RECORD: Darwin, C. R. Notebook E: [Transmutation of species (10.1838-7.1839)] CUL-DAR124.- Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
REVISION HISTORY: Text prepared by Kees Rookmaaker based on the transcriptions of de Beer et al. de Beer's footnotes are retained. RN2
de Beer, Gavin ed. 1960. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part II. Second notebook [C] (February to July 1838). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 2, No. 3 (May): 75-118 Text F1574
de Beer, G., Rowlands, M. J. and Skramovsky, B. M. eds. 1967. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part VI. Pages excised by Darwin. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 3 (5) (21 March): 129-176 Text F1574f
Four pages (85-86 and 115-116) were found after the publication of de Beer et al. 1967, and the transcription has here been added without footnotes.
NOTE: This 170 X 99 mm notebook is bound in reddish brown leather. The notebook appears to be identical in manufacture to Notebook N.
See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by David Kohn in Barrett, Paul H., Gautrey, Peter J., Herbert, Sandra, Kohn, David, Smith, Sydney eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844 : Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Editorial symbols used in the transcription:
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Text in small red font is a hyperlink or notes added by the editors.
Reproduced with permission of The Natural History Museum, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.
Finished July 10th 1839. —
Selected Dec 15 1856
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Epidemics1 seem intimately related to famine, yet very inexplicable. —
do p. 529 "It accords with the most liberal! spirit of philosophy to believe that no stone can fall, or plant rise, without the immediate agency of the deity.2 But we know from experience ! that these operations of what we call nature, have been conducted almost ! invariably according to fixed laws: and since the world began, the causes of population & depopulation have been probably as constant as any of the laws of nature with which we are acquainted." — This applies to one species — I would apply it not only to population & depopulation, but extermination & production of new forms. — this number & correlations
1 Thomas Robert Malthus. An Essay on the Principle of Population, 6th edition, London 1826, vol. 1, especially book I, chapter 6; and book II, chapter 13.
2 Thomas Robert Malthus. Ibid. vol. 1, p. 529. Malthus wrote "divine power" instead of "the deity".
Octob. 4th  It cannot be objected to my theory, that the amount of change within historical times has been small — because change in form is
ext solely adaptation of whole of one race to some change of circumstances; now we know how slowly & insensibly such changes are in progress — we feel interest in discovering a change of level of a few feet during the last two thousand years in Italy,1 but what change would such a change produce in climate vegetation &c. — It is the circumstance of small physical changes & oscillations, not affecting organic forms, that the whole value of the geological chronology depends that most sublime discovery of the genius of man.
1 The reference is to the submergence and re-emergence of Roman buildings at Pozzuoli described by Charles Lyell: Principles of Geology, London, vol. 1, 1830, pp. 449, ff.
Those who have studied history of the world most closely. & know the amount of change now in progress, will be the last to object to the theory on the score of small change — on the contrary islands separated with some animals &c. — If the change could be shown to be more rapid I should say then some link in our train of geological reasoning extremely faulty.
The difficulty of multiplying effects & to
produce conceive the results with that clearness of conviction, absolutely necessary as the basal foundation stone of further inductive reasoning is immense.
It is curious that geology by giving proper ideas of these subjects should be absolutely necessary to arrive at right conclusion about species.
Changes of level &c. are easily recorded, but change of species not as — without every animal preserved, the latter pages in the history are perfect,
we obtain a glimpse only of the changes which the government is subject to. — further back we obtain here & there in order a scattered page, we find
quite sensible change in the institutions & we suppose not only revolutions, but certain obliterations & first laws created, & yet with symmetry & regular laws that baffles idea of revolution. —
My very theory requires each form to have lasted for its time: but we ought in same bed if very thick to find some change in upper & lower layers. Look at whole Glacial period — Good objection to my theory: a modern bed at present might be very thick & yet have same fossils, does not Lonsdale1 know some case of change in entire series
1 William Lonsdale.
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Study introduction to Cuviers1 Regne Animal.
No structure will last without it is adaptation to whole life of animal, & not if it be solely to womb as in monster, or solely to childhood, or solely to manhood. — it will decrease & be driven outwards in the grand crush of population. —
Octob. 10th . Saw two undoubtedly rabbits in poulterer shops, of same colour as a Hare, but paler & buffer — with long ears & longer hind legs ??? — so that I was almost doubtful which it was. — do hind legs increase in any rabbits
1 Georges Cuvier, Le règne animal, Paris 1817.
One may strongly suspect, that breeding in & in, produces bad effects solely, because of similarity, because in every country, where only pair has been introduced, & have freely bred, they have not lost power of producing.
Williams Narrative of Miss. Enterprise1 p. 497. Vampire bats abound in the Navigators & at Manguia, but are unknown eastward of the Navigators. Snakes occur there, but are unknown in Henry or Society isles.
1 John Williams, Missionary enterprises in South Sea Islands, London 1837.
Hope1 says positively he has seen a Calosoma (very like American form) in Stones field slate, & a Melolonittha —
In marl from Lake Constance species of Europaean genera =. — Hope has idea about generic character dominant predominant &c. having relation to geographical distribution. — Thus Hattica is such genus. — because found in all quarters: his ideas not clear. In Australia some approach to Asiatic in part near Timor, & to European in Van Diemens land where there is close species of elater — Where this collection is particularly rich as in Lucanidae less difficulty in establishing good groups. —
1 Frederick William Hope, personal communication.
ears varying so much. — kind of fur (do tips of ears take any colour?) — length of tail varies & character of fur — I am sure a very good case might be made out of variation analogous to specific variations. —
Kerrs1 Collect of Voyages Vol. 8 p. 46 Capt. Davis in 1598 found cattle in Table Bay with Hump on their back & big-tailed sheep.
do. Vol. 10. p. 373 & 374 Spaniards say no Tortoises in the place besides Galapagos2
1 Robert Kerr, A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels … London, 1811-1824; vol. 8, p. 46: "Their cattle are large, and have a great lump of flesh on the shoulder, like the back of a camel. Their sheep have prodigiously large tails, entirely composed of fat, weighing twelve or fourteen pounds, but are covered with hair instead of wool".
2 ibid., vol. 10, p. 373: "The Spaniards say there are no others in these seas, except at the Galapagos, but they are common in Brazil".
do. 376. Isle Tres Marias off Mexico with small Hares & raccoons S. American form — off province of Guadalaxura1 —
October 11th . — Uncle John2 says Decandolle3 distributed seeds of Dahlia all over Europe same year. — he sowed them for four generations before they broke. — showing effects of cultivation gradually adding up. & four more generations before they began to double. —
At present time Uncle J. does not suppose one aboriginal variety for they are all made by fertilizing
1 ibid., vol. 10, p. 376: "The Tres Marias, or Three Marias, off the Western coast of Guadalaxara, in the kingdom of Mexico … There are also many excellent hares, but much smaller than ours. We saw likewise abundance of guanas and some racoons, which barked and snarled at us like dog".
2 John Hensleigh Allen of Cresselly.
3 Augustin Pyramus de Candolle.
one plant with another — Uncle John says he has no doubt bees fertilize enormous number of plants — it is scarcely possible to purchase seeds of any cabbage, where a great many will not return to all sorts of varieties, which he attributes to crossing.— Cape Broccolli can hardly be reared without greatest care be taken to prevent fertilization from turnips or other stocks. Says if any variety of apple be sown, all
sorts come up from it, lately saw a nonpareil sowed by Mr Toilet1 so produce. — thinks it probable that great part of those varieties may be due to impregnation from other apple trees. — now seeds of crab produce crab, so that some effect from apple trees is produced. —
Thinks probably experiment was never tried of separating apple tree entirely from all others & so my experiment of strawberry2 not so absurd. — Thinks that such variety as red cabbage
1 Mr. Toilet of Betley Hall, cattle breeder, cf. Variation of Animals and Plants, London 1868, vol. 2, p. 199.
2 The reference to Darwin's experiments with strawberries has not been traced.
produced from passage from many varieties, & probably would take long before all the stain would be got out of it. — Now this is curiously different from primrose suddenly produce cowslip, one is tempted to think here some anomaly — I can fancy cowslip producing primrose return to old stock, but not primrose producing cowslip
Uncle J.1 says common belief that female plant impresses main features on offspring & male the lesser peculiarities, — brilliancy of inflorescence
Gardeners by chance sometimes graft pears on apples they will live. but not flourish —
a medlar may be grafted on pear. Mountain-ash & white Thorn!
Species not being observed to change is very great difficulty in thick strata, can only be explained by several strata being merely leaf.2 if one river did form sediment in one spot, for
whole many epochs such changes would be observed. —
1 John Hensleigh Allen of Cresselly.
2 Darwin's meaning is that many of the individual strata are as thin as a leaf of a book and contain no fossils. It is an adaptation of Lyell's analogy between Geological formations and a book with most of its leaves torn out and lost.
G. W. Earl's Eastern Seas, p. 206 — shot a monkey, ceased their cries, "many of them descending to examine their defunct companion".1 —
p. 229 Borneo — only animals he heard of pigs, small bears or badgers, deer, apes, baboons, monkey & an animal probably a tapir.2 —
p. 233. dogs in Borneo
brought probably by Chinese "the breed beingof the latter being the same as the fox-like animals which are met with near Canton".3 "Here as in all Malay countries, I noticed a peculiarity4
1 George Windsor Earl. The Eastern Seas or Voyages and Adventures in the Indian Archipelago in 1832-33-34, London 1837, p. 206. The author uses the word "comrade" instead of "companion" as quoted by Darwin.
2 George Windsor Earl. Ibid. p. 229.
3 George Windsor Earl. Ibid. p. 233.
4 George Windsor Earl. Ibid. p. 233: "Here ,as in all Malay countries I noticed a peculiarity in the cats, which I never heard satisfactorily accounted for. The joints near the tip of the tail are generally crooked, as if they had been broken".
in the cats, "the joints near the tip of the tail were generally crooked, as if they had been broken". are born so in all Malay countries
W. Earl.1 Eastern Seas, p. 233.
Octob. 12. Kotzebues2 Second Voyage Vol. II, p. 344. account of insects of St Peter & St Paul in Lat 53° yet fauna like that 60° & 70° of Europe. — Many European insects, list given — some peculiar —
do. p. 359. At Manilla a small Cercopithecus., & skins of Galiopithecus. —
Malte Brun3 Vol. XII p. 133 at Samar SE of Luçon, many monkeys, buffaloes &c &c — Malte Brun would be worth skimming over with regard to this archipelago
1 George Windsor Earl, The Eastern Seas ; or Voyages and Adventures in the Indian Archipelago in 1832, 1833, and 1834, London, 1837 ; p. 233 : "Here, as in all Maya countries I noticed a peculiarity in the cats, which I never heard satisfactorily accounted for. The joints near the tip of the tail are generally crooked, as if they had been broken ".
2 Otto von Kotzebue, New Voyage round the World, 1823-1826, London, 1830.
3 Conrad Malte Brun, Annales des voyages, Paris, 1809-14.
Octob. 13th. — Kotzebues First Voyage1 Vol. II p. 867. "The Fauna of the Sunda islands presents us, for the most part, with the same families and genera, that are natives of S. Asia, but many of the species are peculiar to them". do. p. 368 "Several kinds of animals have spread from the end of Borneo to the adjacent island — In Soolos we find the elephant — in Magindaneo several kinds of the large monkeys. — Fewer
of the mammalia have passed to Paragua & in Lucon the most northern of the group the number is limited["]
1 Otto, von Kotzebue, Voyage into the South Sea and Beering's Straits 1815-1818, London 1821.
of the group. the number is very limited.
do. Vol. III p. 77 Kotzebues Second Voyage Many foreign plants have been introduced in Guahon (Mariannes), "for example the prickly Limonia trifoliata, which cannot now be checked". —
Marsden1 p. 94 (1st Edit) of Sumatra has given account of Buffalo of the East which differs from that of S. Europe —
p. 189 The giant kind of crocodile sometimes wanders from Pellew to Eap [Yap] — There is another great Lizard, Kalug, which is found at Pellew & Eap, but not at Feis (near island)
1 William Marsden, History of Sumatra, London, 1783.
do. p. 190. The inhabitants of Summagi, a territory in the small isld of Eap in the Carolines are remarkably short. — & Deformations are particularly common. — without arms, hands, thumbs, — one leg, hare lip &c. &c.
in Vol II p 363 account of Flora of Pacific. given in my coral paper.1
Oct. 14th. Macleay2 says that any character even colour is good (i.e. invariable) in some classes. — it is because every part is under change, now one part now another —
1 Darwin's paper on Coral Islands, written in 1835, has been published, with an introduction by D. R. Stoddart, by Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., Atoll Research Bulletin No 88, 15 December 1962.
2 William Sharp Macleay. Presumably personal communication. Darwin is contending that the relatives of a form can be identified by similarities in the structure of parts and that this can be accounted for on the theory of descent by modification from common ancestors
Macleay says it is nonsense to say take a tooth of any animal (as Toxodon) & say its relations. — if we know its congeners then we can. — Now on my theory this certainly can be accounted for, on any other it is the will of God. —
Octob. 16th. A very strong passage might be made — why seeing great variation in external form of varieties, do we suppose bones will not change in number (even species do not this), because it has been so pronounced ex cathedra. Let us look at facts, considering few domestic animals few that have not
which not. cows hornless (horses not)
If they give up infertility in largest sense
as as test of species, — they must deny species which is absurd. — Their only escape is that rule applies to wild animals only. from which plain inference might be drawn that whole infertility of hybrid receive no explanation was consequent on mind or instinct now this is directly incorrect.
The case of my mice1 is good, because it is an involuntary variation made by man. common to every individual & therefore effect of climate. —
1 "My mice ": cf. G. R. Waterhouse." Species of the Genus Mus, forming part of the collection presented to this Society by Charles Darwin, Esq." Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 5, 1837, p. 15.
Octob. 19th. When reading L'Institut 1838 p. 329. Milne Edwards1 description of curious mechanism of respiration or rather ventilation peculiar to
the class some orders of crustacea, one is tempted to think that it must have been invented all at once. — but naturalists if they had series perfect, would expect this structure would become obscure & therefore it might then have arisen, & M. Edwards p. 330 distinctly states that the flipper is a mere simple modification of an organ present in whole class.
