RECORD: Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. Port Desire notebook. [English Heritage 88202328] (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed from microfilm by Gordon Chancellor, transcription typed by Kees Rookmaaker 2.2007, corrections by Chancellor, corrections and editing by John van Wyhe 3.2007. Checked against the manuscript by Chancellor 4.2008. Corrected against the microfilm and photographs by John van Wyhe 8.2008. Further corrections against the manuscript by Chancellor 10.2008. Transcription revised and edited by van Wyhe 11-12.2008, 8.2009. RN18
The Beagle field notebooks are also published in:
Gordon Chancellor and John van Wyhe eds. with the assistance of Kees Rookmaaker. 2009. Charles Darwin's notebooks from the voyage of the Beagle. [Foreword by Richard Darwin Keynes]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NOTE: This (170 x 130 mm) notebook has been rebound, the brown leather front cover is original. The front of the notebook has a (74 x 55 mm) label of cream-coloured paper with 'Port Desire — Famine Wollaston Isld Navarin Isd. E. Falkland Isld Measurements of curved hills East coast of Chiloe Boat excursion Chonos S. Carlos' written in ink. There were originally 182 pages written in one sequence. The paper of the notebook is watermarked John Morbey 1830.
Editorial symbols used in the transcription:
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Text in small red font is a hyperlink or notes added by the editors.
Reproduced with the permission of English Heritage (Darwin Collection at Down House), the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.
General introduction to the Beagle Field Notebooks.
Chronological register to the notebooks
Introduction to the Port Desire notebook
E. Falkland Isld
Measurements of curved hills
East coast of Chiloe
(Capt. one dollar) Smith trousers
<Something was apparently glued to this page, which has been torn away, thereby destroying words in ink>
< > [use] of < > T. del F<uego> < >. exp< > Ponsonby. Sound:— < > or N [by] W Falkland Islands [Gunner] [illeg]
Head — 2 sorts other [species] from [ford] Pebbles Height of N. Plain South Barranca. East Coast.
Structure of gravel at S. Barranca [Gecko] [Craters] Shells low water
R. Chupat: 43º : 20' Calyen 43.10'
300 285 503
1088 328 667 261 600
[Plain] 30.065 .58
Hill 29.914 57
H. Plain 30.067 57 SW Hill 29.920 6 ½ First
— 56 55 56
56 / 10 ¼
30.214 51.5 49.5
Plain Sea 7 ½ 30.492 51.5 49
(Jan 2nd) 1834
.298 SW Hill ∠ NE Hill ∠ Penguin island ∠ Mouth of Creek
N: 64º 14º 30' 53º10' 84º 43'
Su Both 2 hills same sort of Porphyritic — Plain Barometrically of same height on both sides
(3d) [January 1834] Plain above cliffs of same formation as generally — I see in many places, that the upper bed, is sand, calcareous, white, A: the next more clayey & yellowish B with salt flavour; this contains layers of fine gypsum — This plain slants down to the cliffs. — Saw two breccia uncrystallized Porphyry bed dipping to
the Westward // many of the pebbles on the hills white washed.— Ferruginous Sandstone Coarse as below [like] a specimen White Mortar, silex particles D ? red, white earthy crystals, porphyry dip to WNW Coarse Ferruginous Sandstone All dip to NW Hard Calc white Sandstone F Calcareo — Feldspathic ? E red as below white (D) Feldspathic rock red jaspery porphyry
(C) occurs amongst & forms great masses [amongst] red Jasper Porph rock Rocks generally resting on a compact hard earthy Feldspar coloring matter of. — Red rock seems to blend with white, making pink — Dip NW red color sometimes in lines in horizontal section in patches. circular & bands
There are dykes only differing from surrounding rock [by figure] in straight line 2 [illeg] [broad] In all pebbles There is a bed of conglomerate of bright red colour, usual dip (about 10º) composed of pebbles of red highly crystalline porphyries.
fro pebbles as large as your head to sand. — deposited in a current. There is a dyke tortuous of green. (sandstone!) running in SSE direction & a
smaller one of same material crosses the ENE one. — This latter much varies in constitution passing into coarse uncrystalline substance. [Beds] tortuous. — The first must be only a crack filled up. — The ENE one penetrates all beds excepting chalk with siliceous particles. — Over the Jasper Porph bed (of which I brought specimen) there is a white (calc ?) bed with (G)
dip: I believe this
chalk mortar with siliceous particles to have same dip generally with other bed but not crossed by dyke — Hence period of uplifting strata at the beginning of mortar Deposit — but anterior to Oyster bed. —
& of course subsequently covered by gravel when beneath water. —
(G) over the Jasper Porph same dip
(J) ENE Dyke
(M) Below (O)
(N). do. There [it] forms main mass of cliffs, especially this rather more coarse
(O) Above the two latter nearly as crystalline as the inferior bed. — At West end of Bay. Mortar (?) & white Feldspathic Rock (P) lie over red earthy porphyry & dip to W ½ N.
behind it (to S) [sketch of hills] another of fine red Porphyry
(Q), which bed thickens out in usual dip & covers
[section of dykes cutting dykes?] white red inch
Varieties of the earthy rock & with pebbles intermediate bed of Pitchstone
(W) — Porphyry same as all hill external form &c. — Dip to W ½ N explained by form of Bay. —
Fels: rock, mica
coast broken many reefs breakers Barrancas like fortifications
9th. [January 1834] — Arrived Port St Julian. Went on shore with Captain.—
Came in at night. —
10th [January 1834] Up harbor — mud-banks. late at night — Country rather better appearance:
Mud in St. Julian constant rolling of pebbles:
Gecko, being kept for some days colour uniform
Compare with Blowpipe Mytilus1 with blue & shells from Barranca
16th [January 1834] Pebbles at top of woods Mount of usual ferruginous colour: plain of diff. height: oysters & Turritella high up:
1 A mussel.
17th [January 1834] Cliff of S Barranca, 60 or 70 feet high:
mun after gravel time for deposit of mud from a stream. on surface many mytili with blue colour & & fragments of oysters:
There are many pebbles. some greenish; with quartz & Feldspar not very porphyritic; also some phonolite & fine black Basalt; Porphyries without crystals, light ferru: colour: —
(20th —) [January 1834]
[Port Desire section] (1) cellular 2 common 3 Breccia 4 Porph with Quartz + common
(2) is sometimes jaspery with very few crystals. 4 varies. — beds lower to the W by S (true) The geology is only conformatory to that of the West Barranca Viz that whole Porphyry superincumbent to the Breccia — Variety one is curious appearing to be made of balls Divisions in cliff strongly marked
14 miles South of Port St. Antonio cliffs. Shells
Cliffs Port Valdes
= do P: Cantor
Gravel line Point Castro [Latitude?]
