RECORD: Richardson, John. 1829-1836. Fauna Boreali-Americana. 3 vols. London: John Murray. Volume 3.

REVISION HISTORY: OCRed by AEL Data 04.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


[page i]

FAUNA

BOREALI-AMERICANA;

OR THE

ZOOLOGY

OF THE

NORTHERN PARTS

OF

BRITISH AMERICA:

CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTED ON THE LATE NORTHERN LAND EXPEDITIONS UNDER COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIR JOHN FRANKLIN, R.N.

PART THIRD.

THE FISH.

BY

JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.,

MEMBER OF TRE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, AND WERNERIAN NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF MONTREAL, AND LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF QUEERO; FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE GEOORAPHICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS; AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCE OF PHILADELPHIA;

SURGEON AND NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITIONS.

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS PLATES.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COLONIAL AFFAIRS.

LONDON:

RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON-STREET.

MDCCCXXXVI.

[page ii]

LONDON:

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Duke-street.

Lambeth.

[page iii]

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION Page ix
Places where specimens were obtained x
Orders of Fish established by Cuvier xii
M. Agassiz's arrangement (note) xiii

OSSEOUS FISHES.

Page
ACANTHOPTERYGII 1, 108
PERCOIDEÆ 1, 30
1. Perca flavescens (pl. 74) 1
2. Perca acuta 4
3. Perca (Huro) nigricans 4
4. Labrax notatus 8
5. Lucioperca Americana 10
Okow* 14
6. Lucioperca Canadensis 17
7. Centrarchus æneus (pl. 75) 18
Cichla fasciata 23
Cichla minima 24
8. Pomotis vulgaris (pl. 76) 24
9. Trichodon Stelleri 29
Geog. distribution of PERCOIDEÆ, &c. 30
Table of percoid genera 34
MULLI 35
COTTOIDEÆ, geog. distribution, &c. 36
Table of cottoid genera 39
Trigla 39
10. Dactylopterus volitans 40
11. Cottus cognatus 40
126. Cottus asper (pl. 95, f. 1) 295, 313
12. Cottus polaris 43
13. Cottus hexacornis 44
14. Cottus octodecimspinosus 46
15. Cottus Grœnlandicus 46, 297, 314
16. Cottus scorpioides 47
17. Cottus porosus 47
18. Cottus polyacanthocephalus 48
19. Cottus pistilliger 48
20. Cottus (Aspidophorus) Europæus 48
21. Cottus (Aspidophorus) acipenserinus 49
22. Cottus (Aspidophorus) monopterygius 50
23. Hemitripterus Americanus 50
24. Hemilepidotus trachurus 51
33. Temnistia ventricosa 59
127. Scorpæna bufo 300
25. Scorpæna (Sebastes) Norvegica 52
26. Scorpæna (Sebastes) variabilis 53
27. Blepsias trilobus 53
Gasterosteus Noveboracensis 54, 56
29. Gasterosteus niger 56
30. Gasterosteus biaculeatus 56
31. Gasterosteus concinnus 57
32. Gasterosteus occidentalis 58
SCIÆNOIDEÆ, geog. distribution, &c. 61
Table of sciænoid genera 63
34. Sciæna (Corvina) Richardsonii (pl. 77) 64

* The receipt of specimens of the Okow since the sheets describing it went to the press prove it to be the Lucio-perca Americana.

[page] iv

35. Sciæna (Corvina) oscula 68
36. Sciæna (Otolithus) regalis 68
Sciæna (Otolithus) Drummondii 70
SPAROIDEÆ 70
MÆNOIDEÆ 72
CHÆTODONTOIDEÆ 73
ANABASIDEÆ 75
SCOMBEROIDEÆ Tribes, geog. distrib., &c. 76
Table of genera 78
37. Scomber grex et vernalis 80
Second tribe of Scomberoideæ 81
38. Notacanthus nasus 82
Third tribe of Scomberoideæ 82
Fourth tribe of ditto 83
39. Zeus (Lampris) guttatus 83
TÆNIOIDEÆ 85
SIGANOIDEÆ 86
MUGILOIDEÆ 87
Tetragonurus Cuvieri 87
Atherina 88
GOBIOIDEÆ 88
40. Blennius (Clinus) punctatus 88
41. Blennius (Clinus) lumpenus 90
42. Blennius (Centronotus) gunnellus 91
Butter-fish 93
Pustulated blenny 93
Zoarces 93
43. Blennius (Zoarces) polaris 94
44. Anarrhichas lupus 95
45. Anarrhichas minor 96
Gobius, sub-genera, &c. 96
Callionymus 97
Platyptera 97
46. Chirus monopterygius 98
47. Chirus decagrammus 99
48. Chirus octogrammus 100
49. Chirus superciliosus 100
Chirus lagocephalus 101
Chirus hexagrammus 101
Hexagrammus Stelleri 101
BATRACHOIDEÆ 102
Thutinameg 103
50. Lophius (Malthe) cubifrons (pl. 96) 103
LABROIDEÆ 106
United States' species 107
FISTULAROIDEÆ 107
Remarks on ACANTHOPTERYGII 108
MALACOPTERYGII ABDOMINALIS 109
CYPRINOIDEÆ 109
North American species 109
51. Cyprinus (Abramis) Smithii (wood-cut) 110
128. Cyprinus (Abramis) balteatus 301
52. Cyprinus (Catastomus) Hudsonius 112
129. Cyprinus (Catastomus) reticulatus 303
53. Cyprinus (Catastomus) Forsterianus 116
54. Cyprinus (Catastomus) Sueurii 118, 303
55. Cyprinus (Catastomus) aureolus 119
56. Cyprinus (Catastomus) nigricans 120
57. Cyprinus (Leuciscus) gracilis (pl. 78) 120
58. Cyprinus (Leuciscus) chrysoleucas 122
130. Cyprinus (Leuciscus) caurinus 304
131. Cyprinus (Leuciscus) Oregonensis 305
Exoglossum nigrescens 122
ESOCIDÆ 123
United States' species 123
*53. Esox lucius 124
*54. Esox estor 127
*55. Scombercsox scutellatus 128
*56. Brazilian pike 129
*57. Exocætus exiliens 129
SILUROIDEÆ 132
United States' species 132
*58. Silurus (Pimelodus cænosus 132
59. Silurus (Pimelodus nigrescens 134
60. Silurus (Pimelodus borealis 135
SALMONOIDEÆ 137
Trouts or true salmon 137

* These six numbers were inadvertently repeated.

[page] v

European trouts 139
Salmo salar (pl. 91, f. 1) 140
Salmon trout (pl. 92, f. 2) 140
Hirling 141
Sewin (Salmo Cambriscus) (pl. 91, f. 2) 141, 306
Nith trout (S. trutta) (pl. 92, f. 2, 5) 142
Loch Leven trout 143
Salmo ferox 144
Salmo fario (pl. 92, f. 3) 144, 307
Char or Torgoch (pl. 92, f. 5) 144
61. Salmo salar 145
62. Salmo Scouleri (pl. 93) 158, 223
63. Salmo Rossii (pl. 80 & pl. 85, f. 2) 163
64. Salmo Hearnii 167
65. Salmo alipes (pl. 81 & pl. 86, f. 1) 169
66. Salmo nitidus (pl. 82, f. 1 & 86, f. 2) 171
67. Salmo Hoodii (pl. 82, f. 2; 83, f. 2; 87, f. 1) 173
68. Salmo fontinalis (pl. 82, f. 1; 87, f. 2) 176
Greenland trouts 178
69. Salmo namaycush (pl. 79; 85, f. 1) 179
70. Salmo Mackenzii (pl. 84; 94, f. 1) 183, 309
Mountain or Speckled trout 178
Columbia River salmon 162, 217
Common salmon (Lewis and Clarke) 162
Red char (ditto) 162, 223
Salmon trout (ditto) 163, 225
82. Salmo quinnat 219
83. Salmo Gairdneri 221
84. Salmo paucidens 222
85. Salmo tsuppitch 224
86. Salmo Clarkii 225
Salmon of New Caledonia 214
Trouts of ditto 307
71. Salmo (Osmerus) eperlanus 185
72. Salmo (Mallotus) villosus 187
87. Salmo (Mallotus) Pacificus 226
73. Salmo (Thymallus) signifer (pl. 190) 190
74. Salmo (Thymallus) thymalloides 194
Coregoni, observations on 310
75. Salmo (Coregonus) albus (pl. 89. f. 2, 94, f. 2, A. B. C.) 195, 311
76. Salmo (Coregonus) tulibee 201, 309
77. Salmo (Coregonus) Artedi 203
78. Salmo (Coregonus) quadrilateralis (pl. 89, f. 1) 204
79. Salmo (Coregonus) Labradoricus 206
80. Salmo (Coregonus) lucidus (pl. 90, f. 1) 207
81. Salmo (Coregonus) harengus (pl. 90, f. 2) 210
Salmo (Coregonus) fera 213
Salmo (Coregonus) Vandesius* 207, 213
CLUPEOIDEÆ 229
United States' species 229
88. Clupea harengus 229
89. Hiodon chrysopsis (pl. 94, f. 3, A.B.C.) 232, 311
90. Hiodon tergissus 235
91. Amia ocellicauda 236
92. Lepisosteus Huronensis 237
MALACOPTERYGII SUBBRACHIATI 241
GADOIDEÆ 241
United States' species 241
Kamtschatka ditto 242
93. Gadus morrhua 242
94. Gadus callarias 244
95. Gadus Fabricii 245
96. Gadus ogac 246
97. Gadus (Merlangus) carbonarius 247
98. Gadus (Merlangus) polaris 247
99. Gadus (Lota) maculosus 248
100. Gadus (Brosmius) flavescens 252
101. Gadus (Phycis) punctatus (wood-cut) 253
102. Macrourus rupestris 254
PLATESSOIDEÆ 255
United States' species 255
North-west American species 256
103. Pleuronectes (Platessa) stellatus 257
104. Pleuronectes (Rhombus) glacialis 258
DISCOBOLI 260

* This specific name is adopted from Sibbald's Scotia Illustrata. In the Number of Yarrell's British Fishes, which has just appeared, it is called Coregonus Willughbii.

[page] vi

105. Cyclopterus lumpus 260
106. Cyclopterus minutus 262
107. Cyclopterus spinosus 263
108. Cyclopterus ventricosus 263
109. Cyclopterus (Liparis) communis 263
ECHENEIDEÆ 265
110. Echeneis naucrates 266
MALACOPTERYGII APODES 267
ANGUILLIFORMES 267
111. Anguilla rostrata 267
112. Ophidium viride 271
113. Saccopharynx ampullaceus 271
114. Ophidium stigma 273
115. Ophidium Parrii 274
116. Ammodytes lancea 275
LOPHOBRANCHII 276
PLECTOGNATHI 277
United States' species 277

CARTILAGINOUS FISHES.

CHONDROPTERYGII ELEUTHEROPOMI 278
STURIONIDEÆ 278
United States' species 278
Lovetsky's arrangement of Sturgeons 281
117. Acipenser transmontanus 278
118. Acipenser rubicundus 284
131. Acipenser Rupertianus 311
118. Chimæra 285
CHONDROPTERYGII TREMATOPNEONTES 287
SELACHII 287
United States' species 287
119. Squalus (Carcharias) vulgaris 288
120. Squalus (Carcharias) Terræ novæ 289
121. Squalus (Selache) maximus 291
122. Squalus (Spinax) acanthias 291
132. Squalus (Scymnus) gunneri 313
123. Raia fullonica 291
CYCLOSTOMATA 292
124. Petromyzon tridentatus 293
125. Petromyzon fluvialis 294

[page vii]

LIST OF PLATES.

Page
74* PERCA FLAVESCENS 1
75 CENTRARCHUS ÆNEUS 18
76 POMOTIS VULGARIS 24
77 CORVINA RICHARDSONII 64
78 LEUCISCUS GRACILIS 120
79 SALMO NAMAYCUSH 179
80 SALMO ROSSII 163
81 SALMO ALIPES 169
82 SALMO NITIDUS 171
SALMO HOODII 173
83 SALMO FONTINALIS 176
SALMO HOODII 173
84 SALMO MACKENZII 183
85 SALMO NAMAYCUSH, f. 1 heads 179
SALMO ROSSII, f. 2 163
86 SALMO ALIPES, f. 1 heads 169
SALMO NITIDUS, f. 2 171
87 SALMO HOODII, f. 1 heads 173
SALMO FONTINALIS, f. 2 176
88 THYMALLUS SIGNIFER 190
89 COREGONUS QUADRILATERALIS, f. 1 204
COREGONUS ALBUS, f. 2 195
90 COREGONUS LUCIDUS, f. 1 207
COREGONUS HARENGUS, f. 2 210
91 SALMO SALAR, f. 1 heads 140
SALMO CAMBRISCUS, f. 2 141
92 SALMON TROUT, f. 1 heads 140
NITH TROUT, f. 2 142
SALMO FARIO, f. 3 144
NITH TROUT, young, f. 4 142
TORGOCH, f. 5 144
93 SALMO SCOULERI, and head 158, 223
94 SALMO MACKENZII, f. 1, mouth 183, 302
COREGONUS ALBUS, f. 2, A. B. C., head 195
HIODON CHRYSOPSIS, f. 3, A. B. C., head 232
95 COTTUS ASPER, f. 1, with head and palate 295
COTTUS GRŒNLANDICUS, f. 2, ditto 46, 297
96 MALTHE CUBIFRONS, 4 views 103
97 ACIPENSER RUPERTIANUS, with head and 3 shields 308
ACIPENSER TRANSMONTANUS, ditto ditto 278

All the above plates were executed with strict fidelity to the specimens placed before him by Mr. WATERHOUSE HAWKINS. Nos. 89 and 90 are etched on copper, 94, 95, 96, and 97, are drawn on zinc, and the remainder are lithographed. Two wood-cuts, printed with the text, are from slight sketches, after nature, by Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith. Figures of Catastomus reticulatus, Forsterianus, and Sueurii, will appear in the Natural History Appendix to Captain Back's forthcoming narrativé.

* Numbers of plates carried on from Volume II.

[page viii]

ERRATA.

Page 30, line 9, after "five hundred" add "twenty-one."

—— 10, for "twenty-seven" read "forty-seven."

—— 34, in two last columns of the table, for "111" read "131;" and in line of totals, for "327" read "347," and for "501" read "521."

—— 80, line 1, for "[36]" read "[37]."

—— 145, line 3, for "Wynn" read "Wynne."

—— 174, line 3 from bottom, for "shorter labials" read "longer labials."

—— 194, line 1, for "tahn" read "than."

—— 241, line 2 from bottom, before "maculata" insert "Lota."

—— 271, lines 6, 8, 12, and 13 from bottom, dele "very."

[page ix]

INTRODUCTION.

NOTWITHSTANDING the high rank which our countryman Ray occupies in the annals of Natural History as a founder of systematic ichthyology, that branch of science has been greatly neglected in this country,—yet Britain owes much of her wealth to her fisheries; and her seamen, traversing the ocean in all directions, are familiar with the finny inhabitants of almost every river in the world, as well as with the wonders of the deep. While the fish of the English seas were imperfectly known, it was not to be expected that those frequenting the waters of a remote colony would be more fully described; and, in fact, this volume of the Fauna owes comparatively little to the labours of previous writers in respect of the determination and description of species, though the arrangement and generic groups are adopted wholly from Cuvier. Forster, in the Philosophical Transactions of 1773, gives an account of four Hudson's Bay fish, three of which he erroneously identifies with European species; and he is the only ichthyologist that I have been able to cite respecting the fish which sport in the sea-like lakes and magnificent rivers of the portion of North America lying north of the St. Lawrence, and exceeding the whole of Europe in extent of territory. There is, I believe, no scientific account of the Canada fish, with the exception of M. Le Sueur's and Dr. Mitchill's descriptions of a few lacustrine species. Some of those inhabiting the seas of Newfoundland are included in the published volumes of the Histoire des Poissons, by Cuvier and Valenciennes. Fabricius's and the work last mentioned are my authorities for the Greenland fish, and I am indebted to the Appendices to the late Arctic Expeditions for those found on the northern shores of America. Pallas, Steller, and Tilesius have described the fish inhabiting the sea of Kamtschatka, and such of them as are known to range over to the Ame-

b

[page] x

rican coast are included in this Fauna. Eschscholtz's description of a fish taken in Norfolk Sound is quoted, and as I can refer to no work containing any notice sufficiently detailed and accurate to determine the species, or even the genera, of those in the waters of New Caledonia, the popular accounts of voyagers and travellers, who have visited that country, have been occasionally transcribed at some length, to supply the want of scientific information.

The specimens described and figured in the following pages were chiefly collected by me at Cumberland House in latitude 54°, at Fort Enterprise in latitude 64°, and in the Arctic Sea at the mouth of the Coppermine River in latitude 67°, on Sir John Franklin's first journey*; at Penetanguishene on Lake Huron in latitude 44°, in Great Bear Lake in latitude 64°, or in the canoe route between these places, on his second journey; and in the following quarters by the exertions of others, viz., on the Labrador coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from whence I obtained a collection of the Salmon and Coregoni of the Mingan and Musquaw rivers, prepared by Mr. Cuming, of the Hudson's Bay Company; at Penetanguishene, where Mr. Todd, surgeon of the Naval depôt, procured me a suite of specimens which I submitted to the inspection of Baron Cuvier, together with those obtained on Sir John Franklin's second journey; and in the Albany River district latitude 51°, from whence I have very recently received a series of fresh-water fish in excellent condition: in addition to these, Dr. Gairdner, surgeon of the Hudson's Bay Company's establishment, at Fort Vancouver, ou the Oregon or Columbia River, sent me a cask full of specimens, which, though much damaged on the voyage, have, with the aid of his valuable notes, furnished the only means I possess of obtaining a knowledge of the fish of that river, and enabled me to understand in part the popular descriptions given in Lewis and Clarke's narrative; Dr. Scouler, of the Dublin Institution, presented me with a curious salmon, which he obtained on the coast of New Caledonia; and I am indebted to Peter Warren Dease, Esq., for several kinds of trout from the interior of that country; by the kindness of Captain

* The fish observed on Sir John Franklin's first journey are described, and a few of them figured, in the Appendix to his Narrative; but the specimens, which would have been of great use for comparison with those afterwards obtained, were destroyed by vermin during my absence on the second journey.

[page] xi

James Ross I have had the opportunity of describing and figuring the salmon procured by him on Sir John Ross's recent expedition; and still more lately I have obtained some useful specimens of the heads of fish, prepared by Mr. King during Captain Back's overland journey*. It will be observed, that these different collections consist almost exclusively of the fresh-water, or anadromous species, that supply a principal article of diet to the natives and residents in the fur-countries, the smaller kinds which escape through the pretty wide meshes of the gill-nets in ordinary use there having been mostly overlooked. I am, however, indebted to John James Audubon, Esq., the celebrated American ornithologist, for a small but interesting collection, made on the coasts of Newfoundland; and Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith favoured me with sketches and notes of several Canada fish. But even with these advantages the work must be considered as very defective in marine species, and by no means complete even in the fresh-water ones. As it was not until after I returned to England from Sir John Franklin's last expedition that I entertained the idea of publishing a work of this nature, I had no inducement to avail myself of the opportunity which was afforded by our journey through Canada and the State of New York, for the collection of materials in aid of such an undertaking; and my numerous subsequent attempts to remedy this deficiency, by procuring specimens through correspondents, have been unsuccessful, except in the instances above mentioned. Upwards of four hundred species of European fish are described in the Histoire des Poissons, or noticed in the Règne Animal, and it may be fairly inferred, that a still greater number inhabit the fresh waters of British America, or the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific seas which bathe its shores†. The present work contains only one hundred and forty species, so that much remains to be accomplished by resident naturalists; and with the view of facilitating the labours of those who may undertake

* Many of the specimens, having arrived at different periods, and when the printing of the work was considerably advanced, could not be noticed in their proper places, and their descriptions have therefore been introduced either at the end of the families to which they belong, or in the Appendix; but an attempt has been made to remedy this irregularity by arranging the table of contents.

† De Witt Clinton estimates the species of fish in the United States at four hundred, and Dr. Mitchill describes one hundred and seventy that are brought to the market of New York.

b 2

[page] xii

the task, I have endeavoured by minuteness of description, aided by correct figures, to render their recognition of the fish already named more certain. I have, also, in consideration of the difficulty of procuring books in remote districts, entered more fully into generic details than is usual in a local Fauna, and likewise given compendious notices of most of the families mentioned in the Règne Animal, borrowing largely not only from that work, but also from the Histoire des Poissons. Cuvier divides the class in the following manner:—

First Series. FISH PROPERLY SO CALLED.

A. Upper jaw formed externally of intermaxillaries and moveable labials; and posteriorly of a palatine arch composed of palate bones, pterygoid processes, jugal, petrous, and squamous bones, constituting a sort of interior jaw as in birds and snakes, and furnishing posteriorly an articular cavity for the condyle of the lower jaw.

a. Gills in leaves.

Order 1. ACANTHOPTERYGII. (vide p. 108. F. B. A.)

2. MALACOPTERYGII ABDOMINALES. (p. 109.)

3. MALACOPTERYGII SUB-BRACHIATI. (p. 241.)

4. MALACOPTERYGII APODES. (p. 267.)

b. Gills in tufts.

5. LOPHOBRANCHII. (p. 276.)

B. Labials soldered to the intermaxillaries: palatine arch united to the cranium by suture and not admitting of motion.

6. PLECTOGNATHII. (p. 277.)

Second Series. CHONDROPTERYGII or CARTILAGINOUS FISH.

A. Gill openings of the ordinary form, having a moveable gill-plate. (ELEUTHEROPOMI.) (p. 278.)

7. STURIONIDEÆ. (p. 278.)

B. Canals communicating with gills having fixed edges, and opening exteriorly by one or several holes. (TREMATOPNEONTES.) (p. 287.)

8. SELACHII. (p. 287.)

9. CYCLOSTOMATA. (p. 292.)

[page] xiii

As this arrangement* is very different from the quinary one advocated by Mc Leay, the nomenclature of that gentleman and his followers, which is adopted in the second volume of this Fauna, is inapplicable here, and Cuvier's names are therefore given to the various groups, except in a few instances, where the French term used by him did not readily admit of a direct Latin translation, as in the case of "Poissons Plats," for which Platessoideæ is substituted.

I gladly avail myself of this introductory chapter to notice the kindness of various gentlemen by whom I have been assisted in the progress of the work. In the first place, I have to express my gratitude to the Right Honourable Lord Glenelg, Secretary of State, for his recommendation of an additional grant in aid of the publication, and to William Hay, Esq., Under Secretary for Colonial Affairs, for his efficient support of my application, and invariable personal kindness whenever I have had occasion to address him. I have likewise to express my obligations in an especial manner to Captain Pelly, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and Nicolas Garry, Esq., Deputy Governor, for the liberality with which they have always promoted my endeavours to illustrate the zoology of the fur-countries; also to James Keith, Esq., of La Chine, and to the other gentlemen already named, to whom I am indebted for specimens of American fish. My thanks are also due to the following gentlemen, who procured for me, in most instances with considerable difficulty and trouble, specimens of European fish for the purpose of comparison, viz.: Dr. Graham, F.R.S.E., Professor of Botany, Edinburgh; Mr. Scobie, of Kioldale, Sutherlandshire; Mr. John Burnet of Dumfries; P. J. Selby, Esq., F.R.S.E., of Twissel House; G. A. W. Arnott, Esq., F.R.S.E.; Captain Barou, Royal Engineers; John Lloyd Wynne, Esq., of Coëd-Coch, Denbighshire; the Rev. T. W. Booth, Vicar of Friskney, Lincolnshire, and W. Yarrell, Esq.,

* Professor Agassiz, of Neufchâtel, has recently given to the world an entirely new arrangement of fish, founded chiefly on the form and structure of the scales, upon which he establishes four orders:—1. CTENOÏDIANS, which are the Acanthopterygii of Cuvier and Artedi, with the exception of those which have smooth scales, and with the addition of the Flat-fish, or Platessoideæ, removed from the Malacopterygii. 2. CYCLOÏDIANS, which are principally Malacopterygii, but take in also the smooth-scaled fishes excluded from the Acanthopterygii. 3. GANOÏDIANS, comprising the Lophobranchii, Plectognathii, and Sturionideæ, together with a great number of extinct genera. 4. PLACOÏDIANS, which are the Selachii and Cyclostomata of Cuvier.

[page] xiv

whose beautiful, able, and accurate work on British Ichthyology, now in the course of publication, will, it is to be hoped, be a means of reviving, in this country, a taste for that branch of natural history. Lastly, I have again to acknowledge the attention of the officers of the British Museum, whenever I have had occasion to consult its library, or natural history collection, and particularly that of my friend J. E. Gray, Esq., upon whose valuable time I have had occasion frequently to draw very largely. Part of the specimens described in this work were, as I have already mentioned, examined and named by the truly illustrious Cuvier, and I would gladly have submitted the rest to his inspection as they arrived; but in common with other naturalists, and the civilized world in general, I have had to deplore his death, which, notwithstanding the vastness of his labours in zoology, must be considered as premature for the interests of science; though we look with confidence to his able coadjutor, M. Valenciennes, for the completion of the unrivalled Histoire des Poissons. I may also notice here, the deaths of two naturalists to whom the former volumes of this work are much indebted. Their walk in science was indeed far beneath the lofty platform which Cuvier constructed, but they were unrivalled in the paths they chose for themselves. I allude, in the first place, to Mr. David Douglas, to whose researches in North California, and on the banks of the Columbia, we owe many of the most beautiful hardy flowers which ornament our gardens. He perished miserably in the Sandwich Islands, by falling into a pit in which a wild bull had been previously taken, where the infuriated animal gored him to death. Thomas Drummond, of Forfar, the other gentleman whose loss I have to record, was my friend and associate on Sir John Franklin's second expedition. An enthusiastic admirer of animals and plants, he was eminently qualified for a collector of objects of natural history, by an extreme quickness and acuteness of vision, and a wonderful tact in detecting a new species. His favourite pursuits were carried on under circumstances of domestic discomfort and difficulties, that would have quelled a meaner spirit,—the contemplation of the works of God on the mountain top, or in the bosom of the forest, serving to soothe the sorrows of his wounded mind. In his company, and by his aid, most of the birds described in the second volume of

[page] xv

this Fauna were procured: by his unremitting industry and strenuous exertions a very great proportion of the plants included in Dr. Hooker's Flora Boreali-Americana were obtained; and the Musci Americani*, published on the same plan with his beautiful Musci Scotici, will be a lasting monument of his activity and penetration as a cryptogamic botanist. After making very large collections of plants in various parts of the United States, and in the province of Texas, he died in the Island of Cuba, where he had landed on his way to the Florida Keys.

* In two volumes quarto.

[page break]

[page 1]

NORTHERN ZOOLOGY.

PART III.

PISCES.

ACANTHOPTERYGII.

PERCOIDEÆ.

[1.] 1. PERCA FLAVESCENS. (Cuvier.) American Perch.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Perca, CUV.

Yellow perch (Bodianus flavescens). MITCHILL, Ph. Trans. New York, i., p. 421. No. 7. SMITH, Fish of Mass.

Perca flavescens. CUV. Reg. An., ii., p. 133.

La perche jaunâtre d'Amérique (Perca flavescens). CUV. et VAL, ii., p. 46.

PLATE LXXIV.

THIS fish has a close resemblance to the river Perch of Europe. Our specimen was taken in Lake Huron, where it frequents steep banks and affords much sport to the angler from the eagerness with which it snaps at the bait. In the month of May it spawns and then resorts in great numbers to the mouths of rivulets. It does not, as far as I could learn, exist in any of the streams that flow into Hudson's Bay or the Arctic sea, and most probably it does not range farther north than the 49th or 50th parallels of latitude, between which the rivers that fall into the chain of Great Canadian Lakes originate. Dr. J. V. C. Smith, author of a popular work on the Fish of Massachusetts, enumerates the Perca fluviatilis among the fish of that State, but he has most likely been misled by the report of anglers who have mistaken the P. flavescens for it. It is certain, that no naturalist who had the opportunity of comparing these two species with one another, would have placed them in different genera, as Dr. Smith has done. Dr. Mitchill includes in Bodianus fish of several genera together with the subject of this article, which is a true perch; while under Perca he places only Labrax lineatus and Centropristis nigricans of

B

[page] 2

Cuvier. The mistake of confounding the American perches with their European representative is a very excusable one, where opportunities of comparison do not exist; and Baron Cuvier, after describing P. flavescens, P. serrato-granulata, and P. granulata, which inhabit the Atlantic streams of New York and the neighbouring States, adds "Elles seraient certainement confondues avec le nôtre, par un voyageur qui les observerait chacun isolément et sans pouvoir en faire, comme nous, un rapprochement et une comparaison immédiate."

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken at Penetanguishene, Lake Huron, May, 1825.

COLOUR.—General tint of the back greenish-yellow; of the sides golden-yellow with minute black specks; and of the belly whitish. Nine or ten dark bands descend from the back to the sides, and taper away towards the belly; the alternate ones are shorter, and on the tail and shoulders they are less distinctly defined: the longest band is opposite to the posterior part of the first dorsal fin, on which there is a large black mark.

FORM.—The body is moderately compressed, its greatest thickness being somewhat more than one half of its depth. Its profile is oblong, tapering more towards the tail, which is nearly cylindrical: its greatest depth is at the ventrals, and rather exceeds one-fourth of the total length, caudal included.

The head constitutes two-sevenths of the total length, and its height, at the eye, is equal to one-half its length, from the tip of the snout to the point of the gill-cover. The forehead is flat, but appears depressed, owing to the convexity of the nape. The snout is a little convex. The orbits are lateral, distant more than one of their own diameters from the tip of the snout, and more than two diameters from the point of the gill-cover. The jaws are equal. The mouth descends as it runs backwards, its posterior angle being under the centre of the orbit.

TEETH.—The intermaxillaries, lower-jaw, knob of the vomer, and edge of the palate-bones, are covered with very small, straight or slightly-curved densely-crowded teeth (en velours). The vault of the palate, posterior part of the vomer, and the pointed tongue, are smooth.

GILL-COVERS.—The preoperculum is narrow; its upper limb rising vertically forms a right angle with the lower one; and its edge is armed with small spinous teeth, those on the lower limb being directed forwards. The bony operculum terminates in a narrow sub-spinous point, beneath which there are three denticulations, with grooves running backwards from them. An acute-pointed membranous flap prolonged from the margin of the suboperculum conceals these parts in the recent fish. The edge of the interoperculum and posterior part of the suboperculum are minutely denticulated. The edges of the humeral bones are slightly grooved and denticulated, the denticulations being more obvious in some individuals than in others.

SCALES.—There are sixty scales on the lateral line, and twenty-two in a vertical row between the first dorsal and centre of the belly. The scales are rather small, their bases truncated and furrowed to near the middle (striées en éventail) by six grooves corresponding to eight minute lobes of the margin. A narrow border of the outer rounded edge is very minutely

[page] 3

streaked, producing teeth on the margin, visible under a lens. The length and breadth of a scale, taken from the side, are about equal, being two and a half lines. A linear inch measured on the sides or belly, longitudinally, contains twelve scales, the scales on the belly having, however, less vertical breadth. On the back an inch includes seventeen or eighteen. The asperity of the scales is perceptible to the finger, when it is drawn over them from the tail towards the head. The lateral-line is thrice as near to the back as to the belly, and is slightly arched till it passes the dorsal and anal fins, when it runs straight through the middle of the tail. It is marked on each scale by a tubular elevation, which is divided irregularly by an oblique depression.

FINS.—Br. 7–7; D. 13/ — 1/13; P. 14; V. 1/5; A. 2/8; C. 17 5/5.

The first dorsal commences a little posterior to the point of the gill-cover and to the pectorals: its fourth and fifth rays are the highest: the first ray is slender and not half the height of the second; the last ray is so short as to be detected only by a close examination. The second dorsal commences a quarter of an inch from the first, the space between them being occupied by two or three inter-spinous bones without rays: its first ray is spinous, and is closely applied to the base of the second, which is thrice as long, distinctly articulated* and divided at the tip: the remaining rays are all divided at their summits, but at their bases the articulations are obsolete. The pectorals originate opposite to the spinous point of the operculum; they are somewhat longer than the ventrals, which are attached opposite to the second spine of the first dorsal. The anal is rounded: its first ray is one-fourth part shorter than the second, both being spinous: the succeeding rays are articulated and branched, the five anterior ones being longer than the second spine, the others becoming successively shorter: its termination is opposite to that of the second dorsal. The caudal is distinetly forked, its base is scaly, the scales advancing farther on the outer rays and covering one-third of their length.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of upper-jaw to tips of caudal fin 8 6
Length from tip of end of scales on central rays of ditto 7 5
Length from tip of end of dorsal and anal fins 6 0
Length from tip of anus 5 2
Length from tip of origin of first dorsal 2 6
Length from tip of gill-cover 2
Length from tip of nape 1 6
Length from tip of margin of orbit 0
Length of orbit 0
Length of one intermaxillary 0 9
Length of one labial 0
Length of lower-jaw to its artic. with preop. 1 1
Length of attachment of first dorsal 2 1
Length of longest spine of ditto 0 11
Length of attachment of second dorsal 1 2
Length of longest ray of ditto 0 10
Length of attachment of anal 0
Length of longest ray of ditto 0 11½
Length of pectorals 1 2
Length of ventrals 1 2
Length of lobes of caudal 1 4
Length of central rays of ditto 0
Depth of caudal fork, fin extended 0 4
Height of body at the first dorsal 2 1

Our second specimen, nearly of the same size, has only seven vertical lateral bands, with merely a little clouding in place of the intermediate shorter ones. Mr. Todd informed me that some specimens were covered with small black spots.

* In the Histoire des Poissons, the two first rays of the second dorsal are described as spinous; but in our two specimens they are as we have mentioned. Our specimens were seen and named by Baron Cuvier.

B 2

[page] 4

[2.] 2. PERCA ACUTA. (Cuvier.) Sharp-nosed Perch.

La perche à museau pointu (Perca acuta). CUV. et VAL., ii., p. 49, pl. 10.

This species was found in Lake Ontario, by MM. Milbert and Le Sueur. It strongly resembles the P. flavescens, but its lower-jaw is proportionably longer, and its snout more pointed. It wants the black spot on the first dorsal.

Perca gracilis (Cuv. et Val., p. 50) is probably also a Canadian fish, but it has hitherto been found only in Lake Skaneateles, on the New-York side of Lake Ontario. It also resembles P. flavescens, but its preoperculum is not denticulated; the spine of the second dorsal is very short and slender, and the spot on the first dorsal small.

[3.] 1. PERCA (HURO) NIGRICANS. (Cuvier.) The Huron.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Perca. Sub-genus, Huro, CUVIER.

Le Huron (Huro nigricans). CUV. et VAL, ii., p. 124, t. 17. CUV. Reg. An., ii., p. 135.

Baron Cuvier established this sub-genus on the inspection of a solitary specimen which was prepared for me by Mr. Todd at Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron. In the analytical table of genera, given in the Histoire des Poissons, it stands among the Percoideæ having their ventrals, containing only five soft rays, situated under the pectorals; seven rays in the branchiostegous membrane; two distinct dorsal fins, or one fin divided into two by a notch extending to its base; and all the teeth small and crowded like the pile of velvet (dents en velours). The specimen is a dried one, of the right side of the fish, and contains only six branchiostegous rays, nor is there a trace of another ever having been inserted into that limb of the os hyoides; yet in his description the Baron enumerates seven. Mr. Todd counted only six in the recent fish. The Baron says that the Huron would possess all the characters of the Perch, if it were not devoid of denticulations on the bones of the head and shoulder, and particularly on the preoperculum*. Few fish of the family, he observes, possess this smooth-edged preoperculum, and, in fact, on reviewing the characters of his genera and sub-genera, we find, that of that

* The want of denticulations in the preoperculum is considered to be merely a specific distinction in the Perca flavescens, CUV.

[page] 5

division which has the ventrals placed under the pectorals, the small genera of Etelis, Aprion, Grystes, Aplodactylus, Bryttus, and Chironemus, alone resemble the Huron, in having the preoperculum without either crenatures, denticulations, sharp points, or spines: some Pomoti, however, have the crenatures of this bone scarcely perceptible, and in Pomatomus its edge is finely ciliated. Of the Percoideæ whose ventrals are jugular or abdominal, Aphritis, Bovichtus, Sphyzæna, and Paralepis, have also a smooth preoperculum; Trachinus and Percis have two or three small bony points which are not perceptible through the soft parts, and Percophis has the edge of its bony preoperculum even, but there is attached to it a narrow border of dentated membrane. It would be easy, the Baron observes, to modify the characteristic phrases of the larger generic groups, so as to include the Huron and other similarly-isolated species; but this practice would lead to the erroneous belief of there being a more intimate connexion between these aberrant species and the types of the groups than actually exists; and as he aims at expressing, even by the subdivisions of his families, the affinities of the different beings composing them, it is more in accordance with his plan to give to every peculiar form a proper generic name. A smooth tongue is one of the characters of the genus Perca, which we have not been able to identify in the Huron, that member having been removed from our specimen, as has also the branchial apparatus. Mr. Todd mentions two plates of teeth on the superior pharyngeal bones and one on the lower. The figure in the Histoire des Poissons represents eleven soft rays in the second dorsal, three of them in dotted lines; there are only eight now existing in the specimen, but the skin immediately behind the last one is a little damaged, and from the contour of the fin, one is induced to think that at least one posterior ray has been destroyed.

This fish is known to the English settlers on the borders of Lake Huron, by the name of Black bass—the word "bass" being almost synonymous with perch. The same appellation is given, at New York, to the Centropristis nigricans, to which our fish has a general resemblance. The Huron is highly esteemed as an article of diet, its flesh being white, firm, and well-flavoured, and it is, in fact, considered to be the best fish that is caught in the lake during the summer months. It haunts deep holes at the mouths of rivers or edges of banks, and readily takes a hook baited with a small fish, or a piece of white rag trailed after a boat, as in fishing for mackerel. It does not exist to the northward of the Great Canadian Lakes.

[page] 6

DESCRIPTION

Of the dried specimen.

FORM.—Profile elliptical, the ellipsis commencing acutely in the somewhat pointed chin and conical head, but passing gradually into the thickish tail. The depth of the body is greatest under the first dorsal, and appears to be about equal to the length of the head, or one-third of the total length, excluding the caudal. Head flat above, covered with scales as far as the posterior margin of the orbit: the forehead shows a slight median ridge with a more prominent lateral one, and there are many fine streaks on the upper margin of the orbit. The anterior sub-orbitar bone is marked by some short diverging ridges, and the under and posterior margin of the orbit is more distinctly roughened by many small irregular prominences. The orbit is circular, situated close to the forehead, and two of its own diameters and a half above the articulation of the lower-jaw: it is also a diameter and a half behind the extremity of the upper-jaw, and four diameters from the point of the suboperculum, or most posterior part of the gill-cover. The mouth acquires a somewhat vertical aspect, from the chin, or tip of the lower-jaw, projecting about a quarter of an inch beyond it, and from its opening descending from the plane of the forehead at a considerable angle as it runs backwards; the articulation of the lower-jaw is opposite to the posterior margin of the orbit. The labials have a lengthened triangular form, the narrow apex only passing under the edge of the sub-orbitar bone: the posterior dilated and truncated extremity projects considerably beyond the tip of the intermaxillary, and extends farther back than the orbit: it is further widened by the addition of a superior piece, or apophysis, whose corner is rounded. There are no pores in the lower-jaw, but two circular openings of canals in the bone are visible through the dried skin which covers them.

TEETH.—The opposing surfaces of the intermaxillaries and lower-jaw are covered with densely-crowded, curved, fine card-like teeth, or, as they ought perhaps to be called, in conformity with Cuvier's nomenclature, rather coarse "dents en velours"—the dental surface being broad anteriorly, and narrowing to a point behind. The transverse, anterior, projecting extremity of the vomer, and the outer edges of the palate-bones, are armed with finer teeth "en velours," the dental surface of the latter narrowing to a point posteriorly like those of the mandibles; there is, however, a detached but contiguous patch just beyond this point on the edge of the palate. The whole vault of the palate is smooth. The tongue, as we have already mentioned, has been removed, and if Mr. Todd's account of the pharyngeal teeth be correct, they are not distributed into the same number of patches as in the perch.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum having a narrow upright limb, covered with smooth skin, there being a single small scale only, just above its angle: the lower limb is wider, and has three scales in a single row, which does not cover half its surface: the whole edge of the bone is smooth and even, with the exception of a very shallow wide notch at the base of the upper limb. The interoperculum is comparatively broad, its depth exceeding that of either the preoperculum or suboperculum; it is covered by a row of ten scales, which leave its under border naked. The bony operculum has an acute, oblique notch in its posterior

[page] 7

margin producing two thin points: the lower point is closely applied to the apex of the sub-operculum, forming with it one thin obtuse plate, which, together with the upper point, are concealed by the membrane which borders them. The under margin of the suboperculum is slightly waved, forming two obscure lobes. As in many, or perhaps in most, of the percoideæ with scaly gill-covers, the margins of the pieces composing them are covered with smooth skin: there is even a wider naked space than usual behind the points of the operculum, and the anterior border of that bone is as wide and prominent as the limb of the preoperculum to which it adjoins. The forehead, snout, infra-orbitar bones, and margins of the orbits, mandibles, labials, branchiostegous membranes and edges of the different opercular bones, are covered with smooth skin; the rest of the head, including the temples and top of the cranium as far as the linea rostri basalis*, are clothed with tiled scales. The bones lining the posterior edge of the gill-openings are likewise scaleless, and their edges, though undulated, are destitute of spines or serratures. The nape is supported by a median ridge of the cranium, and a thin lateral one on each side equally high. There are also several inter-spinous bones anterior to the first dorsal. The Branchiostegous membrane contains six curved rays, the anterior ones cylindrical, the posterior ones becoming more and more flat and wider.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 6/ — 2/8?; P. 15; V. 1/5; A. 3/11; C. 17 7/7

The pectorals consist of fifteen rays, the first of which is short, and its articulations very obscure, being visible only at the tip and with a lens. The ventrals are attached directly under the pectorals, and contain six rays, of which the first is spinous and one-third shorter than the succeeding ones. The first dorsal consists of six acute spinous rays, having the connecting membrane notched between them: the first ray is one-third shorter than the third, which is the longest, and stands about an inch behind the insertions of the pectorals and ventrals: the fourth and fifth are nearly as long as the third. The second dorsal is one-third higher than the first, and commences nearly an inch behind the posterior insertion of the membrane of the latter: the two anterior rays are spinous and separated by membrane,—the first of them equal in height to the corresponding ray of the first dorsal: the third ray is simple but articulated; the succeeding ones are branched at the tips, and nearly equal to each other, the seventh being, however, rather the highest: the fifth ray is opposite to the anus, and the tenth (it is not certain whether this be the last or not, as the specimen is injured) is opposite to the fifth of the anal. The anal contains fifteen rays, the two first of them shorter, spinous, and very acute: the branched rays equal those of the dorsal in height: the first spinous ray stands half an inch behind the anus. If the fish, exclusive of the caudal-fin, be divided into three parts, the head will form one, and the first spine of the anal will stand at the commencement of the third. The space between the anal and caudal considerably exceeds that occupied by the attachment of the former. The caudal is somewhat rounded and very slightly emarginated: its base is covered with small scales, which terminate by an even line rounded off on the three exterior rays, while they cover the accessory short rays, above and below, to their tips, thus producing a notch at each end of the line.

SCALES.—The scales are rather large, the exterior edge forming a segment of a circle and

* Linea rostri basalis illa est, quæ per marginem orbitæ posteriorem transcersim d'icitur.—NILSSON.

[page] 8

being quite smooth, the sides almost parallel, and the base truncated and crenated in correspondence with ten or eleven furrows which diverge from the centre like the sticks of a fan. There are sixty scales on the lateral line, exclusive of about nine smaller ones, forming a continuation of the same row on the base of the caudal, and twenty-six in a vertical row beneath the first dorsal, of which seven are above the row which forms the lateral line. A linear inch measured along the sides includes five scales and a half. The scales on the gill-covers are a little smaller than those on the body: those on the cheeks are still less, and the scales on the caudal, and on the space before the ventrals, are the smallest of all. A scale taken from the lateral line under the first dorsal is four and three-quarter lines wide and three and a half lines long. The lateral line runs parallel to the curvature of the back and is distant from the belly: it is marked by a tubular elevation on each scale.

COLOUR.—Back and sides dark, with a faint longitudinal streak through the centre of each row of scales. Belly yellowish white.

DIMENSIONS

Of the prepared specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from the tip of the upper-jaw to extremity of caudal 17
Length from the tip of end of scales on ditto 15 2
Length from the tip of end of anal fin 11 5
Length from the tip of anus 9 3
Length from the tip of first spine of second dorsal 8 2
Length from the tip of first spine of first dorsal 5
Length from the tip of suboperculum 4
Length from the tip of end of scales on forehead 2 1
Length from the tip of anterior margin of orbit 1 3
Length of intermaxillary 2 0
Length of labial 2 3
Breadth of ditto at lower end 0 9
Length of lower-jaw to its articulation 3 1
Length of pectorals 2 7
Length of ventrals 2 3
Length of attachment of first dorsal 1 8
Length of third or highest spine of ditto 1 4
Length of attachment of second dorsal 2 6
Length of its middle soft rays 2 3
Length of attachment of anal 2 2
Length of its middle rays 2 0
Length of lateral rays of caudal 3 3
Length of between anal and base of caudal 3 0
Length from end of scales to tip of lateral caudal rays 2
Length from end of central ditto 2 2
Diameter of orbit 0 8

[4.] 1. LABRAX NOTATUS. (Smith.) The Bar-fish, or Canadian Basse.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Labrax, CUVIER.

Labrax notatus. Lieutenant-Colonel C. H. SMITH. MSS.

The genus Labrax, or Basse, belongs to the same section of THORACIC PERCOIDEÆ with Perca, from which it is distinguished by scaly gill-covers that terminate in a double spinous point, the want of denticulations on the sub-orbitars, subopercula, and interopercula, but principally by parts of the tongue being rough like a file with a crowd of extremely small teeth. Cuvier remarks, that the Basse has so close an affinity to the genus Perca, that it might be termed Sea-perch with more propriety than Serranus, which has much less resemblance to the perches in

[page] 9

organization. The common Basse of Europe (L. lupus) spawns in bays of the sea, preferring those into which rivulets of fresh water flow; but it occasionally ascends rivers, and the lupi of the Tiber, taken between the two bridges, were in vogue, at some periods, with the epicures of ancient Rome*. The Rock-fish, or Striped Basse (L. lineatus) of New York, frequents the coasts of that state all the year; but, as Dr. Mitchill informs us, "the greatest run is in the fall. Instead of going away on the approach of winter, the Striped Basse seeks refuge in bays, ponds, and recesses, where he may remain warm and quiet. Here the fishermen find him and make great hauls during the coldest season, when many are brought to market in a frozen state." The dread of cold was ascribed, by the ancients, also to the lupus, and Cuvier thinks that their opinion is founded on facts; but I should judge that the Striped Basse, at least, seeks quiet rather than warmth, by quitting the sea in winter, for in northern climates the temperature of the ocean exceeds that of shallow bays or rivers in the winter-time. Had Dr. Mitchill observed that the Basse resorted to the southern states in greater numbers, or launched out into the Gulf-stream, in the cold season, we might have attributed its movements to a love of a higher temperature; but if its change of residence be not owing to its food being more abundant in the bays and rivers at the periods of its resort to them, it probably arises simply from the fact, that it prefers still-water to the turbulent waves of the ocean, excited by frequent storms. Cuvier has stated the matter more simply, and perhaps more correctly, in saying that this fish ascends rivers in the spring to spawn, and in the winter for the sake of shelter. I do not know how high up the St. Lawrence the Bar-fish goes, but the river ceases to be salt far below Quebec, where the fish is taken. Many of the lupi are covered with brown spots, and these were noticed by Cuvier to be females: it would be interesting to know if the different sexes of the American Basses have peculiar markings. The L. notatus derives it name from the resemblance of its spotting to musical characters. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith has obligingly furnished me with the following note respecting it.

"The Bar-fish of the Canadians at Quebec differs from Mitchill's Basse (L. lineatus, Cuv.), in being much more robust, and in being marked with rows of spots, five above and five below the lateral line, so regularly interrupted and transposed as to appear like ancient church-music. The back is brilliant with iridescent green, gold, and pink colours: the sides silvery. Head covered with strong scales. On the lateral line, which is quite straight, I reckoned fifty-eight scales."

"FINS.—D 9/ — 1/12; P. ?; V. 1/6; A. 1/12; C. 17." (Smith in lit.)

* Vide Hist. des Poiss., ii., p. 59.

C

[page] 10

The lupus, which the L. lineatus closely resembles in structure, contains seventy scales in a row, between the gill-opening and caudal-fin. The most remarkable character of L. notatus appears to be the solitary spine in the anal, all the other species having three. As to the six soft rays of the ventrals, the same number is represented in Mitchill's plate of lineatus, while Cuvier reckons only five, in conformity with the division of Percoideæ to which the genus belongs; but it often happens that the last ray is divided to the base, thus causing six to appear in the recent fish, though in the dried specimen, or skeleton, the exact number is easily ascertained by counting the joints. L. lineatus has eight or nine longitudinal streaks on a side, one of them corresponding to the lateral line. In the more robust form, and in the strong scales of the head, the Canadian Bar-fish resembles the L. mucronatus of the United States and the West Indies, and the L. multilineatus of the Wabash. The latter species has sixteen narrow, black, longitudinal lines on the flanks. Nothing is said of the habits of the latter; but if it ascends the Wabash in the winter time, it must have quitted the warm climate of the Gulf of Mexico, and its movements might in that case be ascribed, by some, to its love of cold or temperate waters. L. notatus is the most northern known American species, and if it frequents no higher latitudes than the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or the 50th parallel, its range northward is about equal to that of the L. lupus, which has been noticed on the southern shores only of Britain, though but rarely.

[5.] 1. LUCIO-PERCA AMERICANA. (Cuvier.) The American Sandre.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Lucio-perca, CUVIER.

Le Sandre d'Amérique (Lucio-perca Americana). CUV. et VAL., ii., p. 122, pl. xvi.

Picarel. SETTLERS on LAKE HURON.

The genus Lucio-perca also belongs to that division of THORACIC PERCOIDEÆ having seven branchiostegous rays and two dorsals, but it stands in a subdivision which is characterized by the presence of long canine teeth, in addition to the ordinary ones "en velours." The species of this genus, like those of Perca* as restricted by Cuvier, are probably all inhabitants of fresh-water exclusively, for though a L. marina of the Black Sea is noticed in the Histoire des Poissons, it is included in this genus with doubt, being known to Cuvier only by the description

* Perca-trutta of the Hist. des Poiss., which was caught in Cook's Straits, New Zealand, is afterwards described as a Centropristis, and will, Cuvier thinks, prove to be the type of a peculiar genus. It is not said whether P. Plumeri and P. marginala were taken in the sea or not; all the rest are fresh-water species.

[page] 11

given of it by Pallas, who considered it to be a Labrax. Exclusive of this uncertain species, there are three others which are each peculiar to a separate quarter of the Northern hemisphere. The European one, L. sandra, is found in the rivers and lakes of the north-east parts of that quarter of the world, and in the rivers that fall into the Caspian, being, however, unknown in Great Britain, France, and Italy. In this species there are no scales on the cheeks, lower part of the operculum, or suboperculum, and the preoperculum is the only piece of the gill-cover that is dentated, or shows spinous points. The vomer is armed only with teeth "en velours;" and there are one hundred and twenty scales in a row between the gill-openings and the caudal-fin. The Asiatic species (L. volgensis) inhabits the rivers and lakes which flow into the Caspian Sea, has smaller and less unequal teeth than the preceding, but larger scales, there being only ninety in a longitudinal row. The cheeks and the gill-covers, with the exception of the suboperculum, and the limb and lower edge of the preoperculum, are covered with small scales. The L. Americana differs remarkably from these two in the tip of its bony operculum, being a sharp point or spine, showing, as Cuvier observes, that this sort of arming furnishes a character of very secondary importance. Other distinctive marks will appear in the detailed description which follows. The specimen described in the Histoire des Poissons was procured by M. Milbert from the fresh-waters of New York, but no account is given of its habits: ours is from Lake Huron, and was prepared by Mr. Todd at Penetanguishene. This gentleman states that it spawns in April and May, when it collects in numbers about the mouths of rivers. It takes a hook readily, and its flesh is white, firm, and wholesome.

DESCRIPTION

Of a dried Lake Huron specimen, identified by Cuvier.

FORM—lengthened. The profile of the back is straight from the shoulder to the second dorsal, it then inclines slightly towards the tail, but also in a straight line*. The anus is under the fifth and sixth rays of the second dorsal, and just posterior to the middle point, between the gill-opening and base of the caudal. The centre between the tip of the snout and end of the lateral line is under the eleventh ray of the first dorsal. Head.—The inclination of the forehead equals the sloping upwards of the under-jaw, thus giving a conical profile to the head, its apex formed by the extremities of both jaws being obtuse. The orbit is large and oval, and is placed once and a half the length of its axis behind the tip of the upper-jaw, and three lengths from the apex of the gill-cover. Each labial is composed of a single strong bone without any supplementary piece: it is dilated towards its extremity, and its under edge curves round the tip of the intermaxillary: it does not reach quite so far back as

* Mr. Todd states the body to be "roundish and thicker upon the back, but sharper about the belly." The reverse of this is indicated by the section represented in the Hist. des Poiss.

C 2

[page] 12

the articulation of the lower-jaw, or posterior margin of the orbit, which are opposite to each other. The anterior suborbitar is marked by five or six flat ridges radiating from a centre, which, when the soft parts are dried up, appear as denticulations on the edge of the bone.

GILL-COVERS.—The preoperculum has the form of a thin crescent, with its ascending limb very slightly undulated but entire, and its lower edge deeply serrated, producing six or seven coarse teeth slightly directed forwards. There are some scarcely perceptible crenatures on the edge of the interoperculum. The operculum and suboperculum together form an equilateral spherical triangle. The former ends in a pretty strong flat spine, which is the extremity of a thin, though strong ridge, that strengthens the bone internally, but is even with the surface above; the edge of the bone above the spine is cut away by a deep sloping notch, whose upper corner is a thin acute point, situated half an inch behind the tip of the spine, and an inch above and behind the membranous apex of the gill-cover: the under edge of the operculum forms a slightly convex perfectly even line. The suboperculum has, also, an even edge, which is bordered by a membranous flap that extends beyond the spine of the operculum and conceals it. The notch of this bone is also covered by the soft parts. The supra-scapular, scapular, and humeral bones are devoid of the slightest indentation or crenature*; they are also scaleless, but the edge of the upper one is a little waved, and projects slightly on the side of the nape. There are irregular patches of small scales on the posterior part of the frontal bone, the temples, cheeks, operculum, and suboperculum; the posterior margins of the latter pieces, the whole interoperculum, and the head between and anterior to the orbits, are covered with smooth skin.

TEETH.—The intermaxillaries are armed posteriorly with a single, close, even row of very short curved teeth, with, on each side of the snout, a long, strong canine tooth, whose point fits into a depression of the lower-jaw; and on the extremity of the jaw, between the canines, there are five or six smaller conical teeth. On the under-jaw and edges of the palate-bones there is also a row of minute, crowded teeth, and just within them a series of large teeth, similar, and mostly equal in size, to the upper canines: each limb of the lower-jaw contains about twelve of these, and each palate-bone eight: they stand, generally, about the breadth of their bases apart from each other, but the lower canines, or foremost pair on the lower-jaw, are separated by a wider space from those behind, and shut in just anteriorly to the upper canines. The first pair on the palate (one tooth on each bone) is the largest of all. The transverse extremity of the vomer is injured in our specimen, but it appears to have been furnished with small teeth in the middle, and with one larger one on each angle, of which the sockets remain, and are as wide as the sockets of the lateral teeth of the palate†. The vault of the palate is smooth. The tongue has been cut away.

* In the fig. in Hist. des Poissons they are serrated.

† In the Hist. des Poiss., this species is simply said to resemble the European Sandre in its dentition. The teeth of the latter are thus described:—"Les mâchoires sont garnies d'une bande très-étroite de dents en velours, parmi lesquelles il y en a un rang de coniques et pointues encore assez petites à la machoire supérieure, et déjà plus grandes à l'inférieure et aux palatins: deux de ces dents aiguës en avant à la mâchoire supérieure, quatre à l'inférieure, et deux en avant de chaque palatin plus grandes encore que les autres, forment de véritables canines; mais à la ligne transversale du vomer il n'y en a que de petites en velours. La lanque n'en a point, elle est libre et douce. Celles des pharyngiens sont en cardes."

[page] 13

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 14/ — 1/21; P. 13; V. 1/5; A. 1/13; C. 17 11/11.

The first dorsal is arched and contains fourteen spinous rays. In our specimen the third, fourth, and seventh are the longest, the fifth and sixth, though acute, being rather shorter, probably from their growth having been accidentally impeded: the first stands over the tip of the gill-cover and insertion of the pectorals, and is not half so high as the third, but longer than the thirteenth, and twice as long as the fourteenth. The second dorsal commences an inch, or seven scales breadth, posterior to the membranous termination of the first, or to the middle point between the end of the snout and tips of the caudal: its rays are longest from the third to the seventh, the posterior ones becoming gradually shorter: the first is very short and appears to be spinous, the two next are simple but articulated, and the remainder are branched at their summits: the twenty-two rays are supported by twenty-one interspinous bones. The anal terminates opposite to the nineteenth ray of the second dorsal: three or four scales are interposed betwixt it and the anus: its spinous ray is very short and closely applied to the second, which also appears, at first sight, to be spinous, but its articulations are perceptible through a lens*. The ventrals are situated a very little posterior to the pectorals, and contain five thick articulated rays, with a spinous one closely applied to the lower half of the first. Caudal slightly crescentic at the extremity, composed of seventeen rays, with eleven additional short ones at the base above and below.

SCALES.—The scales are of a form approaching to semi-orbicular, but more or less oblique; a narrow border round the uncovered portion is rough, with little crowded points sensible to the touch, but which require the aid of a lens to render them visible; the truncated base is marked irregularly with a variable number of crenatures corresponding to faintly impressed, nearly parallel streaks. There are ninety scales on the lateral line†, and forty in a vertical row just behind the ventrals—eleven of them above the lateral line. The latter is almost perfectly straight, and is on a level with the upper edge of the gill-cover. The scales above it are not only smaller than those on the sides, but also more closely tiled, so as to appear much smaller when in situ; they are also rounder with much less obliquity. The ordinary scales terminate on the base of the caudal by a semicircular outline, and there are also some very small ones on the membrane beyond, extending farthest between the outer rays. A scale from the back measures two lines and three quarters, both in length and breadth. On the sides they are about three lines and a half wide by three lines long. A linear inch measured on the sides includes seven scales; on the back there are nine or ten in an inch.

COLOUR.—Mr. Todd describes the back as dark, the sides dark yellow, and the belly whitish. In the dried skin the scales, as low as the lateral line, appear blackish-green, with very narrow pale exterior margins. On the sides the dark colour is confined more to the base of each scale, producing an obscure reticulation. There is a black patch on the membrane of the three posterior rays, and traces of dark clouding on other parts of the fin, particularly behind the first ray.

* Cuvier marks the rays of this fin 2/11, but our specimen shows the above very distinctly. The second dorsal is also marked 1/20 by him.

† Between each pair of scales proper to the lateral line, the edges of two adjoining scales intervene and overlap. There are one hundred and twelve scales in the row immediately beneath the lateral line.

[page] 14

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of nose to extremities of caudal fin 23 6
Length from tip of end of scales on central rays of ditto 20 9
Length from tip of end of second dorsal 17 2
Length from tip of end of anal 16 4
Length from tip of anus 14 0
Length from tip of end of membrane of first dorsal 11 9
Length from tip of first spine of ditto 6 3
Length from tip of gill-cover 6 2
Length from tip of anterior margin of orbit 1 8
Length of axis of orbit 1 1
Length of one intermaxillary 2 4
Length of one labial 2 3
Length of lower-jaw 3 5
Length of pectorals 2 10
Length of ventrals 2 10
Length of longest rays of first dorsal 2 7
Length of attachment of ditto 5 10
Length of longest rays of second dorsal 2 2
Length of posterior rays of ditto 1 0
Length of attachment of ditto 4 6
Length of longest rays of anal 2 3
Length of posterior ray of ditto 0 11
Length of attachment of ditto 2 3
Length of lobes of caudal 3 6
Length of central rays of ditto 1 10
Depth of caudal fork 0 10

THE OKOW, or HORN-FISH*.

The Okow inhabits the rivers and lakes of the fur countries up to the fifty-eighth parallel, and is, in all probability, the same species with the L. Americana. Specimens that I prepared at Cumberland-house, in 1820, would have enabled me to decide this matter, but, as I have mentioned in the preface, they have been accidentally destroyed; and on referring to my original notes of the characters of the recent fish, I perceive a few discrepancies betwixt them and the description in a preceding page of L. Americana, particularly in the position of the anus being under the commencement of the second dorsal, and not under its fifth ray. As the notes in question, though carefully drawn up, were my first attempt at ichthyological description, I do not found much upon them, but I deem it safer to place them before the reader, rather than to run the hazard, on the one hand, of creating a nominal species, or, on the other, of confounding two together, and thus producing an error in our account of their geographical distribution and habits. My notes, moreover, contain an account of the viscera, which is omitted in the Histoire des Poissons.

The Okow spawns in May, soon after the ice breaks up. At that period, and during the summer months, it is taken abundantly in gill-nets; but as it is seldom or never seen in the winter, it very probably passes that season in the deepest recesses of the lake. It is a well-flavoured, delicate fish, though, being too poor to

* Perca fluviatilis, var. ? ? RICH. Fr. Journ., p. 725, An. 1823.
Okow, CREES. Picarel, or Dorè, CANADIANS. Horn-fish, FUR-TRADERS.

[page] 15

please the palates of those who have been accustomed to feast upon the White-fish (Coregonus albus), Mathemeg (Pimelodus borealis), or Sturgeon, it is very often abandoned to the dogs, with whom, for the same reason, it is no favourite. Even an Epicurean ichthyophagist would relish it when fried; but from the scarcity of lard, butter, or suet, this is not an usual mode of cooking in the fur-countries.

DESCRIPTION

Of recent specimens taken in Pine-Island Lake, lat. 54°, May, 1820.

COLOUR.—Back and sides greenish-grey alternating in small spots with king's yellow: belly whitish. First dorsal beautifully streaked and clouded with different shades of yellowish-brown, and marked on the three posterior rays by a dark patch of venous-blood red. The second dorsal, the pectoral, and caudal fins are coloured and dotted like the back, the lower tip of the caudal being, however, whitish. The ventrals and anal are white, the latter also tinged with red, and both marbled with king's yellow. The top of the head is coloured like the back, and the cheeks present some shades of light cherry-red. The irides are lilac-purple, streaked with pearl-white, and the inside of the mouth is bluish-white, with a coating of nacre shining through in patches. The scales are rough on their exterior edges.

FORM.—Body compressed and oblong; the back sinks slightly at the end of the first dorsal, and the lateral line, which is parallel to it, has a corresponding depression. Anus situated rather before the commencement of the posterior third of the fish, exclusive of the caudal. Head.—When the jaws are closed, the profile of the head is a cone, whose apex, including the tips of both mandibles, is rather obtuse. The anterior nasal openings have small opercular margins, shaped like the ear of a mouse, and placed so as to catch the stream of water when the fish moves forwards. The eyes are large and prominent. The mouth is rather large, its gape extending backwards with a curve downwards as far as the centre of the orbit. The jaws are equal in length, the somewhat pointed extremity of the lower one fitting into a depression formed in the more obtuse upper one.

TEETH.—The two largest teeth of the upper-jaw project one on each side of the snout, like the canine teeth of some quadrupeds, and are visible when the mouth is shut: they stand on the intermaxillaries, which are further armed with small teeth in a single crowded row. The lower-jaw presents, on each limb, a series of teeth like the upper canines, set rather widely, and the intervals are occupied by minute ones. The edges of the palate-bones, and the transverse ridge of the vomer, are armed like the lower-jaw. All the long conical teeth are very acute and have their points inclined backwards. The tongue is smooth, has a triangular form, and its tip is free, or projects considerably into the mouth. The three inner branchial arches are set with a double row of tubercles covered with small teeth; the outer arch has one row of tubercles, and also a row of rakers half an inch long, armed on their interior surfaces with a multitude of hook-shaped teeth. The superior and inferior pharyngeal bones are likewise rough with innumerable minute teeth.

GILL-COVERS.—The preoperculum has a prominent semicircular edge, which is armed with irregular tooth-like processes. The rest of the gill-cover is triangular, its apex being a mem-

[page] 16

branous flap. The operculum is armed with a spine which scarcely projects through the skin, and also with three smaller points, visible only when the skin dries. The interoperculum and suboperculum are unarmed, and the latter is terminated by the membranous tip of the gill-cover. The supra-scapular is rough with a projecting edge, and the humeral bones have also a prominent edge which is toothed. There are various patches of scales on the top of the head, cheeks, and gill-covers, and the frontal bone exhibits several furrows through the thin integuments. The Branchiostegous membranes overlap each other at their insertion into the isthmus, and contain seven cylindrical curved rays.

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 15/ — 21 or 22; P. 14 or 15; V. 1/5; A. 1/12; C. 16 or 18.

The first dorsal has fifteen spinous rays. The second, commencing an inch behind the termination of the other and over the anus, contains twenty-one or twenty-two rays. The caudal fin is crescentic at its extremity, and is partially scaly towards the base.

VISCERA.

On laying open the abdomen the liver appears lying transversely on the stomach and cæca: a triangular flap hangs from its centre, but it is not otherwise divided. The bile is pale; the duct of the gall-bladder opens into one of the cæca The œsophagus is distinguished internally from the stomach by its longitudinal folds: it is short, and before it is slit open appears to be continuous with the first intestine, the stomach looking like a little bag attached to the side of the canal. The lining of the stomach has a light red colour, and being more ample than the exterior coats, is disposed in large crowded and convoluted folds: the pylorus is near the cardiac orifice, the greater part of the stomach being a blind sac. About an inch below the pylorus three cæca* open into the intestine, which they equal in calibre. Their structure is similar to that of the intestine, consisting of a peritoneal coat with longitudinal fatty bands, a muscular coat with longitudinal fibres, a firm gelatinous coat, much thicker than the others, and an internal lining disposed in very minute folds. The intestine makes two convolutions, in the second of which its coats become gradually thinner and its calibre less, until it terminates in the rectum by a circular projection or valve. The rectum is short, and its diameter is equal to that of the gut near the stomach. The spleen lies in the first duplicature of the intestine. The air-bladder is forked at its upper end, and a small duct, proceeding from its middle, terminates in the same cæcum with the gall-duct†. There are a number of red-coloured fatty substances attached to the lining of the air-bladder.

* L. sandra has four cæca.

† This passage stands so in my notes. I acknowledge that my dissections being carried on in cold weather, and in an apartment into which the light was admitted through a small parchment window, I may have mistaken a fold of peritoneum, or a band of vessels, for a duct. But if the duct really terminates in the cæcum, it seems to furnish an argument against M. Agassiz's opinion of the air-bladder being an organ of respiration, almost equally strong with that derived from the entire absence of that viscus in many fish.

[page] 17

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Total length including caudal fin 22 0
Distance between snout and caudal 19 0
Distance between snout and anus 12 0
Height of first dorsal 2 6
Length of attachment of ditto 5 0
Height of second dorsal 2 0
Length of attachment of ditto 4 0
Depth of anal fin 2 0
Length of its attachment 2 0
Length of ventrals 3 0
Length of pectorals 3 0
Length of alimentary canal from pharynx to anus 20 0
Length from pharynx to pylorus 2 0
Length from pylorus to orifices of cœca 0 9
Length from pylorus to valve of rectum 16 0
Length of rectum 2 0

Lieutenant-Colonel C. Hamilton Smith made a drawing at Quebec of a Lucioperca which has some of the peculiar characters of the Okow, and which he thinks is either a marked variety of L. Americana, or a distinct species. "It is known by the name of Poisson doré. The specimen was fourteen inches long, its anus situated exactly beneath the first spinous ray of the second dorsal, and the fourteenth ray of that fin opposite to the termination of the anal. The colour of the fish was deep gold-yellow, with the black mottles running irregularly and obliquely downwards from the back towards the belly and tail, being quite in a contrary direction to the streaks represented in the figure of L. Americana, in the Histoire des Poissons. There is a black spot behind the first ray, there is another before the last of the anterior dorsal, and there are five longitudinal streaks on the second dorsal, but none on the caudal or ventrals. No spine was observed on the gill-plates." (SMITH in lit.)

[6.] 2. LUCIO-PERCA? CANADENSIS. (Smith.) Canadian Sandre.

Lucio-perca Canadensis, C. H. SMITH. GRIFF. Cuvier, x., Pl. 1, p. 275.

This fish, well-known at Quebec under the name of "Green pickering," is very different from any described species of Lucio-perca, so much so, that we are ready to join with its discoverer in suspecting that it may prove to be the type of a peculiar genus. In L. Americana the under margin of the bony operculum is perfectly even; but in the Green pickering it is armed with four remarkable, acute spines, similar to the one that terminates its point, and nearly as large. The preoperculum appears to have no serratures that show through the soft parts. The first dorsal commences with a strong spine, which is higher than the succeeding ones,

D

[page] 18

and stands farther back than the corresponding spine of L. Americana. The second dorsal resembles the anterior one in its first ray, which is spinous, being the highest, the succeeding articulated ones gradually diminishing in altitude. The two fins are equal in height, while in L. Americana the posterior one is lowest. In profile, the resemblance of the Green pickering to the Sandres is pretty close, but it presents a very dissimilar section of the body. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith remarks, that it has a strong similarity in form to the Aspro vulgaris, though it cannot rank in the same genus, as its dentition is totally different, nor does its likeness to that fish extend to the form of its jaws and caudal. We have been favoured with the following extract from Lieutenant-Colonel Smith's original notes respecting this interesting species.

"The specimen was caught at Quebec in the month of October, and measured about fourteen inches in length. The back was broad and flattish, its breadth nearly equalling the depth of the body. The gape large, extending to the eyes; the teeth strong, obtuse and standing singly. Nostrils double. Edge of the gill-plate armed with a row of five spines, which do not extend beyond the bordering membrane. Head scaly and the body rough, and stiff with very small scales. The two dorsals have an interval between them, and the first is marked with three rows of large, round, black spots; the second with four streaks of the same colour: the tail is lunate, with a half-black bar on the upper and lower rays:—these three fins, together with the pectorals, having a yellow ground colour. The anal, commencing under the seventh ray of the second dorsal, is ochre-yellow: the ventrals are rounded and have a bright orange tint. The irides are black with a golden ring. The upper part of the body is dark olive-green, the lower whitish, joining the black by a waving line: there are a few pale yellow spots below the lateral line which curves downwards.

FINS.—P. 12; V. 1/5; D. 12/ — 1/17; A. 12; C. 17." (SMITH in lit.)

[7.] 1. CENTRARCHUS ÆNEUS. (Cuvier.) Bronzed Centrarchus.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Centrarchus. CUV. et VAL., t. vii., p. 456.

Cichla ænea, LE SUEUR. Jour. Ac. Sc. Phil., ii., p. 214. An. 1822.

Le centrarchus bronzé (Centrarchus æneus). CUV. et VAL., iii., p. 84, Pl. 48.

PLATE LXXV.

This fish inhabits Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Erie, frequenting, during the summer months, shady places, under high banks or shelving rocks. It preys upon cray-fish, worms, and the larvæ of coleoptera, and is very voracious, not sparing the young even of its own species. Our specimen, which was procured at Penetanguishene, was submitted to the inspection of Baron Cuvier, who made the fol-

[page] 19

lowing remark upon it. "Cychla ænea de Le Sueur, Centrarchus æneus, NOB." Since that period, however, the seventh volume of the Histoire des Poissons has appeared, wherein the genus Centrarchus is revised by M. Valenciennes, and some changes made in the specific names, in consequence of many more specimens having been sent to him from various parts of the United States. In the third volume it is said, "Les centrarchus ont le corps ovale, comprimé, un dorsale unique, des dents en velours au machoires, au-devant du vomer, aux palatins et sur les bases de la langue; le préopercule entier; l'angle de l'opercule divisé en deux pointes plates. Nous les avons nommés centrarchus ou anus épineux, à cause du nombre assez considérable des épines de leur anale, qui va a cinq ou six, tandis que dans la plupart des genres voisins il n'est que de trois." In the seventh volume this character is modified as follows:—"Nous avons vu deux espèces de centrarchus qui n'ont que trois épines à l'anale, comme c'est l'ordinaire chez le plus grand nombre des acanthoptérygiens; mais ce genre n'est pas moins facile cependant à reconnaître par l'absence de dentelures au préopercule et surtout parce que des dents en velours ras existent sur les palatins, le vomer et la base de la langue." (p. 456.) Bryttus is distinguished from the preceding genus solely by the want of teeth on the tongue; and Pomotis is known from both by the tongue and palate being smooth, the preoperculum slightly toothed, and the operculum ending in a rounded, membranous ear-like lobe. Some of these characters*, so far from being of generic importance, will scarcely serve to distinguish species; and it will be seen, by the description given below, that our specimen of Centrarchus æneus has the preoperculum distinctly serrated or denticulated. It appears, therefore, to us, that it would be more convenient and better to re-unite the three genera into one, which will stand in the division of Thoracic Percoideæ having five soft rays in the pectorals; fewer than seven branchiostegous rays; only one dorsal; and no canine teeth.

On comparing our Lake Huron specimen of Centrarchus æneus with the description of the species in the Histoire des Poissons, the only discrepancies are, that there the anal is said to commence opposite to the sixth dorsal spine, while in Le Sueur's original figure, as well as in our specimen, it begins opposite to the tenth; no notice is taken by the Baron of the singular oval plate of teeth on the centre of each palate-bone, and he says, "c'est à peine si l'on peut dire qu'il y a une dentelure au préopercule." The edge of the preoperculum, in our specimen,

* Even the character of teeth on the palate is of little importance as a generic distinction in some families of fish. See Thymallus signifer, which resembles the Common Grayling very closely in its general form, but differs from it in having palatine teeth.

D 2

[page] 20

has been cleared by insects, and the serratures are very evident; while the description in the Histoire des Poissons was taken, most probably, from fish preserved in spirits, and, consequently, with the soft parts entire. Le Sueur also describes the gill-covers as without spines or denticulations. The Baron states the scales to be "striées en éventail, à huit crénélures;" whereas we observe fourteen or more crenatures. M. Le Sueur's figure represents a more elongated fish than our specimen. I have been particular in noting these minute and apparently trivial differences, because of the following passage in the Histoire des Poissons, which requires that the species of the individual we have to describe should be determined with the greatest possible precision.

"Le centrarchus que nous désignions sous le nom de sparoïde (t. iii., p. 88, et pl. 48,) c'est trouvé parmi les poissons recueillis dans l'expédition si hardie du Capitaine Franklin. Il avait été pêché dans le lac Huron: les naturels le donnèrent au Docteur Richardson sous le nom anglais de 'rock basse.' Nous avons reconnu que cette espèce n'est pas le véritable labre sparoïde de M. de Lacépède; ainsi nous l'appellerons le centrarchus à six épines (centrarchus hexacanthus, Nob.), et nous reporterons le nom de sparoïde à l'espèce qui nous est récemment parvenu et qui a, comme le dessin original de M. Bosc l'indique, neuf épines à l'anale." A mistake has here occurred as to the origin of the specimen now called C. hexacanthus, which was not procured by us, but was very likely sent by M. Le Sueur from the Wabash (see Hist. des Poiss., t. iii., p. 88). The only one we saw is the one described at length below, and which, as I have mentioned above, was labelled C. æneus by the Baron himself: it was then returned to us, and could not have been examined by M. Valenciennes in his revision of the genus. C. hexacanthus is readily distinguished, not only by having but six dorsal spines, but also by the great length of the soft portion of the anal, and many other particulars which will at once appear on comparing our figure with t. xlviii. in the Hist. des Poiss. M. Le Sueur's original name of nigro-maculatus might have been retained instead of the new one of hexacanthus, had it not been applicable to most species of the genus.

DESCRIPTION

Of a dried specimen from Lake Huron.

FORM.—Body short and much compressed: its profile oval, the back, however, more arched than the belly, with a short strap-shaped tail issuing immediately behind the dorsal and anal fins; the profile descends in a rapid curve from the dorsal to the snout, with a slight gibbosity between the orbits. The length, excluding the caudal fin, is a little more than twice the height of the body at the fore part of the dorsal, where it is greatest.

[page] 21

The HEAD measures a little less than one-third of the total length, including the caudal fin, and is twice the length of the tail, from the anal to the end of the scales. Eyes large and rather prominent, placed about a diameter of their orbits apart from each other, the same distance from the tip of the upper jaw and also from the articulation of the lower one, and two diameters from the tip of the gill-covers*. The infra-orbitar bones form an irregular, uneven plate before the orbit, but merely a narrow margin beneath it. The cheeks are rather large, and are entirely covered with scales. The snout is short and obtuse. The mouth, when closed, descends obliquely towards the articulation of the lower jaw, which is opposite to the centre of the orbit: its orifice commences in the axis of the pectoral fins, and is about twice as much below the ridge of the back, as it is above the rim of the belly. The inter-maxillaries form the whole upper margin of the mouth. The labials project more than half their length from under the anterior infra-orbitar plate, are strong, become gradually wider towards their lower ends, which are truncated and cover the corners of the mouth. The under jaw has a little depth vertically at its extremity, forming a kind of chin when the mouth is closed: there are five orifices in each limb of the bone communicating with an internal canal, two of the holes on each side of the chin being connected with pores in the recent specimen. The two jaws, the snout anterior to the centre of the orbits, the infra-orbitar bones, the labials, preoperculum, some ridges and margins of the other opercular pieces, and the branchiostegous membrane, are covered with smooth skin, but the rest of the head is scaly.

TEETH small, short, not very acute, but numerous and crowded like velvet pile (en velours ras) into stripes or plates, which cover the edges of the jaws and chevron of the vomer to the breadth of a line. The outer edges of the palate-bones are covered by a narrower band of rather shorter teeth, and there is an oval patch of them, a quarter of an inch long, near the middles of these bones. Our specimen has lost the tongue.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum having its upper limb ascending vertically, nearly at a right angle to the lower one, which is shorter and wider. The anterior edge of the bone is elevated, its surface is uneven, and its inferior margin is very regularly and distinctly denticulated with fine grooves running upwards from between the teeth. In the recent specimen these are concealed by the smooth skin. The interoperculum has a row of scales along its upper border, which are partially covered by the serrated edge of the preoperculum: the under part of the bone, exceeding the scales in breadth, is smooth with an even edge. The suboperculum is very small and of a triangular form: its upper angle is covered by two small scales; its lower border is smooth. The operculum, forming by far the largest part of the gill-cover, is also triangular, its posterior apex terminating in two thin lobes or plates separated by an acute notch: the upper of these plates is truncated; the lower one projects farther, is more acute, and is slightly jagged, or obscurely crenated on its under edge—these plates are edged with a membrane which lengthens them out and alters their form a little, at the same time concealing the crenatures. The anterior border of the operculum is raised into an even smooth ridge, which has a row of three scales between it and the slightly-overlying edge of the preoperculum.

* The eye is considerably larger than in the Pomotis described in a subsequent page.

[page] 22

The posterior flat points or plates are also covered with smooth skin, but the bordering membrane, and all the rest of the operculum, are scaly. The supra-scapular, and bones lining the posterior margin of the gill-openings, are smooth and toothless.

The SCALES have their exterior edges forming a segment of a circle, their sides parallel, and their bases truncated: exteriorly they are smooth to the naked eye, but under a lens their surfaces and edges are covered with minute teeth: on the covered bases there are diverging furrows with fourteen corresponding crenatures of the edge: the size of the scales is greatest on the sides, smaller on the back, belly, and tail, and smallest on the head, particularly the cheeks: they cover the occiput, terminating between the eyes. One from the sides is nearly five lines wide, and rather more than four lines long. The lateral line follows the curve of the back at the distance of an inch. It contains forty-three or forty-four scales, and there are forty in a longitudinal row on a line with the tip of the gill-cover. A vertical row under the beginning of the dorsal contains twenty-one scales.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 11/11; A. 6/10; P 14; V. 1/5; C. 16 2/2.

The dorsal commences a little behind the base of the pectorals, and just anterior to the tip of the operculum: its eleven anterior rays are spinous, very acute, and gradually increase in height from the first, which measures four lines to the sixth, which is nine lines in height: the soft rays are an inch and a quarter long, and the outline of that part of the fin is rounded. There are three interspinous bones anterior to the first dorsal spine, but no vestige of rays belonging to them. The ventrals stand opposite to the third dorsal spine; and the anal, beginning opposite to the tenth, contains six strong, tapering, and very acute spines, the fifth of which, being the longest, measures nearly an inch: the soft part of the fin is one inch and a half deep, and is rounded—three or four of its rays are posterior to the last ray of the dorsal. The caudal is very slightly two-lobed, unless when spread to the utmost, when it is almost even: its length equals the part of the tail behind the dorsal, or constitutes one-sixth of the total length of the fish. The bases of the caudal, dorsal, and anal, are scaly for a short space.

COLOUR.—Not having had an opportunity of examining a recent specimen, I am indebted to Mr. Todd for the following description of the colours:—"Back dark; sides honey-yellow, with a quadrangular black mark on the base of each scale, sometimes including the tip of the overlying scale. These marks are most distinct on the sides, where they form rows." M. Le Sueur says, "The general colour is brilliant coppery, with irregular spots of a blackish-brown, and olive upon the back, the head, and opercula; the jaws, lips, and throat are black; thorax bluish-grey: these colours, which are very beautiful during life, disappear when it dies, and become of a bluish-grey, brown, or black; lateral scales with their base and extremity black, so as by their junction they produce the lines of black spots which ornament this fish. Pectoral, ventral, and anal fins marbled with reddish-brown and blue; the anal and dorsal have a black border with their bases dark brown, the rays distinguished by their light colour; the soft part of the dorsal is maculated with small irregular spots. Pupil dark blue; iris red and black."

[page] 23

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to extremities of caudal fin 9 0
Length from tip of end of scales on caudal 7 10
Length from Length from tip of anus 4 2
Length from tip of beginning of anal 4
Length from tip of first soft ray of anal 5 7
Length from tip of last ditto, ditto 6
Length from tip of beginning of dorsal 3 4
Length from tip of first soft ray of ditto 5 5
Length from tip of last ditto, ditto 6 2
Length from tip of orbit 0 8
Length from tip of gill-cover 2 8
Length of chin to ditto 2 11
Length of orbit 0 8
Length of vertical diameter of orbit 0
Length of intermaxillary 1 0
Length of labial 1 0
Length of lower jaw to its articulation with the preoperculum 1 4
Length of attachment of whole dorsal 3
Length of attachment spinous part of ditto 2 4
Length of highest dorsal spine 0 9
Length of highest soft rays 1 4
Length of attachment of anal 2 1
Length of attachment of soft rays of ditto 1 0
Length of soft rays of anal 1 5
Length of pectorals 1 6
Length of ventrals 1 5
Length of caudal from scales on longest rays 1 6
Length of ditto from origin of longest rays 1 10
Length of central rays of caudal from their base 1 6
Greatest height of body 3 8
Vertical diameter of tail 1 0
Distance between anus and first anal spine 0 6

M. Le Sueur has described, in the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, two Lake Erie fish, which he associates with his Cichla ænea, the Centrarchus æneus of the preceding article. The presence of palatine teeth excludes them from Pomotis, but as he does not mention whether the tongue be toothed or not, nor the presence of serratures on the preoperculum, it is impossible to say whether they belong to Centrarchus or Bryttus, or even to the same group. We abridge M. Le Sueur's descriptions. His first species resembles Pomotis Catesbei (Cuv. et Val.) in the streaks on the gill-covers, but differs from it in its palatine teeth, and from all the species of the group described in the Histoire des Poissons, in its transverse bands on the sides.

