RECORD: Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. Santiago notebook. [English Heritage 88202338] (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed from the manuscript by Gordon Chancellor; transcription typed and checked against microfilm by Kees Rookmaaker; corrected by Chancellor 3.2006. Further corrections against the microfilm and editing by John van Wyhe 9.2006. Minor corrections and additions from the manuscript by van Wyhe 11.2006, corrected against the manuscript by Rookmaaker 10.2007, 4.2008. Corrected and edited against the microfilm by van Wyhe 8.2008. Transcription revised by van Wyhe 10-12.2008. RN9

The Beagle field notebooks have been published in:

Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. with the assistance of Kees Rookmaaker. 2009. Charles Darwin's notebooks from the voyage of the Beagle. [Foreword by Richard Darwin Keynes]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NOTE: This 10 x 16.5 cm notebook has black paper covers and contains 138 pages. Both covers have paper labels with 'Santiago Book' written in ink (the back label is 18 x 45 mm). No watermarks have been found. There are 89 originally unnumbered pages (pp. 1-89), followed by 34 numbered pages (pp. 90-124), and a different sequence, several excised, at the end (pp. 125-138). The text is written in pencil except where otherwise noted.

There are dates in the notebook ranging from August 1834 (p.1) to 25 September 1834 (p. 66) and some dates from February 1835 ending April or May 1836.

Reproduced with the permission of English Heritage (Darwin Collection at Down House) and William Huxley Darwin.

General introduction to the Beagle Field Notebooks.

Chronological register to the notebooks

Introduction to the Santiago notebook


[front cover]

Santiago Book.

50.

[inside front cover]

[printed label:]

DUFOUR CHABROL
Md Papetier
Rue St. Martin, No132,
A PARIS

Corfield

[page 1]

Corfield. 3oz (3 ½ dollar Covington)

Biscatchas making a noise

Carrancha's throwing back their head — Molina

Culpeu not Falkland Fox

Agreed with Ramirez for the 2d day of month gave 12 ££

Mariano 7 £ —

N. America elevated Mr. Conrad

Caldcleugh geology of Concepcion

There is heel of Megatherium at Mendoza. English doctor.

Return Book Caldcleugh

Wickham

[page 2]

2nd [September 1834] Rode to beyond Padaguel to see Limestone: which formed part of the plain: it consisted in a layer overlying sand — with water lines & parts semi-crystalline exactly like Tosca rock; other parts white friable, something like that in chinks of rock: a most indisputably formed beneath water, no wonder no shells Mem: B. Ayres: plain has been subject to considerable alluvial action: this Limestone probably passes into

[page 3]

the agglutinated sandy earth. —

5th [September 1834] — started gloomy day — plain — nice Hacienda sleeping place — Signoritas attempts at conversation, astonished at clergyman marrying — ∴ not same god because clergy marry — sisters names with saints: Crossed bridge of Hide Palm at Concepcion [Rana] eats buds

[page 4]

6th [September 1834] — The plain of St Jago contracts & ascend a little towards the Angostura where a rapid river remarks the declivity it cuts across a low chain with branches from Andes, the valley expands & rises till it forms a great plain with water flowing to South: no horizon to South. — but some

[page 5]

islands. — a river flows to the West also. in the middle of plain two islands which dip to E. small ∠. probable that part of outer chain once existed in plain. (the oblique range South of Aculeo I believe is pieces of N & S lines. At head of Angostasa mass of earth & pebbles covered by great bed of

[page 6]

fine white sand & pumice apparently water-deposit: All the rock porphyry & some Breccias interesting ride great plain Tapacola & Turco buil[d] deep straight hole in ground Sternus ruber1 on ground Black Icterus2 talks in bushes yellow spot Icterus3 in water reeds — Molinas names

1 Specimen not in spirits 1146 in Zoology notes, p. 386; listed as Sturnus militaris in Birds, p. 110.

2 Specimen 1784 in Zoology notes, p. 247; listed as Agelaius chopi in Birds, 'It can be taught to speak, and is sometimes kept in cages', p. 107.

3 Specimen 2185 in Zoology notes, p. 246; listed as Xanthornus chrysopterus in Birds, p. 106.

[page 7]

Thrush1 talks a little nest lined with mud When in holes, nest not covered. nest of Black Furnarius2 great long prickly nest little pointed tail creeper Callandra3 best singer, plain round nest: only one time of year. Mem: R. Negro.

(7th) [September 1834] Goosander in river back white. — belly brown — breast black. top of head black, beneath white bill, plain cry —

runs quick. very active in the rapids —

1 Specimen 2125 in Zoology notes, p. 247; listed as Turdus falklandicus in Birds, p. 59.

2 Specimen 1823 in Zoology notes, p. 247; listed as Opetiorhynchus nigrofumosus in Birds, pp. 68-9.

3 Specimens 2169-2170 in Zoology notes, p. 244; listed as Mimus thenca in Birds, p. 61.

[page 8]

[Plenty] of Granite pebbles Arrived at Baths. road with pretty valleys like to the north with fine trees. Baths square of miserable huts — necessary to bring everything — pretty view unpleasant passing river, could hardly tell whether horse moved or not. R. Cachapol. I think <1 word destroyed?> local circumstance <3 words destroyed> formed under [water] but <1 word destroyed> at this spot where this valley is so narrow, there is a

[page 9]

decided fringe of level plain, through which the river has cut. Thi[s] is composed of pebbles, sometimes arranged in planes, in a white marl, which coats & white-washes the stones. other places almost entirely of Lime crystallized (12) in stars. This These gives me the idea it has been formed beneath water. (The Lime & Marl is too abundant to have been subsequently infiltered), (It is not easy to give any idea of the degrading power

[page 10]

of these torrents, fragments as big as cottages are moved & I am told that fragments from a yard & ½ square move rapidly in winter rains — (big rivers flood in summer): the rock 50 or 60 feet above level was a freshly scraped as in bed of river All this cut through rock The Springs consist of 4 or 5 springs of diff. temp: from diffe proportion of cold pure

[page 11]

water: it is positively stated that water is more abundant & much hotter in summer — (source in Cordilleras) in all parts bubbles appear to escape not only where water appears M. Gay say Muriat of Lime Spring flow through the pebbles cemented by Carb of Lime hence Gas. — Some people can enter hottest — Spring further up simply acid,1 said so. Rocks close to well, the usual red Breccia or Conglomerate, one mass

1 The normal chemical meaning Darwin used, for example when he wrote of 'muriatic' (=hydrochloric) acid meaning an acid which reacts with limestone. Also, the petrological meaning for igneous rocks with relatively high amounts of silica (e.g. granite).