Great inland Cliff (1500?)
Pt. Lotus [S.P.] [Dephine]
P. Union Tombo Atlas all rocky [rugged] Points Shells at Port St. Antonio Behind Pinida Table land
About 30 miles South of Pinida great table formation, showing great alluvial action. — This includes [Tilly] road
in South Table land not very even, — new made up of parallel lines: Giant cliffs nearly 1000 feet high. St George Cape Blanco [near] Cape three points point Hard rock
Round Pt St Anna. on the of first little point: & other side 2d little shells, on a stony flat. — covered in gales: —
21st [January 1834]
½ aq 9.30 A.M. 30.05
attached 64.7 D. 62
11º 15' 29.778 A 71.5
12º 30' 29.690 A 78.5
4.30 p.m. 29.992/68 A 77
8 A t —
9 ½ .88
11 ½ .86
ne Port Famine
Feb 3d 
bed-like cleavage N 70 W
Dip SW 56º —
do N.W. 68º D 29 S W
near R. Pant. bed like cleavage running 69º D NE 15º
a small space traversed by lines of cleavage NE by N & SW by S
[diagram of Winter's bark tree]
lower limit of siphon
circumference of a winters Bark 4 ft .. 6 in
Beds SW by W ½ W of a hill & 17 from the central one Winter Bark
Feb. 6th 
[Rough] Point N 28 W. dip SW 25º —
Highest point N 61 W
Dip 28º —
one from 10 to 20º dip W.
Hills NW & SE ? or NW by N
On Sea beach cleavage SW by S ½ S ?
Pyrites Iron stone — common ball: — Escarpement
stone of Hornblendic Rock
On 6 & ½ [straps] = 24 ft
4 ½ feet mean height
[gr SN or Hu] S 56 E for the more southerly
6th — Block of granite 3 [straps] 2 feet = 11 feet
[green cy grain] = 15.3 ft R H G F E D (C) (C) (b) (a) (c) ?K a
M. O'Hill: is under 1000 ft.?
(a) 68 W ∠
(b) 70 W ∠ 22 3.8
|(a)||68 W||∠ 25|
|(b)||70 W||∠ 22||3.8|
(+ High peak S 46 E great [smi] H S 54 E)
(D) no stra
(E) dip N ∠ 5 (?)
W F 81 — 11 north D do 69 — 15 G 75 — 17 do H 70 — 11
(C) 70 25
(other slaty marl 1.3 ft C.4
(one block rather large)
& several ½ as long & ¼
(? how brought?)
higher parts most stony: one Rock I should think 4 ft diameter —
curved mica slate —
pebbles generally few & small size apples to head. — angular — round some rounded, some angular. —
white with curved dark lines of small gravel. —
white more sandy & exactly like C Virgins. —
Was the oyster bed removed, or [prevented] depositing: bed of alluvium continuing from animals & subsequently broken shells higher part 200 feet high? —
double elevation again convenient.
great boulders left in Shoal Harbor. —
P Rocky 26 N. Sarmin
+ 46 Peak E of S Scarcely ¼ of mile from end of Point Rocky — middle [of &] snowy range 55 north side P R. 70. 45 Feb 25th  2d Station A & B with common green rock — (B is globular concretions
Base S 30 E ∠ 18º — great divisions: there were here several others at various [inclinat] angles & quartz pebbles 1853 (D). Conchoidal basalt Garnets 1854 Trachyte 1855 Variegated (vein like mass) green all together near [very] [summit] Porphyry Ridge N 70 E = E 3º S & W 3º N
Vertical smooth planes generally common to tops N 50 W = N 29 W & S 27 E first impure sort Summit Porphyry & (D) (1853) Quartz veins. Cleavage S 50 E & low ridge
( W [Lakes] most uneven: rugged — The breccia like rock generally
little action of water over ledges uneven hill
At very summit an apparent South little Dip. —
Doubtful Breccia, some of the pieces were an inch large; — Read
Wollaston Island. —
I do not think there is any slate & C. [Decert] not Slate.
Feb: 27th  Slate dip 48º to exact South (true)
N: end of Navarin Isd
Cliff of Detritus — angular rounded stone. [no] lines of deposition —
small & few stones — earth color
W (Compass) 72 S D.—
W & E 59 S D
Porphyry pebbles between Falkland Islands: & Staten Island.
[Uni] to [Front] Slate run W ½ N sandstone dip W by S?
No dung beetles Falkland Islands
Why knowing that Patagonia has been elevated in some 1500 feet
horizontally above sea (& probably 300 feet below) why not Tierra
del Fuego? — Cleavage & stratification entirely distinct — F. Islands.
[S.] Usbourne pebbles outside coast.
What animals Toco Tosco. Aperia.
