RECORD: Darwin, C. R. ed. 1839. Birds Part 3 No. 3 of The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. by John Gould. Edited and superintended by Charles Darwin. London: Smith Elder and Co.
REVISION HISTORY: Scanned and OCRed by John van Wyhe 2.2006; proofread and corrected by Sue Asscher 3.2006. RN1
NOTE: See bibliographical introduction by R. B. Freeman. See the overview of illustrations in this work here.
Continued from Birds Part 3 No. 2
The copy scanned was kindly provided by The Charles Darwin Trust.
|NO. III. OF PART III.]||[PRICE 10s.|
THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. BEAGLE,
UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN FITZROY, R.N.,
DURING THE YEARS
1832 TO 1836.
PUBLISHED WITH THE APPROVAL OF
THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY.
Edited and Superintended by
CHARLES DARWIN, ESQ. M.A., F.R.S., SEC. G.S.
NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION.
JOHN GOULD, ESQ. F.L.S. ETC.
WITH A NOTICE OF THEIR HABITS AND RANGES,
BY CHARLES DARWIN, ESQ.
SMITH, ELDER AND CO. 65, CORNHILL.
STEWART AND MURRAY, OLD BAILEY.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF
SMITH, ELDER AND CO., 65, CORNHILL
Now in course of publication, in separate
the first of each
alternate month, uniformly and neatly printed in post 8vo.
THE COLLECTED WORKS
SIR HUMPHRY DAVY, BART.
EDITED BY HIS BROTHER,
JOHN DAVY, M.D., F.R.S.
It is presumed that this new and uniform edition of the Writings of Sir Humphry Davy will not exceed Ten Volumes, embracing the WHOLE OF HIS WORKS, during the space of thirty years, (1799 to 1829) a period memorable in the History of Chemistry, and in no small part owing to his own Discoveries.
The Contents of the individual volumes cannot be defined, but the whole Series will embrace the following works, so arranged as to preserve an equality of size and price.
Memoirs of the Life of Sir H. Davy.
Essays on Heat and Light.
Miscellaneous Papers in Nicholson's Journal, and Journals of the Royal Institution.
Early Papers in the Philosophical Transactions.
Researches on Nitrous Oxide.
Bakerian Lectures and other Papers in Philosophical Transactions, and Journal of the Royal Institution.
Introductory Lecture and a Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Chemistry, delivered in 1802.
Outlines of a Course of Lectures on Chemical Philosophy, 1804.
Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry.
Elements of Chemical Philosophy.
Consolations in Travel.
Discourses to the Royal Society.
Extracts from MS. Lectures, containing Eulogies of Priestly, Scheele, Cavendish, &c.
*** Vol. I. contains a MEMOIR of the Life of Sir Humphry Davy, with a Portrait, price 10s. 6d., in neat cloth, bds.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF
A HISTORY OF THE
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1814 IN FRANCE,
Translated from the Original of A.
de-Camp and Private Secretary of the Emperor Alexander.
Illustrated by Plans of the Operations
Army, and of the Seat
In one vol., 8vo. price 14s. cloth.
GRESHAM PRIZE MEMOIR.
THE LIFE OF MARGARET BEAUFORT.
COUNTESS OF RICHMOND AND DERBY,
AND MOTHER OF KING HENRY THE SEVENTH,
Foundress of Christ's and of St. John's College, Oxford.
Being the Historical Memoir for which the
Premium was awarded
by the Directors of the Gresham Commemoration, Crosby Hall.
By CAROLINE HALSTED, Author of " Investigation," &c.
In one vol. demy 8vo. with a Portrait, price 12s.
THE LIFE-BOOK OF A LABOURER.
BY A WORKING CLERGYMAN.
In one volume, small 8vo., price 7s., cloth.
Contents — The King's Heart — Links of the Past — Newnham Paddex and Mr. Blunt — The Grave of Byron — The late Lady Howe — A Fastidious Parish — Bishops and their Relatives — Lord Viscount Brome — M. J. J. — Laud's Church-Yard — The Rough Clergyman — The Tennis-Ball of Fortune —The Dying Request of the Infidel's Daughter — The Clergyman Alchemist — What say you to a Ghost Story? — Lady Huntingdon's Resting Place — Arnsby and Robert Hall — The Church Commission — The Deserted Prophetess — The Crown Prince — Religion and Insanity — Dr. Hawker and Mrs. Jordan, &c. &c.
"There is not one paper in the whole collection which may not be read again and again with pleasure, and which is not calculated to raise the mind and purify the heart, while it charms the imagination. It reminds us forcibly of that most delightful of all biographies, "The Doctor," to which, indeed, many portions of the work are little, if at all, inferior."— Britannia.
"It is the pious offering of one who may be deemed a proper follower in the footsteps of that good man, Legh Richmond. We recommend this book to all piously-inclined families and schools, for distribution amongst their youthful charges."— Argus.
"It is a book for all ages, and will prove a source of pleasure as exquisite as innocent."— Liverpool Courier.
"This is one of those exquisite volumes which occasionally come forth, the fruit of the retirement of the country clergyman, and we can assure our readers we have perused the book with feelings of the deepest gratification."— Age.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF SMITH, ELDER & CO.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL
BY JOHN DAVY, M.D., F.R.S.
The principal subjects treated of are Animal Electricity; — Animal Heat; — The Temperature of different Animals; — Pneumothorax in connexion with the Absorption of Gases by Serous and Mucous Membranes; — the Properties of the Blood in Health and Disease; — the Properties of different Animal Textures; — the Putrefactive Process; — the Preservation of Anatomical Preparations; — the Effects of the Poison of certain Serpents; — the Structure of the Heart of Batrachian Animals, &c. &c.
In 2 vols. 8vo., illustrated by numerous Engravings. Price £1 8s.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE VIRTUES,
BY MISS CAROLINE WARD,
Part I.—FAITH. Price 3s.
The second Part will be entitled "HOPE,"
which will be followed by Illustrations of the other Cardinal Virtues.
A PLAY IN FIVE ACTS,
WITH DRAMATIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF FEMALE CHARACTER,
BY ELEANOR LOUISA MONTAGU.
In small 8vo. price 8s. neatly bound in cloth.
THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE
METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.
Volume the First,
Illustrated by a Synoptical Chart and numerous Diagrams.
In royal 8vo. price £2 2s.
*** The first paper in the volume, entitled, "Directions for making Meteorological Observations on Land or at Sea," by R. C. WOODS, Esq. may be purchased separately, price 2s 6d.
points of intersection marked something like arrow-heads. The fulvous tint is here predominant. Downy feathers on thighs same fulvous colour as rest of body. Bill black.
FORM.—Second primary scarcely perceptibly longer than the first, and fourth rather longer than first. Tarsi thickly clothed with short feathers to the root of the nails.
|Total length . . . . . . . . . . .||13½|
. . . . . . . . . . . .
|Tail . . . . . . . . . . . . .||
|Tarsi . . . . . . . . . . . . .||
|Middle toe to root of nail . . . . . . .||11/10|
|From tip of beak to interior edge of nostril .||6/10|
Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, (October).
Mr. Gould informs me, that "this species has most of the essential characters of the common short-eared owl of Europe (Strix brachyota), but differs from it, and all the other members of the group, in its smaller size and darker colouring."