[page 12]

I found where the coarsest Breccia passed & alternated with a dubious looking green (10) sort & fine jasper porphyry — the strata dipped to West (Compass) ∠ 37° — there were fine parallel water lines & alternations of Breccia. The whole has been so much baked, that it assumes a slightly globular structure placed in lines, ready to form columns — If I was not certain that the Breccia & Conglomerate was

[page 13]

really so; some of the pebbles would have startled me.

[concretions]1

Red bands traced external forms. = forming also regular figures inside

On road saw whole hill composed of nearly vertical beds, & many alternations of greenstones & red Breccias —

I should have stated that above mass of Breccias is traversed by dyke of Greenstone (11)

1 See the fair copy of this sketch in the geological diary DAR 35.396.

[page 14]

8th) [September 1834] The patch of Breccia in bed of river with ∠ 37° dip is continued up in a high hill to South of Bath. here I found the dip E W ∠ 67. following the line, or crest of Breccia, on for a mile or two a parallel crest is seen where the strata may be seen gradually becoming more inclined till they are vertical, this part forms lofty hill with snow. — a parallel valley lies on East on the opposite side the rock appear to dip East & it is

[page 15]

[map of Rancagua]

Rancagua W by N ½ N front gradually declining W by N 37° W 67° great valleys very gradual declination from Andes (A) W SW by W

to be observed where the strata are vertical the Andes have suddenly sent off great ridge (or bent) in a SW by W line; the end of this which faces the ∠° dips towards the mass — a parallel case to that seen near St Jago

[page 16]

to the East of the crest (A). there is a great mixture of various porphyries, porphyritic greenstones the curious sort of Jajuel — bases of the Porphyries & decomposing greenstones with much iron — remote from the crest these present pure & without Breccia & perhaps have been ejected & caused dip. — NB Much of the Porphyry is amygdaloid with Agate. —

[page 17]

There is a group of Peaks like Volcano here not known to be active General appearance of the hills singular peaks & ridges are much connected together by ridges — the whole valleys sides & [gullies] sprinkled or dotted with evergreen trees & bushes, the intervals are nearly bare. — very little pasture. — there is little wind — blue sky & clear — very few birds excepting an

[page 18]

odd note from Tapacola or Turco — wonderful few insects, dryness of soil — Plains old bays, now irrigated dry summer Signoritas conversation, eyes — pious horror bewitching. at my having entered a church to look about me. Why not become Christian — our religion is certain — we are one sort of Christian. Would not hear it — Do not your Priests even bishops marry — what reasoning — attempts at [spelling]. Ta

[page 19]

— Breccia near wells

— Dyke in do

— Calcareous conglom. Baths

Porphyry. From high peak

— do. South of Baths. the latter very abundant

— curious cellular porphyritic rock (amygdaloid with ?)

horizontal bed

9th [September 1834] Rode to the last house in the valley, short distance from where the valley of the Cypressos & Yeso divides — real Cordilleras scenery — the size of the valley most striking especially geological —

[page 20]

crossed the torrent. On the road noticed block of granite several hundred feet above bed of river in depression where present causes could not have placed them. Yet I think it probable that Granite [exists] in valley del Yeso, & placed in present place by former sea. I noticed about 200 feet above present brook pieces of the Conglomerate

[page 21]

as at baths, & a band of enormous Rocks of a cellular porphyry which, does not occur immediately on the spot. I believe this to have been a line of former sea beach I ascended a very lofty mountain. I should think Mon nearly 6000 ft. at its base I saw a mass of white rock, with its edge entangled with

[page 22]

the porphyry. — the main mass of the hill is porphyry — in many parts of which it assumes the breccia structure was clearly visible. — even in the Pitchstone Porphyry near summit I could see it. The Porphyry is often red like brick, with white spot — near Summit columnar. Very summit was capped with white rock

[page 23]

singularly entangled with the Porphyry. — I suppose some igneous rock — with the Porphyries & Breccia there was some iron greenstone & varieties of cellular porphyry, much of this I saw in the form of large dykes others were massive pieces, the origin of which it was difficult to say — the

[page 24]

most remarkable fact. V. X. [as] < > the Cordilleras. < > nearly horizontal arrange=ment < > the Porphyry & the lower probable [line] < > as [numerous] < > strata: the < > dips did < > very regular there < > have

[page 25]

been one of some degrees, without my perceiving < > Particular points [where] the white rock was < > the strata were more disturbed Pinchero pass — few Condors Rande 17 — Pitchstone Porph. near summit — columnar 18 — Bed beneath conformable to < > Breccia 19 & 20 — the Paradoxical bed, most < > [having]

[page 26]

flowed in dykes

10th. [September 1834] —

Nr. (21 & 22) The A rock abundant in the Peak South of Baths, the relation of which I am quite uncertain whether to consider injected & contemp. with Porphyry it is immediately connected with it.— also amygdaloid with Agate

Nr. 22 The upper part & cellular of 23

[page 27]

which is same with 16. — These rocks form a nearly horizontal bed between two lines of hills with dip. — the upper surface is highly cellular I am almost inclined to think that it has burst forth & formed a plain. Saw some broard dykes. —

There was some little altered Slate with the Breccia Porphyry. —

[page 28]

X

the nearly horizontal arrangement of the great beds of Porphyry & immense valleys shown by them — there might have been small one towards me — great dips only occasional & as well without as within the Cordilleras.