1 Henri Milne-Edwards, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 329: "un système de palettes qui fonctionnent à la manière des ventilateurs et opèrent le renouvellement de l'eau par appel, en rejetant sans cesse au dehors une portion du liquide contenu dans la cavité branchiale".
Case of Mexican greyhounds. — young being habituated instance such as Hunter,1 or some one mention of influence on parent affecting offspring. — & as adaptation. — however mysterious such is case. therefore chance & unfavourable conditions to parent may be become favourable to offspring: Australian dogs having mottled coloured puppies case of this. — tendency in manner of life to be mottled & hereditary tendency determines the puppies to be so. —
1 John Hunter, Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy with notes by Richard Owen, London, 1837.
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Did man spread over world as early as Elephants &c. — if in next 20 years none of his remains found in the Americas probably did not. —
Octob. 25th. I observed in Windsor Park — the Fallow Deer which were of a nearly uniform
dusky blackish brown yet retained a trace of horizontal mark on flanks; & tail & kind of semi-lunar mark1 on each side darker, so that whole colour is changed, these best marked characters are partly retained, therefore colours vary in same manner as they would vary, if in wild state: thus mark on ear of cats be barred
1 A small sketch here in MS.
Do saw what was said to be hybrid between silver & gold fish.
Octob. 26th. If hereafter M[astodon] angustidens be found to be inhabitant of S. America & as it is
falls embedded with almost recent shells. — shows that progression of change in Molluscs is somewhat similar in two hemispheres. — It might be worth investigating whether Megatherium & Mastodon are embedded in N. America. see my Journal1 for references.
In such cases as at Galapagos where different islets have different forms it is either effects of having been long separated, or having never
1 Charles Darwin. Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, London 1839, p. 152.
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argument real of antiquity of reasonable cosmopolite man.
L'Institut1 1838 p. 338. Important account of cross of sheep & Moufflon of Corsica,
would not sadly against Yarrell's law. — not so much against my modification of it — Goat & Moufflon will not breed —
p. do — 2 Fish of Teneriffe. St. Helena & Ascension most species like & identical with S. America & many very close. See full paper
L'Institut 1838. p. 338
A most grave source of doubt in distinguishing which parent impresses offspring most is whether mother has had any offspring before — now this is never stated. —
1 L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 338. Zoologie: Metis du Moufflon et du Mouton. — "M. Flourens donne lecture d'une note de M. Marcel de Serres sur un métis provenu de l'accouplement du Moufflon et du Mouton …"
2 L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 338. Géographie Zoologique: Poissons des ties Canaries. — "M. Valenciennes lit des considérations sur l'ichthyologie de l'Atlantique et en particulier sur celle des iles Canaries …"
Regarding the similarity of offspring to Parent same laws appear to hold good. with regard to marriage of individuals & varieties of same species & to different species — sometimes like one parent & sometimes other & sometimes 1/2 way.
Ed. New Phil. Transact1 Rabies. common to men, dogs, horses cows, pigs, & sheep — disease common for men and animals cowpox — case in Spain of pustulous disease following handling sheep — all case do. p. 354 The most vicious dog will not attacke any animal except dog when absent
1 Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal vol. 24, 1838, p. 353 "Observations on Rabies or Madness in Dogs, Oxen, Horses, Pigs, and Sheep. by Dr. Wagner …
from its master. — dogs when strayed hang their tails. —
November 1st — Addenda to Journal.1 I show erratic blocks transported far S. in Northern Hemisphere — likewise far North in Southern. — Great animals of same two great orders destroyed about same time in North & South America. — Whole world formerly possessed a climate compared to S. America at present days, which S. America now does to North America & Europe. — S. America favourable to Tropical productions.
1 Charles Darwin. "Darwin's Journal ", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Historical Series, vol. 2, 1959 p. 8; against the date October 27, 1838 is the entry: "Preface and addenda on Theory of Erratic Blocks to Journal [of Researches] ". cf. Journal of Researches, London 1839, p. 288.
The world formerly much more so, yet climate of same order as that of S. America. — (Explained by profound views of Lyell)1
Now Equatorial America from the low limits of blocks both North & South, has probably undergone a greater change, than any parts, (except Europe in which all Tropical forms have been obliterated) of the world, from the
Tropical Equable kind of
1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 1, p. 138.
climate to the extreme. — Therefore species which were filled from such a preeminently equable climate might not have been able to have survived a change, (& become transmuted), although other parallel species in other continents might have survived this mundine change. — Therefore I argue from this that Africa & East Indian Archipelago formerly were not so very equable, or so tropical, & therefore present state of world is not so different, with
f regard to their productions. — Hence it is, from the ancient preeminently equable & temperate climate, that of America, that the Mammalia of S. America are as different from the existing orders, as the Eocene of Paris ! (Great Edentates at that period) Analyse this, — consider state of
vegetation & conchology. — shells of Africa ought most to resemble fossil ones of Europe. Consider probable form of land. — S. America, an island, connects with Asia between two polar lands. — Africa not so equatorial. —
The fact of no Mam: Placent: insectivore being in S. America & Australia reason why Marsupiata when fresh introduced live & multiplied specifically & individually. —
I see clearly from F.R.1 it will be highly necessary to show that if species fall, genera must. Lesson2 I remember says Mariana Deer very close to a Molucca species. —
L'Institut 1837, p. 253 on animals of Antilles.3 (see Macleay4 in Zoolog. Journal on those of Cuba. — It is important to understand well the relation of passage from N. to S. American forms.
The climate of N. America must have been equable & far more so than any other part of the World. — Europe perhaps less so than either Americas. —
1 Dr Sydney Smith suggests that Darwin intended to write "F.B." meaning Sir John Richardson's Fauna Boreali-Americana …, London, 1829-1837.
2 René Primevère Lesson, in Louis Isidore Duperrey, Voyage autour du monde … sur la corvette La Coquille. Zoologie, Paris, 1826-1830.
3 P. Gervais, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 253: "Zoologie: Mammifères … communique une note sur les animaux mammifères des Antilles".
4 William Sharp MacLeay, "Notes on Capromys", Zool. Journ. vol. 4, 1829, p. 269; cf. "Remarks on the Comparative anatomy of certain birds in Cuba", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 16, 1833, p. 1.
If species change, we see external conditions have great effect on them, & therefore extermination becomes part of same law. —
When we know what a great effect light has in colouring plants, — who can say what
light colours acting by a most delicate organ, on the whole system may produce ?
When a species becomes rarer, as it progresses towards extermination, some of the species must increase in number
where then is the gap, for the new one to enter? —
The wonderful species of Galapagos must be owing to their islands having been purely results of elevation. — all modern & wholly volcanic — Azores might be prophesied to have this character. — Worth going there for. — Gales of wind would blend species.
Buckland1 Reliquiae Diluvianae p. 222. Bones of Horse, Bear & Deer at 16000 feet with snow on Himmalaya — Humboldt bones
1 William Buckland. Reliquiae Diluvianae or Observations on the Organic Remains in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel, and other Geological Phenomena attesting the action of an Universal Deluge, London London 1823, p. 222: "But in Central Asia the bones of horses and deer have been found at an elevation of 16,000 feet above the sea, in the Hymalaya mountains … "
at 7800 in Andes1 — parallel & curious facts. — The Himmalaya case bears on the vast changes even in that quarter of the world. — Mem. elevation & subsidence of East Indian Archipelago now rising.
On a particular part of coast of Somersetshire the Cockles are all apt to be diseased & some of them asymmetrically, — it is easy to get 50 of same kind of monstrosities G. B. Sowerby.2 —
1 William Buckland. Ibid. p. 222: "we have in America the bones of the mastodon at an elevation of 7800 feet above the sea, in the Camp de Géants, near Santa Fe de Bagota; and another species of the same genus in the Cordilleras, found by Humboldt, at the elevation of 7200 feet … "
2 George Brettingham Sowerby. Possibly personal communication.
Looking over Lamarck1 surprised to see how many Tropical genera come from New Holland. ?Sydney?
The dog being so much more intellectual than fox, wolf &c &c — is precisely analogous case to man exceeding monkeys. —
1 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Genera of Shells, translated by John George Children, n.p. 1823.
Having proved mens & brutes bodies on one type: almost superfluous to consider minds. — as difference between mind of a dog & a porpoise was not thought overwhelming — yet I will not shirk difficulty — I have felt some difficulty in conceiving how inhabitant of Tierra del Fuego is to be connected with civilized man. — ask the Missionaries about Australian yet slow progress has done so. — Show a savage a dog, & ask him how wolf was so changed.
When discussing extinction of animals in Europe; the forms themselves have been basis of argument of change. — now take greater area of water & snow-line descent.
I do not wish to say only cause, but one great final cause, nothing probably exists for one cause.
My theory gives great final cause of sexes in separate animals: for otherwise there would be as many species, as individuals, & though we may not trace out all the ill effects, — we see it is not the order in this perfect
wor world, either
at the present, or many anterior epochs. — but we can see if all species, there would not be social animals, hence not social instincts, which as I hope to show is probably the foundation of all that is most beautiful in the moral sentiments of the animated beings — &c.
this1 is stated too strongly, for there would be innumerable species & hence few only social there could not be one body of animals, life with certainly another
Whether he was or not He is [at] present a social animal.
If man is one great object for which the world was brought into present state, — a fact few will dispute, (although, that it was the sole object, I will dispute, when I hear from the geologist the history, from the astronomer that the moon probably is uninhabited) & if my theory be true then the formation of sexes rigidly necessary. —
1 The words from here to the end of the paragraph are inserted between lines, and the last four words, are uncertain. Perhaps "purpose" was intended at the end.
Without sexual crossing, there would be endless changes, & hence no feature would be deeply impressed on it, & hence there could not be improvement, & hence not in higher animals — it was absolutely necessary that Physical changes should act not on individuals, but on masses of individuals. — so that the changes should be slow & bear relation to the whole changes of country, & not to the local
changes — this could only be effected by sexes.
all the above should follow after discussion of crossing of
species individuals with respect to representative species, when going North & South.
Thinking of effects of my theory, laws probably will be discovered of corelation of parts,1 from the laws of variation of one part affecting another. — (I from looking at all facts as inducing towards law of transmutation, cannot see the deductions which are possible.) — Ascertainment of
1 This reference to the correlation of parts shows that Darwin entertained it very early. As Professor S.Adler F.R.S., has suggested, it was probably because Darwin was over-impressed with the importance of this concept that he failed to think of the particulate nature of heredity.
closest species (& naming them) with relation to habits, ranges & external conditions of country, most important & will be done to all countries, — but naming mere single specimens in skins worse than useless. — I may say all this, having myself aided in such sins. Yet there is no cure (do not add name without reference to description), except describers having some high theoretical interest, "the great end must be the law & causes of change". — A philosopher would as soon turn tailor as mere describer of species from its garments, without some end. — Respect good describers like Richardson.1
1 Sir John Richardson. Author of Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America. London 1829-1837.
The relations of numbers of species to genera &c &c can never be told, without species being described. — but the permanent varieties in same country, must be distinguished from permanent varieties not in same country. —
The traces of changes in forms of organs, will care little for species, except so far as wanting names to refer to, to those forms, when the termination of change occurs. — Those discovering the formal laws of the corelation of parts in individuals, will care little,
in whether the individual be species or variety. but to discover physical laws of such corelation, & changes of
individual organs, must know whether the individuals forms are permanent, all steps in the series, their relation to the external world, & every possible contingent circumstance. — # The laws of variation of races, may be important in understanding laws of specific change. # — When the laws of change are known — then primary forms may be speculated on, & laws of life, — the end of Natural History will be approximated to. —
Treating of the formal laws of corelation of parts & organs it may serve perfectly to
specify types, & limits of variation., & hence indicate gaps.— by this means the laws probably would be. generalized, & afterwards by the examination of the special cases, under which the individual steps in the series have been fixed, to study the physical causes.
All Cuviers generalization, of teeth to kind of extremities come under this head
When summing up argument against my theory, doubtless, the presence of animals in
own the present orders (not so in S. America, however) is very remarkable & none discovered before them in any part of World. — Wealden to boot. —
When one sees in Coralline powers of multiplication of individuals, & yet another means for individuals (Mem: transportation will be answered) one looks to analogy for cause in plants, where innumberable individuals can be produced. & yet sexual apparatus. —
My account of Circus cinereus of the Falklands Isld. is interesting as showing some change in habits before form. — I have already given various examples
The Pipe-fish is instance of part of the hermaphrodite structure being retained in the male.1 —
like far more than marsupial bones, & even more than mammae, which have given milk. — is secretion from Pidgeon stomach true milk. — # Species are innumerable variations
Every structure is capable of innumerable variations. as long as each shall be perfectly adapted to circumstances of times, & from persisting owing to their slow formation these variations tend to accumulate on any structure.
1 The male pipe-fish carries the developing eggs in a ventral pouch.
L'Institut1 1838, p. 384. List of fossil Mamm: from Poland &c. —
Three principles will account for all
(1) Grandchildren like grandfathers
(2) Tendency to small change especially with physical change
(3) Great fertility in proportion to support of parents
1 Carl Eduard von Eichwald. "Sur des Ossements fossiles de Mammifères trouvés en Pologne", L'Institut, 1838, vol. 6, p. 384.
Lyell1 letter Mr Beck2 considers the characteristics of the Tropical Forms in shells are numerous species, numerous individuals, &
individuals species of large size. — consider this (Cetacea) with reference to my theory.
Babbage3 2d Edit. p. 226 — Herschel4 calls the appearance of new species the mystery of mysteries,5 & has grand passage upon the problem.! Hurrah — "intermediate causes"
1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 3, p. 56.
2 Henrich Henrichsen Beck.
3 Charles Babbage. The IXth Bridgewater Treatise. A fragment, London 1837. On p. 226 of the 1st edition is an Appendix "On the age of strata as inferred from the rings of trees embedded in them", the 2nd edition of this work has not been consulted.
4 See Introduction, p. 157 above.
5 Here is the origin of this expression on the first page of the Introduction of the Origin of Species.
The Sexual system of the Cirrhipedes is the more remarkable from their alliance to Articulata, which are all truly bisexual.
