RECORD: Freeman, R. B. 2007. Charles Darwin: A companion. 2d online edition, compiled by Sue Asscher and edited by John van Wyhe.

REVISION HISTORY: The first edition was scanned for Darwin Online, transcribed (double key) by AEL Data 9.2006; Freeman's unpublished corrections and additions inserted by Asscher, as well as re-formatting and additional corrections, subsequent additions and corrections by van Wyhe. RN18

With thanks to The Charles Darwin Trust and Dr Mary Whitear for use of the Companion. Copyright. All rights reserved. For private academic use only. Not for republication or reproduction in whole or in part without the prior written consent of The Charles Darwin Trust, 14 Canonbury Park South London N1 2JJ. Other additions and corrections are copyright of Darwin Online.


[Note that this has been superceded by Paul van Helvert & John van Wyhe, Darwin: A Companion. With iconographies by John van Wyhe, 2021.]

[front cover]

[front inside cover]

[page i]

[page ii]

[page iii]


[page iv]

[page 1]

[page 2]


Charles Darwin aged 59. Reproduction of a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron, original 13 × 10 inches, taken at Dumbola Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight in July 1869. The original print is signed and authenticated by Mrs Cameron and also signed by Darwin. It bears Colnaghi's blind embossed registration.

[page 3]


A Companion



Department of Zoology
University College London

[page 4]

First published in 1978.

Copyright of The Charles Darwin Trust. All rights reserved. For private academic use only. Not for republication or reproduction in whole or in part without the prior written consent of The Charles Darwin Trust, 14 Canonbury Park South London N1 2JJ. Other additions and corrections are copyright of the University of Cambridge.

[page 5]


List of Illustrations 6
Preface to the second online edition (2007)
Introduction to the first edition (1978)
Acknowledgements 10
Abbreviations 11
Text 17-310

[page 6]


Charles Darwin aged 59
From a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron
Skeleton Pedigree of Charles Robert Darwin 66
Pedigree to show Charles Robert Darwin's Relationship to his Wife Emma Wedgwood 67
Pedigree of Robert Darwin's Children and Grandchildren 68
Arms and Crest of Robert Waring Darwin 69
Research Notes on Insectivorous Plants 1860 90
Charles Darwin's Full Signature 91

[page 7]

Preface to the second online edition (2007)

Richard Broke Freeman's Charles Darwin: A companion was first published in 1978. It has remained one of the most useful reference works for students of Darwin and his times. The book is essentially a Darwinian encyclopaedia for people, places, theories, publications and events referred to in Darwin's works and others about him such as Life and letters.

Freeman was a meticulous scholar and he tirelessly continued to gather additions and corrections to Companion. These, however, remained unpublished at his death in 1986. Freeman's widow, Dr Mary Whitear, gave the copyright of the work, along with Freeman's many pages of notes, to The Charles Darwin Trust so that Companion could continue and develop.

Randal Keynes, of The Charles Darwin Trust, kindly lent the notes to John van Wyhe. These were carefully inserted by Sue Asscher. Many additional details, such as missing dates for some individuals, were supplied from the Correspondence Online Database. Further corrections and additions have been added by van Wyhe.

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Frederick Burkhardt and Duncan Porter who kindly provided their own corrections in answer to an appeal sent throughout the Darwin research community.

The layout of the original, which was constrained by paper size, has been altered by Asscher. Generally, where dates or sequence allow, information under individual entries appears in chronological order. Some conflicting information has been omitted. Several abbreviations such as b for brother and f for father have been expanded into the whole word to render the work more accessible. Some formatting, such as italics for titles, has been altered. The original pagination has been preserved to facilitate citations.

The Companion was first published before the appearance of the monumental Correspondence of Charles Darwin (15 vols. 1985-). Readers should therefore use the Companion in conjunction with the Correspondence and the invaluable Darwin Correspondence Project Online Database: (

Readers are encouraged to send errors or corrections to the Companion to the editor, Dr John van Wyhe, at

John van Wyhe
November 2007

Introduction to the first edition (1978)

THIS Companion is about Charles Darwin the man: it is not about evolution by natural selection, nor is it about any other of his theoretical or experimental work. A glance will show what it contains, and only a brief introduction is needed. It is intended to make easily available the facts of Darwin's life, his ancestry, collaterals and descendants, his friends and a few enemies, and his scientific correspondents. It covers what he wrote, and where he went, when and why. It also includes some more personal things, such as his appearance, including details of pictures of him, his day to day habits, and a little of his political and social views.

Darwin's name occurs in every relevant work of reference from about the time of his election to the Royal Society in 1839 until his death, and in superabundance from then onwards. In the British Museum's General catalogue of printed books, (1959-1966), the appendix of titles relative to Darwin contains more than 400 entries, whilst that for Galileo has about 150 and that for Newton less than 130. This excess is exacerbated because his name also occurs in every work on evolution and in every student textbook of biology as well as in many works about the religious and social implications of evolutionary theory. It is however ameliorated because the number of works which contain facts about him is small. Basically, there are seven volumes, three of Life and letters, and two each of More letters and Emma Darwin. To these may be added a handful of later books and papers which contain many new facts, and a larger number, mostly biographies of other people and works containing previously unpublished letters, which contain some information.

The basic three works were all edited by two of his children and published within the lifetimes of many people who knew him. Biographies by children of their subject have the advantage that the facts are probably right, but the disadvantage that the children are too close to see what will be of interest to later readers. Life and letters also has the disadvantage of being published within five years of Darwin's death, so

[page] 8

that parts which might have been libellous or caused offence to the living had to be omitted. His autobiography, which is first printed there, has omissions for his widow's sake and its full text did not become available until seventy years later.

All the entries here are degressive. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, the further the subject is from Darwin himself, the less need there is for a comprehensive entry. Gladstone, Tennyson and Ruskin met Darwin, and all could have had long entries, but their contact was slight and their entries are therefore brief; his butler, Parslow, and his secretary-servant, Covington, deserve and get longer entries. Similarly, Paris, Dublin and Belfast, each of which he visited once, briefly, get little notice, but Tierra del Fuego, the Galapagos Islands and Glen Roy were much more important to him. The second reason for degression is ignorance. I have used a large number of reference sources and have sought the help of many friends, but there remains information which I would like to have entered which has escaped me. Much of this is about people that Darwin saw almost every day of his life, sometimes for years, such as the domestic staff at Down House, but if Francis Darwin or his sister merely mention Mary or Maryann, it is impossible to go further. There are also a number of villagers in Downe who are in a similar position. Amongst relatives, there are some, particularly women, whose dates of birth are available because these are given in the pedigrees made by people who knew them, but apparently they never die, because they did nothing to rate an entry in standard works of reference. The scientists are usually easy, although there are a few, such as "old Jones" on page 177, who elude me. The two other main groups of entries, places and Darwin's works, present no difficulties.

[page] 9

Darwin's books have been entered under short titles and all editions are listed, although mere reprints are ignored; first editions printed in America and in foreign languages are also listed. Foreign language editions are also entered under the language, so that a complete list is available of those of his works which have been translated into any given language; there is a similar list for English Braille. Almost all his books have appeared in facsimile in recent years and the dates of these are entered. Papers published in periodicals are entered by short title; these are widely scattered and some were not easily accessible until the most useful publication of a complete set by Paul H. Barrett in 1977; the page numbers of Barrett's reprints are given in each case. Much of the material which was left in manuscript by Darwin has also been published; most of it was never intended for publication, being notebooks or rough drafts. The titles of these have been consolidated under the heading "Darwin, Charles Robert, Manuscripts", but their editors have been entered in the main list.

This work is a compilation, with almost nothing in it that has not appeared in print before. I have tried to stick to facts, although matters of opinion have crept in here and there. Darwin himself, in a letter to Huxley in 1859, said "The inaccuracy of the blessed band (of which I am one) of compilers passes all bounds, The difficulty is to know what to trust." I know that there are many omissions here and I am sure that there are errors, but hope that most of the facts are correct.

[page 10]


MY indebtedness to works of reference is large. Many of these are listed below, under Abbreviations, but others are, as usual, taken for granted. I give my thanks to the editors and compilers of hundreds of such works. More personally, I should like to thank the three great Cambridge darwinians, Nora Lady Barlow, Dr Sydney Smith and P. J. Gautrey: all three have answered my questions over the years with unfailing patience, as they have those of so many others. Peter Gautrey, sitting as he does on the Darwin archive in the University Library, has had to bear the brunt. I am indebted to many Librarians in National and University libraries, but especially to Joseph Scott, Librarian of University College London, whose library has been my daily haunt. The excellence of his reference rooms and the learning of his staff has saved me much journeying and letter writing. I would like to thank three of his staff by name: Joan Nash, who has looked after the Biological Sciences Library for many years; Susan Gove, in charge of the Thane Medical Library, who enjoys chasing obscure physicians and surgeons; and John Spiers, in charge of information, who regards chasing people as light relief from on-line reference retrieval.

R. B. Freeman

[page 11]


Allan Mea Allan, Darwin and his flowers: the key to natural selection, London, Faber & Faber, 1977.
Ashworth J. H. Ashworth, Charles Darwin as a student in Edinburgh, 1825-1827: (An address delivered on October 28, 1935), Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 55:97-113, 1935
Atkins Sir Hedley Atkins, Down, the home of the Darwins: the story of a house and the people who lived there, London, Phillimore for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 1974; revised edition 1976 used.
B Paul E. Barrett, editor, The collected papers of Charles Darwin, 2 vols, Chicago, University Press, 1977. Barrett volume and page numbers are given for all Darwin's papers published in serials.
Baehni Charles Baehni, Correspondance de Charles Darwin et d'Alphonse de Candolle, Gesnerus, 12:109-156, 1955.
Barlow Nora Barlow, Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle, London, Pilot Press, 1945.
Barlow-Autobiography Nora Barlow, editor, The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882, with the original omissions restored: edited with appendix and notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow, London, Collins, 1958.
Basalla George Basalla, The voyage of the Beagle without Darwin, Mariners Mirror, 49:42-48, 1963.
BM (NH) Memorials British Museum (Natural History), Memorials of Charles Darwin: a collection of manuscripts, portraits, medals, books and natural history specimens etc., London, British Museum (Natural History), 1909. Special Guides No. 4.
Britten and Boulger James Britten and G. S. Boulger, A biographical index of British and Irish botanists, London, West Newman, 1893; 2nd edition, 1931, revised and completed by A. B. Rendle. For 3rd edition see Ray Desmond.
Burke H. Farnham Burke, compiler, Pedigree of the family of Darwin, [?London], privately printed, 1888.

[page] 12

Carroll P. Thomas Carroll, An annotated calendar of the letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, Wilmington, Scholarly Resources Inc., 1976. Numbers given refer to the numbers of the letters and not to pages.
CD Charles Robert Darwin.
Christ's College Centenary Exhibition A. E. S. and J. C. S. [Arthur Everett Shipley and James Crawford Simpson], editors, Darwin centenary: the portraits, prints and writings of Charles Robert Darwin, exhibited at Christ's College, Cambridge 1909, [Cambridge, University Press], 1909.
Climbing plants Charles Darwin, On the movements and habits of climbing plants, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 9:1-118; as a book with same title, London, Longman and Williams & Norgate, 1865; 2nd edition, London, John Murray, 1875.
Cross and self fertilisation Charles Darwin, The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, London, John Murray, 1876.
d.s.p. Decessit sine prole, died without issue.
Darwin-Bates Robert M. Stecher, editor, The Darwin-Bates letters: correspondence between two nineteenth century travellers and naturalists, Part I, Ann. Sci., 25:1-47: Part II, ibid., 25:95-125, 1969.
Darwin-Gray Calendar of the letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray, Boston, Mass., Historical Records Survey, 1939, reprint 1973, introduction by Bert James Loewenberg.
Darwin-Henslow Nora Barlow, editor, Darwin and Henslow, the growth of an idea: letters 1831-1860, London, John Murray, Bentham-Moxon Trust, 1967.
Darwin-Innes Robert M. Stecher, editor, The Darwin-Innes letters: the correspondence of an evolutionist with his vicar, 1848-1884, Ann. Sci., 17:201-258, 1961.
Darwin-Wallace James Marchant, editor, Alfred Russel Wallace, letters and reminiscences, 2 vols, London, Cassell, 1916.
Darwin and modern science Albert C. Seward, editor, Darwin and modern science, Cambridge, University Press, 1909.
DCPOD Darwin Correspondence Project Online Database (
Darwin, Francis Some letters from Charles Darwin to Alfred Russel Wallace, Christ's College Mag., 23:214-231, 1909.
de Beer, G. R., editor The Darwin letters at Shrewsbury School, Notes and Records Roy. Soc., 23:68-85, 1968.
Descent Charles Darwin, The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, London, John Murray, 1871.

[page] 13

Desmond, Ray Dictionary of British and Irish botanists and horticulturalists, including plant collectors and botanical artists, London, Taylor and Francis, 1977. This is a 3rd edition of Britten and Boulger, q.v.
Diary Nora Barlow, editor, Charles Darwin's diary of the voyage of H.M. S. Beagle, Cambridge, University Press, 1933.
DNB Dictionary of National Biography, 63 vols and 3 vols supplements, London, Smith Elder, 1885-1901. 10 year supplements to 1960, Oxford University Press.
EB Encyclopaedia Britannica, London. The 11th-12th edition, 32 vols, 1910-1911, 1922, has been referred to in a few places.
[ED] H. E. Litchfield, editor, Emma Darwin, wife of Charles Darwin: a century of family letters, Cambridge, University Press, privately printed, 1904. This edition has not been quoted from.
ED Used for Emma Darwin, wife of Charles Robert Darwin throughout. Also used, with volume and page reference, for Henrietta E. Litchfield, editor, Emma Darwin, a century of family letters, 1792-1896, London, John Murray, 1915. This, the published edition, is the one quoted from throughout.
Eiseley Loren Eiseley, Darwin's century: evolution and the men who discovered it, Garden City N.Y., Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958.
Ellegård Alvar Ellegård, Darwin and the general reader: the reception of Darwin's theory of evolution in the British periodical press, 1859-1872, Götesborgs Universitets Arsskrift, 64:1-394; Göthenburg Studies in English, 8.
Expression Charles Darwin, The expression of the emotions in man and animals, London, John Murray, 1872.
F R. B. Freeman, The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist, 2nd edition, Folkestone, Wm Dawson, Hamden, Conn., Archon Books, 1977. Freeman numbers are entered, just with the prefix F, for all Darwin's books and publications in serials. In the latter they follow the B of Barrett reprint numbers.
Feuer Lewis F. Feuer, Is the "Darwin-Marx" correspondence authentic?, Ann. Sci., 32:1-12, 1975.
Freeman, R. B. Charles Darwin on the routes of male humble bees, Bull. Brit. Mus.(Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 3:177-189, 1968.

[page] 14

Freeman, R. B. and Gautrey, P. J. Charles Darwin's Questions about the breeding of animals, with a note on Queries about expression, J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist., 5:220-225, 1969.
Freeman, R. B. and Gautrey, P. J. Charles Darwin's Queries about expression, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Hist. Ser., 4:205-219, 1972.
Freeman, R. B. and Gautrey, P. J. Charles Darwin's Queries about expression. J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist., 7:259-263, 1975.
FUL G. R. de Beer, editor, Further unpublished letters of Charles Darwin, Ann. Sci., 14:83-115, 1960 (for 1958). See also N&R which is the first part of this collection.
Gruber, Jacob W. Who was the Beagle's naturalist?, Brit. J. Hist. Sci., 4:266-282, 1969.
Huxley, Julian S. and Kettlewell, H. B. D. Charles Darwin and his world, London, Thames and Hudson, 1965.
Insectivorous plants Charles Darwin, Insectivorous plants, London, John Murray, 1875.
J. Researches 1839 Charles Darwin, Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, etc., Second edition, London, Henry Colburn, 1839.
J. Researches 1845 Charles Darwin, Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, etc., Second edition, London, John Murray, 1845.
Jensen, J. Vernon The X Club: fraternity of Victorian scientists, Brit. J. Hist. Sci., 5:63-72, 1970.
Jensen, J. Vernon Interrelationships within the Victorian X Club, Dalhousie Rev., 51:539-552, 1971.
Jesperson, P. Helveg Charles Darwin and Dr. Grant, Lychnos, 1948-1949: 159-167, 1949.
Jordan, David Starr The days of a man, 2 vols, Yonkers N.Y., World Book Co., 1922.
Journal G. R. de Beer, editor, Darwin's journal, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist), hist. Ser., 2:1-21, 1959.
Keith, Sir Arthur Darwin revalued, London, Watts, 1955.
LL Francis Darwin, editor, The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter, 3 vols, London, John Murray, 1887. Edition used is 7th thousand 1888, the definitive text.

[page] 15

Mellersh, M. E. L. Fitzroy of the Beagle, London, Rupert Hart Davis, 1968.
ML Francis Darwin and A. C. Seward, editors, More letters of Charles Darwin: a record of his work in a series of hitherto unpublished letters, 2 vols, London, John Murray, 1903.
Moorhead, Alan Darwin and the Beagle, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1969.
Movement in plants Charles Darwin, The power of movement in plants, London, John Murray, 1880.
N&R G. R. de Beer, editor, Some unpublished letters of Charles Darwin, Notes and Records Roy. Soc., 14:12-66, 1959. See also FUL, which is the 2nd part of this collection.
Narrative Robert Fitz-Roy, editor, Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, etc., 3 vols and appendix vol. to Vol. III, London, Henry Colburn, 1839. Vol. II is Charles Darwin, Journal and remarks, the first printing of Journal of researches, 1839.
Nash, Louisa Ann Some memories of Charles Darwin, Overland Monthly, San Francisco, Oct.: 404-408, 1890.
Nash, Wallis A lawyer's life on two continents, Boston, R. G. Badger, [1919].
OED Sir James Murray and others, editors, A new English dictionary on historical principles, 10 vols in 13, 1888-1928, supplement 1933; new supplement, 2 vols [of 4], 1972, 1976, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Orchids Charles Darwin, On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing, London, John Murray, 1862.
Origin Charles Darwin, On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, London, John Murray, 1859. Quotations from later editions are specified in the text.
Period piece Gwen[dolen] Raverat, Period piece: a Cambridge childhood, London, Faber & Faber, 1952.
q.v. Quod vide, which see.
Rogers, James Allen The reception of Darwin's Origin of species by Russian scientists, Isis, 64:489-508, 1973.
Short life Francis Darwin, editor, Charles Darwin: his life told in an autobiographical chapter, and in a selected series of his published letters, London, John Murray, 1892. A reduced version of LL, but with some alterations. Later editions are specified in the text.

[page] 16

Slevin, Joseph Richard The Galapagos Islands: a history of their exploration, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., No. 25:1-150, 1959.
Smith, Kenneth G. V. and Dimick, R. E. Darwin's "American" neighbour, J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist., 8:78-82, 1976.
s.p. Sine prole, without issue.
Stauffer, Robert C. Haeckel, Darwin, and ecology, Quart. Rev. Biol., 32:138-144, 1957.
Stauffer, Robert C., editor Charles Darwin's Natural selection: being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858, Cambridge, University Press, 1975.
Thomson, Keith Steward H.M.S. Beagle, 1820-1870, Amer. Sci., 63:664-672, 1975.
Venn J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses 1752-1900, 6 vols, Cambridge, University Press, 1922-1954.
Wells, Kentwood D. Charles Wells and the races of man, Isis, 64:215-225, 1973.
WH Who's who, London, Adam & Charles Black, 1971-1978. Used only for the unconsolidated volumes.
Winslow, John H. Mr. Lumb and Masters Megatherium: an unpublished letter by Charles Darwin from the Falklands, J. Hist. Geogr., 1:347-360, 1975.
Worms Charles Darwin, The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms, with observations on their habits, London, John Murray, 1881.
WWH Who was who, London, Adam & Charles Black, 6 vols, 1920-1972. Covering the years 1897-1970; issued every 10 years from standing type of WH.

[page 17]


1879 A nickname used, with "Boo", "Mim", "Lenny" (Leonard D) and "Babba" (CD), by Bernard Richard Meirion D for members of the family. None of them is ED.
Abbot, Dr Francis Ellingwood, 1836-1903.

American priest. Editor of Index, of Cambridge, Mass.
1871 CD letters to on religion—LLi 305.
Abinger Hall, West of Dorking, Surrey.

House of Sir Thomas H. Farrer.
1873 Aug. CD first visited, and often later, which he much enjoyed.
Abraham, Mr

Resident at Downe—Darwin-Innes letters 227.
Abrolhos, Arquipélagodos dos, Brazil.

Coastal islands south of Salvador. Also spelt "Abrohlos".
1832 Mar. 27 Beagle visited and CD landed.
1835 Misspelt "Abrothos" in Letters on geology, 4-5.
Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Germanica Naturae Curiosorum
1857 CD Member under cognomen Forster. "Accipe...ex antiqua nostra consuetudine cognomen Forster". Either the father Johann Reinhold F (1729-1798), or the son Johann Georg Adam F (1754-1794), both of whom went on Cook's second voyage.
Academia Nacional de Ciencias de las República Argentina, Cordova.
1878 CD Honorary Member.
Academia Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitana (Imperatorskaye Akademiya Nauk)
1867 CD Corresponding Member.
Académie des Sciences de l'Institut de France
1872 CD proposed for Zoologie section, but not elected.
1878 Elected in Botanique. CD to Gray "It is rather a good joke that I should be elected to the botanical section, as the extent of my knowledge is little more than that a daisy is a compositous plant, and a pea a leguminous one"—LLiii 224.
1899 "He was in fact guilty of evolution but with extenuating botanical circumstances"—Francis D, Ann. Bot., 12:xi.
Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
1870 CD Associate.
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
1860 CD Correspondent.
Acland, Sir Henry Wentworth Bart, 1815-1900.

1980 Jan. 29, a copy of the CD off print of Climbing plants F835 inscribed to H. Acland in CD's own hand in Sotheby sale lot 345.

[page] 18

Acton, Mr

1855 Postmaster at Bromley.
Adventure [1], HMS
1827-1830 Command vessel, under Captain P. P. King, of first voyage of HMS Beagle.
Adventure [2]

Schooner, 170 tons, a sealer, originally built at Rochester as a yacht, had been used by Lord Cochran.
1833 Mar. bought by Fitz-Roy on 2nd voyage of Beagle, from William Low or Lowe, at Port Louis, Falkland Islands, for $6000 (nearly £1300) with £403 for secondhand equipment from two ships wrecked on Falkland Is. Then named Unicorn. J. C. Wickham in command.
1834 Oct. Admiralty refused to reimburse Fitz-Roy, so sold at Valparaiso for $7300 (nearly £1400).
Agassiz, Alexander Emanuel, 1835-1910.

Marine biologist. Son of J. L. R. A. Converted to belief in evolution by reading and corresponding with Fritz Müller. Fairly frequent correspondent with CD. EB.
1869 Dec. 1 visited Down House with wife.
Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe, 1807-1873.

Known as Louis. Ichthyologist and geologist. Biography: 1886 Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz (2nd wife), 2 vols, Boston; 1893 Holder, New York. Biography A. B. Gould 1901, J. D. Teller 1947. EB.
1832-1847 Prof. Natural History Neuchâtel.
1838 Foreign Member R.S.
1847-1873 Prof. Zoology and Geology Harvard.
1841 CD sent J. Researches.
1849 CD met at British Association, Southampton.
1854 CD sent Living Barnacles.
1859 CD sent Origin.
1860 Jan. Gray to CD "He says it is poor—very poor!! (entre nous). The fact is he is very much annoyed by it"—LLii 268.
1860 Jul. "I shall therefore consider the transmutation theory as a scientific mistake, untrue in its facts, unscientific in its method, and mischievious in its tendency"—Silliman's J., 143—LLii 184. Agassiz, "Scientific mistake, untrue in its facts, unscientific in its methods, and mischievous in its tendency"—Amer. J. Sci. 30 p. 154.
1863 CD to Gray "I enjoy anything that riles Agassiz. He seems to grow bigoted with increasing years. I once saw him years ago and was charmed with him"—Darwin-Gray letters 52.
1866 CD to Gray about an Amazonian glacier "We [CD and Lyell] were both astonished at the nonsense which Agassiz writes...his predetermined wish partly explains what he fancied he observed"—Darwin-Gray letters 56.

A continued against CD for the rest of his life and ML contains a number of other examples of his attitude and his absurdity.
Ainstie, Mr

Resident at Downe.
1860 Innes was looking for a vicarage. A was perhaps selling his house and wanted £4000—Darwin-Innes letters 205, 207.
Ainsworth, F. W.

Medical student at Edinburgh with CD and shore collected with him including Isle of May and Inchkeith— Athenaeum May 13 p. 604, 1882.
Ainsworth, William Francis, 1807-1896.

Physician, Wernerian geologist and middle-east traveller. CD "Knew a little about many subjects, but was superficial and very glib with his tongue"—Barlow, Autobiography 48. DNB.
Airy, Sir George Biddell A., 1801-1892.

Father of Hubert A.
Airy, Dr Hubert, 1838-1903.

Son of Sir George Biddell A. One of the people who pointed out the error in Descent i 19 that the platysmus myoides cannot be brought into action voluntarily.
1828-1835 Professor of Astronomy Cambridge.
1835-1881 Astronomer Royal.
1836 FRS.
1873 CD corresponded with on phyllotaxis, Proc. Roy. Soc., 176.

[page] 19

Albury, near Guildford, Surrey.
1871 Jul. 28-Aug. 24 CD had a family holiday in a rented house. It belonged to Henry Drummond, the Irvingite.
Alderson, Lady Georgina [I], see Drewe.
Alderson, Georgina [II]

Daughter of Sir Edward H. A. Married Marquis of Salisbury.
1882 A was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Alderson, Sir Edward Hall, 1787-1857.

Judge, Baron of the Exchequer.
1823 Married Georgina Drewe. Had issue, amongst others, Georgina [II].
1827 Lived Great Russell St, London. "A most temperate man".
Allan, Mr and Mrs

Resident at Downe.
1868 Sep. Mr Robinson, Curate at Downe, had been having a relationship with one of Mrs Allan's maids, Esther West—Darwin-Innes letters 226.—Brent p. 460.
Allen, Bertha, see Eaton.
Allen, Baugh [I], see Lancelot Baugh A.
Allen, Baugh [II], see George Baugh A.
Allen, Bessy, see Elizabeth A.
Allen, Bob, see Seymour Phillips A.
Allen, Caroline [I], 1768-1835.

Third child of John Bartlett A. ED's aunt.
1793 Married Edward Drewe.
Allen, Caroline [II], see Romilly.
Allen, Catherine [I], 1765-1830 May 6.

Second child of John Bartlett A. Known as "Kitty". ED's great aunt. "She could neither make herself or others happy".
1798 Married Sir James Mackintosh.
Allen, Catherine [II], see Fellowes.
Allen, Charles, 1842-?

Died young. Third child of Lancelot Baugh A and Georgina Sarah A. ED's second cousin.
Allen, Charles Grant Blairfindie, 1848-1899.

Known as Grant A. Naturalist and general writer. Chronically sick and often in financial difficulty. A was not related to the other Allens. Biography: E. Clodd 1900. WWH.
1877 CD to A, thanks for his book Physiological aesthetics, London.
1879 CD to Romanes, A was in some financial difficulty, CD subscribed £25, will send more if needed—Carroll 567, 569.
1881 CD to Romanes relates to A's trouble, acknowledging cheque for £12.10s in 50% repayment of loan, and about giving a present of a microscope to—Carroll 603.
1882 CD to Romanes, CD prefers to give the microscope now, rather than wait for the repayment of the other half of the loan—Carroll 612, 613.
1885 ED "I do not like Grant Allen's book about your father. It is prancing and wants simplicity".

[page] 20

Allen, Clement Frederick Romilly 1844-?

First child of Lancelot Baugh Allen and Georgina Sarah. ED's second cousin.
1877 Married Edith Louisa Wedgwood and had offspring.
Allen, Dorothea Hannah, see Eaton.
Allen, Edith Louisa, see Wedgwood.
Allen, Edmund Eaton, 1824-1898.

Second child of Lancelot Baugh A and Caroline. ED's second cousin.
1848 Married Bertha Eaton and had offspring.
Allen, Elizabeth [I], see Sarah Elizabeth Allen.
Allen, Elizabeth [II], see Hensleigh.
Allen, Elizabeth Jessie Jane, circa 1846-?

Second child of Lancelot Baugh A and Georgina Sarah. ED's first cousin.
Allen, Emma, 1780-1866 Jun. 4.

Tenth child of John Bartlett A. Unmarried. ED's aunt. ED named after her.
1843 Moved from Creselly to Heywood Lodge, Heywood Lane, Tenby, on death of her brother John Hensleigh A.
1864 Returned to Cresselly with sister Frances after death of brother John's wife.
Allen, Fanny, see Frances A.
Allen, Frances, 1781-1875 May 6.

Eleventh child of John Bartlett A. Unmarried. Known as "Fanny". ED's aunt.
1843 Moved to Heywood Lodge, Heywood Lane, Tenby, on death of her brother John Hensleigh A. "A little low white house...the sleek spaniel Crab, and the well cared for garden".
1864 Returned to Creselly, with sister Emma, on death of brother John's wife. F. A. was last surviving member of her generation.
Allen, George Baugh, 1821-1898.

Barrister. First child of Lancelot Baugh A and Caroline. ED's first cousin.
1846 Married Dorothea Hannah Eaton and had offspring.
Allen, Georgina Sarah, see Bayly.
Allen, Gertrude, see Seymour.
Allen, Gertrude Elizabeth, ?-1824.

Fifth child of John Hensleigh A. Unmarried. ED's first cousin.
Allen, Grant, see Charles Grant Blairfindie A.
Allen, Harriet, 1776-1845 Nov. 5.

Seventh child of John Bartlett A. Known as "Sad". ED's aunt.
1799 Married Matthew Surtees.
1827 After death of husband, lived with sisters Emma and Frances at Tenby.

[page] 21

Allen, Harry, see Henry George A.
Allen, Henry George, 1815-1908.

Second child of John Hensleigh A. Unmarried. ED's first cousin.
Allen, Isabella Georgina, 1818-1914.

Fourth child of John Hensleigh A.
1840 Married George Lort Phillips.
Allen, Jane, see Louisa Jane A.
Allen, "Jenny", see Louisa Jane A.
Allen, Jessie, 1777-1853 Mar. 3.

Eighth child of John Bartlett A. ED's favourite aunt. Her description of CD's character: "Fresh and sparkling as the purest water"—Leonard D p. 127.
1819 Married J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi.
by 1837 Was already deaf.
1842 After death of husband, lived with her sisters, Emma, Frances and Harriet, at Tenby.
after 1842 She burnt Sismondi's journals and her own.
Allen, John, 1810-1886.

Friend of Edward FitzGerald and of Alfred Tennyson.
1836-1846 School Commissioner.
1847-1883 Archdeacon of Salop.
1847 Visited, with Jessie Sismondi and her sister Emma, the school at Caldy Island, which was paid for by Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [II]—EDii 107.
Allen, John Bartlett, 1733-1803.

CD's maternal great-grandfather. Of Creselly, Pembrokeshire.
1763 Married 1 Elizabeth Hensleigh. 2 sons, 9 daughters: 1. Elizabeth; 2. Catherine; 3. Caroline; 4. John Hensleigh; 5. Louisa Jane; 6. Lancelot Baugh; 7. Harriet; 8. Jessie; 9. Octavia; 10. Emma; 11. Frances.

Married 2 the daughter of a coalminer. 3 daughters who all died young.
Allen, John Hensleigh [I], 1769-1843 Apr.

Fourth child of John Bartlett A. ED's uncle.
1812 Married Gertrude Seymour. 3 sons, 2 daughters: 1. Seymour Phillips; 2. Henry George; 3. John Hensleigh [II]; 4. Isabella Georgina; 5. Gertrude Elizabeth.
1820 Master of Dulwich College after Lancelot Baugh A's marriage.
Allen, John Hensleigh [II], 1818-1868.

Third child of John Hensleigh A [I]. Known as "Johnny" as a child. Colonial Office. Worked much amongst the London poor. ED's first cousin.

Married Margaretta Snelgar.
Allen, "Kitty", see Catherine A.
Allen, Lancelot Baugh, 1774-1845 Oct.

Seventh child of John Hensleigh A [I]. Known as Baugh. ED's uncle.

Married 1 Caroline Romilly 2 sons: 1. George Baugh; 2. Edmund Edward.

Married 2 Georgina Sarah Bayley 2 sons, 1 daughter: 1. Clement Frederick; 2. Elizabeth Jessie Jane; 3. Charles.
1811 Assistant Warden of Dulwich College.
1811-1820 Master of Dulwich College.
1819-1825. Solicitor, Police Magistrate.
Allen, Louisa Jane, 1771-1836.

Fifth child of John Bartlett A. Known as Jane or "Jenny". ED's aunt.
1794 Married John Wedgwood [IV].

Died suddenly at Shrewsbury when consulting Dr R. W. Darwin.
Allen, Margaretta, see Snelgar.

[page] 22

Allen, Octavia, 1779-1800.

Ninth child (eighth daughter) of John Bartlett A. Unmarried. ED's aunt.
Allen, "Sad", see Harriet A.
Allen, Sarah Elizabeth [I], 1768-1846 Mar. 31.

First child of John Bartlett A. Known as "Bessy". CD's mother-in-law.
1792 Married Josiah Wedgwood [II].
1833 Early this year had a stroke, damaging a foot, and never walked again. Was bedridden for about last ten years and later mentally ill as well.
Allen, Seymour Phillips, 1814-1861.

First child of John Hensleigh A [I]. ED's first cousin.
1843 Married Catherine Fellowes and had offspring.
Allfrey, Charles Henry, 1838/39-1912.

Physician of St Mary Cray and Chislehurst. Brent p. 505 spells "Alfrey".
1882 A attended CD in his terminal illness. Signed CD's death certificate which was at the Register, Bromley; copy at Cambridge 140.5. A was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Alvey, Elizabeth

Daughter of Matthew A. Origin of forename Alvey in family. Married John Hill. Erasmus D's grandmother. CD's great-great-grandmother.
Alvey, Frances, see Wymonsold.
Alvey, Matthew

Son of William A. CD's ancestor in fifth generation.
Alvey, William, ?-1649.

Married Frances Wymonsold. Father of Matthew A. CD's ancestor in 6th generation.
Alwyne, Mrs
1871 Played organ in Downe church.
"Amazon valley fauna"
1863 "Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 23:495-566, 2 col. plates, by H. W. Bates.

Review of [unsigned] by CD, Nat. Hist. Rev., 3:219-224 (Bii 87, F1725). An unsigned review of Henry Walter Bates, Naturalist on the River Amazons, is not considered a review by Darwin but in the printed catalogue in the Department of Printed Books in the British museum—Burkhardt. See also Naturalist on the river Amazons.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston.
1873 CD Foreign Honorary Member.
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

For their holdings in CD letters etc., see P. T. Carroll.
1870 CD Honorary Member.
"Ammonium carbonate"
1882 "The action of carbonate of ammonia on the roots of certain plants", J. Linn. Soc. Lond., (Bot.), 19:239-261 (Bii 236, F1800).

"The action of carbonate of ammonia on chlorophyll bodies", ibid., 19:262-284 (Bii 256, F1801).

Abstract of these two papers by Francis D, Nature, Lond., 25:489-490.
Ampthill Park
1826 Home of Sir James Mackintosh, lent to him by H. R. V. F. Holland, Baron Holland.
Anderson, John Parker

A was at Department of Printed Books, British Museum.
1887 In G. T. Bettany, Life of Charles Darwin, bibliography of CD and Darwiniana is the earliest source and still important.
Andersson, Nils Johan, 1821-1880.

Swedish botanist who visited Galapagos Islands in the frigate Eugenie. CD perhaps sent him first edition of Origin—LLii 172.

[page] 23

Angra do Heroisma, Capital of Terceira, Azores.
1836 Sep. 19-24 Beagle anchored off. CD visited.
Angulus Woolneri

The infolded point of the human ear, also called A. Woolnerianus and Darwin's peak—LLiii 140; Nature, Lond., Apr. 6, 1871. See also Woolner.
Animal intelligence
1882 George J. Romanes, Animal intelligence, London, International Scientific Series XLI. Extracts from CD's notes throughout (F1416). See also Stauffer 1975.

First foreign editions:
1883 USA (F1419).
1887 French (F1429).
Ann Green of Clifton

Historical novel by Ethel Winifred Baker, 1936, reprint 1974. Chapter 10 describes a childrens party at Cote House 1817, where the eponymous heroine, aged 8, meets CD and EW who are staying at the house. John Wedgwood is mentioned as having once owned the house, as is Thomas Wedgwood [II] as the first photographer. No evidence that CD or EW ever visited Cote.
?1865-1879 Domestic servant at Down House.
Ansted, David Thomas, 1814-1880.

Geologist. Prof. Geology King's College London.
1844 FRS.
1860 CD to about Origin and about Geological gossip, 1860, by A.—MLi 175.
Anthropological Society
1862 CD Honorary Fellow from foundation.
Anthropologische Gesellschafte, Vienna.
1872 CD Honorary Member.
1873 [letter] "Habits of ants", Nature, Lond. 8:244 (Bii 177, F1761); introducing a letter from James D. Hague.
"Ape", cartoonist, see Carlo Pellegrini.
Appleman, Philip
1970 Darwin, New York; extracts from CD's works selected by A (F1624).
Appleton, Mary

American spiritualist, known as "Molly". Sister of Thomas Gold A and Frances Elizabeth A (Mrs H. W. Longfellow). Married Robert Mackintosh.
Appleton, Thomas Gold, 1812-1884.

Spiritualist and poet. Better described as wit, literateur, interested in spiritualism. Brother of Mary A and Frances Elizabeth A (Mrs H. W. Longfellow).
1868 A called on CD at Freshwater, Isle of Wight.
Arding, Willoughby, 1805-1879.

Physician. Ashworth identifies CD's Edinburgh naturalist friend "Hardie" as A, but CD says that Hardie died early in India. A was at Bombay and then Wallingford, Berkshire.
Argyll, 8th Duke of, see George Douglas Campbell.

First editions in:
1877 Biographical sketch of an infant (F1310).
1896 Vegetable mould and worms (F1402).
1936 Origin of species (F630).
1949 Journal of researches (F168).
1959 Autobiography (F1510).
Armstrong, Robert

Physician at Royal Naval Hospital Plymouth and Inspector of Fleets.
1833 CD sent a large box of fossils to A for forwarding to Henslow—Darwin-Henslow 81.
Artizans' Dwelling Company
1871 CD took 10 shares at £100 each from John Royle Martin—Carroll 403.
1881 CD did not then own them—Atkins 96.

[page] 24

Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean.
1836 Jul. 19 Beagle arrived.

Jul. 20 CD ashore.
Ash, Edward John, 1799-1851.

Bursar of Christ's College Cambridge—Darwin-Henslow 120. Rector of Brisely and Vicar of Gateley, Yorkshire.
1831 Nov. 15 A failed to subtract furniture value from CD's final account with the College—LLi 215.
1836 or 1837 CD had dinner in A's rooms in Christ's College. DAR112.
Ashburner, Misses

Aunts of Sara Sedgwick. Their father was "the youth beloved" of Mrs John Opie's (née Amelia Alderson) poem "Forget me not".
1871 George D and Francis D stayed with them in USA.
Ashworth, Emily
1848 Married Edward Forbes.
Ashworth, James Hartley, 1874-1936.

Zoologist. Prof. Zoology Edinburgh. See also Plinian Society. WWH.
1917 FRS.
1935 "Charles Darwin as a student at Edinburgh", Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 55:97-113, esp. 103-104.
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta.
CD Honorary Member.
Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, London.
1838 Before Aug. CD elected member, one of 40 new members called "The 40 Thieves", proposed by Marquis of Landsdowne. CD used the Club a lot before marriage. See Barlow Autobiography 35.
1863 "On the so-called 'auditory-sac' of cirripedes", Nat. Hist. Rev., 3:115-116 (Bii 85, F1722).
Audubon, John James, 1780-1851.

American ornithologist. CD met and heard him lecture at Edinburgh. "Sneering somewhat unjustly at Waterton"—Barlow Autobiography 51.
1830 FRS.
1836 Jan. 12-Mar. 16 Beagle was at.
1839 "Farewell Australia! you are a rising infant and doubtless some day will reign a great princess in the south, but you are too great and ambitious for affection, yet not great enough for respect. I leave your shores without sorrow or regret"—J. Researches 538.
"Autobiographical Fragment"
1838 This autobiography of CD's early years was written in this year.
1903 Printed first in MLi 1-5.

Foreign editions:
1903 USA in stereo edition of ML.
1959 Russian, fragment alone.
1876 Written between late May and Aug. 3 with later additions. Ms title "Recollections of the development of my mind and character". Ms at Cambridge.
1887 first printed in LLi 26-160, with omissions which might possibly have caused offence to ED.
1892 Abbreviated version printed in Charles Darwin: his life, 5-54.
1958 Nora Barlow, editor, The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. With the original omissions restored, London (F1497): a retranscription of the original mss, which lists, 244-245, the more important omissions. See also Russian edition 1957 below.
1958 English braille edition based on Barlow (F1509).

First foreign editions:
1891 Polish (F1538).
1896 Russian (F1533).
1902 Spanish (F1544).
1908 USA (F1478).
1909 Danish (F1512).
1919 Italian (F1522).
1937 Serbian (F1542).
1948 Hebrew (F1520).
1949 Ukrainian (F1547).
1953 Latvian (F1526).
1955 Hungarian (F1521).

Armenian (F1510).

Bulgarian (F1511).

German (F1519).

Lithuanian (F1527).
1959 Slovene (F1534).
1962 Romanian (F1532).
1965 Korean (F1525).
1957 Russian (F1540) is an independent transcription from the ms and precedes Barlow 1958.

See also:
1908 The education of Darwin, Old South work Leaflets, 8:194 (F1478).
1903 A. C. Seward, editor, Darwin and modern science; autobiographical fragment (F1479).

[page] 25

Avebury, Baron, see Sir John Lubbock Bart.
Avebury, Lady, see Alice A. L. L. Fox.
Aveling, Dr Edward Bibbins, 1851-1898.

Medical practitioner, freethinker and crook. Took as common law wife Eleanor Marx, daughter of Karl Marx. See also H. K. Marx.
Oct. 12 A to CD. A wanted to dedicate a book on free thought to CD.

Oct. 13 CD declined.—P. Thomas Carroll and Ralph Colp (ref. not given).
1881 A visited Down House—LLi 317.
1881 The student's Darwin.
1882 Darwinism and small families.
1883 The religious views of Charles Darwin.
Azores, Atlantic Ocean.
1836 Sep. 19 Beagle anchored off Angra do Heroisma, capital of Terceira; CD visited Praya (Praia de Victoria).

Sep. 25 Beagle called at St Michael (Sāo Miguel) for letters and left for England.

[page 26]



Bernard Richard Meirion D's infant name for CD. Bernard D p. 27 spells "Baba".
Babbage, Charles, 1792-1871.

Mathematician. CD regularly attended his "famous evening parties" in London—Barlow Autobiography 108. "A man who did not seem to like his fellow men"—FUL 84. DNB.
1816 FRS.
1828-1839 Lucasian Prof. Mathematics Cambridge.
Babington, Charles Cardale, 1808-1895.

Botanist. DNB.
1851 FRS.
1861 Prof. Botany Cambridge, succeeding Henslow.
1863 Founded Cambridge Ray Club as a successor to Henslow's evenings.

CD and ED played two games every evening when they were at Down House for many years. He won most games, she most gammons.
1876 Jan. 28 CD to Gray "she poor creature has won only 2490 games, whilst I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games!"—EDii 221.
Bacon, Tobacconist of Cambridge.

The shop is now in the Market.
1828 CD lodged over his shop in Sidney St, "for a term or two"—LLi 163.
Baer, Karl Ernst, Ritter von, Edler von Huthorn, 1792-1876.

Embryologist. Born in Estonia of German parents who were Russian subjects. See J. A. Rogers, Isis, 64:488-493, 1972.
1867 Copley Medal of Royal Society.
1834- Librarian Academy of Sciences St Petersburg.
1860 Aug. B wrote to Huxley generally pro-Origin, although he never fully accepted CD's views—LLii 329.
1861 CD refers to B in Historical sketch.
Bagley, Major

CD to Catherine D mentions as if he was a Shrewsbury friend—D and Beagle p. 67-9.
Bagshaw's Directory

for Kent.
1847 described CD as "farmer"—Keith 44.
Bahia, see Salvador.
Bahia Blanca, Argentine.

A military outpost, known as Fort Antonio, separating the Pampas from Patagonia.
1832 Sep. 7-28 Beagle at.
1833 Aug. 25-Sep. 6 CD passed through on his journey from Rio Negro to Buenos Aires.
Bain, Alexander, 1818-1903.

Philosopher. Prof. Logic Aberdeen.
1873 CD to about B's theory of spontaneity. They had met at Moor Park Hydro—LLiii 172.

[page] 27


"Baily the poulterer"—MLi 139. A seller of fancy pigeons, poultry, rabbits in London.
circa 1851 Mentioned several times in LLii. CD arranged tickets for him to attend a lecture by Huxley—MLi 139. He was trying to get a half-lop rabbit for CD—MLi 181.
Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887.

American ornithologist.
1850-1878 Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Institution Washington.
1867 B showed Queries about expression to George Gibbs.
1878- Secretary.

A dealer in the fancy, London. B was trying to get a half-lop rabbit for CD—MLi 181.
Baker, Charles B.
1836 Dec. A missionary at Bay of Islands, New Zealand. CD was shown round by him. See also Thomas Kendall and John King.
Baker, Nathaniel

Civil Servant.
1875 Secretary to Vivisection Commission, to which CD gave evidence—LLiii 201.
Balfour, Sir Arthur James, Earl of Balfour, 1848-1930.

Cambridge friend of CD's sons. Statesman. DNB.
1882 Was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral, with Miss Balfour his sister.
1888 FRS.
1902-1905 Prime Minister.
1916 OM.
1922 1st Earl, KG.
Balfour, Francis Maitland, 1851-1882.

Embryologist. Strong personal friend of CD's sons at Cambridge.
1878 FRS.
1880 Jul. CD lunched with at Cambridge.
1881 Oct. B took tea with CD and ED at Cambridge. "He has a fair fortune of his own. He is very modest, and very pleasant, and often visits here [Down House] and we like him very much"—LLiii 251. B told George D that he had never seen an experiment carried out except under anaesthesia—LLiii 203.
1881 A treatise on comparative embryology, 2 vols.
1882 Prof. Animal Morphology Cambridge.
1882 B was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1882 Jul. Killed climbing on the Aiguille Blanche.
Bangor, Caernarvonshire.
1831 Aug. CD visited on geological trip with Sedgwick.
1843 Jun. CD visited.
Banks, Sir Joseph, 1743-1820.

1766 FRS.
1768-1771 Was with Cook on 1st voyage.
1778-1820 PRS.
"Bar of sandstone off Pernambuco"
1841 "On a remarkable bar of sandstone off Pernambuco, on the coast of Brazil", Phil. Mag., 19:257-260 (Bi 139, F266).

Foreign editions:

French [not traced].
1904 Portuguese (F268).
1936 Russian (F270).
1959 Portuguese, English, French, as a pamphlet, (F269).

[page] 28


A large house bug (Triatoma infestans, Reduviidae) of South America. Vector of Chagas disease q.v., also lives in burrows of armadilloes. Also called benchuca. Barbeiro is Portuguese meaning "barber". Vinchuca is Spanish meaning "insect which falls"—this is ? the same as I have for benchuca—New Scientist 1981, Oct. 31 for details of Chagas disease.
Barbier, Edmond (d. 1880)

Translator of CD's works into French.
1879 Summer, B visited Down House for lunch with Francisque Sarcey.
Lucy Barclay

Married Samuel John Galton. Mother of Samuel Tertius G.
Barellien, Mlle
1865 B taught Elizabeth D French at Down House.
Barlaston Lea, Staffordshire.

Home of Francis Wedgwood, near Upper House.
1852 CD and ED visited on journey to Rugby, Betley and Shrewsbury.
1866 Home of Clement Wedgwood on marriage.
1878 Jun. CD and ED visited.
Barlow, Mrs

"My father used to quote an unanswerable argument by which an old lady, a Mrs Barlow, who suspected him of unorthodoxy, hoped to convert him:—'Doctor, I know that sugar is sweet in my mouth, and I know that my Redeemer liveth'"—Barlow Autobiography 96.
Barlow, Lady Emma Nora, see Emma Nora Darwin.
Barlow, Erasmus Darwin

Son of Emma Nora and Sir James Alan Noel B. Father of Phyllida. Physician, psychiatrist, trained UCL.
Barlow, Hilda Horatia, 1919- .

Daughter of Emma Nora and Sir James Alan Noel B.
1944 Married John Hunter Padel. 3 sons, 2 daughters.
Barlow, Horace Basil, 1921- .