[page 29]

17. Pitchstone from near summit. Columnar. 18 — Bed beneath, but conformable to Breccia — Porphyry 19, 20 — the ambiguous Dyke rocks

[page 30]

11th [September 1834] Miserable wet day

12th [September 1834] Have seen but few Condors — yet this morning 20 together soaring about. Man said at once probably a Lion if afte a Vaccano see the Condors alight & suddenly all fly up, they know the Lion Audubons theory—

[page 31]

is watching the Animal which it has covered with branches & is watching. — A Lion once hunted never covers up his prey, but eats it & retires to a distance: escape like fox by artifice of returning close to former track. — single dog a breed will kill one — if up tree with lazo [lasso] or stones

[page 32]

makes noise when hungry — — killed a woman & child lately & man at Jajuel!!

central line of Granite in T del Fuego distinct from Porphyries. In 1822 Spring stopped for one year, returned little by little — but never so much water or so hot — known by feathers coming

[page 33]

from a fowl — same proof for summer & winter. —

12 13th [September 1834] At last escaped from our foodless prison — threatening day snow low down: We reached the Rio Claro by night: the plain seems certainly much affected by the river—

13 14th [September 1834] Soon after leaving the town pass an Angostura,1 to which the plain comes up level & the road crosses a round basin 30 or 50

1 Spanish for a narrow pass.

[page 34]

feet lower coming to another Angostura pass which gradually rises with a river exactly in same manner as at the 1st August: drains gr north part of great plain of S. Fernando. The city itself stands at foot or large hill insulated by the Quillota = like plain which runs to the sea & the great Southern plain which extends to

[page 35]

Talca (?) — appears perfectly horizontal with few islands; to give an idea of its extent, the distant Cordillera only showed their snowy part, as over the sea. — Scenery very interesting — Had often wondered how Tierra del F. would appear if elevated: — no shells — Mem.: East St. of Magellan: exact

[page 36]

identity between here & South of C. 3 Montes: Valparaiso to Mendoza 3 to 50 chain of hills Is not this country same as a low Quito: elevation decrease to South? Pebbles of similar granite flesh colored — feldspar in small Quantities & black mica also here & Cauquenes a white syenite abundant plains of S. Fernando

[page 37]

saw during the day much of the regular Breccia small dips —

18.th [September 1834] Lizard1 above blackish tail very basking on stones in sun half of body brilliant greenish spot blue scales. — anterior greenish. — colors shade down till some individuals are simply brownish black with transverse black bars, & the [formost] scale in head colored white breasted Creeper of Chiloe The Fungi2 on the Roble or oak tree footstalk longer. — shape more irregular. color paler — cups inside much darker color: fewer of them. — in young state large cavity: — occasionally eaten grow to large size 3 or 4 times any of my specimens.

1 Specimen in spirits 1063 in Zoology notes, p. 354; listed as Proctotretus tenuis in Reptiles, pp. 7-8, plate 3.

2 Specimen 1065 in Zoology notes, p. 252 and Beagle plants, p. 228.

[page 38]

The mass of hills behind. Yaquil which lie between the valley plain of the river & S. Fernando & that of the Cachapol. is fronted on the East as we have seen by the Breccias & Porphyries: As far as form is concerned they resemble heap of mud washed by water with no observable direction. — The mountains are composed of crystall. — feldspar & quartz & more or less of green semi-cryst hornblende? (Nr 23). they become so fine grained in a few places as to be Eurite. — the rock is generally

[page 39]

very much decomposed & soft to a great depth. it is ordinarily of a very uniform character: strikingly resembles in many respects gneiss of Valparaiso. Hornblende replacing mica. — it often contains. where most decomposed large round concretions of more crystall: varieties, is traversed by many small veins, many of which run parallel. — is auriferous as at Valparaiso. — many of the main veins runs about N & S — I saw specimens of a fine grained

[page 40]

micaceous sandstone with regular cleavage. — passes into it? — I could see very little cleavage & nothing of stratification. — Know nothing of origin. — An enormous plain to NW. — said to extend to Melipilli. & from there to Casa Blanca. — From the [crooked] inland bays. — even the flat valley of river could not have been levelled by river. — Saw the Descabozado &

[page 41]

heard certainly of Peterra. The whole of these mountains well known from very numerous gold mines & some lavaderous.1 — It occurs with pure — quartz rock They may be generally considered as auriferous pyrites. This is Bajos iron, in the Durazas copper Pyrites. (there are many veins of Iron ore — micaceous iron ores &c. &c.) — where this occurs the pyrite does not occur gold is not found & if pyrites become pure in a mine it is at once better to give it up. — the better ones sorts are soft

1 Lavaderous = washing gold ore.

[page 42]

& smally crystallized. those of less value contains numerous large crystals of quartz. Carb. of Lime. — But in Durazas there are the [richest] Pyrites confusedly blended & masses of copper ( the usual cementing substance is a silvery grey fine scaled Talc. — (There are is also a black mineral crystallised in stars Nr 24). — All the best mines are here formed by a cruzero on a that the line of intersection

[page 43]

of a large stony vein or veta with contains small subordinate metallic ones gias (or veins). — with one or more larger small (but yet richer than the contained ones) gias metallic gias. — The whole stony veins with its included gias become infinitely more metallic with the Auriferous pyrites. — In the case Nr. 2 where 2 good gias cross at veins? different ∠ &

[page 44]

& directions — there whole included mass is metalliferous following the shape direction of the gias. — it may be observed that the influence extends beyond the wall to the section of the gias. — In this case the included gias themselves become infinitely more rich. — These included gias are in reality much the same as those which cross the Veta

[page 45]

as they only run parallel to it for a short distance, leaving the vein at the same ∠ at which they entered it — on the number & quality of these gias. & when when crossed by the larger gias the richness of Cruzero depends. — In those cases, where the metallic vein or gias is in its whole course parallel to the vein it

[page 46]

is called Veta Real. & these veins almost always run nearly N & S. — (NB. — Cleavage) Where veins cross each other at great ∠s. — one is often shifted by the other or fault is formed. — the veins at a short distance bends back to old line. — these faults seem to bear no relation

[page 47]

to size of veins — take place more generally where veins intersect each other at great ∠s. — (NB some of the gold occurs in quartz rock) The gias run in every direction. the main veins perhaps N & S. — The metallic veins seem to attract each — other The better gold veins seem superficial. 300 yard Varas is the greatest depth to which any good metal has been known

[page 48]

to extend. — Copper Pyrites does not seem to follow the same laws of increase as the Gold. — The Gold ores are ground washed & amalgamated the same substance after repeated washings continues to give a little gold. the sediments contains much copper — much Sulph - Copper effloresces. — it is very curious to observe that this substance divides itself into a curious

[page 49]

(R. Quinderidica)

(S. Fernando) <c. 7 lines excised> sort of Breccia. — the angular polymorphous fragments, (few inches each way) are nearly black. imbedded in a yellow soft substance have a regular

[page 50]

cleavage can only be broken by a hammer. — were <c. 7 lines excised>

gold ∴ [necessary] than the iron

Rode up to the Mine. Chilean oaks. Roble reminded me of English oak. from picturesque manner of growth.