The lesser proportional size of the fulvous marks on the first primaries, and on the tail, and the peculiar transverse brown marks on the feathers of the belly, easily distinguish it from the common short-eared owl. The specimen described is a male bird.
2. OTUS PALUSTRIS. Gould.
Strix brachyota. Lath.
Specimens of this bird were obtained at the Falkland Islands, at Santa Cruz in Patagonia, and at Maldonado on the northern bank of the Plata. At the latter place it seemed to live in long grass, and took to flight readily in the day. At the Falkland Islands it harboured in a similar manner amongst low bushes. Mr. Gould says, "So closely do the specimens brought home by Mr. Darwin, resemble European individuals, that I can discover no specific difference, by which they may be distinguished."
We have, therefore, the same species occurring in lat. 52° S. on the coast of South America, and in the northern division of the continent, according to Richardson, even as far as the sixty-seventh degree of latitude. Jardine says it is found in the Orkney islands (lat. 59°), and in Siberia; and that he has received specimens of it from Canton. M. D'Orbigny says it is found in the Sandwich and Marianne islands in the Pacific Ocean, and at Bengal in India. This bird, therefore, may be considered as a true cosmopolite.
Strix rufipes, King, in Zoological Journal, Vol. iii. p. 426.
I obtained a specimen of this bird from a party of Fuegians in the extreme southern islands of Tierra del Fuego. Owls are not uncommon in this country, and as small birds are not plentiful, and the lesser rodents extremely scarce, it at first appears difficult to imagine on what they feed. The following fact, perhaps, explains the circumstance : Mr. Bynoe, the surgeon to the "Beagle," killed an owl in the Chonos Archipelago, where the nature of the country is very similar to that of Tierra del Fuego, and, on opening its stomach, he found it filled with the remains of large-sized crabs: I conclude, therefore, that these birds here likewise subsist chiefly on marine productions.
1. STRIX FLAMMEA. Linn.
I obtained a specimen of a white owl from Bahia Blanca in Northern Patagonia, and Mr. Gould remarks concerning it, that he only retains the name of S. flammea provisionally, until all the white owls, from various countries, shall have been subjected to a careful examination. Mr. Gould suspects, that when this is effected, the South American white owl will prove to be specifically distinct from that of Europe.
2. STRIX PUNCTATISSIMA. G. R. Gray.
S. supra nigricans, flavo subnebulosa, minutè albo-punctatissima, maculâ albâ ad apicem plumæ, cujusvis; subtus fulva, fasciis interruptis nigricantibus; caudâ dorso concolore, nigricanti-fasciatâ, apice albâ; disco faciali castaneo-rufo nigricanti-nebuloso circumdato, pogoniis internis albis, scapis nigris; pedibus longis, infra genu plumosis; tarso reliquo digitisque subpilosis.
Long. tot. 13½; alæ, 9¼; caudæ, 4¼; tarsi, 27/10.
COLOUR.—Head and feathers within facial disc, glossy ferruginous brown, those forming the margin of it, same coloured, with their tips dark brown. Back
of head and throat smoky brown, mottled with numerous small white dots, on the tips of the feathers. Back and wing-coverts the same, with the white spots larger and purer. Wings: primaries, same dark brown, mottled with dull chesnut red; the tip of each, with the exception of the three first, is marked with a triangular white spot, of the same kind with those over the rest of the body, but larger. Tail, transversely barred with brown and reddish fulvous, and the extreme points mottled with white. Under surface. Breast, belly and lining of wings, fulvous, mottled with brown; —the feathers being transversely barred with narrow brown lines. Under side of tail, pale gray, with well defined transverse bars of a darker gray. Short downy feathers on tarsi, of a brighter fulvous than the rest of the under surface.
FORM.—Third primary rather longer than second; first equal to third. Wing, exceeding the tail in length by nearly one inch and a quarter. Short feathers on the tarsus, extending about one-third of its length, below the knee. Tarsi, elongated. Toes and lower part of tarsi, with few scattered brown hairs.
|Total length . . . . . .||13½|
. . . . . .
|Tail . . . . . .||4¼|
|Tarsi . . . . . .||27/10|
|Tip of beak to rictus . . .||1½|
|Middle toe, from root of claw to base .||11/10|
Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, (October.)
I am indebted to Mr. G. R. Gray for the description of this species, which is deposited in the British Museum. Only one specimen was obtained during our visit to the Galapagos Archipelago; and this formed part of the collection made by the direction of Captain FitzRoy.
This owl is in every respect a true Strix; it is fully a third less than the common species of Europe, and differs from it in many respects, especially in the darker colouring of its plumage. The colouring of the Plate is not perfectly accurate in its minuter details.
1. CAPRIMULGUS BIFASCIATUS. Gould.
Caprimulgus bifasciatus, Gould, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society, February 1837, p. 22.
C. capite nigro fusco et fulvescente ornatus; caudâ albo bifasciatâ, fasciâ terminali latâ: primâ angustâ; primariis nigrescentibus fasciâ angustâ albâ ad medium: alis spuriis maculâ albâ notatis; gutture lunulâ albâ; secundariis tectricibusque alarum maculâ fulvescente ad apicem; crisso pallidè rufescente; rostro pedibusque fuscis.
Long. tot. unc., 9¾; alæ, 61/3; caudæ, 5; tarsi; ¾.
Front and back of head gray, mottled with black and with little fulvous. The latter colour more abundant, and in larger markings in the interscapular region, and on the wing-coverts. The black markings give a somewhat streaked appearance to the back of head and interscapulars. On the back of throat the fulvous tint is so much pronounced, that a collar is formed which is continued under a white one round the breast. Wings: primaries brownish-black; four external ones, with a large white mark, forming a band, at about one-third of their length from their extremities: these white marks are edged with fulvous, and the part on the outer web of the first primary, is wholly so coloured. The other primaries are marked with reddish brown, as are the secondaries and tertiaries, the marks becoming more numerous and smaller, and the colours more mottled, nearer the back. Tail: upper tail-coverts and two central feathers of tail marked like those on the back; the black, however, forming narrow interrupted transverse bars. The pair next to these central ones have near their extremities a large white mark, but only on the inner shaft. In the three succeeding pairs, the white spot extends on both sides of the shaft, and in each pair increases somewhat in size; so that in the external pair, the white spot is merely bordered with a very narrow, faint margin, of brown and fulvous. At about half their length, all the feathers, with the exception of the central pair, have a smaller white mark, but only on the inner side of the shaft. This mark is transverse, in the form of a band, and the white blends into fulvous on the edges of the webs. Outer web of these same external feathers, are transversely barred with black and fulvous. Under surface.—Chin, breast, belly, and lining of wings, dirty fulvous, with numerous
narrow, irregular, transverse bars of brown. Throat with white collar, beneath which the fulvous tint is predominant, forming a kind of under collar, which is continued round the whole neck. Under tail-coverts fulvous,—tail itself appears almost black, with a great terminal white band, and a narrower one at about half its length.