Son of Emma Nora and Sir James Alan Noel B.
1964 FRS.
until 1984
Royal Society Research Professor, Physiology, Cambridge, retired 1984.
Barlow, Sir James Alan Noel, Bart, 1881-1966.

Known as Alan. Civil Servant. WWH.
1947 GCB.
1948 2nd Bart.
1911 Married Emma Nora Darwin. 4 sons 2 daughters. See Emma Nora Darwin.
Barlow, Phyllida

Granddaughter of Emma Nora B. Married Fabian Peake.
Barlow, Sir Thomas Erasmus, Bart, 1914- .

Son of Emma Nora and Sir James Alan Noel B. DSC DL.
Barmouth, Caernarvonshire.
1828 Summer, CD went on a coaching holiday under G. A. Butterton.
1829 Jun. CD visited with F. W. Hope to collect beetles, but CD had to return home after two days owing to illness.
1831 CD visited alone after geological tour with Sedgwick.
1869 Jun. 10-Jul. 30 family holiday at Caerdeon, two miles east of, on north side of estuary.

"Then where does he do his barnacles?" This story of a child's misunderstanding is Lubbock's—MLi 38. For CD's work on barnacles see Cirripedia.
Barnard, Anne, see Henslow.
Barrande, Joachim, 1799-1883.

Invertebrate palaeontologist.
1855 CD to Huxley, CD to Lyell, CD had proposed him for Foreign Member of Royal Society. He was not elected—MLi 81, MLii 231.
Barrett, Paul E.
1977 Editor of The collected papers of Charles Darwin, 2 vols, Chicago. References to entries in this most useful work are given for each paper entered here as B, followed by volume and page number. See also Howard E. Gruber, Darwin's notebooks.
Barrow, Sir John, Bart, 1764-1848.

Civil Servant. DNB.
1805 FRS.
1835 1st Bart.
1836 B communicated Fitz-Roy's paper on Beagle voyage to J. R. Geogr. Soc., 6:311-343.
?1850 CD to E. Cresy, CD considered that naval expeditions, especially those in search of missing vessels, were a waste of money. Barrow was much in favour of them. "That old sinner"—MLi 68.

[page] 29

Bartlett, Abraham Dee, 1812-1897.
1859-1897 Superintendent, Zoological Society′s Gardens, Regent's Park, London. Frequently helped CD by answering queries and sending material.
Basket, Fuegia, ?1821-?1883.

Woman, native name Yokcushlu, of the Alakaluf tribe from the western islands of Tierra del Fuego.
1830 Mar. After one of the Beagle's boats was stolen B was captured as a hostage. She was named "Basket" to commemorate the return of the crew to the Beagle in a woven basket. Taken to England by Fitz-Roy, then aged about 9.
1833 Jan. 23 B returned in Beagle and aged only 12 married York Minster, q.v. She "daily increases in every direction except height"—Keynes p. xi.
1839 Fitz-Roy gives her name in Alikhoolip language as Yokcushlu.
?1843 "Captain Sulivan...heard from a sealer, that...he was astonished by a native woman coming on board who could talk some English. Without doubt this was Fuegia Basket. She lived (I fear the term bears a double interpretation) some days on board"—J. Researches, 1845, 229.
circa 1872, 1883
T. Bridges saw her, and again in 1883 when she was old and "nearing her end".
Bassett, North Stoneham, Southampton.
1862-1902 Ridgmount, home of William Erasmus D, sold on death of his wife Sarah.

FD of CD "Finding the cotyledons of Biophytum to be highly sensitive to vibrations of the table, he fancied that they might perceive the vibrations of sound, and therefore made me play my bassoon to it"—LLi 149.
Bateman, James, 1811-1897.

Botanist and plant breeder especially of orchids. Sent CD plants of Anagraecum sesquipedale, a native of Madagascar, which is now known to be fertilized by a sphingid moth, Xanthopan morgani, with proboscis about 25 cm. long.
Bates, Henry Walter 1825-1892.

Traveller and naturalist. Darwin-Bates correspondence published in R. M. Stecher, Ann. Sci., 25:1-47, 95-125, 1969. Biography: G. Woodcock 1969; H. P. Moon 1977. DNB.
1861 Married Sarah Ann Mason. 3 sons, 2 daughters.
1861 CD sent B 3rd edition of Origin—MLi 176.
1863 CD was most impressed by Naturalist on the river Amazons, "the best work on natural travels ever published in England"—LLii 381.
1863 Review of Amazons book, in Nat. Hist. Rev., 3:385-389, is almost certainly not by CD. It is attributed to CD in early printings of Everyman edition of the book and from there by British Museum printed catalogue.
1863 Review of B's paper on insect fauna of the Amazon valley, which discusses Batesian mimicry, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 23:495-566, in Nat. Hist. Rev., 3:219-224. An unsigned review of Henry Walter Bates, Naturalist on the River Amazons, is not considered a review by Darwin but in the printed catalogue in the Department of Printed Books in the British museum—Burkhardt.
1864-1892 Assistant Secretary to Geographical Society.
1881 FRS.

[page] 30

Bates, Marston, and Humphrey, Philip S.
1956 The Darwin reader, New York, (F1613), selections from CD's works by.
Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia.
1836 Jan. 20 CD visited from Sydney.
1949 A monument was erected to commemorate CD's visit 1836.
Baxter, Mr

Resident in Downe—Darwin-Innes 205.
Bayley, Georgina Sarah, ?-1859.
1841 Married as second wife Lancelot Baugh Allen.
Beagle [I]

His/Her Majesty's Ship, sometimes called by Fitz-Roy His Majesty's Surveying Vessel. Third of the name. Sloop brig rigged as a brig. Built at Woolwich on the Thames.
1820 May 11 launched.
1825 Rerigged as a barque.

Displacement 235 tons; length of gundeck 90′; extreme breadth 24′ 6″; keel for tonnage 73′ 7 7/8″; light draught 7′ 7″ forward, 9′ 5″ aft. [Measurements differ slightly.]

No. 41 of a class of 107 ten-gun brigs which were nicknamed "coffins", or "half-tide rocks", from their ability to go down as sea swept over waist in bad weather.

Guns varied, normally 7; 1 x 6 lb carronade, 2 x 6 lb fore guns, 2 x 6 lb aft guns, 2 x 9 lb, all brass.

Much error has appeared in descriptions of Beagle. Revell scale model (x cl/110) 1972. Best contemporary illustrations can be found together in A. Moorehead, Darwin and the Beagle, 1969. See N&R 62, much in error; J. R. Slevin, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 25:75-88, 1959; K. S. Thomson, Amer. Sci., 63:664-672, 1975. The original of the Philip Gidley King sketch of the layout is at the Mitchell Library, New South Wales.

To South America, in company with HMS Adventure, Captain P. P. King who commanded the expedition. Beagle commanded by Lieut. Pringle Stokes.
1826 Aug.-Nov. Acting command of Lieut. Skyring.
1828 Aug. 12 Stokes committed suicide, thereafter commanded by Fitz-Roy.

Beagle [I], First voyage—Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Extracted from a journal of the surveying expedition composed of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle. 1830 United Services Journal part 2:461-67 (Oct.), 671-9 (Nov.), 793-800 (Dec.). John Lort Stokes copy shown to me by MEK 1980 Feb. 23.

To South America and round the world 1831 Dec. 27 to 1836 Oct. 2. Total time away from England 1737 days (1835 Nov. 15 crossed date line, one day lost). Commanded by Commander Fitz-Roy, Captain 1835 Dec.

On second voyage carried 2 9lb guns and 4 carronades; special fittings included upper deck raised 8-12″, Lihou's rudder, Harris's conductors on all masts, 22 chronometers: 11 government, 6 Fitz-Roy, 4 on loan from makers, 1 Lord Ashburnham.

Complement 74; 16 are listed by name in Narrative ii, and without names Acting Boatswain, Sergeant of Marines and 7 privates, 34 seamen and 6 boys. There were 4 supernumeraries who are named, including CD, 3 Fuegians, Fitz-Roy's steward and CD's servant Syms Covington, who started as one of the boys. Complement varied; list 1836 Oct. at Down House, CD Diary 1832 Jul. 24 "76 souls on board 1 Sgt + 8 marines, 34 seamen, 10 idlers, 2 petty officers, 14 officers, 5 extras (3 Fuegians, CD and Earle).

CD on board as supernumerary, a guest of Fitz-Roy, throughout voyage, but often on shore when Beagle was surveying.

Details of day-to-day positions and ports of call are given in Narrative, Vol. II appendix. The following is only a summary:
1831 Nov. 5 CD and Fitz-Roy boarded; 16 sailed, but returned to Barn Pool below Mount Edgecombe; Dec. 21 sailed, but again put back; Dec. 27 sailed.
1832 Jan. 7 Santa Cruz, Tenerife; Jan. 7-Feb. 8 Porto Praya, Cape Verde Islands; Feb. 16-17 St Paul's Rocks; Feb. 20 Fernando de Noronha; Feb. 28-Mar. 18 Salvador; Mar. 29 Abrolhos; Apr. 5-May 10 Rio de Janeiro; Apr. 16-23 Salvador; Jun. 4-Jul. 5 Rio de Janeiro; Jul. 26-31 Monte Video; Aug. 3-19 Monte Video; Sep. 7-28 Blanco Bay; Oct. 6-17 Blanco Bay; Oct. 25-30 Monte Video; Nov. 2-10 Buenos Aires; Nov. 14-27 Monte Video; Dec. 18-19 Good Success Bay; Dec. 24-30 San Martin Cove.

[page] 31

1833 Jan. 15-Feb. 8 Tierra del Fuego waters; Mar. 1-Apr. 6 Berkeley Sound; Apr. 26-Jul. 24 Monte Video and Maldonado; Aug. 25-Sep. 6 Blanco Bay; Aug. 16-23 Monte Video and Maldonado; Oct. 4-Dec. 5 Monte Video and Maldonado; Oct. 24-[1834 Jan. 4] Port Desire.
1834 [1833 Oct. 24]-Jan. 4 Port Desire; Jan. 10-18 Port Julian; Feb. 2-10 Port Famine; Feb. 12-Mar. 12 Tierra del Fuego waters; Mar. 13-Apr. 5 Port Louis, Falkland Islands; Apr. 13-May 11 Santa Cruz River; Jun. 1-8 Port Famine; Jun. 9-12 Tierra del Fuego waters; Jun. 29-Jul. 14 Chiloe; Jul. 23-Nov. 11 Valparaiso; Nov. 22-[1835 Feb. 7] Chiloe and Chonos Archipelago.
1835 [1834 Nov. 22]-Feb. 7 Chiloe and Chonos Archipelago; Feb. 9-21 Valdivia; Mar. 4-7 Concepcion; Mar. 12-17 Valparaiso; May 4-Jun. 6 Herradura; May 14-29 Valparaiso; Jul. 3-6 Copiapó Jul. 13-14 Iquique; Jul. 20-Sep. 7 Callao; Sept. 16-Oct. 20 Galapagos Islands; Nov. 15-26 Tahiti; Dec. 21-30 Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
1836 Jan. 12-30 Sydney Cove; Feb. 4-17 Storm Bay and Hobart; Mar. 6-16 King George Sound; Apr. 2-12 Cocos Keeling Islands; Apr. 29-May 9 Port Louis, Mauritius; Jun. 1-17 Simon Bay, Cape Colony; Jul. 8-14 St Helena; Jul. 20-23 Ascension; Aug. 1-6 Salvador; Aug. 13-17 Pernambuco; Aug. 31-Sep. Porto Praya, Cape Verde Islands; Sep. 19-21 Angro, Azores; Sep. 24 St Michael, Azores; Oct. 2 Falmouth, CD disembarked; Oct. 5-17 Plymouth; Oct. 28-Nov. 6 Greenwich; Nov. 6 voyage ended at Woolwich; Nov. 17 paid off.

During the South American part of the voyage, Fitz-Roy used up to 7 inshore vessels: 4 schooners for inshore surveying work, Adventure [II], La Liebre, La Paz qq.v., and one, of 35 tons, whose name is not given, which was at first, 1835 Jun., loaned by Antonio José Vascunan of Coquimbo, when B. J. Sullivan surveyed parts of Chile coast. It was later bought, and A. B. Usborne surveyed the whole coast of Peru after Beagle left for Galapagos Is; finally sold at Paita, Peru—Fitz-Roy, J. R. Geogr. Soc., 6: 311-343, 1836.

[page] 32


To New Zealand and Australia.
1837-1841 Under command of Captain J. C. Wickham until he retired through ill-health.
1841-1843 Captain J. L. Stokes.
1843 Nov. 17 finally paid off.

Later history:
1845-1870 Coastguard Watch Vessel on river Roach, near Pagglesham, Essex, with masts and all gear removed.
1863 Name removed and numbered W. V. 7.
1870 May 13 sold to Murray & Trainer for scrap and towed to Thames estuary.
1888 Beagle stated in Nature, Lond., 37:443 to have been sold to Japan was not CD's Beagle, but the 4th of the name, a paddle steamer which had seen service in the Crimean war 1854.

It is confused with Beagle, 3rd of the name, in de Beer, Notes and Records 62, 1959, and by H. E. L. Mellersh, Fitzroy of the Beagle, 1968.
Beagle [II]
1964 Research vessel of Darwin Research Station, Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands.
Beagle [III]

A two-masted schooner.
Beagle [IV]

A cabin cruiser which replaced Beagle [III] in 1981.
Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Chile/Argentine.

Divides Isla Grande to the north from I. Hoste and I. Navarino to the south. Surveyed and named on 1st voyage of Beagle.
Beagle, Geology of, see Geology of the voyage etc.
Beagle Islands

Small islands in Galapagos group between James and Indefatigable Is.
1892 Official Ecuadorian name.
Beagle, Voyage of, see Narrative of the surveying voyages etc., and Journal of researches etc.
Beagle, Zoology of, see Zoology of the Beagle.
1857 "Bees and the fertilisation of kidney beans", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 43: 725 (Bi 275, F1697).
1858 "On the agency of bees in the fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers and on the crossing of kidney beans", Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2:459-465 (Bii 19), Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 46:828-829 (F1701).
Bear-Whale Story, see Whale-Bear story.
Beaton, Donald, 1802-1863.

Plant breeder, working gardener and hybridizer. See Britten and Boulger.
1861 CD "I can plainly see that he is not to be trusted"—MLi 268.
1863 B's assertion against G. F. von Gaertner's work is controverted by CD in Cottage Gardener 29:93.

Find out where B worked from ibid. 30:266, 385, 415.

B's reply to CD in ibid. 29:70-71, influence of pollen on the appearance of seed.
Beaufort, Rear Admiral Sir Francis, 1774-1857.

Originator of the Beaufort Scale of wind speeds. Was a personal friend of Fitz-Roy. A. Friendly Beaufort of the Admiralty 1977. DNB.
1803 B visited CD's father at Shrewsbury re skin disease.
1814 FRS.
1829-1855 Hydrographer to the Navy.
1832 B offered CD post on Beagle through G. Peacock.
1832-1836 Fitz-Roy's letters to B, during 2nd voyage of Beagle, contain many comments on CD; extracts in Francis D, Nature, Lond., 88:547-548, 1912; Barlow, Cornhill, 72:493-510, 1932.
1848 KCB.

[page] 33


See also "Humble bees".
1857 "Bees and the fertilisation of kidney beans", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 43:725 (Bi 275, F1697).
1858 "On the agency of bees in the fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers and on the crossing of kidney beans", Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2:459-465 (Bii 19), Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 46:828-829.
1874 "Recent researches on termites and honey bees", Nature, Lond., 9:308-309 (Bii 182, F1768), introducing letter from Fritz Müller.
Beesby, Lincolnshire.
1845 CD bought a farm for £13,592 borrowed from his father; rent 1845 £377, 1877 £555 16s.
1845 Sep. CD visited "to see a farm I have purchased"—LLi 342, Keith 222.
1881 CD still owned it—Atkins 100.
CD collected avidly when at Cambridge, encouraged by W. D. Fox. His early collecting records are published in J. F. Stephens, Illustrations of British entomology, 1828-1835, suppl., 1846, about thirty records in first 5 vols of Mandibulata.
1829 Feb. 20 F. W. Hope gave CD specimens of about 160 species of British beetles in London—LLi 174.
1829 CD went on beetle collecting tour with Hope to Barmouth, but CD was ill and had to return to Shrewsbury after two days.
1859 ["Records of beetles at Downe"], Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer, 6:99 (Bii 292, F1703), a note signed by Francis, Leonard and Horace D, who were 10, 8 and 7 years old, clearly written by CD—LLii 240.
Behrens, Wilhelm Julius, 1854-1903.
1878 CD to on fertilisation of plants by insects, praising C. K. Sprengel, and thanking B for sending his Geschichte der Bestaubungs-Theorie, Progr. K. Gewerbschule zu Elberfeld, 1877-1878—LLiii 282.
1827 CD visited on a spring tour.
Bell Mountain, Chile. See Campana.
Bell, Lady Caroline
1836 "Lady Caroline Bell, at whose house I dined at the C. of Good Hope, admired Herschel much, but said that he always came into a room as if he knew that his hands were dirty, and that he knew that his wife knew that they were dirty"—Barlow Autobiography 107.
Bell, Sir Charles 1774-1842.

Physician and surgeon. Probably the greatest human anatomist of 19th century. DNB.
CD had high admiration of his Anatomy and philosophy of expression, 1806, quoting in Expression from 3rd edition 1844 which has B's latest corrections. "Admirable work on expression"—Barlow Autobiography 138.
1812-1836 Surgeon to Middlesex Hospital.
1826 FRS.
1836-1842 Prof. Surgery Edinburgh.

[page] 34

Bell, Thomas 1792-1880.

Physician, dental surgeon and zoologist. He was the first dental surgeon to be registered. Prof. Zoology King's College London. Often at Down House in the early years. Retired to The Wakes, Selbourne, Hampshire, Gilbert White's house. DNB.
1828 FRS.

B wrote Reptiles for Zoology of the Beagle, and delayed completion for nearly two years through procrastination and ill-health.
1861 CD dined with B at Linnean Club, "Bell has a real good heart"—MLi 185.
Belloc, Anne-Louise Swanton, 1796-1881.

Translator from English into French.
1859 Dec. CD to ?Quatrefages, B considered translating Origin, but found it technically too difficult—Carroll 183, 192.
Belt, Thomas, 1832-1878.

Engineer, geologist and naturalist.
1874 CD to Hooker, refers to Naturalist in Nicaragua 1874, about glacial period—LLii 361.
1874 CD to Hooker, "It appears to me the best of all natural history journals which have ever been published", "untimely death may well be deplored by naturalists"—LLiii 188.
Bemmelen, Adrian Anthoni van, 1830-1897.

Ornithologist; Chairman of Netherland Zool. Soc. for 17 years.
Bemmelen, Prof. J. A. van
1877 B sent album of 217 photographs of Dutch distinguished men for CD's 68th birthday.
Benchuca Bug

A large house bug of South America (Triatoma infestans, Reduviidae). Vector of Chagas disease q.v. Also lives in burrows of armadilloes. Another name for Barbeiro. See other bug entries and under Luxan and Iquique.
1835 Mar. ?25 "It is most disgusting to feel soft wingless insects, about an inch long, crawling over one's body". In the same para CD mentions feeding one at Iquique—Diary pp. 296-8, Keynes p. 271.
Bennett, Alfred William, 1833-1902.

1874 CD to B, when B had ceased to be assistant editor of Nature, asking for return of wood blocks for first edition of Climbing plants, 1865—Carroll 438.
Bennett, James 1804-?

Born Devonport. Served on Arrogant with Fitz-Roy.
1830-1831 Gunner's Mate of Beagle on first voyage. Remained with Fitz-Roy and looked after the four, later after the death of Boat Memory, three, Fuegians when they were in England.

Acted as "Captain's Coxswain" no such rank on 2nd voyage from time to time. On part of 3rd voyage. "A most deserving and long tried companion in many difficulties"—Fitz-Roy.
Bennett, Mary
1841 CD's children's nurse.
Bentham, Mr

Of Holwood, Downe.
1865 Sep. called at Down House. Apparently a new neighbour. ED liked him.
Bentham, George, 1800-1884.

Son of Sir Samuel B. Nephew of Jeremy B. Botanist. Biography: Jackson 1906, DNB.
1844 CD discussed flora of Sandwich Islands with.
1854 B presented his books and herbarium to Kew and worked there daily.
1858 Jul. 28 CD "I have ordered Bentham, for, as — says, it will be very curious to see a Flora written by a man who knows nothing of British plants"—LLii 131.

Jul. 30 "I have got Bentham and am charmed with it". These two quotations refer to Handbook of the British flora, 1858, which remained in print for more than 100 years.
1859 B accepted evolution.
1862 FRS.
1862 B approved of Orchids in his Presidential address to Linnean Society.
1882 B was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.

[page 35]

Beob, Miss
1865 Governess at Down House for six months.
Berkeley Sound, East Falkland Island.
1833, 1834
1833 Mar. 1-Apr. 6, 1834 Mar. 10-Apr. 7 Beagle anchored at. CD there only in 1834.
Berkeley, Rev. Miles Joseph, 1803-1889.

Mycologist. Vicar of Sibbertoft, Northamptonshire. Dyer described B as "the virtual founder of British mycology". See Edible fungus from Tierra del Fuego. DNB.
1862 Jun. 14 B reviewed Orchids in London. Rev.
1868 CD thanks B for sending a copy of his Presidential address to Section D of British Association at Norwich—MLi 309.
1879 FRS.
Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie
1877 CD Corresponding Member.
"Bessy", see Harding
Betley, Staffordshire, near Maer.

Betley Hall. Home of G. Tollet. CD and ED often visited in childhood.
1852 Apr. CD and ED visited on journey to Rugby, Barlaston and Shrewsbury.
Betsey, ?1865-1879.

Domestic servant at Down House.
Bettany, George Thomas, 1850-1892.

1887 Life of Charles Darwin, London, Great Writers Series, is the earliest biography of CD other than obituaries and Miall's lecture. Chiefly useful for J. P. Anderson's bibliography pp. i-xxxi.
Biddulph, Frances, 1833-1890.

Eldest child of R. M. B. and Frances Mostyn Owen B.
Biddulph, Robert
Married Charlotte Myddelton.
Biddulph, Col. Robert Myddelton, 1805-1872.

Of Chirk Castle, Denbigh. Eldest son of Robert Biddulph.
1832 Married Frances ("Fanny") Owen. 3 sons, 3 daughters.
"Biographical Sketch of an Infant"
1877 "A biographical sketch of an infant", Mind, 2:285-294 (Bii 191, F1305). Observations made by CD 1839-1841 on his first born child William Erasmus D, written as a result of a paper on the same subject by Hippolyte Taine, a translation of which appeared in the previous number of Mind 252.

First foreign editions:
1877 French (F1311), German (F1312), Russian (F1314).
1914 Armenian (F1310).
1956 USA (F1309).
1880 ["On the bodily and mental development of infants"], Nature, Lond., 74: 565 (Bii 732, F1797), report of a letter from CD to a social science meeting at Saratoga, N.Y.
Biological Society of Washington
1882 May 12 held a Darwin Memorial meeting, the first such. Proceedings published in Smithson. Misc. Coll., 25.

[page] 36

Bird, Mr
1831 B sent a fly to CD through Henslow—Darwin and Henslow 27.
Bird, Isabella L., 1832-1904.

Traveller and japanophile.
1881 Married John Bishop.
1896 "It (Origin of species) has also, according to Miss Bird, been translated into Japanese, and is there much studied"—LLi p. 86. First is 1896.
Bird Talisman, The

A fairy story by Henry Allen Wedgwood.
1852 1. The Family Tutor, 3: 49-52, 89-92, 108-111, 143-146, 168-171, 208-212, 234-237.
1887 2. Printed privately as a book, at Cambridge University Press, for CD's grandchildren, at the instigation of and with a 4-line preface by ED. No. 2 is the second of ED's only printed works.
1939 3. Only published edition as a book, illustrated by Gwen Raverat, W's great-niece and ED's grand-daughter.
Birmingham, Warwickshire.
1829 CD visited with Wedgwoods for music meeting.
1839 Aug. 26-Sep. 11 CD visited for British Association meeting.
1849 Sep. 11-21 CD visited for British Association meeting.
Bishop's Castle, Shropshire.
1832 Jul. CD had a holiday at with sister Susan Elizabeth.
Bismarck, see Elephant tree.
Blair, Rev. Robert Hugh

Head of Worcester College for the Blind.
1872 B helped CD with observations on expression in the blind—MLii 109.
Blair, Rueben A.

Of Sedalia, Missouri.
1877 CD to about damaged goose wing and inheritance of similar damage by offspring—Carroll 529 seq.
1881 CD to B about Mastodon remains and B's daughter's love of natural history, "I hope that the study of natural history may give your daughter a large share of the satisfaction which the study has given me"—Carroll 593.
Blane, Robert, 1809-1871.

Officer in 2nd Life Guards. Cambridge friend of CD.
1854-1855 Assistant Adjutant General and Military Secretary.
1860 Colonel.
Blomefield, Leonard, see Jenyns.
1886 Francis Darwin. "On the relation between the 'bloom' on leaves and distribution of the stomata", J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 22:99-116 (F1805). Contains results obtained by Francis D working as research assistant to CD in 1878.
Blunt, Thomas

A pharmacist in Shrewsbury. CD bought distilled water from him for his chemistry—Brent p. 32. Biographical note on—MLi 62. Wrote under pseudonyms "Zoophilus" and "Z". DNB.
Blyth, Edward, 1810-1873.

Zoologist. Neglected his druggist business at Tooting in favour of natural history and got into financial difficulties—LLii 315. Helped greatly with Variation.
1835, 1837
His early views on natural selection maintaining fixity of species 1835 Mag. Nat. Hist. 8: 40-53 and 1837 n.s. 1:1-9. L. Eiseley maintains that CD deliberately plagiarized the idea of natural from these articles— Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 103:94-114, reprinted in Darwin and the mysterious Mr. X, pp. 42-80, 1979.
1844-1862 Zoological Curator of Museum of Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta.
1855 B drew CD's attention to Wallace's species paper of that year.
1860 May, B wrote to CD in favour of Origin. CD to Hooker, praising B's knowledge of Indian zoology, "He is a very clever, odd, wild fellow, who will never do what he could do, from not sticking to any one subject"—MLi 63.
1868 Mar. visited CD at Down House.

[page] 37

Blytt, Axel Gudbrand, 1843-1898.

Botanist. Prof. Botany Christiania.
1876 B sent CD his work on Norwegian flora, Essay on the immigration of the Norwegian flora. CD much approved of it—LLiii 215, 248, MLii 11.
Boat Memory, ?-1830.

Alakaluf man from Tierra del Fuego. "A great favourite with all who knew him...a pleasing intelligent appearance...quite an exception to the general character of the Fuegians, having good features and a well-proportioned frame"—Fitz-Roy, Narrative 10. Was, unusually, a good swimmer.
1830 Apr. captured as hostage for stolen boat.
1830 Aged about 20 taken to England by Fitz-Roy.
1830 Nov. died of smallpox in Plymouth Naval Hospital.
Bob, Bobby
1870 A large half-bred black and white dog at Down House. See Expression 64.
1893 A robin which Henrietta part tamed at Down House.
Boehm, Sir Joseph Edgar, Bart, 1834-1890.

Sculptor. 1st Bart.
1882 RA.
1883 B made statue of CD at British Museum (Natural History); life-size stone, seated in stylized chair.
1885 Jun. 9 unveiled by Huxley in presence of Prince of Wales. Admiral Sulivan and Parslow were also present.

There is also a half-size copy by the artist.
1887 B carved the deep medallion in Westminster Abbey. B was paid £2,100 for the statue and £150 for the medallion.
Bolton, Thomas

Commercial aquarist of 146 High Holborn, London, and of Birmingham. Supplied CD with artificial sea salt for experiments on the longevity of seeds—Allan 152.
Bonn, University of
1868 CD Honorary Doctor of Medicine and Surgery.

Bernard D's infant nickname for Horace D because Bernard called engines "boo-boos"—Bernard D p. 52.
1879 With "Abbety", "Mim", "Lenny" (Leonard D) and "Babba" (CD) were Bernard Richard Meirion D's nicknames for the family at Down House. None is ED.
Boole, Mrs Mary Everest, 1832-1916.

Mathematician. Widow of George B.
1866 B writes to CD about his views on God and receives a characteristic answer—LLiii 63.
Boott, Dr Francis, 1792-1863.

American physician and botanist working in England.
1838 Aug. CD dined with at Athenaeum.
1856 Aug. 20 Gray to CD "Boott lately sent me your photograph which (though not a very perfect one) I am well pleased to have"—MLi 428.
1860 Mar. 8 CD to Gray, CD has had a long letter from B "full of the most noble love of truth and candour. He goes far with me but cannot swallow all. No one could until he had enlarged his gullet by years of practice, as in my own case"—Darwin-Gray 76.

[page] 38

Bosquet, Joseph Augustin Hubert de, 1814-1880.

Belgian carcinologist of Maestricht.
1854 CD sent him copy of Living Cirripedia—MLi 75.
1856 B named Chthamalus darwini, a fossil barnacle from the Chalk, for CD and sent him specimen—MLi 97.
1856 CD to B who was apparently also interested in carrier pigeons—Carroll 138.
Boston Society of Natural History
1873 CD Honorary Member.
Bosworthick, John

Old shipmate of FR. Ropemaker on Beagle second voyage.
Botanic Garden, Cambridge.

New Botanic Garden, Trumpington Rd. Holds CD's set of Gardeners' Chronicle.
1846 Opened.
Botofogo Bay, Argentine.

Used as a base and address by CD. Described as the "Brighton of Rio".
Boucher de Crèvecoeur de Perthes, Jacques, 1788-1868.

French geologist. Archaeologist. Director of Customs, Abbeville.
1847 B, in Antiquités Celtiques, described flint artefacts with bones of rhinoceros and hyaena at Abbeville.
1863 CD complains to Lyell that L had not done B justice in Antiquity of man, "Must be a very amiable man"—LLiii 13, 15-16.
Bournemouth, Hampshire.
1862 Sep. 1-27 CD on family holiday after visit to William Erasmus D at Southampton.
Bowcher, Frank, ?-1938.

Sculptor and engraver.
1908 B designed Darwin-Wallace medal for Linnean Society. WWH.
Bowen, Charles Synge, Baron Bowen, 1835-1894.

Father of Ethel Kate B.
Bowen, Ethel Kate

Daughter of Charles Synge B, Baron Bowen. Married Josiah Clement Wedgwood as first wife.
Bowen, Francis, 1811-1890.

American theologian.
1853-1889 Prof. Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy and Civil Polity, Harvard.
1860 Anti-Origin reviews in Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. and N. Amer. Rev. (of which he was editor).
Bowerbank, James Scott, 1797-1877.

Distiller. A founder of London Clay Club.
1842 FRS.
1851, 1854 Secretary of the Palaeontographical Society when CD published Fossil cirripedes.
1864-82 Best known work British Spongiadae, 4 vols.
Bowman, Sir William, Bart, 1816-1892.

Ophthalmic surgeon. DNB.
1841 FRS.
1868 CD had called on him in London, but he was away. He had done some kindness to one of CD's sons—MLii 98, Carroll 301.

Provided much information for Expression—LLiii 134, MLii 98, Expression 160, 192.
1882 B was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1884 1st Bart.
Brace, Rev. Charles Loring, 1826-1890.

American philanthropist and practical christian.
1872 Summer, visited Down House—LLiii 165.
Bradley, George Granville, 1821-1903.
1881-1902 Dean of Westminster Abbey.
B's name is on admission cards for CD's funeral. He was abroad at the time and sent his consent by telegram "Oui sans aucune hésitation regrette mon absence".

[page] 39


English Braille editions of CD's works:
1916 Journal of researches (F168).
1934 Origin of species (F629).
1962 Autobiography (F1509).
Brass Close

Darwin family estate at Marton, Lincolnshire.
Ann D. née Waring, bequeathed in her will, dated 1722 May 18, "the rents from Brass Close for four poor widows" who were to be provided with "4 grey coats" with a badge of red cloth "cut in the shape of Two Great Roman Letters A.D."
1879 Leonard D visited Kirton when the piece of land was known as "Darwin's Charity".
Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich, 1805-1877.

German botanist.
1864 B was an early convert to CD's views on species.
1864 CD to D. B. Walsh—MLi 259.
Brayley, Edward William, 1802-1870.

Geologist. A free-lance lecturer. See Brayley testimonials.
1854 FRS.
Brayley Testimonials
1845 Additional testimonials submitted to the Council of University College, London, By Edward William Brayley...a candidate for the Professorship of Geology, London, Richard & John E. Taylor printed (F324). CD's testimonial p. [7]. CD did not contribute to the earlier testimonials, for the same chair, of 1841. The chair was not filled because the College could not find the salary.
Brazil, Emperor of, Pedro II, 1825-1891.
1878 Jun. expressed a wish, whilst in England, to meet CD, but CD was away from home.
Bree, Charles Robert, 1811-1886.

Naturalist and anti-Darwinian.
1860 Species not transmutable, nor the result of secondary causes, London. CD's comments on—LLii 358.
1860 CD to Hooker, "You need not attempt Bree", "He in fact doubts my deliberate word, and that is the act of a man who has not the soul of a gentleman in him"—MLi 174.
1872 An exposition of the fallacies in the hypothesis of Mr. Darwin, London. See Bree on Darwinism, Nature, Lond., 6:279 (F1756).
Brehm, Alfred Edmund, 1829-1884.

German ornithologist and writer on popular natural history.
Illustriertes Thierleben, 6 vols, Hildburghausen.
1868 CD to the publishers about an English translation, not recommending it; one never appeared. CD used fourteen illustrations from it in Descent—Carroll 351.
Brent, Mr
1855 or 1856 A member of the Columbarian Society q.v.

[page] 40

Breslau, University of
1862 CD Honorary Doctor in Medicine and Surgery.
Bressa Prize
1879 Awarded to CD by Reale Accademia della Scienze. Turin. 12,000 francs. CD gave £100 from it to the Zoologische Station at Naples.
Bridge, Sir [John] Frederick, 1844-1924.

Organist and composer.
1875-1918. Organist at Westminster Abbey.
1882 B composed and played anthem for CD's funeral, "Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding..."—Proverbs iii 13-17.
1897 Kt.
Bridges, Esteban Lucas, christened Stephen, 1874-1949.

Farmer in Tierra del Fuego. Second son of Thomas B. Born at Ushuaia and spent most of his life at Harberton.
1948 Uttermost part of the earth, New York, contains later information on the three Fuegians who returned home on 2nd voyage of Beagle. Chapter 1 is about Beagle voyages; also detailed information on Indian tribes, especially Yahgan.
Bridges, Thomas, 1841-1898.

Missionary and later farmer in Tierra del Fuego. See E. L. Bridges above, and Freeman and Gautrey, J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist., 7:259-263, 1975.
1856 B arrived at Keppel Island Mission Station, West Falkland Islands.
1860 CD sent some preliminary queries about expression to—information from Admiral Sulivan about—LLiii 127.
1871 Oct. set up home at Stirling House, Ushuaia.
1887 Built farm at Harberton.
Briggs, Mark

Coachman to Robert Waring Darwin [II] and later to Susan Elizabeth D until her death 1866.
1832 Married Anne Latham, a laundrymaid at The Mount.
1875 Alive.
Brighton, Sussex.
1853 Jul. CD visited on day trip from Eastbourne.
Brinton, William, 1823-1867.

Physician. Specialist on the stomach at St Thomas's Hospital, London.
1863 Oct. and Dec. CD saw, on the recommendation of George Busk, during his six months illness.
1864 FRS.
Brisbane, Matthew, 1787/8-1833.

First British Resident at Falkland Islands. Scottish. Was in employ of Louis Vernet who held Falkland Is from Spanish Government in Argentine.
1833 Aug. 26 murdered in an uprising of imported South American labour at Port Louis.
1834 CD, from Port Louis, to C. Lumb, "Such scenes of fierce revenge, cold-blooded treachery, and villany in every form, have been here transacted as few can equal it"—J. H. Winslow, J. Hist. Geogr., 1:347-360, 1975.
Bristowe, Mrs, ?-1829.

Sister of W. Darwin Fox.
1827 CD to F mentions F's two charming sisters—Carroll 2.
1829 CD to F condoling on her early death—LLi 177.
British Association for the Advancement of Science
1831 Founded and first met at York.

CD went to meetings at:
1839 Birmingham.
?1843 Carroll 32 seems to indicate that he was at Cork in 1843, but there is no other evidence that CD was ever in Ireland except for a brief visit to Belfast and Dublin 1838.
1846 Southampton.
1847 Oxford.
1849 Birmingham (at which he was a Vice-President).
1855 Glasgow (his last).

[page] 41

British Association for the Advancement of Science, continued.
1860 Oxford; details of the Huxley/Wilberforce controversy at this meeting in LLii 320-323, MLi 156. There are many other versions of what was said, none of them verbatim. An excellent one in Life of Newton, 118-121.
1860 "When Professors lose their tempers and solemnly avow they would rather be descended from apes than Bishops; and when pretentious sciolists seriously enunciate follies and platitudes of the most wonderful absurdity and draw upon their heads crushing refutations from the truly learned"—Guardian, Jul. 4:593.
1892 Short life of CD, 236-242 gives an extended version.
1900 Tuckwell, Reminiscences of Oxford, 50.
1923 Huxley "There was inextinguishable laughter among the people, and they listened to the rest of my argument with great attention"—Nature, Lond., 920.
1958 "The Bishop...had turned to Huxley and mockingly asked him whether he reckoned his descent from an ape on his grandfather's or on his grandmother's side?—to which Huxley retorted 'If the question is put to me, would I rather have a miserable ape for a grandfather or a man highly endowed by nature and possessing great means and influence, and yet who employs those faculties and that influence for the mere purpose of introducing ridicule into a grave scientific discussion—I unhesitatingly affirm my preference for the ape'"—Ellegård, Darwin and the general reader, 68.
1891 Huxley to Francis D "When he turned to me with his insolent question, I said to Sir Benjamin [Brodie] in an undertone, 'The Lord hath delivered him into my hands'"—Short life, 240.
after 1860
Many Presidential Addresses and addresses by Presidents of Section D, after 1860, give an excellent summary of the progress of evolutionary thought.
British Museum, Trustees
1848 Enquiry by the Trustees of the British Museum, (F345), contains letter from CD to R. I. Murchison—MLi 109.
British Museum (Natural History)
1866 Memorial to the Chancellor of the Exchequer [on transfer of natural history collections from British Museum, Bloomsbury, to South Kensington], signed by CD and 24 others (F869), 1873 [Letter from P. L. Sclater containing text of 1866 Memorial], Nature, Lond., 9:41 (F870). 1875 British Museum (Natural History) established in Cromwell Rd, South Kensington.

[page] 42

Broderip, William John, 1789-1859.

Barrister and conchologist. DNB.
1828 FRS.
B assisted Philip Parker King in description of molluscs and cirripedes from 1st voyage of Beagle, printed in Zool. J., 1839 and Vol. I of Narrative, 545-556, 1839.
Brodie, ?-1873.
1842-1851 Scottish nurse at Down House. Came from previous service with the Thackerays and Anne Thackeray (Mrs Richmond Ritchie).
after 1851
Left after death of Anne Elizabeth D in 1851 and returned to family home at Portsoy, Scotland. Continued to visit. ED wrote to her often, but she had a monomania that she was forgotten—EDii 214.
Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins, Bart, 1783-1862.

Physician. DNB.
1810 FRS.
1853 ED consulted.
1860 Apr. CD went to reception at his house.
1860 Jun. B sat next to Huxley during Wilberforce's speech at Oxford British Association.
Bronn, Heinrich Georg, 1800-1862.

German palaeontologist and zoologist. Prof. Natural History Heidelberg.
1860 B translated Origin, adding his own notes at CD's suggestion and slightly altering the text. CD was not pleased with the result—MLi 139, 172.
Brooke, Rajah Sir Charles Anthony Johnson (né Johnson), 1829-1917.

Second British Rajah of Sarawak.
1868 B succeeded his uncle, Sir James B (1803-1868).
1870 Nov. 30 B answered CD's Queries about expression from Sarawak.
1888 GCMG.

An outdoor servant at Down House. Foulmouthed and morose. Lived in a cottage close to cowhouse. Wife Keziah, son private in Guards—Francis D Springtime p. 57.
Broom, Common, see Cytisus scoparius.

There is also a Mr Brown in Red Notebook p. 71, who Herbart suggests might have been Admiral William Brown 1777-1857 of Buenos Aires; an Irishman that CD met at Parrish's house 1837.
Brown, Jane, 1746-1835.

Daughter of Joseph Brown of Swineshead, Lincolnshire. CD's great aunt in law.
1772 Married William Alvey D [I].
Brown, Robert, 1773-1858.

Botanist. First Keeper of Botany at British Museum. Von Humboldt called him "Facile Princeps botanicorum". Dilatory in describing plants of first voyage of Beagle—MLi 39. Biography D. Mabberley 1984. DNB.
1811 FRS.
1858 CD to Hooker, "I am glad to hear that old Brown is dying so easily"—MLi 109. CD "I saw a good deal of"—Barlow, Autobiography 103.
1858 The Darwin/Wallace paper was read at Linnean Society meeting at which B's death was announced, the fact perhaps overshadowing the importance of the paper.
Brown, Admiral William, 1777-1857,

Of Buenos Aires. An Irishman. Herbert suggests B might have been a "Mr Brown" in Red Notebook p. 71.
1837 CD met at Parrish's house.
Browne, Sir George Buckston, 1850-1945.

Surgeon. Kt. Brief amusing life of B in Atkins, Down, ch. 13, 1974. Portrait by Sir Robin Darwin at Down House.
1926 FRCS.
1927 Bought Down House for British Association.

[page] 43

Browne, Sir James Crichton, 1840-1938.

Physician. Director of West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield. Gave CD information for Expression. Sent CD Annual Reports of the Asylum, the run now being at Cambridge—Carroll 451.
1870 FRSE.
1875-1922 Visitor in Lunacy.
1883 FRS.
1886 Kt.
Browne, William Alexander Francis, 1805-1873.

Physician of Stirling. Naturalist friend of CD at Edinburgh.
1857 First Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland.
Brullé, Gaspard Auguste, 1809-1873.

1840- Prof. Zoology and Comparative Anatomy Dijon.
1864 H. Falconer to CD "He told me in despair that he could not get his pupils to listen to anything from him except à la Darwin"—MLi 257.
Brummidge, Mrs
circa 1890 Cook at Down House—Atkins, Down.
Brunton, Sir Thomas Lauder, Bart, 1844-1916.

Physician. Consultant at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. B helped CD with experiments for Insectivorous plants.
1874 FRS.
1881 Nov. 19 CD to B about prosecution of Dr D. Ferrier under the Vivisection act. CD wanted to be an early subscriber if a subscription was got up to pay F's costs. CD had met F at B's house, 50 Welbeck St.—MLii 437.
1908 1st Bart.
Bryanston Square, London.

No. 4. R. B. Lichfield's house. Sir Thomas Farrer also lived in the square.
"Bucket Ropes for Wells"
1852 "Bucket ropes for wells", Gardeners' Chronicle, No.2:22 (Bi 252, F1680).
Buckland, Francis Trevelyan, 1826-1880.

Physician and naturalist. Son of William B. Known as Frank. DNB.
1867 Government Inspector of Fisheries.
Buckland, Rev. William, 1784-1856.

Geologist. Father of Francis Trevelyan B. "Though very good-humoured and good-natured seemed to me a vulgar and almost a coarse man"—Barlow, Autobiography 102. DNB.
1812 Prof. Mineralogy Oxford.
1818 FRS.
1845-1856 Dean of Westminster.
Buckle, Henry Thomas, 1821-1862.

Self-educated historian. DNB.
circa 1842 CD met at Hensleigh Wedgwood's and discussed organization of facts.
1858 CD to Hooker "I was not much struck with the great Buckle". CD was reading B's History of civilization at the time—LLii 110. "I doubt whether his generalisations are worth anything"—Barlow, Autobiography 109-110.

[page] 44

Buckley, Arabella Burton, 1840-1929.

Natural historian and author. Secretary to Lyell.
1871 Mar. visited Down House with the Lyell's—LLiii 137.
1871 A short history of natural science, London.
1876 Feb. 11 CD to B saying that he had enjoyed B's Short History of natural science—LLiii 229.
1882 B was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1884 Mrs Fisher.
Buckman, James, 1816-1884.

Agriculturist and geologist.
1848-1863 Professor of Botany and Geology Royal Agricultural College Cirencester.
1857 CD to B on varieties of domestic pigeon.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin to B—unpublished letter.
Buenos Aires, Capital of Argentine.
1832 Jul. 26-1833 Dec. 6 Beagle used mouth of La Plata river as a base for surveying trips. CD used Buenos Aires, Monte Video and Maldonado as bases for inland expeditions.

First editions in:
1927 Descent of man (F1047).
1946 Origin of species (F632).
1959 Autobiography (F1511).
1967 Journal of researches (F170).
Bull, Mr.

A pigeon fancier in the Borough, London.
1859 B had crossed pouters with runts to gain size—LLii 281.
Bulwer, Sir Edward George Earle Lytton, Bart, Baron Lytton. 1803-1873.

Novelist and parliamentarian. A remote cousin of CD through Erasmus Earle. In "one of his novels a Professor Long, who had written two huge volumes on limpets" was CD—Autobiography, 81. The novel was What will he do with it?, 4 vols, 1858, under pseudonym "Pisistratus Caxton". "Lecture on conchology to the Gatesboro' Athenaeum", for which he was paid £5.5.0—Vol. 1:284-296. The work was "Researches into the natural history of limpets, 2 vols, Post octavo". DNB.
1838 1st Bart.
1843 Added "Lytton" to his surname.
1866 1st Baron Lytton.
Bulwer, William Earle Gascoyne Lytton, 1829-1910.

Brigadier-General, late Scots Guards, of Heydon Hall, Norfolk. A remote cousin of CD through Erasmus Earle. Nephew of Lord Lytton.
1890 Oct. William Erasmus D and George Howard D went on a visit to "a beautiful place in Norfolk, to see the picture of Erasmus Earle, an ancestor".
Bunbury, Sir Charles James Fox, Bart, 1809-1886.

Palaeobotanist. Of Mildenhall, Suffolk. Brother-in-law of Lyell. Encouraged CD in persevering on species problem. Biography: [1894] by wife.
1844 Married Frances Joanna Horner.
1851 FRS.
1860 8th Bart.

[page] 45

Bunbury, Frances Joanna, see Horner.
Bunsen, Baroness, see Frances Waddington.
Bunnett, Templeton
1867 An Australian who in 1867 answered Queries about expression.
Burchell, William, John, 1781-1863.

Explorer and naturalist. Travelled in South America and later in South Africa. CD knew in London after return of BeagleRed Notebook p. 117.
Burke, Sir Henry Farnham, 1859-1924.

1887-1911 Somerset Herald.
1888 Pedigree of the family of Darwin, privately printed, sixty copies. The most reliable pedigree, also contains illustrations of the arms of Darwin.
Burnham Beeches

Fine woodland on Dunstable Downs.
1847 Jun. CD visited on a day trip from British Association meeting at Oxford.
Busby, James, 1801-1871.

First British Resident in New Zealand.
1835 Dec. CD met—S. Afr. Christian Recorder, 2:235, 1836, J. Researches, 1845, 421 (spelt "Bushby").
Busk, George, 1807-1886.

Surgeon and man of science.
1850 FRS.

CD to Huxley, "I have heard that Busk is on our side in regard to species"—MLi 130.
1863 B recommended Dr William Brinton to CD.
1871 CD to B, thanking him for pointing out an error about the supra-condyloid foramen in 1st issue of Descent—Carroll 387.
Butler, Miss Mary
1859 Sep. CD invites to stay with him at Ilkley in Oct. since he might not be able to take his family; "but if you were there I should feel safe and home-like". In the end he took his family. She and CD had met at Moor Park—Brent p. 419.
Butler, Rev. Samuel [I], 1774-1839.

Schoolmaster and priest. Father of Thomas B, grandfather of Samuel B [II].
1798-1836 Headmaster of Shrewsbury School, including the time when CD was there.
1836- Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.
Butler, Samuel [II], 1835-1902.

Author and controversialist. Son of Thomas B, grandson of Samuel B [I]. Biography: Festing Jones 1919. DNB.
1859 CD sent 1st edition Origin to.
1880 B had a one-sided quarrel with CD over Krause's biography of Erasmus D in its English version. For B's printed contributions see Athenaeum, Jan. 31, St James's Gaz., Dec. 8. Also Festing Jones 1911 Charles Darwin and Samuel Butler.
1880 Dec. 14 Romanes to CD, "[Butler] is a lunatic beneath all contempt—an object of pity were it not for his vein of malice"—Life of Romanes, 104.
1881 Jan. CD to Romanes on R's review of Unconscious memory, Nature, Lond., 23:285-287. B "will smart under your stricture", R is right to attribute B's conduct to "the disappointment of his inordinate vanity"; CD thanks R for saving him from, B's "malignant revenge"—Carroll 581.
1881 Feb. CD to T. R. R. Stebbing thanking S for his letter to Nature, Lond., 23:336 on the controversy.
1881 Apr. CD to Romanes, "I am extremely glad that you seem to have silenced Butler and his reviewers. But Mr. Butler will turn up again, if I know the man"—Carroll 588.
1881 Krause wrote a strictly accurate letter on the subject, Nature, Lond., 23:288.

