RECORD: Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. Valparaiso notebook. [English Heritage 88202335] (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed from microfilm by Gordon Chancellor; transcription typed and checked against microfilm by Kees Rookmaaker, 1.2006. Checked by Chancellor. Further editing and corrections by John van Wyhe 9.2006, checked against the manuscript by van Wyhe 11.2006. Transcription revised and edited by van Wyhe 6-12.2008. RN8

The Beagle field notebooks have been published in:

Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. with the assistance of Kees Rookmaaker. 2009. Charles Darwin's notebooks from the voyage of the Beagle. [Foreword by Richard Darwin Keynes]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NOTE: This 11.5 x 8 cm notebook is bound in black leather with the border blind embossed: the brass clasp is intact. The front of the notebook has a label of cream-coloured paper (7.3 x 2.6 cm) with 'Valparaiso up Aconcagua to St Jago' written in ink. The paper is yellow edged. It has 104 pages plus the covers. The first sequence (pp. 1a - 98a) runs from the front cover inwards. The second sequence (pp. 1b - 6b) runs from the back inside cover inwards.

The notebook covers dates in August 1834.

Reproduced with the permission of English Heritage (Darwin Collection at Down House) and William Huxley Darwin.

General introduction to the Beagle Field Notebooks.

Chronological register to the notebooks

Introduction to the Valparaiso notebook

[front cover]

Valparaiso up Aconcagua to St Jago

[inside front cover]

Ultimo Viage al Estrecho de Magellanes. S. Maria de la Cabeza 1785--86.

Extracto de todos los anteriores & MSS. A.D. 1788.1

6 inch in diameter

1 Darwin refers to Vargas y Ponce 1788.

[page 1a]

14th [August 1834] — Started, slept at Quintero; pretty very green lawn — scenery some of the views very picturesque, benighted at last we reached the house. — The gneiss seemed to run in a NW & NE line but very irregular. The beds of shells are

[page 2a]

at but a small elevation; they chiefly consist in Monodon.

Rusty Red & Black Muscicapa.1

T del F Creeper.2

(15th) [August 1834]

The Tapacolas are very numerous & active, their crys incessant & varying run quickly from bush to bush. —

1 Specimen not in spirits 2208 in Zoology notes, p. 406.

2 See Zoology notes, p. 279,

[page 3a]

In approaching the Sierra de Chilicauquen, the granite rock disappears & in its place greenstone rocks appear. — These consists generally of a compact slate coloured bases with slaty structure like (A*) which sometimes contains

[page 4a]

acicular crystals of glassy feldspar, at othertimes common feldspar.

— The bases in many places become granular & crystalline then earthy without crystals so that having a slaty structure, which is common to much of these

[page 5a]

rocks, it appears like siliceous green altered clay—slate — I found in two places the cleavage running SSE & NNW — Perhaps the most porphyritic varieties were at the

[page 6a]

upper parts of ridge; this Sierra runs E & W. — As far as I can see there is nothing to lead me to suppose this mountain has been formed differently from the Cuestas near

[page 7a]

Valparaiso, ∴ by sea. —

A delightful smiling pastoral county, cottages scattered in all parts; in the valleys beautiful evergreen forest trees. — The vally of Quillota,

the picture of

[page 8a]

fertility; all the land irrigated, beautiful oranges. Slept at a most perfect Hacienda1 of English Merchant. the course of the River a remarkable scene of violence from the water but apparently only rolling over stones when snows

1 Spanish for ranch, estate.

[page 9a]

melt. — A plain of shingle.

The Rat is very tame & abundant, lives chiefly in hedges, curls its tail.

(16th) [August 1834]

In ascending, first Granitic, Quartz & White feldspar. — Altered Slates & Porphyritic greenstone, alternating many times, Slate with

[page 10a]

metal, greywacke with water lines, Brecia, & red Limestone, particles blending together, angular cleavage: then directly, fine porphyritic

sonorous greenstone, a reddish grewwacke passing into porphyry.