[page 51]

Saw lake of Tagua-tagua. miners pale. nothing but beans & bread. — like latter best. but not so strong for work. — wives once in three weeks — carry up on back one quintal = 104 Lbs on back. perpendicular depth 150 ys. — miserable poles with steps. — do not appear muscular beardless boys 6 & 7. dollars a month. support family. — in Hacienda men have nothing to eat but beans (Curious how every place become penetrated with

[page 52]

30 dollars from Court yard. — washing interesting operation — feudal system of men slaves. — Old Spanish lawyer. — considered for long time. no man so rich that he sends naturalist for pleasure. —

there is a "cat shut up here", do you think King of England allows man to explore stones & reptiles. —

Don Pedros. Heresy. having snakes & feeding Caterpillars.1

Mules on level road 4 quintals. — 6 mules

1 An anecdote related by Juan Renous, a German merchant and naturalist resident in Chile from 1825, see Beagle diary, p. 261: 'two or three years ago [Renous] left some Caterpillars in a house in S. Fernando under charge of a girl to turn into Butterflies. This was talked about in the town, at last the Padres & the Governor consulted together & agreed it must be some Heresy, & accordingly Renous when he returned was arrested.'

[page 53]

to each muleteer. — wonderful so slim an animal. — 14 12 168 4 Volcano of Peleroa said

19th. [September 1834] Passed Colchagua, & followed the valley. — examined one round island. — composed of quartz. — this valley must run about NNW — the whole plain is formed of pale reddish non-Calcareous Tosca rock: in some places conglomerate. — At the miserable place where we slept (nothing but beans & milk)

[page 54]

the plain is uneven to the NW a great Bay runs & to [N] the rivers bend up & then must again turn to W, flowing through the plains which form the whole of that country

20th [September 1834] We crossed the Bay & the ridges which formed its Northern side. These are formed principally red feldspar & quartz alone occasionally with mica — in many places with Hornblende

[page 55]

These were traversed by fine-grained, porphyritic iron-greenstone — running about N & S. = The levelness & great size of plain is not perceived till it is approached. on account of the very numerous & broard valleys which intersect, the plain seems to dip to East & valleys run in same direction, to the great inland sea 20 or 30

[page 56]

miles to the hills behind Rancagua & N & S of it. — These Present streams totally inadequate to form these valleys. I have no doubt the sea — — some steps in the ∠r edge of wall, were visible marking without doubt the residence

[page 57]

of different elevation — (Islands of granitic rock). — These walls & flat valleys — & barrancas upon Barrancas — have rather a strange appearance. — Bishops Cave irregular — smooth, passages pebbles, none near, formed by sea used gold Indian burial place — The upper

beds generally coars Breccia — Conglom

[page 58]

beneath this (perhaps generally) hard, softer hard, softer earthy indurated sandstone ranging in fineness in horizontal layers containing lines of pebbles. — General appearance quite Pampas Climate & soil similar, blacker & damper — no trees. & green plains the numerous barranca

[page 59]

give it another character — very numerous sheep no

21. [September 1834] — Rainy day & I very unwell stopped at kind Chilotan schoolmaster — in Rozario. —

22nd [September 1834] Rode on to Navidad the very point house Breakers lying off the Point about one league or more seaward. mouth of Rapel descended from great plain must be very high 1000 to

[page 60]

2000 — front very like Valparaiso — but longer — plain ascends gradually from the cliffs, but I think must be distinct from the highest one. —

No visible chain of hills between coast & Yaquil. —

Cordilleras appear much higher — Planchon

[page 61]

& North of it very low.

(23d) [September 1834] The Barrancas here are about 100 to 150 feet high — I saw some Concholepas & Fissurella lying on the surface. —

Descending from the great plain I believe all the beds are similar — consisting of pale yellowish earthy fine sandstone, with numerous ferruginous thin veins & concretions

[page 62]

shells, fruit of tree wood. — Barrancas, consist entirely of above, varying horizontally but to a very slight degree in texture, excepting numerous thin beds & lines of flattened concretions (general law of forming beds) of grey crystalline calcareous rock — in one

[page 63]

part there was much small conglomerate, porphyries & quartz — which passed into a very coarse one — in midst of one fine bed, great boulder, yards square of greenstone. — mixed with numberless fragments of shells, which do not occur very regularly in any place any one bed

[page 64]

but abound in different places. — The concretions contain the largest — Pectunculus Oliva. & most abundant Turritella also, & Fusus — much wood charred in layers, some petrified with Serpula Fishes teeth. —

Most hospitable house unwell yet —

[page 65]

Barrancha above high-water mark —

Great line of escarpment shortly after starting

Shells in parts high up in layers, in ravines & plain, Bucalemu in Quebrada Onda1 having passed Maypo

1 Quebrada Honda is a mountain region in Chile.

[page 66]

(Maypo shells) all monodons 3 or 4 2 or 3 feet above present brook. All north of Maypo Gneiss

SSE ½ S — decomposing

[page 67]

24 & 25th [September 1834] to C. Blanca

26th [September 1834] at C. Blanca

27th [September 1834] Returned The Basin of Casa Blanca connected by Porte-suele with other basin

— This [by] other Porte-suele with whole granitic country North of Maypo

[page 68]

Tufted Bird nest middle end of Augu August —

Black Furnarius young end of September

Wren — middle of October

F. Diuca1 Contest of opinion in mountains believe torrents can do anything — in plains front of Carpana — sea must have in modern time been up there: in

1 Specimen 2172 in Zoology notes, p. 249; listed as Fringilla diuca in Birds, p. 93.

[page 69]

present state rivers do little. sand flows down big pebbles remain pretty stationary till floods, when they are replaced in few places touch the side of valley. but [causing] to hus band man the widest devestation in valley — fall of 1700 ft in 50? miles, hence rapidity of river

[page 70]

The Action of sea in continuing during its depression these valleys owing to greater extent of beach — certain action tides. & streams great clime.— & exposure to West swell: Rivers subsequently modify plain — Captain of Port Rise of Land

[page 71]

It is said that the sea 70 years ago reached foot of Dr. Stiles1 House?

17 years ago up to cellar of Mr Alison house?