Barlow, Autobiography gives references and reprints Jones's pamphlet in full. B's copy of Erasmus Darwin, with his mss notes, is in the British Library, B's books on evolution, a subject on which his knowledge was entirely theoretical, were 1879 Evolution old and new, 1880 Unconscious memory, 1887 Luck or cunning. Erewhon 1872 developed from "Darwin among the machines", The Press, Christchurch, NZ, 1863 Jun. 13; this was signed "Cellarius", a pseudonym. 1862 "Darwin on the origin of species", The Press Dec. 20. Festing Jones, Charles Darwin and Samuel Butler 1911.

[page] 46

Butler, Rev. Thomas, 1806-1886.

Son of Samuel B [I], father of Samuel B [II]. At St John's College, Cambridge, when CD was up.
1828 B was at Barmouth with a reading party in autumn with CD, under G. A. Butterton. B and CD collected beetles together.
1834-1876 Rector of Langar with Bamston, Notts.
1839 B and CD travelled together in a stage coach from Birmingham to Shrewsbury, at end of British Association meeting—Jones, Life of Samuel Butler, i:13; J says that this is the last time that they met.
1868 Canon of Lincoln.
1872 CD to J. M. Herbert, B has become "a very unpleasant old man"—Carroll 425.
1880 "The sexual colours of certain butterflies", Nature, Lond., 21:237 (Bii 220, F1787).
Butterton, George Ash, 1805-1891.

CD's tutor for classics and mathematics. CD "A very dull man".
1828 B took a reading party to Barmouth in autumn.
1828-1837 Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.
1839-1845 Headmaster Uppingham.
1843 DD.
1847-1859 Giggleswick.
circa 1877 A stray minute female black and tan collie at Bassett, later thought to be a "special breed of dog from Thibet"—EDii 287, Hedley Atkins, Down, p. 80.
Button, James, "Jemmy", ?1816-1863.

Boy from Yahgan Tribe, canoe people from southwest islands, Tierra del Fuego, different tribe from two of the others. Fitz-Roy, Narrative, gives his name in Tekeenica (i.e. Yahgan) as Orundellico. Fitz-Roy says that he was bought for one mother-of-pearl button. E. L. Bridges calls him "Jimmy". Bridges says that the story about the button could not be true. Father of Threeboys Button. Jemmy Button: novela, a novel by Benjamin Subercasaux, (Santiago de Chile), Ediciones Ercilla, 907 pp, 1950; USA translation by Mary and Fred de Villar, NY, Macmillan 1953; abridged version 382 pp, NY 1954; further abridged by Oliver Coburn, 299 pp, London, W. H. Allen 1955. Jim og hans folk, Danish children's book by Soren Koustrup, Copenhagen 1978; Finnish translation Tuliman Jim, Vaasa, Kirjayhtyma 1979.
1830 Apr. captured, ‘tied in a bag'—FR Diary.
1830 Aged about 14, taken to England by Fitz-Roy.
1833 Jan. 23 returned.
1858 Taken from home a second time to Falkland Is mission station.
1863 He was alive in 1863 and remained a bad lot; not mentioned later.
1866 A son visited England.
Button, Threeboys

Son of Jemmy B.
1865 Visited England with three other fuegian youths. Died six months after return. Buried Port Stanley.
Byerley, Thomas, ?-1810.

Josiah Wedgwood [I]'s partner at Etruria Works and his cousin. Son of Josiah's father's sister Margaret.

[page] 47

Bynoe, Benjamin, 1803-1865.

Assistant Surgeon on 1st and 2nd voyages of Beagle. 18 years on Beagle and official naturalist on 3rd voyage; gave first account of marsupial birth. CD probably met in London after return of BeagleRed Notebook p. 68.
Born Barbados.
From Apr. Acting Surgeon 
1836 Surgeon. Later M.O. in charge of convicts.
1839 CD "Thanks...for his very kind attention to me when I was ill at Valparaiso"—J. Researches, 1845, vii.
1844 FRCS.

[page 48]


1879 "Fritz Müller on a frog having eggs on its back—on the abortion of hairs on the legs of certain caddis-flies, etc.", Nature, Lond., 19:462-463 (Bii 216, F1784); introducing a letter from M, ibid, 463-464.
Caerdeon, North Wales.

Two miles east of Barmouth, on northern side of Barmouth estuary.
1869 Jun. 10-Jul. 29 CD had family holiday there.
Caernarvon, North Wales.
1842 Jun. CD visited.
Caird, Sir James, 1816-1892.

Agriculturalist. DNB.
1859-1865 MP for Stirling.
1875 FRS.
1878 C subscribed, with CD and Farrer to keep Torbitt's experiments on potato disease going—LLiii 350.
1882 KCB.
Caldcleugh, Alexander, ?-1858.

Private Secretary to British Ambassador to Chile, later merchant.
1825 Travels in South America, London.
1831 FRS.
1834 CD stayed with at Santiago.
1835 CD to sister Susan D "the author of some bad travels in South America...took an infinite degree of trouble for me"—Barlow, Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle, 118.
Caldwell, Mrs Anne Marsh, 1791-1874.

Novelist. A friend of the Wedgwoods from childhood. Sister of Emma Holland. Family came from Linley Wood near Maer.
1817 Married Arthur Cuthbert Marsh, ?-1849;
1858 Added Caldwell to surname.
1866 CD to C about her blind friend Mr Corbet—Carroll 323.
California Academy of Sciences
1872 CD Honorary Member.
California State Geological Society
1877 CD Corresponding Member.
Callao, Peru.

Seaport of Lima.
1835 Jul. 20-Sep. 7 Beagle at. Jul. 20 CD landed.

Cambridge life for the Ds is brilliantly depicted in Gwen Raverat's Period Piece, 1952.

Apart from his residence as an undergraduate, for which see Cambridge University, CD was in Cambridge on the following occasions:
1831 Sep. 2-4, 19, staying with Henslow when preparing for Beagle voyage.
1836-1837 1836 Dec. 13-1837 Mar. 6, staying with Henslow and in Fitzwilliam St, sorting Beagle material. He had two short trips to London during this period.
1838 May 10-12 to visit Henslow.
1870 May 20-24, to visit his sons, Francis, George and Horace, stayed at Bull Hotel.
1877 Nov. 16-18 CD visited with ED for award of Honorary LL.D.
1880 Aug. 14-18 CD and ED stayed with Horace D in St Botolph's Lane.
1881 Oct. 20-27 CD and ED stayed with Horace D.
1883 After CD's death, ED moved to The Grove, Huntingdon Road, for the winters.

[page] 49

Cambridge Instrument Company, 1885-.

Chairman Sir Horace Darwin, partner A. G. Dew Smith, Botolph Lane. First known as "The Shop". Made wormstone for Down House. Taken over by Pye.
Cambridge Philosophical Society

Henslow and Sedgwick were the leading instigators. CD was never a member.
1819 Founded.
1835, 1960
Issued for private circulation CD's Letters on geology, reprinted by them 1960.
1879 The members commissioned portrait of CD by W. B. Richmond, which still hangs in their rooms.
Cambridge Ray Club

See Babington, The Cambridge Ray Club, 1887, published on its fiftieth anniversary.
1837 Founded in 1837 when Henslow stopped his Friday evenings open house. 
Cambridge University
1827 Oct. 15 CD entered at Christ's College, but did not come into residence until Lent term 1828.
1831 Jan. CD took degree examinations and kept two terms, leaving mid June. 10th in list of candidates who did not seek honours.
1831 Apr. 26 CD admitted BA—Cambridge Chronicle Apr. 29. He was "Baccalaureus ad Baptistam" and therefore included in 1832 list—LLi 163.
1831 Jun. left.
1837 MA.
1877 Nov. 17 Hon.LL.D. Public Orator, J. E. Sandys, ended "Tu vero, qui leges naturae tam docte illustraveris, legum Doctor nobis esto"—LLiii 222.
1877 Nov. 17 ED to William Erasmus D gives description of the scene with a monkey and a missing link lowered from the gallery by undergraduates—EDii 230.
Cambridge, Rev. Octavius Pickard, 1835-1917.

1868-1917 Rector of Bloxworth, Dorset.
1874 CD to C on natural selection and on spiders—Carroll 437 (but not identified).
Cameron, Charles Hay, 1795-1880.

Married Julia Margaret Pattle.
Cameron, Rev. Jonathan Henry Lovett, 1807-1888.

Shrewsbury School and Trinity College. Cambridge friend of CD. Member of Gourmet Club.
1830 C was gulfed [to be in the gulf is said of an honours candidate who fails, but is allowed an ordinary degree].
1860-1888 Rector of Shoreham, Kent (?Kent or W. Sussex).
Cameron, Julia Margaret, see Julia Margaret Pattle.

[page] 50

Campana, Chile.

A peak 6,400 ft. high. Marshall p. 30 says that CD's name is carved "alongside Humboldt's of many years before"However Humboldt never visited Chile.
1834 Aug. 16-17 CD climbed to summit, which now bears a plaque—J. Researches, 1845, 255-257.
Campbell, George John Douglas, Duke of Argyll, 1823-1900.

Statesman and geologist. DNB.
1847 8th Duke.
1851 FRS.
1862 C reviewed Orchids in Edinb. Rev.—LLiii 274.
1864 C addressed Royal Society of Edinburgh anti-Origin.
1867 CD to Huxley about Reign of law, "or Dukelet's? how can you speak so of a living real Duke?"—MLi 277.
1867 CD to Kingsley about Reign of law, "Very well written, very interesting, honest and clever and very arrogant".
1881 C "I wish Mr. Darwin's disciples would imitate a little of the dignified reticence of their master. He walks with a patient and a stately step along the paths of conscientious observation"—MLi 396.
1881 Feb. CD called at Argyll House, London.
1882 C was Pallbearer at CD's funeral.

Main works relating to evolution:
1867 The reign of law, London.
1884 The unity of nature, London.

House on Maer Heath, Staffordshire.
1827-1847 Home of Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [I]. House was built for her. She moved in 1827.
1847 Sold with rest of Maer estate after Bessy's death 1846. She moved to Petley's, Downe.
Canary Islands
1831 CD planned a trip there with Kirby and Ramsay, perhaps also Dawes, before Beagle invitation came. See also Tenerife.
Canby, Dr William Marriott, 1831-1904.

Botanist of Wilmington, Delaware, USA. C provided information on Dionaea for Insectivorous plants.
1873 Feb. 19 CD to C describing Dionaea as "the most wonderful plant in the world"—F. M. Jones 1923 Nat. Hist. 23:598, with facsimile of part of letter.
Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de, 1806-1893.

1840 C dined at 12 Upper Gower St to meet the Sismondis—LLii 216.
1841-1850 Prof. Natural History Geneva, succeeding his father.
1855 C's Géographie botanique raissonée, Paris, was very important to CD in his study of cultivated plants. Letters to and from CD, Gesnerus, 12:109-156, 1955.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin to.
1873 Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siècles, Geneva.
1880 C used the same portfolio method of reference as CD, independently evolved—LLiii 333.
1880 Autumn, C visited Down House.
1882 Darwin considéré au point de vue des causes de son succès, Geneva.

[page] 51

Canestrini, Giovanni, 1835-1900.

Acarologist. C translated nine of CD's works into Italian.
1862-1869 Prof. Zool. Modena.
1869-1900 Padua.
1877 La teoria dell'evoluzione, Turin.

Fishmonger at Downe. C went to Billingsgate three times a week. His mother was unqualified midwife at Downe—Atkins, Down 104.
Cape Verde Islands

These islands, known as Ilhas do Cabo Verde in Portuguese, derive their name from Cape Verde on the mainland of Africa about 300 miles away. It is one of the few differences between 6th edition Origin 1872, 11th thousand, and the altered 6th edition 1876, 18th thousand, that the name is changed from Cape de Verde to Cape Verde.
1832 Jan. 17-Feb. 8 Beagle at Porto Praya, Santo Jago. CD landed.
1836 Aug. 31-Sep. 5 Beagle again at. CD landed.
Capel Curig, Caernarvonshire.
1831 Aug. CD visited with Sedgwick for geology.
1842 Jun. CD visited.
Cape Town, Cape Colony, South Africa.
1836 Jun. 1-7 Beagle at.

Jun. 4-7 CD landed and made short excursion inland. CD met Sir John Herschel there.
1836 CD's first published work, with Fitz-Roy, "A letter containing remarks on the moral state of Tahiti, New Zealand &c.", S. Afr. Christian Recorder, 2:221-238, 1836 Sep. was published there.
Cardwell, Edward, Viscount, 1813-1886.

1873 FRS.
1874 1st Viscount
1875 C was Chairman of Vivisection Commission, to which CD gave evidence.
Caricatures, see CD Iconography.
Carlisle, Cumberland.
1855 Sep. 19 CD visited on return from British Association meeting at Glasgow.
Carlisle, Bishop of, see Harvey Goodwin.
Carlisle, Sir Anthony, 1768-1840.

Surgeon. DNB.
1804 FRS.
1821 Kt.
1847 May, CD "Old Sir Anthony Carlisle once said to me gravely that he supposed Megatherium and such cattle were just sent down from heaven to see whether the earth would support them"—MLii 219.
Carlyle, Jane Baillie, see Welsh.

[page] 52

Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881.

Essayist and historian. CD met several times at Erasmus Alvey D's and at C's in London. DNB.
1836 Married Jane Baillie Welsh d.s.p.
Carmichael, Dugald, 1772-1827.

Army surgeon. Retired to Ardtur near Oban. Frequently referred to by CD as an authority on points of natural science. This is from a ms slip of unknown origin.
?Qualified Edinburgh No. 4711.
Carpenter, William Benjamin, 1813-1885.

Physician and naturalist. Prof. Physiology London.
1844 FRS.
1856-1879 Registrar London University.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin.
1860 Jan. C reviewed Origin in Nat. Rev., Apr. in Med. Chirurg. Rev.
1861 or later Visited Down House.
Carr, Anne Jane, see Wedgwood.
Carr, Colonel Ralph Edward, 1833-1892.

Of Hedley, Northumberland.
1870 Married Ann Jane Wedgwood.
1872 Lost first child.
Carroll, P. Thomas
1976 Editor of An annotated calendar of the letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, Wilmington, Delaware. A most important source book of CD reference.
Carruthers, William, 1830-1922.

Botanist. Keeper of Botany, British Museum (Natural History).
1871 FRS.
1871-1910 Consulting botanist to Agricultural Society.
1878 CD to Torbitt in search of funds for potato blight work. C was against providing further money—MLi 373.
Carter, Alice, 1885.

A partially blind Downe cottager whom ED helped. She looked after old Mrs Osborn.
Carter, Elinor Mary Bonham, ?-1923.
1872 Married A. V. Dicey; sister of Henry B. C.
Cartmell, James, 1810-1881.
1849-1881 Master of Christ's College Cambridge.
1855-1881 Chaplain to Queen Victoria.
1909 William Erasmus D's speech at Cambridge celebrations "He [CD] spoke to me with pride and pleasure of walking, dressed in his scarlet gown, arm in arm with Dr. Cartmell"—EDii 171.
Carus, Julius Victor, 1823-1903.

German zoologist.
1853- Professor in Leipzig.
1860 Jun. was at British Association meeting at Oxford.
1866 C translated 3rd German Origin, which was published in 1867, from 4th English. "The connection was cemented by warm feelings of regard on both sides"—LLiii 48. Later translated twelve other of CD's works.
1876 Mar. 21 CD to C "I can assure you that the idea of anyone translating my books better than you never even momentarily crossed my mind"—MLi 146.
Carver, Miss Alice

Schoolmistress. Co-founder of Downe House School with Miss O. M. Willis.
Cary, William, 1759-1825.

Instrument maker of London.
Cary, William

Son of William C.
1831 CD to Henslow about C making instruments for Beagle—Barlow, Darwin and Henslow 25, 41.
Case, Rev. George Augustus

Unitarian minister at Shrewsbury with a chapel in High St.
1798-1831 Was pastor at Shrewsbury.
1817 CD went for a year, with sister Emily Catherine, to an infant school run by C.—Barlow, Autobiography 22. C's school was at The Old Parsonage, Claremont Hill. CD was there "up to the age of nine".
1959 Nov. 22 a special service was held when Alister Hardy, himself a Unitarian, gave an address—Arnold Broadbent 1962 The story of unitarianism in Shrewsbury, 11 pp, Shrewsbury, Livesey printed; copy in Dr William's Library.

[page] 53

1879 [letter] "Rats and water casks", Nature, Lond., 19:481, supporting one from Arthur Nicols, ibid., 433 (Bii 218, F1785).
Catasetum tridentatum
1861 C. tridentatum, Monacanthus viridis and Myanthus barbatus are male, female and hermaphrodite flowers of the same species of orchid—MLii 280.
1862 "On the three remarkable sexual forms of Catasetum tridentatum, an orchid in the possession of the Linnean Society", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.), 6:151-157 (Bii 63, F1718).
1863 French translation in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 19:204-295, with CD's papers on Primula and Linum.
Caton, John Dean, 1812-1895.

Chief Justice of Illinois and naturalist.
1868 CD thanks C for a paper on American deer—LLiii 102.
1871 CD to C, George Howard and Francis D are touring USA, please aid them and show "famous Deer-Park"—Carroll 402.
1877 Author of The antelope and deer of America, New York.
Cattell, J.

Nurseryman of Westerham, Kent.
1860 CD to Maxwell Masters, the nurseryman CD generally dealt with—MLii 257.
Cavendish, Sir William, Duke of Devonshire, 1808-1891.

1845 Sep. or Oct. CD visited Chatsworth, the ducal seat, then of William C, 6th Duke.
1858 7th Duke.
1882 Pallbearer at CD's funeral, as Chancellor of Cambridge University.
Caverswell Castle
1878 Leased home of Godfrey and Hope Wedgwood.
1887 or 1888 Moved to Idlerocks to be nearer the factory.
Cecil, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne, Marquis of Salisbury, 1830-1903.

Son of Lady Mary. Statesman. EB DNB.
1857 Married Georgina Alderson [II].
1868 3rd Marquis.
Cecil, Lord Sackville Arthur, 1865-1898.

Fifth son of 3rd Marquis of Salisbury. Cambridge friend of CD's sons and neighbour in Kent.
1882 C was on "Family Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Cerro Perico Flaco, Argentine.

A hill near river Beguelo, a tributary of Rio Negro.
1833 Nov. 22-26 CD visited from estancia of Mr Keen and found skull of "Megatherium" [actually Toxodon]. The hill now bears an obelisk commemorating CD's visit and a nearby village is called Darwin—J. H. Winslow, J. Hist. Geogr., 1:347-360, 1975.
Chaffers, Edward Main

Master and acted as Purser of Beagle during illness and after death of Rowlett. Master of Beagle on 2nd voyage. Later Captain of N.Z. Association Ship Tori. Harbour Master Port Nicholson.
Chagas Disease

A trypanosomiasis of South America, spread to man by the house bugs Triatoma infestans and Conorhinus magistus. Chagas disease, 1984 New Scientist Oct. 29 pp. 321-4; Ralph Bernstein 1984 J. R. Soc. Med. 77:608-9.
1909 The infective agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, was first described by Carlos Chagas, "Nova tripanozomiaze humana, Ueber eine neue Trypanosomiasis des Menschen", Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 1:159-218.
1835 Often suggested that CD had the disease from being bitten by T. infestans, the benchuca bug, at Luxan, Mendoza Province, Argentine, 1835 Mar. 26. Others say that his symptoms were not those typical of the disease. See CD Health.

[page] 54

Chambers, Robert, 1802-1871.

Edinburgh publisher.
1844, 1845 Anonymous author of Vestiges of the natural history of creation, 1844, and of Explanations; a sequel, 1845.
1844 CD to Hooker, "have been somewhat less amused at it than you appear to have been"—LLi 333.
1845 CD to Hooker, on Explanations and Kerguelen cabbage—MLi 48.
1847 CD to C on Glen Roy—MLii 177.
1847 CD to Hooker, "Somehow I feel perfectly convinced he is the author"—LLi 356.
1848 CD to Lyell, "if he be, as I believe, the Author of Vestiges this book [Ancient sea margins] for poverty of intellect is a literary curiosity"—Carroll 73.
circa 1850 CD to Hooker, CD calls him "Mr. Vestiges"—LLii 29.
1860 C was at Oxford British Association meeting.
1861 CD called at "his very nice house in St. John's Wood. He is really a capital fellow"—MLi 186.
1884 Public acknowledgement was not made until 12th edition 1884, after C's death.

Cambridge friend of CD—LLi 181. Not traced.
Chapman, Dr John, 1822-1894.

Physician and publisher.
1865 Spring and summer, CD tried his ice-cure.
Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle
1945 Emma Nora Darwin (F1571).
Charlesworth, Edward, 1813-1893.

1838 CD to Lyell, "Charlesworth is to be pitied for many reasons"—Carroll 11.
1842 CD to Lyell, discussing a controversy between C and Buckland, Lyell and Owen on the Crag, "it is not the wise who rule the universe, but the active rule the inactive and verily Charlesworth"—Carroll 28.
Chator, William, 1802-1885.

Nurseryman of Saffron Walden, Essex.
1855 CD to Henslow [as Mrs Chator], on breeding of hollyhocks in which C specialized—Darwin-Henslow 189.
Chatsworth, Derbyshire.

Seat of the Dukes of Devonshire.
1845 Sep. or Oct. CD visited.
Cheesman, Thomas Frederic, 1846-1923.

Botanist. Curator Auckland Institute and Museum for 49 years. Described fertilization of orchids, especially Pterostylis to CD. See 2ed Orchids.
1876 CD sent inscribed copy to C "with the author's compliments and respect".

Near Vevey, Lac Léman, Switzerland. Home of J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi.
"Cherry blossoms"
1876 "Cherry blossoms", Nature, Lond., 14:28 (Bii 189, F1772).

[page] 55

Chester, Mr Harry, 1806-1868.

Clerk in Privy Council Office. Novelist. Son of Sir Robert C, 1768-1848, DL, Hertfordshire. A personal friend of Fitz-Roy who was invited to go on Beagle before CD, but could not.
Chester, Colonel Joseph Lemuel, 1821-1882.

American genealogist. Worked on early history of the Darwin family. George Howard D's mss notes for C are in the Galton papers at University College London. DNB.
1858 C settled in London.
1879 Henrietta Emma D "My brothers had been having the pedigree of the Darwins made out by a certain Colonel Chester"—EDii 237.
Chester Place, Regent's Park, London.
1868 No. 4, Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood's [II] "little house".
Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, London.

No. 42, Home of Hensleigh Wedgwood.
Chevening, Kent.

Seat of 4th and 5th Earls Stanhope q.v.
1849 CD visited.
Chiloe Island, Chile.
1834-1835 1834 Nov. 10-1835 Feb. 4 Beagle surveying around. CD much ashore, including visits to Chonos Archipelago to south of C. "Everyone was glad to say farewell to Chiloe"—J. Researches 1845, 297.

First edition in:
1903 Origin of species (Chs 3 and 4 only) (F634).
1918 Whole work (F637).
1882 "The action of carbonate of ammonia on chlorophyll bodies", J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot., 19:262-284 (Bii 256, F1801); abstract by Francis D, who helped in the work, Nature, Lond., 25:489-490.
Chobham, Surrey.
1853 Aug. CD visited military camp for Crimean war.
Chonos, Archipiélago de los, Chile.
1834-1835 1834 Dec. 18-1835 Jan. 15 Beagle surveying off; CD ashore.
Christ's College Cambridge
1827 Oct. 15 CD admitted, "Admissus est pensionarius minor sub Magistro Shaw", but did not go up until Lent term. Set in front court, G staircase, traditionally the same as those of William Paley. The set now has commemorative Wedgwood plaque.
Cirripedia, British Fossil
1850 "On British fossil Lepadidae", Quart J. Geol. Soc. (Proc.), 6:439-440, abstract only. CD withdrew the paper (F1679).
1851, 1854, 1858 A monograph of the fossil Lepadidae, or pedunculated cirripedes of Great Britain...A monograph of the fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae of Great Britain...[Index to Vol. II 1858], Palaeontographical Society Vols 5, 8 and 12 [index to Vol. II], London (F342), Facsimile 1966 (F343).

[page] 56

Cirripedia, British Living, see Albany Hancock.
Cirripedia, Living
1851, 1854 A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia...The Lepadidae; or, pedunculated cirripedes...The Balanidae (or sessile cirripedes), the Verrucidae, 2 vols, Ray Society's Publ. Nos 21 and 25, London (F339).
1854 CD asks Huxley's advice on complimentary copies; these were sent to Bosquet, Milne Edwards, Dana, L. Agassiz, Müller, Dunker; possibly also to Von Siebold, Lovén, d'Orbigny, Kölliker, Sars, Kröyer.
1863 "On the so-called auditory-sac in cirripedes", Nat. Hist. Rev., 3:115-116 (Bii 85, F1722).
1873 "On the males and complemental males of certain cirripedes, and on rudimentary structures", Nature, Lond., 8:431-432 (Bii 177, F1762).
1936 Foreign edition: extracts only Russian (F341).
1964 Facsimile (F340).
Claparède, Jean Louis René Antoine Édouard, 1830-1871.

Swiss invertebrate zoologist. Early convert to evolution—MLi 259.
1861 Articles on evolution in Revue Germanique.
1862- Professor Comparative Anatomy Geneva.
Clapham Grammar School

All CD's sons went there except William Erasmus D. Ruck sons made friends with CD's sons there.
1834 Headmaster and founder Charles Pritchard; George and Francis educated by him.
1862 Headmaster Alfred Wrigley; Leonard and Horace educated by him.
1885 Closed.
Clapham, Marianne

Aunt of Laura Forster, known as Mone; wrote autobiography, with darwinian reference.
Clark, Dr
1837 CD's physician in London, perhaps Sir James C 1788-1870.
Clark, Sir Andrew, Bart, 1826-1893.

Fashionable London physician. DNB.
1873 C first attended CD.
1876 Attended William Erasmus D at Down House for concussion in a riding accident.
1881 C saw CD in London, "some derangement of the heart".
1882 Mar. 10 C saw CD at Down House.
1882 Apr. C on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1883 1st Bart.
1885 FRS.
Clark, John Willis, 1833-1910.

Zoologist, archaeologist and Cambridge historian. DNB.
1866-1891 Superintendent Zoology Museum Cambridge.
1877 Nov. C fed ED on galantine when CD got honorary LL.D.
1882 C was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1891-1910 Registrar Cambridge University.
1909 C organised CD centenary celebrations at Cambridge.
Clark, Mary

Daughter of Philip and Ann (née Wedgwood) C. Married Joseph Wedgwood.
Clark, William, 1788-1869.

1817-1866 Prof. Anatomy Cambridge.
1826-1859 Rector of Guisely, Yorkshire.
1836 FRS.
1860 May 18 CD to Lyell, says anti-Origin, but son J. W. Clark says not so—LLii 308.

[page] 57

Clarke, William Barnard, 1805/6-1894 Mar. 20.

Physician, practised at Wherstead Rd, Ipswich. First Curator of Ipswich Museum.
1838-1849 Published several papers in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1838-49, and a single leaf on a new seal.
1850 C edited Narrative of the wreck of the "Favorite", by John Nunn, a sailor.
1871 Moved to North Shields.
Clarke, William Branwhite, 1798-1878.

Priest and geologist.
1839 Emigrated to Australia.
1876 FRS.
1846-1847 CD's views on geological cleavage, with illustrations by CD—MLii 199-210. These were never published as a paper.
Clement, William, 1763-1853.

Apothecary of Shrewsbury; "unflinching advocate of parliamentary reform and civil and religious liberty"—Meteyard, Woodall p. 10. CD must have known as a child.

Gunsmith of Shrewsbury.
1831 C made CD's gun and spare parts for Beagle voyage—LLi 210.
Clift, William, 1775-1849.

Had examined some of CD's South American fossils before he returned. DNB.
1793-1844 Conservator Royal College of Surgeons Museum.
1835 His daughter married Richard Owen.
Climbing plants
1865 "On the movements and habits of climbing plants", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 9, Nos 33 and 34, 1-118 (F833-834): also available as a book in paper wrappers (F835).
1866 Reprinted in Flora, 49:241-252, 273-282, 321-325, 337-345, 375-378, 385-398.
1875 2nd edition The movements and habits of climbing plants, London (F836).
1882 2nd edition with appendix to preface by Francis D, London (F839).

First foreign editions:
1876 USA (F838), German (F860).
1877 French (F858).
1900 Russian (F865).
1970 Romanian (F864).
Clive, William, 1795-1883.

Married Marianne, daughter of George Tollet.
1844-1861 Archdeacon of Montgomery.
1855 CD to Henslow, CD had seen C in London and he had enquired after H—Darwin-Henslow 174.
Clough, Miss Anne Jemima, 1820-1892.

Sister of Arthur Hugh Clough, poet. First Principal of Newnham College Cambridge. DNB.
1883 C stayed at Down House.
Clowes, William, 1779-1847.

Printer. Printed for John Murray.
Coal Club

CD was interested in the savings club for Downe villagers—Darwin-Innes 203.
Coal, Origin of
1846 CD to Hooker, 4 letters on the subject—MLii 217-220.
Cobbe, Miss Frances Power, 1822-1904.

Antivivisectionist. Editor of The Echo and Zoophilist. Reviewed Descent in Theological Rev. DNB.
1868 ED to her sister Elizabeth Wedgwood "I dined over the way [at Hensleigh Wedgwood's] (and Charles also) to meet Miss Cobbe and Miss Lloyd. Miss Cobbe was very agreeable"—EDii 189.
1872 Darwinism in morals and other essays, London.
1875-1884 Secretary National Anti-Vivisection Society.
1881 C issued antivivisection circular which she sent to CD; letters by C to The Times Apr. 19 and 23, by CD Apr. 22 and by Romanes Apr. 25 relate. CD to Romanes "with the sweet Miss Cobbe—Good Heavens what a liar she is: did you notice how in her second letter she altered what she quoted from her first letter, trusting to no one comparing the two"—LLii 203.
1894 C to ED for permission to publish correspondence from CD which she had altered and printed in The Echo, about what C considered a miscarriage of justice, but was not—EDii 302.
1894 Autobiography.

[page] 58

Cobbold, Thomas Spencer, 1828-1886.

1885 C described CD's Beagle parasites in J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool., 19:174-178.
Cocos Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean.

Coral atolls with lagoons. They had an important influence on CD's views on the origin of such islands.
1836 Apr. 1-12 Beagle at. 

Apr. 2-3 CD ashore on Direction Island. Captain John Clunies Ross, the owner, was away, and CD only met his assistant Mr Liesk.
Cohn, Ferdinand Julius, 1828-1898.

German botanist. Prof. Botany Breslau.
1876 Aug. C visited Down House.
1882 C wrote of visit in Breslauer Zeitung Apr. 23.
"Colaptes campestris"
1870 "Notes on the habits of the pampas woodpecker, (Colaptes campestris)", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., No. 47:705-706 (Bii 161, F1750).
Colburn, Henry, ?-1855.

Publisher of Great Marlborough St, London.
1839 Published 1st edition of Journal of researches.
Coldstream, John, 1806-1863.

Physician at Leith. Naturalist friend of CD at Edinburgh. DNB.
1833-1835 Wrote "Cirrhopoda" in Todd Cyclopaedia of anatomy and physiology 1 pp. 683-94 .
Colenso, William, 1811-1899.

Botanist and ethnologist.
Missionary printer at Paihia, NZ.
CD spent Christmas Day with him.
Eulogy of CD by C Trans. & Proc. N.Z. Inst. 15:541 "that great and good man".
Hooker proposed C for Royal Society, asked Haast to sponsor him, saying that CD would gladly have signed—Tee p. 46.
Collier, Elizabeth, 1747-1832.

Natural daughter of Charles Colyear. Mother was ?Collier, governess to the legitimate children. Married 1 Edward Chandos Pole. CD's step-grandmother. Francis Galton's grandmother.
1781 Married 2, as second wife, Erasmus Darwin [I].
Collier, Hon. John, 1850-1934.

Known as Jack. Painter and rationalist. RA. Son of Sir Robert Porrett C, Baron Monkswell. DNB.
1879 Married 1 Marian Huxley, daughter of T. H. Huxley.
1881 C painted CD three-quarter length in oils. CD sat for him in Aug.—LLiii 223.
1881 CD thanks for sending copy of "your Art Primer". "Everybody whom I have seen, and who has seen your picture of me is delighted with it. I shall be proud some day to see myself suspended at the Linnean Society [who commissioned it]"—MLi 398.
1882 C on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1887 "Many of those who knew his face most intimately think that Mr. Collier's picture is the best of the portraits"—LLiii 223. Now at Linnean Society, Burlington House, London. Replica by the artist with the family. Engraved by Leopold Flameng, the prints bearing the signatures of artist and engraver.
1889 Married 2 Ethel Gladys Huxley, daughter of T. H. Huxley.

[page] 59

Collingwood, Dr Cuthbert, 1826-1908.

Botanist. DNB.
1861 CD to Bates, CD had corresponded with C on mimicry—MLi 197.
1855 On the scope and tendency of botanical study, London.
1868 Rambles of a naturalist on the shores and waters of the Chinese seas, London.
Colonia del Sacramiento, Uruguay.
1833 Nov. 17 CD at.
Columbarian Society

A society for breeders of domestic pigeons, in which CD was much interested for Variation. See also Philoperisteron.
1855, 1856 CD attended meetings near London Bridge—LLii 51.
1859 CD to Huxley. "I sat one evening in a gin palace in the Borough amongst a set of pigeon fanciers"—LLii 281.
1859 CD to Huxley, "I have found it very important associating with fanciers and breeders"—LLii 281.
?1859 CD to Huxley sending him a card to admit him to a pigeon show—MLi 125.
Colon, Archipiélago de

Official Ecuadorian name for Galapagos Islands q.v.
Colyear, Charles, Earl of Portmore, 1700-1785.

Known as "Beau" Colyear. Natural father of Elizabeth Collier. CD's Step-great-grandfather in bastardy. Francis Galton's great-grandfather in bastardy. DNB.
1730 2nd Earl.
1732 Married Juliana, Dowager Duchess of Leeds.
circa 1842-1854 Gardener-coachman at Down House.

CD considered his evolution books to be compilations.
1859 CD to Huxley, "The inaccuracy of the blessed band (of which I am one) of compilers passes all bounds, The difficulty is to know what to trust. No one or two statements are worth a farthing"—LLii 281.
Concepcion, Chile.
1835 Mar. 4-7 Beagle at. Earthquake of Feb. 20 had caused almost total destruction of the town and of its port Talcahuano.
Condy's ozonised water
1862 CD took for dyspepsia. CD to Hooker "with, I think, extraordinary advantage—to comfort, at least"—MLi 472.
Conington, EDii 19, misprint for Covington q.v.
Coniston, Lancashire.
1879 Aug. 2-27 CD had family holiday there.

[page] 60


Small schooner, cost £400.
1835 May, used to survey coasts of Chile and Peru by Sulivan and Usborne.
Conway, Caernarvonshire.
1831 Aug. CD visited with Sedgwick for geology.
Conway, Collected essays.

CD's words, no such work, must be Atlantic essays 1871.
Conway, Moncure Daniel, 1832-1907.

American Unitarian clergyman. Ardent abolitionist. Sent Col. Higginson's Collected essays to CD—LLiii 176.
1863-1884 Minister South Place Chapel, Finsbury, London.
1873 Jan. visited Down House.
Cooke, Robert Francis, 1816-1891.

Partner of John Murray.
after 1845 Much involved in publishing CD's books.
Cookson, Montague Hughes, 1832-?

Barrister. Cambridge friend of CD's sons.
1875 QC.
1882 C was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Cooper, Mr James Davis, 1823-1904.

Wood engraver and book illustrator of 188 Strand, London. C cut woodblocks for Insectivorous plants.
Cope, Edward Drinker, 1840-1897.

American palaeontologist.
1872 CD to Alpheus Hyatt about Hyatt's and C's theories on evolution—MLi 338.
1876 CD to ?William Erasmus D, "He writes very obscurely, but is an excellent naturalist"—Carroll 502.
1887 The origin of the fittest, New York.
1889- Prof. Geology and Palaeontology Pennsylvania.
Copiapó, Chile.
1835 Jun. 22 CD reached C on expedition from Valparaiso, via Coquimbo.

Jun. 26-Jul. 1 CD took a short expedition into cordilleras from C.

Jul. 5 Beagle left C for Iquique.
1835 May 14-Jun. 2 CD visited C on expedition from Valparaiso. Met Fitz-Roy there and stayed with Mr Edwards, whose silver mine at Arqueros they visited May 21. Small earthquake whilst they were there.
Coral islands
1843 "Remarks on the preceding paper in a letter from Charles Darwin, Esq. to Mr. Maclaren", Edinb. New Phil. J., 34:47-50 (Bi 171, F1662); preceding paper by Charles Maclaren, "On coral islands and reefs as described by Mr. Darwin".
1962 "Coral Islands", Atoll Research Bull., No. 88, 20 pp, 1 map (F1576); a transcript of CD's mss notes, with introduction by D. R. Stoddart.
Coral reefs, Part 1 of geology of the voyage of the Beagle.
1842 The structure and distribution of coral reefs, London (F271).
1851 Same text in a combination volume with the other 2 parts (F274).
1969 Facsimile (F306).
1874 2nd edition (F275).
1889 3rd edition (F277).

First foreign editions, whole or part:
1846 Russian (F320).
1876 German (F311).
1878 French (F309).
1888 Italian (F318).
1889 USA (F278).
1949 Japanese (F319).
Corbet, Mr

A blind friend of Mrs Marsh Caldwell.
1866 CD to Mrs C enclosing note for C about diet—Carroll 323.
Corfield, Mr

Of Pitchford, Shropshire, father of Richard C—Darwin-Henslow 97.

[page] 61

Corfield, Rev. Richard, 1781-1865.

Father of Richard Henry C. Lived when old at The Retreat, Cornwall.
1812-1865 Rector of Pitchford, Shropshire.
Corfield, Richard Henry, 1804-1897.

Son of Rev. Richard C. [Another version says father was William Wilmot circa 1785-1847 of Chatwall Hall, Cardington, Salop.] Schoolfriend of CD living in Almendral, a suburb of Valparaiso.
1816-1819 Shrewsbury School.
1829-1868 In South America.
1834, 1835 1834 and again 1835 CD stayed with.
Cornford, Frances, see Darwin.
Cornford, Francis Macdonald, 1874-1943.

Married Frances Crofts Darwin. Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy Cambridge.
1937 FBA.
1908 Author of Microcosmographia Academica: being a guide for the young academic politician, 16mo, 24 pp, Cambridge, Bowes & Bowes.
Cote House, Westbury, Bristol.
circa 1795 A large country estate bought by John Wedgwood. A great social centre for young Ws and Allens. Gardens and greenhouses were famous. See also Ann Green of Clifton.
1805 Sold because of J. W's financial troubles.
Cotton, Mr
1822 "An old Mr. Cotton in Shropshire" had pointed out to CD the bell stone, an erratic boulder in Shrewsbury—CD's "Autobiography" 52.
Couper, William, 1853-1942.

Sculptor of New York.
1909 Bust in bronze by C of CD presented to Christ's College Cambridge by USA delegates to celebrations.
Covington, Syms, 1813-1861 Feb. 17.

"Fiddler and boy to the poop cabin" on 2nd voyage of Beagle. Boy 2nd class, shoemaker. Drawing of Lima beauty p. 289 and Napoleon's tomb p. 362 in Keynes, property of Linn. Soc. NSW in Mitchell Library, Sydney. Biography B. J. Ferguson 1971.
1833 May 22 became personal servant to CD at "under £60 per annum". Cost CD £30 because FR kept him on the books for food.
1834 Jul. 20 CD to sister Catherine "my servant is an odd sort of person; I do not very much like him; but he is, from his very oddity, very well adapted to all my purposes—CD and Beagle 100-105, Keynes 218, CCD p. 392.

C rearranged CD's notes on volcanic islands—Journal.
until 1839 Remained in CD's employ as secretary servant until 1839 Feb. 25, when CD's accounts show "Present to Covington on leaving me £2".
1839 May 29 CD wrote testimonial for.
1839 Went to Australia working his passage as a cook. First employed at Australian Agricultural Co's coal depot in Sydney.
circa 1840 Married Eliza Twyford of Stroud. 6 sons, 2 daughters: eldest son Syms died 1923.
from 1854 Employed at Pambula running a store and postmaster, Nov. 1 until death. Home The Retreat, Princes Highway, Pambula, Twofold Bay, NSW: 1971 it was a physician's house.
until 1859 CD continued to correspond with C. C sent CD large numbers of barnacles.

Very deaf in later years.
Death certificate says "21 years in this colony".
1884 Aug. 9 CD's letters to C published in Sydney Mail, 38:254-255.
1959 Reprinted in Notes and Records Roy. Soc., 14:14-27.
Craik, Georgiana Marion [Mrs May], 1831-1895.

1858 C was a visitor to Moor Park Hydro. CD to ED "I like Miss Craik very much though we have some battles"—LLii 114.
Cranworth, Baron, see Rolfe.
Crawfurd, John, 1783-1868.

Orientalist and Army surgeon. DNB.
1856 CD to Hooker mentions C as being on selection committee of Athenaeum when Huxley was up for membership—MLi 89.
1859 C reviewed Origin in Examiner, hostile but free from bigotry—LLii 237.
Crawley, Charles, 1846-1899.

Cambridge friend of Francis D. C and wife, Augusta Emily Butcher, drowned while boating on river Wye.
1872 C visited Down House.
1882 C was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Crellin, J. K.
1968 C was editor of Darwin and evolution, London, a Jonathan Cape Jackdaw card wallet with facsimiles and other material, including t.p. of 1859 Origin.
Creskeld, Poole, Yorkshire.

Seat of Francis Rhodes, later Darwin.

[page] 62

Cresselly, Pembrokeshire.

Home of John Bartlett Allen.
from 1803 Home of John Hensleigh Allen.
from 1843 Home of Seymour Phillips Allen.
Cresy, Edward, 1792-1858.

Architect and civil engineer. Neighbour at Downe. Father of Edward and Theodore.
Cresy, Edward, 1825-1870.

Son of Edward C. Architect. Neighbour at Downe "was we believe an architect"—MLi 58. DNB.
1860 C helped CD with measurements for Insectivorous plants—LLiii 318.
Crewe, Frances, ?-1845.
1833 Married Robert Wedgwood as 1st wife.
Crick, Walter Drawbridge, 1857-1903.

Of Northampton. Businessman and palaeontologist.
1882 Feb. C to CD about dispersal of fresh-water bivalve molluscs by water beetles—LLiii 252. See Nature, Lond., 529-530, 1882 Apr. 6.
Cripps Corner, Ashdown Forest, Sussex.
1900 Country home of Leonard D when he married Mildred Massingberd.
Crocker, Charles William, 1832-1868.
1862 C had lately retired from being foreman at Kew. He was going to work on varieties of hollyhock—MLi 218.
1862 Of Chichester, "he has the real spirit of an experimentalist, but has not done much this summer"—MLii 261.
Crofton, Amy
1867 C was a family friend who went to May eights at Cambridge with ED and family.
Crofts, Ellen, 1856-1903.

Daughter of John C of Leeds. Fellow in English Literature, Newnham College, Cambridge.
1883 Married as second wife Francis D.
Croll, James, 1821-1890.

Geologist of Edinburgh. DNB.
1869 CD to Lyell about C's estimates of geological time—Carroll 364.
1869 CD sent him 5th edition of Origin.
1875 Climate and time, London.
1876 FRS.
Cross, J. W., 1840-1924.

Born Liverpool, England. Spent a few years in his youth at New York branch of family bank.
Married Mary Ann Evans.
Cross, Mary Ann, see Evans.
Cross and Self Fertilisation
1876 The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom (F1249).
1878 2nd edition (F1251).
1891 3rd edition, but really as 2nd (F1256).

First foreign editions:
1877 French (F1265), German (F1266), USA (F1250).
1878 Italian (F1269).
1938 Russian (F1272).
1964 Polish (F1270), Romanian (F1271).
"Cross Breeding"
1856 "Cross breeding", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 49:806, 812 (Bi 264, F1691, 1692).
1860 "Cross bred plants", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 3:49 (Bii 31, F1704).
1861 [letter to D. Beaton] "Phenomena in the cross-breeding of plants", J. Hort., 1:112-113 (Bii 39, F1713).
1861 "Cross-breeding in plants", J. Hort., 1:151 (Bii 42, F1714).
Crüger, Dr Hermann, 1818-1864.

1857- Director of Botanic Garden, Trinidad.
1862 Mar. C helped CD with Melostomaceae—MLii 299.
?1863 C observed fertilisation in Catasetum and Coryanthes—LLiii 284.
1866 CD to Fritz Müller, "I am sorry to say Dr. Crüger is dead from a fever"—MLii 262.
Cumberland Place, Regent's Park, London.
1868 No. 1, Hensleigh Wedgwood's house.

[page] 63

Cuming, Hugh, 1791-1865.

Collector, especially of molluscan shells. C collected in Galapagos before CD. DNB.
1819 Sailmaker at Valparaiso.
1829 C visited Galapagos Islands—MLi 52.
1839 C returned to England.
1854 CD arranged and identified C's barnacles for him.
Cupples, Rev. George, 1822-1891.

Popular writer.
1873 CD to C, long letter of general nature about people. CD had recommended Mrs (Anne J.) C's book Tappy's chicks and other links between nature and human nature, London 1872, to Josiah Wedgwood [III]'s family, with whom CD was staying—Carroll 428.
1867 "Fertilisation of cypripediums", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 14: 350 (Bii 134, F1738).
"Cytisus scoparius"
1866 "The common broom (Cytisus scoparius)", J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot., 9:358; a note added to George Henslow's paper, "Note on the structure of Indigofera etc.", ibid., 9:355-358 (Bii 134, F1737).

First editions in:
1956 Journal of researches (F171).
1914 Origin of species (F641).
1906 Descent of man (F1048).
1964 Expression of the emotions (F1181).

[page 64]


Dallas, William Sweetland, 1824-1900.

1868 CD to Fritz Muller, "Prof. Huxley agrees with me that Mr. Dallas is by far the best translator" of Für Darwin—MLii 353.
1868 D compiled index to Variation under domestication, holding the publication up.
1872 D compiled glossary to 6th edition of Origin.
d'Alton, Johann Samuel Eduard, 1803-1854.

Son of J. W. E. d'A. q.v. Vertebrate zoologist. Professor of Physiology and Anatomy, Halle.
1848 Book on teratology.
d'Alton, Josef Wilhelm Eduard, 1772-1840.

Father of J. S. E. d'A. Vertebrate zoologist. Scientific illustrator. d'A is referred to in historical sketch to Origin as J. S. E. d'A, their names being persistently misprinted "Dalton". See Book Collector, 25:257-258, 1976.
Dana, James Dwight, 1813-1895.

American geologist and zoologist. Biography: Gilman 1899.
1849 D sent CD his work on geology of US Expedition—LLi 374.
1849 CD to Lyell, "Dana is dreadfully hypothetical in many parts, and often as 'd—d cocked sure' as Macaulay"—MLii 225.
1850-1892 Silliman Prof. Natural History and Geology Yale.
1854 CD sent D copy of Living Cirripedia.
1859 CD sent D copy of 1st edition of Origin.
1859 Dec. CD to Lyell, CD had had a letter from D saying that he is "quite disabled in his head" from overwork—Carroll 188.
1860 D to CD, from Florence, saying that his health was poor.
1863 CD to Lyell on D's classification of mammals in Silliman's J., 25:65-71 and Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 12:207-213, "The whole seems to me to be utterly wild"—MLi 236.
1877 Copley Medal.
1881 Aug. CD to Hooker, says D was first to argue for permanence of continents—LLiii 247.
1884 Foreign Member R. S.
1867, 1868
A carriage horse at Down House, bought 1867, sold 1868.
Dangerous Archipelago, see Tuamotu.

First editions in:
1876 Journal of researches (F174).
1872 Origin of species (F643).
1874-1875 Descent of man (F1050).
1909 Autobiography (F1512).
Darbishire, Alexander
1832 Apr. 25 CD to Caroline D "is also discharged the service from his own desire, not choosing his conduct, which has been bad about money matters to be investigated"—D and Beagle pp. 64-6.
Darby, Yvonne

1st wife of Sir Robert Vere Darwin.

[page] 65

Dareste de la Chavanne, Gabriel Madeleine Camille, 1822-1899.

French biologist. Held various biological chairs in Paris. Specialist on monstrosities.
1863 CD to D, D was pro-Origin—LLiii 7.
1869 CD to D about his application for a chair of physiology in Paris.
Darwin, Family of, Burke, 1888.

