. Westward in the middle of the strait, and calms are more prevalent there, than near the coast.

Geo. Site of Round Arroa.

ROUND ARROA, in lat. 2° 49′ N., lon. 100° 40′ E.,* bearing from the South Sambilang S. 4° E., distant about 24 leagues, is a high round rock, with some trees on it, and may be discerned about 6 leagues; having also several rocky islets near to it, two of which are visible 4 leagues, one of these being situated to the northward; the other to the southward, with straggling rocks around; and about 1½ mile S. S. W. from the Arroa, there is a rock above water, called the South Rock. The Round Arroa, is the principal mark for the West part of the East and West channel, betwixt the sands.

Long Arroa,

LONG, or GREAT ARROA, in lat. 2° 52½ N., bearing nearly N. W. ¼ W. from the Round Arroa, distant 6 miles, consists of two contiguous isles, is nearly 1 mile in length, covered with trees, of a flat appearance, and not so high as the Round Arroa. The Malay fishermen sometimes frequent these isles to fish, and procure turtle; boats landing here, ought therefore, to be on their guard. Water can be got in a cove with a fine sandy beach, on the East side of the southernmost of the two isles. The Locko, in 1787, sent her long boat to procure water, but the Malays, then residing here, would not allow the boat to have any, without payment.

Capt. Ross, the Company's Marine Surveyor, who surveyed these isles in 1819, says, a ship may anchor near enough to command the watering places with her guns.

April 30th, 1811, the William Pitt's boat landed here, and saw a small hut, which appeared to have been inhabited a short time before. Several springs of good water, descended in the deep valleys, which were lined on each side with cabbage trees; and the face of the island was covered with strong high-grass. They had 10 fathoms water almost close to the sandy beach, but the small islets which front the Arroa, are mostly united by reefs of sharp

* Capt. Ross made it in lat. 2° 48′ 15″ N., lon. 100° 38′ 15″ E.

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pointed rocks, few of which are visible at high water, or at the distance ships pass. The tide appeared to rise on the rocks, about 10 feet perpendicular.

and adjacent rocks.

The Arroas ought not to be approached in the night, on account of the rocks adjacent, one of which, called the East Rock, is a flat black rock, very little elevated above the surface at high water, and lies about 4½ miles N. E. by N. from the Round Arroa, and nearly East from the Long Arroa 6½ miles. West from the East Rock 1 ½mile, there is a sunken rock, covered at half flood, on which the sea sometimes breaks; the ship Seton, of Bombay, passed between this sunken rock and the East Rock, in 1796, and carried soundings from 17 to 11 fathoms. Nearly 2 miles West from this sunken rock, and 3¼ miles to the Eastward of the Long Arroa, there is another rock above water, called High Rock, fronted by other rocks to the N. Westward and S.W.; hut there are 9 fathoms regular soundings between this rock and the sunken rock east from it; and between it and the Long Arroa, the depths are from 7 or 8 to 10 fathoms, in a channel 2¾ miles wide. About 21 miles N. Eastward from the Long Arroa, there is a rock of considerable height above water, called the North Rock, with regular soundings very near the rocks that front it, 8 and 9 fathoms mud; and within a mile of the N.W. and North sides of the Long Arroa, the depths are regular from 9 to 11 or 12 fathoms. About a mile to the West and S.W. of the Long Arroa, there are several rocky islets, chained together by rocks, and called the Western Arroas, by Capt. Ross.

Channel to the southward of them.

Several ships have been set to the westward of the Arroas by currents, and lost much time, working with northerly winds round the long one, and the black rock off it, in mostly regular soundings, over a soft bottom. The Lowajee, and other ships, which fell to the westward of the Arroas, during northerly winds, went to the southward of them, and after passing the Round Arroa, hauled to the N. Eastward into the proper channel, having experienced various soundings from 7 to 11 fathoms to the southward of these islands.

Capt. Ross, observes, that if a ship happen to be working near the Arroas against a heavy N.W. swell, she will find shelter from N.W. or West winds, by anchoring under the Long or Great Arroa, observing, that a reef projects about ½ a mile from its north end to the N. N. E.

To sail from the Sambilange to the weshern edge of the North Sancks.

BEING about MID-CHAIVNEL, between Pulo Jana and the South Sambilang, or rather nearest the latter, to guard against westerly currents, steer about S. S. E., or S. 20° E., if you pass near the Sambilang, which will carry you well to the N. E. of the Arroas, but not too far on the North sands. Excepting a shingly spot in lat. 3° 20′ N., bearing South from the Sambilangs, with 13 fathoms on it, the soundings in this track are pretty regular, generally between 34 and 40 fathoms in a direct line from Pulo Jaffa nearly to the Arroas; and 24 to 30 fathoms in a direct line between the South Sambilang and western extremity of the North sands.

When the winds incline at East or E. S. Eastward, keep near the Malay coast, in soundings from 20 to 30 fathoms, until 8 or 10 leagues past the Sambilangs, then steer more southerly to get soundings of 16 or 18 fathoms on the N. Western verge of the North sands; and as there is no danger on the N.W. and Western edges of these sands, they may be rounded close, by borrowing occasionally to 14 or 16 fathoms, and edging out to 20 or 24 fathoms as circumstances require, until the Arroas or Parcelar Hill are seen.

North Sands

Qeo. Site.

NORTH SANDS (or NORTH BANK), are very extensive, consisting of various small patches or spits of sand, separated by considerable spaces of regular soundings from 8 to 12, 14, and 16 fathoms. There are many dangers on the eastern part of the North sands, adjacent to the coast; the middle and southern parts are also dangerous, but the N.W. and western edges may be approached with safety, if the lead is kept briskly going, The N.W. extremity of the sands are in lat. 3° 16′ N., lon. 100° 50′ E., and from hence most of the

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spits stretch S. S. E. ¾ E., and S. E. by S., the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, being the Southernmost danger of the North sands.

The depths decrease quickly in approaching the N. Western extremity of the North sands, from 28 or 26, to 10, 9, or 8 fathoms, on the spits that form this part, which bear N. N. Eastward from the Arroas, 8 or 9 leagues distant. On the spits which form the N. W. and Western boundary of the sands, there appear to be no danger; I have generally found the depths on the outer spits to be 9 and 10 fathoms, when standing upon them with a working wind; 7½ or 8 fathoms on the spits a little farther on the bank to the eastward; and from 11 to 14 fathoms in the channels between them. When the Round Arroa is seen from the mast-head bearing from S. S.W. to S. S.W. ½ W., you are on the N.W. edge of the North sands, and will pass over spits of 8 and 10 fathoms. Round Arroa S. S.W. ¼ W., seen from the fore-yard, we had 7¼ fathoms. Round Arroa from the fore-yard S.W.½ S., and Parcelar Hill E. by S. ¼ S., just visible from the poop, had 7 fathoms hard sand.

Directions.

As the spits which form the exterior boundary of the North Sands to the N. Westward, have 9 or 10 fathoms on their edges, it is advisable, when bound to, the southward with a contrary wind, to keep near the western edges of the sands in working, making short tacks to the westward, and standing on their verges occasionally to 10 or 11 fathoms in a large ship, or to 8 or 9 fathoms, in a small one. By this means, moderate depths will be found for anchoring during the ebb, with tides more regular, and more favorable, than farther out in deep water toward the Arroas; for here, during S. E. winds, a current is often experienced to set N.W. and westward, when tides are prevailing along the edge of the sands. It is high water about the Arroas, and near the western edge of the North sands, at 6 hours on full and change of the moon; the strength of the ebb tide sets generally between N.W. and N.W. by N., 2½ miles per hour, and it falls about 10 or 14 feet perpendicular; the flood sets in the opposite direction, about S. E. ½ S., slanting a little on the western edges of the North sands, or running nearly parallel to them, but it is not so strong as the ebb.

Although the northwest and western edges of the North, sands are not dangerous, it would be very imprudent to stand over toward the middle of them, on account of the Blenheim's Shoal, and other dangers lately explored by Capt. Ross; nor ought the southern extremity of the sands, usually called the North Sand Head, to be approached but with great caution, it being terminated by the Two and Half Fathoms Bank.

Shoal Banks and dangers on the North Sands.

Exclusive of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, and Blenheim's Shoal, Capt. Ross, discovered several other dangers, and shoal patches, during his examination of these Sands, in 1819, of which, the following, seem to be nearest to the N.W. and Western parts, and consequently most in the way of ships which may happen to borrow too far in upon the sands.

Small Bank, with 4¾ fathoms, in lat. 3° 13½′ N., lon. 100° 52′ E. or 14 miles East from the meridian of the Round Arroa, and 4 miles to the S. E. of the N. Westernmost extremity of the sands.

Sandy Ridge, with 2 to 4 fathoms, extending 3 miles S. E. and N.W., or from lat. 3° 10′ N. to 3° 12′ N., its N.W. end being about 3 miles E. S. E. from the above Small Bank, and its S. E. end bearing North a little westerly about 6 or 7 miles from the Blenheim's Shoal.

Spit of Rocks and Sand, with only a few feet water, its N.W. end being in lat. 3° 9′ N., and about 2 miles S. E. from the Sandy Ridge, and it extends 3 miles S. Easterly, this end of it being about 4 miles N. E. from the Blenheim's Shoal.

Round Small Bank, of 2½ fathoms, in lat. 3° 4½′ N., mid-way, and in a direct line between the south end of the above Spit of Rocks and Sand, and the Blenheim's Shoal, being distant from each about 2 miles.

Patch of 4¾ fathoms, in lat. 3° 4′ N., about 3 miles W. by N. from the Blenheim's Shoals and near the western part of the sands.

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Bank of 4¼ fathoms, about 1½ mile in extent, in lat. 2° 59′ N., bearing South a little easterly from the Blenheim's Shoal about 4 miles, and from the Two and Half Fathoms Bank N. by W. ¼ W. distant 6 miles.

Blenheim's Shoal, and southern part of the North Sands.

BLENHEIM'S SHOAL, in lat. 3° 3¼′ N., bearing about N. by W., 3 leagues from the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, and considerably to the eastward of the edge of the North sands, was not known until H M. S. Blenheim, of 74 guns, Admiral Troubridge, by standing far over on the sands, grounded, and was nearly lost; although this happened during neap tides, they were obliged to lighten her, by cutting away the masts, and taking out the guns, &c. before she could be hove off the shoal. Captain Bissell, of that ship, gave the following account of the shoal, dated H. M. S. Blenheim aground, April 6th, 1806: "Peak of Salangore Hills N. 56° E., another hill (probably False Parcelar) N. 66° E., Parcelar Hill E. 23° S., distant 8½ or 9 leagues, observed lat. 3° 3′ N. It extends E.N. E. and W. S.W. about 1¾ mile, having only 6 and 7 feet in many places at low water neap tides, consequently less on the springs."

Geo. Site of Two and Half Fathoms Bank.

TWO AND HALF FATHOMS BANK, in lat. 2° 53′ N., lon. 101° 0′ E., distant 5 leagues West from the entrance of the Strait of Callam, may be considered the most dangerous part of the North sands, because it fronts the North side of the channel between, the Arroas and Parcelar Hill. His Majesty's sloop, Victor, examined it with her boats in January, 1805, and found it to extend from N. N. W. to S. S. E. about 1½ mile, and about 1 mile from E. N. E. to W. S. W. When on it, Parcelar Hill bore E. 4½ S., a hill called False Parcelar N. 45° E., and the low land was just visible with the eye elevated 16 feet above the sea. From 2½ to 3 fathoms, were the depths found on it at low water, and it appeared very hard, the lead frequently slipping into holes, as from a rock, but brought up only fine sand; around the bank, the depths increase from 4 and 5, to 10 and 11 fathoms, mostly hard bottom; and eddies may be seen if the tide is strong, when crossing the spit that projects from its southern extremity into the channel. If a ship in borrowing toward the bank with a northerly wind, get soundings on this spit or tail of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, she ought not to go under 10 or 11 fathoms, but must edge out to the southward. Several ships have grounded upon this bank at different times, by running in the night, or by borrowing too close in the day, and were in great danger of being wrecked.

There is a safe passage between the Two and Half Fathoms Bank and Blenheim's Shoal, for H. M. sloop Victor, had from 7 to 12 and 14 fathoms, mostly hard sand, steering from the former N. W. and Northward, and she passed close on the S.W. side of the Blenheim's Shoal without discerning it, although she shoaled there to 5½ and 5 fathoms. From thence, she steered N.W. by N. and N. N. W. over the western part of the North sands, in regular soundings from 8½ to 12 fathoms sandy bottom, the least water being 8½ fathoms; and the depth increased to 16 and 18 fathoms, when she got upon the northern extremity of the sands. The Mornington passed to the northward of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, then betwixt it and the Blenheim's Shoal, December 12th, 1803, and carried soundings from 6 to 8 and 10 fathoms, with Parcelar Hill bearing about E. by S. ½ S.

The Albion, in September, 1800, with Parcelar Hill E. S. E., stood on the sands, steered eastward, and had no less than 7½ fathoms crossing over to the low land off Callam, where she tacked in 5½ fathoms.

With Parcelar Hill kept E. by S., seems to be the best bearing, according to the survey of the North sands, by Capt. Ross, for any ship intending to pass to the northward of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, to avoid the bank of 4¼ fathoms (described above), between it and the Blenheim's Shoal. In working through this passage, with a contrary wind, Parcelar Hill should be kept between E. ¾ S. and E. by S. ¾ S., to avoid the Two and Half Fathoms Bank on one side, and the Blenheim's Shoal on the other.

VOL. II. B B

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Although with Parcelar Hill bearing between E. by S. and E. by S. ½ S. there is a safe passage over the North sands, betwixt the Two and Half Fathoms Bank and the Blenheim's Shoal, yet it ought not to be adopted in a large ship. There is a channel over the eastern part of the North Sands near the land, bounded on each side by dry sands or breakers, which was formerly frequented, but it seems intricate even for small vessels. A brig proceeded through it, not along ago, on her passage from Prince of Wales' Island to Malacca, and worked through between the breakers, in soundings mostly 5 and 6 fathoms, where the channel appeared to be from ½ to 1 mile broad.

Soundings in the channel betwixt the North Sands and Arroas,

THE SOUNDINGS between the western part of the North sands and the Long Arroa, are irregular from 55 to 46 fathoms about mid-channel, decreasing fast near the edge of the sands to 20 or 18 fathoms; the deep water extends within 4 or 5 miles of the North Rock situated to the northward of the Long Arroa, then shoals suddenly to 20 and 18 fathoms, about 2 miles to the N. Eastward of that rock; but in some places, the soundings are very irregular, particularly to N. E. and Northward of the rocks which lie near the Round Arroa.

answer as a guide in the night.

Working between the Long Arroa and the North sands in the night, 16 or 18 fathoms are good depths to tack in, from the edge of the sands; mid-channel track, and your proximity to the rocks off the Arroas, will be known by deep soundings of 35 to 46 fathoms; but farther eastward, betwixt the Round Arroa and the S. W. part of the North sands, the depths decrease, and are here, generally irregular, 14 to 25 fathoms from side to side, except upon the bank adjacent to the Arroa. The soundings are more regular contiguous to the edge of the North sands, than in the South side of the channel.

And the Round Arroa is a good mark in the day.

If in rounding the edge of the North sands, the Round Arroa be never entirely sunk from the quarter deck of a large ship, or with the eye elevated above the sea 16 or 17 feet, she will not be too close to the sands; but when the Arroa is sunk from the poop, she will get upon some of the outer spits, into 7 or 8 fathoms hard sand.

Situations of small banks in south side of the channel.

THE BANKS in, and contiguous to the South side of the East and West channel, be tween the Arroas and Parcelar Hill, are the following. A small bank about 7 miles N. E. from the Round Arroa, and 3 or 4 miles distant from the East Rock, or flat black rock; the least water found on it, has been 5½, 6, 7, and 8 fathoms. To the N. W., about 3 miles from this bank, there is deep water of 40 and 42 fathoms; and the soundings between it and the edge of the North sands, are mostly regular from 15 to 20 fathoms.

There is a small bank bearing from the Round Arroa East southerly, distant about 4½ leagues, on which, the least water we found, in the Gunjavar, was 4½ fathoms hard sand.

Another small round bank, lies 16 or 17 miles East from the Round Arroa, and about W. ½ S. from Parcelar Hill, which is alarming to strangers, who suddenly get upon it, although not dangerous. Sounding all over it, we had not less than 5 and 5½ fathoms hard sand, at low water spring tides; and from the ship at anchor, on the middle of it, the boats deepened fast in every direction, about the distance of a cable's length, to 12 and 14 fathoms.

From this small bank, about 3 or 4 miles E. by S. to E. S. E:, there are other shoal patches of hard sand, with soundings of 6, 7, and 8 fathoms on them. From these shoal patches on the South side of the channel, between the Arroas and the land of Parcelar, the Round Arroa bears from West southerly to W. 3° N., and Parcelar Hill E. 5° N. to E. 7° N.; and the westernmost of them, more particularly, are much nearer to the Arroa than to the low land of Parcelar. The least water on any of them, is probably 4½ or 5 fathoms, but they are alarming to strangers, and will be avoided, by not bringing the Round Arroa to the westward of W. ½ S., or West a large ¾ S., whilst it can be discerned from the poop of a lofty ship; or by keeping Parcelar Hill to the eastward of E. 5° N,, in passing them.

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South Sands.

SOUTH SANDS, are formed of small banks, similar to those ref the North sands, and some of the patches last mentioned, are probably the prominent patches of the N. W. end of the sands, generally called the South Sand Head: the breadth of the channel between it and the North Sand Head is nearly 7 miles. In Jude, 1795, Captain Mackintosh, in the Sarah, got upon this extremity of the South sands; they saw the Round Arroa from the mizen shrouds before dark, bearing S. by W. ¼ W., and steered between S. E. by S. and E. by S., in soundings from 25 to 16 fathoms until 10 P. M., when they shoaled quick to 8½ fathoms, and anchored. At day-light, found they were far to the southward, Parcelar Hill bearing E. 15° N.; weighed with the wind at S. S. E., steered N. W. and N. W. by W. in regular soundings, decreasing gradually from 9½ to 6¾ fathoms when the hill bore E. 11½° N.; deepened afterward to 14 fathoms, steered N. N. E. and N. E. by N., in.8½ to 20 fathoms, the hill E. 9° N.; then steered toward the hill bearing E. 7° N., and had no less than 20 fathoms. When this ship shoaled to 8½ fathoms, with Parcelar Hill bearing E. 15° N., she was probably not far from danger on the South sands, as will appear by the following extract from the journal of the Henry Addington.

August 31st, 1811, at noon, saw breakers on the South sands, bearing from South to S. by E., distant about 6 miles, Parcelar Hill bearing E. 16° N.: East point of Pulo Loomaut N. 56° E., Body of Pulo Callam N. 40° E., in 26 fathoms. The Essex, in company, had Parcelar Hill bearing E. by N. ½ N., distant 12 or 14 miles, the trees under the South end of the hill just visible, but none of the low land to the southward, when the breakers bore S. ½ E. 5 or 6 miles, and Long Rollers about the North point of the South sands S.W., then in 25 fathoms. The Cumberland, also in company, had Parcelar Hill bearing E. 15° N., distant about 12 or 14 miles, when the body of the breakers bore S. 9° E., about 4 miles, which appeared to extend about of a mile in a N. W. and S. E. direction, and are probably not visible except when the tide is low, or with a considerable swell.

The most dangerous part of the South sands, is at the eastern side, nearly opposite to Parcelar Point, which will be mentioned in describing the channel from Parcelar Hill to Cape Rachado.

Direction for the channel betwixt the sands.

TO SAIL through the EAST and WEST CHANNEL, between the sands; with a strong and steady S. W. wind, give the western edge of the North sands a birth, by keeping about mid-channel betwixt it and the Arroas, until the Round Arroa brought to bear aboutb W. S.W., then steer more easterly, sinking it from the deck when it bears about W.¾:S., or W. ½ S.

With the wind light and variable, between North and S. E., steer from Pulo Jarra or the Sambilangs, for the western verge of the North sands, and keep along its edge, in 18 or 20 fathoms; borrowing to 12 or 14 fathoms occasionally, and edging off to 20, 24, or 26 fathoms, as circumstances require. When the Round Arroa is discernible bearing about S. S. W., the Long Arroa will be seen about S. W., and the former ought then to be kept in sight from the quarter deck of a large ship, or from the poop of a small one, in soundings from 16 to 20 fathoms; for there is no danger on the edge of the North sands, if the Round Arroa can be seen from the quarter deck. After the Arroa is brought to bear W. S.W., steer an easterly course, as the wind and tide require, to sink it from the deck bearing W. ¾ S., and 14 or 15 fathoms will be the least water. When the Round Arroa is no longer visible, bring Parcelar Hill to bear East, and draw it to E. 5° N. or E. 6° N., by the time the low land of Pulo Callam is appearing from the deck, being then abreast of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank. With Parcelar Hill E. 3¼° S., you will get upon this bank; the hill E. 2° S., will just clear it, and you may probably cross over the tail or spit in 7 or 8 fathoms with Parcelar Hill E. 1° S. or E. 2° S.; but the hill should not be brought to the southward of East when passing this bank, as compasses are liable to error. From the bank, a spit extends to the southward a considerable way into the channel, with a gradual increase of depth

B B 2

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upon it, proportionate to the distance from the bank; with Parcelar Hill E. 2° N., you will carry 11 or 12 fathoms in crossing the spit, and with the hill E. ½ N. you will pass clear to the southward of it, in 17 or 20 fathoms.