Wings, an inch and a quarter shorter than the tail. Second primary, scarcely perceptibly longer than the third; the first about an eighth of an inch shorter than the second, and 8 ths longer than the fourth. Feathers on wing, with the outer webs, slightly excised.
|Total length . . . . . .||9¾|
folded . . . . . .
|Tail . . . . . . . .||5|
|Tarsi . . . . . . .||8/10|
|From tip of beak to rictus . . .||1|
|Of middle toe without the claw . . .||7/10|
Habitat, Valparaiso Chile, (August).
This species frequents the mountains of central Chile. When bivouacking one night on the Bell of Quillota, at an elevation of 6000 feet above the sea, I heard a gentle, plaintive cry, which I was told was made by this bird. It is regarded with superstitious dread by many of the lower orders.
Mr, Gould observes, that "this species has a strong resemblance, at the first glance, with the Caprimulgus Europæus, but may be readily distinguished by its shorter wing, more lengthened tarsi, by a conspicuous white band across the base of the tail, and by all these feathers, except the two middle ones, having another white band near the tip." Mr. Gould then adds, as "I am quite undecided to which of the sub-genera this and the following species should belong, I leave them for the present in the restricted genus, Caprimulgus, although I certainly perceive in it many points of affinity to the group which inhabits the United States of North America."
2. CAPRIMULGUS PARVULUS. Gould.
Caprimulgus parvulus, Gould, Proceedings of the Zoological Society, February 1837, p. 22.
C. capite intensè fusco, guttis minutis cinereis ornato; vittâ rufâ cervicem cingente; gutture scapularibusque ad marginem, secundariis ad apicem stramineis; pectore et abdomine lineis fuscis transversis; primariis nigrescentibus, tribus fasciis inæqualibus pallidè rufescentibus; caudâ fasciis pallidè fulvescentibus et fuscis ornatâ.
Long. tot. unc., 7½; alæ, 5; caudæ, 4; tarsi, 5/8.
Crown of head gray, with black longitudinal streaks. Back of neck with a fulvous ring, which extends round the front beneath one of white, as in the C. bifas-
ciatus. Back, dull gray. Interscapulars, with the central part of each feather, black, terminating in a point; the outer part of the web being broadly fringed with a very pale fulvous, the inner with gray. Wings: primaries brown, with fulvous marks, forming three irregular transverse bars, which are scarcely visible when the wing is closed. Tail and upper tail-coverts, dull coloured, very obscurely marked with transverse bars of gray and fulvous, of different degrees of darkness. Under surface.—Throat white, edged with fulvous on lower side. Breast, belly, and under tail-coverts, fulvous, with numerous very narrow transverse bars of brown. The pale fulvous marks, forming interrupted bars, are more plainly seen on this than on the upper side of the tail.
Third primary, very little longer than second, and second than first. First rather longer than fourth. Extremities of wings reaching within an inch and a quarter of end of tail. End of tail more rounded than in last species.
|Total length . . . . . .||7½|
. . . . . . .
|Tail . . . . . . . .||4|
|Tarsi . . . . . . .||5/8|
|Middle toe, from tip of claw to joint of foot||9/12|
|From tip of beak to rictus . . .||1|
Habitat, La Plata, (September).
This species is not uncommon on the wooded banks of the Parana, near Santa Fé. If disturbed, it rises from the ground, in the same inactive manner as the European species. I saw one alight on a rope diagonally, but not so completely in a longitudinal position as does the C. Europæus, nor transversely as other birds. Mr. Gould observes, that "this goatsucker is full a third less than the Caprimulgus Europæus, and is remarkable for the uniformity of its markings, having no distinct white bars, or marks, either on the wings or tail."
1. PROGNE PURPUREA. Boie.
Hirundo purpurea, Wils.
My specimens were obtained at Monte Video, (November) and Bahia Blanca, 39° S. (September) how much further southward this species extends I do not know. Jardine says, that in North America it migrates during summer as far as the Great Bear Lake, in Lat. 66° N.; it is mentioned by M. Audubon, at New Orleans, 30° N., and by Mr. Swainson, at Pernambuco, in 8½° S.; we may, there-
fore, conclude that it ranges throughout both Americas, but it is not found in the Old World. Wilson describes this bird as a great favourite with the inhabitants of North America, both European and Indian, who erect boxes and other contrivances near their houses for it to build in. At Bahia Blanca, the females were beginning to lay in September, (corresponding to our March): they had excavated deep holes in a cliff of compact earth, close by the side of the larger burrows inhabited by the ground parrot of Patagonia, (Psittacara Patagonica.) I noticed several times a small flock of these birds, pursuing each other, in a rapid and direct course, flying low, and screaming in the manner so characteristic of the English Swift, (Hirundo Apus, Linn.)
2. PROGNE MODESTA. Gould.
Hirundo concolor, Gould, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society.
P. nitidè cærulescenti-nigra.
Long. tot. 6 unc; alæ, 5¼; caudæ, 2¾; tarsi, ½.
The upper and under surface has not so strongly a marked purple shade, as in the P. purpurea. The primaries and feathers of the tail, however, have a greenish gloss, perhaps slightly more metallic.
Tail not so deeply forked as in P. purpurea, which is owing to the two external feathers on each side not being so much prolonged and bent outward, as in that species. Nostrils of less size than in the latter, although the beaks differ but little. Claws and feet are much less strong, than might have been anticipated, even proportionally to the less dimensions of this species compared with the P. purpurea.
|Total length . . . . . . . . . . .||6|
|Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . .||5¼|
|Tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2¾|
|Tarsi . . . . . . . . . . . . .||½|
|Middle toe from tip of claw to joint . . .||35/100|
Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, (October).
This swallow was observed only on this one island of the group, and it was there very far from common. It frequented a bold cliff of lava overhanging the sea. Had not Mr. Gould characterized it as a distinct species, I should have considered it only as a small variety, produced by an uncongenial site, of the Progne purpurea. I can perceive no difference whatever from that bird,
excepting in its less size, slenderness of limbs, and less deeply forked tail; and the latter difference may perhaps be owing to youth.
1. HIRUNDO LEUCOPYGIA. Licht.
My specimens were obtained at Port Famine, in Tierra del Fuego, ( February), and at Valparaiso, in Chile, (August to September). At Port Famine they build in holes in a cliff of earth. Mr. Gould says, " were it not for the bare legs of this little Martin, I should have some difficulty in discriminating between it and the one so well known as a summer visitor in our island."
2. HIRUNDO FRONTALIS. Gould.
H. vertice, plumis auricularibus, dorso et lunulâ pectorali nitidè cæruleo viridescentibus, notâ albâ supra nares, gulâ corporeque subtus albicantibus, crisso niveo, alis caudâque fuscis viridi tinctis, rostro nigro, pedibus intensè fuscis.
Long. tot. 4¾ unc. alæ, 4¾; caudæ, 2; tarsi, ½.
Upper surface, with a greenish blue metallic gloss; which can faintly be perceived on the primaries and on the tail feathers. The short feathers over each nostril white, thus forming two small white marks; those over the ridge of bill pale brown, giving together the appearance of a narrow white band over the upper mandible. Entire under surface and lining of wings pure white. Tarsi rather darker than in H. leucopygia.
Very slightly larger than H. leucopygia; upper mandible rather broader.
|Total length . . . . . . . . . . .||4¾|
|Wings . . . . . . . . . . . .||4¾|
|Tail . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2|
|Tarsi . . . . . . . . . . . .||½|
Habitat, Monte Video, (November).