Buckland's1 Reliqu: Diluv. says Africa only place where Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippot., H y a e n a & are found together. — Read this Work. —
Why has the organization of fishes & Mollusca (& plants ???) been so little progressive (& insects. — Stonesfield2 ???)! Agassiz3 makes it wonderfully changed since Cretaceous period, whether progressive I know not. Have Mammalia?? my theory certainly requires progression, otherwise
1 William Buckland. Reliquiae Diluvianae; or, Observations on the Organic Remains contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel, and other Geological Phenomena attesting the action of an Universal Deluge, London 1824, p. 170: "… another interesting branch of inquiry connected with it is, whether any fossil remains of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and hyaena exist in the diluvium of tropical climates; and if they do, whether they agree with the recent species of these genera, or with those existing species, whose remains are dispersed so largely over the temperate and frigid zones of the northern hemisphere." On p. 21 Buckland refers to the modem hyaena living in Africa, and the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus were well known to be African. The statement that Africa is the only continent in which they all lived has not been traced.
2 The reference is to Mesozoic Mammals discovered in the Stonesfield Slate, published by William John Broderip, Zool. Journ. vol. 3, 1828, p. 408.
3 Louis Agassiz. Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles, Neuchâtel, 1833, tome 1, p. xxvii: "Les espèces de la craie appartiennent pour plus des deux tiers à des genres qui ont entièrement disparu." From "Agassiz" to "I know not" inserted between lines.
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Are the feet of water-dogs at all more webbed than those of other dogs. — if nature had had the picking she would make
them such a variety far more easily than man, — though man's practised judgment even without time can do much. — (yet one cross, & the permanence of his breed is destroyed).
When two races of men meet, they act precisely like two species of animals. — they fight, eat each other, bring diseases to each other &c., but then comes the most deadly struggle, namely which have
the best fitted organization, or instincts (i.e intellect in man) to gain the day. — In man chiefly intellect, in animals chiefly organization, though Cont. of Africa & West Indies shows organization in Black Race there gives the preponderance, intellect in Australia to the white. — The peculiar skulls of the men on the plains of Bolivia — strictly fossil — & in Van Diemen's land — they have been exterminated on principles strictly applicable to the
universe — The range of man is not unlike that of animals transported by floating ice. — I agree with Mr Lyell,1 man is not an intruder — : the geological history of man is as perfect as the Elephant if some genus holding same relation as Mastodon to man were to be discovered.
Man acts on & is acted on by the organic and inorganic agents of this earth like every other animal.
1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 3, pp. 68, 238.
Would anyone raise an argument against my theory, should no fossil very distinct species of the Ornithorhynchus be found; yet until man became cosmopolite, he would probably be confined in locality like Ornithorhynchus: since being cosmopolite, we do find his remains. — Lima — caves. —
There being no fossils, the only way, that I can see to discover whether the parent of man was quadruped or bimanous,is to see, what
parts of structure abortive. — Remember my fathers1 remark about the Bladder. —
The numbers of fatal diseases in mankind, the more valuable domesticated animals no doubt is owing to the tearing up of every hereditary tendency towards fatal diseases, & such constitutions only being cleared off by fatal diseases. —
1 Robert Waring Darwin. The nature of the remark is unknown.
The value of a group does not depend on the number of the species: therefore man & monkeys have equal chance that progenitor was bimanous or quadrumanous. — What a chance it has been, (with what attendant organization, Hand & throat) that has made a man. — (any monkey probably might, with
such chances be made intellectual, but almost certainly not made into man. — It is one thing to prove that a thing has been so, & another to show how it came to be so. — I speak only of the former proposition. — as in races of Dogs, so in species & in man.
December 16th The end of each volume of Whewells1 Induction History contains many most valuable references
1 William Whewell. History of Inductive Sciences, London 1837.
See if any law can be made out, that varieties are generally additive, & not abortive: with reference to the non-necessity of the so-called progressive tendency law. —
In animals analogy leads one to suppose that seminal fluid fluid (& not dry as in plants) therefore, great difficulty in crossing (& this most important obstacle to my theory) without the hermaphrodites mutually couple. — now how is it in Planaria, they couple (lowest terrestrial animals), — in shells? —
1 The words in italics enclosed between square brackets.
insects? — all !??!? — Worms? (Barnacles, aquatic
yet Crustaceans, & true hermaphrodites) It may be said that true hermaphroditism is a consequence of non-locomotion — (contradicted by Plants) & as there are no fixed land animals, so there are [no] true hermaphrodites. — I suspect this rather effect of liquid semen, therefore animal life commenced in water!
It is a beautiful part of my theory, that domesticated races of organics are made by precisely same means as species — but latter far more perfectly & infinitely slower. — No domesticated animal is perfectly adapted to external conditions. — (hence great variation in each birth) from man arbitrarily destroying certain forms & not others. — Term variety may be used to gradation of change
which gradation shows it to be the effect of a gradation in difference in external conditions, — as in plant up a mountain — In races the differences depend upon inheritance & in species are only ancient & perfectly adapted races
L'Institut1 1838, p. 394. Rhinoceros tichorhinus in Paris basin. — its relation to African Species
good observations larger than any living
1 "M.Valenciennes écrit qu'en faisant des fouilles sur la Place de la Grève pour les fondations des nouveaux Bâtiments de 1'Hôtel de Ville, on a trouvé à 17 pieds au-dessous du sol, un humérus droit de Rhinocéros de l'espèce nommée par Cuvier Rhinoceros tichorhinus." L'Institut, 1838, tome 6, p. 394.
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A Greyhound might be made almost without any relation to running hares as in Italian Greyhound1 — not so species every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical & perfected.
Hence difference between race & variety?
Man picks the male, instead of allowing strength to get the day.
The fertility of Indian & Common Oxen, which one must think deserve the name of species, may be owing to the little fixity of organization, in the two races, owing to the domestication of both. — Now in the ass — there is little tendency to vary & hence offspring are hybrids. —
1 "as in Italian greyhound" inserted in pencil.
Mr G. B. Sowerby1
tol showed me many land shells of the common species from one locality all left whorled. — He kept two to see if they would breed.
It is difficult to think of Plato & Socrates, when discussing the Immortality of the Soul as the linear descendant of
mammferus mammiferous animal, which would find its place in the Systema Naturae.
1 George Brettingham Sowerby. This was a century before the experiments were performed by A. E. Boycott, C. Diver, S. L. Garstang, and F. M. Turner: "The inheritance of Sinistrality in Limnaea peregra", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., B, vol. 219, 1930, p. 51.
Looking at simple generation as being the action of two organs in one body, — or in two bodies, we can as well understand the necessity of a relation between the fluids of the two as in the grafting of trees. Mr Knight1 makes this analogy between grafting & sexual union. — 2
The similarity of child to parent appears to follow same law in two of the same
species variety, as in two varieties, & this we might expect, as the difference between man & woman is indeed (independent of sexual differences) a variety. The offspring of true
1 Thomas Andrew Knight. "Introductory Remarks relative to the objects which the Horticultural Society have in view", Trans. Hort. Soc, vol. 1, 1820, (read 2 April 1805). On p. 4: "to use the phrase of Lord Bacon, the graft in all cases overruleth the stock, from which it receives aliment, but no motion."
2 A square bracket is opened here; it is not closed.
pare hermaphrodite would of course be like either, that is both parents, for they are one. —
The laws, therefore, of likenesses of fathers to children of mankind no doubt are applicable to likenesses, when species & races are crossed. — Now these laws are, that child may be either like father or mother, independently of its sex, or half way between, or someway different from either: or like progenitors. — in some families all the children like mother & in some like father What is cause of this. —
(Lord Mortons1 law holds with different species, & individuals of same species. — ) some races of man D'Orbigny2 affect the common progeny more than others. — does this more refer to length of time that the resemblance is permanent, or the similarity at first births. — it is the latter only that one refers to in speaking of resemblances of children to their parents. —
Lord Morton's law3 cannot hold with fishes, & there are mule fishes & reptiles & those which have their eggs impregnated externally; nor can it be a necessary concomitant with moths which can be impregnated externally.
1 Lord Morton. "A communication of a singular fact in Natural History", Phil.Trans. Roy. Soc. vol. III, 1821, p. 20. Lord Morton's "law" is the supposed transmission through the dam to the progeny of characters of another sire which the dam does not possess.
2 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. "L'homme américain (de I'Amérique méridionale), considéré sous les rapports physiologiques et moraux". Comptes rendus Acad. Sci., Paris, tome 7, 1838, p. 568.
3 Lord Morton's "law" could not be expected to hold in cases where the young undergo development externally to the mother as free and independent larvae.
My view of every animal being Hermaphrodite — probably will receive illustration from domestication of Monoecious plants & abortion of others. —
?in hemi-hermaphrodite insects is it not easier to understand ?perfect?? developement of one sex on one side, then the addition of other organs, in which case the hermaphroditism would not be perfect, in Ox the amount of double sexual developement is spread over
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is utterly untold, — what is added to the composition of the atom to make it alive, & how the laws of generation were impressed on it. —
man all vertebrates (Müller's1 Physiolog. p. 24.) can be traced to a germ, endowed with the vital principle, which gives rise to the sexual organs, different in each species, — & knowing from analogy, that all these big animals are descended from some one single stock, one is led to suspect that the birth of the species & individual in their present forms, are closely related — By birth the
1 Johannes Müller. Elements of Physiology, translated from the German by William Baly, London 1839, vol. 1, p. 24: "organic beings do not subsist merely by virtue of accidental combination of elements; but, on the contrary, by the vital force inherent in them … The germ is "potentially" the whole animal." This reference is enclosed between square brackets.
the successive modifications of structure being added to the germ, at a time (as even in childhood) when the organization is pliable, such modifications become as much fixed, as if added to old individuals, during thousands of centuries, — each of us then
is as old as the oldest animal,1 have passed through as many changes as has every species. —
1 The words "is as old as the oldest animal" were crossed out by Darwin in MS, This is an early attempt by Darwin to express anatomy in terms of embryology.
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Decem. 21st L'Institut1 1838 p. 414 M. Eichwald has published Fauna of Caspian. — fishes fresh water kinds (yet living in the Salt?) — very few animals of any kind — Fauna must be very curious —
with respect to the non-development of Mollusca, which I have sometimes speculated might be owing to absolute quantity of vitality in the world: — the production of vitality, as argued by Müller from propagation of infinite numbers of individuals from one of adverse. —
1 L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 412 Chronique
"Un travail de M. Eichwald récemment publié sur la faune de la mer Caspienne a donné à ce savant l'occasion de combattre l'opinion que la mer Caspienne aurait été primitivement unie à la mer Noire. Il se fonde dans cette conclusion sur la différence qui résulte de la comparaison des faunes des deux mers. Le plus grand nombre des Poissons de la Caspienne sont des Poissons d'eau douce. Cette mer est de la plus grande pauvreté en animaux marins, surtout quand on la compare à la mer Noire. Et cependant, dit M. Eichwald si les deux mers avaient été autrefois en communícation, on ne devrait trouver dans l'une aucune espèce qui ne fût également dans l'autre ".
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Decemb. 25th Lyell says the elevated shells in Bayfields district are much more like those of Scandinavia than of the N. American species — Dr Beck says the shells in Scandinavia from height of 200 & 300 ft. are identically same as those of present seas. — now in this country we have better means of judging the slowness of physical changes, than in any other. & yet 200-300 ft. no elevation & no change & even no loss of species.
It must never be overlooked that the chronology of geology rests upon amount of physical change
affecting which borders of species & only secondarily, by assumption well grounded, on time; — therefore the mere loss of species, which may be the works of a few years as with the Lamantin of Steller1 tells much less (though the it also the effect of change, than a slow gradation in form which must be effect of slow change & therefore precludes effects of catastrophes, which must serve to confound our chronology. Consider all this. — Extinction & transmutation, two foundations, hitherto confounded, of geology. —
1 Stellers Sea-cow.
L'Institut 1838. p. 414; M. Guyon1 thinks monsters more common in Africa than in Europe especially with Europeans settled there.
L'Institut do. p. 419. long account of Hyaenodon, a fossil dog leading towards Hyaena.2 — See Comte Rendu. — I suspect good case of fossil filling up blank. — not between existing series of species of dog & Hyaena. — but a common point. whence both may have descended. —
1 M. Guyon, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 414: Tératologie, "en Afrique les monstruosités sont plus communes qu'en Europe".
2 M. Laizer & M. Parieu, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 419; Paléontologie: Mammifère inconnu … "Description et détermination d'une machoire appartenant à un Mammifère jusqu'à présent inconnu … Hyaenodon".
Jan. 6th 
The rudiment of a tail shows man was originally
quadrumane quadruped. Hairy — could move his ears
The head being six metamorphosed vertebra,1 the parents of all vertebrate animals must have been like some molluscous bisexual animal with a vertebra only & no head — !!
Handwriting is determined by most complicated circumstances, as shown by difficulty in forging, yet handwriting said to be hereditary, shows well what minute details of structure of hereditary
1 When Darwin wrote, the accepted view was that of Goethe and Oken that the vertebrate skull was composed of a number of fused vertebrae. This relic of transcendental anatomy, to which Richard Owen also subscribed, was destroyed by T.H.Huxley in 1858 (G. R. de Beer, The Development of the Vertebrate Skull, Oxford 1937).
Athenaeum1 1839, p. 36. — a crustaceous animal is mentioned which inhabits the Pinna of Rio Janeiro (like some Mediterranean species). — might these fertilise other shells, as insects do flowers. — Mem. Spallanzanis2 experiments showing how little of the spermatic fluid fertilized spawn of frogs. —
Annals of Natural History3 (p. 225, 1838) account of metamorphosis in the young of Syngnathus. curious as showing generality of law even in fish: # do p. 236 on Hybridity in ferns.4 — # do p. 250 — speaking of the terrestrial mollusca of Morocco, Mr Forbes5 says the Fauna (near Oran) approach in character to Canary Isld. — i.e. Canary Isld approaches more to neighbouring coast of Africa, than to other parts of that
1 Athenaeum, 1839, 12th January, p. 36. Miscellanea. New Crustacea. "A surgeon of the French navy, M. Mittre, just arrived at Brest, among several new and interesting objects of natural history, has brought a new Maclura, which he found at Rio de Janeiro in the Pinna nobilis. The existence of this Crustacean in the seas of the New World is a curious fact in the geography of zoology, for since the time of Aristotle, it has only been found in the Mediterranean."
