RECORD: Darwin, C. R. Notebook A: Geology (1837-1839). CUL-DAR127.- Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, corrections by John van Wyhe 7.2009. RN2

NOTE: This 165 X 100 mm notebook is bound in brown leather with the border blind embossed. The brass clasp is missing. The notebook has 90 leaves or 180 green edged pages of which 78 were excised by Darwin. It bears a paper label on the front cover with 'A.' written in ink, 'Geology' in pencil, and 'Note on Woolwich' in ink, 'Nothing on any Subject' is written in ink. The back cover bears a paper label with 'A.' written in ink.

See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by Sandra Herbert in Barrett, Paul H., Gautrey, Peter J., Herbert, Sandra, Kohn, David, Smith, Sydney eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844 : Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.


[front cover]

A.

Geology
Note on Woolwich

Nothing on any Subject

[inside front cover]

49

As far as p. 33. distributed to several subjects.
Feb 24th 1839 As far as p 140 — abstracted as far as concerns "Geolog Observat on Volcanic islands & Coral Formation

Lyell's Salband p. 86
Shells near Woollich p. 112

1e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.170]

Speculate on the extension of Patagonia seaward, at mouth of S. Cruz, from ascertained inclination, of plains: Lias in Shropshire, or some other wonderful outlyer. —
Linn: Transact. Vol. 8. p. 288. Salt deposited on windows of houses. & trees all injured on Eastern side, far inland. — even 70 miles from salt water.

2e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.170]

Mr Arrowsmith tells me, that Himalayas penetrated like Bolivian Chain.
Volcanic islands, from number of craters very ancient, which agrees, with peculiar character of Vegetation. —

3

So accustomed to utter confusion in Europe, that the simplicity of Ventana's Quartz. unmixed is very pleasing; owing to the movements being of one order. —
There should not be surprise at Horse being found in America, when Mammoth & narrow toothed Mastodon. —

4

argue against the prejudice of not believing recent elevation, yet sea shells at tops of mountains
we ought to sympathize with. old doubters of what are fossil shells. —
accustomed to such terms "fixed as the land, stable as the water" —

5

It may be worth noticing edentates & camels in deserts & rodentia
In Plata Mastodon Toxodon
Is the general saline tendency of America connected with its elevation. vapour from below —

6

Malte Brun Salt Lakes Siberia must be read as well as Pallas before Geology is written
Cuvier. Europe possessed a great edentata. —

7

How much is temperature of world regulated by atmospheric currents? — chiefly clearly by sun's position = If equatorial streams of warm pole; in name of Heaven, why are tops of Equatorial mountains so cold. —
Siberia no plants to it, lately raised above level of the Sea. Lyells Encyclopædia — Lately elevated

8

When Siberia went up. Arctic land went down. — Probably more Arctic land would be required to produce climate resembling S. America in Europæan latitudes. —

9

Will it be supposed that the armadilloes have eaten out the Megatherium. — The Guanaco the Camel?

10

Make note about N. American bone not probably in salt marshes
Efflorescence nothing — Study account. — Alluvial plains of Mississippi — No
Vol. I. p 212. Cuvier Oss Foss

11

Wide range of Mammalia really very important. harmonizes well with Lyells idea of intertropical land. — Siberia rises. therefore to the South sinks. — — Meditteranean continent corresponding to Europæan risings.
Pacific great land. —

12

Will use argument of proof of slow corrosion of valley of Patagonia S Cruz — from terrace like structure —

13e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR208.3]

Intersection of veins prove, that there are at least several attempts at elevation
From the lost & turned about position of strata, prooff thickness not very great; where piece turned over axis or hinge no doubt fluid. —
analogy as continental elevations slow. so would line of mountain chain be

14e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR208.3]

Mr Lyell Waterhouse has frequently heard that Herons bring eels alive to their nests; & then they may picked up beneath the trees — —
Are any Fish seed-eaters.
This important in transport of Fish
Let a Hawk fly at Heron. —

15e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.152]

Ceratophytes common in Northern seas p. 312. Chamisso in Kotzebue
Study Humboldt. Fragmens Asiatiques account of American Volcanic action. —
Fragments of slate converted into crystals of Hornblende p. 248. L.Institut 1837. —

16e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.152]

Helms remark on common salt being found on low hills East of Cordillera very important V. Malte Brun — Main character of Andes Metamorphic action — Mem: red sand of Europe no fossil shells — ؟ action of Heat

17

bubbles volatilized at bottom, condensed before rising? — Mem. granite heated. — Metamorphic action in red sandstone. — Certainly Volcanic — (Might not bottom of ocean boil; yet heat never reach surface. —

18

Journal de Physique, et D Histoire Naturelle, Courrejolles. 11th Observ. — Les grands tremblemens de terre sont presque toujours precedes et suivis, queque temps avant et apres, par de petites secousses." — Tom 54. p. 106
do — p. 110. Mountains on west side of Domingo formed of coral limestone, with interstices yet emptty. — In all the mountains of Saint Marc et des Gonaїves, it is difficult

19

to find stone not thus composed on the NE part more like marble requires polish to see structure, —
He Thought of erecting machine to see if water fell. —
Keys off extreme point of Flori[da]

20

Excellent paper on Erratic blocks in Alps. Memoires de la Soc. de Geneva Vol 3 P. II. —
Bed, of elevated shells on the Senegal. L Institut p. 192. — (1837. Peninsula of Cape Verd. volcanic. — Isle of Gory. rocks encrusted with serpula — Isle of Cayenne. Syenite & diorite, covered with iron clay common to Guyana said to extend to Cordillera

21

I see Brewster speculates from believing meteorolite, but old Planet, that inside our globe melted magnetic metals. ∴ earthy crust compared to those of falling stones. — ؟ does this bear upon the sorting of matter. in making trachyte come out before. —

22

What must be the effect of all the meteoric stone which must have fallen on the globe since the Cambrian system
In Ures dictionary between 1768 & 1818. that is fifty years — 90 showers of stones are recorded as falling; many of these were not single, but are described as many, (one even 3000) This ninety includes all actually counted. — The weight or size is given of 25 stones. — The total weight

23

recorded is 473. pounds (taking about average when several are given), this will give nearly 19 pounds average for each stone, that fell, that was weighed,; but carrying on this ratio I can count 90 stones which have fallen in the 50 years. ∴ 90 X 19 = 1710 [divided by] 50 = 34 pounds each year. — but instead of 90 stones in many cases there were flights of stones of large numbers (& how few cases recorded if we say 1000 50 lbs a year too little. — How comes it

24

none in fossil state? suppose 1000 50 £ X 50,000 X 50 = 250 0000 X 100 = 50, 0,0,000 = 2500 = tons in fifty thousand years)
If world increased a tenth; would the perturbation be serious? if so other cause besides thin vapour bringing planets to an end?