CICHLA FASCIATA. (Le Sueur.)

FORM.—Body compressed, tapering at the two extremities, three and a half times as long as the head, by one length in depth. Head narrow, scaleless between the eyes and upon the snout, which is short. Jaws large, truncated posteriorly, intermaxillary long and narrow. Inferior jaw hardly longer than the superior one, mandible strong, enlarged, spoon-shaped.

TEETH very small, numerous, card-like on the jaws, palate, and extremity of the vomer.

FINS.—Br. 6; P. 18 to 20; V. 5; D. 10/15; A. 3/12; C. 17e.

Dorsal fin high, rounded behind, arched before, and very low at its junction with the soft part. Anal rounded shorter than the soft part of the dorsal. Caudal slightly emarginated with rounded lobes.

SCALES rounded, not toothed, rather irregularly placed, large on the sides, smaller on the back, small on the back of the neck, very small under the belly, on throat and check, and a

[page] 24

little larger on the preoperculum and suboperculum; there are also very small ones between the rays of the anal and caudal fins. Lateral line undulated, oblique.

COLOUR general brownish-olivaceous, deep and fuliginous on the back, lighter on the sides, the middle of the scales brown, the margins black; anal fin greenish, the posterior part of the dorsal and caudal violaceous, abdomen and throat bluish and violaceous, thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen transverse brown bands on the side, a little deeper than the general tint; the opercula are also traversed with many olivaceous bands. When the fish dies the colour changes, and is then sometimes all blue or black, and the bands disappear.

LENGTH eighteen or twenty inches. It is one of the best fishes in Lake Erie, and is salted. It is taken at all seasons of the year by the seine or hook and line.

CICHLA MINIMA. (Le Sueur.)

FORM.—Body very long, sub-compressed, elevated before the dorsal. Head arched, very large. Eye very large. Teeth very small in many ranges on the jaws and palate. Mouth large.

SCALES very small. Lateral line straight in the middle of the body. COLOUR deep grey, tinted with bluish on the back, with metallic reflexions on the sides and abdomen, and with points, or small black and brown spots on the abdomen and back, and a spot on the neck.

FINS.—Br. ?; D. 9/14; P. ?; V. ? A 3/10; C. 17 to 18.

Dorsal fin long, divided into two equal parts, the anterior of spinous rays much lower than the soft part, which is rounded. Anal large, equal to the posterior part of the dorsal. Pectorals large, placed very low near the operculum. Ventrals much smaller than the pectorals, and placed exactly beneath them. Caudal subtruncated.

LENGTH nine lines. Lives in the small lagoons of tranquil water which discharge by narrow channels into Lake Erie.

[8.] 1. POMOTIS VULGARIS. Northern Pomotis.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Pomotis. VAL., Hist. des Poiss., vii. p. 454.

PLATE LXXVI.

This fish frequents the sheltered inlets of Lake Huron and the ponds in that vicinity, concealing itself, in the summer time, beneath the broad leaves of the nuphar and water-lily*, where it may be readily taken with a hook baited with a small fish or worm. I found fragments of fresh-water shells (helix, planorbis, limneus, &c.) in the stomachs of several individuals which I examined. In the third volume of the Histoire des Poissons, Baron Cuvier referred a number of specimens which

* Catesby says of the species he detected in Carolina, the original of the Labrus auritus, Linn., that it covers itself with mud or sand, and is therefore called "ground-perch."

[page] 25

he had received from various parts of North America to a species which he designated vulgaris, and our Lake Huron ones were examined among the rest and returned to us under that appellation. As has been mentioned, however, in the preceding pages, M. Valenciennes found it necessary, on receiving an additional number of good examples from different localities, to distribute them into several species, and to revise the characters of the genus Pomotis, of Centrarchus, so closely allied to it, and to constitute an intermediate genus, which he named Bryttus. He says, "Les pomotis seront ceux des poissons de ce groupe qui auront quelques dentelures plus ou moins marquées au bord du préopercule, les palatins et la langue lisses et sans dents. Ils n'ont de dents que sur le chevron du vomer. Le nombre des rayons épineux de l'anale ne sera plus qu'un caractère secondaire; car nous avons déjà parlé d'un pomotis qui a quatre épines à cette nageoire." The dentition furnishes, in fact, the only means pointed out of distinguishing these three genera*, for we have already seen that our specimen of the Centrarchus æneus has its preoperculum as conspicuously denticulated as the Pomotis vulgaris figured in the Histoire des Poissons, though the latter is described by the Baron as displaying this character more distinctly than its congeners. On the other hand, the pomotis described below, has the denticulations very slight indeed, and in one specimen scarcely perceptible. Our Lake Huron examples also want the crenatures of the upper humeral bone, represented in the Histoire des Poissons (t. xlix.); their bodies are more nearly orbicular in profile, the greatest depth equalling the distance between the preoperculum and the posterior part of the dorsal and anal fins; the ventrals are under the third or fourth dorsal spine, while in the figure referred to they are opposite to the first spine of the dorsal, and the numbers of the scales differ as well as the rays of the fins. These discrepancies were perhaps sufficient to have authorised me to give a new specific name to the Lake Huron fish which appears to be the most northern of the genus, but our figure was engraved previous to the publication of M. Valenciennes' revision of the genus under the name by which Cuvier had himself labelled the specimen, and I have therefore, for the present, continued to it the appellation of vulgaris. Correct and minute descriptions of recent specimens are particularly necessary to complete our knowledge of this group of Percoideæ, owing to the rapidity with which the fish composing it lose their brilliant colours after death. M. Valenciennes describes his P. vulgaris as having no coloured streaks on the cheeks, and this, if there be no mistake,

* In the operculum ending by two points, and in the smallness of the suboperculum, C. æneus differs remarkably from our P. vulgaris, whose operculum ends in a round lobe, and the suboperculum is prolonged so as to form the under margin of the gill-cover. We do not know how far these characters prevail in other species.

E

[page] 26

would at once distinguish ours; but his observations necessarily relate to specimens preserved in spirits, and his correspondents may readily have committed errors in their accounts of species so similar to each other. His Pomotis Catesbei "se distingue de toutes les autres par les lignes brunes et obliques des joues," but its form is lengthened. In ours the side of the head is ornamented by alternate wavy lines of azure blue and gall-stone yellow. I have to remark, that my account of the colours was noted down after comparing the fresh specimen with Syme's book of colours, but that the artist, having no other guide than my brief description, has fallen far short of the beauty of the original tints and markings. Our figure, however, does every justice to the form of the fish, and agrees minutely with the measurement of the specimen, in which no traces remained of the original brilliant colouring. Mr. Todd was informed by the natives, that many small land-locked lakes or ponds, in the vicinity of Lake Huron, contain no fish whatever but the Perca fluviatilis and this pomotis.

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent specimen taken at Penetanguishene, April 20, 1825.

COLOUR.—Back and sides for a short space below the lateral line blackish-green, thickly interspersed with ill-defined, roundish spots of deep bluish-grey and gall-stone yellow (one on the middle of each scale), and also with some obscure tints of indigo-blue. On the cheeks and gill-covers the blue tints are brighter, approaching to azure, and are disposed in longitudinal wavy lines alternating with gall-stone yellow. The lower parts of the sides are lighter than the back, and exhibit some greenish reflections with larger and more distinct roundish spots of yellow. The belly presents the pure gall-stone yellow without spots. On the tip of the gill-cover there is a large bluish-black spot, edged posteriorly with bright scarlet. The irides are silvery shaded with yellow.

FORM.—Profile broadly oval, the anterior apex rather acute and formed by the lower jaw, which projects slightly beyond the upper one: the posterior apex of the oval is lost immediately behind the dorsal and anal fins in the slightly tapering tail, whose height is one-third of that of the body. The height of the body is greatest at the fourth or fifth dorsal spine, where it measures three inches and three quarters, and the long axis of the oval, from the chin to the setting-on of the tail, is five inches and a half. The height is to the whole length, excluding the caudal fin, as 37middot;7 to 7*. The body is much compressed; its greatest thickness is on a level with the tip of the gill-cover, or in the middle of the height, and does not exceed an inch: the ridge of the back is acute, the belly is obtuse, being nearly an inch broad. The lateral line is arched, gradually though slightly approaching the back as it recedes from the operculum, until it arrives opposite to the posterior part of the dorsal fin: it is there broken by two or three successive descents of a scale's breadth each, and afterwards takes a straight course along the middle of the tail: it is marked out by a tube on the basal half of each scale.

* In P. vulgaris (C. et V., vii., p. 465) "sa hauteur fait la moitié de sa longueur, la caudale non comprise."

[page] 27

The SCALES adhere firmly to the skin and are rather large. On the sides and tail there is no great difference in their sizes; on the gill-covers, though more rounded, they are nearly as large, but the cheeks, ridge of the back, and flattened surface of the belly, are covered with smaller scales; while the smallest of all are on the bases of the fins and on the membrane connecting their soft rays. The form of the scales is the segment of an oval approaching to a semicircle—their bases are very evenly truncated, and are marked with fifteen or sixteen faint furrows or lines, corresponding to minute crenatures of the margin—the rest of their surface appears rough under the lens, particularly towards their exterior semicircular margins. A scale taken from the side measures four lines longitudinally, and five transversely. A linear inch, measured on the side on a line level with the tip of the gill-cover, contains nearly eight scales, and there are thirty-eight in all, in that row, exclusive of four or five small ones on the caudal fin; there are forty-two or forty-three on the lateral line, also excluding the latter. At the greatest depth of the body there are twenty-two scales in a vertical row, of which six are above the lateral line, and twelve between it and the first ray of the ventral, with three scales for the half breadth of the belly.

HEAD small, forming one-third of the length of the fish, excluding the caudal fin. The scales of the nape terminate on a line with the posterior edge of the orbits; the rest of the upper surface of the head, the infra-orbitar bones, the mandibles, the preoperculum, the inferior margins of the other bones of the gill-cover, and also the anterior ridge and ear-like tip of the operculum, and the branchiostegous membrane, are smooth; the other parts of the gill-cover and the cheeks are scaly. All the bones lining the gill-openings posteriorly, and those supporting the pectoral fins, are without serratures on their edges: the anterior surface of the latter is covered by a row of scales. The orbits, exactly circular, are close to the forehead, and more than their own diameter above the articulation of the lower jaw, one diameter from the tip of the snout, and two from the tip of the gill-cover. The anterior infra-orbitar bone is rather large, has a rhomboidal shape, with the lower angle rounded off, and is marked with irregular ridges and furrows. The nostrils, situated in the angle between the eye and snout, have their two orifices rather distant from each other. The mouth is small: the intermaxillaries, forming its upper border and attached to the snout by pedicels, are capable of a slight protrusion. The labials, proportionably much smaller than in Centrarchus æneus, slide under the sub-orbitar bone, leaving only a fourth part uncovered. The lower jaw shuts in before the intermaxillaries, giving the commissure of the mouth nearly an angle of 45°. The articulation of the jaw is opposite to the anterior margin of the orbit. There are no pores on the lower jaw, though there is a canal in the bone with two orifices covered by skin.

TEETH.—The opposing surfaces of both mandibles are covered with small teeth crowded closely together; the outer ones are nearly cylindrical and rather obtuse, the inner ones more awl-shaped, slender, and acute. The vomer forms a strong, horse-shoe shaped projection, chevron, or gorget, and is armed like the jaws. The palatine bones and tongue are smooth. On the upper pharyngeal bones there is a pair of triangular plates of teeth "en pavé?" there being forty or fifty cylindrical teeth with flat crowns in each triangle; behind which there is a pair of smaller irregular plates of more minute teeth. On the inferior pharyngeal bones

E 2

[page] 28

there is one pair of rectangular plates of teeth similar to the anterior plates above, and, like them, larger than the teeth on the jaws. The branchial arches are each furnished with a pair of rows of very small tubercles, which are rough with teeth so minute as to be invisible to the naked eye.

GILL-COVERS.—The upper limb of the preoperculum, descending almost vertically, terminates by a curve in the lower one, whose inferior border is scarcely crenated, being only slightly and minutely undulated. The interoperculum has a row of scales adjoining the overlying border of the preoperculum, the largest scale being opposite to the angle of that bone. The suboperculum, instead of being small and triangular, as in centrarchus æneus, is long, and is attached to the whole under edge of the operculum: it is covered by a row of scales which leave a narrow under border naked. The operculum is triangular with the posterior apex rounded: in the recent specimen this rounded tip is lengthened out by membrane into the coloured ear-like appendix from whence the generic name is derived. The anterior margin of the operculum rises into a smooth ridge, between the lower end of which and the angle of the preoperculum there are two scales, being a continuation of the row which exists on the interoperculum. The under margin of the operculum also forms a smooth line betwixt the scales on its surface and the row covering the suboperculum.

FINS.—Br. 6—6; D. 10/12*; P. 13; V. 1/5; A. 3/10; C. 17 6/6.

The branchiostegous rays are considerably curved; the posterior one is flattened, the others are nearly cylindrical. The dorsal fin commences opposite to the tip of the gill-cover and base of the pectorals: the ten spinous rays occupy nearly one-third more space than the twelve articulated ones, but the latter are considerably higher. Three interspinous bones without rays fill up the space between the first dorsal spine and the thin, elevated occipital crest which supports the ridge of the nape. The first ray of the pectorals is spinous, though as slender as the others; it is about half the length of the longest soft ray. The ventrals attached opposite to the fourth dorsal spine consist of five articulated rays, supported anteriorly by a moderately stout spinous one one-third shorter. The anal fin commences a quarter of an inch behind the anus, and terminates opposite to the last dorsal ray: its three first rays are strong, somewhat compressed, awl-shaped acute spines, of which the third is twice the length of the first, but scarcely half as long as the articulated rays that follow: the outline of the fin is rounded. The caudal fin is slightly sinuated at the extremity with rounded lobes. Small scales cover its outer rays two-thirds of their length, but they extend only a short way on the central rays.

INTESTINES.

Stomach a roundish sack bent up on the œsophagus and having its internal coat longitudinally plaited: the pylorus is wide, and is surrounded by a collar of six cylindrical, obtuse cæca each an inch long. The gut is a cylindrical tube bent twice upon itself between the pylorus and anus: its coats, like those of the stomach, are rather thick, and its lining also forms longitudinal folds.

* Another specimen has only eleven soft rays, but it has an additional short spine at the beginning of the fin.

[page] 29

DIMENSIONS

Of the Lake Huron specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of lower jaw to end of caudal fin 8 6
Length from tip of upper jaw (protruded) to end of scales on middle caudal rays 7 0
Length from tip of anus 4 6
Length from tip of anus anal fin 4 9
Length from tip of anus dorsal 3 0
Length from tip of anus orbit 0
Length from tip of anus gill-cover 2 5
Length from tip of chin to ditto 2 7
Length from and breadth of orbit 0
Length of intermaxillary 0
Length of labial 0
Length of lower jaw 0 11
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 5
Length of attachment of spinous part of ditto 2
Length of longest dorsal spine 1 0
Length of longest soft rays of dorsal 1 4
Length of pectorals 2 0
Length of first spinous ray of ditto 0 10½
Length of spine of ventrals 1 0
Length of soft rays of ditto 1 6
Length of attachment of anal 1 5
Length of third anal spine 0 11
Length of soft rays of anal 1 4
Length of longest caudal rays 1 3
Length of central ditto 1 5
Length of tail from behind dorsal and anal fins to base of caudal 1 8
Length of tail from to extremity of ditto 3 0
Greatest height of body 3 9
Diameter of tail, vertically, at base of caudal 0 11

[9.] 1. TRICHODON STELLERI. (Cuvier.) Steller's Trichodon.

FAMILY, Percoideæ. GENUS, Trichodon. CUVIER.

"Trachinus trichodon. PALL., Zoogr., t. iii., p. 235." TILESIUS, Mêm. de Pétersb., iv., p. 466, Pl. 15, f. 8. An. 1813.

Le trichodon de Steller (Trichodon Stelleri). CUV. et VAL., iii., p. 154.

Anamchlyk. ALEUTIANS.

The genus Trichodon, first indicated by the unfortunate Steller, stands in Cuvier's system among the Thoracic Percoideæ, which have five soft rays in the pectorals, fewer than seven branchiostegous rays, and two dorsals. Pallas and Tilesius, suppressing Steller's genus, ranged the only known species as a Trachinus, or Weever; but the Weevers in the Baron's scheme of arrangement are Jugular Percoideæ, and have besides the operculum armed with a remarkable spine; while in Trichodon that bone ends in a flat point, and the preoperculum is armed with four or five strong spines. The lateral direction of the eyes distinguishes Trichodon from another genus of the same division with the Weevers, namely, Uranoscopus, to which its flat head and vertical mouth give it a resemblance. The position of its ventrals again under the pectorals, and the want of scales, seem to ally it to Cottus; but its cheeks are not mailed by the sub-orbitars, which form only a narrow border to the orbit.

The only Trichodon hitherto discovered inhabits the most northern part of the Pacific, being found both on the American and Kamtschatdale coasts, and abounding particularly at Unalaschka. It resembles the Weevers in its habits, buries itself in the moist sands at low water, and is dug up by the natives with their

[page] 30

hands. The females deposit their roes in holes in the sand, where the males fecundate them, and it would appear that the parents look after their offspring, as they are often dug up in the same pits with their little ones.

We shall conclude our notices of the PERCOIDEÆ with some general observations on their GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. Previous to the appearance of the Histoire des Poissons such an attempt would have been entirely futile, and even that splendid memorial of Cuvier's transcendent genius, a model for works on Natural History, does not afford all the data we require, but is to be considered as merely a frame-work to be filled up by future observers. It contains five hundred species of this family, three hundred and twenty-seven of which, or about two-thirds of the whole, are inhabitants of the Indian Ocean and warmer latitudes of the Pacific: forty-nine frequent the eastern side of the Atlantic (including the Mediterranean), and one hundred and eighteen have been detected on the American side of that sea, the greater part of them within the tropics. Few of the Percoideæ attain high latitudes. Perca vulgaris, one of the most northern, exists in the Siberian rivers which fall into the Icy Sea; Lucio-perca sandra, Acerina vulgaris, and Trachinus draco, are found as high as Sweden; and Labrax lupus* reaches the Danish coast. In the New World the Lucio-perca Americana (or rather the Okow, if it be a distinct species) is the only one that has a range northward at all approaching to these†, for in America the true perches are not so arctic as the Sandre, though in Europe they are more so. Eight other percoid fish, described in the preceding pages of this Fauna, inhabit the St. Lawrence, or the Great Lakes from which that river issues, but none of them go to the north of the fiftieth parallel, while the Okow extends to the fifty-eighth. One species of perca is found in Patagonia, and Trichodon Stelleri inhabits the sea of Kamtschatka, stretching over to Russian America.

Before speaking more particularly of the distribution of forms, or the range of species, it is advisable that we should enumerate the fresh-water genera, though the line of division betwixt them and the oceanic ones cannot be drawn with precision, because some genera, composed mostly of fresh-water species, contain one or two which exclusively inhabit the ocean‡; or, on the contrary, a marine genus

* In page 10 the southern shores of Britain are assigned as the northern limit of the range of this species, on the authority of the Hist. des Poissons; but Professor Reinhardt enumerates it among the Danish fishes, in a paper recently read before the Natural History Society of Copenhagen.

† The Okow does not, however, exist in the rivers that flow into the Polar Sea.

‡ All the East-Indian Dules inhabit the fresh waters, but the two American species are found in the Caribbean sea.

[page] 31

may include one or more fresh-water species*. Even the species cannot be strictly arranged as belonging to salt or fresh-water, several that habitually reside in rivers or lakes occasionally straying to the sea or into tidal waters†; while of the marine species, some are regularly anadromous, ascending the rivers every season to spawn, others quit the sea occasionally, only, entering the fresh waters in quest of food or shelter at uncertain periods‡. Allowing for these cases, then, fourteen of the sixty genera which compose the family may be said to belong to the fresh waters, namely, Aspro and Acerina peculiar to Europe; Huro, Grystes, Aphrodederus, Bryttus, Pomotis, and Centrarchus, found in North America §; and Ambassis, Aphrites, and Dules, belonging to the East Indies. Perca has species in Europe, Asia, the Indian Archipelago, North America, and in the West Indies; Lucio-perca has one representative in Europe, another in Asia, and a third in North America; and Grystes has one species in the rivers of Carolina and Georgia, and another in the Macquarrie of New Holland. Lates may be considered either as a fresh-water or marine genus, one species existing in the rivers of Northern and Tropical Africa, and two others in the sea and rivers of the East Indies¶. It may be gathered from the preceding paragraphs, that in temperate climates the majority of percoideæ are found in rivers or lakes, while within the tropics there is a vast preponderance of marine species.

After the above cursory review of the fresh-water genera, an equally compendious notice of the marine ones, that are common to various districts of the ocean, will enable us to single out the genera or modifications of the percoid form, which have the widest distribution. Serranus (which includes a fourth part of all the species in the family) is much more common within the tropics than elsewhere, but it is known in the Mediterranean, on the Atlantic coasts of Europe, Africa, and of North and South America, in the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, Polynesia, and sea of Japan, though not on the American side of the Pacific. Labrax, which contains only seven species (some of which are littoral or even ascend into fresh waters), is also widely diffused, having representatives in the Mediterranean, on the European, and North and South American coasts of the Atlantic, in Polynesia and the

* Twenty species of Apogon are marine, while A. thermalis has the very extraordinary residence of warm fresh-water springs.

Perca vulgaris has been taken in the Solway firth, and is reported by Pallas to inhabit the Caspian Sea. Lucioperca sandra. and the common pike, are also said by the same naturalist to remain in a bay of the Caspian even in the spawning season, without entering the neighbouring rivers, although there is no obstacle to their ascending them.

‡ As some species of Labrax, or Basse. Centropomus frequents the mouths of rivers.

§ Two of the genera are not exclusively North American. Pomotis has a Brazilian species, and Centrarchus a West-Indian one.

¶ Lieutenant Allen found a Lates in the Niger, exactly resembling that of the Nile and Senegal, and Mr. Collie observed a species among the Loo Choo Islands.

[page] 32

northern Pacific, but none in the African Atlantic, Red Sea, or Indian Ocean. Ten other genera, containing one hundred and fifty-eight species, are common to the warmer latitudes of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, viz.: Plectropoma, Mesoprion, Polyprion, Centropristis, Priacanthus, Myripristis, Holocentrum, Uranoscopus, Sphyræna, and Polynemus*. Dules, which we have already mentioned as an East-Indian fresh-water genus, is not exclusively so, as two species exist in the Caribbean Sea. Pinguipes has one species in the Brazilian Sea, and another in the sea of Chili. Rypticus, confined to the Tropical Atlantic, has one species peculiar to the Brazils, and another common to the Caribbean Sea and Cape Verd Islands. Trachinus has species in the Mediterranean, and also in the European Atlantic as far north as the Cattegat. The remaining genera are either peculiar to a single district of the ocean, or consist of only a solitary species each, and will be mentioned in the subsequent paragraphs.

We have next to notice a few facts respecting the range of individual species. It were to be wished that we could throw an additional interest into this inquiry, by pointing out the peculiarities of organization by which certain species are adapted to inhabit a variety of climates, while others thrive in very confined localities only; but our acquaintance with the habits and anatomy of oceanic fish is by far too slight for such a task. One might be led à priori to imagine, that as the ocean affords, as it were, a high way so easily traversed by the finny tribes, many species would be common to both sides of the Atlantic, yet this is far from being the case. Not one of the percoideæ of European seas has hitherto been detected on the North American coasts, and there are but four which cross the Atlantic even in the warmer latitudes. These are Holocentrum longipinne, which has been taken on the coasts of Carolina, the West Indies, and South America, and also off the islands of Ascension and St. Helena: Sphyræna picuda, which occurs in the Gulf of Mexico, in the sea of Brazil, and at Goree, on the coast of Africa: Polyprion cernuum, which ranges from the Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope, crosses to the Rio de la Plata, and is found also at Queen Charlotte's islands in the Pacific: and lastly, Rypticus saponaceus which has been taken at Martinique and among the Cape Verd islands. Two species double Cape Horn, or at least they exist on both the Atlantic and Pacific sides of South America, namely, Centropomus undecimalis, which frequents the mouths of rivers in the West Indies, Brazils, and Peru: and Bovichtus diacanthus, which has been taken off Tristan d'Acunha and on the coast of Chili.

* Polynemus approximans was observed by Mr. Collie on the coast of California. (App. Beechey's Voy., p. 57.)

[page] 33

One species may be supposed to travel round the Cape of Good Hope, viz., Apogon rex-mullorum, which exists in the Mediterranean, among the Canaries, in the Indian Ocean, at the Marian Islands, New Guinea, and New Holland, but has not hitherto been discovered in the American seas. It is, however, by no means certain that a species which is found on both sides of a continent, or at a succession of distant places, actually exists in the intermediate seas, or traverses them, for Uranoscopus scaber is common to the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, without having been detected in the Atlantic; and there are species of other families which frequent the Mediterranean coasts of Egypt, as well as the Red Sea, though they are unknown in other districts of the ocean. The range of the percoideæ, and of many other Acanthopterygii, is much greater in the Indian Ocean and warmer parts of the Pacific than in the Atlantic. Thus species which exist in the Red Sea, at the Seychelle Islands, and the Mauritius, range by the Indian peninsula and archipelago to New Guinea, the north coast of New Holland, and through the Polynesian group to Otaheite, and even to the Sandwich Islands. A continuous coast, or a chain of islands lying nearly in the direction of the zones of equal temperature or parallels of latitude, seems to favour the spreading of a species over a great extent of ocean. The shores of the Atlantic, which have a direction the reverse of this, afford no such facilities to the migration of fish, the beds of sargasso, or sea-weed that occur in the lower latitudes being but an imperfect substitute for islands, and available to those fish only which feed on or near the surface.

Having made these very general remarks on the diffusion of the genera, and on the range of individual species, we have next briefly to notice the forms peculiar to different quarters. Europe has five genera proper to itself, Aspro and Acerina, inhabitants of fresh waters, and Pomatomus, Trachinus and Paralepis of the sea: add to these Pentaceros, frequenting the Cape Verd Islands, and Apsilus the Cape of Good Hope, and we have seven different forms, containing in the aggregate fifteen species peculiar to the east side of the Atlantic. The genera proper to North America all belong to the fresh waters, and are, Huro, Aphrodederus, Bryttus, Centrarchus, and Pomotis; while the Gulf of Mexico and Brazilian seas contain Pinguipes and Percophis, in all nine forms and twenty-one species peculiar to the American side of the Atlantic. Centropomus and Bovichtus are proper to South America, but they occur in both oceans. Aplodactylus is peculiar to the sea of Chili. Trichodon has been found in the Kamtschatdale Sea only, and Niphon nowhere but in the sea of Japan. The Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Polynesian and Australian seas, or the lands which they wash, contain twenty-three percoid genera, not known to exist in the Atlantic or its arms, the Mediterranean.

F

[page] 34

Black Sea, Baltic, and Hudson's Bay; nor in the Pacific north of the tropics. The following list of their names exhibits the number of species belonging to each, amounting in the aggregate to one hundred and thirty-one.

Etelis 1
Enoplosus 1
Diploprion 1
Apogon* 20
Cheilodipterus 3
Ambassis 12
Priopis 1
Grammistes 2
Diacope 36
Aprion 1
Cirrhites 6
Chironemus 1
Therapon 13
Datnia 3
Pelates 3
Helotes 1
Nandus 1
Sillago 7
Rhynchichtys 1
Beryx 3
Trachichtys 2
Percis 12
Aphritis 1
GENERA. Caspian and its Rivers. European Atlantic, &c. Mediterranean and Black Sea. African Atlantic. West Indies and South American Atlantic. North American Atlantic, &c. North China and Japanese Seas. Kamtschatdale Seas and Behring's Straits. Seas of Chili and Pern. Tropical and South Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Red Sea Totals of Species.
Perca F 1 1 2 0 2 5 0 0 0 2 11
Labrax A 0 1 2 0 1 3 1 0 0 1 7
Lates A 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3
Centropomus 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Lucio-perca F 2 1 1 ? 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 or 4
Huro F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Niphon 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Apogon 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 20 21
Pomatomus 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Aspro F 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Serranus 0 2 6 7 31 2 3 0 0 85 131
Plectropoma 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 9 15
Mesoprion S and F 0 0 0 3 18 0 0 0 0 28 49
Acerina 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Polyprion 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
Pentaceros 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Centropristis F 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 0 0 3 10
Grystes 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2
Apsilus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Rypticus 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Aplodactylus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Centrarchus F 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 7
Pomotis F 0 0 0 0 1 7 0 0 0 0 8
Bryttus F 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
Aphrodederus F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Priacanthus 0 0 0 1 4 0 2 0 0 8 15
Dules F 0 0 0 0 2 S 0 0 0 0 9 F 11
Trichodon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Myripristes 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 10 12
Holocentrum 0 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 14 19
Trachinus 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Pinguipes 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2
Percophis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Bovichtus 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Uranoscopus 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 9 11
Sphyræna 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 5 10
Parelepis 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Polynemus 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 9 14
Gen. peculiar to India, &c. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 111 111
4 8 28 24 85 35 11 1 4 327 501

OBS. The letter F follows the names of the genera which are wholly or mostly inhabitants of fresh water. A points out those whose species are anadromous, ascending occasionally into rivers; and S signifies sea or marine species.

* One species of Apogon is, as we have already mentioned, found in the Mediterranean as well as in the Indian Ocean.

[page] 35

The preceding table presents a general view of the diffusion of the Percoideæ. We have found it convenient to divide the ocean into nine districts, the divisions being made, as far as we could, to suit the distribution of this family of fish. To shorten the table, twenty-two genera peculiar to the Indian Ocean and tropical regions of the Pacific, enumerated above, are omitted, the aggregate number of their species merely being inserted. The fresh-water species are included under the head of the seas into which the rivers flow.

Cuvier, considering the MULLI to have some relations to the Percoideæ, has placed them as an appendix to that family, though he says they constitute a perfectly natural genus, which is so isolated that it may be considered as a peculiar family in itself. The genus Mullus is distinguished from other groups of Acanthopterygii by two distinct dorsals; large and easily detached scales on the head and body; but principally by two barbels attached to the chin or symphysis of the lower jaw. The term Mullus is retained for a sub-genus which wants teeth on the upper jaw, and that of Upeneus is given to one which has teeth in both jaws. Mullus, in its geographical distribution, is confined to the Black Sea, Mediterranean, and European Atlantic, including the Baltic. Upeneus has twenty-seven species in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific*, including the seas of Australia and Japan; four in the West Indies and Brazils, and one at the Cape Verd Islands, but none of either sub-genus belong to North America.

* A new species of Upeneus is indicated in Mr. Bennett's Appendix to Beechey's Voyage, as occurring at Oahu, one of the Sandwich Islands.

F 2

[page] 36

COTTOIDEÆ.—MAILED-CHEEKS*.

THIS family, having many characters in common with the Percoideæ, is distinguished by the sub-orbitars being united to the preoperculum, and so expanded as to cover a large part or the whole of the cheeks. A family likeness prevails among the fish possessing this cheek-mail, notwithstanding the various forms of the head, that result from its greater or less development. In one group of genera, the head has the form of a cube or parallelopiped; in another it is round or depressed; in a third it is compressed; and a fourth group is composed of fish of a hideous aspect, having a large or even monstrous head and vertical eyes. Gasterosteus, though belonging to this family, because it has the cheeks protected by the sub-orbitars, does not enter any of these four groups, there being neither spines nor tubercles on its head, nor anything very striking in its form: in this genus the first dorsal is replaced by free or detached spines. Monocentris, which has a large cuirassed head, and the whole body protected by scales of stony hardness, forms a genus apart, whose affinities, owing to our ignorance of its anatomy, are unknown: it resembles the gasterostei in its free dorsal spines. The percoid genus Uranoscopus approaches this family in the development of the sub-orbitars, but they are united to the temporal bone posteriorly, and not to the preoperculum.

The only forms among the Cottoideæ that have anything like a general distribution are the larger genera of Trigla, Cottus, Aspidophorus, Scorpæna, Sebastes, and Gasterosteus, containing the majority of the whole species. Minous, Pterois, Apistes, and Synanceia, belong to the Indian Ocean, a single species of each of the three latter extending to the Pacific. Platycephalus and Pelor are also genera of those seas, a greater proportion of their species, however, extending to the more temperate latitudes of the Pacific, three of the former existing on the extra-tropical coasts of New Holland, and four with one Pelor in the sea of Japan. The Japanese Sea also nourishes some forms peculiar to itself, as Oplichthys, Bembras, and Monocentris, and the sea of Kamtschatka alone produces Blepsias and Hemilepidotus. Peristedion is peculiar to the Mediterranean. The European Atlantic possesses no cottoid form exclusively; but on the American side, Hemitripterus

* Joues cuirassées. (Reg. An.) Cuvier has not furnished us with a Latin equivalent to this phrase, which might be translated Pareioplonidæ or Pareiopliteæ, (from παζεια, gena, et οπλον, scutum, or οπλιτης, armatus,) but to avoid introducing a new term, I have used Cottoideæ, which will be readily understood, being derived from the most familiar genus of the family.

[page] 37

is widely spread in the higher northern latitudes, Cephalacanthus is proper to South America, and Prionotus is common to both these districts. The habitat of Tænianotus is unknown, and it is consequently scarce, and most probably found only in one locality. Of the twenty-five genera, therefore, which compose the family of Cottoideæ, sixteen are peculiar to certain limited portions of the ocean; and eight of the remainder have species in two or more distinct districts. Hoplostethus has one Mediterranean species, and the only known specimen of a second was taken from the stomach of a shark, caught in the Atlantic at some distance from the coast of South America. Agriopus has one species not uncommon off the Cape of Good Hope, and another in the sea of Chili. Sebastes has species in the Mediterranean, and also in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans: this form, which approaches nearer to the Percoideæ than the other Cottoideæ, having a very general distribution. Aspidophorus has several species in the more northern latitudes of the Pacific, and on the European and American sides of the North Sea. The Triglæ are known in the Mediterranean, on both sides of the northern Atlantic, at the Cape of Good Hope, in the Indian Ocean, the Australian Sea, and in the seas of Japan and Kamtschatka*. Cottus, a genus either littoral or frequenting tidal estuaries, with some entirely fresh-water species, has a very wide distribution in the northern hemisphere, existing in the rivers and lakes of Europe, Asia, and America, in Lake Baikal, the Icy sea of Asia, the Baltic, the North Sea, English Channel, the seas of Iceland, Greenland, and Baffin's Bay, the Polar Sea, on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America, and in the seas of Kamtschatka and Japan; but it is unknown in the Mediterranean and more southern districts of the ocean. Scorpæna, again, is comparatively a tropical genus, most of its species being inhabitants either of the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and Archipelago, or of the Polynesian seas; it is known, however, also in the Mediterranean, in the Atlantic, on the European side from the English Channel to the Canaries, and on the American side from the United States to the Brazils; it bears, like its subgenus Sebastes, a close resemblance to the Percoideæ. Gasterosteus, consisting principally of anadromous species, has a wide range in the northern hemisphere, being found in the rivers of Europe, Greenland, and America, in the Baltic, both sides of the North Atlantic, and in the sea of Kamtschatka. A new species has even been detected at Otaheite by the naturalists of Captain Beechey's Expedition, though there is none mentioned in the Histoire des Poissons, as occurring in the southern hemisphere.

* A species of Trigla is mentioned in the Appendix to Captain Beechey's Voyage, as occurring in the harbour of Rio Janeiro, but it was most probably a Prionotus, perhaps the punctatus, which is known to exist there.

[page] 38

The range of individual species is more remarkable in this family than in the more extensive one of Percoideæ, as is evident when we consider the number of species which cross the Atlantic, and in this respect there is some analogy between the Cottoideæ and some of the higher classes of animals, it having been observed that the quadrupeds and birds common to the Old and New Worlds are species that have a high northern range. Trigla pini exists in the Mediterranean, on the Atlantic coasts of France, and at New York. Dactylopterus volitans is common in all parts of the Mediterranean, and ranges on the American coast from the Brazils to the banks of Newfoundland, probably pursuing the course of the Gulf Stream. Aspidophorus Europæus is found in the Baltic, English Channel, the Iceland Sea, and Davis's Straits. Scorpæna porcus ranges throughout the Mediterranean, and from the English Channel to the Canaries, and it also occurs at New York. Sebastes Norvegicus extends from the sea of Norway to that of Greenland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It seldom approaches the surface, living habitually at a great depth. Gasterosteus leiurus, which may be reckoned an anadromous fish, prevails all over Europe, and has been taken in the Baltic, and also in Greenland, if one of the very nearly resembling American species has not been, in the latter case, confounded with it. The G. trachurus has probably an equally extensive range. Cottus gobio, a fresh-water species known throughout Siberia, and in Europe from Italy to Sweden, is, according to Fabricius, also an inhabitant of Greenland; but we need careful comparisons to establish the identity of the Greenland species: our C. cognatus, which can scarcely be distinguished from C. gobio, inhabits Great Bear Lake. C. quadricornis is common to the Baltic, the Icy Sea at the mouth of the Jenisei, and Lake Baikal. Besides some that have already been particularised, several Cottoideæ are common to the Mediterranean and Baltic, particularly of the genus Trigla, as T. lineata, hirundo, lyra, gurnardus, and cuculus; and also Scorpæna scrofa. Cottus scorpius, C. bubalus, and Gasterosteus Spinachia are common to the Baltic and North Sea; while Platycephalus fuscus has an extensive range in the Pacific, being found at Port Jackson, Otaheite, and Japan.

But one specimen of the very singular genus Oreosoma has been seen. It was brought from the Atlantic by Pérou. The cheeks are but very imperfectly covered by the sub-orbitars, hence it scarcely belongs to this family, though it appears to have a greater affinity to it than to any other.

[page] 39

GENERA. Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal. Asiatic ley Sea. European Atlantic. Mediterranean and Black Sea. African Atlantic. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. North American Atlantic. Greenland, Davis's Straits, Baffin's Bay, and Polar Sea. Behring's Straits, & Kamtschatdale Sea, N. W. America. Sea of Japan. Polynesia, Indian Ocean, and Red Sea. South Australian Sea. Seas of Chili and Peru. Totals of Species.
I. Trigla 0 0 7 8 4 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 15
Prionotus 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Peristedion 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Dactylopterus 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Cephalacanthus 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
II. Cottus 2 1 4 0 0 0 3 5 10 1 0 0 0 22
Aspidophorus 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 6 5 0 0 0 9
Platycephalus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 15 3 0 21
Oplichthys 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Hemitripterus 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
III. Hemilepidotus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Bembras 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Scorpæna 0 0 3 2 1 5 1 0 0 1 12 0 1 20
Sebastes 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 3 3 0 0 11
Pterois 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
Tænianotus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Blepsias 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Agriopus 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Apistes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 1 0 14
Minous 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
IV. Pelor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 5
Synanceia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 6
Monocentris 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Hoplostethus 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Gasterosteus 0 0 6 5 0 0 6 3 1 0 0 0 0 17
2 1 22 19 8 9 17 11 21 19 67 5 2 168

TRIGLA, placed by Cuvier at the head of the family, is, in fact, the genus in which the sub-orbitars most completely cover the cheek, these bones being articulated anteriorly to the snout, projecting more or less beyond it, and united so firmly posteriorly to the preoperculum that it moves along with them. It belongs to the group having a parallelopipedon head and two dorsal fins, being, with its two sub-genera, distinguished from the rest of the group by the presence of free rays under the pectorals. The Triglæ, as we have noticed in the preceding pages, have a wide range in the Mediterranean, and on the European side of the Atlantic, from the Canaries to Norway. One species, at least, ranges also to the American coast, for a Trigla pini, or one so like it that no distinguishing marks could be perceived in the prepared specimen, was sent to Baron Cuvier from New York; and as this species ranges on the European side as high as the Dutch coast, it is probable that it extends on the American one to Nova Scotia or Newfoundland; but until it has been actually detected on the coasts of British America, it would not be proper to enumerate it in our Fauna. The sub-genus Prionotus, distinguished by the presence of palatine teeth, en velours, belongs entirely to America, and though three of the four known species reach New York, yet their

[page] 40

range being to the Southern states, and some of them to the West Indies and Brazils, it is not so likely that they go northwards beyond the influence of the Gulf Stream.

[10.] 1. DACTYLOPTERUS VOLITANS. (Lacep.) Common Dactylopterus.

FAMILY, "Joues cuirassées." GENUS, Dactylopterus. CUVIER.

Trigla volitans. LINN. Le Dactyloptere commun. CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 120.

The genus Dactylopterus differs from Trigla and its two sub-genera, Prionotus and Peristedion, in the different shape of the helmet-like casing of the head, which is long and broad, but flat and of small depth: the sub-orbitars do not project on the sides of the snout, neither do they entirely cover the cheeks, while the preoperculum is so connected with them, that instead of being entirely fixed, it retains sufficient mobility to point its enormous spine, when required, as a defensive weapon: the operculum is unarmed; the teeth confined to the jaws are small, rounded, and low, like paving stones ("dents en pavés"): there are only six branchiostegous rays; the ventral fins have only four soft rays (an unusually small number in Acanthopterygious fishes), and the supernumerary rays under the pectorals, instead of being free, are united by membrane into a kind of parachute equalling the body in length. The whole body is cased in large hard scales, which rise into longitudinal ridges in various parts.

The common species enters into our list as it occurs on the coasts of Newfoundland. It ranges also through the seas of the United States, and is particularly abundant in the Mediterranean, but does not appear to frequent the British Channel or the Atlantic coasts of France. A second species exists in the Indian Ocean and Archipelago.

[11.] 1. COTTUS COGNATUS. (Richardson.) Bear Lake Bull-head.

FAMILY, "Joues cuirassées." GENUS, Cottus. LINN. et CUV.

The genus Cottus is characterised by a large depressed cuirassed head, variously armed with spines or tubercles, a more slender, tapering, almost naked body; two dorsals either quite distinct or very slightly united; ventrals of three or four rays

[page] 41

only under the pectorals; six branchiostegous rays; and teeth on the forepart of the vomer, but none on the palate bones. The stomach is an obtuse sac, the pylorus is surrounded by from four to eight cœca, the ovaries have a blackish colour, and there is no air-bladder belonging to the fish of this genus. Platycephalus differs from Cottus in having a still more depressed head, which is also differently cuirassed, large abdominal ventrals of five rays, a row of sharp palatine teeth, seven branchiostegous rays, and a scaly body.

The Cottus which forms the subject of this article was taken in considerable numbers in the clear waters of Great Bear Lake during the month of May, at which period it resorts to the stony shallows to spawn. Specimens which we sent to Baron Cuvier were returned with the remark, that they belonged to a species of Cottus, and were "tres semblables aux C. gobio*," and they indeed correspond in most particulars with the extended description of the latter in the Histoire des Poissons. I have since compared these specimens minutely with an English gobio, kindly lent to me by Mr. Yarrell, and the principal difference that I have been able to detect in the American fish is the greater height of its dorsal and anal fins. There is also a discrepancy in the number of the rays, but this can scarcely be accounted a specific distinction, since different individuals of gobio show equally extensive variations. The Bear Lake specimens having been long in spirits have lost much of their colour, but the following particulars may still be noted. In C. gobio the rays of the pectorals are variegated with rings alternately dark and light; in cognatus the colour is almost uniform, but varies in intensity in different individuals. In one small female specimen of the latter, however, there is a slight indication of these rings, and its body likewise is marbled in a more lively manner than the rest, having a greater resemblance to gobio. The males are darker than the females in the American as well as the European species. The specimen which we have described in detail was the largest we obtained, and was selected for description from its being exactly of the same length with the gobio with which it was compared.

DESCRIPTION

Of a male specimen taken in Great Bear Lake, lat. 64½° N., May 26, 1825, and a comparison of it with an English C. gobio.

FORM.—Head corresponding exactly with that of gobio in size and shape, except that the mouth is rather larger: it forms one-third of the whole length excluding the caudal, and it is

* Cuvier, speaking of C. minutus of Pallas from the sea of Ochotzk, says, "Sa ressemblance avec l'espèce commune de nos eaux douces est telle que nous n'oserions l'en distinguer," and I should have thought in a similar way of C. cognatus; but as Cuvier did not consider it to be the same with the common species, although greatly resembling it, it appears safer to give it a distinct appellation.

G

[page] 42

as broad as it is long: its height is two-thirds of its breadth. The jaws are equal. There are no conspicuous spines on the head, but the preoperculum ends posteriorly in a little point that is bent upwards, and is concealed in the thickness of the skin. The operculum terminates in a rounded process, whose membraneous edging has two acute angles. There are six slender cylindrical rays in the branchiostegous membrane: in gobio the rays are stronger and flatter. The membranes can be inflated: the isthmus, or space between their insertions, measures half an inch. Body moderately compressed, and tapering gradually from the broader head to the caudal fin: its greatest height, which is at the beginning of the dorsal, is nearly the same with its transverse diameter there, but the compression is more decided towards the tail, whose thickness at the insertion of the caudal is little more than half its depth. The belly and under surface of the head are flattish, the back is more acute, particularly the posterior part of it. The anus, situated precisely as in gobio, is rather nearer to the snout than to the insertion of the caudal. There are no scales, the body and head being covered with soft skin. The lateral line consists of a series of little depressions with raised margins, and runs parallel to the ridge of the back, and nearer to it than to the belly.

TEETH.—The intermaxillaries, lower jaw, and vomer, are armed with short teeth, en velours. The tongue is smooth, very broad, short, and fixed.

FINS.—Br. 6; P. 15; V. 1/4; D. 8/ — 18; A. 14; C. 15.

The pectoral fins are large and fan-shaped, their longest rays, as in gobio, equalling the head in length. They are all articulated and unbranched. The ventrals, arising a little behind the pectorals, contain five rays; the first of which, a slender spine half the length of the others, is so closely applied to the succeeding articulated one as scarcely to appear distinct until the integuments are removed. Cuvier describes gobio as having one spinous ray in each ventral, and only three articulated ones; but in Mr. Yarrell's English specimen these fins correspond exactly, in the number of their rays, with cognatus.

The first dorsal commences a little farther back than the ventrals, and exactly at the same distance from the snout as in gobio, but it extends about a line farther along the back, and contains two more rays than in that species. All the rays are very slender and flexible, but not articulated, and are connected to their tips by a delicate membrane. The longest measures one-third of the height of the body. The second dorsal arises within less than a line of the first, and has an attachment twice as long, reaching to within three lines of the insertion of the caudal. Its rays (eighteen) are articulated and simple, except the two central ones, which are very slightly forked. [The English specimen of gobio has only six rays in the first dorsal, but Cuvier says they vary from six to nine: and the second dorsal has sixteen rays all articulated and simple, though Cuvier describes the last ray as forked, and some of the others as branched. There is a space, measuring two and a half lines, between the first and second dorsals, and their rays are one-third shorter than the corresponding ones of cognatus.]

The anal fin, similar in form to the second dorsal, has fourteen rays all articulated and simple. It commences opposite to the sixth ray of the second dorsal, and does not reach quite so near to the caudal fin. The caudal unites with the tail in a straight line, and contains fifteen rays, all more or less forked. It forms one-sixth of the total length as in gobio.

[page] 43

COLOUR.—The under surface is silvery-grey minutely spotted with dark brown: on the sides the dots are intermingled with crowded irregular blotches of the same colour, and on the back and top of the head the colour is dark brown, nearly uniform, few spots of the light colour appearing.

DIMENSIONS. C. cognatus. C. gobio.
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines
Total length including caudal fin 4 0 4 0
Distance between tip of muzzle and posterior edge of operculum 1 2 1 2
Distance between tip of muzzle and orbit 0 0
Distance between tip of muzzle and first dorsal 1 1
Distance between tip of muzzle and anus 1 11 1 11
Length of attachment of first dorsal 0 0
Length of attachment of second dorsal 1 3 1
Length of longest rays of pectorals 0 10¾ 0 10¾
Length of longest rays of ventrals 0 7 0 7
Length of longest rays of caudal 0 0
Length of longest rays of first dorsal 0 0
Length of longest rays of second dorsal 0 6⅙ 0
Length of longest rays of anal 0 0

Some individuals of C. cognatus, which are full of roe, measure only two and a half inches of total length. All our specimens agree with each other in the number of rays in their fins. There are four pretty long cæca round the pylorus, and the viscera correspond with the description of those of C. gobio in the Histoire des Poissons. The stomach contained fragments of dytisci, and of other fresh-water insects and crustaceæ, and also of some small fish.

[12.] 2. COTTUS POLARIS. (Sabine.) North Georgian Bull-head.

Cottus polaris. SABINE, App. Parry's First Voyage, ccxiii. J. C. Ross, App. liii.

This species is compared by Captain Sabine to C. gobio, but that has the head almost unarmed. It agrees with C. claviger in the number of rays in the dorsals, but its ventrals are described as having more rays than usual in this genus. Captain J. C. Ross informs us that it seldom exceeds two inches in length, and that it is very abundant on the east side of the peninsula of Boothia, affording a plentiful supply of food to the numerous water-fowl which breed there.

"Cottus capite spinis duabus, operculis spinis quatuor armatis."

"A species of Cottus, similar in habits to C. gobio, was very abundant on the shores of North Georgia (lat. 75°), inhabiting the pools of water left by the tide, and the mouths of small rivulets by which the snow on melting found its way to the sea; the largest individual did not equal two inches in length; the head is more compressed and not so much flattened as in the Cottus quadricornis, and is armed with two strong spines placed before and between

G 2

[page] 44

the eyes: the gill-covers are also armed with four strong spines; the pectoral fins are larger in proportion than those of C. gobio, and the upper jaw rather exceeds the lower; the lateral lines are furnished with a series of small tubercles directed backwards: colour light, with clusters of minute dusky spots.

"FINS.—D. 6—13; P. 15; V. 5; A. 14. C. 14." (SABINE, l. c.)

8—13; 15; 5; 15. 12 to 14. (Capt. J. C. Ross.)

[13.] 3. COTTUS HEXACORNIS. (Richardson.) Six-horned Bull-head.

Cottus hexacornis (Six-horned Bull-head), RICHARDS., Frankl. Journ., p. 726. An. 1823.

Numerous specimens of this fish were caught in a net set in the mouth of a small river near the Coppermine, and the following description is drawn up from notes written on the spot:—The subsequent calamities which befel that expedition having occasioned the loss of all the specimens, no actual comparison has been made with other species; but after an inspection of the Cotti brought home by Captain Beechey, and an attentive perusal of the Histoire des Poissons, I am satisfied that it differs from all other described species in the form of the horns, or processes which arm the head, and in other particulars. From the peculiar shape of these horns in our species, it might bear the name of claviger, still more appropriately than the one so termed by M. Valenciennes.

The individuals that we caught retained life long after they were drawn from the water, leaping vigorously over the sands, and when touched inflating the head. In this operation the branchiostegous membrane is distended, and the several pieces composing the gill-covers are separated by the extension of the intervening membranes. Our Canadian voyageurs were both astonished and alarmed by these fish, and termed them Crapauds de mer, probably from a kind of croak they uttered when first handled

DESCRIPTION

Of eight or nine recent specimens taken at the mouth of Tree River, near the Coppermine, lat. 67° 12′ North. July 23rd, 1821.

SIZE.—About seven inches in total length.

COLOUR.—Of the upper aspect a clouded admixture of brocoli-brown and olive-green tints: of the belly white. The fins are streaked with bluish-black. Irides tinged with red.

FORM.—Head large and depressed. Eyes large. Six club-shaped, or rather nail-shaped processes stand erect on the top of the head: their summits flattish, minutely cancellated, and scabrous. The smallest pair stand between the nares: the largest over the posterior angles of the orbits; and the third of intermediate size on the occiput. The mouth is capacious.

[page] 45

Its margins are formed by the intermaxillaries and lower jaw. The maxillaries have an elongated wedge-form, and lie in a membrane behind the intermaxillaries. Both jaws and the vomer are set with bands of fine teeth, en velours. Tongue obtuse and smooth, as are the palate and maxillaries. The preoperculum is armed beneath with three strong divaricated spines, the posterior one, which measures half an inch, being the longest. The gill-covers are composed of several bones connected by membrane, and armed on their exterior edges with four or five small spinous teeth. The bones which support the pectoral fins are also armed with small spines and have sharp rough edges. The branchiostegous membrane contains six slender cylindrical curved rays. The Body is much narrower than the head, and tapers to the insertion of the caudal fin. The anus is situated midway between the mouth and the caudal. The lateral line is rough and runs near the back—above it there is a row of small orbicular, scabrous, bony plates, the row being doubled opposite to the second dorsal. There are no other perceptible scales.

FINS.—Br. 6. P. 16. V. 3. D. 7—13. A. C. 12.

The pectoral fins are sub-orbicular and contain sixteen rays, none of them branched. The upper ray is scabrous throughout. The others are scabrous only near their middles. The ventrals, soft and whitish, have three rays, of which the first is the strongest, but none of them are spinous*. The first dorsal commences posterior to the pectorals and terminates opposite to the anus. It has seven simple rays. The second dorsal is larger and has thirteen rays. Its commencement and termination correspond with those of the anal, and most of its rays are scabrous. Both dorsals are rounded or arched. The anal fin occupies about two-thirds of the space between the anus and caudal, commencing near the former. This fin becomes slightly lower or less deep posteriorly. The caudal is cuneiform and has twelve rays, most of them forked.

OBS. In the form of the bony processes, on the top of the head, this species approaches closely to C. quadricornis of the Baltic; but it does not appear, from the descriptions I have consulted, that there is a distinct pair on the nasal bones of the latter. There are also differences in the form of the spines of the preoperculum, those of C. hexacornis being quite simple, while in the other they are truncated, or divided at the point. In the C. quadricornis, also, there is a thick spine on the supra-scapular bone, which is likewise truncated; while in C. hexacornis, that bone, the humerals, and the gill-covers, are merely armed with small spinous teeth. And the rows of scales on the body are different.

It appears to me likely, that the C. quadricornis, Sabine (Zool., App. to Captain Parry's First Voyage, p. ccxiii), may be really the C. hexacornis. Captain J. C. Ross, who considers it to be the same with the C. scorpioides of Fabricius, says that, though very abundant on the Greenland coast, it is more rare in the higher latitudes, but several were taken on both sides of the peninsula of Boothia. The natives prize it highly as an article of food, preferring it to cod-fish or salmon. The Esquimaux of Boothia call it Kaneeok, the same name which the Greenlanders give to C. Grœnlandicus.

* It is possible that a small spine might be attached so closely to the first ray of the ventral as to escape my observation, or, as Cuvier says of the ventrals of C. scorpius, "Elles sont étroites, et leur épine est si intimement unie à leur premier rayon mou, qu'elles paroissent n'avoir que trois rayons"

[page] 46

[14.] 4. COTTUS OCTODECIMSPINOSUS. (Mitchill.) The Sculpin.

Scorpius Virginianus, Willoughby, t. x., 15.

Le Grand Chaboisseau à dix-huit épines de l'Amérique du Nord. CUV. et VAL, iv., 181.

This species has been confounded by several naturalists with the European C. scorpius, but it is quite distinct and of a considerably larger size. Its preopercular spine is longer than in that species, its point equalling or surpassing the spinous extremity of the gill-cover. The spines of its dorsal are, also, strong and pungent, instead of being flexible; and it differs much in its viscera from the European species. The stomach is a large thin bag, and the six cæca are so short as to look like a fringe: in C. scorpius the coats of the stomach are thick, and the pylorus is surrounded by eight cæca. The Sculpin* abounds on the coasts of the United States, and is also plentiful at Newfoundland. It is a pity that Cuvier did not retain the original specific name given by Willoughby, who figured it correctly; it is preferable to octodecimspinosus, which may lead to error, there being, in fact, twenty spines on the head. C. scorpius has exactly the same number, ten on each side, viz., one at the nostril, one over the orbit, one on the nape, three on the pre-operculum, one on the operculum, one on the suboperculum, and two on the scapular bones.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 8 or 9/ — 1/15; A. 14; C. 12; P. 18; V. 1/3. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[15.] 5. COTTUS GRŒNLANDICUS. (Cuvier.) Greenland Bull-head.

Cottus scorpius. FABRICIUS. Fauna Grœnlandica, p. 156.

Le Chaboisseau du Grœnland (Cottus Grœnlandicus). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 185.

Kaniok. GRŒNLANDERS.

It has been usual to enumerate the quadrupeds and birds of Greenland as belonging rather to Europe than America; but the fish existing in Davis's Straits, even on the Greenland side, associate more naturally with the American ones. The C. Grœnlandicus is known only by Fabricius's description, which agrees well with the Sculpin of the United States above mentioned, except that he counts only sixteen spines on the head and shoulder, and mentions obtuse, rough tubercles

* Quasi Scorpion.

[page] 47

on the cranium, but no spines. It is abundant in all the bays and inlets of Greenland, but prefers a stony coast clothed with sea-weed. It approaches the shore in spring and departs in winter. It is very voracious, preying on every thing that comes in its way, and pursuing incessantly the smaller fish, not sparing the young of its own species, and devouring crustacea and worms. It is very active and bold, but does not come to the surface unless it be led thither in pursuit of other fish. It spawns in December and January, and deposits its red-coloured roe on the sea-weed. It is easily taken with a bait, and constitutes the daily food of the Greenlanders, who are very fond of it. They eat the roe raw.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 10/ — 17; A. 14; C. 17; P. 17; V. 3. (Fauna Grœnl.)

[16.] 6. COTTUS SCORPIOIDES. (Fabricius.) The Pokudleek.

Le petit Chaboisseau du Grœnland (Cottus scorpioides). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 187.

This species, according to the description given of it by Fabricius, approaches some of the European species, and a comparison of specimens is required to establish it as distinct. It is named "Pokudleek" by the Greenlanders, and frequents muddy places near the mouths of rivers, preferring brackish water.

The rays of its Fins are D. 10 — 15; A. 12; C. 15; P. 15; V. 3. (Fauna Grœnl.)

[17.] 7. COTTUS POROSUS. (Valenciennes.) Porous Bull-head.

Le Chaboisseau poreux (Cottus porosus). CUV. et VAL., viii., p. 498.

This species resembles the C. scorpius of Europe in the armature of the top of its head and gill-covers, and C. Grœnlandicus, or scorpioides, in the great number of its dorsal rays. A specimen, six inches long, was taken in Baffin's Bay, which had several hundreds of very small shrimps in its stomach.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 11 — 1/16; A. 13; C. 17; P. 18; V. 1/3. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[page] 48

[18.] 8. COTTUS POLYACANTHOCEPHALUS. (Pallas.) Many-horned Bull-head.

"Cottus polyacanthocephalus. PALL. Zoogr. Ross., p. 133, No. 104, pl. 23."

La cotte à tête très épineuse. CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 177.

This species was taken on the north-west coast of America, in the 60th degree of latitude, off Cape St. Elias, by Billings. It approaches to quadricornis in its characters, but its opercula are better armed.

FINS.—D. 10 — 1/14; A. 12; P. 17; V. 4; C. 15; and some small ones.

(Hist. des Poiss.)

[19.] 9. COTTUS PISTILLIGER. (Pallas.) Antlered Bull-head.

"Cottus pistilliger. PALL., Zoogr. Ross, t. iii., p. 143, pl. 20, f. 3 and 4."

Le Chaboisseau à bois de chévreuil. CUV. et VAL., iv. p. 193.

This very curious Bull-head, which resembles C. diceraus in some of its characters, is found at Unalaschka, and also on the Kamtschatka coast.

FINS.—D. 9/ — 13; A. 16; C. 13; P. 18; V. 1/3. (Hist. des Poiss.)

Cottus diceraus of Pallas, and C. claviger and ventralis found by Mr. Collie at Kamtschatka, and described by Mr. Bennett in the Natural History Appendix to Captain Beechey's Narrative, and also in the Histoire des Poissons, together with C. Mertensii and C. marmoratus of the latter work, may possibly exist on the eastern as well as on the western entrance to Behring's Straits; but as they have not been actually detected on the American coast, they are not entitled to a place in the Fauna of that country.

[20.] 1. COTTUS (ASPIDOPHORUS EUROPÆUS.) (Cuvier.) The Pogge.

GENUS, Cottus. Sub-genus, Aspidophorus. CUV, LACEP.

L'Aspidophore d'Europe (Aspid. Europæus). CUV. et VAL., iv. p. 201.

The Aspidophori are considered, in the Regne Animal, as forming merely a sub-genus of Cottus, from which they are distinguished by the want of vomerine

[page] 49

teeth, and by the body being cased in large keeled, angular scales, and acquiring thence the form of a slender, many-sided pyramid. The latter character gives the Aspidophori a totally different aspect from the Cotti. The only species that has been discovered in the European seas, is well known to naturalists as the Cottus cataphractus of Linnæus. It is very abundant on both sides of the English Channel, particularly on the Lincolnshire coast, and ranges northward to the Cattegat and Baltic, and westward to Iceland and Greenland. Its occurrence on the Davis' Straits' side of the latter country entitles it, according to the plan of our Fauna, to be mentioned here.

This species varies in length from three to six inches. The anus is far forwards, and the body, between it and the hinder part of the anal and second dorsal, is octagonal; the slender tail and the forepart of the body are hexagonal; the mouth opens transversely under the muzzle, and there are small barbels, or fleshy points, covering the whole surface of the branchiostegous membrane, the corners of the mouth, and border of the interoperculum; there are two at the extremity of the snout, and a minute one before each orbit.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 5 — 7; A. 7; C. 11; P. 15; V. 1/2. (Some specimens have only six rays in the second dorsal and anal.) Hist. des Poiss.

[21.] 2. COTTUS (ASPIDOPHORUS) ACIPENSERINUS. (Cuvier.) Sturionic Aspidophore.

L'Aspidophore esturgeon. CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 207.

This species is common at the Island of Oonalaschka, and on the coast of Kamtschatka. It passes under the name of lisitza, or the "fox," among the Russians, and of koschadanguisch among the Aleutians. It is distinguished from the preceding by many characters, the most striking of which are the want of barbels on the branchiostegous membrane, and the numerous polygonal plates, marked with stelliform streaks, which cover the breast before the ventrals; while in the European species that part is covered by four plates only, arranged in a square form.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 9/—8; A. 8; C. 11; P. 17; V. 1/2. (Hist. des Poiss.)

H

[page] 50

[22.] 3. COTTUS (ASPIDOPHORUS) MONOPTERYGIUS. (Cuvier.) Aspidophore with one Dorsal.

L'Aspidophore à une seule dorsale. CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 224; vi., p. 554, t. 169.

The two preceding Aspidophori have the second dorsal commencing close to the end of the membrane of the first, and the mouth situated rather behind the tip of the snout; three other species, with approximated dorsals, are described in the Histoire des Poissons, but they have the under jaw longer than the upper one, and the snout neither projects beyond the mouth nor supports spines. Three species also are described with their dorsals some distance apart, and these have the jaws of equal length, and thick spines in the first dorsal.

The species we have now to notice is distinguished from all others by having only one dorsal placed in the middle of the body, over the anal, both these fins consisting of few rays, all flexible, the first ray alone not appearing articulated. It is the most slender of the genus, the height of the body, at the ventrals, not exceeding one-fifteenth of the total length. Before the dorsal the body is four-sided, or if the facets produced by the keels of the scales be taken into account, eight sides may be reckoned: the tail is six-sided. The snout projects beyond the mouth.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 1/4; A. 1/4; V. 1/2, C.; P. 11.

This Aspidophore was supposed, by Bloch, its first describer, to come from India, and it was named by Lacépède Aspidophoroide Tranquebar; but it has lately been discovered to be an inhabitant of the Greenland Seas, so that this sub-genus belongs entirely to the Northern hemisphere, and chiefly to the higher latitudes.

(Hist. des Poiss.)

[23.] 1. HEMITRIPTERUS AMERICANUS. (Cuvier.) The Sea-raven.

FAMILY, Cottoideæ. GENUS, Hemitripterus, CUVIER.

Acadian Bull-head. PENN., Arct. Zool., ii. p. 118. No. 101.

Yellow Scorpæna (Scorpæna flava). Mitchill, Ph. Trans. New York, i. p. 382, t. 2. f. 8.

L'Hemitriptère de l'Amérique (Hemitripterus Americanus). CUV. et VAL., iv. p. 268.

The genus Hemitripterus is considered by Cuvier as exactly intermediate between the Cotti and Scorpænæ, the two distinct dorsals with the broad head giving it a resemblance to the former, while its many and various tentacula, or barbels, and its palatine teeth, bring it near the latter. The head is bristled,

[page] 51

spinous, and garnished with many shreds of skin; and the first dorsal is so deeply notched, that three dorsals have been reckoned by some. Only one species is known. It attains the length of two feet, and inhabits the cod-banks on the coast of New York, Nova Scotia, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it is often taken by the hooks set for cod-fish. Its skin is soft and finely granular, with little conical tubercles scattered over the back and sides. The flanks have a bright carmine tint, at least in certain localities, as at the Magdalene Islands.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 15—12; A. 14; C. 12; P. 18; V. 1/3. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[24.] 1. HEMILEPIDOTUS TRACHURUS. The Hiekejak.

FAMILY, Cottoideæ. GENUS, Hemilepidotus, CUVIER.

"Cottus trachurus. PALL., Zoogr. Ross., t. 3, p. 138, pl. 25."

This is another genus intermediate between Cottus and Scorpæna; but which has, on the whole, more affinity to the latter. In the form of the head, and in the distribution of its spines, there is a resemblance to the Cotti; but in the solitary dorsal, and the teeth on the palate bones, as well as on the vomer, it partakes of the characters of the Scorpænæ: it is distinguished at once from both genera by two broad longitudinal scaly stripes on each side alternating with stripes of smooth skin: the scales become visible as the skin dries. Captain Billings obtained one specimen among the Kourile Islands, and another on the American coast, where the species was observed also by Steller, who says that the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands name it hiekejak. Pallas described Billings' specimen, and Cuvier states the description to agree exactly with his H. Tilesii, except that it gives two rays more to the soft dorsal, and that a division is mentioned between the first three spines of that fin and the eight succeeding ones. The rays of C. Tilesii are Br. 6; D. 11/18; A. 1/14; C. 12; P. 17; V. 1/3. Steller gives the following anatomical details of those he examined. The liver had three lobes and many biliary ducts, but no gall-bladder was detected. The stomach of an individual, a foot long, was no bigger than an acorn, and it contained a small flounder, some crabs, and a madrepore. There were five pretty long cæca at the pylorus. (Hist. des Poiss.)

H 2

[page] 52

[25.] 1. SCORPÆNA (SEBASTES) NORVEGICA. (Cuvier.) Northern Sebastes.

FAMILY, Cottoideæ. GENUS, Scorpæna, LINN. Sub-genus, Sebastes, CUV.

Sea Perch. PENN., Br. Zool., iii., p. 349, pl. 59, f. 2.

La Sebaste septentrionale (Sebastes Norvegicus). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 327.

The Scorpænæ have a strong resemblance to the Cotti in possessing a large spiny head, large pectorals, and, in part, the thick simple rays of these fins, but they differ in the compressed form of the head, the undivided dorsal, and in the presence of palatine teeth. They have seven branchiostegous rays. The clumsy head and soft spongy skin of the Scorpænæ give them a hideous aspect, and the spines with which they are armed are formidable to those who attempt to handle them. Setting aside the bony armour of the cheeks, the spines of the head, and the simple inferior rays of the pectorals, they have much affinity with some of the percoideæ, particularly Grystes and Centropristis. None of the true Scorpænæ are mentioned by authors as existing within the limits which we have assigned to our Fauna, but the Scorpæna porcus, which has an extensive range in Europe, throughout the Mediterranean, and from the British Channel to Teneriffe, occurs also at New York.

We have, however, to notice two northern species of Sebastes, a sub-genus, which possesses all the characters of Scorpæna, except that the head is scaly, is less studded with spines and crests, and wants the skinny shreds or appendages. The resemblance of the Sebastes to some of the Percoideæ with a solitary dorsal is such, that they have been considered as congeners by naturalists of the first rank. The Sebastes Norvegica inhabits the Icy Sea and Northern Ocean. It is plentiful on the Norway coast, and is found at Iceland, Greenland, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and off Newfoundland. It inhabits the deepest bays of South Greenland, and does not approach the shore, except when driven thither by tempests. It feeds upon the pleuronectes cynoglossum, and readily takes a hook. Its flesh is dry but agreeable. The Greenlanders eat its lips raw, and were formerly accustomed to use its spines as sewing needles. It has a swimming bladder, which the Scorpænæ have not, and which does not exist in all the Sebastes.

Its colour, when quite fresh, is a bright carmine, which is paler towards the belly, and mixed with brown on the back; there is likewise a blackish mark on the tip of the gill-cover. In form this Sebastes resembles the perch, that is, its body is somewhat compressed, and its profile oblong, the dorsal and ventral curves being slightly convex; the mouth is oblique and the lower jaw projects a little. The posterior sub-orbitar bone sends a process obliquely backwards

[page] 53

towards the preoperculum, which it does not quite reach, so that we can scarcely say that the cheek is mailed. The whole fish is clothed with small rough scales, even to the extremity of the snout and on the labials, the only naked parts being the branchiostegous membrane and the posterior borders of the gill-opening, including the base of the pectorals. Belts of minute scales cover the basal halves of the vertical fins.

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 15/ — 15; A. 3/8; C. 14; P. 19; V. 1/5. (Hist. des Poiss.)

The Mediterranean possesses a species of Sebastes which differs from the above in a few characters, and at the Cape of Good Hope there is one which very closely resembles the northern species, and another which is more like the Mediterranean one. There are two or more in the Indian and Polynesian seas, and several in the sea of Japan. The following one is from the sea of Kamtschatka.

[26.] 2. SCORPÆNA (SEBASTES) VARIABILIS. (Cuvier.) The Tockoo.

La Sebaste variable (Sebastes variabilis). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 347.

This Sebastes has the head less armed than any other species; there are not even crests on the cranium, or over the orbits, and no teeth on the sub-orbitars: the preoperculum has five short, obtuse teeth, and the operculum two points. That it belongs, however, to this genus is evident from the narrow process which the posterior sub-orbitar sends towards the preoperculum, and which may be felt through the skin, and also from the nine simple rays of the pectorals. FINS.—D. 13/15; A. 3/9; C. 17; V. 1/5; P. 18, of which nine are simple. It is taken plentifully among the Aleutian Islands, and is named kakootsheek by the inhabitants, and tockoo on the American coast. Vancouver found a "sea-perch" at Port Discovery, in the Straits of Juan da Fuca, which may be this species; but the name is too vaguely applied by sailors to render even the genus anything more than conjectural.

[27.] 1. BLEPSIAS TRILOBUS. (Cuvier.) Three-lobed Blepsias.

FAMILY, Cottoideæ. GENUS, Blepsias. CUVIER.

Le Blepsias trilobé (Blepsias trilobus). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 375, pl. 90.

The spiny preoperculum, compressed head, mailed cheek, palatine teeth, short, simple, and half-detached lower rays of the pectorals, and fleshy appendages

[page] 54

of the snout, connect this genus with Scorpæna, from which, however, it is distinguished by its five branchiostegous rays, and its high dorsal divided into three unequal lobes, as in Hemitripterus; whilst the compressed head prevents it from entering the latter genus. The detailed description of the species in the Histoire des Poissons is founded on the examination of two individuals which were taken on the north-west coast of America by Merk. Steller observed the same species at the entrance of the sea of Ochotsk. The general aspect of the fish recalls that of some Blennies with which it was associated by Steller. The skin is destitute of scales, but is rough, with fine grains, which appear to be disposed in three longitudinal stripes, separated by very narrow intervals. The specimens were five inches long.

FINS.—Br. 5; D. 7/24; A. 20; C. 11; P. 11; V. 1/3. (Hist. des Poiss.)

Another species (B. bilobus, CUV. et Val.) occurs in Awatska Bay, Kamtschatka. It has been described and figured as the type of a new genus by Mr. Bennett, in the Natural History (Appendix) to Captain Beechey's Voyage, under the name of Peropus bilobus, on account of the form of its dorsal, indicated by its specific name, and its six branchiostegous rays; in other particulars Peropus coincides almost exactly with Blepsias. In P. bilobus there is a short spine over the nostril, and there are six fleshy appendages to the lower jaw, and two to the upper. The skin is hispid with short rigid bristles without any smooth stripes. Its FINS contain Br. 6; D. 7—21; A. 19; C. 13; P. 14; V. 1/3. The following anatomical particulars are from Mr. Collie's notes. Air bladder wanting. Stomach a large membraneous sac. Cæca several, ventricose. Intestinal canal short. Liver light clay colour. (App. Beech. Voy., p. 59, pl. 16, f. 3.)

[28.] 1. GASTEROSTEUS. Burnstickle.

Gasterosteus aculeatus. FABRICIUS, Faun. Grænl., p. 169.

Kakilisak. GREENLANDERS.

This genus wants the family aspect of the Cottoideæ, for the sub-orbitars being smooth, and not distinguishable through the integuments, the cheek-mail is not apparent, neither is the head armed with tubercles or spines. The dorsal spines are detached, each having a separate membrane, and the pelvic bones are united to the more than ordinarily large humerals, so as to form a kind of breast-plate. The ventrals, situated posterior to the pectorals, are almost entirely formed of their

[page] 55

single spinous ray, and the gill-rays do not exceed three. The Burnstickles, or Sticklebacks, are the smallest of European fresh-water fishes, and probably also the most abundant, as they exist in almost every rivulet and piece of water. They are active, lively little fish, and when any obstacle obstructs their way, will leap a foot out of the water, in endeavouring to surmount it. They are exceedingly voracious, and commit great havoc in fish-ponds, where they devour vast numbers of young fish at the instant of their exclusion from the roe. The G. aculeatus (L.), or the Three-spined Stickleback, the largest species, abounds in every corner of Europe*, and even extends to Greenland, if the Kakilisak of Fabricius, above referred to, be actually this species, and not one of the very similar American ones. This author states, that it inhabits every pool and rivulet of Greenland, and even those into which the tide enters, feeding on worms and aquatic insects. In Europe two species were long confounded under the appellation of aculeatus, until Cuvier distinguished them by the names of G. trachurus and leiurus.

In both species the forepart of the back is covered by five bony plates, on the second, third, and fifth of which stand the three dorsal spines. The third spine is sometimes wanting, and at other times the fourth plate gives origin to an extra spine. The flanks are protected by a series of oblong plates having their axes vertical: in G. trachurus these plates are continued along the sides of the tail, there being in all twenty-five or twenty-six, exclusive of five small ones that cover the keel of the tail and render it more prominent; in G. leiurus the six anterior plates only are present, the posterior parts of the fish being smooth.

FINS.—Br. 3; D. 1/—1/—1/——10 or 11; A. 1/—9; C. 12¼; P. 10; V. 1/1.

Fabricius says that the Kakilisak seldom exceeds the little finger in length, that its forehead is marked with black in form of a spade, and its anal fin contains ten soft rays besides the spine: in other respects he refers to Artedi's description (Sp., p. 96), which is that of G. trachurus.

Five other European three-spined Burnstickles are described in the Histoire des Poissons, and there is one in the sea of Kamtschatka, which, at the summer solstice, ascends the rivers of Awatska, Paradunca, &c., in such dense shoals that it may be taken up with a pitcher in equal quantity with the water itself. It is named G. obolarius †, but the detailed descriptions of Steller, Pallas, and Tilesius do not indicate any characters so decided that Cuvier could pronounce it to be a distinct species. It derives its name from the smooth silvery spot which intervenes

* In certain places it appears occasionally in enormous shoals, so that it is taken for the purpose of manuring the land. A labourer, hired by a Lincolnshire farmer to collect it in the river Welland, at the rate of one halfpenny a bushel, earned four shillings a day. (Bril. Zool.)

† "Obolarius aculeatus, STELLER, Mss." "Gasteracanthus cataphractus, PALL‥ Faun. Ross." Gasterosteus cataphractus, TILESIUS, Mém. de Petersb., iii., p. 223.

[page] 56

between the pectorals and gill-openings, having the form of a piece of Greek money. It has thirty-one vertebræ and the same number of lateral scales. The four dorsal spines are serrated. The Kamtschatdales collect it to serve as food for their dogs, and they also prepare excellent white soup with it for themselves.

G. Noveboracensis is, as the name indicates, a New York species.

It has a very strong resemblance to the G. trachurus, its most obvious peculiarities being the narrow dorsal plates, the more prominent keels of the tail, and the position of the lateral line, which is nearer to the back.

FINS.—D. 1/1/—1/11; A. 1/8; C. 12; P. 10; V. 1/1. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[29.] 2. GASTEROSTEUS NIGER. (Cuvier.) Black Burnstickle.

L'Epinoche noire (Gasterosteus niger). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 503.

This species, which has also an armed tail, inhabits Newfoundland. It has a more elongated form, and more slender spines than its European representative. Its lateral scales amount to thirty-three, and its colour throughout is blackish.

(Hist. des Poiss.)

[30.] 3. GASTEROSTEUS BIACULEATUS. (Pennant.) Two-spined Burnstickle.

Gasterosteus biaculeatus. FORSTER, Cat. MITCHILL, Phil. Tr., New York, i., p. 430, pl. 1, f. 10.

Two-spined Stickleback. PENN., Arct. Zool., ii., p. 132, No. 147.

L'Epinoche à deux épines. CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 503.

This Stickleback is said, by Dr. Mitchill, to inhabit the salt waters of New York, and to consort with the Killifish, or Cyprinodons. M. Pilaye sent it from Newfoundland to Cuvier. It is one of the smallest of the genus, Dr. Mitchill assigning it a length of scarcely an inch, and the Newfoundland specimen measuring only seventeen lines.

It is distinguished from the other species by a sharp flat tooth on the external base of each ventral spine, the European species having simply an enlargement there. Notwithstanding its name, it has three dorsal spines, the third being small and joined to the soft dorsal.

FINS.—D. 1/1/ — 1/12; A. 1/8; C. 12; P. 9; V. 1/1. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[page] 57

Pennant mentions the Three-spined Stickleback as very plentiful at Hudson's Bay (Arct. Zool., ii., p. 132, and Intr., p. cxci), but it did not come under my notice, and as the species in that naturalist's time were but imperfectly discriminated, its reference to G. aculeatus must be doubtful. Hutchins speaks of Sticklebacks three inches in length, which constitute food for the pike and turbot.

[31.] 4. GASTEROSTEUS CONCINNUS. (Richardson.) Tiny Burnstickle.

Uswæ-atheek-àsheesh. CREE INDIANS.

This diminutive species, perhaps the smallest of fresh-water fishes, is found at the commencement of summer in ponds and rivers, and is supposed to be washed out of the lakes by the floods of melted snow which occur at that period. It ranges from the Saskatchewan in lat. 53°, to the Great Bear Lake in the 65th parallel, and probably through a still greater extent of country. In 1820, many sledge-loads were taken from a small pond in the vicinity of Cumberland-house for the purpose of feeding the dogs. Although it has a strong general resemblance to G. pungitius, or rather lævis of Europe, it exhibits differences which justify us in considering it as a distinct species. It has a still smaller size than G. lævis, a more slender and elegant form, stronger and higher spines, and lower second dorsal and anal fins, the portion of the tail behind these fins being thinner as well as longer.

DESCRIPTION

Of specimens taken at Great Bear Lake, lat. 64½ N., and comparison with an English specimen of G. lævis, belonging to Mr. Yarrell.

FORM.—Similar to that of G. lævis, but the head smaller, being only a fourth part of the total length, and the body, and especially the tail, more slender. The mouth is also smaller, and the teeth, although perceptible to the touch on both jaws, are much less conspicuous than those of lævis. There are no scales whatever on the body. The lateral line is a straight furrow until it passes the anal fin, when it rises into a very slender ridge that keels the tail. The anus is equidistant from the snout and end of the tail: in G. lævis it is a little farther back. The abdomen is protected by a bony cuirass, formed posteriorly by the bones of the pelvis, and anteriorly by two narrow cubital bones which join in an acute angle behind the median insertion of the gill-membranes. In concinnus the posterior angular point of the pelvic bones is narrower but stronger, and the space enclosed by the cubital bones is triangular: in lævis this space is triangular only towards the apex, the two bones being parallel posteriorly. The smooth space between the insertion of the pectoral and the gill-opening is smaller in concinnus, its nine dorsal spines are both stouter and longer, and the triangular

I

[page] 58

membrane which is attached to each of them posteriorly, is thicker and larger than in lævis. In both species the seventh and eighth spines are smaller than the preceding ones, and the ninth, which is contiguous to the second dorsal, is rather longer than any of the others: in concinnus it is only one-third lower than the second dorsal; while in lævis it is two-thirds lower. The second dorsal and anal begin and terminate opposite to each other, and have similar triangular shapes: the posterior angle of these fins in lævis is more prolonged or acute; while in concinnus the fins have an equilateral outline, in consequence of their attachments being shorter, and the naked tail longer. In concinnus the soft dorsal has nine rays—in lævis it has eleven. Contiguous to the anal fin of the former there is a separate spine, furnished with its proper membrane, like the dorsal spines, the largest of which it equals in size: in lævis this spine is comparatively small. The ventrals are each represented by a spine articulated to the pelvic bones, and a small triangular membrane in which there is imbedded a very indistinct soft ray: the ventral spines do not reach quite to the point of the abdominal cuirass in either species. All the spines, both dorsal and ventral, are moveable, and none of them are serrated. The caudal fin is even at the end and has an elongated wedge shape.

COLOUR nearly as in G. lævis, olive green, with a silvery belly, and the whole body and soft parts of the head speckled with black dots.

FINS.—Br. 3; D. 1/-1/-1/-1/-1/-1/-1/-1/——1/9; A. 1/—9; P. 10; C. 12 2/2; V. 1/1.

DIMENSIONS.
G. concinnus. G. lævis.
Inches. Lines. Inches Lines.
Length from tip of snout to end of caudal 1 1
Length from tip of snout to anus 0 8 0 11½
Length from tip of snout to tip of gill-cover 0 0 4⅔
Length of attachments of second dorsal and anal 0 2⅔ 0 4⅙
Length of naked tail between dorsal and caudal 0 0
Length from anus to end of caudal 0 8 0
Length of longest rays of caudal 0 2⅓ 0
Length of longest rays of second dorsal 0 1⅓ 0 2 1/12
Length of longest rays of anal 0 1⅓ 0 2 1/12
Length of anal spine 0 1⅙ 0 1
Length of ventral spines 0 0

[32.] 5. GASTEROSTEUS OCCIDENTALIS. (Cuvier.) New foundland Burnstickle.

L'Epinochette de Terre Neuve (G. occidentalis). CUV. et VAL., iv., p. 509.

This species, which was discovered in Newfoundland by M. Pilaye, is very like the nine-spined Stickleback of Europe with an armed tail: its form is merely more lengthened. FINS.—D. 8/9; A. 1/9; C. 12; P. 11; V. 1/11. (Hist. des Poiss.)