2 Lazzaro Spallanzani. An Essay on Animal Reproduction, London 1769. "Of the existence of the tadpoles in eggs before fecundation". On page 46: "… could not the eggs of frogs be fecundated artificially, by sprinkling them before fecundation, with the liquor extracted from the spermatic vessels of the male?".
3 B. F. Fries. "Metamorphosis observed in Syngnathus lumbriciformis", Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1838, p. 225: "… the young of this beautiful species at their development from the egg have the entire tail covered with a fin-like membrane and possess pectoral fins. These at a subsequent unknown period are thrown off in a way similar to that of the larvae of frogs rejecting their tails."
4 M. Martens. "Hybridity in Ferns", Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1838, p. 236: M. Martens observed in the Botanical Garden of Louvain, a fern which he regarded as a hybrid between Gymnogramma calomelanos and G.chrysophylla".
5 Edward Forbes. "On the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia", Ann. Nat. Hist., 1838, vol. 2, p. 250: "Oran (near Morocco), where the Fauna of Barbary assumes a different aspect, approximating to that of the Canaries on the one hand, and to that of Spain on the other."
continent. in like manner as Madagascar does to otherside of Africa. — (& Juan Fernandez to Chile ??) Falklands to southern portion. Annals of Nat. Hist.1 1838 — do p. 269. on fresh water fish peculiar to Ireland.2 do. p. 283. on the dark ears of the wild Chillingham cattle,3 with reference to Mr. Bell's4 statement of the tame ones, —
the an instance of a trifling peculiarity not to be eradicated. — do. p. 305. — Mr Owen5 says the in abstract in his paper on the Dugong, "The generative organs being those which are most, remotely related to the habits & food of an animal, I have always regarded as affording very clear indication of its true affinities. We are least likely in the modifications of these organs to mistake a merely adaptive to an essential character" — How little clear meaning has this to what it might have. —
1 Edward Forbes, Annals of Natural History, vol. 2, 1838, p. 250: "On the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia".
2 William Thompson, Annals of Natural History, vol. 2, 1838, p. 269: "On Fishes; containing a notice of one Species new to the British, and of others to the Irish Fauna" (Salmo ferox, Lake Trout, in Lough Neagh, cf. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, p. 81.)
3 L. Hindmarsh, Annals of Natural History, vol. 2, 1838, p. 274, "On the Wild Cattle of Chillingham Park"; on p. 283: "in the colour of the ears there is a trifling difference, but this appears to be an occasional variety in the species".
4 Thomas Bell, History of British Quadrupeds, London, 1837.
5 Richard Owen, Annals of Natural History, vol. 2, 1838, p. 305, reference to Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 27 March 1838, containing this statement.
What is the difference between an essential character & an adaptive one. — are not the essential ones eminently adaptive. — Does it not mean lately adapted or transformed & hence not indicative of true affinity. — — — Owen1 says Dugong connected with Pachydermata. —
it was a Pachyderm,which was the origin of the aquatic Mammifers. p. 306. the Dugong cannot be united with true Cetacea or whales.2 — but an aquatic Pachyderm & Walrus — aquatic seal — (Consult this passage when considering origin of Northern Cetacea). — — do p. 318 M. Pictet3 of writing of Goethe, alludes to difference between fossil & recent Bull: like fossil & recent shells of the new raised beaches. — who maintains that
1 Richard Owen, ibid., p. 307: "I conclude, therefore, that the Dugong and its congeners must either form a group apart, or be joined as in the classification of M. de Blainville, with the Pachyderm".
2 Richard Owen, ibid., p. 306: "Now we have seen … the junction of the Dugongs and Manatees with the true Whales cannot therefore be admitted in a distribution of animals according to their organization".
3 M. F. G. Pictet, "On the writings of Goethe relative to Natural History", Annals of Natural History, vol. 2, 1839, pp. 313-322; on p. 321: "his observations on the researches of Dr Jaeger upon the subject of fossil bulls found in the neighbourhood of Stuttgart. Goethe seeks to prove in this article, that the difference which exists between fossil and recent bulls may be looked upon as the result of the perfecting of the species during the centuries which separate the two periods".
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The enormous number of animals in the world depends of their varied structure & complexity. — hence as the forms became complicated, they opened fresh means of adding to their complexity. — but yet there is no necessary tendency in the simple animals to become complicated although all perhaps will have done so from the new relations caused by the advancing complexity of others. — It may be said, why should there not be at any time as many species tending to dis-developement (some probably always have done so, as the simplest fish), my answer is because, if we begin with the simplest forms & suppose them to have changed, their very changes
ton tend to
give rise to others. — Why then has there been a retrograde movement in Cephalopods & fish & reptiles? — supposing such be the case, it proves the law of developement in partial classes is far from true. — I doubt not if the simplest animals could be destroyed, the more highly organized would soon be disorganized to fill their places. —
The geologico-geographico changes must tend sometimes to augment & sometimes to simplify structures. Without enormous complexity, it is impossible to cover whole surface of world with life. — for otherwise a frost if killing the vegetables in one quarter of the world would kill all, — & the one herbivorous & its one carnivorous devourer; it is
quite clear that a large part of the complexity of structure is adaptation, though perhaps difference between jaguar & tiger may not be so. — Considering the Kingdom of nature as it now is, it would not be possible to simplify the organization of the different beings, (all fishes to the state of the Ammocoetus, Crustacea to — ? &c) without reducing the number of living beings — but there is the strongest possible to increase them, hence the degree of developement is either stationary or more probably increases. —
Uncle John1 says he feels sure, that the reason people send for their seeds to London is that people in the southern Counties have whole fields, some for cauliflower &c. — Uncle John believes one single turnip in a garden is sufficient to spoil a bed of Cauliflowers. — (How curious it would be to make enquiries of some of the great seed-growers — ). —
Feb. 24th. Monoceros, which Sowerby2 says is an American form, has several species in my
1 John Hensleigh Allen of Cresselly (1769-1843).
2 George Brettingham Sowerby. The Zoology of Captain Beechey's Voyage, London 1839, p. 161: "Monoceros crassilabrum Lam.; recent at Valparaiso, &c. Monoceros crassilabrum var.; recent at Valparaiso &c". This note is not by Sowerby, but is included in the Section immediately following his "Observations by the Editor".
fossils — 1 (If cases of one variety in upper part of bed & another in lower is very rare, the conclusion will be that our greatest formations
wer have been deposited in a period (say 10.000 years) which is sufficient only to have most slightly modified organic forms. — We know not rate of deposition has been equal even in one bed, much less in alternating strata of sand & limestone &c. &c. —
1 A square bracket is opened here: it is not closed.
L'Institut 1838,1 p. 290 — admirable paper on geographical distribution of Crustacea. — (I forget whether I have already referred to it — also on spermatic animalcules in Musci frondosi, et hepatici, — in Chara, in Marchantia & Hypnum. —
Prof: Don2 would have known the Composites of Galapagos were South American. — several cases of species peculiar to separate islets. —
March 5th. Lyell3 says fossil shells from North America, Scotland, Uddevalla many species same. & northern forms — & the American ones & European — agree very much
1 Henri Milne Edwards. "Géographie Zoologique. M.Milne Edwards lit l'extrait d'un mémoire sur la distribution géographique des Crustacés", L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 290.
2 George Don (jun.) had collected plants in S.America.
3 Charles Lyell. Presumably personal communication.
closer, than the present ones, which according to Beck1 are different. — Subsidence of Greenland — case of splitting of two regions — are there any cases of union of two regions in modern times. — this would depend on negative evidence of fossil remains, & therefore not to be trusted. — Lyell tells me, on authoritiy of Beck that Hooded crow & Carrion crow have in Europe different ranges — latter not going
1 Henrich Henrichsen Beck. Personal communication to Lyell,
north of the Elbe, — yet they meet in one wood in Anhault & there every year produce hybrids — now this is independent good case, but very odd since these crows are mixed in England — for I presume Carrion Crow is found in Edinburgh. — Why does Fleming1 consider them varieties & what says Jenyns2 to it? — In argument of origin of Wolf, difference of mind is most relied on,
1 John Fleming. A History of British Animals, Edinburgh 1828, p. 87: "Corvus corone … is this species different from the Hooded Crow?"
2 Leonard Jenyns. A Manual of British Vertebrate Animals Cambridge 1835. On pp. 145 and 146 Corvus corone the Carrion Crow and C.cornix, the Hooded Crow are listed as separate species.
Sr C Bell1 has some account of wolf in Zoolog. Gardens which brought its puppies to be fondled. — and we see in the Australian dog an instance of a half reclaimed animal. — the dogs, which have been wild here, have done so in hot countries. One ought to be able to hybridise the camel. Camel does not vary like ass & horse in lesser degree, how different to dog! — (Hybrids of Calceolaria.) —
Same way some plants vary more than others: Does the Power of easily making tolerably fertile hybrids bear relation to capability of Variation? my theory says so. —
1 Sir Charles Bell, Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression, London, 1806.
March 6th. Mr Bentham1 says in Sandwich Isld he believes there are many cases of genera peculiar to the group having species peculiar to the separate islands. In his work on the Labiatae some of these species are described. — capital case. — for Sandwich Isld are very similar to Galapagos — study Flora, what general forms. — are the Labiatae nearest to American or Indian groups? = Believe some Mediterranean, but chiefly mountainous — this is very important (Sicily exception) — see if this can be generalized — islds have peculiar
1 George Bentham, Labiatarum genera et species, London, 1832-6.
forms. — on southern flanks of Alps, many peculiar plants on single mountains, though these are connected with other mountains laterally. —
Owen.1 Fossil Mammalia p. 55 talks of Tapirus American form found in Eocene beds of Paris.
Lyell2 has remarked species never reappear when once extinct.
Lyell's argument about
Tertiary Isld neighbours, formed in the Tertiary epoch like Sicily,3 not having species, if true, important on my view. —
1 Richard Owen. The Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, Part I, Fossil Mammalia, London 1840, p. 55: "It is well known how unlooked-for and unlikely was the announcement of the existence of an extinct quadruped entombed in the Paris Basin, whose closest affinities were to a genus, (Tapirus) at that time, regarded as exclusively South American."
2 Charles Lyell. It seems that Darwin must have obtained verbally from Lyell the view expressed subsequently in his Elements of Geology, 2nd edition, London 1841, vol. 1, p. 200: "It appears, that from the remotest periods there has been ever a coming in of new organic forms, and an extinction of those which pre-existed on the earth; some species have endured for longer, others for a shorter time; while none have ever re-appeared after once dying out."
3 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 3, p. 444: "We have seen that a large portion of Sicily has been converted from sea to land since the Mediterranean was peopled with the living species of Cetacea and zoophytes. The newly emerged surface, therefore, must, during this modern zoological epoch, have been inhabited for the first time by the terrestrial plants and animals which now abound in Sicily." The words "formed" to "Sicily" are in pencil.
Is there any relation between the fact that different species produce abundantly infertile hybrids, & the fact that old varieties do not so much affect first race, as it does indelibly the many subsequent ones.
My views,1 V. p. 103 would lead me to think that a
do variety of one species would cross easier with 2d species, than two perfect species; but facts of grouse, & pheasant, & hooded crow goes against this, & wild hybrid plants.
1 The reference is to MS. page 103 of this Notebook, which Darwin excised.
If many wild animals were crossed, there would probably be perfect series, from physical impossibility to unite to perfect prolifickness — (
a series might be obtained): but the intervention of domesticated i.e. new varieties destroys the appearance of this series & makes me think that one large body of varieties are fertile & make mongrel, & other great series quite otherwise & make no true hybrids — but this is false, (give instance of series from wild animals & plants.)
Mr Mark1 has some nephews, who are astonishingly like to some distant cousins, the nearest blood being a great great grandfather. — — Little Miss Hibbert case of kindness coming out more than in mother or indeed grandmother: what is in S.S.parentage? —
Wonderful as is the possession of voice by Man we should remember, that even birds can imitate the sounds surprisingly well. —
In early stages of transmutations, the relations of animals & plants to each other would rapidly increase, & hence number of forms, once formed, would remain stationary, hence all present types are ancient
1 Mr.Mark was Dr. Robert Darwin's coachman at Shrewsbury.
according to my views of
Dioecia & all plants, being occasionally dioecious; & really dioecious plants being effect of abortion of one sex. Linnean class Dioecia & Monoecia ought to be preeminently artificial. —
Would not subsidence of Greenland render climate less extreme (& so account for descent1 of snow line there & then & there only: as stated by Capt. Graah)2 & break up N.American Conchology from European, & the climate being now less extreme than before, arctic forms would retreat: effect on snow of arctic climate in far north regions? Arctic forms have travelled S.
1 recte ascent
2 Captain Graah; in Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vo1. 2, P. 302: "The observations alluded to were made by Captain Graah during a survey of Greenland in 1823-24; and afterwards in 1828-29."
From the analogy of the animal kingdom I should suppose, that the pollen of crab, would possibly (no, for pollen of any kind would fertilize it)1 fertilize an apple somewhat more readily than other apples, he probably would more indelibly stain offspring — it would not reach one apple sooner than that of
other: another apple. only effect produced would be different. — same way one variety of animal dog does not prefer other, but produces greater effect on offspring —
1 The words in this bracket inserted subsequently.
Mr Herbert1 says p 347 Amaryllidaceae Plants do not become acclimatized by crossing, or by accidental production of seedling with hardier constitution. — Now Sir J. Banks2 says Zizania in 16 generations did become acclimatized, & says Laurels have not been so. (which is case adduced by Herbert)3 because not reared by seedlings. Now my principle does not apply to any plant reared artificially, & only very partially to the Zizanias in in Sir J. ponds — my principle being the destruction of all the less hardy ones & the
1 William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837, p. 347: "it does not appear that in reality any plant becomes acclimated under our observation, except by crossing with a hardier variety, or by the accidental alteration of constitution in some particular seedling." It will be noticed that Darwin's note on this passage is inaccurate by substituting "or" for "except".