25e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.150]

Fragmentary granite showing schistose structure (& veins appearing): mem. Henslows Anglesea solution of silex also shewn. No 3d of Ed. N. Phil. J. p 194.
Fact of dust blown far out to sea valuable; because transportal of Minute seeds —

26e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.150]

L. Institut. N. 209. May. 1837
Paper by Humboldt on Quito Volcanoes & another on Mexican Trachyte roc lava called Andesite.
Red Coral in the Mediterranean 700 feet deep in some of. the two penny periodical said so.
Campbell the Poet

27e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR208.3]

Accra. Coast of Africa. Clay Slate & Quartz strike SSW & NNE dip 30°− 80°
Ed. N. Phil Journ. p.410. 1828
Ed. N. P. J. p. 105. Oct. 1828. gneiss in India (falls of Garsipa) dip 30º. strike direction ? ESE —
(In the Darwar. transition Hills & strata SE. direction of transitions clay slate &c nearly vertical

28e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR208.3]

Linear earthquake 500 by 90. — in Syria Geolog. Proc. p. 541. year 1837
In Upper Assam. Geolog Proc p. 566 1837. — Tertiary bea formation twenty species same as Paris. 1500 ft high

29

Mr Bird in paper to Brit. Assoc: has shewn how electrical currents tend to deposit metals, if in solution. My view of metamorphic in contradistinct to Volcanic will explain their solution. Athenæum N. 516 1837

30

High up the Essequibo, granite & quartz, after passing sandstone Vol II. p. 69. — Geograp Journal
Earthquake at Melville Isld New Holland
Augus 1d to 3d & 19 1827 Geograp Journ

31

There are some ideas about order of injected rock being determined by fusibility in L Institut p 247. 1837. — The most infusible first injected. — Basalt: last because it could reach the surface. before being cooled. —

32

Berzelius. L'Institut. (1837 P. 297) thinks Olivine a preexisting mineral. — Mem.
Galapagos ∴ Basalt deepest??
Marcel Serres L'Institut. 1837. p 331 Considers that Mercury & Sulpuret of Iron has been sublimed into the tertiary limestones of Vendarques. Mem sublimation of sulphur to form salts of America. —

33e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.115]

The number of minute turbos in red earth with volutas. prove regular mud bank at Bahia Blanca. fl Flustra identical. recent & bone bed. —
November 8th 1877
(Memoranda so far distributed to various subjects)

34e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.115]

Dr A. Smith informs me that in the year a Rhinoceros was found emb in the mud, of the Salt river. — in reference to fossil guanaco of P. St.Julian. —
Mr Scrope seems to consider that elevation & eruptions are antagonist forces. but they are parts of one force, one locally relieving the other. —

35

Is the felspar glassy in greenstone dikes which rise through granite. — a most important question with respect to my theory of changes. of granites into Trachytes. —
Mention Osorno in lake. few Volcanos now in lakes. —

36

Mr Murchison. M.S. Chapter on drift. — Beyond region of great boulders, pebbles of granite clearly effect of remodelling same manner, as bits of Patagonian boulders might be transported. —
On grooved rocks. Specimen of rock from Costorphine at Geolog. Soc:
Colonel Imrie Transact Wern. Soc. Vol. 2. p. 35
Sir J Hall Trans. Philo Royal Ed. Vol 7
Dr Buckland Reliquiæ Diluvianæ p. 201. & seq
Murc Trans Geolog Soc Vol 2. p 257

37e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.151]

The Pota: labiata certainly is found with the Mactra. at Buenos Ayres
at the Zoolog: Soc: Terebratula from Hudson's Bay. 2. species
Vol VI. Geograph. Journ. Analysis of Pœpig Voyage
Valparaiso

38e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.151]

Dr Gillies in M.S. letter in Sir. W. Parish Possession. talks of hill cerro of Diamante near stream of same name. with imperfect crater — near summit, — much pumice — . appears to be outside of the Cordillera — Near the Planchon talks of very much of Gypsum. —

39e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.116]

The officers of the Bonite. French discovery ship, found clear proofs of shells & waterworn rocks at Cobija. At Iquique of elevation to amount of 30 ft. — Mr Bollaert (at Roy. Institut) talks of quantities of shells at Iquique.
Ceylon. Band of Volcanic action in Iceland parellel to Greenland: Mem. ؟Greenland subsiding.)
Von Buch Canary Isd. p. 351. NB. Mackenzie talks of gravel on basalt of Heckla —

40e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.116]

All the Azores Isl d . Von Buch p 359 stretched out NE & SW. — Von Buch. Can. Ile p. 406. List of Volcanos Salomon Isl d , — New Britain — &c &c In Ascension for centuries afterwards it might be percieved on which side craters were low — ؟ applicable to Auvergne???

41e

[upper part of page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.25]

The fact of Galapagos Isld steep side to windward in allusion to St. Helena discussion.

41e [lower part of page excised, now in CUL-DAR40.2]

Mr Brayley says he can give me facts respecting lime n being heated without parting with Carb. Acid. —
Mr Malcolmson in Paper on India gives reason for knowing that Mur. Soda. and Carb of lime decompose each other. —

42e upper

[upper part of page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.25]

on Direction of mountains in Brazil L.'Institut No° 221

42e lower

[lower part of page excised, now in CUL-DAR40.2]

Lamellar dikes like Mica Slate
Von. Buch. Canary Isd p 170. — Mem. Cordillera
Can Greenstone dikes, be residue of quartzose vein in higher parts? & felspathic veins? —

43e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.133]

Mr Poulett Scrope. talks of Trachyte, "superficially coated by a thin pellicle of a blackish colour like a dull & poor varnish, which I conceive to be analogous to the black glazing observed by Humboldt on the granitic rocks of the Orinoco". — but on one of the Ponza isles. but no minute description is given. —
Vol II. 2d Series. p. 221. —

44e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.133]

Mr Bollaert tells me, that the upper strata alone at Guantajaya contains salt. see Geolog. Proceedings
Lake let out by steps in Central France not very conclusive proofs, but certainly probable. Bulletin de la Soc. Geolog: 1833−34. P. 35. —
Ancient Lake Lemagne in Auvergne
Proofs from Phryganea

45e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.41]