This spit is sometimes called the Eastern Bank, it being nearer the low land of Parcelar than any other bank in the East and West channel; for there are several spots of 10, 11, or 12 fathoms, farther to the westward, exclusive of the shoal patches already mentioned, situated on the South side of the channel betwixt the Round Arroa and South Sand Head. The depths in the fair track, are mostly from 15 to 20 fathoms, and in the western part of the channel, they are subject to least irregularity, in the vicinity of the North Sands; but in the eastern part of it, opposito to the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, they are liable to least irregularity, well to the southward, in the neighbourhood of the South sands, and generally here, the depths are from 20 to 23 fathoms.

When the tides run strong in the springs, eddies are perceived upon the spit that projects from the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, indicating its proximity. Between the Sand Heads, the strength of the ebb sets nearly N.W., but the first and latter parts of it, run very irregular. The flood is more regular in its direction, and runs with less velocity, although sometimes, liable to vary: this renders passing the Two and Half Fathoms Bank dangerous in the night, unless near it before dark, and the situation well determined; or unless the night is so clear, that Parcelar Hill can be seen, and its bearing taken, which sometimes happens.

Parcelar Hill is obscured at times during the day by clouds, when the low land of Pulo Callam, or that to the westward of the strait, may be visible from the Two and Half Fathoms Bank; if so, the body of this piece of low land kept E. N. E. ½ N., or the East end of the same E. N. E., are good bearings to pass clear of the bank; and in coming from the eastward, if it is sunk from the quarter deck of a large ship with these bearings, she will be clear to the westward of that danger.

In proceeding through the channel, when the Round Arroa is sunk from the deck, and Parcelar Hill bearing E. 8° N., a ship will be near shoal water on the extremity of the South sands; with the hill E. 7° N., she will pass over some of the small patches of 5 or 6 fathoms sand, having 16 or 17 fathoms around them. And when the Round Arroa is just disappearing with Parcelar Hill bearing E. ¼ S., she will be near the edge of the North sands. The hill bearing East when in the West part of the channel, to E. 6° N. when the low land is seen from the deck, are safe bearings to work with, throughout the middle and eastern parts of the channel, if the compass be true. And 13 fathoms is a good depth to tack in, from either side, when passing between the Sand Heads.

When abreast of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, or in crossing the spit that projects from it, the low land of Callam is plainly seen from the quarter deck of a large ship; and from the poop, the tops of the trees may be discerned, stretching from Pulo Callam almost to Parcelar Hill. When the low land to the southward of the hill begins to appear, the channel becomes wide, as you are past the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, and South Sand Head; the hill may then be brought from East to E. by N. ½ N., in working toward the land of Parcelar and if Pulo Callam is kept plainly in sight from the deck, you will not be too close to the South sands.

Geo. Site of Parcelar Hill.

PARCELAR HILL, in lat. 2° 51′ N., lon. 101° 25½′ E.,*, bearing E. 4° N. from the Round Arroa, distant 48 miles, and 50 or 51 miles West from Malacca by chronometers, is of oblong form, sloping at each end when viewed from the westward, with the summit a little to the West of its centre; but of a regular pyramidal aspect of small elevation, when seen from the South or S. S. Eastward, if not too far distant; and its declivity is very gentle to

* Capt. Ross made it in lat. 2° 50½′ H. lon. 101° 24¾′ E.

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each extremity. It is easily distinguished, being situated much nearer the sea, and having a darker shade than the other hills, which are farther inland. From the N. Western extremity of the North Sands, its summit is just discernible from the poop or mizen shrouds of a large ship, bearing E. by S. ½ S. or E. S. E., and the highest part is generally set, in taking the bearings of the hill, when passing through the East and West channel. Directly fronting the hill, there is the mouth of a river.

Directions.

After passing the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, and having the trees to the S. E. of Parcelar Hill visible from the deck, the water will soon deepen to 22 and 24 fathoms soft ground, in steering eastward for the hill: when the land is approached within 6 miles, it will shoal again to 18 or 19 fathoms, then steer along the coast at the same distance, in proceeding toward Cape Rachado. With a working wind, stand not off above 3½ leagues from the land about Parcelar, nor approach the South Sands, nearer than 27 fathoms, for the depths contiguous to them hereabout, are not so great as to the southward of Parcelar Point, where deep water indicates the proximity of danger on the eastern part of the sands.

6th. DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING FROM THE SAMBILANGS TO SALANGORE, AND THROUGH THE STRAIT OF CALLAM.

To sail from the Sambilangs to Salangore.

WHEN bound to SALANGORE, or to proceed through the Strait of Callam, steer to the eastward after rounding the Sambilangs, until the coast is approached, which from thence to Salangore, is low and level fronting the sea, and covered with trees. With a northerly or easterly wind, coast along in sight of the low land, keeping about 2, 3, or 4 leagues off, as circumstances require, observing not to rise the beach from the deck, nor borrow under 8 or 9 fathoms.

Coast and dangers.

TANJONG AWAT, or CAPE CARAN, called also Mud Point, about 3 leagues N. Westward of Salangore, is encompassed by a shoal bank, which ought not to be approached under 5½ or 6 fathoms. About 5 miles W. N. Westward from Tanjong Awat, and 3 or 4 miles off shore, there is a bank of sand and broken shells, of considerable extent, having only 3½ fathoms on its shoalest parts. On its edge, and between it and the shore, the depths are 5 and 6 fathoms, and as they decrease, the bottom becomes hard. After the Sambilangs disappear, Salangore Hill may be seen from the deck bearing S. E. by E. or S. E. by E. ½ E., when in 10 or 11 fathoms green ouze; a ship ought then, to keep the white sandy beach sunk from the poop, in steering along the coast to the S. Eastward, which will carry her outside of the shoal, in soundings not less than 8 or 9 fathoms. When Tanjong Awat bears nearly East, or the low land is seen beyond it, the beach may be raised with safety; but a birth of 1½ or 2 miles ought to be given this point, for until past it, the water shoals suddenly from 6 or 7 fathoms, in standing toward the shore. After passing Tanjong Awat, the lead is a sufficient guide in steering eastward for Salangore Road, as the water shoals gradually on the edge of the mud bank that lines the shore.

Geo. Site of Salangore.

SALANGORE HILL and FORT, in lat. 3° 20′ N., lon. 101° 17′ E., is on the South side the entrance of the river; and as the water is shoal to the southward, the best anchorage is abreast of the river, in any depth at discretion, from 4, to 6 or 7 fathoms, with Tanjong Awat bearing N.W., and the two Pulo Anzas S. by E. or S. by E. ½ E., about 3 leagues distant. The river is navigable at high water for vessels of considerable burthen, and there is no danger at the entrance, the bottom being soft mud. It is high water in the road about 5 hours on full and change of the moon. This place was formerly frequented, for tin and other articles of trade, which are now carried to Prince of Wales' Island, in the coasting proas. The Rajah of Salangore, has seldom been considered hostile to Europeans, but

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A caution.

vessels at anchor in the road ought to be always on their guard, and not to allow any proas to approach them during the night; for here, as well as in several other parts of Malacca Strait, piratical proas frequently lurk about in search of defenceless vessels, or to assault those who are not watchful.

Callam. Strait.

CALLAM, or COLONG STRAIT, is formed by Pulo Callam and its contiguous islands on the West side, and on the East side by the main land and Pulo Loomaut: the latter is a large island to the northward of Parcelar Hill, separated from the main by a narrow strait, called the False Strait, which has 3½ to 9 fathoms water in it. The South entrance of this strait, is the first opening to the westward of Parcelar Hill; and its northern entrance, called Callam River, or Black River, unites with Callam Strait opposite to Deep Water Point.

The North entrance of Callam Strait, bears about S. E. by S. from Salangore Road, distant 6 leagues, and Parcelar Hill bears from it about S. S. E.½ E. The two islands, called Mudancoos, or Pulo Anzas, lie upon the eastern verge of a shoal adjoining to the inner part of the North Sands, they are steep to, and, with the edge of the contiguous sand, form the West side of the channel in proceeding toward Callam Strait. Opposite to Pulo Anzas, and bearing about S. E. by S. from Salangore Road, the Bottle Islands are situated on the bank that bounds the East side of the channel, distant 3 or 4 miles from the shore. These islets or rocks, must not be approached nearer than 1½ or 2 miles, for the reef projects about a mile outside of them; and 1 mile or more S.W. ½ S. from the southernmost or outer Bottle Island, there is a Dangerous Rock, having close to it 5 fathoms water.* To give a birth to these, it is proper to steer about S. by E. for Pulo Anzas, at leaving Salangore Road with the flood tide, because it sets S. E. to S. E. by S.

From the extremity of Bottle Island's Reef, called sometimes Sail Shoal, Pulo Anzas bear W. by S. about 3 miles: the channel betwixt them is very safe, having from 5½ or 6 fathoms mud on the East side, to 9 and 10 fathoms within a mile of Pulo Anzas, and from hence to the entrance of Callam Strait, the depths are mostly from 6 to 8 fathoms in the fair channel.

Directions.

Having steered from Salangore Road, according as the tide requires, to pass nearer to Pulo Anzas than to the Bottle Islands, a course from thence about S. E. by S. will lead directly to the Strait of Callam. In working, tack in 8 fathoms toward the edge of the North Sands, when near Pulo Anzas; and approach no nearer to the Bottle Islands than 5½ or 6 fathoms, giving these a birth of 1½ or 2 miles, observing to keep in soft bottom. When a little to the southward of Pulo Anzas, the channel may be traversed occasionally to 5 fathoms on either side, regular soundings, the bottom soft mud; but in standing to the southward, do not bring Pulo Anzas to the northward of N.W., for the entrance of the strait bears S. E. from these islands, and there is a shoal in a direct line between them and the West point of the entrance: the edge of the North Sands, bounding that side of the channel, lies nearly in the same direction; by bringing Pulo Anzas nothing to the northward of N. W., leads clear of all danger on the West side of the channel.

Northward a little from the entrance of the strait, there is a shoal, which is avoided by keeping the Middle Bottle Island on with Salangore Hill, and taking care not to open the hill to the westward, which is also a mark for the fair channel. Another mark is, to keep Parcelar Hill about its own length on with the West point of the entrance; and either side may be approached in steering into it, they being both steep to, and clear of danger.

First Reach.

FIRST, or NORTH REACH, extending nearly S. by E. ½ E. about 5 miles, and 1¼

* The Calcutta brig, was lost on this rock in 1799. In a manuscript chart, presented to me by Mr. Kitson, in 1810, there is a rock laid down on which the Bornholm was lost, with Salangore Hill bearing N. 2° E., the northernmost Pulo Anza W. by N., and the southernmost Bottle Island about N. E. ½ N.: there are 7 fathoms marked betwixt this rock and the edge of the eastern bank; therefore, to avoid it, borrow toward Pulo Anzas into 8 or 9 fathoms in passing them.

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mile in breadth, is clear of danger; having 6 and 5 fathoms water very close to the shore of either side, and from 8 to 10 fathoms in mid-channel. The bluff point on the S. W. side of this reach, is called Deep Water Point, because the water deepens off it to 18, 20, and 22 fathoms; it is steep to, and should be approached within a small distance, to avoid the indraught of the river opposite.

Second Reach.

To sail through it and over the bar.

SECOND REACH, or BAR REACH, extends from Deep Water Point about S. W. Second by W., and after rounding that point, the deepest water is found toward the eastern shore: when the Second Reach is entered, an opening to seaward is perceived at the South part of it, which admits no passage, being entirely filled with sand banks, dry at low water. A little to the westward of Deep Water Point, there is a small creek; and on the eastern shore, another, called Bar Creek, bearing about South from the former. After rounding Deep it Water Point, the depths decrease fast to 6 or 7 fathoms in steering over for Bar Creek, and about ⅓ channel distant from the eastern shore, is a proper track, to prevent being horsed by bar the flood too close upon that side. If unacquainted, anchor in 6 fathoms a little short of the bar, to sound and examine it before crossing, as the sands are liable to shift; and two boats may be placed on it, to point out the best track. To the South-east of Bar Creek, there is another creek, and the bar begins at the former, stretching from thence across the strait toward the opening to sea. Between the creeks, the water is very shoal within ½ a cable's length of the eastern shore; but about ⅓ channel over from it, the deepest water is generally found on the bar, which is not more than 2¾ or 3 fathoms at low water, and 4 or 4½ fathoms at high water, spring tides.

The best mark for crossing the bar, is to keep the bluff of Deep Water Point N. E. ½ E. or N. E. ¾ E., on with the middle of a small hill having a clump of trees upon it, and is the northernmost of four small hills: when the Bar Creek is fairly open, bearing E. by S. ½ S. or E. S. E., you will be on the top of the bar, which is about a cable's length across. If at anchor to the northward of the bar, the best time to weigh is about 2½ hours flood, which will give time sufficient to kedge or warp over it before high water, should circumstances render that necessary. The flood runs through the middle of the strait until it is nearly ½ ebb on the shore, and this is generally the case in most parts of Malacca Strait.

After passing the bar, the water will deepen gradually to 5 fathoms abreast of the second creek, and the least water will be 5½ or 6 fathoms, in steering from thence about a large cable's length off the eastern shore. The western shore must be avoided until the Third Reach is entered, for it is fronted by a shoal of hard ground, stretching from the large opening to seaward, a considerable way into the strait.

There is a creek on the eastern shore, bearing about E. ½ S. from the South point of the opening to seaward, having on its South side, about a cable's length from the entrance, and nearly the same distance inland, some wells of fresh water, which can only be procured by carrying it in buckets to the boats. The Point on the North side of the entrance of this creek, is called Ann Grab Point, from a grab of that name having been wrecked on the flat that projects a little way off it; this point, ought, therefore, to have a birth of 1½ or 1 large cable's length, in passing. A Portuguese ship was lost farther to the northward; and in 1806, the ship Strathspey got aground, was attacked by the Malay Pirates, taken by them, and carried to Salangore.*

Third Reach.

THIRD, or SOUTH REACH, extends S.W. by S. and S.W., about 2 leagues or more; having entered it a little way, you may approach either side in working, to any distance Reach.

* This strait was formerly much used by ships of moderate size, but it ought not now to be recommended, for it has of late years been often infested by piratical proas, which lurk in the creeks, ready to surprise small vessels, or ships which have the misfortune to get aground. The preference ought certainly to be given to the channel between the Arroas and Parcelar Hill, for although the passage by it, nay sometimes be less speedy than that through the Strait of Callam, this is of little consequence, when compared with its greater safety.

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thought proper, for both shores are steep to: the water will deepen from 8 or 9, to 12 and 14 fathoms, as the southern entrance of the strait draws near, and shoal again gradually to 5½ or 6 fathoms; there will be no less water, if the point on the S. E. side be not borrowed upon too close, for it is fronted by a projecting flat. The best track, is to steer out in mid-channel between the points which form the entrance, or rather nearest the western shore; then S. S. W. to South, according to the tide, until the water deepen to 10 or 12 fathoms; and after edging away about S. S. E., and deepening to 15 or 16 fathoms, a S. E. course may be steered along the coast for Cape Rachado, keeping from 4 to 8 miles off the land.

To sail into Callam Strait from the southward.

TO ENTER CALLAM STRAIT, when coming from the southward, having brought Parcelar Hill to bear about East, the entrance of the False Strait will be discerned; to the N. Westward of which, about 3 miles distant, lies the mouth of Callam Strait. Caution is requisite in steering for the entrance of the strait, as the ebb tide is liable to carry you toward the sand banks which project a great way to the westward of the West point, and are nearly dry in some places at low water, 2 or 3 miles distant from that point; steer, therefore, for the point on the East side of the entrance, until near it, then keep in mid-channel, in sailing into the mouth of the strait; and the best time to enter it, is about high water. After the shoal fronting the East point is rounded, continue to keep nearer to the eastern shore than mid-channel, to prevent being horsed by the ebb into the opening to the northward, a little inside of the strait on the West side, which is barred up with sands. Having passed, and shut in this opening, the preceding directions for sailing to the southward may be attended to, in proceeding through the strait to the N. E. and Northward.

7th. INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAILING FROM PARCELAR HILL TO CAPE RACHADO, AND FROM THENCE TO MALACCA.

Channel between Parcelar Hill and Cape Rachado.

THE DANGERS contiguous to the channel betwixt Parcelar Hill and Cape Rachado, render the navigation of this part of the strait rather difficult in the night, to persons unacquainted, for the soundings being in some places irregular, are not a sufficient guide; the dangers on each side, must therefore be described, prior to giving directions for sailing through the channel.

Coast and bank fronting that bill.

From the point on the East side of the entrance of False Strait, the land takes an easterly direction to Parcelar Hill, then turns gradually round S. Easterly to Parcelar Point, which is 10 or 11 miles distant from the hill. A bight or concavity fronting Parcelar Hill, is thereby formed betwixt these points, occupied by a shoal steep bank stretching from point to point; this bank is composed of fine hard black sand like steel filings, and ought to be approached with great caution, being steep to. At a considerable distance outside of it, 17 and 18 fathoms are found in some places; and from 16 or 17 fathoms close to its outer edge, the water shoals suddenly to 3 and 2½ fathoms.

Tides

7th. INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAILING FROM PARCELAR HILL TO CAPE RACHADO, AND FROM THENCE TO MALACCA.

Channel between Parcelar Hill and Cape Rachado.

THE DANGERS contiguous to the channel betwixt Parcelar Hill and Cape Rachado, render the navigation of this part of the strait rather difficult in the night, to persons unacquainted, for the soundings being in some places irregular, are not a sufficient guide; the dangers on each side, must therefore be described, prior to giving directions for sailing through the channel.

Coast and bank fronting that bill.

From the point on the East side of the entrance of False Strait, the land takes an easterly direction to Parcelar Hill, then turns gradually round S. Easterly to Parcelar Point, which is 10 or 11 miles distant from the hill. A bight or concavity fronting Parcelar Hill, is thereby formed betwixt these points, occupied by a shoal steep bank stretching from point to point; this bank is composed of fine hard black sand like steel filings, and ought to be approached with great caution, being steep to. At a considerable distance outside of it, 17 and 18 fathoms are found in some places; and from 16 or 17 fathoms close to its outer edge, the water shoals suddenly to 3 and 2½ fathoms.

Tides

Anna, in June, 1803, standing in toward Parcelar Hill with the wind at S. E., had several casts of 17 fathoms, the large lead kept going; next cast we had.5 fathoms, and although the helm was instantly put down, the ship grounded in stays, being then high water. In the night, we had only 12 feet at low water, and 18 feet at high water; but on the following day, the tide rose to 21 feet before high water, when we hove her off the bank by the stream anchor, previously carried out with a whole cable. When aground, the centre of Parcelar Hill bore N. 31° E., northern extreme of the land N. 51° W., and Parcelar Point or the southern extreme S. 49° E., off shore about 2½ mils.*

* This part of the coast, fronting Parcelar Hill, having in the old charts, been represented convex instead of concave, toward the sea, with good soundings close to the shore, many navigators have thereby, been led into error, and got their ships aground on the Shore Bank. The Mysore grounded on it, in 1802, and was with some difficulty hove off, after throwing her lumber, some guns, &c. overboard.
With Parcelar Hill N. ½ W. the Gunjavar's helm was put down in 11 fathoms, and she grounded in stays. The Hampshire, of Bombay, a Portuguese ship belonging to Macao, and several other ships, have grounded at various times upon this bank, which stretches along the shore fronting Parcelar Hill, and from thence, it recedes toward Parcelar Point.

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The tides were then at a medium between springs and neaps, and flowed only 6 feet perpendicularly in the night, but had flowed to 9 feet a considerable time before high water during the day; it therefore, appears, that here, as on the coasts of Scindy, Guzarat, Concan, and other parts to the northward of the equator, the principal, or highest tides, are in the day, during the S.W. monsoon, when the sun is near the northern tropic; and the highest tides at these places happen in the night during the N. E. monsoon, when the sun is in the southern hemisphere, The perpendicular rise and fall of the tides on the sands, and betwixt Pulo Callam and Cape Rachado, is from 11, to 14 or 15 feet on high springs, and their velocity is then about 2 to 2½ miles per hour, between Parcelar Hill and the Cape; high water at 5½ to 6 hours in the offing, at full and change of moon. The tides set fair through the channel, the flood about S. E. by E. and the ebb N.W. by W., but near the South Sands, the ebb sets about N.W.: near to Cape Rachado, the tides are strongest, and run with eddies during the springs; and upon the South Sands, Capt. Ross, could not observe any slack water, as the tides appeared to run all round the compass.