[page 11a]

(Red Limestone with contained bed of compact clay slate) generally red & some green porphyry, red porphyry sometimes with apparent fragments as at P Desire. At the base of El Morro the mountain

[page 12a]

appears stratified, beds of altered slate dipping to E by N — therefore under the rough summit of Mountain. Town of Quillota each house with Garden, send produce to Chiloe Port. Country

[page 13a]

like Wales with broard flat valleys: — Gauchos not like true men — can walk & climb, are not gentlemen, do not look as if born on a horse, & eat bread & potatoes.

enormous stirrups, spurs

[page 14a]

with many rowels, diameter length of this page. — Have not Chilipa.

— worsted boots untidy laso, no bolas!1 Ascended mountain 4000 feet, very bad road, magnificent views, brush wood on North side

1 Balls attached to leather thongs which the gauchos use with a whirling motion for catching game or cattle.

[page 15a]

Bamboos on South Palms 3500! Setting sun, ruby's points against red, sun, black valleys! Fire amongst Bamboo a little harbor very pretty — most comfortable evening, oh for the camp.

[page 16a]

Bamboos 15 feet. — Could see ships. Condors have sleep in cliffs.

In Baldiva, petrified shells, — white stone on river bank

Cancagua: Agua del Obispo, the name of place

[page 17a]

17th [August 1834]

(A) Breccia, often containing large fragments here, small very compact, red calcareous? basis

(B) — Red Limestone, do. Situation, low in the mountains

(C) Porphyritic, sonorous greenstone, lying close to above [rocks]

[page 18a]

(E) & (D) — Varieties of what I call altered slate alternating with various porphyritic greenstones.

(F) Breccia altered & becoming Porphyritic

(G) Tolerably perfect Porphyry [more] crystalline varieties, compose great part of base of

[page 19a]


(H) — a white Porphyry with copper (J J) Greenstones composing whole summit of the Bell

(K) do with vein of green mineral, this is so abundant as to form masses —

[page 20a]

(L) A mineral in a small mine very summit of mountain

(M & N) — the great slate, (much altered, rather sonorous & little,

which underlies the greenstone summit.

[page 21a]

Bearings from 2d N Point of Campana — North highest hummock of the Patillos N 32 E Aconcagua — N 64 E A The North high point of several peaks N 88 E South extreme of do distance from each other S 78 E (Between these bearings came S de Palmas Small Group of Point S 65 E

[page 22a]

Large Julus,1 emits yellow fluid which smells like mustard. —

Night Jar emits shrill plaintive cry —

our resting place is called Agua de Guanaco.

The whole top of mountain is fine greenstone, very steep & precipitous & lies

1 A genus of millipede. See specimen in spirits 1058 in Zoology notes, p. 353.

[page 23a]

directly on the altered slate which dips under it — Greenstone with much green mineral some solid masses; the surface is extraordinary shattered like the T del Fuego Mountains but with this wide difference, that very many large

[page 24a]

[Masse] appear as just broken; the ruins on the greatest scale & evidently the effect of Earthquakes, must wonderfully lower a

mountain. I do not understand the superposition of the greenstone

[page 25a]

on Slate. —

This slate extends whole foot of Mountain. All lower parts of mountain a mingled mass of greenstone Porphyries & altered slates:


One of the highest mountains. The Grand Campana runs N by W & S by E; the small do. Connected by small oblique ridge; to south not continued, perhaps

[page 26a]

are to North across valley of Quillota. —

Sierra de las Palmas (deserves name) runs same direction, (as does Cordillera approaching coast), to South is continued in mass, connected by high transverse range, & which I suppose from Zapata & Prado — Chilicauqua

[page 27a]

is all small, perhaps N & S chain, much cut up by valleys. — But seeing such immense flat valleys & many of them as Aconcagua & the side valleys making principal hills like stars, it is impossible to say what was original form of this land, it really

[page 28a]

might have been table land—

(Sierra Palmas to the East higher than Campana) Cordilleras, remarkably level topped, parallel to lower line of snow, over which road must pass, does not look like roof of house

[page 29a]

Some greenstone dykes? but a small serrated plain, with here & there (4 sets) groups or parts of one Volcano. These hills by no means appear branches of the Andes — Staid whole day up mountain, very pleasant, understand Cordilleras, mine — most interesting

[page 30a]

are such views, when connected with the reflection how formed —

Warm — snow — different vegetation from England. — Too dry for insects (Greenstone summit 800 ft thick)

( 18th ) [August 1834]

Descending in the most direct line, a very steep side there is much of what I call the altered

[page 31a]

Slate of which (O) is another specimen — this rock has a distinct cleavage, & coloured bands all parallel — I was surprised a parallel layer, with a gradual passage of the two rocks of greenstone (P) Again altered slate do with many parallel layers of the green

[page 32a]

mineral so common at the summit:

Above many 100 feet thick.