[page] 59

[33.] 1. TEMNISTIA VENTRICOSA. North-west Notchfin.

FAMILY, Cottoideæ. GENUS NOVUM, Temnistia* prope Hemilepidotum.

Blepsias ventricosus. ESCHSCHOLTZ, Zool. Atlas, drittes heft, p. 4, t. 13.

B. corpore fusco; faciis quatuor flexuosis maculâque posticâ rubris; abdomine inflato albo fuscoque marmorato; pinnis pectoralibus faciis tribus hepaticis pallidisque alternantibus. ESCH. l. c.

This fish frequents the north-west coast of America, having been taken in Norfolk Sound, and off the island of Sitcha, by the Russian Expedition under Captain Kotzebue. Eschscholtz states it to possess all the characters of Blepsias, but though it does in part correspond with the short notice of that genus in the Règne Animal*, it differs both in habit and in structure from the only two species of Blepsias hitherto discovered. It belongs to that group of Cottoideæ which is characterised by the compressed form of the head, and has much resemblance in external form to Hemilepidotus and Scorpæna, between which it will probably stand in a natural arrangement. It is separated from the former by its body being wholly scaly, and the presence of barbels on the head; and from the latter, by having only five gill-rays and a three-lobed dorsal. The want of scales on the head distinguishes it from Sebastes, and its habit, which is very unlike that of a blenny, its long pectorals and scaly body, detach it from Blepsias. The other Cottoid genera, with compressed heads, are still more dissimilar in external characters to this fish: Pterois has seven gill-rays, and is remarkable for the extreme length of the rays of its dorsal and pectorals; Apistes and Minous are armed with a large, moveable, sub-orbitar spine; Agriopus has a scaleless body and unarmed, imperfectly cuirassed cheeks; and Hoplostethus has its deep body protected inferiorly by keeled scales, and six soft rays in its ventrals. We have, therefore, ventured on giving Eschscholtz's fish a proper generic name; but as the Zoologischer Atlas contains no account of its dentition, nor any anatomical details, we shall not attempt any further enumeration of the characters of the genus, than what may be gathered from the following description of the species, which is compiled partly from the text of the work just cited, and partly from an inspection of the plate.

* Th. τ,εμνω, scindo, et ἱςίον, velum.

† Les Blepsias ont la téte comprimée, la joue cuirassée, des barbillons charnus sous la mâchoire inférieure, cinq rayons aux ouïes, de très petites ventrales, et une dorsale très haute, divisée en trois par des echancrures. Règ. An.

I 2

[page] 60

DESCRIPTION.

FORM.—The head is much compressed, the eyes large, lateral, and closely approximated, as in Hemilepidotus. The intermaxillaries appear to be capable of some protrusion, and to be connected with the snout by a whitish membrane; immediately behind which, on the upper surface of the snout, there is a pair of brown, short, cylindrical processes, and before the eyes two pairs of white ones, all of them said to be tubular. There are three pairs of short, slender, acute barbels on the lower jaw; a thick one with a fringed end on the lower extremity of the labial, and one like it, though smaller, on the lower part of the cheek. The plate also represents six prominent, obtuse, though small teeth (or, perhaps, barbels) on the margin of the sub-orbitar bone; three large acute teeth, or spines, and two intervening small ones, on the preoperculum; a notch on the margin of the suboperculum; and an acute angular tip to the gill-cover. The head is entirely naked; but the body is covered with large tiled scales, which are described as being roundish, finely toothed, and biggest on the sides, where there are fifty-eight in a longitudinal row. The form of the body is that of a Hemilepidotus, or Scorpæna, exclusive of the greatly-inflated stomach or belly, which is pendulous and hemispherical. The dorsal fin commences a very short way behind the nape, and extends nearly to the caudal: it is supported by thirty-one rays, all spinous, and is notched anterior to the twelfth ray, by the gradual decrease of the six preceding ones. There is another, but less decided notch at the third ray, the membrane of which reaches only to the middle of the following ray. The rays of the anal, pectorals, and ventrals, are also represented as spinous, or at least simple, the caudal ones alone being forked at the tips. The ventrals are long and slender, and are supported by five rays, the first of which is short and closely applied to the next. The caudal is slightly rounded at the end.

FINS.—Br. 5; D. 31/; P. 16/; V. 5/; A. 16/; C. 11 1/1.

COLOUR.—The head is mostly brown, the body is also brown, with scattered darker spots, and four transverse, broad, waved red bands, the first of them crossing just before the dorsal: there is also an imperfect band, or large patch, of the same colour, between the dorsal and upper base of the caudal. The belly is white, studded laterally with brown spots, which towards its middle diminish to specks. The dorsal, anal, and caudal are reddish, the two former being marbled with brown. The pectorals are marked transversely with three dark reddish-brown bars, and as many alternate pale ones.

[page] 61

SCIÆNOIDEÆ.

THE members of this family have almost all the external characteristics of the Percoideæ: the spiny or denticulated operculum: the toothed or armed preoperculum: the double, deeply-notched, or single dorsal: the scaly body; and even the divisions of the family which spring from the various combinations of these characters are but repetitions of those into which the Percoideæ are distributed. The distinctive character of the Sciænoideæ is the total absence of vomerine and palatine teeth. Moreover, the cavernous structure of the cranium, and arched form of the head, and especially of the nose, give a peculiar physiognomy to the fish of this family, which is rarely observed in the Percoideæ: the scales, also, are less rough, and extend more generally over the head and vertical fins: but these latter characters are not so essential as the perfectly toothless palate, and are, indeed, mostly present in the percoid genus Polynemus. The Sciænoideæ have much resemblance to the Percoideæ in their internal structure, also, though their air-bladders exhibit a greater variety of forms, being in many species complicated with hornlike processes, or branched or fringed appendages, which Cuvier thinks have some connexion with the grunting noises that the Sciænoideæ emit in a more remarkable degree than even the gurnards. The Sciænoideæ are numerous, have similar habits to the Percoideæ, and are equally useful to man, almost all of them furnishing a wholesome food, and many being remarkable for their exquisite flavour.

Cuvier divides the Sciænoideæ into two series, the first of which is characterised by a double or divided dorsal. The Maigre (Sciæna), Corvina, and Umbrina three Mediterranean fish, are types of the principal genera of this series: several smaller genera are associated with them; and all have the cranium heightened by salient portions, the lower jaw pitted with conspicuous pores, the soft dorsal proportionably long, the anal, on the contrary, very short, the preoperculum denticulated, at least in the younger individuals*, the bony operculum terminated by two flat points and seven branchiostegous rays; in short, they have a close resemblance to the perches, except that their palates are quite smooth. Moreover, their dorsal

* This must be understood with some latitude, for Nebris and Eleginus, of this series, have the preoperculum smooth. For, as Cuvier says of that of the latter, "très entier." In the second series, Glyphisodon, Etroplus, and Heliases, also want denticulations on the preoperculum.

[page] 62

spines are robust, the scales strong as in the perches and spari, and the whole head is scaly. Many of them have their pharyngeal teeth "en forme de pavé," like the labri; but they differ from the labri in wanting the double lips, and in having cæcal appendages to the pylorus. Their air-bladder is very large, and is furnished, in many of the species, with appendages of very curious forms. The presence or absence of canine teeth, the form of the snout, and the existence or want of barbels on the lower jaw, serve to characterise the minor divisions of the first series. The second series is composed of genera which have a single continuous or very slightly-notched dorsal. They differ more from each other than those of the first series, and it is among them chiefly that combinations of characters analogous to those of the Percoideæ occur. Three genera, having seven gill-rays, constitute one subdivision, and are distinguished from each other by the number of pores on the lower jaw, or the presence or absence of scales on the vertical fins. Another subdivision, comprising the Sciænoideæ with fewer than seven rays in the gill-membrane, is broken into smaller groups, which are characterised by the form of the lateral line, according as it is continuous or interrupted, or by the presence or absence of simple rays in the pectorals, and by the preoperculum being smooth or toothed.

The Cottoideæ, notwithstanding the peculiarity of their mailed cheeks, form the connecting link between the Percoideæ and Sciænoideæ. Thus the cottoid Sebastes are so like the percoid Serrani in form, as to be often mistaken for them, and the Scorpænæ and Sebastes have palatine teeth like the Percoideæ; while other Cottoideæ, the Synanceiæ for example, have the smooth palates of the Sciænoideæ.

When we speak of the families in reference to the distribution of the majority of their forms and species, the Percoideæ may be considered as belonging principally to the South Sea and Indian Ocean, the Cottoideæ, as affecting the higher northern latitudes, and the Sciænoideæ as being more peculiarly an American family, for more than one-third of the genera are proper to the Atlantic shores of that continent, and there are only eight of the thirty* which compose the family that have not one or more species there. The genera peculiar to America are, Ancylodon, Nebris, Lepipterus, Boridia, Conodon, and Eques, inhabiting the intertropical districts, and Leiostomus, Pogonias, Micropogon, and Hæmulon, common to them and the seas of the United States: all these have two dorsals and

* Cuvier includes thirty-one genera in the family, but the origin of Lonchurus, which consists of one, or perhaps two, species, is unknown. Eleginus, a genus of the Indian and South seas, and one of the eight which have no representative on the Atlantic side of America, has a species on the coast of Chili.

[page] 63

seven branchiostegous rays. Scolopsides, Amphiprion, Premnas, Dascyllus, and Etroplus, which are peculiar to the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia, have one continuous dorsal, and fewer than seven gill-rays. Diagramma and Pomacentrus, which have also seventeen or eighteen species each in these seas, have also a single dorsal, but the former has seven gill-rays. Maquaria, containing a solitary species which inhabits the Macquarie, a river of New Holland, belongs to the same subdivision with the genera peculiar to the Polynesian seas. We have enumerated eighteen genera, twelve only remain, and of these Sciæna, Otolithus, Corvina, Umbrina, and Pristipoma, typical forms of the Sciænoideæ that have seven gill-rays, and all but the last, having a double dorsal, are the most widely diffused, as the subjoined table shows. Glyphisodon and Heliases, which have the widest distribution among the genera with fewer than seven gill-rays, have smooth preopercula, and are aberrant forms leading to the Sparoideæ, or in some points of view to the Labroideæ.

GENERA. Mediterranean Sea. European Atlantic and Madeira Seas. African Atlantic. Cape of Good Hope to Madagascar. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. North American Atlantic. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia. South Australian Sea and New Zealand. Sea of Japan. Sea of Chili. Totals of Species.
I. Sciæna 1 1 1 1 3
Otolithus 1 1 8 2 5 15
Ancylodon 2 2
Corviua 1 4 4 4 19 1 31
Leiostomns 1 2 2
Larimus 1 1 2
Nebris 1 1
Lepipterus 1 1
Boridia 1 1
Conodon 1 1
Eleginus 1 1 1 3
Eques 3 3
Umbrina 1 1 4 1 4 10
Pogonias 2 2 2
Micropogon 3 2 3
II. Hæmulon 11 2 13
Pristipoma 7 1 11 1 13 1 1 35
Diagramma 1 18 1 20
III. Lobotes 2 1 2 4
Scolopsides 19 19
Cheilodactylus 2 1 1 1 3 7
Latilus 1 2 1 4
Maquaria 1 1
Amphiprion 13 13
Premnas 13 3
Pomacentrus 2 17 19
Dascyllus 3 3
Glyphisodon 1 1 3 26 30
Etroplus 3 3
Heliases 1 1 5 1 8
Totals. 3 4 14 5 65 17 154 3 4 7 262

[page] 64

Few forms, or even species, exist in the European seas. Sciæna and Umbrina have each a species common to the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Europe, Corvina, one peculiar to the Mediterranean, and Glyphisodon and Heliases, one each in the sea of Madeira, making but five European species in all. None of the Sciænoideæ appear to have a wide range; none cross the Atlantic, and none are common to that sea and either the Indian or Pacific oceans.

[34.] 1. SCIÆNA (CORVINA) RICHARDSONII. (Cuvier.) The Malasheganè.

FAMILY, Sciænoideæ. GENUS, Sciæna. Sub-genus, Corvina. CUVIER.

Le Corb de Richardson. CUV. et VAL., V., p. 100.

Malasheganeh. CREE INDIANS.

PLATE LXXVII.

Corvina belongs to the first series of the Sciænoideæ, or those which have a double dorsal fin and seven branchiostegous rays. We have here followed the Règne Animal in considering this series as constituting one large genus, named Sciæna, and divided into sub-generic groups, which are raised to the rank of genera in the Histoire des Poissons. The characters of the series, or of the extended genus Sciæna, are given at some length in a preceding page (61). Corvina differs from the sub-genera Sciæna and Otolithus, in the robust form of its anal spine, and from the latter by a second character, viz., the want of canine teeth: the absence of barbels on the lower jaw distinguishes it from Umbrina and Pogonias. The teeth of Corvina also, when closely examined, present a peculiarity of distribution; they form stripes "en velours" on both jaws, but the outer rows, though even and pointed, are stronger than the others. Boridia and Conodon have the form and other exterior characters of Corvina, but differ in the teeth, the latter having a row of conical teeth exterior to the stripe "en velours," and Boridia, the jaws armed with several rows of short, thick, blunt teeth, which ally it to the Sparoideæ, and render it a connecting link between that family and the Sciænoideæ. The form of the air-bladder varies considerably in different species of Corvina, being quite simple in some, while in others it sends out horn-like processes which are pointed, branched, or even fringed. The remarkable drum-like noise which the Maigres, or true Sciænæ have the power of producing, at a considerable depth in the water, has not been ascribed to the Corvinæ. In some Corvinæ the preoperculum has merely a slightly undulated edge, in others it is denticulated or even

[page] 65

decidedly spiny. By far the greater number of the species are inhabitants of the sea exclusively, some have been observed to enter the rivers of India and Africa, but not to ascend beyond the tidal waters; the two species which occur in our Fauna are inhabitants of fresh water only, being found in the Canadian lakes above the falls of Niagara.

The Malasheganè inhabits Lake Huron. It is taken in the Georgian Bay, on the north side of that lake, during the summer months, in gill-nets set in deep water, or by hooks baited with worms. It feeds much on cray-fish. It is a firm, white, well-tasted fish, but never fat, and requires much boiling. It is called "Sheep's-head" by the Anglo-Canadians, probably for the reason that the same appellation is bestowed on the Sargus ovis in the United States, viz., from its having an arched nose, and "some smutty shades of colour on the face*." I had no opportunity of examining the intestines of the Malasheganè, though I can bear testimony to its excellence as an article of food, in which respect it may be compared to the turbot of Europe. My specimen was prepared by Mr. Todd.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken at Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron.

FORM.—Profile, exclusive of the short and rather deep strap-shaped tail, irregularly oval: the curve, from the snout to the dorsal fin, is quadrantal and abrupt, the head and shoulders being very prominent. The greatest depth is at the attachment of the ventrals, where it exceeds a third of the total length including the caudal. The head is rather small, and higher than long; the forehead flattish, the snout short, the lower jaw projecting a little, the mouth cleft nearly as far back as the centre of the orbit, and the lips somewhat flabby and sparingly protrusive, but folding back when closed. Eyes lateral, situated more than two diameters of the orbit from the extremity of the snout and one above the mouth: the irides are silvery. The nostrils are near the eyes, and the anterior opening is the smallest. There are four pores beneath the end of the lower jaw, apparently leading to cells in the bone, but none are perceptible on the muzzle, at least in the dried specimen.

TEETH.—The opposing surfaces of both jaws are covered with small, slender, erect, crowded teeth, the exterior row, and a small cluster on the tip of each jaw, being of a larger size, though similar in form: "the outer ones have their points rounded, but from their slenderness they appear acute: there are also two patches of teeth on the upper pharyngeal bones, and two on the lower." Mr. Todd,—(who does not describe their form, though it is probable that they are "en gros pavés ronds," as in the nearly allied C. oscula.) Tongue pointed and smooth.

GILL-COVERS.—The posterior edge of the gill-cover is irregularly curved, the tip of the suboperculum forming a small projecting angle on a line with the upper ray of the pectoral fin.

* Mitchill.

K

[page] 66

and there is a rounded lobe about midway between this and the upper angle of the operculum. The preoperculum is broad below, but its upper limb, rising at a right angle, becomes gradually narrower. Its whole free edge, that of the interoperculum, and of the suboperculum anteriorly, are finely denticulated, and the teeth, being the tips of very short marginal ridges, are very conspicuous in the dried specimen. The anterior border of the operculum, to the width of half an inch, is scaleless and marked with fine vertical streaks: the under margin of the bone is concealed by scales, and there is a deep rounded notch on its posterior margin which is also covered by membrane and scales, but a rounded lobe above the notch, and another below, are more evident from their edges being finely ridged and somewhat denticulated: the tip of the suboperculum is closely applied to the lower lobe and passes it a little. The bones lining the posterior edge of the gill-opening are scaleless and have smooth edges: the humeral bone is remarkably large and cavernous, the cavities occupied by a net-work of fibres. There are seven branchiostegous rays, all somewhat flattened; the first ray is one inch and a half long, the last one measures above four inches.

SCALES.—The whole head except the lips, intermaxillaries, labials, branchiostegous membrane, and anterior border of the operculum, is scaly, the scales varying much in size, small and large being crowded together. The scales of the body are also unequal in size, though mostly very large and strong, particularly on the sides, where their general form is that of a square or rectangle, with the exterior side a little convex, and the two outer corners rounded off: many are somewhat oblique, the lower side being the longest. The smallest scales, excepting those on the fins, are on the humeral bone, and next those on the top of the head and before the dorsal. There are fifty-three or fifty-four scales on the lateral line, exclusive of fourteen or fifteen very small ones on the base of the caudal; and about twenty-eight in a vertical row behind the pectorals, eight of which are above the lateral line. A scale taken from under the posterior third of the first dorsal and beneath the lateral line, is seven lines long by eight and a half wide, and is marked with about ten furrows, which converge towards the centre, but do not meet: the corresponding crenatures are not prominent, the basal edge being nearly a straight line: the middle third of the exterior slightly convex edge is crowded with fine ridges, visible under the lens, and apparently jointed, but the whole edge appears smooth to the naked eye and to the touch. A linear inch measured lengthwise on the sides, includes from three to six scales, according to the place that is chosen. The lateral line follows the curve of the back at the distance of one-third of the height of the body, until it comes opposite to the middle of the anal, whence it runs in a straight line through the centre of the tail, and is continued between the middle rays of the caudal for more than half the length of that fin. It is formed by a small tubular ridge which divides, in a radiated manner, on the outer border of the scale, into several irregular winding branchlets. The anus is at the commencement of the posterior third of the fish excluding the caudal.

FINS.—Br. 7; P. 15; V. 1/5; D. 9/——1/18; A. 1/7; C. 17 4/4.

The pectorals taper to a point and are considerably longer than the ventrals, or than the rays of any of the other fins. The ventrals are attached a little farther back than the pectorals, their upper ray being opposite to the under one of the latter, or nearly under the fourth

[page] 67

dorsal spine. The ventral rays are robust: the first is bony, and is about two-thirds of the height of the second, which is the longest, and, like the remainder, repeatedly divided towards the tip. The first dorsal commences about a spine's breadth posterior to the tip of the gill-cover, and nearly as much anterior to the pectorals: its rays are very stout, compressed, acute spines; they gradually diminish in height from the fourth or longest to the ninth, which is about one-third as high, but almost equally robust: the fifth equals the second, and the first is very short, obtuse, involved in membrane, and closely applied to the base of the second. The membrane is scolloped between the rays, and is attached to the first ray of the second dorsal for about one-third of its height, the two fins not being distinct but merely separated by a notch. The second dorsal is higher than the first: it contains nineteen rays, the first of which is spinous, and is rather more than half the height of the succeeding soft rays, but equals the seventh spine of the first dorsal; the soft rays are forked at the tips. A low process of membrane is prolonged for about two inches beyond the last ray of the second dorsal, in which there are imbedded eleven obtuse cartilages, or rudimentary rays, which increase in length as they are more posterior, from one line to three and a half: they have twelve interspinous bones*. The base of the dorsal fins is covered with small scales which gradually encroach on the rays as they are more posterior: the two or three first rays of the first dorsal are visible their whole length; but the ninth, and all the rays of the second dorsal, are more than one-third imbedded in the scales; the prolonged membrane of the latter is scaleless. The anal is supported by a very robust, tapering, bony ray, deeply grooved behind: there is no short spine anterior to it: the first soft ray is about one-third longer, the remainder decrease gradually in length, the last one being shorter than the bony ray. All the soft rays are repeatedly divided at their summits. The caudal terminates evenly, its corners being slightly rounded off: its rays begin to divide below the middle into five or six branches.

COLOUR.—Top of the head and the back greenish-grey, with darker bands descending a short way from the latter: sides ash-grey with silvery tips to the scales: belly cream-yellow.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from snout to end of caudal fin 23 0
Length from snout origin of ditto 19 0
Length from snout end of memb. of 2nd dorsal 17 9
Length from snout end of anal 14 6
Length from snout beginning of ditto 12 10
Length from snout anus 12 0
Length from snout first ray of 2nd dorsal 10 6
Length from snout first ray of 1st dorsal 8 0
Length from snout tip of gill-cover 5 10
Length from snout orbit 1 8
Length of axis of orbit 1 0
Length of lower jaw 2
Length of pectorals 4 5
Length of ventrals 3 3
Length of insertion of 1st dorsal 4 4
Length of insertion of 2nd dorsal 8 8
Length of naked space between do. and caudal 1 6
Length of naked space between anal and caudal 4 4
Length of longest spine of 1st dorsal 2 0
Length of longest ray of 2nd dorsal 3 2
Length of longest ray of anal 3 3
Length of central caudal rays 4 0
Length of exterior ditto 4 0
Breadth of caudal at its base 2 4
Breadth of caudal at its extremity 5 6
Depth of body at the ventrals 8 0

* I detected the rudimentary rays by softening the membrane and dissecting it after the specimen was returned to me by Baron Cuvier.

K 2

[page] 68

[35.] 2. SCIÆNA (CORVINA) OSCULA. (Le Sueur.) Le Sueur's Corvina.

Sciæna oscula, LE SUEUR. Jour. Ac. Sc. Phil., ii., p. 252. An. 1822. Pl.

Le Corb de Le Sueur (Corvina oscula). CUV. et VAL., V., p. 98.

This fish inhabits Lake Erie*, where the specimens taken by M. Le Sueur had their stomachs filled with fragments of river shells of the genera Cyclas, Paludina, &c. This fresh-water species resembles the Corvina nigra of the Mediterranean in its form, though its nape swells out still more.

Its usual size is about seventeen inches in length, by nearly five in height. There are five pores on the lower jaw, and its pharyngeal teeth are large, round, and flat (en gros pavés ronds), serving to bruise the shell-fish on which it feeds. The stomach is a large, round, blind sac, and there are seven thick cæca at the pylorus. The intestine is almost as wide as the stomach, but its coats are very thin. The air-bladder is very large, without appendages, and is covered with nacre. M. Le Sueur describes the colours of some specimens which he found on the beach, where they had been left by the fishermen, as "bluish-grey on the head and caudal-fin, drawing upon black on the snout and above the eyes, more grey towards the back and above the pectorals: all the other fins are of a lighter grey: there were some red tints on the cheeks, and a yellowish reflection on the sides of the back, tail, and opercula; the abdomen beneath the throat was white." (LE SUEUR, l. c.)

[36.] 1. SCIÆNA (OTOLITHUS) REGALIS. (Cuvier.) The Squeteague.

FAMILY, Sciænoideæ. GENUS, Sciæna. Sub-genus, Otolithus. CUV. Règ. An.

Seuteeg, or Weak-fish. SCHOĒPF, Berschr. einiger Nord, &c., viii., p. 169. An. 1778.

Johnius regalis, SCHNEIDER, Syst. Ichth. Blochii, p. 75. An. 1801.

Labrus squeteague (Weak-fish), MITCHILL, New York Tr., i., p. 396, pl. 2, f. 6. An. 1815.

L'Otolithe royal (Ōtolithus regalis). CUV. et VAL., v., p. 67. An. 1830.

Squeteague. NARRAGANSET INDIANS. Checouts. MOHEGANS.

The Otolithi are distinguished from all † the other Sciænoideæ by the presence of a tooth on each intermaxillary bone much longer and stronger than the others,

* Cuvier says Lake Ontario, but M. Le Sueur, in the paper above cited, says Lake Erie, which is material, as it cannot ascend thither from the sea, though it may into Lake Ontario.

Ancylodon jaculidens is considered, by Cuvier, as being really an Otolithus with a pointed tail, but differing from the others in the shortness of its snout, and the extreme length of some of its teeth. A. parvipinnis resembles the Otolithi also, but differs from them, and also from A. jaculidens, not only in the dorsals being very small, but also in their being perfectly separated from each other.

[page] 69

and therefore termed a canine. They resemble the maigres in their structure, and especially in the smallness of the anal spine; and have, like that sub-genus, the exterior characters of the Sciænæ in general, the bulging head, the cavernous cranial bones, and the long second dorsal. The pores on the lower jaw either do not exist, or they are so small as to be imperceptible. The air-bladders of those which have been examined possess two pointed horn-like arms, originating laterally and running forwards. The Otolithi inhabit the Indian Ocean and Atlantic coasts of America, one species existing however in the sea of Goree, and another at the Cape of Good Hope. The Indian ones have canines on both jaws, the American species have only the upper canines, and it often happens that one of these is broken, or, from some cause, does not grow. The two African species have smaller-sized canines, and in one, O. æquidens, they are so little remarkable that the genus might readily be mistaken.

Dr. Mitchill informs us that the Squeteague "is a fish of a goodly appearance, wholesome and well-tasted, though rather soft. He is taken both by the line and seine, and is brought to the New York market in great numbers during the summer months. He is called weak-fish, as some say, because he does not pull very hard after he is hooked; or, as others allege, because labouring men, who are fed upon him, are weak by reason of the deficient nourishment in that kind of food. Certain peculiar noises under water, of a low rumbling or drumming kind, are ascribed, by the fishermen, to the Squeteague. Whether the sounds come from these fishes or not, it is certain, that during their season, only, they may be heard from the bottom of the water, in places frequented by the weak-fish and not elsewhere. The swimming-bladder is convertible into good glue. I have eaten as fine blancmange made from it as from the isinglass of the sturgeon." From the same author we learn, that this fish keeps within the limits of the salt water, never going into fresh streams or ponds. It is known along the whole coast of the United States from Rhode Island to New Orleans, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith has taken it in the Baie des Chaleurs, near the mouth of the St. Lawrence.

"Its size is commonly from a foot to fifteen inches, but it often grows larger. One, twenty-seven inches in length by seven in depth, weighed heavier than six pounds. The head and back are brown, with frequently a tinge of greenish; faintly silvery with dusky specks above the lateral line, which gradually disappear on the sides, until on descending to the belly, a clear white prevails from the chin to the tail. The eyes are large and pale yellow. (MITCHILL, l. c.) There are two strong canine teeth in the upper jaw, one of which is often broken, the rest of that mandible is armed with a single row of teeth, which are very small but distinct and pointed. The under jaw is also furnished with a row of small teeth which is

[page] 70

doubled anteriorly. The two dorsals are well separated, and the second, as well as the caudal and anal, is in a great part covered with small scales. The lateral line is straight, and is continued to the extremity of the caudal, which is slightly notched. There are four cæcal appendages to the pylorus, which is very near the cardiac orifice of the stomach. The coats of the air-bladder are very thick, soft, and nacry.

FINS.—D. 9/—1/29; A. 1/13; C. 17; P. 16; V. 1/5. (Hist. des Poiss.*)

* Mr. Drummond sent me an Otolithus from New Orleans (O. Drummondii nob.), which appears to be quite distinct from regalis and Carolinensis, the only two species that are mentioned in the Histoire des Poissons as frequenting the coasts of the United States. It is more slender than regalis, and considerably more so than Carolinensis, the height of the body being little more than a sixth of the total length, excluding the caudal. In the length of the head, which is exactly one-fourth of the whole length, including the caudal, it resembles Carolinensis and surpasses regalis. It differs from the latter in having two distinct rows of small pointed teeth round the upper jaw, the outer row being more widely set. There is only one canine tooth in our specimen, moderately long, slender, and very acute, but rendered very conspicuous by its whiteness. Two very acute flat points, divided by a deep angular notch, show through the integuments of the operculum. The caudal is rounded at the end, and the lateral line runs to the tip of the central rays. There are about sixty-six scales on the lateral line, exclusive of the minute ones, which extend pretty far over the caudal: there are scarcely any scales perceptible on the second dorsal and anal. The spine of the latter is small; being slender and not above one-third of the height of the soft ray which succeeds it. There are many small roundish blackish-brown spots on the back above the lateral line, and on the second dorsal and caudal fins. The back appears to have been dark and the sides and belly silvery. The labials and sub-orbitar bones have much nacry lustre. The total length of the specimen is eleven inches and a half, of which the caudal fin occupies one inch and a half. The last ray of the ventral is divided into four branches to the base.

FINS.—D. 9/—1/25; A. 1/8; P. 16; V. 1/5; C. 17 4/4;.

SPAROIDEÆ

GENERA. Mediterranean. European Atlantic. African Atlantic. Cape of Good Hope to Madagascar. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. North American Atlantic. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia. South Australian and New Zealand Seas. Sea of Japan. Totals of Species.
I. Sargus 4 1 2 6 2 14
Charax 1 1
Chrysophrys 2 1 1 4 1 11 2 20
Pagrus 4 1 1 1 3 3 12
Pagellus 6 3 1 1 2 12
II. Dentex 3 1 2 1 16 2 24
Pentapus 3 2 5
Lethrinus 1 1 40 1 42
III. Cantharus 3 2 1 2 5 12
IV. Box, or Boops 2 2 3 1 4
Oblata 1 1 2
Seatharus 1 1
Creuidens 1 1
27 10 11 10 9 4 80 6 5 150

[page] 71

THIS family is characterised by the oval form of the body, a spiny, undivided, scaleless dorsal, jaws not protractile, a toothless palate, unarmed opercular pieces, gill-rays not exceeding six, and few cœca. It is distinguished from the Sciænoideæ by the unarmed gill-covers and the form of the cranium, which is not cavernous and does not bulge out: from the Chætodontoideæ by the vertical fins not being enveloped in scales; and from the Scomberoideæ by the largeness of the scales on the body. The dentition supplies characters for the division of the family into four tribes, or genera as they are reckoned in the Règne Animal. The first (Sparus) has the sides of the jaws armed with molars, or round teeth like paving stones. The anterior teeth may be either cutting, or conical, or like the pile of velvet, and the molars may be in many rows, or in two, or in a single row, and very small—the sub-genera being characterised by the combination of these various kinds of dentition. The second tribe, or genus (Dentex), has conical teeth, even on the sides of the jaws, several (two, four, or more) of the anterior ones being longer and more or less hooked, resembling canines. There are also generally narrow strips of card-like, or velvet-like teeth, behind the others. The third tribe (Cantharus) has the teeth in form of velvet pile only, or in card-like plates. Lastly, the fourth (Boops and Oblata) has the edges of the jaws armed with cutting teeth in a single row, either with or without velvet-like plates behind, or small tubercular teeth, but never accompanied by rounded molars.

The Sparoideæ belong more to the European and Indian or South seas, than to the American side of the Atlantic. Four species, viz., Sargus ovis, S. rhomboidalis, Chrysophrys aculeata, and Pagrus argyrops, frequent the coasts of the United States as high as New York; and some of these, it is probable, may range as far north as the British possessions, but we have no evidence of such being the fact. Some of the trivial names by which these fish are known in the United States, such as "Sheepshead," or "Tête de mouton," are used in the Canadas to designate fish of other families. No one Sparoid species is known to exist on both sides of the Atlantic.

[page] 72

MÆNOIDEÆ.

THIS small family has many characters in common with the Sparoideæ, from which, however, it is at once distinguished by the very protractile mouth, and, in some instances, by the presence of teeth on the vomer, or denticulations on the preoperculum. The Mænoideæ have scaly bodies, thoracic ventrals, a single dorsal, clothed with very small scales, from four to seven cæca, and a large air-bladder, which is often forked at its posterior extremity. The mouth, when protuded, forms a tube, whose rounded orifice faces downwards in some genera, and directly forwards in others*. The teeth are en velours on the jaws with, in some cases, two or four small canines: the Mænæ have in addition small teeth on the vomer, but in the other genera the roof of the mouth is smooth.

Gerres aprion, a species belonging to the Caribbean Sea, ranges as far north as the Carolinas, but none of the family have been taken in a higher latitude. Mr. Couch states, in a memoir published in the Linnæan Transactions, that the Gerres rhombeus, a West-Indian species, follows drift-timber to the coast of Cornwall; but in Mr. Yarrell's beautiful and able illustrations of British Ichthyology, the fish that Mr. Couch speaks of is described as a new species of Serranus (S. Couchii).

GENERA. Mediterranean. European Atlantic. African Atlantic. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. North American Atlantic. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia. South Australian and New Zealand Seas. Sea of Peru and Mexican Pacific. Totals of Species.
4 4
Smaris 5 2 1 1 1 10
Cæsio 10 10
Gerres 1 5 1 8 1 3 18
9 2 2 6 1 19 1 3 42
Aphareus 2 2

* The genus zeus, and particularly its sub-genus equula, among the Scomberoideæ, and epibulus among the Labroideæ, as well as some others, have similarly protractile mouths.

[page] 73

CHÆTODONTOIDEÆ.—SQUAMMIPENNÆ.

THE fish composing this family are recognisable, at first sight, by the articulated, and often the spinous portions of their dorsal and anal fins being thickly enveloped in scales, and uniting so gradually with the compressed body that the line of junction becomes almost imperceptible*. Their intestines are pretty long and the cæea numerous. They are divided into three tribes. In the first, comprising the Chætodontes of Linnæus, the long, slender, flexible teeth are disposed in several crowded rows on the jaws, like the hairs of a brush; the mouth is small; the palate and tongue are toothless; the gilf-opening moderately cleft; and its membrane supported by six rays only. This tribe forms a very natural group of fish, many of which exhibit the most varied and brilliant colours, being, in this respect, not in the least inferior to the most gay and shining of the feathered tribes. The presence or absence of a preopercular spine; the form of the dorsal, whether entire, notched, or double, the extent to which it is scaly, and the elongation of its spines by filaments; the number of anal spines; the form of the body; the size of its scales; the form of the muzzle; protuberances on the head, and some other varieties of structure, furnish characters by which the genera that enter into this tribe are distinguished from each other. The genus Platax has a row of cutting teeth exterior to the bristle-like ones, Psettus has teeth like the pile of shorn velvet, and both these genera have the toothless palate of the rest of the tribe. The second tribe contains two genera with cutting teeth in the jaws, viz., Pimilepterus, which has the incisors in a single row, with cutting edges rising vertically from horizontal bases that project backwards and fix them to the jaw: a stripe of velvet-like teeth behind, and also some asperities on the vomer and palate; and Dipterodon, of which the only one species that is known has teeth like those of the Sparoid genus Sargus: its vomer and palate are smooth. The third tribe is characterised by the presence of vomerine and palatine teeth, and by teeth in shorn velvet, or cardlike bands on the jaws. Scorpis, enumerated in this tribe by Cuvier, has a row of strong, cylindrical teeth exterior to those in a velvet-like stripe, and is, in many characters, similar to Platax, from which it is separated by the presence of palatine teeth.

* Some of the Sciænoideæ, the Nebres, Lepipteri, and Equites, for instance, have fins much like those of the Chætodontoideæ, but they have not fine, flexible, bristle-like teeth, and in general they have a protuberant snout and cavernous cranium. The Hœmulona have also scaly fins, but they are not so thick at the base as to look like a part of the body, so that the general aspect of the fish is very different.

L

[page] 74

The Chætodontoideæ belong chiefly to the Indian and South seas: the Brama Raii, which abounds in the Mediterranean, and ranges on the Atlantic coast as far north as Denmark, is the only European fish of the family; comparatively few exist in the Caribbean Sea, and only four species range northward to the coasts of the United States; Ephippus faber and gigas are found as high as New York, and Holocanthus ciliaris and Pimilepterus Boscii have been taken on the Carolina shores. None are recorded as visiting British America.

GENERA. Mediterranean. European Atlantic. African Atlantic. Cape of Good Hope west side of Madagascar. North American Atlantic. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia. South Australia and New Zealand. Sea of Japan. Pacific coasts of Mexico. Totals of Species.
I. Chætodon 3 56 2 61
Chelmon 2 2
Heniochus 4 4
Zanclus 2 2
Ephippus 1 2 2 1 4
Drepane 2 2
Scatophagus 3 3
Taurichthys 2 2
Holocanthus 1 1 2 19 22
Pomacentrus 6 6
Platax 1 12 13
Psettus 1 2 3
II. Pimilepterus 1 1 2 6 10
Dipterodon 1 1
III. Brama 1 1 2 3
Scorpis 1 1
Pempheris 7 1 8
Toxotes 1 1
1 1 2 3 4 16 121 1 2 1 148

[page] 75

ANABASIDEÆ.—PHARYNGIENS LABYRINTHIFORMES.

THIS very remarkable, though small family, offers a curious peculiarity in the structure of the superior pharyngeal bones, which are partly divided into lamina that intercept cells of various forms, capable of containing a certain quantity of water. This apparatus, situated under the cranium, and secluded from the external air by swelling gill-covers which press firmly against the body, furnishes the means of moistening the gills when the fish leaves the water. In fact, fish of this family have the singular habit of occasionally travelling some distance through the grass, and it is said, even of ascending palm-trees, for the purpose of entering the pools of water that collect in their cabbage-like tufts of leaves after a shower.

The genera are distinguished from each other by the form of the ventrals, or of some of the other fins; the presence or absence of denticulations on the sub-orbitar bones and opercular pieces; the form of the mouth; and insertion of the teeth. Almost all the species, forty in number, are found in fresh waters, and they are all Asiatic, with the exception of Spirobranchus, which exists in the rivers of the Cape of Good Hope, and differs from the rest in possessing palatine teeth. The genera are,

Anabas 1
Helostoma 1
Polyacanthus 3
Colisa 9
Macropodus 2
Osphromenus 3
Trichopus 1
Spirobranchus 1
Ophiocephalus 19

L 2

[page] 76

SCOMBEROIDEÆ.

THERE are few characters that are common to all the fish of this extensive family; but as even the most discordant of its members are connected by a continuous series of intermediate forms, it is impossible to separate them, and there is, indeed, a certain family likeness which extends to all, arising principally from the smallness and thinness of the scales, and the peculiarly soft, smooth aspect of the integuments; the vertical fins are not scaly; the opercular bones are destitute of spines or denticulations; and the pyloric cæca are numerous and often clustered. Most of the Scomberoideæ have the sides of the tail simply keeled, or with the keels covered by scale-like plates which are themselves keeled: many have the last rays of the second dorsal and anal fins detached, forming spurious finlets, as they are termed; others have the spinous rays of the first dorsal destitute of connecting membrane, and capable of moving separately; very generally the caudal is remarkably large and powerful, and the tail tapers greatly and is very muscular; and in the greater part the spinous rays of the anal form a small fin distinct from the soft portion. These characters are not all to be found in any one fish or group, but their various combinations and modifications furnish the means of dividing the family into several tribes, which are capable of being more exactly defined than the family itself.

In the first tribe, of which the common mackerel is a typical species, the first dorsal is continuous; but both that fin and the anal are succeeded by spurious finlets, and the tail, though keeled, is unarmed: the body is fusiform, and the vigorous caudal fin gives great natatory power. Lepidopus and Trichiurus are considered as supplementary to this group*, though they want not only the spurious finlets, but even all the soft rays of the dorsal: in other respects they closely resemble Thyrsites and Gempylus, which are legitimate members of the tribe.

In the Histoire des Poissons, the small tribe of "Espadons" (Xiphidæ) follows next. It is characterised by the elongated form of the snout, resembling the flat blade of a sword, a javelin, or spit. The fish composing it are like the Tunnies in the minuteness of their scales, the keeled tail, the very powerful caudal fin, and in their interior organization. They have a continuous dorsal, the keels of the

* They are so placed in the Histoire des Poissons, but in the Règne Animal they form the first tribe of the Tænioideæ, or Poissons en ruban.

[page] 77

tail destitute of scaly plates, teeth like the pile of shorn velvet, and a peculiar structure of the gills.

The second grand tribe has the spinous rays of the dorsal standing solitarily without a connecting membrane, so that they can move separately. Chorinemus has, in addition to these, spurious finlets behind the dorsal and anal, as in the first tribe. Rynchobdella and Mastacembelus want the ventrals, and Notacanthus has the anal united to the caudal, and all the rays of the dorsal detached from each other.

The third tribe has the lateral line armed in part, or for its whole length, but chiefly on the sides of the tail, by keeled or hooked shields, or strong scales. This character, in passing through a succession of genera, becomes gradually less marked, until the armour is reduced to scales so small, that they are remarkable merely when viewed in comparison with the more minute scales of the body. The extensive genus Caranx exhibits this kind of armour in the greatest perfection; while Vomer may be considered as the type of that section in which it becomes less and less conspicuous.

The fourth tribe is not so easily defined as the preceding ones, for though the genera composing it form, by easy transitions, a natural series, there are few positive characters common to them all; so that recourse must be had to negative ones for the limitation of the group, such as the want of spurious finlets, or free spines, on the back, and of keeled scales on the sides of the tail. The genera Seriola and Temnodon of this tribe have much affinity with Lichia of the second tribe; while Stromateus has the exterior form of many of the Chætodontoideæ. Coryphæna seems to differ widely from both in the compression and vertical height of the head; but Lampugus and Centrolophus are links which connect it on one side to Lichia, and on the other to Stromateus.

The habits of the Scomberoideæ are quite in accordance with their great powers of natation: we find among them many fish that pass their lives remote from the land in the middle districts of the ocean, and the family may be termed pelagic, with as much propriety as some of the preceding ones have been named after the countries where they most abound. The Bonitos and Dolphins, or Coryphænæ especially, roam about within the Tropics, pursuing shoals of various kinds of flying fish. Several of the Scomberoideæ (Coryphæna equisetis, C. dolfyn, C. azorica, Lampugus punctulatus, Centrolophus crassus) have been taken in the middle longitudes only of the Atlantic, so that they cannot be said to belong to one continent more than another; and there is a greater number of species that cross the Atlantic belonging to this family than to any preceding one. Among these

[page] 78

are, Scomber grex, Pelamys sarda, Trichiurus lepturus, Elecate Atlantica, Lichia glaucus, Caranx carangus, and Nomeus Mauritii. Several not only traverse the Atlantic from side to side, but also range through other seas: thus Thynnus pelamys and Seriola cosmopolita are known on both sides of the Atlantic and in the Indian Ocean. Auxis vulgaris, which is common to the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas, also extends to the Indian Archipelago, if the Taso of New Guinea be the same species. Vomer Brownii visits both sides of the Atlantic, and also the sea of Peru. Many of the species mentioned above as traversing the Atlantic, exist also in the Mediterranean; and there are several others which have an extensive range in the latter sea, and through the whole eastern side of the Atlantic, though they do not cross to America, such as Scomber scombrus, Lepidopus argyreus, Xiphias gladius, and Naucrates ductor*. Trachurus saurel exists in the Mediterranean, and on the east side of the Atlantic, from the English Channel to the Cape of Good Hope: it is also found in the Indian Ocean, and in all parts of the Pacific, but not on the American side of the Atlantic. Pelamys Chilensis has been taken on both sides of the Pacific, namely, at Japan and Valparaiso. The genera peculiar to a single district of the ocean may be known by a reference to the subjoined table. They are fewer in proportion than in the preceding families, and mostly contain only a single species. There are very few fresh-water or river-fish in the family. Rhynchobdella and Mastacembelus inhahit the rivers and ponds of India, one species of the latter existing in a river near Aleppo. Notacanthus is supposed to inhabit the rivers of Greenland.

* Xiphias gladius is enumerated by Dr. Smith in his list of the fish of Massachusetts, but as he has included several other European species in his list, on very insufficient grounds, further evidence is required of its being an American fish.

[page] 79

GENERA. Mediterranean Sea. European Atlantic, Azores, & Madeira. African Atlantic. Cape of Good Hope to Madagascar. Greenland Rivers or Seas. North American Atlantic. Caribbean Sea and South American Atlantic. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesia. Sea of Japan. Seas of Chili and Peru. South Australia and New Zealand. Totals of Species.
I. Scomber 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 11
Thynnus 4 2 3 4 5 13
Auxis 1 2 1 2
Pelamys 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Cybium. 1 1 5 6 1 1 14
Thyrsites 1 1 1 1 1 5
Gempylus 2 1 1 1 5
Lepidopus 1 1 1 l
Trichiurus 1 1 1 3 1 5
Xiphias. 1 1 1 1 1
Le Makaira 1 1
Tetrapturus 1 1 2
Histiophorus 2 2 2 4
II. Naucrates 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Elecate 1 1 4 5
Lichia 3 3 1 1 4
Chorinemus 5 12 17
Trachinotus 4 1 3 8 10 1 23
Apolectus 1 1
Rhynchobdella 1 1
Mastacembelus 1 7 8
Notacanthus 1 1
III. Trachurus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Caranx 4 8 2 11 43 4 67
Olistes 3 3
Scyris 1 1 1 2
Blepharis 2 1 3
Gallichthys 1 2 3
Argyreyosus 1 1 1
Vomer 1 1 1 1 1
Hynnis 1 1
IV. Seriola 2 2 1 5 4 4 14
Temnodon 1 1 1 1 4
Lactarius 1 1
Nomeus 1 1 1 2
Nauclerus 4 2 2 6
Porthmeus 1 1 1
Psenes 5 1 5
Coryphæna 1 1 3 1 6 4 13
Lampugus 3 2 2 1 8
Centrolophus 3 2 5
Astrodermus 1 1
Pteraclis 1 2 3
Stromateus 1 8 1 10
Rhombus 2 3 5
Luvarus 1 1
Seserinus 1 1
Kurtus 2 2
Totals 38 11 44 12 1 23 66 139 6 6 10 292

[page] 80

[36.] 1. SCOMBER GREX ET VERNALIS. (Mitchill.) Chub and Spring Mackerel.

FAMILY, Scomberoideæ. GENUS, Scomber. CUVIER.

Thimble-eyed, Bull-eyed, or Chub Mackerel (Scomber grex), MITCHILL, New York Tr., i., p. 422.

Spring Mackerel (Scomber vernalis). IDEM, p. 423.

Le petit Maquereau de l'Atlantique (S. grex). CUV. et VAL., viii., p. 45.

Le Maquereau printannier (S. vernalis). IDEM, p. 48.

The well-known Scomber scombrus, or Common Mackerel, is the type of the first tribe of Scomberoideæ, which is characterized by spurious finlets situated behind a continuous dorsal, a fusiform body, a compact, very taper, keeled but unarmed tail, and a large and powerful caudal fin. The tribe comprises the best-known fish of the family, and those which are most useful to man, viz., the Scombri, Thynni, and Orcyni, that traverse the seas in immense shoals, and form the object of vast and expensive fisheries. The Common Mackerel ranges on the European side of the Atlantic, from Iceland to the Canaries, and penetrates into the Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black seas, but not into the sea of Azof. It wants the air-bladder, but there are two Mediterranean species, S. pneumatophorus and colias, which possess that viscus, although they are extremely similar to the scombrus in external form. Two American mackerel, named S. grex and vernalis by Dr. Mitchill, also provided with an air-bladder, have precisely the exterior form and number of parts* of pneumatophorus, and even their skeletons exhibit no sensible variations, though there are some differences in the viscera, the stomach of the American fish being shorter, and the length and number of the pyloric cæca greater. The only differences between S. grex and vernalis seem to be in their size and colour, and they are very probably different ages of the same species. S. grex frequents the whole of the Atlantic coast of the United States, the Bermudas, the West Indies, the coast of Brazil, and the Cape of Good Hope. It is highly probable that it also ranges to British North America, for mackerel exist on the coasts of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and La Hontan enumerates "maquereaux comme en Europe" among the fish taken in the estuary of the St. Lawrence. I have not been able to discover if there be mackerel on the Labrador coast, and have never heard of any having been seen in Hudson's Bay.

* In Pneumatophorus, FINS.—Br. 7; D. 10/——1/11—5 finlets; A. 1/11—5 finlets; C. 17; P. 19; V. 1/5.

[page] 81

Dr. Mitchill describes S. grex as about ten inches long, having the back marked with meandering lines of pale and dark green, the green becoming lighter and less mottled towards the lateral line: the rest of the surface exhibits changeable tints like a pigeon's neck, or variegated copper ore. This species occasionally visits the coast of New York in the autumn, as was memorably the case in 1781 and 1813, when the bays, creeks, and coves were literally alive with them, and the markets overloaded.

The same author says, the S. vernalis is a very elegant fish, sixteen or seventeen inches long and three deep. Its back is marked transversely by deep-blue curved parallel bands reaching below the lateral line. The intervening spaces are of a paler blue and reddish brown. The head is bluish with dark spots and shades of green intermixed. The belly is silvery-white and iridescent, and all the hues are beautifully changeable. This fish is caught off the New Jersey capes with the hook, and is brought abundantly to the New York market.

Pelamys sarda and Cybium maculatum, also belonging to the first tribe of Scomberoideæ, frequent the coasts of the United States as high as Massachusetts*, but we have no account of their ranging northwards to the British possessions on that side of the Atlantic. Pennant gives Xiphias gladius a place among the American fish, in his Arctic Zoology, for no better reason than because it exists in most other seas; and Cuvier, though he has traced it from the Baltic through the North Sea, and the whole European and African Atlantic, and also in the Mediterranean, never saw an American specimen.

Of the second tribe of this family, Naucrates Noveboracensis, as the name implies, has been taken on the New York coast. It is most probably, according to the Histoire des Poissons, the same species with the N. ductor of the Mediterranean and the Tropical Atlantic. Gasterosteus Canadus of Linnæus, which Cuvier refers to his Elecate Atlantica† (a South American fish that is supposed to range to the Guinea coast), was sent to Linnæus from Carolina, and not from Canada, as its appellation would lead us to suppose. It exists, however, as far north as New York, having been described and figured under the name of Centronotus spinosus, or Crab-eater, by Dr. Mitchill, in the New York Transactions (i., p. 149, pl. 3, f. 9). Three species of Trachinotus are also found on the coasts of the United States, viz., T. fuscus, argenteus, and pampanus, which also range southwards to the Caribbean Sea and Sea of Brazil.

* Lieutenant-Colonel II. Smith informs me that Tunnies, most probably belonging to the first of these species, are taken off Cape Cod, and the latter of the two is enumerated among the fish of Massachusetts, by Dr. J. V. C. Smith. Cuvier received specimens of both from New York.

Elecate Americana. Règ. An., ii., p. 203.

M

[page] 82

[38.] 1. NOTACANTHUS NASUS. (Cuvier.) Beaked Notacanth.

FAMILY, Scomberoideæ, CUVIER. GENUS, Notacanthus (Acanthonotus), BLOCH. Acanthonotus nasus. BLOCH, t. 431. SCHNEIDER, Bloch, p. 390.

Le Notacanthe nez (Notacanthusnasus). CUV. et VAL., viii., p. 467.

The genera Rhynchobdella and Mastacembelus, are arranged in the Histoire des Poissons as an appendix to the second tribe of Scomberoideæ, to which they bear nearly the same relation that the Xiphidæ do to the first tribe, by the want of ventrals; and they also, by a singular coincidence, show an analogy to the Xiphidæ, in possessing a somewhat prominent snout. Notacanthus resembles these genera in having a series of free spines, unconnected by membrane, in place of a dorsal fin, free spines before the anal, which is long and joins the caudal, small oval scales, and a prominent snout; but it differs from them in having ventrals, and from the rest of the Scomberoideæ in these fins being attached to the abdomen far behind the pectorals. It has also some other extraordinary characters.

Its form is riband-like, being greatly elongated and compressed. The anus is about one-seventh of the total length, nearer to the snout than to the tip of the caudal. There are about eighty rows of scales in a longitudinal line.

FINS.—Br. 8; D. 10/0; A. 13/116; C. 8; P. 17; V. 1/8. (Hist. des Poiss.)

8; 10/10; A. & C. 13/149; 16; 2/10. (Schneider.)

There are about thirty cylindrical, slightly-flattened teeth crowded into a single row on each side of the upper jaw, and more slender, pointed, and slightly curved ones in the lower jaw, disposed in three or four rows anteriorly, and in one on the sides.

(Hist. des Poiss.)

This fish was supposed by Bloch to be an inhabitant of the Indian Ocean; but it is, in fact, the native of a widely-distant country. Fabricius received a specimen from Greenland, and described it under the generic appellation of Campylodon. It was found in the winter time, lying dead near a hole in the ice, on one of the rivers of that country, but it was not known whether it had come out of the water by itself, or had been taken and abandoned there by a fisherman.

Four of the third tribe of Scomberoideæ, or those which have the sides of the tail and part, or the whole, of the rest of the lateral line armed with scaly plates, are known to frequent the coasts of the United States; viz., Caranx punctatus, C. chrysos, Argyreyosus vomer, and Vomer Brownii, but the limit of their range northwards is not ascertained Zeus gallus, L., is mentioned by Fabricius in the

[page] 83

Fauna of Greenland; but, in the first place, it cannot now be determined what the species was to which Linnæus gave that appellation, as in his list of Synonyma he has referred to fish of different genera*, and from various seas. In the second place, Fabricius did not see the fish himself, but merely learned from the Greenlanders, who called it "Kolliooseuternak," that it was extremely rare, and was furnished with four very long threads or tendrils, two of them placed forwards, and two behind. Cuvier thinks that it may have been the Lampris guttatus, which forms the subject of the next article.

The following fish of the fourth tribe of Scomberoideæ frequent the Atlantic coasts of the United States:—Seriola Boscii, fasciata, leiarchus, zonatus, and cosmopolita, Temnodon saltator, Coryphæna Sueurii, Pteraclis Carolinus, and Rhombus longipinnus and cryptosus.

[39.] 1. ZEUS (LAMPRIS) GUTTATUS. (Retzius.) The Opah.

FAMILY, Scomberoideæ, CUVIER. GENUS, Zeus, LINN. Sub-genus, Lampris, RETZIUS.

Piscis maculis aureis aspersus, non scriptus. SIBBALD, Scotia Ill., t. vi., f. 3. An. 1683.

A curious fish, &c. BIGLAND and MORTIMER. Phil. Tr., xlvi., p. 518. An. 1750.

Opah doree. PENN. Br. Zool., iii., p. 299, t. 46.

Zeus opah. IDEM, Arct. Zool. suppl., p. 419, No. 102. An. 1785.

"Zeus guttatus. BRUNNICH in Nya Samling, iii., p. 398, t. A."

"Lampris guttatus. RETZIUS, Nya Handl., iii., p. 91. An. 1799." CUV. Règ. An., ii., p. 211.

Zeus luna. SCHNEIDER, Blochii syst., p. 96. An. 1801.

The Linnean genus Zeus, as restricted by Cuvier, comprehends fish which have a compressed body, a very protractile mouth, small scales, and few and feeble teeth. In the protrusive jaws it resembles the Mænoideæ, and differs from the Scomberoideæ, with which, indeed, it is not connected by many other external characters than the smallness of the scales. It is divisible into several sub-genera, as Zeus (Cuv.), in which the spines of the notched dorsal are accompanied by long strips of membrane, and there is a row of forked spines along the base of that fin and of the anal. The type of this sub-genus is the well-known "John Dory" (jaune dorèe), which has stood high in the estimation of English epicures, since the time that Quin made the discovery of its excellent flavour. A second subgenus, the Capros of Lacépède, contains only the Zeus aper of Linnæus, a Mediterranean fish. It has the notched dorsal of the dories, with still more protractile jaws, but wants the forked spines at the bases of the dorsal and anal: its whole body is covered with rough scales. The sub-genus Equula contains small fishes,

* Gallichthys, Argyrcyosus, Vomer, &c.

M 2

[page] 84

many of them inhabitants of the Indian Ocean. They have a single dorsal with many basal spines, the anterior ones sometimes very tall, a compressed body, a very protractile muzzle, and the rims of the back and belly denticulated. The genus Lampris of Retzius, or Chrysotosus of Lacépède, has also only a single dorsal, with one small spine at the base of its very high anterior rays. The ventrals have ten very long rays, and the lobes of the caudal are also greatly elongated, but all these prolonged fins wear down with age. The sides of the tail are keeled. The opah, the only known species, is an inhabitant of the North Sea. Sir George Mackenzie informs us, that it frequents the Iceland seas; and if Cuvier's conjecture, alluded to in a preceding page, be correct, it is an occasional visiter of the Greenland coast. Pennant states that it has been taken at Newfoundland; and Dr. J. V. C. Smith enumerates it among the fish of Massachusetts. It has been several times driven by storms upon the shores of Great Britain, and we have given several references to authors who have noticed it*. Their descriptions, however, differ in so many particulars, that it excites a doubt whether they had all the same species under examination. Sir Robert Sibbald's figure, which is the earliest, has the high commencement of the dorsal separated from the lower part of the fin by a small space; and Pennant's differs in several respects from that in Griffith's Cuvier. The colours also vary with the describer.

In the Règne Animal the body is said to be spotted with white, and the fins to be red. Sir Robert Sibbald calls the spots golden. Dr. Mortimer states the back to be dark blue or violet, and, as well as the bright green sides, to be dotted all over with oblong white spots; the jaws pale red; the nose, gills, and belly silvery; and all the fins bright scarlet. One caught in Torbay is described by Pennant's correspondent as being in general of a vivid transparent scarlet, varnished over with burnished gold, and bespangled with oval silver spots of various sizes. Mr. Harrison, of Newcastle, speaking of another which was cast upon the sands at Blyth, says "all the fins are of a fine scarlet, but the colours and beauty of the rest of the body, which is smooth and covered with almost imperceptible scales, beggars all description; the upper part being a bright green, variegated with whitish spots, and enriched with a shining golden hue, like the splendor of a peacock's feather; this by degrees vanishes in a bright silvery tint, and near the belly the gold again predominates in a lighter ground than on the back." (Br. Zool.) This fish attains a great size; the one mentioned above, as being taken in Torbay, was four feet and a half long, two feet and a quarter high, but only four inches thick: it weighed one hundred and forty pounds.

FINS.—Br. 6; P. 21; V. 18; A. 36; C. 19; D. 14/48. (Schneider.)

Br. 6; P. 16; V. 16; A. 36; C. 26; D. 56. (Retzius.)

* The following may be added from the Règne Animal. Zeus regius, BONNAT. Enc. Ichthyol., f. 155. Zeus imperialis, SHAW. Nat. Misc., No. 140. Z. luna, GMEL. Scomber pelagicus, GUNNER, Mem. de Dronth., iv., xii., I. Le Crysotose lune, LACEP., iv., ix., 3. Le Poisson de lune, DUHAMEL, Sect. iv., pl. vi, f. 5.

[page] 85

TÆNIOIDEÆ.

THE publication of the Histoire des Poissons having as yet advanced no farther than the Scomberoideæ, we are unable to continue the tables of the geographical distribution of the species; but taking the Règne Animal as our guide, we shall give brief notices of the characters of the few remaining families of Acanthopterygii. In the latter work the Poissons en ruban, or Tænioides, immediately succeed the Scomberoideæ, with which they are nearly connected; indeed, this affinity is considered to be so strong, that Lepidopus and Trichiurus, which form the first tribe of the Tænioideæ in the Règne Animal, are transferred to the Scomberoideæ in the Histoire des Poissons. Only four genera remain, and the species they contain have, as the family name denotes, a riband-like form, that is, a greatly elongated body with very flat sides: the scales are very small, the gill-rays are six in number, and the ventrals thoracic. Gymnetrus and Stylephorus form one tribe, characterised by a small and slightly-cleft mouth. They are distinguished from each other by the shape of the tail, which, in the former, terminates in a little hook, and in the latter is prolonged by a slender cord that exceeds the body in length. Gymnetrus is remarkable for the form of its fins, which are very long, and so fragile that they are perfect in young fish only. The anterior rays of the dorsal standing on the nape look like a tall plume; the caudal, which contains few but long rays, rises vertically from the extremity of the tail; the ventrals are also very long, but the anal is wanting: the mouth is very protractile, and is armed with a few small teeth; the lateral line gives origin to a series of small spines which are most prominent on the tail; the cæca are numerous, but there is no air-bladder. Four species of this very curious genus are indicated in the Règne Animal, one of them being common to the Mediterranean and North Sea, two proper to the latter, and two to the Indian Ocean. Stylephorus contains only one known species, which was taken in the Gulf of Mexico. It had no ventrals, and the caudal fin was shorter than in the preceding genus. Another tribe includes the two remaining genera, which have a short muzzle and an obliquely-cleft mouth. Cepola has but two or three non-articulated rays in the long dorsal, which are as flexible as the others; but the ventral spines are pungent. The anal is long like the dorsal, and extends to the base of the caudal there are six gill rays, conspicuous teeth, some cæca, and an air-bladder. One species is indicated as inha-

[page] 86

biting the Mediterranean, and another the sea of Japan. Lophotes contains only a single species, which inhabits the Mediterranean, but is very rarely caught. It has the top of the head elevated by a high bony crest, to which there is articulated a long and strong spine, having a membranous border; the dorsal, continued from this spine to the point of the tail, has short, simple rays, and there is a very small, distinct caudal: the ventrals are scarcely perceptible. The teeth are pointed and widely set.

SIGANOIDEÆ.—LES THEUTYES.

THIS family, which is peculiar to the warmer districts of the ocean, is as closely allied to the Scomberoideæ as the preceding one; but by other characters, such as the lateral armature of the tail in some genera, or the spine imbedded before the dorsal, in others. In all, the body is compressed, oblong, and surmounted by a single dorsal; the mouth is but slightly, or not at all, protractile; each jaw is armed with a single row of cutting teeth; the palate and tongue are toothless; and the gill-rays are four or five in number. The Siganoideæ live on fuci and other sea-weeds, and their intestines are capacious, in conformity with their herbivorous habits. The genera are few in number. The first, Siganus, is distinguished from every other genus of fish by the ventrals having an exterior and interior spine which enclose the soft rays between them. It has an unarmed tail, as has also the genus Priodon. Acanthurus has a moveable spine on each side of the tail, which is capable of making a wound like a surgeon's lancet, and some of the species have also a brush of coarse hairs on the forepart of the lateral line. Prionurus and Naseus have fixed cutting laminæ on the sides of the tail, and Axinurus has but one of these laminæ on each side; it also differs from the others in its teeth being very slender. Acanthurus hepatus is enumerated by Schœpf among the New York fish. There are some other species in the warmer parts of the Atlantic, but the greater part of the family inhabit the Indian and Pacific oceans. The Acanthurus triostegus, and four others of that genus, were seen at Otaheite by the naturalists of Captain Beechey's expedition.

[page] 87

MUGILOIDEÆ.

THE Linnean genus Mugil exhibits so many peculiarities of organization, that Cuvier thinks it ought to be considered as a distinct family. The fish composing it have a nearly cylindrical form, large scales, two distinct dorsals, of which the foremost contains only five spinous rays, and ventrals situated a little posterior to the pectorals. The gill-rays are only six in number, the head is slightly depressed, and is protected by large scales or polygonal plates, the snout is very short, and the orifice of the mouth is transverse, with a re-entering angle formed by a keel-like eminence of the lower jaw, fitted to a corresponding depression on the upper one. The teeth are extremely fine, and often nearly imperceptible, but the pharyngeal bones are much developed, and give to the entrance of the œsophagus the form of an angular slit, resembling the orifice of the mouth, through which liquids, or very attenuated food, alone can pass. The stomach is muscular like the gizzard of a fowl, the pyloric cæca are few in number, and the intestine is long and doubled upon itself. The Mullets are esteemed to be fish of an excellent flavour. They enter bays and the mouths of rivers in large shoals, and have the habit of leaping high out of the water. Six species are noticed in the Règne Animal, as inhabitants of the European seas: viz., M. auratus, saltator, and labeo, proper to the Mediterranean; M. capito and chelo, common to that sea and the North Atlantic; and M. cephalus, likewise found in the Mediterranean, but ranging through the African Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope, and existing also in the Red Sea, if it be the same species with the M. our of Forskal, as is most probably the case. Five or six species belong to America, which have been confounded by authors under the name of M. albula. One of them, M. lineatus, frequents the coasts of the United States, where it attains the weight of two pounds and a half. Many species exist in the Indian Ocean, and one was observed in the harbour of Mazatlan, South California, by the naturalists of Captain Beechey's expedition.

The TETRAGONURUS CUVIERI (Rossi), a fish inhabiting the greatest depths of the Mediterranean, is an isolated species, which appears to be the only indication of a peculiar family. It derives its name from two salient ridges on each side of the tail, and in its structure it partly resembles the Mugiloideæ, and partly the Scomberoideæ.

[page] 88

ATHERINA is also a genus which does not associate well with any other. It comprises small fish, whose young assemble in crowded shoals, and are greatly prized for their delicate flavour. They have an elongated body, two dorsals very widely separated, ventrals posterior to the pectorals, a very protractile mouth, which is armed with exceedingly slender teeth, six gill-rays and no cæca. All the known species have a broad silvery stripe on each flank. Four species, hitherto confounded under the name of A. hepsetus, exist in the European seas, and there are a considerable number in the Indian, Polynesian, Australian, and American seas. Dr. Mitchill enumerates three among the fish of New York, A. mordax, viridescens, and notata, the latter being the A. menidia of Linnæus. They are known by the names of "Silver sides," or "Silver fish."

GOBIOIDEÆ.

THE Gobioideæ may be recognised by the slenderness and flexibility of their dorsal rays. They have an uniformly wide intestinal canal, no pyloric cæca, and no airbladder*. The family is divided into the following genera:—Blennius, Anarrhichas, Gobius, Callionymus, and Platyptera.

[40.] 1. BLENNIUS (CLINUS) PUNCTATUS. (Fabr.) The Akooliakeetsok.

FAMILY, Gobioideæ. GENUS, Blennius. Sub-genus, Clinus, CUVIER.

Blennius punctatus. FABR. Fauna Grœnl., p. 153, N. 110.

Centronotus punctatus. SCHNEIDER, Bloch, p. 166.

Akooliakeetsok. GREENLANDERS.

The genus BLENNIUS has a well-marked character in its jugular ventrals, composed of two rays only. The body is elongated and compressed, the dorsal single, and its rays are almost all simple, though flexible. The skin is covered with mucus. Many of the species are viviparous, and both sexes are provided with a tubercle near the anus. The Blennies in general have the habit of swimming in

* Most of the Gobies have a simple air-bladder.

[page] 89

small parties among rocks near the shore, and of leaping about on the strand, being capable of existing for some time out of the water. They are in no repute as articles of food. Eight sub-genera are indicated in the Règne Animal. The first (Les Blennies proprement dits) is characterised by the single row of long, equal, crowded teeth in each jaw, terminated posteriorly, in some species, by a long curved tooth. The head is obtuse, the snout short, and the forehead vertical; the dorsal may be either two-lobed, or almost or altogether even. Most of the species have a barbel over each eye, often in form of a tufted fringe, and many have also a tuft on the temples. In others the superciliary tufts are scarcely perceptible, but the head is surmounted by a membranous crest which swells and reddens in the nuptial season. Others again (Pholis, Artedi) have neither crests nor superciliary tufts. Seven species belonging to this sub-genus are particularised in the Règne Animal as inhabitants of the European seas: one as belonging to the Indian Ocean, and another to the Sea of Brazil. There are doubtless many other foreign species, and several have been noticed by American naturalists, as inhabitants of the coasts of the United States*. None are mentioned by authors as frequenting the coasts of British America.

Myxodes and Salarias, the second and third sub-genera, differ from the preceding chiefly in the form of the head. The former comprises some non-descript species, and the latter fish of the Indian Ocean. The fourth sub-genus, Clinus, has several rows of short pointed teeth, the first row being the longest. In some species, which have tufts over the eyes, the foremost rays of the dorsal are separated by a notch from the rest of the fin, or the anterior bit of the fin may be altogether detached, so as to appear like a crest on the back of the head. In others, the dorsal is continuous and even. The species indicated in the Règne Animal inhabit the North Sea, the South Atlantic in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope, and the Sea of New Zealand. The "akoolia-keetsok" of the Greenlanders belongs to this sub-genus. It inhabits deep waters, and is often found in the stomachs of the gadi, pleuronectes, and other large fish. The following description of it is abridged from Fabricius.

LENGTH six inches, depth one. BODY thicker than the head, and nearly of equal girth throughout. Snout thin, the jaws equal, the forehead flattish. The dorsal and anal are continued to the caudal fin, the former being joined to it by membrane, but the anal distinct. Skin lubricous with minute imbedded scales. The COLOUR is tawny; the head is dotted with white, the throat, pectorals, and caudal are striped with the same, and there are about seven

* Blennius pholis, MITCHILL. New York Tr., i., p. 374. B. henlz, LE SUEUR. Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., iv., p. 361. Blennius Jeminatus, B. punctatus, Pholis novemlineatus, and Ph. quadrifasicatus, WOOD. Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., iv., p. 278.

N

[page] 90

brown streaks on the cheeks. There are five black spots, joined to as many white ones, on the dorsal, and about twelve less conspicuous, and all black, on the anal.

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 50; P. 17; V. 4*; A. 38; C. 18.

[41.] 2. BLENNIUS (CLINUS) LUMPENUS. (Fabr.) The Lumpen.

Blennius cirris subgula pinniformibus quasi bifidis, areolis dorsi transversis. ARTEDI. Syn., p. 45.

Blennius lumpenus. FABR. Fatcna Groenl., p. 151.

Teyarnak. GREENLANDERS.

This is another Greenland species which is considered to be the same with one that exists on the Dutch coast. In calms it reposes on the clayey or sandy bottom of the places it frequents, with its body bent backwards and forwards; at other times it conceals itself among the sea-weed. It spawns among the fuci in the month of July.

DESCRIPTION

Abridged from the Fauna Grœnlandica.

LENGTH eleven inches and a quarter, the thickness being scarcely one. Its body is round, nearly of equal diameter from the head to the anus, from whence it becomes more lanceolate. Head narrower than the body, mouth small, the upper jaw scarcely longer than the lower one. The ventral fins are so soft, white, and slender, that they may be readily taken for gular barbels; they contain, however, three rays, the lower of which is the longest, and is divided from the next by a fissure: the upper ray is so small as to be scarcely perceptible. The even dorsal occupies the whole back, but is distinct from the obovate caudal: its spines curve backwards. The scales are small, round, and firmly imbedded in the smooth skin. The back and sides have a palish colour, and are marked irregularly with brown spotted circles: the head and pectorals are yellowish, and the belly white, with a yellowish tint behind the anus.

The fifth sub-genus of the Blennies is Cirrhibarba, which is founded on a single Indian species, having the form of Clinus, but teeth like velvet pile, a small barbel over each eye, another at the nostril, three large ones at the extremity of the snout, and eight on the tip of the jaw.

* Pinnæ ventrales minutæ quatuor quidem constant radiis mollibus, &c.

[page] 91

[42.] 1. BLENNIUS (CENTRONOTUS) GUNNELLUS. (Linn.) Spotted Gunnelle.

FAMILY, Gobioideæ, CUVIER. GENUS, Blennius, LINN. Sub-genus, Centronotus, SCHNEIDER. B. gunnellus. LINN. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., i. p. 442. FABR. Faun. Græn., p. 149.

Spotted Blenny. PENN., Br. Zool., iii., p. 282.

Kurksaunak. GREENLANDERS.

Centronotus, the sixth sub-genus of the Blennies, has still smaller ventrals than the rest, these fins being scarcely perceptible, and often consisting of only a single ray. The head is small, the body elongated like the blade of a sword, and the dorsal, which extends the whole length of the back, is sustained throughout by simple rays. The dentition is similar to that of Clinus. The Spotted Gunnelle abounds in the European seas, is common in the gulfs and bays of Greenland, and probably frequents the whole American coast down to Newfoundland. Fabricius informs us, that in Greenland it dwells among the sea-weeds which grow near the shore, and that though it swims swiftly, after the manner of an eel, it often becomes a prey to the Bull-heads, Motellæ, and other littoral fish, as well as to various sea-birds. It feeds upon marine insects and small crustaceæ. The only American specimen that we have seen was brought from the Labrador coast by Mr. Audubon, and is now in the possession of Mr. Yarrell. From long immersion in rum, in the same jar with some echini, it has become totally black, so that a comparison of its markings with those of the European fish cannot be made, and we are also ignorant of its internal structure. In external form, however, it bears a very close resemblance to a number of British specimens belonging to Mr. Yarrell, except that its head is proportionably somewhat longer, and its gill-cover rather more pointed. Fabricius mentions that large specimens taken on the Greenland coast are nine inches long, and that he saw one which measured a foot; but his description agrees so well with the English gunnelle, that there is no ground for believing it to be a distinct species, although the latter does not usually exceed six inches in length.

DESCRIPTION

Of a Labrador specimen preserved in rum.

FORM—elongated, much compressed, particularly posteriorly: profile almost linear, the head rather obtuse, the tail slightly lanceolate, its tip, to which the caudal is attached, being rounded. The depth of the body, at any point between the nape and midway between the anus and caudal, is about one-eleventh of the total length, excluding the caudal. The anus is situated under the thirty-third or thirty-fourth dorsal spine. The head forms one-seventh

N 2

[page] 92

of the length, is narrow, and tapers to a ridge before the eyes, the tip of the upper jaw being, however, rounded. When the mouth is closed, the under jaw ascends considerably, and the commissure of the lips is at the extremity of the head; but when the under jaw is depressed it is longer than the upper one. The lips fold back on the mandibles. The operculum is heart-shaped, its apex having a membranous margin which forms the acute tip of the gill-cover. Gill-membranes united under the isthmus forming a transverse loose flap. A row of pores runs along each limb of the lower jaw, round the orbits, up the preoperculum, and across the nape.

TEETH—short, erect, and acute merely from their slenderness, disposed in a single row on the sides of the jaws, but aggregated anteriorly into two rows on the lower jaw, and into three in the upper one. There is also a transverse, two-rowed cluster of rather smaller teeth on the vomer, but the palate-bones are smooth.

SCALES—minute, not tiled, and in most places scarcely touching, enveloped in the mucus which exudes from the skin. Lateral line straight and nearer to the belly than to the back.

FINS.—Br. 5—5; D. 78/; A. 2/43; P. 12; V. 1/1, C. 20.

The dorsal fin commences opposite to the tip of the gill-cover, and extends to the caudal, to which it is united by membrane: it is about two lines high throughout; its rays are all spinous and scarcely flexible, with their acute points protruding beyond the membrane. Mr. Yarrell reckons from seventy-six to eighty dorsal rays in the English Gunnelle; but Fabricius enumerates eighty-eight, which is almost the only discrepancy betwixt his description and our fish. The pectorals have an acutely lanceolate outline, and are attached opposite to the first dorsal spine. The ventrals are very small, and contain one conspicuous spine, with a minute branching ray imbedded in the membrane. They are situated a little before the pectorals. The anal commences close to the anus: its two anterior rays are spinous* and shorter than the others, which are forked and as long as the dorsal spines: the membrane of the anal unites with the cuneiform caudal, which is rounded at the end.

COLOUR.—Fabricius gives the following account of the Spotted Gunelle of Greenland. The body is greyish-yellow, with pale yellowish marks on the sides before the anus, and whitish ones behind: there are also twelve white marks with black centres upon the base of the dorsal fin, and as many totally white ones of a smaller size. The fins are yellowish, the anal and forepart of the dorsal being tawny; a black stripe crosses the gill-covers and crown of the head; there is another between the eyes; two white stripes alternate with these; and the throat is white. Mr. Yarrell says, "The uniform dark colour of my American specimen obscures every trace of spots. In the British fish, the black spots of the dorsal fin are partly encircled with a white line; but these markings do not occur on the anal fin, which rather partakes of the mottled alternate dark and light brown of the body."

* One of Mr. Yarrell's English specimens has two minute spines imbedded in the membrane behind the two ordinary ones at the commencement of the fin. Fabricius enumerates six gill-rays; the Labrador fish appears to me to contain five in each membrane; while Mr. Yarrell says there is "nothing deserving the name of branchiostegous rays beyond four, in either the American or British specimens."—Fabricius's words are:—"Membrana branchiosteya, sex quidem radios habet, duos inferiores minutissimos, tamen et facile pretereundos."

[page] 93

DIMENSIONS

Of the Labrador specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of upper jaw to end of caudal 7 4
Length from tip of tail 7 0
Length from anus 3 6
Length from tip of gill-cover 0 10¾
Length from nape 0 7
Length from tip of labial 0 4
Length of caudal fin 0 5
Depth of body 0 8

The Kamtschatka "BUTTER-FISH," the Ophidium ocellatum, or Blennius ocellatus of Tilesius (Mem. de St. Petersb., iii., p. 237, t. 8, f. 2), which has six round spots on the dorsal, is considered by Cuvier to be akin to the Centronoti. It inhabits the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul. Tilesius alludes to other species that frequent the sea of Kamtschatka and the vicinity of the Kurile Islands, as having been described by Pallas in his unpublished Fauna Rossica.

The PUSTULATED BLENNY, noticed by Pennant in the Supplement to his Arctic Zoology, p. 115, as an inhabitant of the sea of Newfoundland, is said to have a pale, dull, yellow colour, with the whole body spotted in form of pustules; but no character is given by which we can infer that it belongs to any of the preceding sub-genera.

The Zoarcès have no spinous rays whatever; yet Cuvier thinks that they cannot be separated from the Blennies, which they resemble in having an anal tubercle, intestines without cæca, a smooth oblong body, and six gill-rays. Their ventrals are three-rayed, their teeth conical and arranged in one row on the sides of the jaws, but in several rows in front; the palate is toothless. Their vertical fins are united, the dorsal being, however, depressed at its junction with the caudal. The Z. viviparus, guffer, or eelpout of the European seas, is about a foot long. The Z. labrosus (Mitchill, pl. 1, f. 7), which frequents the coast of New York, attains the length of three feet and a half.

[page] 94

[43.] 1. BLENNIUS (ZOARCES?) POLARIS. (Sabine.)

FAMILY, Gobioideæ. GENUS, Blennius. Sub-genus, Zoarces. CUVIER.

Blennius polaris. SABINE. App. Parry's First Voy., p. ccxii.

Ross. (Captain J. C.) Parry's Polar Voy., p. 200.

IDEM, App., liii. An. 1835.

On Captain Parry's memorable expedition, which first explored the way into the Polar Sea through Lancaster Sound, a blenny was found on the shore of North Georgia, where it had been left by the tide. We subjoin Captain Sabine's account of this individual, which is not sufficiently minute in the description of the teeth, and some other particulars, to enable us to refer the species positively either to Zoarces or to any of the sub-genera. In the want of scales it agrees with Zoarces.

"It bears a very near resemblance to the description and figure of B. viviparus in Muller's Zoologia Danica, but differs in the following particulars: the dorsal fin is united to the anal and caudal: the pectoral is not orbicular, as its length exceeds twice its breadth: the number of the rays fifteen. The teeth, though small, are sufficiently conspicuous to the naked eye: the colour a yellowish ground, lighter under the belly, having eleven large saddle-shaped, brown markings across its back; the middle of these markings being much lighter than the edges; the whole back and sides have a marbled appearance; the yellowish ground, when viewed in a microscope, is thickly sprinkled with minute black specks. No scales were discovered, but they may have possibly been removed with the sand which had adhered to the mucous coating of the skin, and which was washed off. Length seven inches. The upper jaw projects rather more than the plate of the B. viviparus in the Zool. Dan. Ventral fins of two spines enclosed in a lax skin. This species is distinguished from the B. lumpenus, by the union of the dorsal and caudal fins, and by the upper jaw being considerably longer than the lower; and from B. ocellatus, Mem. de Petersb., t. 3, pl. 8, f. 2, by the ventral fins, which are wanting in the ocellatus, as well as by the absence of the spots on the dorsal fin of the latter.

"B. imberbis, pinnis anali, caudali, dorsalique unitis."—SABINE, l. c.

Captain James C. Ross, on his recent expedition, took a specimen of this fish from the stomach of a gadus callarias, which was caught on the west side of the peninsula of Boothia; and he also discovered it in the Spitzbergen seas, when accompanying Sir Edward Parry on his most adventurous boat excursion over the ice.

[page] 95

[44.] 1. ANARRHICHAS LUPUS. (Linn.) Common Wolf-fish.

FAMILY, Gobioideæ, CUVIER. GENUS, Anarrhichas, LINN.

Anarrhichas lupus. FABR. Faun. Grænl., p. 138, No. 97.

Keegooteeleek. GREENLANDERS.

Cuvier considers the genus Anarrhichas to be so nearly allied to Blennius, that the principal difference is in the absence of the ventrals. The dorsal extends from the nape almost to the caudal, and is supported throughout by simple, but not stiff rays. The anal also nearly reaches the caudal, which is rounded as well as the pectorals. The whole body is smooth and slimy. The jaws, vomer, and palatebones are armed with large bony tubercles which support on their summits little enamelled teeth, but the anterior teeth are conical and longer. There are six gill-rays, and neither cæca nor air-bladder. The fish of this genus being generally of a large size, and furnished with jaws so well armed, are dangerous.

The Common Wolf-fish inhabits the North Sea, being common enough as low as the French coast; and it is not rare in the southern bays of Greenland. Fabricius says that the largest one he saw was two feet long; but in the European seas, according to Gronovius, Cuvier, &c., it reaches the length of seven feet. One, three feet long, weighs about twenty pounds. On the Greenland coast it associates itself with the Common Lump-fish, migrating along with it; that is, retiring from the coast to the deep sea in autumn, and returning again in spring. Its great size and formidable teeth do not protect it from the assaults of the Lump-fish, for the latter, when alarmed for the safety of its offspring, pursues the Wolf-fish, and fastening upon its neck persecutes it to death, at least, such is the account given by Fabricius. It feeds upon crustaceæ and shell-fish, which it breaks in pieces with its teeth. Its motion is serpentine, like that of an eel, and when it is seen reposing in the cleft of a rock its body is undulated. It spawns in May, among the larger sea-weeds, a short way from the shore. It has a hoary colour with a whitish belly, dark head with white specks, and two rows of large blackish lateral spots; but there is considerable variety in the depth of the tints.

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 73/; P. 20; V. 0; A. 45; C. 18. (Fauna Grænl.)

[page] 96

[45.] 2. ANARRHICHAS MINOR. (Olafsen.) Lesser Wolf-fish.

"Hlyre (A. minor). OLAFSENS og Bjarne, &c. Ann. 1772, p. 592, t. xlii."

Anarrhichas minor. FABRICIUS. Faun. Grænl., p. 139.

Kærrak. GREENLANDERS.

This species was seen in Greenland, and described by the Missionary Glahn in the year 1766, but it did not come under the notice of Fabricius. Its teeth are said to be different from those of the preceding species in form and arrangement, and to have a more cartilaginous texture. The fish was first described and figured by Olafsen, in the account of his voyage to Iceland.

FINS.—D. 70; P. 20; A. 44; C. 21. (Fauna Grænl.)

GOBIUS. (Linn.) Fish belonging to this genus may be recognised at first sight by the union of their thoracic ventrals, either along their whole length, or merely at their bases, so as to form a single, hollow, and more or less funnel-shaped disk. Their gill-flaps, furnished with five rays only, are generally only slightly open, and, like the blennies, they can live for some time out of the water; they resemble these fish likewise in the structure of the intestines, the presence of the same little protuberance behind the anus, and in some of the species being viviparous. They are fish of a small or middle size, which live among rocks near the shore. Most of them have a simple air-bladder.