NB. Sedgwick talks of laminated structure (∴ separation of ingredients) as uniting with cretionary. — it may of come of use in discussion on Cleavage &c
Geolog Transacts. Vol III. p I. p. 86. et p 95. —

46e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.42]

It is easy to prove. (pyrites, agates, calcareous balls) that concretions are connected with a crystalline process. — now cleavage as suggested by Sir J. Hershel is all crystals obeying one law of crystallization. therefore concretions in this case laminar. hence the thick wedges of feldspar in gneiss. —

47e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.41]

Veins in septaria. a kind of concretionary process (analogous to layers of quartz & feldspar) within other concretion. — state last page thus. point of attempted crystallization, & therefore as a consequence aggregated (I assume the same force which draws together two particles of Carb. of Lime, tends to crystallize them as seen in stalactite). — some force crystallizes minerals in layer. therefore aggregates them in layer. —

48e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.42]

So that layer of feldspar in gneiss is identical with layer of flint on calc.: sandstone. (& as I believe most strata) (Hence endless passages from gneiss to granite): Why not horizontal? Why have particles in such cases moved more laterally than vertically, in concretions more vertically than laterally. — In Area of this
[sketch]
If surface covered with oil should shrink, film parallel to longer axis. But if great depth

49e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

NB. Prof Henslow Sedgwicks lamination parallel to stratification evidently small scale of concretionary action all fluid at once, the films vertical.
Ascertain law of attraction of particles of same nature: then get mathematician to when two particles would are aggregated, would they not attract strong. a third. — & this would make layers. — (Gravity can have no effect, on particles of equal weight. — ) ؟ cleavage not vertical ∴ combined with gravity. —

50e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

hence changes in dip of no sort of consequence. — Therefore ∠ of inclination varies with chemical attraction &c. becomes measure of force. : where little inclination, little force & varying direction. — Therefore in pile of mud from Trapiches. inclined

51e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

layer!!!. — The separation in the Ponza case of Scrope parallel to walls of dykes — Mem. laminated dikes in Cordillera.!!! —
[sketch]
In stratum O P. let force drag particles to line AB, & likewise gravity MN. Then every particle would tend to meet at B. but if particles attract each other in some increasing ratio in proportion to proximity would they not unite in B.K.

52e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

on the diagonal of BK. — This is not applicable. it does not explain cleavage of rock — nor the Falkland case, nor. the arrangement of particles of granite in Henslow's Grit, yet it is worth consideration. especially effect of gravity, versus some fault explaining vary dip & inclination. —

53e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

which last is strong character. — A discussion on concretions and cleavage conjoined very good. — It is the Key to the story. — consider stalactites. — agate rings, crystallization transverse. — or rather radiating to central point. can cleavage be radiation from some grand centre. —
A Stalactite of Gypsum, is the best case of cleavage. —

54e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.43]

Phillips (113) Lardner Encyclop. — absolutely considers gneiss an aqueo deposit resulting from disintegrated granite!!! Look at gneiss of Rio
Concretions in Pumice bed at Ascension instance of hollow concretions & concretion filled with unconsolidated matter —

55

Phillips Lardner p. 197. refers to salt as being produced by local heat.
Ask Capt. Beaufort, whether water flashing into steam, would
Babbage. — Webster
Phillips insists of analogy between Australia & Oolitic period. — comparison rather loose. — perhaps worth
Says from Lardner's (p. 213) form of escarpment relation kept to sea coast ∴ curious exception in Wealden. —

56

Would crystals arrange themselves in that direction, in which most substance lies?
Phillips. Lardner's p. 270−4, good discussion showing present form of land in Northern England influence dispersion of Boulders. —
See Rogers for Southern limits

57

of Boulders in N. America
do) p. 280. the gravel beds in England different from Boulder beds —
What is Osteopora platycephalus (Harlan) found on the Delaware. is it Edentate? Phillips p 289. —

58

Alludes to big bones in interior at Falkland Isd. — Peron does as if well attested. —
There is no difference between dike & mountain axis. except in relative strata size with superincumbent strata. where they have yielded conical axis of mountain. —

59

only when dikes reach near the surface. that strata yield. —
In Undulation in open ocean. as pebbles would be lifted up & down. on coast itself, undertow would draw it outwards. — form of breaker affected some way out to sea. — ؟effects on bottom a thing floating some way from coast is driven on to it. — rollers at Tristan d'Acunha. — silting up. channels on coast of England —

60

Any one, who has studied rocks in detail as amygdaloid. calcareous rocks of Ascension, each particle coated. &c will be aware how little common Gravity has to do with arrangement of particles in rock. This applies to cleavage & concretions. —
Septaria in concretion arranged in planes, case of separation. — the branching cracks — only bear relations to veins in primitive rocks —

61

Are substances soluble under great pressure? equally with little pressure? An important question! If water yields substances from impact, it would look like it.
Are greenstone dike in Granite residual matter of upper quartzose ones & felspar.??
Are the great crystalls, & the layers first of felspar & then quartz &c, owing to separation having taken place most gradually, first the more fusible substance, & then the next being sucked out.

62

In Cleavage discussion, state broadly indication of new law acting in certain directions predominantly, connection with magnetism &c counteracting gravity. —
As volcanic eruptions are accompanied by horizontal elevations, so are injection of mountain chains. accompanied by do. — Give this after supposition

63

p. 461 of Proceedings List of collections in Geological Society.
Pumice at South Shetland. Geological Society —
Dikes have not been the moving agents, because not wedge-formed. — Hence fill up fissures — If dikes effect of horizontal elevation excepting fissures from above unite with those from below. would always thin out above which explains a difficulty. —

64

All De la Beche's reasoning of mountains being formed by crust being too large & pitching against each other, is, I suspect much weakened by vi considering how close the dislocations occur & therefore that the crust might be considered a level. —

65

Dikes being last action. (effect of horizontal movement) hence generally intersect metallic dikes: It is an important view being subsequent to dislocation of strata.
A capital discussion might be made between dikes & axis of mountain-chain in proportion to weight of superior mass. —
Absence of Caverns, in Plutonic rocks argument against great bodies of vapour. according to Hopkins theory. — general presence of dikes. argues in favour of pressure of liquid rock. Andes discussion —

66

Albite certainly contains 6 per cent more silica than common felspar therefore on axis of Cordillera, in Andite − containing 80 per cent of Albite 80/100 & 6/100 484
In Falkland islands. & generally where rock metamorphic & thickness of strata not great, one can conceive anticlinal lines near. (lateral pressure would always produce it). but where great thickness is affected, they would be far off