2 Sir Joseph Banks. "Some hints respecting the proper mode of inuring tender plants to our climate," (read December 3rd, 1805), Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 1, 1811, p. 21. On p. 22: "In the year 1791, some seeds of Zizania aquatica were procured from Canada, and sown in a pond at Spring Grove, near Hounslow; it grew, and produced strong plants, which ripened their seeds: these seeds vegetated in the succeeding spring, but the plants they produced were weak, slender, not half so tall as those of the first generation, and grew in the shallowest water only; the seeds of these plants produced others next year, sensibly stronger than their parents of the second year. In this manner the plants proceeded, springing up every year from the seeds of the proceeding one, every year becoming stronger and larger, and rising from deeper parts of the pond, till the last year, 1804, when several of the plants were six feet in height, … Here we have an experiment which proves, that an annual plant, scarce able to endure the ungenial summer of England, has become in fourteen generations, as strong and as vigorous as our indigenous plants are, and as perfect in all its parts as in its native climate."
3 William Herbert, op. cit. p. 347: "although we are told that laurels were at first kept in hothouses in this country, it was not that they were less capable of supporting our seasons than at present, but that the cultivators had not made full trial of their powers of endurance."
preservation of accidental hardy seedlings: (which are confessed to by Herbert)1 to sift out the weaker ones: there ought to be no weeding or encouragement, but a vigorous battle between strong & weak.
March 11th. Yarrell's2 law must be partly true, as enunciated by him to me, for otherwise breeders who only care for first generations, as in horses, would not care so much about breed. — what can however be more striking, about indelibleness, than the
1 William Herbert, op. cit. p. 347; see above.
2 William Yarrell who believed that in a cross the oldest variety had the greatest influence on the characters of the mongrel offspring, cf. Darwin's Second Notebook on Transmutation of Species, MS. pp. 1 and 121.
number of good race-horses which Eclipse? has begotten. Walker1 attributes this to effect of male sex on locomotive system.
I am bound to insist honestly that the sudden change from Primrose to Cowslip is great difficulty (I should doubt if wild species ever found like short-tailed cat or dog has been without recurrent tendency in external conditions) sudden loosing of horns. — I do not believe this nature's plan. —
Whether we can or not trace history of first appearance of varieties of domesticated animals, yet as we know how many plants have been produced (look at the Dahlias we may infer it in animals) — Azara2 gives account of production of hornless cattle,?& others? —
1 Alexander Walker. Intermarriage, London 1838, "by regulating the relative youth, vigour and voluntary power of sire and dam, either may be made to give to progeny the voluntary and locomotive systems, and the other the sensitive and vital systems; though, if they be well conformed, it is preferable that the sire should give the former and the dam the latter, as being the systems in which naturally they respectively excel."
2 Félix d'Azara. Essais sur l'histoire naturelle des quadrupèdes de la province du Paraguay. Paris ix (1801), tome 2, p. 371: "Dans le district des Corrientes, naquit en 1770 un Taureau écorné ou sans cornes. II a propagé sa race dans ces pays-ci, et il faut observer à cet égard que les petits d'un Taureau sans cornes en sont privés, quoique la mère ait des cornes, et que les petits d'un père à cornes en ont aussi, quoique la mère en soit privée."
March 12th It is difficult to believe in the dreadful but quiet war of organic beings. going on the peaceful woods. & smiling fields. — we must recollect the multitude of plants introduced into our gardens (opportunities of escape for foreign buds & insects) which are propagated with very little care, — & which might spread themselves as well as our wild plants, we see how full nature, how finely each holds its place. — When we hear from authors (Ramond1 Hort. Tranact. vol. I, p. 17 Append) that in the Pyrenees that the
1 Louis-Elizabeth Ramond de Carbonnières. "On the vegetation of high mountains", translated by Richard Anthony Salisbury (read 2nd April, 1811), Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 1, 1812, Appendix p. 15. The passage in question on p. 17 reads: "Thus in the Swiss Alps, and Pyrenees, trees cease to grow at about 2400 or 2500 metres of actual elevation, as they do about the 70th degree of north latitude."
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Rhododendron ferrugineum. begins at 1600 metres precisely & stops at 2600. & yet know that plant can be cultivated with ease near London — what makes the line, as of trees in Beagle Channel — it is not elements! — We cannot believe in such a line, it is other plants. — a broad border of killed trees would form fringe — but there is a contest & a grain of sand turns the balance. —
M. Ramond. p. 19 do. (Hort. Transact. Vol I)1 says lofty Alpine plant of Pyrenees agree with those of Norway, Lapland, & Greenland, but not
1 Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, 1820 (3rd ed.) Appendix IV, p. 15 "On the Vegetation of high Mountains, translated from a Paper of M. Ramond's in the Annales du Muséum, vol.4,p. 395." By Richard Anthony Salisbury …" On p. 19 "… Norway, Lapland, and Greenland, furnish plants analogous to those of the Swiss Alps and Pyrenees, but few, or possibly none of them, are seen in Siberia, Kamschatka, or even in the polar regions of America. …"
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with those of Kamtchatka, Siberia, or even of polar regions of N. America. — if true curious on my view — because these points were last connected with those northern regions.1
do. p. 21 says many plants skirt each side of the great N & S valleys, which penetrate Pyrenees in branch valleys — M. Ramond offers no explanation.
1 ibid p. 21 "…. grow wild in the same place, and follow the same route. The Anthericum Bicolorum of Algiers, traverses the same chain of mountains, and arrives in Anjou. The Scilla Umbellata and Crocus Mudiflorus, have migrated from the Pyrenees even into England. Yet not one of the above mentioned vegetables has been disseminated laterally, to meet those southern ones which have crossed the Swiss Alps. …"
Poet Cowper1 describes his tame Hares attacking a sick one like Chillingham bulls are described. — His three have had very different dispositions: this is important as showing small variations in offspring of wild animals — grateful & intelligent. —
The theory that all animals have sprung from few stocks, does not bear the least on ancient generic forms. — the animals in Eocene period could not have been direct parents of any of ours, — even if extinction is denied. — it will not account for all species even if it will for all. —
1 William Cowper. "Unnoticed properties of that little animal the hare". Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 54, part I, 1784, p. 412. On p. 413: "like many other wild animals, they persecute one of their own species that is sick." Their names were "Puss", "Tiney", and "Bess".
Varieties are made in two ways — local varieties, when whole mass of species are subjected to same influence, & this would take place from changing country: but greyhound, race-horse & poulter Pidgeon have not been thus produced, but by training, & crossing & keeping breed pure — & so in plants effectually the offspring are picked & not allowed to cross. — Has nature any process analogous — if so she can produce great ends — But how — even if placed on Isld if &c &c — make the difficulty apparent by cross-questioning1 — Here give my theory. — excellently true theory
1 These seven words inserted between lines.
Examine list of St Helena Plants & see whether those which grow in low ground are those, which are common & nearest being common to other parts of the world. —
March 16th Mr Lonsdale showed me two specimens of an Inoceramus from the Gault of Folkestone, which is exactly intermediate between I. concentricus & I. sulcatus. — the beak of this one has concentric striae, all the lower part rayed longitudinally (give woodcut) like I. sulcatus. — Both species are
found at Folkestone. — it is unnamed this intermediate one. — Mr Lonsdale evidently inclines to think it Hybrid!!! Ask Woodward1
Mr Lonsdale says Trigonia costata & elongata though considerably different in proportional dimensions must
almost be considered merely varieties & even Mr Sowerby is coming to this conclusion, from specimens in grades, now L. says that T. costatus
1 Samuel Pickworth Woodward (1821-1865) was 18 years old in 1839 which shows that this pencil note was added at a date later than that at which the Notebook was written.
is in England found in the Inferior Oolite, & the T. elongata in the Upper formation Portland Stones &c. &c. — if so it is good case: — In Sowerby1 Min. Conch. it is however, said they have been found together in coast of France. — L. doubts. — Lonsdale thinks Ammonites would afford instance of such facts. — Ask Phillips.2 —
1 James Sowerby, Mineral Conchology of Great Britain, London, 1812-46.
2 John Phillips, author of A Treatise on Geology. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1837.
The more I think, the more convinced I am, that extinction plays greater part than transmutation. — Do species migrate & die out? —
March 20th . Phillips in Lecture in Royal Institution says shells become less in number (?species or individuals) the deeper one goes — surely is this true? — most strange. —
In the place where any species is most common, we need not look for change, because its numbers show it is perfectly adapted; if where few stray ones are that change may be anticipated, & thus fresh creation. the gardener separates a plant he wishes to vary — domesticated animals tend to vary.
Does not spermatic animalcule in Mosses render my view of the crossing of mosses & all others by action of wind difficult. —
Cline on the breeding of animals.1 p. 8. size of foetus in proportion to male parent. p. 8. his whole doctrine of the advantage of crossing consists in the idea of the male being smaller, & the female larger than the average size: (surely this is very limited view though perhaps a true element) give examples: pigs with small Chinese boar &c. &c. &c.
Offspring take more after father than mother; illustrated by the crossing of hornless sheep with horned. — compare this with what highland shepherd said. —
1 Henry Cline, Observations on the Breeding and Form of Domestic Animals, London, 1829.
p. 12. Attempts to improve the native animals of any country must be made with great caution; owing to its adaptation to the surrounding circumstances.
According to my theory no land animal with fluid seeds can be true hermaphrodite. —
Man probably assumes the hairy character of his forefathers only when advanced in age, & therefore the children do not (& in hairless kittens we see same fact) go back, & this is argument against Blyth's1
1 Edward Blyth, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, vol. 9, 1836, p. 402: "Every modification of every successive type is thus rudimentally different from the most approximate modifications of every other equivalent type, or superior type, to which it does not appertain; and this is the same conclusion to which I have been irresistibly led from consideration of various phenomena connected with the change in plumage which takes place in birds. As every species is perfectly and essentially different from every other species, so, except in a retrograde direction, are the successive typical and subtypical plans upon which they are severally organised".
doctrine of young birds retrogressing —
Uncovering the canine teeth, or sneering, has no more relation to our present wants or structure, than the muscles of the ears to our hearing powers.
E.1 frowns prodigiously when drinking very cold water, frowns connected with pain as well as intense thought. —
No one but a practised geologist can really comprehend how old the world is, as the measurements refer not to revolutions of the sun & our lives, but to period necessary to form heaps of pebbles &c. &c.: the succession of organisms tells nothing about length of time, only order of succession. —
1 Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin's elder brother.
Splendid Pamphlet (published in Philosoph. Journal
Mar April 1st 1839) by Sedgwick & Murchison1; which is a beautiful instance of forms, intercalated between two great distinct formations. — particulars are given p. 246-248 & p. 258.
A beautiful case showing the gradation from one grand system to another: in each system, the changes from limestone to san[d]stone &c. show some great change who can say how many centuries elapsed between each of these gaps. far more probably than than during the deposition of the beds. — The argument must
1 Adam Sedgwick & Roderick Murchison, "Classification of the Older Stratified Rocks of Devonshire and Cornwall", Philosoph. Mag. vol. 14, 1839, pp. 241-260.
be thus put, shall we give up whole system of transmut. or believe that time has been much greater, & that systems are only leaves of whole volumes. —
The fact of tumbling pidgeons, — flying high all together & then tumbling far more wonderful than hereditary ambling horses.
Whether the body of parent be altered, that in the Nisus formativus (what does Muller1 call it) succeeds in altering
as form of body, or whether it merely has tendency (as effects of cultivation or successive generations of plants) to do so, the effects are equally handed to offspring. —
1 Johannes Müller. Elements of Physiology, translated from the German by William Baty, London 1839, 2nd edition, on p. 395: "… both organs and nerves are produced by the same power, the nisus formativus, which resides undivided in the germ."
Whewell's1 anniversary address 1839, p. 9. talks about fossil Infusoria becoming extinct not so soon as other forms. — p. 36 speaking about the controversy on Didelphys says2 "If we cannot reason from the analogies of the existing to the events of the past world, we have no foundation for our Science".3 —
it is only analogy but experience has shown we can & that analogy is sure guide & my theory explains why it is sure guide. —
1 William Whewell. "Address to the Geological Society, delivered at the Anniversary, on the 15th of February, 1839", Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 3, 1839, p. 61. On p. 63; "Of about eighty species of fossil Infusoria which have been discovered in various strata, almost the half are species which still exist in the waters: and thus these forms of life, so long overlooked as invisible specks of brute matter, have a constancy and durability through the revolutions of the earth's surface which is denied to animals of a more conspicuous size and organization." The page references given by Darwin must refer to the pagination of a reprint.
2 William Whewell. Ibid. vol. 3, p. 89.
3 While most of the credit for impressing Darwin with the principle of uniformity is rightly given to Lyell, this statement of Whewell's views should not be overlooked.
April 3d — Henslow1 tells me following facts: believes that only red Lychnis grows in
South Wales & certainly [word deleted] only white in Cambridge, in some counties sometimes one & sometimes other. — there is some difference of habit between these varieties, so that they have been thought to be different species. Lychnis dioica, generally dioecious yet parts only very slightly abortive & bed of female flowers will sometimes produce a few seeds. — Ruscus aculeatus a dioecious plant, in which the male plant sometimes
1 John Stevens Henslow.
bears female flowers, the organ. are most clearly abortive, so that they become so by suppression of one organ. here language forces on us the change, which seems to have taken place. — Almost all Dioecious & monoecious plants have rudimentary abortive organs, even more so Polygamia: Monoecia & Dioecia, preeminently artificial, so that even some species only in genera have this structure. —
Some willow trees have been observed to change their sex. — this effect from age, what Mr Knight1
1 Thomas Andrew Knight.
131e [not found]
132e [not found]
the stigma retains its power. —
R.Brown1 found the
poll masses of pollen of Asclepias placed on Orchis (so very different) that the granules exserted their tubes; now Mr Herbert2 has shown that stigma swells, when pollen even most remote is put to it. —
"Dr Edwards3 on the Influence of
external Physical agents" translated by Dr Hodgkin p. 54 The axolotl, siren & Proteus, affinity to tadpoles, p. 210, shows4 that the action of light is concerned with the developement of form; but that tadpole increased in size. —
1 Robert Brown. "On the organs and mode of fecundation in Orchideae and Asclepiadeae", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 16, 1833, p. 685. On page 728: "Pollen masses of Asclepias purpurescens being applied to the stigma of Epipactis palustris, and immersed in its viscid secretion, the dehiscence, contrary to expectation, not only took place, but even more speedily than usual, that is within twenty-four hours. Some of the grains were also found discharged from the mass unchanged, while others, both discharged and still inclosed, had begun to produce tubes."