Read Falkland Geology
Birds (: Penguin)
3 Pounds. Rabbit. Magellanicus1 ask Gregory Indians about do
Henslow importance of preserving labels
Jackass Penguin demersa:2 perpetually rolls head side to side; as if helook out at anterior angle of eye: — noise exactly like Jackass at sea one deep note: — crazy, very quick, help of wings head stretched out— very brave diver — quickly moving wings very rapidly: fishing out at sea — cunning —
2 See Journal of researches, pp. 256-7.
The elevation of vertical cleavage in its exact direction would only be showing by a dip
outward inward on both sides: Von Buch.1 — M
Habits & geographical limits of brown vulture: Rats & mice & foxes on small islands & Georgia Black rabbits breed. — are not found excepting where there are grey ones: there are white ones &c &c Henslow cross means
Rabbit: Insects Calcareous concretions in India —
1 Possibly von Buch 1813.
Sunday — 16 [March 1834]
Hills W ½ N run —
Slate & sandstone
latter both with cleavage
dipping N ½
W E 50-60
Hills of gneiss dip to within point of N —
= Flat topped very long oblong & upheaval S. [curved strata]
great curved plates
(2) vertical plates
(1) small oblong
Slate (lower parts of country)
E & W run
The double Quartz range runs W by S & WSW
The Quartz is granular & very often contains mica specks no white [parallel], but little ferruginous the N. dip, the flat topped
(castellated) & [curved strata] & the Southern curvature from anticlinal line: — in a [piece] 4 or 5 feet long & above 3 thick curvature 1/8 of [circle] — plain of divisions forming smooth domes: original however there is much
fracture: — The 2d Point of upheaval was at Southern base of great
range — & directly afterwards we had the vertical plates: —
Hail & wind, geese — Cattle country: — Sleep warm M
Monday [17 March 1834]
R. del Toro — Bone burn.1 geld Bull — snow & Hail. — [Snipes] geese Hawks nest &c cry Sandstones
1 'the Gauchos soon found what to my surprise made nearly as hot a fire as coals, it was the bones of a bullock, lately killed but all the flesh picked off by the Vultures. They told me that in winter time they have often killed an animal, cleaned the flesh from the bones with their knives, & then with these very bones roasted the meat for their dinner. What curious resources will necessity put men to discover!' Beagle diary, p. 230.
generally more or less slaty running NW by W again appearing horizontal very many valleys, parallel to range &
int like furrows in the sea —
Horses very expensive 100 ps each. — out of 29 — 10 arrived safe & 4 now alive & Bulls & cold. — no wild horses here. — only cattle. —
Sierra [larga] — between [Physandria] & [Inssiona] crosses the Cochilla Grande. —
Where there are black rabbits there are others
Yellow legged hawks — females
Foxes have holes, generally silent excepting when in pairs
Hawks remain here whole year most in winter
Tuesday [18 March 1834]
Slate running NW by W Dip N Granular quartz range dip WSW ½ S 40º ! point of Sierra & one point more S
SE. by W. (SW. by W.)
[strata] 20 yards
These quartz Hills run NW by W or ½ P more W. & from extreme point of Island [At] sleeping Place coarse slate D SSW
Wednesday 19th [March 1834]
[sketch of hills]
Reread this after this
Carrancha kill Partridge let go again1
horses back — Chimango
2 Large carrion-feeding hawk of the genus Polyborus, but some other falcons may be called caracara.
Tortuous cleavage connected with change in mineralogical change or mechanical. — Barnacles in Tierra del F. from 20 to 50 fathoms Degradation of rocks by snow ??
Sunday) [23? March 1834] DS ∠ 38º (true) (most general) SSW — ∠ 45º pure
crystalline granular quartz Rock These subbordinate crests ran W & E Valley of blocks ¼ of mile broad inclination 10º — from that to plain nothing like lava. on crests detached blocks great earthquakes: Georgia (&c)
Flat plain or [Bog] before last elevation. — When there were two islands: — a current eating out present arms: — [Sandra] Orkney Shetland Georgia Desolation are all volcanic line of Elevation line of greatest height runs perhaps WNW (½ N?) (contained a shell) Intermediate rock, overlies & alternates with [stratif] slate, itself becoming coarse — alternations or passages: passes into sandstone, suddenly assumes cleavage V Spec.n W by W by S — very perfect. or imperfect in proper form Slate containing much sandstone mingled with
the inclined laminae, & almost alternating, then suddenly the sandstone formed an inclined bed the extremities of which might be seen mingling with the laminae
Monday [31 March 1834] SSW 40º Quartz Crest same range as above Quartz [Aten] R. [Quartz]. Alla R. — [Porphyry]-slate (Q A.R). suddenly slate Southern limit of [Lievres] between Port Desire & St Julian
A 8º 45' : 30.083
AT. 55.5. D 55.5
A 55 D 55—
5. 50 30.07
A 54. D 54
3.6 |55 = 12.7
55.5 = 13.
3 | 0.13
[base of an arched fragment of quartz]
[base of an arched fragment of quartz] 3.7 6 ft 9
& [traverse] also ½ not a part
longitudinal veins with quartz on dome
Behind these broard crest dipping to SSW NNE or
S by W N E — 50º
— — 55º —
Crest running W by S.
Main chain do. — [height] hills — N of main valley commence
rather Northerly of this little range. —
on very top. inverted arch: as [running] of arches & [works] from castle so these streams
9.4 120 s 14
[hillock of quartz with summit of axis-plane thrown over to the south] Part of Hill SSE 59º
Round Hill. +
next E Hill [fort of on hill]
S ½ W ∠ 70º
+ N by W ∠ 47º Has Lowe1 ever seen these big oysters of Patagonia? Earth quakes. — F. Islas Gauchos
1 Captain Lowe, a sealer. See Beagle diary, p. 148.
[cross section of the domed structure of South Berkely Sound]
Sunday ridge of greatest height W & E. — of wave WNW & ENE — Walking up a dome step by step from excisement: at foot due north a slight Southerly dip. evidently part of regular southerly crest, but more horizontal — points of upheaval not exactly in straight line in range like swell
[curved hills] ESE little dip WNW
[diagram of zone of upheaval south of Berkeley Sound] [a] WNW not [nearly] [such] interlacement of veins [due]
most curious scene S
valley of fragment — broken arch
WNW & & c [green] ∠ [small]
200 by 45 50º ESE WNW ∠ 3º ? N
great hill long nearly as high as certain chain wave, more regularly anticlinal: in parts like crater. Wonderful scene of violence. Vegetation modern: — fragment as big as Churches: — valleys on each side a mile wide fragments: — line of view rather different from that of range in the line front hills — 3 ranges between Berkely Sound & Sea. — W & E W by S the other end —
Hills North of B. sound several [orients] (W & E (?)) centre of island more confusion — Thrush in flocks Experimentize with pods of Kelp. Nitre rapidly drying: — Small Hawk iris "honey yellow" — legs — bright yellow . skin above blue beak do: male feeding on Carrion! — (1926)1
Blue leg Vulture. Male.