67e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.68]

In Discussion on dikes argue impossibility on fissure going right through superincumbent mass (varying hardness, — takes time to trace) from few dikes which have given rise to eruptions. — We must suppose everywhere — , in granitic areas &c &c volcanos
[sketch]
thus dikes terminate

68e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.68]

Solubility of fluids varies with temperature ؟ with pressure?
Salt on surface of plains due to whole moisture being lost by evaporation therefore capillary attraction would bring water with salt to surface
Lyell remarked to me that Kylow(?) was astonished with him that th gneiss, mica-slate of whole kingdom of Norway was contorted yet nomountain chain
case parallel to Banda Oriental. ask Lyell for sentence. —

69e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.201]

Origin of Breccia, introduce in Cordillera discussion, deep sea, fragments fall off cliffs. but then how spread abroad? —
There is thus wide difference between erosive power of river & sea. the former as its channel becomes wider looses its cutting power. (as does it when the inclination becomes less & ∴ tends to finite power) whereas sea. on coast, as long as exposed to waves of sea, cutting power increased with width. for besides more surface exposed. bay more open to turbulence.

70e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.201]

Bull. Soc. Geolog 1837 P. 320. paper on shrinking of Clay. applicable to Cleavage. C. Prevost. —
In Cordillera. a rush of water will account for filling up of valleys — subsequent opening a medial gorge by slow erosion. but we have evidence in distribution of blocks, that there has been no tumultuous rush. — besides general improbability. stratification, If chain of lake. &c

71e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.187]

the alluvium would form a succession offlights of steps; if one lake then we must suppose barrier in the very part, where barrier least probable. — The sea harmonizes well with character of mouth of valleys on Pampas. —
If blocks above their parent rocks. would be prove of subsidence. — removal downwards by successive torrent spread out. by sea — beach action — no one will dispute. sea. once came to Mendoza —
Will they introduce other causes to explain alluvi in valleys

72e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.188]

Lowe in his paper says land shells found with calcareous matter & concretions on coast of Madeira.? How came it if this powder results from decomposed sea shells, that land shells should be preserved in it — some error? (because more recent) Coquimbo on. other hand? —
The widening a valleydepends on serpentine course. — the latter (it is generally said) is consequence of rapid slow course, &

73e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.187]

with slow course small erosive power. therefore tendency of running water to deepen not to widen valley. — Why is serpentine course result of little inclination?? — — It is simply as the inclination is little the force required to move it stream aside is not great. — Is there more degradation at first angle owing to momentum. which the water has obtained. —
If inclination be great where arrow stands the force immediately deflected from (B) which would not have been case. if inclination small. — [sketch]

74e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.188]

The power of widening channel depends on power of deflection with stream retaining its force, now it will be evident that deflected stream cannot retain its force if inclination be great. There could not be great deflection in a "rapid". — is a familiar illustration. — Therefore stream has no tendency to widen course until inclination is become comparatively small, & when that is case force is lessened. therefore rivers very ineffectual in widening valley. — it is essentially a deepening agent

75e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.189]

[sketch]
Therefore when we have valleys of this structure. as the inclination in all probability would be greater when flowing over (B) than when at (C) its tendency would cut be to cut a narrower channel instead of wider. — This applies to all vallies (except mere talus over cliffs edge of which limit cannot be great over) with very gently sloping sides
This argument is partly taken from Delabechs Theoretical Researches . —

76e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.189]

Athenaeum. 1838 — p. 137. Three inosculating rivers in Southern America ؟effect of subsidence —
Is there same. Institute. 1838 p. 40 or Phil Mag. Dec 1837. p. 520 Mr Fox on increase of temperature at great depths.
All Earthquake unaccompanied by Volcanos must be sought after proofs of sinking. — No Sweden!! swelling of rock from Heat.

77

Specific gravities of many artificial limestones produced by Sir J. Hal. End of paper, p. 157. Vol VI Edinburgh. Phil: Transacts. —
Does the isothermal subterranean line move upward from effects of Elevation if not crust much thinner beneath ocean than above it
no because heat proceeds from great body of mass. —

78

The last speculation becomes important with respect to thickness of crust broken up. — — My view of Volcanos &c &c
This view will bear much reflection on method of cooling — Very difficult subject. PP —
I think from dislocation taking place chiefly beneath water & volcanos. crust must be thinner under water but cause most difficult (better conductor)

79

Fitz Roy's Case of S. Maria & Tubul applicable to Andes & Patagonia —
PP On Lyells idea of whole centre of earth same heat, then change in form of fluid centre would lift with it isothermal line, but if heat from centre, then crust of solid earth would be thicker. —
Andes mark the line between sinking & rising areas. —

80

In Earthquake if Subsidence we should not expect volcanos. — not so much horizontal oscillation. or so many shocks directly after great shock —
It appears to me unphilosophical to think calcareous springs near coral reefs. — where vegetation luxuriant it might be almost as well said probably much Carbonic Acid gaz here. —

81e

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[top portion of page not located]

Bull:. Soc: Geolog. Tome IX 1837-8. p. 24. rocks of Chimborazo., & Pichincha. Melaphyre.
= Andesite — Albite & amphibole =
Cook found Granite at Christmas Sound Vol XIV. (My Edition) p 500. Well described

82e

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[top portion page excised, not located]

Subaqueous. removal, shown by the number of bones lying at the bottom of sea. off coast of England. — Sea must always on actual beach act same way. — a little further from beach action probably modified by form of waves & currents. — but this must be continued. no currents & elevation have same

83e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.39]

effect, a tendency direct (or oblique) outwards may be granted. independent of currents. — mud going out can actually be seen. —
(The preservation of dikes & ledges of first-rate importance in showing not subaqueous removal — ??? the difficulty of such preservation certainly is lessened. —
Coral flats. argument for Heaping up. — very good
this will show effects. — analogous to broad flat sand beach. — De la Beches argument of low coast gaining & high loosing answered by this [sketch]
No one can doubt. A−B once formed low coast. —

84e

[page excised, now in CUL-DAR42.45]

Annales des Mines. a translation of paper by rose on Greenstone, diorite, &c most important.: — must be studied. —
Scientific Memoirs Edited by Taylor Ehrenbergh on flints in chalk must be studied — though I do not think good p. 411 When discussing concretions
Carbonate soda. formed by Ca. of L. & Mur. of Soda mixed.
Turner's Chemistry p. 206