2 William Herbert. "On the Production of Hybrid Vegetables; with the Result of many Experiments made in the Investigation of the Subject", Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 4, 1832, p. 15. On page 24: "I touched its [Azalea] stigma therefore with the dust of Rhododendron Catawbiense. The capsules swelled, … "
3 William Francis Edwards. On the Influence of Physical Agents, translated by Hodgkin, p. 54. This translation has not been accessible, but in the original work, De l'influence des agens physiques sur la vie, Paris 1824, the passage in question is on page 111: "M.Cuvier, qui a fait de belles recherches sur ces animaux, a constaté que 1'axolotl avait la structure d'une larve de salamandre; que la sirène et le protée devaient constituer des espèces de genres différens, et que les poumons de ce dernier étaient dans un état presque rudimentaire."
4 William Francis Edwards. Ibid. p. 400: "Ainsi ces deux séries d'expériences concourent à prouver que la présence de la lumière solaire favorise le déVeloppement de la forme, et servent à faire distinguer ce genre de croissance de celui qui consiste dans l'augmentation des dimensions générales du corps."
Now the Proteus anguiformis he remarks lives in dark caverns of Carniola
p. 112. Man1 "standing alone in the gift of intellect, he resembles other mammalia in the effects produced on organization by physical agents."
p. 466. Many facts given of high temperature at which fish &c can live.2 —
Lyell3 says that naked cuttle fish now bear a very large proportion to other mollusca in cold parts of sea, like Cetacea, although the
1 William Francis Edwards. Ibid. p. 230: "Unique par son intelligence, il se rapproche des mammifères par les nécessités de la vie, communes a tous les êtres qui ont une organisation semblable."
2 William Francis Edwards. Ibid. p. 601: "Tableau de l'infiuence de la température sur la vie des poissons …" et seq.
3 Charles Lyell. Presumably personal communication.
Cephalopoda seem to have decreased since earliest times —
Apterix has a most perfect Struthio head pulled out, yet feathers retain character?
If separation in horizontal direction is far more efficient in making species, then time, (as cause of change) which can hardly be believed, then, uniformity in geological formation intelligible.
No, but the wandering & separation of a few probably would be most efficient in producing new species: also one being reduced in numbers, but not so much then, because circumstances.1
1 This paragraph inserted at the bottom of the page.
April 12th Cestracion. Port Jackson shark. Owen1 thinks Australia part of old World.
If It t may be said that wild animals will vary according to my Malthusian views, within certain limits, but beyond them not, — argue against this — analogy will certainly allow variation as much as the difference between pi species, — for instance pidgeons — : then comes question of genera.
It certainly appears that swallows have decreased in numbers, what cause??
1 Richard Owen. Presumably personal communication.
Seeing the beautiful seed of a Bull Rush I thought, surely no "fortuitous" growth could have produced these innumerable seeds, yet if a seed were produced with infinitesimal advantage it would have better chance of being propagated & so &c.
The greatest difficulty to my theory, is same type of shells in oldest formations: The Cambrian formations do not however, extend round world. Quartz of Falkland. — Old Red Sandstone — Van Diemen's land — Porphyries of Andes. —
A familiar History of Birds by the Rev. E. Stanley1 vol. I, p. 72. Goldfinches placed near, but not in sight of each other will sing till they drop off their perch. —
p. 101 — Kingfisher in northern parts of England stationary, in southern stays only winter. — Jays & chaffinches sometimes migratory.2
p. 103. Turtles finding their way to the Caymans from Honduras good case of migrating shows my theory insufficient.3 —
p. 120. An Eagle is said to have been seen carrying a lamb two miles towards the Morne mountains, it4
1 Edward Stanley. A Familiar History of Birds, London 1814, vol. 1 p. 72: "Goldfinches … are put in small cages, with wooden backs, and placed near to, but so that they cannot see, each other: they will then raise their shrill voices, and continue their vocal contest till one frequently drops off its perch, perfectly exhausted. …. "
2 Edward Stanley. Ibid. p. 101: "… the Kingfisher, which in the northern parts of England may be seen all the year round, on some parts of the southern coasts only makes its appearance in October in considerable numbers, and as regularly departs in the following spring. Few would suspect our constant and lively companions, the Jays and Chaffinches to be at times travellers, but so it is; there is proof of the fact,"
3 Edward Stanley. Ibid. p. 103: "… it has been observed in turtles, which cross the ocean, from the Bay of Honduras to the Cayman Isles, near Jamaica, a distance of 450 miles, without the aid of chart or compass, and with an accuracy superior to human skill; for it is affirmed, that vessels which have lost their reckoning in hazy weather, have steered entirely by the noise of the turtles in swimming."
4 Edward Stanley. Ibid. p. 120: "… in Ireland a large Eagle was seen to alight and take up a lamb, and carry it away in a straight direction towards the high range of the Morne mountains."
then dropped it & was found alive. Stanleys Familiar History of Birds1 — several cases on record of stoats being carried (p. 121) & dropped having wounded the bird. p. 124 — Mr Willoughby2 found a dead lamb & hare by the side of Eagles nest, which shows power of carrying great weight p. 125. is said that Eagles bring rabbits & hares to the young ones to exercise them in killing them. "Sometimes it seems hares, rabbits, rats & not being sufficiently weakened by wounds get off from the young ones while they were amusing themselves with them and one day a rabbit escaped into a hole, where
1 Edward Stanley, Familiar History of Birds, London 1838.
2 Francis Willughby. In the 1854 edition of Edward Stanley's Familiar History of Birds"… Mr. Willoughby. an excellent authority, mentions a nest which he saw in the woodlands, near the river Derwent, in the Peak of Derbyshire, some 150 years ago.… and by them a lamb and a hare, and three heath-poults.…"
the old Eagle could not find it. — The parent bird another day brought to her young ones the cub of a fox which after it had fought well & desperately bitten the young ones would in all probability have escaped" — if it had not been shot by a shepherd who was watching the scene. —
In Shiart Isld it is said, that an Eagle always procured its prey from another island. —
p. 175. 28 short eared owls were counted in a field where there was great swarm of mice. —
May 4th — The Brussels Sprout returning suddenly to type when brought back to home (& yet all the varieties of Brassica certainly not becoming Brussels Sprouts) & yet in all probability the Brussels Sprout was slowly formed, — is analogous to Primrose & Cowslip suddenly changing into each other, & depends on character of antecedent races. —
if it shall be difficult to show that
time the fixity of characters from antiquity prevents their variation, which is not improbable as Mr Herbert1 does not seem to recognize any difference in crossing between varieties & species, yet the amount of [blank]
1 William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837, p. 17: "It seems to me utter waste of words to argue whether vegetables, if of one genus or identical kind, are species or varieties." p. 341; "In fact there is no real or natural line of difference between species and permanent or descendible variety."
may depend on many circumstances, time of domestication (see Wikinson1 on dogs of Egypt & Cuvier2 on mummies).
(NB time is element in change, as in Dahlias) all much varied breeds both plants & animals have long been subject to domestication. — The constitution of some may resist the means man can offer of changes, — as desert or rock plant probably would do — or be with difficulty be kept alive. — Nevertheless much probably depends on circumstances favouring the reappearance of characters formerly possessed or rather the parents —
that is animals having passed through many changes. —
1 Wikison, i.e. John Gardner Wilkinson. Manners and Customs of the ancient Egyptians, London 1837, vol. 3, p. 32.
2 Georges Cuvier. "Sur l'lbis des anciens Egyptiens", Annales du Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, tome 4, an XII (1804), p. 116. On page 118: "J'ai partagé l'erreur des hommes célèbres que je viens de nommer, jusqu'au moment où j'ai pu examiner par moi-meme quelques momies d'ibis."
It is very important Mr Herbert's1 fact about the hybrids (mentioned in letter to Henslow) fertilizing each other, better than the pollen of same flower, — as it tends to show my view of
infertility2 of hybrids with parent species false, which makes it determined by a facility in returning to old type.
Mr Herbert3 showing the extreme facility of crossing in plants proves how much depends on instincts in animals. — yet the existence of wild close species of plants shows there is tendency to prevent the crossing. —
1 William Herbert, cf. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837, p. 342: "Subsequent experiments have confirmed this view to such a degree as to make it almost certain that the fertility of the hybrid or mixed offspring depends more upon the constitutional than the closer botanical affinities of the parents."
2 The initial i of "infertility" is crossed out.
3 William Herbert. "On the production of Hybrid Vegetables; with the result of many Experiments made in the Investigation of the Subject", Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 4, 1832, p. 15: "… I am, however, satisfied, from the progress I have already made, that several plants, which I have raised, are not only, in the fair sense of the word, hybrid, but also fertile; and if they should perpetuate themselves by seed, without reverting to the form of either parent, they will be entitled to be considered by the Botanists as distinct species. … and I doubt very much whether such a multiplication of distinct species may not also have taken place in the animal and insect tribes; but, to produce an intermixture between species that may have so diverged, the will of the animal must consent, while that of the plant need not be consulted,"
in animals where there is much facility in crossing there comes the impediment of instinct —
The possibility of rearing by seeds holyoaks1 (how far is this so) shows either there is not so much crossing as I think, or that these varieties have become as fixed as species, & prefer their own pollen to that of other variety. —
Elizabeth2 & Hensleigh3 seemed to think it absurd that the presence of of the Leopard & Tiger together depended on some nice qualifications each possess, & that tiger springing so much further would determine his preservation — if killed by some other animal then that quality which saved him, would be the one encouraged. —
1 The reference is to hollyhocks, cf. William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837, p. 366.
2 Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood (1793-1880), eldest sister of Darwin's wife.
3 Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803-1891), brother of Darwin's wife This paragraph is inserted at the bottom, of the page.
Wilkinson's1 Manners & Customs of the Ancient Egyptians vol. III p. 33 — They have several breeds of dogs — like greyhound — fox-dog — turnspit & two other kinds.
It seems absurd proposition, that every budding tree, & every buzzing insect & grazing animal owes its form, to that form being the one alone out of innumerable other ones,
alone which has been preserved. — but be it remembered how little part of the grand mystery is this. — the law of growth, that which changes the acorn into the oak. — In short all which nutrition, growth & reproduction is common to all living beings, vide Lamarck2 vol. II p. 115 4 four laws.3
1 John Gardner Wilkinson, op. cit. vol. 3, p. 32: "The Egyptians had several breeds of dogs, some solely used for the chace, others admitted into the parlour, or selected as companions of their walks; and some, as at the present day, selected for their peculiar ugliness."
2 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1809, tome 2, p. 115: "Les facultés communes à tous les corps vivans, c'est-à-dire, celles dont ils sont exclusivement doués, et qui constituent autant de phénomènes qu'eux seuls peuvent produire, sont: ° De se nourrir … 2° De composer leur corps … 3° Dese déVelopper et s'accroître … 4° Enfin, de se régénerer eux-mêmes, … (This passage appears on page 106 of tome 2 of the reprint of 1873.)
3 From this paragraph to MS. page 152 inclusive the text is written in pencil.
Who can say, how much structure is due to external agency, without final cause either in present or past generation — thus cabbages growing like Nepenthes — cases of pidgeons with tufts &c. &c. here there is no final cause yet it must be effect of some condition of external circumstances, results of complicated laws of organization; as we see there strange plumage in pidgeons yet no change of habits, so no
corresponding change in Birds of Paradise. — All that we can say in such cases is that the plumage has not been so injurious to bird as to allow any other kind of animal to usurp its place — & therefore the degree of injuriousness must have been exceedingly small. — This is far more probable way of explaining, much structure, than attempting anything about habits —
No one can be shocked at absence of final cause.
Mammae in man & wings under united elytra
The law of
growth generation is only modification, though important one, of growth. Lamarck1 vol. II, p. 120. Observe it commences only when growth stops. —
Spallanzanis2 facts in connection with buds. — They differ from possibility of concourse of two individuals, & the action always of two organs — instead of one part as in producing bud. — Fewer of the lately acquired peculiarities are transmitted than by growth — generation;
it is doubtful whether any are transmitted, for the changes in fruit trees, mentioned by Mr.K[night]3 may be caused by the diversity of stocks, on which they are grafted.4 No5
& more of the effects of conditions on the propagating constitution, but not structure of the parents. — Thus would a cut
1 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Ibid. tome 2, p. 120: "cette faculté de reproduction ne commence à jouir de son intensité que lorsque la faculté d'accroissement commence à diminuer: on sait assez combien l'observation confirme cette considération; puisque les organes reproducteurs (les parties sexuelles), dans les végétaux comme dans les animaux, ne commencent à se développer que lorsque l'accroissement de l'individu est sur le point de se terminer." (1873 reprint tome 2, p. 110.)
2 Lazzaro Spallanzani. It seems that the reference is to Spallanzani's work on regeneration-buds, described in An Essay on Animal Reproduction, London 1769.
3 Thomas Andrew Knight. "On the want of permanence of character in varieties of fruit, when propagated by graft and buds," Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 2, 1822, p. 160: "few, if any, varieties of fruit can, with strict propriety, be called permanent, when propagated by buds or grafts."