Parcelar Point.

PARCELAR POINT, in lat. 2° 42′ N., being of a round form, and similar to the adjacent low coast, is not easily distinguished; but a little eastward from it, there is a white beach or patch on the shore, which may be discerned when the point is bearing well to the northward, and the observer not too far distant from the land.* This point may be approached occasionally within 2 miles, for the bank that occupies the bight abreast of Parcelar Hill, converges toward the shore near the point, having 20 fathoms water a little way from its edge. Although Capt. Ross could not perceive any dangers between Parcelar Point and Bambek Shoal, excepting the shoal bank that lines the shore to the distance of about a mile in some places; yet, several ships have grounded not far to the eastward of Parcelar Point, probably on the edge of the shore bank.

The Shore Bank, or Shoal Spits not far eastward from Parcelar Point, have 20 and 21 fathoms near the outer edge; but in some parts, regular soundings, from 12, to 9 or 8 fathoms, may be found on the outer edge of the Shore Bank; although the soundings in general, are not a safe guide in standing near any of these banks. When within 3 or 3½ leagues of Cape Rachado, or a little nearer to it than to Parcelar Point, you are clear to the southward of Bambek Shoal, which is the principal danger in the extensive bight between them, and bounds the East side of the channel.

Not far to the southward of Parcelar Point, the Sarah, aground in 2½ fathoms, had 10 fathoms on the opposite side of the ship, with Parcelar Hill bearing N. 30° W.

The Gunjavar, after rounding Cape Rachado with a westerly wind, lay up N. N. W. in soundings from 20 to 13 fathoms, and got between Bambek Shoal and the shore. he tacked in 15 fathoms, steered West 2 miles close hauled, in 9 to 15 fathoms soft, then 12 fathoms hard ground, next cast 4 fathoms, and grounded on the inner edge of the shoal, Cape Rachado bearing S. E. ½ E. 4 or 5 leagues, Parcelar Point the northern extreme of the land N. W. by W., off shore 3 or 4 miles. The kedge anchor was laid out, she was then hove off, and anchored in 8 fathoms, night Epproaching; and next morning, weighed, and stood to the S. E. and Southward, round the eastern extremity of the shoal.

* There is also a white patch, about 5 miles more to the eastward, and another near the extreme of a point, about 3 leagues N. N. Westward from Cape Rachado, with a small island to the N. Westward of it, and others to the S. Eastward.

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The Portuguese ship Carmo, aground in 11 feet water, had Cape Rachado bearing S. E. ¾ E., and Parcelar Hill about N.W. ½ N.

The ship La Paix, bound from China to Bengal, was wrecked on Bambek Shoal, November 28th, 1805. At 5 P. M. she tacked in 19 fathoms, and after running 2 miles S.W. by W., struck, and grounded on the shoal in 2½ fathoms, Cape Rachado bearing S. E. by E., Parcelar Point N. W. by W., the Hill N. 41° W., off shore 4 miles. Found on sounding all round, that they were encompassed by rocks and shoals, and having only 10 feet rocky bottom under the bow, she soon bilged with the swell, and was totally lost. Other ships, have formerly been wrecked on this shoal, proving the danger of borrowing toward it; but it will be avoided, by not bringing Cape Rachado to the southward of S. 60° E., nor Parcelar Point to the westward of N. 43° W. The Caroline, bound from Bengal to Canton River, in 1816, was wrecked on Bambek Shoal, with Cape Rachado bearing E. 35° S., Parcelar Point W. 36° N., and Parcelar Hill W. 43° N.

BAMBEK SHOAL, (the centre) is situated in lat. 2° 33½′ N., distant 14 miles from Parcelar Point, the same from Cape Rachado, and it lies in a transit line between these points, off shore 3 or 3¼ miles, having irregular soundings from 6 to 20, and 26 fathoms between it and the main. This shoal extends W. N. W. and E. S. E. nearly 2 miles, rocky and dangerous, having only 1½ to 2, and 2½ fathoms water over the rocks, deepening to 7 or 8 fathoms hard ground at each of the two extremities, where it extends about ½ a mile farther than the dangerous part mentioned above. Near this shoal on the outside, the depths are from 10 or 12, to 17 or 19 fathoms, irregular, consequently, the soundings do not afford a safe guide in the approach to this danger.

About 3 miles East from the centre of Bambek Shoal, there is the N. W. extremity of a long spit, which extends nearly to Cape Rachado, fronting the shore at from 1½, to 2½ or 3 miles distance, having only 2, 1½, and ½ a fathom on it in some places, and 6 or 8 fathoms on other parts near Pulo Arram, with 8 and 10 or 12 fathoms inside, close to Cape Rachado, and also close to the shore, about 1½ mile within the Cape. The depths near this long narrow spit, on the outside, are usually 10, 11, or 12 fathoms, increasing to 20 fathoms or upward, at 2 or 2½ miles distance.

South Sands.

SOUTH SAND, or SANDS, from the N. Western extremity (already mentioned in the preceding Section) to abreast of Parcelar Point, were very little known, until the survey of these dangers by Capt. Ross, in 1819.

The General Kyd, September 17th, 1821, at 5 P. M. lost sight of the Round Arroa, bearing S. 8° W., at 6¼ P. M. Parcelar Hill bore E. 2° N., at 10. ½ P. M. it bore N. 65° E., seen with the night glass, and ten minutes after, she suddenly grounded on one of the northernmost patches of the South Sands, where she lay in great danger till the 23d, when she was hove clear of the sand, with the assistance of Capt. Welstead, and the boats of the General Harris, after great exertion, having thrown overboard part of the cargo, guns, &c. and filling the Covelong brig with cotton, which vessel happened to be passing at the time. After getting clear of the sand, and warping out into 15 fathoms water, Parcelar Hill bore N. 60° E.

About S. W. from Parcelar Hill, and 5 leagues distant from the nearest part of the land, H. M. S. Albion, in 1804, got into 6 fathoms upon one of the northern patches, which is probably the nearest to the land in that part. The Vansittart, August 15th, 1815, steering S. E. ½ E. at 3 A. M. grounded in a ¼ less 4 fathoms, and had 7 fathoms under the stern. Hove the sails aback, and floated off, then anchored, but a squall coming from southward, cut the cable, steered West about 3 miles, and anchored at 4¼ A. M. in 10½ fathoms, with Parcelar Hill at day-light, bearing N. 21½° E., and the low land about Parcelar Point N.51° E.

Dangers on the eastern part of them.

The eastern part of the South Sands, bearing between S. by E. ½ E. and S. by W. ¼ W. from Parcelar Point, is very dangerous, where several ships have grounded upon the patches

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of which it is formed, and were nearly lost; and as the easternmost of these patches lie nearly opposite to Bambek Shoal, the channel between them is thereby rendered more contracted, and more dangerous here, than in any other part of the strait from Parcelar Hill to the Carimons.

On this extremity of the South Sands, the patch nearest to the land, is distant 12, or 11½ miles from the coast about 5 miles eastward of Parcelar Point, and it consists of small pyramids of hard sand, with only 1¼ and 1½, to 2 fathoms water upon them. The Hornby tacked in 9 fathoms close to one of the patches with Parcelar Hill N. by W., and Cape Rachado E. ½ S. appearing like an island; and the boat on examining it, found only 1½ fathom water.

The Lord Macartney, aground on one of these patches in 9 feet at low water, had Parcelar Hill bearing N. by W. and Cape Rachado E. 5° S., which seems to have been on the patch last mentioned. Prior to grounding, she must have been some time on the South Sands, for she steered E. N. E. 4 miles in 18 to 13 fathoms, next cast 5 fathoms, and then grounded. She lay on the sand from the 21st to the 29th of August, 1792, and was nearly lost, having been obliged to discharge much of the cargo, into two vessels sent to her assistance from Malacca.

The Besborough, aground, had Parcelar Hill N. ¾ W., and Cape Rachado E. ½ S. about 6½ leagues; the Lascelles in company, at the same time, at anchor in 8 fathoms, bore from the Besborough S. by W. about ½ a mile. When the Besborough floated, they steered between E. S. E. and S. S. E., in irregular soundings from 8 to 17 fathoms, hard ground. The Indus, of Bombay, and other ships also grounded, and were nearly lost upon these dangerous pyramids, which form the eastern extremity of the South Sands.

About 5 miles farther S. Eastward, His Majesty's ship Trident, had 5 fathoms on another patch of the eastern part of these sands, with Parcelar Hill N. by W. ¼ W., and Cape Rachado E. by N.; she hauled to the eastward, and deepened gradually.

The following banks or patches of the South Sands, contiguous to the common channel, and consequently most in the way of ships, were examined by Capt. Ross, the Company's Marine Surveyor, in 1819.

Shoal Banks and Dangers on the South Sands.

In lat. 2° 41½′ N. a patch with 3 and 3½ fathoms sand, nearly a mile in extent, bearing from Parcelar Hill W. S.W. ¼ S. distant 16 miles from Loomat Point, the nearest land, and on the Nauth S. by E. ½ E. from the Two and Half Fathoms Bank about 12 miles. A small patch of 4 San fathoms, about 1½ mile to the N. E. of the above mentioned 3 fathoms patch.

In lat. 2° 40′ N. a sand bank extending N. W. and S. E. nearly 3 miles, having depths of 3, to 1½ fathoms on its centre, which bears from Parcelar Hill S. W. by W., and 14½ miles distant from Loomat Point, which is the nearest land.

In lat. 2° 36½′ N., a sand bank extending about N. E. and S. W. 2 miles, and 1 mile in breadth, with soundings on it from 2 to 3½ fathoms, and bearing from Parcelar Hill nearly equi-distant from Loomat Point, and Parcelar Point, about 14 miles. About 2½ or 3 miles West from the last mentioned bank, is situated a small bank, with depths of 2 to 4 fathoms on it.

In lat. 2° 30′ N., the centre of a sand bank, extending W. N. W. and E. S. E. 3 or 3½ miles, with depths on it, from 2, to 2½ and 3 fathoms, the centre of which bears from Parcelar Hill S. by W., distant 13½ miles from Parcelar Point, the nearest and opposite land.

In lat. 2° 27′ N., and about 5 miles to the S. E. of the centre of the above, the centre of a narrow sand spit is situated, which extends 3 miles N.W. by N. and S. E, by S., having on it only ¼, and ½ fathom water.

In lat. 2° 25′ N., a small sandy patch with 4 fathoms water on it, bearing West from Cape Rachado, S. by E. from Parcelar Hill, and South from Parcelar Point.

In lat. 2° 28′ N., and about 3 miles N. by E. from the above small sandy patch, is situated the easternmost dangerous patch of the South Sands, extending about a mile N. N. W, and

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S. S. E., having only 11 fathom water over the hard sandy bottom, and bearing about W. ¾ N. from Cape Rachado, distant 7 leagues, from Parcelar Hill S. by E. ¼ E., from Parcelar Point S.½ E., distant 13½ miles, from Bambek Shoal W. S.W. ½ S. 10 or 11 miles, and from the nearest land to the eastward of Parcelar Point, distant 12 miles. This part of the channel, betwixt Bambek Shoal and the easternmost patches of the South Sands, requires great care by ships passing through it in the night, as the soundings are not a sufficient guide, although the water generally deepens to 35, 38, or 40 fathoms when within a few miles of these easternmost patches, and shoals again to 30 or 25 fathoms near their edges, or in some places to 20 and 17 fathoms; but there are 30 and 31 fathoms within a mile of the easternmost patch, on the North and N. E. sides, which patch forms the projecting extremity of these sands, bounding the channel to the South and westward, and it ought never to be approached by any ship, being steep to, and very dangerous.

The tides run strong, and very irregular, among, and contiguous to the South Sands, apparently setting all round the compass, without any perceptible slack water on the springs.

Geo. Site of Cape Rachado.

TANJONG TUAN, or CAPE RACHADO, in lat. 2° 26′ N.,* lon. 101° 51′ E., or 24 miles West from Malacca by chronometer, and bearing from Parcelar Point S. E. by E. about 27 miles, is a steep bluff headland covered with trees, discernible at the distance of 7 leagues; it is just visible from the poop of a. large ship, when she is a little to the southward of Parcelar Point. When first seen, in coming from westward, it appears like an island; the adjacent coast, and the neck of land that joins it to the Cape, being much lower than the latter, are not so soon perceived; and the whole of the coast that forms the deep bight between Parcelar Point and Cape Rachado, has a similar aspect, rather low and woody, with some small rivers. There is an islet or rock close to the Cape, and a bay on each side, that to the N. W. being the largest, in which Pulo Arram, and another small island, lie near the shore, Pulo Arram being that nearest to the Cape; but the coast which forms this bay should not be approached nearer than 3 or 4 miles, on account of the long spit that fronts it, already described. Close to the Cape, the depths are 24 and 28 fathoms; and about 3 or 4 miles off it, from 15 to 22 fathoms, irregular at times: from this situation, the low woody coast of Sumatra may be seen from the deck, the strait being here, more contracted than in any other part to the northward of Malacca.

Direction. to sail from Parcelar Hill to Cape Racbado.

HAVING proceeded through the EAST and WEST CHANNEL, or through Callam Strait, do not in working, stand above 3½ or at most 4 leagues off the land; nor above 3 leagues off it, when Parcelar Hill bears between North and N. N. W. You may borrow occasionally, within 1½ or 2 miles of the land to the westward of Parcelar Hill, or tack in 13 fathoms when the hill bears between E. by S. and E. by N.; but the shoal that stretches along the concavity of the land abreast of Parcelar Hill, projects about 2½ miles to seaward, and being steep to, on the outer edge, should not be approached under 17 fathoms. Close to its outer edge, the depths are 16 and 17 fathoms, and nearly the same depths, 17, 18, and 19 fathoms, are found at a considerable distance outside of it, in some places. About 3 or 4 miles outside of the edge of the Shore Bank, there is a long narrow bank in the fair channel, with 13, 14, and 15 fathoms water on it, which might in the night, be mistaken for the edge of the former. The North end of this narrow bank, bears about W. by S. from Parcelar Hill, and it extends parallel to the coast nearly till abreast of Parcelar Point; with the hill bearing from E. by N. to N. N. E., the depths on it are 13 to 16 fathoms; and on its southern part, 18 to 21 fathoms. The soundings inside of this bank, are mostly 19 and 20 fathoms near it, shoaling to 17 fathoms close to the edge of the Shore Bank, but not always regular; for around Parcelar Point, there are 20 and 21 fathoms very near the Shore Bank,

* Capt. Ross places it in lat. 2° 25′ N., lon. 101° 50½′ E.

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the same depth on the southern extremity of the Channel Bank, 20 to 24 fathoms between them, and 26 to 30 fathoms off the South end of the Channel Bank, about 3 or 4 miles to the S. S. W. of Parcelar Point.

To avoid all the dangers fronting the shore, betwixt Parcelar Hill and Cape Rachado, do not come within a direct line joining the two extremes of the land, in passing the bight off Parcelar Hill; nor bring Parcelar Point, (the southern extreme of the land), to the southward of S. 60° E., to keep clear of the edge of the Shoal Bank embracing the bight to the N. Westward of that point. Do not approach Parcelar Point nearer than 2 miles or rather give it a birth of 3 or 4 miles in passing. When Cape Rachado is seen, keep it to the eastward of S. 60° E., nor bring the North extreme, (Parcelar Point), to the westward of N. 43° W. in passing the extensive bight between them; for these bearings will not lead you far outside of Bambek Shoal.

Cape Rachado E. S. E., is a fair mid channel bearing throughout; when working, it may be brought to E. S. E. ½ S., or S. 60° E., in standing toward the shoals in the bight; and to E. by S. ½ S., in standing toward the Patches or Pyramids on the eastern part of the South Sands; but as the channel betwixt these and Bambek Shoal is only about 3 leagues wide, it would be dangerous in traversing, to exceed those bearings of the Cape, when it appears like an island. When it is approached within 3½ or 4 leagues, and the low neck of land that joins it to the coast be seen considerably elevated from the deck, the channel becomes wider; and may then, occasionally, be traversed with the Cape bearing from S. E. by E. to E. ½ S.

FROM abreast of PARCELAR POINT in the night, at 4 or 5 miles distance, steer S. E. by E. for Cape Rachado, which is the course from point to point: the soundings in the fair track, will be generally 25 to 27 fathoms; from 33 to 40 fathoms, will be near the Pyramids of the South Sands, and with 17 or 18 fathoms when abreast of the shoals in the bight, is much nearer them than to the South Sands. This may be useful as a general remark, but the soundings are often irregular in the channel; for a little to the southward of Parcelar Point, there are 30 fathoms within 2 miles of the Shore Bank, 20 fathoms close to it, and from 10 to 14 fathoms, contiguous to Bambek Shoal. There are also some small banks in the channel, having from 11 to 15 fathoms water on them, although these are few, and generally in the shore side of the channel. Particular care must be taken not to deepen above 36 or 38 fathoms toward the Pyramids that form the eastern extremity of the South Sands, for the depths increase near them on the N. E. side to 38, 40, or 44 fathoms, then decrease suddenly to 30, 20, 10, and 2 or 1½ fathoms upon them. If the lead be kept going, the deep soundings in the outer part of the channel, is a certain indication of the proximity of this part of the South Sands. when passing in the night. To the N. Westward, opposite to Parcelar Hill, the depths near the edges of the South Sands are not so great as near the easternmost part. When Cape Rachado is brought to bear N. E. there is thought to be no danger, for after passing the Cape a little way, the strait is considered to be safe from side to side, excepting a bank about 6 leagues to the S. Westward of the Water Islands, on which the Milford grounded. It is, however, advisable, not to exceed the distance of 4 leagues from the Malay coast, in sailing from Cape Rachado to Malacca; and the Cape may be passed at the distance of from 1 to 6 or 7 miles, as circumstances require. About 2 leagues to the S. Eastward of the Cape, there is a small bank in the channel, with 10 and 12 fathoms on it; and the depths in the offing, are irregular from 16 to 25 fathoms betwixt Cape Rachado and Tanjong Clin; but farther eastward, they become more regular.

Tanjong Clin, and the adjoining coast.

TANJONG CLIN, or Peer Punjab, situated about 5 miles to the N. W. of Fisher's Island, and 6½ or 7 leagues S. E. by E. from Cape Rachado, is known by two or three trees on its extremity, more elevated than the others near the sea. The coast betwixt it and Cape Rachado forms a bight, and being rocky in several parts, with 17 and 18 fathoms not far

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from the shore, should not be approached nearer than 2½ or 3 miles, for the soundings not being always regular, do not afford a sufficient guide. About 6 or 7 miles to the eastward of the Cape, the entrance of Lenque or Lengey River is situated, which is a considerable stream, navigable by small vessels; but its entrance, and the bight between it and Cape Rachado, is fronted by detached rocks.

The coast about 2 leagues to the N. W. of Tanjong Clin, is lined by straggling rocks under water, projecting 1½ or 2 miles from the shore, with 10 and 11 fathoms between some of them; near and outside of these, there is a large rock always above water, called DIANA ROCK, from the country ship of this name having struck on it, and was wrecked, which is distant 1½ or 2 miles from the shore, having near it 17, 18, and 19 fathoms irregular soundings.

The Snow Forth stood in, and let go her anchor in 12 fathoms during the night, when near high water; and after tending to the ebb, got fast aground, upon one of these sunken rocks, which shews the impropriety of borrowing too close to the shore hereabout in the night.

Fisher's Island, and its contiguous shoal.

FISHER'S ISLAND; bounding the N. W: side of Malacca Road, is low and level; being encompassed, and joined to the main by foul ground, it ought not to be approached under 15 fathoms toward the South end, these depths being near, the edge of the shoal. With the extremes of the island bearing from N. 11° W. to N. 22½° W., body of it N. 15° W. distant ½ a mile, Malacca Flagstaff on the Hill E. 14° N., Outer Water Island S. 45° E., and Tanjong Clin, the northern extreme N. 59° W., there is a CIRCULAR SHOAL, about 10 or 12 fathoms in extent, having 18 feet on it at low water spring tides, the bottom sand and stones intermixed with mud.* To avoid this shoal, and other rocks near the S. E. side of Fisher's Island, do not stand nearer to the island than 1 mile; and tack from it in 15 fathoms, with the lead kept briskly going, when working into Malacca Road during the night. The coast about Tanjong Clin, and from thence to Malacca Road, may be approached to 14 or 15 fathoms, but it would be imprudent to go under these depths in a large ship, particularly in the night.

To sail from Cape Rachado to Malacca, or to the Water Islands.

In sailing from Cape Rachado toward Malacca, or the Water Islands (the latter bearing or from it about S. E. ½ E. distant 12 leagues), keep from 3 to 6 or 7 miles off shore, in soundings from 16 to 20 fathoms, which are not always regular; when well out in the offing, the depths in some parts increase to 24 or 26 fathoms, particularly opposite to Tanjong Clin, and Malacca. If you do not stop here, steer a course as the wind may require, to pass outside of the Water Islands, at any distance thought proper; but if bound into Malacca Road, with the wind from the land, Fishe's Island may be rounded within 1½ mile.