Mr. Gould says, "this species is closely allied both to the common martin, and to the last species; from the former bird, however, its bare legs at once distinguish it, while it differs from the latter in being rather larger in size, in having an obscure white mark on the forehead, at the base of the bill, and in having the metallic lustre of the upper surface deep steel green, instead of purple, which is the prevailing colour of both Hirundo leucopygia and H. urbica."
It is abundant on the northern bank of the Plata, and more common than the H. purpurea, which frequents the same localities. It probably replaces on the eastern side of the continent, the H. leucopygia of Chile.
3. HlRUNDO CYANOLEUCA. Vieill.
It is nearly allied to the two latter species, but is readily distinguished from them by the absence of the white rump. I procured specimens in September, both from Valparaiso, and from Bahia Blanca (North Patagonia). At the latter place it built in holes in the same bank of earth with P. purpurea.
CYPSELUS UNICOLOR. Jard.
C. unicolor. Jard. et Selby, Illust. Ornith. pl. 83.
I obtained a specimen of this bird from St. Jago, Cape de Verd Islands. (September).
It more resembled a swallow than a swift in the manner of its flight. I only saw a few of them. Insects occur so scantily over the bare and parched plains of basaltic lava, which compose the lower parts of the island of St. Jago, that it is surprising how these birds are able to find the means of subsistence.
HALCYON ERYTHRORHYNCHA, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837.
Alcedo Senegalensis var. ß, Lath.
In January, during the first visit of the Beagle to St. Jago, in the Cape de Verd Islands, these birds were numerous. But in our homeward voyage, in the beginning of September, I did not see a single individual. As Mr. Gould informs me it is an African species; it is probably only a winter visitant to this archipelago. It lives in numbers in the arid valleys in the neighbourhood of Porto Praya, where it may be generally seen perched on the branch of the castor oil plant. I opened the stomachs of several, and found them filled with the wing cases of Orthopterous insects, the constant inhabitants of all sterile countries; and in the craw of one there was part of a lizard. It is tame and solitary; its flight is not swift and direct like that of the European kingfisher. In these respects, and especially
in its abundance in dry rocky valleys where there is not a drop of water, it differs widely from the habits of the allied genus Alcedo; although certainly it abounded more in those valleys where streamlets occurred. This Halcyon was the only brilliantly coloured bird which I saw on the island of St. Jago.
1. CERYLE AMERICANA, Boie.
Alcedo Americana, Gmel.
This Kingfisher is common on the banks of the Parana. It frequents the borders of lakes and rivers, and sitting on the branch of a tree, or on a stone, it thence takes short flights, and dashes into the water to secure its prey. Its manner of flying is neither direct nor rapid, which character is so remarkable in the flight of the European species; but it is weak and undulatory, and resembles that of the soft-billed birds. It often arrests itself suddenly in its course, and hovers over the surface of the water, preparatory to darting on some small fish. When seated on a twig it constantly elevates and depresses its tail; and as might have been expected from its figure, it does not sit in the stiff upright position so peculiar to the European Kingfisher. Its note is not unfrequently uttered: it is low, and like the clicking together of two small stones. I was informed that it builds in trees. The internal coating of the stomach is of a fine orange colour. Mr. Gould has seen specimens of this bird from Mexico; it enjoys, therefore, a very wide range.
2. CERYLE TORQUATA, Bonap.
Alcedo torquata. Gmel.
Ispida torquata. Swain.
This bird is common in the south part of Chile, in Chiloe, the Chonos Archipelago, and on the whole west coast, as far as the extreme southern parts of Tierra del Fuego. In these countries, it almost exclusively frequents the retired bays and channels of the sea with which the land is intersected; and lives on marine productions. I opened the stomach of one, and found it full of the remains of crustaceæ, and a part of a small fish. It occurs likewise in La Plata, and is very common in Brazil, where it haunts fresh water. It is said ( Dict. Class. d'Hist. Nat. ) to occur in the West Indian islands; it has, therefore, a wider range (from the equatorial region to the neighbourhood of Cape Horn) than the Ceryle Americana.
SAUROPHAGUS SULPHURATUS. Swains.
Lanius sulphuratus. Gmel.
Tyrannus magnanimus. Vieill. Ency.
Tyrannus sulphuratus. D'Orb. et Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 42.
The habits of this bird are singular. It is very common in the open country, on the northern banks of the Plata, where it does not appear to be a bird of passage. It obtains its food in many different methods. I have frequently observed it, hunting a field, hovering over one spot like a hawk, and then proceeding on to another. When seen from a short distance, thus suspended in the air, it might very readily be mistaken for one of the rapacious order; its stoop, however, is very inferior in force and rapidity. At other times the Saurophagus haunts the neighbourhood of water, and there, remaining stationary, like a kingfisher, it catches any small fish which come near the margin. These birds not unfrequently are kept, with their wings cut, either in cages or in court-yards. They soon become tame, and are very amusing from their cunning odd manners, which were described to me, as being similar to those of the common magpie. Their flight is undulatory, for the weight of the head and bill appears too great for the body. In the evening the Saurophagus takes its stand on a bush, often by the road-side, and continually repeats, without change, a shrill and rather agreeable cry, which somewhat resembles articulate words. The Spaniards say it is like the words, "Bien te veo" (I see you well), and accordingly have given it this name.
MUSCIVORA TYRANNUS. G. R. Gray.
Muscicapa Tyrannus. Sw.
Tyrannus Savana. Vieill. Bonap. Am. Orn. pl. 1. f. 1.
This species belongs to Mr. Swainson's genus Milvulus (more properly Milvilus,) but which name Mr. G. R. Gray has altered to Muscivora as the latter was proposed for Musc. forficata as far back as 1801, by Lacepède.
It is very common near Buenos Ayres; but I do not recollect having seen many in Banda Oriental. It sits on the bough of a tree, and very frequently on
the ombu, which is planted in front of many of the farm houses, and thence takes short flights in pursuit of insects. From the remarkable structure of its tail, the inhabitants of the country call it scissor-tail; a name very well applied from the manner in which it opens and shuts the forked feathers of its tail. Like all birds thus constructed, (of which the frigate bird offers a most striking example), it has the power of turning very shortly in its flight, at which instant it opens and shuts its tail, sometimes, as it appears, in a horizontal and sometimes in a vertical plane. When on the wing it presents in its general appearance a caricature likeness of the common house swallow (Hirundo rustica). The Muscivora, although unquestionably belonging to the family of Muscicapidæ manifests in its habits an evident relationship with birds of the fissirostral structure.
SUB-GEN. PYROCEPHALUS, GOULD.
Rostrum capite brevius, rectum, depressum, basi setis numerosis nigris obsessum; mandibulâ superiore emarginatâ, inferiorem obtegente; naribus rotundatis patulis. Caput subcristatum. Alæ longæ; remige prima secundum tertiamque longissimas subæquales fere æquante. Tarsi mediocres, anticè scutellati; digitis lateralibus inæqualibus, exteriore longiore. Cauda mediocris quadrata.
Mr. Gould observes, that "the males of nearly all the members of this group (which may be considered either as a distinct genus or sub-genus of Myiobius), have the crown of the head and greater part of the under surface scarlet. Four species were obtained.— Pyrocephalus parvirostris, (Gould), and Muscicapa coronata, (Auct. ), may be taken as types.