The [nucleus] chain, cause of diff formations on [illeg] [diff] chains of mountains which have sometimes been observed.—

course of [river] Tinderidica

1 John Stiles, American botanist residing in Valparaiso.

[page 72]

Comparison of Patagonia. Pampas & Mendoza with the plains starting with supposition of horizontal upheaving:

16 / 5000 (313

48

[120]

[112]

46

14

20

280

56

336

Miers states each mule in mining district carries 312 Lb:

[page 73]

Feb. 10th. [February 1835] —

Sun sets. ¼ before 7

Rising . . . 5 + ¼ —

[page 74]

30.450

30.084 AT. 67˚ D 63˚

[page 75]

Volcan. Copiapo V Coquimbo V Limari Pates ?

V. Aconcagua * Tupungata

V. Maypo — *

The Santiago notebook

V. Curico (same with Peteroa ?) V El Descabezado

V. Chillan

V. Tucapel o. Antuco

V. Callaqui

V. Chinal

V. Villarica

V Hotucoto. (to the E).

V. Chigual — *

V. Rauco

V. Guanahaca o. Rananahuca

[page 76]

V. Osorno

V. Quieh

V. Puranaqui (our Osorno.)

V. Mine himadiva. (—flat top) El. ! Corcovado Mellamoy. — The * signifies, that these volcanoes have been super-added to the map: — This map is reduced from one of Dalbe's Republic of Chili surveyed &c &c in 1819. —1

1 This work has not been identified. Joseph Albert Bacler d'Albe (1789-1824), a French officer and engineer who fought during the wars of independence in Argentina, Chile and Peru; Principal engineer of San Martin, Chile in 1818. See Puigmal 2006.

[page 77]

[traced map of region around Valdivia]

[page 78 blank]

[page 79]

(11th—) [February 1835] Went in Yawl to Valdivia Stopped on road; found old man who made spirit wine — Cyder & treacle from apples.

= Olives sometimes bear fruit = & grapes. — Soon procured, fromobliging Governor — after crossing in a canoe a small river entered forest: 2d cleared spot slept at: forest rather different. — diff: proportion of trees: — Indians parties; the 3 Caciques who had just

arrived. —

[page 80]

Nearly all the road true Mica Slate dip very various. some SE by S — but generally NE by E. — (Compass). — Covered as in Chiloe by Clay & round pebbles of quartz.— Country very undulating, rises in the interior, no inhabitants. = Meloe poison & Caustic1 Upright Bamboos

1 A blister beetle. '[Specimen] 2546. Meloe, common. crawling about grass and flying about, Cudico, S. of Valdivia. The Padre told me, that the Indians use this as a poison, and likewise apply it as a caustic or Blister.' Darwin's insects, p. 87.

[page 81]

Lima Junio: 14: 1765 [Por] Andres Febres.1 Spanish & Chilian & Peruvian Volcanos none but Calbuco SE (Easterly) Compass. - & Villarica On Road, Saw (Granular) Gneiss & Mica Slate with regular dips, but inclined with very little or no regularity: Bright red soil. — After travelling some hours through forest (tormented

1 Febres 1765.

[page 82]

by innumerable flee bites, pigs, dogs, & cats) — began to open a little park forest scenery & become more level the curious fact of plains banishing trees Near At Cudico, pale coarse-grained earthy ( that is particles of different degrees of fineness. — Sandstone which is said to extend over whole plains South of Osorno

[page 83]

View of Llanos very pretty, intermediate mamillated district: (Heard great guns in the morning) corn & brown grass & great plain in horizon & cottages of Indians. —

Discontented padres, is easy to teach the Indians very industrious. —

Appearance of Indians curious universal desire of wearing their long hair broard faces; browner more expression — far less civil —

[page 84]

Speak same language at Chiloe & Here Many less Earthquakes here than in Valparaiso Gold mine in mountains of Plains. — José Xavier Gruzman — El Chileno Instruido Valdivia — gneiss — Auriferous Quicksilver mine — Quillota

[pages 85-86 excised]

[page 87]

[Anchor swell]

Indians

Padre [extreme Form of Country]

Mist for rain

(Fleet of whalers)

(24th [February 1835] — Arrived at Mocha) Having sailed 22d

[February 1835]

[page 88]

It is important to remark the great transportal of gravel in Patagonia is unaccompanied with Faults — as also in Chiloe. — In Contradiction to Mr De la Beches argument P 1601 — Nor any signs of sudden debacles only where channels existed. — Was there a fault at Port Desire S. Barranca. They have travelled on each side from Cordilleras ( Waves from Earthquakes

1 De la Beche 1831, section 3, argued that there was a positive correlation between the degree of faulting observed in the bedrock in many areas and the occurrence of gravel deposits. He drew attention to the fact that rivers often exploit faults as lines of reduced resistance to erosion and that these valleys often contain gravels. He also suggested that faulting indicated disturbance which he speculated might link to increased agitation of water masses and hence increased gravel deposition. Darwin observed that the thick gravels of Patagonia and Chiloe are neither clearly associated with faulting nor with 'any signs of sudden debacles'.

[page 89]

generally poco à poco, ask at Valparaiso. & Concepcion —

It appears to me that the two sorts of upheaval are so distinct, that the effects on water (& hence debacles) cannot be judged from analogs of

one to the other. —

Not many [blocks] in Chili?

Even many of the facts in de la Beche can be accounted for beaches

[page 90]

(1)

Every conclusion is of consequence with respect to Erratic Blocks —

That they have moved beneath the sea subsequently to existence of chain of mountains like the Andes. — mixed with gravel — that they have travelled in opposite directions from ridge of Cordilleras; that this took place during upheavel of land. quite gradual only small steps. — That there is no particular evidence of faults. = ∠d nature & analogs of Boulder in true Tertiary strata of Navedad.