Gives by far the most detailed pedigree.
before 1542 He traces the family in the male line back to William D [I] of Marton, Lincolnshire, who died before 1542. The male descendents continue largely in that county.
1680 In 1680 William D [VI] married Ann Waring who inherited Elston Hall in the same county. The estate was inherited by their son Robert D and is still held by the senior branch of CD's line of the family.
1849 But it passed to a distaff on the marriage of Charlotte Maria Cooper D to Francis Rhodes in 1849.
1850 The latter, in 1850, changed his name to Darwin on inheriting Elston under the will of his brother-in-law Robert Alvey D, who had died in 1847.

The headship of the family, in the male line, then passed back to the descendents of Erasmus D [I] who was the younger brother of Charlotte D's father William Alvey D.
1847-1848 Erasmus's only surviving son Robert Waring D, CD's father, held it briefly in 1847-1848 and, on his death in the latter year, it went to his elder son Erasmus Alvey D, CD's brother.
1881-1882 Erasmus Alvey D died in August 1881, unmarried, and CD himself held it for a little over 6 months.
From CD it went to his eldest son William Erasmus D who had no children.
1912 CD's second son, Sir George Howard D, had died in 1912.
1914 His eldest son, Sir Charles Galton D, became head on William Erasmus D's death in 1914.
1962 On Sir Charles's death in 1962, it passed to his eldest son George P. D.
1914, 1915 Less detailed pedigrees are printed in Emma Darwin, i, 1915, and in Life letters and labours of Francis Galton, i, 1914.
1952 There is also a brief one in Period piece, 1952, which carries the pedigree one generation further into the 20th century.
1978 A pedigree in manuscript, compiled in 1978 by Sir Iain Moncrieffe of that Ilk, Bart, shows the relationship of CD to the present Queen Elizabeth II, through her mother. The common ancestor was Thomas Foley (1617-1677), great-great-grandfather of Erasmus D [I]'s first wife, Mary Howard, whose mother was Penelope Foley. Her Majesty is thus CD's fifth cousin four times removed. Sir Iain also gives a pedigree to King Edward III (1312-1377), in 18 generations, and he suggests a relationship to William Shakespeare, with one doubtful link: both of these are through the Hon. Penelope Paget, mother of Paul Foley, grandson of Thomas Foley.
about 1920 Finally, there is an absurd single sheet, compiled by Francis Darwin Swift, about 1920, which gives a skeleton pedigree back to Isaac II, Angelus, Eastern Emperor 1185-1204.

Three pedigrees are given here: one, abridged from Burke, shows the male Darwin line back to the 16th century, as far as he was able to trace it: a second shows CD's children and grandchildren, although the latters' marriages and the CD great-grandchildren are intentionally omitted: and thirdly one to shew CD's relationship to ED. These pedigrees can be expanded, especially to the other 13 children of Erasmus Darwin [I], and to Wedgwoods and Allens, by reference to the text.

[page] 66

Skeleton Pedigree of Charles Robert Darwin in the male line (from H. Farnham Burke, 1888).

[page] 67

Charles Robert (5th child) Pedigee to show Charles Robert Darwin's Relationship to his wife Emma Wedgwood
(From Emma Darwin, 1915).

[page] 68

1. 2. 4.
1. Gwendolen Mary, 1885-1957. Bernard Richard Meirion, 1876-1961. 1. Erasmus, 1881-1915.
2. Charles Galton, 1887-1962.
2. Ruth Frances, 1883-1973.
3. Margaret Elizabeth, 1890-1974. 3. 3. Emma Nora, 1885-.
4. William Robert, 1894-1970. Frances Crofts, 1886-1960.

Pedigree of Charles Robert Darwin's Children and Grandchildren.

[page] 69

Darwin, family of:

George Pember D, 1928-2001, was head of the family.

EPONYMS, LIST OF FORENAMES (all other eponyms are under CRD):

Barlow, Erasmus Darwin, 1915- , named after his mother Emma Nora, Lady Barlow, née Darwin.

Fox, Edith Darwin, 1857 and died an infant, named after her father William Darwin F.

Fox, Rev. Samuel William Darwin, 1841-?, named after his father Rev. William Darwin F.

Fox, Victor William Darwin 1883-?, named after his grandfather Rev. William Darwin F.

Fox, Rev. William Darwin 1805-80, named after his mother Anne née Darwin.

French, Erasmus Darwin,  f1. 1875, source of forenames unknown.

Galton, Darwin, 1814-1903, named after his mother Frances Anne Violetta née Darwin.

Galton, Violet Darwin 1862-?, named after her grandmother Frances Anne Violetta née Darwin.

Huish, Frances Violetta Darwin 1858-?, named after her grandfather Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin.

Huish, Francis Darwin, 1850-?, named after his grandfather Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin.

Keynes, Richard Darwin, 1919- , named after his mother Margaret Elizabeth, Lady Keynes, née Darwin.

Overton, William Darwin, ?-1883, named after his great-great-grandfather William Alvey Darwin, through his grandfather Rev. William Darwin Fox.

Stowe, Darwin,  fl. 1638, named after his great-grandfather Henry Darwin.

Swift, Francis Darwin, 1864-?, named after his grandfather Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin.

Wilmot, Rev. Darwin, 1855-1935, named after his grandfather Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin.

Wilmot, Sacheverel Darwin, 1885-?, son of Rev. Darwin W, q. v.

Arms and Crest of Robert Waring Darwin.

Darwin, Family of, Arms, Burke, 1888.
circa 1573-1644 Records the arms of William D [IV], circa 1573-1644, as: Argent, on a bend gules between two cotises vert, three escallops vert.
1717 He illustrates the same coat for Robert D of Lincoln's Inn in 1717, with a cadency crescent for second son.

Erasmus D [I] used them without cadency, although he was also a second son.

His son, Robert Waring D, shows a martlet for fourth son, although the pedigree gives him as third son.

There seems to be no record of CD using arms, although he did use a signet with the crest.

Crest in all these examples, a demi-griffin segreant vert, holding between the claws an escallop vert. Motto "E conchis omnia".

Burke illustrates the arms of two of CD's sons, William Erasmus D and Sir George Howard D in both of which the coat is quartered 2 and 3, vert a chevron argent, between 3 herons heads erased (for Waring of Elston Hall, Lincolnshire); crest the same; motto "Cave et aude".

Fairburn, for four of CD's sons, records the crests as having in front of the griffin three escallops fesseway argent.

The senior branch of the family had slightly variant arms: ermine a leopard's face jessant-de-lys between two escallops, all within two bendlets gules.
1849 In 1849 Francis Rhodes married Charlotte Maria Cooper D, heiress of Elston Hall, the family seat.
1850 In 1850 he changed his surname to Darwin and was granted in the same year, by Queen Victoria, the Darwin arms quartering 2 and 3 those of Rhodes, per pale argent and azure, on a bend nebuly, a lion passant guardant, between two acorns slipped, all countercharged; twin crests, a demi-griffin segreant sable, semée of mascules or, resting the sinister claw upon an escutcheon argent, charged with a leopard's face jessant-de-lys gules (for Darwin), A cubit arm erect, vested of six argent and azure, cuffed gules, the hand holding in saltire an oak branch and a vine branch, both fructed proper (for Rhodes): Motto "Cave et aude".

[page] 70

Darwin, family, Charity, see Brass Close.
Darwin, Lady

The following have borne the title as wives and some as relicts:
1. Maud du Puy, 1905-1947, wife of Sir George H. D.
2. Florence Henrietta Fisher, 1913-1920, wife of Sir Francis D.
3. Emma ("Ida") Cecilia Farrer, 1918-1946, wife of Sir Horace D, was also The Hon. from 1893 when father became Baron.
4. Katharine Pember, 1942-, wife of Sir Charles Galton D.
Darwin, Amy Richenda, see Ruck.
Darwin, Ann, 1727-1813.

Fourth child of Robert D. CD's great-aunt. Unmarried.
Darwin, Anne [I], see Earle.
Darwin, Anne [II], see Waring.
Darwin, Anne [III], 1777-1859.

Child of William Alvey D [I]. CD's first cousin once removed.
1799 Married Samuel Fox. Children including Rev. William Darwin Fox.
Darwin, Anne Elizabeth, 1841 Mar. 2-1851 Apr. 23 midday.

Second child of CD, born at 12 Upper Gower St. Known as "Annie", "Kitty Kumplings". CD's favourite child. Her character—LLi 132-134.
Died at Malvern of a fever.
Darwin, "Annie", see Anne Elizabeth D.
Darwin, "Babba", see Charles Robert D.
Darwin, "Babsey", see Bernard Richard Meirion D.
Darwin, "Backy", see Sir Francis D.
Darwin, "Bee", see Fraser.
Darwin, Bernard Richard Meirion, 1876 7 Sep.-1961 Oct. 18.

Writer mostly on golf. Only child of Sir Francis D and Amy Richenda. CD's senior grandchild, the first of two born in CD's lifetime. Known as "Babsey", "Dubba", or "Dubsy" in infancy. Known as "Dubba" in youth. Home Gorringes, Downe.
His mother died in childbed and he was brought up at Down House until his father married again in 1883.
1906 Married Elinor Mary Monsell. 1 son, 2 daughters: 1. Sir Robert Vere, 2. Ursula Francis Elinor, 3. Nicola Mary Elizabeth.
1941 Although best known as a writer on golf D also wrote the introduction to the excellent Oxford dictionary of quotations, 1941.
1955 Autobiography The world Fred made 1955, Chatto & Windus. Fred was a gardener at Down House.
19? Francis D The story of a childhood, 19?, privately printed. Contains extracts from letters from FD to Mrs Ruck, née Mary Anne Matthews, his mother-in-law, about BRMD, from birth to age 15. They were given back to FD on Mrs R's death, she died in her late 80s.

[page] 71

Darwin, "Bessy", see Elizabeth D [VI].
Darwin, "Body", see Henrietta Emma D.
Darwin, "Boofy", see Ruth Francis D.
Darwin, "Budgy", see Henrietta Emma D.
Darwin, Caroline Sarah, 1800 Sep. 14-1888 Jan. 5.

Second child of Robert Waring D. CD's sister. The only one of CD's siblings to outlive him.
1837 Married Josiah Wedgwood [III].
1837 CD to William Darwin Fox "I never saw a human being so fond of little crying wretches (children) as she is"—W&W p. 228.
Darwin, Catherine, see Emily Catherine D.
Darwin, Charles, 1758 Sep. 3-1778 May 15.

First child of Erasmus D and Mary. Unmarried. CD's uncle and CD named after him. Medical student, died from a dissecting room wound at Edinburgh.
1780 Author of Experiments establishing a criterion between mucaginous and purulent matter, Lichfield 1780, edited by his father.
Darwin, Sir Charles Galton, 1887 Dec. 9-1962 Dec. 31.

Second child of Sir George Howard D. CD's grandson. Physicist. DNB WWH.
1925 Married Katharine Pember. 4 sons, 1 daughter.
1922 FRS.
1923-1936 Prof. Natural Philosophy Edinburgh.
1938-1949 Director National Physical Laboratory.
1927 D owned Down House when George Buckston Browne bought it in 1927.
1942 KBE.
Darwin, Charles John Wharton, 1894 Dec. 12-1941 Dec. 26.

Son of Charles Waring D. Squadron Leader and Businessman. Head of senior branch of the family. Of Elston Hall, Notts. CD's remote cousin.
1917 Married Sibyl Rose.
Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882.

Dates of birth, death, marriage and names of children are given first, followed by a few quotations to give some indication of CD's character.

Other information is then given under the following heads:



Books by.

Books, autobiographies.

Books, bibliographies.

Books, biographies.

Books, dedicated by.

Books, dedicated to.

Books, fiction.

Books, statistics.

Death and funeral.



Eponyms, including an anatomical feature, animals, institutions, monuments, places and plants.
















Society Membership.


[page] 72

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.
1809 1809 Feb. 12 Sun.-1882 Apr. 19 Wed. about 4 pm. Naturalist. 5th child of Robert Waring D. Born The Mount, Shrewsbury. Died Down House, Downe, Kent.
1809 Other people born in same year: Gladstone, Lincoln, Poe, Fitzgerald, Wendell Holmes, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Monckton Milnes—Leonard Huxley p. 1.


"Gas" (at Shrewsbury School).

"Bobby", Erasmus A. D. called CD Bobby at school and for a short time afterwards.

"Postillion", by Frances Mostyn Owen; this absurd affair of "Postillion-Housemaid" relationship—Brent pp. 62-3 and CCD I prints the letters.

"Dear old Philosopher" (by officers on Beagle).

"Flycatcher" (by all ranks on Beagle).

"Babba" (by Bernard Richard Meirion D in infancy).

"F" (by ED in writing to the children when they were grown up).

When CD was born he had only one grandparent living, Sarah Wedgwood, his maternal grandmother, who was ED's paternal grandmother. She died when CD was 5/6.

His mother died when he was 7 and his father when he was 39.

He had one brother and four sisters, one of whom, Caroline Sarah D, outlived him.

Of his ten children, three died in infancy or childhood, the rest outliving him.

He had four grandsons and five granddaughters: two, Bernard Richard Meirion D and Erasmus D [III], were born in his lifetime.

"I just remember him—a dullish apathetic lad, giving no token of his after-eminence"—F. E. Gretton Memory's harkback through half a century 1808-1858, London, Richard Bentley 1889, p. 33.
1834 To Emily Catherine D, from E. Falkland I., "there is nothing like Geology; the pleasure of the first day's partridge shooting or first day's hunting cannot be compared to finding a fine group of fossil bones, which tell their story of former times with almost a living tongue"—Darwin and the Beagle 96.
1839 Jan. 29 married Emma Wedgwood, by Rev. John Allen Wedgwood at St Peter's Church, Maer, Staffordshire.

6 sons, 4 daughters: 1. William Erasmus, 2. Anne Elizabeth, 3. Mary Eleanor, 4. Henrietta Emma, 5. George Howard, 6. Elizabeth, 7. Francis, 8. Leonard, 9. Horace, 10. Charles Waring.
1839 Jan. 29 "Uncle John [Wedgwood] believes one single turnip in a garden is enough to spoil a bed of cauliflowers"—Species entry made by CD on wedding day—Huxley and Kettlewell p. 59.
1839 FRS.
1844 Aug. 29 CD to Horner, "I always feel as if my books came half out of Lyell's brain"—MLii 117.
1856 CD to Thwaites, asking for information, "When a beggar once begins to beg he never knows when to stop"—Carroll 125.
1857 JP.
1859 CD's only recorded attendance on the Bench—LLii 225.
1859 CD to Lyell, "It is a pity he [Fitz-Roy] did not add his theory of the extinction of Mastodon etc., from the door of the Ark being made too small", about two letters to The Times signed "Senex"—MLi 129.
1860 Mar. CD to Leidy, "I have never for a moment doubted, that though I cannot see my errors, that much in my book [Origin] will be proved erroneous"—Carroll 202.

[page] 73

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.
1862 Dec. Hooker to B. H. Hodgson of Darjeeling, "First naturalist in Europe. Indeed I question if he will not be regarded as great as any that ever lived; his powers of observation, memory and judgement seem prodigious, his industry indefatigable and his sagacity in planning experiments, fertility of resources and care in conducting them are unrivalled, and all this with health so detestable that his life is a curse to him"—Allan 209.
1863 CD to Hooker, "We are degenerate descendants of old Josiah W., for we have not a bit of pretty ware in the house"—LLiii 5.
1863 CD to Gray, "the Times is getting more detestable (but that is too weak a word) [about slavery] than ever. My good wife wishes me to give it up, but I tell her that is a pitch of heroism to which only a woman is equal. To give up the 'Bloody Old Times' as Cobbett used to call it, would be to give up meat, drink and air."—LLiii 11.
1863 CD to Hooker, "It is mere rubbish thinking at present of the origin of life; one might as well think of the origin of matter"—LLiii 18.
1863 CD to J. Scott, "Be sparing in publishing theory. It makes people doubt your observation"—MLii 323.
1867 CD to Cannon Farrer, "I...would leave classics to be learnt by those alone who have sufficient zeal and high taste requisite for their appreciation"—MLii 441.
1869 CD to Bentham, "How detestable are Roman numerals! Why should not the Presidents' paged with Christian figures"—MLi 381.
?1869 CD to Wallace, "It is an aweful stretcher to believe that a peacock's tail was thus formed; but, believing it, I believe in the same principle somewhat modified applied to man"—MLii 90.
1870 CD to Fritz Müller, "I have not yet met a soul in England who does not rejoice in the splendid triumph of Germany over France: it is a most just retribution against that vainglorious war-liking nation"—MLii 92.
1878 CD to G. A. Gaskell, "No words can exaggerate the importance, in my opinion, of our colonisation for the future history of the world"—MLii 50.
1881 CD to Romanes, he was, as a magistrate, giving orders daily to allow pigs to cross roads, at a time of swine fever.
1881 Jun. 15 CD to Hooker, "So I must look forward to Down graveyard as the sweetest place on earth"—MLii 433.

[page] 74

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.


The following list contains the main dates which may have been celebrated with pleasure, or remembered with pain, in CD's immediate family circle, from his birth in 1809 up to ED's death in 1896. One does not get the impression that CD's household was much given to celebrating anniversaries.
January 3
Horace D, CD's son, married 1880.

Caroline Sarah W, CD's sister, died 1888.

Susannah D, CD's mother, born 1765.

CD and ED's wedding day 1839.
Emily Catherine Langton, CD's sister, died 1866.

CD born, 1809.

Charlotte Wedgwood, ED's sister, married in this month.
Anne Elizabeth D, CD's daughter, born 1841.

Josiah W, ED's brother, died 1880.

Frances Crofts D, CD's grand-daughter, born 1886.

Elizabeth W, ED's mother died 1846.

Henrietta Emma D, CD's daughter, married 1871.
Marianne D, CD's sister, born 1798.

CD died 1882.

Anne Elizabeth D, CD's daughter, died 1851.
ED born 1808.

Robert Waring D, CD's father, born 1766.

Emily Catherine D, CD's sister, born 1810.

Horace D, CD's son, born 1851.
Hensleigh W, ED's brother, died 1891.

Charles Waring D, CD's son, died 1858.

Susannah D, CD's mother, died 1817.

Elizabeth D, CD's daughter, born 1847.

George Howard D, CD's son, born 1845.

Leonard D, CD's son, married 1882.

Josiah W, ED's father, died 1843.

Marianne Parker, CD's sister, died 1858.

George Howard D, CD's son, married 1884.

[page] 75

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, ANNIVERSARIES, continued.
Ruth Frances D, CD's granddaughter, born 1883.

Susan Elizabeth D, CD's sister, born 1803.

Francis D, CD's son, born 1848.

Frances W, ED's sister, died 1832.

Erasmus Alvey D, CD's brother, died 1881.

Gwendolen Mary D, CD's granddaughter, born 1885.
Bernard Richard Meirion D, CD's grandson, born 1876.

Caroline Sarah D, CD's sister, born 1800.

ED moved into Down House, without CD, 1842.

CD moved into Down House 1842.

Mary Eleanor D, CD's daughter, born 1842.

Henrietta Emma D, CD's daughter, born 1843.
Francis W, ED's sister, died 1888.

Beagle reached Falmouth and CD disembarked 1836.

Susan Elizabeth D, CD's sister, died 1866.

Mary Eleanor D, CD's daughter, died 1842.
ED died 1896.

Sarah Elizabeth W, ED's sister, died 1880.

CD proposed marriage to ED and was accepted 1838.

Robert Waring D, CD's father, died 1848.
Charles Waring D, CD's son, born 1856.

Erasmus D, CD's grandson, born 1881.

Charles Galton D, CD's grandson, born 1887.

Emma Nora D, CD's grand-daughter, born 1885.

Beagle sailed from Devonport 1831.

Erasmus Alvey D, CD's brother, born 1804.

[page] 76

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.


The only full description of CD's physical appearance and of his dress is in Chapter 3 of LLi, in Francis D's reminiscences of his father, but he omits much and only treats of CD in his later years. The picture can be amplified from portraits.

The only portrait in his childhood is the pastel by Rolinda Sharples, when he was about 7 years of age.

In early manhood, before he grew his beard, there are:

a water colour by George Richmond, when he was 31,

the earliest photograph, with his son William Erasmus D, when he was 33,

the Ipswich engraving by Maguire when he was 40,

the chalk drawing by Samuel Laurence when he was 44,

and the Maull & Fox photograph, probably taken when he was 45.

After he grew his beard, there are one bust and three oils taken from life, as well as numerous photographs, but his beard was so copious that his features were much obscured.

He was about six feet tall, sparely built with medium shoulders. In Francis D's recollection he had a tendency to stoop which increased with age; high forehead, much wrinkled in age, but his face otherwise unlined; wide-set eyes, iris bluish-grey according to Francis D but pale brown in the Richmond portrait; eyebrows very bushy in age; nose straight; mouth small; chin neither prominent nor receding.

All the portraits show a very youthful face for his age, until he grew his beard, from which time he looked unchangingly old.

His hair and side whiskers were light brown and the hairline started to recede before he was 30; by 60 he had only a fringe of hair at the back.
1832, 1834
He first grew a beard, as did everyone else, when the Beagle left Montevideo for the cold south, 1832 Nov., but they shaved when they returned to temperate waters, 1834 Jul. CD to his sister Emily Catherine "With my great beard"—LLi 254.
1845 "Whilst we all wore our untrimmed beards"—J. Researches, 209.
1849 CD to Hooker, "Everyone tells me that I look quite blooming and beautiful; and most think that I am shamming, but you have never been one of those"—LLi 111.
1862-1863 CD finally grew beard and moustache in 1862-1863; the beard was copious and the moustache cut square across.
1864 May 28 CD to Gray, on sending a bearded photograph "Do I not look venerable"—Darwin-Gray letters 54.
1866 Apr. 28 ED to Henrietta Emma D "He was obliged to name himself to almost all of them [people at a Royal Society soirée], as his beard alters him so"—EDii 185.

His complexion was ruddy.

His gait was springing and he always walked with a stick which he banged on the ground.

He used his hands a good deal in conversation, although the crossed arms and legs shown in the "Ape" cartoon were characteristic.

His laugh was a "free and sounding peal"—LLi 111.

The portraits show that CD's dress was usually conventional and that of a man of his position, but in later years it became less so. He gave up wearing a tall hat even in London, wearing a soft black one with a rounded crown in winter and a big straw in summer. His clothes were dark and of a loose and easy fit.
circa 1880 Outdoors he wore a short cloak: the cloak and winter hat are well shown in the Elliott & Fry photograph of circa 1880.

Indoors, he normally wore a shawl and "great loose cloth boots" over his indoor shoes—LLi 112.
1880 Jan. his sons bought him a fur coat. ED to Leonard D "He has begun wearing it so constantly, that he is afraid it will soon be worn out"—EDii 239.

In latter years he wore, for reading or close experiments, spectacles or more often pince nez which are visible on a ribbon in some photographs and his hearing was unimpaired.

[page] 77

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.


These and his publications in serials, are entered in the main sequence under brief titles.

The following list gives full titles of his main books in strict alphabetical order, except for first articles, followed by the date of first appearance under that title and any needed cross reference.

Several of his books appeared under more than one title.

Works printed from CD's manuscripts since his death have not been included, but will be found under the separate heading "Manuscripts" and they are also present under abbreviated titles in the main sequence.

Works to which he contributed only an article, preface, or letter, have also not been included.

CD wrote seventeen works in twenty-one volumes, or fifteen if the three volumes of geology of the Beagle are treated as one. They consist of more than 9,000 pages of text with a further 170 pages of preliminary matter. If the papers in serials are added, the total comes to well over 10,000 pages. This rough total does not consider the increase, or rarely decrease, in the length of the text in later editions, and represents about 230 pages a year for forty-three years.
The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, 2 vols, 1871 (F937).
The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, 1877 (F1277).
The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, 1876 (F1249).

[page] 78

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, BOOKS BY CD, continued.
Erasmus Darwin. Translated from the German...with a preliminary essay by Charles Darwin, 1879 (F1319). Text by E. Krause, but CD's essay is longer.
The expression of the emotions in man and animals, 1872 (F1141).
The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms, with observations on their habits, 1881 (F1357).
Geological observations on coral reefs, volcanic islands, and on South America, 1851 (F274). Combination volume of Nos 8, 9 and 27, from the same sheets.
Geological observations on South America, 1846 (F273).
Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, together with some brief notices of the geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope, 1844 (F272).
10 Insectivorous plants, 1875 (F1217).
11 Journal and remarks 1832-1836, 1839 (F10 part). Volume 3 of No. 18, first issue of No. 12.
12 Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, 1839 (F11).
13 Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, 1845 (F13). 2nd edition of No. 12.
14 The life of Erasmus Darwin...Being an introduction to an essay on his scientific work, 1887 (F1321). 2nd edition of No. 4, same text but new preliminaries.
15 A monograph of the fossil Lepadidae, or pedunculated cirripedes, of Great Britain. A monograph of the fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae of Great Britain, 2 vols, 1851, 1854[=1855] (F342).
16 A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species, 2 vols 1851, 1854 (F339).
17 The movements and habits of climbing plants, 1876 (F836). 2nd edition of No. 20.
18 Narrative of the surveying voyages of his Majesty's ships Adventure, and Beagle, 3 vols and appendix to Vol. 2, 1839 (F10). Edited by Robert Fitz-Roy. Vol. 3 is CD's volume, titled Journal and remarks, =No. 11, 1st edition of No. 12.
19 A naturalist's voyage. Journal of researches etc., 1879 (F34). An unchanged reprint of No. 13.
20 On the movements and habits of climbing plants, 1865 (F834).
21 On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, 1859 (F373).

[page] 79

22 On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing, 1862 (F800).
23 The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, 1872 (F391). 6th edition of No. 21.
24 The power of movement in plants, 1880 (F1325).
25 Queries about expression, [1867] (F871, 873).
26 Questions about the breeding of animals, [1839] (F262).
27 The structure and distribution of coral reefs, 1842 (F271).
28 The variation of animals and plants under domestication, 2 vols, 1868 (F877).
29 The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilised by insects, 1877 (F801). 2nd edition of No. 22.
30 The voyage of the Beagle, 1905 (F106). Unchanged reprint of No. 13.
31 The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle...during the years 1832 to 1836, 5 parts, 1838-1842 (F8). Edited by CD.

1876 The original publication of CD's autobiography is in LLi 26-107, but CD's description of his father, which is in the mss, is printed in Chapter 1, 11-20, instead of in its correct place. It was written in 1876, between May 28 and Aug. 3, with some additions and alterations in 1878 and 1881. The mss is headed "Recollections of the development of my mind and character". This version was bowdlerised by Francis D after consultation with CD's other children—"passages should occur which must have to be omitted". One omitted passage, about CD's mother, was printed in MLi 30.
1838 A further autobiographical fragment of his first ten years, written in 1838, was printed in MLi 1-5.
1957 The first full transcription of the original mss appeared in Russian translation by S. L. Sobol' in 1957.
1958 Nora Barlow's version of it, which was independently transcribed, appeared in 1958, with an important appendix.

In 1974 de Beer edited an edition of the Barlow transcription, with slight modifications after the mss had been re-examined by James Kinsley, in Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, autobiographies. This edition also contains the fragment of 1838.

[page] 80

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, continued.


There is no full bibliographical work even of the first editions of CD's books.
The origin of species has been surveyed in great detail by Morse Peckham in his comparative edition of 1959. He covers all English editions and issues up to 1890, and his descriptions include paper, type and binding cases, as well as summaries of John Murray's accounts.
1964 H. D. Horblit, in the Grolier Club volume One hundred books famous in science, 1964, gives another description of the 1st edition.
1954 A full description of Living Cirripedia is given in R. Curle, The Ray Society a bibliographical history, 1954, 48-49.

There are several handlists:
1883 F. W. True, A darwinian bibliography, Smithson. Misc. Coll., 25:92-101.
1887 J. P. Anderson, i-xxxi in G. T. Bettany, Life of Charles Darwin, a good list which also contains list of early darwiniana and of reviews.
1887 Frances D, LLiii, 362-372, not so useful as Anderson.
1977 R. B. Freeman, The works of Charles Darwin, 2nd edition.
1977 P. H. Barrett, The collected papers of Charles Darwin, 2 vols, contains an almost complete collection of CD's works in serials, with their references, and notes.

BOOKS, BIOGRAPHIES, including letters:

Biographies of CD are numerous and include DNB. Those listed here all contain general biographical matter as well as considerations of his work and theories. Many more, which are concerned with darwinism from the biological, ethical or sociological viewpoints, contain some facts about his life, but usually nothing new: these have been ignored.
1887 The basic biography, on which most of the others draw strongly for facts, is Francis D's Life and letters, 3 vols, 1887.
1903, 1904 This is supplemented by Francis D and A. C. Seward, More letters, 1903, and, largely for family matters, by H. E. Litchfield, Emma Darwin, 1904.

Much information has come to light since these early books which was not available to their editors, but no full scale biography containing it has appeared. The most important will be found under the entries for Barlow, de Beer, Gruber and Stecher.
1882 Charles Darwin, memorial notices, Nature Series. 6 obituaries from Nature, Lond.
1883 L. C. Miall, The life and work of Charles Darwin; a lecture.
1883 J. M. Winn, Darwin.
1884 E. Woodall, Charles Darwin.
1886 J. T. Cunningham, Charles Darwin; naturalist.
1887 G. T. Bettany, Life of Charles Darwin.
1887 Francis D, Life and letters of Charles Darwin, 3 vols.

[page] 81

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, BOOKS, BIOGRAPHIES, continued.
1891 C. F. Holder, Charles Darwin. His life and work.
1892 Francis D, Charles Darwin. His life told in an autobiographical chapter, and in a selected series of his published letters. An abridged version of 1887, with some alterations and additions.
1894 Parkyn, Darwin his work and influence.
1903 Francis D. and A. C. Seward, More letters of Charles Darwin, 2 vols.
1904 H. E. Litchfield, Emma Darwin, wife of Charles Darwin, privately printed edition. 1915 Emma Darwin, published edition.
1909 E. B. Poulton, Charles Darwin and the Origin of species.
1921 Leonard Huxley, Charles Darwin.
1923 Karl Pearson, Charles Darwin, 1809-1882. Questions of the day and of the fray, No. 12.
1927 Henshaw Ward, Charles Darwin. The man and his warfare.
1937 "Geoffrey West" [pseudonym of G. H. Wells], Charles Darwin, the fragmentary man.
1950 P. B. Sears, Charles Darwin, the naturalist as a cultural force.
1955 William Irvine, Apes, Angels and Victorians.
1955 Dorothy Laird, Charles Darwin. Naturalist.
1959 Arthur Keith, Darwin revalued.
1963 G. de Beer, Charles Darwin, evolution by natural selection.
1966 Julian Huxley and H. B. D. Kettlewell, Darwin and his world.
1970 P. J. Vorzimmer, Charles Darwin: the years of controversy.
1970 Marshall, A. J., Darwin and Huxley in Australia.
1973 Hull, D. L., Darwin and his critics.
1977 Mea Allan, Darwin and his flowers. The key to natural selection.
1981 Brent, Peter, Charles Darwin: a man of enlarged curiosity.
1981 Parodiz, J. J., Darwin in the New World.
1982 George, Wilma, Darwin.
1982 Howard, Jonathan, Darwin.
1985 Clark, R. W., The survival of Darwin.
1985- Burkhardt, F. and Smith, S., Editors, The correspondence of Charles Darwin.
1985 Burkhardt, F. and Smith, S., Editors, A calendar of the correspondence.

1845 Journal of researches, 2nd ed. 1845 and later to Charles Lyell.
1877 Forms of flowers, 1877 to Asa Gray.

1854 Hooker, J. D., Himalayan journals, 2 vols, 1854.
1861 Grant, R. E., Tabular view of the primary divisions of the animal kingdom, 1861.
1879 Moseley, H. N., Notes of a naturalist on the "Challenger", 1879.

Wallace, A. R., Malay archipelago
1870 Orton, James, The Andes and the Amazon; or across the continent of South America, 1870.
1877 Ludwig, R. A. B. A., Fossile Crocodiliden, 1877.
1881 Wise, J. C., The first of May, a fairy masque, 1881.

1867 Waugh, Edwin, Benjamin Brierley et al. The Lancashire wedding or Darwin moralized, 1867 (a play).
1936 Baker, Ethel Winifred, Miss Ann Green of Clifton, 1936 (a novel).
1980 Stone, Irving, The Origin: a biographical novel of Charles Darwin, 1980.
1982 Ward, Peter, The adventures of Charles Darwin: a story of the Beagle voyage, 1982 (an illustrated children's story).


CD reckoned that he had made £10,248 from his books by the end of 1881.

His Murrays totalled 94,000 copies sold at the time of his death, of which 15,000 were Journal of researches in which he had no copyright.

He made about 2s 6d per copy sold excluding Journal.


The first coffin "all rough, just as it left the bench, no polish, no nothing, just as he wanted it"—John Lewis q.v, the village carpenter at Downe, for two years a page at Down House. Lewis put CD into it, but CD was transferred to a white oak one in which he was buried. The plain one was sold to "a young chap that kept a beerhouse out at Farnborough". I gathered that the coffin is still in the "beerhouse". "Darwin laid in that coffin thirty-one and a half hours exactly. I put him in myself"—Zoologist 1909 p. 120, from Evening News 1909, Feb. 12—see also S. Maxwell Just beyond London 1927 pp. 105-6. Maxwell relates a tale of an old man of 87 who had helped to put CD into the first coffin and transferring him to the second by "fitful moonlight". The beerhouse was The New Inn, Rocks Bottom, Farnborough; not seen since 1925—Colp, J. Hist. Med. 35:59-63, 1980.
1882 CD was the first and only naturalist to be buried in Westminster Abbey.
Apr. 21 Letter to the Dean, G. G. Bradley, on House of Commons paper—"Very Rev. Sir, We hope you will not think we are taking a liberty if we venture to suggest that it would be acceptable to a very large number of our countrymen of all classes and opinions that our illustrious countryman Mr. Darwin should be buried in Westminster Abbey, We remain your obedient servants", signed by Lubbock and nineteen other MPs.

The Dean was abroad and replied by telegram "Oui sans aucune hésitation regrette mon absence".
Apr. 25 Mon., pm. CD's body was carried from Down House, in a hearse drawn by four black horses, accompanied by Francis, Leonard and Horace D. Vigil in St Faith's Chapel, where they were joined by William and George D. The undertakers were T. & W. Banting—The Times, Apr. 26.
Apr. 26 Wednesday at noon, the mourners invited for 11 am.

Service conducted by Canon George Prothero, Senior Canon.

Pallbearers, to left of body, Lubbock, Huxley, J. R. Lowell (as American Ambassador), Duke of Devonshire (as Chancellor of Cambridge), Wallace, to right of body, Canon Farrar (Rector of St Margaret's Westminster), Hooker, W. Spottiswoode (as President of Royal Society), Earl of Derby, Duke of Argyll.

Chief Mourner William Erasmus D, followed by thirty-one relatives, including all surviving children, servants Parslow and Jackson at rear followed by representatives of scientific bodies.

ED not present.

Queen Victoria in Council was represented by Earl Spencer, the President.

Ambassadors of France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Spain were present.

There is a printed list of mourners, one copy of which is marked by George Howard D "very erroneous".

There are manuscript lists by George Howard D at Cambridge including one of "Personal Friends invited" with 108 names "and other old servants and inhabitants of Down".

Anthem specially composed by Sir Frederick Bridge "Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding"—Proverbs iii 13, 15-16 omitting 14.
May 1 Memorial Service: Westminster Abbey, sermon by Harvey Goodwin, Bishop of Carlisle. The Archbishop of Canterbury, A. C. Tait, had withdrawn at short notice—H. D. Rawnsley, Harvey Goodwin, 223-225, 1896.
1915 Nov. 1. Memorial to Wallace placed next to that for CD, Westminster Abbey.

1831 Cambridge Apr. 26 B. A., 10th in list of candidates who did not seek honours.
1837 Cambridge MA.
1862 Breslau Hon.D.Med.and Chirurg.
1868 Bonn Hon.D.Med.and Chirurg.
[1870 Oxford Jun. 17, CD declined Hon.DCL, on grounds of ill health.]
1875 Leyden  Hon.MD.
1877 Cambridge Nov. 17, Hon. LL.D.


CD had 25 great-grandchildren—Erasmus Darwin Barlow, Zoo Newsletter Autumn 1980, on his appointment as Secretary of Zoo p. 1. Those that were known in 1978 are listed here in order of their parents seniority:
1. Gwendolen Mary, daughter of Sir George, married J. Raverat, had at least 2 daughters.

One daughter Sophie was in 1980 Mrs Gurney, previously Pryor.

There was also at least one great-great-grandchild Anne, who was 5 before 1952.
2. Sir Charles Galton D, had 4 sons 1 daughter.

George Pember D is eldest and head of family.

Henry Galton D, 1929-, married Jane Sophie Christie, 3 daughters. WH.

Francis William D, of Kings Coll. London, zoologist.
3. Margaret Elizabeth, 1890-1974, married 1917 Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes 1887-1982, FBA 1981, 4 sons:

1. Richard Darwin K, 1919- , FRS 1959, married 1945 Hon. Anne Pinsent Adrian. 4 sons (1 deceased by 1979).

2 or 3 Quentin.

3 or 2 Dr Milo.

4 Stephen John, 1927- , married 1955 Mary Knatchbull-Hugesson. 3 sons, 2 daughters. WH.
4. William Robert, son of Sir George, married 1894 Monica Slingsby. 2 sons, 1 daughter.
5. Bernard Richard Meirion, son of Sir Francis by 1st marriage. 1 son, 2 daughters:

1. Sir Robert Vere, twice married, s.p.

2. Ursula Frances Elinor, no further information.

3. Nicola Mary Elizabeth.
6. Frances Crofts, poet, daughter of Sir Francis by second marriage, married Francis Macdonald Cornford, 1874-1943. 3 sons, 2 daughters.

One of whom was Francis Cornford, poet.
7. Ruth Frances, married W. Rees Thomas, s.p.
8. Emma Nora, married 1911 Sir James Allen Noel Barlow, Bart. 4 sons, 1 daughter:

1. Sir Thomas Erasmus, 1914- , RN retd, DSC, DL, 3rd Bart 1968, married 1955 Isabel Body. 2 sons, 2 daughters:

1. James Alan, 1956-

2. Monica Ann, 1958-

3. Philip Thomas, 1960-

4. Teresa Mary, 1963-

2. Erasmus Darwin, 1915- , physician, psychiatrist, married 1938 Brigit Ursula Hope Black. 1 son, 2 daughters:

1. Thomas Jeremy Erasmus, 1939- , married 1962 Jane Hollowood. 1 son:

   1. Josiah Bernard, 1973- .

2. Camilla Ruth, 1942- , married 1 1965 diss. 1973 Martin Christopher Mitchelson 1 son:

   1. Luke Thomas, 1966- .

                                      married 2 1974 Stuart Anthony Whitworth-Jones. 1 daughter:

   1. Eleanor Gwen 1975- .

3. Gillian Phyllida, 1944 (4 Apr.)- , married Fabian Peake, has children.

3. Andrew Dalmahoy, 1916- , married Yvonne Tanner. 1 son, 1 daughter:

1. Martin Thomas, 1953-

2. Claire, 1954.

4. Hilda Horatia, 1919- , married 1944 John Hunter Padel. 3 sons, 2 daughters:

1. Ruth Sophia, 1946-

2. Oliver James, 1948-

3. Nicola Mary, 1951-

4. Felix John, 1955-

5. Adam Frederick, 1958-.

5. Horace Basil 1921- , FRS 1969, married 1954 Ruthala Chattie Salaman, diss. 4 daughters:

1. Rebecca Nora, 1956-

2. Natasha Helen, 1958-

3. Naomi Jane, 1963-

4. Emily Anne, 1967-


Gathered under this heading are an anatomical feature, animals, institutions, monuments, places and plants in which "Darwin" referring to CD occurs. In most, the association is obvious and the great majority relate to the Beagle voyage. In a few, particularly amongst the place names, the connection is obscure and may not relate to CD. The plant genus Darwinia relates to Erasmus D [I] q.v. There are doubtless many street names, of which there are five in London alone; these have been ignored.

Anatomical feature:

Tubercle, = Tuberculum Darwini = Darwin's peak; a cartilaginous prominence on fold of pinna of human ear in some—Jessie Dobson 2ed. 1962 p. 52.

[page] 82

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, EPONYMS, continued.

Animals named after; the orthography of the specific names has been modernized:

Agonum darwini Van Dyke, a ground beetle.

Alleloplasis darwini Waterhouse, a bug of the family Derbidae.

Amblyomma darwini Hurst and Hurst 1910, an ixodid tick from St Paul's Rocks, also through some confusion from Galapagos Is; first from unnamed bird, second from marine iguana; only known from CD's specimens.

Amphisbaena darwini Duméril and Bibron, a legless lizard.

Astarte darwini Forbes, a bivalve mollusc.

Attus darwini White, a jumping spider.

Bulimus darwini Pfeiffer, a land snail.

Callimicra darwini Hespenheide 1980, a buprestid beetle, the unique specimen was collected by CD at Bahia, Brazil.

Calosoma darwinia van Dyke, a ground beetle.

Carabus darwini Hope, a ground beetle.

Chthamalus darwini Bosquet, a fossil barnacle from the Chalk.

Coenonympha darwiniana Staudinger 1871, a pearly heath, Satyridae, European Alps.

Colymbetes darwini Babington, a water beetle.

Cossyphus darwini Jenyns, a wrasse.

Crocodilus darwini Ludwig, a tertiary fossil crocodile.

Cubinia darwini Gray, a gecko.

Cyrtophium darwini Bate 1860, an amphipod crustacean = Platophium darwini (Bate) = Podocerus variegatus Leach.

Darwin's finches; the sub-family Geospizinae, family Fringillidae, Galapagos Islands; coined by Robert T. Orr, 1942 Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc. 45:42-45; used by David Lack, 1944 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 5, No. 53 and title of his book 1947; almost all the Beagle specimens were collected by others, not by CD.

Darwin's rail, Coturnicops notata, Rallidae, Guyana to southern Argentine.

Darwin's rhea, Pterocnemia pennata, Argentine, Chile, Patagonia.

Darwin's tanager, Thraupis bonariensis darwini, Ecuador to northern Chile.

Darwinea Bate 1856, ampipod crustacean, nom. nud. = Darwinia Bate 1857.

Darwinella J. F. T. Muller 1865, horny sponges. Fritz Müller. Schultz's Arkiv für Mikr. Anat. vol. 1, p. 344. (Sponge).

Darwinella G. S. Brady and Robertson, D., Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, vol. 9, p. 50. Nom. nov. for Polycheles Brady and Robertson 1870, non Heller, 1862. (Origin of name not stated, but with little doubt Charles D.). 1872, ostracod crustaceans for Polycheles Brady and Robertson 1870 nec Heller 1862 = Darwinula T. R. Jones.

Darwinella Enderlein 1912, tenebrionid beetles. K. Svensk. Vetensakad. Handl. (n.s.) 48, no. 3, p. 14. (Coleoptera).

Darwinhydrus Sharp 1882, dytiscid water beetles. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc. (ser. 2) vol. 2, p. 373. (Coleoptera).

Darwinia C. S. Bate 1857, gammarid amphipod crustaceans. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 2) vol. 19, p. 141. (Crustacea: Darwinea Bate 1856, nom. nud). Origin of name not stated.

Darwinia Dybowski, 1873. Arch. Naturk. Liv-, Ehst- und Kuhl. Dorpat (I), vol. 5, p. 336, 404. (Coelenterate). 1874, fossil anthozoan coelenterates.

Darwinia Pereyaslawzew 1880, turbellarian flatworms. 1880 in Brandt, Zool. Anz. 3 (no. 53) p. 186 nom. nud.: 1892 Sapiski Nowoross Obschtsch. vol. 17 (3), p. 230 + iv. (Turbellarian).

Darwinia Schultze 1865, fossil sponges. Verh. Ver. Rheinlande vol. 22, S.B., p. 7. (Sponge).
Darwinius masillae, a primate-like fossil species of the genus Adapiformes.  

Darwinomyia J. R. Malloch 1922, muscid dipterans. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) vol. 9, p. 277 (Diptera) "a striking genus" partly based on material collected by CD at Port Famine and at Valparaiso.

Darwinornis Moreno and Mercerat, fossil birds. 1891. Ann. Mus. La Plata (Pal. Argent. 1), p. 60. (Bird).

Darwinornithidae Moreno and Mercerat, family of fossil birds for Darwinornis, Order Stereornithes.

Darwinula T. R. Jones 1885, ostracod crustaceans, mostly Pleistocene fossils, one living species D. stevensoni, no males known, for Darwinella Brady and Robertson 1872 nec Müller 1865. Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. 41, p. 346, 1885, Nom. nov. for Darwinella B. + R. non Müller, F, 1865. (Ostracod).

Darwinulidae Brady and Norman 1889, ostracod crustaceans, mostly Pleistocene; Darwinellidae Brady, Crosskey and Robertson 1874 is a synonym.

Diplolaemus darwini Bell, an iguana.

Docema darwini Mutchler, a beetle of the family Hydrophilidae.

Dorcus darwini Hope, a stag beetle.

Felis darwini Martin=F. yaguarundi Desmarest. Jaguarondi or eyra, a race of Felis (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi, South America to Texas.

Fissurella darwini Reeve, a keyhole limpet.

Foenus darwini Westwood, an ichneumonid wasp.

Galapagodacnum darwini Blair, a plant beetle of the family Chrysomelidae.

Geochelone darwini (Van Denburgh), a giant tortoise, James Island, Galapagos = Testudo darwini.

Gryphaea darwini Forbes in d'Orbigny, a fossil oyster = Ostraea darwini.

Herpailurus darwini (Martin) = Felis darwini, a race of F. yagouaroundi.

Hesperomys darwini Wagner in Schreber, a cricetine rodent.

Hydroporus darwini Babington, a water beetle.

Idiocephalus darwini Saunders, a chrysomelid beetle.

Labidocera darwini Lubbock 1853, a calanid copepod crustacean; Sir John Lubbock's first paper in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Jan; CD lent material.

Leiolaemus darwini (Bell) Gray, an iguana.

Mactra darwini Sowerby in CD, a bivalve mollusc.

Mastotermes darwinianus Froggatt, a primitive termite, named after Port Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Migadops darwini Waterhouse, a carabid beetle.

Monophora darwini Agassiz, a fossil sea urchin.

Mus (Phyllotis) darwini Waterhouse, a cricetine rodent.

Mylodon darwini Owen, a fossil giant sloth. South America.

Mytilus darwinianus d'Orbigny, a fossil mussel.

Nesoryzomys darwini Osgood 1929, a cricetine rodent, Academy Bay, Indefatigable Is, Galapagos, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 17:23.

Nothura darwini, a tinamou from South America; is the only bird name of Darwin given as valid in Gruson 1976 A checklist of the birds of the world, according to Wilma George J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist 9:508, 1980.

Nyctelia darwini Waterhouse, a heteromeran beetle.

Odontoscelis darwini Waterhouse, a pentatomid bug.

Ostraea darwini Forbes in d'Orbigny, as Gryphaea, a fossil oyster.

Ovis darwini Przewalski 1883, a subspecies of O. ammon L., an argali with fine horns, northern China and central Mongolia.

[page] 83

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, EPONYMS, Animals, continued.

Pecten darwinianus d'Orbigny, a scallop.

Pholas darwini Sowerby, a piddock bivalve mollusc.

Phyllodactylus darwini, a gecko, Galapagos.

Phyllotis darwini Waterhouse 1837, a pericote or leaf-eared mouse, a cricetine rodent from South America, type of the genus.

Platophium darwini (Bate 1860), an amphipod crustacean = Cyrtophium darwini Bate 1860 = Podocerus variegatus Leach.

Pleurodema darwini Bell, a tree-frog.

Polycladus darwini Diesing, a flatworm.

Proctotretus darwini Bell, an iguanid lizard.

Pterocnemia darwini (Gould 1837), Darwin's rhea, junior synonym for P. pennata (d'Orbigny 1834).

Rhea darwini Gould, the southern rhea.

Rhinoderma darwini Duméril and Bibron, a dwarf frog.

Sclerostomus darwini Burmeister.

Spirifer darwini Morris in Strzelecki, a fossil brachiopod.

Tanagra darwini Gould, Darwin's tanager.

Taraguira darwini Gray, an iguana.

Testudo darwini Van Denburgh = Geochelone darwini, a giant tortoise, Galapagos Is, James I.

Thraupis bonariensis darwini (Gould), Darwin's tanager, blue and yellow tanager; Tanagra darwini is a junior synonym.

Turbonilla darwiniensis Laseron, small turk's head gastropod.