1. PYROCEPHALUS PARVIROSTRIS. Gould.
Le Churrinche, Azara. No. 177.
P. suprà fuscus; capite et subtus nitidè puniceis; rectricibus exterioribus tectricumque et secundariorum apicibus griseo-marginatis.
Long. tot. 55/12 unc.; alæ, 131/12; caudæ, 25/12; tarsi, 7/12; rost. 6/12.
Crown of the head, crest, and all the under surface, bright scarlet; the remainder
of the plumage, deep brown; the outer tail-feathers on each side, and the edges of the secondaries and wing-coverts, margined with grey.
Habitat, La Plata, (October.)
This species differs from Pyr. coronatus or Musicapa coronata, of authors, chiefly in its size; in other respects it is very similar. The admeasurements of the latter, for comparison (as given me by Mr. G. R. Gray), are: total length, 5 inches and 8 lines; bill, between 9 and 10 lines; wings, 3 inches and 2 lines; tail, 2 inches and 7 lines; tarsi, 7 or 8 lines.
During the summer, this bird was common both near Buenos Ayres and Maldonado; but at the latter place, I did not see one in the months of May, June, July, (winter) and therefore, no doubt it is a bird of passage, migrating southward during the summer from Brazil. The birds of this and the allied genera, correspond very closely in their habits to certain of the Sylviadæ of Europe; some of the species frequenting bushes, like the black-cap, (Sylvia atri-capilla); others more usually the ground, as the robin (Sylvia rubecula) or hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis). Another group (Synallaxis, &c.) represent those European Sylviæ, which frequent reeds.
2. PYROCEPHALUS OBSCURUS. Gould.
P. lividus rufotinctus; præcipuè in fronte ventreque.
Long. tot. 59/12 unc.; alæ, 32/12; caudæ, 25/12; tarsi, 7/12; rost. 8/12.
All the plumage chocolate-brown, tinged with red, the latter colour predominating on the forehead and lower part of the abdomen; bill and tarsi, black.
A single specimen was obtained, and it would appear to be either an immature bird or a female.
Habitat, Lima, Peru. (August.)
3. PYROCEPHALUS NANUS. Gould.
PLATE VII.P. fuscus; rectricum exteriorum marginibus omniumque et sècundariorum apicibus nitidè griseo-brunneis.
Femina, brunnea; gutture griseo-albo; corpore subtus pallidè flavescente; pectoris laterumque plumis in medio brunneo-striatis.
Long. tot. 411/12 unc.; alæ, 22/16; caudæ, 22/12; tarsi, 8/12; rostri, 8/12.
Crown of the head, crest, and all the under surface, scarlet; back, wings, and
tail, sooty-brown; the external margin of the outer tail feathers, and the tips of all, light greyish brown; bill and tarsi, black.
All the upper surface, wings, and tail, brown; throat, greyish white; the remainder of under surface, pale buff, the feathers of the chest and flanks, with an obscure fine stripe of light brown down the centre.
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (September.)
There is nothing remarkable in the habits of this bird. It frequents both the arid and rocky districts near the coast, and the damp woods in the higher parts of several of the islands in the Galapagos Archipelago.
4. PYROCEPHALUS DUBIUS. Gould.
P. minor, lividus; fronte, superciliis corporeque subtus stramineis; tectricibus stramineo marginatis.
Long. tot. 41/12 unc; alæ, 23/12 caudæ, 19/12; tarsi, 7/12; rost.
Forehead, stripe over the eye, and all the under surface pale buff; back of the neck and upper surface chocolate brown; greater and lesser wing coverts margined with buff.
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (September).
From the appearance of this bird when alive, although closely resembling P. nanus, I entertained no doubt that it was a distinct species. Mr. G. R. Gray informs me that there is a specimen of a male in the British Museum, which differs from the male of the precedent species, in having the upper colour of a decided brown, and the external margins of the outer tail feathers and tips of the secondaries rather reddish white; also in size as stated by Mr. Gould.
MYIOBIUS. G. R. Gray.
Mr. Gould had adopted for the following species Mr. Swainson's generic appellation of Tyrannula, but Mr. G. R. Gray has pointed out, that as Tyrannulus was proposed and published eleven years before, namely in 1816, by Vieillot, it becomes necessary to change the former name, and therefore he proposes Myiobius.
1. MYIOBIUS ALBICEPS. G. R. Gray.
Muscipeta albiceps. D'Orb. et Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 47.
This bird is not uncommon in Tierra del Fuego, and along the western coast of the southern part of the continent, where the land is covered with trees; it is occasionally found near Valparaiso in central Chile; and likewise in Banda Oriental on the banks of the Plata, where the country is open, from all of which places I procured specimens. At Port Famine and in the islands of the Chonos Archipelago, it inhabits the gloomiest recesses of the great forests. It generally remains quietly seated high up amongst the tallest trees, whence it constantly repeats a very plaintive, gentle whistle, in an uniform tone. The sound can be heard at some distance, yet it is difficult to perceive from which quarter it proceeds, and from how far off; and I remained in consequence, for some time in doubt, from what bird it proceeded.
2. MYIOBIUS AURICEPS.
Tyrannula auriceps. Gould, MS.
M. rufus; capite cristato nitidè flavo; plumarum apicibus brunneis; alis brunneis, secundariarum marginibus tectricumque apicibus rufis; caudâ pallidè brunneâ, plumarum externarum marginibus externis pallidioribus; gutture corporeque subtus pallidè flavescenti-albis; plumis singulis fasciâ centrali brunneâ.
Long. tot. 53/12 unc.; alæ, 25/12 caudæ, 26/12 tarsi, 9/12 rost. 7/12.
All the upper surface rufous; the basal portion of the coronal feathers yellow; tail uniform light brown, the external margin of the outer feathers lighter; wings brown, the external margin of the secondaries and the tips of the greater and lesser wing-coverts rufous; throat and all the under surface pale buffy white, each feather having a brown mark down the centre; bill brown; feet black.
Habitat, Buenos Ayres, La Plata, (August).
This bird is about the size of a sparrow. It is nearly allied to Tyrannula ferruginea of Swainson and M. cinnamonea of D'Orbig. and Lafr.
3. MYIOBIUS PARVIROSTRIS.
Tyrannula parvirostris, Gould, MS.
M. suprà rufobrunneus; pileo, nuchâ humerisque obscurè olivaceo-brunneis; alis brunneis, primariarum et secundariarum marginibus exterius angustè tectricumque latè ferrugineis; caudâ guttureque griseo-brunneis; pectore abdomineque flavescenti brunneis.
Long. tot. 410/12 unc.; alæ, 26/12; caudæ, 22/12; tarsi, 9/12; rost. 6/12.
Crown of the head, back of the neck, and shoulders, dark olive brown; back and upper tail coverts rufous brown; wings brown; the external edges of the primaries and secondaries finely, and the greater and lesser wing coverts broadly margined with ferruginous; tail uniform greyish brown; throat brownish grey; chest and abdomen sandy brown; upper mandible dark brown; under mandible yellowish brown; feet blackish brown.
Habitat, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, and La Plata.