There is a great fragmentary of a red color & more or less crystalline.

(2) & 1 represents the finer less coarse sorts, in the more crystalline varieties (R) Much green mineral is arranged in layers — the imbedded fragments themselves

[page 33a]

seem to have been altered becoming porphyritic Again altered slate (all these beds same cleavage), soft porphyritic greenstone & green mineral. We have a great mass of dark purple porphyry. Specimen (S) is not so crystalline as some, nor shows there & than other parts. This forms the main

[page 34a]

basis of mountain, has entirely lost all cleavage passes into & contains much pale Porph (T) & pale purple Porphyry (V) Beneath There was also a fine greenish porphyritic greenstone, but at this point the section finishes, for the road followed a winding as descending course, amongst

[page 35a]

the hills at base of mountain, generally however it continued Porphyry — At the very basal parts some greenstone & a sort of gneiss, decomposed, without mica. — It is clear all these Porphyry, slates, are the same, which appeared still more so in the undulating & ascending

[page 36a]

road — in my descent I did not meet with so much Porphy — greenstone as in ascending

This descent was at right angle to direction, towards Escarpment.—

N — greenstone — S

I have to remark in the lower part no where have I seen such glassy greenstone as at summit —

[page 37a]

I feel no doubt that the appearance of whole above mass of rocks is owing to heat having different action on different layers of sedimentary rocks — (I omitted to state that much of the lower porphyry, consists in the basis alone of harsh texture, like what

[page 38a]

I called Limestone in which there have been worked Gold mines) — how else can we account for the layer of greenstone: Is all the Porphyry grewwacke altered, I feel no doubt it is in this case, — Is the upper greenstone flowed

[page 39a]

out through N & S — Rent, tilted rocks on each side, hence a vertical cleavage would dip towards the hills: Old puzzle comes into play — Is the gneiss the lowest & most affected rock? If so has all been once covered! But not all metamorphic, hence [&] moved only to where greenstone has burst With respect to great

[page 40a]

valleys, Mem Pat — pebble bed. — Perhaps in Pacific if seen, wonder would be reversed. —

in our return we met with many pretty spots, & beautiful clear brooks & fine trees. the little clear spots were not infrequently the vestiges of some old mine, the whole country may be

[page 41a]

said to be [drilled]. — Slept at same Hacienda.

( 19th. ) [August 1834]

Proceeded up the valley — remarkable agriculture, aquaducts, peach-blossom, orange trees & date-palms.

the rocks we saw were chiefly much altered slates, red Porphyries, in some places with apparent breccia — much very

[page 42a]

fine & largely porphyritic greenstone — Also there was a good deal of gneiss without mica which alternated with an imperfect greenstone; some of the high hills, from color porphyry — (There must be a transverse ridge to the E. of the S. de Palmas although I could make but

[page 43a]

little of them.) // — Saw large Kingfisher — long-billed Furnarius1 — a black Icterus,2 with orange head. — //

Late in the evening found a house to receive us.

(—) [August 1834]

The side of one of the mountains to the

1 See specimen 1467 in Zoology notes, p. 247; listed as Opetiorhynchus patagonicus in Birds, p. 67.

2 Specimen 1784 in Zoology notes, p. 247; listed as Agelaius chopi in Birds, p. 107.

[page 44a]

West of the Basin of Aconcagua, is composed of nearly horizontal beds (or slight dip to NW) of fragmentary rocks with particles of Crystal Lime (old shells?) & partly porphyritic (much coarsely brecciated). (W) fine variety

[page 45a]

with a large bed, intermediate of a greenstone (X) —

The basin of Aconcagua most clearly marine with Islands —

Esteros: The town of S. Felipe very large straggling like Quillota about 5 leagues up

[page 46a]

in a crack in the very Andes — arrived at a Copper mine. — superintended by Englishman.