[page 91]

(2)

That they thus travelled at two very different periods in Patagonia. —

At S. Cruz high up, where Lava blocks disappear, I should think they were buried. & that the latest epoch of the [presens] of the sea, carried the Primitive block to that locality. — Anyhow the obs alterations of kind of these blocks proves that they are not progessing in one direction from present cause. —

The vertical movement described by Playfair1 assisted by earthquakes, down inclined smooth surface. —

1 Playfair 1802.

[page 92]

(3)

I think the gr step-like upheaval of the land, assisted by earthquakes would is the index of explanation. —

V. De la Beche In Europe the N & S. lines may be explained by channels. — the accumulation at base of escarpement. — the lines of same height are all [presenations] of same fact: of gradual marine deposi transportal: — In the case of being behind Mountain ranges. — We may imagine tidal action of surf occasionally to have same effect of rescuing from the main line of depression as eddies are supposed to have done in N & S Debacle. —

[page 93]

(4)

The almost established fact in La Plata — that the great quadrupeds are there marine deposits, renders it not improbable that many of the Diluvial deposits in S. America have thus been formed. — I much suspect this to be the case. —

Re-state the numbers of shells found on plains of Patagonia: In An drawing in De la Beche is exactly that of the figure of Many of the blocks.

The transportal has taken place where there has been no narrow currents as Lyell ? supposes: not probable glaciers—

[page 94]

5

Between Chiloe & Mainland —

bottom is (V. soundings)

[section of Chiloe and Andes] Andes — Chiloe — Sea X A Z sea

A. Hard nucleus of Chiloe, subsequent elevations might cut inclined line XZ into a curve — ??

Depth of Channel too great ? —

[page 95]

6

Mr Caldcleugh saw Guanaco near Cordovean range Again I think M: Hermoso bed coeval with Pampas diff. mineral: constitution owing to proximity of S. Ventana ? As in Pacific a Corall bed forming as land sunk. would abound with those genera which live near the surface. (mixed with those of deep water) & what would more easily be told the Lamelliform Corall forming Coralls. —

[page 96]

7

I should conceive in Pacific wear & tear of Reefs must form strata of mixed. broken sorts & perfect deep-water shells (& Milleporae). — Parts of reefs themselves would remain amidst these deposits, & filled up with infiltrated calcareous matter. — Does such appearance correspond to any of the great calcareous formations of Europe. — Is there a large proportion of these Coralls which only live near

[page 97]

8 surface. — If so we & may suppose the land sinking: I believe much conglomerate on the other land is an index of land bottom coming near the surface. If so Red Sandstone Epoch of England will point out this: Mountain limestone1 the epoch of depression. — Do these numerous alternations of these two grand classes of rock point out a corresponding opposite & repeated [motions] of the surface of that part of the globe.

1 The Carboniferous Limestone of the English Pennines.

[page 98]

9

Do not the Sandstone (generally sat containing subordinate beds of pebbles) have imbedded wood (or other land remains??) which at least renders probable the proximity of land or uprise of grands oceans bottom: Consolidated gravel occur in Transition series. in the old Red Sandstone Millstone grit & coal. Sandstone. in lower part of R. Sandstone. — in sand strata beneath chalk. in gravel beds associated with plastic clay. & of course diluvium Phillips. vegetable remains with do — P. XV ؟1 introduct.:

1 Phillips 1816.

[page 99]

10

Entire absence of fossil large quadrupeds in Chili conformable to what we suppose the original form of S. America continent. — The [comminuted]1 bits at Lows Harbor in state & kind I certainly believe are recent Height at Red Marl Sandstone P 299. (300-400 ft). No. organic remains consult Daubisson.2 — De la Beche.! — Conglomerate separates the Magnesian Limestone from Red sandstone. — & the latter from the Coal Measure It has been remarked that beds of conglomerates or gravel, generally separate different formations, now.

1 Broken into small fragments.

2 Aubuisson de Voisins 1819.

[page 100]

11

the very distinctness of formation implies, that an interval time or change of surrounding circumstances has taken place in the regular successions of deposits. —

— The different formations as seen in England are not of that different height as to allow a supposition that when the present area of [any] formation was elevated into dry land. before all the superior formations were deposited. —Yet the step-like succession seen in [E]—W section would to certain extent point out such a

[page 101]

12

conclusion. — May we not imagine each band of conglomerates marks an epoch when that part of the ocean's bottom was near to a continent or shoal water; or that having again being depressed. calcareous fine sediments were deposited. (if under circumstance to allow of corall reefs. such would be very abundant). — In a long series of such [near]=undulations: the thickness of the deposition would cause the most ancient finally first to form. the present dry land. —

[page 102]

13

It will well explain immense wear & tear. — Calcareous depositions in the deep water (& ∴ distant) seas owing to facility of solution. — For instance I suppose, that when the lowest conglomerate of new Red Sandstone,1 or those upper beds of Magnesian Conglomerate containing fragments of Mountain Limestone were deposited in a shoal ocean at near at foot to the hills of older rocks. — that depression then commenced. sands were deposited. (Red color owing

1 The red sandstones of the English Midlands thought to have been laid down in arid conditions in early Secondary times after the Carboniferous.

[page 103]

14

old Red Sandstone & reddish Transition Limestone?) that as the ocean became deeper & land less in quantity & more remote. Lias took its place, as fine sediment & all the succeeding fine depositions took place. . — perhaps in middle divisions land rose & allowed of numerous corall reef-forming coralls. — there were alternations, certainly Corall reefs. — at Period of Iron Sand with so much wood. we may certainly suppose that the bottom had been raised. — (It m cannot be raised solely by deposition

[page 104]

15

otherwise there would be no room for subsequent deposits) We may suppose the ocean sunk to rise again at the period of plastic Clay. We know that in this formation Pebbles of flint are found which could hardly happen without a coast line of chalk. — at this period outlying chalk islands existed: The Test of depression on in strata is where great thickness has shallow coralls growing in situ: this could only happen. when bottom of ocean was subsiding:

[page 105]

16

(NB Terebratula not always deep water) Peat Bogs. — Maccullock Edinburgh. Phil. Journ. 18201 If the circle of change has always gone, those unaltered conglomerates ought which immediately overlie the metamorphic strata, ought to contain other pebbles besides the Granite Metamorphic In Alisons notes: mentions great fall of Mercury at store in Barometer of 18222 — Is it mentioned in the account.

1 MacCulloch 1820.

2 Alison to Darwin 25 June 1835 Correspondence vol. 1: 450.

[page 106]

17

This is very good. — In transporting boulders. What would be the affect of depressing any great valley or plain with blocks at the bottom. Would it not sea send them up opposite slopes. — not applicable on account of such taking place in slope of Patagonia. — That is that well worth considering With respect to utter confusion of pebbles in Europe state after Hypothetical case of subsidence rounding escarpments.