Super-abundance of inarticulate Corallines: Kelp Corallines
Depth at which Kelp grows Limits on both sides of coast — all Southern Islands? — Kelp South Islands — Tristan da Acunha Sorrell?1 Exception of Kelp Fish in Falkland Islands2
Re-dissect Obelia3 Mr Stokes says kelp little to N of St Elena (about Lat 43º). 10 & 15 Fathoms Kelp grows generally Degradation of land by snow Southern limit of Agouti.4
1 Possibly a reference to Thomas Sorrell the boatswain of the Beagle.
2 See Beagle plants, p. 211.
3 Specimens 597 and 1161 in Zoology notes, p. 147.
4 A rodent of the genus Dasyprocta, related to guinea pigs.
Specimen of Kelp:
Pods of Kelp Experiment[ize about] the Nitre. —
Barnacles very common. 30 to 50 Fathoms. Coast of Patagonia. Has
Lowe seen big oysters? C. [Mammoth] Gregory B. — Birds. Petrels:
Puffins. where build?
Governor Andes [illeg] 11 14.89
Hares Viscachas at Coquimbo Molina Pitui Silvago white tuff T del Muscicapa1 Red back shore finch builds in bushes No snakes
24th. — [November 1834]
∞ 8 5 2 15 8 ft 8 ft
Started, took horse in Chacao, followed the coast, winding in after every Bay: saw many civilised, pleasant to see in any case natives. small copper coloured men — not very like Fuegians: Scenery exceedingly picturesque, beautiful cleared spots & pretty enclosure. magnificent forest path like road to Castro fine view of Straits of Chacao: Volcano beautiful many crosses, dangerous straits
Cone of snow. — plains of different altitude. thickly wooded: higher ones soft earthy, sandstone with lines of pebbles, granite & greenstone & some few porphyries: lower plain chiefly
granite pebbles: all showing curved lines of currents: perhaps different elevations: immense removal shown by reefs from points:
Granite increased as we approached Chacao: one nearly square, singularly little rounded, not more than fragment from mountain at base (very hard used for mills)
11. 1418. & 9 ft high: — every where signs of upheaval: one place apparently at [
80] height of 200
200 ft — difficult to ascertain from people eating so much Marisco:1
Said to occur in interior: Cordillera said to consist of several rows. —
?pebbles different? — ]Lecuy[Are these plains contemp: with ؟
Cheucau.2 making an odd noise people will not start Governor old Spanish Colonel — Son without stocking — miserably poor indifferently asked whether flag would always fly: — — Cordilleras much more distinct peaks: the 2 or 3 first rows, coarse & fine Syenite & Granite (Douglas3 — Volcan — very regular cone
1 Spanish name for sea food.
2 A bird known as a Chucao Tapaculo (Scelorchilus rubecula). See Journal of researches pp. 351-2.
3 Charles Douglas, surveyor and pilot, long resident in Chiloe.
Corcobado — Trachytic — (St Jago do?) —
Some Many of the
blocks ½ or ⅔ of the above size: —
25th [November 1834] Torrents of rain & in night Hurrah Chiloè country plain from 100 to 200 ft thickets & low woods here & there patches of cultivated ground — Huapilenous, same general formation. many fragments chiefly granite. — some as ½ large as yesterday & angular: foul wind drove us in —
"Huapi" means Islands: yet now nearly all peninsulas. proof of rise.
Big drops of rain
Expect a Ship at P. Castro Reason ?? =
(26.th) [November 1834] With a too strong SE breeze & a splendidly clear day made sail & reached Puerto Obscuro only good Harbor. — country same: Saw Indian party: one man exactly like — York Minster; others rather handsome. more color like Pampas — Manners pleasant dress &c &c like Spaniard — very poor. Cacique yet remaining but have little power since tributa
disb. abolished — when any officer, as land surveyor come down, they accompany him with badge of office a silver cane: they talked their
Indian language & very little Spanish. = The Cordilleras very magnificent certainly much less lofty than in Chili more regular than yesterday. Osorno immitting much smoke snow considerably melted, always in state of activity. — Saddle-backed, gentle cone, with immense crater emitting very little smoke — said to possess much sulphur till [some] years since, was hardly known as Volcano. when great eruption made a plain concave — Corcobado — 1 to 3 eruptions annually — Inhab: of Castro expect earthquake, when no eruption during 1 to 3 years
Some other mountains looked as if extinct Volcano. — Geolog. Formation same,
any proof that lava has not proceeded from Andes i.e a central crater — — few ∠r blocks of granite — Presence of Indians owing to their being a large tribe being encouraged & land given them at time when Osorno was betrayed but these tribes remained constant. — Puerto Obscuro beautiful little cove. several houses almost all grandchildren
badly off for ground, but too idle to clear more only breed — Have to pay Government & surveyor, mentions price: & 3 auctioning settles it — Chili government making retribution to Indians for their Tributa. Cacique 12 quadras wife half — Militia-man. — to wife ½: aged 4 quadras: during tributa Indians cleared land & were then driven away.