21st [August 1834] —

Wages of men 5 dollars a month; work from light to light summer & winter hard work, carrying stones, very short time at meals — Food given them 2 loaves & 16 figs from breakfast

[page 47a]

Beans for dinner, broken wheat grain for supper. —

Veins run to E & W— Petorce Coquimbo — or rather to N of E (?) —

Lions more savage kill men

Little tufted bird, nest deep simple full of feathers

Tapacola well adapted tail erect, hop, very

[page 48a]

fast, large one most ridiculous — — Mines here, so quiet, not like England — No engine. — Miners live Entirely in mines Mine laws; any one by paying 10 Rials can open a mine. May try for 20 days anywhere Was about the family of Rexes, simple Cornish miner —

[page 49a]

The hill North of houses, composed of Feldspathic altered slates —

fine grey greenstone, both of which become coarsely porphyritic with Feldspar.

These rocks contain many large veins of copper ore & iron [plane], adjoining rocks appear always more or less altered, there is

[page 50a]

on the adjoining hill much red fragmentary rock & some do porphyry these are said never to contain veins. To the South of houses an abundance of large 4 or 5 inches & most decided breccia, all the included pieces porphyritic, & some Conglomerate, there is also more jaspery &

[page 51a]

rocks such as Limestones of Campan[a] — arranged in nearly horizontal strata (pebbles of quartz) the lines, seen in vertical face incline to North. (& W ?) (Mention specimens): these rocks have angular cleavage & sonorous & pass in every stage from decided breccia to true Porphyry — (& the red Porphyries pass into the

[page 52a]

Porph - greenstone in the Campana). — Here the following succession is seen — Red compact — Fragment — Porph - greenstone fine — — Red fragmen[t] & red Porph — Porph greenston[e]. Red — Porph — & some very fine sonorous greenston[e] lying on a Porphyritic altered Slate

[page 53a]

(Mem: at Campana I do not know that the beds of Red Frag. dipped with slate). They had sort of cleavage.

at Petorca much conglomerate.

( 22d ) [August 1834]

6 4 — H — 1.7

3.2 12 15 Cactus depressed globular circumference 6ft " 4in height .1.9 Common size of cylindrical sort 3.7 — height 12 — 15

[page 54a]

Campana S 28 E 35 W N 54 E Volcan de Aconcagua or N, part of great irregular mass S 62 E Great Volcano N 18 E The spot intermediate between high peak & Volcano The hill is NW of mine, higher than Campana, it lies a little to the South of line from Campana to Great Volcano

[page 55a]

I can hear of 3 volcanos in these parts — in front of Juapa — Patos where there is a pass: Aconcagua — Another at Bunsters Mine.1

Another other side near Mendoza, ashes. —

14 leagues N. of R. Juapa, hill of Teniente, land locked harbor vessel lost near it —

1 Humphrey Bunster, a Cornish émigré, had mines at St. Pedro Nolasco.

[page 56a]

Good water in Pechi languel, 1 degree North of Valparaiso —

Bunster murdered

In ascending above mountain, much altered slate, with needle of glassy feldspar, some pale porphyries with acicular Hornblende no mica (this is rare) pale greenstone, porphyries & much fragmentary &

[page 57a]

puddingstone rock. — At very summit, these breccia were closely joined by vertical suture, (which imparted color) to altered Slate (or rather a very fine greenstone). This I thought had burst up & hardened breccia, found however, itself penetrated by narrow tapering veins of Breccia, (

[page 58a]

(much porphyritic) which proceeded from a mass which alsoappeared like dyke, in other cases the two mingled together, each in

turn looked as if melted & protruded both must have been softened & jammed together. —

[page 59a]

Found altered slates running N by W E to N N W E agreeing with some ridges. — (Cordilleras clearly trend to West) All the lower parts of neighbouring mountains & great Cordilleras may be seen to be divided or stratified these often appear nearly horizontal. N B. Baked greenstone porphyritic like fragments Cape Town