To sail into the road in the night.

If working into the road in the night, or approaching it from southward, when round the Water Islands, do not haul in too close to the rocky flat called PANJANG REEF, which projects about 2 miles from the shore, and extends along it to Pulo Java or Red Island, near Malacca.

Panjang Reef.

The church and Flagstaff on the hill, bears from the West end of Panjang Reef N. ½E., distant 1½ mile, and from its East end N. 25° W., distant 3½ miles: within 2 cables' lengths of its southern edge, there are 18 and 19 fathoms water, and 15 fathoms close to the rocks; the lead is therefore no guide, if you go under 18 or 19 fathoms toward the S. Eastern edge of the reef. The Cartier, and Asia, returning from China in different seasons, got upon this reef by hauling up too soon for the road, during the night, where they lay a tide in a

* The Sarah borrowing too close, shoaled from 10 to 5 fathoms at a cast; other ships, approaching still nearer to Fisher's Island, have grounded on the shoal; and in 1789, I saw a snow hound from Manilla to Madras, run aground upon the spit which projects from Fisher's Island, by borrowing too close after weighing from Malacca Road. There is a narrow channel between this spit and the Circular Shoal, through which the Terpsichore frigate passed in 1803.

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very dangerous situation; the Cartier had 4½ fathoms under her stern at low water, and the rocks appearing above water close to her stem. Several other ships have grounded on this reef in the night, whilst the Shah Byramgore, barely escaped, by anchoring close to the rocks.*

Anchorage in Malacca Road.

From 20 fathoms in the offing, the depths decrease regularly over a bottom of soft mud toward the road, where the best anchorage is under 10 fathoms, with the church on the hill Road. N. E. by E., Fisher's Island N. W. ½ W., and the Tuft of trees East, off the town about l½ or 2 miles. When the depth is more than 10 fathoms, the bottom is generally stiff clay, requiring good cables to purchase the anchors, after they are seated in the ground; but under 10 fathoms the bottom is soft mud, and continues so, close to the shore. Large ships may anchor in from 7 to 9 fathoms; and small ones, in 6, 5, or 4 fathoms at discretion, there being no danger, if they should happen to ground on the soft mud bank that fronts the town. Do not anchor on the East side of the road, near Red Island, for the bottom is foul and rocky, the depth decreasing suddenly from 8 to 3 fathoms on the northern extremity of Panjang Reef. During the S. W. monsoon, sudden hard squalls frequently blow into the road from the Sumatra side in the night, accompanied with much thunder, lightning, and rain; several ships have been damaged here, by lightning, at various times.

The tides of flood and ebb, continue to run through the road 2 hours after high and low water on the ground; and boats cannot get into the river after half ebb. The rise of tide is from 8 to 10 feet on the springs, and it runs about 2 miles per hour. The sea worm, is very destructive in this road, to vessels or boats which have not copper sheathing.

Geo. Site of Fort.

MALACCA FORT, or the Church on the Hill, is in lat. 2° 12′ N., on. 102° 15′ E., by mean of a series of lunar observations taken by different navigators, corroborated by chronometers from Prince of Wales' Island. This hill, on which the church is built, and where the colours are displayed, stands in the centre of the fort, fronting the sea on the South side of the river; and the town, lines the sea shore on the North side the river, there being a draw bridge of communication. The lighthouse is 146 feet above the level of the sea, from which Tanjong Clin bears W. 10° N., outer extreme of Fisher's Island W. 14° N. to W. 18° N., small rocky reef off the West end of Red Island S. 5° W., West extreme of Red Island South, body of the Outer Water Island S. 29° E., anchorage in the Road from S. 48° W. to S. 64° W.

Country around.

The country a few leagues inland from Malacca, is formed of undulating hills moderately elevated, generally called Malacca Hills, and 7½ leagues E. by N. ½ N. from it, there is a high mountain called Goonong Ledang, also Queen's Mount, or Mount Ophir; but the coast, and the land adjacent to the town, is low, and all the country is mostly covered with wood.†

Convenient for obtaining refreshments.

Malacca is a very convenient port for ships to touch at, when only water and refreshments are wanted. Water is immediately sent off, on application to the master attendant; and fish, yams, sago, and a variety of excellent fruits, may be procured at moderate prices.

Buffalos, a few hogs, and some poultry, may also be obtained, and grain imported from Java, Sumatra, or Bengal. Dammer for caulking, is an article of trade here, and poon spars for masts, brought over from Siak River, on the opposite coast of Sumatra.

Boats may proceed into the river, about a large ¼ flood; they should steer for the Church on the Hill, keeping it rather on the starboard bow, and when the bar is approached, the channel may be discovered, by the stakes at the entrance of the river.

* H. M. S. Trident, bearing Admiral Rainier's flag, going into the road in a dark night, with a strong breeze, saw the breakers on the reef, and brought up with two anchors within a cable's length of the reef in 18 fathoms. A lighthouse has been lately erected at Malacca, to guide ships into the road clear of Panjang Reef.

† Being situated near the equator, on the side of a strait, liable to calms, with offensive mud banks close to the houses, which dry every tide, and the low country around being almost an impenetrable forest; it might naturally be expected, that Malacca would thereby, be rendered an unhealthy place, and by the noxious vapours and exhalations arising from the woods. It is, however, the most healthy place known in India, so near to the equator; of which, the venerable inhabitants, daily seen in the streets, are sufficient proofs.

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8th. DIRECTIONS FOR, SAILING FROM MALACCA TO SINGAPORE STRAIT: COASTS, ISLANDS, BANKS, AND DANGERS.

Water Islands.

To sail outside of them.

WATER ISLANDS, or FOUR BROTHERS, situated from 6 to 10 miles S. Eastward of Malacca Road, are high, small, round islands, covered with trees, and take their name from a fifth, or larger one, nearer to the coast, which has excellent fresh water on its eastern side. As the flood tide sets along the coast from Malacca Road toward these islands, ships leaving the road should steer well out to seaward, in order to round the outer island at any convenient distance, close to which, there are 17 or 18 fathoms, and 20 fathoms about a mile off.

The common passage for ships, is outside of these islands, but Captain J. Lindsay's examination of this place, proves that small ships may occasionally pass with safety between some of them, if any advantage is to be had thereby. Inside of the outer island, and also betwixt the westernmost and the others, the passage is safe, and the depths 18 and 19 fathoms soft mud.

Channels between them.

The widest channel is between the large island and the Four Brothers, were it not for a rock or reef under water, nearly in mid-channel. When upon it in 8 feet at low water, the West end of the large Water Island bore N. 28° W., and Malacca Church open to the westward of it 1° 29½′ by sextant, the N. E. end of the Large Island N. ½ W., the westernmost Brother W. S. W., and the small island or point to the eastward of the southernmost Brother, just appearing over the rocky point of the East end of the Middle Brother, bearing then S. ½ E. There is a good passage on either side of this rock, in 18 and 19 fathoms water; and it may be avoided, by keeping either the Middle Brother, or the Large Island a-board; for the rock is about 1 mile from the South East end of the latter, and nearly the same distance from the Middle Brother. After passing through this channel, the depth will decrease to 10 or 12 fathoms on the mud bank fronting the coast to the eastward of the islands, on which there is no danger.

Vessels coining from the eastward, to pass through this channel, may keep the South end of the Large Water Island N. W., or more westerly, until they shut in the southernmost Brother with the two others; or they may steer for the N. Easternmost Brother, and pass it ½ a mile distant, not bringing the westernmost Brother to the southward of W. S.W. ½ S. until past the Middle Brother, which may be approached within 100 yards without danger.

To sail from the Outer Water Island to S. Eastward

OUTER WATER ISLAND, bears S. E. from Malacca Road, distant 9 or 10 miles; in passing it with a working wind, do not stand above 4 leagues to the S. Westward, for the Three Fathoms Bank on which the Milford grounded, is thought to lie about 6 leagues S. W. from these islands; and a few miles farther to the north-westward, we shoaled suddenly in the Anna, from 28 to 8 fathoms, and tacked. After rounding the Water Islands, the coast may be approached to 12 or 13 fathoms in working, until past Mount Mora; the Sumatra coast may also be approached occasionally to 14 fathoms, in this part of the strait; but it is best to keep nearest the Malay side, to prevent getting outside of the Long Bank in the middle of the strait, to the South of Mount Formosa.

Mount Moar, and the contiguous coast.

MOUNT MOAR, or MORA, in lat,1° 59′ N., bearing E. by S. about 8 leagues from the Outer Water Island, is an insolated hill near the sea, covered with wood, just visible from Malacca Road. Tanjong Tor, the contiguous point of land, bears about E. S. E. from the Outer Water Island, and with the whole of the coast in this space, is low level land, having several small rivers falling into the sea. The coast from thence to Formosa river, continues low and woody, and the whole of the opposite land of Sumatra is low, and covered with trees.

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Geo. Site of Mount Formosa.

Formosa Bank.

MOUNT FORMOSA, in lat. 1° 49′ N., lon. 102° 55′ E., or 40 miles East from Malacca by chronometers, is the highest summit of a group of undulating mountains near the sea, and just discernible from the Water Islands. The western end of this mount, forms the bluff point of land called Point Sizan, on the East side of the entrance of Formosa river, which extends a considerable way into the country. Abreast of this river, there is an extensive shoal called FORMOSA BANK, on which the Murad-bux shoaled to 2½ fathoms, in 1800. The Asia steering along shore to the S. Eastward in 12 and 14 fathoms with the land wind, shoaled suddenly, and grounded on this bank in June, 1803, where she lay a tide. When aground in 2½ fathoms at low water, Formosa Peak bore N. E. by E. ½ E., entrance of Formosa river N. E.¼ E., Mount Mora N. W. by N., western extreme of the land N. W. by W. off Formosa river 5 or 6 miles, which appears to be the shoalest part of the bank, and consists of black sand. This dangerous part of the bank, seems to be connected to Point Sizan by a spit of shoal water, from which it is distant about 4 miles, and nearly equal distance from the point on the other side of Formosa River. From the shoalest part of the bank, a spit extends a great way to N. Westward, with 5, 6, and 7 fathoms water on it, which probably reaches to the shore a little eastward of Tanjong Tor, or about S. S. E. from Mount Mora. Betwixt the bank and the shore, there are regular soundings, 10 and 12 fathoms soft ground; when the Asia floated, she was drifted inside of the bank by a squall, and steered 3 miles to the N. W. along its inner edge, in 8 and 9 fathoms, then crossed it in 5 fathoms with the western extreme bearing N.W. ½ W., Mount Mora N. W. by N., Mount Formosa E. by N.½ N., and a little hill near the shore with a peaked summit N. N. E. ½ E. On the outer edges of the bank, the depths decrease suddenly, but the lead if kept briskly going, will indicate its proximity, and give warning to tack.

Other banks not dangerous.

About 5 miles W. N. W. from Formosa Bank, there is a small bank of 10 to 8 fathoms, having 18 and 17 fathoms between it and the shore. The Antelope, had two casts of 8 fathoms sand on this bank, with Mount Formosa bearing E. ¼ N., Mount Mora N. by W., bluff end of Formosa Hills forming Point Sizan E. by N., off shore about 8 miles, and in crossing toward the shore had 18 fathoms. From Mount Mora about S.W., and 3½ or 4 leagues off the Sumatra shore, we shoaled in the Anna from 25 to 11 fathoms upon a bank, and deepened regularly when over It to 23 fathoms, then shoaled again to 11 fathoms, where we tacked about 4 miles from the coast of Sumatra. These small banks in- the fair channel, here, and in other parts of the strait, with from 9 to 14 fathoms on them, may sometimes cause anxiety to persons unacquainted, when not certain of their situation in the night.

Geo. Site of Pulo Pisang;

PULO PISANG, in lat. 1° 28′ N., lon. 103° 14′ E., or 59 miles East from Malacca, by chronometer, is of middling height, covered with wood, and composed of three hummocks; the central part being of round form, and rather more elevated than the other hummocks, may be seen 8 or 9 leagues. The island lies about 4 or 5 miles from the coast, and is connected to it by an extensive mud-bank, over which there is said to be a channel with 3 or 4 fathoms water, fit for small vessels. Close to the East side of Pulo Pisang, there are two round islets, and two others of similar aspect, contiguous to its western side. On the largest of these, fresh water may be sometimes procured.

From the brow of the Western Point of Pulo Pisang, Capt. Ross, observed the peak of Mount Formosa to bear N. 43° 41′ W., by Theodolite, centre of Little Pisang N. 82° 4′ W., Peak of the Great Carimon S. 19° E., and the other Peak of ditto S. 27° 25′ E.

the coast,

The coast fronting the sea betwixt Mount Formosa and Pulo Pisang, is low and woody, excepting Battoo Baloo, a small round mount near the sea, rather more than half way from Formosa toward Pisang.

and its contiguons and bank.

The coast from Mount Formosa to Pulo Pisang, and from thence to Pulo Cocob, is lined by a shoal mud bank, projecting 3 and 4 miles off shore; and 2 leagues to the N. W. of Pi-

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sang, it stretches out nearly 5 miles from the coast, leaving a concave space of good soundings nearer the land, which is steep to, on the N. W. and West sides. On the edge of this shore bank, the depths decrease suddenly from 10 or 9, to 6, 5, and 4 fathoms to the N. W. of Pisang; and from l2 or 11, to 4, 3, and 2 fathoms to the S. Eastward of that island, being here, more steep and dangerous.

It may be observed, as a general rule, that on the edges of the shore banks throughout the strait, the depths decrease suddenly; and also on the edges of those in the offing.

Pisang Banks.

Fair Channel Bank.

PISANG BANKS, exclusive of that lining the coast last mentioned, are three in number betwixt it and the coast of Sumatra. The first, called the FAIR CHANNEL BANK, extends parallel to the coast, in the direction of the channel; and lies a little nearer to the Shore Bank than to the Long Middle Bank. Mount Formosa bears about North from its northern extremity, and Pulo Pisang about North from its southern extreme; the depths on it are generally from 8 to 11 fathoms, and the least water known, is 6½ to 7 fathoms in two places near its South end, with Pulo Pisang bearing E. by N. and N. E. by N. from 4 to 5 miles. There appear to be some small gaps in this bank, as I have crossed over it with the lead going, and had not any shoal soundings; but these gaps are very narrow, for ships making long tacks across the channel, generally get soundings from 8 to 11 or 12 fathoms in crossing over the bank, which is a good guide in the night. The depths betwixt this bank and the Shore Bank, are 13 to 20 fathoms; and between it and the Long Middle Bank, generally from 16 to 24 fathoms, but not always regular.

Long Middle Bank.

LONG MIDDLE BANK, distant 6 or 7 miles outside of the Fair Channel Bank, and extending parallel to it and the coast, is situated nearly in mid-strait between the Malay and Sumatra shores. From its N. Western extremity, which is the shoalest part, Mount Formosa bears N. by E. ½ E., and Pulo Pisang E. ½ S. to E. ¾ S.; and from thence to the North end of the Great Carimon, it is a continued narrow bank, having 3½ and 4 fathoms at low water on its N. Western extremity, 4 and 5 fathoms on its middle part, and 6½ to 8 fathoms on its S. Eastern part toward the Carimons. With Mount Formosa bearing N. by E. ½ E., and Pulo Pisang E. ¾ S., we anchored in 4½ fathoms, and the least water found in sounding around with the boats, was 3½ fathoms at low water, soft ground.

The Dublin had 3½ and 3¾ fathoms at low water upon it, Mount Formosa bearing N. by E., which was the least water found, the bottom soft, excepting a cast or two of sand.

The Nottingham had three casts of 4½ fathoms, crossing over the bank, with Mount Formosa N. ½ W., and Pulo Pisang E. ¼ N., and as it was not far from high water at the time, the depth in this place is probably about 3¾ fathoms at low water.

This Long Middle Bank, can hardly be considered dangerous, for it consists mostly of soft muddy bottom, with seldom less than 4 fathoms water on it; excepting the N. Western part, where there are some patches of 3½ or 3¾ fathoms at low water, over a bottom of hard black sand mixed with mud. A ship drawing 21 or 22 feet water, might probably touch at low tide on these. patches, but this will seldom or never happen, with, proper care. In a ship drawing 20 and 21 feet water, I have frequently crossed: over this bank in different parts, without apprehending any danger. It is, however, best to keep in the proper channel, betwixt, it and the Malay shore. Both it and the Fair Channel Bank are narrow, but of great length.

Sumatra Bank.

SUMATRA BANK or BANKS, the third in number from that adjoining to the Malay shore, is situated to the S. W. of, and nearly parallel to the Long Middle Bank, stretching out about half way from the Sumatra shore, towards the Long Middle Bank.

Its western extreme having depths from 3 to 4 fathoms, is in lat. 1° 27′ N. bearing about S. W. by S. from Mount Formosa, and distant 5 or 6 miles from the East side of Pulo Buca-

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lisse, bearing E. by S. ½ S. from the N. E. point of that island, which forms the projecting part of the Sumatra side of the strait in this part.

In lat. 1° 23′ N., and bearing S. by W. to S. by W. ½ W. from Mount Formosa, there is a projecting part of the bank extending East and West several miles, with depths from 2 to 4 fathoms. In lat. 1° 21′ N., about 4 or 5 miles farther Eastward, and bearing South a little westerly from Mount Formosa, there is another shoal part, with only 1½ and 2 fathoms water on it. These two shoal parts of the Sumatra Bank, last mentioned, lie nearest to the long Middle Bank, being only 4 or 5 miles from it, making the channel betwixt these banks only 4 or 3½ miles wide.

In 1787, the Locko grounded upon the Sumatra Bank in 2½ fathoms at low water, sand and mud, with Mount Formosa bearing N. by E. 10 or 12 leagues, Pulo Pisang E. N. E, about 8 leagues, off the Sumatra shore about 3 leagues. Before grounding, she passed over a bank of 4 fathoms, with Mount Formosa bearing N. ½ E., and Palo Pisang E. N. È. When she floated, they steered N. E., with the boats sounding a-head, shoaled from 5 to 3¾ fathoms, and then deepened to 16 fathoms in the channel betwixt the Sumatra Bank and the Long Middle Bank.

To Pays betwixt it and the Long Middle Bank.

If a ship, in proceeding past Formosa Bank in the night, should, by giving it too wide a birth, get far out in the offing, and at day-light find herself to the southward of the Long Middle Bank, she may continue to sail along the outside of it: or if the wind be contrary, she may work to the S. Eastward betwixt it and the Sumatra Bank, there being a safe channel between them, with soundings of 16 to 19 fathoms, shoaling quick on the edge of either bank. It will be prudent to work nearest the edge of the Long Middle Bank, as the Sumatra Bank is not safe to work upon; and when Pulo Pisang is brought to bear about N. E. by E., she may cross over the Long Middle Bank; for on this part of it, the depths are 5½, 6, or 7 fathoms, in crossing over it to the eastward, to regain the proper channel.

To sail from the Water Islands to Pulo Pisang.

PULO PISANG, bears E. 32° S., 66 or 67 miles from the Outer Water Island; and when abreast of the latter, at 1 to 3 or 4 miles distance, a S. E. by E. course will carry you about the same distance outside of the bank that fronts Formosa River, if not affected by lateral tides. The flood sets generally fair through the strait from the Water Islands to the Carimons, and the ebb in the opposite direction, about 2 miles per hour on the springs. When Mount Formosa is brought to bear about N. E., keep within 3, or at most 4 leagues of the Malay coast, to prevent falling to the southward of the North end of the Long Middle Bank. If the weather is clear, and Pulo Pisang be discerned, keep it between E. by S. ½ S. and E. S. E. ½ S., until Mount Formosa is brought to bear North or N. by W., in working betwixt the North end of the Long Middle Bank and the coast. Pulo Pisang may be brought to bear S. E by E., in standing toward the edge of the bank that lines the coast betwixt it and Mount Formosa, excepting about 2 leagues to the N. W. of that island, it forms an elbow, and should not be borrowed on so close; for there, 5 fathoms are found on the verge of it with Pulo Pisang bearing E. 34° S.; but when nearer Pisang, the outer islet may be brought to bear S. by E. or South. When Mount Formosa is brought to bear N. by W., Pulo Pisang may occasionally be brought to bear E. ½ S. or East, in standing toward the Long Middle Bank. The channel is generally 3½ to 4 leagues broad, and the soundings in crossing over the Fair Channel Bank, will be a guide in working through the channel during the night; or you may stand into 10 or 12 fathoms on the edge of the Shore Bank, and off to 18 or 20 fathoms. In day-light, when abreast of Mount Formosa, and Pulo Pisang be visible bearing E. S. E. or E. S. E. ¼ S., steer for it; either of these bearings, will carry you nearly in mid-channel, between the Long Middle Bank and the shore. When Pulo Pisang draws near, its western side, and the two islets off it, may be approached within ½ a mile if thought proper, as they are bold close to, with 13 and 15 fathoms within a cable's length of them; and in standing off shore about 3½ leagues from the island, you will be close to, or

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upon the S. E. part of the Long Middle Bank, where there are 6 or 6½ fathoms on it. In working, when passing Pulo Pisang, tack about 1½ or 2 miles from it, in 14 to 17 fathoms, and stand not off from it above 3 leagues.