4 The words "it is doubtful" to "grafted" inserted between lines in ink.
5 The word "No" added in pencil to the insertion in ink.
tree vary if planted in rich soil. I presume not, but its seeds, I presume probably would — at least the experiment of the carrot seems to show this. — This would be a curious law. Certainly Australian Dog is not affected by domestication, yet offspring are. — if Australian Dog. could bud, analogy tells us,
we offspring would be similar to f first form. — The great effect of conditions on offspring, but not on individuals is very curious & important.1 —
1 This sentence is scored in the margins.
The existence of "law of organization" had better be shown, soil on colour of flowers, Hydrangea — black bullfinches — & all varieties must be presumed to be result of such laws. —
The effect of one part being greatly developed on another, must not be overlooked. — It makes fourth cause or law of change. —
The weakest part of my theory is the absolute necessity, that every
animal organic being should cross with
another — to escape it in any case we must draw such a monstrous conclusion, that every organ is become fixed & cannot vary — which all facts show to be absurd. — As there are plants in northern latitudes, which are generated by buds alone or roots, & never flower, so there may be animals as Coralline, or others which only generate once in a thousand generations. — any amount of generation may take place by gemmation,
my theory will not admit this, now that tulips break by cultivation, can a form become permanent?
because its very essence is
that little change is produced. —
The fact just alluded to of Northern flowers, throws enormous difficulty in the way of Mr Knights1 theory, without seeds are freshly transported — throw over this theory, & the sexual reproduction of species may stop for any number of generations — Gorse in Norway, which never flowers!! —
How did it get there? whether
1 Thomas Andrew Knight. "An account of some experiments on the fecundation of vegetables", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 1799, p. 195. cf. Charles Darwin. Variations in animals and plants … , London 1868, vol. 2, p. 175: "it is a law of nature that organic beings shall not fertilise themselves for perpetuity. This law was first plainly hinted at in 1799, with respect to plants, by Andrew Knight." This principle is sometimes referred to as the Knight-Darwin law.
According1 to the above suggestion my theory would require, that
species individuals propagated by gemmation should be absolutely similar; (all the gorge in Norway ought to be thus characterised study von Buch.2) Now Mr Knight3 statement about fruit-trees grafted altering is hostile to this: but on other hand, fruit trees are propagated by means, which wild plants never are, namely on stocks of other varieties & we know that the kind of stock greatly affects the graft. — Plants circumstanced as the gorze must be propagated by its roots: now it is curious Mr K4 has observed that to graft from the roots is the best way to get young trees from worn-out
1 From here the text is written in ink.
2 Leopold von Buch. Reise durch Norwegen und Lappland, Berlin 1810. These 13 words enclosed between square brackets.
3 Thomas Andrew Knight. "On the want of permanence of character in varieties of fruit when propagated, by grafts and buds," Trans. Hprt. Soc., vol. 2, 1822, p. 160.
4 Thomas Andrew Knight. "Upon the advantage of propagating from the roots of old ungrafted fruit trees", Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 2, 1822, p. 252.
kinds, & quotes from Pliny that it is bad to graft from top shoots. — If prolongation of life by gemmation
can be being impossible can be overturned, then the conclusion that the two kinds of generation have some most important difference is forced on us. — My theory only requires that organic beings propagated by gemmation do not now undergo metamorphosis, but to arrive at their present structure they must have done been propagated by
sexual commerce. The fact of corallaria & Halimeda is case in point. — The relation of these sexual functions to complexity is evident, yet the inference from some plants & some mollusca being hermaphrodite is, that intercourse every time is of no consequence in that degree of development — (It is singular there is no true hermaphrodite in beings with which have1 fluid sperma. — )
I2 utterly deny the right to argue against my theory because it makes the world far older than what geologists think: it would be doing what
1 The words "which have" substituted in pencil for "with". This sentence enclosed between square brackets.
2 From here to the end of page 156 the Text is written in pencil.
others but fifty years since to geologists, — & what is older — what relation in duration of planet to our lives — Being myself a geologist, I have thus argued to myself, till I can honestly reject such false reasoning
Bell1 Bridgewater's Treatise on the Hand. — p. 94. "The resemblance of the foot of the Ostrich to that of the camel has not escaped naturalists ". Before he alludes to the resemblance of the snout of the mole & Pig in having two additional bones to give strength to it. —
p. 139. Doubts altogether the law of balancing of organs.2 — In the Batracian Order the 32 ribs are wanting, p. 144 in the Ichthyosaurus 60 or 70 bones in the paddle, yet all in the arm are perfect. — p. 144. Alludes to two theories; — the species are the result of circumstances;3 — or the will of the animal.
1 Sir Charles Bell. The Bridgewater Treatises. The Hand, its mechanism and vital endowments as evincing design, London 1833, p. 94.
2 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 139: "Shall we follow a system which informs us that when a bone is wanting in the cavity of the ear we are to seek for it in the jaw?" With a rare degree of irony, this is exactly what Reichert's established theory of homologies of the mammalian ear-ossicles requires in demonstrating that the malleus and incus of the mammal are the articular and quadrate of the reptile.
3 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 144: "It is, above all, surprising with what perverse ingenuity men seek to obscure the conception of a Divine Author, an intelligent, designing and benevolent Being — rather clinging to the greatest absurdities, or interposing the cold and inanimate influence of the mere "elements", in a manner to extinguish all feelings of dependence in our minds, and all feelings of gratitude."
p. 145. Seems to argue, that as the transformation from the egg, a larva, or foetus to perfect animal are adapted by foreknowledge,1 so must the mutations of species!! — p. 203 Chaetodon squirting water at fly,2 — instinct, for how could experience teach distances in air, in which it never touches objects. — far better case than chicken pecking fly. — "whilst the shell sticks to its tail" as mentioned by Sir J. Banks2 p. 212. — p. 282. Allows this instinctive power in chicken, yet says it is evidently acquired by experience in baby3
1 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 145: "We do perceive surprising changes in the conformity of animals. Some of them are very familiar to us; but all show a foreknowledge and a prospective plan."
2 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 202: "We have a more curious instance of the precision of the eye and of the adaptation of muscular action in the Chaetodon rostratus. This fish inhabits the Indian rivers and lives on the smaller aquatic flies. When it observes one alighted on a twig or flying near (for it can shoot them on the wing) it darts a drop of water with so steady an aim as to bring the fly down into the water, when it falls an easy prey."
2 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 212: "The late Sir Joseph Banks, in his evening conversations, told us he had seen, what many perhaps have seen, a chicken catch a fly whilst the shell stuck to its tail."
3 Sir Charles Bell. Ibid. p. 282: "This faculty of reaching for the object is slowly acquired in the child; and, in truth, the motions of the eye are made perfect, like those of the hand, by slow degrees. … It is no contradiction to this, that the faculty of vision is made perfect in the young of some animals from the beginning; no more than that the instinct of the duck, when it runs to the water the moment that the shell is broken, should contradict the fact that the child learns to stand and walk after a thousand repeated efforts."
Lamarck1 vol. II, p. 152 Philosophie Zoologie.
says it is not sufficiently proved that any shell fish is really hermaphrodite, &
thinks even oyster may fecundate each other, by the means of the medium in which they live.
do2 "Additions" p. 454. — does really attribute metamorphoses to habits of animals & takes series of flying mammifers — says lemur volans has skin between its legs. — strangly consider existing long-organized forms as parent forms of existing highly organised forms — this resulted from the necessity of supposing some inward progressive developing power. —
1 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1809, tome 2, p. 152: "on sait que quantité de mollusques, réellement hermaphrodites, se fécondent néanmoins les uns les autres. A la vérité, parmi les mollusques hermaphrodites, ceux qui ont une coquille bivalve, et qui sont fixés comme les huîtres, semblent devoir se féconder eux mêmes." (1873 reprint tome 2, p. 139.)
2 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Ibid. tome 2, p. 454: "les écureuils volans … dans l'habitude d'étendre leurs membres en sautant, pour se former de leur corps une espèce de parachute … par des répétitions fréquentes de pareils sauts dans les individus de ces races, la peau de leurs flancs s'est dilatée de chaque côté en une membrane lâche qui réunit les pattes postérieurs à celle de devant." (1873 reprint tome 2, p. 416.)
My theory leaves quite untouched. the question of spontaneous generation. —
Introduction to Bartrams1 Travels p. XXIII.
Some birds Both sexes of some birds sing equally well, and in then reciprocally assist in domestic cares, as building nest, sitting on eggs & feeding & defending their young. — The oriolus (icterus cat.) is an instance of this, & the female of the icterus minor is a bird of more splendid plumage than the male. —
1 William Bartram. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, Philadelphia, 1791. The passage referred to is on p. xxxii of the Introduction.
Athenaeum1 May 18. 1839, p. 377. — Statement that the climate is on the decline, as far as vegetation is concerned, in parts of the Northern French expedition, — rather the reverse of facts stated by Smith2 of Jordan Hill. —
1 Athenaeum, 18th May 1839, p. 377: "French scientific expedition in Northern Europe." "We learned one thing, however, which is not without interest, concerning the climate. It has long been believed that vegetation, in the more northern parts of Lapmark, is constantly on the decline; and large tracts of land are found under the lee of the mountain, formerly covered with fir woods, where now only stumps and rotten roots of fir trees, with a few miserable birch, are to be seen."
2 James Smith. "On the climate of the newer pliocene tertiary period." Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 3, 1839, p. 118: "Mr.Smith observed, that many of the most common shells in the raised beds of the basin of the Clyde are identical with species found by Mr.Lyell at Uddevalla in Sweden; and he has been induced to conclude from the arctic character of the testacea, that the climate of Scotland during the accumulation of these beds was colder than it is at present."
Henslow.1 One of the 4 species of Lemma only reproduces itself in hybrid, as yet observed by buds — (the other three by buds & seeds though by the latter very rarely) here is a case in answer to Mr Knights2 doctrine. — Case like Corallina — Does it flower anywhere? Yes on the Continent — is there more variation in its character.? — No — well characterized. —
Tulips are cultivated during several years & then they break. — each tulip is the product of fresh bud — here then is case of change analogous to change in grafted trees: so is not effect of different stocks in this case — &strong case showing analogy of production by gemmation &by seed — which Henslow is inclined to think very close. — A fruit tree by certain treatment will suddenly send forth quantities of blossoms. —
1 John Stevens Henslow.
2 Thomas Andrew Knight. "An Account of some experiments on the fecundation of vegetables." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., vol. 89, 1799, p. 195. See above footnote to MS. page 152.
The case of the Lemna, and the viviparous grasses, which no doubt are propagated during hundreds of years, without fresh seeds arising, — throws a very great difficulty on my theory, here we have a plant remaining constant, without crossing, — & propagation by buds does not injure constancy of form. — is the constancy owing to similarity of conditions — & that no change would affect them in short period & hence no change would affect them, without affecting all the individuals — hence there would be real gradation in species from one region to another. — These simple forms perhaps oldest in world & hence most persistent — if forms exceedingly difficult to vary, the run of chances, would prevent it varying
producing propagating itself by buds is in same predicament, as one, in which structure does not allow of crossing with other individuals with facility — such as cryptogamic plants & true hermaphrodite mollusca, & probably corals. — these forms then ought to be very persistent, & their necessity of crossing is much less, — now certainly in the higher animals, changes seem to have been more rapid, & the facility for intermarriage is greater (Hence Dioecious plants highest — Palms &c &c) — Is there greater resemblance between carboniferous & recent mollusca, than between the corresponding acalepha? — But if Acalepha do not cross there would by my theory gradation of form from one species to other: therefore my theory does require crossing. — The case of Lemma shows dispersion of germs is not end of seminal reproduction. — Likewise grasses having seeds, — as Cocos de mer — analogy shows some most important end. —
May 29th . — Henslow says that he has not the slightest doubt that Festuca vivapara is the same species with F. ovina & was rendered vivaparous by growing in height. — yet he has seen it propagated in a garden, which is case precisely analogous to the Canada onion mentioned in Hort. Transact. Aisa caespitosa become vivaparous on mountain & yet can be raised in gardens. — Poa alpina, though generally vivaparous sometimes seeds. There are endless curious facts about every part of plant producing buds, so that Turpin1 says each cell of plant is individual. — Most plants which propagate rapidly by buds, layers &c. &c. do not seed freely. — The periwinkle seldom produces seeds, because it is thought to require insects to impregnate it. — it is allied to Asclepia, where this is always the case according to Brown. —
1 Pierre-Jean-François Turpin, Organographie microscopique des végélaux. Sur l'origine du tissu cellulaire, Paris, 1829.
Voyage of Adventure & Beagle.1
Vol. I. p. 306 Shells as well as plants of Juan Fernandez differ from American coast.
Reference p. 251 about the drifting of animals on ice
— p. 643 — very curious table of all the castes from Stephenson at Lima.
The same numerical relation (both in species and subgenera) between the Crag & Touraine beds, the one with neighbouring & Arctic sea, & the other with neighbouring & Senegal in sea — is remarkable. — Again the resemblance between the Superga & Paris, numerically
1 Robert FitzRoy, Narrative of Voyages of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, London, 1839.
the same with recent & yet almost wholly different, is same, as if Isthmus of Panama. — Those two cases highly improbable — yet I can see no other way of accounting for them. — Think over this — The Superga beds have many shells in common with Touraine & are not far distant, which as L. says is strong argument for their contemporariness. — How is this with the Eocene beds. — see Lyells1 tables —
Bennetts Wanderings2 Vol. II p. 155. By inference I imagine that there are Baboons in St. Thomas on W. coast of Africa.
1 Sir Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, vol. 3, London, 1833, Table II, pp. 389-393.
2 George Bennett, Wanderings in New South Wales, London, 1834.
Owen1 Linn. Soc. April 2d 1839.
The Lepidosiren. — Amblyrhyncus & Toxodon, all equally aberrant — the two former connecting classes like Toxodon in orders. — Fish & reptiles in former case — Reptiles & Birds & Mamm. in Amblyrhynchus — is not this right? —
June 18th . Eyton2 tells me that Yarrell3 knows of a Gull which has laid in domestication eggs of two shapes & colour — Eyton has observed same thing in Brent Goose
1 Richard Owen, "Description of the Lepidosiren annectens", Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 18. 1841, p. 327; read 2 April 1839.
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton.