1964 Darwin College, Cambridge: 1964 Jul. 28 founded for postgraduate and postdoctorate students. First buildings were conversions of Newnham Grange and the Old Granary, home of Sir George Howard D.
1931 "Darwin College". Occurs with "Huxley College" in Marx Brothers film Monkey business 1931.
1970 Darwin College, University of Kent, at Canterbury; a student residence opened 1970.
1959 Darwin Foundation. A USA organization, founded 1959, which runs the Darwin Research Station, see Galapagos.
1964 "Darwin Institut (institutea)", of "Heieiei" (German), "Hy-yi-yi" (English), an imaginary country, destroyed Oct. 1957, in "Harald Stumpke" Bau und Leben der Rhinogradentia, Stuttgart 1964; "Stumpke" is pseudonym for Gerolf Steiner, Heidelberg Univ.
1960 Darwin Lecture, in human biology, under the auspices of Eugenics Society and Institute of Biology, London; annually 1960- .
Darwin-Wallace Medal, Linnean Society of London, first struck 1906, designed by Frank Bowcher. 1908, to Wallace, Hooker, Haeckel, Weismann, Strasburger, F. Galton, Ray Lankester, in that order.
1890 Darwin Medal, Royal Society; first struck 1890. Effigy reduced from a medallion by Allen Wyon. First awarded 1890, "in the field in which Charles Darwin himself laboured". Biennial with British or foreign recipients. Awarded to Wallace 1890, Hooker 1892, Huxley 1894. In 1885 the Committee of the International Fund transferred to the Society the balance of the fund in trust—Yearbook 1968.
1882 Darwin Memorial Fund: Committee set up 1882 May 16, with W. Spottiswoode PRS in Chair. 1883 Huxley took over the Chair as PRS on S's death. 1888 Printed Report, 12 pp, Spottiswoode, London, lists about 700 subscribers; £5,128 raised; £2,100 paid to Boehm for a statue at British Museum (Natural History), and a further £150 for the relief in Westminster Abbey; £9.0.6 paid to Whymper for a woodcut of a bust which illustrates Report. £2,608.8.8 remained, after expenses, some of which, although the Report does not refer to it, went to funding the Darwin medal.
1907 Darwin Museum, Moscow, founded 1907.

Darwin Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Darwin Publications, Sherman Oaks, Calif.

Darwin Publishing Company, Detroit, Michigan.

Darwin Regatta, held each year at Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; the craft being built of empty beer cans.

Darwin School. The village school is called after CD.

Darwin Shipping Company Ltd. Owners of R.M.V. Darwin q.v.

[page] 84

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, EPONYMS continued.

1949 Bathurst, N.S.W. Erected 1949 to commemorate CD's visit 1836.

Cambridge, Christ's College; green wedgwood plaque by Thomas Woolner in CD's set; another copy at American Philosophical Society.

Cambridge, lodgings 1828 at W. Bacon, Sydney St, rebuilt as branch of Boots the Chemist, plaque CHARLES DARWIN / LIVED IN A HOUSE / ON THIS SITE / 1828.
1887 London, Westminster Abbey, plaque by Sir Joseph Boehm 1887; memorial to A. R. Wallace placed next to it 1915 Nov. 1.
1904, 1961 London, 110 Gower St, G.L.C., blue plaque erected 1904 Dec. 13 CHARLES DARWIN / NATURALIST / LIVED HERE / 1838-1842, first date was wrong, should be 1839. Present plaque, on Biological Sciences Building (1982 changed to Darwin Building), University College London, erected 1961 perpetuates error.
1981 Darwin, Inyo Co., Calif, bronze plaque erected 1981 Oct. 10 in memory of the naming circa 1875, and of Erasmus Darwin French.

Downe Church, Kent, vertical sundial in south wall of tower with inscription below.
1888 Edinburgh, 11 Lothian St, tablet erected 1888, now vanished. Site now part of a student recreation centre.
1935 Galapagos Islands, Wreck Bay, Chatham, erected 1935; inscription by Leonard D "Charles Darwin landed on the Galapagos Islands in 1835 and his studies on the distribution of animals and plants thereon led him for the first time to consider the problem of organic evolution. Thus was started the revolution in thought on this subject which has since taken place".
Darwin Tree. English oak planted at Wentworth Falls, NSW, Australia, in 1936 to commemorate CD's visit there 1836 Jan. 17.


Darwin Bar, Queen's Head public house, Downe, Kent, has a CD bar.

Darwin Bay, coast of Chonos Archipelago, Aysen Province, Chile.

Darwin Bay, southwest side of Tower Is, Galapagos Is.

Darwin Bend, a bend in the Tasman glacier, New Zealand, where it goes round Mount Darwin.
1913 Darwin Building, Bedford College for Women, London University, at its site in Regents Park, built 1913. Destroyed by enemy action 1941. Named for Sir Leonard D, Chairman of the Council 1913-1920.
1982 Darwin Building, University College London, Biological Sciences block, renamed 1982, see Darwin Lecture theatre.

Darwin Canyon, see Mount, King's Canyon National Park, Calif.

Darwin Canyon, see Town, Calif.

Cerro Darwin, see Mountain, Albemarle Is, Galapagos.

Darwin Channel, leading to Port Aysen, Chile.

Darwin Cordilleras, see Mountains.

Darwin Creek, see Mount, King's Canyon National Park, Calif.

Darwin District, Rhodesia, named after the mountain.

Darwin Falls, see Town, Calif.

Darwin Glacier, New Zealand, flows from Mount Darwin into Tasman glacier.

Darwin Glacier, see Mount, Kings Canyon National Park, Calif.

Darwin Glass, occurs abundantly at Mount D, Tasmania. ? of meteoric origin.

Darwin Harbour, Choiseul Sound, East Falkland Is.

Darwin Island, official Ecuadorian name of Culpepper Is., most northerly of Galapagos group.
1911 Darwin Laboratories, three at Shrewsbury School. Opened by Sir Francis D, 1911 Oct. 20.
1982 Darwin Lecture theatre, University College London. Botany theatre renamed by Richard Darwin Keynes 1982, Apr. 19; on site of No. 12 Upper Gower St.

Darwin Mountain, Antarctica, 84.55 S, 160.58 E, above Beardmore Glacier, Ross Dependency.
1895 Darwin Mountain, California, King's Canyon National Park; named 1895; highest peak is D; others are Huxley, Spencer, Wallace, Haeckel, John Fiske, named by T. S. Solomons; 1913 Lamarck added; 1942 Mendel added; also Darwin Canyon, Creek and Glacier in same area.

Mountain, Isla Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, west of Ushuaia on Beagle Channel. 1834 CD to Emily Catherine D, "Mount Sarmiento, the highest mountain in the south, excepting!! Darwin!!"—MLi 252. But not so, Sarmiento is the higher.

Darwin Mountain, Moon. Midway between Mare Orientale and Mare Humorum.

Darwin Mountain, New Zealand, South Island. 18 km northeast of Mount Cook. 2561 m. Named by J. F. J. von Haast. See also Glacier.

Darwin Mountain, Peru.

Darwin Mountain, Rhodesia; the district is named after the mountain.

Darwin Mountains, Magallanes-Patagonia provinces, Chile/Argentina, contain Mounts Fitz-Roy and Stokes. Also called Darwin Cordilleras.

Port Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, named on 3rd voyage of Beagle. Town named later.

Darwin Sound, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, continuing northwest arm of Beagle Channel.

Darwin Spring, see town, Calif.

Darwin Street, Shrewsbury, Shropshire; "a short street of new houses near St George's church has been called 'Darwin Street'; as yet the only public recognition of the greatest of Salopians"—Woodall p. 12, 1884; there are many other streets and roads in Great Britain so called; these have been omitted.

Darwin Town, Choiseul Sound, East Falkland Is.
1875 Darwin Town, Inyo County, Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Now a ghost town. Resident population about 40. Originally called New Coso. Renamed 1875 by Erasmus Darwin French q.v. Also spring, canyon, falls, wash named by F. Spring does not now exist. Falls are at end of canyon and fall into wash—W. Storrs Lee Great Californian deserts 1963, Erwin G. Gudde California place names 2ed 1969.

Darwin Town, Port Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Named from Port Darwin. Now Darwin City, capital of the Northern Territory.
1960s The Darwin, vessel, barque, copper ore carrier. Registered and based on Swansea, late 1960s. Probably had wooden figurehead by a Mr Thomas.
1958-1973 The Darwin, vessel, Royal Mail Vessel plied between Port Stanley, Falkland Is and Buenos Aires, Monte Video. Registered Port Stanley. Overall length 235, gross tonnage 1793. 1958-1963 Falkland Islands Trading Co. Ltd, 1963-1973 Darwin Shipping Co. Ltd. 1973 name changed to Christoa K, registered Piraeus.
1984 The Darwin, vessel, Royal Research Ship. OL 69. 4 m, GT 1975, DT 2370. Complement 21 crew, 18 scientists. Belongs N.E.R.C. for geological research. Launched Appledore 1984 Feb. 22 by Prince of Wales. Stationed Barry. First cruise 1985 Aug. Replaced R.R.S. ShackletonNew Scientist Feb. 23 pp. 38-41 1984.

Darwin Village, Uraguay, on river Beguelo, a tributary of Rio Negro, near Cerro Perico Flaco where CD collected fossils 1833.

Darwin Volcano, see Mount.

Darwin Wash, see Town, Calif.


The following list is based on B. D. Jackson, Darwiniana, 1910, with additions and altered orthography:

Abutilon darwini Tweedie, Malvaceae, Brazil. "Named by John Tweedie to whom Darwin was a hero"—Allan 286.

Asterina darwini Berkeley, Fungi, Chiloe, Chile.

Asterolampa darwini Greville=Asteromphalus darwini.

Asteromphalus darwini Ehrenberg, Algae, Antarctica.

Aulacodiscus darwini Pantocsek, Algae (Diatom), fossil Russia.

Baccharis darwini Henslow, Compositae, Patagonia, Argentine.

Berberis darwini W. J. Hooker, Berberidaceae, Chiloe, Chile, now a garden plant.

Bonatia darwini Weale=Habenaria cassidea Reichenbach, Orchidaceae.

Calceolaria darwini Bentham, Scrophulariaceae, Patagonia, Argentine. Grown as an alpine.

[page] 85

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, EPONYMS, Plants, continued.

Catasetum darwinianum Rolfe, Orchidaceae, Guiana.

Cheilosporum darwini De-Toni, Algae, Chile.

Chiliotrichum darwini J. D. Hooker, Compositae=Nardophyllum darwini.

Clinopodium darwini Kuntze, Labiatae=Micromeria darwini.

Coldenia darwini Gürke=C. dichotoma Lehmann, Boraginaceae, Charles Is., Galapagos.

Cortinarius darwini Spegazzini, Fungi, Patagonia, Argentine.

Cytarria darwini Berkeley, Fungi, Tierra del Fuego. Eaten by natives.
1882 Darwin auricula 1882 Apr. 25 Charles Turner named an alpine auricula strain "Charles Darwin" at Royal Agricultural Society's show—The Times, Apr. 26.
1887 Darwin clematis 1887 Apr. 25 C. Noble named a clematis strain "Darwin in memoriam" at Royal Agricultural Society Show—The Times, Apr. 26.
1834 Darwin potato 1834 Dec. CD saw and ate tubers of Solanum maglia, Solonaceae, in Chonos archipelago, Chile. Named "CD's potato" by George Nicholson, Illustrated dictionary of gardening, 1885-1889—Allan 224.
1889 Darwin tulip 1889 J. C. Lenglart of Lille raised the first and named it "Princesse Aldobrandini". He sold it to E. H. Krelage of Krelage N.V. of Haarlem who asked Francis D if he might name the strain in honour of CD.

Tulip hybrid. Crosses between Darwin tulips q.v. and Tulipa fosteriana, a Royal Horticultural Society subdivision.

[Darwinia Rudge 1813, Myrtaceae; about 25 species of Australian heath-like shrubs. Darwinia Rafinesque 1817 and Darwinia Dennstedt 1818 are junior homonyms. All named for Erasmus D [I].]

Darwinothamnus Gunnar Harling, for Erigeron lancifolium J. D. Hooker, Compositae, Albemarle Is, Galapagos.

Eugenia darwini J. D. Hooker, Myrtaceae, Chile.

Fagelia darwini Kuntze, Scrophulariaceae=Calceolaria darwini.

Galapagoa darwini J. D. Hooker=Coldenia darwini=Coldenia dichotoma.

Gossypium darwini Watt, Malvaceae, Galapagos.

Hebe darwiniana Colenso, Scrophulariaceae, New Zealand=H. glaucophylla Hort. Grown as an alpine.

Hymenophyllum darwini W. J. Hooker, Fern, Antarctica.

Hypocopra darwini Spegazzini, Fungi, Patagonia, Argentine.

Laboulbenia darwini Thaxter, Fungi, Brasil.

Laelio-Cattleya darwiniana × hort. Orchidaceae.

Lippia darwini Spegazzini, Verbenaceae=Neosparton darwini.

Lithophyllum darwini Foslie, Algae, South Australia.

Micromeria darwini Bentham, Labiatae, Patagonia, Argentine=Clinopodium darwini.

Myrtus darwini Barnéoud, Myrtaceae, Chile.

Nardophyllum darwini A. Gray, Compositae, Patagonia=Chiliotrichum darwini.

[page] 86

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, EPONYMS, Plants, continued.

Nassauvia darwini O. Hoffmann and Dusén, Compositae, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

Neosparton darwini Bentham and J. D. Hooker, Verbenaceae, Brasil.

Opuntia darwini Henslow, Cactaceae, Patagonia, Argentine.

Panagyrus darwini W. J. Hooker and Arnott, Compositae=Nassauvia darwini.

Pisonia darwini Hemsley, Nyctaginaceae, Fernando Noronha.

Pleuropetalum darwini J. D. Hooker, Amarantaceae, Galapagos.

Polygala darwini A. W. Benn, Polygalaceae, Patagonia, Argentine.

Satureia darwini Briquet, Labiatae=Micromeria darwini.

Scalesia darwini J. D. Hooker, Compositae, James Is, Galapagos.

Senecio darwini W. J. Hooker and Arnott, Compositae, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

Spilanthes darwini Porter, Compositae, Galapagos (1978 Madrono 25:58).

Torula darwini Spegazzini, Fungi, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

Ulota darwini Mitten, moss, Patagonia, Argentine.

Urtica darwini J. D. Hooker, Urticaceae, Chonos Archipelago, Chile=U. megallanica Jussieu.

Veronica darwiniana Colenso, Scrophulariaceae=Hebe darwiniana.

Zinnia darwiniana Haage and Schmidt, Compositae=Glossogyne pinnatifida De Candolle, Compositae, Malaya.


On the Beagle voyage, apart from kitting-out expenses, CD drew bills on his father's account through Robarts & Co. He reported a total of £735 to his father in letters to his sisters. He was on the books for victuals, but paid £50 per annum to Fitz-Roy towards the expenses of his table, £250 in all, leaving £485 for his personal expenses whilst travelling on land. The cost of his servant Covington was about £30 p.a., C being on the books for messing.

CD kept detailed accounts from the time of his marriage, as did ED for household expenditure. These, although preserved at Down House, have not been published in full. Extracts are given in Keith, Darwin revalued, 221-223, 1955, and in Atkins, Down the home of the Darwins, 95-100, 1976.
until 1848 Until his father's death in 1848 CD was wholly dependent on him, except for ED's marriage settlement and £150 which he received for the sale of his copyright in J. Researches in 1845.

In his early manhood years he received £400 per annum which was increased to £500 on marriage.

ED's dowry brought £400 per annum.
1839 He had saved and invested a little, so that his total income in 1839 was £1,244.

His father left him more than £40,000.
1859-1881 From 1859 until 1881 his books brought in a total of £10,248, an average of about £465 per annum.

[page] 87

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882, FINANCE, continued.
1845 His farm, at Beesby, Lincolnshire, was bought in 1845 for £13,592 borrowed from his father at interest of £461. 16s.10d, about 3 per cent. At that time the rent was £377, but by 1877 it had increased to £555.16.
1854 on
In 1854 CD's total income was £4,603. By 1871 it had risen to around £8,000, and it continued at this level until his death.
CD's bank was Union Bank of London, Sotheby 1979 Jun. 18, lot 467, a £50 cheque to Sydney Sales.
1873 He was able to save a considerable sum each year, the highest being £4,819 in 1873.

His investments, which were looked after by his banker son William Erasmus D, were largely in railways and government bonds.
1881 On the death of his brother Erasmus Alvey D in 1881, he inherited half of his fortune, perhaps the £9,354.19s.6d shown as extraordinary receipts in his summary of income for 1881.
1881 In that year, 1881, he had an income of £17,299.1s.4d., a bank balance of £2,968 and £165.19s.4d in hand. His expenses were £4,880.16s.6d; he invested £10,218.6s.6d. and gave £3,000 to his children.

Rates and taxes were always small: in the sixties a little over £60 p.a., in the seventies over £70. His highest income tax was £52 in 1872.
1881 1881 Sep. 8 William Erasmus D wrote to his father that the total estate was about £282,000 and that, calculated at 7 to 12, his daughters would inherit about £34,000 and sons £53,000. See also Down House, household expenditure.

[page] 88

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


One of several said to haunt Downe Court, opposite Down House—A. D. H. Coxe, Haunted Britain, 79, 1973, with photograph.

1882 Westminster Abbey, "north-east corner of the nave next to that of Sir John Herschel", 7ft deep in a coffin of white oak—The Times Apr. 27 1882.

"A few feet from the grave of Sir Isaac Newton"—LLiii 361.
1887 Memorial plaque by Sir Joseph Boehm.


The only detailed account of CD's day-to-day pattern of life is in Francis D's reminiscences of his father—LLi 108-160. This stems from his middle and later years when he had developed a rigid pattern, seldom changed even when there were visitors in the house. His own autobiography tells little about his habits, except something of his hobbies and enthusiasms. A typical day at Down House may be summarized as follows:
7am Rose and took a short walk.
7.45am Breakfast alone.
8-9.30am Worked in his study; he considered this his best working time.
Went to drawing-room and read his letters, followed by reading aloud of family letters.

[page] 89

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. HABITS, continued.
10.30-12 or
Returned to study, which period he considered the end of his working day.
12 noon Walk, starting with visit to greenhouse, then round the sandwalk, the number of times depending on his health, usually alone or with a dog.
12.45pm Lunch with whole family, which was his main meal of the day. After lunch read The Times and answered his letters.
3pm Rested in his bedroom on the sofa and smoked a cigarette, listened to a novel or other light literature read by ED.
4pm Walked, usually round sandwalk, sometimes farther afield and sometimes in company.
Worked in study, clearing up matters of the day.
6pm Rested again in bedroom with ED reading aloud.
7.30pm Light high tea while the family dined. In late years never stayed in the dining room with the men, but retired to the drawing-room with the ladies. If no guests were present, he played two games of backgammon with ED, usually followed by reading to himself, then ED played the piano, followed by reading aloud.
10pm Left the drawing-room and usually in bed by 10.30, but slept badly.

Even when guests were present, half an hour of conversation at a time was all that he could stand, because it exhausted him.


Francis D records that CD "drank very little wine, but enjoyed and was revived by the little he did drink"—LLi 118.

However he admitted to him that "he had once drunk too much at Cambridge" as his enthusiastic membership of the Gourmet Club perhaps indicates. "Darwin had once told him [Hooker] that he had got drunk three times in early life, and thought intoxication the greatest of all pleasures"—M. E. Grant Duff, Victorian vintage, 144, 1930.

CD's accounts show a considerable consumption of brandy and of beer at Down House, but the former was probably for guests and the latter for growing sons and the staff.

[page] 90

Research Notes on Insectivorous Plants, 1860.

[page] 91

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. HABITS, continued.

Hobbies and pastimes:

CD's beetle collecting whilst at Cambridge seems to have been little more than collecting, but the techniques learnt were useful on the Beagle voyage.

He was not good at ball games, although he records that he enjoyed bat fives whilst at Shrewsbury School.

He played Van John (Vingt-et-un) at Cambridge a lot, but does not seem to have played cards later.

He enjoyed watching his family play lawn tennis and billiards.

In his youth, he was an enthusiastic shot, especially when visiting Maer and the Owens at nearby Woodhouse. He shot for the pot and for scientific need during the Beagle voyage, but gave it up entirely on his return.

He rode for pleasure in his youth and as the only way of covering ground on inland trips from the Beagle. He took up riding again for health reasons on his quiet cob Tommy, on the recommendation of Dr Bence Jones, but rode less frequently after he had been rolled on in 1869.

His evening recreation, other than reading, being read to and listening to ED play the piano, was backgammon. He and ED played two games every evening when they were alone. He won most games, she most gammons. 1876 Jan. 28 CD to Gray records 5285 games played—EDii 221.


CD started taking snuff when he was a student at Edinburgh and continued to do so, finding it a stimulant. He smoked a few cigarettes when travelling with gauchos in South America, and restarted late in life when he was relaxing.

Charles Darwin's Full Signature 1854.


CD's handwriting, even at its best, is notoriously difficult to read. The specimen given above, written in 1860, is typical of his research notes, written for himself. Francis D comments of rough notes such as this that they "were almost illegible, sometimes even to himself"—LLi 119.

Final manuscript for the press was, for many years, transcribed by the Downe schoolmaster, Ebenezer Norman, and long letters were dictated, often to ED and later to Francis D.

He was considerate to foreign correspondents, remarking to Francis D "You'd better try to write well, as it's to a foreigner"—LLi 119.

His formal signature was "Charles Darwin", as in the example given above, from the Maull & Fox photograph of 1854, but on letters he often signed "Ch. Darwin". He seems seldom to have used his second initial.—Darwin, C. R. 1877. [Letter of thanks, dated 12 February.] In Harting, P., Testimonial to Mr Darwin—Evolution in the Netherlands. Nature 15 (8 March): 410-412. F1776.

[page] 92

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


A great deal has been written on CD's ill-health, but it is all guesswork based on what he himself wrote in his autobiography and on a few remarks by Francis D in LLi ch. 3. No case notes from any of the physicians he consulted have ever been published, nor, so far as is recorded, was an autopsy carried out at his death.

Barlow, in her edition of the Autobiography, 240-243, 1958, gives an appendix on the subject with the main references. She concludes that the following causes have been suggested "Appendicitis, a duodenal ulcer, pyorrhea, or the damaging effects of sea-sickness during the voyage; but recent emphasis has been in the direction of neurotic or psychotic causes".

Other suggestions have been Chagas disease and a toxic state arising from bad medication. De Beer, Charles Darwin, 114-117, 1963, puts most weight on Chagas disease, but Woodruff, The Times, Dec. 17, 1963, refutes this suggestion on the grounds that the symptoms were not at all typical. See 1971 J. H. Winslow, Darwin's Victorian malady, Philadelphia, 1971. R. Colp, To be an invalid: the illness of Charles Darwin, Chicago, 1977.

CD does not refer to any illnesses in childhood or youth and he lived an active and outdoor life.
1831 His first entry of illness is for 1831 Oct.-Dec., just before the Beagle sailed "I was also troubled with palpitation and pain about the heart, and like many a young ignorant man, especially one with a smattering of medical knowledge, was convinced that I had heart disease. I did not consult any doctor".—LLi 64.
1834 During the voyage, apart from a few minor accidents, some mild fever and continuing sea-sickness, he had only one serious illness. This was at Valparaiso, 1834 Sep. 19 until the end of October. Sep. 19 "During the day I felt very unwell". He reached Valparaiso on 27th "with great difficulty", "and was there confined to my bed till the end of October". J. Researches, 1845, 268-269.

For most of the voyage he was fit and lived an extremely energetic life.
1839-1842 During his residence in London, 1839-1842, "I did less scientific work", "This was due to frequent recurring unwellness, and to one long serious illness"—LLi 69. Again he gives no symptoms.

When he had moved to Down House, he explained that after entertaining company "my health almost always suffered from the excitement, violent shivering attacks and vomiting being thus brought on"—LLi 79. This condition continued for the rest of his life, although the attacks seem to have been less frequent or less violent in his later years.
1881, 1882 During Dec. 1881 he began to suffer anginal pains which became more frequent in Feb.-Mar. 1882. He had a severe attack with fainting on Apr. 18. Francis D records his father's last words, on 18th, as "I am not afraid to die"—LLiii 358.

[page] 93

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.

until 1836
CD's home was his father's house, The Mount, Shrewsbury, until after his return from the Beagle voyage in 1836.

He was however away for much of the year whilst an undergraduate student at Edinburgh, and Cambridge, and for almost five years when on the Beagle.

On his return, he stayed in Cambridge with Henslow and then in lodgings in Fitzwilliam St, and in London with his brother Erasmus Alvey D at 43 Great Marlborough St.
1837 In 1837, Mar. 13, he took furnished rooms at 36 Great Marlborough St with his secretary servant Syms Covington: this house can perhaps be regarded as his first personal home.
1838-1842 After his engagement to ED, he rented a furnished house, 12 Upper Gower St, into which he moved in 1838, Dec. 31, and where he and his bride took up residence the day after their wedding, 1839, Jan. 30. They lived there until 1842, Sep.
1842-1882 On 14th ED moved to Down House and CD followed on 17th. There they lived for the rest of their lives, although from 1882 ED spent the winters in Cambridge. The following list summarizes CD's homes and dates:
1809 Feb. 12-1837 Mar. 13 The Mount, Shrewsbury.
1825 Oct. 22-1827 Apr. 23 11 Lothian St, Edinburgh, in term time.
1828 Jan.-1831 Jun. Christ's College, Cambridge, in term time.
1831 Dec. 10-1836 Oct. 2 HMS Beagle.
1837 Mar. 13-1838 Dec. 30 36 Great Marlborough St, London.
1838 Dec. 31-1842 Sep. 16 12 Upper Gower St, London.
1842 Sep. 17-1882 Apr. 19 Down House, Downe, Kent.

[page] 94

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


Portraits in CD's lifetime in date order:

1. 1818 aet. 7/8 Rolinda Sharples pastel.
2. 1840 Mar. 30 George Richmond water colour.
3. 1842 Aug. 32 ? photograph.
4. 1850 41/42 T. H. Maguire lithograph from life.
5. 1853 43/44 Samuel Laurence chalk drawing
6. 1854 44/45 Maull & Polyblank albumen photograph.
7. 1864 54/55 London Stereoscopic photograph.
8. 1866 56/57 Vincent Brooks lithograph (bearded).
9. 1868 Aug. 59 Margaret Cameron photographs.
10. 1869 Nov. 60 Thomas Woolner marble bust.
11. 1871 61/62 O. G. Rejlander photograph.
12. 1874 64/65 Leonard Darwin photograph.
13. 1875 65 W. W. Ouless oil.
14. 1878 68/69 Marian Huxley pencil.
15. 1873-80? 60s Louisa Ann Nash ink wash.
16. 1879 Jun. 70 W. B. Richmond oil.
17. 1880 summer 71 Elliot & Fry photograph.
18. 1881 Aug. 72 John Collier oil.

Portraits taken from life include one bust, three oils, one each water colour, pastel, chalk, inkwash, and pencil.

There is one print, a lithograph, a number of photographs and many caricatures.
There are at least fifteen further works in three dimensions ranging from full-scale statues to heads for medallions which were not taken from life, but made between his death and the 1909 celebrations of his birth. These are listed below, but the artists are also entered in the main sequence.
1909 The most comprehensive exhibition of portraits and related material was that at Christ's College Cambridge. This was held in the summer of the centenary year, 1909.

A similar exhibition, with some of the same material, was held at the British Museum (Natural History) in that autumn. There are printed catalogues of both.

Three dimensions:
1 1869 Bust by Thomas Woolner, now in Botany School Cambridge. 1868 Nov. CD sat for. Francis D comments "It has a certain air, almost of pomposity, which seems to me foreign to my father's expression"—LLiii 106.
2 1883 Statue in stone by Sir Joseph Boehm, at British Museum (Natural History). 1885 Jun. 9 unveiled by Huxley in presence of Prince of Wales. B was paid £2,100 for it.
3 1883 Statuette by Sir Joseph Boehm. From No. 2, about half size.
4 1887 Bust in terracotta by Sir Joseph Boehm, 24". Copy in National Portrait gallery. See also No. 34.
5 1887 Deep medallion by Sir Joseph Boehm, in Westminster Abbey. B was paid £150 for it.
6 1905 Statue in stone, seated, by Horace Mountford, outside Old School, Shrewsbury. There is a life-size plaster cast of this.
7 ?1905 Statuette in bronze by Horace Mountford, based on No. 6. Copies were for sale in 1909.
8 1905 Bust by Horace Mountford, 27½″, based on No. 7. Copy in terracotta in National Portrait Gallery. 1909 a copy in plaster was with the artist. Copy in plaster was in UCL Statistics until 1981, Zoology 1982- .
Before 1887 but not from life. Bust by Christian Wilhelm Jacob Lehr, at University Museum Oxford.
10 1885 or before but not from life. Plaque by Thomas Woolner, in green Wedgwoodware. Copy in CD's set at Christ's College Cambridge; another at American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

[page] 95

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ICONOGRAPHY, continued.
11 1882 Medallion in bronze by Allan Wyon. The Royal Society's Darwin Medal was reduced from this; the die made in 1890. There is an electrotype from the original wax at British Museum (Natural History).
12 1909 or before Medallion in bronze by Horace Mountford.
13 1909 or before Medallion in bronze by William Rothenstein.
14 1909 Bust in bronze by William Couper of New York, at Christ's College Cambridge. Presented by USA delegates to 1909 centenary celebrations.
15 No date Statue by H. R. Hope-Pinker, at University Museum, Oxford; model for at Down House. Presented by E. B. Poulton.
16 No date Bust by Charles L. Hartwell, at Down House. Commissioned by Joseph Leidy. Inscription reads "Presented by Dr. Joseph Leidy II of Philadelphia, to the British Nation in memory of those American naturalists who came to the support of Charles Darwin upon the publication of 'The origin of species' in 1859".

17 1875 By Walter William Ouless. CD sat for in Feb.-Mar. In family; 1883 copy by the artist at Christ's College Cambridge. Engraved by Paul Rajon, No. 29. Francis D's opinion "Mr. Ouless's portrait is, in my opinion, the finest representation of my father that has been produced"—LLiii 195.
18 1879 By Sir William Blake Richmond. CD sat for in Jun. Copy by the artist in the family. Cambridge Philosophical Society. Subscribed for by members of the University, £400 being raised. CD is in his Hon.LL.D. robes. ED's opinion in 1881 Oct. "The red picture, and I thought it quite horrid, so fierce and so dirty". Francis D's opinion "according to my own view, neither the attitude nor the expression are characteristic of my father"—LLiii 222.
19 1881 By Hon. John Collier. CD sat for in Aug. At Linnean Society and commissioned by them. 1883 copy by the artist, presented 1896 to National Portrait Gallery by William Erasmus D. Francis D's opinion "many of those who knew his face most intimately think that Mr. Collier's picture is the best of the portraits"—LLiii 223. Copy at Royal Society by Mabel J. B. Messer 1912, purchased 1916.

[page] 96

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ICONOGRAPHY, continued.

20 1816 Water colours and drawings:

Pastel of CD with his sister Emily Catherine. Reproductions always describe it as by "Sharples", perhaps Rolinda Sharples (died 1838); not her father James S who died in 1811. In the family.
21 ?1840 Pencil sketch for No. 22 by George Richmond. Found in cellars of Botany School Cambridge in 1929.
22 ?1840 Water colour by George Richmond. Unsigned but note on back of frame reads March 1840. In the family.
23 1853 Chalk drawing by Samuel Laurence, a sketch for No. 24.
24 1853 Chalk drawing by Samuel Laurence. In the family.
25 Between 1873 and 1880 Washed India ink by Louisa Ann Nash. Owned by L. A. N's grand-daughter at Corvallis, Oregon. This is the only picture of CD done in his lifetime which is in USA.
26 1878 Pencil sketch, 7″×5″, by Marian Huxley, in National Portrait Gallery. Signed with a monogram MH.

27 ?1850 Lithograph by T. H. Maguire. Printed by M. & N. Hanhart. Ipswich Museum British Association Portraits. Lithograph signature of CD below and blind stamp of Ipswich Museum. CD is seated in a Down study chair. This is the only print in any form from life. See also George Ransome.
28 1874 Steel engraving by C. H. Jeens, from Rejlander photograph No. 40. For Nature, Lond. Jun. 4. Frontispiece, Charles Darwin memorial notices, 1882.
29 ?1875 Copper engraving by Paul Rajon, from Ouless oil No. 17. There is a proof at American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
30 1884 Wood engraving by G. Kruell, from Maull & Fox photograph, the profile, No. 43, for Harper's Mag., Oct.
31 1882 Wood engraving from Leonard D photograph, No. 41, for Century Mag., Jan.
32 1883 Copper engraving by Leopold Flameng, from Collier portrait, No. 19. Copies are dated March 10, Fine Art Society (Limited) London, and have engraved signatures of artist and engraver.
33 1887 Wood engraving by G. Kruell, from Elliott & Fry photograph, No. 43, for Frontispiece LLiii.
34 1886 or 1887 Wood engraving by Edward Whymper, from Boehm bust, No. 4.

[page] 97

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ICONOGRAPHY, continued.

35 1842 Aug. 23. Photographer unknown. CD with first child William Erasmus D. A studio portrait with drop background.
36 circa 1854 Maull & Polyblank. Maull & Polyblank became Maull & Fox before 1884.
a. Profile to third waistcoat button or to knees, seated in bentwood chair, fancy waistcoat and trousers; long available as a commercial photogravure.
b. Full face, dark embroidery waistcoat and dark trousers; also available as a commercial photogravure but less often seen. The two versions were probably taken at the same session because the table and drapes are the same.

P. M. Pollack Cat. 28 item 123, 1981 Mar. offers an albumen print signed Maull & Polyblank titled Charles Darwin M.A., V.P.R.S. &c. Freeman copy of the fancy waistcoat one made in 1912 has facsimile of CD's signature and date 1854. Pollack's is in fancy waistcoat.
37 circa 1864 London Stereoscopic Co. There are at least three versions of these pairs.
38 1868 Aug. Julia Margaret Cameron; taken at Freshwater, Isle of Wight.
a. Profile.
b. Almost full face. Authentic copies should be signed by Mrs Cameron and bear Colnaghi's blind authentication stamp. CD's opinion of "I like this photograph very much better than any other which has been taken of me"—LLiii 92, but he does not say which one.
39 circa 1868 CD on his cob Tommy.
40 circa 1870 O. G. Rejlander, a profile facing right. See No. 28.
41 circa 1874 Leonard D, CD sitting in a basket chair on verandah at Down House. A version of this printed on china was shown at Christ's College exhibition of 1909.
42 ?1878 Lock & Whitfield, Men of Mark, 3rd ser., 1878. A half-face head and shoulders; reproduced on free end paper of Eiseley, Darwin's century, 1958. This photograph is not otherwise recorded.
43 circa 1880 Elliott & Fry.
a. On verandah at Down House in cloak and hat with round crown; Version a, at least, was long available as a commercial photogravure.
b. Same place but without cloak or hat. British Museum (Natural History) exhibition of 1909 showed four versions of this photographic session.


There are many of these and no list has ever appeared.
The best known, and that most often reproduced is "Natural Selection" by Carlo Pellegrini, 1871, Men of the Day No. 33, Vanity Fair, Sep. 30. Pellegrini signed his caricatures "Ape" from 1869 onwards, but this is not signed. It occurred for sale in two sizes, 31 cm and 18 cm, the former much better coloured.

Others which were shown at the Christ's College exhibition of 1909 were 1881 Punch's Fancy Portraits No. 54, after publication of Vegetable mould, Hornet, CD with Monkey body, Simplissimus, Lalune, La petite Lune, Fun, Once a week, Figaro.

There is at least one caricature in pottery, a monkey body with CD's head.

[page] 98

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


Where CD was at any one time in his life is well documented except for the earliest years. For these the autobiographical fragment, printed in MLi 5, is the most helpful; this was probably written in 1838 when he started his personal journal.

The journal contains only a little on the Beagle voyage, but J. Researches and Fitz-Roy's Vol. 2 of the Narrative give the details. For much of the time CD was ashore whilst the ship was surveying so that his whereabouts are by no means the same as hers.
after 1838
After 1838, all important visits from home are noticed in detail in his journal, except that some brief trips to London for a night or so may be omitted, or else he does not say where he stayed.
After his move to Down House in 1842 CD was away from home for a considerable part of each year. Much of the time was spent at hydropathic establishments, but there were also holidays and journeys for scientific business. From 1842 to 1881 he was away for a total of about 2000 days, exceeding 50 days in 23 of these 40 years.
1809-1812 No information about his being away from The Mount, Shrewsbury.
1813 Family summer holiday at Gros, Abergele, North Wales.
1814-1816 No information about his being away from The Mount.
1817 In the spring CD went with his sister Emily Catherine D to Mr G. Case's day school in Shrewsbury.
1818 In the summer CD went to Shrewsbury School as a boarder, stayed seven years, Dr Samuel Butler being headmaster all the time.

Jul. CD went to Liverpool with his brother Erasmus Alvey D.
1819 Jul. Summer holiday at Plas Edwards, Towyn, North Wales.
1820 Jul. CD went on riding tour with his brother to Pistyll Rhaeadr, North Wales.
1822 Jun. CD went to Downton, Wiltshire, with sister Caroline Sarah D.

Jul. CD went to Montgomery and Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, with sister Susan Elizabeth D.
1825 Jun. 17 left Shrewsbury School.

Oct. 22 signed matriculation book Edinburgh University as a medical student. Lodged at 11 Lothian St.

Oct. 26 First lecture.
1826 At Edinburgh all this year in term time.

Jun. 15 North Wales, walking tour with N. Hubbersty, climbed Snowdon.

[page] 99

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY continued.
1827 Apr. circa 24 finally left Edinburgh, toured Dundee, St Andrew's, Stirling, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin (only visit to Ireland).

May, end of, visited Paris with Josiah Wedgwood [II] and Caroline Sarah D (only visit to continental Europe).

Autumn, paid many visits to Woodhouse, Shropshire, especially for the shooting.

Sep. at Maer and visited Sir James Mackintosh.

Oct. 15 admitted to Christ's College Cambridge, but did not go up until Lent term.
1828 Jan. went to Christ's College for Lent term and rest of academic year, lodging above W. Bacon's, tobacconist, in Sydney St, now rebuilt as Boots the Chemist.

Summer to Barmouth, North Wales with J. M. Herbert and T. Butler for private coaching by G. A. Butterton.

Sep. at Maer and then at Osmaston Hall, near Derby, home of William Darwin Fox.
1829 At Cambridge in term time, living in College.

Feb. 19 two days in London to talk about beetles with F. W. Hope.

Feb. 24 to Cambridge.

Jun. to Barmouth with F. W. Hope.

Jun.-Jul. Shrewsbury.

Jul. Maer one week.

Oct. Birmingham with Wedgwoods for music meeting.

Oct. 16 to Cambridge.
1830 At Cambridge in term time, living in College.

Aug. to North Wales collecting beetles and fishing.

Nov. Cambridge, passed BA examinations.
1831 Jan. 23 to Cambridge for three months to keep terms, stayed with J. S. Henslow.

Jun. left Cambridge at end of May term.

Aug. to Llangollen, Ruthin, Conway, Bangor, Capel Curig, with Adam Sedgwick for geology, then alone to Barmouth.

Sep. 1 Maer for shooting.

Sep. 2-4 Cambridge.

Sep. 5 London, 17 Spring Gardens.

Sep. 9 left by Packet with Fitz-Roy for Plymouth.

Sep. 11 arrived Plymouth to see Beagle.

Sep. 11-13 sailing.

Sep. 13-16 Devonport.

Sep. 17-19 London.

Sep. 19-21 Cambridge.

Sep. 22 Shrewsbury.

Oct. 2 London, 17 Spring Gardens.

Oct. 21 Shrewsbury.

Oct. 24 Plymouth.

Dec. 10 sailed but put back.

Dec. 21 sailed but put back.

Dec. 27 sailed.
1832 Jan. 6-Feb. 8 Cape Verde Is.

Feb. 16-17 St Paul's Rocks.

Feb. 16-17 Beagle crossed equator, Neptune ceremonies morning 17th.

Feb. 20 Fernando de Noronha.

Feb. 28-Mar. 18 Bahia Blanca.

Mar. 27 Abrolhos archipelago.

Apr. 5-Jul. 5 Rio de Janeiro.

Jul. 26-Aug. 19 Monte Video.

Sep. 6-Oct. 17 Bahia Blanca.

Nov. 2-26 Monte Video.

Dec. 16 Tierra del Fuego.

[page] 100

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY continued.
1833 -Feb. 26 Tierra del Fuego.

Mar. 1-Apr. 6 Falkland Is.

Apr. 28-Jul. 23 Maldonado.

Aug. 3-Dec. 6 Rio Negro and Monte Video.

Dec. 23-Port Desire.
1834 -Jan. 4 Port Desire.

Jan. 9-Jan. 19 Port St Julian.

Jan. 29-Mar. 7 Straits of Magellan via Falkland Is.

Mar. 10-Apr. 7 Falkland Is.

Apr. 13-May 12 Santa Cruz River.

Jun. 28-Jul. 13 Chiloe.

Jul. 31-Nov. 10 Valparaiso.

Nov. 21- Chiloe.
1835 -Feb. 4 Chiloe.

Feb. 8-22 Valdivia.

Mar. 4-7 Concepcion.

Mar. 11-Jul. 6 Valparaiso-Copiapo.

Jul. 12-15 Iquique.

Jul. 19-Sep. 7 Callao for Lima.

Sep. 16-Oct. 20 Galapagos Is.

Nov. 15-26 Tahiti.

Dec. 21-30 Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
1836 Jan. 12-30 Sydney.

Feb. 2-17 Hobart.

Mar. 3-14 St George's Sound.

Apr. 2-12 Cocos Keeling Is.

Apr. 29-May 9 Mauritius.

May 31-Jun. 18 Cape of Good Hope.

Jul. 7-14 St Helena.

Jul. 19-23 Ascension.

Aug. 1-6 Bahia Blanca.

Aug. 12-17 Pernambuco.

Sep. 4-8 Porto Praya, Cape Verde Is.

Sep. 20 Terceira, Azores.

Oct. 2 Falmouth, Cornwall.

Oct. 4 Shrewsbury.

Oct. end of, Greenwich unloading Beagle.

Nov. 6 London, 43 Great Marlborough St.

Nov. circa 21 Maer.

Dec. 2-13 London.

Dec. 13- Cambridge, J. S. Henslow and Fitzwilliam St.
1837 -Mar. 6 Cambridge with two trips to London one on Jan. 4.

Mar. 6-12 London, 43 Great Marlborough St.

Mar. 13-Jun. 25 London, 36 Great Marlborough St.

Nov. 21 Isle of Wight two-day visit to W. D. Fox.

Nov. 23 London.
1838 May 10 Cambridge three days.

Jun. 23 London to Leith by steamer, Edinburgh one day Salisbury Crags, Loch Leven, Glen Roy eight days, Glasgow, Liverpool.

Jul. 12 Overton-on-Dee, Flintshire one night.

Jul. 13-31 Shrewsbury and Maer.

Aug. 1 to London.

Oct. 25 Windsor for two days rest.

Nov. 9 Maer, Nov. 11 proposed to Emma Wedgwood and was accepted.

Nov. 12 Shrewsbury.

Nov. 17 Maer.

Nov. 20 to London.

Dec. 6 Emma W came to London.

Dec. 21 to Maer.

Dec. 31 slept at 12 Upper Gower St.
1839 Jan. 11 to Shrewsbury.

Jan. 15 to Maer.

Jan. 18 to London.

Jan. 25 to Shrewsbury.

Jan. 28 to Maer, Jan. 29 CD married.

Jan. 30 to London 12 Upper Gower St.

Apr. 26-May 12 Maer.

May 13-19 Shrewsbury.

May 20 to London.

Aug. 23 to Maer.

Aug. 26 to Birmingham for British Association.

Sep. 12 to Shrewsbury.

Oct. 2 to London.

[page] 101

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY, continued.
1840 Apr. 3 to Shrewsbury.

Jun. 10 to Maer.

Nov. 10 to London.
1841 May 28 to Maer and Shrewsbury.

Jul. 23 to London.
1842 Mar. 7-17 Shrewsbury.

May 18-Jun. 14 Maer.

Jun. 15 to Shrewsbury.

Jun. 18 Capel Curig, Bangor, Caernarvon, Capel Curig, ten days.

Jul. 18 to London.

Jul. 24 CD and ED first saw Down House, slept at inn.

Sep. 14 ED slept at Down House.

Sep. 17 CD slept at Down House.
1843 Jul. 8 Maer and Shrewsbury one week.

Oct. 12 Shrewsbury ten days.
1844 Apr. 23 to Maer and Shrewsbury.

May 30 to Down House.

Oct. 18-29 Shrewsbury.
1845 Apr. 29-May 10 Shrewsbury.

May 11 Down House.

Sept. 15 Shrewsbury, Beesby (CD's farm), Manchester to visit W. Herbert, Walton Hall to visit C. Waterton, Chatsworth, Camphill to visit Sarah Elizabeth W [I].

Oct. 26 to Down House.
1846 Feb. 21-Mar. 2 Shrewsbury.

Jul. 21-Aug. 8 Shrewsbury.

Sep. 9-16 Southampton for British Association.

12 visited Portsmouth and Isle of Wight.

13 Winchester and St Cross.

14 Netley Abbey and Southampton Common.

Sep. 22 day at Knole Park, Sevenoaks with ED and Susan D.

Oct. London ten days in two visits.
1847 Feb. 19-Mar. 4 Shrewsbury.

Jun. 22-Jun. 30 Oxford for British Association, visited Newnham Courtney, Dropmore, Burnham Beeches.
Mar. end of to London.

May 17 to Shrewsbury.

Jun. 1 to Downe.

Jul. 22 week at Swanage by Wareham and Corfe Castle.

Jul. 29 to Poole in Sir William Symonds's yacht, morning in New Forest.

Oct. 10 to Shrewsbury.

Oct. 25 to Downe.

Nov. 13 CD's father died, CD unable to go to funeral.

Nov. 17-26 at Shrewsbury with Erasmus.

Nov. 26 to Downe.
1849 Mar. 10-Jun. 30 Malvern Wells with whole family and servants (CD's first hydropathic visit).

Sep. 11-21 Birmingham for British Association, day visit to Malvern.
1850 Jun. 11-18 Malvern Wells.

Aug. 10-16 Leith Hill Place to visit Josiah W [III].

Oct. 14-21 Hartfield, Sussex, The Ridge to visit Sarah Elizabeth W [II].

18 Ramsgate for the day.
1851 Mar. 24-31 Malvern with Anne Elizabeth D.

Apr. 16-24 Malvern with Anne Elizabeth D who died there on 23.

Jul. 30-Aug. 9 London 7 Park St to see Great Exhibition.
1852 Mar. 24-Apr. 15 Rugby one day to see William Erasmus D at school then to Barlaston, Betley and Shrewsbury to his sister Susan.

Sep. 11-16 Leith Hill Place, home by Godstone and Reigate.

[page] 102

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY, continued.
1853 Jul. 14-Aug. 4 Eastbourne with family, to Brighton and Hastings on day visits.

Aug. 13-16 The Hermitage near Woking to visit Henry Allen W with ED, George Howard D and Henrietta Emma D, visited military camp for Crimean war at Chobham.
1854 Jan. visited London.

Mar. 13-17 The Ridge, Hartfield, Sussex.

Jul. 13-15 The Ridge, Hartfield, Sussex.

Oct. 9-14 Leith Hill Place.

Dec. 1 in London for breakfast.
1855 Jan. 18-Feb. 15 London, 27 York Place, Baker St.

Sep. 10-18 Glasgow for British Association with ED.

Sep. 19 slept Carlisle.

Sep. 20 to Shrewsbury by Rugby.

Sep. 22 to Down House.
1856 Sep. 13-18 Leith Hill Place.
1857 Apr. 22-May 5 Moor Park Hydro.

Jun. 16-29 Moor Park Hydro.

27 visited Selborne.

Nov. 5-12 Moor Park Hydro.

Nov. 16-20 London.
1858 Apr. 20-May 3 Moor Park.

Jul. 9-13 The Ridge, Hartfield.

Jul. 17-26 via Portsmouth, Sandown, Isle of Wight, King's Head Hotel with family.

Jul. 26-Aug. 12 Norfolk House, Shanklin, Isle of Wight.

Oct. 25-31 Moor Park.
1859 Feb. 5-18 Moor Park.

May 21-28 Moor Park.

Jul. 19-26 Moor Park.

Aug. 20-23 Leith Hill Place.

Oct. 2-Dec. 7 Wells Terrace, Ilkley (CD there when Origin published).

Dec. 8-9 London.
1860 Feb. 27-Mar. 3 London.

Apr. 14 London.

Jun. 28-Jul. 6 Sudbrook Park, Petersham, Surrey.

Jul. 10-Aug. 1 The Ridge, Hartfield.

Sep. 22-Nov. 10 15 Marine Parade, Eastbourne.
1861 Apr. 1-4 London, Queen Anne St.

Jul. 1-Aug. 26 2 Hesketh Terrace, Torquay.

Nov. 21 London.
1862 Apr. 1-4, London, Queen Anne St.

May 15-21 Leith Hill Place.