Pulo Cocob, the adjacent coast and mud bank.

PULO COCOB, bearing from Pulo Pisang about S. E. ½ E., distant 4½ or 5 leagues, is a low flat island close to the Malay shore, which may be known by the trees on its N. W. side, being of a bright green colour, low, and resembling grass; but those on its South end, are tall erect poon trees, like those on the adjoining coast, from which it is perceived to be separated by a creek or narrow strait, when the bluff S. E. point of Pulo Cocob that forms the entrance of the strait is bearing N. 16° W. The coast betwixt Pulo Pisang and Pulo Cocob, is lined by a shoal mud bank, with small gaps in it, and projecting spits, which should not be approached under 12 fathoms, for it is generally steep to, from 11 or 12 fathoms. The Gunjavar shoaled suddenly from 14 to 5 fathoms on the edge of it, a little to the S. E. of Pulo Pisang; she had 3 fathoms in stays, and touched the ground, the outermost islet off Pisang bearing N. W. ¼ W., the innermost one N. N. W. ¼ W., distant 2 or 3 miles from Pulo Pisang.

To sail from Pulo Pisang toward Singapore.

Do not bring the outer islet off Pulo Pisang to the westward of N. W., until 4 or 5 miles past Pisang, in standing toward the shore bank; the western part of Pisang may then be brought to bear occasionally N. W., in working toward Pulo Cocob, or stand no nearer the shore than 11 or 12 fathoms.

In the fair channel, between Pulo Pisang and the Little Carimon, the depth is mostly from 16 to 18 fathoms, differing very little, until the water shoals on the edges of the banks that bound it on either side: when the N. Eastern Brother is on with the North end of the Little Carimon, or nearly so, it is a good mark to tack from the South side of the channel, for the depths begin then to decrease quickly on the S. E. end of the Long Middle Bank, when under 13 fathoms. In working during the night, keep the lead briskly going, and do not borrow under 13 or 14 fathoms on either side; with a fair wind, keep in 17 to 19 fathoms about mid-channel.

Little Carimon and the Brothers.

LITTLE CARIMON, bearing from the highest part of Pulo Pisang S. 25° E., about 7 or 7½ leagues, is a high bold island, about 2½ miles in length N. W. and S. E. and 1 mile in breadth, rising to a peak in the centré, covered with trees, and its North end is in lat. 1° 8½′ N. The round islets, called the Brothers, lie to the N. W. of it, the two outermost about 3 miles off, are situated near each other; the other, of similar appearance, lies within a mile of the Carimon, and is not so soon discerned as the two outer ones. About 2 miles to the southward of the Brothers, there is a Rock above water, not far off the Great Carimon, and entirely out of the track of ships.

Great Carimon.

GREAT CARIMON, separated from the S. W. side of the Little Carimon by a narrow passage, has near its North end two high peaked hills, and from the base of these, it consists of low level land, the whole extent of the island being about 3 leagues in a S. S. Easterly direction toward the straits of Durian, and nearly joining to the northern extremity of the island of Sabon. Near the West side of the Great Carimon, there are several low islands of various sizes; and its East side is fronted by a shoal mud bank, but the N. E. point has from 6 to 8 fathoms water very near it, about a mile from the islet that lies in the passage between it and the South end of the Little Carimon: From the South end of the latter, a Flat with 2½ fathoms on it, projects 1 mile off; the depths increasing to 3½, 4, and 5 fathoms, at a greater distance from the Little Carimon.

On the North and East sides, the Brothers and Little Carimon, are bold to approach, with soundings of 18 to 22 fathoms near them, and generally 17 or 18 fathoms in mid-channel betwixt the Little Carimon and the S. E. point of Pulo Cocob, from which it bears S. 15° W.,

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distant 9 or 10 miles: the depths are nearly the same from mid-channel, close to the edge of the bank that projects out from the Malay shore to the distance of 1½ mile; and it stretches from Pulo Cocob entrance, to the eastward around Tanjong Boulus.

Tanjong Boulus,

TANJONG BOULUS, or BOORO, in lat. 1° 15′ N., about 4 miles S. Eastward from Tanjong the South end of Pulo Cocob, and 3 leagues N. E. by N. from the Little Carimon, is the Boutin, southernmost extremity of the Malay peninsula, and of the continent of Asia: it is a broad point of semi-circular low land, having high trees on its western side; and low, bright green mangroves to the eastward. Inland, about 6½ leagues to the northward of Tanjong Boulus, there is an isolated mount, called Goonoong Poolai, or Pontiana; all the adjacent country is low.

and the adjoining mud bank.

The mud bank that extends from Pulo Cocob entrance, around Tanjong Boulus, is steepts to, on the outer edge, and projects about 1½ or 2 miles from the shore. The Milford grounded on it in 1786. His Maesty's ship Dedaigneuse, in company with the fleet from China, in January, 1805, steering W. by N., grounded upon it in the night: she had 8 feet water over the starboard bow, 5 fathoms under the stern, and the anchor laid out with 2/3 of a cable in an E. S. E. direction to heave the ship off by, was in 17 fathoms water. When aground, the N. W. end of Little Carimon bore S. 50° W., South end of it S. 33° W., North Brother W. 28° S., the S. W. end of Pulo Cocob N. 57° W., North side of it N. 48° W., the Eastern rounding of Tanjong Boulus N. 58° E., its Western rounding N. 46° W., the limit between the low green mangroves to the eastward, and the high trees westward, bearing North, off the nearest part of the shore about 1¼ mile. Abreast of Pulo Cocob opening, the mud bank projects a little farther from the shore; and 14 or 15 fathoms is near the verge of it in that part.

Old Strait of Singapore.

From Tanjong Boulus, the coast takes a N. E. direction towards the Old Strait Singapore, having Pulo Marambon, called also Isle Cobra, in the entrance, which is formed between the main and the West part of Singapore Island. This strait is from ½ a mile to 1½ mile broad, with soundings of 5 or 6, to 9 or 10 fathoms, bounded on the South side by the large island Singapore, and on the North by the main land of Johore and the contiguous islands. Betwixt the East point of Singapore Island and Johore Hill, the eastern mouth of the Old Strait communicates with the large strait, now in general use; the former being more contracted, with strong tides, is now seldom chosen by any ship.*

Course from Tanjong Boulus to pass Tree Island.

Tides.

FROM abreast of Tanjong Boulus, at 3 or 4 miles distance, the course is about E. S. E. to pass on the North side of Tree Island, and to round the Rabbit and Coney at the entrance of Singapore Strait; but this must depend on the direction of the wind and tide, the latter being very irregular hereabout, occasioned by the various islands and channels, and the meeting of the tides. Because, the flood from the Bay of Bengal, continues to set through the strait to the Carimons, and about Tree Island, it meets the flood tide which comes from the China Sea by the Strait of Singapore, producing a division of tides in this place. About Tree Island, the tide sometimes sets fair through the channel, about W. N.W. and E. S. E., 5 or 6 hours each way; and at other times, 6 hours in one direction, and 12 or 18 hours in the opposite direction, very irregular. It sometimes sets about N. W. and S. E., frequently North and South in a direct line across the channel, betwixt the Straits of Durian and the West entrance of the Old Strait of Singapore. After getting 8 or 9 miles to the eastward of the Little Carimon, it is prudent in the night to anchor, for it would then be very dangerous to pass Tree Island, on account of the uncertainty of the tides, unless Barn Island is distinctly seen, and its bearing obtained correctly.

* Captain Benners, in an American ship, went into the eastern entrance of the Old Strait, several years ago, and anchored at Johore in search of pepper. At leaving that place, he passed to the westward through the Old Strait, backed and filled with the tide most of the way, and had no less water than 5 fathoms, regular soundings. On the West side of the anchorage of Singapore Road, there is a narrow passage into a Middle Strait, through which Capt. Robert Scott came, when passenger in a Buggess Proa from Gooty, on the East coast of Borneo, bound to Prince of Wales' Island, in 1797; and for which, he gives the following directions.
If you intend to proceed through the passage within St. John's, steer into the bight towards Singapore, till you open the strait's mouth, which is very narrow, but deep; having entered it, keep in mid-channel till through, then steer for a small sandy island with a tree on it, which leave on your left hand about ½ a mile; afterward, keep near the starboard shore till you open the mouth of the narrow strait leading into the Old Strait of Singapore, and keep nearly in mid channel, as both sides are fronted by some sunken rocks. After getting in, there are 5 and 6 fathoms all through the strait; and when clear out, you will see the North part of the Little Carimon bearing W. by S., steer then about W. S. W. ½ S., till past Tanjong Boulus, and afterward steer for Pulo Pisang. If chased by an enemy, this passage might be tried, and should you not like to venture the whole of the way, you might probably save your vessel by getting inside of this strait, although it is too narrow for large ships.

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9th. SINGAPORE STRAIT; DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING THROUGH IT, INTO THE CHINA SEA.

Singapore Strait.

SINGAPORE STRAIT, (called Governor's Strait, or New Strait, by the French and Portuguese) may be considered to commence at Tree Island, which is the first danger in the approach to it, and where the channel becomes narrow; from thence, it extends about 17 leagues to Pedro Branco, situated at its eastern entrance.

Tree Island.

TREE ISLAND or BANK,* in lat. 1° 7½′ N., bearing from the North end of the Little Carimon East a little southerly, distant about 5 or 5¼ leagues, and from the Coney off the South end of Barn Island W. 9° S., distant 5 or 6 miles, is a bank of rocks and sand very little elevated above the sea at high water, having on it two small trees or bushes, separated from each other. From the West and N. W. part, a reef or spit projects 1 mile, on the extremity of which, the water shoals when passing near, and it ought not to be approached under 13 or 14 fathoms.

to pass it.

In clear weather during the day, the North Peak of the Great Carimon on with the South Point of the Little Carimon, is a fair mark for passing Tree Island; but in dark weather, or when passing it with clear weather in the night, Barn Island is the best guide.

The South end of Barn Island kept E. by S., is a mid-channel bearing, in passing Tree Island. With a working wind, do not near the shoal on the North side of the channel, more than to bring the South end of Barn Island E. S. E., nor approach Tree Island nearer, than to have the same, bearing E. 5° S. Abreast of the N. E. point of Tree Island, we had 13 and 14 fathoms, being near it, with the South end of Barn Island bearing E. 3° S.; but it should not be brought to the Eastward of E. 5° S. or E. 4° S., when abreast of the N. W. end of Tree Island.

Red Island, and the Brothers.

RED ISLAND, distant 2¾ miles, nearly E. S. E. from Tree Island, and S. 46° W. 3¼ miles from the Coney, is small, with a beach of red sand, and covered with green trees. The Brothers, about ¾ and 1½ mile S. E. by S. from Red Island, are two islands covered with trees; the northern one called Long Island, is low, situated about half way between Red Island and the other, called Round Island, which is small, and considerably elevated.

Passage betwixt Tree and Red Island.

There is a passage to the southward of Tree Island, and betwixt it and Red Island, through which the ship La Paix, Capt. Wright, sailed on her voyage from Bengal to China, in July, 1805. They carried soundings of 15 and 20 fathoms to the southward of Tree Island, and shoaled to 8 fathoms soft bottom when abreast of Red Island, about ½ a mile distant.

In December, 1811, the Charlotte, with several other ships under convoy of H. M. S. Clorinda, from China, rounded the Coney in the night, and the wind being scant from the

* See a former section, "Directions for Sailing through the Straits of Durian, and Phillip's Channel," for a farther description of this, and other dangers. It is proposed to erect a Lighthouse, or Beacon with a light, upon Tree Island, to guide ships in passing it in the night.

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Kent Rock.

northward, in hauling up for the Carimon, they fell to leeward of Tree Island,* seen on the weather bow, which was unsafe. At this time, most of the ships tacked, but the Charlotte grounded on the KENT ROCK, † which is about 20 feet squarer having on it 1½homs at low water, with 5½ and 6 fathoms all round, deepening to 8, 10, 15, 17, and 35 fathoms at a small distance to the N. Eastward of it. When upon the rock, Tree Island bore from N. 63° W. to N. 85° W., Red Island S. 57° E., just touching the East end of Long Island, Round Island S. 51° E., the Rabbit a sail's breadth open with St. John's N. 67° E., Coney N. 72° E., Barn Island N. 54° E. to N. 65° E. She lay on the rock till high water, then floated off, and when aground on it, the tide ran past her about 4 knots to the southward; whilst the other ships, and the frigate, at anchor within 2 cables' lengths of the rock, experienced a tide only of 1 knot per hour.

This appears to be the same rock, on which the ship Mandarian was lost the year preceding, and it seems to have been known to English navigators at an early period. In the Kent's journal, February, 1708, is the following remark, "after rounding the Rabbit and Coney close, came no nearer Tree Island, (probably Red Island), than 30 fathoms, being the lee side, and an ugly rock in the channel, which I have struck upon formerly, is unknown to most persons which come this way: it is about 3 miles East from the easternmost single tree on the Sandy Island," (Tree Island).

Sultan's Shoal.

SULTAN'S SHOAL, on which the ship of this name grounded in 1789, has only 3 feet on the shoalest part at low water; near the edge of it, there are from 3, to 4, 5, and 6 fathoms, and about a cable's length off it, 12 fathoms. When aground on it, the North end of the Little Carimon bore W. by S. ½ S., an island near the Old Strait entrance N. W. by N. Northerly, the South end of Barn Island E. S. E. ½ S., and the Rabbit and Coney just' open, distant about 6 miles. This shoal is about 5 miles N. Westward from Barn Island, and nearly the same distance to the northward of Tree Island, being the only danger known on the North side of the channel between Tanjong Boulus and Barn Island.

Soundings in the channel, and near the shoals.

Anchorage.

The soundings in the fair channel between Tree Island and the Sultan's Shoal, are irregular, from 15 to 25 fathoms; generally 14 to 16 fathoms near Tree Island, deepening to 22 and 24 fathoms in the North side of the channel, until the decrease is sudden to 12 and 8 fathoms on the edge of the Sultan's Shoal. In that part of the channel comprised betwixt Tree Island and Barn Island, the depths are mostly from 16 to 9 fathoms, but there are some banks of 6½, 7, 8, and 9 fathoms in the fair channel, proper for anchorage; and on the West side of Barn Island, at ¾ to 1½ mile off it, there is good anchorage in 8 to 11 fathoms out of the stream, where ships may stop tide, or anchor during the night.

Barn Island:

BARN ISLAND, ‡ bearing E. ¼ N. 7 or 7¼ leagues from the North end of the Little Carimon, and E. by N. ½ N. 5 miles from Tree Island, is moderately elevated, of a square level aspect, covered with trees, and discernible at 5 leagues distance; it is bold to approach en the West side to 9, 10, or 11 fathoms, about ½ or ¾ of a mile off, but the shore is rocky at low water, in landing with a boat.

Aligator Island;

ALIGATOR ISLAND, nearly joins to the N. W. end of Barn: Island, the space be-

* After rounding the Coney in the Gunjavar, in 1789, and hauling up W. N. W. with the wind at North, the night became very dark, lost sight of Barn Island: we thought the tide was setting fair through the channel to the W. N. W., but having lost the lead, the first cast after preparing another, was 5 fathoms; the helm was instantly put down, and the anchor let go when the ship carne head to the wind, and found the tide setting South. At day-light, we had not room. to cast, until the wind shifted, being within a cable's length of the rocks projecting from the S. E. end of pree Island.

† See this, and another Rock described, in the section, "Directions for Sailing through the Straits of Durian and Philip's Channel."

‡ Called Square Island, or Passage Island, by the French.

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adjacent islands and reefs.

tween them affording no passage for ships; it is about the same size and height as Barn Island, of a sloping form, one end lower than the other: this island may be approached on the S. W. side occasionally to 10 or 11 fathoms, about ¾ of a mile, or 1 mile off. To the northward of it, lies Pulo Bookura, eastward of the Sultan's Shoal: and all these islands, extending from Barn Island to the entrance of the Old Strait, and to St. John's, are united by reefs and dangers, mostly covered at high water.

Rabbit and Coney.

RABBIT and CONEY, are two small round islets, connected with the S. E. end of Barn Island by a reef of rocks partly dry at low water; the Coney, or outermost, is the smallest, distant from the point of Barn Island a small ½ mile. The Rabbit is on with the centre of Barn Island bearing N. 51° W., the Coney is on with it N. 33° W., and these islets are on with each other bearing N. 19° E.

From the top of the Coney, Capt. Ross, observed by Theodolite, the highest peak of the Great Carimon to bear S. 78° 25′ W., Middle Peak of ditto S. 86° 5′ W., Tree on Tree Island S. 81° 9′ W., being nearly under the Middle Peak of the Great Carimon, Large Tree on Red Island S. 44° 37′ W., Buffalo Rock N. 89° 45′ E., South point of St. John's Island N. 61° 43′ E.

Directions.

Ships keep near the Coney in passing, as the depths within 2 cables' lengths of it are from 20 to 25 fathoms. In working here, do not stand far over toward the South Shore, in case of falling calm; for the water is deep on that side, with a rocky bottom unfavorable for anchorage, and some rocks not visible at high water, lie about a mile off the projecting part of that shore.

To sail from the Little Carimon to the Coney.

When in mid-channel between Tanjong Boulus and the Little Carimon, in 17 to 20 fathoms water, steer E. S. E. or S. Eastward, as the prevailing wind and tide require, observing to bring the North point of the Little Carimon W. ½ S., or draw gradually the North Peak of the Great Carimon in one with the South point of the Little Carimon, bearing about W. by S. ½ S., which will carry you about 2 miles to the North of Tree Island. If the wind is southerly, borrow toward it to 14 fathoms, about a mile distant, (but no nearer) which will favor you in rounding the Rabbit and Coney. The South end of Barn Island kept E. ½ S., is the best guide in passing Tree Island with a southerly wind; E. by S. is the mid-channel bearing; and in working, you may traverse with it bearing from E. 5° S. to E. S. E., in passing between Tree Island and the Sultan's Shoal. Having passed Tree Island, a S. Easterly course should be steered, to round the Coney at from 2 cables' lengths to 1 or 1½ mile distant; or if the wind and tides are adverse, or a dark night coming on, anchor to the westward of Barn Island, out of the strength of the tides.

The channel from the Coney to St. John's.

ST. JOHNS South Point, or the small islets close to, and appearing as part of that island, bear from the Coney E.25° N., distant 11 miles. A direct line, or straight course between them, is the fair track along the North side of the channel, in irregular soundings mostly from 18 to 30 fathoms, sand and gravel, or rotten rock, where you may anchor occasionally; but the South side of the strait, must be avoided, the depths there being great, and the bottom rocky and dangerous. St. John's is composed of two moderately elevated sloping islands, extending North and South, separated by a narrow gut, with 4 fathoms water in it quite through; and they appear as one island, with a regular convex outline, until close to their southern extreme, when the gap between them is perceived. Close to the South point of the Western Island there is a small islet, which is steep to, having 18 to 25 fathoms within a cable's length of it: and nearly close to the East side of the Eastern Island, there is also a round islet, having 18 and 20 fathoms water very near it on the East side. This is called Signal Island as a signal post has been fixed here, since Singapore became a British settlement. About a mile, or rather less, to the westward of the South point of St. John's,

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there are two small round islands, with 20 or 25 fathoms water near them on the S. E. side, but rocks join them to the northward.

Middle Island.

Reefnear it

Other reefs on the NOrth side of the channel.

MIDDLE ISLAND, situated on the North side of the channel, rather nearer to St. John's than to the Coney, is a low green island, with others extending from it to the N. Westward. A spit or prong, projects from the S. E. end of Middle Island; and to the E. S. Eastward about a large mile from it, there is a reef of rocks always covered, except at very low tides, some points of the rocks being then just discernible, even with the surface of the water. There is deep water inside of this reef, for the Carron, and other ships returning from China in 1804, after passing from St. John's toward the Coney in the night, got on the North side of it, having hauled over too much in the North side of the channel. The reef being a steep coral wall on that side, the Carron rubbed against it without receiving any damage. Some of the Europe fleet from China, in 1809, also got within this reef during the night, and the ship Dart struck on it, by standing too far over to the northward in working. The South point of St. John's kept E. N. E. ½ N., carries a ship clear of it to the southward. The North side of the channel between Barn Island and Middle Island, is bounded mostly by shoals and coral reefs, partly dry at low water.

Dangers in the South side of it.

DANGERS in the South side of the channel, are 1st, a reef of rocks about 3¾ or 4 miles to the S. Eastward of the Coney, always covered, except at low water it is partly visible. The Snow Forth anchored in 40 fathoms about ½ a mile from this reef, and was obliged to cut from her anchor, it having hooked a rock.