3 William Yarrell.
Eyton says some of the pidgeons in common Dovecot are very like a Himalaya species — leuconotes. —
Magazine of Nat. History 1839 p. 106. Waterhouse1 refers to fossil remains of the Hamster. — is not this Siberian animal? —
Eyton2 says that the young of two hatches all alike between the male Chinese & female common goose took after the common goose thus contradicting (probably) Yarrells3 law & Walkers4 of the male giving form — they interbred & the young kept constant & all alike
1 George Robert Waterhouse, "Observations on the Rodentia", Magazine of Natural History, vol. 3, 1839, p. 106.
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton, "Some remarks upon the Theory of Hybridity", Magazine of Natural History, vol. 1, 1837, p. 357.
3 See "Darwin's Fourth Notebook on Transmutation of Species", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist)., Historical Series, vol. 2, 1960, p. 173, footnote 1.
4 Alexander Walker, Intermarriage, London, 1838.
Waterhouse says some of the Galapagos Heteromerous insects must come very near to Patagonian species. —
p. 18 of Temmincks1 Preliminary discourse to Fauna of Japan. — that the animals of islands N. of Timor are allied to the type of genera in isles de Sonda as well by those which are identical, as those which are different — now this is same as Galapagos facts &c. &c. — & it shows the cause which gives same species to different isld. is the same as that which gives genera. —
it is not transportation now in case of large
1 Coenraad Jacob Temminck, "Apercu général … sur les Mammifères qui habitent le Japon …", in P. F. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica, Leiden, 1833.
171e [not found]
172e [not found]
Mr Greenough1 on his map of the world has written Mastodon found at Timor — thinks he has seen specimen in Paris Museum. —
Athenaeum 1839 p. 451. Sheep Merinos from Cape of Good Hope have different constitution from those of Europe2 — for they stand India better than the latter. —
Forrest Voyage3 p. 323. Sooloo imported elephant. wild hogs — spotted deer. no loories, but cocatores & small green parrots.
1 George Bellas Greenough.
2 Athenaeum, 1839, p. 451: "Asiatic Society … Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Bombay, in reply to a request for information respecting the breeds of cattle used in the Presidency. … Sheep are rare … Experiments are now making to improve the breed. … The merino from the Cape is found to answer much better than that brought from England".
3 Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balmabangan, London 1779; p. 323: "At Sooloo are none of those beautiful birds called Loories; but there is an abundance of diminutive cocatores, and small green parrots … Here are wild elephants, the offspring, doubtless, of those sent in former days from the continent of India, as presents to the kings of Sooloo … Sooloo has spotted deer".
June 26th — Yarrell: Black Swan in domestication & nature strictly monogamous — geese polygamous (?when wild) but even some birds are so when wild — wild ducks monogamous; tame ones highly polygamous — change of instinct by domestication. —
"Notices of the Indian Archipelago" Published at Singapore in 1837. by Mr J. H. Moore. — p. 1 Elephant Rhinoceros Leopard (but not Royal Tiger) &c. are found but only in one part the northern peninsula of Borneo. — Ox & hog natives of Borneo.
Notices of Indian Arch. Singapore 1837 by J.H.
J. H. Moore do p. 189, 190. No full sized horse is found East of y Bussamporter & S. of Tropic — after quitting Bengal the fact is noticed in Cassay Ava Pegue seldom equal 13 hands — those of Lao & Siam inferior to those of Pegu — in Sumatra they breed both small — Java pony occasionally reaches 13 hands. — Philippine Pony somewhat resembles that of Celebes is somewhat larger than the Sambawa Java & Sumatra breeds. (Here it appears there are shades of difference in all the isld. like in wild animals). — There are prevailing colours in the different islands. — The horse is only found wild in the plains of Celebes. (but language shows that probably not original there) — shows them isld not fit for horse. Forrest1 (p. 270) says many wild horses, bullocks, & deer South part of Mindanao. —
1 Thomas Forrest, ibid., p. 270 : "Here are many wild horses, bullocks and deer ".
do. Appendix p. 43, & 45. the Breed of elephants in little isld of Sooloo. — said to have been imported: shows they will propagate get dimensions. —
do. App. p. 73 State of Muar in Malacca — speaks of Rhinoceros as well as Tapir. —
Journal of Asiatic Soc. Vol. V. p. 565 in a paper by Lieut. Newbold.1 —
do do p. 75 A Malayan albino described "To this day the tomb of his grandfather, who was also an albino is held sacred by the credulous natives, & vow made at it. Both his parents were of the usual colour. His sister is an albino like himself said not to be common" — probably, I should think grandfather first of race & if so, fact for my theory
1 J. T. Newbold, "Sketch of the State of Muar ", Journ. Asiatic Soc, vol. 5, 1836, pp. 561-7.
Cocos Isld & Preparis between Andaman & Pegu
have abound with monkeys & squirrels. — Horsburgh1 E. J., Directory vol. II, p. 46.
Carimon Java (between Borneo &Java) Lat 5° 50' S adjoining it are several small islands abounding with deer, — Horsburgs,2 vol. II p. 527. —
Scientific Soci Journal of Asiatic Society3 vol. I, p. 261 J Catalogue of Birds of India
— p. 555 Lieut. Hutton4 counted the ova of a tick in India &found there were 5,283 attached to its body
1 James Horsburgh. India Directory, or Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, and the interjacent Ports: London 1936, p. 46: "Little Coco. … These islands, and Preparis, abound with monkeys and squirrels; larger animals have not been seen upon them."
2 James Horsburgh. Ibid. p. 527: "Carimon Java, … Adjoining to it, are several small islands and rocks, some of which abound with deer, … "
3 Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vol. 1, 1832, p. 261. "Catalogue of Indian Birds", comprising the collections of Major James Franklin and Mr.John Gould.
4 Thomas Hutton. "Notes in Natural History", Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vol. 1, 1832, p. 554: On p. 555: "I found that I had waded through the almost incredible number of 5,283 ova."
Journal of the Asiatic Soc.
Vol. I, p. 335 Catalogue of animals of Nepal by B.Hodgson1
p. 336 In the most pestiferous region (mentioned by Heber)2 from which all mankind (& yet afterwards says native tribes can live there) flee during 8 months out of 12, — the largest mammifers in the world constantly reside & are bred3." take tame animals into this region between April & October & like man almost (this looks inaccurate C.D.) they will catch the Malaria & die. — On the other hand there are breeds of men the Thâsû & the Dhangar who can live there & do not pine visibly, p. 337 it would appear as if4
1 Bryan Houghton Hodgson. "On the Mammalia of Nepal" ibid. vol. 1, 1832, p. 335.
2 Reginald Heber. Journey through the Upper Province of India, from Calcutta to Bombay, 1824-5, (with notes on Ceylon); to Madras, & South Provinces, 1826; & Letters written from India, London, 1828.
3 Bryan Houghton Hodgson, op. cit. p. 336: "… it is worthy of remark, that in this pest-house, from which all mankind flee, during 8 months of every 12, constantly reside and are bred some of the mightiest quadrupeds in the world. The royal tiger, the panther, the leopard, the elephant, the arna or wild buffalo, the rhinoceros, and stags of the noblest growth, abound: and, what to our fancies is less singular, the same malarious region cherishes Boa constrictors of the largest size, and other huge creatures of their kind."
4 Bryan Houghton Hodgson. Ibid. p. 337: (the sentence continues) "the principal thought is that of inherited habits of body, or acclimatization, carried to such perfection by course of time, in respect to the great quadrupeds, as to have superseded their original and natural habits of body."
p. 345. The Ceylonese Elephant [. . .]
saul forests by having a smaller, lighter head, carried more elevated & higher forequarters: is said to be of a bolder & more generous temper — Hodgson
Koloff. voyage through the Moluccas 1825— "No wild animals in Moa.—" Chapt.— V. —1: do. Chat XXI. Wild cattle & Hogs
on Timor-land— monkeys do not exist, there & it is a singular thing
that throughout the Moluccas Archipelago they are only to be found on the isld of Batchian near S.E. end of Gilolo.
Forrest Voyage1 p. 392 — deer but no wild animals in Gilolo. — p. 134 3 Birds of Paradise were first produced from Gilolo.
p. 253 4 In isld of Bunwoot (18 miles in circum) there are hogs and monkey near shore of Magindano
Journal of [Asiatic Soc]
— most wonderful instinct, how could it have originated — spins thread of cotton. — do p. 583, It appears probable, that the Hippopotamus occurs in India, in the Jungles of Borabhum & Dholbum.—
1 Thomas Forrest. "A Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas, from Balamangan … London, 1779.
2 ibid on p. 39 "… The island Gilolo abounds with bullocks and buffalos, goats and deer, also wild hogs, there are but few sheep, and no wild beasts. …"
3 ibid on p. 134 "…the Portuguese first found these birds on the island of Gilolo, the Papua Islands, and on New Guinea ; and where they are known by the name of passaros da sol, i.e. birds of the sun …"
4 ibid on p. 253 … Saw a number of wild hogs …"
Vol. do p. 6341 alludes to the fact stated by M. Tournal that skulls found near Vienna approximate to Nigro forms; those from Rhine to the Caribs. — Vol. II p. 6502 Long attested account of fall of fish in India. —
Windsor Earl. Eastern Seas p. 2293. Believes the Tapir found in Borneo p. 233 4. There as well as all Malay countries the cats are born with the joint near the tip crooked. — is this form [words illegible]
Dampier. Vol I. p. 320. says no wild (Carnivora) beasts on Phillipines. Forrest somewhere says same. — do p. 393. "The wild, small fowls at Pulo Condore "crow like ours, but much more small & shrill". —
Humboldt. Vol I. p. 275. says Teneriffe does not countenance the theory of polymorphous plants, abounding in volcanic islds. — Cocks
1 Journal of the Asiatic Society vol. 2, Calcutta 1833. "Occurrence of the Bones of Man in the Fossil State" by J[ames] P[rinsep] p. 634 "… M. Tournal and other French naturalists, further suppose that several races of men have successively had possession of our continents. The form of the skulls found at Vienna is stated to approach to the African or Negro type. Those discovered in the fluviatile marls of the valley of the Rhine and Danube exhibit a close resemblance to the heads of the Karibs of those of the ancient inhabitants of Peru and Chili.…"
2 ibid p. 650 Miscellaneous : "5. — Fall of Fish from the Sky".
3 George Windsor Earl. "The Eastern Seas, or Voyages and Adventures in the Indian Archipelago, in 1832-33-34 …" London, 1837. On p. 229 "… and an animal, which, from the description given, must have been a tapir."
4 ibid. p. 233 "… Here, as in all Malay countries, I noticed a peculiarity in the cats, which I never heard satisfactorily accounted for. The joints near the tip of the tail are generally crooked, as if they had been broken. I was at first inclined to doubt that they were born thus, but was afterwards convinced that such was the case.…"
The possibility of different varieties being raised by seed is highly odd — as it is not so with the esculent vegetables — how is it with hollyoaks, flaxes, &c &c ?1
Mr Herbert2 in letter says distinctly, that Hollyoak reproduce each other & yet I presume seed raised in same garden. — Now this good question, single or half double — anyhow fertile because they are raised by seed. — Where has Duchesne3 described Atavism. — ask Dr Holland4 case where peculiarity has first appeared. — Storia della Riproduzione Vegetale by Gallesio,5 Pisa 1816 p. 27 Dr Holland.6
1 From the top of the page to here the text is in pencil. This page and page 184 are written across the narrow width of the paper and have been lightly scored through.
2 William Herbert. See footnote to MS. p. 144 supra.
3 Henri-Gabriel Duchesne. Author of Manuel du Naturaliste, Paris 1797, in which, however, there is no entry under Atavisme.
4 Henry Holland (1788-1873).
5 Giorgio Gallesio. Storia della Riproduzione Vegetale, Pisa 1816, p. 27.
6 Henry Holland. Medical Notes and Reflections, London 1839.
Are there instances of plants, in becoming double loosing fertility of, sometimes one sex & sometimes other, so as to become monoecious. — Are there not wild plants, some partly dioecious?
Any wild plants in England which do not perfect their seed? —
What animals can be budded & rendered of great age as must be inferred from what Mr Knight1 says. Hort. Transact. V. II, p. 252.
Is there any very sleepy mimosa, nearly allied to the Sensitive Plant. —
p. 290 Dr Edwards2 in an essay on Spermatic animalcule has described instrument for galvanising
Cross Irish & Common Hare.
Decandolle3 has chapter on sensitive plants: Physiology
1 Thomas Andrew Knight, "Upon the advantage of propagating from the roots of old ungrafted fruit trees", (read 3rd December, 1816), Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 2, 1822, p. 252: "the general law of nature appears to be that no living organized being shall exist beyond a limited term of years; and that law must be obeyed. It is nevertheless in the power of man to extend the lives of individual vegetable beings far beyond the period apparently assigned by nature; and parts of the same annual plant may be preserved through many years, perhaps through ages, though it cannot be rendered immortal." Darwin's question was answered about eighty years later by C. M. Child's experiments on rejuvenation of planarians and A.Carrell's tissue-cultures of chick heart muscle for periods far exceeding the normal life-span of poultry.
2 William Francis Edwards. Essai sur les animalcules spermatiques. (not accessible). This subject is referred to in his De l'influence des agens physiques sur la vie: Paris 1824, p. 549.
3 Augustin-Pyramus DeCandolle. Physiologie végétale, Paris 1832, tome 2, p. 863: "Article II. Des mouvemens excitables par les chocs, les piqûres ou quelques causes analogues. … Les mouvemens les plus extraordinaires sont ceux qu'on observe dans les feuilles de plusieurs mimosées, du Smithia sensitiva, et de plusieurs oxalidées." This entry in pencil is written from the opposite end of the paper.
Get Hubbersty1 to try experiments about raising plants when they cannot crossed yet.
Make Hybrid mosses — Leighton or some ones.
Father, 2 diseases common to man & animals, — likeness of children3
Does any annual give buds or tubers — yes — but they are same as trees. —
Shake some sleeping mimosa — do stamina of C. speciosus collapse at night, if so irritate them, as by an insect coming always at same time, see if by so doing can be made sensitive.
The function of sleeping some way useful — it is only the association which is useless.
Grandfathers handwriting to compare with my own.4 —
1 Nathan Hubbersty, cf. "Darwin's Journal", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Historical Series, vol. 1, 1959, P. 5.
2 Robert Waring Darwin.
3 These three words in pencil.
4 The entries on this cover are lightly scored through.
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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
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