There are several sub-genera. Gobius (Lacép.) or the true Gobies, have the ventrals most completely united, the disk extending even before their bases, where it is margined by a transverse membrane. The species are numerous, many inhabiting the seas of Europe, and some even the fresh waters. Olivi, who studied the manners of one which inhabits the lagoons of Venice, observed that it preferred a clayey bottom, in which it excavated tunnels for its winter retreats. In the spring it selected a place abounding with fuci for its nest, and covering it with the roots of the Zostera maritima, he male shut himself up therein to wait for the females, who came in succession to deposit their roe which he fecundates, watches, and defends courageously. From these facts Cuvier judges this goby to be the phycis of the ancients, the only fish, says Aristotle, which constructs a nest. G. bosc (Lacépède) inhabits the bay of New York*.

The Gobioides of Lacépède differ from the true gobies in the union of the dorsals into a

* It is the Gobius alepidotus, SCHNEIDER, Bl., and the G. viridi-pallidus, MITCHILL. New York Tr., p. 379, pl. 1, f. 8.

[page] 97

single fin, and the more lengthened form of the body. The third sub-genus Tœnioides (Lacépède) contains but one species, which has a very extraordinary aspect. It has the single dorsal of the Gobioides with a still longer body. The lower jaw rises before the upper one, which is very short, and both are armed with long hooked teeth. The minute eyes are concealed beneath the skin, and the fish inhabits the muddy bottoms of ponds in the East Indies. A fourth sub-genus Periophtalmus (Schn.) contains fish of the Moluccas which have the whole head scaly, and the pectorals also scaly for half their length, so that these fins appear to be supported upon arms. Their gill-openings being still narrower than in the other gobies, these fish can live longer in the air, and they often creep and jump upon the mud to escape from their enemies in the water, or to catch the small craw-fish, which form their principal nourishment. Some of them have a ventral disk like the gobies, others have the ventrals separate almost to their bases. The fifth sub-genus, Eleotris, differs from the others in having distinet ventrals and six gill-rays. There are species in the East and West Indies*, Africa, and the Mediterranean, most of them inhabitants of fresh water, and often of mud.

CALLIONYMUS. (Linn.) The fish of this genus have two remarkable characters in their gill-openings, being restricted to a hole on each side of the nape, and in their ventrals being placed widely apart under the throat, and exceeding the pectorals in size. Their eyes are vertical, their intermaxillaries very protractile, and their preoperculum elongated posteriorly and terminating by spines. Their teeth are small and crowded, but there are none on the palate. They have the tubercle behind the anus, and want the cæca and air-bladder like the blennies. They are pretty fish with a smooth skin, and their first dorsal, which is supported by a few setaceous rays, is often very elevated. There are several species in the European seas, and others in the Indian Ocean. Trichonotus setigerus (Schn.) appears to be merely a very elongated Callionymus, but the gill-openings are said to be fully cleft. Callionymus Baicalensis (Comephorus, Lacép.) has wide gill-openings, with seven rays in the membrane, very long pectorals, and, what is a peculiarity in this family, no ventrals. It is thrown up dead from the bottom of Lake Baikal after a storm.

PLATYPTERA contains two East-Indian fish, which have the large and distant ventrals of Callionymus, a short depressed head, small mouth, wide gill-openings, large scales, and short dorsals placed far apart.

* Eleotris dormitatrix.

O

[page] 98

[46.] 1. CHIRUS MONOPTERYGIUS. (Cuvier.) Even-finned Chirus.

FAMILY, Gobioideæ? CUVIER. GENUS, Chirus. STELLER.

Labrax monopterygius. PALLAS, Mém. de Pétersb., ii., p. 391, pl. xxiii., f. 1.

The indefatigable Steller discovered two species of fish in the sea of Kamtschatka, and left descriptions of them in manuscript, under the names of Lebius, Chirus vel Labrax, and Hexagrammos. Tilesius also saw two in the same seas, one of which he described and figured as the Hexagrammos Stelleri, in the Mémoires de L'Academie des Sciences de St. Pétersburg for the year 1808. In the mean time Pallas, receiving specimens of six different species from the same quarter, read an account of them in 1809 to the Society just mentioned, under the generic appellation of Labrax, which was published in the same volume with Tilesius's papers. Cuvier having appropriated the word Labrax to the Basses of the percoid family, distinguishes the present genus, in the Règne Animal, by the name of Chirus, and attaches it to the Gobioideæ, expressing an opinion, however, that it may prove to be the type of a distinct family. The characters of the genus are,—A pretty long body clothed with ciliated scales; a small unarmed head; a slightly-cleft mouth, furnished with small, conical, unequal teeth; and the spinous rays of the dorsal, which stretches along the whole back, almost always slender. Several rows of pores, resembling or forming so many lateral lines, give a peculiar character to the fish of this genus. Their intestines are destitute of cæcal appendages*, and some species have superciliary tufts, resembling, in that respect, certain blennies; but their ventrals contain five soft rays as usual.

Pallas says that all the known species live near the craggy shores of Kamtschatka, on the opposite American coast, and round the Kurile and Aleutian islands; but in his accounts of particular species he restricts some of them to certain parts of the Kamtschatka Sea.

Chirus monopterygius was taken off the island of Unalaschka.

It differs from the other species in its forked tail, and in its perfectly even, unnotched dorsal fin, supported by forty-six rays, which are all simple, setaceous, and flexible, the first twenty being, however, more slender than the rest. The rays of the pectoral and anal are also simple and setaceous. Those of the ventrals and caudal are forked. Gill-membranes conjoined and forming a loose flap under the isthmus. Teeth small, acute, and crowded on the jaws and

* Steller describes cæca as we shall mention below.

[page] 99

vomer*. Scales small, closely tiled, very rough, and ciliated. Very small ones cover the top of the head and opercula. There is one porous row above the lateral line, and two some distance beneath it. In all the species the lateral line is prolonged between the rays of the caudal, and the membrane of that fin is minutely scaly. The scales do not extend to the other fins in this species, though they do in some of the rest.

FINS.—Br. 6; P. 24/; V. 6; A. 24/; C. 17; D. 46/.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Total length 15 10
Length of head and gill-cover 3 0
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 3 5
Length of attachment of dorsal 6 6
Length from dorsal to caudal 1 7
Length of attachment of anal 4 3
Length from anal to caudal 1 8
Length of lobes of caudal 2 3

(Mém. de Pétersb.)

[47.] 2. CHIRUS DECAGRAMMUS. (Cuvier.) Ten-lined Chirus.

Labrax decagrammus. PALLAS, Mém. de Pétersb., ii., p. 386, t. xxii., f. 2.

This species was taken by Billings off Cape St. Elias.

It is covered with small roughish scales, which are least on the belly, top of the head, and gill-covers: there are also minute scales on the bases of all the fins betwixt the rays. The rows of pores are five on each side, including the lateral line, and one of them is interrupted between the ventrals and middle of the anal. The dorsal is deeply notched in the middle, the twenty rays of its anterior portion being simple, the twenty-four of its posterior one forked. The gill-cover ends in a membranous point. The body is bluish above, the back and sides being marked with pale and dusky blotches: the belly is whitish. The dorsal is spotted, the pectorals yellowish and clouded, and the anal and caudal blackish.

FINS.—Br. 5; P. 24; V. 6; A. 24; C. 16; D. 20/24 = 44. (Mém. de Pétersb.)

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Total length 13 11
Length of head and gill-cover 2 9
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 3 0
Length of attachment of first part of ditto 4 0
Length of attachment of second part of dorsal 4 1
Length of attachment of anal 4 3
Length from dorsal to caudal 1 5

* Labrax lagocephalus and hexagrammus are also mentioned by Pallas as having teeth on the vomer, as we have rendered the expression areola palati; but in the accounts of the other species maxillary teeth only are noticed. Tilesius's figure of Hexagrammos Stelleri represents the vomer and palate smooth, and two crowded groups of teeth on the upper pharyngeal bones. Pallas speaking of C. hexagrammus says, "Areola palati ilidem aspeiata," which refers to the vomer, and not to the palate-bones, as is evident from Steller's more precise language: "palato medio non procul a labiis partier areola denticellis obsita est, ut et tuberculum imo ori denticulatum supra gulam ipsam."

O 2

[page] 100

[48.] 3. CHIRUS OCTOGRAMMUS. (Cuvier.) Eight-lined Chirus.

Labrax octogrammus. PALLAS, Mém. de Pétersb., ii., p. 393, t. xxiii., f. 2.

This species abounds on the eastern coast of Kamtschatka, and also among the Aleutian Islands. It is named Terpugh, or "the file," by the Russians, on account of the roughness of its scales, and Idgajuk by the Aleutians.

Jaws rough with crowded teeth, the anterior ones of the lower jaw a little longer. Gill-covers ending in a membranous tip. Gill-membranes separate. Scales middle-sized, very finely ciliated, and exceedingly rough. The top of the head, gill-covers, and suborbitars, are covered with minute scales, as are also the membranes of the dorsal and caudal. There are two porous lines above the lateral line, and two below, the one next the dorsal fin short and inconspicuous. The dorsal is notched, the posterior part being higher than the anterior one, but both are supported by setaceous rays, as is also the anal fin. The rays of the pectorals and caudal are bifid. The colour of the back is olivaceous, and it is thickly dotted, as well as the sides, with brownish spots; the belly is yellowish.

FINS.—Br. 5; P. 19; V. 7; A. 24/; C. 15; D. 19/24/ = 43/.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Total length 15 8
Length of head and gill-cover 3 3
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 3 5
Length of attachment of dorsal 6 3
Length from dorsal to caudal 1
Length of attachment of anal 4 8
Length from anal to caudal 1 7

(Mém. de Pétersb.)

[49.] 4. CHIRUS SUPERCILIOSUS. (Cuvier.) Tufted Chirus.

"Lebius, Chirus vel Labrax. STELLER, Obs. Icthyol. Mscr."

Labrax superciliosus. PALLAS, Mém. de Pétersb., ii., p. 388, t. xxii., f. 3.

This species was taken abundantly off Unalaschka by Billings, who sent many specimens to Pallas. That author has added to his description, Steller's account of the colours of the recent fish, and also some anatomical observations, which, if there be no mistake as to the identity of the species, are incompatible with the passage in the Règne Animal, which denies cæca to this genus. Steller describes sixteen long pyloric cæca, and two shorter ones. He also says that there is no air-bladder, and that the fish feeds upon crabs and worms.

[page] 101

The TUFTED CHIRUS is distinguished by a sub-cartilaginous six-cleft superciliarly barbel. In this respect, in the thickness of its fins and skin, as well as in its general habit, Pallas thinks that this species is allied to the Blennies. The scales are small, thin, adhering firmly, and are finely streaked and ciliated. The top of the head and the gill-covers are scaly, but there are no scales on the fins, the caudal excepted. There are two thick porous lines above the lateral line and two below. The dorsal is notched, the rays of the anterior portion being simple, those of the posterior articulated. The rays of the anal are thick and scarcely forked. Colour of the body brownish-olive, with transverse irregular blotches of pale green. The under jaw, throat, and anterior part of the belly, are tawny-yellow. The dorsal is clouded; the pectorals have two broad brown stripes towards their bases, and the anal is marked with about five wavy bands of sea-green.

FINS.—P. 19; V. 5; A. 22; C. 16; D. 20/23 = 43.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Total length 16 7
Length of head and gill-cover 3 4
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 3 0
Length of attachment of first part of ditto 5 0
Length of attachment of second ditto 4 4
Length of attachment of anal 4 10
Length from anal to caudal 1 10
Length of caudal 1 11

(Mém. de Pétersb.)

Chirus lagocephalus and hexagrammus are not mentioned as having been taken on the American coast. The latter is considered by Pallas to be the Hexagrammos asper of Steller, and is said to be very frequent during the autumn, in the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul. Like the C. octogrammus, it is named Terpuck, on account of the roughness of its scales; and in Pallas's opinion Steller confounded these two species together. In C. hexagrammus the dorsal is deeply notched, and the rays of both parts, and also of the anal, are simple and setaceous. Steller describes it as wanting an air-bladder, and having ten or twelve pyloric cæca. The stomach, which was a sac of the size of a pigeon's egg, with the pylorus on the right side, contained Nereides and roe of fishes.

The Hexagrammos Stelleri of Tilesius is also called Terpuck at Kamtschatka, and is considered by its describer to be the Hexagrammos asper of Steller; but it differs from Pallas's figure of that species in having a three or five-cleft superciliary tuft, and indeed from all the species of that naturalist, in the number of its rays and several other particulars. Tilesius's figure was drawn from a living fish, and ought to be more correct than Pallas's, whose specimens were dried, and who may therefore easily have overlooked the superciliary tufts. It deserves to be remarked, however, that the number of rays in Tilesius's figure do not correspond with his own description.

FINS.—Br. 5; P. 19; V. 5; A. 22; C. 17; D. 20/24. C. lagocephalus. Pall.
6; 17/; 6; 22/; 14; 22/21/. C. hexagrammus. Pall.
6; 18; 6; 23; 20; 30, 12. Hexagr. Stelleri. Tiles.
17/; 5; 23; 19; 44/. Hexagr. asper. Stell.
Mém. de Pétersb.

[page] 102

BATRACHOIDEÆ.—LES PECTORALES PEDICULÉES.

THIS family is composed of monstrous-looking acanthopterygious fish, whose pectoral fins are supported upon a kind of arm formed of the elongated carpal bones which in some genera perform the functions of hind feet, enabling the fish to creep over sand or mud like small quadrupeds. The ventrals are jugular, and the gill-plates and rays (four, six, or seven) are enveloped in loose skin, which restricts the gill-opening to a small hole. Cutaneous appendages or barbels generally fringe the lips, or whole lower jaw to the pectorals, or even the entire body. The skin, except in some Batrachi, is destitute of scales, but is sometimes partially, or even generally, studded with bony tubercles. The skeleton is, for the most part, but imperfectly osseous. The pyloric cæca, when present, which is rarely, are short, and do not exceed two in number. Some genera have an air-bladder, others want it. In almost all there are two distinct dorsals; and in Lophius and Chironectes an interspinous bone, lying horizontally forwards on the head, supports several moveable free rays, whose summits are often swelled and fleshy, or even foliated or tufted. Batrachus has a spiny operculum and suboperculum, and a flat head broader than the body, but not very disproportionate in length: its gill-opening is situated before the ventrals, and it has two dorsals, the anterior one being supported by spinous rays. Lophius has a depressed form, and Chironectus a compressed one, and both have monstrously large heads, with a small hole behind the pectorals for an opening to the gills. In Malthe the head is flat, and greatly lengthened laterally by the projection of the large subopercula. Its gills open by a hole above and behind the arms which support the pectorals.

The Batrachoideæ can live long out of the water, in consequence of the smallness of their gill-openings. The Chironectes, in particular, are able, even in warm countries, to pass two or three days in creeping over the land. All the Batrachoideæ conceal themselves in the mud or sand, and lie in wait to take their prey by surprise. Those species which have free rays on the head, with summits resembling worms, are said to move them backwards and forwards for the purpose of enticing small fish within their reach, and hence the name of "fishing-frogs" has been popularly applied to them. The Batrachoideæ exist in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Several inhabit the European seas. Lophius pisca-

[page] 103

torius*, Chironectes lævigatus (or Lophius gibbus, Mitchill), Malthè vespertilio (Loph. vespert., Schœpf.), Batrachus tau (Loph. bufo, Mitch., or Batr. vernueil, Le Sueur), B. variegatus, Le Sueur, and Batrachus grunniens (or Cottus grunniens, L. Schœpf.) frequent the sea of New York.

The THUTINAMEG, or Wind-fish of Hudson's Bay, which is said to come to the surface in windy weather only, belongs most probably to this family. It is, indeed, referred by Pennant to Lophius piscatorius, but on the authority merely of a short notice by Mr. Hutchins. It does not occur in the Fauna Grœnlandica.

[50.] 1. LOPHIUS (MALTHE) CUBIFRONS. (Richardson.) Square-browed Malthe.

FAMILY, Batrachoideæ. GENUS, Lophius. LINN. Sub-genus, Malthe. CUV.

The sub-genus Malthe has the following characters assigned to it in the Règne Animal. The head much depressed and greatly widened by the jutting out of the elongated subopercula; the eyes far forward; the snout projecting like a small horn; the protractile mouth, of a moderate size under the snout; the gill-membranes sustained by six or seven rays, and opening on the dorsal aspect by a hole above each pectoral; a solitary, small, soft dorsal; the body studded with bony tubercles and furnished along the sides with barbels, but no free rays on the head; neither pyloric cæca nor air-bladder.

Mr. Audubon has very kindly presented to me a fish of this sub-genus, taken on the Labrador coast, which appears to belong to a species hitherto undescribed. I have compared it with the figures of Malthe vespertilio (Bl. 110 and Edwards 283), of M. nasuta (Seba., i., 74, f. 2), and of M. stellata (Krusenstern's Voy., lxi., lower fig.), to all of which it is very dissimilar in the form of the cranium, and particularly of the snout. Three other species are indicated in the Règne Animal, which are still unpublished; viz., M. notata, angusta, and truncata. The last of these names is the only one which is in any respect applicable to our new species, in which the forehead may be said to be truncated, instead of gradually narrowing into a projecting snout. I have received no account of the habits of the Square-browed Malthe. Its intestines were filled with small crabs and uni-

* The Lophius piscator, or Bellows-fish, of Mitchill, as far as his description goes, does not appear to differ from the L. piscatorius of the European seas. His variety, foliatus, is most probably a distinct species.

[page] 104

valve shells, none of them crushed, the shells passing entire, per anum, after their inhabitants have been digested.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken on the Labrador coast and preserved in rum.

FORM—much depressed, the head very wide posteriorly from the spreading of the sub-opercular bones. The body tapers gradually from behind the pectorals to the caudal fin, becoming at the same time less and less depressed, the extremity of the tail at the insertion of the caudal fin being decidedly compressed. The gill-openings are about midway between the snout and end of the tail, and the anus is halfway between the pectorals and anal fin, or very little posterior to the gill-openings. The head (excluding the gill-plates), or rather the cranium, which is slightly moveable on the spinal column, is not at all disproportioned to the size of the fish; it has a cubical form, and the large eyes, having a perfectly lateral aspect, occupy the anterior halves of its sides. The upper surface of the cranium is flat, slightly hollowed between the orbits, where it is narrower, becomes again wider before them, and arching a little in a longitudinal direction, terminates abruptly and evenly, being supported on each side by a vertical pillar that forms the anterior margin of the orbit. On the edge of the forehead, between the tops of these pillars, there is a rounded knob about the size of a grain of duck-shot, coarsely granulated like the rest of the skin, and very unlike the tapering, acute snouts of M. vespertilio, nasuta, or even stellata. Beneath the knob-like snout, and between the shafts of the pillars above mentioned, there is a deep circular cavity, which is lined by a whitish membrane. A canal capable of receiving a crow-quill passes from the bottom of the cavity between the orbits to the back part of the cranium. From under the orifice of the canal there proceeds a long barbel, composed of a bony ray with a thickened tip and a coating of soft skin: it is apparently capable of being protruded from the cavity, or retracted within it, at the pleasure of the fish. The nostrils open by two small orifices before the base of each of the orbital pillars. The mouth is situated directly under the anterior margin of the forehead when it is closed, and from the lower jaw inclining upwards the commissure of the lips has then a crescentic form; but when the mouth is open the descent of the lower jaw causes the intermaxillaries to advance on their pedicles, so that its orifice, which is then circular and about equal in diameter to one of the orbits, is protruded beyond the snout. The labials lie in the membrane behind the intermaxillaries.

TEETH—like very fine shorn velvet, cover the opposing surfaces of the intermaxillaries and lower jaw, the whole upper surface of the tongue, a broad rectangular plate on the vomer, a smaller contiguous plate on each palate bone, and four convex plates on the upper side of the gullet—the pharyngeal teeth being rather coarser than the others.

GILL-COVERS.—The very thick, nearly semicylindrical suboperculum extends from the cheek to the middle of the arm that supports the pectoral fin, rendering that part of the fish much wider than the body. The thin, flat, nearly horizontal operculum, fills part of the space between the suboperculum and the spine. The gill-opening is a small round hole, situated between the arm of the pectoral and the spine, and opposite to the extremity of the suboperculum.

[page] 105

The SKIN is every where closely covered with rough roundish grains, which are much smaller on the under surface of the fish. On the dorsal aspect of the head and body there are also many scattered, conical, granulated, bony tubercles, the largest being about the size of a split pea, occupying the middle of the back, and the roughest ones margining the sides of the tail. There are no vestiges of any barbels on the sides of the head or body.

FINS.—D. 5; C. 9; A. 4; V. 5; P. 11.

The rays of the fins are with difficulty discernible through the thick and partially granulated skin which envelops them. They are all articulated. The pectorals have a fan-like form; their rays, which are jointed but undivided, being about equal in length to their carpal elongation or arm. The ventrals, attached opposite to the middle of the preoperculum, are dilated and truncated at their ends. The anal fin is far back, and is about half the size of the ventrals: all its rays are articulated. The dorsal very small, and situated a little posterior to the anus, but a considerable distance before the anal fin contains five undivided rays, all articulated at the tips. The caudal is rounded at the end: its rays are forked and project a little beyond the membrane.

COLOUR.—The specimen has been so long immersed in rum, that its original colour cannot be determined. At present, its upper surface is greyish-white, with some brown blotches, as if of dirt, adhering to the grained skin. The caudal and pectorals are whitish, with small round brown spots. The under surface of the body is uniformly greyish-white.

INTESTINES.—The stomach is a thin bag, an inch and a half long by an inch wide; the pylorus much contracted, being at one side of the fundus; the rest of the gut is delicate, having a diameter of about a quarter of an inch, and a length exceeding thrice that of the fish, being twice doubled upon itself. There are neither cæca nor air-bladder. The liver is large and oily.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from frontal tubercle to tip of caudal 7 8
Length from frontal base of caudal 6 5
Length from frontal dorsal 4 0
Length from frontal gill-openings 3 2
Length from frontal tip of suboperculum 3
Length from tip of under jaw to tip of caudal 7 6
Length from tip of under jaw to anal fin 4 10
Length from tip of under jaw to anus 3 4
Length from tip of under jaw to ventrals 1 10
Length from tip of under jaw to base of rays of pectorals 4 10
Length from tip of under jaw to tips of ditto 5 0
Diameter of orbit 0 7
Diameter orifice of mouth 0 6
Distance of ditto beneath snout 0 3
Length of intermaxillary 0 6
Length labials 0 7
Length limb of under jaw 0 7
Length subopercular bone 2 3
Length rays of pectorals 1 3
Length rays of caudal 1 5
Length rays of ventrals 1 3
Length rays of anal 0 10
Length stomach 1 6
Length of small intestines 24 0

P

[page] 106

LABROIDEÆ.

THE fish of this family are readily recognisable by their general aspect, their oblong scaly body, and single dorsal, whose anterior rays are spinous, with often a shred of membrane attached to them. Their pharyngeal bones are armed with teeth stronger than usual, but varying in form in the different genera. They have a strong air-bladder, and either no cæca or only two very small ones. The Linnæan genus Labrus forms a group which is distinguished by having one set of lips attached to the sub-orbitars, and another to the jaws, close gill-membranes supported by five rays, conical jaw teeth, the anterior and middle ones longest, and pharyngeal teeth in form of paving stones. The minor groups are characterised by combinations of several varieties of structure, such as the smoothness or scaliness of the head, the presence of denticulations on the preoperculum, the protractility of the mouth, which, in several sub-genera, can be projected in a tubular form, so as to seize small fish that are swimming within its reach, the straight or broken lateral line, the encroachment of the scales on the caudal, or even on the other vertical fins, as in the Chætodontoideæ, the prolongation of the first dorsal rays by long filaments, and some differences in the dentition. In the sub-genus Anampses the jaws are armed with only two flat teeth, which project from the mouth and curve outwards. The genus Xirichthys differs from Labrus chiefly in its very compressed form and the vertical profile of the head: it has large scales and an interrupted lateral line. Chromis resembles Labrus except in the jaw and pharyngeal teeth being in card-like plates, the vertical fins filamentous, and the lateral line interrupted. Cychla has all the teeth like velvet pile and in broad stripes. Plesiops differs from Chromis in having a compressed head and very long ventrals. Malacanthus, with the general characters and jaw teeth of Labrus, has the pharyngeal teeth of Chromis, the operculum ending in a small spine, and a long dorsal in which the spines are very few, slender, and flexible. Scarus is remarkable for convex jaws covered anteriorly and on their edges with teeth like scales. The pharyngeal teeth are in transverse plates, the sub-orbitar lips of the preceding genera are wanting, there being only those on the jaws, the scales are large and the lateral line interrupted. Calliodon and Odax, with some of the characters of Scarus, have others more closely resembling Labrus.

Many of the Labroideæ are remarkable for the intensity and purity, as well as

[page] 107

brilliancy of their colours. They are very generally distributed, being found in all parts of the ocean, and also in lakes and rivers. Upwards of forty species exist in the European seas, chiefly in the Mediterranean, though there are several in the North Sea. The following occur on the coast of the United States: Labrus Americanus (L. tautoga, Mitch.), Cheilinus radiatus, Lachnolaimus suillus, Crenilabrus burgall (L. chogset, Mitch.), Xirichthys psittacus, X. lineatus, and some others.

Fabricius, while sailing along the Greenland coast, saw a fish of a shining blue colour swim past. The Greenlanders named it Keblernak, and Fabricius supposes that it may have been the Labrus exoletus of Linnæus, a North Sea fish, which is a Crenilabrus in Cuvier's system, and is remarkable for having five spines in its anal fiu. The sub-genus Crenilabrus is distinguished from the true labri solely by having a denticulated preoperculum. Its numerous species were included by Bloch in his genus Lutjanus.

FISTULAROIDEÆ.—LES BOUCHES EN FLUTE.

THIS family is characterised by a long tubular muzzle, formed of the prolonged ethmoid, vomer, preopercular, interopercular, pterygoid, and tympanitic bones, at the extremity of which is the mouth, composed as usual of the palate bones, intermaxillaries, labials, and lower jaw. The intestinal canal is either straight and furnished with two cæcal appendages, or destitute of cæca, and twice or thrice doubled upon itself. The air-bladder is in some extremely small, in others of a moderate size, or even very large. The gill-rays are six or seven in number, or only two or three, and very slender. The scales are of a moderate size or small, or even so minute as to be invisible. The forepart of the back is more or less perfectly protected by osseous or scaly plates, which, in some instances, exist also on the flanks. The dorsal is either single and supported, like the anal to which it is opposed, mostly by simple rays, or it is preceded by free spines, or there are two dorsals, the soft one being generally far back. There are two generic groups, Fistularia, in which the body is cylindrical, and Centriscus, in which it is compressed and oval.

Fistularia tabaccaria frequents the coast of the United States, F. serrata the West Indies and sea of Brazil, Centriscus scolopax inhabits the Mediterranean. Most of the others belong to the Indian Ocean.

P 2

[page] 108

The preceding family is the last of that division of the OSSEOUS FISHES which is named Acanthopterygian, or Spiny-finned, on account of the spinous rays which support the whole of the first dorsal, when there are two of these fins, or the forepart of the fin when there is only one: in some instances all the rays of a solitary dorsal are spinous, and occasionally the spines are free or unconnected by membrane. The anal has also one or more spinous rays, and there is generally one in each ventral. Several genera, however, are admitted into the division, although the spinous character of their fins is very imperfect, and also some which are absolutely destitute of spines*, because their habits and their anatomical structure, in general, ally them intimately with groups that are decidedly acanthopterygian.

The exposition of Cuvier's system of arrangement occupies more space in the preceding pages, than may appear to be necessary in a local Fauna; but we found it difficult to give, in any other way, correct characters of the various groups of spiny-finned fish which fall within the proper scope of the work, or to exhibit their true situation in the system, without a reference to the intermediate or connecting families. For it happens that this great division, though richer in genera and species than any other, does not admit of being split into orders, its only practicable subdivision being into natural families, which are so intimately linked to each other, that, as Cuvier says, the whole division might be considered as one great family. Owing to this close dependence of one group of acanthopterygii upon another, they are often more readily distinguishable by comparative characters than by positive ones, thus requiring the whole series to be noticed. These remarks are not so applicable to the remaining divisions of the class, and we shall, therefore, in treating of them, greatly restrict our quotations from Cuvier.

* Zoarces and malthe for instance.

[page] 109

MALACOPTERYGII ABDOMINALES.

THE second division of osseous fishes is named Malacopterygian, or Soft-finned, because all the rays of the fins are articulated, excepting sometimes the first of the dorsal or pectorals. It can be conveniently divided into three orders, named Abdominal, Jugular, and Apodal, from the position of the ventrals on the hinder part of the belly, their suspension to the humeral bones, or their total absence. The first order, or that in which the ventrals are attached to the belly behind the pectorals, but unconnected with the humeral bones, is the most numerous of the three, and includes most of the fresh-water fish. It contains five families, of which the first is the

CYPRINOIDEÆ.

FISH of this family are readily distinguishable by their slightly-cleft mouth, furnished with weak and frequently toothless jaws bordered by the intermaxillaries; by their strongly-toothed pharyngeal bones; and by the fewness of their gill-rays. They have a scaly body, no adipose fin, a stomach destitute of a cul de sac, and no pyloric cæca. They abound in the fresh waters of all quarters of the world, and are the least carnivorous of fishes. They exist in the arctic regions of the North American continent, as high as the 68th parallel, though it is remarkable that none occur in the Fauna Grænlandica, nor were any detected on the North Georgian islands, or Boothian peninsula, by the recent expeditions. The following North American species are indicated in the Règne Animal:—Barbus species novæ; Labeo cyprinus (Catastomus cyprinus, Le Sueur); Catastomus, 17 species; Leuciscus species novæ; Pæcilia multilineata, Le Sueur; Lebias ellipsoïdea, Le Sueur; Fundulus cænicolus, Valenciennes (Cobitis heteroclita, Linn., Mud-fish, Schœpf.); Fundulus fasciatus, Valen. (Esox pisciculus et zonatus, Mitch.); Molinesia latipinna, Le Sueur; Cyprinodon flavulus, Valen. (Esox flavulus, Mitch., Pæcilia majalis, Schn.); Cyprinodon ovinus (Esox ovinus, Mitch.). In Dr. Mitchill's paper on the New York fish, we find the following, which are not in the above list: Cyprinus oblongus, very probably a Labco;

[page] 110

and C. chrysoleucas and atronasus, which are most likely Leucisci. Notwithstanding that Dr. J. V. C. Smith has mentioned as inhabitants of the waters of Massachusetts the Gold-fish of China, and the species so well known to European anglers by the names of Roach, Dace, Bleak, and Chub, we require more circumstantial evidence before we can venture to affirm that any of the Cyprinoideæ are common to the Old and New Worlds.

[51.] 1. CYPRINUS (ABRAMIS?) SMITHII. (Nob.) La Quesche.

FAMILY, Cyprinoideæ. GENUS, Cyprinus. Sub-genus, Abramis, CUVIER.

The Cyprini form a very numerous and extremely natural generic group, and may be easily recognised by the small mouth, toothless jaws, and three flat gillrays. The tongue is smooth; the palate is lined by a thick and highly-irritable substance, known vulgarly under the name of the carp's tongue; and the gullet exhibits a powerful masticatory apparatus: viz., large teeth attached to the lower pharyngeal bones, and fit for squeezing the aliments against a stony or enamelled disk, which is set in a process of the basilary bone. The dorsal is single, and the body covered by scales which are often of a great size. The Cyprini inhabit fresh waters, and are perhaps the least carnivorous of all fish, living in a great measure on seeds, herbs, or even mud. Their stomach is continuous with the intestine,

[page] 111

which is destitute of cæca, and the air-bladder is divided into two by a contraction. Cuvier distributes the fish of this genus into nine sub-genera, which are distinguished from one another by the extent of the dorsal and anal fins, the spinous or articulated structure of their second rays, the position of the dorsal, the smallness of the scales, the presence of barbels on the upper jaw or angles of the mouth, and the size and form of the lips. The sub-genus Abramis is characterised as having a short dorsal situated farther back than the ventrals, and a long anal, but neither spinous rays nor barbels. To this sub-genus I have, for the present, referred the Quesche of the Canadians, a cyprinoid fish, of which Lieutenant-Colonel C. H. Smith has sent me a brief notice, accompanied by a drawing, which is copied in the annexed wood-cut*. In profile, and in the relative size and position of the fins, the Quesche bears a resemblance to the common Bream; but one of the rays of its dorsal and anal being spinous, it does not correspond in that respect with the character assigned to Abramis by Cuvier; and the size of its anal fin excludes it from the sub-genus which contains the true Carps. The very forward position of the nostrils is unusual, and its toothed tongue is at variance with the definition of the genus Cyprinus. Its specific name is intended as a compliment to its highly-talented discoverer.

"The specimens were taken in the Richelieu, at its confluence with the St. Lawrence, and were all about nine or ten inches long; in form much compressed, the back arched, the dorsal nearer the tail than head, the anal long and oblique, extending to near the caudal fin, which is forked with pointed lobes, the eye very large and near the snout, the nostrils opening on the tip of the latter, the under jaw longest, the tongue toothed, gill-covers round and smooth, lateral line straight, containing sixty scales, scales commencing on the forehead above the eyes, rather large, shining, and pellucid, reflecting a brilliant green on the back, but having a silvery lustre on the sides and abdomen. I do not know in what division to place it, for though it has the form of an Abramis it has a spinous ray in the dorsal and anal, and teeth on the tongue.

"FINS.—Br. 3. P. 12; V. 7; D. 1/12; A. 1/27; C. 18." (SMITH in lit.)

* The wood-cut is a correct copy of Colonel Smith's sketch except in the scales, which are too small and crowded on the posterior part of the body. There ought to be only sixty scales on the lateral line, as mentioned in the text.

[page] 112

[52.] 1. CYPRINUS (CATASTOMUS) HUDSONIUS. (Le Sueur.) Grey Sucking-carp.

FAMILY, Cyprinoideæ. GENUS, Cyprinus, CUV. Sub-genus, CatastomuS, LE SUEUR.

Cyprinus catastomus. FORSTER, Phil. Tr., 63, p. 158, t. vi. An. 1779.

Namaypeeth and Sucker. PENN., Arct. Zool., Intr., p. ccxcix., and ii., p. 402.

Catastomus Hudsonius. LE SUEUR, Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 107. RICHARDSON, Fr. Journ. p. 717. An. 1823.

Grey Sucker. FUR TRADERS. Carpe blanche. CANADIANS. Namaypeeth. CREES.

In the Règne Animal the sub-genus Catastomus is characterised as having the same kind of thick, pendent, fringed or crimped lips with Labeo; and the short dorsal of Leuciscus opposed to the ventrals*. The species inhabit the fresh waters of North America. The first that we have to notice is the Grey Sucking-carp, or Namaypeeth of the Cree Indians. It is a common fish in all parts of the fur countries, abounding in the rivers, and even in land-locked marshes and ponds, but preferring shallow grassy lakes with muddy bottoms. In the beginning of summer it may be seen in numbers forcing its way up rocky streams, and even breasting strong rapids, to arrive at its proper spawning places in stony rivulets: soon afterwards it returns to the lakes. Its food, judging from the contents of the stomachs of those which I opened, is chiefly soft insects; but in one I found the fragments of a fresh-water shell. In the winter and autumn it is caught in nets, and in the spawning season (June) may be readily speared, or even taken by the

* Mr. Le Sueur's account of the genus is as follows:—"Back with a single fin. Gill-membrane three-rayed. Head and opercula smooth. Jaus toothless and retractile. Mouth beneath the snout; lips plaited, lobed, or carunculated, suitable for sucking. Throat with pectinated teeth."—He adds some particulars applicable to the sixteen species which he detected in the waters of the United States. "Scales in almost all marked with radiated lines, and fimbriated on their edges; their form more or less rhomboidal or roundish. Gill-covers large, and composed of three pieces; the anterior one small in some, as in macrolepidotus, large in others, as in communis: opening wide. Teeth none in the jaws, but those of the throat, on each side, are composed of a range of bones generally blunt and thick at their summits, placed in a pectinated form on an osseous arcuated bone, of which they are a component part, and sometimes terminated in a hooked point as in maculosus. The teeth are enveloped in a thick mass of a whitish substance, which covers the throat and supplies the place of a tongue. Mouth generally lunated: to the palate is attached a membrane. Viscera.—The intestinal canal is very much developed, and it has its origin near the throat; the stomach is simple and without plaits or curvatures, being a continuation of this canal, and appearing to be confounded with it. The intestines make a number of convolutions: in a macrolepidotus, sixteen inches long, they measured three feet five inches. The liver is deliquescent and soon passes into oil after exposure to the atmosphere. The air-bladder is sub-cylindric and is divided in most species into two parts:—in macrolepidotus it is divided into lour. In the intestines river-shells (Lymnea, Bulimus, &c.), which dwell on aquatic plants and on rocks or bottoms of rivers, are found. The Catastomi are enabled to take these shells by means of their lips which are protruded forwards by their jaws. It is necessary to remark, that in all the species which I have examined, there is a line that runs from the nape beneath the eyes, and another along the head above the eyes, of small orifices for the passage of mucus; which lines are well defined after the fish is dried and desiccated, but not so conspicuous when recent. Some species also, in a dried state, have a tuberculated appearance on the head, not discernible in the living fish." LE SUEUR, l. c.

[page] 113

hand, in shallow streams. It is a very soft watery fish, but devoid of any unpleasant flavour, and is considered to be one of the best in the country for making soup. Like its congeners it is singularly tenacious of life, and may be frozen and thawed again without being killed.

DESCRIPTION

Drawn up from recent specimens at Cumberland-House, lat. 54°, March 10th, 1820.

FORM.—The head is smooth, flattened laterally and on the vertex, convex before the eyes, with an obtuse snout: it increases in thickness, gradually, from the nose to the nape, which is broader than the shoulders. The greatest girth of the body is about half way to the dorsal fin, from thence it tapers till it passes the anal fin, and the tail is nearly linear: the depth of the body exceeds its thickness rather more than one half. The sides and back are somewhat flattened. The lateral line runs equidistant from the back and belly, straight till it comes opposite to the anal fin, when it inclines upwards at a very obtuse angle, and passes along the middle of the tail, giving that member a direction slightly different from that of the body. SCALES for the most part broadly oval, or nearly obicular, and of a medium size, being one quarter of an inch in diameter. They are larger towards the tail, and smaller on the belly, particularly between the pectorals. The uncovered portion of each scale is vertically oval, and is marked with diverging lines corresponding to obscure crenatures on the edge.

HEAD constituting one-fifth of the total length. The eyes are situated about one diameter of their orbit distant from the upper part of the gill-opening, and twice as far from the tip of the snout. The nostrils are placed immediately before the eyes; the anterior larger opening has a soft skinny lid which shuts it when thrown forwards, and when turned backwards closes the posterior smaller opening. GILL-COVERS.—The operculum is thrice the size of the sub-operculum; their free edges unite into an even elliptical curve. The interoperculum has a narrow upright limb connected to the whole anterior edge of the operculum. The preoperculum, somewhat crescentic in form, is broader but shorter than the interoperculum, being included within its limbs. Various lines and tubercles, very evident on the head of the dried specimen, are not perceptible in the recent fish, the whole head being covered with a thick, smooth, mucous skin. The brain is protected by a piece of cartilage which, on maceration or boiling, drops out, leaving a rectangular opening before the nape one inch long and a quarter of an inch wide*.

MOUTH retractile, placed under the snout, and capable of being protruded a very little beyond it. Lips attached to the intermaxillaries and lower jaw, studded with large soft papillæ, most conspicuous on the lower lip, which is much more developed than the upper one, and expands into two pendulous flaps. The commissure of the closed lips is shaped like a horse-shoe, but when the jaws are extended, the orifice of the mouth is nearly quadrangular, and wide enough to admit the point of the fore-finger. There are no barbels. The palate

* When the head is cooked the brain becomes visible through this opening, and is supposed, by the Indians, to be a small frog, which resides within the head of the fish.

Q

[page] 114

is lined by a thick, gelatinous, light-red membrane, which rises anteriorly into two uvula-like eminences. A furrow which commences between these is closed at the back of the palate by a large pulpy cushion, against, which the branchial arches can be pressed. This cushion conceals a number of small bones and cartilages that lie between the extremities of the branchial arches. Attached to the posterior part of the cushion there is a white, firm, cordiform substance, which lines an irregular cribriform plate projecting from the basilary process of the occipital bone. There are no teeth, but their place is supplied in the following manner. The two inferior pharyngeal bones have, when united, the form of a horse's hoof, and go nearly two-thirds round the pharynx. From the edge of each bone thirty-six processes spring in a pectinated manner; they are compressed laterally, somewhat chub-shaped, a little worn on their summits, and gradually diminish in size as they recede from the median line: two or three of the lowest and largest project through the very soft lining membrane, exhibiting narrow crowns of a very compact texture resembling enamel: the smaller processes are tipt with soft pulpy rakers, having the form of those on the branchial arches. A strong muscular apparatus surrounding the pharynx, serves to press these parts against the cordiform cushion above mentioned with sufficient force to bruise the substances on which the fish preys. There are no superior pharyngeal bones, unless the irregular expansion of the basilar process may be so denominated. The rakers consist of a double row of thin and rather rigid crests, with scolloped edges springing from the inner margins of each branchial arch.

FINS.—Br. 3—3; P. 17; D. 12 to 14; V. 10; A. 7 or 8; C. 18 3/3.

The gill-membranes are united to each other by a plicated skin, destitute of scales and separated from the integuments of the abdomen by a transverse superficial furrow. They contain on each side three broad flat rays. The pectoral fins are elliptical, and contain seventeen crowded rays, of which the first is the strongest, its articulations being scarcely perceptible towards its base, and the fifth or sixth is the longest, the more posterior ones diminishing rapidly in length and strength. The ventrals, placed a little nearer to the gill-openings than to the caudal fin, have an obovate outline: their second ray is the strongest; the first, which is half the length of the second and closely applied to it, appears upon a cursory examination to be spinous; but when it is divested of integument, some articulations may be perceived with a lens. The anal, extending to within its own length of the caudal, contains eight, or sometimes only seven, thick rays, the first short and scarcely perceptibly articulated; the others divided at the tips. When this fin is turned backwards its tip reaches the base of the caudal. The caudal has eighteen rays, with three short ones above and below: its margin is slightly crescentic. The dorsal is nearly quadrangular, and contains generally thirteen rays, though some specimens have one over or under that number: the second ray, about half as long as the succeeding one, appears to be spinous, or, at least, its articulations are not perceptible even through a lens: the first is so short as not to be readily discovered, and is closely applied to the second; the other rays are distinctly articulated, except at their bases, and divided twice or thrice at their summits, which spread slightly.

COLOUR.—Back and sides bluish-grey with considerable lustre, the back being darkest, and

[page] 115

the tint of the sides gradually passing into the pearl-white of the belly. Dorsal and caudal fins bluish-grey: pectorals and rentrals ochre-yellow tinged with red: anal flesh-red. Irides saffron-yellow with pearly lustre.

INTESTINES.—The intestinal canal, in its course from the gullet to the anus, makes four convolutions and a half, and bears a proportion to the length of the fish, excluding the caudal fin, of 50 to 18: the proportions, however, vary a little in different individuals. At the commencement of the canal there is a very short, thick, glandular æsophagus, succeeded by a stomach whose diameter exceeds that of the rest of the intestine only so much as to leave a gibbosity at what may be termed the pylorus, or first turn of the intestine. From this turn the diameter of the gut, and the strength of its coats, diminish gradually: its inner membrane forms delicate and minute longitudinal wrinkles, waved and indented into each other in a very beautiful manner. There are no cæca. The lobes of the liver are numerous and greatly involved in the folds of the intestine: the colour of the liver is pale. The gall-bladder lies between the intestines and air-bladder: its duct enters the stomach within an inch of the gullet: the bile is pale. The spleen is large and lies in a semicircular form round the exterior convolution of the intestine. The air-bladder extends the whole length of the cavity of the abdomen, and consists of two divisions, united by a very short tube which is bound to the spine by a strong fold of peritonæum: the upper division is the shortest, and is enveloped by a remarkably thick, shining, white capsule, which adheres strongly at its upper end to the spine and septum of the thorax: the bladder may be thrust from its capsule by a slight force. The proper coats of the air-bladder are much thinner, but firmer and stronger than the capsule. A small tube proceeds from the top of the lower division of the air-bladder, but its termination was not traced. The kidneys, as long as the cavity of the abdomen, are connected superiorly by a transverse lobe; and the urinary bladder is a long tube whose calibre scarcely exceeds the joint diameters of the ureters. The lining of the abdomen is white. Many small parasitic worms were found attached by a kind of proboscis to the interior of the intestinal canal.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of snout to tips of caudal 21 9
Length from end of scales on ditto 18 9
Length from beginning of anal 15 6
Length from first ray of ventrals 10 7
Length from ditto of dorsal 9 0
Length from edge of gill-cover 4 0
Length from nape 3 6
Length from centre of orbit 2 3
Breadth of nape 2 2
Length of pectorals 3 2
Height of dorsal 2 2
Length of its attachment 3 0
Length ventrals 2 2
Depth of anal 2 11
Length of its attachment 1 4
Space between it and base of caudal 2 1
Depth of body before dorsal 3 7
Weight of recent fish 5lbs.

Dr. Gairdner has forwarded to me from the Columbia and its tributaries several specimens of a catastomus, which agrees both externally and internally with the preceding, except in the belly being tinged with ochre-yellow. The stomach of one of them is filled with very young shells, apparently of an Unio. There are from 74 to 77 scales on the lateral-line, 46 vertebræ in the spine, and from 15 to 17 rays in the dorsal fin.

Q 2

[page] 116

[53.] 2. CYPRINUS (CATASTOMUS) FORSTERIANUS. (Rich.) Red Sucking Carp.

Cyprinus catastomus, var. FORSTER, Phil. Tr., lxiii., p. 158. An. 1779.

Mithomapeth. PENN., Arct. Zool. Intr., p. ccxcix.

Catastomus Forsterianus. RICHARDSON, Fr. Journ., p. 720. An. 1823.

Red Sucker. FUR TRADERS. Meethqua-maypeth. CREES.

This fish is well known in every part of the country that lies north of Canada: we found it in Lake Huron and Great Slave Lake, and north of the latter it exists in greater abundance than the preceding species, which it entirely resembles in its habits. It makes a more gelatinous soup than any other of the northern fish, and is the best bait for trout or pike. It spawns in June. Though Forster has ranked it merely as a variety of the preceding, it is perfectly distinct, both in external appearance and in various internal characters.

DESCRIPTION

Drawn up from recent specimens and revised from prepared ones.

FORM.—The back is broader and straighter than in the foregoing species, and the depth of the body is less, being about one-fifth of the length exclusive of the caudal, or scarcely exceeding the thickness: the back and sides are a little flattened, and the profile tapers gradually from the shoulders to the tail. Head contained five times and a half in the total length including the caudal fin: it is not so much compressed as in the foregoing and following species, and the snout is longer and more acute, as well as more moveable. The forehead is straight, not arched, and the anterior margin of the orbit is exactly midway between the tip of the snout and posterior edge of the gill-cover. Mouth larger than in C. Hudsonius and farther back, the upper lip, when protruded to the utmost, being scarcely even with the end of the snout. The pendulous flaps of the lower lip are also broader, and the papillæ larger. The interior of the mouth and gullet are similar to the same parts in C. Hudsonius.

SCALES broadly oblong, their sides parallel, their ends segments of a circle; their surfaces impressed with lines radiating from the centre to all sides; their margins nearly even, instead of being crenated as in C. Hudsonius. They are considerably smaller than those of the latter fish, the difference being most apparent in the scales which cover the forepart of the back. Their size increases with their distance from the head, and those on the shoulder are but little larger than those between the pectorals. A scale taken from beneath the lateral line, midway between the pectorals and ventrals, is four lines long and three broad. A linear inch measured on the side near the gill-openings, contains nine scales, seven over the ventrals, and five over the anal. There are from 98 to 107 scales on the lateral line, thirty in a vertical row

[page] 117

behind the pectorals, and twenty-three just before the ventrals. The lateral line is straight, making no perceptible angle at the junction of the tail and body.

FINS.—Br. 3—3; P. 18; D. 12 to 14; V. 10; A. 8 or 9; C. 18 3/3.

The height of the dorsal exceeds the length of its attachment; and its eighth or ninth ray is opposite to the first of the ventrals. The anal, when turned back, does not reach quite to the base of the caudal.

COLOUR of the back intermediate between honey-yellow and oil-green (like old olive-oil); the sides are occupied by a series of patches of light lake-red, more or less continuous, forming a broad irregular stripe: the belly is white. The under fins are tinged with ochre-yellow, and at some seasons have a red hue; the dorsal and upper part of the caudal have nearly the tint of the back.

INTESTINES.—The lining of the abdomen is covered with a pigment similar to that which is attached to the choroid coat of the human eye: it is most abundant on the capsule of the air-bladder, and soils the fingers, but is easily washed off. As it is not present in the foregoing or following species, it forms a convenient distinguishing character. The air-bladder is divided into two sacs, the lower of which sends a slender contorted tube to the œsophagus. The spleen lies in the centre of the convolutions of the gut. The length of the whole alimentary canal is to that of the fish, excluding the caudal fin, as 47 to 17.

DIMENSIONS.

Inchcs. Lines.
Length from end of snout to tips of caudal 22 4
Length from end of scales on ditto 19 3
Length from end of anal 16 7
Length from anus 15 2
Length from ventrals 11 3
Length from dorsal 9 9
Length from posterior edge of gill-cover 4 0
Length from nape 3 7
Length from orbit 2 0
Length from of pectorals 3 4
Length from longest rays of dorsal 2 3
Length from its attachment 2 2
Length of ventrals 2 9
Length longest rays of anal 3 0
Length its attachment 1 3
Length longest rays of caudal 3 5
Length central rays of ditto 1 10
Depth of body where greatest 3 6
Circumference there 10 0
Longitudinal axis of orbit 0 7
Vertical ditto 0 6
Spread of caudal fin 5 0
Length of aliment, canal from gullet to anus 47 0
Weight of recent fish 7½libs.

[page] 118

[54.] 3. CYPRINUS (CATASTOMUS) SUEURII. (Rich.) The Picconou.

Catastomus Le Sueurii*. RICHARDSON, Fr. Journ., p. 772. An. 1823.

Picconou. VOYAGEURS. Wawpawhaw-Keeshew. CREES.

This handsome species was observed by us only in Pine-Island Lake, lat. 54°, long. 110°; but it is not unknown in other parts of the fur-countries, though much more rare than the two preceding species. It may be at once distinguished from them by the size and lustre of its scales and the form of its lips, as well as by the anatomical peculiarity of having its air-bladder divided into three portions. There seems to be considerable variety in the form of the air-bladder in this sub-genus; in C. macrolepidotus of Le Sueur it has four divisions; but in the majority of the species only two. The habits of the Picconou are the same as those of the preceding species. It spawns in June.

DESCRIPTION

Of recent specimens at Cumberland House, April, 1820, revised from prepared ones.

COLOUR.—Back, sides, and gill-covers wood-brown, reflecting when opposed to the light many brilliant tints, in which emerald-green and gold-yellow predominate; bases of the scales bluish-grey, producing an appearance of reticulation; belly reddish-white. The dorsal has the hue of the back with a reddish margin, the other fins are almost entirely red.

SCALES large, quadrangular with parallel sides and irregularly curved ends: their length and breadth nearly equal. Except in the pectoral region, where they are small, their size when in situ appears nearly the same over the whole body: the vertical height of their uncovered portion considerably exceeds its length. A linear inch measured longitudinally on the sides includes three scales, but vertically only two. There are 47 scales on the lateral-line, and about 10 in a vertical line under the dorsal. A scale detached from near the lateral-line above the ventrals measures eight lines and a half in length, and seven and a half in width. The lateral-line turns up decidedly at the anal as in C. Hudsonius.

FORM more compressed than in the preceding species. Profile oblong, having the greatest height, (which is about one-fourth of the total length, including the caudal,) at the beginning of the dorsal. The head is smaller than in either of the preceding species, forming scarcely the sixth of the total length. The very small mouth is farther back than in C. Hudsonius, being, when the jaws are retracted, an inch behind the tip of the rather narrow snout, and just even with it when they are protruded. The lips, instead of being papillated, are furrowed vertically in a very regular and beautiful manner. The palate and gullet resemble the same parts in C. Hudsonius, but are smaller, the comminuting apparatus being more delicate, and the œsophagus remarkably contracted at its origin.

* The original specific name has been altered by dropping the prefixed article, as being more agreeable to the usual custom.

[page] 119

FINS.—Br. 3—3; P. 16; D. 14; V. 9 or 10; A. 9; C. 18 3/3

The dorsal fin is larger than in the foregoing two species, and is nearly in the middle of the fish. The pectorals measure rather less than one-fifth of the distance between the gill-openings and caudal fin. The ventrals are under the middle of the dorsal. The tip of the anal, when turned back, rather overlaps the base of the caudal: its last ray is very small, and its first one short and applied to the base of the second. The caudal is more forked than in the preceding species. The rays of all the fins are thick, particularly those of the anal.

INTESTINES.—Lining of the abdomen white. There is no distinction between the stomach and rest of the gut. The alimentary canal makes four convolutions between the gullet and anus, and bears a proportion to the total length of the fish, excluding the caudal, of 41 to 16. The lining of the intestine has the same minute longitudinal rugæ as that of the preceding two species. The air-bladder is divided into three portions, the central one being the largest, and communicating with the œsophagus. The upper one alone has a thick shining capsule.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches.
Length from snout to tips of caudal 19
Length from snout to caudal 16
Length from snout to anus 12
Greatest depth of body 12
Greatest circumference 5
Length of alimentary canal 41

[55.] 4. CYPRINUS (CATASTOMUS) AUREOLUS. (Le Sueur.) Gilt Sucking-Carp.

Catastomus aureolus. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 95. An. 1817.

M. Le Sueur, who discovered this fish in Lake Erie, gives the following account of it, which we quote because no specimen came under our notice.

"Anal fin long, pointed, and passing considerably beyond the base of the caudal, which is forked with pointed lobes, the inferior lobe being the largest: abdominal fin truncated."——"Body sub-cylindric, elevated at the nape; head quadrangular, gibbous above the eye, almost as high as long; the rays of the anal fin are very strong and large; scales rhomboidal, equal; body of a beautiful orange colour, which is deepest on the back, the base of the scales dark red; the sides are heightened with golden reflections; pectoral, ventral, and anal fins of a fine red orange, caudal fin of a deep carmine colour—the dorsal is paler than the rest of the fins; the lateral line is nearly straight, and commences on a level with the eye. Length of individual described sixteen inches: its depth three, and its thickness two inches and a half.

"FINS.—P. 18; D. 14; V. 9; A. 8; C. 18." (LE SUEUR, l. c.)

[page] 120

[56.] 5. CYPRINUS (CATASTOMUS) NIGRICANS. (Le Sueur.) Black Sucking-Carp.

Catastomus nigricans. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 103. An. 1817.

This species is, like the preceding one, an inhabitant of Lake Erie, where it is known to the fishermen by the names of "Shoemaker," and "Black Sucker." M. Le Sueur gives the following description of it.

"Head large, quadrangular; anal fin straight, its extremity reaching to the base of the caudal; eyes oblong; the lateral line straight, below the level of the eye."——"Body sub-quadrangular near the head; tail straight, short; caudal fin forked with pointed lobes; dorsal quadrangular and small; scales roundish; colour of the back blackish, of the sides and abdomen reddish-yellow, with dusky blotches; pectoral, abdominal, and anal fins reddish; caudal and dorsal dashed with black. Length of specimen thirteen inches.

"FINS.—P. 18; D. 11; V. 9; A. 8; C. 18." LE SUEUR, l. c.

[57.] 1. CYPRINUS (LEUCISCUS) GRACILIS. (Richardson.) Saskatchewan Dace.

FAMILY, Cyprinoideæ. GENUS, Cyprinus. Sub-genus, Leuciscus. CUVIER.

No-natcheegæs. CREE INDIANS.

PLATE 78.

The Leucisci, or Daces, have a short dorsal and anal, are destitute of spinous rays or barbels, and exhibit nothing peculiar in the structure of their lips. The species which we have figured abounds in that part of the Saskatchewan which flows through the prairie district, and is taken at Carlton-house in nets during the summer. It is but an indifferent article of food. Our specimen having been submitted to the inspection of Baron Cuvier, was returned with the following note attached to it: "Espèce particulière de Cyprin voisin de notre Cyprinus microcephalus."

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in the Saskatchewan, April, 1827.

FORM.—Profile approaching to fusiform, most gibbous between the head and dorsal fin: belly flatter. Head small, crown broad and flat, muzzle rounded. The length of the head is contained five times in the total length from the snout to the tips of the central caudal rays. In the dried specimen lines or sutures can be observed on the top of the cranium, dividing it

[page] 121

into nine rectangular pieces. Eyes large and lateral: the orbits are two lengths of their axis from the end of the snout, and three lengths from the tip of the gill-cover; the space between them is flat. Nostrils close to the orbits. Mouth small, toothless: its upper margin, formed by the intermaxillaries, has a slight motion, shutting within the labials. The labials form, as it were, an outer lip, which is continuous with the rounded extremity of the snout that projects about a line beyond the orifice of the mouth. Palate and vomer smooth.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum a narrow crescent, exhibiting in the dried specimen five or six pores on its surface, connected with an internal tube which pervades the whole bone. Operculum four-sided, larger than all the other bones of the gill-plates taken together: its anterior and under sides are the longest, and the latter overlaps the margin of the strap-shaped suboperculum its whole length. A membranous border edges the gill-plate and forms a flap at its apex.

SCALES large, thin, and, when dry, semitransparent. They vary little in size, and their length, which scarcely exceeds their breadth, is about eight lines. Their exterior edges are semicircular and uneven, but not regularly crenated, and their bases are cut almost transversely, but with a slight point in the middle. The surface of their uncovered segment is marked with ten or twelve fine streaks radiating from the centre. The lateral line is straight and contains fifty-five scales: there are seventeen scales in a vertical row under the dorsal, of which seven are above the lateral line. In the dried specimen there is a clear longitudinal streak along the centre of each row of scales, occasioned by the narrow space which intervenes between the adjoining rows becoming apparent from the transparency of the covering scale.

COLOUR pale oil-green on the back, fading to white on the belly. Sides of the head nacry.

FINS.—Br. 3; D. 9; P. 17; V. 8; A. 10; C. 19 4/3.

The dorsal commences opposite to the attachment of the ventrals, and consists of nine rays, the first short and concealed by the skin; the second almost spinous, its articulations being only faintly visible at the tip; it is about half the length of the third, and is closely applied to it without the intervention of membrane. The articulations of the other rays are also obsolete towards their bases, but their summits are more or less branched. The pectorals have seventeen rays, the first one being much stronger than the others, and its articulations visible only at its summit. The ventrals are attached exactly midway between the gills and the anal fin: their rays have strong bony bases, with their upper halves distinctly articulated. The anal has ten rays, the two first being very short; they are all articulated, and the posterior ones are much branched. The caudal fin is forked and has nineteen rays, with four short basal ones above and five below. The depth of the fork equals the length of the central rays.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to the tips of the caudal 12 2
Length from base of central caudal rays 10 4
Length from anus 7 0
Length from dorsal or ventrals 4 10
Length from tip of gill-cover 2 3
Length from centre of orbit 0 11
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 2
Length of third or longest ray of ditto 1 10
Length of last ray of ditto 0 7
Length of pectorals 1 7
Length of ventrals 1 6
Length of attachment of anal 0
Length of longest rays of ditto 1 7
Length of lobes of caudal 2 4
Length of central rays of ditto 0 11
Length of extent of scales on the tail beyond the bases of the caudal 0 6

R

[page] 122

[58.] 2. CYPRINUS (LEUCISCUS) CHRYSOLEUCAS. (Mitchill?) New York Shiner.

New York Shiner (Cyprinus chrysoleucas), MITCHILL, New York Phil. Tr., p. 459?

Mr. Todd, of Penetanguishene, sent me a short notice of a small fish which he considered to be the same with the New York Shiner. It is caught in the month of May, while spawning, on the shallows of Lake Huron, and is said to associate with the Pomotis vulgaris*. It evidently belongs to the group of Leucisci which have the dorsal far back, but the descriptions given by Dr. Mitchill and Mr. Todd are not particular enough to enable us to infer, with any degree of certainty, that these gentlemen had the same species before them. They do not agree in their enumeration of the rays of the fins.

DESCRIPTION

By Mr. Todd of the largest individual which he saw.

"Head smooth, small, depressed on the upper aspect. Mouth small, even, toothless. Eyes large: irides yellow. Body deep, its depth being an inch and three-quarters in a fish six inches and a half long. Lateral line taking the curve of the belly. Dorsal fin far back. Tail forked. Colour of the back dark, of the sides golden-yellow.

"FINS.—Br. 3; P. 10; V. 9; D. 8; A. 12; C. 13. (Mr. Todd.)

3; P. 17; V. 9; D. 9; A. 14; C. 19." (Dr. Mitchill.)

Under the appellation of EXOGLOSSUM NIGRESCENS, or Black Chub, M. Rafinesque describes a Cyprinoid fish which inhabits Lake Champlain. His account of it is exceedingly brief, and his genus Exoglossum, founded chiefly on the Cyprinus maxilingua of Le Sueur, is not adopted in the Règne Animal.

"Head short, forehead smooth and convex; lower lip trilobated. Body oblong, blackish; lateral line nearly straight. Pectoral fins short, obovate; dorsal fin in the middle of the back; tail slightly forked." (Rafinesque, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 417.)

* Dr. Mitchill says that his C. chrysoleucas is found in the company of the Perca flavescens and Pomotis vulgaris.

[page] 123

ESOCIDÆ.

FISH of this family want the adipose fin, and the border of their upper jaw is either formed solely by the intermaxillaries, or if the labials enter at all into its composition, they are destitute of teeth. Their intestinal canal is short, without cæca, most of them have an air-bladder, and, with the exception of the Microstoma of the Mediterranean, all that are known have the dorsal and anal fins opposite to each other. The Esocidæ are voracious fish, many of them inhabitants of rivers. Most of the family is comprised in the Linnean genus Esox, which is subdivided in the Règne Animal into ten sub-genera, that differ from each other by many striking characters, such as the form of the body, which varies from a tolerably thick shape to a very slender one: the size of the scales, which may be moderately large, or quite imperceptible, or there may be a series of strong scales on the lateral line, or a row of keeled ones on each side of the belly: the mandibles also vary greatly in form, and somewhat in composition; thus both jaws may be moderately long and of equal length, or the upper one may be very short and the under one either simply projecting beyond it, or having its symphysis lengthened out into a half beak, or both jaws may be prolonged in the shape of a slender bill; the labials may form almost the half of the upper border of the mouth, or they may be altogether posterior to it, or even fixed to the cheek: there is an equal variety in the dentition, the teeth being, in some cases, small and confined to the margins of the jaws, in others long, card-like, and densely crowded on the mandibles, vomer, palate-bones, base of the tongue, branchial arches, and pharyngeal bones, or the pharyngeal teeth may be en pavè: the gill-covers have also very different forms in the different sub-genera, and in one case they are reduced to little membranous flaps: the gill-rays vary in number from three to eighteen or more. The stomias barbatus differs from the rest of the genus Esox in having a very long barbel on the lower jaw.

The following species, among others, belong to the seas or fresh waters of the United States. Esox estor, reticulatus, niger, phaleratus, and lucius, Belone truncata, Scomber-esox scutellatus, and perhaps equirostrum, Exocætus exiliens, E. furcatus, Mitch. (or E. Nuttallii, Le Sueur, l. c., f. 1), and E. comatus, Mitch. (or E. appendiculatus, Wood, Journ. Ae. Sc. Phil., iv., p. 278). Several species of Belone, Hemiramphus, and Exocætus frequent the Caribbean Sea. The

R 2

[page] 124

sub-genera Alocephalus, Microstoma, Stomias, Chauliodus, and Salanx, contain one, or, at most, two species each, and belong to the Mediterranean, with the exception, perhaps, of Salanx, whose habitat is not mentioned in the Règne Animal.

[53.] 1. ESOX LUCIUS. (Linn.) The Common Pike.

FAMILY, Esocidæ. GENUS, ESOX. Sub-genus, ESOX, CUVIER.

ESOX lucius, AUCTORUM. RICHARDSON, Fr. Journ., p. 716.

Eithinyoo-cannooshæoo. CREE INDIANS. Gedd, SCOTIS. Gedde, DANIS.

The true Pikes form the first division of the Linnean genus Esox. Their slender intermaxillaries, armed with small pointed teeth, occupy two-thirds of the border of the upper jaw: the labials which lie on the sides of the jaw are toothless. The vomer, palate-bones, tongue, pharyngeals, and branchial arches, are stuck full of teeth in card-like plates, and the sides of the lower jaw are armed with a row of long pointed ones. The snout is oblong, obtuse, broad, and depressed: the solitary dorsal is opposite to the anal. The stomach, wide and plaited, is continuous with a slender intestine, which is twice folded upon itself and has no cæca: the air-bladder is very large.

The Common Pike, a well-known inhabitant of the rivers and lakes of Europe and northern Asia, and even of the Caspian Sea, exists also in the United States of America, and in every piece of fresh water up to the arctic extremity of the continent; but it has not been found on the islands of the Polar Sea, nor is it mentioned by Fabricius as a native of Greenland. As it takes a bait set under the ice more readily than any other fish of the same districts, it forms an important resource to the Indian hunter in the depth of winter, when the chase fails him. In the summer it is occasionally shot while basking in shallow waters, but except in very urgent cases, powder and ball are of too high value in the fur countries to be thus expended. No quadruped, bird, or fish, that the pike can capture, seems to be secure from its voracity, and even the spiny perch is an acceptable prey to this water tyrant. The pike rarely weighs more than twelve pounds in the northern parts of America. Our specimen, taken in Lake Huron, was submitted to Cuvier's inspection, and it has also been carefully compared with English pike, without any specific differences having been detected.

[page] 125

DESCRIPTION.

COLOUR.—Back tinged with blackish-green, which changes on the sides to light greenish-grey, and on the belly to pearl-white: on the tip of each scale there is a bright speck having the form of the letter v, and there are seven or eight longitudinal rows of oblong yellowish-grey spots on the sides of the head, body and tail. The cheeks yield brilliant emerald-green reflections; the under jaw and gill-membranes are white: the irides greyish-purple with a gold-yellow circle round the pupil. The dorsal and caudal fins are blackish-green, the former marked with four patchy, longitudinal bands of oil-green, and the latter striped between the rays with the same: the anal is pale greenish-grey with two or three horizontal bands of yellowish-grey, or buff-orange: ventrals the same, with brownish-orange tips; and pectorals mostly brownish-orange shaded with grey.

SCALES thin, broadly oval, their outer edge semicircular, their covered portion deeply divided by fissures into three or four lobes whose edges overlap*. The cheeks and upper half of the operculum are scaly, the rest of the head is covered with smooth skin. The scales on the sides, which are somewhat larger than those on the back, measure three lines and a half in length by two and a half in breadth. There are 124 on the lateral line, and 36 in a vertical row before the ventrals: a linear inch, measured on the sides, contains seven scales. The lateral line is straight and rather nearer to the back than to the belly; it is formed by a deep notch in every third or fourth scale, and a groove in the subjacent one: there are several rows of these emarginated scales on the back and sides, resembling lateral lines.

FORM.—Profile oblong or lanceolate. Body four-sided, the back broader and flatter than the belly; the vertical diameter of the fore and middle parts of the body is about equal to one-seventh of its total length, caudal included: the transverse diameter is two-thirds of the vertical one, and the body carries its thickness to near the anal and dorsal fins, where it thins off into the compressed, tapering tail. Head forming one-fourth of the total length, caudal included. Orbits lateral, close to the crown and midway between the tip of the snout and the gill-openings. The space between the orbits is concave; the snout is broad, rounded, and depressed, and its tip is formed of a narrow cartilage covered by smooth membrane attached to the end of the vomer, and lying between the intermaxillaries. There are upwards of sixty pores on the head, disposed round the orbits, on the preopercula, occipital suture, and along the limbs of the lower jaw. The mouth is capacious. The intermaxillaries are very narrow, and are separated from each other by the somewhat dilated extremity of the vomer to which they are articulated: they are the only portion of the upper lip which is toothed. The labials have an oblong form, and are thrice the length of the intermaxillaries: their posterior piece is very moveable and projects a little beyond the anterior one. The under jaw is longer than the upper one by the thickness of the lip merely. The palate-bones are connected to the

* In our English specimens there are only three lobes to the scales: in the Lake Huron one, most of the scales have four lobes, and their texture is more compact. These variations are, perhaps, to be attributed to a difference in the age of the fish. The Lake Huron specimen is larger, and may therefore be considered as older than the English ones with which we compared it.

[page] 126

vomer by membrane which allows a free hinge-like motion. The tongue is broad and truncated at the tip.

TEETH.—The intermaxillaries and forepart of the lower jaw are furnished with a single crowded row of small slightly-hooked teeth: on the sides of the lower jaw there is a row of rather remote, long, straight, very sharp, awl-shaped teeth, implanted into the bone, with some pretty large ones merely adhering to the gums. The palate bones and vomer are armed with card-like bands of teeth, the interior rows on the former, and anterior one on the latter, being longest: the teeth on the vomer become finer, and the band narrower, posteriorly, until it terminates in a point opposite to the angles of the mouth. The base of the tongue, the inferior and superior pharyngeal bones, and a series of small plates at the inferior union of the branchial arches, are rough like a file with minute teeth. The branchial arches are destitute of rakers, but a row of awl-shaped teeth, flanked on each side with nacry stripes of teeth, like velvet-pile, crowns their acute edges.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum narrow, slightly curved, and carrying its breadth to its extremities. Operculum quadrangular, four times the height of the suboperculum, which exceeds it a little in length. Interoperculum almost concealed beneath the edge of the preoperculum. The gill-openings are very large: the left membrane overlaps the right one at their insertion into the isthmus: the rays are cylindrical, the upper one alone being flattened*.

FINS.—Br. 15; D. 20; P. 16; V. 10; A. 18; C. 18 9/9 Lake Huron specimen.

13; 22; 14; 10; 20; 18 7/7 English specimen.

The dorsal contains twenty rays, of which the first four are short and closely applied to the fifth: the fin is considerably rounded, and the length of its attachment is equal to its height. The ventrals are situated midway between the tip of the snout and extremities of the caudal. The anal is shaped like the dorsal, and equals it in the length of its rays, but has a shorter attachment: it is opposed to the twelve posterior rays of the dorsal. The caudal is sharply forked.

INTESTINES.—On opening the belly the liver presents itself, having an oblong form without lobes. The duct of the gall-bladder enters the intestine about an inch below the pylorus. The stomach is a straight tube, plicated internally and capable of great distention: its muscular coat is strong, and several longitudinal bands of fat and blood-vessels are continued from its peritonæal coat along the rest of the intestine. Below the pylorus, which is much contracted, the intestine gradually diminishes in calibre and in the strength of its coats: but the rectum is a little wider. A cordiform spleen is attached to the stomach. A large air-bladder extends the whole length of the abdomen: it has a tendinous capsule to which it adheres but slightly. The kidneys, of a wax-yellow colour, speckled with black, extend along the spine from the gullet to an inch beyond the anus: the urinary bladder is separated from the kidney by the lower end of the air-bladder.

* One of our English specimens has 12 gill-rays, another has 13, and a third has 13 on one side and 14 on the other.

[page] 127

DIMENSIONS

Of Lake Huron specimen, dried.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of snout to tips of caudal 26 6
Length from tips of central and caudal rays 25 6
Length from end of scales on caudal 23 8
Length from anus 18 0
Length from beginning of dorsal 17 6
Length from tip of gill-cover 6 3
Length from orbit 2 9
Length of labials 2 5
Length of intermaxillaries 0 9
Length of lower jaw 4 1
Length of pectorals 2 6
Length of ventrals 2 3
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 10
Length of central rays of ditto 2
Length of attachment of anal 2 1
Length of central rays of ditto 2 7
Length of lobes of caudal 3 11
Length of central rays of ditto 1 8
Length of lateral line 17 3
Extent of scales beyond base of caudal 1 0

Of recent specimen taken in the Saskatchewan.

Length from end of snout to tips of caudal 26 6
Length from base of ditto 22 6
Length from anus 17 0
Length of caudal fin 3 6
Length of œsophagus and stomach 8 0
Length from pylorus to rectum 15 0
Length of rectum 2 6
Length of whole alimentary canal 25 6

[54.] 2. ESOX ESTOR. (Le Sueur.) The Maskinongè.

ESOX estor. CUVIER, Règ. An., ii., p. 282.

Our specimen of this pike was obtained at Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron, where it is rather scarce, being more common in Lake Erie and the southern Canadian waters. We did not meet with it in any of the rivers or lakes that discharge themselves into Hudson's Bay or the Polar Sea. Mr. Todd informed me that in the spring, which is its spawning season, it frequents the small rivers that fall into Lake Simcoe, and that it feeds on "small, gelatinous, green balls which grow on the sides of banks under water, and on small fishes." It attains the weight of twenty-eight pounds, and is considered as much preferable to the common pike for the table. It is a curious circumstance, that though the Maskinongè first received a distinct specific name from M. Le Sueur, his original description (Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i. p. 413), quoted in the Règne Animal, applies exactly to the E. lucius, and not at all to estor. Our specimen of the latter was identified by Cuvier.

DESCRIPTION

Of a Lake Huron specimen.

COLOUR.—It differs from the Common Pike, in the general tint of the body being lighter than the markings: the back is rather dark, the sides light bluish-grey, interspersed with roundish distinct or confluent spots about the size of buck-shot. When exposed to a strong

[page] 128

light, a quadrantal segment of each scale reflects bright colours, which change their place when the fish is moved, but there is no fixed pale angular mark on the tips of the scales, as in E. lucius. The scales are about half the size of those of the latter, and of a different form, their length and breadth being equal: and their middle lobe is the smallest; whereas in the Common Pike the middle lobe is rather the largest. The lateral line, measuring fifteen inches and a half, contains 162 scales, and there are about 45 in a vertical row before the ventrals: a linear inch on the sides contains a little more than ten scales. The structure of the gill-cover is nearly that of E. lucius, but the suboperculum is slightly broader and more rounded posteriorly, giving a curve to the edge of the plate, which is almost straight in E. lucius: there is also a distinctive mark in two rows of scales which descend on the anterior edge of the operculum in E. estor, until they reach the upper angular process of the suboperculum. The length of the head is contained four times and a half in the total length, including the caudal.

FINS.—Br. 18; D. 21; P. 12; A. 21; C. 19 9/7.

The five anterior rays of the dorsal are short and applied closely to the base of the sixth. The four anterior rays of the anal are in like manner applied to the fifth.

DIMENSIONS

Of a dried specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to extrem. of caudal 23 3
Length from tip of snout to central caudal rays 22 10
Length from tip of snout to anus 15 6
Length from tip of snout to beginning of dorsal 14
Length from tip of snout to tip of gill-cover 5 5
Length from tip of snout to orbit 2 4
Length of intermaxillaries 0 10½
Length of labials 2 1
Length of lower jaw 3 6
Length of ventrals 2
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 5
Length of central rays of ditto 2 7
Length of attachment of anal 2 0
Length of central rays of ditto 2 7
Length of lobes of caudal 4 0
Length of central rays of ditto 1 8
Extent of scales beyond bases of caudal 0 11
Depth of caudal fork 1

M. Le Sueur describes three other species of Esox which inhabit the fresh waters of the United States: viz., reticulatus, niger, and phaleratus; the first of which is known by its scaly opercula, and its flanks marked with brownish lines, which cross occasionally so as to form meshes.

[55.] 1. SCOMBER-ESOX SCUTELLATUS. (Le Sueur.) Newfoundland Saury-Pike.

GENUS, ESOX. LINN. Sub-genus, Scomber-esox. LACEP., CUV. (Saïris, Rafinesque.)

The scombrèsoces of Lacépède have a general resemblance to the Belones, garfish, or sea-needles, the same kind of long, slender bill, the upper border of which

[page] 129

is entirely formed by the intermaxillaries; and also a row of keeled scales on each side of the belly, the scales which cover the rest of the body being scarcely apparent; but they are like the mackerels in the posterior rays of the dorsal and anal, being distributed in detached finlets.

The S. scutellatus, described by Le Sueur, was taken from the stomach of a cod caught on the banks of Newfoundland; and the S. equirostrum of the same naturalist is known only by a specimen in the Boston Museum. Nothing is said of their habits, but they are probably similar to those of the European species—the Gowdnook, or Egypt-herring of the Scottish fishermen, which enters the Firth of Forth in considerable shoals almost every autumn. "It is," says Mr. Neill, "a stupid inactive fish, which is left on the shallows at the ebbing of the tide, with its long nose sticking in the mud, and is picked up in hundreds by the people from Kincardine, Alloa, and other places*."

[56.] 2. The BRAZILIAN PIKE of Pennant is most probably a Scomber-esox. It resembles, it is true, a Hemiramphus in the great prolongation of the lower jaw; but this sub-genus is characterised in the Règne Animal as having moderately large round scales, and no detached finlets behind the dorsal and anal: the known hemiramphi, moreover, inhabit the tropical seas, and it is, therefore, less likely that one should be found so far north on the Labrador coast as Croque Harbour, where Pennant's fish was taken. The following is that naturalist's account of it.

"Pike with the under jaw very slender, and twice as long as the upper: the head smooth: body covered with small scales: the dorsal and anal fins opposite: between them and the tail a row of small spurious fins like the mackerel. Taken off Croque Harbour, and communicated to me by Sir Joseph Banks." (Arctic Zoology, Suppl., p. 145.)

[57.] 1. EXOCETUS EXILIENS. (Bloch.) North American Flying-fish.

FAMILY, Esocidæ, CUVIER. GENUS, Exocetus, LINN.

The Exoceti, or Flying-fish, are readily known from all the other groups of the same order by the very great size of their pectoral fins, which spread out so as to

* Wernerian Transactions, i., p. 542.

S

[page] 130

form a kind of wings capable of sustaining the fish during a short flight through the air. They have scales on the head and body, and a raised line of keeled scales along each flank, as in the gar-fish and saury-pikes; the head is flattened above and on the sides; the dorsal is over the anal; the upper lobe of the caudal is the shortest; the eyes are large; the intermaxillaries have no pedicles, and form the whole border of the upper jaw; the teeth are small and pointed on both jaws, and "en pavés" on the pharyngeals; there are ten gill-rays; the air-bladder is large, and the intestines straight without cæca. Some species have barbels on the lower jaw.

The Flying-fish inhabit all the warm and temperate districts of the ocean. Cuvier remarks that their wing-like pectoral fins serve as parachutes merely, but after daily observation of their flight, during a voyage of several months within the tropics, I can give my testimony to the correctness of Mr. Collie's statement, made in the Appendix to Captain Beechey's voyage, that these fish not only possess the power of descending and rising in the air without touching the water, but also of suddenly changing the direction of their flight, and going off even at a right angle previous to alighting in the sea. Their flight can extend to several hundred yards, and is very rapid, being apparently scarcely inferior to that of a swift bird: their descent into the water is sometimes sudden, as if they dropt down from exhaustion, at other times gradual like their ascent, and they occasionally bury themselves in the brow of a rising wave. They often rise from the water in a perfect calm, but they seem to take to the air more frequently during the prevalence of a moderate breeze, though this may be partly accounted for by our field of observation being increased when the ship was in motion. The approach of the vessel often occasioned the flight of a shoal of these fish, and we could then easily ascertain that the angle of the course with the wind varied, though I never saw them fly directly against a breeze, however slight. In the moonlight nights many flew into the ports of the small frigate in which I was then serving, and furnished a very agreeable addition to our breakfast.

The exocetus exiliens, which Bloch obtained from Carolina, is distinguished by the position of its long ventrals behind the middle of the body. It is figured by Dr. Mitchill (pl. v., f. 3) under the name of the New York Flying-fish, although he makes no mention of it in his text. The young have black bands on their fins, and M. Le Sueur's E. fasciatus, taken in the Gulf-stream, is, in Cuvier's opinion, merely one of these. It is probably this species which, keeping in the warm waters of the Gulf-stream, ranges northwards to the banks of Newfoundland. Cuvier observes, that the E. exiliens and mesogaster of Bloch resemble each other so much that it is not easy to distinguish the species by the descriptions and figures of voyagers.

[page] 131

Dr. Mitchill mentions the mesogaster as an inhabitant of the sea of New York; and Dr. Smith enumerates it among the fish of Massachusetts; but the notice of the former is too slight to prove that he has applied the name rightly, though sufficient to show that he is not speaking of the species which he has figured as the New York Flying-fish; and the latter writer gives no descriptions or figures in his work, whereby a naturalist may judge of the correctness of his determination of the species. The E. volitans, the most common species in the Atlantic, has small ventrals situated before the middle of the body. Both forms occur in the Pacific. Lientenant-Colonel Smith makes the following remark on an exocetus which he observed off the Isle of Sable, near Nova Scotia. "I would have taken it for mesogaster or exiliens, but the wings, instead of being rounded beneath, were very unequally and acutely two-lobed, by a notch extending obliquely to near their lower margin; the eye was very large, the scales broad; the colour greenish-grey; and the length about ten inches.

S 2

[page] 132

SILUROIDEÆ.

THIS family is distinguished from the others of the same order by the skin being either naked, or protected by large bony plates, but always destitute of true scales. The intermaxillaries, suspended under the ethmoid bone, form the border of the upper jaw, while the labials are lengthened out into barbels, or are simply rudimentary. The intestinal canal is wide, without cæca, and doubles upon itself; the air-bladder is large, and adheres to a peculiar bony apparatus; the dorsal and pectorals have almost always a strong spine, with a joint for their first ray, and there is very often an adipose fin as in the Salmonoideæ. The family contains four genera, Silurus, Malapterurus, Aspredo, and Loricaria, the first of which, being by far the most extensive, is divided into twelve sub-genera. The species abound in the rivers of warm countries and are numerous in America. The following species have been detected in the United States. Bagrus marinus, Pimelodus catus, albidus, nebulosus, æneus, cauda-furcata, nigricans, natalis, and insigne (livrée, Le Sueur). Doras costatus, Callichthys (Silurus callichthys, Linn.) and Aspredo (S. aspredo, Linn.). The Mysti, Hypostomes, and Loricariæ, are South American fish. The Schilbes, Synodontes, Heterobranchi, and Malapteruri, are inhabitants of the Nile, Senegal, and some Asiatic rivers. The Plotoses are Indian fish. The Silurus glanis is the largest fresh-water fish that exists in Europe, being sometimes upwards of six feet long, and weighing three hundred weight.

[58.] 1. SILURUS (PIMELODUS) CŒNOSUS. (Richardson.) Huron Pimelode.

FAMILY, Siluroideæ. GENUS, Silurus. L. Sub-genus, Pimelodus. LACEP., CUV.