Buffalo Rock.

BUFFALO ROCK, about 4 miles N. Eastward from the former, bears East or E. 1° N. from the Coney 6 or 6½ miles, from the South point of St. John's S. 34° W. about 5½ miles, and from the centre of Middle Island S. 23° E., distant 4 miles, being situated nearly in mid-strait betwixt the latter island and the southern shore. It is a black rock about the size of a long boat, always seen above water, with soundings of 30 and 40 fathoms near it. The ship Soliman Shah, having got over on that side of the strait during light winds, was drifted by the tide close to the Buffalo Rock, and let go her anchor in 60 fathoms, from which she cut when a breeze sprung up, to keep clear of the danger. Betwixt the Buffalo Rock and the reef off the S. E. end of Middle Island, is the narrowest part of the strait; it is prudent in working here, to keep nearest the North side of the channel, making short tacks, and not to deepen above 30 or 34 fathoms toward the Buffalo Rock, and the South side of the strait.

Two Rocky Ledges.

TWO LEDGES OF ROCKS, bearing S. 42° E. and S. 45° E. from the gap, or South point of St. John's, distant 5 or 5½ miles, and about 2 leagues eastward from the Buffalo Rock, lie near each other, and part of them is always visible above water. There are overfalls, and shoal water near them to the N. E. and Eastward, which with the dangers before mentioned, make it prudent to avoid the South side of the strait, until several miles to the eastward of St. John's.*

Tides.

THE TIDES set fair through the channel about E. N. E. and W. S.W. between the Coney and St. John's, frequently very rapid, with eddies on the springs. Their velocity when strongest, is from 4 to 4½ miles per hour, making it unpleasant to anchor here in large

* It has been said, that an American ship passed along the South side of the strait, betwixt it and the Buffalo Rock, and these ledges to the S. E. of St. John's, without discovering any other dangers; but there is great reason to think, that the bottom is generally rocky on that side, and the tides very irregular, occasioned by the various inlets among the islands which form it; the passage along it, must therefore be narrow, intricate, and dangerous, and ought not to be attempted. Even were it surveyed, the northern channel being wider, would still be found preferable.

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ships when the weather is unsettled in the night, particularly if unacquainted. When the weather is favorable, and the tides moderate, you may conveniently anchor in any part of the North side of the channel, betwixt the Coney and St. John's, should calms or other circumstances render it necessary to stop tide; but the best anchorage is fronting Middle Island, upon a bank of rotten rock and course sand, having soundings on it from 15 to 18 fathoms.

How to act if a cable part in the night.

Anchorage.

Wood and water.

If at anchor during the night, the weather become squally, making a ship sheer about with a strong tide, and part her cable, do not let go another anchor, except it be very dark; but run as the wind permits, either round the Coney, and anchor to the westward of Barn Island, out of the tide; or round the South point of St. John's, and anchor to the N. East of it, in 10 to 16 fathoms, in Singapore Outer Road. With the body of St. John's bearing from W. S.W. to S.W. by W., about 1½ or 2 miles off the beach, the anchorage is good, upon the mud bank, and here the tide is very weak. In approaching this anchorage from the eastward, reduce sail in time, as the depths decrease quickly from 30 and 26, to 16 fathoms on the bank, and in a dark night, it would be imprudent to anchor under 12 or 14 fathoms, for Rocky Flats stretch out from the islands that lie between St. John's and Singapore, with very irregular soundings near their edges of 19, to 6 or 4 fathoms. On Barn Island, firewood may be procured, and at a little distance from the shore of the gap that separates the two islands of St. John's, there is said to be a pond of good water on the easternmost island, overshaded by the trees.

Set of the tides irregular.

Abreast of the South end of St. John's, a ship ought not to anchor if it can be avoided, for the water is deep, and the tides run in eddies, with greater rapidity than in any other part of the strait. The flood has been observed in both monsoons, to run to the westward 10 or 12 hours at a time, or even 18 hours, strong and weak, alternately; at other times, the flood sets only 6 hours to the westward, and the ebb the same length of time to the eastward, but the tides throughout Singapore Strait, are seldom very regular, The perpendicular rise and fall, is about 12 to 14 feet on the springs.

To sail through the channel from the Coney to S. John's;

THE CHANNEL betwixt the Coney and St. John's, should not be attempted in the night, if unacquainted, or the weather be not clear; but in settled weather, there is little danger to be apprehended in passing through the channel with the tide, in a handy middle sized ship, even with a contrary wind, if a little acquainted, by attending to the following instructions.

If the night is not very dark, either Barn Island or St. John's will be visible, and when mid-way between them, both at the same time. As a guide, use the South end of either of these islands, which ever is most conspicuous. The South end of Barn Island W. ¾ S. W. by S. ½ S. are good bearings; or the South end of St. John's from N. E. by E. to E. N. E. ½ N.; but when near it, the South end of this island may be brought from E. N. E. ½ N. to N. E. in working. The narrowest part of the channel, is when the Buffalo Rock bears S. by E. to South, betwixt it and the reef projecting to the eastward of Middle Island; and to know in the night, when you are in this part of the channel, Middle Island will in general be perceived nearer, and more distinctly than the other islands on the North side of the channel. When approaching the meridian of the Buffalo Rock, observe, that it bears S. 23° E. from the centre of Middle Island; when, therefore, this island is bearing about N. N.W., keep the South end of St. John's E. N. E. ½ N. to E. N. E. ¾ N., or the South end of Barn Island W. by S. ½ S., which is a good bearing until about 2 miles to the eastward of Middle Island; being then past the reef on the North side of the channel, and well to the eastward of the Buffalo Rock, steer direct for the South point of St. John's, or make short tacks if the wind is contrary, to pass it at a small distance.

Geo. Site of Singapore.

SINGAPORE TOWN, in lat. 1° 17′ 22″ N. lon. 103° 51′ E. (the Flagstaff) is situated 4 miles directly North from the centre of St. John's, or North a little westerly from Signal

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Island, and it is rapidly advancing in population, and commercial prosperity. This place will probably soon become of great importance, both as a central depot for trade, and as a naval station for the protection of British commerce in the event of a war, the harbour being perfectly secure fur numerous ships of any size, and its proximity to the China, and Java Seas, adds greatly to the value of this lately acquired settlement. Pulo Panjang or Long Island, has a bill on it, and is separated from the South point of Singapore, by a narrow passage leading into the Old Little Strait of Singapore, now called New Harbour, which is fronted by Pulo Branni, a small round island, and on the North side of this island, between it and Singapore Point, is the passage, having soundings of 15 to 10 fathoms in the entrance, and from 9 to 8 fathoms inside. Here, ships might be easily protected by batteries erected on the contiguous hills or shores, which form this secure harbour, and docks may hereafter, probably be constructed at this place, for affording repairs to shipping.

There is a cove to the N. Eastward of the town, about ¾ of a mile in length, and ¼ of a mile wide, with depths of 9 to 6 feet water, convenient for proas or small vessels, the entrance of which, is formed on the eastern side by Sandy Point. Deep Water Point, distant about 1½ mile East from the point last mentioned, has 5 and 6 fathoms water very near it, and inside of a narrow spit of 2½ fathoms, which fronts it at the distance of a small half mile.

In the Outer Road of Singapore, there is a narrow mud bank, extending about 2 miles nearly N. E. by E. and S.W. by W., which might be alarming to strangers, although the least water on it is 4¾ fathoms near its western extremity, with Signal Island bearing S. by W. to S. S.W., about 1½ to 2 miles: the East end of this mud bank bears South from Deep Water Point 1¾ mile, and has soundings near it all round, from 7 or 8, to 9, 10, and 11 fathoms. About ½ a mile inside of the mud bank the depths are 11 and 12 fathoms; and ¼ mile farther in, 8 or 9 fathoms, about 1½ mile distance from Singapore Town, and the same from Sandy Point, which is the proper anchorage in the road or harbour. Under 8 or 7 fathoms, the water shoals quickly to 3½ fathoms, about a mile off Sandy Point, bearing about North, and Singapore Town W. by N. ½ N., which is a convenient anchorage for small vessels.

To sail into Singapore Road, in coming from the westward; after having passed near to St. John's and Signal Island, steer N. by E. or North, as the wind or tide may require, and you will shoal to 5 fathoms on the mud bank, and afterward deepen to 11 or 12 fathoms: continue the same course till in 9 or 8 fathoms, then reduce sail, to be ready to anchor, which may be conveniently done in 7 or 6 fathoms, with the Flagstaff on the hill at the back of the town, about W. N.W., Signal Island about S. by W., and Deep Water Point N. E., off. shore about 1½ mile. If working into the road, do not borrow toward the islands between St. John's and Singapore, nearer than to bring Signal Island to bear South, or S. ½ E. at farthest. It is proposed to erect a lighthouse at Singapore, as a guide for ships in the night when entering into the road, as they are liable to mistake the various lights of the town.

Sailing Dircetions.

FROM THE SOUTH END of St. John's, Pedro Branco bears E. by N., distant 11 or 12 leagues, and until several miles past St. John's, the South side of the strait must be avoided, on account of the ledges of rocks and overfalls already mentioned; but the North side is safe to approach to 12 or 10 fathoms, betwixt St. John's and the Red Cliffs near the East end of Singapore island, for the depths along the South side of this island, decrease pretty regularly from 36 or 40 fathoms in mid-strait, to 12 or 10 fathoms within 1 mile of the shore, all good anchoring ground. The depths in mid-strait, are generally between 32 and 40 fathoms from St. John's until nearly abreast of the Red Cliffs, and then decrease to 20 or 18 fathoms: they are irregular from 12 to 16 fathoms near 13attaw N. E. Point, which bounds the entrance of Rhio Strait on the West side, and bears E. ¼ S. from the South end of St. John's, distant about 4 leagues.

The Southern Shore, adjacent to Battam N. E. Point, is safe to approach within 2 or 3

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miles, but mid-strait is the best track with a fair wind, or even in working, to benefit by the strength of the tide, when it is favorable. If in deep water, and losing ground, haul in toward the Singapore side, and anchor in 15, to 18 or 20 fathoms. When the East part of the Red Cliffs, or the East end of Singapore Island is brought to bear about N. by W., the North side of the strait ought not to be approached nearer than 2 leagues, but the mid-channel track ought to be preserved, in passing Johore Shoal, off the entrance of the Old Strait of Singapore. The South coast of Singapore Island, is level and woody, with two Red Cliffs, one of which being to the northward of the East point, is not visible unless the entrance of the strait is well open: the opposite side of the strait is also woody, but not so level as the former.

Johore Shoal,

With direction.

JOHORE SHOAL, is composed of hard sand, having 2½ fathoms on its shoalest part at low water, 3 and 3½ fathoms on its southern extremity, and from 12, to 14 or 15 fathoms very near to it, on the South, East, and Western sides. The South end of St. John's bears from its eastern extremity S.W. by W. ½ W.; Johore Hill N. N. E. South Cape of Johore E. by N. ½ N., and it is 3 or 4 miles distant from Johore Point, and 4 or 4¼ mites distant from the East point of Singapore Island, directly fronting the entrance of the Old Strait of Singapore. A small hill on the East side of this strait, to the northward of Johore Hill, called False Johore Hill, bears North from the East end of the shoal, and this small hill is in one with the East point of Singapore Island bearing N. 40° E. As the water shoals quickly from 17 or 18, to 15, 12, then 4 fathoms on its eastern extreme, do not borrow under 16 or 17 fathoms toward it, but keep about mid-strait in the night, attending to the lead if your distance from either shore is not distinctly perceived. In day-light, the Island St. John's kept W. by S., is a fair bearing in passing the shoal, and also in passing through the strait to the eastward: but if the South end of St. John's is kept to the westward of S. 65° W., you will pass clear of the shoal. Captain W. Owen examined this shoal in H. M. brig, Seaflower, in April and September, 1807, and found it extend from the easternmost Red Cliffs of Singapore Island in a long flat spit to the eastward, with 2½ fathoms on it at low water, and no apparent passage between it and that island, except for small vessels, but the water shoals gradually toward its western part. Between the East end of the shoal and Johore bluff point, there is a safe channel 2 or, 2½ miles wide, leading into the Old Strait of Singapore, with depths of 8 to 12 fathoms, decreasing to 5 and 4½ fathoms near the shore, and to 6 fathoms near the North side of the shoal. To avoid Johore Shoal in coming from the eastward, come no nearer to the North shore than 17 fathoms after Johore Hill bears North or Barbucit Hill N. E. ¾ E.* The breadth of the channel from Johore Shoal to Battam N. E. Point, nearly opposite to it, on the South shore, is about 6 miles, and the soundings between them, are mostly from 20 to 24 fathoms in the fair track, decreasing toward the edge of the shoal, and also near the South shore to the westward of the point; but to the N. Eastward of this point, off the entrance of Rhio Strait, there are 30 and 34 fathoms in some places. Close to Battam N. E. Point, there is a small island with rocks contiguous to it.

Johore Hill and the adjacent coast.

JOHORE HILL, is of a regular oblong sloping form, covered with trees, situated a little inland from the bluff, called Johore Point, which forms the East side of the entrance of the Old Strait of Singapore; a little inside of which, the river and town of Johore is situated, formerly a place of considerable trade, but now unfrequented. Betwixt the East point of

* The Kent, in February, 1708, from Point Romania, kept in 10, 12, and 13 fathoms to Johore Point, and in steering out to the southward got 4 fathoms on Johore Shoal, and the boat near the ship had 3 and 2½ fathoms coral rocks. Her journal has the following remark; "To avoid this dangerous shoal, let no one come nearer the Bluff White Sandy Point (Red Cliffs) that forms the West side of the entrance into Johore, than 12 fathoms, which is about 5 miles off shore." In the London's journal, June 26th, 1700, it is stated, that Johore Shoal projects ¾ of the strait's breadth from the western shore. This ship lay about a month at Johore, taking in pepper.

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Singapore Island and Johore Shoal, the passage is not safe for ships of large size, as the shoal is thought to be joined to the point by a spit of 2 and 2½ fathoms, which Captain Court passed over in a small vessel.

Barbucit Hill and the coast.

BARBUCIT HILL, in lat. 1° 24½ N., bearing from Pedro Branco W. 17½° N., distant 14½ miles, is a regular pyramid rising from the low land, about 2½ leagues E. N. Eastward from Johore Hill; and being only about 5 miles inland from Point Romania, it is used as a mark in entering the strait. About mid-way between Johore Point and Barbucit Hill, the land of Johore projects farthest to the southward, and is called the South Cape, which bears nearly E. ½ S. from Johore Point, and West from Pedro Branco; the land between it and Johore Point forms a bay, with shoal water in it, but the depths decrease gradually. There is an indifferent watering place in this bay, near the second point to the westward of the South Cape, inside of a low black rock, situated near the shore.

Point Romania, contiguous bays and watering places.

POINT ROMANIA, in lat. 1° 22½′ N., distant about 5 miles to the E. N. E. of the South Cape, forms the S. E. extremity of the Malay Peninsula; which, with the circumjacent coast, is level land, and covered with trees. Close to Point Romania on the West side, lies Romania River, having 2 or 3 feet water at its narrow entrance, at low tide, and gable by boats 2 or 3 miles inland. Although nothing is found here but timber, fish, and reptiles, water may be procured with ease in this river, during the N. E. monsoon; but there are several better and more convenient watering places, in the sandy bays betwixt Point Romania and a small round island called Watering Island, about 3 miles to the westward, directly under Barbucit Hill. Inside of this island, there is an excellent stream upon the main, where fresh water may be got with facility in either monsoon; but in the N. E. monsoon, the streams betwixt it and Point Romania are more convenient. In the eastern extremity of the long sandy bay, which contains Watering Island at its western part, there is a large rivulet, having shoal water projecting a considerable way out from the entrance, with rocks containing beds of excellent oysters.

The coast safe to approach.

The whole of the coast of Johore, from Johore Point to Point Romania, may be approached by the lead; the water shoals quickly from 25, to 15, 11, and 10 fathoms, on the edge of the bank that fronts it, then more gradually to 4 fathoms, and there is thought to be no danger at the distance of ½ a mile from the shore. Some spots lie near the shore betwixt Johore Point and Point Romania, one of which has 7 fathoms on it, and 13 fathoms around; but there is said, to be no less water on any of these detached spots.

Romania Islands rocks or reefs near them.

ROMANIA ISLANDS, fronting the point of this name, are six in number, the westernmost or largest one is composed of two islands very near each other, joined by a reef. The Northernmost, and S. Easternmost, are two barren rocks, but the others are covered with trees; they extend about 2½ miles N. E. and S.W., the largest being within a mile of the point, and the nearest to it. There is a rock about 12 feet above water near the South point of South Island, and South Reef, consisting of straggling rocks extending to the eastward, which are bold to approach on the South side: but there is a rocky patch with 3½ fathoms on it, about 1½ mile South from Point Romania, and the same distance S. S. W. from the S. W. or largest island.

The Whales Crown, a rock scarcely visible at high tide, lies ¾ of a mile or more, to the eastward of South Reef, having 7 fathoms close to it, and 8 or 9 fathoms around. There is a shoal S. W. from the northernmost islet, about a cable's length, the other rocks amongst these islands are mostly above water, and there are 7 fathoms between South Reef and the islands; there is also deep water around the large island, and betwixt it and the others, with soft bottom, excepting near the rocks. South Reef extends N. E. and S. W. about three cables lengths; from its S. W. point, the bluff, next to Point Romania bears N. by W. ½ W.,

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Barbucit Hill on with the North Hump of the Large Island W. by N. ½ N., and the point of Watering Island West, having on it a remarkable green tree.

Little Inner Channel,

LITTLE INNER CHANNEL, formed between Point Romania and the islands, may be considered safe for small vessels, with a leading wind, and forms a good harbour in the S. W. monsoon, the bottom being all soft. Capt. Owen, in H. M. brig Seaflower, found no less water than 5 fathoms in the fair way, in the northern part of the channel, which appeared clear, and of width sufficient for small ships; other navigators have found 4¼ or 4½ fathoms at low water, in some places. Point Romania, is bold to approach, having 4 fathoms within 30 yards of it, 7 fathoms a little farther out, deepening to 12 fathoms toward the largest island, which is a large half mile distant from the point. A ship entering the channel from the southward, or leaving it, may borrow toward South Reef and the largest island, where the depths are greater than near the main; and the best track betwixt it and the other islands, is about mid-channel, or rather nearest to the islands, where the depths are generally from 5 to 9 fathoms.

and contiguous coast.

There is an excellent watering river close round the Rocky Point, about 4 cables' lengths to the northward of Point Romania; the country abounds with various kinds of timber, wild elephants, buffalos, mouse deer, hogs, guanas, monkies, peacocks, &c. with oysters upon the rocks; and it is not inhabited, hereabout. Near Romania River, there is a considerable extent of forest, without much underwood, which is easily penetrated; but in other parts, the woods are generally impervious.

Great Inner Channel.

GREAT INNER CHANNEL, bounded on the West side by the South Reef, the Whales Crown, and a Sunken Rock about ¾ of a mile to the N. E. of the latter; and bounded to the East, by the Southern extremity of Romania Outer Reef, is about 2¾ miles wide between these dangers; but it was little known to Europeans, until Capt. Ross surveyed these channels and dangers in 1818, although formerly used by Chinese junks and coasting vessels.

This channel is safe in day-light, by keeping 1½ mile, at least, to the, eastward of Romania Islands, to give a birth to the dangers near them; and not increasing the distance from the islands above 3 or 3¼ miles, to avoid the S. W. extremity of the Outer Reef. The best track is to keep in mid-channel, about 2 miles from the islands, until the northernmost island bears W. S. W., and then the channel is clear from the Outer Reef to the coast, or about 5 miles wide. The soundings throughout this channel being generally uneven, do not answer as a guide; but they are usually from 7 or 8, to 10 or 11 fathoms, both in mid-channel, and near the dangers on either side, excepting a patch of 5 fathoms about a mile W. by N. from the S. W. end of the Outer Reef, and bearing E. by N. from the northernmost island 2½ miles.

If the wind should be adverse when a ship is proceeding through the southern part of this channel, she ought not to approach the Outer Reef nearer than to bring Pedro Branco S. E., or on the transit line between it and False Barbucit Hill: nor approach the Romania Islands and their adjoining dangers nearer than to bring Pedro Branco E. S. E. ½ S., or on a transit line* between False Bintang Hill and the North Point of Romania, which is situated about 4 miles to the northward of True Point Romania.

Romania outer Reef.

ROMANIA OUTER REEF, is formed of detached spits of sand and patches of coral rock, on which the least water appears to be 2¾ fathoms; and there are gaps of deep water, from 6 to 10 fathoms, betwixt some of them.

* My large Plan of these Dangers and the Soundings around them, in the entrance of Singapore Strait, exhibits these transit lines or marks for the channel.