[page 60a]

or dipping somewhat to NW — I found one bed lower at 10˚ to EW by W but this is too much

؟ 80 3300

The geological construction of hills all sides of Basin of Aconcagua same with this same inclination. — Has the

[page 61a]

N. dip any connection with the Volcano? — The mist well represents the sea in the basin & showed probability It is remarkable the Breccia & Slate having here vertical junction in this one place; must be owing to disturbance during baking

[page 62a]

The N & S ridge were visible, the transverse chain of Chacabuco shows connection with mountains Andes — This mountain forms a part of do —

Broad flat valleys seem only to have disrupted & found the N & S ridges. —

There was some pretty perfect slate without any crystals!!

[page 63a]

It is said Lion if he covers his prey returns, if not, not. — In one Hacienda in one year killed 800 young animal cows Ancient Indian buildings in mountains Where did all fragments come from in red & globular Breccia ??? old range of Andes.

[page 64a]

Lake, people did not like to open it. Padre say it is arm of sea Molinas statement, Culpeu1 not Falkland Isl Fox Biscatcha shrill repeated noise stony place connected with habit of collecting sticks & stones

( 23d ) [August 1834] N & S line of igneous action shown in T. del Fuego: Height of plains at S. Cruz. horizontal elevation & Mendoza Ref. hor: elevat: going S. Ward. — for [deposits] look [more earlier] Central band greenish amber [br.] edged with yellowish do. [shading]2

1 Listed as Canis magellanicus in Mammalia p. 10, plate 5: '[This animal] is mentioned by Molina in his account of the animals of Chile, under the name of Culpeu, which he supposes to be derived from the Indian word "culpem," signifying madness; for this animal, when it sees a man, runs towards him, and standing at the distance of a few yards, looks at him attentively. He adds, although great numbers are killed, they do not leave off this habit. Molina states that he has repeatedly been a witness of this, and I received nearly similar accounts from several of the inhabitants of Chile: yet I must observe, that the people of the farm-house, where my specimen was killed (after it, together with its female, had destroyed nearly two hundred fowls) bitterly complained of its craftiness. From this bold curiosity in the disposition of the Culpeu, Molina thought that it was the same animal as that described by Byron at the Falkland Islands, but we now know that they are different.' Mammalia, pp. 11-12.

2 Possibly the snake listed as specimen in spirits 1054 in Zoology notes, p. 353.

[page 65a]

into grey — belly blueish Snake. — foot of Cordilleras Mr. J. Murray, has given notice to Ro Soc. respecting Luminous property of glow-worms1 — — same result as me Barranca with shells — Las Vacas — gold mine — Conchilee (near Petorcia?) road to Coquimbo

1 John Murray read a paper entitled 'Experiments and observations on the light and luminous matter of the Lampyris noctiluca, or glow-worm' before the Linnean Society (not the Royal Society as indicated by Darwin) on 18 November and 2 December 1823 which was widely reported in scientific periodicals. Presumably Darwin refers to one of these reports. The paper was later published as Murray 1826. This line was copied into Darwin's Edinburgh notebook, Barrett et al. 1987, p. 477. This notebook is fully transcribed and published for the first time by Rookmaaker here on Darwin Online.

[page 66a]

[section, continued on following page]

As high again Altered slate (Z specimen)

[page 67a]

[section continued from previous page]

The slaty greenstone at summit of mountain connected with this dyke Porphyry Dep SW by 12°

[page 68a]

This drawing [pp. 66a-67a] represents a mass of bright red jaspery rocks & breccia — conglomerate dipping at ∠ 12˚- 15˚ to [about] SW by S. (The rock is fragmentary in patches more than in planes) This is penetrated in every direction by dykes, zig-zag — strata-shaped or of every sort of grey, slightly porphyric greenstone: the main dyke is from 15 to 20 ft wide, & rises from a pap of similar rock — in the

smaller veins, such sides prove it is crack opened & filled, edge tinged purple, but quite distinct & fine; numerous projections show much melted matter has not