85

Both Beck & Deshayes saw fossil shells from West Indies & declare them to be recent species — Lyell —
Some internal changes are in process. connected with variation of compass & these may cause or be effect of elevation & subsidence. examine these lines

86

Description of rocks in Lyells'. Capital Norway case. — The fragment. consisted of hornblende (?) & felspar, (some crystals being red) with cleavage, veins of pyrites, few curious fissures; base in part. block not crystallized
Salband like basalt. full of circular cryst of glassy felspar different from either fragment or dike, blackish grey base. crystals from fragment disseminated on that side of salband. gradually becoming finer grained & more compact on that side — separation distinct from dike junction mechanical:
Dike base reddish feldspathes with grenish. black specks of hornblende, large irregular cryst of reddish felspar. & scales. of mica. — large cryst of Hornblende blending into base — Salband might have oozed out of cleavage plates: the crystals

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must have recrystallized, as such do not occur in either dike or fragment. junction certainly most distinct on dike side. — oozed from one of the true rocks, most probably from the gneiss beds in the mica slate. —
Geograph. Journal. Vol IV (p 321) Mr Hillhouse describes central granitic ridge of Guayana as NW & SE.
Vol VI. p. 247. Mr Schomburgk NW. numerous boulders of granite"
"direction of strata on the Berbice N. 35 0 . E. dip to NW to 80° faults with red wacke contorted evidently dike. V. VII. p. 316 & 328

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VI. p. 365. Meyen on Chile must be studied
Analysis of Voyage: many observations on heights of valleys in Chile
Geograph. Journal

88

Vol. VII p. 216. — Guava trees, introduced about twenty years since (1835) from Norfolk Is d into Geograph Journal Vol VII p. 279. Carcases of birds drifting out to sea
do p. 358. changed soundings in Mouth of S. Cruz in connection with Fitz Roys fact of elevated block of stone. — & Caldcleughs collection of facts

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See page 101. in Note Book (C) for some speculat. on conducting powers of rock — —

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Geograph Journal Vol IV p. 36. on subsidence of the land in Guiana, worthy of consideration.
When discussing nucleuse's of old volcanos within Cordillera — allude to Lyell's view of not discovering dike one end granite & other trap. — It is in the mountain masses we must look for that. — how few isolated volcanos there are. where one alone has been formed — Look at the now active volcanos & see what high they are

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See Athenæum. 1838. p 274. probably will be published in the Geograph. Journal. —
A meeting of the Geograph Soc, April 9 1838. Letter from M. Erhman stating that the mean temp at Yakous in Siberia being -8 Reaumur. — there ought to be 32° Fah. at a greater depth than 400. & the limit being 400 ft. shows that the strata have very unusual conducting power of heat from centre. — But is this not wrong? we know mean of surface formerly much higher, so that we must look at the upper four hundred feet of strata having conducted away the heat of surface. & if conducting powers had been better

91

then 32º would have been found lower. — We have no right to consider the conducting powers either better or worse & the depth of 32º. being little we may confidently infer that time has not been allowed for lower beds to cool down. & then in 50000 years the depth will be greater than 5000. 400. — These facts of slow but successive transmission of temperature clearly prove possibility of metamorphic theory

92

On the idea of statical equilibrium, the height of lava (habitually) becomes measure of force in that part. — Important as explaining want of levelness
Major Mitchell showed me a river near W. of Port Philip. which had bar at mouth excavated in solid rock. — 4 & 5 fathoms deep. perfectly still water. Major Mitchell inferred subsidence; Mem my remarks on coast of Australia. —
Great NW. dip in SE part of Australia. — Probably a case of rivers turning round & penetrating

93

their own range in Australian Alps. —
Taylors Scientific Memoir, Part IV. p. 403
Ehrenberg on ferrugineous Gallionella
Examine Iron stone of C. of Good Hope & Australia / and mud of salt-lakes of Rio Negro — Mr Bowerbank —

94

Dr A. Smith's curious specimens of transversely fibrous quartz. & iron stone alternating. bear on subject of cleavage
Clay slate. a distinct formation deep & therefore extensive water ∴ not formed in modern formation & not ever in Secondary in Europe. gneiss — metamorphosed clay slate. — — shale in shall sea. Lyell confounds these introduce discussion —
I see Lyell talks of different composition using difference in metamorphic action which I give at C. of Good Hope. —

95

A bare hill of greenstone, if we know origin of greenstone tells subsidence as plainly as Temple of Serapis. (now we have banished diluvial waves). & likewise tells, offers a presumption it has been excessively slow because beach line chief cause of denudation, but does not tell period. —
I cannot help suspecting that clay-slates have been more frequently metamorphosed than other deposits. — NB. because lowest first accumulated in bed of ocean

96

With the exception of sandstone rare to have any horizontal non cleaving beds. metamorphosed.
The chemical action which gives polarity to atoms in slates that cleave, & which unite the homogenious crystals, must aid in adding effects to common heat. —
Where there are cliffs there ought to be creeks & mouths of rivers ought to be deep. —

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Henslow has deposited specimens from Anglesea in Geolog. Soc. if numbered compare them with my rocks. when writing on Falkland Islds
p. 94. Von Buch's Travels account of Norway chain being broken through like that near — Obstruction Sound in S. America
The very general absence of fragments & pebbles in mica slate & gneiss, can only (see supra p 94) be accounted for by great molecular attraction of every atom in rock

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On a coast, the shallower the water, the greater power of oscillations & currents. — if matter was successively given of every degree of fineness. then most regular slope — if not course enough flat top. ended by abrupt slope [sketch] each stratum would thin out, both inland & seaward: if matter too coarse, then [sketch] that form. — All this depending not on absolute force size of of currents fragments but relative to currents.
Small lakes have power of levelling their shores

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where currents very weak?? — too great an abundance of matter would have same effect as too coarse.
Read Kylau on Granite Edinburgh Philosophical Journal
Rapport on D'Orbigny's Voyage. good section of Rio Negro beds. — — refers to species non decrite de petites corbules analogue living in mouth of Plata. p. 26. Geology of Arica

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Schit Schmidtmeyer travels into Chile p 29. gold is not sought for in Chile in beds of river, but in shelving successive banks above 30 ft or so above bed of river. formed of rounded pebbles — it is clear gold occurs in submarine alluvium, or sublittoral formations.
p. 150. at Portezuelo, extremity of mountains of Cordova project on plain, like re a reef on a sea beach; — p. 151 first discovered very small bits of red granite between 40 & 50 from Portezuelo.