27th [November 1834] —Again fine day. strong foul wind — arrived at the cove of [Tuicari]. San Corcobado like same name at Rio. Trachytic
Blocks of granite. Saw at same time 3 volcanos & some most beautiful & regular snow cones far to the South: deception of semicircular arrangement: Table land from 2 to 300 ft high. — woods for fire Tropical from great intermixture & diff colored stems —
Formation of the Chaciques apparently the same as before —
Elmis beneath stones.1 —
Small chimango eat Potatoe when planted & bread. —
Rapid tides amongst the
1 Specimen 2338 in Darwin's insects, p. 83.
Islands — // Small Crustacea1 purple clouds of infinite numbers. pursued by flocks of P. Famine Petrel //
Natives eat much Marisco & Potatoes, — all Indians in the Chaciques & some other Islands. —
28th [November 1834] Chimango torments. swing swang the
In the census of 1832, 42 thousand inhab: of all sorts in Chiloe islands. = granitic blocks rounder. & far fewer? —
Landed at P. Tenuan, fine grained clayed sandstone. with remarkably even laminae, the very
2 See specimens 1932-1933 in 'Ornithological notes', pp. 233-4.
same as at C. Virgins. greasy with water at sleeping place Quinchao (splendid day & clear weather) same substance with singularly convoluted thin layers in domes running NNE & SSW? All the Islands certainly once a plain from 200 to 300 ft. — Appears to dip to East. ∴ more interior higher land. — Channels in some places deep.
— Met many ½ blood Indian families — when picking up Marisco singularly like Fuegians
Something like St Julian Porph pebbles: || but coarser texture not Porphyritic + ||
29th — [November 1834] "[Tey]" Granitic blocks certainly rather rounder — country in all parts more inhabited many periaguas.1 — Douglass sold 8 ½ square miles near Carlos for about 350 dollars. given by for Spanish bills. — nobody has an income here. — in a long life time industrious most rich person may gain 4 to 5000 dollars which is hoarded up. every family having his stow-holes. : Gomez, & wife noblemen of Spain came out
1 Spanish name for small boats.
to Lemuy by constant intermarriage with Indians present linear descendants can hardly be distinguished from Indians — whilst on other hand the present governor of Quinchao is very particular to keep his blood pure. Name of saddle-shaped volcano — [Serro] de Vilcan ?? = Language of Chauwes [Chahues]
T. del Fuego Petrel: in a flock by hundreds & thousands flying in strength irregular number lines; occasonally uttering odd cry
Explanation of gravel, during rise constant enormous accumulation: contrary facts the transportation of ∠r boulders — & Julian pebbles —
Castro granitic greenstone & many Basaltic ones: Coarser horizontal strata of soft sandstone: land about 400 ft high: Reylan Point. —
Formerly Pueres1 were brought in great abundance from Cabluco constant gathering have reduced in
1 A sea squirt (Ascidian), specimen in spirits 1165 in Zoology notes, p. 357.
numbers but since 1825 they have become abundant at Chacao were they formerly did not exist: The Nautilus is thrown up periodically in great numbers at Juan Fernandez & coast of Chili. = Layer of hard rock, composed of crystalline rock Volcanic crystals overlying horizontal slaty sandy clay — bed inclined, current inclination. — generally this degrades down into an earthy sandstone with black specks; the common formation
seems as before —
Signs of steps in these forms [sketch of terraces?]
but very much alluvial action as probable
30.th [November 1834] —
Bybenes or Huyhuyenes Indians formerly inhabited Chiloe, some few Baptized probably driven away by consumption of Mariscoes: believed to have gone to city of Casares, perhaps those Indians seen by Bynoe1 were [this] tribe
1 Benjamin Bynoe (1804-65), Assistant and then Acting Surgeon on the Beagle, 1832-7.
1100 Indian surnames,
descended from as all speak the same root Beliche language. — spring from some brought en commendo from the north supposed near Osorno & from Chauwes Chahues & Ragunos, [who] remained at the taking of Osorno not more than one or two families of the Bybenes now remain in the Archipelago speak quite distinct language. Douglas knows a family of Bybenes near S. Carlos. perhaps Chawes & Ragunos: Molina Out of these 1100 some of the Indians are totally pure
Spanish blood, others such as Gomez nearly pure Indian do not come in the list: yet perhaps a good approximate number — En Commendo Douglass believes to be each Spanish family had a certain number of Indians to instruct in Christianity & obliged the Indians to work for so much time. — All these Indians descended from but few Indians: A Cacique of the Ragunos, who had been placed after the taking of Osorno in the Islands of Calbuco, came with 12 periaguas to assist the Spaniards against the other Indians who had risen against them.
Indians have few superstitions yet left hold converse with the devil in a cave: formerly sent, for this to Inquisition at Lima. The Bybenes now only inhabit Caylen. — Arrived at Castro: never before saw a truly deserted city: roads thick pasture: a pleasing cultivated country fringing on the coast the dusky green woods. Jesuits church highly picturesque fine dome all built of plank: very poor people retired solitary spot. eating what they produce & hearing little of the
rest of the World. — (Chacao inhabitants driven away. in old Spanish time by burning their church) [fant] numbers of chapels in all parts of country. Rode about in the neighborhood to see geology: all the lowest beds consists of Talcaceous (V. Spec) mica slate, with thick curved layers of quartz which sometimes is nearly pure laminae: upon this I saw great bed of conglomerate, & near same locality the slaty clay — sandstone (heard certainly
of Granite in the interior). In another locality, a mass of inclined columns of semi-carious white Trachytic rock (V Spec) columns chiefly of this shape seem certainly to overlie the gneiss though did not actually see contact hence Chiloe & Cordillera of primitive rock from which melted matter has flowed & fringed by a modern bed. = There are inclined very distinct (3
sites at least) most manifest plains, with escarpements. The lowest from 100 to 200 ft. has a fringe about 30 to 40 feet of [comminated] recent. The highest perhaps about 500
[sketch of terraces at Castro, Chiloe] 500 ft? 800 ft? 160 to 200 ft Water R. Yamboa Water
Perhaps gneiss dipped to NW ؟Sea-shells — extensive formation:
sea-shells. — extensive formation: ؟ Perhaps gneiss dipped to NW small ∠???