[page 69a]

flowed through it — the drawing does not represent nearly all or the intricacy of these dykes; rock not particularly altered: These beds reach 3 or 400 ft high above them is a mass of equal height of rock like the dykes, in every respect, excepting in having few crystals of feldspar — this is a conformable mass to the strata of breccia: the junction of the two rocks is quite gradual in colour & nature: the main dyke I believe seems to penetrate it, equally

[page 70a]

with the Brecia but I could not prove it: till I had noticed these facts I believed it to have been melted mass which had flowed through the cracks; but the above reasons show it to be altered bed. in same degree as Breccia is altered. (Quartz pebbles might be seen in Breccia) at no great distance down the stream I found the Breccia

bed: I believe latter? — On Rt Hand there is a mass of pale purple porphyry, with fine whether dyke or ؟ bed of rock like the dykesreposing on conformable

[page 71a]

semi = cryst. of Feldspar, which is similarly is covered by the altered rock — Perhaps In this the Breccia structure could only in one place be distinguished. Perhaps this is protruded mass of melted inferior Brecia, breaking through the semi-porphyritic brecia — as the melted plates have cut through both breccia & altered slates. (We must recollect the vein of Brecia yesterday). — I see no way of distinguishing greenstone produced in situ & ones that have flowed

[page 72a]

perhaps this may hold good to Porphyries. — (it is likely, that some of the beds of greenstone have been dykes): — The Brecia being traversed by greenstone as well as Gneiss interesting: — (a mass of Breccias & Slates to a thickness of at least 5000 ft have been baked & altered. Mem: yesterday): This West (+ N or S) dip caused by the protrusion of dykes, same force which has long been sent forth Lavas in Andes. — (This is same hill. East base, which I ascende[d] first day on South side: on other

[page 73a]

side of ravine, on Cordilleras corresponding altered rock, contains very much copper — (The breccia is not particularly altered close to dykes) to make Mel. Palm tree cut down in August. must fall upwards — slice cut off every. from beneath the truncate head — flows for many Month, juice concentrated by boiling one good tree will give 90 gallons [annually] of sap. when sun hot most one estate has counted many hundred thousand trees on it near Petorca. — nuts & [roofs]. —

[page 74a]

the great use of English money has been reducing by air furnaces the [Bronce of], ores, & cleaning the scoriae. — Air furnaces & stamping More lines. —

( 24th ) [August 1834] In the hill facing yesterday section, the part corresponding to the altered slate is a greenstone or rather porphyry. contains great veins of largely crystallised Carb of Lime parts of this mass become breccia with Copper

[page 75a]

& little gold. — the Lime is in lines as if deposited by water — unfortunate full of snow threatening weather for some time —

weather here is very regular —

25th [August 1834] —

Series of specimens from this places

(1). for small spec. well illustrate Brecia structure, also much porphyritic

(2 & 3) Very common sorts, where

[page 76a]

Breccia structure is yet evident but otherwise considerably perfect Porphyry

(4) — Pale red porphyry, with crystals of quartz, common here but otherwise uncommon

(5) a curious sort of Porphyry not abundant (saw one hill)

(6) The least crystalline rock I have ever met with in the mountains. bed near Breccias

(7) The "Altered Slate"

(8) Fine grained greenstone, often becoming Porphyritic, is very

[page 77a]

abundant in all parts — But the main rock is the Breccia — I see in the Main chain this dip to the NW & contains much crystals of quartz. I see the hill in front of the "section" is streaked with Trap dykes. — Tried to reach Laguna — got into a waste of snow — up to horses belly — difficulty in returning, cloudy threatening day began to snow heavily should have been shut up.