This bird inhabits the forests of Tierra del Fuego, and as I procured specimens of it in the beginning of winter (June), it probably remains throughout the year in the extreme southern part of South America. Other specimens were procured on the banks of the Plata, and near Valparaiso in Chile; it has therefore a wide range.
4. MYIOBIUS MAGNIROSTRIS.
Tyrannula magnirostris. Gould, MS.
M. Fœm. Suprà olivaceo-brunnea; caudâ brunneâ; rectricum externarum marginibus griseo-brunneis; gutture pectoreque olivaceo griseis; abdomine caudæque tectricibus inferioribus pallidè flavis; alis saturatè brunneis, secundariis tectricibusque late griseo marginatis.
Long tot. 56/12; alæ, 28/12; caudæ, 26/12; tarsi, 11/12; rost. 9/12.
Crown of the head and back olive brown; tail brown; the external margins of the two outer feathers greyish brown; throat and chest olive grey; abdomen and under tail coverts very pale citron yellow; wings dark brown; secondaries, greater and lesser wing coverts broadly margined with grey; bill and feet black.
Habitat, Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago (October).
This bird and the Pyrocephalus nanus, inhabit the same island. Not very uncommon.
Rostrum capite multò brevius, rectum, subdepressum; tomiis rectis; mandibulâ superiore subemarginatâ; naribus basalibus, lateralibus, pilis mollibus anticè versis partim tectis. Alæ breves, concavæ, remige quartâ longissimâ. Cauda longiuscula subrotundata. Tarsi mediocres squamis duris annulati; digitis parvis, postico mediano breviore, lateralibus æqualibus, exteriore cum mediano usque ad articulum priorem connatum.
1. SERPOPHAGA PARULUS. Gould.
Muscicapa parulus, Kitlitz, Mem. L'Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Peters. 1831. 1. p. 190. Pl. 9.
Sylvia Bloxami, Gray's Zool.
Culicivora parulus, D'Orbig.
de Zool. 1837, p.
This bird is common in central Chile, in Patagonia, and although found in Tierra del Fuego, it is not numerous there. Its specific name is very well chosen, as I saw no bird in South America whose habits approach so near to those of our tom-tits (Parus). It frequents bushes in dry places, actively hopping about them, and sometimes repeating a shrill cry; it often moves in small bodies of three and four together. In August I found the nest of one in a valley in the Cordillera of central Chile; it was placed in a bush and was simply constructed.
2. SERPOPHAGA ALBO-CORONATA. Gould.
S. supra olivaceo-brunnea, subtus pallidè flava; pileo nigrescenti brunneo, in hoc plumarum basibus lineâque supra oculos albis; alis nigrescenti brunneis, primariis angustè olivaceo marginatis, tectricibus latè olivaceo-griseo marginatis, gutture griseo.
Long. tot. 43/12; alæ, 2; caudæ, 2; tarsi, 8/12; rost. 6/12.
A stripe of white from the nostrils over each eye; crown of the head brown, the base of all the feathers pure white; back of the neck, back and upper tail coverts olive brown; wings blackish brown, the external edges of the primaries finely margined with olive, and the greater and lesser wing coverts largely tipped with olive grey; tail uniform brown; throat grey; abdomen and under tail coverts pale citron yellow; bill and feet brown.
Habitat, Maldonado, La Plata, (June).
This bird, like the last species, generally moves in very small flocks. Its habits, I presume, are also very similar; for I state in my notes that it closely approaches to our tit-mice in general manners and appearance.
3. SERPOPHAGA NIGRICANS. Gould.
Sylvia nigricans, Vieill.
Tachuris nigricans, D'Orbig. & Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 55.
Le Petit Tachuris noirâtre, Azara,
This bird is common in the neighbourhood of Maldonado, on the banks of the Plata. It generally frequents the borders of lakes, ditches, and other moist places; but is related in its general manners with the last species. It often alights on aquatic plants, growing in the water. When seated on a twig it occasionally expands its tail like a fan.
SUB.-FAM.—TITYRANÆ. (PSARIANÆ, Sw.)
PACHYRAMPHUS, G. R. Gray.
1. PACHYRAMPHUS ALBESCENS.
Pachyrhynchus albescens, Gould, MS.
P. olivaceo-griseus; alis nigrescenti brunneis, albescenti marginatis; gutture corporeque subtus griseo-albis; alarum tectricibus inferioribus pallidè sulphureis.
Long. tot. 53/12 unc.; alæ, 27/12; caudæ, 25/12; tarsi, 8/12; rost. 7/12.
Head and all the upper surface olive grey; wings blackish brown, the coverts and secondaries broadly margined with dull white; primaries narrowly margined with greyish white; tail blackish brown, the external web of the outer feather white; under surface of the shoulder pale sulphur yellow; throat and under surface greyish white; bill and feet black.
Habitat, Buenos Ayres.
The generic name of Pachyrhynchus Spix, is changed by Mr. G. R. Gray, to Pachyramphus, as the former word is used in entomology.
2. PACHYRAMPHUS MINIMUS.
Pachyrhynchus minimus, Gould. MS.
P. rufo brunneus; capite guttureque brunneo-nigris; plumarum basibus albis; alis caudâque brunneis, plumis flavescenti-albo marginatis; colli lateribus, fasciâ pectorali hypochondriisque fulvis; jugulo ventreque pallidè flavescentibus.
Long. tot. 37/12; alæ, 110/12; cauda, 17/12; tarsi, 8/12; rost. 5/12.
Crown of the head, sides of the face and throat blackish brown, each feather white at the base; back of the neck black, and upper tail coverts rufous brown; wings and tail dark brown, each feather margined with sandy white; sides of the neck, under surface of the shoulder, band across the chest and flanks reddish fawn colour; lower part of the throat, and centre of the abdomen very pale buff; bill and feet blackish brown.
Habitat, Monte Video, (November).
ALECTURUS GUIRAYETUPA. Vieill. Dict.
Muscicapa psalura, Temm., Pl. Col. t. 286 and 296.
———— risoria, Vieill., Gal. des
Yetapa psalura, Less., Tr. d'Orn.
Le Guirayetupa, Azara, No.
This bird is not uncommon on the open grassy country near Maldonado on the banks of the Plata. It sits generally on the top of a thistle; from which it makes short flights and catches its prey in the air. The two long feathers in its tail appear quite useless to it. It sometimes feeds on the ground. In the stomach of one which I opened there was a spider (Lycosa), and some Coleoptera.
1. LICHENOPS PERSPICILLATUS. G. R. Gray.
Sylvia perspicillata, Gmel.
Œnanthe perspicillata, Vieill.
Ada Commersoni, Less.
Perspicilla leucoptera, Swains.,
Libr. x. Flyc. p.
105, Pl. 9.
Fluviola perspicillata, D'Orb. &
Mag. de Zool.
1837, p. 59.
Le Clignot ou Lichenops, Comm.,
Le Bec d'argent, Azara, No.
This bird belongs to the sub-genus, Perspicilla, of Mr. Swainson; but as Mr.