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The patch of the outer reef nearest to Pedro Branco, bears N. N.W. ¾ W. from it 4½ to 4¾ miles, which is steep to, and dangerous, having on it 18 feet rocks. On this patch, the Anna struck in December, 1800: with the wind N.Westerly, rounding the edge of the reef very close, in soundings from 12 to 9, and once 7 fathoms, a strong ebb tide running to the northward, horsed us amongst the eddies upon the reef, and we had several casts of 7 fathoms. The outer edge of it formed a steep wall, very conspicuous by the deep blue water outside, and white discoloured water within, where the ship touched the rocks in hauling off the reef, although drawing only 19 feet water. She took a considerable careen by the fresh wind and strong tide, and grazed over the rocks into 12 fathoms the first cast, Pedro Branco bearing then S. S. E. ¾ E. about 4¾ miles, southern island off Point Romania W. S.W. ¼ S., South point of the largest island W. by S. ¼ S., and its southernmost hump in one with the South Cape or westernmost point of Romania. A few cables lengths to the southward of this dangerous patch, the depth increases to 16 and 17 fathoms, and it is thought to be the S.Westernmost danger of the outer reef.

To the N. Eastward of the patch last mentioned, there are several others, with 3 and,3½ fathoms on them: the outermost of these, among which H. M. S. Panther got embarrassed, are extensive, and their southern part bears from Pedro Branco N. by W. ¼ W. to N. by W. ¾ W. distant 5 or 5½ miles; they stretch from thence to the northward 1 or 1½ mile, and have 9 and 10 fathoms close to them on the East and S. E. sides. Another spit to the N. Westward of these, bears N. N.W. from Pedro Branco, and E. by N. from Barbucit Hill; between them, the ship General Baird passed, in 6, 8, and 10 fathoms water.

The northernmost patch of Romania outer reef, is in lat. 1° 31′ N., distant from the coast abreast about 10 miles; from Bintang Hill it bears N. 3° W., from Pedro Branco N.9° E. distant 11 miles, and about the same distance from the northernmost Island off Point Romania; from the Largest Island it bears N. 52° E., from Barbucit Hill N. 65° E., and about E. ½ N. from False Barbucit Hill. There is probably no danger on this patch, although the Seaflower had overfalls of 6 and 7 fathoms hard sand on it; but the Hornby shoaled suddenly from 13, to 10, 7, 5, and 4½ fathoms upon it, in coming from the northward, and deepened in hauling out to the eastward as fast as the lead could be hove, to 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 fathoms; it ought, therefore, to be avoided, as 4½ fathoms is too little water for a large ship when there is much swell. Betwixt this northernmost patch of the reef, and the opposite coast, there is no danger, the depths inside of it being generally from 10 to 15 fathoms; and there seems to be a channel of deep water to the S.W. and Southward, between it and the other more connected patches of the reef. Along the inner edge of the Outer Reef the soundings are mostly 7 or 8 fathoms, and 9, 10, or 11 fathoms about ½ a mile from it, and from thence well over toward the coast nearly the same depths, excepting that 7 or 8 fathoms are got in some places.

False Barbucit Hill.

FALSE BARBUCIT HILL, in lat. 1° 30′ N., is a low sloping hill near the sea, appearing like a tope of trees a little more elevated than the adjacent coast, which is all rather low and woody to the northward of Barbucit Hill. The False Hill bears from Pedro Branco N. 45° W., and being discernible much sooner than the other, during hazy weather, answers as a guide in coming from the North toward the northern extremity of the outer reef.

Geo. Site of Pedro Branco:

the adjacent dangers, and soundings.

PEDRO BRANCO (or White Rock) situated in the middle of the entrance of Singapore strait, is in lat. 1° 20′ N., lon.104° 25½′ E. or 2° 10½′ E. from Malacca, and 9 miles West from Pulo Aor, by mean of many chronometers:* from the largest island off Point

* By many chronometric admeasurements in different voyages to China, corresponding within a mile of each ocher, I made it in this longitude; but Capt. Ross made it only 7¼ miles West from the East Peak of Pulo Aor. Captain Keith Forbes, landed on the S. E. part of Pedro Branco, April 13th, 1813, and had 17 fathoms close to it, which was covered with oysters at the water's edge, from whence a small boat might be filled in an hour.

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Romania, it bears E. 15° S. distant about 8 miles, the same distance from the shore of Bintang, and is in one with the centre of Bintang Hill bearing S. 12½° E. It is small, of white appearance, by birds' dung, not much elevated at high tide, but may be seen 9 or 10 miles from the quarter-deck of a large ship, being just visible when Point Romania bears North, distant 3 or 4 miles; in the night, it cannot be discerned until close to. On the North and N.W. sides, Pedro Branco is steep to, having soundings of 17 fathoms close to the rock, and 30 to 36 fathoms near it, decreasing to 16 and 17 fathoms to the northward, close to the edge of Romania Reef. To the southward, it is dangerous to approach, for two ledges of rocks, called the S. E. Rocks, near to each other, lie about a mile or more to the S. S. Eastward off it, which are very little above the surface at high water. But the S.W. Rocks, is the principal danger, when proceeding through the South channel, which consist of three pointed rocks very little detached from each other, with 8 and 9 fathoms close to, and betwixt them, 16 or 17 fathoms at a very small distance in the stream of them. They bear from Barbucit Hill E. 27° S., from Pedro Branco S. 16° W. distant about 2½ miles, are not visible until the ebb has been made some time, and they are nearly covered before the stream of flood begins to run; from 16 and 17 fathoms close to this danger, the depths are rather irregular to 9 or 8 fathoms, within 2 miles off the Bintang shore.

Geo. Site of Bintang Hill.

BINTANG HILL, in lat. 1° 5′ N., lon. 104° 29′ E., bearing S. 12½° E. from Pedro Branco, distant about 5½ leagues, may be seen in clear weather 14 leagues, and answers as a mark in approaching the entrance of the strait from the northward. When viewed from that direction, it forms a saddle, and adjoining to it on the North side, there is a small conical hill called False Bintang Hill, or Little Hill, the summit of which is central with the saddle of the large hill bearing S. 6° E. When the centre of the Saddle bears South, the summit of the Little Hill is just open with the western shoulder of the Large Hill, and this mark or bearing of Bintang Hill, is a safe guide to carry a ship to the eastward of, but pretty near the outer reef of Romania.

The North side of the Island Bintang, extends nearly E. ½ N. and W. ½ S. about 6 leagues, forming a concavity in the middle of this space; and like most of the other land bounding the Strait of Singapore, it is covered with trees, and excepting the hills inland, not much elevated. About a mile from the shore, N. Eastward of the point that bounds Rhio Strait on the East side, there is a small island, with other rocks or islets near the shore, which should not be approached too close, as a patch with only 2 fathoms on it, lies 1½ mile off the shore of Bintang, and bears S. by W. ¾ W. from Pedro Branco: nor should the Bintang shore be borrowed on, in general under 10 or 9 fathoms, when ships are proceeding through the South channel, for the soundings near it are often irregular, and do not afford a sufficient guide.

Bintang, is the largest island on the South side of Singapore Strait; Pulo Battam on the West side of Rhio Strait, is also of considerable size, from whence, a chain of islands of various magnitudes, separated by narrow guts, extends westward nearly opposite to the Rabbit and Coney.

Eastern Bank.

Patch of s fathoms.

EASTERN BANK, extends from the N. E. part of Bintang, about North and N. by W. 7 leagues, having soundings upon it generally from 10 or 11, to 13 and 14 fathoms. To the distance of 2 or 3 leagues from the N. E. part of Bintang, the depths on it are 10 to 12 fathoms; East from Pedro Branco about 2 leagues, they are irregular, 16 or 18 fathoms in some places; and 11, 12, to 14 fathoms within 1 or 2 miles of that rock on the East side. To the E. N. E. and N. E. of Pedro Branco, about 3 or 4 leagues, the soundings are generally pretty regular on the Eastern Bank, 13 to 14 fathoms, sand and gravel: and in standing off it to the eastward, they gradually increase to 20 fathoms, at 2 or 3 leagues distance. On the northern part of the Eastern Bank, in lat. 1° 32′ N., there is a shoal patch, the least

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water on it 8 fathoms hard bottom, to 10 and 11 fathoms the general depth. It is of small extent, Bintang Hill bearing from it S. ½ W., Barbucit Hill about W. S.W., False Barbucit Hill W. ¾ S., and the northernmost patch of Romania outer reef W. ½ S. or W. by S. distant 4 or 5 miles. Ships getting soundings of 8 to 10 fathoms on this patch of the Eastern Bank, during hazy weather, sometimes think they are on the northern patch of Romania outer reef, then haul more to the eastward, which renders them liable to fall to leeward of the strait, if unacquainted.

Soundings near Romania reef, and in the entrance of the strait.

THE SOUNDINGS are mostly 13 to 15 fathoms, a little irregular in some parts, to the distance of 4 or 5 miles northward from the northernmost patch of Romania outer reef, and from the patch of the Eastern Bank; and they continue nearly the same, until within 3 or 4 miles of the coast: farther to the northward, the depths increase gradually in steering for Pulo Aor, with a regular decrease contiguous to the main land.

Between the shoal patch of the Eastern Bank, and the northernmost patch of the reef, the soundings are a little irregular from 13 to 17 fathoms. Farther to the southward, between the Eastern Bank and the reef, the water deepens to 19, 20, and 22 fathoms; and when Pedro Branco is approached, soundings of 32 to 36 fathoms are found near it to the northward and N.W., decreasing in the North side of the channel to 17 or 16 fathoms sand and gravel, near the southern patches of Romania Reef. To the S.W. and westward of Pedro Branco, the soundings near it are 34 to 28 fathoms; but there are some small banks W. by S. and W. by S. ½ S. about 5 miles from it, with 10 to 15 fathoms water on them, and 20 to 30 fathoms around. Some ships have been in great danger, by getting shoal soundings in this situation, mistaking them for the soundings on the edge of Romania Reef, when attempting to pass out of the strait between Pedro Branco and that reef, in the night. From Romania Islands westward, the strait is clear to Johore Shoal, and the soundings are 18 to 25 fathoms in the fair track, rather more than mid-strait toward the northern shore, decreasing regularly to the latter. In mid-strait, the depths are from 26 to 32 fathoms, decreasing to either side; and the only danger to be avoided in making long tacks, is the Pan Shoal, within the entrance of Rhio Strait, which has been described in the directions for sailing through that strait; but it is out of the track of ships proceeding through the Strait of Singapore.

Tides.

THE TIDES near Pedro Branco, and contiguous to the reef off the Islands and Point Romania, are frequently very irregular, in time, velocity, and direction. In the strength of the N. E. monsoon, when the current runs to the S. S. Eastward from Pulo Aor across the equator, the flood sometimes runs into the entrance of the strait to the S.Westward, 10 or 12 hours at a time; but the ebb generally runs with the greatest velocity, and of longest duration, in both seasons, particularly in the S.W. monsoon. About the full and change of the moon, the ebb often sets out strong during the night, for 10 or 12 hours together, but not very rapid in the first and latter part: at other times, it is fluctuating, and not strong. Betwixt Pedro Branco and the edge of Romania. Reef, the strength of the ebb runs generally about N E. by N. when regular, and the flood in the opposite direction; but I have sometimes observed the tide to set all round the compass during the night and once N. N.W. 2 miles an hour, directly over the reef. About the northern patches of the reef, the tides have also been found at times very irregular, setting East and West, and all round the compass; but their general direction in that part, is nearly North and South, or within two points of the meridian. In the South Channel, betwixt Pedro Branco and Bintang, the flood sets about W. S.W. and W. by S., and the ebb in the opposite direction along the Bintang shore, but subject to irregularities.

On full and change of the moon, it is high water at Pedro Branco about 11 hours, when any regularity is preserved by the tides. The velocity of the ebb when strongest, is from 4 to 4½ miles an hour, in the entrance of the strait, and between Point Romania and Pedro

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Branco; but the flood is not so strong. The velocity of the tides during the neaps, is from 2 to 3 miles an hour, frequently very irregular.

North Channel.

Directions to sail through it into the China Sea.

NORTH CHANNEL, formed between Pedro Branco and Romania Reef, has been hitherto in general use; but it is not quite so wide, nor so safe to adopt in the night, for running out of the strait, as the South Channel along the Bintang shore. Having passed Johore Shoal, about mid-strait, and intending to proceed out of the strait through the North Channel, steer for Pedro Branco, if day-light. With the wind at southward, keep well out from the Romania shore, and endeavour to make Pedro Branco bearing E. N. E. or E. by N., then borrow toward it with the ebb tide, to give a proper birth to the edge of Romania Reef, in steering out of the strait: and do not approach the reef under 16 or 17 fathoms when Pedro Branco bears from S. E. to South, particularly with a southerly wind. After Pedro Branco is brought to bear S. S.W., edge away to the N. Eastward, observing to keep it to the westward of S. S. W. whilst in sight, or having brought the centre of Bintang Saddle Hill to bear South, if visible, steer to the northward along the edge of the reef, keeping that bearing. The summit of the False, or Little Hill, will then be open with the western shoulder of the Large Saddle Hill, which will carry you to the northward between the shoal patch of the eastern bank and the northern patch of the reef, in soundings from 16 to 13 fathoms. The centre of Bintang Hill must not be brought to the eastward of South in passing the N. Eastern part of the reef; for if it bear S. 3° E., you will get upon the north-easternmost patch of the reef, where there are overfalls of hard ground from 6 or 7, to 4½ fathoms.

With a fair wind, or if night is approaching after passing Pedro Branco, or thick weather coming on, do not round the reef close, but continue to steer about 3 leagues to the N. East, before a direct course is pursued for Pulo Aor.

If not so far advanced as to discern Pedro Branco before dark, haul in toward the land, a little to the West of Point Romania, and anchor in from 10 to 18 fathoms, during the night; for it is then dangerous to run out betwixt the reef and Pedro Branco, unless the weather is settled and clear, the breeze favorable and commanding, and the velocity and direction of the tide known at the time; because, the soundings to the westward of Pedro Branco, are irregular in some places, and not a certain guide.

If, however, you are resolved to run out during a clear night (which may sometimes be done by those well acquainted with the channel), pass Point Romania about 4 or 5 miles distance, in soundings of 18 to 22 fathoms, and endeavour to preserve these depths in rounding the reef, borrowing a little on either side of the channel, as the prevailing wind or tide render advisable. When abreast of Pedro Branco, from 18 to 22 fathoms are good soundings with a fair wind, and you will then be much nearer to the reef, than to the former. Be careful on the ebb tide, even with a commanding breeze, not on any account to shoal under 17 or 18 fathoms, until Pedro Branco is passed, and bearing to the westward of South; for with a strong ebb tide, you may be drifted on the edge of the reef without warning, as the distance from 20 to 12 fathoms is very little, and there are 13 and 12 fathoms close to some of the dangerous patches. After passing Pedro Branco, continue to steer 2 or 3 leagues to the eastward, to make certain of being clear of the outer patches of Romania Reef, then a direct course to the northward may be pursued, toward Pulo Aor.

South Channel.

SOUTH CHANNEL, formed betwixt Pedro Branco and its adjoining rocks to the north, and the Bintang shore to the south, being rather wider than the North Channel, is preferable for sailing through in the night, although until recently, it was little known.* The depths

* The Rooke frigate went through the channel betwixt Pedro Branco and Bintang in 1700. Afterward, it seems to have been obscured from the knowledge of Europeans for a great length of time, for English navigators knew of no safe passage, until Captain J. Elmore, in the ship Gratitude, went through in 1734. It is now much frequented, particularly by ships going out, or entering the strait in the night.

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in the South Channel, although not very regular, are usually 7, 8, and 9 fathoms near the shore of Bintang, from 10 to 12 fathoms in mid-channel, and 15 or 16 fathoms near the ledges of rocks to the S. E. and S.Westward of Pedro Branco. The depths in this channel, are much greater to the westward of the meridian of Pedro Branco, than upon, or to the eastward of its meridian, which ought to be kept in remembrance, when passing through in the night.

To sail out by it;

In proceeding out of Singapore Strait, if not so far advanced as to discern Pedro Branco before the evening, steer for the South Channel, by hauling toward the N.W. point of Bintang, if the wind be southerly, observing to give a birth to the small island, and patch of 2 fathoms that lies about 1½ mile off that shore. After passing this small island and the patch in 14 or 15 fathoms, keep within 3 or 3½ miles of the Bintang shore, particularly when abreast of the ledge of rocks to the S. S.W. of Pedro Branco, that bounds the channel on the North side in this part, which is nearly 6 miles wide betwixt the ledge and the Bintang shore. There are 16 and 17 fathoms very near these rocks, and when abreast of them, from 14 to 12 fathoms is a safe track; but the best guide is, to take the soundings from the Bintang shore, hauling in occasionally to 12 fathoms, but not under that depth in the night, and edging out to 11 and 12 fathoms. The bottom in 8 fathoms contiguous to the shore, is often hard sand; but out in 10 and 11 fathoms, about mid-channel, it is clay in some parts, or sand and gravel mixed with clay. You may stand toward the Bintang shore in some places to 8 fathoms in working, during the day, and out to 13 or 14 fathoms; but in the, night, do not deepen to more than 13 fathoms, when abreast of the ledges of rocks adjacent to Pedro Branco.

About S. by E. ¾ E. from Pedro Branco, Capt. Cowman had 5½ fathoms on a bank about 2½ miles from Bintang, with 7 and 8 fathoms close round it, when passing out of the strait of Rhio by the South Channel in the night.

Capt. J. Lamb, of the Palmira, working out through the South Channel, in May, 1821, during the night, put the helm down in 10 fathoms, to stand off from the Bintang shore, but owing to a strong tide running out, the ship missed stays, and although she wore quickly round, shoaled to 6 fathoms: steered then North, with a light breeze, for about half an hour, and was swept along shore by the rapid tide, over very irregular ground, the depths varying from 9 to 6 fathoms at a cast, and once had ¼ less 5 fathoms. During this time, Bintang Saddle Hill was hidden by the low land, and when seen over the land after standing out to 10 fathoms, it bore S. by E. ½ E. From the N. E. extremity of Bintang, a Reef projects to a considerable distance, which ought not to be approached too close.

When proceeding out by night in clear weather, to prevent getting too near the Bintang shore, Capt. Lamb observes, that the summit of Bintang Hill should be kept visible over the low land, and when brought to bear S. by W., you may then edge off to the northward, if certain that the ebb tide is running out of the strait. But if the wind is unsteady, and the direction of the tide unknown, continue to steer N. Eastward for some time, until well outside of Pedro Branco and Romania Reef, to prevent the flood from drifting you near either of these dangers.

You may anchor in the South Channel conveniently day or night, the depths in mid-channel being generally 11 or 12 fathoms, and near the Bintang shore, 9 to 7 or 6 fathoms irregular, hard sand, or sand and clay.

or by Rhio Strait when the N. E. monsoon blows strong.

Ships bound from Singapore to the coast of Borneo, or intending to proceed by the Eastern Passage toward China, are frequently several days working out of Singapore Strait, when the N. E. monsoon blows strong into it at times, in part of November, December, and January. It may therefore, be advisable, for a ship after reaching the entrance of Rhio Strait, and finding the weather dark and cloudy, with a strong gale blowing from the N. Eastward, not to lose time working out to the eastward with the ebb tide, and anchoring on the flood; for in such case, she may save considerable fatigue to the crew, wear of ground tackle, and

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probably some time, by proceeding to the S. Eastward through Rhio Strait. Here, she will have smooth water and favorable breezes, and when through it, she may haul to the S. Eastward between Geldria's Shoal and Lingin, then steer eastward for the Carimata Passage, as the wind generally draws to the northward when the equator is approached. In the Section marked, "Sailing Directions from Banca Strait to Pulo Aor," remarks are given for sailing through the Strait of Rhio.

DIRECTIONS to ENTER SINGAPORE STRAIT, and to RETURN BY IT, and MALACCA STRAIT.

To sail from Pulo Aor, to Singapore Strait;

DURING the strength of the N. E. monsoon, the current sets generally to the South or S. S. E., between Pulo Aor and the East end of Bintang, by which, ships running for Singapore Strait, are liable to fall to the southward of its entrance in thick weather, if proper allowance be not made. If at anchor under Pulo Aor, you ought not to weigh until past midnight, particularly with a fresh breeze, that the approach be not too close to the entrance of the strait before day-light; and the same rule may be observed if you heave to, near the island in the evening, to let some hours pass over prior to bearing away for the strait.

in clear,

Departing from Pulo Aor, steer to bring it bearing about North, when disappearing: if the weather be clear, Bintang dill and Pulo Aor may be seen together, but this seldom happens. Do not bring the centre of Bintang Saddle Hill to the eastward of South, until Pedro Branco is visible from the deck; for with the hill bearing South, you will not pass far outside of the N. Easternmost patch of Romania Reef; but it is a safe bearing if the compass be true, and will lead down in soundings of 16 to 13 fathoms.

or in hazy weather.