[page 78a]

26th [August 1834] — Charles [account] of 15 leagues of [fire] Crater south of Aconcagua Took my departure from the mine. Snow almost down to house. — Most magnificently splendid the view of the mountains: I see that one of the most isolated islands is composed of Breccia which dips to SW, the usual method (will apply to origin of Basins) which helps to show that the greater part of this

[page 79a]

space (inclining to seaward) perhaps 10 miles across has been cut by the sea. Crossed the Sierra Talguen, saw a mass of beds dipping at about ∠ of 40˚ to SW. — this great dip shows that the upheaval has not always been so regular. This ridge seems

[page 80a]

continuation of East & West Chacabuco range — could see from it, about 5 parallel N & S ranges (NB the lower beds in Aconcagua basin seem all Breccia). — Could trace the form of one of two Volcanos to S of Aconcagua)

Slept at very small Rancho — people much more different grades of

[page 81a]

Life. servant not eat with me — pay every-where. man very humble about his country, some see with both eyes — &c &c —1

(27th) [August 1834] The road lay over a more rounded undulating country (with patches of soft coarse sandstone) & the rocks [there being] not of so determinate a character, there was (nos) 1 & 2 — Common varieties of greenstone

1 'We crossed the Cerro del Talguen, & slept at a little Rancho. The host, talking about the state of Chili as compared to other countries, was very humble; "Some see with two eyes & some with one, but for his part he did not think that Chili saw with any"' Beagle diary, p. 256.

[page 82a]

however some Breccia — Porphyry & the high hills evidently composed of it. — We arrived at Llanos of Guitron, near Porparco. In a valley flanking leading into it, immense quantity of petrified wood like at Pisada. — enough to fill Cart, mixed with scattered ∠r fragments of Porphyries &c

[page 83a]

Llano — dips to Seawards very level, covered with Espina & Algarroba, two species of Mimosa's now without leafs: Saw Limestone. Black colour conchoidal fracture, crystalline (N. 3) beds dipping to about West about, about ∠ 10˚ — This plain is separated

[page 84a]

by the ridges composed Limestone, associated with usual porphyries from the great St Jago plain: perhaps former rather lower but not much — view very striking large lake. — forest of Acacias. — green turf isolated hills — & magnificent Cordilleras —

[page 85a]

with various lines of Clouds beneath summits (plain of land more beautiful than sea.—

All this country is a sort of valley between Andes & great range of which Prado is termination? — St Jago plain dips seawards. —

Entrance of city very splendid.

[page 86a]

28th & [August 1834] —

The Fort of St Lucia is a hillock composed of sonorous, conch. fracture. Slate colored porphyry (?)

Specimen 4. it is roughly divided into circular masses, which are partly subdivided into columns these dip about ∠ 45˚ to SE W obliquely to to the horizon.

[page 87a]

on the Eastern side the column finest pass into by globular concretions of a coarser greenstone This knoll has a singulary abrupt appearance in the plain; in the same line however with its ridge there is a low ridge or peninsula in former

[page 88a]

sea, which runs about NNE ½ E & SSW ½ W — the greater part of which is composed of the same rock, on the part however the columns dip in directly opposite point to the St Lucia & in another

[page 89a]

place rather toward this hill. — At the foot there are some globular concretionary decomposing mass of iron greenstone (Nr5) which I suppose is directly connected with the Porphyry — on the West side there is

[page 90a]

some of the pale purple porphyry. — the rock which so many reasons lead me to suppose has been an altered Brecccia in site I imagine from a crack has issued a mass of greenstone through which a grewwacke — which

[page 91a]

in the case of St Lucia has been entirely removed when its present insulated form was given to it — Also near the base where the [Quartz] exists there is some of the same porphyry (Spec: 6) this has formed an island & is a remnant of general covering

[page 92a]

of breccia — porphyry — (NB. — I see in the building in the town a rock precisely similar to that at P Desire — where a sort of Porphyry has water lines. — ) The general form of country convinced

[page 93a]

me that these hills & places have all been formed by water. I was pleased to find on the top of St Lucia & St Chrystophal, a mass of Breccia (& at St Lucia, a variety of rock which is not found on summit) united

[page 94a]

& coated by layers of white, friable light Calcareous Matter which (spec 7) evidently has been deposited by water St Christophal feet above plain. The Quartz Hill, Cerro blanco, is partly composed of a

[page 95a]

white Feldspath base with crystals of do — (Spec 8) of which the Cathedral is built cemented by similar, Calcareous Matter — this rounded hill of Brecia, must once have formed part of a large mass — before it was rounded & modeled

[page 96a]

to its present form

(30th) [August 1834] Rode to bridge over Maypo: half leather & chain, curious evidence of negligence. — plain not really level, but some undulation corresponding to great valleys in Andes might be expected: on approaching Maypo appearance of old river lines would if taken alone make one suppose it all formed by river this part might have been remodeled. Barranca there consists of nothing but large rounded stones: mixed with [illeg]

[page 97a]

blocks & some lines of coarse sand. origin dubious — no organic remains could be expected, & from mountains in basin such a bottom would be formed. — On the plain on which [only] stands road to Valp. inequalities great part composed of reddish sandy clay, firmly aggregated containing many pebbles in parts & in others passing into white sand: in all parts much pumice. [Tupungato!]