G. R. Gray has pointed out that Commerson had previously considered it the type of his genus, Lichenops, we have been induced to prefer the latter as the oldest name. It is common in the neighbourhood of the Plata, and across the Pampas, as far as Mendoza on the eastern foot of the Andes; it has not, however, crossed those mountains and entered Chile. It usually sits on the top of a thistle, and like our common fly-catchers (Muscicapa grisola), takes short flights in pursuit of insects; but does not, like that bird, return to the same twig. It feeds, also, occasionally on the turf: in the stomach of some which I opened, I found Coleopterous insects, chiefly Curculionidæ. Beak, eye-lid, and iris, beautiful primrose yellow.
2. LICHENOPS ERYTHROPTERUS. Gould.
L. suprà nigrescenti-brunneus, plumis rufo-marginatis; primariis secundariisque castaneis, apicibus pogoniæque externæ dimidio apicali brunneis; gutture corporeque subtus cervinis; pectore brunneo-marginato.
Long. tot. 6 unc.; alæ, 3; caudæ, 23/8; tarsi, 1; rostri, 9/12.
All the upper surface and tail blackish brown, each feather margined with rufous; primaries and secondaries reddish chesnut, their tips and their external webs for half their length from the tip, brown; tertiaries, greater and lesser wing-coverts dark-brown, each feather margined with reddish buff; throat, and all the under surface, fawn colour; the chest spotted with brown; base of the bill, and chiefly of the lower mandible, as well as the iris, bright yellow; eye-lid, blackish yellow; feet, dark brown.
Habitat, Banks of the Plata.
This bird is not very common. It frequents damp ground, where rushes grow, on the borders of lakes. It feeds on the ground and walks. It is certainly allied in many respects with the foregoing species, but in its power of walking, and in feeding on the ground, there is a marked difference in habits. As it has lately been described (Swainson's Nat. Libr. Ornith. x. p. 106.) as the female of the L. perspicillatus, I will here point out some of its chief distinguishing characters. Its beak is slightly more depressed, but with the ridge rather more plainly pronounced. In the L. perspicillatus, the upper mandible is entirely yellow, excepting the apex; in the L. erythropterus, it is entirely pale brown, excepting the base. The eyelid in the former is bright primrose yellow, in the latter blackish yellow. The tail of L. erythropterus is squarer and contains only ten feathers instead of twelve: the wing is 4/10 of an inch shorter, and the secondaries relatively to the primaries are also shorter. The red colour on the primaries represents, but does not correspond with, the white on the black feathers of L. perspicillatus; and the secondaries in the two birds
are quite differently marked. In L. erythropterus, the third, fourth, and fifth primaries are the longest, and are equal to each other; the second is only a little shorter than the third. In L. perspicillatus the third is rather shorter than the fourth and fifth; and the second is proportionally shorter relatively to the third, so that the outer part of the wing in this species is more pointed than in L. erythropterus. The hinder claw in the latter is only in an extremely small degree straighter than in the former; and this, considering that the L. perspicillatus is generally perched, and when on the ground, can only hop; and that the L. erythropterus feeds there entirely, and walks, is very remarkable.
1. FLUVICOLA ICTEROPHRYS. D'Orb. & Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 59.
Muscicapa icterophrys, Vieill. Encyc. Meth. p. 832.
Le Suiriri noirâtre et jaune, Azara,
Specimens were found by me both at Monte Video and at Maldonado, on the banks of the Plata. I found Coleoptera in their stomachs.
2. FLUVICOLA IRUPERO. G. R. Gray.
Tyrannus Irupero, Vieill, Ency.
Muscicapa mœsta, Licht. Cat. p.
Muscicapa nivea, Spix, Av. pl.
Pepoaza nivea, D'Orb. & Lafr. Mag.
Zool. 1837. p. 62.
Irupero, Azara, No.
This elegant bird, which is conspicuous amongst most land species by the whiteness of its plumage, is found, though not commonly, (in November) in Banda Oriental; whilst near Santa Fé, three degrees of latitude northward, it was common during the same time of year. It is rather shy, generally perches on the branches of bushes and low trees.
3. FLUVICOLA AZARÆ. Gould.
F. alba; alis, caudâ caudæque tectricibus atris, his albo-marginatis; primariis flavescenti-albis, basibus apicibusque nigris; rostro pedibusque atris.
Long. tot. 83/12 unc.; alæ, 49/12; caudæ, 43/12; tarsi, 1; rost. 1.
Head, all the upper and under surface white; wings and tail black; tail coverts black margined with white; primaries broad and crossed near their extremity with sulphur white, and tipped with brown; bill and legs black.
Habitat, banks of the Plata.
This bird is very common in the neighbourhood of Maldonado, where it frequents the open grassy plains. It sits on the top of a thistle, or on a twig, and catches the greater part of its food on the wing. It is generally quiet in its movements and silent. Mr. Gould remarks, that he finds "nearly all the species of this peculiar group to differ remarkably in the structure of their wings and tail, while in all other respects they closely resemble each other both in form and habit; I have, therefore, hesitated to separate them into so many genera. I have assigned the present species to Mr. Swainson's subgenus Fluvicola, considering that differences in the form of one organ alone would not be sufficient grounds for the institution of a new genus among such closely allied species; the present bird evidently leads off to Tænioptera, a genus proposed many years since, by the Prince of Musignano for the Pepoazas of Azara.
" This species is closely allied to, if not identical with the Pepoaza Dominicana of Azara, but as there is a degree of obscurity in his description, which causes some doubt on this point, I have considered it better to pay a just tribute of respect to that zealous labourer in the field of natural science, by assigning his name to this very elegant bird."
1. XOLMIS CORONATA. G. R. Gray.
Tyrannus coronatus, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 885.
Muscicapa vittiger, Licht. Cat.
My specimen was obtained on the wooded banks of the Parana, near Santa Fé, in Lat. 31° S.
Boie's name of Xolmis is adopted by Mr. G. R. Gray, as it was proposed some five years anteriorly to that of the Prince of Musignano's.
2. XOLMIS NENGETA. G. R. Gray.
Lanius nengeta, Linné, 1. p. 135.
Tyrannus nengeta, Swains. Journ.
Fluvicola nengeta, Swains. Nat. Libr. Fly-catchers, p. 102. pl. 8.
Tyrannus pepoaza, Vieill. Ency.
Muscicapa polyglotta, Licht. Spix. II.
Tyrannus polyglottus, Cuv.
Le Pepoaza proprement dit, Azara,
My specimen was procured at Maldonado, north bank of La Plata, where it is not common. Its habits in many respects are like those of the Fluvicola Azaræ; it appears to catch its prey on the wing. Iris bright red.
3. XOLMIS VARIEGATA. G. R. Gray.
Pepoaza variegata. D'Orb. & Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 63. Voy. dans l'Amér. Mèr. Orn. pl. 39. f. 2.
Tænioptera variegata. On plate.
This bird feeds in small flocks, often mingled with the icteri, plovers, and other birds on the ground. Its manner of flight and general appearance never failed to call to my recollection our common fieldfares (Turdus pilaris, Linn.) and I may observe that its plumage (in accordance with these habits) is different from that of the rest of the genus. I opened the stomachs of some specimens killed at Maldonado, and found in them seeds and ants. At Bahia Blanca I saw these birds catching on the wing large stercovorous Coleoptera; in this respect it follows the habits, although in most others it differs from those of the rest of its tribe. Iris rich brown.