Fish belonging to the genus Silurus have the mouth at the extremity of the snout; and in most of the sub-genera the first ray of the pectoral fins is a strong spine, articulated in such a manner to the shoulder-bone, that the fish can at pleasure lay it along the body, or fix it perpendicularly, so as to render it capable of inflicting a very dangerous wound. The head is depressed, the intermaxillaries

[page] 133

suspended to the ethmoid, and not protractile, the labials very small, but almost always prolonged into a fleshy barbel, besides which there are other barbels attached to the lower jaw, and even to the nostrils. The gill-covers want the subopercular bones; the strong, heart-shaped air-bladder adheres by its two upper lobes to a bony apparatus belonging to the first vertebra. The stomach is a fleshy cul-de-sac; and the gut is long and wide, without cæca.——Characters to distinguish the sub-genera from each other may be found in the number and extent of the dorsal, or the presence or the absence of the adipose fins, the spinous or soft structure of the first dorsal ray, the form of the head, the number of barbels or their absence, the nakedness of the skin, or the presence of bony plates on the head, nape, lateral line, or whole of the sides, the dentition and the structure of the gills.

In the sub-genus Pimelodus, which is very rich in species, the body is destitute of lateral armature, being clothed merely with a smooth skin; the jaws, and frequently the palate-bones, are furnished with teeth like velvet pile, but there is no band of teeth on the vomer parallel to that on the upper jaw, as in the sub-genus bagrus. There is very great variety in the form of the head, and in the number of barbels appended to it. The Pimelodus cænosus inhabits Lake Huron, where it frequents muddy rivers and attains the weight of several pounds. It takes a bait readily and is excellent eating. A somewhat mutilated specimen, taken at Penetanguishene, and presented to me by Mr. Todd, having been sent to Baron Cuvier, was returned with the following remark: "Pimelode très voisin du Silure noir de Lac Erie de La Sueur. Notre travail sur les Silures n'étant pas encore terminé nous n'avons pas fixé son nom." This pimelode belongs to the division or tribe of the sub-genus, in which there is only a single band of teeth on the upper jaw, and the head furnished with eight barbels, has an oval shape, without any bony plates appearing through the smooth skin.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen from Penetanguishene.

FORM.—Profile oval, tapering into the tail. Head broadly oval, forming two-ninths of the total length. Orbits small and nearer to the snout than to the gill-opening. Nostrils situated some distance before the eye; a slender barbel, half an inch long, springs from their posterior margin. Snout obtuse. Labials ending in a tapering barbel, which is an inch and a quarter long and reaches to the gill-opening; there are also two slender barbels on each side of the chin. Both jaws are armed with a brush-like band of short teeth, very conspicuous in the dried specimen. The palate and vomer are smooth. The bones of the skull are firmly united together, and it is difficult to distinguish the pieces of the gill-covers through the skin. The upper gill-ray runs under the edge of the operculum, and is firmly joined to

[page] 134

it at one corner, thus supplying the place of the suboperculum, which is wanting in this genus: the preoperculum, though firmly connected to the operculum by bone, is marked out by its slightly-elevated edge, but the interoperculum cannot be traced through the skin. There are nine gill-rays, all cylindrical except the two superior ones, which are flattened at their upper extremities. The gill-openings are rather confined. The humeral bones are strong and spreading, with a process which can be felt through the skin, extending backwards above the pectoral; the nape is smooth.

FINS.—Br. 9; D. 1/7—0; P. 1/8; V. 8; A. 24; C. 17 9/12.

The dorsal contains seven branched rays, the first of which is sheathed in the deep posterior groove of a strong acute pointed bone, that can be erected or depressed at the will of the fish. This bony spine is a little shorter than the first soft ray. The adipose fin corresponds to the hinder part of the anal. The pectoral is armed still more strongly than the dorsal, by a bone which is triangular at the base and compressed towards its acute tip: its posterior edge is serrated by ten or eleven acute teeth pointing downwards. The ventrals are posterior to the dorsal, and a little nearer to the caudal fin than to the end of the snout. The anal and caudal are large, and their outline, like that of the dorsal, is slightly rounded: the former has twenty-four rays, including three short anterior ones, and the caudal has many short basal ones, with seventeen long ones.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of snout to tips of central caudal rays 10 4
Length from centre of orbit 1 1
Length from posterior angle of gill-cover 2 4
Length from dorsal fin 3
Length from ventrals 4 8
Length from anal 6 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 0
Length of central rays of ditto 1 5
Length of dorsal spine 1 0
Length of adipose fin 0 7
Length of pectoral spine 1 0
Length of rays of pectoral 1 3
Length of ventrals 1 1
Length of attachment of anal 1 9
Length of its central rays 1 2
Length of lateral caudal rays 1
Length of its central rays 1 6

[59.] 2. SILURUS (PIMELODUS) NIGRESCENS. (Le Sueur.) Black Pimelode.

Pimelode noirâtre (P. nigrescens). LE SUEUR, Mém. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, v. p. 153, Pl. 16. Lowest figure.

The black pimelode described, together with six other species, by M. Le Sueur, in the work quoted above, inhabits Lakes Erie and Ontario and their tributary rivers, frequenting places where the bottom is muddy. It is said to attain a great size, and is a sluggish, inactive fish, generally lying still for a long time in one

[page] 135

spot, so that it can be very readily captured by passing a noose over its head. It is also speared in the night time, by torch-light, which is a common mode of fishing in the lakes.

M. Le Sueur distinguishes this species by the orbicular shape of its head, the form of its body, which is broad anteriorly and compressed posteriorly, and by the black colour of its iris. It has eight barbels in the ordinary situations: the two pairs on the lower jaw are of equal length; the eyes are small; the anterior nasal openings are tubular, and, as usual, a barbel springs from the hinder margin of each of the posterior ones; the cheeks are rounded; the snout is broad and depressed; the upper jaw projects beyond the inferior one, and both are provided with fine, long, closely-crowded teeth, which are buried to their tips in the thick integuments: the gullet is also furnished with tubercles covered with teeth; the dorsal, broad and rounded, has its bony ray set posteriorly with teeth which point toward its base; the anal and ventrals are also rounded: the former is very long, the latter and the adipose fin are of medium size; the caudal is slightly crescentic at the end; all the rays of the fins, except the bony ones of the pectorals and dorsal, are divided and concealed by the very thick skin in which they are enveloped.

FINS.—Br. 8; D. 7; P. 10; V. 8; A. 25; C. 16. (LE SUEUR, l. c.)

[60.] 3. SILURUS (PIMELODUS) BOREALIS. (Richardson.) The Mathemeg.

Cod mathemeg. PENN., Arct. Zool. Suppl., p. 115. No. 94. Intr., exci.

Silurus felis? RICH., Frank. Journ., p. 723.

Le Chat. CANADIAN VOYAGEURS. Mathemeg. CREES.

The mathemeg, or land cod of the residents in the fur countries, is taken sparingly, during the summer months, in the lakes through which the Saskatchewan flows. It is the most northern American species of the family, but does not range higher than the 54th parallel. It is prized as a well-flavoured, rich fish, though its aspect is by no means prepossessing to one who is a stranger to its good qualities. Its Cree appellation signifies "ugly fish." A specimen which I brought home in 1821, is not now within my reach, but the species differs manifestly from the two preceding ones in the shape of its dorsal fin, and in its pectoral spine being void of serratures. The size of its head also requires it to be included in that tribe of the sub-genus which is indicated in the Règne Animal by the name of Les Chats, or Cats, in which the head is very broad, covered with naked skin, and fur-

[page] 136

nished sometimes with six, sometimes with eight barbels: there are no palatine teeth.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen caught in Pine-Island Lake, lat. 54° N.

COLOUR dark greenish-brown on the back and sides: on the belly whitish.

FORM.—Body oblong, tapering posteriorly; belly tumid before the ventrals. No scales: lateral line straight. Head flat and broad, its breadth equalling its length. There is a small lengthening of the cranium at the nape, which is concealed by the thick smooth skin. Snout obtuse, almost semicircular. Mouth at the extremity of the head, the upper lip slightly overlapping the lower one. There are eight barbels, two formed by the tapering labials and reaching to the gill-openings; two springing from the upper borders of the nostrils, about an inch long; and two pairs on the lower jaw, the outermost and longest measuring two inches and a half. Teeth small and erect in brush-like plates on both jaws: the palate and vomer smooth. Dorsal sub-quadrangular: its bony first ray smooth. The pectoral spine also free from denticulations. Adipose fin rather large and opposed to the posterior third of the anal. Anal large and long, terminating one-third of its own length from the base of the caudal. The latter has a wide shallow fork with obtusely-rounded lobes. The length of the specimen, excluding the caudal, was thirty inches.

FINS.—D. 1/6; P. 1/6; V. 9; A. 25; C. 17 3/3.

[page] 137

SALMONOIDEÆ.

THE fish of this family were collected by Linnæus into a single great genus, which is concisely characterised by a scaly body; a first dorsal having articulated rays; and a second small one, not sustained by rays, but formed merely of a fold of the skin enclosing fat, and hence named the adipose fin. The Salmonoideæ have numerous cæca and an air-bladder; they almost all ascend rivers, their habits are voracious, and most of them are highly esteemed as articles of food. The surprising variety which exists in their dentition, and in the structure of their jaws, furnishes characters for the numerous sub-genera into which Cuvier has divided this extensive genus: but owing to the absence of obvious peculiarities by which we may distinguish one species from another of the same group in this family, and the difficulty of collecting specimens from various countries for comparison, inextricable confusion has crept into the synonymy. The loss which science has sustained in the death of Cuvier has deferred the rectification of this, which must be accomplished by some ichthyologist of adequate means and talents, before a precise statement can be made respecting the geographical distribution of the species.

In the TROUTS, or TRUE SALMON, constituting the first sub-genus (Salmo, Cuvier), the labials form a large portion of the border of the upper jaw, and there is a row of pointed teeth on these bones, the intermaxillaries, lower jaw, and palate-bones, and two rows on the vomer, tongue, and pharyngeals, so that the dentition is more complete than in any other tribe of fish. In the old males the point of the lower jaw is incurvated, and lodges in a cavity formed in the forepart of the roof of the mouth, anterior to a transverse membrane. The shape of the trouts is known to every one. Their ventrals are opposed to the middle of the dorsal, and the adipose is over the anal. They have about ten gill-rays. Their long, narrow stomach doubles upon itself, and the pyloric cæca are very numerous; the air-bladder reaches from one end of the abdomen to the other, and communicates with the upper part of the œsophagus. The trouts have almost always spotted bodies, and they are generally excellent food. They ascend rivers to spawn and surmount cascades, thus attaining the rivulets and small lakes of the highest mountains. Such is the compendious character of the sub-genus contained in the Règne Animal, to which we may add, that the group is an exceedingly natural one, so much so,

T

[page] 138

that very minute observation and much practical skill are requisite for the due discrimination of the species. No attempt that has hitherto been made to frame proper specific characters for the trouts has succeeded, and a great number of names have consequently been introduced into science which it is almost impossible to appropriate correctly. In some instances, several nominal species have been created, by the description of different states of the same trout under separate names, and as frequently two or more species have been confounded together. Most of the American trouts, though perfectly distinct, have been described as identical with the common European ones. The rectification of this confusion is a matter that concerns the legislator as well as the naturalist, for nothing certain can be learnt of the habits of a trout until we have the means of recognising it in its various stages of growth; nor without such knowledge can the legislative enactments which abound in North America, as well as in Europe, be of much utility, or indeed fail of being actually injurious. Figures, unless perfectly correct in all the details, do not aid us much in distinguishing species which are so similar in external form; and descriptions of colour, if unaccompanied by notices of peculiarities of structure, as is the case in many ichthyological works, are of still less service. The hues and markings of the trouts are modified by their age, food, and other circumstances. The younger individuals are generally more spotted than the older ones, which have a more uniform and often a deeper colour. When a trout has abundance of its proper aliment, as must be generally the case before it can attain a spawning condition, its scales acquire a splendour, and its markings an intensity and distinctness very different from what the same fish exhibits when out of season—so that we might say with M. Agassiz, these fish bedeck themselves, like birds, in a nuptial garb. This gentleman also observes, that the tints of the trouts are most brilliant, and their colours most vivid in the autumn, and at the time of the greatest cold, or in the months of October, November, December, and January; which is the precise period of the development of the spawn in many of the species. He likewise states that the most beautiful Salmon-trout are found in waters which abound in small crustaceæ, direct experiments having shown to his satisfaction that the intensity of the red colour of their flesh depends upon the quantity of gammarinæ which they had devoured. Dr. Knox's researches give a nearly similar result, by proving the red substance which is generally to be found in the intestines of a salmon that has recently quitted the sea to consist of the eggs of echinodermata and crustaceæ. To this rich aliment he attributes the brilliancy of the scales of a salmon in prime condition, and the high flavour and deep colour of its flesh.

[page] 139

Being convinced that much assistance in discriminating the different species of trout may be obtained by carefully observing the forms and relative sizes of the various parts of the head, particularly the opercular pieces, the heads of the American trouts, described in the following pages, are figured of the natural size, and two plates of the heads of British trouts are added for the purpose of comparison. The proportion of the head to the whole body, the dentition particularly of the vomer and tongue, and the form and size of the scales, have also been carefully noted in the descriptions. I have recently been led to conclude that the number of the pyloric cæca ought to be taken into account as a specific distinction; but living as I do in a part of the country where there are no trouting streams, and far distant from waters affording a variety of species, I have been unable to carry my anatomical researches to the extent that I could have wished; and I much regret that I did not turn my attention to this subject when I had it in my power to examine recent American specimens. I have been indebted, it is true, to kind friends for numerous presents of trouts from the Orkneys, Sutherlandshire, Kinrosshire, Dumfriesshire, and Wales; but such distant land-carriage was productive, in many cases, of so much injury to the specimens, that I could not always satisfactorily determine how far differences in the number of the cæca were connected with variations of external form.

The following species of trout are mentioned in the Règne Animal as existing in Europe. Salmo salar, hamatus, Schiefermulleri, hucho, lemanus, trutta, fario, punctatus, marmoratus, salvelinus, alpinus, salmulus (samlet or par), and umbla*. From the want of continental specimens for comparison, I am unable to say, with any pretension to correctness, how many of the British trouts can be arranged under

* Nilsson enumerates as inhabitants of the waters of Scandinavia,—I. TRUTTÆ:—Salmo solar, ocla, trutta, truttula, fario, punctatus. II. SALVELINI:—Salmo ventricosus, carbonarius, alpinus, pollidus, salvelinus, and rutilus. M. Agassiz, however, reduces the species on the continent of Europe to six, but admits that he has seen additional ones in Great Britain. His species are:—
"1. SALMO UMBLA, Linn., the Char of England, the Ombre Chevalier of the Lake of Geneva, the Rathch of Swiss Germany, and the Schwartz rental of Saltzburg.—Synonyms: S. salvelinus, alpinus, Linn., salmarinus (but not the S. alpinus of Bluch). This fish is found in England, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, and in all the southern parts of Germany.
2. S. FARIO, Linn.—the Trout of brooks, Common trout, Gillaroo trout, and Par. Synonyms: Salmo silvaticus, Schrank, alpinus, Bloch, punctatus and marmoratus, Cuvier, and erythrinus, Linn. It is found as extensively as the first species.
3. S. TRUTTA, Linn. Sea Trout—Salmon Trout. It is the same as the Salmo lemanus of Cuvier, and the S. albatus of Rondeletius. It is found as extensively as the two preceding species.
4. S. LACUSTRIS, Linn. The same as the S. illanca and Schiefermulleri of Bloch. It is found in the lakes of Lower Austria, and in the Rhine above Constance.
5. S. SALAR, Linn. The true Salmon. The Salmo hamatus of Cuvier is the old fish, and the S. Gædemii of Bloch is the young. Found in the northern seas, whence it ascends the rivers even as high as the Swiss lakes.
6. S. RUCHO, Linn. Peculiar to the waters of the Danube." (Agassiz. Paper read before the British Association at the Edinburgh meeting, reported in Lit. Gaz.)

T 2

[page] 140

the preceding names: but to serve as an explanation of plates 91 and 92, and also as an introduction to the descriptions of the American trout, I shall give a few notices of the British ones that I have had an opportunity of examining. Of the correct designation of our most important trout,

1. SALMO SALAR there can be no doubt. The head of a "run fish," or of one taken on its way to the sea after spawning, is represented on Plate 91, f. 1. The posterior edge of the gill-cover is the segment of a circle, into the formation of which the suboperculum enters largely, and there is but one tooth on the vomer. The specimen was taken in the Water of Urr, a river of Galloway, in the month of December: some other particulars respecting it will be found in our account of the Quebec Salmon. Mr. Yarrell informs me that the Common Salmon has 60 vertebræ in the spine*. The number of pyloric cæca appears to vary. The gentleman just mentioned having sent me the viscera of two large female salmon, brought to the London market, in prime condition, in the month of April, I found 63 cæca in the one, and 68 in the other. The gut and larger cæca of the former were filled with botriocephali, the roe was about one-third grown: the latter, which was not quite so far advanced towards the spawning state, was not infested with tape-worm: the alimentary canal of both was thickly lined with a tenacious mucus, mixed with some specks of a red matter resembling lobster spawn.

2. SALMON-TROUT. Under this name a fish is brought in large quantities to the London market in the beginning of summer. It has a very close resemblance to the Common salmon, of the same size, but has nevertheless an aspect so peculiar as to be readily recognised by the fishmongers. Its head is proportionably somewhat larger than that of the salar, but its vomerine teeth are nearly the same, that is, they vary in number from one or two to five or six, and are placed, in the latter case, two in front, the others in a single row, but turned alternately to opposite sides. The teeth generally are more slender and acute than those of the Common salmon. The gill-cover differs from that of the latter in the curve of its posterior edge being elliptical, in consequence of the suboperculum being much less rounded off. According to Mr. Yarrell, the Salmon-trout has only 59 vertebræ, or one fewer than the S. salar. One specimen from the Nith had 59 cæca, another 61. The head of the latter is represented in Plate 92, f. 1, A, with a view of its open mouth (f. 1, B), to show the dentition. The scales of the Salmon-trout are thin and delicate, and the spots on the sides have sometimes a slender crescentic form; at other times they assume the shape of two crescents turned back to back, or that of the letter x. I have obtained specimens from Loch Stennis, in the Orkneys, from the rivers Nith and Medway, and from Wales. In the latter quarter it is confounded with another species, under the name of Sewin. It feeds more upon fish than the Common salmon †. I took a young coal-fish and a fragment of sand-stone from the

* Artedi says of the Common salmon of the Baltic (Lax Suecorum), "Vertebræ in universum quinquaginta sex."

† Lieutenant-Colouel Lawrence, an ardent and experienced angler, informs me that the salmon is more in the habit of springing out of the water than the Salmon-trout, and will do so either to take the artificial fly, or to disengage itself from the hook when it feels the smart; but the Salmon-trout, as soon as it is struck by the angler, descends directly to the bottom of the pool, and can scarcely be dislodged.

[page] 141

stomach of an Orkney specimen. Some British ichthyologists consider our Salmon-trout to be the Salmo trutta; but it is certainly not the species so designated on the continent, which has a prolonged double series of vomerine teeth. The brief remark in the Règne Animal, on the Truite de mer, or Salmo Schiefermulleri, applies in all points to our Salmon-trout.

3. The HIRLING of the Nith, and Whiting of the Esk, Phinoe, or Salmo albus, of Fleming, Salmo Cumberland, or Le Saumon blanc, of Lacépède, resembles the two preceding so much as to be readily mistaken for either. The head bears the same proportion to the body as in the Common salmon, and its scales are larger and still more delicate than those of the Salmon-trout, but the colours and markings are nearly the same. It is most readily distinguished by its vomerine teeth extending farther back in two rows, and being clustered in front. In several specimens the cæca were found to be 49. The intestines were lined with the same kind of grey mucus, mixed with spots of the red substance which is found in the guts of the salmon. This species enters the rivers in July and August, its flesh has a deep salmon colour and a very excellent flavour. The usual size is from one to two pounds. Larger individuals are confounded with young salmon, and are sold indiscriminately with them in the Dumfries market, under the name of "grilses." Salmon-trout are also frequently sold by the name of Hirlings.

4. Plate 91, f. 2, represents the head of a trout which is in Mr. Yarrell's possession. It was taken from a Glamorganshire fish, said to be the SEWIN (Salmo Cambriscus of Donovan), which is very probably the same species with the Bull-trout of the Tweed, and the Salmo kamatus of Cuvier. We have already remarked that the Salmon-trout is also called Sewin in Wales; indeed, the whole article in Pennant's British Zoology on the Grey evidently refers to the Salmon-trout*. As I have not seen an authentic specimen of the salmo humatus of the Règne Animal, I am unable decidedly to controvert M. Agassiz's opinion that it is merely a nominal species, founded upon a change of form which takes place in the old males of Salmo salar; but the evidence I have gleaned from authors induces me to follow Cuvier in considering it to be quite distinct. There can be no question that the two heads represented on our 91st plate belong to different species: now the lower one is very like the head of the Tweed trout, which, in the whole shape, as well as in the markings of the body, closely resembles Bloch's figure, t. 98, quoted by Cuvier as his Salmo hamatus. Were the peculiarities of the latter merely the effect of age, we should not find it more thickly and generally spotted than even the younger individuals of the Common salmon, which is in fact the case. The following passage, quoted from the Lachesis Lapponica, tends to prove, not only the northern range of the Salmo hamatus, but also that the hook of the lower jaw is developed even in young fish; but the old males of the Common salmon that we usually see in the Nith, and some other British rivers, have a comparatively slight hook. "Here," in Lulean Lapland, "the Common salmon is found with the under jaw occasionally hooked. I inquired whether this variety was esteemed a distinct species, or whether a difference arising from age: both of which questions I was

* Pennant quotes doubtfully Salmo eriox, Linn., as synonymous with his Grey. It is described by authors as having a deeper body than the Common salmon, grey spots, and an even tail, characters which all occur in an old Salmon-trout. The caudal fin becomes even in several species of trout as they advance in age.

[page] 142

answered in the negative. I was shown a fish of the smallest size, which had in proportion as large a hook to the lower jaw as the largest. I inquired whether the hooked salmon were furnished with roe or milt. I was answered they had always milt. On opening seven of them I found this verified; whereas four salmon which were not hooked had roes. The hooked or male salmon is so called because the point of its lower jaw is bent inward and has a taper form resembling a finger, while, on the contrary, the upper one is formed with a cavity to receive the point, embracing it like a sheath for about half its length."

The Bull-trout of the Tweed is in little repute for the table; and Cuvier says that the flesh of the Salmo hamatus, though red, is not so rich as that of the Common salmon, and is held in less estimation. The Bull-trout of the Orkneys is also said to have the flesh hard and dry, and consequently to be little sought after by the country people; but as it had not entered Loch Stennis in the spring, at which time the other trouts of that lake were sent to me, I have not been able to procure a specimen, and am consequently ignorant how far it resembles the Tweed fish bearing the same name.

5. NITH TROUT, &c. Plate 92, f. 2, A and B, exhibits the head of a trout which was taken in the latter end of December in the river Nith. The entire specimen measured fourteen inches to the tips of the tail, or twelve inches and a half to the end of the scales on the base of the caudal fin. Figure 4, A and B, represents a young fish from the Clouden, a tributary of the Nith: it measured seven inches to the end of the scales on the caudal, and three-quarters of an inch more to the tips of that fin. I have received fine specimens of precisely the same kind of trout from Loch Crosspiel, below the manse of Durness, Loch Kescaig, which discharges its waters into the Atlantic near Sandwood in Sutherlandshire, and from Loch Stennis in the Orkneys. It is a handsome fish, not so deep in the body as the Salmon-trout, and assuming a different general aspect, from its much darker colours and its smaller scales. The colour of the back is a dark mixture of oil-green and brocoli-brown, the sides are greatly paler, and the belly is whitish with dusky shades. In some localities, or at certain seasons, the sides have a reddish-brown tinge, and the belly is more or less deeply glazed with orange. The forehead, snout, and gill-covers are crowded with rather large round or oval blackish-brown spots, and there are many roundish or stelliform marks on the back and sides, for some distance below the lateral line, some of which are surrounded by a paler circle, or tinged with aurora-red. The dorsal is variegated by several rows of smaller brown spots of different shades, and the adipose fin and upper lobe of the caudal are also spotted. The scales have an oval form, are considerably smaller, less flexible, and not so caducous as those of the Salmon-trout, and have a beautiful golden lustre. In the dried specimens an acute, prominent median ridge extends from the nape nearly to the tip of the snout, and the lateral ridges of the cranium are also conspicuous: in the fresh state, the head is smooth and rounded above, and the snout is very obtuse. The under jaw is exactly equal in length to the upper surface of the head. The vomerine teeth run back in a double row about half way to the gullet, and there are six teeth on each side of the tongue. The head in the females constitutes somewhat less than one-fourth of the total length excluding all the caudal beyond the scales: in the males the head is larger, four of its lengths extending from

[page] 143

the tip of the snout to the centre of the middle caudal rays. The dorsal vertebræ are 58 in number, and the pyloric cæca varied, in ten individuals, from 49 to 53. The young have paler colours, silvery scales, and about seven arterial blood-red spots on the lateral line, with pale areolæ. They descend to the sea and return into the rivers to spawn in the winter time. Individuals varying from sixteen to twenty inches in length contained mature roe. This trout is not very choice in its selection of food, the stomachs of those which I opened containing river shells, larvæ of insects, seeds of various vegetables, bits of straw and charcoal, much sand, small pebbles, the common coralline of our sea-shores broken down, and the roe apparently of its own species. The intestines of the young were filled with minute crustaceæ, flies, river-shells, and cod-bait, the last appearing to be a favourite food of the young of the salmon tribe.

Our Nith Trout possesses many of the characters ascribed to the Salmo trutta by continental ichthyologists*, but in the absence of the power of referring to authentic specimens for comparison, I am unable to give it that appellation with confidence, especially as the descriptions and figures of trutta, by many authors, apply nearly as well to our Salmon-trout. The liberality and kindness of Captain Barou have furnished me with a beautiful stuffed specimen of the Salmo Lemanus of Cuvier, which is said by M. Agassiz to be merely a particular state of Salmo trutta. It has at first sight a very different aspect from our Nith trout, owing to its much paler general colour, smaller and more numerous spots, and somewhat larger scales; but on examining the details of external structure, the relative proportion of parts, and the dentition, they are found to be very similar to those of the Nith trout. The posterior angles of the gill-cover are, however, more rounded, giving a convex curve to its edge approaching to that of the Salmon-trout, and the length of the under jaw rather exceeds that of the top of the head. I have had no opportunity of examining the viscera of the Swiss trout.

6. LOCH LEVEN TROUT. I am indebted to Mr. Arnott for very fine specimens of this celebrated trout, which, in external form, the proportional size of the various parts of the head and gill-cover, the size of the scales, and the dentition, agrees with the Salmo Lemanus; the only difference that I can perceive, between the specimens that I have compared, being in the almost white hue of the one, and the deep shades of colour in the other. The scales in both dry in the same manner, producing a small ridge in the centre of each, which I do not perceive in other trouts. Three individuals of the Loch Leven trout, that were dissected, had each 73 pyloric cæca, and in one of them 59 vertebræ were counted. The largest of the specimens measured twenty inches and a quarter including the caudal fin, and two inches less to the end of the scales. Its colours were as follows. The back liver-brown, nape hair-brown, top of the head wood-brown, sides of the head and body silvery tinged with rose-red, under jaw, throat, and belly whitish, partially glazed, particularly near the ventrals, with Dutch-orange. The top and sides of the head are marked with round blackish-brown spots, which are largest on the gill-covers, where they equal swan-shot in size. The whole side of the fish, from the ridge of the back to half way between the ventrals and lateral line, is ornamented with

* Nilsson's character of the Laxforing of the Swedes, which is his Salmo trutta, applies exactly to our Nith Trout.

[page] 144

many larger spots of venous blood-red margined with crimson. These spots are roundish, stelliform, or cruciform*. There are nine or ten rows of small brown spots on the dorsal, and some on the adipose fin and upper lobe of the caudal. The ridges on the top of the head, visible in the dried specimen, resemble those of the Nith trout in form, but they are more acutely prominent, particularly the lateral ones. The scales are broadly oval. The stomach contained the larvæ of insects, the remains of a fish, much sand, a bit of charcoal, and two or three fragments of sand-stone.

7. SALMO FEROX. Sir William Jardine and Mr. Selby have recently given this name to a northern Scottish trout, of which a specimen has been kindly transmitted to me by Mr. Selby, the well-known ornithologist. It resembles the Loch Leven trout in its dentition and the proportional size of the head; there is also a resemblance, though not a perfect one, in the form of the gill-cover; but the labials are much stronger and more curved, and the cranial ridges much less prominent and acute. The most decided difference is in the form of the scales, which in Salmo ferox are broadly oval, more nearly approaching to circular than in any of the preceding species; they are as thin and flexible as those of the Salmon or Salmon-trout, though being more thickly covered with epidermis they are not so caducous. In colour, this fish is described as resembling the Loch Leven trout, but the spots in the specimens we have seen are fewer and larger. The caudal fin is even at the end, as in the old individuals of many other species of trout. The Salmo ferox inhabits Loch Awe, in Argyleshire, where it attains the weight of twenty-eight pounds. It spawns on the sides or near the gorge of the lake, rarely entering the feeding streams; and although it is occasionally taken in the river Awe, by which the lake discharges itself into the sea, it is said that it never attempts to reach the salt water. Its stomach is generally filled with fish. The colour of its flesh is orange-yellow, its flavour coarse and indifferent. There is a good account of this great trout in the last edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, under the article Angling.

8. SALMO FARIO. The Common trout, the Burn trout of Scotland, is generally known throughout Great Britain. It varies very greatly in the hue of its body and the colour and brilliancy of its markings. Plate 92, f. 3, A and B, represents the head of an individual nine inches and a half long to the end of the scales on the caudal, and ten inches and three quarters to the extremity of that fin. The under jaw is shorter than the top of the head, and the ridges of the palate bones and vomer, into which the teeth are implanted, are much more prominent than in any other species that has come under my observation. The vomerine teeth run far back in a double row. The specimen was taken in the Lake of Lochenbreck, in Galloway, and had the dusky yellowish hue of this trout when it inhabits dark waters. A much more glittering kind is taken in the Nith, Tweed, and other clear rivers, but I have not the means of ascertaining whether there be any structural difference or not. Mr. Yarrell informs me that the Salmo fario has 58 dorsal vertebræ.

9. CHAR. Torgoch, or Red-bellied trout. Plate 92, f. 5, A and B, exhibits the head of a female char taken in Llyn Cawellyn, near the foot of Snowdon, on the 17th of January,

* The spots of my specimen of the Salmo Lemanus are considerably smaller than those of Loch Leven trout, but the case might be different were a greater number of individuals compared.

[page] 145

when ready to spawn. The scales of this trout are small, the colours peculiar, and there is merely a tuft of fine teeth on the forepart of the vomer, the rest of that bone being perfectly smooth. I owe the specimen to the kindness of J. L. Wynn, Esq., of Coëd Coch, in Denbighshire. The Tarrogan from Loch Borley, in Sutherlandshire, has a deeper body and larger scales than the Welsh Torgoch, but the want of good specimens has prevented me from instituting a fair comparison between the two. They agree in dentition, and differ from the preceding trouts in the scales being less crowded, and in many parts of the body not tiled but simply in contact.

The want of a sufficient number of specimens of the Par, and of some other Scottish trouts, causes me to pass them over without further notice*.

[61.] 1. SALMO SALAR. (Auctorum.) The Common salmon.

FAMILY, Salmones (Salmonoideæ), CUVIER. (Salmonacei, NILSSON.)

Salmon abound in the rivers of Labrador, Canada, Newfoundland†, Nova Scotia, the New England States, and in the waters of New York which fall into the St. Lawrence. Previous to the colonization of America, they appear to have ranged more to the south on the Atlantic coast than they do at present. The celebrated but unfortunate Hudson says, that on the 14th of September, 1609, while sailing up the magnificent river which bears his name, he saw "great store of salmons;" but in recent times even a solitary salmon has rarely been known to stray thither, and the most southern stream on that coast which this fish now frequents, is Connecticut river, in latitude 41¼° N‡. Even there, however, it is becoming daily more scarce, the erection of weirs, milldams, and other obstacles to its ascent in the spawning season, having impeded its reproduction, and the New York market is now supplied with salmon from Kennebec river in the state of Maine. The salmon ascends the St. Lawrence and its tributaries as high as Lake

* Sir William Jardine has published an interesting paper on the Sutherlandshire trouts in the New Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, which I did not see until the preceding observations on the Salmonoideæ had mostly gone to the press. He gives the following as the most convenient distinguishing marks of the Par, or Salmo salmulus, Ray:—"The great size of the pectoral fins, the shortness of the maxillary bone, and consequent diminutive gape, and the breadth between the rami of the lower jaw." In Pennant's British Zoology (8vo. ed., 1812), the figure in pl. 70, judging from the configurations of the markings and general habit, is that of a young salmon, while the lower figure, in pl. 87, is the true Par.

† The earliest account we have of Cabot's discovery of this island in 1497 (recorded on Adams's map) mentions salmon among its natural productions. Hakluyt, iii., p. 6.

‡ "White salmons," noticed by Smith in his account of Virginia, and by subsequent writers, as abounding in the creeks of Pennsylvania, are evidently the Labre salmoïde of Lacépède, or Grystes salmoïdes of Cuvier, a percoid fish, which we have already alluded to in p. 31. It is called "trout" by the inhabitants of Carolina and the neighbouring states.

U

[page] 146

Ontario, its progress farther up being effectually barred by the falls of Niagara. It has been noticed as a remarkable fact in the history of the fish, that it has never been known to enter the Niagara, or even to have been taken within thirty miles of its mouth, though there is nothing to hinder it from ascending to the foot of the falls, about fifteen miles from the lake. De Witt Clinton has, however, accounted for this fact in remarking the want of gravel beds in the Niagara, fitted to be depositaries of the salmon-spawn. Salmon are found in Lake Ontario at all seasons, and they have been caught in the Seneca, or Onondaga river, which falls into the south side of the lake in every month of the year, sometimes weighing thirty-seven pounds. "They pass," says De Witt Clinton, "Oswego at the entrance of this river in April, are then in fine order, and spread over all the western waters in that direction, returning to Lake Ontario in October, much reduced in size and fatness." "Numerous conical erections of gravel, found in several of the western rivers, must have been raised by them." Another account states, that these fish make their appearance in Lake Oneida, which communicates with the Onondaga, in May, and that they eat nothing during their residence there, which continues till winter*. Mr. Todd informed me, that they enter the shallow, gravelly rivers in the vicinity of Toronto, on the north side of Lake Ontario, in August, are taken in great abundance in September, and continue to ascend until November. Their average weight is about eight pounds, and their length two feet and a half. They are taken in nets or speared by torch-light. Some years ago, a considerable fishery was established at the head of the lake, and great quantities of fish were cured for exportation, but the establishment was broken up by the war. No salmon have been seen in the Mississippi or its tributaries.

Salmon enter the rivers that fall into Hudson's Bay north of the 58th degree of latitude. According to Hearne, they are very numerous, in some seasons, in Knapp's Bay and Whale Cove, so that a vessel might speedily be loaded with them, but they are very scarce in other years. They are, he says, sometimes so plentiful in Churchill river, that upwards of two hundred fine fish have been taken in one tide, from four small gill-nets set within a mile of the fort; but at other times they are so rare that twenty nets have scarcely yielded the same number during the season, which begins in the latter end of June, and closes about the middle or end of August. The commencement of the season coincides with the breaking up of the ice†. The weight of the fish varies from eight to twenty pounds.

* Lit. and Phil. Trans. of New York, i., p. 147 and p. 500.

† The following dates were extracted from a Journal kept by Mr. Topping at Churchill factory, five or six miles above the mouth of the river:—

[page] 147

Having seen only dried specimens of the Salmon of the Atlantic coasts of America, I cannot unequivocally refer it to the Salmo salar of European ichthyologists, though popular writers affirm them to be the same. The identity of the Hudson's Bay salmon rests on more uncertain grounds, as I am not aware that it has been examined by any naturalist. I have for many years used every endeavour to procure a specimen in vain. An argument may even be adduced against the specific identity of the Hudson's Bay salmon with the salar, from the fact of its being unknown farther south in the bay than the Churchill river, in latitude 58° 47′ N., though Nelson, Hayes, Albany, and Moose rivers, lying between the 50th and 57th parallels, abound in the gravel-beds which salmon delight to spawn in. Dried salmon are among the articles of traffic brought to ships by the Esquimaux of Hudson's Straits, and the Salmo salar is mentioned in the Fauna Grænlandica, though Fabricius states it to be so rare that he never saw it there, and had merely heard of its existence in two bays. It was not taken on any of the late expeditions to the arctic coasts of America or the Northern Georgian islands. It is said to frequent the Kamtschatdale rivers, and though in much smaller numbers than any of the many other anadromous trouts that are known there, it may, perhaps, range to the American side of the sea of Kamtschatka. Every voyager who has visited the north-west coast speaks of the great quantities of salmon taken by the natives; and Langsdorff mentions that "several sorts" of salmon resort to the bays and rivers of Oonalashka, Kodiak, and Norfolk Sound. Eschscholtz, however, who stayed from March to the middle of August in one year, and during the latter part of August and beginning of September in another, on the island of Sitchka, in Norfolk Sound, observes that "there is no great variety in the kinds of fish, but the individuals are numerous, especially a well-flavoured sort of salmon." We shall have occasion hereafter to quote some of Lewis and Clark's notices of the trouts of the Columbia. The accounts given by authors of the habits of the American salmon are so very meagre, that it is necessary to borrow what we have to say of the natural history of the Salmo salar from the ichthyologists who have best described it as it exists in European waters.

Few fish have attracted more attention than the Common salmon of the Old

1809. June 17. River broke up.
1810. 19. River clear. July 3. Caught the first salmon.
1811. 23. River clear. July 31. Plenty of Sea-trout. August 12. Sea-trout gone.
1812. 10. River beginning to open. July 5. River clear.
1813. 20. River clear. June 30. First salmon caught.

It is to be observed, that the ice accumulates at the mouth of the river for some days after it has broken up opposite to the fort.

U 2

[page] 148

World, its excellence as an article of diet, and the variety of interests involved in the fisheries established for its capture, rendering a correct knowledge of its natural history an object of much importance in an economical point of view. A well-authenticated and connected account of its growth, from the newly-evolved fry to the full-sized fish, is, however, still a desideratum, for, although many facts have been established by competent observers, there are several gaps in the history of this trout, and in particular the form it assumes when half grown has not been fully discriminated from the young of other species. It is greatly to be regretted that our acquaintance with the Salmon of the American rivers is so very limited, for should it happen that the Salmo hamatus and trutta, or other closely-resembling species, are unknown in America, we might more readily ascertain how many of the forms known in Great Britain by the local names of smelts, smolts, or smouts, grawls, gilses, grilses, salmon-peel, kippers, liggers, &c., actually belong to the salar. The natural history of the Salmon, prosecuted in a country where conflicting interests have not as yet sprung up to cause the perversion of facts, would furnish a rich field of research for ichthyologists, and afford the means of clearing up many mistakes which have crept into the works of naturalists,—great care being, of course, taken to ascertain the correct specific appellations of the subject under observation.

The Common salmon is an inhabitant of all the northern European and Asiatic seas, from the entrance of the Bay of Biscay round the North Cape, and along the coast of Asia to Kamtschatka and the sea of Ochotsk, including the Baltic, White Sea, Gulf of Kara, and other inlets. It is found in Iceland, and, according to Guldenstædt, it also inhabits the Caspian. At certain seasons the Salmon quits the sea, and ascends the rivers towards their sources for the purpose of spawning, preferring those streams which have stony or rocky bottoms, and convenient gravelly banks for the reception of the spawn. Nilsson, however, informs us, that in some instances the Salmon resides permanently in fresh water, for it is known, says he, to winter in the interior Swedish lakes, named Wenern and Siljan, from whence it ascends the rivers at the close of spring, without entering the salt water at all*.

As the Salmon is never taken on the British coast except in estuaries, rivers, or lakes, the depths of the sea to which it retires are unknown†; but the microsco-

* In interioribus quibusdem lacubus, Wenern, Siljan hiemem degit, undè vere preterlapso fluvios adscendit. Lacubus igitur ut mari, pro hibernis utitur, aquam salsam nunquam attingens. Vernæ horum lacuum dicuntur pinguiores et carne saturatiores, quam marini, qui, itinere et impedimentos fatigati, dictos lacos inturdem attingunt. NILSSON, Pisces Scand.

† The following extract from Leems's Journey into Danish Lapland may throw some light on the matter. "At the

[page] 149

pical researches of Dr. Knox have shown, as we have already mentioned, that its food, previous to its quitting the salt water, consists of the eggs of various echinodermata and crustaceæ, this rich aliment giving the colour and flavour for which its flesh is so highly prized. On entering the fresh water for the purpose of spawning, it seems, like many other animals in the nuptial season, to lose its appetite for food, but will rise occasionally to the natural or artificial fly, and has been known to take both the minnow and worm*. Salmon in prime condition are taken in estuaries at every period of the year, but they do not quit the sea in considerable numbers until the summer is well advanced, and they continue in the tide-way, ascending with the flood and descending with the ebb, until the spawning season approaches. At first the fish has a bright silvery hue, with deep black spots on the back and sides, a head small when compared with the girth of the plump body loaded with juices and fat, the spawn occupies but little space, the salmon-louse (Caligus piscinus) adheres to the gills, and tape-worms fill the intestines. As the reproductive organs advance to maturity, the salmon hastens up the river towards the gravelly deposits in the upland streams, which are its proper spawning places, surmounting the natural and artificial barriers that oppose themselves to its progress with surprising agility. Pennant mentions the perpendicular falls of Kennerth and Pont Aberglasslyn, in Wales, Leixlip, in Ireland, and East-eivel on the Tummil, in Scotland, as salmon-leaps, which evince the extraordinary muscular efforts that the fish is capable of making; and travellers have recorded with admiration its perseverance in working its way up the cataracts of the Norwegian and Lapland rivers. Soon after its entrance into the fresh water, the dark spots on
close of the autumn, when the salmon taken in the rivers are lean and no longer saleable, the maritime Laplanders are accustomed to row out a little from the shore into the deep, to take the salmon (who at this time of the year remain immoveable at the bottom of the sea), with an iron-headed spear, called in Lapland Harses. Lest the darkness of the night should obstruct them in this business, a fire is made on the prow of the vessel of pieces of fir-tree and the bark of the birch, which they call baral." (Pinkerton's Voy., i., p. 427.) The salmon while feeding upon the ova of echinodermata will, no doubt, remain almost stationary; but if they continue in a moderate depth of water, so as to be attracted by the light of a torch, or easily speared, one would expect them to be occasionally taken in the trawl-nets in such constant use in the British Channel.

* Mr. Niell relates that salmon kept along with other sea-fish in a salt-water pond in Galloway, were fed with eels, shell-fish freed from the shell, and herrings cut into pieces. The habits of fish in captivity do not furnish correct indications of the food they would prefer when at liberty; but the following passage in Sir William Jardine's paper tends to prove, that salmon do not feed exclusively on crustaceæ, entomostraca, or the ova of echinodermata, during their residence in the ocean, though it is certain that it is the remains of these substances which are chiefly distinguishable among the mucus which thickly lines the intestines of salmon when they ascend rivers in spawning condition. "In the north of Sutherland a mode of fishing salmon is sometimes successfully practised in the firths, where sand-eels are used for bait: a line is attached to a buoy or bladder, and allowed to float with the tide up the narrow estuaries. The salmon are also said to be occasionally taken at the lines set for haddocks, baited with sand-eels. At the mouths of rivers they rise freely at the artificial fly within fifty yards of the sea, and the common earth-worm is a deadly bait for the clean salmon." The following additional remark occurs in a note: "Faber, in his Natural History of the Fishes of Iceland, remarks, that the Common salmon feeds on small fishes, and various small marine animals—Fleming says its favourite food in the sea is the sand-eel." (JARDINE, l. c.)

[page] 150

the back and sides are effaced, the salmon-louse shrivels and drops off, and the tapeworms die and are discharged. As the spawn augments in volume, the flesh of the salmon deteriorates, growing lean, flabby and insipid, and the bright silvery tints of the scales are replaced by brownish stains, giving rise to the epithet of "red-fish," in contradistinction to that of "clean," which the fish had on its first arrival from sea in high marketable condition. The gravelly shoals selected as spawning places are generally as high up the river as the fish can ascend. Furrows about eighteen inches deep being formed in the gravel by the male, according to some observers, or by both male and female as others report, the latter deposits in them her roe, and the former his milt, and carefully covers them up. The fish has been said to plough up the gravel with its fins, but it is more probable that it uses the nose for this purpose. Mr. Potts (quoted by Pennant) thinks that the tail is the instrument by which the gravel is filled in over the spawn, as he had observed the skin rubbed off that part; this abrasion, however, may be the result of friction against stones, in the efforts the fish makes to ascend the shallow streams. After securing the spawn, the salmon commences its return to the sea, being now named, in the language of the fishermen, a "foul fish," ligger, kipper, or kelt; its gills are infested by the gisler, or brachiella salmonia, and it continues to have a dark colour, lank form, and to be unfit for food during the remainder of its stay in fresh water. The period of a salmon's stay in a river is determined by various causes. The ascent of most streams is facilitated by the land-floods of wet seasons, or rendered impracticable for a time by droughts; and Dr. Fleming thinks it probable that circumstances which favour the upward passage of the fish tend also to accelerate the ripening of the spawn*. In returning to the sea the fish keep the middle of the stream, and seek the deepest and saltest water of the estuary.

The following observations on the spawning of the salmon, and subsequent evolution of the young fry, in one of the tributary streams of the Tweed, are recorded by Dr. Knox in the paper we have already cited. "In November the river Whitadder, which has its source in a mountainous country nine hundred feet above the level of the sea, abounded in all the different kinds of salmon usually taken in the Tweed, with which this stream communicates at a short distance from Berwick. They were engaged every where in spawning, this being the usual time in which the act is carried on. A pair, seemingly † of the ordinary Tweed

* Ed. Phil. Journ., x., p. 375, in a paper which gives a detailed account of the movements of the Salmon in the river Tay. The facts therein stated coincide generally with Mr. Potts's history of the Tweed salmon in Pennant's British Zoology.

† The Tweed Bull-trout, or Salmo hamatus, might be readily mistaken for the Salmo salar.

[page] 151

salmon, from fourteen to sixteen pounds in weight, were watched. The ova were observed to be deposited near the sources of the stream on the 2nd of November, and covered up with gravel in the usual way. The spawning bed was placed at the foot of a pretty long and placid pool, and just at the top of a stream where the water first begins to feel the effects of the approaching descent. The water was about fifteen feet broad, with a depth of six inches. The breadth of the bed seemed to be about eight feet, and its length three or four, the whole having rather an oval form. It had the appearance of washed gravel, in consequence of the whole mass having been turned over by the salmon during the process of depositing the ova. On the 25th of February, or one hundred and sixteen days afterwards, hundreds of ova were turned up with the spade from the depth of from nine to twelve inches below the surface of the gravel. They were clear, transparent, and seemingly unchanged. On the 23rd of March the ova were found to be changing; the outer shell cast; the fry lying imbedded in the gravel as fishes, being twenty weeks from the period of their deposition. By the 1st of April most of the fry had quitted the bed, by ascending through the gravel, and on the 19th of that month many were taken eight or even nine inches long, in excellent condition. Fry of the same size, but probably of a later deposit, were abundant in the same streams on the 5th of May. In a former year the roe was found unchanged on the 10th of April, but on the 17th the excluded fry were imbedded in the gravel, and on the 22nd smoults were taken about the size of the little finger. The depth at which the ova are deposited varies, being sometimes about two feet below the surface of the bed. The food of the fry is exactly the same with that of the trout found in the rivers at the same period; viz., small insects, larvæ of flies, beetles, and codbait, with which the gravel of the stream abounds in an incredible degree. In the gravel-bed the ova of salmon and trout lie safe from every living enemy, and in the midst of profusion of food, whose habitat is the same as their own; and whose progress of incubation and subsequent rise through the gravel is quite similar. The great variety and quantity of these insects, together with the depth of their situation (for the spade which took up the ova was also full of them), was truly surprising. It is probable that as these larvæ of insects, for such they mostly are, rise above the gravel to assume new forms, they offer ready food for the trout and salmon fry of all sizes which may be in the river; but I do not suppose that these fishes dig under the gravel in search of food at any time*.

* No trout affords the young angler more certain amusement than the salmon fry. These unsuspicious smouts have keen appetites and rise with avidity at the artificial fly, however rudely made, provided it be small enough—but a cadis worm, or a gentle impaled on a hackle, is a still more alluring bait. We have known a bare-legged truant kill thirty dozen in one day with the most inartificial tackle.

[page] 152

"The growth of the fry is very rapid. On the 20th of April the rivers were full of salmon-smoults, varying from six to nine inches, having attained that length in about three weeks. They were in the finest possible condition, covered with small silvery scales, differing in shape from those of the trout or par. They are very tender, and constantly die a short time after being touched. During the months of March, April, and May, the rivers abound with kelts, or spawned salmon, descending towards the ocean, and smoults, or fry, pursuing the same course." Dr. Knox, in the appendix to the able paper from which the foregoing passages are abridged, remarks that there are two circumstances which persons of sound judgment and great experience with regard to the salmon question still think undecided, or at least demanding a more extended proof. The first is a series of experiments to determine the growth of salmon-fry from the state of the egg to its attaining the length of six, seven, eight, or nine inches, before which it is seldom seen by the angler, and after which it ceases to be found in fresh-water rivers; secondly, proof that the fish we call salmon-fry, taken in salmon-rivers by angling during the months of April and May, do really proceed to the ocean and return after a period to the rivers as grilse, Salmon-trout*, and salmon. The facts ascertained by Dr. Knox, in conjunction with the previous observations of others who have attended to the subject, go towards the answer of the first question; and the following extract from Sir William Jardine's paper may be considered as a reply to the second. "It has always been a subject of dispute whether the fry returned to the rivers as grilse in the same season in which they descended. I have had no doubt of this for several years, but it was very difficult to prove. In the Tweed I have killed grilse early in the season, so small as to weigh only two pounds, and seen them gradually increase in size as the season advanced; the intermediate size, however, between the fry and the two pound grilse was wanting. During the two years which the fisheries of Sutherland have been in the possession of the Duke, a set of experiments have been instituted by his factors, one of which leaves no doubt upon the subject. Last spring, several thousands of the fry were marked in the different rivers, among others by Mr. Baigrie, in the Laxford and Dinard, on the west coast. In the Laxford, the first grilse (marked in April as fry) returned on the 25th of June, and weighed three pounds and a half. Many others were got during the season, from this weight to six pounds and a half, returning to the rivers where the fry were marked, which was known by a particular mark being used in each, and showing that a return to their breeding ground was as frequent, or rather

* Dr. Knox considers our Salmon-trout to be merely a variety of the Salmo salar.

[page] 153

as constant, as among the higher animals. These marked grilse were unfortunately killed; but next year it is proposed to return them to the river with an additional mark, and endeavour to take them again a second season."

The spawning season commences in most of the British streams in October, is at its height in November, and continues through December, comparatively few salmon spawning in January, February, or March. It is necessary that the different kinds or species of salmon should be more fully made out before we can refer to the history of the Common salmon the statements to be found in authors of the great differences in the spawning seasons in different rivers*.

The salmon has many enemies, of whom man is undoubtedly the chief, for its numbers diminish rapidly as civilization and the arts advance on the banks of the rivers it frequents. Notwithstanding the proverbial † activity of this fish, it is hard pushed in its own element by several of the mammalia. Captain Cartwright saw a bear taking salmon in the mouth of one of the Labrador rivers by diving in deep water ‡; the otter too, a well-known river poacher, makes great havock among the salmon of all ages; and the seal has been observed, on the coast of Scotland, coursing a salmon like a greyhound in chase of a hare, turning it on every attempt it made to get to seaward, and finally securing it through the exertion of superior strength and sagacity. The following anecdote is told by the Rev. Mr. Hamilton, of a dog leaguing with man against this fish. "In riding from Port

* Dr. Arthur Young informs us, that "in all the rivers which run into the Ban, the salmon spawn about the beginning of August, and as soon as they have done swim to the sea, where they stay till January, when they begin to return to fresh water, and continue doing so till August, in which voyage they are taken. The nets are set in the beginning of January, but by Act of Parliament no nets or weirs can be kept down after the 12th of August. The young salmon are called grawls, and grow at a rate which I should suppose scarce any fish commonly known equals; for within the year some of them will come to sixteen and eighteen pounds, but in general ten or twelve pounds: such as escape the first year's fishery are salmon; and at two years old will generally weigh twenty to twenty-five pounds. This year's fishery (1776) has proved the greatest that ever was known, yielding four hundred tons of fish; and they had the largest haul, taking one thousand four hundred and fifty-two salmon at one drag of a single net."—(Tour in Ireland.)
Linnæus states that the salmon-fishery of the Laxholms, or Salmon islands, in Lulean Lapland, commences "a fortnight before Midsummer (June 10th) and ends on St. Bartholomew's day, August 24, and that during that space of time the salmon keep ascending the river. After that day none of the fishermen remain. Few of the fish escape being taken, so as to return down the river. At Michaelmas (29th of September) the fishermen come here again, when they catch a smaller sort of salmon." (Lachesis Lapponica, ii., p. 118.)
Leems relates that in the river Alten, which has its rise in the remotest mountains of Lapland, the fishery begins on the festival of St. John (June 24th), at which time the salmon are very fat, and so large that a tun can scarcely hold sixteen, but those which enter the river as the autumn is approaching; are of a much smaller size and also lean. In the Thana, the principal river of Eastern Fiomark, the season lasts from the beginning of spring until two weeks after the festival of St. John the Baptist (July 8th). The fish in this river are peculiar for their breadth and fatness, and are accounted the very best of their kind. (LEEMS, Journey into Danish Lapland. An. 1767.) Sir William Jardine, in speaking of the spawning time, remarks that "The northern rivers, with little exception, are the earliest, a fact well known in the London markets." "It is a mistaken notion to suppose that the spawning season is only between October and February. In many rivers it would commence in the end of August, if the grounds and entrance to the rivers were left open and unmolested." JARDINE, l. c.

† "Dicitur namque salmo a sallu." OLAUS MAGNUS, Hist. Sept., p. 523.

‡ G. CARTWRIGHT, Sixteen Years' Residence in Labrador.

X

[page] 154

Rush to the Giant's Causeway with some company, we had occasion to ford the river Bush, near the sea; and as the fishermen were going to haul their net, we stopped to see their success: as soon as their dog perceived the men to move, he instantly ran down the river of his own accord, and took post in the middle of it, on some shallows where he could easily run or swim, and in this position he placed himself with all the eagerness and attention so strongly observable in a pointer dog who sets his game:—we were for some time at a loss to comprehend his scheme, but the event satisfied us, and amply justified the prudence of the animal; for the fish, when they feel the net, always endeavour to make directly out to sea. Accordingly, one of the salmon, escaping from the net, rushed down the stream with great velocity towards the ford, where the dog stood to receive them at an advantage. A very diverting chase now commenced, in which, from the shallowness of the water, we could discern the whole track of the fish, with all its rapid turnings and windings. After a smart pursuit, the dog found himself left considerably behind, in consequence of the water deepening, by which he had been reduced to the necessity of swimming. But instead of following this desperate game any longer, he gave it over, and ran with all his speed directly down the river till he was sure of being again seaward of the salmon, where he took post as before in his pointer's attitude. Here the fish a second time met him, and a fresh pursuit ensued, in which, after various attempts, the salmon at last made its way out to sea, notwithstanding all the ingenious and vigorous exertions of its pursuer. Though the dog did not succeed at this time, yet I was informed that it was no unusual thing for him to run down his game; and the fishermen assured me that he was a very great advantage to them in turning the fish towards the net. During the whole of the chase, this sagacious animal seemed plainly to have two objects in view; one to seize his game, if possible, and the other to drive it towards the net when the former failed; each of which he managed with a degree of address and ingenuity extremely interesting and amazing*."

I have been able to procure only four specimens of the American salmon. The first one, described below, was taken from a tierce of salted fish, which a fishmonger assured me was imported from Quebec. The colours of the skin were remarkably well preserved by the salt, and the specimen, which had been split along the back with a sharp knife, was easily restored to its original form. It had then a very perfect resemblance to a British salmon of the same size. Three other specimens were prepared for me at the instance of James Keith, Esq., of La Chine,

* Rev. W. Hamilton, Hist. of the Basaltes on the Coast of Antrim, &c. 1784. (PINCK. Coll., iii., p. 877.)

[page] 155

by a gentleman in charge of the fur-posts on the Mingan and Musquaw rivers, which fall into the St. Lawrence near its mouth. Were it not that the skins of these appear to have been overstretched in drying, so as to account, at least in some degree, for the differences of the relative positions of the fins, I should have considered them as distinct from the Salmo salar, and I still think that their identity with that species is somewhat doubtful.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen preserved in salt, imported from Quebec.

COLOUR.—Head bluish-grey above, very silvery on the sides; two round black spots about the size of a pea between the eye and the nape, and one upon the operculum. Back and upper parts of the sides pearl-grey with a strong silvery lustre, reflecting a purplish tint when opposed to the light: the lower parts of the sides have an uniform pearly tint with much lustre. There are four rows of black spots above the lateral line, each spot surrounding one scale, and running into the interstices of the adjacent ones: some of the rows cease towards the head and tail; they contain about thirty spots on each side. The under jaw, throat, and belly are unspotted white. The pectorals and candal are white at the base, their tips and the whole of the dorsal being bluish-grey: the anal and back of the ventrals are grey with whitish rays.

SCALES thin, flexible, and nacry; the uncovered portion of each on the back and upper part of the sides is rhomboidal. Near the dorsal fin there are seven scales in a linear inch, but adjoining to the lateral line there are only six. On the lower parts of the sides the margins of the scales are segments of circles. A scale taken from the lateral line is oval, obtuse at both ends, and about one-third longer than it is wide. There are 124 scales on the lateral line, including the small ones on the base of the caudal, and 47 in a vertical row below the dorsal, of which 20 are above the lateral line, and the same number between it and the ventrals.

FORM.—Head small and neat, forming one-fifth of the total length excluding the caudal: it is convexly conical when the jaws are closed, the profile of the forehead being a continuation of the moderate curve from the dorsal. Tip of the snout rounded but not broad. Orbits circular, placed one diameter from the upper end of the labials, two from the tip of the snout, and three and a half from the posterior edge of the gill-cover. The nostrils are as near again to the orbit as to the end of the snout. The intermaxillaries are cartilaginous and are one half the length of the labials. The labials are thin and flat with a slightly curved anterior edge: they are narrow at their junction with the intermaxillaries, but spread out into elliptical plates towards the angles of the mouth: the posterior piece, or apophysis, which is acutely elliptical, forms more than half the breadth of the labial, but does not reach quite to the tip of the latter. The distance between the tip of the snout and extremity of the labial reaches a little beyond the base of the snout*, or a line drawn from the posterior edge of one orbit to that of the other. The under jaw is acute and projects slightly beyond the snout

* Linea rostri basalis of Nilssou.

X 2

[page] 156

when the mouth is open, but its tip is received within the intermaxillary teeth when the jaws are closed. The lower jaw is about two lines shorter than the distance between the tip of the snout and the nape.

TEETH conical, acute, mostly pointing backwards, and placed in a single row on the under jaw, edges of the palate-bones, and round the entire margin of the upper jaw, except about half an inch of the lower extremity of the labials: those on the sides of the snout and towards the tip of the lower jaw are a little longer than the others. There are two teeth on the anterior part of the vomer, one before the other, and five on the tongue, two on one side and three on the other. (In the head of the Scottish salmon, figured on plate 91, there is but one tooth on the vomer and four on the tongue.) Neither the vomer or palate-bones rise into ridges where the teeth are implanted, either in the American or European salmon, and there are no small teeth on the tip of the tongue.

GILL-COVERS.—The free edge of the gill-cover is semicircular, instead of being elliptical or angled as in many species of trout. Preoperculum broad, being but little narrower in its middle than the cheek, and more than half the width of the operculum: its posterior edge is even, but there are five irregular, diverging, tubular prominences on the surface of its lower limb. Operculum about one-fourth higher than broad, and marked on its posterior and inferior borders with fine furrows. Suboperculum about one-third of the height of the operculum, but equalling it in width. Interoperculum irregularly triangular, with a long narrow limb passing forwards beneath the preoperculum to the articulation of the lower jaw. Gill-rays twelve on the left side and eleven on the right.

FINS.—Dorsal containing thirteen rays, the first one being very short and with the second closely applied to the third, which nearly equals the fourth and longest. The ventrals are opposite to the ninth and three following rays of the dorsal. The anal contains ten rays, the first one being very short. The adipose fin is partly opposite and partly posterior to the termination of the anal. The caudal is forked.

A specimen of the MINGAN RIVER SALMON, prepared for me by Mr. Cumming, corresponds closely with the above description, except in the following particulars. Part of the snout before the orbit proportionally longer. Vomer perfectly toothless—Ventrals rather more posterior, being opposite to the three last rays of the dorsal. The adipose fin is also farther back, being wholly behind the anal. The caudal is almost even at the end when extended, being very slightly crescentic. The specimen has lost most of its colours in drying, so that its markings cannot be compared with the Quebec fish.

The kindness of the same gentleman has also furnished me with two specimens of the MUSQUAW RIVER SALMON.—The largest has quite lost its colours and has been overstretched in stuffing, so that the dimensions of its body cannot be quoted with safety, but in the relative dimensions of the parts of its head it resembles the Quebec fish more closely than the preceding*. It has two teeth on the vomer, one before the other, and two on each side of the

* On comparing the dimensions of the larger Musquaw River salmon with that of a prime Scottish one of the same length in the subjoined table, the head of the former appears altogether smaller, but, as we have remarked above, the skin may have been overstretched, and the total length consequently disproportionately increased.

[page] 157

tongue. The smaller specimen is in perfect preservation, except that its colours are faded. The four rows of black spots are, however, distinct enough. There are four teeth on the vomer, the two anterior ones being abreast. It does not seem that in this specimen the relative position of the fins could have been in any way altered, yet the ventrals correspond to the three last rays of the dorsal, and are even partly posterior to that fin. In other respects there is no material difference between it and the Quebec fish, and a close comparison with a small Scottish salmon, or grilse of nearly the same size, showed an almost perfect similarity in the scales and external form.

In the following table of dimensions I have given exact measurements not only of the American specimen but also of several British salmon with which I compared them.

FINS.—Br. 11—12; P. 13; D. 13—0; V. 9; A. 10; C. 20 6/6. Quebec salmon.

11—12; 13; 14—0; 9; 11; 19 7/7 Mingan R. ditto.

11—11; 14; 15—0; 9; 12; 19 5/5 Musquaw R. ditto.

10—12; 14; 14—0; 9; 12; 19 4/4. Ditto, ditto.

DIMENSIONS.

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7. No. 8.
Quebec Salmon. Mingan River Salmon. Musquaw River Salmon. Musquaw River Salmon. Scottish Spawned Salmon, River Nith. Decem. Prime Salmon, same River. August. Grilse, River Nith. August. Young Salmon, London Market, Wt. 130z. March.
In. lin. In. lin. In. lin. In. lin. In. lin. In. lin. In. lin. In. lin.
Length from tip of snout to extremities of caudal 26 3 29 1 36 0 23 38 9 36 24 0 15 6
Length from tip of snout to end of central caudal rays 25 2 28 35 8 22 10½ 37 8 35 5 23 4 14 5
Length from tip of snout to end of scales on caudal 23 9 26 10½ 33 6 21 35 5 33 22 0 13 7
Length from tip of snout to end of base of adipose fin 19 9 22 5 27 8 17 29 4 28 3 17 8 11 1
Length from tip of snout to end of attachment of anal 19 2 21 10 27 1 17 2 29 1 27 2 17 9 10 11
Length from tip of snout to anus 17 2 18 10 24 6 15 26 1 24 1 16 4 9 7
Length from tip of snout to first ray of ventrals 11 13 8 17 4 11 1 18 10 17 10 12 2 6 9
Length from tip of snout to end of dorsal 13 4 14 3 17 4 10 9 19 7 18 12 0 7 2
Length from tip of snout to commencement of dorsal 10 11 11 7 13 9 8 6 15 11 15 9 2 5 9
Length from tip of snout to posterior edge of gill-cover 4 5 2 5 3 4 2 6 10 6 2 4 6 2 8
Length from tip of snout to nape 2 10½ 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 2 10 1
Length from tip of snout to posterior edge of orbitar bones 3 0 3 2⅓ 3 2 8 4 4 1 3 0 0 0
Length from tip of snout to base of snout (hind. part of orbit) 2 2 2 2 5 2 1 3 4 2 11 2 2 1 2
Length from tip of snout to centre of orbit 1 10 2 1 2 2 1 8 2 11 2 6 1 10 1 0
Length from tip of snout to tips of labials 2 2 2 2 3 6 3 0 2 0 0
Length of intermaxillary 0 0 10⅔ 0 10 0 8 1 1 1 0 0
Length of labial 1 1 8⅔ 1 1 2 7 2 3 2 7 1
Length of lower jaw 2 2 10 3 2 3 4 2 3 7 2 1 7
Length of pectoral rays 2 3 2 3 1 2 7 4 0 3 2 8⅓ 1 10
Length of ventrals 2 4 2 2 7 1 9 3 2 11 3 2 1 5
Length of ventral appendage 1 0 1 1 4 0 9 1 1 6 0 11 0 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 5 2 3 2 3 8 3 2 5 0 0
Length of longest rays of ditto 2 6 2 10 3 0 2 2 3 3 1 2 6 1 8
Length of last ray of ditto 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 0 1 4 1 5 1 0 0 7
Length of attachment of adipose 0 9 0 7 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 5
Length of height of adipose 1 2 1 2 1 0 0 9 1 1 0 9 0 7
Length of attachment of anal 1 2 2 2 4 1 2 10 2 6 1 1 1
Length of longest ray of ditto 2 2 8 2 6 1 3 5 2 10 1 10 1 5
Length of space between anal and caudal 3 0 4 0 5 0 3 4 10 4 6 3 0 0
Length of lobes of caudal 4 3 4 5 5 0 3 4 5 10 5 5 4 2 0 0
Length of central rays of ditto from end of scales 1 5 0 11 1 10 1 3 2 6 2 1 1 5
Depth of caudal fork 1 3 0 0 4 0 11 0 11 1 1 1 0 7

OBS. The dimensions of the intestines of two English salmon are given in a subsequent page, at the end of our account of the True trouts.

[page] 158

[62.] 2. SALMO SCOULERI. (Richardson.) Observatory Inlet Salmon.

FAMILY, Salmonoideæ. GENUS, Salmo. CUVIER. Sub-genus, Salmo. ID.

PLATE 93.

Fig. A, entire fish, one-third nat. size. B, head, and C, roof of the mouth, nat. size.

I am indebted to Dr. Scouler, of the Dublin Institution, for a specimen of this very interesting salmon, which he obtained when on the north-west coast of America, in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. It was taken in the month of August in Observatory Inlet, and Dr. Scouler remarks that "this arm of the sea was frequented at the time by such myriads of the salmon, that a stone could not have reached the bottom without touching several individuals, their abundance surpassing the efforts of imagination to conceive. The little brook that empties itself into the inlet was swarming with the fish ascending to spawn, and in the course of about two hours we killed sixty with boarding pikes. The hump before the dorsal fin consists of fat, and appears to be peculiar to the males, who acquire it after the spawning season, when their snouts become elongated and arched." Having directed Dr. Scouler's attention to Pennant's notices of the Kamtschatka salmon, he favoured me with the following second communication. "I will endeavour to answer your questions seriatim. I think the Observatory Inlet salmon comes nearest to the gorbuscha* of Kamtschatka. According to the best of my remembrance, the colour of the belly is white, inclining to yellow, and the back is of a bluish leaden colour. Nothing can be more different than the appearance of the two sexes in the spawning season. The female is round and beautiful, with the jaws of equal length; while the male is compressed laterally and has a long arched snout with powerful teeth. The flesh of this salmon is red, and we thought it excellent, quite equal to that of the English salmon,—no one on board objected to it." "The natives of the Columbia use two modes of cooking salmon. One consists of steaming which is accomplished as follows: A number of heated pebbles are thrown into a

* "The gorbuscha, or hunch-back, ascends the rivers in July. In form it resembles the Grayling: never exceeds a foot and a half in length: is of a silvery colour, and unspotted: the tail forked; the flesh white. After it has been some time in fresh water it changes its shape (the male especially) in a most surprising manner. The jaws and teeth grow prodigiously long, especially the upper, which is at first shortest, but soon shoots beyond the under, and grows crooked downwards: the body becomes emaciated and the meat bad: but what is most characteristic, an enormous bunch rises just before the first dorsal fin, to which it owes its name. Its flesh is bad, so that this fish falls to the share of the dogs. Rays. D. 14—0; P. 15; V. 11; A. 18." (PENN., Arct. Zool., Intr., p. CXXV.)

[page] 159

wooden trough, and some bits of wood or small branches placed over them; the pieces of fish are then put in, a little water added, and the whole covered with mats until the fish is cooked. The second mode is broiling the salmon. The intestines are taken out, and two or three bits of wood inserted into the body of the fish to keep it expanded transversely; a stronger stick is passed through the tail and head, and its lower end stuck into the ground at a convenient distance from the fire. The salmon is to the north-west Indians what the cerealia are to us, the fishing season being their harvest. During the summer the natives reside near the coast, or on the banks of rivers in which the salmon are abundant, and occupy themselves in curing the fish for winter use. They cut two long and broad slices from each side of the fish, dry it in the shade, and eat them like bread. Vast quantities are thus prepared, and though no salt is used it forms a palatable food, which I have often eaten. Sometimes the dried fish is broken down, kept in bags, and eaten by handfuls, when it may be called the pemmican of the north-west coast. After the salmon season the Indians retire inland with their abundant store.

"Pennant says the Kamtschatka salmon die without returning to the sea, after spawning. I never heard such an opinion mooted on the north-west coast, and saw nothing to confirm it; but as the streams which the American salmon ascend are often extremely shallow, and as they spawn in Observatory Inlet during the months of July and August, when the water is at the lowest, I should suppose that great numbers must perish from emaciation (for their flesh then becomes white, or at least a great deal less red and of bad quality), and from the extreme difficulty they must experience in returning to the sea from the want of water, and perhaps from its high temperature. Thousands must also be devoured by the osprey, the white-headed eagle, and the otter, in the fresh waters, and by the seals in the sea, so that I should think few survive. I am unable, however, to say whether any return to the sea or not; or whether the large teeth drop and the incurvated snout returns to its former dimensions. The females want the large teeth, and so do the males before spawning, at least I saw none with large teeth in the Columbia in April or May. We left that river in June, and did not return until September." (Scouler, in lit.)

The following extract from Sir Alexander Mackenzie's Journey to the Pacific, describes the mode in which the salmon roe is prepared for food by the natives of New Caledonia. "He took the roes out of a bag, and having bruised them between two stones, put them in water to soak. His wife then took a handful of dry grass in her hand, with which she squeezed them through her fingers; in the

[page] 160

meantime her husband was employed in gathering wood to make a fire, for the purpose of heating stones. When she had finished her operation she filled a watape* kettle nearly full of water and poured the roes into it. When the stones were sufficiently heated, some of them were put into the kettle, and others were thrown in from time to time till the water was in a state of boiling. The woman also continued stirring the contents of the kettle till they were brought into a state of consistency; the stones were then taken out, and the whole seasoned with about a pint of rancid oil. The smell of this curious dish was sufficient to sicken me without tasting it, but the hunger of my people surmounted the nauseous meal. When unmixed with oil the roes are not unpalatable."

We have no means of ascertaining whether the Observatory Inlet salmon be one of the several kinds seen by Langsdorff at the island of Kodiak and on the adjacent coast, nor whether Dr. Scouler's conjecture, that it is the same species which abounds in the Columbia be correct; but Lewis and Clark's account of the salmon they observed in that river is subjoined to the following description of Salmo Scouleri.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in Observatory Inlet by Dr. Scouler, 1825.

FORM.—The profile is much arched between the nape and the dorsal fin, and the body there is thick but gradually tapers to the caudal. Head convex, transversely between the eyes, but in profile descending nearly in a straight line from the nape to the nostrils. Orbit ovate, situated more than thrice its length from the posterior edge of the gill-cover. The posterior orbitar bones reach backwards to the upper angle of the preoperculum. The nostrils open about half an inch anterior to the orbit. The jaws are very long, and, in our specimen, the intermaxillaries are greatly prolonged and ineurvated, projecting beyond the lower jaw: they are about two-thirds of the length of the labials. This prolongation and incurvature is said to be peculiar to the male after spawning †, and is accompanied by great enlargement of the teeth which are implanted in the intermaxillaries and knobbed extremity of the lower jaw. The labials are linear-lanceolate and straight: their posterior tips pass a little beyond the upper angle of the preoperculum, or within half an inch of the nape: the union between the two pieces of the labial is so complete that the suture cannot be distinguished. The under jaw is terminated by a dilated and slightly incurved knob which is armed with very strong hooked teeth: its articulation is about an inch posterior to the nape, and its length exceeds that of the upper surface of the head, including the snout, by about three quarters of an inch. The head, measured from the tip of the lower jaw to the edge of the suboperculum, forms one-fourth of the

* Watape is the root of the pine-tree, and the kettle is a basket made of the flexible twigs woven so compactly together as to be water-tight.

† A specimen of a salmon, probably Salmo kamatus, once belonging to Donovan, and now in the British Museum, has a hooked nose very like that of Salmo Scouleri.

[page] 161

total length including the caudal, or if the measurement be made from the knob of the lower jaw to the tip of the central caudal rays, the head still constitutes one-fourth part.

TEETH.—There are nine very strong and considerably incurved teeth in a row on each intermaxillary, exclusive of four smaller ones which occupy the tip of the snout on both sides of the principal row. The labials are closely set with much smaller teeth in a single series, and the teeth on the limbs of the lower jaw are likewise close, numerous, and curved: those on the dilated knob of the jaw are very much curved and are the largest of all, being upwards of a quarter of an inch long. The palatine and vomerine teeth equal the posterior ones on the lower jaw in size, and are implanted in double rows: there are none on the anterior knob of the vomer. The tongue is long and narrow, and is armed with distant teeth on each side, about the size of those on the labials.

GILL-COVERS.—The posterior edge of the gill-cover is formed by the union of three small segments of large circles. The operculum is strongly marked with lines which radiate from its anterior upper angle: its lower edge slants downwards and forwards, so as to interpose itself between the preoperculum and suboperculum. The latter forms an acute spherical triangle, its convex side occupying nearly as much of the edge of the gill-cover as the operculum: the borders of both these bones are finely radiated. The interoperculum is shaped much as in other trouts, but its posterior angle reaches the edge of the gill-cover instead of being separated from it by the suboperculum as usual. The preoperculum is broad, being at its greatest width nearly equal to the operculum, and it is marked, as well as the adjoining part of the interoperculum, with close raised lines and furrows, very different from the short diverging tubular ridges of this bone in other trouts. The bones of the head, in general, have an unusually fibrous texture. Gill-rays flat, but narrower and shorter than in most other species: the longest are the central ones under the articulation of the jaw, the more posterior ones being a little shorter: there are 12 on the right side and 13 on the left.

FINS.—Br. 12—13; P. 16; D. 14—0; V. 11; A. 17; C. 19 9/9.

The pectorals contain sixteen rays; the dorsal fourteen, the height of the fourth, fifth, or sixth, which are the longest, equalling the length of the attachment of the fin. The adipose fin is opposite to the three last rays of the anal. The ventrals are under the ninth, tenth, and eleventh dorsal rays. The ventral appendages are long, reaching to within one-third of the tips of the fin. The anal contains seventeen rays, the first one short, and the second nearly equalling the third, which is the longest; the last one is half as long as the third. The caudal fin has an unusually tapering base, and is forked at the end, the depth of the fork being half the length of the central rays; it contains nineteen rays exclusive of nine short basal ones above and below.

The SCALES are small and vary in form, some being oval, others four-sided with the corners rounded. They are most regular and closest on the tail, being in contact but not tiled: on the anterior part of the back they are separated by spaces equal to their own breadth, but on the sides they are not so far apart. Under the dorsal fin, and near the lateral line, a linear inch includes eleven scales, the intervening spaces occupying about one-third of the inch. There are 170 scales on the lateral line, and 70 in a vertical row anterior to the ventrals, of

Y

[page] 162

which 30 are above the lateral line. The lateral line marked out by a small raised tube on the anterior part of each scale, is equidistant from the dorsal and ventral fins. The anus is situated at the commencement of the posterior third of the fish, caudal included.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to upper tip of caudal 29 0
Length from base of central caudal rays 26 6
Length from commencement of dorsal 14 0
Length from edge of suboperculum 7
Length from nape 4 8
Length from base of snout 4 0
Length from lower tip of labial 5 0
Length from centre of pupil 3
Length from anterior edge of orbit 3 3
Length from tip of lower jaw to lower tip of caudal 28 6
Length from base of central caudal rays 26 0
Length from anus 19 0
Length from centre of pupil to edge of gill-cover 3 7
Length from orbit to ditto 3 2
Length of intermaxillary 2 1
Length of labial 3 1
Length of vertical axis of orbit 0 8
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0 10¾
Length of lower jaw 5 4
Length of toothed margin of ditto 2 5
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 1
Length of longest ray of ditto 2 10
Length of last ray of ditto 1
Length of adipose fin 1 2
Length of pectorals 3 2
Length of ventrals 2 6
Length of ventral appendages 1 6
Length of attachment of anal 2
Length of longest ray of ditto 1
Length of last ray of ditto 0 10¾
Length of central ray of caudal 1 6
Length of longest ray of ditto 3 7
Length of lobes of ditto 4 6
Depth of caudal fork 1 0
Distance between anus and base of caudal 6 2

The anadromous trout of the Columbia river are described by Lewis and Clark under the names of the Common salmon, Red char, and Salmon-trout, which they state to be inhabitants of both the seas and rivers.

"The COMMON SALMON are usually the largest, and weigh from five to fifteen pounds: they extend themselves into all the rivers and little creeks of this side of the continent (Pacific coast), and to them the natives are much indebted for their subsistence. They begin to run early in May. They are never caught with the hook, and we do not know on what they feed. The body of the fish is from two and a half to three feet long, and proportionably broad: it is covered with imbricated scales of a moderate size: the eye is large and the iris of a silvery colour: the pupil is black, the rostrum or nose extends beyond the under jaw, and both jaws are armed with a single row of long teeth, which are subulate and inflected near the extremities of the jaws, where they are also more closely arranged: there are some sharp teeth of smaller size, and the tongue, which is thick and fleshy, is armed with sharp points: the fins of the back are two; the first, placed nearer the head than the ventral fins, has several rays; the second, situated far back near the tail, has no rays. Both the fins and the belly are sometimes red, particularly in the male. The flesh of this fish, when in order, is of a deep flesh-coloured red, and every shade from that to orange-yellow; when very meagre it is almost white. The roes are in high estimation among the natives, who dry them in the sun, and preserve them for a great length of time: they are of the size of a small pea, nearly transparent, and of a reddish-yellow cast: they resemble very much, at a little distance, our common garden currants, but are more yellow.

The RED CHAR are rather broader in proportion to their length than the Common

[page] 163

salmon: the scales are also imbricated, but rather larger, the rostrum exceeds the under jaw more, and the teeth are neither so large nor so numerous as those of the salmon. Some of them are almost entirely red on the belly and sides; others are much more white than the salmon; and none of them are variegated with the dark spots which mark the body of the other: their flesh, roes, and every other particular with regard to form, are those of the salmon.

Of the SALMON-TROUT we observe two species differing only in colour. They are seldom more than two feet in length, and much narrower in proportion than the salmon or red char. The jaws are nearly of the same length, and are furnished with a single series of small, subulate, straight teeth, not so long nor so large as those of the salmon. The mouth is wide, and the tongue is also furnished with small subulate teeth, in a single series on each side: the fins are placed much like those of the salmon. One of the kinds, of a silvery-white colour on the belly and sides, and a bluish light brown on the back and head, is found below the Great Falls, and associates with the red char in little rivulets and creeks. It is about two feet eight inches long, and weighs ten pounds. The eye is moderately large, the pupil black, with a small admixture of yellow, and the iris of a silvery-white, and a little turbid near its border with a yellowish-brown. The fins are small in proportion to the size of the fish. FINS.—D. 10—0; P. 13; V. 10; A. 12.—The other kind is of a dark colour on the back, and its sides and belly are yellow, with transverse stripes of dark brown: sometimes a little red is intermixed with these colours on the belly and sides towards the head. The eye, flesh, and roe are like those of the salmon. Neither this fish nor the salmon are caught with the hook, and we know not on what they feed. The white kind, found below the falls, is in excellent order when the salmon are out of season and unfit for use." (LEWIS and CLARK, iii., p. 66—68.)

[63.] 3. SALMO ROSSII. (Richardson.) Ross's Arctic Salmon.

Salmo Rossii. RICHARDSON, in Nat. Hist. App. to Ross's Voyage, p. lvi. Eekalook. ESQUIMAUX of Boothia Felix.

PLATE 80, one-quarter nat. size. PLATE 85, f. 2, head of nat. size.

This species is named in honour of a highly-valued friend, Captain James Clark Ross, an officer who has had the singular fortune of being engaged in five successive expeditions of discovery in the Arctic seas: whose professional skill, exertions, and perseverance, are the subjects of Sir Edward Parry's eulogium, and whose scientific acquirements and contributions to Natural History are so generally known, that any attempt of mine to commend him would be want of taste, were it not allowable for one who has also spent the prime of his life in the same regions and

Y 2

[page] 164

in similar occupations, to add his meed of praise to retiring merit. To his friendship and liberality I owe the acquisition of this and three other trouts, taken in Regent's Inlet on his last expedition. The Salmo Rossii is so extremely abundant in the sea, near the mouths of the rivers of Boothia Felix, at certain seasons, that three thousand three hundred and seventy-eight individuals were obtained at one haul of a small-sized seine. They varied in weight from two to fourteen pounds, and rather exceeded, in the aggregate, six tons. In some the colour of the flesh was of a dark red, in others it was very pale, the dark ones being the firmest and best flavoured. As an article of food this salmon was much relished by the crew of the Victory. The malma, or golet of the Russians, which enters the rivers of Kamtschatka, agrees with the Salmo Rossii in its comparatively slender cylindrical form, scarlet spots on the sides, and the colours of some other parts; but we cannot, from the short notice of the malma by Pennant, offer an opinion respecting the identity or difference of the species. The habits of the two are evidently unlike, if it be true that the malma never congregates in shoals*. The Greenlanders give the same name to the Salmo carpio of Fabricius, that S. Rossii receives from the Esquimaux of Boothia Felix; viz., Eekalook.

DESCRIPTION

Of a dried specimen from Regent's Inlet.