Aug. 12-31 1 Carlton Terrace, Southampton.

Sep. 1-27 Cliff Cottage, Bournemouth.

Sep. 29 London, Queen Anne St.
1863 Feb. 4-14 London, Queen Anne St.

Apr. 27-May ?10 Hartfield.

May ?11-14 Leith Hill Place.

Sep. 2-Oct. 13 Malvern Wells.
1864 Aug. 25-?31 London, 4 Chester Place.

[page] 103

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY, continued.
1865 Nov. 8-?17 London, Queen Anne St.
1866 Apr. 21-May 4 London, Queen Anne St.

May 29-Jun. 2 Leith Hill Place.

Nov. 22-29 London, Queen Anne St.
1867 Feb. 13-21 London, Queen Anne St.

Jun. 17-24 London, Queen Anne St.

Sep. 18-24 London, Queen Anne St.

Nov. 28-Dec. 3 London, Queen Anne St.
1868 Mar. 3-9 London, Queen Anne St.

Mar. 10-31 London, 4 Chester Place (Sarah Elizabeth W [II]).

Jul. 16 Bassett, Southampton on way to Isle of Wight.

Jul. 17-Aug. 20 Dumbola Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight.
1869 Feb. 16-24 London, Queen Anne St,

Jun. 10 Shrewsbury on way to Barmouth.

Jun. 11-29 Caerdeon, Barmouth, North Wales, to recuperate from fall from his pony Tommy.

Jun. 30 Stafford on way home.

Nov. 1-9 London, Queen Anne St.
1870 Mar. 5-10 London, Queen Anne St.

May 20-24 Bull Hotel, Cambridge.

Jun. 24-Jul. 1 London, Queen Anne St.

Aug. 13-26 Bassett, Southampton.

Oct. 13-20 Leith Hill Place.

Dec. 8-14 London, Queen Anne St.
1871 Feb. 23-Mar. 2 London, Queen Anne St.

Apr. 1-5 London, Queen Anne St.

May 11-19 Bassett, Southampton.

Jun. 24-30 London, Queen Anne St.

Jul. 28-Aug. 24 Haredene, Albury, Guildford, family holiday.

Nov. 3-10 Leith Hill Place.

Dec. 12-22 London, Queen Anne St.
1872 Feb. 13-Mar. 21 London, 9 Devonshire St, a rented house.

Jun. 8-20 Bassett, Southampton

Aug. 13-21 Leith Hill Place.

Oct. 5-26 Sevenoaks Common (Horace D had lodgings in Sevenoaks).

Dec. 17-23 London, Queen Anne St.
1873 Mar. 15-Apr. 10 London, 15 Montague St, a rented house.

Jun. 4-12 Leith Hill Place.

Aug. 5-9 Abinger Hall visiting Sir Thomas Farrer.

Aug. 10-21 Bassett, Southampton.

Nov. 8-18 London, 4 Bryanston St visiting R. B. Litchfield who had recently married Henrietta Emma D.
1874 Jan. 10-17 London, Queen Anne St.

Apr. 21-29 London, 4 Bryanston St.

Jul. 25-30 Abinger Hall.

Jul. 31-Aug. 24 Bassett, Southampton.

Dec. 3-12 London, 4 Bryanston St.
1875 Mar. 31-Apr. 12 London, Queen Anne St and Bryanston St.

Jun. 3-Jul. 5 Abinger Hall.

Aug. 28-Sep. 11 Bassett, Southampton.

Nov. 4-5 London, Queen Anne St (for Vivisection Commission).

Dec. 10-20 London, Bryanston St.

[page] 104

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. ITINERARY, continued.
1876 Feb. 3-5 London, Queen Anne St.

Apr. 27-May 3 London, Queen Anne St.

May 6-Jun. 6 Hopedene, Dorking (home of Hensleigh W).

Jun. 7-9 Hollycombe, Midhurst (home of Sir John Hawkshaw).

Oct. 4-6 Leith Hill Place.

Oct. 7-19 Bassett, Southampton.

Dec. ? London to Royal Society.
1877 Jan. 6-15 London, Bryanston St.

Apr. 12-28 London, Bryanston St then Queen Anne St.

Jun. 8-12 Leith Hill Place.

Jun. 13-Jul. 3 Bassett, Southampton, visited Stonehenge.

Aug. 20-25 Abinger Hall.

Oct. 26-29 London, Queen Anne St.

Nov. 16-18 Cambridge for award of Hon.LL.D.
1878 Jan. 17-23 London, Queen Anne St.

Feb. 27-Mar. 5 London, Bryanston St.

Apr. 27-May 3 Bassett, Southampton.

Jun. 7-?14 Leith Hill Place and Abinger Hall.

Jun. ?15 Barlaston to visit Francis W.

Nov. 21-26 London, Bryanston St.
1879 Feb. 27-Mar. 5 London, Queen Anne St.

May 6-7 Worthing to see Anthony Rich.

May 8-20 Bassett, Southampton.

May 21-25 Leith Hill Place.

Jun. 26 London, Queen Anne St.

Jun. 28-30 West Hackhurst, Abinger Hammer, home of Miss L. M. Forster.

Aug. 1 London, Queen Anne St.

Aug. 2-27 Coniston, Lake District, family holiday, 1 day expedition to Grasmere.

Dec. 2-12 London, 5 days Bryanston St, 5 days Queen Anne St.
1880 Mar. 4-8 London, Queen Anne St.

Apr. 8-13 Abinger Hall with Horace D and his wife Emma Cecilia (Ida) Farrer.

May 25-Jun. 8 Bassett, Southampton.

Aug. 14-18 Cambridge, Botolph Lane to visit his sons.

Aug. 19-20 London, Queen Anne St.

Oct. 20-Nov. 2 London Bryanston St.

Dec. 7-10 London, Queen Anne St.

Dec. 11-14 Leith Hill Place.
1881 Feb. 24-Mar. 3 London, Bryanston St.

Jun. 2-Jul. 4 Glenrhydding House, Patterdale, Ullswater.

Aug. 3-5 London, Queen Anne St.

Sep. 8-10 West Worthing Hotel, Worthing, Sussex, visiting Anthony Rich.

Oct. 20-27 Cambridge, stayed with Horace D.

Dec. 18-20 London, Bryanston St.
1882 CD did not leave Down House in this last year of his life.

[page] 105

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


Much material which was left in manuscript at CD's death has been published since. Most of it was never intended for publication and is in note or abbreviated form, although some is from early drafts of what he hoped eventually to prepare for the press. The autobiographical manuscripts have been considered above and published letters will be found in the main sequence. Other mss material which has been published will also be found in the main sequence under brief title, but is summarized here in date order of first publication:
1882 In George J. Romanes, Animal intelligence, contains extracts from CD's notes on behaviour, published with his permission and in press before his death.
1883 In George J. Romanes, Mental evolution in animals, contains an appendix which is from chapter 10 of the 2nd part of CD's intended big book on evolution. See also Stauffer, 1975.
1885 Über die Wege der Hummel-Männchen, in Gesammelte kleinere Schriften, 2:84-88 (F1584, 1602). See also Freeman 1968 below.
1909 The foundations of The origin of species, a sketch written in 1842, transcribed and edited by Francis D. Printed for private distribution.
1909 The foundations of The origin of species, Two essays written in 1842 and 1844, transcribed and edited by Francis D. Published edition. The sketch of 1842 is from the same setting of type as previous entry.
1933 Charles Darwin's diary of the voyage on H.M.S. Beagle, transcribed and edited by Nora Barlow.
1959 Darwin's journal, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 2:1-21. Transcribed by G. R. de Beer. There is a Russian translation of an earlier and independent transcription by S. L. Sobol', 1957.
1960-1967 Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 2:23-73, 75-113, 119-150, 151-183, 185-200; 3:129-176. Transcribed and edited by G. R. de Beer, M. J. Rowlands and B. Skramovsky. Notebooks B-E. 1962 Coral islands, Atoll. Res. Bull., No. 88, transcribed by D. R. Stoddart.
1963 Darwin's ornithological notes, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist), hist. Ser., 2:201-278, transcribed by Nora Barlow.

[page] 106

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. MANUSCRIPTS, continued.
1963 Darwin's manuscript of pangenesis, Brit. J. Hist. Sci., 1:251-263, transcribed by R. C. Olby.
1968 Charles Darwin on the routes of male humble bees, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 3:177-189. Translation of 1885 German paper above, with transcription of field notes by R. B. Freeman.
1974 Howard E. Gruber, Darwin on man, contains transcription of M & N notebooks on behaviour, with other mss, by Paul H. Barrett.
1975 R. C. Stauffer, Charles Darwin's Natural selection, transcribed from what was intended by CD to be Part 2 of his big book on evolution, Variation under domestication being Part 1.
1980 Charles Darwin's red notebook, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 7: transcribed by S. Herbert. Contains CD's earliest notes on evolution, covering the period June 1836-June 1837.

1864 Copley (Royal Society), CD was proposed in 1862 but failed.
1879 Baly (Royal College of Physicians).
1853 Royal (Royal Society).
1859 Wollaston (Geological Society), which from 1846-1860 was made of palladium.

1867 Pour le Mérite, Prussia.

1879 Bressa, Reale Accademia della Scienze, Turin. 12,000 francs. CD gave £100 from it to the Zoologische Station at Naples.

1809 Baptism, Nov. 17 at St Chad, Shrewsbury, by Rev. Thomas Stedman.

Confirmation: no evidence available from Shrewsbury School, the sacrament perhaps being neglected at the time, although Dr Butler was an appointed catechist.

CD's religious views are summarized in LLi -304-317. Francis D states "My father spoke little on these subjects, and I can contribute nothing from my own recollection".

CD considered religious views to be a deeply personal matter and took great pains not to offend ED.
1836-1839 "Whilst aboard the Beagle I was quite orthodox". "But I had gradually come by this time, i.e. 1836-1839, to see that the Old Testament was no more to be trusted than the sacred books of the Hindoos".
1879 CD to Fordyce, "In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an Atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. I think that generally (and more and more as I grow older), but not always, that an Agnostic would be the more correct description of my state of mind"—Aspects of scepticism, 1883.
1881 CD discussed his views with Aveling who published what he thought CD meant in The religious views of Charles Darwin, Freethought Publishing Company, 1883: Francis D felt that Aveling had misunderstood.

For CD's imaginary deathbed conversion to a fundamentalist orthodoxy see Atkins, 51-52, and for his fictitious book on the subject, My apology for my unformed ideas, see Freeman, 18-19.

[page] 107

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Continued.


As was customary, CD joined those London societies whose meetings might be of interest to him, although, after he left London in 1842, his attendance at their meetings was infrequent.
1833 He was a founder member of the Entomological Society in 1833.
1839 and
He joined the Zoological Society as a corresponding member in 1831 before the Beagle left England, becoming a Fellow in 1839.
1836 As soon as he returned in 1836 he joined the Geological Society.
Became a member of The Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian Society.
1838-1841 He was Honorary Secretary of the Geological Society from 1838 Feb. 16 to 1841 Feb. 19.
1838 He added the Geographical Society in 1838.
1839 He was elected to the Royal Society in 1839 Jan. 24, at the age of 29.
1850, 1855 He served on the Council of the Royal Society in 1850-1851 and again in 1855-1856.
1854 He did not join the Linnean until 1854, and then apparently largely so that he could get books by post from its excellent library.
1861 Finally he joined the Ethnological Society in 1861.

He used the periodical publications of all these societies, except those of the Shropshire, Entomological and Ethnological Societies, for his own papers.

His Honorary memberships included:
1840 The Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian Society,
1861 the Royal Society of Edinburgh,

the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh of which he was particulary proud for he had been an ordinary member when a medical student there,

and the Royal Irish Academy.
He was an Honorary Fellow of the Anthropological Society from foundation in 1862.

He was an Honorary of 13 societies in the Americas and of about 40 in Europe.

Of local natural history societies in England he was elected to only two:
1877 the Watford Natural History Society, later the Hertfordshire, in 1877,
1880 and the Epping Field Club, later the Essex, in 1880.

Almost all these are listed by countries in LLiii 373-376, but their titles are sometimes translated into English. The following list is in alphabetical order with names in the original languages:
1878 Academia Nacional de Ciencias de la Republica Argentina, Cordova. CD Honorary Member 1878.
1857 Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Germanica Naturae Curiosorum. CD Honorary Member 1857, cognomen Forster.
1867 Academia Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitana (Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk). CD Corresponding Member 1867.

[page] 108

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP, continued.
1870 Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgiques, CD Associate 1870.
1868 Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, CD Correspondent 1868.
1873 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, CD Foreign Honorary Member 1873.
1869 American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, CD Member 1869.
Anthropological Society, Honorary Fellow from foundation in 1862.
1872 Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Vienna, CD Honorary Member 1872.
1871 Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, CD Honorary Member 1871.
1877 Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, CD Corresponding Member 1877.
1873 Boston Society of Natural History, CD Honorary Member 1873.
1872 California Academy of Sciences, CD Honorary Member 1872.
1877 California State Geological Society, CD Corresponding Member 1877.
1863 Canterbury [New Zealand] Philosophical Institute, CD Honorary Member, 1863.
1833 Entomological Society of London, CD original Member 1833.
1880 Epping Field Club, CD Honorary Member 1880.
1861 Ethnological Society of London, CD Fellow 1861.
1878 Franklin Literary Society, Indiana, CD Honorary Member 1878.
1879 Gabinete Portuguiz de Leitura, Pernambuco, CD Corresponding Member 1879.
1836 Geological Society of London, CD Fellow 1836.
1877 Institucion Libre de Enseñanza, Madrid, CD Honorary Professor 1877.
1878 Institut de France, CD Correspondent, Section of Botany 1878.
1867 Kaiserliche-Koenigliche Zoologische-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna, CD Honorary Member 1867.
1871, 1875 Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, CD Corresponding Member 1871, Honorary Foreign Member 1875.
1878 Koeniglich-Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich, CD Foreign Member 1878.

[page] 109

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP, continued.
1863, 1878 Koeniglich-Preussiche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, CD Corresponding Member 1863, Fellow 1878.
1879 Kongeligt Dansk Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen, CD Fellow 1879.
1865 Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadamien, Stockholm, CD Foreign Member 1865.
1860 Kongliga Vetenskaps-Societeten, Uppsala, CD Fellow 1860.
1872 Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, CD Honorary Fellow 1872.
1880 Koninklinke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandische-Indie, Batavia, CD Corresponding Member 1880.
1854 Linnean Society of London, CD Fellow 1854.
1872 Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest, CD Member 1872.
1868 Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, CD Honorary Member 1868.
1878 Medicinische-Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft zu Jena, CD Honorary Member 1878.
1868 Medico-Chirurgical Society of London, CD Honorary Member 1868.
1879 Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Halle, CD Honorary Member 1879.
1879 New York Academy of Sciences, CD Honorary Member 1879.
1879 New Zealand Institute, CD Honorary Member 1872.
1875 Real Accademia dei Lincei, CD foreign Member 1875.
1873 Reale Accademia della Scienze, Turin, CD Honorary Member 1873.
1838 Royal Geographical Society, CD Fellow 1838.
1866 Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, CD Honorary Member 1866.
1873 Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh, CD Member 1826-1827, Honorary Member 1861.
1839 Royal Society, London, CD Fellow 1839 Jan. 24.
1865 Royal Society of Edinburgh, CD Fellow 1865.
1879 Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney, CD Honorary Member 1879.
1878 Schlesische Gesellschaft für Vaterlandische Cultur, Breslau, CD Honorary Member 1878.
1873 Senkenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt-am-Main, CD Corresponding Member 1873.
1877 Siebenburgische Verein für Naturwissenschaften, Hermannstadt, CD Honorary Member 1877.

[page] 110

Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP, continued.
1877 Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires, CD Honorary Member 1877.
1860 Sociedad de Naturalistas Neo-Granadinos, CD Honorary Member 1860.
1874 Sociedad Zoológica Argentina, Cordova, CD Honorary Member 1874.
1877 Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa, CD Corresponding Member 1877.
1875 Società dei Naturalisti in Modena, CD Honorary Member 1875.
1870 Società Geografica Italiana, Florence, CD Honorary Member 1870.
1872 Società Italiana di Antropologia e di Etnologia, Florence, CD Honorary Member 1872.
1880 Società La Scuola Italica Pitagorica, Rome, CD Presidente Onorario 1880.
1870 Societas Caesarea Naturae Curiosorum (Société Imperiale des Naturalistes), Moscow, CD Honorary Member 1870.
1871 Société d'Anthropologie, Paris, CD Foreign Member 1871.
1863 Société des Sciences Naturelles, Neuchatel, CD Corresponding Member 1863.
1874 Société Entomologiques, Paris, CD Honorary Member 1874.
1837 Société Géologiques, Paris, CD Life Member 1837.
1877 Société Hollandaise des Sciences à Haarlem (Hollandische Maatschappij der Wetenschappen), CD Foreign Member 1877.
1881 Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Brussels, CD Associate Member 1881.
1878 Société Royale des Sciences Médicales et Naturelles, Brussels, CD Honorary Member 1878.
1875 Society of Naturalists of the Imperial Kazan University (Obschchestvo Estestvoispuitateleî pri Imperatorskon Kasanskom Universitetys), CD Honorary Member 1875.
1877 Watford Natural History Society, CD Honorary Member 1877.
1877 Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetenschappen te Middleburg, CD Foreign Member 1877.
1831, 1839 Zoological Society of London, CD Corresponding Member 1831, Fellow 1839.

1935 Commemorative issue by Ecuador, centenary of CD's visit; 2, 5, 10 and 20 centavos, with map, marine iguana, giant tortoise and head of CD respectively.
1958 Great Britain, no CD stamps before 1982, but cancel, called special slogan, London, South Kensington, S.W.7. used Jul.and Aug. 1958 only "1958 / CENTENARY OF / DARWIN & WALLACE / EVOLUTION THEORY / 1958—D. W. Tucker Gibbons Stamp Monthly 1958 Jul.
1959 USSR, 40k portrait.
1959 Csechoslovakia, 3k portrait.

Cocos Keeling to commemorate visit of Beagle 1836.

[page] 111

"Darwin's bull-dog"
1871 "I am Darwin's bull-dog" he once said. 1871 Nov. 2 Huxley to Haeckel, "The dogs have been barking at his heels too much of late"—Life of Huxley, 2nd edition, ii 62.
Darwin's Farm, at Beesby, Lincolnshire q.v.
Darwin's Finches
1942 The sub-family Geospizinae of the Galapagos Is. Coined1 by Robert T. Orr, Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc., 45:42-45, 1942.
1947 Used by David Lack, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 5, No. 53, 49, 1944, and title of his book 1947.
Darwin's "Hero"

CD's name for an exceptionally vigorous plant of morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in Cross and self fertilisation. Heading chapter 15 in Allan.
Darwin's Peak

Another name for Angulus woolneri q.v., see also Nature, Lond., Apr. 6 1871.
"Darwin's True Knight"

Hooker's description of Wallace.
Darwin's window

A window in Hooker's retirement house at Sunningdale, so-called because CD suggested its insertion on seeing the plans, to improve the view of the garden.
Darwin, Colonel Charles Waring [I], 1855 Aug. 28-1928 Aug. 1.

CD's remote cousin. Head of the senior branch of the D family, of Elston Hall.
1894 Married Mary Dorothea Wharton.
Darwin, Charles Waring [II], 1856 Dec. 6-1858 summer.

Tenth and last child of CD. Died of scarlet fever, ?had Down's syndrome. "He had never learnt to walk or talk"—EDii 162.
Darwin, Charlotte Maria Cooper, 1827-1885.

Child of William Brown D. Married Francis Rhodes, later Darwin. CD's remote cousin. Last of the senior branch of family. Elston Hall, the family seat, was left to her husband.
Darwin, Charlotte Mildred, see Massingberd.
Darwin, "Chucky", see Susan D.
Darwin, "Doddy", see William Erasmus D.
Darwin, "Dubsy", see Bernard Richard Meirion D.
Darwin, Edward, 1782-1829.

First child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. Unmarried. CD's half uncle. Officer in 3rd Dragoon Guards. Lived at Mackworth, Derbyshire.
Darwin, Edward Levett 1821-?.

Second son of Sir Francis Sacheverel D. CD's half first cousin.
1858 Author on sporting matters under pseudonym "High Elms"; The game-preservers manual, 1858.
1858 CD of The game-preservers manual, "shows keen observation and knowledge of various animals"— Woodall p. 4.
Darwin, Elinor Mary, see Monsell.
Darwin, Elizabeth [I], 1725-1800.

Second child of Robert D. CD's great-aunt.
1751 Married Rev. Thomas Hall, Rector of Westborough, Lincolnshire.
Darwin, Elizabeth [II], see Collier.

1 In fact the phrase was coined by Percy Lowe in 1935. See P. R. Lowe. 1936. The finches of the Galapagos in relation to Darwin's conception of species. Ibis pp. 310-21, p. 310.

[page] 112

Darwin, Elizabeth [III], 1763-1764.

Third child of Erasmus D [I] and Mary Howard. CD's aunt.
Darwin, Elizabeth [IV], see Hill.
Darwin, Elizabeth [V], see St Croix.
Darwin, Elizabeth [VI] 1847 Jul. 8-1926.

Sixth child of CD. Unmarried. Known as "Bessy". "Very stout and nervous...not good at practical things...and she could not have managed her own life without a little help and direction...but she was shrewd enough... and a very good judge of character"—Period Piece, 146-147.

"If family legend be true, my aunt Bessy when young had looked into the drawing-room at Down and flounced out again with the words 'Nothing but nasty, beastly boys'"—Bernard D p. 40.
Darwin, Elizabeth, see Susan Elizabeth D, CD's sister.
Darwin, Elizabeth Frances, see Fraser.
Darwin, Ellen Wordsworth, see Crofts.
Darwin, Emily Catherine, 1810 May 10-1866 Feb. 2.

Sixth child of Robert Waring D. CD's sister. Known as "Catty". "Had neither good health nor good spirits"—EDii 180. "Failed to work out her capabilities either for her own happiness or that of others (perhaps)"—EDii 184. CD's sisters, after their mother's death, ran an infants school in the grounds of Millington's Hospital, Frankwell—Woodall p. 14.
1834 Jul. 20 CD addresses her as "Katty"—CD and Beagle pp 100-4.
Married Charles Langton as second wife, d.s.p.
Darwin, Emma, see Wedgwood.
Darwin, Emma
1904 [Mrs] H. E. Litchfield editor, Emma Darwin, wife of Charles Darwin. A century of family letters, 2 vols, Cambridge (F1552), 250 copies printed for family and friends.
1915 Emma Darwin. A century of family letters, 1792-1896, 2 vols, London (F1553), text as 1904 with some alterations.
1915 USA from stereos (F1554).
Darwin, Emma Cecilia, see Farrer.
Darwin, Emma Georgina Elizabeth, 1784-1818.

Third child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. Unmarried. CD's half aunt.
Darwin, Emma Nora, 1885 Dec. 22-1989.

Third child of Sir Horace D. CD's grand-daughter. Known as Nora.
Married Sir James Alan Noel Barlow, Bart. 2 daughters, 4 sons: 1. Joan Helen, 2. Thomas Erasmus, 3. Erasmus Darwin, 4. Andrew Dalmahoy, 5. Hilda Horatia, 6. Horace Basil. Grandchild Phyllida.
1933 Editor Diary of the voyage of the Beagle (F1566).
1945 Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle (F1571).
1963 Darwin's ornithological notes, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 2:201-278 (F1577).
1967 Darwin and Henslow (F1598).
Darwin, Erasmus [I], 1731 Dec. 12-1802 Apr. 17.

Physician and scientist. Fourth child of Robert D. Born at Elston Hall, Nottinghamshire. CD's grandfather.

Biography: DNB; Seward, 1804; Dowson, 1861; Krause and CD, 1879; Pearson, 1930; King-Hele, 1963, 1977.
1756-1781 Practised at Lichfield.
1757 Married 1 Mary Howard. 4 sons, 1 daughter: 1. Charles, 2. Erasmus, 3. Elizabeth, 4. Robert Waring, 5. William Alvey.
1761 FRS.
1781 Married 2 Elizabeth Chandos Pole née Collier. 4 sons, 3 daughters. 1. Edward, 2. Frances Anne Violetta, 3. Emma Georgina Elizabeth, 4. Francis Sacheverel, 5. John, 6. Henry, 7. Harriet.

He also had two illegitimate daughters, their names and mother unrecorded, the Misses Parker.
1781-1783 Radburn Hall, Derby.
1783-1802 Full St, Derby.
1802 Breadsall Priory, Derby, where his relict continued to live until her death 1832.

Main works:
1790, 1791 Botanic garden
1794, 1796 Zoonomia
1800 Phytologia
1803 Temple of nature

Portraits: two in oils, one by Joseph Wright of Derby in National Portrait Gallery, London, one by Rawlinson of Derby in Derby Museum.

Medallion in Lichfield Cathedral after Wright portrait.

His commonplace book is now at Down House.
1813 The genus Darwinia Rudge, 1813, was named for D, (Myrtaceae) about twenty-five species of Australian heath-like shrubs. Darwinia Rafinesque 1817 and Darwinia Dennstedt 1818 are junior homonyms.

[page] 113

Darwin, Erasmus

Krause's paper first appeared in German in Kosmos, 3, 1879 Feb., but his text was revised for the translation. This book started the one-sided row with Samuel Butler. B's copy with mss notes is in the British Library.
1879 Ernst Krause, Erasmus Darwin...with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin (F1319), CD's notice, 1-127, is longer than Krause essay on D's scientific work.
1887 The life of Erasmus Darwin (F1321), sheets of the first edition with new preface.

First foreign editions of CD's notice:
1880 German (F1323).
1959 Russian (F1324).
1971 Facsimile (F1322).
Darwin, Erasmus [II], 1759-1799.

Second child of Erasmus [I] and Mary. Unmarried. CD's uncle. Solicitor and genealogist. Committed suicide by drowning.
Darwin, Erasmus [III], 1881 Dec. 7-1915 Apr. 24.

First child of Sir Horace D. Unmarried. CD's grandson, the second of the two born in CD's lifetime. Director Cambridge Instrument Co. Obituary in Emma Darwin ii-vi, 1915.
Killed at Ypres.
Darwin, Erasmus Alvey, 1804 Dec. 29-1881 Aug. 26.

Fourth child of Robert Waring D. Unmarried. CD's only brother. Known as "Ras". Trained as a physician at Edinburgh but never practised. Invalid.

Nicknamed "Bones" at school because tall, thin and delicate—Brent p. 28. Also known as "John" and "Strol" at school for unknown reasons—CCD I p. 10.
1835 Autumn, took 43 Great Marlborough St house. Also at 24 Regent St, 7 Park St, 6 Queen Anne St.
Trustee Bedford College, University of London from its foundation, see Bedford Coll. Mag., 1902 Jun.
1859 Nov. D to CD "In fact the à priori reasoning is so entirely satisfactory to me that if the facts won't fit in, why so much worse for the facts is my feeling"—LLii 234.
1881 CD to Sir Thomas Farrer, "He was not I think a happy man"—MLi 395.

"He had something of original and sarcastically ingenious in him, one of the sincerest, naturally truest, and most modest of men"—Carlyle, Reminiscences, ii 208.

His only recorded staff were Surman, his secretary, and Pearce, his manservant.
1881 Buried Sep. 1 in Downe Churchyard.

[page] 114

Darwin, "Etty", see Henrietta Emma D.
Darwin, Florence Henrietta, see Fisher.
Darwin, Frances, see Fraser.
Darwin, Frances Anne Violetta, 1783-1874.

Second child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. CD's half great-aunt.
1807 Married Samuel Tertius Galton. Sons: Darwin Galton and Francis Galton.
Darwin, Frances Crofts, 1886 Mar. 30-1960.

Only child of Sir Francis D and Ellen. CD's granddaughter.

Married Francis Macdonald Cornford. Mother of Francis Cornford, the poet.
Darwin, Francis [I], see Rhodes.
Darwin, Sir Francis [II], 1848 Aug. 16-1925 Sep. 19.

Botanist. Seventh child of CD. Known as "Baccy", "Frank" and "Franky". Assisted CD with his botanical work, including drawing figures of Aldrovanda and Utricularia for Insectivorous plants. DNB WWH.
Educated Clapham Grammar School.
Trinity College, Cambridge.

Qualified as a physician but did not practice.
1874 Married 1 Amy Richenda Ruck. 1 son Bernard Richard Meirion. On first marriage lived at vicarage Downe. After first wife's death, moved into Down House with infant son. Wintered until second marriage with ED in Cambridge, then 80 Huntingdon Rd. The house at 80 Huntingdon Rd was called Wychfield and was built for FD.
1882 FRS.
Married 2 Ellen Crofts. 1 daughter Frances Crofts.

Married 3 Florence Henrietta Fisher, s.p. During his third marriage, spent spring and summer at a converted farmhouse at Brookthorpe, Gloucestershire. It was on waste land which had belonged to her first husband Frederic William Maitland. After death of third wife FD moved to 10 Madingley Rd.
1887 Editor Life and letters (F1452).
1888-1904 FD was Reader in Botany Cambridge.
1894 With E. H. Acton Physiology of plants.
1895 Main work: The elements of botany.
1903 Editor, with A. C. Seward, More letters (F1548).
1909 Editor Sketches of 1842 and 1844 (F1555, 1556).
1913 Kt.
1913-1920  The last essay in Springtime contains lists of plants and birds made at Brookthorpe, in date order.
1917 Rural sounds and other studies in literature and natural history 231 pp, 1 pl., text figs, London, John Murray.
1920 The story of a childhood, 8vo, 71 pp, privately printed, Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd 1920. Contains letters from FD to Mrs Laurence Ruck, née Matthews, about her grandson Bernard R. M. D.'s childhood up to age 15. The letters were given back to FD on Mrs R's death,.
1929 Springtime and other essays 8vo, 242 pp, John Murray.
Darwin, Sir Francis Sacheverel, 1786-1859.

Physician and traveller. Fourth child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. Married Jane Harriet Ryle and had offspring, eldest son Reginald D. CD's half uncle.
Darwin, "Frank", "Franky", see Sir Francis D [II].
Darwin, "Gas", see Charles Robert D.
Darwin, Sir George Howard, 1845 Jul. 9-1912 Dec. 7.

Mathematician. Fifth child of CD. Interested in heraldry in youth "the young herald"—MLi 287. Drew figures of Drosera and Dionaea for Insectivorous plants. Trained as a barrister but never practised. Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy Cambridge. The only remaining male line of CD's family comes through him. Newnham Grange, Cambridge. Biography: DNB WWH. Francis D in Vol. 5 of Scientific papers, 5 vols 1916.
16 Aug. Educated Clapham Grammar School.
Trinity College, Cambridge.
1868 Smith Prize.
1868 2nd Wrangler, Cambridge.
Fellow, Trinity.
1879 FRS.
1882 Inherited Down House.
1884 Jul. 22 Married at Erie, Pennsylvania, Maud du Puy. 3 sons, 2 daughters. 1. Gwendolen Mary, 2. Charles Galton, 3. Margaret Elizabeth, 4. William Robert. Another son died in infancy—FD Rural sounds p. 174..
1898 Main work: The tides.
1905 KCB.

[page] 115

Darwin, Georgina Elizabeth, 1823-before 1888.

Child of Sir Francis Sacheverel D. Married Rev. Benjamin Swift. Mother of Francis Darwin Swift. CD's half cousin.
Darwin, "Granny", see Susan Elizabeth D.
Darwin, Gwendolen Mary, 1885 Aug. 26-1957.

First child of Sir George Howard D. Known as "Gwen", and as "The Genie" from boarding school days.. Married Jacques Raverat. 2 daughters, Sophie and Elisabeth. CD's granddaughter. Artist, trained at Slade School, University College London.
1939 Illustrated published edition of The bird talisman.
1952 Main work: Period piece.
Darwin, Harriet, 1790-1825.

Seventh child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth.
1811 Married Admiral Thomas James Malin, d.s.p at Valparaiso.
Darwin, Harriot, see Henrietta Emma D.
Darwin, Henrietta Emma, 1843 Sep. 25-1927.

Fourth child of CD. Was sickly as a child. Helped CD with writing Descent of man—EDii 196. Did some editing of CD's part of Erasmus Darwin—King-Hele 1977. CD's only married daughter.
1856 When ill had breakfast in bed, "she never got up to breakfast again in all her life"—Period piece, in which chapter 7 gives a description of her valetudinarian habits.
1861 CD to Hooker, "Poor H...she has now come up to her old point, and can sometimes get up for an hour or two twice a day"—LLii 360.
1865 Known as "Body", "Budgy", "Harriot" (she tried to use this name in 1865, ED objected "the pertest of names"), "Rhadamanthus minor" or just "Rhadamanthus" (by Huxley), "Trotty Veck", "Etty".
1871 Married Aug. 31 R. B. Litchfield d.s.p.
1903 On death of husband moved to Burrow's Hill, Gomshall, Surrey.
1904, 1915
Editor Emma Darwin, 1904 (F1552) and 1915 (F1553).
Darwin, Henry, ?-1590.

Great-grandfather of Darwin Stowe.
Darwin, Henry, 1789-1790.

Sixth child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. CD's half uncle.
Darwin, Henry Galton

Son of Sir Charles Dalton D. Barrister Foreign Office. CMG. WW.
1958 Married Jane Sophia Christie. 3 daughters.
Darwin, Sir Horace, 1851 May 13-1928 Sep. 22.

Ninth child of CD. Known as "Jemmy" or "Skimp". 66 Hills Rd, Cambridge. The house in Hills Rd was called The Orchard and built for HD on marriage. DNB WWH.
1880 Married Emma ("Ida") Cecilia Farrer. 1 son, 2 daughters: 1. Erasmus [III], 2. Ruth Frances, 3. Emma Nora.
1885 Founder and Director of Cambridge Instrument Co., Botolph Lane, Cambridge.
1896-1897 Mayor of Cambridge in jubilee year.
1903 FRS.
1918 KBE.
Darwin, "Ida", see Emma Cecilia Farrer.

[page] 116

Darwin, Jane, see Brown.
Darwin, Jane Harriet, see Ryle.
Darwin, "Jemmy", see Sir Horace D.
Darwin, John [I], ?-1542.

Brother of William D [II]. Ninth generation uncle of CD.
Darwin, Rev. John [II], 1730-1805.

Sixth child of Robert D. Unmarried. CD's great-uncle. Rector of Elston, Lincolnshire.
Darwin, Rev. John [III], 1787-1818.

Fifth child of Erasmus D [I] and Elizabeth. Unmarried. CD's half-uncle. Rector of Elston, Lincolnshire.
Darwin, Katherine, see Pember.
Darwin, "Kitty Kumplings", see Anne Elizabeth D.
Darwin, Major Leonard, 1850 Jan. 15-1943 Mar. 26.

Eighth child of CD. 12 Egerton Place, Brompton Rd, London. Biography: M. Keynes (niece), Cambridge 1943.
1870 Royal Engineers, commissioned Dec.
1874, 1882
Observed transits of Venus.
circa 1874 Photographed CD in basket chair on verandah at Down House, engraved for Century Mag.
1882 Married 1 Elizabeth Frances Fraser s.p.
1883 Jan. photograph of CD also occurs printed on china.
Retired from army.
1892-1895 1892 Jul.-1895 Jul. MP Liberal-Unionist, for Lichfield.
1895 Stood again but not re-elected.
1900 Married 2 Charlotte Mildred Massingberd s.p. On second marriage moved to Cripp's Corner, Forest Row, Sussex.

Main works:
1897 Bimetallism.
1926 The need for eugenic reform.
1929 "Memories of Down House", Nineteenth Century, 106; 108-123.
Darwin, Margaret Elizabeth, 1890-1974.

Third child of Sir George Howard D. CD's granddaughter.
1917 Married Sir Geoffrey Keynes. 4 sons.
1943 D wrote biography of Leonard D.
Darwin, Marianne, 1798 Apr. 7-1858 Jul. 18.

First child of Robert Waring D. CD's sister. On her death the grown-up family was adopted by her sister, Susan Elizabeth, and lived at The Mount, Shrewsbury.
1824 Married Henry Parker. 4 sons, 1 daughter.
Darwin, Martha Haskins, see Du Puy.
Darwin, Mary [I], see Healey.
Darwin, Mary [II], see Howard.
Darwin, Mary Dorothea, see Wharton.
Darwin, Mary Eleanor, 1842 Sep. 23-1842 Oct. 16.

Third child of CD. Born at Down House and died there. ED had moved into Down House on Sep. 14.
Darwin, Maud, see Du Puy.
Darwin, Mildred, see Massingberd.
Darwin, Monica, see Slingsby.
Darwin, "Nigger", see Charles Robert D.

[page] 117

Darwin, Nora, see Emma Nora D.
Darwin, "Polly", see Mary Darwin [II].
Darwin, "Ras", see Erasmus Alvey D.
Darwin, Reginald, 1818-?.

Eldest child of Sir Francis Sacheverel D. CD's half first cousin.
1879 Lent CD documents, including a commonplace book, on Erasmus D [I], which CD used for his notice in E. Krause's Erasmus Darwin. The commonplace book now at Down House.
Darwin, Richard, ?-1584.

Third child of William D [III]. Inherited Torksey from his uncle and held Marton. 8th generation in male line to CD.
before 1580 Married Margaret ? 3 sons, 1 daughter.
Darwin, Robert, 1682-1754 Nov. 20.

Second son of William D [VI]. CD's great-grandfather. Barrister of Lincoln's Inn. Member of Spalding Club.
1723 24 Jan. Married Elizabeth Hill of Sleaford, Lincolnshire. 4 sons, 3 daughters. 1. Robert Waring, 2. Elizabeth, 3. William Alvey, 4. Ann. 5. Susanna, 6. John [II], 7. Erasmus.
Darwin, Robert Alvey, 1826 Apr. 17-1847 Dec. 7.

Third child of William Brown D. Of Elston Hall and Exeter College Oxford. Last male in senior branch of family, he left Elston Hall to his sister Charlotte Maria Cooper D.
Darwin, Sir Robert Vere, 1910-1977.

Painter. First child of Bernard Richard Meirion D. CD's great-grandson. Known as "Robin". Principal Royal College of Art. Painted portrait of Sir George Buckston Browne for Down House. WWH.

Married 1 Yvonne Darby s.p.

Married 2 Ginette Hewitt s.p.
1964 Kt.
1972 RA.
Darwin, Robert Waring [I], 1724-1816.

First child of Robert D. Unmarried. CD's great-uncle. Of Elston Hall.
1787 Author of Principia botanica.
Darwin, Robert Waring [II], 1766 May 30-1848 Nov. 13.

Fourth child of Erasmus D [I] and Mary. CD's father. Strictly teetotal. Known as "The father of Frankwell" by his poorer patients—Woodall pp. 11, 14.

6′ 2″, very corpulent, "when he last weighed himself he was 24 stone, but afterwards increased much in weight"—LLi 11. CD's description of his father, which belongs to his autobiography, is printed in LLi 11-20 instead of in chapter 2.

"Personally of huge bulk with a very squeaky voice"—Gretton Memory's harkback 1889 p. 33.
before 1785 Studied at Edinburgh before Leyden.
1785 Physician, MD Leyden Feb. 26.

Lived at St John's Hill before he built The Mount.
1788 FRS.
1796 Married Apr. 18, at St Marylebone, Susannah Wedgwood—Gent. Mag. 1796 Apr. 18, 66 p. 351. 2 sons, 4 daughters. 1. Marianne, 2. Caroline Sarah, 3. Susan Elizabeth, 4. Erasmus Alvey, 5. Charles Robert, 6. Emily Catherine.
circa 1800 Had a large practice in Shrewsbury and around, where he built The Mount circa 1800.
1848 Buried in Montford churchyard, Shropshire.
Darwin, Sir Robin, see Robert Vere D.
Darwin, Ruth Frances, 1883 Aug. 2-1973.

Second child of Sir Horace D. CD's granddaughter. Known as "Boofy". High Hackhurst, Abinger Hammer, Dorking. WWH.
1932-1949 Senior Commissioner Board of Control.
1938 CBE.
1948 Married W. Rees Thomas as second wife, s.p.

[page] 118

Darwin, Sarah, see Sedgwick.
Darwin, Sarah Gay Forbes, 1830-?

Seventh child of William Brown D. CD's cousin.
1848 Married Edward Noel.
Darwin, Sibyl, see Rose.
Darwin, "Skimp", see Sir Horace D.
Darwin, Susan Elizabeth, 1803 Aug. 3-1866 Aug. 3.

Third child of Robert Waring D [II]. Known as "Chucky". Unmarried. CD's sister. Continued to live at The Mount, Shrewsbury until her death.

"My father [CD] told me that anything in coat and trousers from eight years to eighty was fair game to Susan"—EDi 141.
circa 1822 She and Jessie Wedgwood, daughter of John Wedgwood, were known as "Kitty" and "Lydia" after those Bennetts in Pride and prejudice, because they were flirts.
1836 CD called her "Granny".
1858 After the death of her sister Marianne in 1858 she adopted the grown-up Parker children who lived with her.
Darwin, Susanna, 1729-1789.

Fifth child of Robert D. Unmarried. CD's great-aunt.
Darwin, Susannah, see Wedgwood.
Darwin, "Trotty Veck", see Henrietta Emma D.
Darwin, Violetta, see Frances Anne Violetta D.
Darwin, William [I], died before 1542.

Yeoman. Of Marton, Lincolnshire. Two sons, 1. ?William, 2. John. The earliest ancestor given by Burke. Tenth generation to CD in male line.
Darwin, ?William [II], died before 1542.

Eldest son of William [I]. 2 sons, 4 daughters. Of Marton, Lincolnshire, Yeoman. Burke is not certain of christian name. Ninth generation to CD in male line.
Darwin, William [III], -1580.

Eldest son of ?William [II]. Married Elizabeth ?, 3 sons. Inherited Marton from his uncle John D. Eighth generation to CD in male line.
Darwin, William [IV], circa 1573-1644.

Third son of Richard D. Married as second husband Mary Healey of Cleatham, Lincolnshire. Yeoman of the Royal Armoury, Greenwich. Also held Marton. Sixth generation to CD in male line.
Darwin, William [V], 1620-1675.

Eldest son of William D [IV]. Barrister. Recorder of Lincoln. Royalist. Erasmus became a family name through his wife. Fifth generation in male line to CD.
1653 Married Anne Earle, daughter of Erasmus Earle. 5 sons, 1 daughter.
Darwin, William [VI], 1655-1682.

Eldest son of William [V]. Waring became a family forename through his wife, and Elston Hall the family seat. Fourth generation in male line to CD.

Portrait "at Elston shows him as a good-looking young man in a full-bottomed wig"—LLi 3.
1680 Married Anne Waring, heiress of Robert Waring of Elston Hall, Newark, Nottinghamshire. 2 sons.
Darwin, William [VII], 1681-1760.

Eldest son of William D [VI]. Of Cleatham and Elston Hall.
1706 Married 1 Elizabeth D (first cousin). 2 sons, 2 daughters.
1715/16 Married 2 Mary Secker. 1 son, 4 daughters.
1749 Married 3 Mary Hurst s.p.

[page] 119

Darwin, William Alvey [I], 1726-1783.

Second child of Robert D. Married Jane Brown. 1 son, 1 daughter. CD's great-uncle. Inherited Elston Hall.
Darwin, William Alvey [II], 1767-1767.

Fifth child of Erasmus D [I] and Mary. CD's uncle.
Darwin, William Brown, 1774-1841.

Son of William Alvey D [I]. Married Elizabeth de St Croix. 3 sons, 4 daughters. CD's first cousin once removed.
Darwin, William Erasmus, 1839 Dec. 27-1914 Sep.

First child of CD. Called "Hoddy Doddy" in infancy. The only one of CD's surviving sons who never grew a beard, although Leonard only did so in old age. Obituary: Francis D, Christ's College Mag., 1914.

Robert D to CD when WED was young and supposed to be delicate, "Let him run about and get his feet wet and eat green gooseberries"—Bernard D pp. 27, 42-43.

Educated at Mr Wharton's preparatory school and Rugby.
1862-1902 Partner in Grant & Maddison, Bankers of Southampton, also called Southampton & Hampshire Bank. Looked after CD's financial affairs with great success.

Ridgemount, North Stoneham, Bassett, Southampton.
1877 Married Sarah Sedgwick s.p.
1877 He is the child in CD's paper in Mind, 2, 1877.
1902 After death of wife, 12 Egerton St, London, next door to brother Leonard D. Of the Egerton St house "a rather tall, gaunt house, with a butler almost too perfect to live". Gwendolen Mary D lived with him whilst at Slade School.
"He had felt the top of his head cold at his father's funeral in Westminster Abbey and balanced his black gloves there."
Darwin, William Robert, 1894-1970.

Fourth child of Sir George Howard D. Married Monica Slingsby. CD's grandson.
Darwin, Yvonne, see Darby.

Used three times for genera of plants. See Erasmus Darwin [I].
1794 adj. 1 relating to the verse or views of Erasmus D [I]. 1794 OED suppl.
1860 adj. 2 relating to CD's theories. 1860 OED suppl. Huxley "The Darwinian hypothesis has the merit of being eminently simple and comprehensible"—Westminster Rev., Apr. 566.
1809 sb. 1 one who holds the views of, or imitates the verse of Erasmus D [I]. 1809 OED suppl.
1896 sb. 2 one who holds the views of CD. 1896 OED suppl. Wallace "and it is very interesting to Darwinians"—Malay Archipelago, 1, iv, 61.
Darwinian Tubercle = Angulus Woolneri, Darwin's peak qq. v.
1804 sb. 1 obs. or nonce-word, relating to Erasmus D [I]. 1804 OED.
1893 sb. 2 rare, relating to CD's theories=Darwinism. OED 1893 J. H. Stirling, Darwinianism: workmen and work [title].
1865 Samuel Butler "Is not the subject worked out, and are not the Canterbury public sick of Darwinianism" in a covering letter to the editor of The Press, Christchurch NZ, with "Lucubratio ebria"; predates earliest quote in OED.
1856 sb. 1 obs. relating to Erasmus D [I]. 1856 OED.
1864 sb. 2 relating to CD's theories. 1864 OED suppl. Huxley "What we may term the philosophical position of Darwinism"—Nat. Hist. Rev., Oct. 567.

[page] 120

Darwinism, CD's papers on
1871 [letter] "A new view of Darwinism", Nature, Lond., 4:180-181, refers to letter by Henry B. Howorth of same title, ibid., 4:161-162 (Bii 167, F1754).
1872 "Bree on Darwinism", Nature, Lond., 6:279 (Bii 168, F1756), relates to a review by Wallace of Bree's book, An exposition of the fallacies in the hypothesis of Mr Darwin, 1872.
Darwinism, 1889 by Wallace q.v.
Darwinism and Modern science, 1909 edited by A. C. Seward q.v.
Darwinism Stated by Darwin Himself, 1884 edited by Nathan Shepperd q.v.
1883 sb. One agreeing with CD's theories. 1883 OED "Interesting to every sincere Darwinist"—Sci. and Lit. Gossip, 1:79
1875 adj. Darwinistic. 1875 OED "Decisive in favour of Darwinistic views"—Schmidt, Descent and Darwinism, 292.
1862 sb. 1 one agreeing with CD's theories. 1862 OED "Here are Darwinites...reviving the doctrine of Lord Monboddo that man and monkeys are of the same stock"—Illustr. Lond. News, 41:41.
1867 adj. 1867 OED C. Kingsley (letter) "Can you tell me where I can find any Darwinite lore about the development of birds?"—Life, 2:280, 1883.
1861 sb. 2 a natural copper arsenite, reddish white, from North America, synonym of Whitneyite. 1861 coined by D. Forbes.
1880 vb. 1 intrans. to write verse like that of Erasmus D [I]. OED 1880, but said to have been coined much earlier by S. T. Coleridge.
1920 vb. 2 intrans. to follow CD's theories, to work on them. 1920 OED G. B. Shaw "It has restored faith in Providence to a Darwinized world"—Public Opinion, Aug. 13, 160.
1979 "Freeman has assembled an authoritative guide to the darwinocentric universe"—American Scientist 1979 Oct, book review by Stan Rachootin, Yale.
Daubeny, Charles Giles Bridle, 1795-1867.

Botanist. DNB.
1822 FRS.
1832 Prof. Chemistry Oxford.
1834 Prof. Botany.
1840 Prof. Rural Economy.
1860 Jun. 30 conversazione held in his rooms after British Association scene—LLii 323.
1860 D commented on Origin in Rep. Brit. Assoc. CD on "very liberal and candid, but scientifically weak"—LLii 332.
1860 Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants.
1867 Miscellanies, 2 vols.

[page] 121

Davidson, Thomas, 1817-1885.

Palaeontologist. Specialist on brachiopods. Anti-Origin.
1857 FRS.
1861 CD corresponded with.
Davidson, Thomas William St Clair

Davis, Mrs A.

Welsh cook at Down House, known to the children as "Dydy"; she was kind to them—Francis D Springtime p. 55.
Davis, Richard
1819 Missionary at Waimate, North Island, New Zealand, arrived 1819. Not in orders, but ran a farm to teach the natives agriculture.
1835 Dec. CD met. CD spells "Davies"—J. Researches 1845, 425.
Davy, Dr John, 1790-1868.