[page 107]

18

Mention Barnacle above level of [water] at [Repel]. returned Cacique [illeg] — in like irreversible passes masses of cellular Porphyry. — Mem at Rio. I suspect that Granite heated at bottom of ocean. — Was Granite ever covered? Lithomarge [appears] to contain diff fossils. from harder rock to certain extent is it not more Auriferous? Crystals in Lithomarge fractured by admission of water to heated mass. — Lithomarge found at mines & to the South toward S. Paulo — Prince Maximil road to Bahia Dr. Forchhammers1 fact about Brazil

1 Johan Georg Forchhammer (1794-1865), Danish geologist and chemist.

[page 108]

19)

Amplify on importance of proving extent & recency: of upheavals & manner over whole America. — Explaining generally Continental upheaval. so important in understanding valleys, diluvium escarpments & successive lines of formations &c. —

Showing that they are not mere Local effects, as so many authors suppose. —

[page 109]

(20

The conjecture of Brazilian Granites being heated in deep ocean, is a Very important conjecture. —

circumstances changing determine. which shall be a slope & which a cliff. — opposed by the plain of S. Cruz. & the equality of height in different plain. — A more sudden & greater upheaval would probably determine this change of circumstances & so agree with all the facts. State this with clearness. —

Do not the successive terraces point out a gradual rise, whilst ؟

[page 110]

21

Australia no Hydrophobia1 & Burchell2 says during 5 years he never heard of a case in the C. Colony Tosca would be Limestone if deposited in a deep ocean If the Pacifick Islds have subsided there ought to be a peculiar vegetation Is not the presence of Flint with Limestone a very common occurrence? Does flint frequently occur in any other strata? —

1 Rabies.

2 Burchell 1822-4, 2: 524.

[page 111]

22

The uprising of East Coast plain side of America, owing The horizontal rise of America, a swelling of the fluid nucleus of the globe, to form the statical equilibrium. destroyed as Sir J. Herschel1 suggests by the gradual, wear & tear of surfaces in other parts Galapagos from the cont. 480. Juan Fernand (Mem: erupt): 315 Mem. Silicified wood so frequently found on surface, in proportion to within strata: (from greater duration) Humboldt gives instances. Vl. P 6262 It is a fact of some interest, as being different from Europe, that in Chili, the secondary rocks repose conformably & pass into the oldest Granite & Mica slate formations &c &c. —

1 Herschel 1833.

2 Humboldt 1814-29, vol. 6.

[page 112]

23

Forster P 156.1 states that Capt. Davis in the year 1687 being 450 leagues from the main of America felt an Earthquake very strongly, when at the same time its most violent effects were observed at Lima & Callao. — In 1692 a Davies accompanied Cavendish Investigate this case well. Mem: double occurrence at Juan Fernandez: nearly 400 miles (British) from Coast This must be the same Davis, who gives name to Davis's Land:2 & at Galapagos: account written by Wafer.3

1 Forster 1778.

2 John Davis (1550?-1605), explorer who reported sighting an island in the Pacific 500 leagues from Copiapò (in 27º 30' S) and 600 leagues from the Galapagos Islands. Later explorers could not find 'Davis's Land' although it was sometimes listed on maps.

3 Lionel Wafer (1640-1705), Welsh explorer and privateer. Wafer 1699.

[page 113]

24

I observed in K: George's Sound on a sand bank, which never drys. being 6-8 ft below surface the same ripple marks as on tidal beach: it may help to explain waving structure in hard rocks. which could hardly have been formed on a beach. Mem: in General observations. it is known. in Chili Earthquake that from mill courses, that the [ruin] was greater inland. it would appear that the disturbance could not have been far to sea wards.? V. Journal of Science Write Alison. to enquire whether the Millers at. Concepcion

[page 114]

25)

observed. whether the level of these dams were affected from the in their level. from the Sea inland or vice versa. — Capt Fitz Roy states, that the older writers say, that the water in the river Cauten, Tolten & Bueno rivers & Valdivia rivers. — was deep enough for large ships to enter. Vide Molina1 — date of Molina at Guatemala I have read of similar case & Feuille & Frezier.2 — Capt. Fitz Roy. doubts the old writers from position of river mouths to swell. Do fragments of shells in Tosca rock at Coquimbo blend into the solid Limestone, like rocks of Bermuda described by Capt Vetch. Fitton App. P 588:3

1 Molina 1794-5.

2 Frézier 1717.

3 William Henry Fitton was the author of the geological appendix to King 1827, which cited James Vetch (1789-1869): 'The cemented shells of Bermuda, described by Captain Vetch, which pass gradually into a compact lime-stone, differ only in colour from the Guadeloupe stone; and agree with it, and with the calcareous breccia of Dirk Hartog's Island, in the gradual melting down of the cement into the included portions, which is one of the most remarkable features of that rock.' pp. 587-8.

[page 115]

26)

Silex is well known to form globular concretions in Limestone rocks; Perhaps Limestone in siliceous stones may not be so common: It would appear however that it is the Calcareous matter, which determines the great spheres in the recent Sandstone beds: & the curiously shaped bodies in the Clay Slates of Port Famine. — M. Peron. at Benier Isd on W. Coast of Australia. has described calcareous balls, formed of concentric layers. imbedded & intimately united with the surrounding "terra sablouneuse ocracèe" — Peron Voyag. Aux terres Aust. Vol I. 204.1

Fitton App: P 619.

Introduce this somewhere S. Cruz ??

1 Péron 1807.

[page 116]

27)

Introduce in Cleavage discussion fact mentioned by Lyell that Modern Limestones elevated 1500 ft to SW ∠ 45˚. :1 NW strike in St Eustacia Maclure Lyell III V. 132 Officer of Isle of France says that it is said dogs never grow mad there. Vol I. P 248.2 mentioned by M. Lesson3 Mem: to tell Lyell about crocodile in South Sea island. Mariner's Tonga:4 Carl Thuenberg.5 says mountain in whole Cape. NW & SE. C of G. Hope Mem. to make a note about cleavage. being owing to currents, as sands [act] in lines on sand-dunes: also Herschels.