FORM, as compared with the Common salmon, more slender, with a straighter back, much less arched forehead and shoulders, and slightly larger head. The remarkable length of the under jaw, and the truncated snout, give a peculiar appearance to the fish, and in conjunction with the nature of the scales, and the colour of the skin, readily characterise the species. Head, when viewed from above, appearing broad and flat, there being very little convexity either longitudinally or transversely. The snout is very obtuse. The head, measured as usual from the tip of the snout, is one-fifth of the whole length to the end of the scales on the caudal, and if the measurement be made from the tip of the lower jaw, which is an inch longer than the upper one, five lengths of the head reach to the extremities of the caudal. In the dried specimen there is a smooth median ridge extending from between the eyes to the nape, and an even lateral ridge on each side, commencing at the nostrils and curving down behind the orbit. A series of pores runs along the lateral ridge, and down the scapular bones to the lateral line; a row crosses the nape, another runs down the preoperculum, and lastly, one, beginning at the nostrils, curves under the orbit, and upwards to the middle of the lateral

* "The malma, or golet of the Russians, grows to the weight of twenty pounds, and to the length of about twenty-eight inches. It is the most slender and cylindrical of all the genus. The head resembles that of a trout: the scales are very small: the back and sides bluish, with scattered spots of scarlet red: the belly white: ventral and anal fins red: tail slightly forked. It is sporadic, going dispersedly and not in shoals, ascends rivers to their very sources, feeds upon the spawn of other species, and grows very fat. The natives salt those they take in autumn, and preserve frozen those which are caught when the frost commences." (Arct. Zool. Intr., i., p. cxxvi.)

[page] 165

ridge, passing through the middle of the sub-orbitar bones. These pores exist in other trouts, but are rendered conspicuous in this species by the prominence of the ridges with which they are connected. Eye equidistant from the tip of the snout and nape. The orbit has an oval shape, and the nostrils are rather nearer to it than to the tip of the snout. Labials thin and of a narrow lanceolate form. The distance from the snout to the tip of the labial reaches from the former to the nape, and extends beyond the posterior sub-orbitar bones. The lower iaw is long, exceeding the length of the upper surface of the head by an inch and a quarter: its tip is a small incurvated knob. In the general form of the head the S. Rossii strongly resembles the British species figured in Plate 91, f. 2: it differs in the greater length of the jaws, in the whole margin of the intermaxillaries being toothed, and in other particulars readily discoverable by comparing the plates,—the British fish has an edentate depression at the extremity of the snout for the reception of the knob of the lower jaw.

TEETH.—In the only specimen I have had an opportunity of examining, part of the teeth have been injured and removed. They appear to have stood in a single series on the upper and lower jaws: the remaining ones are short, straight, and mostly obtuse, as if worn; there is also a single row of short, conical, but very acute teeth on each palate-bone; and though the vomer has been broken in preparing the specimen, two similar teeth remain on its anterior extremity, and one farther back. The teeth on the tongue, amounting to about thirty, are smaller and more crowded than the palatine ones; they form two or more rows across the tip and one down each side.

GILL-COVERS.—Operculum rhomboidal with the corners rounded, its height being nearly twice its breadth. The suboperculum has the same form in a different position, its length corresponding with the breadth of the operculum. Both these bones are marked with circular indented lines crossed by straight ones radiating from the centre. The posterior edge of the interoperculum is indented and somewhat concave. Preoperculum rather wide, its breadth being about half that of the operculum: on its middle there are raised diverging tubular ridges, and fine lines radiating from its centre to its posterior margin. The posterior edge of the gill-cover is inclined to the under one at an acute angle, the corner formed by the suboperculum being rounded. The gill-rays are flat, twelve on the right side and thirteen on the left.

FINS.—Br. 12—13; D. 13—0; P. 14; V. 10, A. 11; C. 21 6/6.

The dorsal has thirteen rays, the first scarcely perceptible, the next also short, the third one quarter shorter than the fourth, which is the longest: the ninth ray is exactly opposite to the origin of the ventrals, and stands midway between the tips of the snout and of the central caudal rays: the last ray is divided to the base. The adipose fin is opposite to the penultimate anal ray. The pectorals are scimitar-shaped and contain fourteen rays. The ventrals have ten rays and the usual scaly appendages. The anal has eleven rays, of which the fourth and fifth are the longest. The caudal fin is forked, and contains twenty-one broad deeply-divided rays, with six short basal ones above and below.

SCALES.—This species differs remarkably from all the American trouts that have come under my observation (except, perhaps, S. Hearnii) in the scales. They are small, particu-

[page] 166

larly on the forepart of the back, where they are also most remote: and though rather larger and more crowded on the sides they are nowhere tiled, each scale being surrounded by a distinct space of smooth skin. Their general form is ovate or oval, and they are covered with a mucous skin, except a round or oval spot on the tip. The naked tips are larger on the sides, where they often assume a slightly crescentic form, and many of the scales there are truncated. As the skin dries the tips of the scales become elevated and rough to the touch. There are 134 scales on the lateral line, and 78 in a vertical row under the dorsal, 30 of them being above the lateral line. On the forepart of the body each scale on the lateral line corresponds to two rows above and below, so that there are in all between 240 and 250 rows on the sides. A linear inch includes about ten or eleven scales on most parts of the body. The lateral line is an inch nearer to the ridge of the back than to the upper ray of the ventral: it is formed by a series of ovate, dilated, acuminated scales, each having an elevated tube posteriorly, and a small pore on its tip. The distance between the anus and the base of the inferior caudal ray is contained two times and a half between the anus and gill-opening.

COLOUR.—The back, top of the head, dorsal and caudal fins, have a hue intermediate between oil-green and hair-brown; the cheeks are nacry, and the sides pearl-grey, with a blush of lilac and a silvery lustre; there are a number of scattered dots of carmine in the vicinity of the lateral line; the colour of the belly varies in different individuals from faded orange to tile-red and arterial blood-red. These colours are described partly from the dried skin and partly from two drawings made by Sir John Ross.

DIMENSIONS

Of the dried specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of upper jaw to tip of caudal 33 0
Length from end of scales 29 4
Length from anus 21 0
Length from commencement of dorsal 13 11
Length from tip of suboperculum 6 0
Length from nape 3 5
Length from centre of pupil 2
Length from orbit 1 9
Length from tip of under jaw to tip of caudal 34 2
Length from tip of suboperculum 6 10½
Length from centre of pupil to ditto 3 10
Length from posterior edge of orbit to ditto 3 4⅓
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0 10⅔
Length of vertical axis of ditto 0 7
Length of intermaxillary bone 0 11
Length of labial 2 10
Length of lower jaw 4 7
Length of its toothed margin 2 6
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 0
Length of longest rays of ditto 3 9
Length of last ray of ditto 1 11
Length of pectorals 5 2
Length of ventrals 4 2
Length of ventral appendages 0
Length of attachment of anal 2
Length of longest rays of ditto 3 6
Length of last ray of ditto 1
Length of lobes of caudal 4 8
Length of central rays beyond the scales 2 2
Length from anus to base of caudal 6 8
Breadth of occiput 2 3
Breadth between the orbits 2 0

[page] 167

[64.] 4. SALMO HEARNII. (Richardson.) Coppermine River Salmon.

Salmo Hearnii. RICHARDSON, Franklin's First Journ., p. 706.

This, which is another anadromous trout, was taken in the Coppermine River and adjacent sea, on Sir John Franklin's First Expedition. Its flesh is red, and, though similar in flavour to that of the Common salmon, is, perhaps, less firm and more oily. Our party subsisted upon it for several days, but the Indians who then accompanied us, being unused to it, thought it unwholesome, and our Canadian voyagers were soon infected with the same apprehension. The well-known calamities that befell us on our return, prevented me from bringing home specimens of the fish, and I can introduce the species to naturalists, only through the medium of a description hastily drawn up on the spot, which does not altogether coincide with the account of any other salmon that I have seen or read of. The affecting story related by Hearne, of the slaughter of a poor old Esquimaux woman, by the Indians of his party, while she was engaged in taking this salmon at a cascade near the mouth of the Coppermine, subsequently named, from the transaction, Bloody-fall, may be appropriately quoted here; as it contains the earliest notice of the fish, and, indeed, the only one previous to the publication of Sir John Franklin's narrative.

"It ought to have been mentioned in its proper place, that in making our retreat up the river, after killing the Esquimaux on the west side, we saw an old woman sitting by the side of the water taking salmon, which lay at the foot of the fall as thick as a shoal of herrings. Whether from the noise of the fall, or a natural defect in the old woman's hearing, it is hard to determine, but certain it is, she had no knowledge of the tragical scene which had been so lately transacted at the tents, though she was not more than two hundred yards from the place. When we first perceived her, she seemed perfectly at ease, and was entirely surrounded by the produce of her labour. From her manner of behaviour, and the appearance of her eyes, which were as red as blood, it is more than probable that her sight was not very good, for she scarcely discerned that the Indians were enemies till they were within twice the length of their spears of her. It was in vain that she attempted to fly, for the wretches of my crew transfixed her to the ground in a few seconds, and butchered her in the most savage manner. There was scarcely a man among them who had not a thrust at her with his spear; and many in doing this

[page] 168

aimed at torture rather than immediate death, as they not only poked out her eyes, but stabbed her in many parts remote from those which are vital. It may appear strange, that a person supposed to be almost blind should be employed in the business of fishing, and particularly with any degree of success; but when the multitude of fish is taken into account, the wonder will cease. Indeed, they were so numerous at the foot of the fall, that when a light pole, armed with a few spikes, which was the instrument the old woman used, was put under water and hauled up with a jerk, it was scarcely possible to miss them. Some of my Indians tried the method with the old woman's staff, and seldom got less than two or three at a jerk, sometimes three or four. These fish, though very fine and beautifully red, are but small, seldom weighing more, as near as I could judge, than six or seven pounds, and in general much less. Their numbers at this place were almost incredible, perhaps equal to anything that is related of the salmon in Kamtschatka, or any other part of the world."—After murdering the helpless old woman, together with upwards of twenty of her countrymen, and destroying all the property left at their tents, the party sat down to feast on the salmon, or, in the words of our author, "After the Indians had completed this piece of wantonness, we sat down and made a good meal of fresh salmon." (Hearne, Journ, &c., p. 158.)

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent fish taken at Bloody-fall, Lat. 67° 42½′ N., on July 16, 1821.

COLOUR.—Back olive-green; sides pale; belly bluish; several longitudinal rows of flesh-red spots on the back and sides, largest on the latter, where they are as big as a pea; cheeks and gill-covers nacry. SCALES firmly imbedded in a mucous skin and very small, but possessing much pearly lustre.

FORM like that of the Common salmon, with a proportionably larger head. Eyes small, situated opposite to the middles of the labials, and half an inch above their toothed edges. Nostrils midway between the eye and end of the snout. The intermaxillaries form a comparatively small portion of the margin of the mouth, and project somewhat from the rest of the jaw: the labials are strap-shaped. The lower jaw terminates in a small knob, which is received into a depression in the intermaxillaries. The gill-membrane contains ten oblique rays: the openings are wide.

TEETH subulate, in a thin row on the labials and lower jaw: a solitary tooth of the same size stands on each side of the intermaxillary notch: there are likewise rows of teeth on the palate-bones, a few on the anterior part of the vomer, and some stronger ones on the tongue, all subulate.

FINS.—Br. 10; D.; V.; A. 10*; C.

* In the Appendix to Sir John Franklin's First Journey, the anal is stated to have 18 rays, from an error in the transcription of my original notes.

[page] 169

The space between the anal and caudal is greater than the length of the base of the former. The caudal is large and very entire, being truncated with a slight rounding of the angles. The dorsal is opposite to the ventrals.

INTESTINES similar to those of the trouts; stomach rather small: between thirty and thirty-six cylindrical cæca from one to two inches long.

[65.] 5. SALMO ALIPES. (Richardson.) Long-finned Char.

GENUS, Salmo. CUV. Sub-genus, Salvelinus. NILSSON. Salmo alipes. RICHARDSON, Nat. Hist. App. Ross's Voy., p. lvii.

PLATE 81, One-third nat. size, and PLATE 86, f. 1, the head of the nat. size.

This trout evidently belongs to the Salvelini, or Chars, a sub-generic group characterised by the smallness of the scales and the arrangement of the vomerine teeth in a cluster on the anterior extremity of the bone, without running backwards along a median ridge in a single or double row. The European chars have a peculiarly neat aspect from their small bright scales; and in the spawning season their bellies generally assume a deep red or orange colour, agreeing in these respects with the majority of the American trouts that have come under our notice. The Salmo alipes, though it differs from S. Rossii in the smooth manner in which the scales are imbedded in the skin, in the relative proportion of the jaws, and in other particulars, resembles it closely in the general form, and especially in the shape of the various bones of the face and gill-covers. It is remarkable for the great length of its fins, but in the opinion of M. Agassiz this cannot be regarded as a specific distinction, trouts inhabiting rapid, rocky streams, having their fins always much developed. Our specimen was taken with many other individuals in a small lake which discharges itself into Prince Regent's Inlet by a stream about half a mile long. It most probably visits the sea, though the fact of its doing so was not ascertained. Several brachiellæ adhered to the inside of its under jaw. The Esquimaux of Boothia Felix included it with several other kinds of trout, under the general appellation of eekalook-peedeook.

DESCRIPTION

Of a prepared specimen from a small lake in the peninsula of Boothia.

FORM slender. The head forms more than a fifth of the total length, caudal included: it is convex above, both in profile and transversely, the cranial ridges being similar to those of S. Rossii, but more prominent and acute. Snoul very obtusely rounded, receiving the knobbed

Z

[page] 170

extremity of the lower jaw in a toothless space. Orbit ovate, situated twice its length from the end of the snout, and about three lengths and a half from the posterior edge of the gill-cover: its transverse axis is contained six times and a half in the total length of the head, but rather less than four times in the distance between the tip of the snout and nape of the neck: its upper margin is marked, in the dried specimen, by a few raised diverging lines. Nostrils twice as near to the orbit as to the end of the snout. Jaws nearly equal, the lower one appearing longer than the other when depressed. Intermaxillaries one-third of the length of the labials, each containing four teeth. Labials of medium length, thin and slightly curved, so as to approach the form of an italic f; their appophyses do not reach quite to their tips, and are as broad again as the limb of the bone to which they are attached. The distance from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the labial nearly equals the length of the upper surface of the head. Lower jaw moderately strong, tipped by a small knob, and extending about half an inch beyond the snout, when depressed to the utmost.

TEETH.—The labials, intermaxillaries, and lower jaw are armed with short, conical, acute, and very slightly-curved teeth in a single series: there is also a row of rather larger teeth intermixed with smaller ones on the elevated outer edge of each palate-bone, and a projecting cluster of six or seven on the knob of the vomer, the posterior part of that bone being flat, smooth, and toothless. The tongue has six teeth in a row on each side, equal in size to those on the jaws, and three or four clustered rows of smaller ones on its tip: it is smooth in the centre.

GILL-COVERS.—The forms of the opercular pieces, though similar to those of S. Rossii, differ in their relative dimensions, the breadth of the operculum being greater in proportion to its height, while that of the suboperculum is less: the preoperculum is also wider. There are twelve flat gill-rays on the left side, and eleven on the right.

FINS.—Br. 11—12; P. 15; D. 13—0; V. 9; A. 10 or 11; C. 19 6/6.

The pectorals contain fifteen rays, and twice their length reaches from the gill-opening to the middle of the ventrals. The ventrals, when turned back, almost touch the anus. The fifth dorsal ray is the longest, the first one being minute: the attachment of the fin is two-thirds of its height. The adipose fin is opposite to the last rays of the anal. The anal is small in proportion to the dorsal, its rays being about one-fourth shorter than those of the latter. The caudal is forked: it contains nineteen broad deeply-divided rays, and six short basal ones above and below. The eighth dorsal ray is midway between the tip of the snout and extremities of the central rays of the caudal.

SCALES small, thin, and roundish, firmly and smoothly imbedded in the skin: they are mostly in contact but not tiled, those on the back small and more remote; they are also small on the belly, but more crowded and of an oval form: on the sides they are somewhat truncated. The lateral line is formed of 126 scales similar to those of S. Rossii; there are about 285 scales in a row close to the lateral line, and 70 in a vertical row anterior to the ventrals 29 of which are above the lateral line, and ten below the upper edge of the ventral. The anterior scales on the lateral line are so large and remote, that they correspond to two or three of the rows which descend from the back.

[page] 171

COLOUR, as far as one can judge from the dried skin, hair-brown on the upper parts, the sides paler with yellowish marks, the belly white or yellow, and the under fins orange with some darker streaks.

DIMENSIONS

Of the dried specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of upper jaw to extremities of caudal 26 10
Length from end of scales on caudal 24 3
Length from anus 17 6
Length from commencement of dorsal 11 4
Length from edge of suboperculum 5 6
Length from nape 3 5
Length from centre of pupil 2 2
Length from edge of orbit 1 8
Length from under jaw to tips of caudal 27 0
Length from edge of suboperculum 5
Length from centre of pupil to ditto 3 6
Length from posterior angle of orbit to ditto 3 1
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0
Length of vertical axis of ditto 0 7
Length of intermaxillary bone 0
Length of labial 2 7
Length of lower jaw 3 9
Length of toothed margin of lower jaw 2 3
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 8
Length of its longest ray 3 8
Length of its last ray 2
Length of pectorals 4
Length of ventrals 3 11
Length of ventral appendages 0
Length of attachment of anal 1
Length of its longest ray 3 0
Length of its last ray 1
Length of longest caudal rays 3
Length of central ditto 1 10½
Breadth of occiput 2 0
Breadth between orbits 1
Distance between anus and tip of caudal 9 4
Depth of body at the dorsal 3 8

[66.] 6. SALMO NITIDUS. (Richardson.) The Angmalook.

Salmo nitidus. RICHARDSON, Nat. Hist. App. Ross's Voy., p. lvii.

Angmalook. ESQUIMAUX.

PLATE 82, f. 1, one-third nat. size. PLATE 86, f. 2, head of nat. size.

This Char was found in the same lake with the preceding one, to which it is similar in the size and form of its head, and in the general appearance of its scales. If one may judge, however, from the inspection of a single prepared specimen of each, it has a thicker body, shorter upper jaw, and shorter fins. It is possible that these differences may be owing to age or individual variation, but the colours appear also to be dissimilar: hence it seems safer to describe the angmalook as a distinct species.

DESCRIPTION.

FORM.—Back nearly straight as in S. alipes, but the body is thicker, the belly more prominent, and the fins shorter. The middle of the tip of the snout and of the central caudal ray falls under the ninth dorsal ray, and a very little posterior to the origin of the ventrals. The

Z 2

[page] 172

adipose fin is placed at the commencement of the fourth quarter of the fish, including the lobes of the caudal, and the anus is nearly twice as far distant from the snout as from the latter, being consequently farther back than in S. alipes. Head less arched above, both in profile and transversely, than in S. alipes: the mesial ridge and lateral porous curves are less prominent, and there are no radiating lines above the orbit: the head forms less than a fifth part of the entire length of the fish. The ovate orbit is the length of its axis and a half from the tip of the snout, and three lengths and a half from the posterior edge of the gill-cover, being proportionally nearer the snout than in S. alipes: six diameters of the orbit are equal to the extreme length of the head. In this, as in S. alipes, the upper surface of the head measures just the same with the distance of the posterior edge of the suboperculum from the centre of the pupil, while in S. Rossii the top of the head is half a diameter of the orbit shorter. The nostrils are a little nearer to the eye than to the tip of the snout. The upper jaw is shorter than in S. alipes. The snout is rounded, and there is a small edentate space for the reception of the slightly-knobbed extremity of the lower jaw, which is a little shorter than the upper one when the mouth is shut, and scarcely surpasses it when the jaws are open. The intermaxillaries are less than one-third of the length of the labials; and the latter are shorter, stronger, and less curved than in S. alipes. The total length of the lower jaw exceeds the distance between the tip of the snout and nape by about two lines.

TEETH as in S. alipes, the cluster on the knob of the vomer being, however, less prominent and not so crowded: the form of the cluster is triangular, three teeth wide anteriorly, and one tooth in the posterior angle.

GILL-COVERS.—The opercular bones greatly resemble those of S. Rossii and alipes, though the breadth of the operculum is less, being only half its height, and but just equal to the greatest width of the preoperculum. The height of the suboperculum is half its length. There are eleven gill-rays on the right side, and twelve on the left.

FINS.—Br. 11—12; D. 14—0; P. 17; V. 10; A. 12; C. 19 8/8.

The fifth and sixth dorsal rays are the longest, the first being scarcely perceptible. The attachment of the anal is equal in length to the space between it and the base of the caudal. The adipose fin is opposite to the last rays of the anal.

SCALES tiled, small, roundish: truncated on the sides: smaller and more pointed on the belly. There are 120 on the lateral line of a larger size, and about 270 in a row adjoining to that line, or 19 in a linear inch under the dorsal: a vertical row there contains 92, of which 36 are above the lateral line, 42 betwixt it and the ventral, and 12 or 14 below the first ray of the latter.

COLOUR, according to Captain J. C. Ross, as follows: "Body above the lateral line deep green, softening towards the belly, which is of a beautiful yellowish-red tint posterior to the pectoral fin: throat and region of the pectorals white, slightly clouded by yellowish-red. There are several rows of occellate red spots, confined principally to the space between the lateral line and yellowish-red of the belly: they vary in size, the largest being as big as a pea. Dorsal fin coloured like the back. Under fins dusky-red, the anal paler, and the first rays of the pectorals, ventrals, and anal white."

[page] 173

DIMENSIONS

Of the prepared specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of upper jaw to upper extremity of caudal 20 4
Length from end of central caudal rays 19 6
Length from end of scales on ditto 18 3
Length from anus 13 6
Length from beginning of dorsal 8 3
Length from edge of suboperculum 4
Length from nape 2 8
Length from centre of pupil 1 7
Length from edge of orbit 1 3
Length from centre of pupil to edge of suboperculum 2
Length from posterior angle of orbit to ditto 2 5
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0
Length of vertical ditto 0 5
Length of intermaxillary 0
Length of labial 1 10¼
Length of lower jaw 2 9
Length of toothed margin of ditto 1 5
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 3
Length of longest rays of ditto 2 6
Length of last ray of dorsal 1 3
Length of adipose fin 0 7
Length of pectorals 3 5
Length of ventrals 2 10
Length of ventral appendages 0 7
Length of longest ray of anal 2 3
Length of last ray of ditto 1 0
Length of attachment of ditto 1
Length of lobes of caudal 3
Length of longest rays of ditto 3 0
Length of central rays of ditto 1 6
Depth of caudal fork 0 8
Distance between anus and tip of caudal 7 2
Distance between anal or adipose fin and base of caudal 2 0
Distance between ditto or ditto to end of scales on lateral line 3 3
Depth of body at the dorsal 3 6
Breadth of occiput 1
Breadth between the orbits 1 5

[67.] 7. SALMO HOODII. (Richardson.) The Masamacush.

The Masamacush. HUTCHINS'S Mss.

Salmo Hoodii. RICHARDSON, Nat. Hist. App. Ross's Voy., p. lviii.

PLATE 82, f. 2. PLATE 83, f. 2, one-third nat. size. PLATE 87, f. 1, head nat. size.

This Char, well known in the fur countries by its Cree appellation of Masāmècoos, is common in every river and lake from Canada to the northern extremity of the continent. It is voracious, and readily takes a cod-hook baited with a piece of sucking-carp, pork, deer's heart, or the belly of one of its own species. We took many at Fort Enterprise in March, in gill-nets set under the ice, in the neighbourhood of an open rapid by which the waters of Winter Lake were discharged into a river that remained frozen up until June. At that time their stomachs were filled with the larvæ of insects. During the summer this fish is supposed to retire to the depths of the lakes, but it reappears in smaller numbers in the autumn, and is occasionally taken in the winter in nets, but seldom, by the hook, except in the spring. The spawning season is in April or May, judging from the great development that the spawn then acquires, though the spawning beds are unknown to us. The masamacush attains a weight of about eight pounds, but begins to spawn before it weighs more than two or three.

Two representations are given of this species, the one (Plate 82, f. 2) being

[page] 174

copied from a coloured drawing by Lieutenant Hood, of a recent fish taken in Pine Island Lake, lat. 54°, the other is of a dried specimen, brought from Boothia Felix by Captain James Clark Ross, who took it in a small lake. The figure of the latter (Plate 83, f. 2), and particularly that of the head in Plate 87, f. 1, exhibit the correct forms of the opercular bones, and the relative size of the head and other parts which were not so rigidly attended to in Mr. Hood's spirited drawing. The arctic fish differs a little from the one common in the more southern parts of the fur countries, in having shorter labials, more crowded and brighter scales, with a different arrangement of colours, and longer fins; but the proportions of the other parts are so nearly the same, that I have not ventured to separate them in the absence of a comparison of their internal structure. The shortness of the head distinguishes S. Hoodii from the two preceding species, to which its general resemblance is very close. For the purpose of comparison I have added the dimensions of a British Char in Mr. Yarrell's possession. That specimen, as well as the one from Llyn Cawellyn, the head of which is represented in Plate 92, f. 5, has shorter labials, and a larger eye than any of the American Chars which I have seen.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen from Boothia Felix.

FORM.—The body is more slender than that of S. nitidus, and the head is a little more than a sixth of the total length, caudal included. The orbit is nearer the end of the snout than in S. nitidus, the intermaxillaries are shorter, and the labials shorter and somewhat wider. The lower jaw, when the mouth is closed, projects beyond the upper one by the depth of the chin, and it appears still longer when the mouth is open: its length, applied to the upper surface of the head, passes about a quarter of an inch beyond the nape.

TEETH smaller than in S. nitidus, but otherwise very similar, except on the tongue, that organ being armed with a single row on each side which meet in a curve at its tip: there are also two or three scattered teeth on the centre of the tongue, but no double or triple rows anteriorly.

GILL-COVERS.—The operculum is narrow, its transverse diameter being scarcely half its height. The height of the suboperculum exceeds half its length or transverse diameter.

SCALES much like those of S. nitidus but somewhat brighter. There are 126 on the lateral line, 268 in a row immediately above it, 53 in a vertical row before the ventrals, of which 12 are below the first ray of that fin, and 28 above the lateral line.

FINS.—Br. 10—11; D. 12—0; P. 15; V. 10; A. 11; C. 19 8/8. From Boothia Felix.

Br. 10—11; D. 12—0; P. 13; V. 8; A. 10; C. 19 8/8. From Mingan River.

A larger individual from Mingan River, which falls into the estuary of the St. Lawrence, differs from the preceding in having more remote scales, there being only 120 on the lateral line: shorter labials: shorter fins; and caudal even at the end. In other respects the resemblance is complete. The Mingan River fish is the ordinary form of the masamacush, and the one from Boothia Felix ought, perhaps, to be considered as a variety with longer fins, arising

[page] 175

from the nature of the rapid, rocky streams which it frequents: it is not, however, unlikely that an examination of recent specimens may reveal differences of internal structure sufficient to prove it to be a distinct species. A female specimen of the masamacush, taken in a small lake a little to the northward of the 64th parallel of latitude, on the 16th of August, exhibited the following tints of colour. Back and sides intermediate between olive-green and clove-brown, bestudded with yellowish-grey spots as big as a pea: a few of these spots on the gill-covers. Belly and under jaw white, the latter thinly dotted with bluish-grey. Dorsal and upper lobe of the caudal marked with smaller spots. Irides honey-yellow. Scales rather dull. This individual was twenty-one inches long, its flesh was red, and its roe but little developed. The intestines had the structure usual in the trouts, the cæca were numerous, their insertions occupying about three inches of the length of the canal, the valvulæ conniventes occupied two inches, and there was about an inch of smooth gut next the anus. The liver, small and triangular, had several small incisions on its inferior edge. The rakers and pharyngeal bones were armed with short teeth like velvet pile.

DIMENSIONS.

From Mingan River. From Boothia Felix. British Char.
In. lin. In. lin. In. lin.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 24 0 20 6 18 3
Length from tip of snout to end of central caudal rays 23 9 19 6 17 7
Length from tip of snout to end of scales on ditto 22 2 18 2 17 0
Length from tip of snout to anus 16 7 13 9 11 10
Length from tip of snout to beginning of dorsal 10 2 8 5 7 7
Length from tip of snout to edge of suboperculum 4 2 3 8 3 0
Length from tip of snout to nape 2 9 2 2 1 11
Length from tip of snout to centre of pupil 1 1 1 2
Length from tip of snout to edge of orbit 1 3 1 0 0 10¾
Length from lower jaw, depressed, to tip of caudal 24 6 20 9 0 0
Length from tip of snout to edge of suboperculum 4 4 3 0 0
Length from centre of pupil to edge of suboperculum 2 2 0 0
Length from posterior edge of orbit ditto 2 3 2 1⅓ 0 0
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0 9 0 0
Length of vertical ditto 0 5 0 0 0
Length of intermaxillary 0 7 0 5 0 4
Length of labial 2 1 1 3
Length of lower jaw 3 1 2 5 1 10
Length of toothed edge of ditto 1 8 1 2 0 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 4 1 11 1 11
Length of longest rays of ditto 2 2 2 2 2
Length of its last ray 1 1 1 4 1 0
Length of adipose fin 0 0 5 0 7
Length of pectorals 2 3 2 2 4
Length of ventrals 2 0 2 3 2 0
Length of ventral appendages 0 0 7 0 0
Length of attachment of anal 1 8 1 1 3
Length of longest ray of ditto 2 4 2 2 2 2
Length of its last ray 0 0 11 0 0
Length of lobes of caudal 3 6 3 0 0
Length of longest rays of ditto 2 6 3 0 2 7
Length of its central ray (from end of scales) 0 1 1 5
Depth of caudal fork 0 0 1 1 0 7
Distance between anus and tip of caudal 7 10 7 4 6 0
Distance between anal and lower tip of ditto 6 0 5 0 0
Distance between adipose and upper tip of ditto 5 5 5 8⅓ 0 0
Depth of body at the dorsal fin 3 6 3 4 3 6
Breadth of occiput 1 1 6 0 0
Breadth between the orbits 1 5 1 1 0 0

[page] 176

[68.] 8. SALMO FONTINALIS. (Mitchill.) New York Char.

Common Trout (Salmo fontinalis). MITCHILL, New York Ph. Tr., i., p. 435.

PLATE 83, f. 1, half nat. size. PLATE 87, f. 2, head nat. size.

Dr. Mitchill describes this trout in the paper above referred to, making the following observations upon it. "He is reckoned a most dainty fish. They travel away to Hempstead and Islip for the pleasure of catching and eating him. He is bought at the extravagant price of a quarter of a dollar for a single fish, not more than ten or twelve inches long. He lives in running waters only, and not in stagnant ponds; and therefore the lively streams, descending north and south from their sources on Long Island, exactly suit the constitution of this fish. The heaviest Long Island trout that I have heard of weighed four pounds and a half." One caught near New York, measuring twenty-four inches in length, weighed four pounds eight ounces: the average weight of those usually caught is about three-quarters of a pound. No opportunity occurred during the progress of the expedition of obtaining this trout in a recent state, but Mr. Todd kindly sent me a prepared specimen from Penetanguishene. He states that it ascends the rivers from Lake Huron in the month of May, and readily takes the hook during the summer; that the flesh is red, and that he never saw one exceeding the weight of a pound and a half. Mr. Todd's specimen was submitted to the inspection of Baron Cuvier, who returned it with the following remark: "Il nous parait bien nommé Salmo fontinalis de Mitchill. C'est probablement le Salmo Gœdenii de Bloch." The latter synonym appears very strange, and must have originated in some mistake, for not to mention other differences, the S. Gœdenii has tolerably large scales, while the scales of S. fontinalis are so small, that in Dr. Mitchill's description the skin is said to be "scaleless." The S. Gœdenii inhabits the Baltic, and is considered by M. Agassiz to be the young of the Common salmon. The Salmo fontinalis may be readily distinguished from the other species that we have already described, by the smallness of its scales, the shortness of its intermaxillaries, and the length and narrowness of the labials, exclusive of its colours, which are peculiar.

DESCRIPTION

Of a prepared specimen from Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron.

FORM thickish. Head rather small, being contained five times and one-fifth in the total length. Mouth large. Jaws of equal length. Intermaxillaries very short, being scarcely a quarter as long as the labials. The latter are long, linear, and straight, with still narrower

[page] 177

appophyses; their tips go beyond the posterior orbitar-bones and reach nearly to the articulation of the lower jaw. The distance between the tip of the snout and the extremity of the labial equals the length of the upper surface of the head, and the lower jaw is about two lines longer.

TEETH rather long, slender, acute, and slightly curved, those on the labials smaller: the palatine teeth run far back on a slightly prominent ridge, and there is a triangular cluster of about ten teeth on the anterior part of the vomer. The tongue is armed with six teeth on each side.

GILL-COVERS.—Interoperculum short and triangular. Preoperculum narrow and much curved, with an even edge. The suboperculum is half as high as the operculum, and its angle touches the preoperculum. The right gill-membrane contains twelve rays.

FINS.—Br. 12; P. 13; D. 11—0; V. 8 or 9; A. 10; C. 19 8/8.

The fifth dorsal ray is the longest, the first being almost imperceptible in a recent fish. The adipose fin is about its own breadth behind the anal. The latter equals, or rather exceeds the dorsal in the length of its rays, and is more remote from the caudal than usual, there being almost twice the length of its insertion between it and the base of the latter.

SCALES small, roundish, in contact, but not tiled, and firmly imbedded in a mucous epidermis which almost conceals them: they are smallest on the forepart of the belly. There are 244 rows of scales meeting at the lateral line, which contains only 116: these are longer than the ordinary scales, and have each a mucous canal elevated above its surface. A vertical row under the dorsal contains 95 scales, viz., 41 above the lateral line, 42 between it and the upper edge of the ventral, and 12 below the level of the first ray of that fin.

COLOUR.—("Back mottled, pale and brown: sides dark brown with yellow and red spots above and below the lateral line, the yellow surrounding the red, which appears like scarlet dots: sides of the belly orange-red: lowest part of the abdomen whitish with a smutty tinge. First rays of the pectoral, ventral, and anal fins white, the second black, the rest purplish-red: dorsal fin mottled with yellowish and black. Eyes large and pale." Dr. Mitchill.)

DIMENSIONS

Of a prepared Lake Huron specimen.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 14 3
Length from end of central caudal rays 14 0
Length from end of scales 13 0
Length from anus 9 2
Length from commencement of dorsal 5 10
Length from edge of suboperculum 2 9
Length from nape 1
Length from centre of pupil 0 11
Length from edge of orbit 0 9
Length from centre of pupil to edge of suboperculum 1 10¼
Length from posterior edge of orbit to ditto 1
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0
Length of vertical ditto 0
Length of intermaxillary 0 4
Length of labial 1 5
Length of lower jaw 1 9
Length of toothed margin of ditto 0 11
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 4
Length of its longest rays 1
Length of its last ray 0 8
Length of adipose fin 0 5
Length of pectorals 1
Length of ventrals 1 4
Length of ventral appendages 0
Length of attachment of anal 1 1
Length of its longest ray 1
Length of its last ray 0 6
Length of lobes of caudal 2 0
Length of its longest rays 1 8
Length of its middle rays 1 0
Depth of caudal fork 0 5
Distance from anus to tip of caudal 5 1
Distance from anal to lower caudal tip 4 0
Distance from adipose to upper tip of caudal 3 7
Depth of body at the dorsal 1 8

2 A

[page] 178

The Salmo fontinalis is probably what is called in the narrative of Lewis and Clark's Journey to the Pacific, the MOUNTAIN, or SPECKLED TROUT of the United States. Another species, which inhabits the upper waters of the Missouri and Columbia, is thus described in the same work. "We caught in the Falls half a dozen trout resembling in form and the position of the fins, the mountain, or speckled trout of the United States, except that the specks of the former are of a deep black colour, while those of the latter are of a red or gold colour: they have long sharp teeth on the palate and tongue, and generally a small speck of red on each side, behind the front ventral fins; the flesh is of a pale yellowish red, or, when in good order, of a rose-coloured red. We never saw this fish below the mountains, but from the transparency and coldness of the Kooskooskee, we should not doubt of its existence in that stream, as low as its junction with the south-east branch of the Columbia. It is not so abundant in the Columbia as in the Missouri." (i., p. 358, and iii., 601.)

I am unable to decide from Fabricius's account of the Greenland trouts, whether they are identical with any of those described above, or whether they ought to be reckoned as distinct species. His S. CARPIO, named Eekallook, Kebleriksoak, Satooack, and Sardlooak, by the natives, is probably S. Hoodii. It is an inhabitant of the rivers, lakes, estuaries and bays of Greenland, and feeds upon caplin, herrings, sticklebacks, small crabs, worms, and spawn of fishes. It is named Lax, or the Salmon, in the histories of Greenland, and is supposed by Fabricius to be the same with the Kundsha of Pallas, a trout which abounds in the gulfs of the Icy Sea and of Kamtschatka, but is said not to ascend rivers.

Another Greenland trout with an orange belly, named by the natives Eekallook and Iviksarok, was considered by Fabricius to be the same species with his S. carpio, but he changed his opinion, in some degree, after leaving the country, and referred it to the S. ALPINUS of Linnæus, when he had no longer an opportunity of comparing it with carpio. It congregates with the preceding, and may possibly be the trout I have described under the specific name of S. nitidus, the tawny-orange colour of the belly in both being confined to the spawning season.

The S. stagnalis (Fauna Grœnl., p. 175) agrees best with our S. alipes. It inhabits alpine waters, and never descends to the sea. It is named Eekallookak.

[page] 179

The SALMO RIVALIS (Fauna Grœnl., p. 176), named by the Greenlanders Aunardlek and Eekalloogak, if it be not the young of some of the preceding, is most probably distinct from any that we have described. In the minuteness of its scales it resembles S. fontinalis. It inhabits rivulets and ponds, feeds upon insects, and buries itself in the mud in the winter, where it is frozen up, never visiting the sea. It is only six inches long. The word Eekallook seems to be the general Greenland and Esquimaux name for the trouts of the middle or smaller size.

[69.] 9. SALMO NAMAYCUSH. (Pennant.) The Namaycush.

Namaycush. HUTCHINS'S Mss., p. 115.

Salmon namaycush. PENN., Arct. Zool., ii., Suppl., p. 139, No. 165; and Intr., p. cxli.

Salmo amethystus. MITCHILL, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 410. An. 1818.

Nammècoos. CREE INDIANS. Thlooeesinneh. CHEPEWYANS. Keyteeleek.

ESQUIMAUX. Salmon-trout. CANADIANS.

PLATE 79, one-third nat. size. PLATE 85, f. 1, head nat. size.

This magnificent trout, which equals or surpasses the Common salmon in size, is a denizen of all the great lakes that lie between the United States and the Arctic Sea, but it does not exist, as far as I have been able to ascertain, in any tidal waters. According to the report of fishermen on Lake Huron, seventeen pounds is its average weight, but they occasionally capture individuals weighing sixty pounds; and Dr. Mitchill states, that at Michilimackinac it has been known to attain the enormous size of one hundred and twenty pounds. Such a weight must, however, be very rare, for Carver, who passed a winter at Michilimackinac, does not appear to have met with any at all approaching to that magnitude. "One of my chief amusements," says he, "was that of fishing for trouts. Though the straits were covered with ice, we found means to make holes in it, and letting down strong lines, of fifteen yards in length, to which were fixed three or four hooks baited with small fish, we frequently caught two at a time, of forty pounds weight each, but the common size is from ten to twenty pounds." Particular lakes in the fur countries were mentioned to us as yielding trout of sixty or even ninety pounds, but none exceeding forty pounds came under our own observation*. The namaycush is the tyrant of the lakes; no fish inhabiting the same waters can

* According to La Hontan, "Les plus grosses Truites des lacs ont cinq pieds et demi de longueur et un pied de diametre; elles ont la chair rouge." (Mém. de l'Amérique, ii., p. 58.)

2 A 2

[page] 180

resist its voracity. The grey sucking-carp is most frequently found in its stomach; in the month of March, in lat. 64°, we saw that capacious receptacle crammed with the young of the lota maculosa, and Mr. Todd says that the Herring salmon forms its principal food in Lake Huron.

The habitual residence of the namaycush is in the deepest parts of the lakes, but at certain seasons it resorts to the shallows to spawn. This movement occurs in Lake Huron about the 10th of October, and in the course of three weeks it retires again to the centre of the lake. During its stay in the narrow channels which separate the innumerable islands that skirt the northern borders of the lake, the Indians spear it in the night, by torch-light. In the fur countries it is taken occasionally in the autumn, in nets, and from March till May more abundantly by cod-hooks baited with sucking-carp, and set through holes in the ice in eight or nine fathoms water, but it is rarely seen in the summer or winter months, except when fished for at great depths. It resorts to the shallows in the spring, most probably in quest of food, as at that period many fish, upon which it preys, seek the borders of the lakes where the ice first breaks up, to feed upon the larvæ of insects which then swarm near the shore. The flesh of the namaycush is reddish or orange-coloured, being paler when out of season. When in good condition it yields much oil, and is very palling to the appetite if simply boiled, but roasting renders it a very pleasant article of diet. The Canadian voyageurs are fond of eating it raw, in a frozen state, after scorching it for a second or two over a quick fire, until the scales can be easily detached, but not continuing the application of the heat long enough to thaw the interior. The stomach when boiled is a favourite morsel with the same people.

The American trouts described in the preceding pages are, with the exception of S. Scouleri, similar to European species in the forms of the different bones of the face and gill-covers, but the namaycush exhibits much peculiarity in these respects, and its cranium is composed of much stronger and firmer bones than is usual in the genus. The coats of its stomach are remarkably thick, though they do not equal those of the Coregonus albus.

DESCRIPTION

Of specimen (Plate 79) taken in Lake Huron, October, 1824.

COLOUR.—The head, back, and sides have a dark greenish-grey colour, which, when examined closely, is resolved into small roundish yellowish-grey spots on a bluish-grey ground, which covers less space than the spots: the latter are most evident on the sides, where they are as big as duck-shot, each of them including three or four scales. The uncovered portion

[page] 181

of each scale is roundish, and its convex centre, having a greyish hue and silvery lustre, is surrounded by a dark border of minute dots which are deficient or less numerous on the yellowish-grey spots, and also on the bluish-white belly. The dorsal and caudal fins have the greenish-grey tint of the back, and the ventrals and anal are muddy-orange, this colour also partially tinging the pectorals. The irides are bright honey-yellow with blue clouds. The teeth, gums, and roof of the mouth have a tinge of purple, whence Dr. Mitchill gave the name of amethystus to the species.

SCALES moderately small, thin, flexible, obtusely oval, tiled, and firmly imbedded in the skin; the uncovered roundish part of each scale measures less than a line. The scales on the under surface of the tail, and adjoining part of the belly, are rather larger, and those on the lateral line, 133 in number, are mostly elliptical, being narrower and somewhat longer than the others. About 221 rows of scales meet at the lateral line, and a vertical row beneath the commencement of the dorsal contains 82, of which 32 are above the lateral line. There are thirteen scales in a linear inch measured on the sides, and a single detached scale measures about one line and three-quarters. The lateral line is about an inch nearer to the dorsal than to the upper ventral ray.

FORM much like that of the Common salmon: the profile of the head and body bulges a little, and the sides are somewhat flattened. The head forms one-fourth of the total length from the snout to the tips of the caudal: it is flattish above and slightly convex in profile. Radiating lines on the frontal bone appear through the dried skin, but the elevated central ridge and curved lateral uneven ones, conspicuous in several of the trouts already described, are nearly obsolete in this species. The skull is more bony than that of the Common salmon, and the snout, instead of being cartilaginous, is formed of firm bone. Eye midway between the tip of the snout and nape, and twice as near the former as to the hinder edge of the gill-cover, the measurement being made from the centre of the pupil. There are seven diameters and a half of the circular orbit in the total length of the head, and five and a half in that of its upper surface. The nostrils, consisting of two small contiguous orifices on each side, are situated before and a little above the angle of the orbit: the foremost orifices have a soft elevated edge, and are the largest.

The jaws are very strong. In the male the upper one overlaps the conical knob of the lower one by about half an inch: in the specimen now under consideration, which is supposed to be a female, the jaws are nearly equal, but the soft parts have been partly eaten by insects. The labials, not quite thrice the length of the intermaxillaries, are strong and nearly cylindrical (not a thin plate as in other trouts), and the appophysis, attached above like a crest, projects beyond the limb of the bone, in which respect also this trout differs from its congeners. The distance between the tip of the snout and lower extremity of the labial reaches from the snout to about an inch beyond the orbit, falling fully three-quarters of an inch short of the nape. The under jaw, thick and rounded, is articulated to the lower end of the preoperculum, and also by a hinge-like joint to the jugal-bone. The length of the lower jaw is equal to that of the upper surface of the head. The porous lines on the heads of other trouts exist likewise in this, being mostly connected with foramina in the bones.

[page] 182

TEETH.—The borders of the intermaxillaries, labials, lower jaws, and palate-bones are armed with very acute, slightly-curved, strong conical teeth: there is a circular cluster on the knob of the vomer, a double row extending at least half an inch backwards on that bone, and a row on each side of the tongue equally strong and more curved than the others: a deep furrow runs down the centre of the tongue between the rows of the teeth, and the soft parts form a smooth median ridge in the roof of the mouth, without any corresponding elevation of the bone. All the teeth are surrounded by soft gums, in which some small moveable teeth are implanted. The following is a scheme of the dentition in the individual under examination.

TEETH.—Intermax. 7—7; Labials 19—19; Lower Jaw 19—19; Tongue 8—8; Vomer 7—7*; exclusive of the smaller teeth, which fall off with the soft parts.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum moderately curved, nearly vertical. Suboperculum deeper than in the other trouts, articulated at its inner angle to the operculum and preoperculum by a slender process which is concealed by these bones: its edge forms fully one-half of the free border of the gill-cover and is finely grooved. The gill-rays, 12 in number, are flat, those nearest the gill-cover being the broadest: seven of them are inserted into the long appophysis of the hyoid bone, one or two into the intermediate cartilage, and the remainder into the posterior appophysis.

FINS.—Br. 11—12†; D. 14—0; P. 14; V. 9; A. 11; C. 19 6/6.

The dorsal fin is situated in the middle of the fish, the exact middle between the end of the snout and tip of the central caudal ray, being opposite to the eighth dorsal ray and a little anterior to the ventrals: the height of the dorsal exceeds the length of its attachment: its fourth ray is the longest, the third is half as high, and is, together with the two very short anterior ones, closely applied to its base. The adipose fin is small and has a club-shaped profile. The ventrals contain nine rays each, the first being about twice as stout as the others. The anal contains eleven rays, the first of which is one-third shorter than the second and is closely applied to it: the last ray is two-thirds shorter than the second and is opposite to the adipose: the space between the anal and caudal measures more than the attachment of the former.

INTESTINES.—(Of a male killed in Winter Lake.) Stomach a large sac continuous with the œsophagus and not to be distinguished from it, bent upwards and bulging a little at the bend: its inner membrane is longitudinally plaited. Cæca numerous, their insertions occupying three inches and a half of the intestine. The internal coat of two inches of the lower part of the gut is disposed in circular valvulæ conniventes. The air-bladder communicates with the œsophagus by a tube as big as a crow-quill. In a female specimen I found a number of long, slender, opake worms in the air-bladder, of a whitish colour, with a slightly-

* The vomer is injured, so that the exact number of its teeth cannot be ascertained, but the above number still exists upon it.

† The specimen from which the figure was taken consists of the left side of the fish only, and shows twelve gill-rays; but as that side of the membrane generally has a ray more than the right side, I have marked it as above. I noted an individual which I examined at Winter Lake, lat. 64½° N., as having only eleven rays, not adverting to any difference between the two sides. Dr. Mitchill's scheme of the rays of his Lake Huron specimen is as follows:—
FINS.—Br. 13; D. 13—0; V. 9; A. 13; C. 19 5/5 or 6/6.

[page] 183

curved stripe running along one side: they were pointed at both ends, the least acute being the end that moved most, and having apparently an orifice in its apex. The male namaycush measured thirty-five inches, including the caudal, and sixteen from the tip of the snout to the dorsal. The colours mentioned in the preceding description are those of this individual at the time of capture; the spots become more evident as the skin dries. The trout described by Dr. Mitchill was brought from Michillimackinac, and weighed thirty-two pounds and a half after the intestines were removed. It was fifty-four inches long, nine deep, and twenty-four in circumference.

DIMENSIONS

Of the Lake Huron specimen described above.

Inches. Lines
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 29 6
Length from end of scales 26 0
Length from anus 19 0
Length from dorsal 13 6
Length from edge of suboperculum 7 4
Length from nape 4 9
Length from tip of labials 3 10
Length from basal end of snout 2 11
Length from centre of pupil 2 6
Length from auterior edge of orbit 2 1
Length from centre of pupil to edge of gill-cover 5 0
Length from hind edge of orbit to ditto 4 2
Length of transverse axis of orbit 0 11
Length of vertical ditto 0 10
Length of intermaxillary 1 0
Length of labial 3 0
Length of lower jaw 4 8
Length of toothed edge of ditto 2 11
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 0
Length of its longest ray 3 9
Length of its last ditto 1 2
Length of ventrals 3 6
Length of attachment of anal 2 2
Length of its longest ray 3 7
Length of its last ditto 1 0
Length of lobes of caudal 5 0
Length of central rays of ditto 1 9
Distance between anus and base of caudal 5 10
Depth of caudal fork 2 2

[70.] 10. SALMO MACKENZII. (Richardson.) The Inconnu.

Inconnu. MACKENZIE, Voy. in N. Amer., p. 9, and elsewhere.

Salmo Mackenzii. RICHARDSON, Frank. Journ., p. 707, plate.

PLATE 84, one-third nat. size. f. a., nat. size.

This, according to Indian information, is an anadromous species, and is only known to exist in the Mackenzie and its tributaries, to which it can have access from the sea. It is never taken above the cascades of Slave River, in latitude 60° N.; but it forms an important article of food, at certain seasons, on Great Slave Lake and the Mackenzie. Its flesh is white, and when in good condition tolerably palatable, though rather soft and oily, and soon becoming disagreeable when used as daily food: it is firmest and best near the mouth of the Mackenzie, and when out of season is considered by the natives to be very unwholesome. The Incon-

[page] 184

nues usually taken in the nets vary in weight from five to fifteen pounds, but individuals are reported to have been caught of thirty or forty pounds.

The Inconnu differs from the typical trouts in its general aspect, and in the smallness of its teeth, which are crowded like velvet pile, and are altogether wanting on the labials: it seems to stand on the confines of the sub-genus, and to connect the truttæ with the coregoni. It disagrees with the latter in the number of its gill-rays, in having palatine and vomerine teeth, and in the form of the body.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in Great Slave Lake in the spring of 1822.

COLOUR of the back and sides changing from bluish-grey to greenish-grey when moved in the light: of the belly bluish-white; the sides have a strong silvery hue. Scales sub-orbicular, four lines in diameter, and possessing much pearly lustre. Lateral line straight.

FORM.—Body roundish; in profile lanceolate. Head long and compressed with a flattened vertex. The sagittal line rises between the orbits into a smooth acute ridge. Orbits large, oval, situated as near again to the tip of the snout as to the edge of the gill-cover. The sub-orbitar bones, apparently about six in number, form a circular plate mostly posterior to the eye; a narrow process runs under the eye to the anterior orbitar, which is sub-orbicular and radiated on the surface. Nostrils close to the orbit: the anterior opening has a raised margin, and is contiguous to the posterior one. The intermaxillaries, forming about one-third of the border of the upper jaw, lie transversely, overlapping the curved articular ends of the labials, and giving a truncated form to the snout. The labials, thick and strong, have a lanceolate shape; they are articulated with the cartilaginous ends of the palate-bones through the medium of a small curved process. The under jaw is strong, and has broad, flat sides with an obtuse and slightly-knobbed extremity, which projects four or five lines beyond the upper jaw: its articulation being as far back as the posterior edge of the orbit, admits of considerable depression, but the opening of the mouth is not of corresponding magnitude, for it is contracted by a fold of integument which extends from the middle of the labial to the side of the lower jaw.

TEETH.—The intermaxillaries, extremity of the lower jaw, vomer, palate-bones, and tongue, are armed with narrow bands of teeth "en velours," as are also the root of the tongue and the superior and inferior pharyngeal bones.

GILL-COVERS.—The operculum and suboperculum form a very regular semicircle by the union of their posterior edges. The preoperculum is much curved, and includes a naked cheek, not wider than itself, between it and the sub-orbitars. The gill-openings are large: the membranes contain ten flat rays. The branchial rakers are rigid, awl-shaped, and rough interiorly, with minute teeth: those on the upper arch exceed half an inch in length, the others are smaller.

FINS.—Br. 10; D. 15—0; P. 17; V. 12; A. 18; C. 22 6/6.

The dorsal, opposed to the ventrals, is about its length nearer to the caudal fin than to the

[page] 185

snout: it is obliquely quadrangular and higher than long: its three first rays are short and lie closely against the base of the fourth. The anal has a slightly-crescentic margin, and occupies more than half the space between its last ray and the caudal fin: its three anterior rays are minute. The caudal is large and forked.

INTESTINES.—The œsophagus and stomach three inches long, have nine internal longitudinal folds, and make a short turn upwards before terminating in the pylorus. A space of two inches between the pylorus and the insertion of the gall-duct is surrounded by crowded cæca; beneath the gall-duct the insertions of the cæca are confined to one side of the intestinal tube: the cæca are very numerous, slender, conical, and about a quarter of an inch long. The remainder of the intestine descends in a straight line to the anus: the valvulæ conniventes occupy an inch and a half of its lower end, a small piece next the anus being smooth*. The air-bladder is large and communicates by a wide tube with the œsophagus. There is a large spleen attached to the curvature of the stomach.

DIMENSIONS.—The length from the tip of the snout to the end of the caudal is twenty inches and a half, or to the end of the scales on that fin, eighteen inches.

[71.] 1. SALMO (OSMERUS) EPERLANUS. (Artedi.) The Smelt.

FAMILY, Salmonoideæ. GENUS, Salmo. LINN. Sub-genus, Osmerus. ARTEDI.

Osmerus radiis pinnæ ani septemdecem. ARTEDI, Spec., p. 45. Syn., p. 21.

Salmo eperlanus. LINN. AUCTORUM. Spirling. SCOTIS.

According to Cuvier there is only one known species of this sub-genus, the highly-prized Smelt of the European seas and estuaries of the larger rivers. It exists as far north as Sweden, and is enumerated by Lawson and Catesby among the fish of America, but it does not occur in the Fauna Grœnlandica. M. Le Sueur has described a smelt taken between Newport and Boston, under the name of Osmerus viridescens; but as Cuvier, though well acquainted with that gentleman's ichthyological papers, has not noticed this smelt in the Règne Animal, we

* The following dimensions of the intestines of two English female salmon, omitted to be inserted in a preceding page, may be contrasted with the above.

No. 1.—63 cæca. No. 2.—68 cæca.
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines.
Length from gullet to bend of stomach 10 6 10 0
Length from bend to pylorus 3 10 3 9
Length from pylorus to last cæcum 5 9 5 3
Length from remainder of gut 17 0 16 10
Length of whole alimentary canal 37 1 35 10
Length of space occupied by the thirty or forty valvulæ conniventes 9 0 0 0
Length of longest cæcum 6 0 5 3

2 B

[page] 186

may infer that he did not consider its title to rank as a species sufficiently established. Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith has sent me a drawing of a smelt, which having been taken at Halifax, in Nova Scotia, is therefore likely to be the same with the New England one: this bears an almost exact resemblance to the European fish, except that the ventrals are farther back, commencing under the sixth ray of the dorsal. Steller and Mr. Collie mention the common smelt as frequenting Awatscha Bay.

The European Smelt has a row of small, short, closely-set teeth on the intermaxillaries and labials; somewhat longer and more remote ones on the lower jaw; and a row on both edges of the palate-bones, the teeth of the outer row being long and distant; there are four long teeth on the anterior end of the vomer, viz., two on each side continuous with the outer row of the palatine-teeth. The triangular tongue is armed with about ten strong teeth, two large ones being implanted in the apex, one before the other. The branchial arches are attached below to a narrow isthmus proceeding from the root of the tongue, and having two rows of minute teeth on its surface, but the upper pharyngeal bones are smooth. The slender rakers are rough with teeth internally, as in the trouts. The roof of the mouth and the head generally have some resemblance to the same parts of a pike, and the palate-bones have a similar membranous attachment to the vomer, admitting of lateral movement as in that fish. The under jaw is longer than the upper one, even when the mouth is closed. The gill-covers are those of a trout, the rays being however fewer. The first rays of the dorsal and ventrals are opposite to each other, and stand midway between the tip of the snout and termination of the scales on the caudal. The adipose fin is attached a little posterior to the middle of the anal, which is long. The tail is slender and the caudal fin forked with acute, widely-spreading lobes and a tapering base. The scales are large, thin, very deciduous, and brilliant, reflecting beautiful green tints on the upper part of the body; the sides and belly are silvery. The body is unspotted. The smell of the fish, when recently taken from the water, is like that of a cucumber.

FINS.—Br. 7—8; P. 14; D. 10——0; V. 8; A. 16*; C. 19 10/10

* Artedi reckons seventeen anal rays, and Lieutenant-Colonel Smith counted the same number in his Halifax smelt. In our specimen of the European fish, the last ray is divided to the base, so that there appear to be seventeen on a cursory examination.

[page] 187

[72.] 1. SALMO (MALLOTUS) VILLOSUS. (Cuvier.) The Capelin.

FAMILY, Salmonoideæ. GENUS, Salmo. LINN. Sub-genus, Mallotus. CUVIER.

"Clupea villosa. MÜLL, Prodr, p. 425."

Salmo arcticus. FABRICIUS, Fauna Grœnl., p. 177. No. 128.

Capelan. PENN., Arct. Zool., ii., p. 141. No. 175.

Salmo Grœnlandicus. BLOCII, t. 381. RICHARDSON, Frank. Journ., p. 710.

Angmaggëuck. ESQUIMAUX. Angmagsak, Sennersulik (male). GREENLANDERS.

This sub-genus, like the preceding one, contains only a single ascertained species, which frequents the northern seas. It swarms on the coasts of Norway, Lapland, Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland, the Welcome, Coronation Gulf, and, if the Ouiki, or Salmo catervarius of Steller be the same, it inhabits the Sea of Kamtschatka. It has not been mentioned by travellers as existing in the Icy Sea of Siberia, but is very probably an inhabitant of that sea also, thus completing the circuit of the arctic coasts. It approaches the shore in dense shoals in the spawning season, the females preceding the males. The latter, at this period, acquire elevated bands on the sides, composed of soft, tumid, elongated scales, by which it is said they adhere together, sometimes to the number of ten or more, and in this state they are occasionally driven on shore by the wind in immense quantities. Some males, named sennersuitsut by the Greenlanders, want the ridges of enlarged scales. April, May, June, and July are the months in which the Capelin approaches the Greenland coast. In the beginning of August we observed multitudes of the males congregated on some sandy shoals near the mouth of Back's River, which falls into Bathurst's Inlet. Many of them leaped into the canoes and furnished a very acceptable dish of fish for our table, much relished by the whole party. Mr. Anthony Parkhurst, who is said by Pennant to be the first author who has noticed this fish, in a letter to Hakluyt written in 1578, after indulging in some facetious remarks respecting his skill in charming it and the squid or cuttlefish to come ashore, observes, that the nature of the squid is to come by night as well as by day; but the other, which is like a smelt, and is called by the Spaniards Anchovas, and by the Portuguese Capelinas, "commeth also in the night, but chiefly in the day, being forced by the cod that would devoure him, and therefore for feare comming so neare the shore, is driven drie by the surge of the sea on the pibble and sands. Of these being as good as a smelt you may take up with a shove-net as plentifully as you do wheate in a shovell, sufficient in three or four houres for a whole citie."

The Malloti are very nearly allied to the Osmeri, the principal difference being

2 B 2

[page] 188

in the smallness of their teeth. Their resemblance to each other in the form and structure of the head is very close: both have, when fresh, a strong smell of cucumbers, and both are said to emit, occasionally, a very noisome stench. Nilsson states that the stinking smelt, named Nors by the Swedes, is a smaller kind, but differing only in size from the larger, which is named Slom. The Capelin is much used in the Newfoundland fishery as a bait for cod, and it is also dried in large quantities and exported to London, where it is sold principally in the oyster shops. Dried capelin forms so important an article of food in Greenland, that it has been termed the daily bread of the natives.

Although authors have taken it for granted that there is but one species of Capelin, we do not know that the fact has been fully established by a comparison of specimens from different seas. The description quoted below from my notes, of the appearance of a recent individual taken in the American polar sea, differs from the Newfoundland fish (of which through the kindness of M. Audubon, I possess a number of specimens preserved in spirits) in the appearance of the scales on the back, and in the top of the head being granulated; but when I recollect the disadvantages under which that description was originally drawn up, I cannot venture to consider it as sufficient to warrant me in concluding that it relates to a new species.

DESCRIPTION

Of a male specimen taken in Bathurst Inlet, lat. 67° N., August 4, 1821.

FORM.—Profile of the body linear, the head forming a lanceolate termination on the one side, and the attachment of the anal fin sloping suddenly up towards the tail on the other. The back is broad. Head. The eye is large, and the centre of the pupil is eight lines distant from the obtuse extremity of the upper jaw. The under jaw, acute and longer than the upper one, is capable of considerable depression. When the mouth opens its sides are formed by the labials, whose posterior piece is very moveable, as in the Coregoni. The jaws, tongue, palate, and vomer, are furnished with minute teeth, which are more readily felt than seen. The branchial arches are set with a single row of bristle-like rakers, which appear to be smooth under the lens. The gill-openings are very large: the membranes contain nine rays.

SCALES.—Instead of scales of the ordinary form, the back is covered with small smooth grains like shagreen, but soft to the touch, which are continued along the upper surface of the head to the snout. A prominent obtuse ridge, of nearly equal breadth throughout, extends along the lateral line from the gill-opening to the caudal fin: it is composed of soft, tumid, semi-lanceolate, acute, diaphanous processes, or altered scales, minutely spotted with black and densely tiled, with the points turned towards the tail. There is a similar but less prominent ridge between the pectorals and ventrals, which re-commences behind the latter fins, and is continued, though less conspicuously, to the anal. These ridges cause the sides to appear

[page] 189

hollow as if pressed in. They are said by Cuvier to be peculiar to the male in the spawning season, and to be produced by a modification of the scales. The sides and belly are covered with delicate and very bright silvery scales, which are dotted on the margins with black specks: they are tiled and adhere firmly.

FINS.—Br. 9; P. 17; D. 14—0; V. 8; A. 22; C.

The pectorals are large, sub-orbicular, and placed near to each other. The first dorsal commences about midway between the occiput and caudal: it measures three-quarters of an inch in height, and contains fourteen rays, of which the two anterior ones are short, and the remainder forked at the tips: the connecting membrane is very thin and transparent. The ventrals, situated opposite to the dorsal, resemble the pectorals in size and form: they contain eight bifurcated rays, and measure, when expanded, an inch in diameter. The anal is supported throughout by rays of nearly equal length, but owing to the form of the part to which it is attached, its margin forms a convex curve: it contains twenty-two rays, the anterior being the strongest, and having the membrane scolloped between them, the posterior ones are delicate: its attachment exceeds an inch in length, being thrice as long as the space between it and the caudal. The adipose fin is five lines long and one line and a half high: it is situated a little anterior to the termination of the anal, and is composed of a thin membrane attached to a small ridge of the smooth tubercles that cover the back. The caudal is deeply forked.

COLOUR of the back and top of the head dull leek-green, with bright green and yellow reflexions when moved in the light. The sides and belly are silvery, minutely dotted with black. The gill-covers and jaws are mostly bluish-black with some bright silvery spots; the irides are silvery.

INTESTINES.—The œsophagus opens into a forked stomach, both parts of which point downwards; one is a blind sac, the other, of equal size, terminates in a delicate gut, which is continued in a straight line to the anus. Six cæca of unequal length surround the pylorus. The fæces are of a honey-yellow colour. The melt of the specimen was large and mature.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length excluding the caudal 6 0
Length from tip of snout to anus 4 6
Length of longest dorsal rays 0 9
Length of pectorals 1 2
Length of attachment of anal 1 1
Length of attachment of adipose 0 5
Height of adipose 0

In my Newfoundland specimens, which are all males, the teeth are small and acute, set in a single series on the intermaxillaries, labials, lower jaw, across the front of the vomer, and on the anterior part of the outer edge of the palate-bones and posterior part of their inner edge. The tongue has a flat oval surface, which is surrounded by about twenty teeth, there are two or three minute ones scattered over the central space, and two rows exist on the isthmus which supports the branchial arches, as in the smelts. A small median ridge extends the whole length of the upper part of the head; the lateral ridges, more prominent, rise into even, acute-edged, bony crests over the orbits. The back is covered with small, round, thin, flat scales, of a different colour from those on the lower part of the body, and having

[page] 190

no lustre. Were these scales to become tumid they would assume the granulated appearance noticed in the account of the Bathurst Inlet fish. The top of the head is covered with smooth skin on which there are many black specks. The pectorals almost touch below, and include an acutely elliptical space between their origins and the gill-openings. The anal is attached to a compressed, acute, and somewhat projecting portion of the tail. In other respects the description of the Bathurst Inlet fish applies exactly to those from Newfoundland. The rays vary in different specimens, as may be observed in the following table.

FINS.—Br. 9—10; D. 14—0; P. 20; V. 8; A. 23; C. 19 14/14 No. 1.

9—9; 14—0; 20; 8; 21; 19 14/14. 2.

9—9; 13—0; 19; 8; 21; 19 14/14. 3.

9—9; 14—0; 18; 8; 23; 19 14/14. 4.

9—9; 13—0; 20; 9; 21; 19 14/14. 5.

9—8; 13—0; 19; 8; 22; 19 14/14. 6.

8—8; 13—0; 18; 8; 23; 19 14/14. 7.

In all, the last ray of the dorsal is divided to the base, and that of the anal nearly so. The caudal is much forked.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 6 9
Length from tip of central caudal ray 6
Length from end of scales 6
Length from anus 4
Length from dorsal 3 3
Length from ventrals 3 2
Length from edge of gill-cover 1
Length from nape 0 11
Length from tip of labials 0 7
Length from centre of pupil 0
Length of intermaxillaries 0
Length of labials 0
Length of under jaw 0
Length of pectorals 0 10
Length of ventrals 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 0
Length of its longest ray 0 9
Length of attachment of adipose 0
Length of its height 0 2
Length of attachment of anal 1
Length of its longest ray 0 6
Length of lobe of caudal 1 1
Length of its longest ray 0
Length of its shortest ditto 0
Depth of caudal fork 0

[73.] 1. SALMO (THYMALLUS) SIGNIFER. (Richardson.) Back's Grayling.

FAMILY, Salmonoideæ. GENUS, Salmo. LINN. Sub-genus, Thymallus. CUVIER.

Coregonus signifer. RICH., Fr. Journ., pl. 26, p. 711. CUVIER, Règ. An. (sub. Thymallo.)

Hewlook-powak. ESQUIMAUX. Poisson bleu. CANADIAN VOYAGERS.

PLATE 88.

This very beautiful fish abounds in the rocky streams that flow through the primitive country lying north of the 62nd parallel of latitude, between Mackenzie's

[page] 191

River and the Welcome. Its highly-appropriate Esquimaux name, denoting "wing-like fin," alludes to its magnificent dorsal, and it was in reference to the same feature that I bestowed upon it the specific appellation of Signifer, or the "standard-bearer," intending also to advert to the rank of my companion, Captain Back, then a midshipman, who took the first specimen that we saw with the artificial fly. It is found only in clear waters, and seems to delight in the most rapid parts of the mountain streams. In the autumn of 1820 we obtained many by angling in a rapid of Winter River, opposite to Fort Enterprise. The sport was excellent, for this grayling generally springs entirely out of the water when first struck with the hook, and tugs strongly at the line, requiring as much dexterity to land it safely as would secure a trout of six times the size. The stomachs of the individuals that we then took were filled with a black earthy-looking matter, mixed with what appeared, on a cursory examination, to be gravel, but which was perhaps, in reality, fragments of the shells that abound in the waters it inhabits. The roes of individuals caught towards the end of August were considerably developed, but neither the spawning places, nor the precise period of spawning, were ascertained by us. The Indians say that it spawns in the spring, and that its winter residence is in the lakes.

The characters by which the Graylings are distinguished from the trouts in the Règne Animal, are the smallness of the mouth, the fineness of the teeth, the great size of the dorsal fin, and the largeness of the scales. The stomach is a very thick sac, the gill-rays are seven or eight in number.

The plate which is given of Back's Grayling in the narrative of Sir John Franklin's First Journey, was executed from an individual taken in Winter Lake, and carefully skinned and dried. I much regret that that specimen having gone to decay, I cannot compare it with the one brought by the last expedition from Great Bear Lake, of which the figure in the present work is an exact representation, drawn on a scale of half the natural size. The two figures differ in the relative size of the head, depth of the body, and some other particulars. The dorsal fin in the first plate is incorrect, not from any fault of the skilful artist who drew it, but owing to a part of the fin, which was broken off in the carriage, having been supplied by guess. The individuals taken in Great Bear Lake were much duller in their tints of colour than those we obtained in Winter River, probably because the latter being nearly in a spawning condition, were more brilliant than at other seasons.

[page] 192

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen from Great Bear Lake, latitude 65° N.

COLOUR.—Back dark; sides of a hue intermediate between lavender-purple and bluish-grey; belly blackish-grey with several irregular whitish blotches. There are five or six quadrangular spots of Prussian-blue on the anterior part of the body, each tingeing the margin of four adjoining scales. The head is hair-brown above, the cheeks and gill-covers the same, combined with purplish tints, and there is a blue mark on each side of the lower jaw. The dorsal fin has a blackish-grey colour, with some lighter blotches, and is crossed by rows of beautiful Berlin-blue spots; it is edged with light lake-red. The ventrals are streaked with reddish and whitish lines in the direction of their rays.

SCALES covered with a thickish epidermis and consequently having little lustre; they are semi-oval, their exterior edges being a segment of a circle, and appearing under a lens finely but irregularly toothed or serrated: their bases are truncated, and show three lobes or teeth corresponding with four deep grooves that converge in the middle of the scale: the fine concentric lines of structure are waved. The scales are smaller on the forepart of the back and belly: on the sides they measure four lines transversely, and rather less from their exterior edge to the base. There are 87 on the lateral line, including three or four small ones on the base of the caudal, and 27 in a vertical row anterior to the ventrals, of which nine are above the lateral line. The scales do not end on the caudal as in the trouts, lavarets, &c., but extend farthest on the lobes, having the same forked termination with the fin itself. In this respect, and in the roughness of the scales, the Graylings have an analogy with the Percoideæ and other rough-scaled fishes. The lateral line is straight, and the scales composing it, though of equal size with the others, show only half as much surface when in their place.

FORM.—Body compressed with an elliptical profile, the head, when the mouth is shut, ending acutely, but when viewed from above, or in front, the snout is obtuse. The greatest depth of the body is scarcely one-fifth of the total length, caudal included. Head small, being one-sixth of the total length, excluding the caudal, or one-seventh including it. In the dried specimen there is a slightly-elevated sagittal ridge, the occiput is radiated, and the tubular lateral ridges extend conspicuously from the nostrils to the upper angle of the gill-cover. A line of tubes also passes along the middle of the infra-orbitar bones, another down the upper limb of the preoperculum, and there are three diverging tubes on the lower limb of that bone. Orbit large, distant half its own diameter from the tip of the snout, and two diameters from the edge of the gill-cover. Nostrils midway between the orbit and tip of the snout. The infra-orbitar bones consist of four distinct radiated ones behind the eye, a narrow tubular ridge beneath the orbit, and a small thick plate with diverging tubular lines before the eye. Mouth not cloven as far back as the edge of the orbit. Intermaxillaries narrower and longer than in the coregoni, but overlapping the articular ends of the labials less than in the truttæ. Labials thin elliptical plates, the posterior piece lanceolate and as broad as the anterior one. Under jaw tolerably strong and rounded at the tip, which, when depressed, projects about four lines beyond the snout.

[page] 193

TEETH small, subulate, pointed, and slightly curved, standing in a single crowded series on the intermaxillaries, labials, and under jaw; in two rows on the acutely projecting edge of the palate-bones; and in a cluster of six or seven on the anterior extremity of the vomer; the latter bone is flat and smooth posteriorly. The tongue is also smooth, but the pharyngeal bones and the cartilaginous rakers of the upper branchial arch are rough: the rakers of the other arches are smaller and softer.

GILL-COVERS.—Preoperculum having the form of a moderately-curved and rather wide crescent. Suboperculum more than half the height of the operculum, and not exceeding it in length. Interoperculum small and acute-angled. Eight gill-rays on the left side and nine on the right.

FINS.—Br. 9—8; D. 23—0; P. 15; V. 9; A. 13; C. 19 8/8.

The dorsal contains 23 rays, which increase in succession from the first minute one: the three last and longest ones exceed in height the greatest depth of the body: the commencement of the dorsal is far forwards, or about half way between the gill-openings and ventrals, and its attachment is equal to the distance between its first ray and the centre of the eye, or between its last ray and the adipose fin. The adipose fin is partly behind the anal. The ventrals originate a little anterior to the middle between the snout and the base of the caudal, or under the eighteenth dorsal ray. Their scale-like appendages are long, thin, and pointed. Anal rather small and rounded anteriorly. Caudal deeply forked.

INTESTINES.—The alimentary canal, having its lining disposed in five large longitudinal folds, descends from the gullet for two inches and a half, when it dilates considerably, bends upwards upon itself, and terminates in a narrow pylorus: the dilated part resembles the stomach of the coregonus albus, or attihawmeg, in its structure, but its coats are thinner. The intestine, having very thin coats, runs in a straight line from the pylorus to the anus, being exactly equal to the abdominal cavity in length. It gives origin, within three-quarters of an inch of the pylorus, to eighteen cæca, and between two and three inches of its inferior part are furnished with internal circular folds, or valvulæ conniventes. The liver is small, without lobes, and there is a large spleen attached to the curvature of the stomach. The air-bladder is large and communicates with the œsophagus. The fæces were black.

On comparing the American specimen with a fine English grayling, for which I am indebted to Mr. Yarrell, the following were the most obvious differences. The English fish is much lighter in colour, with more lustre, and exhibits about sixteen faint longitudinal bands passing through the centres of the same number of rows of scales. Its body is thicker, its head larger, and the distance between the orbit and end of the snout measures double to what it does in Back's grayling. The tubular ridges on its head are less conspicuous, and its mouth is wider; but its under jaw does not not project so far as in the latter. It also presents a remarkable difference in the want of palatine-teeth, these bones being quite smooth and rounded on the edge. The teeth on the mandibles are smaller than in the American grayling, and those on the vomer are perceptible only by the aid of a lens. Both have teeth on the pharyngeal bones and rakers. There are 81 scales on the lateral line of the English

2 C

[page] 194

grayling, the scales are more nearly smooth on the edge tahn in the American fish, and the teeth of their bases are smaller and more numerous, being four or more.

DIMENSIONS.

Back's Grayling. English Grayling.
In. lin. In. lin.
Length from tip of snout* to tip of caudal 17 6 17 6
Length from tip of snout to end of caudal rays of ditto 16 6 16 3
Length from tip of snout to end of scales on central rays 15 6 15 6
Length from tip of snout to anus 11 0 11 3
Length from tip of snout to ventrals 7 7 6
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 4 11 5 5
Length from tip of snout to edge of gill-cover 2 5 2 9
Length from tip of snout to nape 1 10 2 2
Length from tip of snout to edge of orbit 0 0 8
Length from tip of snout to nostrils 0 3 0 7
Breadth between articulations of labials 0 0 8
Breadth of occiput 1 2 1 2
Length of labials 0 0
Length of lower jaw 2 4 2 4
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 11 3 11
Length of its penultimate or longest ray 4 0 2 4
Length of adipose fin 0 0 8
Length of pectorals 2 6 2 3
Length of ventrals 2 2 2 3
Length of ventral appendages 0 7 0 7
Length of attachment of anal 1 4 1 5
Length of its longest rays 1 8 1 8
Length of lobes of caudal 2 2 7
Length of its central rays beyond the scales 1 0 0 9
Depth of caudal fork 0 10 1 2

[74.] 2. SALMO (THYMALLUS) THYMALLOIDES. (Richardson.) Lesser Grayling.

Coregonus thymalloides†. RICHARDSON, Frankl. Journ., p. 714.

A much smaller grayling was taken in Winter River along with Back's grayling, from which it differed in its tints of colour, brighter scales, and in the shape and size of its dorsal fin. At the time, I thought these variations sufficient to characterise it as a distinct species, but having since ascertained that the dorsal fin varies greatly in size, and even in shape, in the European graylings of different

* Or articulation of labials, and not including the intermaxillaries, which project beyond the snout when the mouth opens.

Thymalloides is objectionable as a specific name in the sub-genus Thymallus, but I did not consider necessary to alter it, as the species is a doubtful one.

[page] 195

ages, I think it probable that it may have been the young of the Thymallus signifer. The subjoined imperfect description is all that I have to guide me in forming a judgment on this matter now, as I neglected to prepare a specimen in the autumn, when this small fish was plentiful, and none were seen in the spring. The Lesser grayling rises eagerly at the artificial fly. The stomachs of those which we opened were filled with sand and black earth.

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent specimen taken in Winter River, August, 1820.

FORM.—Body compressed with a lanceolate profile, belly rather broader than the back. The dorsal fin has, like Back's grayling, from twenty to twenty-four rays, but the posterior ones do not branch out so much, and scarcely exceed the others in height; the three first rays only being shorter: the height of the fin is one inch. Ventrals situated under the middle of the dorsal.

COLOUR.—Sides bluish-grey with purplish reflections, belly white. The scales have a bright pearly lustre. The head is hair-brown, and the gill-covers exhibit some purplish tints. Dorsal fin dark bluish grey, with several rows of purplish spots bordered by lighter red. Ventrals streaked with opake white.

FINS.—Br. 8; D. 23—0; P. 17; V. 9; A. 10; C. 19 8/8.

LENGTH, excluding the caudal, eight inches and a half. Distance between the tip of the snout and anus six inches.

[75.] 1. SALMO (COREGONUS) ALBUS. The Attihawmeg.

FAMILY, Salmonoideæ. GENUS, Salmo. LINN. Sub-genus, Coregonus. CUV.

Salmo lavaretus (Guiniad and Tickomeg). PENN., Arct. Zool., Intr., p. 298, and ii., p. 293, excluding synonymes.

Coregonus albus. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 232. CUV., Règ. An., ii., p. 308.

White fish. FUR TRADERS. Poisson blanc. CANADIANS.

Attihhawmegh. CREE INDIANS.

PLATE 89, f. 2, A and B, half nat. size.

Several species of this sub-genus have been celebrated for the delicacy of their flavour, but none have been more justly so than the Attihawmeg, which is an inhabitant of all the interior lakes of America, from Erie to the Arctic Sea. Several Indian hordes mainly subsist upon it, and it forms the principal food at many of the fur posts, for eight or nine months of the year,—the supply of other articles of diet being scanty and casual. Though it is a rich, fat fish, instead of producing satiety it becomes daily more agreeable to the palate; and I know, from experience,

2 C 2

[page] 196

that though deprived of bread and vegetables, one may live wholly upon this fish for months, or even years, without tiring. Its good qualities were known as early as the time of La Hontan, who says, "Les poissons des Lacs sont meilleures que ceux de la mer et des riviéres, surtout les Poissons blancs; qui surpassent toutes les autres espèces en bonté et en délicatesse." The colour of its flesh is bluish-white at all seasons, changing to a pure opaque white when boiled, whence its appellation of "white-fish," for though there are many other white-fleshed fish in the northern waters of America, this is by far the most important one.

In certain lakes, and in some seasons, the Attihawmeg is loaded with fat, particularly about the shoulders, where it produces a hump. After the spawning season its flesh becomes lean and rather watery, but not unwholesome, and it may be improved by suspension in the open air for a month or six weeks. Though the coolness of the weather, at that time of the year, prevents putrefaction from proceeding far, the fish acquires a strong taint, while it becomes richer, firmer, and altogether more agreeable to the palates of the icthyophagists of the fur countries than when fresh. The mode of cooking the Attihawmeg is generally by boiling. After the fish is cleaned, and the scales scraped off, it is cut into several pieces, which are put into a thin copper kettle, with water enough to cover them, and placed over a slow fire. As soon as the water is on the point of boiling, the kettle is taken off, shook by a semicircular motion of the hand backwards and forwards, and replaced on the fire for a short time. If the shaking be not attended to exactly at the proper moment, or be unskilfully performed, the fish coagulating too suddenly becomes comparatively dry to the taste, and the soup is poor. The stomach, when cleaned and boiled with the rest of the fish, is a favourite morsel with the voyageurs.

The Attihawmeg does not exist in the St. Lawrence below the falls of Niagara, and, according to Mr. Hutchins, it is never seen in the tidal waters of Hudson's Bay*; but it is common enough, and of fine quality, in the mouths of the Mackenzie, Coppermine, and other rivers that fall into the Arctic Sea. We did not actually take any in the salt water, but it most probably can live indifferently in fresh or salt water, like several species of truttæ, and coregoni that occasionally wander to the sea, though they are not strictly anadromous. Many lakes, either absolutely land-locked, or cut off from the sea by lofty cascades which fish cannot surmount, contain fine Attihawmeg, together with the Round-fish, an allied species to be afterwards described, which we also found in the Arctic Sea. In

* The "Titymeg as big as a Herring," mentioned in the narrative of the Voyage of the Dobbs and California as abounding in Hayes and Nelson rivers, within reach of the tidal waters of Hudson's Bay, is, I believe, of a different species, named by Mr. Hutchins Winepeg-attihawmeg, and by Pennant Sea-guiniad.

[page] 197

October the Attihawmeg quits the lakes and enters the rivers, for the purpose of depositing its spawn. It ascends the stream in the night-time, and returns to the lake as soon as it has spawned. Dr. Todd informed me that it enters Severn River from Lake Huron about the 25th of October, and retires to the depths of the lake again by the 10th of November; but that in some rapid rocky rivers of that lake individuals are taken throughout the year. A few spawn in the summer. It is a gregarious fish, and resorts to different parts of a lake according to the season of the year, its movements being in all probability regulated by its supply of food. In winter the fisheries are generally established in deep water, remote from the shore; towards the breaking up of the ice they are moved near to the outlets of the lake, and in the summer comparatively few Attihawmeg are caught, except what are speared in the rivers. After the spawning period the fall-fishery, as it is termed, is more productive in shallow bays and on banks near the shore. I was informed, in the fur countries, that this fish preys on insects, and that it occasionally, though rarely, takes a hook baited with a small piece of meat. The stomachs of some taken in Pine Island Lake, under the ice, contained a dark-coloured earth mixed with the slender fibrils of vegetable roots, and a few soft insects or larvæ like white worms. Dr. Todd found fresh-water shells and small fishes in the stomachs of the Lake Huron Attihawmeg; indeed, shelly mollusca (Helix, Planorbis, Lymneus, Paludina, &c.) appear to be a favourite food of several trout and coregoni, both in Europe and America. The Attihawmeg has some resemblance to the herring in the structure of its jaws and gill-covers, and, like that fish, it dies speedily when taken out of the water. The usual weight of the Attihawmeg is from two to three pounds, and, when very fat, it attains to seven or eight pounds; but these large fish are confined to particular localities. In certain lakes it reaches a much greater size, having been taken in Lake Huron of the weight of thirteen pounds, and in Manito Lake, it is said, of twenty pounds. The largest seen by Mr. Hutchins, in the vicinity of Hudson's Bay, weighed between four and five pounds, measured twenty inches in length, and four in depth. One of seven pounds weight, caught in Lake Huron, was twenty-seven inches long.