4. XOLMIS PYROPE. G. R. Gray.
Muscicapa pyrope, Kitlitz. Mem. l'Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Peters. 1831. p. 191. pl. 10. Vögel von Chili, pl. 10. p. 19.
Pepoaza pyrope, D'Orb. & Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 63.
This bird is not uncommon near Port Famine in Tierra del Fuego, and along the whole western coast (at Chiloe specimens were obtained) even as far north as the desert valley of Copiapó. In the thickly wooded countries of Tierra del Fuego and Chiloe, where it is more common than further northward, it generally takes its station on the branch of a tree, on the outskirts of the forest. When thus perched, usually at some height above the ground, it sharply looks out for insects passing by, which it takes on the wing. Iris scarlet. It builds a coarse nest in bushes. Egg perfectly white, pointed oval; length one inch, breadth .76 of an inch.
Tyrannus, Eyd. & Gerv.
Pepoaza, D'Orb. & Lafr.
Rostrum longitudine capitis, rectum, forte, compressum, abruptè deflexum, emarginatum; tomiis rectis integris; naribus basalibus, lateralibus, rotundis, patulis; rictu pilis rigidiusculis obsesso. Alæ mediocres, remige primâ longâ, tertiâ quartâque æqualibus, longissimis. Cauda mediocris, quadrata. Tarsi longi, fortes, squamis crassis annulati; digito ungueque postico mediano breviore, lateralibus æqualibus, liberis.
Mr. Gould observes that the members of this genus are remarkable for their robust form and for their strength and magnitude of their bills; and their habits strictly accord with their structure, as they are fierce and courageous.
The species are closely allied to those of the preceding genus.*
1. AGRIORNIS GUTTURALIS. Gould.
Tyrannus gutturalis, Eyd. & Gerv. Voyage de la Fav. Ois. dans Mag. de Zool. 1836. pl. 11.
Pepoaza gutturalis, D'Orb. & Lafr.
de Zool. 1837. p.
My specimens were obtained near Valparaiso in Chile. I saw it as far north as the valley of Copiapó. I was assured by the inhabitants that it is a very fierce bird, and that it will attack and kill the young of other birds.
2. AGRIORNIS STRIATUS. Gould.
A. Fœm. intensè olivaceo-brunnea; alis caudâque fuscis, utriusque plumis marginibus apiceque pallidè brunneis; rectricum externarum pogoniâ externâ albâ; gutture facieque lateribus albis, his nigrostriatis; pectore hypochondriisque olivaceo-brunneis; ventre crissoque flavescentibus.
Long. tot. 10 unc.; alæ, 4 9/12; caudæ, 4 3/12; tarsi, 1 3/12; rostri, 1 2/12.
Head, and all the upper surface dark olive brown; wings and tail dark brown, each feather margined and tipped with pale brown, and the outer web of the external tail-feather, white; throat, and sides of the face, white, striated with
* Perhaps to this genus belong Muscicapa thamnophiloides and cinerea, figured by Spix, in his Aves, pl. 26. f. 1 and 2. G. R. Gray.
Birds. Pl: 21.
Birds. Pl: 22.
Birds. Pl: 23.
Birds. Pl: 24.
Birds: Pl: 25.
Birds. Pl: 26.
Birds: Pl: 27.
Birds: Pl: 28.
Birds. Pl: 29.
Birds. Pl. 30.
NOW PUBLISHING IN PARTS, ROYAL 4TO.
UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY
THE ZOOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICA :
Consisting chiefly of Figures and
Descriptions of the
Objects of Natural History collected during an Expedition
into the Interior of South Africa, in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836, fitted out by
"The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa."
A SUMMARY OF AFRICAN ZOOLOGY,
AND AN INQUIRY INTO THE GEOGRAPHICAL RANGES OF SPECIES IN THAT QUARTER OF THE GLOBE.
BY ANDREW SMITH, M.D.
SURGEON TO THE FORCES, AND DIRECTOR OF THE EXPEDITION.
THE Cape of Good Hope is now acknowledged to be one of the greatest avenues as yet opened for the researches of the Naturalist. Our Colony in that part of Southern Africa is the key to a large portion of an extensive continent which is still but very partially explored; and the field to which it admits the scientific traveller is rich to exuberance in the variety and novelty, both of animal and vegetable life.
Stimulated by the prospect of Discovery in a quarter so fertile in interest, "The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa" was established in 1833; and in 1836, an Expedition fitted out by that body, consisting of thirty-four persons, and directed by Dr. Smith, after an absence of nineteen months, and penetrating as far as 23° 28' South latitude, returned to Cape Town laden with a variety of curious and important specimens in Natural History, &c.
Previously to this period little information has been furnished, in a shape calculated to enable the public to form accurate ideas of the various animated beings by which these regions are inhabited. The splendid publication of Le Vaillant, no doubt, should be mentioned as forming an exception, pro tanto; but this includes only a portion of the Birds of the most southern extremity of the country, and a work therefore extensive enough to comprehend the various departments of Zoology is still a desideratum.
The members of The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa found themselves, on the return of the recent Expedition, in a situation to supply at least some portion of the existing deficiencies; but their funds, even if it had been possible to divert them to such an object, were altogether inadequate to defray the expense of laying the result of their labours before the world. Under such circumstances, it was decided that Dr. Smith, the director of the Expedition, should be authorised, on his arrival in England, to wait upon Lord Glenelg, for the purpose of making him acquainted with the position and views of the Society, in the hope that Government might be induced to assist in the publication of their materials.
This hope has not been disappointed. At the recommendation of the Secretary of State for the Colonial Department, the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury have been pleased, by a pecuniary grant, to enable the Society to publish the result of its labours, without infringing upon the funds raised solely for the purposes of discovery; and in a form which, while it places the work within reach of most of the friends and promoters of science, will not, it is hoped, be found inconsistent with the interest and importance of the subject.
The materials for the work now offered, under such patronage, to the public, will consist of pictorial illustrations of between three and four hundred subjects of the animal kingdom, all of which have been collected to the south of 23° 28' South latitude; and will comprise,
First, and principally, unknown animals;
Secondly, animals known, but not yet figured; and
Lastly, such as have been imperfectly figured; but of which the Association is in possession of accurate drawings.
The Entomological portion of the work will be from the pen of W. S. Macleay, Esq., who has kindly undertaken that department. The rest of the descriptions will be furnished by Dr. Smith, who will add a summary of African Zoology, and an inquiry into the Geographical ranges of species in that quarter of the Globe.
Conditions of Publication.
The Work will appear periodically; and it is estimated that the whole will be completed in about thirty-four parts, price, on an average, Ten Shillings each. As it will be necessary that the plates be published promiscuously, they will be arranged in five divisions, viz. MAMMALIA, AVES, PISCES, REPTILIA, and INVERTEBRATÆ. The plates of each of these divisions will be numbered independently, and the letter-press descriptions left unpaged, so that on the work being completed, they may be arranged either agreeably to the general classified order which will accompany the last number, or according to the particular views of the purchasers.
The whole of the Plates will be engraved in the highest style of Art, from Drawings taken expressly for this Work, and beautifully coloured after Nature.
*** THE FIRST SIX PARTS ARE NOW READY.
[Continued in Birds Part 3 No. 4]
Return to homepage
Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
File last updated 2 July, 2012