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Bull: Soc. Geolog. 1837. December. p. 91. a classification of Europæan strata according to composition thinks sand with vegetable remains

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formed near coast, limestone deep water. will bear on formations. during elevation & depression. C. Prevost. —

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My views of insensible oscillations of level will alone explain the immense amount of change which must have taken place, otherwise the world would daily be scene of ruin

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in late Natical Magazine (before June 1838) that 70: F were obtained 100 miles E of Staten land. bringing up pebbles 2 inches long? —

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L'Institut. 1838 p. 151. Formations of Payta extend close to Guayaquil. — modern shells of Cobija doubtful.

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Examine well shores of lakes. to see effects of degradation, no tides, water always falling or at least not rising are there cliffs. Sir L. Dick says (.p 52) fringe

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of sublittoral deposit always equal width — subject of fine paper this would make. —

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L'Institut. (1838) p. 216 M. Gay on the Geology of Chile. — P p217. Pentlands Fossils & Meyens — Jura & Chalk

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When we consider parallelism of dikes (Hopkins) & that every dike. which has not formed volcanos. or become scoriform. has thinned upwards & is now cut off by denudation it gives one grand idea of amount denudation. — This may be added to any place where dikes described — Cordillera. St Helena &c &c — in Cordillera, it is at once evident only small proportion of dikes have reached the surface

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Arguments against Herschel's view of cause of continental elevations (1) the alternation of linear bands of movement

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in Indian & Pacific Oceans. — (2d — ) does not explain first formation of continents, if globe be considered as condensed vapour. — inequlities are required to start with

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(& does not Hersche theory imply tendency to equilibrium.) 3d there are mountains in the moon, which though not very analogous (see Edinburgh. Phil. Journal), no great chains like Andes or Himalayas, but great circular mountains, yet so analogous, that as we see mountains formed (& mountains are effect of continental elevations) we may conclude that elevation

105

is independent of spreading out matter by action of the sea. — as no sea exists there. — But Sir John considers an irregular figure to be that of equilibrium, — what causes that of tendency to irregularity, — why does Sir John assume it to be constant. —
It is to be profoundly considered, metamorphic rocks at surface. & great heigth on mountains. — consist of rocks with fossils, therefore formed near surface. whether they can have been plunged so many miles deep into the bowels of the earth, as would be required by thermometrical scale. — (for the temp must be immense to convert rock into gneiss &c

106

judging from what we see when trap in dike & approach other rocks. & trap at least as hot as lava — of which temperature is partly known — but moreover gradation from gneiss to granite shows that the metamorphic rocks have just floated over the absolutely fluid pool. — (this is shown by the softness & curvature of quartz rock?) also by my phenomena of earthquakes. — by the narrowness which

107

the anticlinal lines are apart — the curvatures of the strata. ؟the enormous faults & facility with which the earth is cracking by vertical planes into small pieces — mem coal-field. — the structure of Andes. where we believe we can trace the outlines of what were fluid undulations — the equal movements of Glen Roy road. (؟ metamorphic action at the bottom of the sea?) All this profoundly considered. study Hopkins. theory of dikes may throw

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some light. — thin dikes not cooling if they had travelled some hundred miles through nearly cold rock. — in volcano the pool is not deep. — Hot springs &c &c — then if so, thermometer show it cannt be ordinary heat, then there is something superadded, that which give cleavage to rocks. — but lava shows the rocks really hot. & therefore I doubt the thermometer.

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Is not common salt more soluble in hot cold than hot water with — especially if very hot under high pressure. — respect to formation of salt.?. — ???
Footsteps in New Red Sandstone. look as if a surface deposit. — The case of the shingle in the great Chilian valleys must be profoundly considered. if elevation near coast more than at interior effect would be such as present. to spread sheet of matter over surface. — if elevation then went on at greater rate, not only river would carry further its own matter. but would cut wide gorge. leaving cliffs, on each side, such as now exist. — caution about action of rivers. —
Excess of matter brought down

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Mention absolute elevation of Patagonian blocks (1200 ft??). Scotland at least 2200. Jura 4000 feet. —
The veins of segregation in Greenstone of Salisbury Craigs well worthy of attention — see Glen Roy Notebook — & scraps on Salisbury Craigs. Kept amongst old papers read before societies. —

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Sir. J Hall Vol VI. p 173. (Ed. Transact) has seen clay stiff enough to form for potters to use. in which great Knife formed crystals of ice were formed — (like my gypsum case) shows power of segregation. — & has heated angular fragments of rock, which retained their angles sharp — yet with character completely altered. & a crystalline structure superinduced
Lyell on Sweden p. 5. & 7. violet strata from decomposed muscles.. Smith of Jordanhill has seen same thing —

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Consider profoundly How came it. that Glen Roy district could have been elevated without fissure & unequal. — where were cracks? — ? How came there ever to be cracks
11th August. 1838
Near Woolwich there are plains & valleys just like Patagonia, & many shells in parts on surface, but I saw none embedded this point would be worth examining. to support. shells on surface of Patagonia, yet none in shingle beds.

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Lyell on Sweden. p. 12. proofs of small rise at Stockholm. — analogous to my Valparaiso case.
Consider profoundly all consequences of extreme fluidity of earth. — study different forms of earth as shown by arc. — read Herschels astronomy with oscillations of level. [sketch] will point [sketch] be the one which generally yields. —
Will this not explain littoral mountains & volcanos. — Why on one coast?

114

How can Herschel consider figure of earth statical. — if platform of mexico owes its elevation to equilibrium. — it cannot be equilibrium of fluid, but of solid, because if of fluid, the waters of the ocean would obey that Law. & lie over the platform: — On my view the degrading action must prevent internal fluid arriving at equilibrium so soon from; crust being cut of — if part of cold crust under ocean, became thicker, then when fluid moved past out & been [illegible] [sketch]

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August 25. I saw metamorphic conglomerates on shore of Loch Lochy very like those of Andes
Speculate under head of Beagle Channel. on origin of mud

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with stones scattered irregularly. — (Mem near Gregory Bay). Shropshire case where lamination appeared. — Lyells Denmark. —

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L'Institut (1838) p. 268. Paper by Humboldt on Bogota. Cordillera, — nothing. — salt & coal near Bogota: p 270. — splendid paper on fossil shells of S. America. Von Buch

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Lyell. (under head of Delta) describes near Alps great beds of rivers which must be like the Chilian ones. —

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Septemb. 2d — Sulphur like carbon must go round of dissemination & separation in volcanos. — if

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so why not metals.
The theory of veins will, I suspect be greatly aided by considering space formed — great vacuum — by dike. — Mem. however. veins of segregation in Salisbury Craigs