The dust of S. Carlos, came from the Corcovado, very thick, whole island, in 1827? & 14 miles to Seaward Douglass: carefully reexamine Valparaiso shells Point nat — Peninsula Lacuy shells high up Douglass a doubt about Chacan Boulders one strong shock & three days & dust band Particulars & date of 1831 of small ones great Earthquake: shortly afterwards in activity Stone off S. Carlos. gradually was nearly laid dry & gradually the water regained: & frightened people [illeg]
Cuy a rabbit in the Bichiche language. V. Falkner The earthquake of Chiloe had a severe shock of ½ minute & three days small shocks. = The Valparaiso have forgotten their language Bichichas in Caylen Tapaculo1
December 1st  Left
St Ca Castro early a large group watching us: Indian family with periagua — young man, in morning wet to skin from the torrents, with thin trowsers & drawers professed to be quite
1 A bird of the genus Sclerochilus and the larger turca belong to the Rhinocryptidæ, peculiar to S. America. The word tapaculo, derived from the Spanish, means 'cover your posterior' because of the absurd way the bird carries its tail. See Journal of researches, p. 270.
comfortable: heavy rain during day: proceeded but short distance to Lemuy. so thickly wooded to waters edge (for fish describe coralles) great difficulty in finding sleeping — large populations of ⅔ Indian blood, much surprised at our appearance. talking said the many parrots they had lately seen told them what to expect the "Cheucao" to beware. —
Many cellular Volcanic looking pebble near Castro
Whole cliffs composed of this Castro Creek — soft yellowish sandstone, passing with a finer grained brighter yellow sort of greenish clayey variety: globular concretions of grey hard sandstone — very like Lacuy North W point of Lemuy composed nearly similarly but none uniformly soft sandstone. V spec: many ferruginous veins; few occasional line of pebbles: in very many parts patches & extensive horizontal layers
of black Lignite, structure of wood yet very visible: is said to communicate much heat in furnace has been worked tried pieces all flattened; some layers several inches thick: probably from high land of Chiloe, previous to its elevation — Summit of cliffs gravel Many rounded blocks on beach of petrified wood same inexplicable occurrence as before. One fine white
granitic block. pentagonal mean height above gravel [
sec] 12 feet — one side however 16 feet — mean circumference at middle. 52 feet — like a house — Granite probably from Cordilleras:
Smaller ones high up
Fine Beroe1 fine pu up rose—
= purple with splendid [iriscident] ciliæ
= Shells at Lemuy same elevat: as at Castro
Chucao. I know 3 distinct noises2 — nest ??
1 A similar creature was described in Journal of researches 'The structure of the Beroe (a kind of jelly fish) is most extraordinary, with its rows of vibratory ciliæ, and complicated though irregular system of circulation.' p. 189.
2 See Beagle diary, p. 271.
2nd [December 1834]
(A) The common yellow massive soft Sandstone, in which the silicified wood is found
(B) soft silic: wood from great branch in do
(C) The wood coal showing the leaves, a laminated structure is the the whole mass? — Perhaps leaves may be applicable to
mar much coal — which has formed ؟commonest, in which it appears just like wood.
A little way above Yal. — I found in the usual sandstone (A). some flat concretionary & grey hard sandstone masses in which were horizontal seams of shells. These could be very imperfectly discovered, but from what I saw
seem are certainly not such as now are heaped up on coast — a large common Cytherea.1 taking the places of Concholepas2 of Valparaiso — Before recent we may conclude — It is very strange, in such an extent of cliffs no trace of shells excepting in this one spot
1 A clam, possibly the species named Cytherea sulculosa in South America, p. 25, plate 2 fig. 14.
2 The so-called Chilean abalone, a species of large carnivorous sea snails.
where the rock was harder & rather different from general — Is not the presence or absence of shells owing to chemical nature of matrix? — Mem: observ in E T. del Fuego: —
at the point of The above Sandstone beds were capped as at Lemuy with thick bed of cemented gravel. — At the point of Yal. Harbor the laminated sandstone. — passing in parts into a conglomerate alluvium like those to the north (round pebbles of all sizes) & capped as
before with great gravel bed. — plains 300 to 400 ft high. Theory. where islands exist generally the softer sorts of sandstone abound, which probably are not "recent" beds. — they are capped with great bed of gravel,
is are not the low gravel plains of the north of same nature as these & perhaps deposited & remodelled. as in Patagonia from the gravel of the higher series: near S. Carlos we also see the sandstone beds capped with gravel. — Mem: during depos Volcanoes existed? Pumice?
Where there are creeks this formation exists. =
Made little progress during the day owing to light weather: Continues thickly inhabited. coast more so than almost any place I have seen —
Inhabitants purer & purer Indians: excessively humble & civil, most innocent good natured people (one most true Indian) wanting salt, Tobacco, Indigo & every one of these luxuries — speak little Spanish. —
Forme I mentioned having found at Lemuy on beach very much silicified wood. — one piece penetrated by Teredo.1 likewise
1 A genus of bivalves that bore holes in wood.
I found many fragments on coast above Yal — At last I found in the yellow sandstone (A), a great trunk (structure beautifully clear), throwing off branches: main stem much thicker than my body — & standing out from weathering 2 feet — central parts generally black & vascular & structure not visible — This tree coetaneous (near in position) with the shells of above: it is curious such a sandstone chemical action in sea holding such silex in solution vessel transparent quartz: This observation most important, as proof of general
facts of petrified wood for here the inhabitants firmly believe the process is now going on — Part of the great block was more sandy than siliceous (B): The great Lucanius1 makes when approached or molested a loud noise, which almost frighten a person = Inhabits. T. Firma. Carabus:2 logs dark forest: most powerful disagreeable smell & acrid juice Bluish
T. del F. P. Famine Tyrannus3 egg course large nest
2 Specimen 2327 in Darwin's insects, p. 83.
3rd [December 1834] shade green
[a frog] Under side1
Throat & breast & [cheeks] rich chestnut brown with snow white marks thighs blackish with do. legs yellowish with do
Pale rust color with posterior part of body, & thighs & anterior marks bright green: iris rust color pupil jet black. jumps dark forest point on nose.
other above blackish brown with narrow bright yellow medial line
only proceeded to P. Detif owing to Calm: view of Corcobado (saddle-shaped Volcano
chitan Lildeo near estero, [Rengihue] & 2 other snowy cones. over the inland sea, like glass, only rippled here & there by a Porpoise or logger-headed duck seen from a cliff, through an avenue of various lofty evergreen trees, with fine white flowers & sweet smell, how mistaken in climate of Chiloe! The point is composed of
beautifully horizontally laminated clay-sandstone (specimen D), variation in color for every ¼ to ½ inch (beautiful basements to buildings & columns) the junction of the [shapely] variations in color like carpentry; probably particle arranged after deposition capped to certain degree with aggregate gravel. Part 200 to 300 ft high.