Army surgeon. Brother of Sir Humphry D. Inspector General of Army Hospitals. Friend of Sir James Mackintosh. DNB.
1834 FRS.
1855, 1856,
CD to D on salmonid eggs; 2 long replies printed in Phil. Trans., 1855 and Proc. Roy. Soc., 1856, as well as in his Physiological Researches, 251-269, 1863.
Dawes, Richard, 1793-1867.

Educationalist. Tutor at Emmanuel College Cambridge. Older friend of CD at Cambridge. DNB.
1831 Spring, CD and D talked of a trip to Teneriffe with Ramsay and Kirby.
Dean of Hereford.
1867 CD subscribed £2. 2s. through J. M. Herbert for some memorial to him.
Dawkins, Sir William Boyd, 1837-1929.

Geologist. WWH.
1867 FRS.
1872- Prof. Geology Owen's College Manchester.
1873 CD was friendly with and 1873 wrote testimonial for an application for Chair of Geology at Cambridge, which D did not get.
1919 Kt.
Dawkins Testimonials
[1873] Testimonials in favour of W. Boyd Dawkins...a candidate for the Woodwardian Professorship of Geology [at Cambridge], Cambridge, University Press printed (F1216). CD's letter p. 2.
Dawson, Sir John William, 1820-1899.

Canadian geologist. DNB.
1855 D was describer of Eozoon q.v. Anti-Origin—MLi 210, 466, 468.
1855-1893 Prof. Geology and Principal McGill.
1860 D reviewed Origin in Canad. Nat.
1862 FRS.
1862 CD to Hooker, "Lyell had difficulty in preventing Dawson reviewing the Origin on hearsay, without having looked at it"—MLi 468.
Dawson, Robert, 1776-1860.

Cartographer to Ordnance Survey. DNB.
1831 CD met at Llangollen when on geological tour with Sedgwick.
De Bary, Heinrich Anton, 1831-1888.

German fungologist. Prof. Botany Strasbourg.
1879 D sent CD Utricularia—FUL 87.
de Beer, Sir Gavin Rylands, 1899-1972.

Zoologist and general writer. Writer on CD and transcriber of mss. Obituary: Mem. Fellows Roy. Soc., 19:65-93. WWH.
1940 FRS.
1950-1960 Director British Museum (Natural History).
1954 Kt.
1959 D prints 38 CD letters in Notes and Records Roy. Soc., 14:12-66 (F1595).
1960-1967 Transcribed, with collaborators, B-E notebooks on transmutation, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser. 2-3 (F1574).
1961 D prints 42 CD letters in Ann. Sci., 17:81-115 (F1596).
1963 CD biography, London.
1974 Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, autobiographies, London (F1580), based on the Barlow edition with a re-reading of the mss by James Kinsley.

[page] 122

De la Beche, Sir Henry Thomas, 1795-1855.

Geologist. DNB.
1819 FRS.
1832 Director Geological Survey.
1842 Kt.
1848 CD listened to D's Presidential address to Geological Society, "a very long and rather dull address"—MLi 65.
De la Rue, Warren, 1815-1889.

Astronomer and inventor. DNB.
1850 FRS.
1851 Feb. CD met D at Royal Institution.
Decaisne, Joseph, 1807-1882.

French botanist.
1859 CD probably sent D copy of 1st edition of Origin—LLii 172.
"Defence of Science"
1881 "Mr Darwin in defence of science", Brit. Med. J., 2:917 (Bii 235, F1799).
Delpino, Giacomo Guiseppe Federico, 1833-1905.

Italian botanist. Prof. Botany Genoa and later at Naples. Frequent correspondent.
Denny, Henry, 1803-1871.

Entomologist, specialist on lice and minute beetles.
undated CD to D about races of human lice and on a Mr Martial's observations on them—Carroll 35.
1871 Descent i, 219 mentions D's work on lice of pigeon, fowl and dogs.
Derbishire, Alexander

Mate on 2nd voyage of Beagle.
1832 Apr. D returned to England.
Derby, Countess of, see Lady West.
Derby, 13th Earl of, see Edward Smith Stanley.
Derby, 15th Earl of, see Edward Henry Stanley.
Descent of man

The last sentence of the work reads: "...we must acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system—with all these exalted powers—Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin".
1870, 1871 The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, 2 vols (F936). CD's copy of Vol. 1 dated 1870 is the only one known.
1871 Feb. normal issue of both vols, 25 errata on verso of title leaf of Vol. 2, 1st issue (F937).
1871 Mar. 2nd issue, text changes and no errata, works by the author on verso of title leaf of Vol. 2 (F938).
1871 Apr. 7th thousand, with textual changes (F939), facsimile of this issue 1969 (F1042).
1871 Dec. 8th thousand, with textual changes (F940).
1874 2nd edition, 10th thousand (F944).
1875 2nd edition corrected, 11th thousand (F945).
1877 2nd edition revised and augmented, 12th thousand (F948).

First foreign editions:
1871 Dutch (F1053), German (F1065), Italian (F1088), Russian (F1107), USA (F941).
1872 French (F1058), Swedish (F1136).
1874 Danish (F1050), Polish (F1101).
1884 Hungarian (F1084).
?1902 Spanish (F1123).
1906 Czech (F1048).
1910 Portuguese (F1104).
1921 Yiddish (F1138).
1927 Bulgarian (F1047).
1949 Japanese (F1100).
1950 Slovene (F1122).
1967 Romanian (F1106).
1968 Turkish (F1137).

[page] 123

"Descent of man"
1871 (paper) "The descent of man", Hardwicke's Science Gossip, 7:112 (Bii 168, F1693). This, the shortest of all CD's writings in serials, contains the essence of the idea given above, in blunter morphological terms, "The early progenitors of man were no doubt once covered with hair, both sexes having beards; their ears were pointed and capable of movement; and their bodies were provided with a tail, having the proper muscles" etc.
Descent, Theory of
?First use of term by CD in Sketch of 1842, in de Beers ed. of 1958 p. 76.
Deseado, Patagonia, Argentine=Port Desire.
1833 Dec. 23 Beagle at, when it was a deserted Spanish settlement.

Town and naval dockyard west of and contiguous with Plymouth, Devon.
1831 Sep. 13 CD with Fitz-Roy and Musters arrived after three days by packet from London.

Sep. 16 CD returned to London.

Oct. 30 CD back and stayed at 4 Clarence Baths until Beagle finally sailed Dec. 27, after two unsuccessful attempts to put to sea.
Devonshire, 7th Duke of, see William Cavendish.
"Dianthus hybrids"
1857 "Hybrid dianths", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 10:155 (Bi 273, F1693).
Diary of the voyage of the Beagle
1933 Nora Barlow, editor, Charles Darwin's diary of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Cambridge, University Press, 1933. See also Charles Darwin's diary.
Dicey, Albert Venn, 1835-1922.

1882-1902 Vinerian Prof. Law Oxford.
D was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
circa 1847-1850 A dog at Down House which was killed trying to jump through the flywheel of the well—Rustic sounds p. 12.
A small male dog of ED's widowhood, given to her by Mrs (Margaret) Vaughan Williams in 1885.

[page] 124


Field at Downe, just north of Little Pucklands.
Dixon, Mr.
1833 Mar. was the only Englishman at Port Louis "now has charge of the British Flag". The British had just annexed the islands—Diary pp. 138-9.

A pony in CD's childhood—MLi 5.
Dobell, Horace Benge, 1828-1917.

Physician and medical author.
1863 CD to, thanking for a copy of his On the germs and vestiges of disease, 1861, and on regeneration—MLi 234.
Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge, 1832-1898.

Mathematician and, as "Lewis Carroll", author of children's books.
Student of Christ Church, Oxford.

Sent a photograph, now at Cambridge, of a young girl to CD for his work on Expression.

The following family dogs are entered by name: Bobby, Button, Dicky, Pepper, Polly, Quiz, Tony, Tyke.
1882 (paper) "On the modification of a race of Syrian street dogs by means of sexual selection", by Dr [W.] Van Dyck, with a preliminary notice by CD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., No. 25:367-370 (Bii 278, F1803). Read Apr. 18 by the Secretary: CD died on Apr. 19.
Dohrn, Felix Anton, 1840-1909.

German zoologist. Foreign Member RS.
1870 Sep. 26 D visited CD at Down House, and perhaps again later—MLi 323. Christane Groeben, Naples, Machiaroli, pp. 93-4, gives Dohrn's account of his visit to Down House 1870 Feb. 26, with Ulan story (see below) in detail, spells "ulan" not "Uhlan".
1872 Apr. 3 CD wrote to D about success of Descent of man in Germany—LLiii 133.
1873 Founder of Zoologische Station at Naples 1873, later Stazione Zoologica.
1875 CD wrote to D about Naples station and invited D and wife to visit Down House, "I have often boasted that I have had a live Uhlan in my house!"—LLiii 198.
1879 CD gave D £100 for the station from his Bressa Prize money—LLiii 225. When CD gave £100, he also gave £10 each for George and Francis.
1982 CD-FAD correspondence published in full.
Don, David, 1800-1841.

1836-1841 Prof. Botany King's College London.
1836 CD approached about identifying Beagle plants.
Donders, Frans Cornelius, 1818-1889.

Physiologist. Prof. Physiology Utrecht.
1871 D gave CD information for Expression of the emotions—LLiii 134.
1872 Apr. D wrote to CD to tell him of his election to Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen—LLiii 163.
1874 CD wrote to D, to thank him for entertaining his son George Howard D—LLiii 325.
late 1881 At Int. Med. Congr. CD sat between D and Virchow—Brent p. 499.
Dorking, Surrey.
1876 May 6-Jun. 6 CD had family holiday there.
"Double Flowers"
1843 "Double flowers—their origin", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 36:628 (Bi 175, F1663). CD's first botanical publication.
Doubleday, Henry, 1808-1875.

Entomologist and Quaker. Correspondent with CD on insect matters. Sent CD plants of true oxslip Primula elatior.
"Doveleys, The"

Nickname for Frances Wedgwood born 1806 and Emma Wedgwood born 1808 in childhood.
Down, Kent.
before 1842 The village was so spelt before 1842. See Downe.
Down House, Luxted Road, Downe, Orpington, Kent.
1842 Jul. 24 CD and ED first saw. Bought from Rev. J. Drummond, Vicar of Downe, for £2020 with 18 acres of which 12 were then the paddock.

ED moved in Sep. 14. CD moved in Sep. 17.

Ordnance datum 565 ft, the well is 325 ft deep, to the clay below the chalk of the North Downs.

[page] 125

Down House, continued.

1842 Jul. CD's own account of house, estate and district, written to his sister Catherine, is printed in MLi 31-36.
1929 Leonard D, Memories of Down House, Nineteenth Century, 106:118-123.
1952 Raverat, Period Piece, chapter 8, from personal experience in childhood, but not in CD's lifetime.
1955 Keith, Darwin revalued, chapters 4 and 24.
1974 Atkins, Down House.

(Jessie Dobson) Historical and descriptive catalogue of the Darwin memorial 1969, and a book by Dobson called Charles Darwin and Down House ?date.

1843 Bow front to all three storeys of west front added.
1845-1846 Kitchen area rebuilt and butler's pantry added, with schoolroom and two small bedrooms above. Schoolroom above butler's pantry has on shelf in cupboard "Darwin A 10 W. E. DARWIN 1853", but WED was 10 in 1849.
1846 Outhouses rebuilt.
1858 New drawingroom added at north end, with two bedrooms above it, cost £500.
1859 Billiard table set up.
1872 Verandah added to drawingroom.
1877 New billiard room added and new main entrance of east side.
1881 Billiard room converted to new study.

1844 New garden wall built.
1845 Mound under yews on west side removed, mound added at east side as wind protection.
1846 Sandwalk wood planted on land rented from Sir John William Lubbock.
1863 Feb. New greenhouse completed, superintended by John Horwood, Mr Turnbull's gardener at The Rookery.
1874 Sandwalk wood exchanged for a piece of pasture with Sir John Lubbock.
1881 Bought strip of field beyond orchard from Sydney Sales for hard tennis court, new wall built.


In the present shrine, the old study and the new drawingroom are furnished, as nearly as possible, as they were when CD was alive; this includes the original study chairs, the portrait of Lyell given to CD by Lady Lyell in 1847, the portrait of Hooker given to CD by Julia Cameron, the photographer of it, and the print of Josiah Wedgwood [II] given back by Francis D in 1927.

The drawingroom piano, bought in 1839, was bought back from the Positivist Society for £20 in 1929.

HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE: See also entry under CD finance.

CD and ED kept detailed accounts from the date of their marriage. These, although preserved at Down House, have not been published in full. Keith, 221-232, and Atkins, 95-100, give extracts.
1867-1881 Atkins gives a detailed breakdown for 1867-1881.
1867 In 1867, when there were four dependent sons and two daughters, only the eldest son being away and employed, probably eight indoor servants and the garden staff, expenditure was as follows: meat £250, butter £5, cheese £18, candles £16, oil £7, bacon £10, soap £10, grocery £53, sugar £16, bread £63, fish and game £20, servants £71, poultry £38, tea £27, coffee £11, washing £6, dresses for ED and the girls £28, gifts £79, miscellaneous £75, dripping £3. These figures do not include those expenses which CD paid for himself, menservants wages, alcohol, snuff and later cigarettes and the clothing of the boys.

[page] 126

Down House, continued.

1 1880 Painting by Albert Goodwin, back from southwest in EDii 76.
2 1882 Aug. Drawing by Alfred Parsons, back from southwest, wood engraving from in Century Mag., Jan. 1883, also in LLi 320.
3 Etching of whole southwest front, not signed, not done in CD's lifetime—Moorehead 261.
4 Photograph from southwest by Col. James Creedy, modern—Atkins 24.
5 Photograph from southwest by J. Dixon Scott, modern—Keith 46.
6 Plan of ground floor—Keith 46.
7 Another plan of ground floor—Atkins 22.
8 1882 Apr. New study, copper engraving by Axel H. Haig—Moorehead 256.

1 Plan—Keith 47.
2 Plan—Atkins 22.
3 Sandwalk and wood—Freeman, Bibliographical handlist, 1965, 70 (captions in German).
4 Sandwalk and wood—Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist Ser., 3:180, 1968 (captions in English).


The details are scanty, especially for those of junior staff and full names and dates are almost never available, however see the following:

Butlers: Jackson, Parslow, Price.

Coachmen: Comfort, John.

Cooks: Brummidge, Evans.

Custodians: Harold, Samuel and Sydney Robinson.

Footmen: Jackson, Moffatt.

Gardeners: Comfort, Hills, Horwood, Lettington.

Governesses: Barellien, Beob, Grant, Latter, Ludwig, Pugh, Thorley.

Maids: Anne, Betsy, Emily Jane, Jane, Matheson.

Nursemaid: Harding.

Nurses: Brodie, Evans, Mary, Maryann, Sara.

back to 1651 Earlier given in Atkins, 12-17, with list of owners or tenants back to 1651.
1900-1906 Rented from George Howard D by a Mr Whitehead about whom nothing seems to be known except that he owned the first motor car in Downe.
1907-1922 Rented by Downe House School q.v.
1924-1927 Run as an unsuccessful girl's school by a Miss Rain.
1927 Bought from the Darwin heirs by Sir George Buckston Browne for £4,250.
1929 After spending about £10,000 on repairs and giving £20,000 as an endowment, Buckston handed it over to the British Association in 1929. It was formally opened at a tea on Jun. 7.
1953 Given free to Royal College of Surgeons of England who have administered it since, although they attempted to transfer it to the National Trust in 1958. The Surgeons' research establishment marches with the grounds to the southwest.

[page] 127

Down House, continued.


ED entertained considerably at Down House, although seldom large gatherings.

Casual calling, which was customary in cities, was confined to near neighbours. John Lubbock, who was 8 years old when CD came to Downe, was the most frequent.

Visitors from London and elsewhere came for weekends, or for Sunday lunch.

The following list omits relatives and neighbours and it is probably far from complete. The numbers of visitors increase in later years when the children were grown up and brought their own friends and when CD's health had improved. The following were frequent visitors:

F. M. Balfour (in 1870-1880), T. Bell (early), Hugh Falconer (after his return to England), E. Forbes (before 1854), J. D. Hooker, T. H. Huxley, C. Lyell, G. J. Romanes (after 1874), Margaret J. Shaen, S. W. Strickland (after circa 1860), A. R. Wallace and G. R. Waterhouse.

The following are recorded only once or twice:
1846 Leonard Horner.
1847 Leonora Horner.
1850 A. C. Ramsay, R. H. Schomburgk.
1854 J. S. Henslow.
1857 R. Fitz-Roy.
1861 W. B. Carpenter, G. B. Sowerby [II].
1862? R. A. von Kolliker.
H. Parker.
1866 E. H. Haeckel.
1867 V. O. Kovalevskii and wife, R. Trimen.
1868 H. W. Bates, E. Blyth, A. Gray, G. Smith, J. Tyndall, J. J. Weir.
1869 A. E. Agassiz, T. Woolner.
1870 F. A. Dohrn, V. O. Kovalevskii, A. Newton.
1871 Arabella B. Buckley, M. E. G. Duff, R. Lowe, J. Hague, V. Lushington, R. Swinhoe.
1872 C. L. Brace, C. Crawley, T. Woolner, C. Wright.
1873 M. D. Conway, Mary Ann Evans and G. H. Lewes for lunch.
1875 W. W. Ouless, R. L. Tait, G. Young.
1876 F. J. Cohn, W. E. Gladstone, J. Morley, C. E. Norton, L. Playfair.
1877 Ann Pertz.
1878 L. A. Errera, Theodora Sedgwick.
1879 W. B. Richmond.
1880 E. Barbier, A. L. P. P. de Candolle, F. Sarcey.
1881 E. B. Aveling, J. Collier, Laura M. Forster, Max Müller, Marianne North, H. Richter.
1882 A. H. Haig, Countess of Derby (both after CD's death).
no date
The following are recorded without date: J. W. Judd, K. Ludwig, W. Ogle.

The following groups of people visited:
1873 on Working Men's College, groups of fifty or sixty for the day.
1881 on J. W. C. Fegan's street boys from his homes, for the day or camping.
1882 on "Sunday tramps", led by L. Stephen, came for the day.

[page] 128

Downe, Village, Orpington, Kent.

BR6 Post Office spelling was "Down" before 1842.
1841 Census of 1841 total population 444.
1881 Census of 1881 555.

Postal addresses, near Bromley in 1845, near Farnborough 1845-early 1855, near Bromley late 1855-late 1869, near Beckenham 1869 Sep. Present address is in the Bromley postal code.
1786 Church: St Mary the virgin, illustration 1786, before drastic restoration—Atkins 25.

Inns: The George and Dragon. There is also The Queen's Head on church side.

Village hall, ?the one built by the D's is next to the George and Dragon.

Both Petley's and Trowmers are in Luxted Road.

Churchyard has two slab tombs which are memorials to Ds:
1. Grave of Erasmus Alvey D, also to CD and ED.
2. Grave of Mary Eleanor D and Charles Waring D, but adult-sized slab, which also commemorates Henrietta Emma Litchfield, Bernard Richard Meirion D and Mary Mansell his wife, of Gorringes.

Summary of graveyard inscriptions in North West Kent Family History Journal I, no. 1, 1978.
1842 Jul. CD to his sister Catherine, "The little pot-house where we slept is a grocer's shop and the landlord there is the carpenter...there is one butcher and baker and the post-Office. A carrier goes weekly to London and calls anywhere for anything in London and takes anything anywhere"—MLi 31-36.

School is called Charles Darwin school.

Schoolmasters: Norman, Skinner.

Physician: Engleheart.

Vicars: Drummond, Innes, Ffinden.

Curates: Hoole, Horsman, Humphreys, Powell, Robinson, Salin, Stephens.

Churchwarden: Lovegrove.
1933 Howarth & Howarth give a detailed description of the village and its history.
1969 Newman, in Pevsner's Buildings of England, West Kent, 251, 1969, describes the architecturally worthwhile buildings.
Downe Court
1690 Original manor house of Downe, opposite east side of Down House, dated 1690.
1842 Jul. CD to his sister Catherine, "There is a most beautiful old farm-house with great thatched barns and old stumps of oak field off"—MLi 31-36.
1973 A. D. H. Coxe, Haunted Britain, 79. CD's ghost is one of the several said to haunt it.
Downe Friendly Club
1850 CD helped to found in 1850 and acted as its Treasurer for 30 years—LLi 142. The annual general meeting was held at Down House every year, usually on Whit Monday.
1852 Mar. Rules for the Club printed at CD's expense—CD's mss accounts.
1877 To members of the Down Friendly Club, a single sheet printed for CD to dissuade members from disbanding (F1303).
Downe House School

Always spelt with an "e". Headmistress Olive Margaret Willis was co-founder with her friend Alice Carver. Started with one girl and five mistresses, but was at once successful.
Occupied Down House 1907 Feb.-1922 Apr. 1.
1922 Moved to larger premises Hermitage Rd, Cold Ash, Newbury, where it flourishes.

[page] 129

Downes, John, 1810-1890.

Cambridge friend of CD.
1831 Jul. 11 CD to Henslow, "Do you by any chance recollect the name of a fly that Mr. Bird sent through Downe"—Darwin-Henslow 27.
1834-1863 Vicar of Horton and Piddington, Northamptonshire.
Downton, Wiltshire.
1822 Jun. CD had a holiday there with his sister Caroline Sarah D.

Brother of Edward Drewe. Squire of Grange, near Honiton, Devon.
Drewe, Adèle, see Prévost.
Drewe, Caroline, see Allen.
Drewe, Charlotte, ?-circa 1817.

Fifth child of Edward D. Unmarried.
Drewe, Edward, 1756-1810.

Vicar of Broadhembury and Willand, Devon.
1793 Married Caroline Allen. 2 sons, 5 daughters. 1. Harriet Maria, 2. Marianne, 3. Georgina, 4. Edward Simcoe, 5. Charlotte, 6. Francis, 7. Louisa.
Drewe, Edward Simcoe, 1805-1877.

Fourth child of Edward D.
1828 Married Adèle Prévost and had children.
circa 1820 D inherited The Grange, near Honiton, Devon.
Drewe, Georgina, circa 1800-?

Third child of Edward D. Mother of Lady Salisbury.
1823 Married Sir Edward Hall Alderson.
Drewe, Harriet Maria, 179?-1857.

First child of Edward D.
1816 Married Robert, Lord Gifford and had offspring.
1837 Was living at 1 Atholl Crescent, Edinburgh.
Drewe, Louisa, ?-circa 1817.

Seventh child of Edward D.
Drewe, Marianne, 179?-1822.

Second child of Edward D. 
1820 Married Rev. Algernon Langton.
1822 Died in childbed.
Dring, John Edward

Collector of shells.
1834 Oct. appointed acting Purser to replace Rowlett on return of Beagle from 2nd voyage. Also acted as Clerk.

Went on 3rd voyage.
Dropmore, Buckinghamshire.
1847 CD visited on day trip from British Association meeting at Oxford.
Drummond, Rev. J.

Vicar of Downe before Innes.
1842 D sold Down House to CD for £2020.
Drummond, James, 1763-1863.

Botanist of Swan River, Western Australia. D helped CD on fertilisation of Leschenaultia—MLii 259.
Drummond, Thomas, 1797-1840.

Army engineer and politician. Invented Drummond's light. DNB.
Drysdale, Lady, ?-circa 1882 aged nearly 100.

Friend of CD and ED through Moor Park Hydro. Dr Lane's mother-in-law.

[page] 130

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich, 1818-1896.

German electro-physiologist.
1858 Prof. Physiology Berlin.
1860 CD to Gray telling him that D agrees with CD's views—LLii 354.
1876 Darwin versus Galiani, Berlin.
1878 D writes to CD to tell him of his election to K.-P. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, as Corresponding Member.
1884 Friedrich II in Englische Urtheilen, Darwin und Kopernicus, Leipzig.
Dubarry, Amy
1866 Sunday school teacher at Downe—Darwin-Innes 231.
1827 CD visited on spring tour.
Duck, Mr, ?-1875.
1866 A trustee of Downe Friendly Club—Darwin-Innes 245.

Of 21st Regiment. Given lift to England by gunroom from Tasmania—CD Diary.
Duff, Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant, 1829-1906.

Politician. DNB.
1857-1881 Liberal MP for Elgin Burghs.
1868-1874 Under-Secretary for India.
1871 Jan. D visited Down House with Lubbock, Huxley and R. Lowe, from High Elms.
1887 GCSI.
1901 FRS.
Dumbola Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

A house owned by Julia Cameron.
1868 CD and Family stayed there in summer. CD was photographed by Mrs Cameron on this visit.
Duncan, Andrew, 1773-1832.

Prof. Materia Medica Edinburgh.
1798 FRS.
1826 CD to his sister Catherine D, "is so very learned that his wisdom has left no room for his senses. His lectures begin at eight in the morning"—MLi 7.
1847 CD to Hooker, "a whole cold breakfastless hour on the properties of rhubarb"—LLi 355.
Duncan, Ethel

Daughter of Andrew Duncan of Liverpool. Married G. J. Romanes.
1879 CD to Romanes, Mrs R is right to forbid the monkey from the nursery—Carroll 576.
Duncan, Peter Martin, 1824-1891.

Invertebrate palaeontologist and writer of popular natural history. Prof. Geology, King's College, London.
circa 1869 CD to D, will send coral specimens from Keeling Islands—Carroll 272.
1876 CD to D, CD will return an overlooked coral and mss by William Lonsdale—Carroll 498.
Dundee Angus
1827 CD visited on a spring tour.
Dunker, Wilhelm Bernhard Rudolph Hadrian, 1809-1885.

Palaeontologist especially of Mollusca. Lecturer Technical High School Cassel, later Prof. Geology Marburg. CD sent Fossil cirripedes to—Lychnos, 1948-1949:206-210.
1851 D sent fossil and recent cirripedes to CD.
1854 CD sent Living cirripedes to D.
Duns, Rev. J.

Free Church minister and dabbler in natural history.
1860 D reviewed Origin in North British Rev., "very severe"—LLii 311.

[page] 131

Du Puy, Martha Haskins, 1861-1947.

Daughter of Charles Meredith Du Puy and Ellen Reynolds of Philadelphia. Niece of Lady Jebb (Caroline Reynolds) who was her mother's sister. Known as "Maud". Pedigree in Period piece.
1884 22 Jul. married Sir George Howard Darwin.
Du Puy, "Maud", see Martha Haskins Du P.

First editions in:
1891 Journal of researches (F176).
1864 Origin of species (F594).
1889-1890 Variation under domestication (F910).
1871-1872 Descent of man (F1053).
1873 Expression of the emotions (F1182).
Dyck, Dr W. van

Lecturer in Zoology at Protestant College of Beirut.
1882 D to CD on sexual selection in Syrian street dogs.

Apr. 2 CD to P. L. Sclater submitting it, with covering note, for Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.

Apr. 18 read, No. 25: 367-370 (Bii 278, F1803); last publication in CD's lifetime; he died on Apr. 19.
Dyer, Sir William Turner Thiselton, 1843-1928.

Botanist. Married Harriet Anne Hooker. DNB.
1879 D helped CD with botanical material from Kew, e.g. 1879 CD to D, on a species of Oxalis—FUL 109.
1880 FRS.
1882 D was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1885-1905 Director of Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, in succession to Hooker.
1899 KCMG.

[page 132]


"E", see Katherine Euphemia Wedgwood.
Earle, Anne

Daughter of Erasmus Earle. CD's maternal 5th generation ancestor.
1653 Married William Darwin [II].
Earle, Augustus, 1793-1838.

Wandering artist of some distinction. Draughtsman on 2nd voyage of Beagle. CD "Earle's eccentric character". FR "I engaged an £200 per year". His Beagle sketches are all missing although other material remains. His illness was rheumatism—Keynes pp. 1-2, open licentiousness from CD's letters. Narrative, Oxford, Clarendon 1966, ed. McCormick.
1832 Aug. left owing to continuous ill-health. Replaced by C. Martens.
Earle, Erasmus, 1590-1667.

Serjeant-at-Law. CD's maternal sixth generation ancestor. Father of Anne Earle. Origin of name Erasmus in D family. MP for Norwich, Recorder of Lincoln. Also a monument to E in Sts Peter & Paul Church. DNB.
1890 Oct. William Erasmus D and George Howard D went on a visit to "General Bulwer, a beautiful place in Norfolk [Heydon Hall], to see the picture of Erasmus Earle, an ancestor".
Earth, Age of
1877 CD's views on in MLii 211-212.
Earthworms, see Vegetable mould and worms and Wormstone.
Eastbourne, Sussex.
1853 Jul. 14-Aug. 4 CD had family holiday there.
1860 Sep. 22-Nov. 11 family holiday there.
Eastbury Park

A house near Gunville, Dorset.
Bought by Tom Wedgwood.
Sold to Jos Wedgwood.
until 1805
Tom continued to live there with his sisters Catherine and Sarah Elizabeth until his death.
Eaton, Bertha

Sister of Dorothea Hannah E.
1848 Married Edmund Edward Allen.
Eaton, Dorothea Hannah, ?-1868.

Sister of Bertha E.
1846 Married George Baugh Allen.
Eddowes' Newspaper, Shrewsbury.
1880 Mrs Haliburton [Sarah Owen of Woodhouse] had reminded CD of his saying as a boy that if Eddowes' Newspaper ever alluded to him as "our deserving fellow townsman" he would be amply gratified—LLiii 335. Opening sentence of a leading article of 1880 is given.
Edgeworth, Maria, 1767-1849.

Author. Daughter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth. Friend of Erasmus D [I] and Josiah Wedgwood [I]. DNB.
1840 E described the character of ED—EDii 56.
Edgeworth, Michael Pakenham, 1812-1881.

Son of Richard Lovell E. Half brother of Maria E. Botanist and Indian Civil Servant. "A fool, Mr Edgeworth, you know, is a man who never tried an experiment in his life"—Erasmus D [I]—Woodall p. 4. DNB.
1861 CD met at Linnean Society—MLi 184.
"Edible fungus from Tierra del Fuego"
1845 In Berkeley, M. J., "On an edible fungus from Tierra del Fuego", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 19:37-43, summary in Proc., 1:97-98 (F1671). Contains extracts from CD's notes.

[page] 133

Edinburgh, Midlothian.
1838 Jun. Apart from his time at the University, CD visited on his way to Glen Roy.
Edinburgh University
1825 Oct.-1827 Apr. CD was at as a medical student, but did not qualify. See 1888 Feb. 16 St James's Gaz., 1888 May 22 Edinburgh Weekly Dispatch, 1935 Ashworth, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 55:97-113.
1825 Oct. stayed briefly at Star Hotel, Princes St, moving to 11 Lothian St, lodgings run by Mrs Mackay.
Edmonston, John

Had been a servant of Dr Duncan. "A negro lived in Edinburgh, who had travelled with Waterton, and gained his livelyhood by stuffing birds...he gave me lessons for payment"—LLi 40. CD paid him a guinea an hour—Brent p. 45. Waterton, Wanderings in South America, 153, 1825 identifies him as John, a slave of Charles Edmonston of Demerara. On coming to Scotland and being freed he took the surname of Edmonston or Edmonstone. E lived at 37 Lothian St, CD lived at No. 11. See Freeman, Notes and Records Roy. Soc., 33:83-86, 1978.
Edmonston, Laurence, 1795-1879.

Physician and naturalist. Correspondent with CD from Unst, Shetland. Father of Thomas.
Edmonston, Thomas, 1825-1846.

Eldest son of Laurence. Visited Galapagos Is in HMS Herald. Accidentally shot in Peru.
The education of Darwin
1908 The education of Darwin, the first section of Darwin's autobiography, written in 1876, Boston, Directors of the Old South Work Leaflets, 8, No. 194 (F1478). Extracts from earlier part of CD's autobiography.

A manservant at 12 Upper Gower St.
1839 Feb. 3 "Edward is such a perfect Adonis in his best livery, that he is quite a sight"—EDii 33.
1839 May, E occurs in CD's accounts.
1840 E had left and Parslow had arrived.
Edward VII, 1841-1910.
1866 Apr. 27 CD presented to when Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, at Royal Society Soirée. CD said nothing because he could not hear what the Prince said, "A nice good-natured youth".
1881 Int. Congr. Med. CD sat opposite. "The Prince (of Wales) spoke only a few civil words to me"—Brent p. 499.
1901-1910 King of Great Britain etc.
Edwards, Mr

A resident at Downe—Darwin-Innes 207.
Edwards, Henry, 1830-1891.

American entomologist and amateur actor.
1873 Correspondent with CD—FUL 87.
circa 1876 CD to E, thanking for photograph and glad E approved of Weismann's essay—Carroll 486.
Edwards, Henry Milne, 1800-1885.

Zoologist. Belgian of British parents, he also used "Henri" as first name. Frequent correspondent.
1841- Prof. Zoology Paris.
1845 FRS.
1854 CD sent Living Cirripedia to.

[page] 134

Egan, James

Hungarian agriculturist of Budapest.
1858 CD corresponded with on colour of horses—Carroll 160, 161.
Egerton St, Westminster, London.
1882-1900 No. 12 home of Leonard D.
1902-1914 No. 10 or No. 14 home of William Erasmus D after death of wife in 1902. Gwendolen Mary D lived with him there when she was a student at Slade School of fine Art.
Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, Bart, 1806-1881.

Palaeontologist. 10th Bart. DNB.
1831 FRS.
1855 Oct. CD met at Shrewsbury, "He asked me why on earth I instigated you [C. Darwin Fox] to rob his poultry yard". E was a neighbour of F at the time. LLii 56.
Eiseley, Loren C., 1906-1977.

Prof. Anthropology Pennsylvania.
1958 Author of Darwin's century, and several books on evolution.
Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried, 1795-1876.

Protozoologist. Prof. Zoology Berlin.
1845 Examined fine dust from Beagle in Atlantic for Protozoa—J. Researches 1845, 5.
1838 Die Infusionstierchen, Leipzig.
Electric fish
1881 CD to Romanes, parable about evolution of electric organs to get rid of parasites—Life of Romanes 106.
1836 May 5 CD rode one in Mauritius from Capt. Lloyd's country house half way to Port Louis, "The circumstance which surprised me most was its quite noiseless step"—J. Researches 1845, 486. It was the only one in the island.
Elephant Tree

Large beech on the sandwalk at Down House, also known as "Bismarck" and "The Rhinoceros".
1969 Cut down almost dead in 1969, but main trunk preserved.
1869 [letter] "Origin of species [on the reproductive potential of elephants]", Athenaeum, No. 2174:861 (Bii 136, F1746).
1896 [letter with same title], ibid., No. 2177:82 (Bii 137, F1747).
"Elevation and Subsidence in the Pacific and Indian Oceans"
1837 "On certain areas of elevation and subsidence in the Pacific and Indian Oceans" Proc. Geol. Soc., 2:552-554 (Bi 46, F1647).
"Elevation on the Coast of Chile"
1837 "Observations of proofs of recent elevations on the coast of Chile, made during the survey of His Majesty's Ship Beagle, commanded by Capt. Fitzroy R.N.", Proc. Geol. Soc., 2:446-449 (Bi 42, F1645).

[page] 135

Élie de Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Léonce, 1798-1874.

French geologist. Influentially anti-Origin. "Damned himself to everlasting fame" by coining the term "la science moussante" for evolutionism—LLii 185.
1853→ Perpetual Secretary of the Académie des Sciences.
1870 CD to Quatrefages, É calls CD's science "frothy", his own bubbles first of craters of elevation and second of direction of mountain chains according to age have "burst and vanished into thin air" everywhere but France—Carroll 382.
"Eliot, George", pseudonym, see Mary Ann Evans.
Elliot, Sir Walter, 1803-1887.

Indian Civil Servant and archaeologist. DNB.
1855 CD met at British Association, Glasgow.
1856 CD writes to E in India asking for information on variation—Carroll 123, 162.
1857 E sent poultry skins from Madras to CD—MLi 99.
1866 KCSI.
1873 Title of CD's 1827 contribution to Plinian Society first printed by E in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., 11:1-42, 17 footnote; also in Nature, Lond., 9:38.
1877 FRS.
Elliott & Fry

Commercial photographers of London, later incorporated in Bassano & Vandyck Studios, now Bassano's Ltd.
circa 1880 Photographed CD on verandah at Down House. All, especially a., have been often reproduced and a. was long available as a commercial photograph.
a. Standing by pillar in cloak and hat.
b. Head and shoulders without cloak or hat.
c. Seated on verandah in tightly wrapped cloak and with hat.
d. Head and shoulders from same negative as a.
1909 Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) exhibition showed four different E & F photographs, dating them 1882.
Elliott, Mary
1887 ED to Henrietta Emma D, a villager at Downe.
Elston, near Newark, Notts.

Elston Hall, seat of William Darwin [VI] whose wife, Anne Waring, had inherited from her mother, and present seat of senior branch of D family. Many early Ds are buried in All Saints' churchyard. Erasmus D [I] was born there.
Elwin, Whitwell, 1816-1900.

Editor of Quarterly Review.
1849-1900 Rector of Booton, Norfolk.
1858 Read mss of Origin for John Murray.
Embury, George, see Tollet.
Emily Jane
?1865-1879 Domestic servant at Down House ?1865-1879.
Englefield, near Theale, Berkshire.

Seat of the Benyon family—Darwin-Innes 256.
Engleheart, Stephen Paul, ?1830-1885.
1865 E was the village physician at Downe, known to D family as "Spengle".
Died by drowning in Old Calabar, Africa, trying to visit a patient.

[page] 136

Entomological Society of London (Royal 1933)
CD was an Original and Life Member, not Fellow which was not used until 1884 when Charter granted.
1838 Council Member and Vice-President and presided at several meetings—K. G. V. Smith Antenna 6:200-201, 1982. Smith says CD exhibited five species of Carabus from southern tip of South America, Proc. II:xli.
1856 CD to Mrs Lyell, "You might trust Mr. Waterhouse implicitly, which I fear as [illegible] goes, is more than can be said for all entomologists"—MLi 85.
1867 "No body of men were at first so much opposed to my views as the members of the London Entomological Society"—LLiii 69.

A supposed fossil protozoan described by J. W. Dawson, Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 15:54. Later shown not to be of organic origin, but still described as a foraminiferan by A. Sedgwick, Student's textbook of zoology, 1:15, 1898.
1882 CD to D. Mackintosh, "As far as external form is concerned, Eozoon shows how difficult it is to distinguish between organised and inorganised bodies"—MLii 171.
Epping Field Club

Later Essex Field Club.
1880 Jan. CD to William Cole, declining joining at foundation, but sending a guinea "in aid of your preliminary expenses".

Feb. CD to same, accepting Honorary Membership—Essex Nat., 21:14, 1927.
Erichsen, Sir John Eric, Bart, 1818-1896.

Surgeon. Prof. Surgery University College London. DNB.
1876 FRS.
1885 E was member of Vivisection Commission.
1895 Bart.
Errera, Léo Abram, 1858-1905.

Belgian botanist.
1877 CD to and from on heterostyly especially in Primula elatior—Carroll 520-524.
1878 CD to and from, E had visited Down House, but CD was away—Carroll 544, 545.
1879 CD thanks for offprint on heterostyly—Carroll 563.
1879 E to CD sending photograph which CD had asked for; E asks for one in return—Carroll 563.
"Erratic Boulders of South America"
1841 "On the distribution of erratic boulders and on the contemporaneous unstratified deposits of South America", Proc. Geol. Soc., 3:425-430 (Bi 145, F1657); Trans. Geol. Soc., 415-431 (F661).
"Erratic Boulders, Transportal of"
1848 "On the transportal of erratic boulders from a lower to a higher level", Quart. J. Geol. Soc. (Proc.), 4:315-323 (Bi 218, F1677).
Erskine, Frances

Married Sir (later Baron) Thomas Henry Farrer as 1st wife.
Erskine, William

Married Maitland Mackintosh. Issue included Frances E.
Essay on Instinct
1883 In G. J. Romanes, Mental evolution in animals, posthumous essay on instinct by CD, 355-384, index 405-411 (F1434).

First foreign editions:
1884 French (F1441), USA (F1435).
1885 German (F1443).
1894 Russian (F1449).
1907 Italian (F1447).
1967 Romanian (F1448).
1975 Complete transcript of original mss in R. C. Stauffer editor, Charles Darwin's Natural selection, 466-527, (F1440).

[page] 137

Essays of 1842 and 1844, see Sketches of 1842 and 1844.
1949 First edition Journal of researches, (F179).
Ethnological Society
1861 CD Fellow.
Etruria Hall, Staffordshire.

Home of Josiah Wedgwood [I].
1769 and
Jun. 13, foundations laid before this when the section of the works for making ornamental ware was opened. Josiah I cast six black basalt vases to commemorate, later inscribed "Artes Etruriae renacuntur".
1774 Richard W moved there, died 1780.
1795 Jan. 2. Josiah [II] inherited estate and works, estate then 380 acres.
1795 Spring, Jos moved to Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey, his mother and Kitty remaining at the Hall.
1799 Jos bought Gunville, Dorset.
1804 Hall leased to Byerley.
1810 On death of Byerley, mother and Kitty lived in Hall while Parkfields was altered.
1814 Jos returned to Hall.
1830 Sep. Harrie and Jessie, just married, moved in.
1832 Frank and Frances moved in on marriage, and Jessie and John and Jane moved out.
1844 Hall and most of land sold, but works failed to reach reserve.
1930-1940 The old factory worked until 1930s, until a new one was opened at Barlaston, six miles away, in 1940.
Hall, then an office building, remained, but nothing of works except the Round House.
Evans, Edward, ?-1846.

Robert W. D's (CD's father's) butler at The Mount, Shrewsbury. "A faithfull friend and servant"—Brent p. 18. His wife was also in R. W. D's employ.
Evans, Mrs Margaret

Born in Shrewsbury, niece of Edward E. Margaret E. was at Down House "for nearly forty years"—Woodall p. 39. Known as "Evvy". The "Mrs" is honorary, but E later made an eminently suitable marriage in the village—Bernard D p. 15.
1871-1882 Nurse to Leonard D then cook at Down House.
1881 wages were £36 per annum.
1882 E attended CD's funeral. She had a ticket for Jerusalem Chamber but was asked to join family mourners in the Choir.
Evans, Mary Ann, 1819-1880.

Novelist under pseudonym "George Eliot". DNB EB.
1854-1878 E was common-law wife of G. H. Lewes.
1873 E with Lewes visited Down House for lunch.
1874 E attended seance with CD and ED at R. D. Litchfield's house.
1879 Oct. CD and ED called after Lewes's death.
1880 Married J. W. Cross, a New York Banker.
Everest, Robert, 1799-1860.

Anglican priest. CD to E on degeneration of British dogs in India in Variation. Letter from CD to E in Sotheby sale, Honeyman III, 1979 May.
At Calcutta.
1832 Geological use, Lyell, Principles 2:11.
1871 First use of the word in CD's sense is in Descent of man.
1872 First use in Origin is in 6th edition, 1872, 201 twice and 424 three times.

Evolved is the last word in all editions of Origin.
Evolution by Natural Selection
1959 See Loewenberg, B. J.
Ewald, Julius Wilhelm, 1801-1891.

German geologist.
1878 E seconded CD's election to Berlin Academy as Corresponding Member.
Ewart, Rev. Henry C.

Anglican priest.
1882 Article by in Sunday Mag. on sermons preached about CD, after Westminster Abbey memorial service of 1 May—Atkins 50.
Ewart, James Cossor, 1851-1933.

1881 CD to Romanes, unable to give E a testimonial [for Edinburgh chair] because he has already given one for E. R. Lankester. Thinks that E is fit for the appointment, remembers interesting interview with E on bacteria at University College London laboratory—Carroll 604, 614.
1882-1927 Prof. Zoology Edinburgh.
1893 FRS.
1899 Pennycuik experiments, on telegony in horses, a theory in which CD once believed.
Expression of the Emotions
1872 The expression of the emotions in man and animals. See also Queries about expression. Oscar Rejlander posed himself for some of the pictures, including "surprised man". Others taken by Duchenne de Boulonge.

First issue has last signature 2B22C3 (F1141); second issue 2B12C4 (F1142).

First issue has plates numbered in Arabic; second issue, sometimes Arabic, sometimes Roman.
1969 Facsimile (F1175).
1890 2nd edition (F1146), edited by Francis D.

First foreign editions:
1872 German (F1187), Russian (F1206).
1873 Dutch (F1182), Polish (F1203), USA (F1143).
1874 French (F1184).
1878 Italian (F1200).
?1902 Spanish (F1214).
1963 Hungarian (F1199).
1964 Czech (F1181).
1967 Romanian (F1205).

[page] 138

"Extinct Mammalia in the Neighbourhood of the Plata"
1837 "A sketch of the deposits containing extinct Mammalia in the neighbourhood of the Plata", Proc. Geol. Soc., 2:542-544 (Bi44, F1646).
Eyre, Edward John, 1815-1901.

Australian explorer. DNB.
1864 Governor of Jamaica.
1865 E put down a negro insurrection.
1866 CD supported J. S. Mill's attempt to prosecute E for murder.

CD subscribed to Jamaica Fund—LLiii 53.
Eyton, Thomas Campbell, 1809-1880.

Known as "Tom". Ornithologist and specialist in skeletal variation. Donnerville House, Wellington, Shropshire. 23rd heir of the Eytons of Eyton. Anti-Origin. CD remembers hunting and fishing with him in their youth—Carroll 353. DNB.

At Cambridge with CD and shot with him in vacations.
Married Elizabeth Frances Slaney.
1839 E examined birds from Beagle voyage for Zoology of Beagle, and wrote appendix to Pt III, 147-156.

Much correspondence with CD on skeletal variation.
1868 E sent CD his Osteologia avium, Wellington 1867.

[page 139]


after 1868 = Father, used by ED in writing to her sons when they were grown up.

"I would as soon be called Dod"—CD.
Fabre, Jean Henri Casimir, 1823-1915.

French entomologist.
1880 CD to F, praising Souvenirs entomologiques, 1879-1907.
1880-1881 CD letters to—MLi 385.
Fairfax, Mary, 1780-1872.

Physical scientist. CD's letters to F at Somerville College Oxford—Patterson 1969 Brit. J. Hist. Sci. 4:336.
Married as second husband William Somerville.
1869 On molecular and microscopic science. For this CD lent her woodblocks from Orchids.
1870 S agreed to H. W. Bates revising her Physical geography, 6th ed, but not to "infuse any Darwinism in it".
Falconer, Hugh, 1808-1865.

Physician and palaeontologist. Often at Down House on his return from India.
1830 Went to India as Assistant Surgeon, Bengal.
1832 Superintendent of Botanic Garden, Saharunpur.
1845 FRS.
1848 Superintendent of Botanic Garden, Calcutta.
1859 Was living at Torquay for his health—MLi 455.
1861 F offered a live Proteus anguinus to CD.
1864 F proposed CD for Copley Medal of Royal Society.
1868 Palaeontological memoirs, 2 vols.
Falkland Islands

British colony in South Atlantic.
1833 Mar. 1 "The present inhabitants consist of one Englishman (Dixon) who has resided here for many years and now has charge of the British Flag, 20 spaniards and three women, two of whom are negresses"—CD Diary p. 138-9—Keynes p. 118, writing of Port Louis.
1834 Mar. 16 Beagle at Berkeley Sound in East Falkland, Port Louis at head of sound. CD explored and returned Mar. 19.

Port Darwin, at head of Choiseul Sound, named after CD. He crossed the isthmus near to it on Mar. 17.
"Falkland Islands geology"
1846 "On the geology of the Falkland Islands", Quart. J. Geol. Soc. (Proc.), 2:267-279 (Bi 203, F1674).
Farrar, Frederic William, 1831-1903.

Anglican priest. Rector of St Margaret's Westminster. DNB EB.
1858 Eric or little by little.
1865 CD to F, congratulating him on Origin of language.
1866 FRS.
1882 Pallbearer at CD's funeral.
1883 Archdeacon and Rural Dean of Westminster.
Farrer, Cecilia Frances
1882 F was on "Family Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1885 Married Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, 8th Bart, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh 1885.
Farrer, Emma Cecilia, 1854-1946.

Only daughter of Sir Thomas Farrer. Known as "Ida". CD's daughter-in-law. CD liked to hear her singing Sullivan's "Will he come"—LLi 124.
1880 Married Sir Horace Darwin.
from 1893
The Honourable.
Farrer, "Ida", see Emma Cecilia Farrer.
Farrer, Katherine Euphemia, see Wedgwood.

[page] 140

Farrer, Mary, ?-1905.

Sister of Sir Thomas Henry F. Married Arthur, Baron Hobhouse, 1819-1904.
1878 CD to Romanes, Lady Hobhouse is trustworthy—Carroll 547.
Farrer, Sir Thomas Henry, Bart, 1819-1899.

Botanist. Barrister and Civil Servant. Abinger Hall, Dorking, Surrey. DNB EB.