The Attihawmeg is taken in the winter time in gill-nets set under the ice. Each net is fifty or sixty fathoms long, and of a depth proportionate to that of the water, and in setting it for the first time a series of holes are made through the ice, at such a distance apart, that a long stick can be readily passed in the water from one to the other: a line, rather longer than the net to which it is fastened, being attached to the stick, is carried along and brought out at the extreme hole. The net being

[page] 198

buoyed up above by thin oblong pieces of fir, and loaded below with stones, is drawn beneath the ice by means of the line, and firmly fixed at each end to stakes thrust through the holes. After the first time the intermediate holes in the ice, being useless, are allowed to freeze up, but the extreme ones are opened daily, and the net examined by the fisherman, who draws it out at one hole, while his assistant veers away the line at the other. A careful fisherman changes the net every second or third day, for the purpose of drying and repairing it. Occasionally two or more nets are attached to each other, and set in the same way as a single one. As the ice in the fur countries varies from three to six feet in thickness, the labour of setting a net is considerable, and when the cold is severe, even the re-opening of the holes occupies much time. Most of the fish enter the net by night. They freeze as they are taken from the water, and are thus preserved in a perfectly sound state until spring; but the newly-taken fish are superior in flavour to European palates. The Copper Indians strike the fish through holes cut in the ice, using a very ingenious fish-gig, constructed of rein-deer horns, on the same principle, but superior in its effect, to the "stong" with which eels are commonly taken in Lincolnshire.

The Attihawmeg differs from the other known coregoni in the extraordinary thickness of its stomach, which resembles the gizzard of a fowl. Baron Cuvier having examined my Lake Huron specimens, returned them ticketed, "Coregone voisin de le Palée de Lac de Geneve." The sub-genus Coregonus is characterised in the Règne Animal as having a mouth like the Graylings, but less perfectly armed, being often entirely destitute of teeth. The scales are large and the dorsal is not so long as it is high anteriorly. The C. oxyrhinchus is distinguished from other European species by a soft prominence on the tip of its snout, and the C. marænula by the lower jaw projecting beyond the upper one, agreeing in that character with the Salmo clupeoides of Pallas: the rest have the snout blunt as if truncated, like that of the Attihawmeg and most of the American coregoni.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in Lake Huron.

FORM.—Profile ovate, more or less gibbous before the dorsal fin, with a slightly-tapering tail inclining a little upwards. The greatest depth of a well-grown Attihawmeg is between a third and a fourth of its length, excluding the caudal, but when very fat the depth is greater*. The body is compressed, the transverse diameter being considerably less than the vertical one.

* In an Attihawmeg of the ordinary size, taken in Pine Island Lake, the depth of the body was to the length of the fish, exclusive of the candal, as five to seventeen.

[page] 199

Head narrow below, with a moderately wide frontal bone, and forming one-fifth of the length, excluding the caudal. The upper surface of the head is smooth and even, in the recent fish, but in drying, the straight, lateral, tubular ridges become visible, traversing a depression over each orbit: the saggital crest is scarcely perceptible, even in the naked skull, and it is cut short anteriorly by a groove which is widest at its termination between the nostrils. The eyes are large, and situated a little more than a diameter of the orbit from the tip of the snout, and near thrice as far from the edge of the gill-plate. The infra-orbitar bones cover more than two-thirds of the cheek: they are traversed by a tubular ridge with short lateral branches. The nostrils are placed midway between the tip of the snout and the orbit. The snout is blunt when seen in front, but its profile is more acute: it projects a little beyond the shut mouth, but when the jaws are separated the intermaxillaries descend from it perpendicularly, the tip of the lower jaw being then in the same line also. The mouth has a small orifice, and when shut its angles are depressed. The intermaxillaries are higher than they are long, or they measure more vertically than they do transversely, so that the orifice of the mouth is farther beneath the snout than in the succeeding species. The labials thin, broad and pyri-form, are articulated by their narrow end to the palatine-bones, in contact with the ball and socket joint of the intermaxillaries: the posterior piece, or appophysis, is as broad as the anterior one and about two-thirds as long. The limb of the under jaw expands into a thin plate, which glides under the anterior sub-orbital when the mouth closes.

TEETH.—The jaws and tongue are furnished with a few teeth, which are too minute to be readily seen by the naked eye, and too slender to be very perceptible to the finger. The palate and vomer are quite smooth.

GILL-COVERS.—The preoperculum is sharply curved and rather broad, its width in the middle equalling the height of the suboperculum. A tubular ridge runs along the anterior edge of its upper limb, and separates on the lower one into four diverging branches. The other bones of the gill-cover are thin and smooth. The operculum measures one-third more vertically than it does horizontally; while, on the contrary, the suboperculum is twice as long as it is high. The interoperculum is triangular. The gill-membrane is rendered thick by the quantity of muscle and a shining membrane which line its eight thin, flat, curved rays. The branchial arches have each a single row of erect, subulate rakers, a quarter of an inch long, and rough on their inner surfaces. The pharyngeal bones are inconspicuous and toothless.

SCALES rather smaller on the fore part of the belly and back than elsewhere: they are irregularly orbicular on the sides, and about half an inch in diameter. They have a bright pearly lustre, and are thin and very deciduous. The lateral line contains 80 scales, including those on the base of the caudal, and there are 24 in a vertical line before the dorsal, of which 10 are above the lateral line, and as many between it and the upper ray of the ventrals. The scales on the lateral line are somewhat smaller, and differ a little in form from the adjoining rows. Lateral line slightly arched in its course along the body, but after passing the anus running horizontally through the tail.

COLOUR, in the shade, bluish-grey on the back, lighter on the sides, and white on the belly,

[page] 200

giving place to a nacry and iridescent pearly lustre in a full light. Cheeks, opercula, and irides thickly covered with nacre.

FINS.—Br. 8; D. 15—0; P. 16; V. 11; A. 15; C. 19 7/7.

The fifth and sixth rays of the dorsal are the longest, and the three first are closely applied to the base of the fourth. The middle between the tip of the snout and base of the caudal fin, is opposite to the ninth or tenth dorsal rays, and posterior to the attachment of the ventrals. The adipose fin is rather large, and is situated opposite to the termination of the anal: it contains no rays whatever, and is not supported by interspinous bones: its base is clothed with small scales. The ventrals contain eleven rather stout rays. The anal, shaped like the dorsal, contains fifteen rays, of which the three first are applied to the base of the fourth, and the last one is divided to its origin. The anal occupies a little more than half the space between the anus and caudal. The caudal is forked and spreads widely. The scales terminate upon it by the same outline as in the trouts, being three sides of a rectangle*.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tips of caudal 19 3
Length from end of central rays 18 3
Length from anus 12 6
Length from ventrals 8 3
Length from dorsal 8 0
Length from edge of gill-cover 3 8
Length from nape 2
Length from orbit 0 10½
Length from nostrils 0
Length of lateral line to end of scales on caudal 13 9
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0
Length of labials 0 11
Length of lower jaw 1 3
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 3
Length of its longest rays 2 7
Length of its last ditto 0 9
Length of adipose fin 0 9
Length of pectorals 2 9
Length of ventrals 2 10
Length of attachment of anal 2 0
Length of its longest ray 2 4
Length of its last ditto 0
Length of lobes of caudal 3 8
Length of its central rays 1 3
Depth of caudal fork 1 0

INTESTINES

Described from a specimen taken in Pine Island Lake, in lat. 54° N., in the winter of 1819–20.

On opening the abdomen a multitude of cæca present themselves, involved in the folds of a membrane which is a production of the peritonæum, bearing a strong resemblance to the omentum of quadrupeds, and, like it, most commonly loaded with fat: it descends about half way down the belly, concealing the stomach and liver, and is closely connected with the former viscus by numerous vessels. A narrow spleen is attached to its right border. The alimentary canal descends from the gullet in form of a wide tube five inches long, having its lining disposed in six longitudinal folds. An inch of the upper part of the lining has a red colour and glandular structure, and may be considered as belonging to the œsophagus. The remainder of the tube may be termed the upper stomach: it crosses the liver by a sudden turn, and bending upwards terminates in an oviform bag two inches and a half long, which may be denominated the proper stomach. It has, from the thickness of its substance, a strong resemblance to

* The engraver has not represented this happily in any of our plates of coregoni; but the form that is meant may be seen by turning to plate 84, or any of the other trouts.

[page] 201

the gizzard of a fowl, and consists of a thin peritonæal coat; a thick firm semi-transparent one, which, when boiled, separates into layers; a thinner, but firmer and almost cartilaginous one; and, lastly, an inner membrane of a grey colour and spongy substance, differing materially, in appearance, from the lining of the upper stomach: its folds are nearly obsolete. The pylorus is in the fundus of the stomach, which touches the upper extremity of the abdomen. From this a slender intestine, with thin coats and a few internal longitudinal folds, descends to the anus. It is encircled, at its commencement, by clustered cæca, which continue to be inserted, on one side, for two-thirds of its length. There are in all about one hundred and fifty of them, an inch long, of a conical form, and filled with a yellowish mucus. The lower part of the intestine is furnished internally with circular folds, or valvulæ conniventes, but a small portion next the anus is smooth. The liver is small, obtusely triangular, and without lobes; it lies anterior to the œsophagus, and posterior to the cæca and intestine. The gall-duct, which has remarkably thick coats, terminates in the intestine about half an inch below the pylorus. The air-bladder extends the whole length of the abdomen, and is connected with the upper part of the stomach by a pretty wide tube.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length of alimentary canal from gullet to lower stomach 5 0
Length of stomach 2 6
Length of upper intestine with smooth lining 9 0
Length of lower ditto with circular rugæ 3 0
Length of whole alimentary canal from gullet to anus 19 6
Length of fish from snout to base of central caudal rays 16 0

[76.] 2. SALMO (COREGONUS) TULLIBEE. (Richardson.) The Tullibee.

Ottonneebees, CREE INDIANS. Tullibee. FUR TRADERS.

This fish is very generally diffused through the waters of the fur countries, but nowhere is it taken in such numbers as the Attihawmeg. The fishermen know it at once, but as I was a novice in ichthyological pursuits when the recent fish were before me, I failed in detecting discriminating external characters, and my prepared specimens having gone to decay, the deficiency cannot now be supplied. In the appendix to the narrative of Sir John Franklin's First Journey, I referred the Tullibee doubtfully to the Coregonus Artedi of Le Sueur; but on re-considering the description of that fish, it appears to be decidedly unlike the former in its pointed snout and round scales. The Tullibee differs from the Attihawmeg in having a much thinner stomach and a smaller number of cæca, yet its food and general habits are the same with those of that fish. It is much inferior as an

2 D

[page] 202

article of food, being generally lean and watery, though it is wholesome and destitute of any disagreeable flavour.

DESCRIPTION*

Drawn up from an examination of recent male specimens in the winter of 1819–20 at Cumberland-House, Pine Island Lake, lat. 54° N.

COLOUR.—In the shade, the back is greenish-grey, the belly white, and the sides of an intermediate hue; but when opposed to the light, the whole body is silvery, with much lustre. The top of the head is covered with smooth bluish-grey skin. SCALES oblong, half an inch long, and of nearly uniform size.

FORM much compressed, the belly rounded, the back rather more acute. The profile is broadly oblong, tapering suddenly at the anal; the head conical. Eyes large, and rather more than their own diameter from the end of the snout. The orifice of the mouth is transverse and rather small, and when the jaws are open the snout appears truncated. The intermaxillaries are small and cartilaginous; the labials oblong, and when thrown forward by the opening of the mouth their under ends project beyond the snout. The lower jaw is a little longer than the upper one: its knobbed tip fits into a depression between the intermaxillaries. The gill-membranes are plaited at their insertion into the isthmus. The cheeks are nearly covered by the sub-orbitar bones.

TEETH not perceptible on the jaws, but there is a small plate of minute ones on the centre of the tongue: there are also two rows of minute teeth on the inner sides of the cartilaginous rakers. Each branchial arch is furnished with a single row of rakers, the central ones of the upper arch, which are the longest, measuring half an inch.

FINS.—Br. 8; D. 14—0; P. 16; V. 12; A. 8; C.

The first two rays of the dorsal are short. The caudal has a shallow fork.

INTESTINES.—The alimentary canal descends from the gullet for an inch and a half, it is then bent upwards for another inch and is more dilated, but there is no extraordinary thickening of the coats as in the Attihawmeg: its thick lining is disposed in six longitudinal folds, and forms a prominent ring at the pylorus, where it evidently terminates. Between the pylorus and the upper end of the abdominal cavity there is a thin bag, having the same width with the fundus of the stomach; it is lined by a firm, somewhat glandular, membrane, perforated by the mouths of numerous cæca. The slender intestine runs straight downwards to the anus from this dilated commencement: its under half, furnished with regular valvulæ conniventes, has a greater caliber than its upper half. There are in all about one hundred and twenty cæca, inserted into the dilated sac, and a short way down the slender tube of the intestine. The gall-duct opens near the pylorus. The spleen is long and large. The melt has a wood-brown colour.

* I have omitted such parts of my original notes as agree with the preceding account of the Attihawmeg and are more generic than specific.

[page] 203

DIMENSIONS.

Inches.
Length from tip of snout to base of central caudal rays 14
Length from anus 11½
Greatest depth of body
Length of alimentary canal 11½
Length from gullet to pylorus
Length from pylorus to anus 9

[77.] 3. SALMO (COREGONUS) ARTEDI. (Le Sueur.) Le Sueur's Herring Salmon.

Coregonus Artedi. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 231.

This species having been taken in Lake Erie and the Niagara River, requires to be noticed in this work. M. Le Sueur says that it is locally known by the name of Herring-salmon, and is considered to be very delicate food. As it did not fall under our notice, we shall transcribe the description given of it by its discoverer.

DESCRIPTION

Quoted from M. Le Sueur.

"Body sub-fusiform, a little elevated at the back; head small, having an osseous radiated plate which is covered by the skin; snout pointed."—"In form this species approaches the scombri, a section of it is oval. Head small and narrow; snout short, terminated by small intermaxillaries; maxillaries wide, sharp-edged as in the herring, edges entire; mandibles carinate, producing inwardly a triangular pedunculate expansion; very small conical teeth inserted in the skin of the lips at the extremity of the jaws: these teeth were sufficiently manifest in a small individual, but not visible in a larger one, a female, which came under my observation. Rays in the osseous plate of the head tubular, and open at the exterior, some tending backwards, and others towards the end of the snout. A faint carinate line divides the top of the head in the dried specimen. Lateral line straight and near the middle; nostrils double, close to the end of the snout and articulation of the maxillaries; scales round, approximated, easily falling off; the base of the tail is covered with them. Colour ash-blue at the back, paler and silvery on the rest of the body, with yellow tints on the tail, head and dorsal; iris whitish, pupil black. Length ten to twelve inches.

"FINS.—Br. 9; P. 16; D. 12—0; V. 12; A. 13; C.— 6/6."

M. Le Sueur, in comparing our Attihawmeg, or his Coregonus albus, with C. Artedi, says that it has a less fusiform body, and the back elevated from the nape to the dorsal. "The C. albus," he further states, "has more depth of body, a greater elevation of back, and much stronger proportions in its body, fins, and scales. The adipose fin, which is broad, appears to consist of delicate rays, much pressed and in pairs." A careful examination of the dried specimens of our C. albus from Lake Huron, exhibited no rays whatever, nor any interspinous bones to support them, but the fin in drying splits in a fibrous manner.

2 D 2

[page] 204

[78.] 4. SALMO (COREGONUS) QUADRILATERALIS. (Richardson.) The Round-fish.

Coregonus quadrilateralis. RICHARDSON, Franklin's Journ., p. 714.

Kathèh. COPPER INDIANS. Okeugnak. ESQUIMAUX.

PLATE 89, f. 1, A and B, one-half nat. size.

This Coregonus exists in the Polar Sea, off the mouths of the Coppermine and Mackenzie, and in all the clear rivers and lakes north of the 62nd parallel of latitude, being thus an inhabitant of both salt and fresh water, though we have no information as to its quitting the one for the other at any stated period*. Our Esquimaux interpreter, Augustus, informed us that his countrymen who frequent the shores of the Welcome are well acquainted with it. Though a general inhabitant of the northern waters, it is not so plentiful as the Attihawmeg, nor so gregarious, neither is it equally prized as an article of food. When in the fresh waters it preys on larvæ and soft insects. I have to regret that the stomachs of those we took at sea were not examined, but it seems to obtain food there well suited to its wants, as the individuals we caught in Bathurst's Inlet, on the 6th of August, were larger, fatter, and brighter in colour, than those we obtained inland. It spawns in September.

From the body of this species being less compressed than that of the Attihawmeg, our voyagers named it the Round-fish, and I have given it the specific appellation of quadrilateralis, on account of a flattening of the back, belly, and sides being superadded to its general sub-fusiform shape. Baron Cuvier made the following observation on the specimen which I submitted to his inspection:— "Coregone voisine du Salmo maræna. Nous en avons une très semblable du Lac Ontario; elles différent du poisson des Lacs de Suisse parce qu'elles ont le museau un peu plus pointu."

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in Great Bear Lake, lat. 64½° N.

SCALES smaller than those of the Attihawmeg and very regularly disposed, the uncovered portion of each having a rhomboidal form. A scale taken from the side measures four lines transversely, and half a line less in the other direction: its outline presents five or six very slight

* A Scottish species of Coregonus which inhabits the Castle Loch of Lochmaben, and is locally known by the name of Vendise, has been taken in the Solway Firth, but as the fisherman in whose net it was caught was totally unacquainted with it, it had perhaps merely strayed accidentally to the sea.

[page] 205

angular projections, and its surface is destitute of any radiating furrows, having only the usual fine concentric striæ. The scales on the anterior part of the back have short marginal ridges, causing them to appear as if finely toothed. The lateral line is straight, equidistant from the dorsal and ventrals; the scales composing it are smaller than the adjoining ones and truncated, the uncovered portion being nearly triangular; they are ninety-six in number, including six very small ones on the caudal. A vertical line before the dorsal contains twenty-three or twenty-four scales, of which nine are above the lateral line and eight between it and the ventrals. A linear inch on the sides contains six scales or six and a half.

COLOUR of the back and sides intermediate between honey-yellow and wood-brown, with a narrow blackish-grey border to each scale: the tints are paler on the sides, and the belly is pearly-white. The scales are bright. The cheeks, gill-covers, and irides have a yellow colour with metallic lustre, and the fins are also mostly yellowish.

FORM elegant. Profile lanceolate tapering evenly into the tail: the belly rather less curved than the back, which is moderately arched. The body is four-sided with the angles rounded off: the depth one-fifth of the total length, excluding the caudal, and the thickness two-thirds of the depth. Head small, being only one-sixth of the length from the tip of the snout to the end of the scales on the caudal: it is of considerable breadth at the nape, and becomes one-fourth narrower between the anterior edges of the orbits, where it rounds off suddenly into a thin snout, which droops in profile. In the dried specimen there is a short sagittal crest between the orbits, and also lateral tubular ridges as in the Attihawmeg, but the former does not end in a furrow. The orbit is exactly its own diameter from the end of the snout, and two diameters and a half from the edge of the gill-cover. The nostrils are nearer to the orbit than to the tip of the snout. The mouth is remarkably small, and its orifice is quadrangular, the end of the lower jaw being truncated to the same width with the horizontal edge of the small intermaxillaries. The labials are very small, particularly their appophysis; their tips fall short of the orbit. The under jaw, even when depressed to the utmost, does not reach so far forward as the tip of the snout. The suboperculum is widest, anteriorly, and the operculum is heart-shaped. No TEETH whatever can be perceived, even with a lens, in the dried specimen: the branchial rakers are small and soft.

FINS.—Br. 7*; D. 15—0; P. 15; V. 11; A. 13; C. 19 7/7.

The dorsal is farther forward than in the Attihawmeg, the distance from the end of the snout to its first ray, when carried backwards, scarcely reaching the adipose fin, while in the latter species it passes it. The centre between the tip of the snout and end of the scales on the caudal is under the penultimate dorsal ray. The adipose is partly posterior to the anal. The caudal is forked.

INTESTINES.—Stomach like that of the Tullibee, the pylorus very narrow. Cæca eighty-seven, crowded under the pylorus where they surround the gut, and also occupying one-third of its length in three or four rows. The lower third of the intestine is furnished with valvulæ conniventes, half an inch of it at the anus being smooth. Fæces black.

* This seems to be the prevalent number of gill-rays, but some of the individuals taken in the Arctic Sea had eight.

[page] 206

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 18 9
Length from end of central rays 18 0
Length from end of scales 17 0
Length from anus 12 9
Length from ventrals 8 2
Length from dorsal 7 0
Length from edge of gill-cover 2
Length from nape 1 11
Length from orbit 0 7
Length from nostrils 0 5
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0
Length of labials 0
Length of lower jaw 0 10
Length of lateral line from gill-opening to end of scales 14 3
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 1
Length of its longest rays 2 1
Length of its last ray 0 8
Length of pectorals 2 2
Length of ventrals 1 10
Length of attachment of anal 1 3
Length of its longest rays 1 7
Length of lobes of caudal 2 6
Length of its central rays beyond the scales 0 11
Depth of caudal fork 0 8
Breadth of snout between the articulations of the labials 0 2
Breadth of nape 1 3
Depth of body 3 6

[79.] 5. SALMO (COREGONUS) LABRADORICUS. (Richardson.)

Musquaw River Coregonus.

Mr. Cumming did me the favour of preparing a specimen of this Coregonus, which inhabits Musquaw River, that falls into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near the Mingan Islands. The colours and exact form of the body cannot be determined from the dried specimen, but in the shape of the scales and opercular pieces it resembles the Attihawmeg, though its labials, and consequently the orifice of its mouth, are much smaller.

DESCRIPTION.

FORM.—Body apparently much like that of the Round-fish: its depth is one-fifth of the length, excluding the caudal. Head small, constituting only a sixth part of the distance between the tip of the snout and end of the scales on the caudal. The orbit is exactly twice as far from the edge of the gill-cover as from the tip of the snout. Cranial ridges nearly as in the Round-fish. The labials are a little longer than in that fish, and their posterior pieces are of a different shape, being ovate, whereas they are acutely elliptical in the other. The under jaw measures a very little more than one-half the length of the upper surface of the head, and when the mouth is distended its tip is exactly even with the end of the snout. Jaws and palate toothless: four longitudinal rows of teeth on the tongue.

SCALES orbicular, thin, flexible, and deciduous, seventy-eight on the lateral line, corresponding with an equal number of rows on the back and belly. The middle, between the tip of the snout and end of the scales, is at the thirty-second scale of the lateral line, and opposite to the third ventral ray, or tenth dorsal one. A linear inch, measured on the sides, includes seven scales. There are eight scales between the dorsal and lateral line, and as many between the latter and the ventrals.

[page] 207

FINS.—Br. 8—9; D. 15—0; P. 15; V. 12—11; A. 15; C. 19 9/9.

The three anterior rays of the dorsal are short, as are also the two first anal ones. The first ray of the ventral is opposite to the space between the eighth and ninth dorsal ray. The adipose corresponds with the end of the anal, and the attachment of the latter equals the space between its last ray and the outermost of the nineteen longer caudal rays.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 14 0
Length from central rays 13 0
Length from end of scales 12 4
Length from anus 9 3
Length from ventrals 5 11
Length from dorsal 5 6
Length from edge of gill-cover 2 0
Length from nape 1 5
Length from centre of pupil 0
Length from edge of orbit 0 6
Length of lateral line 10 8
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0 3
Length of labials 0 5
Length of lower jaw 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 5
Length of its longest ray 1
Length of pectorals 1 4
Length of ventrals 1 5
Length of attachment of anal 1
Length of its longest ray 1
Length of lobes of caudal 2 3
Length of its longest rays 2 0
Length of central rays 0 8
Depth of caudal fork 0 10
Depth of body 2 5
Spread of caudal 2 6

[80.] 6. SALMO (COREGONUS) LUCIDUS. (Richardson.) Bear Lake Herring-Salmon.

PLATE 90, f. 1, A and B, one-half nat. size.

Baron Cuvier's remark on our specimen of this fish was, "Coregone, encore plus semblable au Salmo maræna que le Round-fish: Mais les ecailles du Salmo maræna sont plus grandes que celles de le Herring-Salmon." We have not had an opportunity of comparing the American species with the maræna, but the lucidus and quadrilateralis differ much from each other in the form of the body, as well as in other particulars, such as the size and shape of the scales, the breadth and comparative length of the snout, and the size of the labials and aperture of the mouth. The C. lucidus has a compressed body, like a species which we have received from Lake Leman under the name of La fera, and also like the Vendace, or Vendise*, from Lochmaben in Scotland, but the scales of these two are smaller; the Fera has larger intermaxillaries like the Attihawmeg, and the Vendace has an acute under jaw, which forms the extreme point of the head when the mouth is closed. None

* Piscis in lacu Mabano, Vandesius. SIBBALD., Scot. Illustr., lib. 3, p. 26. Tradition says that King Robert Bruce introduced this fish into the Castle Loch from France.

[page] 208

of the American coregoni, described in this work, have the snout so decidedly posterior to the tip of the under jaw as the Lochmaben fish, the nearest approach to it being the Lake Huron Herring-Salmon, to be afterwards described.

The Bear Lake Herring-Salmon was seen by us nowhere but in the great sheet of water whence it derives its trivial name. That lake extends from the 65th to the 67th parallel of latitude, and is remarkably clear and deep. Its surplus waters are carried off by a large stream which falls into the muddy current of the Mackenzie, and there are no rapids, between it and the sea, that fish cannot surmount, yet none of the anadromous salmon of the Arctic Sea have been known to enter the lake; the Salmo Mackenzii confining its migrations in fresh water to the Great Slave Lake, and the turbid branches of the Mackenzie River. The Namaycush, Masamècoos, Attihawmeg of large size and very fine quality, Round-fish, and Back's grayling, are taken in Great Bear Lake, but none of them so abundantly as the C. lucidus, of which the nets yielded us fifty thousand in the year 1825-6*. The lake begins to freeze in October, and in the course of November most of its narrower arms are covered with ice, but, according to Indian report, its centre is not closed for the season before the beginning of January, and during the whole winter a small piece of water continues open at the point from whence the Bear Lake River issues. The ice begins to break up in shallow bays towards the end of May, and is entirely gone by the end of June. In September the nets were set near Fort Franklin, at the influx of a river about four miles from the outlet of the lake, and their daily produce was between three and four hundred Herring-Salmon. Though the fish continued to be equally plentiful at that spot during October, the fishery was discontinued on account of the floating ice, which did not become firm enough for the nets to be set with safety under it before the middle of November; and in the beginning of December the Herring-Salmon, resorting in numerous shoals to the outlet of the lake, were of course followed thither by the fishermen. At this spot, the water was three or four fathoms deep, but the fish could be easily seen through the clear ice, which enabled the Indians to spear a few, though more fell a prey to the otters. In January the fishery was not only unproductive, but several of our party suffered severely from the bad quality of the fish, whose intestines contained at this time a matter so caustic as to blister the hands of those whose duty it was to clean them. From the end of February the fish daily improved in quantity and quality, until the rivers opened in May, when the fisheries were again removed to the mouths of several small streams which fall into the lake.

* In eighteen months we obtained about three thousand five hundred trout, none weighing less than two pounds, and some exceeding thirty.

[page] 209

Attihawmeg and Namaycush differ from the Herring-Salmon in resorting to the greatest depths of the lake in the winter, and it may be here observed, that fish can receive a free supply of fresh air during that season, even in the centre of the most extended lake, through the wide rents caused by contraction of the ice at low temperatures. Warmer weather causes the ice to expand again, and great blocks of it are then forced up through the crevices, so as to form walls sometimes twenty feet in height. The memoranda of various particulars respecting the habits and anatomical structure of the Herring-Salmon, that I made during our residence on Great Bear Lake, were lost in the struggle that we had subsequently with the Esquimaux, and at this distance of time I cannot supply the loss from memory.

DESCRIPTION

Of a specimen taken in Great Bear Lake.

FORM in profile closely resembling the Round-fish, but the body is much more compressed, and the head larger, being one-fifth of the length between the tip of the snout and end of the scales on the caudal, and nearly equal to the greatest depth of the body. In the dried specimen, the breadth of the nape equals the distance between the supra-orbital plate of the frontal bone and the articulation of the lower jaw, and the width between the upper ends of the labials is twice as great as in the Round-fish. The sagittal ridge rises into an acute crest from the nape to the nostrils, and the tubular ridges on the frontal bone and anterior suborbitars, are more conspicuous than in any of the preceding species. The orbit is situated the length of its diameter from the end of the snout, and thrice as far from the edge of the gill-cover. The orifice of the mouth is large in comparison with that of the other coregoni, equalling the orbit in diameter: when the jaws are extended, the intermaxillaries are brought into a line with the forehead, instead of dropping vertically as in the Round-fish. The labials are large, and have a widely oblong form, carrying their breadth close to both extremities; their tips, when the mouth is shut, reach as far back as the centre of the orbit; the anterior piece is traversed by an obtuse keel, and the posterior one is only half as long, and less than half as wide as the anterior one. There are no teeth. Gill-covers. The preoperculum is broader than usual, particularly its upper limb: there are four conspicuous tubular rays on its lower limb. The interoperculum is large, being bigger than that of the Attihawmeg. The posterior margin of the gill-cover is uneven or slightly lobed.

FINS.—Br. 8—8; D. 14—0; P. 19; V. 11; A. 14; C. 19 9/9.

The eighth ray of the dorsal, the first of the ventrals, and the thirty-third scale of the lateral line, are situated midway between the tip of the snout and end of the scales on the caudal. The ventral appendages are slender and unusually long. The adipose is about its own breadth posterior to the anal, which is smaller than in the Attihawmeg. The caudal is deeply forked.

SCALES transversely oval, considerably larger than those of the Round-fish, but smaller than those of the Attihawmeg; one from the side measures five lines vertically, and four

2 E

[page] 210

longitudinally, the uncovered edge is a segment of a large circle, the base is rather angled, or widely three-lobed. There are eighty-eight scales on the lateral line; ten rows above that line at the dorsal, eight between it and the ventral, and three or four from thence to the mesial line of the belly. The scales on the sides are larger than those of the back; a linear inch includes six of them. The lateral line is straight and equidistant from the dorsal and ventrals.

COLOUR.—The scales have much pearly and iridescent lustre. In the dried specimen the back is lighter than that of the other coregoni, and the sides of the head yield strong greenish and golden reflections*.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of lower jaw to tips of caudal 18 4
Length from snout † to ditto 18 0
Length from end of central rays 17 0
Length from end of scales 16 0
Length from anus 12 0
Length from ventrals 8 ¼
Length from dorsal 7
Length from edge of gill-cover 3 1
Length from nape 1 11
Length from orbit 0
Length from nostrils 0
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0 2⅙
Length of labials 0 10½
Length of space between articulations of ditto 0 6
Length of lower jaw 1 5
Length of lateral line 13
Length of attachment of dorsal 1
Length of its longest rays 1
Length of its last ray 0
Length of pectorals 2
Length of ventrals 3
Length of their appendages 0 11
Length of attachment of anal 1 5
Length of its longest ray 1 4
Length of its shortest ray 0 6
Length of lobes of caudal 3 4
Length of central rays of ditto 0 8
Depth of caudal fork 1 3

[81.] 7. SALMO (COREGONUS) HARENGUS. (Richardson.) Lake Huron Herring-Salmon.

PLATE 90, f. 2, A and B, one-half nat. size.

This fish is plentiful at Penetanguishene on Lake Huron, but I am unable to determine whether it be the same with the C. Artedi of Le Sueur, which we have already noticed as an inhabitant of Lake Erie. Baron Cuvier's remark upon our specimen was, "Espèce nouvelle voisine des Coregones." It resembles C. lucidus very nearly, its larger head, smaller scales, and a slight difference in the position of its ventrals being the principal distinctive characters I have been able to detect in the dried specimens. Having lost my notes of the dissections which I made of C. lucidus, and having examined the recent specimens of C. harengus only cur-

* My notes of the appearance of the recent fish were lost, as I have stated above.

† The articulations of the labials and intermaxillaries are considered as the end of the snout, not the edges of the latter, which, when the mouth is open, are extended on a line with the upper surface of the snout.

[page] 211

sorily, I can say nothing respecting any differences that may exist in their viscera. An argument against the identity of the species may be adduced from their habitats being upwards of twenty degrees of latitude apart.

The Lake Huron Herring-Salmon is gregarious like the Bear Lake one, and frequents sandy bays during the summer months. It spawns in April and May, and at that time is occasionally seen in rivers. According to Mr. Todd's observations it is "a timid fish, appears to be in constant rapid motion, and associates in shoals in pursuit of the fry of the small fishes on which it feeds." As an article of diet it is well tasted and wholesome, though much less rich and agreeable than the Attihawmeg.

DESCRIPTION

Drawn up from notes made at Penetanguishene, aided by a re-examination of the dried specimens.

COLOUR, in the recent fish, olive-green on the back, silvery on the sides and belly, and blackish-green on the top of the head: the gill-covers, cheeks, and irides are whitish and nacry.

SCALES of the same form with those C. lucidus, but only of two-thirds the size: on the sides their transverse diameter is four lines, their longitudinal one rather more than three, and when in situ, eight are included within a linear inch. There are eighty-four on the lateral line*, and twenty-two in a vertical row under the dorsal, of which nine are above the lateral line, and eight between it and the ventrals. The lateral line is straight.

FORM.—Body compressed, back rounded, belly slightly flattened, the greatest thickness, however, being at the lateral line, which is rather nearer to the back than to the belly: the height of the body, at the dorsal, is double its thickness. Profile like that of C. lucidus, the head being, however, more acute†. The snout is obtuse, when seen in front or from above, and the vertex is smooth and rounded in the recent fish: in the dried specimen the radiated tubular lines near the nape, the sagittal ridge and other eminences, appear as in C. lucidus, but not so prominently. The length of the head is more than one-fourth of the distance between the tip of the snout and end of the scales on the caudal, and somewhat less than one-fifth of the total length, including the lobes of the caudal. In the position of the eye, and the forms of the jaws and opercular bones, this species scarcely differs from C. lucidus. When the mouth is fully open its orifice measures seven lines vertically, and five and a half transversely: the under jaw, which is narrow but not acute, then projects about four lines beyond the articulations of the labials.

TEETH, none on the jaws, vomer, or palate, but three rows of very slender ones on the tongue may be perceived by the aid of a lens. Rakers stiff, subulate, and rough on the margins, the middle ones of the first arch, which are the largest, measuring five lines.

* One specimen had only seventy-seven scales on the lateral line, but the same as the above in a vertical row.

† The figure, which was taken from a dried specimen, presents a less elegant profile than that of the recent fish.

2 E 2

[page] 212

FINS.—Br. 9—9; D. 12 or 13—0; P. 16; V. 12; A. 13; C. 19 9/9.

The ventrals originate under the sixth or seventh dorsal ray, but the structure and form of all the fins are nearly as in C. lucidus. The adipose is not supported by interspinous bones, but it exhibits in the dried specimen a very fine, apparently, fibrous structure, which entirely disappears when the fin is moistened. In one specimen the centre between the tip of the snout and end of scales on the caudal, corresponds with the first ray of the ventrals and thirtieth scale of the lateral line, in another it is a little posterior to the first ventral ray, being at the thirty-third scale of the lateral line: in the last specimen the lateral line has seven scales more than the other.

DIMENSIONS

Of two dried specimens.

No. 1. No. 2.
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines
Length from tip of lower jaw to tip of caudal 13 10 12 7
Length from tip of snout to ditto 13 5⅓ 12
Length from tip of end of central rays 12 3 11 7
Length from tip of end of scales 11 9 11 0
Length from tip of anus 8 6 8 0
Length from tip of ventrals 5 10½ 5 7
Length from tip of dorsal 5 5 2
Length from tip of edge of gill-cover 2 7 2 5
Length from tip of nape 1 1
Length from tip of orbit 0 7 0
Length from tip of nostrils 0 3 0 3
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0 0 2
Length of labials 0 8 0 8
Length of lower jaw 1 1
Length of lateral line 9 3 8 9
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 2⅓ 1 1
Length of its longest rays 1 7 1 5
Length of its last ray 0 7 0
Length of adipose fin 0 6 0
Length of pectorals 1 1
Length of ventrals 1 6 1 6
Length of ventral appendages 0 7 0 6
Length of attachment of anal 1 2 1 1
Length of its longest rays 1 0 1 0
Length of its last ray 0 0
Length of lobes of caudal 2 8 2 4
Length of its central rays, beyond the scales 0 0 6
Depth of caudal fork 1 1 1 1

I subjoin the dimensions of two European Coregoni alluded to in the preceding pages, that they may be compared with the American species.

[page] 213

La Fera. The Vendace.
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 0 0 8 2
Length from tip of snout to end of central rays 0 0 7 6
Length from tip of snout to end of scales 9 8 6 11
Length from tip of snout to posterior edge of adipose fin 8 7 5 10
Length from tip of snout to anus 7 4 5 1
Length from tip of snout to ventrals 4 9 3 6
Length from tip of snout to dorsal 4 0 3
Length from tip of snout to gill-cover 2 1
Length from tip of snout to nape 1 1
Length from tip of snout to centre of pupil 0 0
Length from tip of snout to edge of orbit 0 6 0
Length of axis of orbit 0 6 0
Length of intermaxillaries, vertically 0 0
Length of labials 0 7 0
Length of under jaw 0 10 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 4 0
Length of its longest ray 1 4 0 6
Length of caudal lobes 0 0 1 9
Length of central caudal rays 0 0 0 5

The Coregonus fera (Jurine) resembles our Attihawmeg, or C. albus, in the shape of the head, cranial ridges and depressions, and opercular bones, but its body is much more compressed, having more nearly the form of our Herring-Salmon. The under jaw, when depressed, reaches beyond the snout. There are no visible teeth on the labials or roof of the mouth, some minute ones exist on the intermaxillaries, and the conical tongue is covered with teeth, which, though very slender, can be readily seen. There are about seventy scales on the lateral line. The ventrals are under the eighth or ninth dorsal rays, and their appendages are short and three-edged. The stomach of my specimen contained a quantity of sand and the remains of two fish, one a percoid fish, the other apparently a coregonus, with scales as large as those of the fera itself. The following are the lengths of the parts of the alimentary canal.

Inches. Lines.
Distance between gullet and bend of stomach 3 0
Leogth of thick part of stomach 1 2
Distance between pylorus and last cæcum 2 3
Distance between last cæcum and anus 4 7
Length of whole canal 11 0
Distance between last cæcum and valvulæ conniventes 2 2
Length of gut occupied by ditto 2 2
Length of smooth gut at anus 0 3
Length of gut below cæca 4 7

The Vendace of Lochmaben (Coregonus vandesius) has a much larger eye than the Fera. Its lower jaw projects beyond the upper one, even when the mouth is shut. There are seventy-three scales on the lateral line. A male taken in the Solway Firth, with the melt about one-third of the full size, had some small pieces of the stems of grass and a few grains of quartzose sand in its stomach, apparently fragments of the case of the cod-bait. Mr. Yarrell has found shells in the stomachs of individuals taken in the Castle Loch, while Dr. Knox ascertained that those he examined had been feeding upon minute malacostraca.

[page] 214

In the paucity of our information respecting the fish of New Caledonia, the following notices, collected from the Journal of Mr. D. W. Harmon, a partner of the North West Company, are valuable. This gentleman resided for several years at a fur-post on Stuart's Lake, which lies in the 55th parallel of latitude, and 125th degree of longitude, and which discharges its waters by a stream, named also Stuart, into Frazer's River, that falls into the Strait of Juan da Fuca. As his remarks upon fish relate chiefly to the Salmon tribe, this appears to be the most appropriate place for their insertion.

"1811. May 11. STUART'S LAKE. The ice in the lake broke up this afternoon. 22. We now take trout in the lake, with set lines and hooks, in considerable numbers, but they are not of a good kind. It is perhaps a little remarkable, that pike or pickarel have never been found in any of the lakes and rivers on the west side of the Rocky Mountains.

August 2. It is impossible at this season to take fish out of this lake or river. Unless the salmon from the sea soon make their appearance our condition will be deplorable. 10. Sent all our people to a small lake about twelve miles off, out of which the natives take small fish, much resembling salmon in shape and flavour, but not more than six inches long. They are said to be very palatable. 22. One of the natives has caught a salmon, which is joyful intelligence to us all, for we hope and expect in a few days to have abundance. These fish visit, to a greater or less extent, all the rivers in this region, and form the principal dependence of the inhabitants as the means of subsistence. The natives always make a feast to express their joy at the arrival of the salmon. The person who sees the first one in the river exclaims, Tâ-loe naslay! tâ-loe naslay! Salmon have arrived! salmon have arrived!—The exclamation is caught up with joy, and repeated with animation by every body in the village.

September 2. We have now the Common salmon in abundance. They weigh from five to seven pounds. There are also a few of a larger kind, which will weigh sixty or seventy pounds. Both of them are very good when just taken out of the water. But when dried, as they are by the Indians here by the heat of the sun, or in the smoke of a fire, they are not very palatable. When salted they are excellent. As soon as the salmon come into Stuart's Lake they go in search of the rivers and brooks that fall into it, and these streams they ascend so far as there is water to enable them to swim; and when they can proceed no farther up, they remain there and die. None were ever seen to descend these streams. They are found dead in such numbers, in some places, as to infect the atmosphere with a terrible stench, for a considerable distance round. But even when they are in a

[page] 215

putrid state the natives frequently gather them up and eat them, apparently with the same relish as if they were fresh.

October 21. We have now in our store twenty-five thousand salmon. Four in a day are allowed to each man. I have sent some of our people to take white fish (Attihawmeg).

November 16. Our fishermen have returned to the fort, and inform me that they have taken seven thousand white fish. They weigh from three to four pounds, and were taken in nine nets of sixty fathoms each. 17. The lake froze over in the night.

1812. January 30. I have returned from visiting five villages of the Nateotains, built on a lake of that name, which gives origin to a river that falls into Gardner's Inlet. They contain about two thousand inhabitants, who subsist principally on salmon and other small fish, and are all well made and robust. The salmon of Lake Nateotain have small scales, while those of Stuart's Lake have none.

May 23. Stuart's Lake. This morning the natives caught a sturgeon that would weigh about two hundred and fifty pounds. We frequently see much larger ones, which we cannot take for want of nets sufficiently strong to hold them.

August 15. Salmon begin to come up the river. Few salmon came up Stuart's River this fall, but we procured a sufficient quantity at Frazer's Lake and Stillas. These lakes discharge their waters into Frazer's River, which is about fifty rods wide, and has a pretty strong current. The natives pass the greater part of the summer on a chain of small lakes, where they procure excellent white fish, trout, and carp; but towards the latter part of August they return to the banks of the river, in order to take and dry salmon for their subsistence during the succeeding winter.

1813. August 12. Salmon have arrived.

1814. August 5. Salmon begin to come up the river. They are generally taken in considerable numbers until the latter part of September. For a month they come up in multitudes, and we can take any number we please.

September 20. We have had but few salmon this year. It is only every second season that they are numerous, the reason of which I am unable to assign.

1815. August 13. FRAZER'S LAKE. Salmon begin to come up the river, which lights up joy in the countenances both of ourselves and of the natives, for we had all become nearly destitute of provisions of any kind.

1816. September 9. Salmon begin to come up this river.

1817. August 6. STUART'S LAKE. Salmon arrived. In the month of June

[page] 216

we took out of this lake twenty-one sturgeon, that were from eight to twelve feet in length. One of them measured twelve feet two inches from its extreme points, four feet eleven inches round the middle, and would weigh from five hundred and fifty to six hundred pounds. All the sturgeon that we have caught, on this side of the mountain, are far superior in flavour to any I ever saw in any other part of the world.

The Carrier Indians reside a part of the year in villages, built at convenient places for taking and drying salmon, as they come up the rivers. These fish they take in abundance with little labour; and they constitute their principal food during the whole year. They are not very unpalatable when eaten alone, and with vegetables they are very pleasant food. Towards the middle of April, and sometimes sooner, the natives leave their villages, to go and pass about two months at the small lakes, from which, at that season, they take white fish, trout, carp, &c., in considerable numbers. But when these begin to fail, they return to their villages and subsist on the small fish which they dried at the lakes, or on salmon, should they have been so provident as to have kept any until that late season; or they eat herbs, the inner bark or sap of the cypress tree (pinus Banksiana), berries, &c. At this season few fish of any kind are to be taken out of the lakes or rivers of New Caledonia. In this manner the natives barely subsist, until about the middle of August, when salmon again begin to make their appearance in all the rivers of any considerable magnitude; and they have them at most of their villages in plenty until the latter end of September, or the beginning of October. For about a month they come up in crowds, and the noses of some of them are either worn or rotted off, and the eyes of others have perished in their heads; yet in this maimed condition they are surprisingly alert in coming up rapids. These maimed fishes are generally at the head of large bands, on account of which the natives call them mee-oo-tees, or chiefs. The Indians say that they have suffered these disasters by falling back among the stones when coming up difficult places in the rapids which they pass. The Carriers take salmon in the following manner. All the Indians of the village assist in making a dam across the river, in which they occasionally leave places to insert their baskets or nets of wicker-work. These baskets are generally from fifteen to eighteen feet in length, and from twelve to fifteen feet in circumference. The end at which the salmon enter is made with twigs in the form of the entrance of a wire mouse-trap. When four or five hundred salmon have entered this basket, they either take it to the shore to empty out the fish, or they take them out at a door in the top, and transport them to the shore in their large wooden canoes, which are convenient for this purpose. When the

[page] 217

salmon are thrown upon the beach, the women take out their entrails and hang them by the tails on poles in the open air. After they have remained in this situation a day or two, they take them down and cut them thinner, and then leave them to hang for about a month in the open air, when they will have become entirely dry. They are then put into store-houses, which are built on four posts, about ten feet from the ground, to prevent animals from destroying them, and, provided they are preserved dry, they will remain good for several years."—HARMON'S Travels in North America. 1820.

Captain Dixon, who visited the North-west coast of America in the years 1786 and 1787, on a trading expedition, in company with Captain Portlock, mentions that they took great numbers of fine salmon with the seine in Cook's River, or Inlet (lat. 60°), in the month of July, and that in the end of June, in the following season, they saw large quantities hung up to dry by the natives of Norfolk Sound, a harbour formed by the Island of Sitka, where the Russian Fur Company's establishment of New Archangel has been since erected. Eschscholtz speaks of only one sort of salmon as frequenting that Sound, and remarks that it is well-flavoured, but Captain Dixon thought it inferior to the kind which he obtained in Cook's River.

After the preceding pages had gone to the press, I received a letter from Dr. Gairdner, of Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia River, of which the following is an extract. "My duties at Vancouver prevent me from collecting many Columbia fish, as I have no leisure for journeys through the country. Such, however, as I happen to have by me, I now send you with great pleasure, for your work on North American Zoology; they are entirely fresh-water species, my travels not having as yet extended to the coast. I subjoin a short description of each, which I made from the recent specimens, the characters, particularly those dependent on colour and dimensions, being liable to alteration by the spirits. The early dispatch of the vessel leaves me no time for transcribing the anatomical details." Dr. Gairdner had used the precaution of wrapping the specimens in tow previous to putting them in spirits, and of soldering them up in a tin case, which was protected by a cask, yet all this care, I regret to say, did not insure them against the accidents of a long voyage. The tin case received some injury, and became so leaky as to suffer

2 F

[page] 218

much of the spirit to run out, and the consequence was, that six specimens of salmon were incorporated into one mass by the continued motion of the vessel. The other fish, being of a smaller size, less oily, and perhaps more indurated by longer immersion in spirits, arrived in better condition. By picking the bones of the salmon out of the putrid mass, I have been able to make a few additions to Dr. Gairdner's descriptions quoted below. In all the specimens the vertebræ are more numerous than in the European species. It is to be observed, that the two or three last vertebræ of the tail diminish rapidly in size and turn up, the square form of the termination of the vertebral column in the Salmonoideæ being produced by the dilatation of the interspinous bones attached to the under side of the curved point of the spine; while the corresponding upper interspinous bones are slender, awl-shaped, crowded, and irregular. The reader will find notices of the salmon of the North-west coast by referring back to pages 158 and 162, as well as in the passages quoted above from Harmon's Travels; and to complete the history of the fish of the Columbia, as far as known, I will add the mode of stacking the salmon, described in Lewis and Clarke's Journal. "Near our camp are five large huts of Indians engaged in drying fish, and preparing it for the market. The manner of doing this is by first opening the fish and exposing it to the sun on their scaffolds. When sufficiently dried, it is pounded fine between two stones, and is then placed in a basket about two feet long and one in diameter, neatly made of grass and rushes, and lined with the skin of a salmon stretched and dried for the purpose. Here they are pressed down as hard as possible, and the top covered with skins of fish, which are secured by cords through the holes of the basket. The baskets are then placed in some dry situation, the corded part upwards, seven being usually placed as close as they can be put together, and five on the top of them. The whole is then wrapped up in mats, and made fast by cords, over which mats are again thrown. Twelve of these baskets, each of which contains from ninety to a hundred pounds, form a stack, which is left exposed till it is sent to market; the fish thus preserved is kept sound and sweet for several years, and great quantities of it, they inform us, are sent to the Indians who live below the falls, whence it finds its way to the whites who visit the mouth of the Columbia. We observe, both near the lodges and on the rocks of the river, great numbers of stacks of these pounded fish." (Lewis and Clarke, ii., p. 275.) "The salmon (S. quinnat) is almost the only fish caught in great abundance above the falls; but below that place we observe the salmon-trout, and the heads of a species of trout smaller than the salmon-trout, which is in great quantities, and which they are now burying to be used as their winter food. A hole of any size being dug, the sides and bottom are lined

[page] 219

with straw, over which skins are placed; on these the fish, after being well dried, are laid, covered with other skins, and the hole closed with a layer of earth twelve or fifteen inches deep." (Idem, p. 278.) It is very probable that the same species of salmon may frequent the North-west coast and Kamtschatka, but Steller's descriptions, as quoted by Pennant, are not sufficiently detailed to enable us to identify them.

[82.] 11. SALMO QUINNAT. —— The Quinnat.

SUB-GENUS, Salmo. CUVIER.

"This is the species which ascends the Columbia earliest in the season, commencing its run in the month of May in enormous shoals, clearing the greater Dalles, cascades and rapids innumerable, and making its way to the sources of the river, where, at the close of the season, it is found dead on the beach in great numbers. The muscular power of this fish is truly astonishing, even in a class of the animal kingdom remarkable for vigorous movements, for it may be seen ascending channels at the Kettle Falls so rapid, that when a stone as big as a man's head is dropped into them, it is shot downwards with the swiftness of an arrow*. Individuals of this species have often been seen with their noses fairly worn down to the bone, and in the last stage of emaciation, yet still striving, to the last gasp, to ascend the stream. The selection of particular streams for spawning is a remarkable feature in the history of the fish. It ascends the Walamet, Snake, and Kootanie rivers, &c., and passes by the Kawalitch, Okanagan, Dease's river and others, seeming to prefer a rapid stream interrupted by falls, to one of a quieter character, though other circumstances must regulate its choice, as some of the rivers which it refuses to enter have an extremely rapid current. It is this salmon which forms the main subsistence of the numerous hordes of Indians who live upon the banks of the Columbia, and it is known by the name of quinnat, for one hundred and fifty miles from the mouth of the river. It attains a large size, weighing often from thirty to forty pounds."—G. [The quinnat is evidently the "Common salmon" of Lewis and Clarke, whose description of it we have quoted in page 162. These travellers mention the first arrival of the salmon at the Skilloot village, below the site of Fort Vancouver, as having occurred on the 18th of April, in the year 1806.—R.]

* In the map published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the descent at the Kettle Falls is stated at twenty-one feet; but Lewis and Clarke were of opinion that in high floods the water below the falls rises nearly to a level with that above them.—R.

2 F 2

[page] 220

"COLOUR.—General tint of the back bluish-grey, changing, after a few hours removal from the water, into mountain-green: sides ash-grey with silvery lustre: belly white: back above the lateral line studded with irregular rhomboidal or star-like black spots, some of them occellated. Dorsal fin and gill-covers slightly reddish: tips of the anal and pectorals blackish-grey: the dorsal and caudal thickly studded with round and rhomboidal spots, back of the head sparingly marked with the same. Whole body below the lateral line, with the under fins, destitute of spots. Lower jaw and tongue blackish-grey; roof of the mouth tinged here and there with the same. SCALES large. TEETH disappearing on the mesial line of the upper jaw, one row on each palate bone, a few small teeth on the forepart of the vomer, and two rows on the tongue. FORM.—Greatest convexity of the back at the origin of the dorsal; end of the caudal semilunar; adipose opposite to the posterior end of the anal; dorsal of greater height than length. FINS.—Br. 17; P. 16; V. 10; A. 16; D. 14—0; C. 19 6/6.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 30 0
Greatest height of body 7 0
Greatest circumference of body 18 0
Circumference of tail at origin of caudal 6 0
Breadth between the eyes 2
Length from tip of snout to nostrils 1 6
Length from tip of eyes 2
Length from tip of angle of preopercule 5
Length from tip of angle of opercule 6 6
Length from tip of nape 3
Length from tip of pectorals 7 7
Length from tip of dorsal 13 0
Length from tip of ventrals 16 0
Length from tip of anal 21 0
Length from tip of adipose 23 0
Length of pectorals 3 7
Length of ventrals 3 0
Height of dorsal 3 0
Length of ditto 3
Height of adipose 1 4⅔
Height of anal 2
Length of ditto 3
Height of caudal 7 8⅓
Length of its margins 5
Length of its centre 1
Distance of pectorals from ridge of the back 4 4⅔"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[The specimen of this salmon, though it is very soft and has lost its scales, still retains its form, so that I am able to add the following particulars to Dr. Gairdner's description.—General form much like that of a Salmon-trout (p. 140, No. 2). The head is exactly one-fourth of the length, from the tip of the snout to the end of the scales on the caudal. The snout is cartilaginous as in S. salar, and the length of the lower jaw rather exceeds that of the upper surface of the head. The edge of the gill-plate is an are of a circle as in that species, but the suboperculum is still more sloped off, having much the form of that of S. Scouleri (pl. 93). There are sixteen gill-rays on the right side, and seventeen on the left. The largest teeth are those of the under jaw, of which there are eleven in each limb, placed at regular distances, with some small ones in the intervals attached to the soft parts only. The labial and intermaxillary teeth are similar to these, and but little inferior in size. The lingual-teeth, considerably smaller than those in the jaw, are placed in two parallel rows, five in each. The palatine-teeth are a little shorter than the lingual ones, and those on the vomer are the smallest of all, scarcely protruding through the soft parts in the recent specimen: there are nine of them—two in front, the others in a single series, running upwards of half an inch

[page] 221

backwards, or about two-thirds as far back as the palatine-teeth. The gullet is armed with small teeth above and below. The jaw-teeth are as big as those of the Salmon-trout, pl. 92, f. 1. There are sixty-six vertebræ in the spine. The pyloric cæca are very numerous, there being about one hundred and fifty-five of them, and their insertions surround the intestine from the pylorus until it makes a bend downwards, below which they continue to be inserted for a short way on one side of the gut only.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of snout to tip of caudal 15 6
Length from end of its central rays 14 5
Length from end of scales 13 5
Length of lateral line 10 10
Length of intermaxillaries 0 8
Length of labials 1
Length of lower jaw 2
Length of alimentary canal 13 10
Length from gullet to bend of stomach 4 0
Length from bend to pylorus 1 1
Length from pylorus to last cæcum 3 6
Length of remainder of gut 5 3

R.]

[83.] 12. SALMO GAIRDNERII. (Richardson.) Gairdner's Salmon.

Queachts. NATIVES of the Banks of the COLUMBIA*.

[The specific name which I have given to this salmon is intended as a tribute to the merits of a young though able naturalist, from whom science may expect many important acquisitions, and especially in the history of the Zoology of the North-west coast of America, should his engagements with the Hudson's Bay Company permit him to cultivate that hitherto neglected field of observation.—R.]

"This species ascends the river in the month of June, in much smaller numbers than the quinnat, in whose company it is taken. Its average weight is between six and seven pounds.

COLOUR.—Back of head and body bluish-grey; sides ash-grey. Belly white. The only traces of variegated marking are a few faint spots at the root of the caudal. FORM.—Profile of dorsal line nearly straight, tail terminating in a slightly semilunar outline. Ventrals correspond to commencement of dorsal and adipose to end of anal. TEETH.—Jaws fully armed with strong hooked teeth, except a small space in centre of upper jaw. Vomer armed with a double row for two-thirds of its anterior portion. Palate-bones also armed with strong teeth. FINS.—Br. 11—12; P. 13; V. 11; A. 12.

* From an accidental transposition of the labels, the right application of the Indian names to this fish and Salmo paucidens is somewhat doubtful.

[page] 222

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 31 0
Greatest height of body 5
Circumference of ditto 14 0
Breadth between the eyes 2 0
Breadth between the nostrils 1 2⅓
Length from end of snout to nostrils 1 2⅓
Length from end of snout to eyes 1
Length from end of snout to angle of opercule 5 2⅓
Length from end of snout to pectorals 6
Length from end of snout to dorsal 12 0
Length from end of snout to ventrals 12
Length from end of snout to anal 21 0
Length from end of snout to adipose* 21 0
Length of pectorals 3
Length of ventrals 3 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 3 0
Height of dorsal 2 4⅔
Height of adipose 1 2⅓
Length of caudal 4 8⅓
Its greatest breadth 4 0
Length of attachment of anal 2 4⅔"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[In this species the gill-cover resembles that of S. salar still more strongly than that of the quinnat does, the shape of the suboperculum in particular being precisely the same with that of salar. The teeth stand in bony sockets like those of the quinnat, but are scarcely so long. Those of the lower jaw and intermaxillaries are a little smaller than the lingual ones, and somewhat larger than the palatine or labial ones. The tongue contains six teeth on each side, the rows not parallel as in the quinnat, but diverging a little posteriorly. The pharyngeals are armed with small sharp teeth. The numbers of the teeth, excluding the small ones which fall off with the gums, are as follow: Intermax. 4—4; labials 21—21; lower jaw 11—11; palate-bones 12—12; vomer lost; tongue 6—6. When the soft parts are entirely removed, the projecting under edge of the articular piece of the lower jaw is acutely serrated, in which respect this species differs from all the others received from Dr. Gairdner. There are sixty-four vertebræ in the spine.—R.]

[84.] 13. SALMO PAUCIDENS. (Richardson.) Weak-toothed Salmon.

Quannich. NATIVES of the Banks of the COLUMBIA.

"This salmon ascends the Columbia at the same time with the S. Gairdnerii, and in equal numbers. It is taken in company with that species and the quinnat, and has an average weight of three or four pounds.

COLOUR.—Back of head and body bluish-grey; sides ash-grey with a reddish tinge; belly white. No trace of spots on the body or fins. FORM.—Commissure of the mouth very oblique approaching to vertical, dorsal profile quite straight, tail forked. Ventrals corresponding to middle of the dorsal and adipose to posterior extremity of the anal. TEETH sparingly scattered and feeble on the jaws, only a few short weak ones on the anterior extremity of the vomer, and on the palate-bones. FINS.—Br. 13; P. 17; V. 12; A. 17; D. 12—0.

* Dr. Gairdner must have accidentally put down wrong figures here in transcribing his notes, as the adipose is not opposite to the commencement of the anal, but to its end.—R.

[page] 223

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 23 0
Greatest height 4 6
Circumference of body 11 0
Breadth between nostrils 1 0
Breadth between eyes 1
Length from end of snout to nostrils 0
Length from end of snout to eyes 1
Length from end of snout to angle of opercule 4 6
Length from end of snout to pectorals 5
Length from end of snout to dorsal 10 0
Length from end of snout to ventrals 12 0
Length from end of snout to adipose 18 0
Length of pectorals 2 8⅓
Length of ventrals 2 2⅓
Length of attachment of anal 2 2⅓
Height of ditto 1 8⅓
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 1
Height of adipose 0
Extreme length of caudal 3 10¾
Its greatest breadth 4 2⅓"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[From the labels having dropped off, I cannot refer the fragments of any of the specimens to this species with certainty, but I am inclined to think that a spine, containing sixty-six vertebræ, belongs to it, and if so, the gill-cover is extremely like that of S. Scouleri (pl. 93), and the bones of the head have the same fibrous structure which we have noticed in the description of that species. None of the teeth have been preserved, but those of the lower jaw appear to have been fixed in cartilaginous sockets, which have separated from the bone, leaving a rough surface. The palate and upper jaw-bones are lost. The union of the branchial arches at the root of the tongue is longer and narrower than in the preceding two species, and the gill-openings consequently are more ample. Either this species or the S. Scouleri, or perhaps both, are named "Red-char" by Lewis and Clarke. See p. 162.—R.]

[62.] 2. SALMO SCOULERI. (Richardson.) The Ekewan.

Salmo Scouleri, p. 158. PLATE 93.

"The Ekewan, which averages thirty pounds in weight, ascends the Columbia towards the end of August and in the month of September. Its flesh is paler and of inferior quality to the four preceding kinds." [From Dr. Gairdner's description of this species I have little doubt of its being the same with the S. Scouleri of Observatory Inlet (p. 158), and I should without hesitation have referred to it the spinal column and opercular bones noticed at the close of the account of the preceding species, had not Dr. Gairdner mentioned that no specimen of the Ekewan was sent, as he had not obtained one small enough to be put in spirits.—R.]

"COLOUR.—Body above mesial line smoke-grey, passing on head and tail into bluish-grey: a slight reddish tinge at the root of the dorsal and between it and the adipose. Fins bluish-grey, and all tinged with red except the caudal, which, with the back, is studded with irregular semilunar and stellated blackish-brown spots. A large vermilion-red patch in the concavity

[page] 224

of the vertex, and another on the preopercule. Body below the mesial line greyish-white with a reddish tinge. FORM.—A remarkable flattening over extremity of snout, behind which a slight concavity to occiput, where the body rises suddenly into a hump, and continues rising as far as the first dorsal, this elevated portion being accuminated into a ridge. A notch behind the point of the snout gives an arched outline to the commissure of the mouth. Lower jaw also arched upwards, so that the two jaws do not approach each other when the mouth is closed, except at the two extremities. TEETH.—Jaws fully armed with strong hooked teeth, except a small space in the mesial line of the upper jaw. Teeth moveable, from being imbedded in soft cartilaginous sockets. Two rows of strong lingual teeth, a single row on each palate-bone, and a few rudimentary ones can be felt in a single row on the anterior extremity of the vomer. Teeth on the pharyngeal bones. RAYS.—Br. 16; P. 16; V. 9; A. 16; D. 12—0.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 34 0
Greatest height of body 9 0
Circumference of body 21 0
Circumference of tail at root of caudal 7 6
Breadth between eyes 3 6
Length from end of snout to eyes 3
Length from end of snout to angle of opercule 8 6
Length from end of snout to pectorals 9 2⅓
Length from end of snout to dorsal 16 0
Length from end of snout to ventrals 18 0
Length from end of snout to anal 21 0
Length from end of snout to adipose 27 0
Length of pectorals 5 0
Length of ventrals 4 0
Length of attachment of anal 4 2⅓
Height of anal 3 0
Length of attachment of dorsal 4 0
Height of ditto 4 2
Height of adipose 2 0
Length of caudal 7 0
Breadth of caudal 8 0

This description applies to a female—the male differs in the upper jaw being elongated into a proboscis, which projects beyond the lower jaw when the mouth is closed: it is formed of a moveable cartilaginous mass articulated to the extremity of the nasal bones, and is furnished with teeth as well as the rest of the jaw. The lower jaw is narrower and entirely received within the concavity of the upper one when the mouth is shut."—GAIRDNER, in lit.

[85.] 14. SALMO TSUPPITCH. — The Tsuppitch.

Tsuppitch. NATIVES of the Banks of the COLUMBIA.

"The Tsuppitch ascends the Columbia at the same time with the Ekewan. I counted 1644 ova in the ovary of a female.

COLOUR.—Back of body and head studded with oval and circular spots: sides and fins, including the caudal, destitute of spots: back mesially bluish-grey passing on the back of the head into blackish-grey, and on the sides into yellowish-grey, with a greenish tinge and silvery-white. General colour of the fins ash-grey. TEETH.—Jaws fully armed with minute sharp teeth, a single row on each palate-bone, a very few on the anterior end of the vomer in a single

[page] 225

series, and a double row on the tongue. FORM.—Head small, exactly conical, terminating in a pointed snout. Commissure of mouth very slightly oblique. Convexity of dorsal profile rising gradually to origin of first dorsal, and declining from thence to the tail. Caudal forked. RAYS.—Br. 13; P. 13; V. 10; A. 13; D. 12—0.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines
Extreme length 21 0
Greatest height of body 4
Greatest circumference of body 12 0
Breadth between the eyes 1
Length from end of snout to eye 1 7⅓
Length from end of snout to angle of opercule 4 8⅓
Length from end of snout to nape 3 0
Length from end of snout to pectorals 5 0
Length from end of snout to dorsal 11 0
Length from end of snout to ventrals 12 0
Length from end of snout to anal 16 0
Length from end of snout to adipose 18 0
Length of pectorals 2
Length of ventrals 2
Length of attachment of dorsal 2 2⅓
Height of dorsal 2 1⅙
Height of adipose 0 10⅔
Length of attachment of anal 2 6
Height of anal 1
Length of caudal 3 6
Greatest breadth of ditto 6 2"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[A spine containing sixty-four vertebræ, and an under jaw with ten curved teeth in each limb, are all the bones that I can with any appearance of correctness refer to this species. The teeth are of equal size with those of S. Gairdneri, or perhaps rather larger, and are attached to the jaw-bone through the medium of cartilage.—R.]

[86.] 15. SALMO CLARKII. (Richardson.) Clarke's Salmon.

[Dr. Gairdner does not mention the Indian name of this trout, which was caught in the Katpootl, a small tributary of the Columbia, on its right bank. I have therefore named it as a tribute to the memory of Captain Clarke, who notices it in the narrative prepared by him of the proceedings of the Expedition to the Pacific, of which he and Captain Lewis had a joint command, as a dark variety of Salmontrout (see p. 163). In colour this species resembles the Mykiss of Kamtschatka, and there is no very material discrepancy in the number of rays in the fins. Vide Arct. Zool., Intr., p. cxxvi.—R.]

"COLOUR.—Back generally brownish purple-red, passing on the sides into ash-grey, and into reddish-white on the belly. Large patches of dark purplish-red on the back. Dorsals and base of the caudal ash-grey, end of caudal pansy-purple. Back, dorsal, and caudal studded with small semilunar spots. A large patch of arterial-red on the opercule and margin of the preopercule. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal greyish-white, tinged with rose-red. TEETH.—Both jaws armed with strong hooked teeth, a single row on each palate-bone, a double row on the anterior half of the vomer and on the tongue. Dorsal profile nearly straight. Ventrals opposite to the middle of the first dorsal. Fissure of mouth oblique. Extremity of caudal nearly even. FINS.—Br. 11; P. 12; V. 8; A. 13; D. 11—0.

2 G

[page] 226

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 14 0
Greatest height of body 2 10⅔
Greatest thickness 1 6
Length from end of snout to eye 1 1⅙
Length from end of snout to angle of opercule 3 2⅓
Length from end of snout to pectorals 1
Length from end of snout to dorsal 6 4⅔
Length from end of snout to ventrals 7 6
Length from end of snout to anal 10 0
Length from end of snout to adipose 10
Length of ventrals 1 6
Length of attachment of dorsal 1 4⅔
Length of attachment of anal 1
Length of caudal 2 0
Greatest breadth of ditto 2 10⅔"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[There appear to have been two specimens of this species sent to me by Dr. Gairdner. In both the spinal column contains sixty-two vertebræ. The teeth, which are closely set, rather long, slender and acute, and, in the older specimen, considerably curved, are in number as follows: Intermax. lost; labials 28—30; palate-bones 15—17; vomer 13, two in front and the others in a single flexuose series, as long as the dental surface of the palate-bones; lower jaw 13—13; tongue 6—6, in two almost parallel rows. The lingual teeth are the largest and most curved, those of the lower jaw are next in size, then follow the vomerine, palatine, and labial teeth, which are equal to each other. The pharyngeal teeth are also proportionally long, and there is an oblong plate, rough with very minute ones, on the isthmus which unites the lower ends of the branchial arches. This space is quite smooth in S. salar, in several, if not in all the English trouts, and in S. quinnat, Gairdneri, and in the imperfect specimen which I have referred to S. Scouleri. In the latter the surface of the arches is also quite smooth, but in the quinnat and Gairdneri minute rough points become visible with a good eye-glass. In all the trouts the compressed rakers have their thin inner edges more or less strongly toothed. In one of the specimens of S. Clarkii the spinal column is nine inches long, in the other six.—R.]

[87.] 2. SALMO (MALLOTUS?) PACIFICUS. (Richardson.) North-west Capelin.

SUB-GENUS, Mallotus. CUVIER?

"The Indian name of this fish is Oulachan. It comes annually in immense shoals into the Columbia about the 23rd of February, but ascends no higher than the Katpootl, a tributary which joins it about sixty miles from its mouth. It keeps close to the bottom of the stream in the day, and is caught only in the night. The instrument used in its capture by the natives is a long stick armed with sharp points, which is plunged into the midst of the shoal, and several are generally transfixed by each stroke. It is the favourite food of the sturgeon, which enters the river at the same time, and never has a better flavour than when it preys on this fish. The Oulachan spawns in the different small streams which fall into the

[page] 227

lower part of the Columbia. It is much prized as an article of food by the natives, and arrives opportunely in the interval between the expenditure of their winter stock of dry salmon and the first appearance of the quinnat in May." [This fish is noticed by Lewis and Clarke in the following terms. "The anchovy, which the natives call olthen, is so delicate a fish that it soon becomes tainted, unless pickled or smoked: the natives run a small stick through the gills, and hang it to dry in the smoke of their lodges, or kindle small fires under it: it needs no previous preparation of gutting, and will be cured in twenty-four hours: the natives do not appear to be very scrupulous about eating it when a little fœtid."—R.]

"COLOUR generally silvery-white, passing on the back into a blackish tinge. Large irregular, but generally oval spots of yellowish-white and blackish-grey on the back. A bluish-black spot over each orbit. Margins of lips black. Back of head greyish-white. Minute black dots on the silvery basis of the cheeks. FORM.—Head small and pointed. Large suborbital covering the greater part of the cheek. Opercule terminating in a thin rounded angle. Mouth opening obliquely upwards, its fissure extending as far back as the anterior margin of the orbit. Lower jaw projecting beyond the upper one, and terminating in a rounded knob turned slightly upwards. Margins of upper jaw entirely formed by the intermaxillaries, on which there are a few minute setæ in place of teeth. Lower jaw, vomer and palatines devoid of teeth. Tongue rough, and pharyngeals armed with teeth. FINS.—Br. 8; P. 11; V. 8; D. 11—0; A. 20. Adipose fin thin and containing little fat. Lateral line straight and continuous.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Extreme length 7 6
Breadth between the eyes 0 4⅔
Height of body 1
Length from snout to orbit 0 4⅔
Length from snout to nape 0
Length from snout to angle of opercule 1 4⅔
Length from snout to pectorals 1 6
Length from snout to ventrals 3 1⅙
Length from snout to dorsal 3 6
Length from snout to anus 4 4⅔
Length from snout to adipose 5 7⅙
Distance between back and pectorals 0
Distance between belly and ditto 0
Length of pectorals 0 10⅔
Length of ventrals 0 10⅔
Length of attachment of dorsal 0 7⅙
Height of dorsal 0 8⅓
Length of attachment of anal 1 1⅓"

GAIRDNER, in lit.

[Five specimens were sent to me by Dr. Gairdner, but they were unfortunately all so much injured that I can add very few particulars to that gentleman's brief description. In the general form, the appearance of the scales, the black specks on the head and body, the form of the anal and its attachment to a compressed projecting edge of the tail, the structure of the lower jaw and gill-covers, and in the shape of the head as far as it could be ascertained, this fish closely resembles the capelin (p. 187). On the other hand the ascent of the species into fresh water to spawn, and perhaps its dentition, ally it to the smelt (p. 185). Head as in the capelin, forming one-fifth of the length between the tip of the snout and end of the central caudal rays. Caudal forked. Dorsal commencing a very little anterior to the middle between the tip of the snout and end of scales on the caudal, agreeing, in this respect, more nearly with the

2 G 2

[page] 228

smelt than with the capelin, in which the dorsal is farther back, its first ray being equidistant from the end of the snout and the extremity of the central caudal ray. Anal of one specimen containing twenty-one rays. Gill-covers thin, papery, and flexible, lined with nacre. In drying, the surfaces of the opercular-bones are marked with wrinkles parallel to their sides, as may be observed in the smelt and capelin, but not so conspicuously. These wrinkles are most evident on the square operculum. As the thin lining of the mouth and lips is mostly abraded, from the putrescency of the specimens, the dentition can be only imperfectly ascertained from them. In four specimens no teeth whatever can be discovered; but in a fifth, a female full of mature roe, the lower jaw is armed with a single series of very slender, curved teeth, rather more distant, and a little longer than those of the capelin. There is also a solitary tooth remaining on the vomer of the same specimen, occupying the place of the exterior vomerine tooth in the smelt, and nearly as large. Tongue conical as in the smelt, and not presenting an oval flat surface surrounded with teeth like the capelin. In all the specimens the upper jaw was so much injured that its structure could not be ascertained, but it is probable that the intermaxillaries, being small as in the capelin, were not distinguished from the labials by Dr. Gairdner, in his examination of the recent fish. The rakers of the branchiæ are long and slender as in the smelts and capelin. The stomach resembles that of the capelin: the descending portion ends in a pointed sac, and a short branch which it gives off in the middle terminates in the pylorus. The intestine makes a bend, or rather twist, downwards at the pylorus, and runs straight to the anus, its calibre gradually becoming less as it approaches the latter. There are nine cæca, three of them rather shorter than the others close to the pylorus, the other six, inserted in a single series down one side of the intestine, are each half an inch long. In three specimens there are sixty-eight vertebræ in the spine, and in two sixty-nine. A male specimen, with the melt half grown, showed no traces of villi, or altered scales, on the lateral-line, though the skin was apparently entire in that place. Male capelins, destitute of the ridges of elongated scales, are occasionally taken in Greenland. (See p. 187.)

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from gullet to tip of descending part of stomach 1 5
Length of pyloric branch 0 3
Length from pylorus to last cæcum 0 6
Length of rest of gut 2 6

R.]

[page] 229

CLUPEOIDEÆ

THE members of this family may be at once recognised by their having jaws similar in structure to those of the trouts, but no adipose fin. Their bodies are always very scaly. The greater number possess an air-bladder and numerous cæca. Only some species ascend rivers. The following are indicated in the Règne Animal as frequenting the shores of the United States. Alosa vernalis (Spring-herring, or Alewife, MITCH.), A. æstivalis (Summer-herring, MITCH.), A. menhaden (Bony-fish, Hard-heads, or Marsh-bankers, MITCH.), A. matowaka (Long Island-herring, MITCH.), Chatöessus oglina (Megalops oglina, LE SUEUR), Ch. Cepediana (Megalops Cepediana, LE SUEUR), Elops Carolina, Butirinus vulpes (CATESBY, t. 1, f. 2), Hyodon clodalis, H. tergisus (LE SUEUR), Amia calva, Lepisosteus rostratus (Esox osseus, LINN.), and L. spatula. Dr. Mitchill mentions in addition to these Clupea halec, pusilla, parvula, indigena, vittata, cœrulea, alosa, mediocris, and sadina, the last being an Engraulis, and the two which precede it Shads. Dr. Smith gives Clupea minima in his list of Massachusetts fish, and M. Rafinesque's uncertain genera of Pomolobus, Dorosoma, and Notemigonus, are founded on Ohio fish, which Cuvier thinks are more or less nearly allied to the Alosæ. The Engraulis encrasicholus has a place in the Fauna Grœnlandica of Fabricius, from having been found in the stomachs of seals killed in Davis' Straits far from the shore. All the specimens he saw were much mutilated, and the species therefore must be doubtful.

[88.] 1. CLUPEA HARENGUS. (Linn.) The Common herring.

FAMILY, Clupeoideæ. GENUS, Clupea. LINN. Sub-genus, Clupea. CUVIER.

Clupea harengus. FABRICIUS, Faun. Grœnl., p. 182. RICH., Fr. Journ., p. 716.

Kapiselik. GREENLANDERS.

In the herrings a small portion only of the upper jaw consists of the short, narrow intermaxillaries, its sides, which are alone protractile, being formed by the comparatively long labials; the acute rim of the belly has the scales arranged like the teeth of a saw. The labials are moreover divisible into three pieces, the gill-

[page] 230

openings wide, the branchial rakers long, slender, and closely set, the stomach forms an elongated sac, the cæca are numerous, the air-bladder is long and pointed, and the ribs are more numerous and slender than in other fish. The True herrings, constituting the sub-genus clupea of Cuvier, have their labials curved anteriorly, and divisible longitudinally, into several pieces, the orifice of the mouth of a middle size, and no notch in the upper lip.

Pennant describes the Common herring as so abundant on the coast of Carolina, that the inhabitants fling it ashore by shovels-full, but he at the same time expresses a doubt whether it be of the same species with the European fish of the same name; and it is indeed evident that this is not the case, for he says that it leaves the salt water in March, and runs up the rivers and shallow streams in such numbers that the passengers trample many under foot in crossing the fords. It is not the habit of the Common herring to enter fresh waters, but several species of shad are known to ascend the American rivers. The clupea harengus is, however, included by Schöepf and Dr. J. V. C. Smith in their respective lists of the fish of New York and Massachusetts; and popular writers on the British American colonies have mentioned, without hesitation, its existence in the seas of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; yet it is not noticed by Dr. Mitchill. Fabricius says it is rare on the Greenland coast and in Davis' Straits, and that it is but of a small size in those seas, its length not exceeding five inches and a half. The herring of the Kamtschatka seas, mentioned in the description of that country, is, if we may judge from its habitually entering rivers, most probably a shad*; but Mr. Collie observed a clupea, which he referred to harengus, pretty abundant in Awatska Bay; it was of a small size, and had a ventricose belly.

The migrations of the Common herring have been greatly celebrated by ichthyological writers, and the reader will find in Pennant's British Zoology a very circumstantial and highly interesting detail of its hybernation within the arctic circle, and of its issuing thence in the spring in a mighty army†, composed of countless multitudes, the vanguard appearing off the Shetland Islands in April and May, and the main body following in June, when it separates into two wings; one proceeding

* "The herring, both the common and the variety, found in the Gulf of Bothnia, called membras, and by the Swedes ströeming, visit these coasts in shoals, perhaps equal to those of Europe. There are two seasons, the first about the end of May, the second in October. The first species are remarkably fine and large; they ascend rivers, and enter the lakes: the autumnal migrants are closed up in them by the shifting of the sand at the mouths of the entrance, and remain confined the whole winter. The natives catch them in summer in nets; and in winter in most amazing numbers, by breaking holes in the ice, into which they drop their nets, then cover the opening with mats, and leave a small hole for one of their companions to peep through and observe the coming of the fish, when they draw up their booty, and string part on packthread for drying; and from the remainder they press an oil white as the butter of Finland."—PENN., Arct. Zool. Intr., p. cxxvi.

† From Pennant we learn the name of the herring is derived from the German word heer, signifying an army.

[page] 231

to the westward, supplies the Hebrides, and moving onwards to the north of Ireland divides into two columns, which take different sides of the island; the other wing, seeking the eastern coasts of Britain, and filling every bay and creek in its progress, passes through the English channel, and, like the western phalanx, disappears in the expanse of the Atlantic. The whole of this account is now supposed to be imaginary by naturalists, who assert that the herring fattens in the depths of the ocean, and approaches the shore in shoals merely for the purpose of depositing its spawn. Cuvier, however, says "this celebrated fish quits the northern seas every year in summer, and descends upon the western shores of France in the autumn in numberless legions, or rather in dense shoals of incalculable extent, which spawn by the way, and arrive, greatly attenuated, at the mouth of the channel in the middle of winter. The fattest are those which are taken farthest to the north; when they reach the coast of Lower Normandy they are empty, and their flesh is dry and disagreeable." The herring is unknown in the Mediterranean.

On Sir John Franklin's first expedition we took several individuals of a clupea in Bathurst's Inlet, on the 5th of August, 1821, which I supposed to be the Common herring. In the absence of specimens I can only subjoin the description which was drawn up on the spot, although it is too general to serve the purpose of identifying the species. In the European herring the teeth on the intermaxillaries and lower jaw are sufficiently conspicuous, but none were perceptible on these bones in the Bathurst Inlet fish, whose characters, as far as noted, agree in all other respects with those of clupea harengus.

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent herring taken in Bathurst's Inlet, August 5, 1821.

FORM.—Head conical in profile, its not very acute apex being formed by the tip of the under jaw, which extends about two lines beyond the upper one. Eyes large, and situated laterally at an equal distance from the nape and tip of the snout. Nostrils a small elliptical opening on each side, lying transversely on the upper surface of the nose, and not visible when the fish is viewed in profile. Gill-covers and sub-orbitar bones covered with nacre. The intermaxillaries form about one-fourth of the margin of the upper jaw: the labials are broad, and their anterior edge is elliptically curved and minutely serrated or toothed; a process runs behind the narrow limb of the intermaxillary to be articulated to the snout, and there are two other pieces or processes imbedded in the fine membrane that forms the anterior portion of the parietes of the mouth: when the mouth is shut, the labials lie upon the broad limbs of the lower jaw, which are composed of plates having the thinness and nacry appearance of the sub-orbitar bones. The narrow, membranous lower lip, which folds over the edge of the lower jaw, is stretched out by the opening of the mouth. The edge of the labials is

[page] 232

finely toothed, and a cluster of minute teeth exists on the vomer, but none can be perceived on the intermaxillaries or lower jaw. The gill-membrane, thick and nacry, contains eight rays, of which the posterior ones are flat, and the penultimate one ends in a transparent obtuse point.

FINS.—Br. 8; P. 16; D. 19; V. 8; A. 16.

The dorsal commences rather posterior to the middle of the fish, excluding the caudal: its two anterior rays are short, and closely applied to the base of the third, the others are forked. The ventrals are small and opposite to the middle of the dorsal. The anal is half an inch high anteriorly, and gradually lowers to half that height: its attachment is almost twice as long as the space betwixt it and the caudal. The latter fin is large, cuneiform, and deeply forked.

COLOUR.—The back, when moved in the light, yields various beautiful reflections of green and gold; the belly and sides are white, with pearly lustre and violet reflections, and the sides of the head are deeply tinged with gold-yellow. SCALES readily deciduous, large, thin, and orbicular, possessing much nacry lustre*.

INTESTINES (but cursorily examined).—Stomach forked, the blind side rather longer than the other. A considerable number (between fourteen and twenty?) of long, slender cæca surround the pylorus †. Air-bladder thickly covered with nacre. Roe slightly developed.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches.
Total length 15
Length of the pectorals
Length of attachment of dorsal
Length of its longest rays
Length of attachment of anal
Length of its longest rays
Length of its last ditto
Length of space between it and caudal 1

[89.] 1. HIODON CHRYSOPSIS. (Richardson.) The Naccaysh.

FAMILY, Clupeoideæ. CUVIER. GENUS, Hiodon. LE SUEUR.

Hiodon clodalis. RICHARDSON, Frank. Journ., p. 716, excl. syn.

Oweepeetcheesees. CREES. Gold-eye, FUR TRADERS. Naccaysh. VOYAGEURS.