Said to be Volcano far south of Corcobado.
4th [December 1834]
Isd Sebastian, contains much very fine clay-stone, pale color.
adhesion to tongue hard. — Douglass
P. Famine Petrel very irregular in its migration suddenly appearing & disap. in countless numbers in certain parts of the Islands Both night & day very squally (. Mem at Lemuy Douglas telling Sillador that by mistake we should certainly shoot anyone who walked about at night perfect humble acquiescence)
arrived at night beautiful harbor of Quelen: N B. where basins with narrow mouth geologically striking in number & must in upraised land give a curious lacustrine appearance. — Cause of this depression in bottom? — Inhabitants certainly much less frequent, the whole line of Tanqui, without one cleared spot. — At P. de S. [Aytui] cliffs from 100 to 200 ft composed of alternation of nearly loose gravel of different sizes & sand
The country bordering the coast. — Any all Tanqui would seem all to belong to one plain of low altitude upon which the higher series rests; extending to islands of Alao & Apiao but not reaching
far to the South. —
5th [December 1834] —
Sea-snail.1 body when partly crawling oval — post extrem. truncate & scooped out, with large Branch aperture always open: [
rt] convex: when quite contracted a cone: above blueish black, with
1 Listed as Peronia, specimen 1092 in Zoology notes, p. 255, identified by Keynes as the slug-like pulmonate Onchidella marginata.
pale white, projecting points & pale halo — edge with alternate spaces of narrow white & blue, the latter color being fimbriated. beneath white, excepting mouth: tentac short terminal black eye: beneath which a bifurcate membrane: high up on rocks, near top of high water crawling on confervae nearly dry: — Onchidium?1 —
Two small Turbos same locality.
Pushed on to P. Chagua, same squally weather in several places on road, mass of alluvium hardened earth containing round &
1 An intertidal slug.
angular pebbles of granitic or Volcanic? (cellular) rocks (perhaps lower beds fine grained) ??
Ch Plains rather higher than before stated it is chiefly East end of Tanqui which is low. — Very little cultivation: (a man travelled on foot round all the creeks from near Castro to Guildad 3 days & ½ foot journey, to receive value of an axe & a few fish)
6th. [December 1834] —
above pale yoke of egg colour foot & mouth darkest colour mantle rough with rounded paps of two sizes. oblong. far surpassing foot on all sides — Anterior tentacula protruding through mantle. anteriorly pectinated with laminae:
orifice on [rt] side — Branchiae 8 Acanthus [head] expansious Large same colour with mantle — dimensions when partly crawling
[a sea slug] common mantle surpassing inferior Tentac
Onchidium bilabiate projecting [hard over mouth]
1 Specimen 1091 in Zoology notes, pp. 255-6, identified by Keynes as a cryptobranch doridacean, probably Anisodoris fontaini.
[a sea slug] dimension when crawling
general color "crimson red"?
with (lilac with lead colour) under surface & mouth finer — rose color — base of branchiae rather leader color in numerous transverse on each side of clear space of back anterior & inferior Tentacule very long far apart tipped with white, tapering — superior & posterior (arising between branchiae, some way back) blunted & shorter: mantle not surpassing the inferior Tentac: body truncate. anterior. triangular:
1 Listed as Cavolina, specimen 1091 (sic) in Zoology notes, p. 256, identified by Keynes as a aeolidacean nudibranch, Phidiana lottini.
Cheuqui,1 bird like Chucan [shore]
Reached Caylen (el fin de Christianidad), rather better inhabited: day same as before — [
In] wooded plains — bought a duck & cock for Tobacco value 3 ½ penny & 3 sheep for four 3 shillings worth of goods. & great bundle of onions 4 handkerchief The news had travelled, of the exact value we attached to the Tobacco (which was in the relation of a shilling to  & ½ pennies)
The cliffs before entering Sts. of Caylen were composed of mud with pebbles (& a boulder) (Alluvium) which passed into consolidated mud (or laminated clay-stone) contained small fragment of common Cytheraea.1 Height 300 to 400 — ft all composed of above sort with very few pebbles the lower plains were composed of gravel which plainly had been deposited after [wearing]
1 A genus of marine bivalve.
the lower beds — Beaches of present day universally pebbles beach. — immense number of Granite pebbles
th [December 1834] dip WSW ∠ 22º mica slate Blackisk [illeg deletion] no small scale country plates (often convoluted of quartz) mica (Feldspar ?). There are many vein like masses of quartz — This first occurred extremity of Id Laytec from which it continued all the way to S. Pedro
many lines of fracture The dip was very constant: easily seen in the mass though not in very distinct laminae & not above ½ a point on either side of WSW. the ∠ was generally small, but in one place 60º — The coast here becomes abrupt. — there are some long saddle-shaped hills — & the coast strictly resembles T. del Fuego — wild nasty day, long
[beat]. open sea: after leaving the Caylen stopped at a hovel, the last house about Lat 43º 10' This is the extreme point of S. American christendom a miserable hovel.— People living on potatoes & mariscos = excessively fond of Tobacco =
Anecdote of gun & powder for feast. =
Features of S. America as regarding Vegetation
killed rare fox with hammer1 — Arrived late in the evening. S. Pedro after absence of fort=night. — Found Beagle arrived yesterday — bad stormy weather failed in surveying outer coast: had visited Huafo & parts Chonos. is necessary to shorten Chiloe ¼ at length! —
San Pedro — leafless trees = enormous
trees of Winters Bark & Laurus Sassafras — delightful smell — T. del. Birch — Alerce,1 red Cedar Cones. — walk many feet above ground — like foxes at other times — more moss than in T. del Fuego
1 Spanish for larch.
Isd of Huafo & (Ypun Tertiary) horizontal strata composed of solid — hardish black [grey] (Specimen 2358) earthy sandstone & the yellow sort characteristic of Archipelago of Chiloe
Same formation has silicified & carbonized vegetable substances
Hence near a wooded country as at [illeg]
Strap = 4. 8. ½
([SE]) Perhaps Island bears NW by S ¼ W
[section of concretions] (a little more to SW) x
[map of headlands?] 3 miles not so far E (calle length) NW by W ¼ n Compass
[section of concretions?]