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Letter from M Angelis. B. Ayres. 3d. May. states remains found in many part. — great Dasypus near Canelones — large quadruped bigger than ox. — at Buenos Ayres 20½ quadras from river; 20 varas from surface in tosca. — remnant of Megetherium in interior. —
The theory of
Geographical Journal Vol. VIII, (1838) p 212. Facts from Erman about great depths of frozen soil. p. 211 Consider proved that Siberia must have been in same condition for long period

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Subsidence in Demarara p. 131 (B.) Wrong Entrance.
Book C. p. 101. On Frozen Soil of Siberia (with refer to Metamor) wrong entrance
Athenæum. 1838. p. 652. Dr Daubeny on mountain Chains in N. America
Erasmus suggested to me that Herschel's theory offers no explanation of intermittent action of elevatory force —

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Erasmus says he has seen in making brass a piece of copper not melted absorb, zinc thrugout its thickness. — this most curious with respect to epigmous action. — if the zinc were mixed with 90 percent of lead. it would be still more curious to know whether it would be absorbed. — if so exactly parallel to limestone & volcanic rock containing magnesia

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Lyell. Elements p.119 on [sketch] such strata
do p. 171. argument against lateral injection. from probability of fissures being prolonged to surface. see p. 181 on do subject
do p. 447 & 449. & 450. On Vertical trees. Uspallata. —
do p. 473. on great Iceland stream. the 90 miles includes opposite directions. Mem. S. Cruz.

121

Assuming from Sir. W. Herschel's views earth originally fluid, then cooling process must go from surface towards the interior, — who knows how far that may have penetrated, — lower down the temperature may be kept up far higher from circulation of heated fluid or gases under pressure. —
Lyells view of transmission of heat by gases — does not apply it to thickness of crust. —
if crust were metal then thinner if better conductor, then still thinner

122

The Problem is, you have temperature known at surface, — you have temperature known far below surface, say 1000 — III but an equilibrium is supposed to have been attained. how much matter separates them, this is ascertained by conducting powers — we judge from the surface, & say 60 ft to degree. — but this may be very wrong, — The fact of a dumplin being bad conductor is against my views — if we had rod thus & judged by increments at, how wrong, would our judgement be — Does condensed metal, conduct heat better than plain? — Mem
[sketch]

123

how easily water percolates rocks, — when pressure increased or under surface, would not the fluid matter be driven upwards & so conduct heat? —
How comes it in volcanos that have gone on for thousands of years, that surface does not become hot? — this looks as if bad conductor —
III But equilibrium is not attained, & if cold water did not percolate surface, would become hotter. — hence temperature ought to increase rapidly beneath level of sea. — deep seated springs spring requires connected column. — of cold water show, that water does percolate, & springs beneath sea —

124

According to this latter view the rod is reversed, upper part metal conveying heat in one direction only, like water below 39° & lower part glass. — then the high temperature would be much nearer the surface. especially at bottom of great ocean, where the circulations from surface can take place. — the depth of frozen soilis against this view. — however it is said in some of the papers that there are springs even in siberia. — ؟from water [sketch] isothermal curve. —
Read Daubeny on Thermal Springs.

125

East-clinal. West clinal. S.-clinal. N-clinal & anticlinal synclinal — line. — ditto of synclinal simply clinal lines. dipping so & so or may be used East- clinal lines &c &c . —
But Siberia was once thawed. & hence. (when climate hotter) was cooled to greater depth. — Now the inf subterranean isothermal line must be creeping pushing up to the line of ice. — Hence further N. when soil frozen for greater length of time depth of ice ought to be less. —

126

Memoir of the Irish Academy Vol 8. p. 118 water no — oil will freeze if cooled in a closed globule of glass. (oil may be cooled to 0º !) — shows effects of pressure in change of form as the result of heat. — will it bear on central fluidity. —
do p. 137. Lord Tullamore found Sulph of Soda in peat ashes in Ireland

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dikes in mountains. (not on continents) prove elevation. — great mountain chains. may be effects of subsidence
Elie de Beaum. Memoires of French Geolog. Cantal Vol III 1? p. 246. on formation of cones beneath sea. — with reference to old submarine orifices in Cordillera

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Geograph. Journal vol II. p 89. at Madras. surrounded by salt water. purest fresh water must be sought for below the sea mark. —
If mountain chains are matter piled up. over crevice from effect of general elevation, — when subsidence takes place. — Mountain will first fall — the problem will be falling of an arch weighted in its centre. —

129

Will not abrasion of land on one side. produce subsidence of water on other. from tendency to regain statical equilibrium
This will be only a modifying cause.
[sketch] land
protuberant water to counterbalance
How strongly the Glen Roy case shows that the figure of the world has just that form which forces dilemma.

130

Transactions of the Maryland Academy (at Athenæum.) I. Part. I Vol. — some notices on modern Tertiary strata on coast of do —
I believe ?? coast of North America., like the Mexican Gulf. is fouled by bars of sand & shallow lagoon. — when describing Coast of. Brazil. Maldonado enter into this case. —

131

Ed. New. Phil. Journal Vol XXI. p. 213. Beyond the limits of Alps size of boulders sorted: ditto Murchisons case. — ؟does it bear on Patagonia?
Facts about subsided forests. — Many repeated oscillations
Hitchcock Report on Massacuhssets. p. 133 The most wonderful case of great block of rock moved by gale —
When writing on Valleys. Tertiary strata of S America read parts of this work, though it is but poor.

132

Athenæum. 1838 p. 791 — Most curious account of great subsidence 20 miles long 1 in with. which must have been from an axis, 20 ft at least in depth near mouth of Columbia river — Read Mr Parker's Book. —
M. Bichoffs Papers, in Edinby New Phil. Journ 1838. several case given of hot heads &c heat beneath the sea. — (did not Beechy have some such

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case) what would be the chance in sounding over a continent to fall across a hot. spring. — Hot water would not lie. at bottom. — Surely we here have proofs of hot bottom. — Study Bishoofs Paper. —
Weelsted told me of some large fresh Water springs off coast of Persia
In Glen Roy paper I show crust yield easily. & if easily must be thin: beside mere fracture

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[sketch]
A Elevation as in Patagonia
B subsidence; as in be cautious. mud banks & sand. dunes. — in these littoral deposits there probably would be marked line of separation
A Paper by Parrott Mem. Acad. Peters. Scienc Math. Phy — Nat. t. I. 1831. sur le temp du globe on Volcanos &c worth reading.