[page 98a]

Specimens of porphyritic greenstone, from near St Jago. First range of Cordilleras near here. Fragmentary rocks not so plainly seen as in some other parts alternating with [great] dip WSW ∠ 15: could see many dips, & one apparently towards mountain on large scale some high up rather horizontal: many greenstones & Nr 5 colina — mountain plains. (F, Fish, Rapel) St Lucia; section of this plain — Limestone at St Christophal — Big Animal Note Book & whipp [illeg]

[back cover]

[inside back cover]

C. Darwin

H.M.S. Beagle




Big Bones

Shells in plain of town

Earthquake 22

do Green & Brec pass into each other


Las Vacas Conchilee

Cuy. Lepus minimus1

Puda. — Chiloe deer ?2

Guemul — Equus bilsulcus.3

1 See Port Desire, p. 79.

2 The wild deer of Chiloe, Puda puda. The heumul or southern Andean deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) was first described and named Equus bisulcus by Molina 1794-5.

[page 1b]

Gato del Mar1

Chinchimen. c<excised>

Guillino. Castor

Coypu — Nutria2 ?

Chingue. Vivena, Zorilla ?

Cuja & Quiqui. Mustela

3 Porcupine: Culpeu, large Fox

Guigria & Colo Colo. Cats

Guanque. Mus cyanus

Degu. Sciurus4 [list concludes with three further lines on IBC, above]


1 A marine otter, specimen 2529 in Zoology notes, p. 280; listed as Lutra chilensis in Mammalia, pp. 22-4.

2 The coypu or nutria is a large, herbivorous, semi-aquatic rodent, see specimen 2530 in Zoology notes, p. 280; listed as Myopotamus coypus in Mammalia, pp. 78-9.

3 Mammal names copied from Molina 1794-5. Cuja: the lesser grison (Mustell cuja). Quiqui (Mustela quiqui) a species of weasel. Mustela: Felina plantis.

4 A genus of squirrels.

[page 2b]

Crater ([Maypo] in Aconcagua


[pages 3b-4b excised]

[page 5b]


Great mass of altered Slate. band of Greenstone — (Spec) Slate

Greenstone slate & green mineral —

Red fragmentary mass (Spec) Lower parts with green mineral in lines, & more crystalline (Spec?)

Slate soft Porph greenstone & green mineral. —

[page 6b]

Darker red fragmentary mass becoming very crystalline Spec is half way between most crystal & most fragment Such crystalline varieties with some pale porphyries Form whole base of mountain — These clearly correspond to what I saw yesterday

Textual notes to the Valparaiso notebook

[IFC] 1.15.] Down House number, not transcribed.

88202335] English Heritage number, not transcribed.

7 8] added by Nora Barlow, pencil, not transcribed.

Aug. 14, 1844] added, by Nora Barlow? '1844' is a mistake for 1834, not transcribed.

[3a-13a] pages written perpendicular to the spine.

[18a] there is a dark brown stain on this page, obscuring '[more]', and mirrored on the following (facing) page.

[59a] N B.] ink.

[64a] Ref.... [more earlier]] ink.

[66a] page written perpendicular to the spine.

[67a] sketch drawn perpendicular to the spine.

[97a] The bottom right hand corner of the page has been excised.

[98a] colina...[illeg]] upside down from other entries on page. The top right hand corner of the page has been excised.

[IBC] Las Vacas Conchilee] written perpendicular to the spine.

Cuy. Lepus…bilsulcus.] upside down from other entries on page, continuation of a list on the opposite page 1b .

[1b-2b] lower half of leaf excised.

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

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