This singular and beautiful little fish inhabits the lakes which communicate with the Saskatchewan, in the 53rd and 54th parallels of latitude, but does not approach nearer to Hudson's Bay than Lake Winipeg. In my account of the fish obtained on Sir John Franklin's first expedition, I considered this species to be the same

* Few of the distinctive characters of the Common herring, enumerated in the Règne Animal, are comprehended in the above description:—They are "La carène du ventre peu marquée, le subopercule coupé en rond; des veines sur le sous-orbitaire, le préopercule et le haut de l'opercule. Ses ventrales naissent sous le milieu de la dorsale, la longueur de sa tête est cinq fois dans sa longeur totale, et en portant en arrière le distance de son museau à sa première dorsale, on atteint le milieu de la caudale. Son anale a seize rayons." P. 318.

† Artedi says the cæca are sixteen or seventeen in number.

[page] 233

with the Hiodon clodalis of the Ohio, described by M. Le Sueur; but a more careful consideration of his figure and description has induced me to give a distinct specific name to the northern fish*.

The Naccaysh is taken during the summer months only, and in small numbers, in the gill-nets set for other fish. It bites eagerly at an artificial fly or worm, but angling is seldom practised in the fur countries. Its flesh is white, resembling that of the perch in flavour, and excelling it in richness. The want of an adipose fin separates the Naccaysh from the Salmonoideæ, with which it seems, in some respects, to have a greater affinity than with the Clupeoideæ: it differs from both in having only one cæcum.

DESCRIPTION

Of the recent fish taken at Cumberland House, lat. 54° N., May, 1820.

FORM.—Profile sub-oval, the belly more curved than the back; tail much narrower than the body, its under margin joining the curve of the belly by a considerable slope which is occupied by the anal fin. Body greatly compressed; thickest above the lateral line, and thinning gradually into the very acute even edge of the belly: the back thins off more suddenly, but its ridge is less sharp than the rim of the belly. The head likewise is much compressed and has a conical profile, the snout forming an obtuse apex. The vertex is covered with smooth skin, and there is a large scale on each side of the nape. The large eye approaches very close to the margin of the mouth. The nostrils are placed above the level of the eye in the triangular space between the orbit and tip of the snout: the membranous border of the anterior opening forms a lid to the posterior one. The whole cheek is covered by the nearly circular plate of the infra-orbitar bones. Gill-openings large; gill-plate edged by a narrow, somewhat cartilaginous border. The mouth has a wide orifice which descends obliquely as it

* The following is M. Le Sueur's character of the genus:—
"CHAR. Body as in the genus Clupea, but without the carinated abdomen. Tongue supplied by the os hyoides, which is furnished with strong teeth. One dorsal fin. Eyes very large."—" Body compressed as in the herrings, but without abdominal serratures. Head narrow; snout very short, obtuse, without scales; posterior sub-orbits covering the cheeks, anterior ones concealing the maxillaries; preoperculum large, triangular, curving under the throat, its posterior angle rounded, covering almost the whole of the suboperculum; the interoperculum very small, squamiform; operculum large, rounded, having a notch in its upper part. Eyes very large, situated near the end of the snout, and nearly occupying the space between the summit of the head and the angle of the mouth; they are furnished with a gelatinous, nictitating membrane, which extends on a part of the operculum. Nostrils double, placed at the end of the snout, above and near the intermaxillaries. Mouth of a middling size, jaws sub-equal; intermaxillaries short, articulated with the maxillaries, both very narrow. Teeth conic, equal, close set, in a single row on the maxillaries and intermaxillaries; stronger and in several rows on the lower jaw; very fine on the palate; the vomer equally furnished with several ranges of very strong ones on its whole length. Tongue supplied by the os hyoides, which is armed with two principal rows of very strong, bent, conic teeth, between which there are several rows of very small teeth. Branchiostegous rays short, superior ones enlarged at their extremities, of the number of eight or nine; branchial arch furnished on each side, anteriorly with denticulations (rakers) which interlock one with the other. Air-bladder long, compressed; two small globular air-vessels placed each in a cavity under and on each side of the cavity of the cranium: these appear to enable the fish to rise with facility to the surface of the water to take its prey. It was not ascertained whether they communicated with the bladder or not. Fins: a single dorsal, placed opposite to the commencement of the anal; pectoral placed low, near the opercula: ventrals midway between the pectorals and anal. Scales large, pellucid at the edges, easily deciduous." LE SUEUR, l. c.

2 H

[page] 234

runs backwards. The intermaxillaries and labials form nearly equal portions of the upper jaw: the former are almost immoveable, but the ends of the latter are thrust forward a little as the mouth opens. Lower jaw strong.

TEETH conical, in a single row on the intermaxillaries and labials, those on the former being considerably the largest: there are two rows having their points inclined backwards on the lower jaw, with an intervening narrow bony surface covered with minute teeth. The vomer projects from the roof of the mouth and is armed like the lower jaw. The palate-bones are rough with minute teeth. The tongue is furnished on its margins with hooked teeth which are the largest of all, and its centre is occupied by a crowd of small curved ones ("dents en carde"). Club-shaped cartilaginous rakers, rough with teeth, stand in double rows on the anterior edges of the branchial arches; and at the union of the arches, both above and below, there are thin plates covered with small teeth. The thick gill-membranes contain nine small cylindrical rays: the left membrane overlaps the right one at their insertion into the isthmus.

FINS.—Br. 9; P. 12; V. 7; A. 34; D. 11; C.

The first ray of the pectorals is considerably stronger than the others. The ventrals, situated half way between the pectorals and anus, are small and contain seven rays, which support a delicate membrane. The anal, occupying the whole of the upper slope behind the anus, contains thirty-four rays, which become successively shorter as they are more posterior: the edge of the fin is slightly waved. The small dorsal, opposed to the anal, contains eleven rays. The caudal is crescentic, its lower lobe being rather the largest.

SCALES irregularly orbicular and large, being about half an inch in diameter; when in situ they have a bluish-grey colour at the base with bright silvery tips. The irides and sides of the head are tinged with honey-yellow. The lateral line is straight till it passes the dorsal fin, when it is slightly deflected.

INTESTINES.—The œsophagus is distinguished by its more delicate and whiter internal folds from the stomach, which is a long tube that makes a curve at its fundus, and has its lining disposed in nine or ten longitudinal folds of a reddish colour: its pyloric orifice is much contracted. Immediately below the pylorus the intestinal canal dilates considerably, after which it forms a tube of equal diameter throughout, and nine inches long, without any distinct rectum: its lining is villous and destitute of valvulæ conniventes. An obtuse cæcum, three-quarters of an inch long, opens into one side of the dilated intestine next the pylorus, and the gall-duct into the other side. The thin fæces of the lower intestine have a honey-yellow colour. The alimentary canal makes one convolution in its course from the œsophagus to the anus. The oblong liver lies mostly on the right side, there being merely a small lobe on the left: it has a reddish-orange colour. There are two small spleens. The air-bladder is capacious and communicates with the œsophagus. The kidneys are bluish-grey, thickly studded with dark brown specks. The lining of the abdomen is of a pearly hue, and the roe pure white.

[page] 235

DIMENSIONS.

Inches.
Length, exclusive of the caudal fin 14
Length from tip of the snout to anus 9
Greatest depth of the body

OBSERVATION.—The hiodon clodalis, obtained by M. Le Sueur at Pittsburgh, on the Ohio, differs from the preceding, according to his description and figure, in the snout being manifestly shorter than the lower jaw, in the smaller depth of the body and less-arched belly, in the lateral line being slightly curved before the dorsal, and not deflected posteriorly, and in the number of the rays of the fins, which are as follow: P. 13; V. 7; A. 30; D. 15. M. Le Sueur thinks it possible that the hiodon clodalis may be the same species with the tergisus described below, the notched fin being merely a sexual difference. My description of the naccaysh was drawn up at Cumberland House before I had seen M. Le Sueur's account of the genus, and I have had no opportunity since of examining specimens from the United States, otherwise I might have been able to point out the distinctive characters more clearly.

[90.] 2. HIODON TERGISUS. (Le Sueur.) Notch-finned Hiodon.

Hiodon tergisus. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 366. An. 1817.

Fresh-water herring. UNITED STATES, apud vulgos.

This species was found by M. Le Sueur at Buffalo, on Lake Erie, and by Mr. T. Say at Pittsburgh, on the Ohio. M. Le Sueur gives the following description of it:—

"SPEC. CHAR. Anal fin large and rounded on its anterior part, very narrow on its posterior part, notched in the middle."—" COLOUR of the gill-covers golden, eyes brown and golden, back bluish, sides silvery, and fins yellow with metallic reflections on the rays.

"FORM.—Body lengthened, elevated; back almost straight and parallel to the abdomen; tail narrow. Lateral line slight, arched towards the back. Dorsal subquadrangular, elevated on its anterior part, the three first rays simple, the last double, the intermediate ones divided. Pectorals falciform, pointed, placed horizontally in a longitudinal depression. Ventrals large, somewhat rounded at their points, and furnished with a squamiform appendage at their base. Anal long, with pretty strong divided rays, the last one double, the three first simple. Caudal forked, lobes pointed, equal. RAYS.—Br. 9; P. 13; V. 7; A. 32; D. 15; C. 18 1/7. Length thirteen inches."—LE SUEUR, l. c.

2 H 2

[page] 236

[85.] 1. AMIA OCELLICAUDA. (Richardson.) Marsh-fish.

Poisson de marais. CANADIANS.

The genus Amia stands next in the Règne Animal to Erythrinus, which it is said to resemble in the jaws and teeth, the hard osseous plates that cover the head, the large scales, and flat gill-rays*, which are, however, twelve in number. Between the limbs of the lower jaw there is a kind of osseous shield, which exists also, though but in a rudimentary form, in megalops and elops. Behind the conical teeth there are others like small paving stones, and the dorsal, which commences between the pectorals and ventrals, extends nearly to the caudal: the anal, on the contrary, is short. The nostrils have each a little tubular appendage. The stomach is capacious and fleshy, the gut wide and strong, without cæca, and, what is remarkable, the air-bladder is cellular like the lung of a reptile. Only one species, the amia calva, has been hitherto described; it feeds upon craw-fish, and inhabits the rivers of Carolina, probably not ranging far north, as it does not occur in the published lists of the New York or Massachusetts fish.

Mr. Todd sent me a notice of a Lake Huron fish, named locally Poisson de marais. It is speared by the Indians in the rushy shallows which it frequents, but is seldom eaten by the settlers. A specimen which Mr. Todd prepared, being unfortunately destroyed by vermin, never reached me, but his short description corresponds with the characters of the genus Amia, though the gill-rays are fewer than in the Carolina species.

"Poisson de marais—Order, ABDOMINALES."—" Back and sides dark, belly and tins dark green. Head short, flattened at top and on the sides; eyes small; jaws even; mouth capacious; tongue obtuse. Two short cirrhi on the upper lip, the lower lip notched. One row of sharp longer teeth on the margin of the jaws, more interiorly shorter clustered ones; two patches of teeth on the upper part of the gullet. Pectorals near the throat. Ventrals about the middle of the fish. One anal. One dorsal extending from four inches behind the neck to the tail, which is oblong and round, with an irregular round spot of the size of a shilling, bordered with scarlet at the base of the seven upper caudal rays. Scales large, semicircular and membranaceous exteriorly; square where inserted into the skin. The intestines make three longitudinal turns in the abdomen. Rays.—Br. 8; P. 17; V. 7; A. 9; D. 48; C. 22." TODD, in lit.

* "The Erythrini, like the rest of the Clupeoideœ, have small intermaxillaries, the greater part of the sides of the upper jaw being formed by the labials; a row of conical teeth occupies the margin of the jaws, and anteriorly there are some large ones mixed with the others. Each palate-bone is furnished with two plates of teeth like velvet-pile; and there are five broad gill-rays."—Règne Animal.

[page] 237

[86.] 1. LEPISOSTEUS HURONENSIS. Northern Mailed-fish.

FAMILY, Clupeoideæ. GENUS, Lepisosteus. LACÉPEDE, CUVIER.

In this genus the intermaxillaries, labials, and palate-bones, united to the vomer and ethmoid, form a long snout, the under jaw is equally long, and the whole interior surfaces of both are rough like a file with minute teeth, their margins being armed with long pointed ones. The gill-covers are joined on the throat by a common membrane, which is supported on each side by three rays. The body is invested with scales of a stony hardness; the dorsal and anal are opposite to each other and far back. The two exterior rays of the caudal, and the anterior ones of the other fins, are furnished with scales whose projecting edges produce serratures. The stomach is continuous with a slender intestine which makes two folds and has many pyloric cæca. The air-bladder, which is cellular as in Amia, extends the whole length of the abdomen. The Lepisostei acquire a large size, and their flesh forms an agreeable article of diet. They abound in the rivers and lakes of the warmer parts of America.—Règne Animal.

The Northern Mailed-fish inhabits Lake Huron, where it is speared by the natives in the marshy inlets during the summer season. It also exists in Lake Ontario, from whence a specimen, now in the York Museum, was brought by Captain C. Dalton. La Hontan mentions it in the following terms: "Le Poisson armé est de trois pieds et demi de longueur ou environ; il a des écailles si fortes et si dures qu'il est impossible qu'aucun autre poisson puisse l'offenser; ses ennemis sont les Truites et les Brochets, mais il sait très-bien se défendre contre leur attaque par le moyen de son bec pointu qui a un pied de longueur*, et qui est aussi dur que sa peau. Il est delicat, et sa chair est aussi ferme que blanche." The safety of this fish depends more on its defensive than on its offensive armour, for, notwithstanding the power ascribed to its beak by La Hontan, its jaws are too feeble to enable it to assail a large trout or pike with advantage. The general resemblance of its bill to the muzzle of a gavial is very striking, and it is probable that, like that animal, it retains its prey in its jaws till life is extinguished. The under jaw being, however, articulated before the orbit, where there is no space for a strong muscular apparatus, it cannot, like the crocodiles, whose under jaw is pro-

* An individual three feet and a half long would have the head and bill together a foot long, if proportional to our specimen.

[page] 238

longed behind the cranium, master animals capable of making strong efforts to escape. A specimen of the Northern Mailed-fish, which was prepared for me by Mr. Todd, at Penetanguishene, having been sent to Cuvier, was returned with the following remark, "Esox osseus, LINN. Lepisosteus rostratus, NOB.;" but M. Agassiz, who has studied this genus of fishes with great diligence, in connexion with the closely-allied fossil tribes, is of opinion that the Lake Huron Lepisosteus is a distinct species from the more southern one described by Linnæus, and Mr. Gray has kindly supplied me with a note of the specific peculiarities which he drew up at M. Agassiz's request.

DESCRIPTION

Of a dried specimen from Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron.

FORM.—Body elongated, roundish, fusiform, slightly flattened on the back, belly, and sides; deepest at the ventrals, where its vertical diameter exceeds its thickness by about a ninth part. In profile the back is slightly arched. Head four-sided, its breadth greater by one-third than the height of the gill-covers: it is even and flat above and on the sides, which taper gradually into a narrow beak, more than twice the length of the rest of the head. The whole surface of the head and bill is bony, finely furrowed and granulated, except the gill-membrane, and its prolongation forwards between the limbs of the lower jaw: the sutures of the bones are very evident. Orbits circular, situated close to the articulation of the lower jaw, and thrice their own diameter from the edge of the gill-plates. Nostrils close to the end of the bill, the posterior orifices on the dorsal aspect, the anterior ones lateral. Cheeks altogether behind the orbit, covered by about twenty polygonal plates, resembling the rest of the surface of the head, and concealing the preoperculum and infra-orbitar bones. Edge of the gill-cover semi-oval: suboperculum and operculum nearly of equal size: interoperculum larger than either and nearly as broad. Bill flat, or very slightly rounded on its upper surface, which is formed by the ethmoid bone bordered on each side by the long narrow labials, the blunt tip being composed of the small intermaxillaries that are attached to the end of these bones. The under jaw equals the labials in length, and its rounded tip shuts in behind the intermaxillaries, so that even the nostrils project beyond the mouth: the posterior limbs of the lower jaw expand vertically, rising nearly as high as the upper margin of the orbit. Tongue long and narrow, regularly wrinkled transversely with a median line in the dried specimen.

TEETH.—There are two contiguous rows of straight, subulate, very acute teeth on the labials, intermaxillaries, and under jaw: those composing the outer row being unequal in size, though small and densely crowded; the interior ones are distant and all about two lines long. The vomer, palate-bones, and inner surface of the lower jaw are covered by multitudes of very minute teeth, which are bounded on each side by an even row a little taller than the others.

SCALES.—The body is covered with strong thick scales, which look as if composed of enamel, but are not quite so hard, as they yield slightly to the knife. They are thickened in the

[page] 239

middle, and have a nearly rhomboidal outline, with two processes at the base which are concealed by the overlying scale. The median line of the back is marked by a row of rather broader scales, having a semicircular or heart-shaped edge. From this line the rows of scales descend obliquely down the sides in curves, resembling a reversed italic ∫. A very narrow depression of the upper edge of each scale, including the two processes mentioned above, is the whole of its surface that is covered by the superior scale when in situ; near the tail the uncovered portion of a scale is a very acute rhomboid, but towards the head its outline is more nearly rectangular, with one slightly convex edge. The surfaces of the scales covering the forepart of the back are coarsely grooved in a radiated manner. The scales on the sides are five lines long by three and a half wide, and a linear inch measured along the oblique rows includes four of them; but when measured along the lateral line, or in the axis of the back, it extends to three and a quarter: there are sixty-five on the lateral line. The termination of the scales on the caudal forms an oblique curved line like the letter ∫, which crosses the direction of the rows at a right angle, the scales extending farthest back on the uppermost part of the fin. The exterior rays of the caudal, and the first rays of the other fins, are armed with a double row of tiled, tapering scales, ending in short spinous points which, being very acute and brittle, are capable of producing dangerous wounds. All the rays of the fins are likewise studded with minute bristles. Lateral line nearly straight, marked by a clear line traversing the axis of each scale with a pore in the centre.

FINS.—Br. 3—3; D. 7; P. 15; V. 6; A. 8; C. 13.

The dorsal commences opposite to the two last rays of the anal, and is rather smaller than that fin. The ventrals are attached exactly in the middle between the extremities of the bill and caudal. The latter is rounded at the end, and its rays are twice or thrice divided down to their middles.

COLOUR of the head a light green; of the fins yellowish with roundish black spots half an inch in diameter. There are also some black spots on the posterior part of the body and tail. The scales have the light, bluish, semitransparent hue of enamel. The mucus or epidermis, which has dried on their margins, gives many of them the appearance of being serrated.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of bill to tip of caudal 28 0
Length from end of scales on lateral line 25 0
Length from dorsal 21 3
Length from anus 20 0
Length from ventrals 13 8
Length from edge of gill-plate 7 8
Length from nape 7 0
Length from orbit 5
Length of intermaxillaries 0
Length of labials 4 6
Length of lower jaw 5 2
Length of pectorals 2 0
Length of ventrals 2 3
Length of attachment of dorsal 1
Length of its longest rays 2 3
Length of attachment of anal 1
Length of its longest rays 2
Length of caudal (middle rays) 3 0
Length of ditto upper rays from scales 1 9
Length of ditto lower rays 2 9
Depth of body 2 3
Depth of head at the nape 1 4
Width of middle of body 2 0
Width of occiput 1 2
Width of head between surfaces of the opercula 1 6
Width of between the orbits 1 0
Width of bill at extremities of labials 0

[page] 240

The following is Mr. Gray's notice of the species:—

"LEPISOSTEUS HURONENSIS. Jaws elongate, slender, with a series of close, small, acute teeth on the outer edge, and a row of rather distant, larger, elongated, conical, acute teeth, just within their edge, and within them there is a narrow band of very short, small, velvet-like teeth, which is contracted to a single series in front. Middle of the palate minutely granular behind, with smaller velvet-like teeth in front. Head and operculum granular. Body pale yellowish (under the epidermis white), with some large black spots on the tail and caudal fin. Scales rhombic, smooth, with a sub-central, longitudinal convexity, which is sometimes produced into a very slight descending process at the hinder part of the lower edge, the margins entire, the lower edge arched. The vertebral series rather larger, generally sub-cordate, with a slight central groove and a posterior notch. Lateral line rather indistinct. The first ray of all the fins and sides of the tail furnished with a series of elongated, sub-cylindrical scales, their acute, spine-like tips rather recurved."—"This species is allied to Lepisosteus osseus, BLOCH, t. 390, and to a new species which M. Agassiz has lately described from two specimens in the collection of the British Museum, under the name of Lepisosteus gracilis (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834), in the form of the beak, and is intermediate between them in the slenderness and comparative length of that part, as the following measurements will show.

L. osseus. L. Huron. L. gracilis.
Inches. Inches. Inches.
"Length of the whole fish 35¾ 28 11
Length of upper jaw 2⅙
Length of head 11
Length of lower jaw 7 5 2⅜
Length from tip of nose to front of ventrals 18¾ 13½
Length from tip of nose to front of anal 27 20¼
Length from tip of nose to front of dorsal 28¼ 21¼

"Lepisosteus Huronensis differs from the other two in the scales being quite smooth; while in L. osseus the scales of the front of the body are slightly radiately grooved, and their edges are crenulated; and in L. gracilis the disk of the scales is rather granulated, their margin smooth and entire. It also differs from both these, and from all the other known species of the genus, in being spotted. The three long-nosed species are easily distinguished from each other by their dentition, for L. gracilis has a series of long, rather distant teeth on the roof of the mouth, on each side, within the two thin velvet-like bands. L. osseus, on the contrary, has no such rows in that place, but the whole hinder part of the roof of the mouth is covered with rather large, short, conical teeth behind the two marginal velvet-like bands." J. E. GRAY, in lit.

[page] 241

MALACOPTERYGII SUB-BRACHIATI.

GADOIDEÆ.

THE third order of fish in Cuvier's arrangement is named Jugular, from the forward position of the ventrals under the pectorals, and comprehends all the soft-finned fish which have the pelvis attached directly to the humeral bones. It includes the Linnean genera gadus, pleuronectes, cyclopterus, and echeneis, which are raised to the rank of families in the Règne Animal.—The Gadoideæ are most abundant in the northern seas, some species being plentiful in the highest latitudes to which navigators have penetrated, but few, comparatively, are known to exist within or near the tropics. Most of the family are agreeable articles of food, and their capture finds employment for myriads of fishermen, and investment for a very large capital. A large portion of the Gadoideæ are mentioned by authors as common to both sides of the North Atlantic, and even to the Icy Sea and sea of Kamtschatka; but there is much reason to believe that the specific identity of fish of this family, inhabiting distant localities, has been very often inferred from a recollection of the general resemblance of the type, rather than from an actual comparison of the specimens. The lists furnished by Fabricius and the ichthyologists of the United States seem particularly to require revision. The following have been mentioned as frequenting the coast of the latter country, but I think it probable that several of them are different from the European species whose names they now bear. MORRHUÆ.—Gadus morrhua, Bank cod, PENN., MITCHILL; G. callarias, Dorse, common cod of New York, MITCHILL; G. rupestris, Rockcod, SMITH (G. callarias, var. MITCH.); G. arenosus, Shoal-cod, SMITH; (G. callarias, var. MITCH.); G. tomcod, SCHOEPF (G. tomeodus, MITCHILL); G. æglefinus, PENN., MITCH.; G. fasciatus, Frost-fish, PENN. (G. fuscus, SMITH, G. tomcodus, pruinosus, MITCHILL); G. blennoides, Blennoid cod, MITCH. MERLANGI.—Merlangus vulgaris, Whiting, SMITH; Gadus albidus, New York Whiting, MITCHILL; Gadus purpureus, New York Pollack, MITCHILL; Merlangus pollachius, Pollock, SMITH. MERLUCCII.—Gadus merluccius, Hake, MITCH., SMITH. LOTÆ.—Gadus maculosus vel maculosa, LE SUEUR; G. compressus vel Molva Huntia, LE SUEUR. BROSMII.—Brosmius vulgaris, Cusk, SMITH.

21

[page] 242

PHYCIDES.—Gadus tenuis, Slender cod, MITCH.; G. punctatus, Spotted cod, MITCH.; Blennius chuss, SCHOEPF, Encheliopus Americanus, SCHN., Gadus longipes, MITCH.; Raniceps blennoides, Garter fish, SMITH.

Tilesius mentions gadus macrocephalus, gracilis, morrhua, and luscus, as inhabitants of the seas of Kamtschatka, but the members of this family that frequent the north-west coast of America are almost totally unknown. Dixon informs us that he took hake in Norfolk Sound, which proves nothing more than that the fish which he so calls resembles a merluccius.

[93.] 1. GADUS MORRHUA. (Auct.) Common Cod-fish.

FAMILY, Gadoideæ. CUV. GENUS, Gadus. LINN. Sub-genus, Morrhua. CUV. Morrhua vulgaris (maxima asellorum species). BELON, p. 121. An. 155].

Gadus dorso tripterygio, ore cirrato, cauda æquali fere cum radio primo spinoso. ARTEDI. Gadus morrhua. FABRIC., Fauna Grœnl., p. 146, No. 102. Mitch., Fish of New York, i., p. 367, No. 1. SMITH, An. of Massach., p. 16. An. 1835. Ross, Captain J. C., App., p. xlviii. An. 1835.

Common Cod. PENN., Arct. Zool., ii., p. 114, Suppl., No. 87.

Saraudlirksoak, or Ekalluarksoak. GREENLANDERS. Keeling. SCOTS.

The sub-genus Morrhua is characterised by the presence of three dorsals, two anals, and a barbel at the extremity of the lower jaw. It contains many species. The Common cod-fish is probably an inhabitant of all the northern seas, down to the 41st parallel. It abounds in the North Atlantic, where it frequents sandbanks lying from twenty to eighty fathoms under water. Pennant is of opinion that its proper range is between the 66th and 50th parallels of latitude, those caught north and south of these degrees being either few in quantity or bad in quality. "The great rendezvous," says he, "of the cod-fish is on the banks which lie off the coasts of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and New England; few are taken north of Iceland, but on the south and west coast they abound, and they again swarm off Norway, in the Baltic, and off the Orkneys and Hebrides." It does not exist in the Mediterranean. Dr. Mitchill states the callarias to be the Common cod of New York, while the morrhua, or "Bank cod" as he calls it, is brought to the market of that city from Nantucket, and the coast beyond, between November and April only, the summer temperature of the United States' waters being, in his opinion, sufficient to kill it. Cod-fish, of excellent quality, are found in the estuary of the St. Lawrence, pretty high up. Fabricius says that the morrhua is less common on the Greenland coast than the callarias; but Captain James

[page] 243

C. Ross informs us, that on the west coast of Greenland, in latitude 66½° N., a number of very fine cod-fish were caught by the crew of the Victory, on a bank consisting of small stones, coarse sand, and broken shells, with from eighteen to thirty fathoms of water over it. He adds that there are several other banks of considerable extent on that coast, some of them in the vicinity of the Danish colonies, where the cod-fish assemble in astonishing numbers. This fish is also found on the American side of the Greenland seas, for Davis observed many in possession of the Esquimaux who inhabit the land between Cape Raleigh and Cumberland Strait, and the following passage occurs in the narrative of his third voyage, when embarking in the Moonshine of thirty-five tons, he ran to the southward from latitude 67°, across the entrance of Hudson's Strait, to 57° on the Labrador coast. "Coasting the shore towards the south, we saw an incredible number of birds: having divers fishermen aboord our barke, they all concluded that there was a great skull of fish: we being unprovided of fishing furniture, with a long spike nayle made a hooke and fastened the same to one of our sounding lines: before the baite was changed we took more than fortie great cods, the fish swimming so abundantly thicke about our barke as is incredible to bee reported, of which, with a small portion of salt that we had, we preserved some thirtie couple, or thereaboutes, and so returned for England." (Hakluyt, iii., p. 120.)

Small cod-fish, resembling the rock-cod of the British coast, were purchased by Captain James C. Ross from a party of Esquimaux, who were fishing for them through holes in the ice on the west side of the peninsula of Boothia, and he was told that in the autumn full-sized ones were taken farther to the westward*. The Common cod, or a variety of it, is mentioned by Tilesius as inhabiting the sea of Ochotsk, but I have met with no account of its having been detected on the American side of the Pacific. The food of the cod-fish is very various, consisting of all kinds of fish that inhabit the banks it resorts to, molluscæ, both soft and shelly, crustaceæ, and marine insects. The baits most generally used on the banks of Newfoundland are capelin and cuttle-fish. At certain seasons the stomachs of the cod brought to the London market are filled with young muscles. For an account of the important fisheries which have been established for the capture of the cod, the reader may consult Du Hamel, Pennant, or the several Encyclopedias which are daily issuing from the press. The cod-fish evidently derives its English name from its softness, flaccidity, and shape, the word cod (Saxon coòòe) still being in common use in Scotland to signify a bag or pillow.

* This fish was termed by the Esquimaux owuk.

212

[page] 244

Not having access to any variety of specimens of American cod-fish, I shall not attempt to give a detailed description of the species. A specimen brought from Newfoundland by Mr. Audubon, to whom it was given by the fishermen as an uncommon kind or variety, does not appear to differ from the small brown cod which is taken on rocky parts of the British coast.

Its length is sixteen inches, the head forming one-third part, and the central rays of the square caudal fin measuring an inch and a quarter. The lateral line is arched anteriorly, descending at the second dorsal, and then running straight to the tail, keeping rather nearer to the anal than to the dorsal in its course. The teeth of the upper jaw and vomer are acute, of various lengths, and crowded into bands: on the lower jaw they stand almost in a single series.

FINS.—Br. 7—7; P. 18; V. 6; D. 15—19—17; A. 19—17; C. ——. Newf. sp.

7—7; 18; 6; 14—20—17; 19—20; 38 to 40. Dav. St. sp.

The number of rays of the Davis' Straits' fish are quoted from Captain James C. Ross, who says that the average weight of fifteen individuals was sixteen pounds, and their length thirty-six inches and a half, of which the head formed one-fourth part, and the caudal fin one-seventh. Though the number of rays was various in different specimens, the second dorsal always contained more than either the first or third. The alimentary canal rather exceeded the body in length, and the pyloric cæca amounted to two hundred and fifty.

[94.] 2. GADUS CALLARIAS. (Linn.) The Dorse.

Gadus callarias. FABRICIUS, Fauna Grœnl., p. 144.

Cadus callarias. Ross. App., p. 1.

Saraudleek. GREENLANDERS. Eeleetok. Esquimaux of Boothia.

The Dorse is mentioned by Fabricius as common on the Greenland coast, and Captain James C. Ross observed it in the inlet to the west of the peninsula of Boothia, where it is taken abundantly, though in very poor condition, by the Esquimaux, who fish for it from the middle of May till near the end of June, through holes cut in the ice. It is plentiful in the White Sea and along the whole northern coast of Europe, particularly in the Baltic. Fabricius states that on the Greenland coast it feeds upon small fishes, crustaceæ, and molluscæ, and that it is most frequently observed at some distance from the bottom, with its tail directed obliquely downwards. A smaller variety, differing from the larger one in the number of rays of the fins, is taken in some places only, in the winter time, under the ice. The callarias of Dr. Mitchill is probably a distinct species.

[page] 245

Those that Captain James Ross saw on the coast of Boothia seldom exceeded fourteen inches in length, though a few were obtained of greater size. They were provided with forty-two pyloric cæca, and the average number of rays in their fins were as follows.

FINS.—Br. 7; P. 19; V. 6; D. 12—19—23; A. 22—22; C. 40 to 44. Ross.

7; 20; 6; 14—19—19; 21—19; 40. Faun. Grœn., lar. var.

7; 19; 6; 13—24—18; 22—18: 44. Ditto, small ditto.

DIMENSIONS

Of a specimen taken on the coast of Boothia.

Inches. Lines.
Length from tip of snout to end of caudal 17
Length from tip of anus 8
Length from tip of edge of gill-cover 4 6
Length of central caudal rays 1
Length of barbel on lower jaw 0 8⅓
Length of longer cæca 1 6

Captain J. C. Ross.

[95.] GADUS FABRICII. The Meesarkornak.

Gadus æglefinus. FABRICIUS, Faun. Grœnl., p. 142. No. 100.

Meesarkornak, eekallooäk. GREENLANDERS.

Fabricius considers this fish to be the Gadus æglefinus of authors, the haddock or haddy so abundant in the Scottish firths. The haddock is vulgarly supposed to have been the fish out of whose mouth St. Peter took the tribute-money, the black marks at the pectorals being considered to be the impressions left by the saint's finger and thumb, which the species has retained ever since. The same honourable origin is commonly ascribed to the black lateral spot on the body of the Dory, but superstition has entirely overlooked the fact, that neither that fish nor the haddock exist in the sea of Gennesaret, whose waters are perfectly fresh. As Fabricius seems to have identified the Meesarkornak with the haddock, solely from its agreement with Artedi's very brief notice of the latter, and as it does not possess the distinguishing marks at the pectorals, I have ventured to name it as a distinct species, considering the addition of another synonym, even should it prove to be unnecessary, as less injurious to the interests of science, than the error of ascribing to a fish too wide a geographical range, or habits which do not belong to it. The Meesarkornak frequents the northern bays of Greenland pretty abundantly in the winter season, spawns on the littoral sea-weeds in February, and of course under the ice, and is of so curious a disposition that it is readily attracted to the surface by agitating the water, especially in the evening. Sometimes it leaps upon the ice, when it becomes the prey of the Arctic fox, which lies in wait for such a chance,

[page] 246

and is even said to know how to bring about this desired event, by stirring the water with his foot through a crevice. The Greenlanders take it in a similar way with their hands, having learnt the art, according to Fabricius, from the fox.

The species attains the length of fourteen inches. The colour of the back is soiled or livid white, the sides are minutely spotted with black, and the under parts are pure white. There is a short barbel under the chin.

FINS.—Br. 6; D. 13—15—23; P. 19; V. 6; A. 17—20; C. 32. Fauna Grœnl.

[96.] 4. GADUS OGAC. —— The Ogak.

Gadus barbatus. FABRICIUS, Faun. Grœnl., p. 146.

Ogak, or Owak. (The young ogarak, or owarak, pl. ogarkæt, or owarkæt.) GREENLANDERS.

This is a larger species than the Whiting-pout of the English seas, to which Fabricius refers it, and it wants the black spot at the base of the pectorals: a new specific appellation is therefore as much required as in the case of the preceding species. As the Esquimaux of the peninsula of Boothia call the rock-codling (p. 324), which they take near Cape Isabella, by the same name which the Greenlanders apply to this, viz., owak, or owuk, it is probable that they nearly resemble each other, if they are not specifically the same.

The ogak is described by Fabricius as rarely exceeding eighteen inches in length and five in depth, and as corresponding with the description given by Artedi (sp. 65), except in wanting the dark spots at the base of the pectorals. It lives among sea-weeds in deep, shady places, in company with the Cottus Grælandicus, where it feeds upon capelin, blennies, launces, and other small fish, as well as upon crustaceæ. It spawns among the sea-weeds in February or March, while the ice is as yet entire, and in June multitudes of its young, no bigger than sticklebacks, may be seen along the shore. In its habits this fish resembles the gadus callarias, but it keeps nearer the bottom, and the male and female are said to consort with each other under the same stone.

FINS.—Br. 7; D. 15—19—16; P. 18; V. 6; A. 22—17; C. 32*. Faun. Gr., p. 147.

* The following rays are attributed to the gadus barbutus by Artedi. FINS.—Br. 7 or 8; D. 13—24—20 or 21; P. 19; V. 6; A. 31—21.

[page] 247

[97.] 1. GADUS (MERLANGUS) CARBONARIUS. Coal-fish.

FAMILY, Gadoideæ. CUV. GENUS, Gadus. LINN. Sub-genus, Merlangus. CUV.

Merlangus carbonarius (Coal-fish). SABINE, App. Parry's First Voy., p. ccxi.

The merlangi, or coal-fish, differ from the true cod in having no barbels; they derive their English name from the dusky pigment which tinges their skin, and which, when they are handled, soils the fingers like moist coal. Specimens of the Common coal-fish, from four to five inches long, were taken in a trawl-net on the west coast of Davis' Strait, on Sir Edward Parry's first voyage. This fish, when full grown, bears a considerable resemblance to the salmon in the size of its scales and elegant form, notwithstanding its dark hue. It swims near the surface, and occasionally takes a mackerel-hook towed along in a smart breeze. The young resort to the rocky bays of the Orkneys and Hebrides in immense numbers, where, according to the period of their growth, they are known by the names of cuddy, sithe, seth, and sillock. They rise eagerly at an artificial fly of the rudest construction, and are secured with so much facility, and in such numbers, that an amateur angler would think lightly of the sport, even were he to overcome his disgust at the dirty colour and disagreeable smell his hands acquire in taking the fish from the hook. They yield, however, a plentiful harvest to the northern fisherman, who thus obtains both food, and oil for his lamp, with little exertion. On the Yorkshire coast the young are called parrs, and when a year old billets. They are said not to attain their full size until they are four years of age. The species is reported to exist sparingly in the Mediterranean.

The merlangus vulgaris, or Whiting, is enumerated in the list of the Massachusetts fish by Dr. J. V. C. Smith, and the same, or a very similar one, of the New York seas, is named gadus albidus, by Dr. Mitchill. La Hontan also says that whitings, like those of Europe, exist in the estuary of the St. Lawrence.

[98.] 2. GADUS (MERLANGUS) POLARIS. (Sabine.) Polar Coal-fish.

Merlangus polaris. SABINE, Parry's First Voy.; Ross, App. Parry's Third Voy., p. 110.

IDEM, Parry's Polar Voy., p. 199. IDEM, Sir John Ross's Second Voy., App. p. li.

This small species was taken on Sir Edward Parry's first voyage of discovery whilst swimming among the surface ice of Baffin's Bay; multitudes were gathered

[page] 248

on his second voyage, from the rocky pools of the Duke of York's Bay, in Southampton Island, where they had been left by the falling tide; it was again found equally plentiful, on his third expedition, in Prince Regent's Inlet; and on Sir John Ross's recent voyage great numbers were collected from crevices in the ice that covered Batty Bay, in July, 1833, and several were obtained, even in the winter time, in Felix Harbour. The merlangus polaris is also an inhabitant of the Spitzbergen Sea, having been found on Sir Edward Parry's polar voyage, as far north as latitude 82¾° N., in plenty, in small bays where streams of fresh water run into the sea. It is highly probable that this is the same fish with the gadus virens of Fabricius, or the ordleet, as he supposes, of the Greenlanders, which is said to swim near the surface, and to be an agreeable article of food. The Polar coal-fish forms the principal nourishment of the numerous sea-fowl which migrate to the Arctic regions in summer, its habit of frequenting the top of the water rendering it an easy prey. The beluga drives it upon the ice in shoals. In the summer it is much infested by a lernæa, which attaches itself to the gills.

Captain Sabine describes it as being between five and six inches in length, and as being very nearly allied to the gadus virens, from which it may be distinguished by the third dorsal being larger than the two anterior ones, whereas, in virens, the middle one is the largest: the lower jaw rather exceeds the upper one; the tail is slightly forked. Captain James Ross says that there is a considerable variation in the number of rays in the fins, the average of a great many differing slightly from Captain Sabine's enumeration. Its length, he says, seldom exceeds ten inches.

FINS.—P. 18; V. 6; D. 14—16—19; A. 17—22; C. 42. SABINE.

18; 6; 13—15—20; 17—21; 42 to 48. Ross.

[99.] 1. GADUS (LOTA) MACULOSUS. (Cuvier.) The Methy.

FAMILY, Gadoideæ. CUV. GENUS, Gadus. LINN. Sub-genus, Lota. CUV.

Gadus lota. PENN., Arct. Zool., Intr., p. cxci. RICH., Fr. Journ., p. 724.

Gadus maculosus. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 83. An. 1817.

Lota maculosa. CUV., Règ. An., ii., p. 334. 1829.

Molva maculosa. CUV., in lit. An. 1828.

Methy. CREES. La loche. VOYAGEURS. Dog-fish. Eel-pout. UNITED STATES.

The lotæ, or lings, have two dorsals, one anal, and more or less numerous barbels. Some species are inhabitants of fresh water. The Common ling, or gadus molva of Linnæus, is supposed by Fabricius to be a Greenland fish, named by the natives eevirksoak, but he had not an opportunity of examining a specimen. The

[page] 249

Methy exists in every river and lake from Canada to the northern extremity of the continent. It is extremely voracious, and preys on all kinds of fish, which it takes chiefly or solely in the night. I opened several taken in Pine Island Lake, in the month of March, which were filled with cray-fish to such a degree, that the form of their bodies was quite distorted, the soft integuments of their bellies admitting of great dilatation. It spawns in February, and, consequently, at a period when the water is thickly covered with ice everywhere north of the great lakes of the St. Lawrence. Its roe consists of very small eggs, which are so numerous that Mr. Hutchins is reported, by Pennant, to have counted 671,248 in a single fish. When well bruised and mixed with a little flour, the roe can be baked into very good biscuits, which are used in the fur countries as tea-bread. The liver is also considered to be a delicacy, but the flesh is eaten only in times of great scarcity, being watery and tasteless, though in the few trials we were obliged to make of its qualities, it did not appear to be unwholesome. Dogs, accustomed to feed on the offal of every other kind of fish which exists in those countries, will not eat any part of this, even when pressed by hunger. Its European representative, on the contrary, the Burbot, is considered to be a delicate-flavoured fish.

At Fort Good Hope, on the lower part of the Mackenzie, I observed a fish of this genus, which differed from the ordinary state of the Methy in having much brighter and more varied colours, forming reticulations; but we were on the eve of embarkation, the pressure of other avocations prevented me from recording its characters, or even preparing a specimen,—and, returning by another route, I had no opportunity of seeing it again.

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent specimen killed in Pine Island Lake, March 31, 1820.

FORM.—Profile oblong, tapering gradually into the lanceolate, acute extremity of the tail, which reaches nearly to the centre of the obovate caudal fin. The body, unless when distended with roe, or with its prey, is compressed, its greatest circumference being just behind the pectorals, and nearly equalling one-half its length: the depth of the body there is about one-sixth of the length. HEAD broad, depressed, the jaws of equal length and very obtuse: its length is contained rather less than six times in the total length, or rather more than five times when the caudal fin is excluded. Eyes small, with a lateral aspect, but from the flatness of the forehead appearing partly on the upper surface. The centre of the oval orbit is two lengths of its axis from the tip of the snout, and somewhat short of four lengths from the posterior edge of the gill-cover—there being five lengths and a half in the total length of the head. Nostrils anterior to the orbit, the apertures small, and the foremost furnished with a long, loose, skinny lid. The upper lip, attached to the intermaxillaries, fits into a fold of the integuments of the snout. The intermaxillaries are attached to the snout by cartilages which admit of a

2 K

[page] 250

rotatory motion but no protrusion: their lower ends are with the labials which lie in the angle of the mouth, thrust out a little by the extension of the jaws. The labials are about half as long as the intermaxillaries, their posterior extremities pass a little beyond the centre of the orbit. The lower jaw is strong, and there is a small cirrhus attached to the tip of the chin. TEETH.—The intermaxillaries and lower jaw are armed with slender, hooked teeth, in even, card-like, rather broad belts. A still broader belt covers the knob of the vomer and anterior ends of the palate-bones. There are teeth of the same kind on the pharyngeal bones, and on a double row of tuberculous rakers on each branchial arch. The tongue is obtuse, fleshy, and smooth. GILL-COVERS rounded and edged with soft membrane; the branchial aperture is large, and its membrane, containing seven curved rays, is continuous with its fellow, forming a flap which is loose behind: the rays are semi-cylindrical, being flat exteriorly.

SCALES small, roundish, and so deeply imbedded in a gelatinous epidermis as to be scarcely perceptible in the recent fish. When examined with a lens, the concentric circles indicating their growth are perceived to be very regular, but no radiating furrows can be seen. The epidermis is covered with minute dark specks, most conspicuous though less crowded on the lighter-coloured sides and belly. In the dried specimen scales are perceptible, either scattered or crowded, on every part of the head, body, and fins, except the muzzle, lips, edges of the orbits, and labials: on the forepart of the body the scales are nearly their own breadth apart, but posteriorly they are more close, and on the tail they are in contact or even tiled: they are also crowded on the cheeks, gill-covers, and caudal fin; but very small and widely scattered on the dorsal and anal fins, and scarcely perceptible on the gill-membrane. As the scales dry they become depressed in the centre, or saucer-shaped. Lateral line marked by a continuous, slender furrow, lined or bordered with minute scales: it is nearer to the back than to the belly, and is slightly arched till it passes the first third of the anal fin, after which it takes a straight course and is no longer discernible, when it comes within three inches of the extremity of the tail. The anus is exactly midway between the snout and tip of the tail (excluding the fin).

FINS.—Br. 7*; P. 16; V. 6; D. 12—74; A. 71; C. 50.

The pectorals are unequally obovate and contain sixteen rays. The ventrals or jugulars, situated anteriorly to the pectorals, are soft, slender, and tapering to a point: the first of their six rays is the strongest. The first dorsal contains six rays, the first of which is short, and the last one very slender. The distance from the snout to the anus being divided into four parts, the first dorsal occupies rather more than the anterior half of the fourth part. The second dorsal, commencing about a quarter of an inch from the first, contains seventy-four rays, the three or four first ones gradually increase in length, the margin of the rest of the fin is even, and it is rounded off at its termination. The fin in general is nearly half an inch lower than the first dorsal. The anal fin, commencing opposite to the ninth ray of the second dorsal, and close to the anus, is of equal height throughout, except the two or three first rays, which are short: it is rounded off at its termination like the second dorsal. The rays of the

* Foster could find only six gill-rays in his specimen from Hudson's Bay.

[page] 251

dorsals and anal are, as in all fish, double, but they are most visibly so at their bases, their summits spreading very slightly. The caudal fin is obovate, its extremity being nearly semicircular. It takes its origin in contact with the second dorsal and anal, but its form renders it sufficiently distinct: it contains fifty rays, the four central ones attached to the end of the vertebral column, the others to slender distinct interspinous bones, nine of the rays of the base above and below gradually increase in length, the other thirty-two are nearly equal to each other, but originating on the lanceolate tail give the peculiar form to the fin.

COLOUR.—Head and back dull chestnut brown tending to yellowish-brown, the back marbled with lighter spots: belly orange-white, becoming grey towards the sides by the aspersion of dark brown specks. Ventrals white.

INTESTINES.

The wide æsophagus is lined by a white membrane having longitudinal folds: the stomach is distinguished from it by still greater width, a stronger muscular coat, and by the reddish colour of its lining, which also presents more numerous and somewhat convoluted folds. The very small pylorus is so situated as to leave one half of the stomach in form of a cul de sac. An inch from the stomach the cæca, about sixty in number, encircle the intestine, uniting into ten large trunks whose orifices are close to each other: they are filled with thin feculent matter. The intestine gradually diminishes in calibre, and its coats become weaker towards the anus; next which, however, there is a more muscular portion with an approach to a valvular apparatus at its origin, formed by a contraction of the muscular coat, and a corresponding projection of the lining of the canal. The whole alimentary canal makes two convolutions, and its length to that of the fish, excluding the caudal fin, is as thirty-eight to twenty-two. The liver has a cream-yellow colour tinged with flesh-red: its ransverse diameter is the greatest, and it has a small central triangular flap or lobe; it was observed, however, that the size and form of the liver varied considerably in different individuals. The gall-duct terminates in the intestine below the openings of the cæca; there is a dilatation in it equal in size to the gall-bladder itself. The spleen is situated near the rectum. The airbladder has two short horns at its upper end, and its lining is encrusted by a number of stelliform fatty substances. The firm cordiform kidneys are lodged in a sac between the spine and lower end of the air-bladder. The urinary bladder is strong and muscular.

DIMENSIONS.

Inches. Lines.
Length from end of snout to end of caudal fin 21 9
Length from tip of tail 20 4
Length from end of dorsal and anal fins 18 10
Length from anus 10 3
Length from commencementof 1st dorsal 7 10
Length from edge of gill-cover 3 10
Length from nape 2
Length of intermaxillaries 1
Length labials 0 8
Length lower jaw 2 0
Length pectoral fin 2 3
Length ventrals 1 4
Length of attachment of 1st dorsal 1 5
Length of attachment of 2nd ditto 9 6
Length of attachment of anal 8 6
Length of rays of 2nd dorsal, about 1 1
Length of rays of 2nd anal 0 11
Length of central rays of caudal 1 7
Length from bases of caudal to its end 3 2
Greatest girth of body 10 4
Length of aliment, canal from gullet to anus 35 1
Length from gullet to pylorus 4 0
Length from pylorus to retum 29 1
Length of rectum 2 0

2 K 2

[page] 252

[100.] 1. GADUS (BROSMIUS) FLAVESCENS. (Le Sueur.) Yellow tusk.

FAMILY, Gadoideæ. CUV. GENUS, Gadus. LINN. Sub-genus, Brosmius. CUV.

Le Brosme jaune (Brosmerus flavescens). LE SUEUR, Mém. du Mus., v. p. 158. An. 1817. Pl. 16, f. 2.

Tusk, or Cusk. NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERMEN.

The brosmii, or tusks, have only a single long dorsal.—Fabricius refers the neyorpalloogak of the Greenlanders to this sub-genus, but as he did not see the fish himself, and gives no description of it, we have no means of judging how far it agrees with the Yellow tusk, which inhabits the banks of Newfoundland sparingly. M. Le Sueur, who is our sole authority for the latter as a distinct species, does not say whether or not it is the same with the cusk of the Massachusetts coast, which Dr. J. V. C. Smith refers to the brosmius vulgaris. In the Yellow tusk the lower jaw is longer than the upper one, but in the Common tusk the upper jaw is the longest. The following is M. Le Sueur's description of the Newfoundland species.

COLOUR, generally, an agreeable yellow, the dorsal, pectoral, and anal, edged with black and white. The very thick skin is furnished with small, round, crowded scales, very irregularly placed. The lateral line is arched above the pectorals. FORM.—The body is long, broadest next the head, and compressed towards the tail. The head broad and flat, the snout obtuse and rounded. The eye large and oblique, the lower jaw has two barbels. The orifice of the mouth is wide. The teeth on the jaws and palate are sharp, with the points turned backwards, and are crowded into many rows. The pharyngeal bones, above and below, are toothed, and the branchial arches are armed on the sides with little tubercles studded with strong conical curved teeth. FINS.—Br. 7; P. 25; V. 6. The dorsal and anal are very long, and their rays consequently numerous, as is the case also with the caudal, which is of a large size. The length of the specimen was two feet. LE SUEUR, l. c.

Fabricius mentions one other species of gadus as an inhabitant of the Greenland seas, the akooleeäkeetsok, which he supposes to be the merluccius, or hake, but this reference must be very uncertain, as his knowledge of the fish was derived solely from the reports of the natives.

[page] 253

[101.] 1. GADUS (PHYCIS) PUNCTATUS (Mitch.) Spotted Phycis.

FAMILY, Gadoideæ. CUV. GENUS, Gadus. LINN. Sub-genus, Phycis. ARTEDI.

Spotted cod (Gadus punctatus). MITCHILL, i., p. 372.

The sub-genus phycis is characterised by the ventrals containing only a single ray, which is often forked. The head is large, there is a barbel attached to the chin, and there are two dorsals, the second of which is long. The Spotted phycis is figured and described by Dr. Mitchill as one of the New York fish, though he says it is the rarest of this family in that quarter. Our wood-cut is from a sketch made by Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith, of a specimen which was captured off Halifax, Nova Scotia.

"Length ten inches. Colour of the back and sides pale brown or whitish, with lines between the scales; of the neck and belly dull white with suffusions of cream colour. First dorsal marked above with a black spot surmounted by the white tips of the rays. Anal brownish edged with black. Lateral line distinct and peculiar, consisting of a narrow black mark, alternating at spaces of half an inch apart, with white dashes about one-eighth of an inch long. In some individuals there is an imperfect whitish straight fillet under the lateral line. The chin has one small cirrhus. Ventrals two cleft, the second ray two inches long. RAYS.—P. 13; V. 1; D. 9—47; A. 47; C. 23." MITCHILL, l. c.

[page] 254

[102.] 1. MACROURUS RUPESTRIS. (Bloch.) Rock Grenadier.

FAMILY, GADOIDEIS AFFINIS. CUV. GENUS, Macrourus. BLOCH.

Coryphæna rupestris. FABRICIUS, Fauna Grænl., p. 154. No. 111.

Macrourus rupestris. SCHN., Bloch, p. 103, t. 26.

"Lepidoleprus cœlorhynchus. RISSO, pl. vii., f. 22."

Ingmingoak. GREENLANDERS.

This fish exists in the bays of south Greenland, the European Atlantic, and Mediterranean. It inhabits great depths of water, and is fished for with a long line. When drawn to the surface its body is distended with air, and it emits a grunting sound like the gurnard. Its flesh is prized by the Greenlanders.

DESCRIPTION

Compiled from Fabricius, Schneider, and Cuvier.

FORM.—Body oblong, thick anteriorly, slender posteriorly. Head large, depressed with a flat immoveable snout, formed by the union of the sub-orbitar and nasal bones, projecting over the mouth. Eyes large and prominent. Gill-openings wide. Mouth ample. Jaws moveable as usual, and armed with very fine short teeth in five rows. Tongue and palate smooth. Scales silvery, hard, and armed on the head and forepart of the body with several longitudinal serrated ridges, on the posterior parts with only one ridge: the gill-membranes and fins are alone free of scales. Lateral line straight and near the back. Anus in the anterior third part of the fish. Fins pointed. The second dorsal and anal, both very long, unite to form the accuminated caudal: first dorsal short and high. A difference in the number of the second dorsal and anal rays, as given by Fabricius and Schneider, has evidently originated in the latter enumerating among the rays of these two fins those of the caudal.

FINS.—Br. 6; P 18; V. 8; D. 11—112; A. 112; C. —. FABRICIUS.

7; 19; 7; 1/11—124; 148; 272. SCHNEIDER.

[page] 255

PLATESSOIDEÆ.—FLAT FISH.

THE fish of this family were included by Linnæus in a single large genus, which was named pleuronectes by Artedi, to denote their peculiar habit of swimming on one side. They have, in fact, a character of which there is no example in any other family of vertebrated animals, that of both eyes being on the same side of the head, which is the uppermost when the fish swims, and is more or less deeply coloured, while the other side is always whitish. The orifice of the mouth is oblique, with unequal sides, and the greatly compressed body partakes more or less of the want of symmetry observable in the head; the pectorals are seldom uniform, the dorsal occupies the whole length of the back, the anal fringes the under edge of the body, and the ventrals, which are often joined to one another, appear like an anterior continuation of it. There are six gill-rays. The abdominal cavity, which is small, is prolonged into the substance of the tail to give room for the lodgment of the viscera, the anus being far forward. The cranium is composed of the ordinary number of bones, though their forms are curious, owing to both the orbits being on one side. There is no air-bladder, and these fish seldom leave the bottom. The latter circumstance may account for the fish of this family being found in all climates, the temperature of the bottom of the ocean being comparatively equable. The Flat fish yield a wholesome and agreeable article of diet to the inhabitants of every coast. The following are reported to inhabit the seas of the United States; but as many of them have been very imperfectly described, it is not certain whether they are all proper species, or even rightly referred to the subgenera. PLATESSÆ.—Pleuronectes dentatus, Summer flounder. LINN., SCHOEPF, MITCHILL; Pleur. Americanus, SCHN. (Rhode Island flounder, SCHOEPF); Pleur. melanogaster, Black-bellied flounder, MITCHILL; Pleur. oblongus, Spotted flounder, MITCHILL. HIPPOGLOSSI.—Pleur. hippoglossus, Halibut, SCHOEPF, PENN., MITCH., SMITH. RHOMBI.—Pleur. argus vel lineatus, BLOCH, CATESBY; Rhombus maximus, Turbot, SMITH. SOLEÆ.—Sole, Pleur. solen, PENN. (Solea vulgaris, SMITH). ACHIRI.—Pleur. lineatus, LINN. (Pleur. mollis, New York sole, MITCH.); Pleur. plagiusa, GARDEN, LINN.

It is highly probable that many of the above extend their range to the British American coasts. La Hontan mentions "plies et turbots comme en Europe," as frequenting the embouchure of the St. Lawrence, and Pennant enumerates the

[page] 256

Common flounder, halibut, plaice, and sole, as inhabitants of the American seas generally. The halibut and two others exist on the Greenland coast, and two species have been observed on the arctic coast of America. Four were noticed by Mr. Collie in the bay of Awatska, "one, allied to the pleuronectes platessa of Linnæus, having a spinous line extending from the posterior part of the eyes to the hinder and upper part of the operculum, the remainder of the head being smooth; another, noted as a variety of the last, but having the head covered with roughly projecting tubercles; the third, the pleuronectes stellatus of Pallas, and the fourth, supposed to be the pleuronectes hippoglossus. (?) Eschscholtz, speaking of the natural productions of Norfolk Sound, on the north-west coast of America, says that there is no great variety of fish, but the individuals are numerous. In his short list he includes a pleuronectes several feet long, probably the halibut, which is found abundantly in the same neighbourhood. "While we lay here," says the author of that voyage, "the natives supplied us very plentifully with halibut, which we bought of them for beads and small toys. The place where these halibut were caught is in the offing round the point of land. Our whale-boat was one day sent to this place with seven hands on a fishing party, but their success was greatly inferior to that of two Indians, who were fishing at the same time, which is rather extraordinary, if we consider the apparent inferiority of their tackle to ours. Their hook is a large simple piece of wood, the shank at least half an inch in diameter; that part which turns up, and which forms an acute angle, is considerably smaller, and brought gradually to a point: a flat piece of wood, about six inches long, and near two inches wide, is neatly lashed to the shank, on the back of which is rudely carved the representation of a human face. They bait their hook with a kind of fish called by the sailors squid (cuttle-fish), and having sunk it to the bottom, they fix a bladder to the end of the line as a buoy, and should that not watch sufficiently, they add another. Their lines are very strong, being made of the sinews or intestines of animals. One man is sufficient to look after five or six of these buoys; when he perceives a fish bite, he is in no great hurry to haul up his line, but gives him time to be well hooked; and when he has hauled the fish up to the surface of the water, he knocks him on the head with a short club, provided for the purpose, and afterwards stows away his prize at his leisure: this is done to prevent the halibut, which sometimes are very large, from damaging, or perhaps upsetting, his canoe in their dying struggles. Thus were we fairly beat at our own weapons; and the natives constantly bringing us plenty of fish, our boat was never sent on this business afterwards." Dixon also observed another flat-fish which is frequently mentioned in the account of the voyage under the name of

[page] 257

sand-dab. "Our hooks and lines were generally overboard, but the only kind of fish we caught was a sort greatly resembling a flounder, and called by the sailors sand-dabs." Lewis and Clark say that a flounder, the same with the Atlantic species, is well known at the mouth of the Columbia River, where it is often left on the beach by the recess of the tide. The Indians eat it and think it very fine. Mr. Collie saw a rhombus on the coast of California.

[103.] 1. PLEURONECTES (PLATESSA) STELLATUS. (Pallas.)

Stellated flounder.

FAMILY, Platessoideæ (Poissons plats). CUV. GENUS, Pleuronectes. LINN. Sub-genus, Platessa. CUV.

Pleuronectes stellatus. PALLAS, Nov. Act. Petrop., i. p. 347. An. 1783. TILESIUS, lib. cit., i., t. ix., f. 1, p. 387. An. 1787.

Cambala. RUSSIANS. Tanticu. KURILIANS.

In the sub-genus platessa, or the flounders, there is a row of obtuse cutting teeth on each jaw, and most frequently some teeth en pavés on the pharyngeal bones; the dorsal does not extend farther forward than the upper eye, and, like the anal, it leaves a naked space between its termination and the caudal. The flounders have a rhomboidal form, and in most the eyes are on the right side. They have two or three small cæca. On Sir John Franklin's first expedition we caught a flounder at the mouth of the Coppermine, and of several other rivers that fall into the Arctic Sea. As the subjoined brief description, which was the only memorial I could preserve of it, agrees pretty well with the published accounts and figures of the pleuronectes stellatus of Pallas, I have considered it to be that species. If this opinion be correct, the stellated flounder is most probably an inhabitant of the Kamtschatdale seas, and of the whole north coast of America. It is plentiful on the Kamtschatdale coast, near the mouths of rivers, and in sheltered bays, where it is most readily taken in May and June. In winter it is said to bury itself in the sand. It varies in size from ten to fourteen inches. Tilesius says that it is distinguished from all other species by the black stripes on the fins, and the forms of its tubercles or scales.

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent specimen, taken July 16, 1821, off the Coppermine River, lat. 67½° N.

FORM.—Profile of the body broadly elliptical, terminated by a strap-shaped tail and a caudal fin scolloped between the rays. Eyes on the left side, moderately large. Nostrils

2 L

[page] 258

close to the upper lip, so as to be closed by the retraction of the jaws. The upper margin of the mouth is formed entirely by the intermaxillaries, the labials lying in a membrane behind them, and acting as a lever in aid of their protrusion. Under jaw longer than the upper one. Teeth small, chisel-shaped, forming an even row on the intermaxillaries and lower jaw. Tongue conical, blunt, and smooth. Palate also smooth. Five gill-rays, the interior one, which is the smallest, being united to its fellow in the opposite membrane. The dorsal commences above the centre of the orbit, and ends at the strap-shaped tail: it is highest in the middle, thus having the form of an obtuse-angled triangle. The anal begins half an inch behind the anus, and is similar in shape to the dorsal, with which its termination corresponds: the two fins conjointly give a rhomboidal outline to the fish: their rays are simple but articulated, and the membrane is scolloped between them: the central rays of both fins are two inches long. There is a small spine at the beginning of the anal pointing forwards. The ventrals, situated under the pectorals, contain six rays. Scales.—Skin of both sides of the body studded with stellated, bony tubercles*. COLOUR of the upper side liver-brown without spots, of the under surface white tinged with red towards the tail: the fins are reddish with broad vertical black stripes. LENGTH one foot.

[104.] 2. PLEURONECTES (RHOMBUS) GLACIALIS. (Pallas?) Arctic Turbot.

GENUS, Pleuronectes. LINN. Sub-genus, Rhombus. CUV.

Pleuronectes glacialis. PALLAS, Reise durch versch. Prov. des Rusch, 1772–73, p. 706†?

This fish was taken in Bathurst's Inlet, under similar circumstances with the preceding. No specimens were brought home, and the description is too brief and general to serve to identify the species completely. Unless Pallas has overlooked the nearly hidden anal spine, ours is a different species from his.

* Pallas describes these tubercles as follows:—"Tubercula omnia centro glabrata, hinc radiatim muricata, extimo spinulis longioribus subradiantia." Tilesius calls them "tubercula stellata," "aculeato-stellata," or "stellulæ aculeatæ;" and Mr. Collie, who observed the species in Awatska Bay, says that they are subpentagonal, set round with small blunt teeth. The stomachs of the individuals he opened contained small fishes. The rays of the fins are counted as follows by the two former authors.
RAYS.—Br. 3; D. 56; A. 37; P. 12; V. 6; C. 18. Pallas.
6; 52; 40; 8; 6; 16. Tilesius.

† Pallas's short description of his P. glacialis is as follows:—"Dodrantalis, facie Flesi. Oculi a latere dextro fusco, subaspero; Latus album læve. Spinæ nullæ, nec ad pinnas, neque in lineâ laterali. Tractus capitis, pone oculos prominulus, scaber, sed non in tubercula divisus. Radii medii pinæ dorsi anique a latere fusco quasi spinulis minutissimis hispidati. Radii p. dorsi 56, ani 39. Frequens in oris arenosis Oceani glacialis."

[page] 259

DESCRIPTION

Of a recent specimen, taken in Bathurst Inlet, lat. 67° 40′ N., 5th August, 1821.

FORM.—Profile somewhat ovate, the snout rather acute, and the tail linear or strap-shaped for half an inch. HEAD.—Eyes moderately large, on the right side, near the snout. Nostrils between the eyes. Mouth small, its margin formed by obtuse lips; when closed the small, callous, obtuse tip of the lower jaw projects upwards. Teeth fine, brush-like, in an even band on both mandibles. FINS.—Dorsal and anal bordering the body to the height or depth of an inch, becoming narrower before and behind. There is a spine almost concealed by the skin at the commencement of the anal. The ventrals are under the pectorals; both are small. Caudal cuneiform, entire. SCALES small, those on the back rough-edged, those on the white sides smooth. Lateral line straight. COLOUR.—A mixture of yellowish-grey and dull, greenish-grey, somewhat clouded but without defined spots. Belly bluish-white. Caudal fin irregularly spotted with red. Irides wood-brown.

2 L 2

[page] 260

DISCOBOLI.

THE union of the ventrals into a disk with which the fish can adhere, as by a sucker, to stones and other substances, is a distinguishing character of this family. The species, few in number, are arranged in two genera—Lepadogaster, mostly European, and not hitherto detected in America; and Cyclopterus, distributed throughout the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. The following have been enumerated among the fish of the United States. Cyclopterus lumpus, PENN., SMITH (C. cœruleus, MITCHILL); C. minutus, SMITH.—C. ventricosus, PALL., and C. gelatinosus, IDEM, inhabit the sea between Kamtschatka and America.

[105.] 1. CYCLOPTERUS LUMPUS. (Linn.) The Lump.

FAMILY, Discoboli. CUV. GENUS, Cyclopterus. LINN. Sub-genus, Lumpus. CUV.

Cyclopterus lumpus. FABR., Faun. Grœnl., p. 131.

Common lump. PENN., Arct. Zool., Suppl., p. 110. No. 13.

Blue lump fish (Cyclopterus cœruleus). MITCHILL, i., p. 480, pl. II., f. 7.

Nepeesa, Angusedlok, male, Arnardlok, female, GREENLANDERS.

The genus Cyclopterus possesses a well-marked character in the form of the ventrals, whose rays surround the pelvis, and are united by a membrane into a single concave oval disk, or sucker. The mouth is wide, and the jaws and pharyngeals are armed with bands of small pointed teeth; the gill-covers are small, and the gill-openings are closed below by their membrane, in which there are six rays. The very large pectorals unite with each other almost under the throat so as to embrace the disk of the ventrals. The skeleton acquires little bony hardness, but the viscous skin, destitute of scales, is sprinkled with small hard tubercles. The stomach is pretty large, the cæca numerous, the intestine long, and the air-bladder of a moderate size. There are two sub-genera, Lumpus and Liparis, which are distinguished from each other by the form of the body and the presence of one or two dorsals. In the lumps there is a very low first dorsal supported by simple rays, and a second one with branched rays opposed to the anal; the body is thick. The Common lump appears to be an inhabitant of both sides of the North Atlantic, in all the temperate latitudes, and up to the Arctic circle; but it seems to be most

[page] 261

abundant about the 60th parallel, being very plentiful among the Orkney islands, and on the Greenland coast. Dr. Mitchill describes the lump of the New York coast as a distinct species, under the name of Cyclopterus cœruleus, but his figure is a tolerable representation of the Common lump, and no part of his description disagrees with this species,—the colours of his specimen being very similar to those of the "pavonian sucker" of Beaumaris Bay, described by the Reverend Hugh Davies, which differs from the common state of the lump merely in the brillianey of its tints. Indeed this fish varies greatly in hue according to its age and sex, the male being generally more coloured. Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith obtained a lump resembling Mitchill's, in the Baie des Chaleurs of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Fabricius describes the lump as approaching the rocky bays on the Greenland coast, in the months of April and May, for the purpose of spawning. The female precedes and deposits her roe among the larger algæ, and in fissures of the rocks; the male shortly follows and fructifies the eggs, adhering so closely to the mass of roe, that the impression is left upon the hollow surface of the shield formed by the ventrals; after which he keeps watch over the sacred deposit, and guards it from every foe with the utmost courage. If driven from the spot by man, he does not go far, but is continually looking back, and in a short time returns. Even the well-armed wolf-fish hazards his life if he approaches the lump's nest; for this creature, notwithstanding the smallness of its teeth, is (as we have already mentioned, p. 95, on the authority of Fabricius) capable of attaching itself to its adversary's neck, and inflicting thereon a mortal wound. Lacépède denies the truth of the whole of this story, attributing its origin to the vivid imagination of some one who having occasionally seen two of these fish sticking to the same stone in the vicinity of a deposit of spawn, inferred that the cold and sluggish lump is animated by ardent feelings of constant love, conjugal tenderness and fidelity, and a devoted attachment to its offspring. But, notwithstanding the eloquence which this writer has employed to discredit the vulgar opinion of the lump's care for its progeny, it is not perhaps altogether devoid of truth, and it can be supported, if not by direct testimony, at least by analogous facts. The gouramy (osphromenus olfax), one of the anabasideæ, which attains the size of a turbot, is said to dig a pit in the sand wherein it deposits its roe: we have quoted, in page 96, Olivi's account of the male Venetian goby building a nuptial chamber for the reception of the spawn which he impregnates, as it is deposited there by various females that come in succession into his harem: the hassars of Essequibo, belonging to the genera Doras and Callichthys of the siluroid family, not only construct a nest of leaves or grass to contain their roe, but the male and female (for they pair) watch and de-

[page] 262

fend it till the young come forth*: the protection which some of the cartilaginous fishes are reported to afford to their young, by receiving them into their mouths, is not less remarkable: in short, when we consider the instinct with which various reptiles and insects are endowed for the preservation of their eggs, there does not appear to be anything surprising in the fact, that some tribes of fish have been formed with similar desires and powers.

The food of the lump consists chiefly of soft molluscæ, particularly small pteropodes and acalephæ, as clio, medusa, and beröe, which abound in the northern seas. The Greenlanders eat its flesh, either cooked or dried, and its skin raw, throwing away only the tubercles, being in this respect less nice than the seals of the Pentland firth, which devour a great many lumps but reject the skins. If the authority of Sir Walter Scott is to pass current in gastronomy, the lump, or cock-paidle as it is named in Scotland, is a fish of good quality, for he makes Mr. Oldbuck give the same price for one that he does for the bannock-fluke, or turbot. The epithet of cock-paidle seems to have originated in the resemblance of the first dorsal, which is enveloped, like the rest of the fish, in a thick, tuberculated skin, to the comb of a domestic cock. Sibbald mentions another "gibbosus piscis," as known in Scotland by the name of "hush-paidle," or "bagaty." Not having access to an American specimen of the lump, I shall omit the description.

FINS.—Br. 4; D. 0—11; P. 20; V. 6; A. 11; C. 12. FABRICIUS, l. c.

6; —11; 17; 6; 11; 9 3/3. Scottish specimen.

[106.] 2. CYCLOPTERUS MINUTUS. (Pallas.) Diminutive lump.

Cyclopterus minutus. PALL., Spic. Zool., vii., p. 14, pl. 3, figs. 7—9.

FABR., Faun. Grœnl., p. 135. Ross, App., p. xlvi.

Nepeesardlooarksook. GREENLANDERS.

Captain J. C. Ross says "Pallas's description of this extraordinary and beautiful little fish is most perfect. It is found in many parts of the Atlantic Ocean; Fabricius observed it in the southern parts of Greenland, and great numbers were taken by us from among the extensive floating patches of sea-weed that are met with off that coast; but it has never been seen at any great distance to the north-

* This is not the only analogy that these fishes present to the anabasideæ. Like the latter they travel over land in quest of water when the pools which they inhabit dry up, and, according to Indian information, they also possess the power of carrying an internal supply of water, but we are not informed whether the reservoir be situated over the gills, as in the anabasideæ, or elsewhere.

[page] 263

ward of the Arctic circle. It rarely much exceeds an inch in length, and is therefore not used by the natives of Greenland as food, but constitutes the chief means of subsistence to the several species of gulls which are seen hovering over those banks of sea-weed in astonishing numbers." Ross, l. c.

[107.] 3. CYCLOPTERUS SPINOSUS. (Fabricius.) Spiny lump.

Cyclopterus spinosus. FABR., Faun. Grœnl., p. 134.

Nepeesardlook. GREENLANDERS.

Fabricius saw but a single individual of this species, which he obtained in the southern part of Greenland. It is not eaten by the natives.

The tubercles of the skin are not ranged in rows as in the lump, their bases are rough, and they rise into a longish spine in the centre, the largest being upon the upper parts, while the belly is smooth. The first dorsal is not so high, nor so thick, as in the lump, and its edge is not armed with tubercles, but its soft rays are evident enough. The hue of the fish is blackish, the belly whitish, and the twelve first rays of the pectorals quite white. FINS.—Br. 6; D. 6—11; P. 23; V. 6; A. 10; C. 10.—Fauna Grœnl.

[108.] 4. CYCLOPTERUS VENTRICOSUS. (Pallas.) Bellying lump.

Cyclopterus ventricosus. PALL., Spicileg., II., 1, 2, 3.

Lepadogaster ventricosus. SCHNEID., Block, p. 3.

This species being an inhabitant of the straits which separate Kamtschatka from America, and therefore belonging equally to both continents, ought to be enumerated in a list of American fish.

[109.] 1. CYCLOPTERUS (LIPARIS) COMMUNIS. (Artedi.) Unctuous sucker.

FAMILY, Discoboli. CUV. GENUS, Cyclopterus, LINN. Sub-genus, LIPARIS, ARTEDI.

Cyclopterus liparis. FABR., Faun. Grœnl., p. 135. Ross, App. Parry's Polar Voyage, p. 199.

Liparis communis. SABINE, App. Parry's First Voyage, p. ccxii.; Ross, App., p. xlvii.

Abapokeetsok. GREENLANDERS. Sea-snail. YORKSHIRE FISHERMEN.

The Unctuous sucker is said to inhabit all the northern seas. It abounds on

[page] 264

the Greenland coast, and was taken on the west side of Davis' Strait, in the 70th parallel of latitude, on Sir Edward Parry's first expedition, and more recently near Felix Harbour, in Regent's Inlet, by Captain James C. Ross. The same officer observed it on the north side of Spitzbergen in 80½° of latitude. Fabricius says it feeds upon young fish, small crustaceæ, and marine confervæ. It is not eaten by the Greenlanders. The fish of this sub-genus have only one dorsal, which is, like the anal, pretty long: the body is smooth, elongated, and compressed towards the tail. I have had no opportunity of comparing American specimens of the unctuous sucker with the European fish, but Captain Sabine says that those taken in Davis' Strait differ in no respect from the unctuous suckers of the English coast. Captain James C. Ross states that the average length of those that came under his observation, in his various voyages, was about three inches.

Fabricius notices a liparis of a larger size, which is known to the Greenlanders by the name of amersulak. Though this kind attains the length of a foot, and agrees, he informs us, in many particulars with the cyclopterus gelatinosus of Pallas, he does not think that it is a distinct species from the preceding one.

The following notice of a fish of this family, which inhabits Behring's Strait, is from the Appendix to Captain Beechey's Voyage. "Off St. Lawrence Island was caught in a dredge, a fish apparently allied to the genus Liparis. It had the ventral fins placed before the pectorals, but united and continuous with them; a flat, raised, and rough tubercle, of nearly the diameter of an English sixpence, was seated forwards between the pectorals, its anterior part reaching as far as the ventrals: its cæca were pretty numerous (COLLIE). The roughness of this tubercle renders it difficult to refer the fish to any known species, but it is probably nearly related to the cyclopterus gelatinosus, Pallas, a liparis which is known to inhabit the seas in which this was obtained. The existence of cæca removes it from Lepadogaster of Gouan." BENNETT, App., p. 50.

[page] 265

ECHENEIDEÆ.

THE members of this family, which contains only one genus, may be at once recognised by a flat disk on the top of the head with which they attach themselves to sharks, ships' bottoms, &c.: it is composed of transverse moveable cartilaginous plates, toothed or spinous on their posterior edges, and divided into two series by a mesial longitudinal line. The echeneideæ have an elongated body clothed with small scales; a single, soft dorsal opposite the anal; the head altogether flat above; the eyes lateral; the mouth horizontal and rounded; the lower jaw projecting beyond the upper one, and armed, like the intermaxillaries, with small teeth in card-like plates; a very uniform row of slender teeth, resembling eye-lashes, on the edge of the labials, which form the border of the upper jaw; the vomer furnished anteriorly with a cardiform stripe of teeth, and its whole dilated surface as well as the tongue rough. They have eight gill-rays, the stomach forms a wide, blind sac, the cæca are six or eight, the gut is wide and short, and they want the air-bladder. The echeneideæ are very disagreeable-looking fish, the flatness of the top of the head giving them the appearance of swimming belly upwards: they fasten themselves upon the shark apparently for the purpose of being conveyed at ease through the ocean, and of being ready to consume any small fragments that drop from the monster's jaws when he takes his prey. Great numbers attach themselves to ships' bottoms in the tropical seas, particularly on the coast of Africa, and when the cook throws the washings of his coppers overboard, they dart off to feed upon the grease and boiled pease with which the water is soiled, returning again in a short time to the ship, swimming with a wriggling motion like an eel, and with considerable velocity, so as to overtake with ease a vessel going before a brisk gale. They are wary in taking a bait, but may be occasionally allured by a pellet of fat, or a little piece of greasy dough, covering a very small hook. The echeneideæ inhabit both the Atlantic and Pacific, being numerous only within the tropics; their northern limit, in the former sea, appears to be about the 48th parallel. A well-known Mediterranean species, which exists also in the ocean, was fabled by the ancients to possess the power of arresting a ship in its course, whence its name of εχενης, and echeneis among the Greek and Roman authors, and of remora by more modern writers. The same species, and another of a larger size named naucrates, are included by Drs. Mitchill and Smith in their respective lists of the fish of New

2 M

[page] 266

York and Massachusetts, but their identity with those known to European naturalists by the same names is questionable. Dr. Mitchill enumerates twenty-four plates in the disk of his Big oceanic sucker (echeneis naucrates), while the naucrates of Cuvier has only twenty-two; and Dr. Smith's figure of the echeneis of Boston, which he refers to remora, represents a much more slender fish than the Mediterranean one of that name, the number of the plates of the disk being, however, eighteen in both. Echeneis lineata of Schneider has only ten plates in the disk, and E. osteocheir of Cuvier has the pectoral rays compressed, bony, and terminated by a slightly crenated little plate.

[110.] 1. ECHENEIS NAUCRATES. (Auct.) Ship-master echeneis.

FAMILY, Echeneideæ. GENUS, Echeneis. ARTEDI.

A specimen of an echeneis in the Zoological Museum, obtained by Mr. Audubon on the banks of Newfoundland, has twenty-two pairs of nearly transverse plates in its disk, agreeing in this and other respects with the accounts of the echeneis naucrates, to be found in ichthyological works, but I have had no opportunity of procuring an authenticated example of the latter wherewith to compare it. The naucrates, or ship-master, inhabits all the warmer districts of the Atlantic, and was taken by Mr. Collie among the South-Sea Islands.

[page] 267

MALACOPTERYGII APODES.

ANGUILLIFORMES.

[111.] 1. ANGUILLA ROSTRATA. (Le Sueur.) Beaked-eel.

FAMILY, Anguilliformes. CUV. GENUS, Anguilla, THUNBERG. Sub-genus, Muræna. LACÉP.

Muræna rostrata. LE SUEUR, Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil., i., p. 81, An. 1817.

THIS order contains only one natural family of which the members have serpentiform bodies, clothed with thick, soft skin in which the scales are scarcely perceptible, their ribs are few, and they have no cæca; almost all of them possess air-bladders, often of very curious shapes.—The EEL family may be recognised by their small opercula, surrounded concentrically by the gill-rays, and enveloped in the skin, so that the gill-opening is reduced to a small tube whose orifice is far back. Their bodies are long and slender, and their scales, embedded in a fat thick skin, become visible only when this dries up: they all want the ventral fins and pyloric cæca, and their anus is far back. All these fish were included by Linnæus in his great genus MURÆNA, which has been divided and subdivided by subsequent writers, who have introduced many new designations for their groups, and applied the generic name muræna, each after his own fancy, to divisions of very different extent and value.—The eels, anguillæ of Thunberg, or murænæ of Bloch, are known by the double character of the existence of pectoral fins and of the gill-openings being placed beneath them. Their stomach is a long blind sac, their gut almost straight, and their elongated air-bladder has a peculiar gland in its middle. The extent and form of the vertical fins serve to characterise the minor divisions of anguilla, such as the true eels, or murænæ of Lacépède, the congers or congri of Cuvier, and the ophisuri of Lacépède.—The murays, murænæ of Thunberg (gymnothorax, Bloch, murænophis, Lacépède), want the pectorals altogether, their gill-openings are merely a little hole on each side, and their gill-covers and their small feeble rays are so concealed by the skin, that their existence has been altogether denied by able naturalists: their stomach is a short bag, their air-bladder small, oval, and high up in the belly.

2 M 2

[page] 268

The Common eel of Europe belongs to the TRUE EELS, or that division of Thunberg's genus anguilla, in which the commencement of the dorsal is pretty far behind the pectorals, and to a minor group in which the upper jaw is shorter than the under one. The French fishermen recognise in the Common eel of ichthyological writers (muræna anguilla, Linn.) four different kinds or, as they say, species, viz., l'anguille verniaux, which is the most common; the long-beaked eel, which has a more compressed and pointed snout; the flat-beaked eel, or grig of the English, in which the snout is flatter and more obtuse and the eye smaller; and l'anguille pimperneaux, or glut-eel, which has a shorter snout and larger eyes than the others (Règne Animal).—The Common eel is mentioned by Pennant, Schoepf, Mitchill, Smith, and many other writers and travellers, as existing in America, and abounding especially in the St. Lawrence, but like many other North American fishes, supposed to be identical with the European ones of the same name, the species does not appear to have been determined by an actual comparison of specimens, nor have I discovered in the accounts of American fish, any notice of the four kinds or species we have just alluded to. M. Le Sueur describes five species which inhabit the waters of Massachusetts and New York, under the names of muræna rostrata, Bostoniensis, serpentina, argentea, and macrocephala, all of them, he believes, previously unknown to naturalists*. His muræna rostrata was found in lakes Cayuga and Seneka, whose waters fall into the St. Lawrence; but whether it be the species which forms the object of the extensive eel-fisheries on this river, of which we shall shortly give an account, we have no means of determining. As he mentions that its eyes are large, it is not likely to be the long-beaked eel of the Règne Animal. De Witt Clinton states that the Common eel has often been observed endeavouring in vain to surmount the falls of Niagara, by winding its way upwards among the moist and slippery rocks, and that it is altogether unknown in the superior waters of the St. Lawrence†. Mr. Todd was, however, informed that an Indian speared an eel, three feet long and five or six inches in circumference, at the mouth of the Nattawasaga, which flows into Lake Huron. He had an opportunity, shortly after it was killed, of conversing with several Canadians who saw it, and who assured him that it was actually an eel. The lamprey being well known, both to the Indians and Canadians, could not have been mistaken by either of them for an eel. The surprise which the capture of

* Dr. Mitchill mentions anguilla vulgaris, conger and oceanica, as New York fish, the latter being, he supposes, described only by himself.

† He also informs us that eels were unknown in the Passaic above the great falls until a canal was cut at Paterson, since which time they have become plentiful in the upper branches of that river. Phil. Tr., New York, i., p. 148.

[page] 269

this fish excited, proves that it is very rare in those parts. I never saw any kind of eel in the rivers of the Fur countries, nor heard of one existing there. Although the gill-nets used by the natives and fur traders in fishing have the meshes too large to retain an eel, that fish could scarcely have escaped their notice did it exist in any numbers in the northern waters. The non-existence of the eel in the waters of the Fur countries is the more remarkable from its being an inhabitant of the lakes and rivers of the southern part of Greenland, though in small numbers. Fabricius says it is called neemereeak by the natives, and that the largest which he saw was thirty inches lo