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L'Institut. 1838 p. 360. on orbicular trap thought to be bombs submarine

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L'Institut 1838 p. 400. Observations on Mountains of the Moon. by Dr Nichol — adduces the case to show Sir. J. Herschel's theory wrong. —
Geograph. Journal Vol. 8. p. 402. — ground ice — subterranean isothermal line

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Athenæum. 1839. p. 52. On Frozen soil of Siberia. — facts of water flowing from

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beneath frozen crust in America Richardson. —
From strata being not only vertical, but turned over in many parts of the world. — argument strong in favour of thin crust theory. —

137

What a curious investigation it would be to compare, the time of the earthquake of Chile, with that of the passage of the moon. — Ask Hopkins. —
M. Parrot, Mem. Acad. Imp. des Sciences. (Sc Math. Phys. et Naturelles. Tom I. p 501. shows first that data wholly insufficient to calculate rate of increase of heats in earth's crust. — yet heat does increase, — but in Ocean

138

does not. (see resumè p. 536) —
NB. I cannot understand the argument, that cold oceans lakes bottom. if not colder than mean of place, shows earth not with central heat. —
(does M. Parrot suppose there is no volcanicity beneath lakes)?
Suppose ocean represents proper state temperature of earth. at the freezing point. — accounts for increase on earth by volcanic action. — Why now as we know volcanic action prevails more beneath the sea, than& on coast lines, than on continents. it ought, (according to M. Parrots argument against central heat to warm the ocean). — and M. Parrot does conjecture that in Scoresby's case volcanicity has warmed it. Is not cold of ocean accounted for, by the circulation

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being greater, than the transmission from ocean's bottom. — (according to M..Parrots own hypothesis some such explanation appears to me necessary) as M. Parrots shows from variation in strata earth a very bad conductor. — shows p. 516 that subterranean springs give result less to be trusted than any others — may not the cold bottom of ocean. (with fresh sediment added to bottom) be caused, by absence of circulating water. — & therefore that temperature of earth beneath of Sahara de a dry desert, would be very high. —

140

M. Parrot ends his paper like a fool. —
Feb 25th
All facts show how slowly heat travels; & therefore the abysses where fluid rock has been ejected must remain fluid for an enormous period: now when we see how many points have been penetrated by volcanic & trappean rocks, within say the Tertiary period. one is led, to look at globe as resting on film of molten rock. —

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Voyages of Adventure & Beagle vol I p. 2 & 3. Porphyry at St. Elena.
p. 6. few living shells. on coast of do
p 8. — soft Clay beds hear C. Virgin
p. 59. dip of Clay slate in T del Fuego Admiralty Sound. SE dip. much
p. 136. Rocks on Western Coast
p. 204 do. do
p. 210. Height on road from Valparaiso to Santiago
p. 328. dead trees on Isthmus of Pen. Tres Montes. — as by subsidence
# Fitz Roy refers to #
& Rocks
p. 375. on the soundings on outer coast of T. del. Fuego. —
p 385 Rocks of S. Western Coast
Vol II p. 277. on whale bones in Falklands

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Some of the Tosca nodules at Bahia Blanca Mr Malcolmson says are like Kankaer
South Part of Luconia — Phillipines there is volcano on isld in large lake. —
Berghaus Chart of do

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Journal of Asiatic Society
Vol I.
p. 145. on salt mines of Punjab
p. 149. on the salt mines saline deposits of India
p. 503. On Indian Saline Deposits.
Vol II. p. 23. p. 77 do
Vol III p. 36. do
p. 188 do
Vol 5. p. 798 do
Vol 7. p. 52 363. do

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Journal of Asiatic Soc
Vol V. p. p 96. apparently good geological paper. by Malcolmson — worth reading —
Burnetts. vol 4. p. 193 in Lat 26º S. Wafer looking for Copiapo. found inland a great many sea shells some miles from coast — quote passage to show abundance

145

Bengal Journal. Vol 4. 1835. P. 437. Tours by Benza Neilgherries — Much inform. on decomposition of granite —
Bengal. J. vol 7. p. 522. Mountain near Caubul. parallel ranges. with here & there little branches at ∠ from each side intercepting plain & dividing it — Hopkins fissure ∠

146

G. J. Malcolmson has described formation of shore of Coromandel. just same as. at Bahia Blanca — letter in drawer with important letters —

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When I come to treat of the age of the Pampas Deposit, I may properly remark on the superiority of Lyell's classification to that of Phillips as given p. 13. Vol II. Lardner's Treatise
Phillips in Lardner Vol II p. 73.: some remarks on veins:
Phillips in Lardner Vol II p. 80 — some remarks on dikes: applicable to Cordillera
Phillips in Lardner Vol II. p. 81. &83 Some remarks on thinness of crust as implied by meeting with granite every-where.
Phillips in Ladner Vol II p. 125. Good discussion on mineral veins p. 125 to 129 & p. 135 — 160 & 162

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Ed. New. Phil J. 1838. p. 72. on metallic vapours condensed from furnaces
do) p. 84 on the effects of veins of slag in iron furnaces affecting to some distance & blending with sandstone said to be analogous to granite infiltering some of its constituents into chert.

150 [blank]

151

Ed: New. Phil J. 1838. p. 132. & 134 Bischoff. On the effects of meteoric waters on the temperature of the interior & p. 142 / p. 155. the increase of temperature beneath the sea, is probably much more rapid than beneath continents
In Berlin Transactions (1832. or 3?) there is an account of Sellow Geolog. Observat. in Southern Brazil.

152 [blank]

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p. 4. (Lyells Book)
Observaciones sobre El Clima del Lima par Dr H. Unanùe says he believes the sea has formerly stood three hundred feet above its present level, & in many parts has extended a league inshore both N & S of Lima. — judges from beds of sand & gravel & shells.
p. 47. do has table of every earthquake, during two years. — will serve for comparison with the moon at some future time

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155

Sir. J. Halls Paper on the consolidation of strata — he heated sand red hot & brine was boiling on the top —

156-175 [blank]

176

Would rotting wood by yielding Carbonic Acid unite with piece of cabbage alklali & precipitate silica / or charcoal charged with carbonic acid

177-179 [blank]

180

Many interesting experiments might be tried by comparing Zoophite to plants. — grafting length of life &c &c
Will any inorganic substance cause such monstrous growth as oak galls or rose buds galls. — is it not effect of superadded vital influence? —

[inside back cover]

See End of Note Book. called R.N.
Massacusset would be well worth visiting
really good account of ice. —

C. Darwin

[back cover]

A.


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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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