[section of dykes?]
When did white Porphyry with much Silver in Mr [Budgton] store come from?
90: 46 ∴ 4320:y
[section of concretions]
9 | 2241300
[ground-plan showing the relation between veins and concretionary zones in a mass of tuff]
[continuation of previous diagram] 3 or 4 feet Fig. B
Concret hollow — one [layer] 3 — feet sand.
[a hollow concretion]
Dip W by N ½ N — 15º
Boulder 4x4 4
Wood Agate Angular pebble
Eruption of Osorno 20th of Jany
1/12 5/12 68
pebbles passage in [Cheverea's] Creek —
East by dip —
West dip line of [Huapilenous] shoal — horizontal
NW NE E
Extension East dip
[diagram of strata?]
The grand line runs (N 6º W) — valley of elevation separates the two escarpements
3 or 400 yards wide —
3 or 400 different regular variation in strata: —
= (dip in one place 25º — generally less in cliff 10º or 12º
[triangulation of height of Corcovado] 58 ¾ distance from Corcovado 10º
300 ft =2800 ft X length?
Mem concretions bordering line of fissures: yellow Carb of Lime, in veins: —
Thickening of strata in the West dip
Osorno — 9005 ft
Corcovado 7442 — Snow 3902.—
dip run W by N — NNW
sediment dip W by S
Fig. 1 (A)
Slate here dip
9 ft shells to 15 ft 9 in (B) NW to SE
(C) dyke 18 inches wide — following strata, sudden bulge — D + D reticulated & [on] other part dyke 25 ft: irregular white inside (D). dip of Slate NE — dyke — [run] NW by W compass
E 2 dykes 10 to 20 ft inclined thus upwards also
other nearly the same E & W SW compass [Test] [Cony] strata dip 30º — NW by W compass dyke & cleavage
Mellamoy name of four peaked snow mountain S of cone S of Corcovado not known to be volcanic —
Huamlino name of Volcano in S. Pedro
[measurement of a plant using his belt]
from Buckle to 3d regular hole1
from axilla of leav 1st + 4 inch
1 of & to the last hole from point
margin of leafe scalloped
1 Possibly the Pangi plant. See Beagle diary, p. 272: 'The leaf is much indented in its margin & is nearly circular; the diameter of one was nearly 8 feet (giving a circumference of 24 feet!).'
Different name in diff parts
Chiduco the good sign Huitreu — the bad sign of the Cheucau1 builds its nest in low bushes near the ground: erects its tail like
Tapacola — but comes near to a man if he is quiet. =
Height of [Desiertas Composition]
1 'The cheucau is held in superstitious fear by the Chilotans, on account of its strange and varied cries. There are three very distinct kinds,—one is called "chiduco" and is an omen of good; another, "huitreu" which is extremely unfavourable; and a third, which I have forgotten. These words are given in imitation of its cries, and the natives are in some things absolutely governed by them. The Chilotans assuredly have chosen a most comical little creature for their prophet.' Journal of researches, p. 352. See Pteroptochos rubecula, Birds, p. 73.
Is the brown Vulture found at Shetland?
[back cover missing]
Textual notes for the Port Desire notebook.
[IFC] C. Darwin] ink.
1.8.] Down House number, not transcribed.
88202328] English Heritage number, not transcribed.
< > [use]...Sound:—] ink.
R. Chupat...20'] ink, written perpendicular to the spine.
Calyen 43.10'] written perpendicular to the spine.
7] added by Nora Barlow, pencil, not transcribed. several ink marks appear to be nib tests.
 an ink mark appears to be a nib test.
 Plain] ink. (3d)] ink.
 Ferruginous...jaspery porphyry] written perpendicular to the spine.
 inch] ink.
 144] ink.
 ne] ink.
 circumference...6 in] circled in pencil and ink.
 M. O'Hill: is under 1000 ft.?] ink.
Porphyry... Island.] ink.
 Rats...Georgia] ink.
 SE....W.)] ink.
 two ink marks after 'island' appear to be nib tests.
 Tortuous...mechanical. —] ink.
 'N' of 'AN' in ink, second and third 'D' in ink.
 page written perpendicular to the spine.
[45-6] pages written perpendicular to the spine.
 9.4...51.4] written parallel to the spine.
 page written perpendicular to the spine.
5.4...24] written parallel to the spine.
 ink sketch written perpendicular to the spine.
 Blue leg Vulture. Male.] underscored in ink.
 Specimen...build?] ink.
 Nov. 1834] not in Darwin's handwriting?
[77-8] leaf excised, now in DAR 35.297A.
 [shore]] ink.
 sketch perpendicular to the spine.
 sketch perpendicular to the spine.
 When...from?] ink. 6561.8...2708] calculation written perpendicular to the spine.
 page written perpendicular to the spine. [116-17] sketch perpendicular to the spine.
 3 or 4 feet] ink.
Fig. B] ink.
 2700...8005.30] calculations written perpendicular to the spine.
 Eruption...Jany] ink.
32808.6.9...12/1.00/0.08] calculations written perpendicular to the spine.
 =2800 ft] in ink.
 NNW] in ink. Fig. 1] in ink.
 Fig. 2] in ink.
 from Buckle...4 inch...] written parallel to the spine.
 page heavily soiled - indicating where original back cover was once missing. The back cover has been replaced since microfilming.
[Barmouth]] written perpendicular to the spine.
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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
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