1 Lyell 1830-3, 3: 133.

2 Bernardin de Saint Pierre 1773, 1: 248.

3 Duperrey 1826-30.

4 Mariner 1817, 1: 334ff.

5 Thunberg 1795-6. The edition used by Darwin is not known.

[page 117]

28

idea of equilibrium. acting on the nucleus of the globe. — There is much resemblance. between Pann.nama West Indies. T del Fuego mark this symetry. — & Sumatra: the Aleutians turn other way In 1764 April & Febr. earth quake felt in Atlantic. on Equator 25˚ W. Officer of Isle of France. P 98 I Vol:1

N.B. in general discussion introduce diluvium generally submarine Examine old note Books. about Tufa. Mr Lambert2 statement that Granite hills capped with horizontal volcanic rocks. in favor of subaqueous deposit of Tufa. — Used

1 Bernardin de Saint Pierre 1773, 1: 98.

2 Charles Lambert (1793-1876), a Frano-British entrepreneur who made a fortune with copper and silver mining and smelting in Chile.

[page 118]

28

It must be re re urged that what ever has caused cleavage, has in primarized districts, divided mineralogic substances. Mem: depth of mud in Dr Mulgrave sounding at N Pole: — (Playfair ?)1 introduce in cleavage paper2 when S. Cruz balls are discussed in aid of separation of ingredients

Mem: state that in the Falklands the layers of Slate & Sandstone are nearly 20 ft high: | ∴ capable of movement in the depth Ought I not to state that my metamorphic ideas obtained from Lyell. III Vol. might be put in a note? In discussion on Porph: Breccia, I

1 Playfair 1802, p. 415.

2 Possibly DAR 41.59-77.

[page 119]

29

should state to gain confidence, that it was sometime before I fully comprehended origin Introduce into my general discussion the gneiss & Quartz of central Patagonia, on coast The composition of Mica Slate must be owing to "hot" metamorphic action acting in same planes as those of the Clay-Slate, which were determined, in a liquid shortly after period, of deposition. — This is valuable argument. In Falkland paper. nothing is said about, uplifting laminae not affecting vertical strata

[page 120]

30

The Coral theory rests on the supposition of depressions being very slow & at small intervals Can it be believed that any heat, as for instance from a dike, ever convert a shale or slate into Mica Slate: is there any tendency even to the separation of the different minerals into laminae — no — Then is it not

[page 121]

(31 probable that the patch which formed rocks like mica slate was accompanied by other principle Electrical current The laminae of feldspar are in certain lavas places in one direction. In the Cordilleras dikes have not commonly affected the nature of the strata?

[page 122]

32

Discussion on presence of Salt at Lima: read Humboldts account of grand salt formation. — Arica

The tilted alluvium in the plain of Uspallata proof that central chain there elevated before the flank one. I do not see certainly that the Uspallata formations are unconformable to the Gypseous. although probably so: certainly from Alluvium elevated

[page 123]

33

posteriorly Sierra Parince. & partial chains. extend in N 85˚ W line: (not introduced into my paper). Humbol. VI. P503 & 519 & 5271 Before concluding the Cleavage paper. consult the VI Vol. of Pers. Narra.2 Ascertain nature & position of all the strata in all the basins, on summits of Andes — New Spain essay: Superposition: Dessalines D. Orbigny. Titicaca.3

1 Humboldt 1814-29.

2 Ibid.

3 Orbigny [1834]-47.

[page 124]

34

S. America fundamentally & systematically different from S. America; shows that the geology of the world cannot be taken from Europe

[pages 125-126 excised]

[pages 127-129 blank]

[page 130]

Wild g dog of Australia copulates freely with the tame ones near of

the houses.

—Note very different, from the domestic dog

[pages 131-138 excised]

[inside back cover]

M. Desjardin1 was the man, who found Dodo bones at Isle of France De la Beche P 142 Stokes a quire & a half of foolscap In Falkland paper 2 pages contains 2200 syllables in one page — 2500 of Beecheys [J]2 I have about 900 pages The Captains papers are in quarter quires or 6 sheets.

1 Desjardin 1832.

2 Possibly a reference to Beechey 1831.

[back cover]

Santiago Book.
[50 P]

Textual notes to the Santiago notebook

[FC] 50] in pencil.

[IFC] DUFOUR…PARIS] printed label.

With 31 pp at end with draft for geol. papers & good remarks. Santiago.] a white paper label pasted in, in pencil, not in Darwin's handwriting, not transcribed.

88202338] English Heritage number, not transcribed. 1.18] Down House number, not transcribed. 9] added by Nora Barlow, pencil, not transcribed.

[24-5] the pages were stuck together, then parted badly, so that much is difficult or impossible to read.

[32] distinct...Porphyries.] added ink.

[33] '13th' '14th'] dates corrected in ink.

[37] day] added ink.

18.th ...specimens.] ink. From here to p. 57 (19 September) the text is in ink.

[41] This is...Pyrites.] interlined.

[42] But...[richest]] interlined.

[49] a 72 X 88 mm section is excised leaving stubs at the top and bottom.

[50] page partly excised.

[53] to each...said] ink.

[67] Casa] 'asa' added ink.

[71] It is...House.] '?' written over these lines. sketch and caption in ink.

[72] Comparison...upheaving:] ink.

[73] page in ink.

[74] a fragment of gummed paper suggests that something was once glued to the page.

[75-6] pages in ink.

[77] map on tracing paper glued to page perpendicular to the spine in greyish ink.

[81] Compass. -] added in ink.

[90-124] numbered on the top corners by Darwin as (1) - (34). These numbers are in ink, even if the page is written in pencil.

That they...Navedad.] in ink. [91-104] pages in ink.

[105] (NB...water)] ink.

[106] This is very good. —] added pencil. In transporting...Patagonia. —] ink. or plain] added pencil.

[107] Mention...Porphyry. —] overwritten by added ink paragraphs 'Mem... to contain'.

Mem...road to Bahia] ink.

Dr. Forchhammer...Brazil] added ink.

[108-9] pages in ink.

[110] Is not...strata? —] ink.

[111] Mem...&c &c.] ink.

[112] page in ink. In 1692...Cavendish] pencil.

[112] page in ink.

[114] observed...versa. —] ink.

at Guatemala...case] added ink.

Do fragment...P 588:] ink.

[115] page in ink.

[116] Mem:...Herschels.] ink, 'says' and 'C of G. Hope' added pencil.

[117] idea...other way] ink.

nama] added pencil. Examine...Used] ink.

[122-3] pages in ink.

[123] Before...Narra.] pencil, 'concluding' underscored in ink.

[130] Wild...houses.] ink.

[BC] [50 P]] pencil.


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