In hazy weather, Bintang Hill is seldom visible until you have passed the eastern part of the reef; in such case, having Pulo Aor disappearing about North, a course S. by W. to S. S.W. may be requisite to counteract the S. Easterly currents, or the ebb tide setting out of the strait to N, Eastward. The depths will decrease regularly in steering southward, and the low land will probably be seen to the westward, when in 20 or 18 fathoms; coast it along at 3½ or 4 leagues distance, until False Barbucit low sloping hill is discerned, appearing a little way from the sea, like a clump of trees more elevated than the others. When this hill bears W. S.W., 15 fathoms is the fair track; with it bearing W. ¾ S. and W. ½ S., overfalls from 16 to 13 fathoms may be experienced, or probably less water, being then about the parallel of the N. Easternmost patch of Romania Reef, and the shoal patch with 8 to 10 fathoms, on the Eastern Bank.

To enter Singapore Strait by the North Channel.

Having coasted along at 3½ to 4 leagues distance, with the land distinctly in sight from the deck, and having brought False Barbucit Hill to bear about W. by S., you are approaching the N. Easternmost patch of the reef: and with this hill bearing about W. ¾ S., if a cast of 10, 9, or 8 fathoms is got, but uncertain whether these soundings are on the N. Eastern extremity of the reef, or on the shoal patch of the Eastern Bank, haul to the S. Eastward until in 14 or 15 fathoms. Steer then South about 2 miles. or until False Barbucit Hill bears West, which will place you to the southward of the shoal patch of the Eastern Bank, and abreast of the N. Eastern extremity of Romania Reef; you may then haul in to the W. S. Westward, and get a cast of 10 or 11 fathoms, and will then be certain that these soundings are on the edge of the reef; but in doing so, heave the lead quick, and if there is less than 10 fathoms, haul out directly eastward into 15 or 16 fathoms, and then steer along the S. Eastern edge of the reef in 16 or 17 fathoms. If when Pedro Branco is discerned, it bear S. S.W., you are clear to the eastward of the reef; but if it is seen bearing S. by W., you

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will be close to, or upon the edge of shoal water. Having steered round the reef, so far as to bring Pedro Branco to bear S. by W., do not come under 16 or 17 fathoms in passing along the southern part of the reef; for it is steep from 16 to 12, and from 12 to 3 fathoms at a cast, on some of the shoal rocky patches with Pedro Branco bearing from S. E.½ S. to South. Having passed betwixt Pedro Branco and the edge of Romania Reef, in any depth from 17 to 32 fathoms, as the tide and the prevailing wind render expedient, steer to the IV. S.Westward nearly in mid-strait, to give a birth to Johore Shoal. Although Pedro Branco is steep to, on the North side, it should not be approached very close, for navigators are liable to estimate their distance from it sometimes greater than the truth; and as the tides run strong, ships are in danger of being drifted quickly toward it without warning, if they borrow near it in light breezes.*

By the Great Inner Channel;

If a ship during thick weather, happen to get too near the coast to the westward of Romania Outer Reef, she may proceed through the Great Inner Channel, by keeping about 3 miles off shore, and when within this distance of the northernmost Romania Island, keep about 2 miles from the East side of this, and the other islands, in steering down to the southward, attending to the preceding remarks given for this channel.

and by the South Channel.

SOUTH CHANNEL, is very convenient for ships which fall to leeward of Pedro Branco during thick weather, as they have no occasion to anchor outside. If the wind be N. Easterly, they may run down until within 4 or 5 miles of the Bintang shore, then haul to the westward, and pass nearly in mid-channel between it and Pedro Branco, in 11 to 13 fathoms water. With the wind at N.W. or North, it is advisable to borrow toward the Rocky Ledges to the S. E. and S.Westward of Pedro Branco, and endeavour to pass rather nearer to it than to the Bintang shore, observing not to approach too close to the S.W. rocks, as they are covered at half tide. By borrowing toward the weather side of the channel, ships will be enabled to reach well into the entrance of the strait, and if the wind is scant and the tide setting out against them, they will have smooth water and good bottom for anchorage, until the tide of flood is favorable for proceeding to the westward.

Directions for ships which fall to leeward.

Geo. Site of Pulo Panjang easternmost island.

Some ships have been set to the southward of the entrance of the strait, by the current, and having mistaken the high land on the West end of Pulo Panjang, for Barbucit Hill, and one of the rocky islets, for Pedro Branco, they were obliged to proceed round Bintang, and entered the Strait of Singapore by Rhio Strait; others have passed to the westward, through the Straits of Durian. Ships which happen to fall to leeward of the entrance of Singapore Strait, ought not to go between Bintang and Panjang, that passage being interspersed with many islets and rocky shoals, rendering it unsafe for large ships, if boats are not kept a-head to sound. But in such case, it is advisable to pass outside of Panjang, then steer to the S.Westward betwixt the S. E. end of Bintang and the adjoining islands, with a boat sounding a head, as there are some reefs and sand banks, covered at high water. The S. Eastern most island off Pulo Panjang, is Ragged Island, in lat. 0° 56½′ N., lon. 104° 56½′ E., and Saddle Island bearing from the former S. 39° W., lies in lat. 0° 48′ N. Monkey Island, Island, fronting the South coast of Bintang, is of considerable extent; after passing between it and Low Island, which lies to the eastward, ships intending to touch at Rhio, should haul to the N.W. for that strait; otherwise, they may steer to the westward between the islands, to proceed through the straits of Durian, and enter into Malacca Strait at the Carimons. Persons unacquainted, ought in passing amongst these islands, not to neglect to keep a boat sounding a-head, to examine the channels.

Directions for sailing to the westward through Singapore Strait.

HAVING ENTERED THE STRAIT OF SINGAPORE, by either channel, steer to the westward in mid-strait, or at any discretional distance from the North shore, until

* The Shah Munchah, a large and valuable ship, from China bound to Bombay, standing into the strait at mid-day, with a strong flood tide and scant wind, stood too near Pedro Branco before tacking, and was totally lost, by the tide horsing her upon the rock whilst in stays.

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Johore Shoal, the first danger, is approached: keep then about mid-strait in passing it, and do not borrow nearer it than 18 or 17 fathoms, as the water shoals suddenly under 16 or 17 fathoms; the island St. John's kept W. by S., is a fair bearing, in steering to the westward. When the East end of Singapore Island, or the Red Cliffs, bear about N. by W., you are clear to the westward of the shoal; the northern shore is then safe to approach as far as St. John's, but the South side of the strait being rocky, ought to be avoided.

If the wind and tide be unfavorable, or the weather very dark in the night, you may anchor in 14 to 18 fathoms, toward the North shore, or under the N. E. side of St. John's, in Singapore Road; otherwise, pass the South point of that island as close as the wind may render proper, and steer W. S.W. and W. by S. to round the Rabbit and Coney. It is best to keep nearest the North side of the channel in this track, to avoid the Buffalo Rock, and the deep water and rocky bottom toward the South shore; but care must be taken to give a birth to the reef off the S. E. end of Middle Island. The South end of St. John's kept E. N. E. ½ N., leads clear of that reef, or the South end of Barn Island W. by S. ½ S.; and either of these are safe bearings, to carry you along in the North side of the channel until the Coney is approached, which may be rounded at the distance of 2 or 3 cable's lengths, if the wind is northerly.

From thence to

When round the CONEY and the South point of Barn Island, steer W. N.W. to pass betwixt Tree Island and the Sultan's Shoal, and from thence between Tanjong Boulus and the Little Carimon. The South end of Barn Island kept E. by S., will carry you about mid-channel; with it E. ½ S., you will near Tree Island; and if E. S. E., you will approach the Sultan's Shoal. After passing Tree Island, steer about W. N.W., hauling up a little either way, as the wind or tide may require, to pass rather nearer than mid-channel toward Tanjong Boulus, which ought to have a birth of 2 miles, on account of the shoal mud bank that encircles it, and is steep from 16 fathoms.

From abreast of Pulo Cocob entrance, steer about N.W. for Pulo Pisang, observing not to approach Pulo Cocob, or the mud bank that stretches along the coast between it and Pulo Pisang, under 11 or 12 fathoms; nor bring the outer part of the latter island to the westward of N.W. With a fair wind, keep in 17 to 19 fathoms about mid-channel, and do not borrow under 13 fathoms on either side, when working in the night.

Pulo Pisang,

When Pulo Pisang is approached, pass outside of it at 3 or 4 miles distance if the wind be favorable, then steer about N.W. by W., which is a fair channel course to clear Formosa Bank; or if Pulo Pisang is kept about E. S. E., it is a proper bearing throughout the channel. In working, you may stand into 10 or 12 fathoms on the edge of the Shore Bank, and off 2 or 2½ leagues to 18 or 20 fathoms; the soundings on the Fair Channel Bank, will be a guide in crossing over it on each tack.

to Formosa Bank; the Water Islands,

Cape Rachado,

From abreast of the bank off Formosa River, at 3 or 4 miles distance, steer N.W. by W. for the Water Islands; borrowing toward the Malay Coast occasionally to 12 or 13 fathoms, there being no danger in this part of the strait from side to side. After rounding the Outer Water Island, at any distance thought proper, if you do not intend to touch at Malacca, steer about N.W. and N.W. by W. for Cape Rachado, in soundings from 20 to 16 fathoms, keeping within 6 or 7 miles of the Malay Coast; but it must not be approached nearer than 3 miles, in passing the rocky shore between Tanjong Clin and Cape Rachado. This cape may be passed within l or 2 miles, and from thence, steer N.W. by W. for Parcelar Point, observing not to bring Cape Rachado to the southward of S. 60° E. in standing toward the shoals in the bight, nor to the eastward of E. by S. ½ S. in passing, the eastern patches of the South Sands, when the Cape appears like an island. The soundings are irregular, but generally from 25 to 27 fathoms about mid-channel, 17 and 18 fathoms near the shoals in the bight, and 35, to 40 or 44 fathoms near the dangerous patches of the South Sands. Cape Rachado kept about E. S. E., is a fair bearing in passing through the channel toward Parcelar Point, and when this point is approached, it may be passed at 3, 4, or.5 miles distance; but the

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coast forming the bight between it and Cape-Rachado, must not be approached nearer than 5 miles, on account of the Bambek Shoal.

And to Parcelar Point.

From Parcelar Point, steer about N.W. ½ W., keeping 3 or 4 miles off shore, to avoid shoal bank that lines the coast abreast of Parcelar Hill, and do not borrow on the edge of it under 17 or 18 fathoms, for it is very steep under these depths. In working, you may stand about 3 leagues from the land, into 24 or 25 fathoms, and will probably shoal to 13 or 14 fathoms in crossing the narrow bank in the fair channel.

To sail from the land of Parcelar through the East and West Channel,

From thence to the Sambilangs,

HAVING brought PARCELAR HILL to bear about E. by N. N., you may with a southerly wind and ebb tide, edge away for the East and West channel, betwixt the North and South Sands, gradually drawing Parcelar Hill to bear about E. ½ N., by the time the low land of Callam is nearly disappearing from the deck. If the hill is clouded, keep the body of Pulo Callam, or that part of land to the westward of the strait, bearing about E. N. E. ½ N., which will carry you well clear of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank; and when the low land disappears from the deck, you have passed it, and may steer along the edge of the North Sand about W. by N., altering the course as the wind or tides require, to keep from 14, to 16 or 17 fathoms. When clear to the westward of the Two and Half Fathoms Bank, Parcelar Hill may be brought to the southward of East, in steering along the edge of the North Sands; and those who are a little acquainted, may pass through this part of the channel in the night, if the weather is clear and the set of the tide known, by taking the soundings from the edge of the North Sands, and hauling off occasionally when the depths decrease under 12 or 13 fathoms. With a southerly wind, keep about mid-channel, but care must be taken in the night not to approach the rocks off the Round Arroa; for if the Arroa is discerned with the glass or otherwise, haul immediately to the northward, to give a birth to these rocks, and you will deepen to 35 or 44 fathoms to the N. Eastward of the Long Arroa. From this situation, or from the western extremity of the North Sands, steer about North to make the Sambilangs, and do not approach these islands under 25 or 26 fathoms, when passing between them and Pulo Jarra in a dark night, on account of the rocks that lie to the westward of them; about 28 to 30 fathoms are good depths to preserve, in passing through this channel during the night.

to prince of Wales' Island,

FROM the SAMBILANGS, steer to the N. N.Westward for Prince of Wales' Island, giving a birth of 4 or 5 miles to Pulo Dinding in passing, to avoid the mud bank in the offing; Island, and afterward, keep along the coast of Perah in soundings of 16 to 20 fathoms, about 3½ to 4 leagues off. In working, do not stand out farther than 25 fathoms, and tack from the edge of the shore bank in 10 or 11 fathoms; for the water shoals suddenly under these depths, rendering it necessary to keep the lead going quickly, when near the edge of the bank. In the N. E. monsoon, ships bound to Prince of Wales' Island, Bengal, or Madras, ought to be particularly careful, to keep near the Malay side of the strait after passing Pulo Dinding; for strong N. E. winds, with a short sea, sometimes prevail in mid-strait, betwixt Diamond Point and Prince of Wales' Island, making it difficult for ships which are in the offing, to regain the Eastern Shore. Large ships bound into Prince of Wales' Island, ought not to attempt to pass through the South Channel, unless a good pilot is procured; but they should coast round the island, and proceed into the harbour by the North channel.

and out of Malacca Strait.

DEPARTING from, or having passed PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND, whether bound to Bengal, or to the coast of Coromandel, steer to pass outside of the Ladda Islands, Pulo Bouton, and Junkseylon Head, at a moderate distance: if bound to Ceylon, the Malabar coast, or other parts to the westward or southward, steer for the channel between Pulo Rondo and the South Nicobar, conforming to the directions already given for sailing to or from Malacca Strait, in both monsoons; which will be found in this Second Volume, under

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the title, "Navigation of Malacca Strait," section 1st, and under the title "West Coast of Sumatra," section 1st; also, in the last sections of Volume First, farther directions will be found, for sailing into, and out of the strait, and between it and the different coasts of India, during either monsoon.

CHINA SEA.

MONSOONS, WINDS, TY-FOONGS, AND CURRENTS.

S.W. monsoon in the China Sea.

S.W. MONSOON, generally commences in the China Sea, about the middle, or end of April, and continues to the beginning, or middle of October, liable to an acceleration or retardation of 12 or 15 days in one season from another; it sets in, rather sooner about the gulfs of Siam and Tonking, and along the western coasts, than over to the eastward in the open sea, near the coast of China, or near the coasts of Palawan and Luconia. It also continues longer, to the southward of Cape Padaran and Pulo Sapata, and along the coast of Palawan, in the southern part of the China Sea, than it does more to the northward; for southerly winds frequently prevail between Singapore Strait and Pulo Sapata, until the 8th, 10th, or 15th of October, when N. E. and easterly winds are blowing in the northern part of that sea. In September and great part of October, the winds off the North extremity of Borneo, and the West end of Palawan, generally blow strong from S.Westward, with dark cloudy weather and much rain.

In May, the winds are often light and variable in the open sea, and easterly or S. E. winds are liable to happen for a day or two at a time, during the whole of the S.W. monsoon; particularly in the northern part of the China Sea, these winds are frequently experienced in both monsoons. About Formosa, and betwixt it and the China Coast, N. Easterly winds often happen in July, August, and September.

The S.W. monsoon is strongest, and least liable to changes, in June, July, and August; in these months, and also in May, sudden hard squalls blow sometimes out of the Gulf of Siam, as far as Pulo Condore, and Pulo Sapata. When dense clouds are perceived to rise, indicating the approach of these squalls, sail ought to be reduced without delay.

From the Gulf of Siam to Cape Padaran, the S.W. monsoon blows along the coast nearly parallel to it; and if close in, a faint breeze from the land is at times experienced in the night, which is succeeded by a short interval of calm on the following morning, occasioned by the influence of the sun. The monsoon breeze then sets in, and generally continues brisk during the day. These land and sea breezes, prevail most on the coast of Cochin-china, from Cape Padaran northward to the Tonking Gulf; for the sea wind dies away almost every evening on this coast, during the S.W. monsoon, and a land breeze comes off in the night, although not at a regular hour. This is followed by calms or faint airs, which frequently continue until noon; then the sea breeze sets in from S. Eastward.

In March and April, there are land and sea breezes on the coast of Luconia, with tine weather; but after the S. W. monsoon sets in strong in June, and from that time until it abates in October, the weather is mostly cloudy; and the winds blowing from the sea upon that coast, generally produce much rain. In June, July, and part of August, there are at times, much rain, and cloudy weather, all over the China Sea. On the South coast of China, the winds during the S.W. monsoon, prevail frequently at South, and S. S. Eastward.

N.E. monsoon.

N. E. MONSOON, frequently commences in the northern part of the China Sea, about the end of September, or early in October; but in the southern part of this sea, it seldom

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sets in steady until November; for here, light southerly, or variable breezes, prevail through great part of October. The weather in some years, is settled and fine, during the months of September and October; for the N. E. monsoon, does not always set in with a storm; but the equinox is a very precarious period, for within a few days of it, storms are liable to happen,* and also with the setting in of the monsoon, in October.

In November, the N. E. monsoon generally prevails; but it blows more steady, and with greatest strength, in December and January. The weather is frequently cloudy,' with much rain, and a turbulent sea in these months; particularly about Pulo Sapata, and from thence to the entrance of Singapore Strait: there are also considerable intervals of fine weather. On the coast of Palawan, the winds are very variable in October, November, and the early part of December; by which, ships may pass along that coast either to the N. E. or S.Westward, at these times, but the weather is often very dark and cloudy. The winds on the coast of Luconia, are frequently variable during the N. E. monsoon, generally from the North and N. Eastward; but they veer to N.W. and westward at times, and then blow strong, with cloudy weather and rain., In the Gulf of Tonking, there are sometimes faint land breezes close to the coast in November; but the N. E. monsoon prevails along the coast of Cochin-china, as far to the southward as Cape Padaran, generally from September or the early part of October, to the beginning or middle of April.

In February, the strength of the N. E. monsoon abates; during this month and March, it blows moderately, with steady weather all over the China Sea; and inclines to land and sea breezes on the coast of Luconia. On the South coast of China, when the N. E. monsoon prevails, the winds blow mostly from E. N. E., parallel to the shore; they veer, and blow off the land at times, and also from the S. Eastward, but there are seldom any regular land or sea breezes on that coast.

Ty-foongs.

TY-FOONG'S, † are dangerous tempests, liable to happen in the northern part of the China Sea, along the southern and eastern coasts of China, near Formosa, the Bashee Islands, the North end of Luconia; also to the eastward of those islands, and betwixt Formosa and the Japan Archipelago. These tempests usually blow with greatest fury near land: as the distance is increased to the southward from the coast of China, their violence generally abates, and they seldom reach beyond lat. 14° N., although a severe gale has been experienced at times, two or three degrees farther to the southward.

Ty-foongs are liable to happen in both monsoons; but in May, November, or December, they are usually less severe in the China Sea, if they happen in these months; although in the vicinity of Formosa and the Bashee Islands, there are furious gusts sometimes in November. From December to May, Ty-foongs seldom or never happen; of late years, those which have been experienced in June and July, were the most violent; many ships have been dismasted, and sustained other damage by them. The months of August, September, and October, are also subject to these tempests; about the equinox in September, is a very precarious period, particularly if the change, or perigee of the moon, coincide with the equinox: when this was the case, Ty-foongs happened several years at the equinox in September, on the coast of China, and many ships have been dismasted on the 21st or 22d of that month.

To be able to prognosticate the approach of these tempests, would be very useful to navi-

* September 22d, 1786, near the Grand Ladrone, the Gunjavar encountered a storm which continued several days, disabled, and obliged her to take shelter in Galong Bay, at the South end of Hainan, where she remained six months. The Warley, September 22d, 1803, off St. John's had a tempest, that drove her to the Taya Islands, blew away her top-masts, and did other damage. The Bombay, late in September, 1789, had a tempest close to St. John's, which obliged her to cut away her main-mast, and ruts on shore.

Several of H. M. ships, and those belonging to the Company, have been dismasted by these equinoctial Ty-foongs, which generally happen within eight or ten days of the equinox; and in these tempests, the Talbot, Ocean, True Briton, Anna, and other ships, have foundered with all their crews.

† Signifies Great Winds: in the Chinese language, Ty, is great or mighty, and Foong, signifies wind.

VOL. II. G G

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gators, but this cannot be done with certainty, for they frequently commence without giving much indication of their proximity. The clouds having a red aspect, is not a certain warning of the approach of a Ty-foong; for at the rising, but more particularly at the setting of the sun, the clouds in settled weather, are sometimes tinged with a deep red colour by the reflected light, especially those opposite to the luminary. A hazy atmosphere, preventing land from being seen at great distances, is no unfavorable sign on the coast of China; for this is generally its state, in medium or settled weather. Neither is an irregular swell, a good criterion to judge of the approach of a Ty-foong; for near the coast of China, a cross swell frequently prevails during steady settled weather. A serene sky, with the horizon remarkably clear, should not be cons