Married 1 Frances Erskine. 3 sons, 1 daughter: Emma Cecilia ("Ida").

Married 2 Katherine Euphemia Wedgwood s.p.
1873 Aug. CD visited there for first time and often later which he much enjoyed.
1883 1st Bart.
1893 Baron.
Farrington, Benjamin
1966 What Darwin really said, London. Selections by F.
Fawcett, Henry, 1833-1884.

Political economist and statesman. Blind. Biography: Leslie Stephen, 1885. DNB.
1860 F was present at Oxford British Association meeting.
1861 F was at Manchester British Association meeting and spoke in defence of Origin.
1861 F to CD, on J. S. Mill's opinion of the logic of Origin—MLi 189.
1862 "On the method of Mr. Darwin in his treatise on the origin of species", Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., for 1861, 141.
1863-1884 Prof. Political Economy Cambridge.
1880-1884 Postmaster General.
1882 FRS.
Fayrer, Sir Joseph, Bart, 1824-1907.

Physician and toxicologist in India. F provided cobra venom for Insectivorous plants.
1877 FRS.
1896 1st Bart.
Fegan, James William Condell, 1852-1925.

Evangelical worker amongst poor boys in South London. Biography: W. Y. Fullerton [1930], contains letter from CD to F about the Reading Room.
1872 Founder of Fegan's Homes, Deptford.
1880 His parents, probably James F, 1808-1880, and wife Anna, ?-1907, (gravestone in Downe Churchyard), moved to Downe on retirement. CD lent him the village Reading Room, which he called the "Gospel Room".
1881 and later F brought boys from his home to camp at Downe. They sang for CD who gave them 6d each. F also reclaimed drunks in the village and "did much good there"—EDii 244, Atkins 52.
Fellowes, Catherine, ?1900.

Daughter of Isaac Fellowes, 5th Earl of Portsmouth and Lady Evelina Alicia Juliana Herbert.
1843 Married Seymour Phillips Allen.
Fernando de Noronha

Atlantic oceanic islands, belonging to Brazil.
1832 Feb. 20 Beagle anchored off and CD ashore.
Ferrier, Sir David, 1843-1928.

Physician. Prof. Neuropathology King's College London.
1877 FRS.
1881 F was prosecuted under Vivisection Act. CD had met at C. L. Brunton's house and offered to subscribe towards the expenses of the case—MLii 437, Brit. Med. J., 2:917, 1881.
1911 Kt.

[page] 141

Fertilisation of Flowers
1883 Hermann Müller, The fertilisation of flowers, London; preface, vii-x, by CD (F1432). Translation, by D'Arcy W. Thompson, of Befruchtung der Blumen durch Insekten, Leipzig 1873.
1950 Foreign edition, CD's preface only: Russian (F1433) 1950.
Fertilisation of Orchids, see Orchids.
"Fertilisation of Plants"
1877 Gardeners' Chronicle, 7:246 (Bii 191, F1780).
"Fertilisation of winter-flowering plants"
1869 Nature, Lond., 1:85 (Bii 160).
Ffinden, George Sketchley, 1836/37-1911 Jun. 20 aged 74.

Anglican priest. Olive Willis described him as "that wicked man"—Atkins 48. Memorial in Downe church.
1871-1911 ff was Vicar of Downe, he was generally disliked.
1896 Mrs Ffinden is mentioned with nursemaid and baby in an elegant goat-carriage—ED.
Fife, George, 1807-1857.

Physician of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Naturalist friend of CD at Edinburgh.
Figueroa, Augustín, Military Administrator of the Spanish Settlement of Port Soledad, Falkland Islands 1784-1786.
Findon, Mr

Mr Findon's son, then a schoolboy at boarding school, of Downe—Atkins 104.?= Ffinden.
"Fine Dust Which Falls on Vessels in the Atlantic"
1846 "An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic ocean", Quart. J. Geol. Soc. (Proc.), 2:26-30 (Bi 199, F1672). The dust was analysed for protozoan content by Ehrenberg q.v.

First edition in: Origin of species (F653) 1928.
Fish, David Taylor, 1824-1901.

Professional gardener and horticultural journalist.
1868 CD called F an 'excellent gardener' in Variation
1869 F objected to CD's views on earthworms, Gardeners' Chronicle 17 April, 1869, p. 418, prompting CD's response in F1745.
1882 Apr. 29 F wrote fine obituary tribute to CD, Gardeners' Chronicle—Allan, 295-296, Boulger and Britten.
Fisher, Mrs, see A. B. Buckley.
Fisher, Florence Henrietta, 1864-1920.

Author of Six plays, Cambridge 1921.

Married 1 Frederic William Maitland.

Married 2 Sir Francis Darwin as 3rd wife s.p.
Fiske, John, 1842-1901.

American evolutionist and theoretical biologist.
1871 CD to F, with invitation to visit Down House when he came to England—LLiii 193.
1874 F sent CD Outlines of cosmic philosophy, 2 vols, "I never in my life read so lucid an exposition"—MLi 333.
1879 Darwinism and other essays, London.
1884 Excursions of an evolutionist, London.
1884 The destiny of man viewed in the light of his origin, Boston.
1885 The idea of God as affected by modern knowledge, London.
Fitton, William Henry, 1780-1861.

Physician and geologist.
1815 FRS.
1838 Aug. CD dined with at Athenaeum.

[page] 142

Fitz-Roy, Robert, R.N., 1805-1865.

Surveyor and meteorologist. Son of Lord Charles Fitz-Roy, second son of 3rd Duke of Grafton, bastard descendant of Charles II. F's name is variously spelt; I have used that given in DNB. DNB EB.
1818 Entered RN College, Dartmouth.
1828-1830 1828 Nov. 13-1830 Nov. F was in command of Beagle from death of Commander Stokes in Aug. 1828 until end of 1st voyage.
1831 1831 Jun.-1836 Nov. in command of Beagle for whole of 2nd voyage.

"...whether much hot coffee had been served out this morning"—junior officers' query about F's temper— Keynes p. 15

CD's opinion of his character "Fitz-Roy's character was a very singular one, with many noble features: he was devoted to his duty, generous to a fault, bold, determined, indomitably energetic, and an ardent friend to all under his sway": "Fitz-Roy's temper was a most unfortunate one"—Barlow, Autobiography 72-73.
1832 F's opinions of CD's character are given in his letters to Beaufort, 1832 Apr. 28 "Darwin is a regular trump". Aug. 15 "He has a mixture of necessary qualities which make him feel at home, and happy, and makes everyone his friend"—Francis D, Nature, Lond., 88:547-548, 1912; Barlow, Cornhill, 72: 493-510, 1932, which also contains the best account of CD's relationship with F.
1835 Dec. Captain.
1836 Dec. 1 married Mary O'Brien.
1838 Sketch by P. G. King in Mitchell Library, Sydney, reproduced in Keynes p. 16.

"Dr Wallich gave me a collection of photographs which he had made and I was struck with the resemblance of one to FitzRoy; on looking at the name I found it Ch. E. Sobieski Stuart, Count d'Albanie, illegitimate descendant of the same monarch"—CD Autobiography.
1839 F edited Narrative of the surveying voyages of...Adventure and Beagle, and also wrote an earlier brief account of the 2nd voyage, with a little on the 1st, J. R. Geogr. Soc., 6:311-343, 1836.
1849-1850 Commanded Arrogant, Steam Frigate.
1857 Rear Admiral.
1863 Vice Admiral.
1843-1845 Governor-General New Zealand.
1851 FRS, was proposed by CD.
1854-1865 Chief Statician [Statist], Meteorological Department, Board of Trade.
1857 F visited Down House, the last time he and CD met.
1859 F wrote to CD re Origin.
1859 Dec. CD to Lyell, enclosing a letter printed in The Times signed "Senex", "It is I am sure by Fitz-Roy...It is a pity he did not add his theory of the extinction of Mastodon, etc., from the door of the Ark being made too small"—MLi 129. "What a mixture of conceit and folly, and the greatest newspaper in the world inserts it"—Carroll 182.
1860 F was at Oxford meeting of British Association to give famous paper on British storms. Strongly anti-Origin, he is said to have walked out of the lecture room holding a bible over his head and exclaiming "The Book! the Book!" The story comes from George Griffith and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, who were both present—Poulton, Darwin and the Origin, 66.
1865 Apr. 30 F committed suicide at his home at Norwood, Surrey.
Flameng, Leopold , 1831-1911.

French engraver.
1881 F engraved the John Collier oil portrait of CD. Copies are signed by artist and engraver.
Fletcher, Mr
1844 F was schoolmaster at Downe. CD sent F his mss of species theory for fair copy, now at Cambridge.

[page] 143

Fletcher, Harriet, 1799-1842.

Of Isle of Wight. Daughter of Sir Richard F.
1834 Married William Darwin Fox.
Fletcher, Sir Richard, Bart, R.E.

Father of Harriet F. Killed at Zaragoza in Peninsular War.
Flourens, Marie Jean Pierre, 1794-1867.

French physiologist. Influential anti-Origin. F was Perpetual Secretary Academy of Sciences.
1864 Examen du livre de M. Darwin sur l'origene des espèces, Paris.
Flower, Sir William Henry, 1831-1899.

1864 CD to F, about supposed sixth toe in frogs—MLi 251.
1864 FRS.
1873 "On palaeontological evidence of gradual modification of animal forms", J. Roy. Instn., pp. 94-104.
1877 F to CD, he had examined a pig's foot with an extra digit sent to CD by O. Zacharias—Carroll 510-512.
1882 F was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1884-1898 Director British Museum (Natural History).
1892 KCB.
"Flowers and Insects"
1877 "Fritz Müller on flowers and insects", Nature, Lond., 17:78, introducing a letter from Müller, ibid., 17:78-79 (Bii 211, F1781).
Flowers and Their Unbidden Guests
1878 Kerner [Von Marilaun, Freiherr], Anton, Flowers and their unbidden guests, London, prefatory letter by CD v-vi (F1318); translation by W. Ogle of Die Schützmittel der Bluthen gegen unberufene Gaste, Innsbruck 1876.
1861 "Cause of variation of flowers", J. Hort., 1:211 (Bii 43, F1715).
1866 "Partial change in sex in unisexual flowers", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 6:127 (Bii 130, F1735).

CDs paper to Plinian Soc. ref. to pp. 201-3 in Journal, add ref. to previous discovery by Sir John Dalyell.

CD's nickname used by all ranks on Beagle.

A cob used for pulling the coach at Down House.
circa 1882 "An old white mare living in honourable retirement in the field"—Bernard D p. 13.
1846-1856 CD's views on geological foliation—MLii 199-210.
Forbes, David, 1828-1876.

Geologist. Geological correspondent of CD in general. Brother of Edward F. DNB.
1856 FRS.
1860 CD to Hooker, CD praises F's work on geology of Chile.
Forbes, Edward, 1815-1854.

Naturalist. Brother of David F. Often at Down House. A brilliant natural historian, but less sound on theoretical matters. Founder and moving spirit of the Red Lion Club, a convivial group of the British Association. Biography: Wilson and Geikie 1861. DNB.
1843-1854 Prof. Botany King's College London.
1845 FRS.
1848 Married Emily Ashworth. 2 sons, 1 daughter: 1. Edward born 1849 died at birth, 2. Edward born 1850, 3. Jane Teare born 1852.
1849 Nov. 20 CD to Lyell, "after more doubt and misgiving than I almost ever felt, I voted to recommend Forbes for Royal Medal, and that was carried, Sedgwick taking the lead"—MLii 131.
1854 Prof. Natural History Edinburgh.
1854 CD praised his introductory lecture at Edinburgh—MLi 78.
Died prematurely of kidney failure.
1855 CD to Hooker, "poor Forbes", "of course I shall wish to subscribe as soon as possible to any memorial"—MLi 95.
1856 CD to Hooker, "but I must confess (I hardly know why) I have got to mistrust poor dear Forbes"—MLi 95.
1868 CD to Hooker, "false theories...that of polarity, by poor Forbes"—MLi 305.

[page] 144

Forbes, Emily, see Ashworth.
Forbes, James David, 1809-1868.

Physicist and glaciologist. CD sent specimens of rocks to F—FUL 105.
1832 FRS.
1833-1868 Prof. Natural Philosophy Edinburgh.
1817 CD remembers that, when he was at Mr Case's school, aged 8½, he went for a walk with F on the Church Stretton road.—MLi 4.

Cut most of the blocks for Descent of man.
1870 CD to A. Günther, praising their quality—LLiii 121.
Fordyce, John
1879 CD to F on theism—LLi 304, FUL 88.
1883 Author of Aspects of scepticism, London, which prints the letter.
Forel, Auguste Henri, 1848-1931.

Swiss entomologist, especially of ants.
1874 CD to F, having read Les fourmis de la Suisse, Zurich—LLiii 191.
Forest, The

Nickname for Woodhouse, Felton, Shropshire, home of the Owen family.
Forms of Flowers
1877 The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, London (F1277).
1878 2nd edition (F1279).
1884 2nd edition, 3rd thousand (F1281), with new preface by Francis Darwin.
1969 1st edition facsimile (F1294).

First foreign editions:
1877 German (F1297), USA (F1275).
1878 French (F1296).
1884 Italian (F1299).
1948 Russian (F1302).
1949 Japanese (F1297).
1965 Romanian (F1301).
Forster, Johann George Adam, 1754-1797, and Forster, Johann Reinhold, 1729-1798.

Father and son.
1772 J. R. F. FRS.
1772-1775 Both were naturalists on Commander James Cook's 2nd voyage.
1857 CD's cognomen as Member of Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Germanica Naturae Curiosorum was "Forster".
Forster, Miss Laura May, 1839-1924.

A lifelong friend of Henrietta Emma D.
1879 Jun. F lent her house, West Hackhurst, Abinger Hammer, near Dorking, Surrey, to CD for a holiday.
1881 Mar. F stayed at Down House to recuperate from an illness.
1892 Jul. F stayed at Down House—E. M. Forster (nephew) Marianne Thornton, 1956.
Forster, William Edward, 1818-1886.

1861-1886 Liberal MP.
1875 FRS.
1875 Member of Vivisection Commission—LLiii 201.

[page] 145

Forsyth, Charles Codrington, 1812-?

Born South Arlington, Devon. Went on 3rd voyage of Beagle. Served in South Africa.
Apr. joined Beagle as Volunteer 1st Class.
Junior Midshipman.
1836 Oct. Midshipman on Beagle on return from 2nd voyage.
Foster, Sir Michael, 1836-1907.

Physician. F edited Scientific memoirs of Huxley. DNB.
1869-1883 Prof. Practical Physiology University College London.
1871 CD asks F for curare for experiments for Insectivorous plants, and inviting to Down House: F sent it—Carroll 400, 401.
1872 FRS.
1872 CD again invites to Down House—Carroll 419.
1875 F saw and agreed to R. B. Litchfield's draft sketch for a vivisection bill—LLiii 204.
1882 F was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
1883-1903 Prof. Physiology Cambridge.
1899 KCB.
Foundations of The Origin of species, see Sketches of 1842 and 1844.
Fox, Alice Augusta Laurentia Lane, circa 1862-1947.

Daughter of A. H. L. F. later Pitt-Rivers. Under "Rivers" in Burke.
1884 Married Sir John Lubbock.
Fox, Anne, see Darwin [III].
Fox, Augustus Henry Lane, 1827-1900.

Soldier, archaeologist, anthropologist. Father-in-law of Sir John Lubbock. Father with Lubbock of evolution of culture. No evidence that F and CD ever met or corresponded.
1867 FRS.
1877 Major General.
1880 Added "Pitt-Rivers" to surname on inheritance.
1882 Hon. Lieut. General.
Fox, Frances

Daughter of William Darwin Fox.
1852 Married Rev. J. Hughes.
Fox, Samuel

Married Anne Darwin [III]. Father of William Darwin F.
Fox, Samuel William Darwin, 1841-?

Son of William Darwin F. Vicar of St Paul's, Maidstone, Kent.
Married Euphemia Rebecca Bonar of Edinburgh.
Fox, Victor William Darwin, 1883-?

Grandson of Rev. William Darwin F.
Fox, Rev. William Darwin, 1805-1880.

Son of Samuel F and Anne. CD's second cousin. At Christ's College, Cambridge, with CD and kept up correspondence.
1827 "Became acquainted with Fox and Way and so commenced Entomology"—Journal.
1828 CD stayed at family home, Osmaston near Derby.
1834 Married 1 Harriet Fletcher.
1838-1873 Vicar of Delamere, Cheshire.
Married 2 Ellen Sophia Woodd. Had 11 children by 1853.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin.
1868 CD thanks F for a return on sheep and cattle—Carroll 357.
1870 Nov. CD to F, will send copy of Descent when published. "It is very delightful to me to hear that you, my very old friend, like my other books"—Carroll 385.
Franke, Constance Rose, see Wedgwood.
Franke, Hermann, 1847-1908.

German geologist. Of Leipzig
1880 Married Constance Rose Wedgwood s.p.
Frankland, Sir Edward, 1825-1899.

Organic chemist. F did experiments for Insectivorous plants. DNB.
1853 FRS.
1865- Prof. Chemistry College of Chemistry London.
1897 KCB.
Franklin Literary Society, Indiana.
1878 CD Honorary Member.
Fraser, Elizabeth Frances, 1846-1898.

Sister of General Sir Thomas Fraser, a brother officer of Leonard D. Known as "Bee". CD's daughter-in-law.
1882 Married Leonard D, s.p.

"She was elegant, fastidious, rustling in silk"—Bernard D p. 49.

A groom at Down House, later on. "Fred...wore in his (tie) a metal horse-shoe which aroused unstinted admiration"—Bernard D p. 11.
Freeman, Richard Broke, 1915-

See CD bibliography, 1965, 1977; Humble bees; Queries about expression; Questions about the breeding of animals.

[page] 146

Freke, Henry, ?-1888.

Irish. Eccentric theoretical evolutionist.
1860 Origin of species by means of natural affinity.
1860 CD to Henslow, "Dr Freke has sent me his paper, which is far beyond my scope"—MLi 175.
1861 CD to Hooker, his results have been arrived at by "induction", whereas all my results are arrived at only by "analogy"—LLii 359.

First editions in:
1860 Journal of researches (extracts only) (F180).
1862 Origin of species (F655).
1868 Variation under domestication (F912).
1870 Fertilisation of orchids (F818).
1872 Descent of man (F1058).
1874 Expression of the emotions (F1184).
1875 Journal of researches complete (F181).
1877 Climbing plants (F858).
1877 Insectivorous plants (F1237).
1877 Cross and self fertilisation (F1265).
1877 Biographical sketch of an infant (F1311).
1878 Coral reefs (F309).
1878 Different forms of flowers (F1296).
1882 Movement in plants (F1342).
1882 Vegetable mould and worms (F1403).
1888 Life and letters (F1514).
1902 Volcanic islands (F310).
French, Erasmus Darwin,  fl. 1875.

Unqualified physician working for mining prospectors in Darwin, now a ghost town in Inyo County, California. Source of forenames unknown.
Freshwater, Isle of Wight.
1868 Jul. 17-Aug. 20 CD had family holiday at. Photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron there.
Friendly Club, Downe, see Downe Friendly Club.
1879 Fritz Müller on a frog having eggs on its back—on the abortion of hairs on the legs of certain caddis-flies, etc., Nature, Lond., 19:462-463; introducing a letter from Müller, ibid., 19:463-464 (Bii 216, F1784).

The Indian tribes of Tierra del Fuego.

The best account of those encountered by the crew of the Beagle as well as the history of Fuegia Basket, Jemmy Button, Boat Memory and York Minster, the Fuegians brought to England on the first voyage, three returned on the second, is in Fitz-Roy's Narrative, 2, esp. 1-16, 119-227.

Their later history and that of Fuegians in general is in E. L. Bridges, Uttermost part of the earth, 1947.
1874 "Fertilisation of the Fumariaceae", Nature, Lond., 9:460 (Bii 182, F1769).

[page 147]


Gaertner, Carl Friedrich von, 1772-1850.
1849 Versuche und Beobachtungen uber die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreich, Stuttgart, which CD thought highly of. Frequently referred to in Variation. Reprinted in Alexander Weinstein, "How unknown was Mendel's paper?" J. Hist. Biol. 10:341-64 esp.pp. 347-8, 1977.
1863 CD's paper "Vindication of Gaertner—effect of crossing peas", Cottage Gardener 29:93, not in Barrett; vindication is from aspersions by Donald Beaton.
Gabinete Portuguiz de Leitura, Pernambuco.
1879 CD Corresponding Member.
Galapagos Islands

Ecuadorean Pacific islands, 90′-91′ W, 0′-1′ S.

The importance of the fauna of these islands, especially of the ground finches now called "Darwin's finches" q.v., to the development of CD's early thoughts on evolution has often been stressed. There is a large biological literature on them, e.g. 1959 J. R. Slevin, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., No. 25, 1-150; 1963 Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., No. 44:1-154; 1967 Nat. geogr. Mag., 131:540-585. Frank J. Sulloway 1984 Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 2l:20-59; whole part is on the islands 21:1-258, and as a book, but not about CD.

Darwin Foundation set up in Brussels 1959, Julian Sorrell Huxley first President. H.Q. is at first buildings put up in 60s at Puerto Ayoro on Santa Cruz.

The National Park about 7,000 sq. kilometres out of 8,000. National Park H.Q. is also at Puerto Ayoro. The rest was in the hands of about 5,000 Galapagans in 1978.

Airstrip was on Baltra (South Seymour), a legacy from World War II.
1892 The whole archipelago was renamed by Ecuador in 1892 Archipélago de Colón, but the old names are still used in English writings on the group. The equivalent names are: Abingdon = Pinta; Albemarle = Isabela; Barrington = Santa Fé; Bindloe = Marchena; Charles = Floreana, Santa Maria; Chatham = San Cristóbal; Culpepper = Darwin; Duncan = Pinzón; Hood = Española; Indefatigable = Santa Cruz; James = Santiago, San Salvador; Jervis = Rabida; Narborough = Fernandina; South Seymour = Baltra; Tower = Genovesa; Wenman = Wolf.

CD was ashore as follows, from Beagle log:
1835 Sep. 16 Beagle arrived, CD landed St Stephen's Bay, Chatham, for 1 hour.

Sep. 17 Chatham, St Stephen's Bay, CD ashore after dinner.

Sep. 18 Chatham, CD long walk after dinner, top of hill.

Sep. 21-22 Northeast Chatham, CD and Covington slept ashore.

Sep. 23 Charles, Post Office Bay, CD ashore collecting.

Sep. 23 Charles, Black Beach, CD ashore collecting.

Sep. 29 Albemarle, CD ashore.

Sep. 30 Albemarle, Tagus Cove, CD ashore.

Oct. 1 Albemarle, Tagus Cove, CD ashore.

Oct. 8 James, Sulivan Bay, CD, Covington, Bynoe etc. camped ashore.

Oct. 17 James, Sulivan Bay, party picked up again.

Oct. 20 Beagle sailed for Tahiti.
1835 There was a penal settlement on Charles.
Galapagos Islands Finches
1837 John Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 5, No. 53, 1837. Members of the sub-family Geospizinae of the buntings, Emberizidae, with special evolution on the islands.
1837 CD, "Remarks on the habits of the genera Geospiza, Camarhynchus, Cactornis and Certhidea", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., Pt 5:49 (Bi 40, F1644).
1839 J. researches, 378-380.
1946 D. Lack, Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., No. 21.
1947 D. Lack, Darwin's finches, London.
Galapagos Islands Monument, Wreck Bay, Chatham.
1935 Erected in 1935 with inscription by Leonard D. Illustrated in Slevin, 136, 138. "Charles Darwin landed on the Galapagos Islands in 1835 and his studies of the distribution of animals and plants thereon led him for the first time to consider the problem of organic evolution. Thus was started the revolution in thought on this subject which has since taken place".

[page] 148

Galapagos Islands Research Station
1964 Built by Charles Darwin Foundation at Academy Bay, Indefatigable I. Dedicated 1964.
Galapagos Islands Stamps
1935 Commemorative issue by Ecuador, centenary of CD's visit; 2, 5, 10 and 20 centavos, with map, marine iguana, giant tortoise and head of CD respectively.
Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642.
1882 The comparison of CD with Galileo, so often made, stems from Asa Gray's obituary notice, 1882 Apr., Amer. J. Sci and May, Proc. Amer. Acad., "What Galileo was to physical science in his time, Darwin is to biological science in ours".
Galton, Darwin, 1814-1903.

Of Claverdon Leys, Warwickshire. JP DL. Named after his mother Frances Anne Violetta née Darwin.
1840 Married 1 Mary Phillips.
1873 Married 2 Jane Arkwright.
Galton, Erasmus, 1815-?.

Son of Samuel Tertius G. Naval officer.
Galton, Frances Anne Violetta, see Darwin.
Galton, Sir Francis, 1822-1911.

Eugenicist and statistician. Ninth child of Samuel Tertius G. CD's half-first cousin. G was a voluminous writer on many topics. Biography: K. Pearson, 1914-1930; D. W. Forrest, 1974. Archive calendar: M. Merrington and J. Golden, 1976. DNB EB.
1839 Late Oct.or early Nov. visited CD at Upper Gower St when a student at King's College Hospital.
1840 Oct. went to Trinity College Cambridge.
1853 Married Louisa Jane Butler s.p.
1860 FRS.
1869 Hereditary genius, London.
1873 G sent CD a questionnaire on education and background—LLiii 177.
1874 English men of science, London.
1879 CD answered F's questions on the faculty of visualising for Inquiries into human faculty, 1883, "I am inclined to agree with Francis Galton in believing that education and environment produce only a small effect on the mind of anyone, and that most of our qualities are innate"—Barlow, Autobiography 43.
1908 Autobiography.
1909 Kt.
Galton, Lucy, see Barclay.
Galton, Lucy Harriot, 1809-48.

Daughter of Samuel Tertius and Violetta G.
1832 Married James Moilliet of Choney Court, Hereford.
Galton, Mary Anne, 1778-1856.

First child of Samuel John G. Known as "Mrs Skim". Strict Moravian, a most tedious woman. Biography: C. C. Hankin, 2 vols, London 1858.
1806 Married Lambert Schimmelpennick s.p.
Galton, Samuel John, 1753-1832.

Armament manufacturer and Quaker. Married Lucy Barclay. Father of Samuel Tertius G. Great Barr House, Stafford. Member of Lunar Society of Birmingham.
1785 FRS.
1786-1791 Anonymous author of Natural history of birds, 4 vols, London 1786-1791, a children's book.
Galton, Samuel Tertius, 1783-1844.

Son of Samuel John G. Father of Francis G.
1807 Married Frances Anne Violetta Darwin.
circa 1824 Taught CD how to use a vernier on a barometer at Shrewsbury.

[page] 149

Galton, Violetta, see Darwin.
1864 "Ancient gardening", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 41: 965 (Bii 93, F1732).
1851 Jan. G went to British Museum with CD to look at W. P. Cocks's Irish cirripedes—FUL 93. ??misreading of mss.
Gaskell, Mrs Elizabeth Cleghorn, see Stevenson.
Gaudry, Jean Albert, 1827-1908.

French palaeontologist. Calendar lists under Albert, J. G.
1868 CD to G, on reception of Origin in France and on paper in Geol. Mag., 372, 1868—LLiii 87.
1868 G was pro-Origin—LLiii 103.
Gautrey, Peter Jack

Cambridge University Library, long responsible for CD archive. See Queries about expression.
Geach, Frederick F.

Mining engineer in Malacca, introduced to CD by Wallace. Answered queries about expression for Malays and Chinese, see Emotions, 21.
Gegenbaur, Karl, 1826-1903.

Prof. Anatomy Heidelberg. Calendar gives "Carl".
1864 An early convert to CD's views—MLi 257.
Geikie, Sir Archibald, 1835-1924.

Geologist. Brother of James G. DNB EB.
1865 FRS.
1881-1901 Director General Geological Survey.
1891 Kt.
1907 KCB.
1908-1913 PRS.
1914 OM.
1924 Autobiography: A long life's work, London.
Geikie, James, 1839-1915.

Geologist. Brother of Sir Archibald G. DNB EB.
1875 FRS.
1881 Prehistoric Europe, London, contains extracts from 2 letters from CD, 141-142 (F1351).
1882- Prof. Geology and Mineralogy Edinburgh.
Geographical Society, Royal
1838- CD Fellow.
"Geological Notes on Coasts of South America"
1836 "Geological notes made during a survey of the east and west coasts of South America, in the years 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835, with an account of a transverse section of the cordilleras of the Andes between Valparaiso and Mendoza", Proc. Geol. Soc., 2:210-212 (Bi 16, F1642); CD's first paper under his own name alone.
Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands and Coral Formations
1838 Advertised as a book, but title abandoned and work issued as two books, Coral reefs and Volcanic islands qqv.
Geological Society of London
1836 Sep. 8 CD proposed by Sedgwick and Henslow.

Nov. 2 elected. Nov. 4 admitted.
1838-1841 1838 Feb. 16-1841 Feb. 19 CD was Secretary. Sir Henry T. De la Beche was Foreign Secretary at the time.
1859 CD awarded Wollaston Medal, which from 1846 to 1860 was made of palladium.
1859 Feb. 18 Wollaston Medal presented to Lyell for CD in CD's absence through illness—Proc. geol. Soc. 1860 pp.xxii-iv.

[page] 150

Geology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
1842, 1844, 1846
Intended as one volume in 3 parts, but issued as 3 books, Coral reefs, 1842, Volcanic islands, 1844 and South America, 1846 qqv.
1851 First appearance of the three bound in one volume, a remainder from unsold sheets (F274).
1890 Ward Lock edition of the three parts printed together (F279).
1951 First edition in: Journal of researches (F187).
"Geospiza, Camarhynchus, Cactornis and Certhidea of Gould"
1837 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt 5:46 (Bi 40, F1644). CD's notes on habits of Darwin's finches, following John Gould's descriptions of CD's specimens from Galapagos Islands. There are four other papers by Gould in part 5 on CD's South American birds, but without notes by CD.

CD had great difficulty in understanding the German language. See also Wien.
1880 CD to R. L. Tait, "German, which to almost all Englishmen is a great trouble and sorrow"—N&R 81.

Also CD to Hooker "I have begun German". Hooker to CD "I have begun it many times".

First editions in:
1844 Journal of researches (F188).
1860 Origin of species (F672).
1862 Fertilisation of orchids (F820).
1868 Variation under domestication (F914).
1870 "On the tendency of species to form varieties" (F365).
1871-1872 Descent of man (F1065).
1872 Expression of the emotions (F1187).
1876 Coral reefs (F311).
1876 Climbing plants (F860).
1876 Insectivorous plants (F1238).
1877 Volcanic islands (F312).
1877 Cross and self fertilisation (F1266).
1877 Different forms of flowers (F1297).
1877 "Biographical sketch of an infant" (F1343).
1878 South America (F313).
1880 Erasmus Darwin (F1323).
1881 Movement in plants (F1343).
1882 Vegetable mould and worms (F1404).
1885 Essay on instinct (F1443).
1887-1888 Life and letters (F1515).
1891 Letters on geology (F6).
Gibbs, George, 1815-1873.

Ethnologist of Smithsonian Institution.
1867 Mar. G wrote to CD about Queries about expression, which S. F. Baird had shown him.
Gibson, Lucie, ?-1939.

Red-haired. From Cork.
1888 Married Cecil Wedgwood. Governess to Mary W his half sister.
?1915 Director of Wedgwoods after C's death.
Gide, André, 1869-1951.

"Je ne savais point que Darwin était uraniste. Qui vous a dit cela? Cette phrase ne la laisse-t-elle pas entendre?"—1924 Corydon, Troisième dialogue. The remarks refer to a French translation of CD's comments on the male Tahitians, adding that the females would look better if more dressed—J. Res. 2ed. 1845 p. 274
Gifford, Lady Harriet Maria, see Drewe.
Gifford, Robert, Baron

Judge and M.P. Married Harriet Drewe, 7 children. Woodchester, Stroud, Gloucestershire.
1824 1st Baron.
Gilbert, Sir Joseph Henry, 1817-1901.

Agricultural chemist. DNB EB.
1843-1901 At Rothamsted Experimental Station.
1860 FRS.
1876 CD to G on soil without organic matter; CD had met at Linnean Society—LLiii 342.
1893 Kt.
Gill, Mr
1835 Apr. 5 "When at Lima I was conversing with a civil engineer Mr.Gill, about ruins of houses in uninhabitable places—Diary pp. 301-4, Keynes p. 274.
"Glaciers of Caernarvonshire"
1842 "Notes on the effects produced by the ancient glaciers of Caernarvonshire, and on the boulders transported by floating ice", Phil. Mag., 21:180-186 (Bi 163, F1660).
1842 CD visited Caernarvonshire in May and June.

[page] 151

Gladstone, Helen, 1849-1925.

Youngest child of William Ewart G.
1882-1896 Vice-Principal Newnham College Cambridge.
1882 G was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Gladstone, William Ewart, 1809-1898.

Statesman. DNB EB.
1876 G visited Down House in company with Huxley, Lord Morley, and Playfair, whilst staying at High Elms. How honoured CD was "that such a great man should come and visit me"—Atkins 85.
1877-1879 CD corresponded with, mostly on behaviour—FUL 88-90.
1880 G arranged a Civil List pension for Wallace.
1881 FRS.
1881 Jan. G wrote personally to CD about Wallace pension.
1827 May CD visited on a spring tour—Journal.
1838 Jun. CD visited at end of geological trip to Glen Roy.
1855 CD and ED went to British Association meeting.
Glass, Dr

Director of Botanic Garden, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1881 G wrote to CD about graft hybrids of sugar cane.
1882 CD to Romanes, about preparing a paper by Villa Franca and G, Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1880-1882: 30-31.
Glen Roy, Lochaber, Inverness-shire.

1974 Martin Rudwick Studies in Hist. Philosoph. Science 5:165-7.
1838 End of Jun. CD spent "8 good days there"—LLi 290.
1839 "Observations on the parallel roads of Glenroy, and of other parts of Lochaber, with an attempt to prove that they are of marine origin", Phil. Trans., 129:39-81 (Bi 89, F 1653).
1841-1880 Full discussion and letters about—MLii 171-193.
1861 "My paper was one long gigantic blunder from beginning to end. Eheu! Eheu!"—MLi 188.
1861 "I do believe every word in my Glen Roy paper is false"—MLii 192.
1876 "A good lesson never to trust in science to the principle of exclusion. A great failure"—LLi 69.
1880 CD to Prestwich "I gave up the ghost with more sighs and groans than on almost any other occasion in my life"—Life of Prestwich 300.
Glenie, Rev. Samuel Owen, 1811-1875.

Anglican clergyman.
1868 G to CD, answering Queries about expression, and on weeping in elephants—Emotions 167.
1868 CD to Thwaites asking him to thank G for "excellent letter"—Carroll 354, 358.
1871 Chaplain at Trincomalee, Ceylon, retired 1871.
Glutton Club, see Gourmet Club, of which it was a nickname.
Goddard, Right Rev. Isaac, 1836-1909.

Chaplain for many years to the Empress Eugenie.
1873 Priest at Chislehurst who annoyed ED by preaching about Louis Napoleon as if he were a saint.

[page] 152

Goodacre, Francis Burges, Rev. Dr. 1829-1885
1879 G sent CD hybrids between common goose and Chinese goose which were apparently fertile—LLiii 240, Nature, Lond., 21:207. The offspring of this cross is fertile.
Goodwin, Rev. Harvey, 1818-1891.

Anglican priest and mathematician. DNB.
1869-1891 Bishop of Carlisle.
1882 May 1 G preached sermon at CD's memorial service, Westminster Abbey, in place of Archbishop of Canterbury, Archibald Campbell Tait, who withdrew at short notice—Atkins 49.
1880 "Fertility of hybrids from the common and Chinese goose", Nature, Lond., 21:207 (Bii 219, F1786). See also Goodacre.
Goree Roads, eastern end of Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego.
1833 Jan. 15-Feb. 9. Beagle at.

A house near Downe. A Sir Hugh Lubbock and a Mrs Forrest are recorded as living there—Atkins 104.
Later home of Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin.
Gosse, Philip Henry, 1810-1888.

Naturalist and Plymouth Brother. Biography: Edmund Gosse (son), 1890 Life; 1907 Father and son. DNB.
1856 FRS.
1861 CD read some book of his, Francis D suggests Naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica, 1851, but more likely Letters from Alabama, 1859.
1863 CD to G, on fertilisation of orchids, which G cultivated.
Gould, John, 1804-1881.

Ornithologist. Taxidermist to Zoological Society of London. Producer of sumptuous bird books. DNB.
1837 G described CD Beagle birds in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (F1643, 1644) with notes on habits by CD and others without.
1838-1841 Zoology of Beagle, Pt III, Birds q.v. (F8).
1843 FRS.
Gourmet Club

Formed by CD and friends at Cambridge, nicknamed "Glutton Club". CD was at one time President. Members included Blane, Lovett Cameron, Heaviside, Herbert, Lowe, Watkins and Whitley qq.v.—N&R 65.
Gower Street, No. 110, see Upper Gower St No. 12.
Graham, John, 1794-1865.
1829 G was an examiner for Little-go at Cambridge.
1830-1848 Master of Christ's College.
Graham, William, 1839-1911.

Prof. Jurisprudence Queen's College Belfast. DNB.
1881 CD to G, on reading his Creed of science, London—LLi 315.
Grange estate
circa 1830 Inherited by Edward Simcoe Drewe, near Honiton, Devon.
Grange, The, see Newnham Grange.

[page] 153

Grant & Maddison, Bankers, Southampton.

Looked after CD's investments.
1862-1902 William Erasmus D a partner.
1902 Taken over by Lloyd's.
Grant, Miss
1857 Governess at Down House for six months.
Grant, Robert Edmond, 1793-1874.

Zoologist and physician. G was with CD at Edinburgh and they collected on the sea-shore together. Biography: Freeman 1964. DNB.
1827-1874 Prof. Zoology and Comparative Anatomy University College London.
1836 FRS.
1836 G was willing to examine Beagle corallines.
1861 G dedicated his Tabular view of the primary divisions of the animal kingdom to CD, with a long letter about G's early views on evolution.
G is mentioned in the historical sketch of 1861, but not in the USA and German versions of 1860.
1876 "He did nothing more in science, a fact which has always been inexplicable to me"—Autobiography.

Huxley of G: "I met nobody, except Dr. Grant, of University College, who had a word to say for Evolution—and his advocacy was not calculated to advance the cause"—LLii 188.
1984 Two papers stressing G's pre-darwinian lamarckist views 1984 Adrian Desmond J. Hist. Biol. 17:189-223, Arch. Nat. Hist. 11:395-413.
Grasmere, Westmorland.
1879 Aug. CD visited on day trip from Coniston.
Gray, Asa, 1810-1888.

American botanist. Intimate friend and correspondent of CD. Biography: Jane Loring Gray (wife), 2 vols, 1894. Letters are at Gray Herbarium, Harvard. EB.
1842- Fisher Prof. Natural History Harvard.
1855 or before CD met at Kew.
1859 CD sent 1st edition Origin.
1860 "Natural selection not inconsistent with natural theology", Atlantic Monthly, Jul., Aug., Oct.
Oct. Produced in London as a pamphlet at CD's expense. Letters on its distribution; CD presented thirty-two copies—Darwin-Gray 92-93.
1862 Hooker to CD "A. Gray knows no more of the philosophy of the 'struggle for life' than the Bishop of Oxford does"—L. Huxley Life and letters of Hooker II, p. 41, 1918. The remark refers to the American civil war.
1868 Oct. 24 dined at Down House and stayed.
1873 Foreign Member RS.
1877 Forms of flowers is dedicated to G. 1876 Darwiniana, New York.
1939 Correspondence with CD calendared by Historical Records Survey with introduction by Bert Loewenberg 1939, reprint 1973.
Gray, George Robert, 1808-1872.

Younger brother of John Edward G. Zoologist. Assistant Natural History Department, Bristish Museum. DNB.
1839-1841 G wrote much of the text for J. Gould's Birds, pt III of Zoology of Beagle, when Gould was in Australia.
1866 FRS.
1869 CD refused to write testimonial for G on grounds that he did not know enough of G's work—FUL 90-93.
Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875.

Elder brother of George Robert G. Zoologist. Biography: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 15:218, 1875. DNB.
1832 FRS.
1840-1874 Keeper of Zoology, British Museum.
1854 CD to G—FUL 93.
1856 To Mrs Lyell, suggesting that she offer a collection of beetles to G for the Museum—MLi 84.

[page] 154

Great Cumberland Street, London.
1830 No. 14 home of Sir James Mackintosh and his daughter, Mrs Rich.
Great Marlborough Street, London.
No. 36 CD's lodgings 1837 Mar. 13-1838 Dec. 30.
from before 1837 No. 43 home of Erasmus Alvey D.
Great Pucklands, see Pucklands.

First editions in:
1900 Journal of researches (F206).
1915 Origin of species (F698).
Green, Rev. John Richard, 1837-1883.

Historian. DNB.
1860 G was present, as an undergraduate student, at British Association Oxford meeting. He described the scene to Boyd Dawkins, then a fellow student—LLii. 322.
1869- Librarian at Lambeth Palace.
Greg, William Rathbone, 1809-1881.

Social essayist.
1878 CD to G, on G's son's views on and objections to CD's views on evolution—Carroll 557.
Gresson, Rev. G. T.

Of Worthing.
before 1863
Second master at Bradfield College, "a great dandy who wore white flannel trousers, a delicately tinted shirt, a purple velvet cap with tassel and primrose gloves for football"—Blackie, Bradfield 1850-1975, 37, 1976.
1863 Innes suggested G as a possible tutor to CD's sons—Darwin-Innes 216.
Gretton, Frederick Edward, 1802-1890.

Was at Shrewsbury School and a friend of Erasmus Alvey D. Anglican priest.
1844-72 Headmaster Stamford Grammar School.
1889 Of CD: "I just remember him—a dullish apathetic lad, giving no token of his after-eminence"—Memory's harkback p. 33.
Greville House, Paddington Green, London.
1822 Jan. ED and sister Frances at school there for one year. Headmistress Mrs Mayer—EDi 142.
Greville, Robert Kaye, 1794-1866.

Botanist, expert on cryptogams especially Scottish. Read medicine at Edinburgh but did not qualify. Philanthropist.

Collected with CD of shores of Firth of Forth, including Isle of May; "He had actually to lie down on the greensward to enjoy his prolonged cachinnation" (at the cries of kittiwakes)—F. W. Ainsworth p. 604, 1883 May 13.
1856 M.P. for Edinburgh.
Grey, Sir George, 1812-1898.

Governor of NZ, later of South Africa. Long-term correspondence with CD mostly on geology. 1902 ?N.Z. Herald, Auckland Sep. 6, W. L. and Lily Rees biography 1892.
1837 Travelled to Australia in Beagle on 3rd voyage, occupying CD's old cabin.
1855 CD to G "I have during many years been collecting all the facts and reasoning which I could to the variation and origin of species" ??earliest use of phrase.
Griesbach, A. W.

Newsletter of the Geological Curators Group I, no. 2, pp. 49-50, 1974.
1864 B. D. Walsh to CD, G introduced W to CD at Christ's College, Cambridge "more than thirty years ago"—MLi 249.
Grieve, Symington, 1848-1932.

Ornithologist, expert on great auk.
1882 Mar. 22 CD to G, on floating stones supporting fuci.
Griffin, R. & Co., Publishers, London.
1860 CD corrected his own entry in their Comprehensive dictionary of biography—FUL 94.
Gros, near Abergele, Denbighshire.
1813 CD went with family for sea bathing—Journal.
Grote, George, 1794-1871.

Historian and educationalist. DNB.
1857 FRS.
1862- Vice-Chancellor University of London.
In the 40s CD met at Lord Stanhope's—LLi 76.

[page] 155

Grove, The, Hartfield, Sussex.
until 1862 Home of Charles Langton.
Grove, The, Huntingdon Rd, Cambridge.
1882-1896 ED moved there for the winters.
Grove, Sir William Robert, 1811-1896.

Physicist and barrister.
1840 FRS.
1866 CD to Hooker, G as President of British Association, Nottingham, "disappointed in the part about Species; it dealt in such generalities that it would apply to any view or no view in particular"—LLiii 48.
1871 Kt.
1880 Judge.
1877 "Growth under difficulties", Gardeners' Chronicle, 8:805 (Bii 213, F1782).
Gruber, Howard E.
1974 Darwin on man. A psychological study of scientific creativity; together with Darwin's early and unpublished notebooks, London. Transcriptions by Paul E. Barrett of M & N notebooks with extracts from B-E, Essay on theology and natural selection, Questions for Mr. Wynne (F1582).
Gulick, John Thomas, 1832-1923.

USA missionary and naturalist.
1872 CD to G, G to CD, about extremely limited distribution of species, especially land molluscs in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii)—Carroll 421-423.
Gully, James Manby, 1808-1883.

Physician. In charge of cold water cure at The Lodge, Malvern. DNB.
1849 When CD first went to Malvern, G made him give up snuff.
Günther, Albert Karl Ludwig Gotthilf, 1830-1914.

Zoologist. On staff of British Museum (Natural History).
1867 FRS.
1869 G gave CD information on sexual differences in fish.
1870 G arranged for cutting of blocks for Descent by Ford.
1871 Feb. G at Down House—FUL 95.
1882 G was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Gunville Tarrant, Dorset.
1799 Bought by Josiah Wedgwood [II].
1800-1805 Home of Josiah Wedgwood [III].
1803 Jos bought Maer Hall, but continued at G.
1803 Jos was elected Sheriff of Dorset, but seems to have been living there by 1804.
1814 Thought of selling because he was living at Etruria, but back at Maer by 1816.
Gurney, Edmund, 1847-1888.

Writer on music and psychic research. DNB.
1876 CD to G on music—LLiii 186.
1881 G wrote on vivisection in Fortnightly Rev., 30:778.
1882 On same subject, Cornhill, 45:191, referred to—LLiii 210.
1882 G was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.

[page 156]


Haast, Sir John Francis Julius von, 1822-1887.

New Zealand geologist. DNB.
1863 CD to H on New Zealand geology and natural history—LLiii 6.
1866 Prof. Geology New Zealand University, Canterbury.
1867 FRS.
1886 KCMG.
Hacon, William Mackmurdo

Solicitor. H acted for CD, although they never met. "Everything I did was right, and everything was profusely thanked for"—H's feeling for CD in Francis D's reminiscences—LLi 120.
1843-1885 Practised.
1870-1884 His partners varied, but Hacon & Turner, 101 Leadenhall St, London.
Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August, 1834-1919.

German biologist and physician. Second son of Karl H and — Sethe. The apostle of darwinism in Germany. H's wild, and mostly unsupported, phylogenetic speculation, combined with his popular reputation, held back experimental scientific work on evolution. Biography: Bölsche 1900.
1862 Married 1 Anna Sethe d.s.p.
1863 Mar. CD to Lyell, "A first rate German naturalist (I now forget the name)"—LLiii 16.
1865- Prof. Zoology Jena.
1866 Oct. H stayed at Down House.
1867 Married 2 Agnes Huschke. 1 son, 2 daughters.
1867 CD complains to Huxley of excess of neonyms in H's Generelle Morphologie, 1866—MLi 277.
1868 CD to H "your boldness sometimes makes me tremble"—LLiii 105.
1869 Huxley "The Coryphaeus of the Darwinian movement in Germany"—LLiii 67.
1876, 1879
Visited Down House. His recollections "I fancied a lofty world-sage of Hellenic antiquity—a Socrates or Aristotle—stood alive before me"—1882 Nature 26:533-41.

Main works:
1866 Generelle Morphologie, 2 vols.
1868 Natürliche Schöpfungeschichte.
1874 Anthropogenie.
1877 Die heutige Entwickelungslehre in Verhältnisse zur Gesammtwissenschaft.
1878-1879 Gesammelte populäre Vorträge aus dem Gebiete der Entwickelungslehre.
1882 Die Naturanschauung von Darwin, Goethe, and Lamarck.
1894 Die systematische Phylogenie.
Hägg, Axel Hermann, see Haig.
Hague, James Duncan, 1836-1908.

USA geologist.
1871 Feb. visited Down House.
1884 H wrote reminiscences of visit in Harper's Mag. Concerning Descent, "everybody is writing about it without being shocked"—LLiii 133.

[page] 157

Haig, Axel Hermann, 1835-1921.

His name is also spelt Hägg. Swedish artist and architect.
1882 H engraved new study at Down House a week after CD's death, when it had not been disturbed.
Haile, Peter

A bricklayer at Parkfield, the home of CD's aunts Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [I] and Catherine W. A recollection of him was one of CD's earliest memories in his childhood—MLi 2.
Haliburton, Sarah, see Owen.
Haliburton, Thomas Chandler, 1796-1865.

Nova Scotian judge. Married Sarah Owen. DNB.
1837-1840 Author of Sam Slick.
Hall, Captain Basil, 1788-1844.

R.N. Anthropologist. DNB.
1816 FRS.
1838 Athenaeum acquaintance of CD.
Hall, ?Jeffrey Bock, 1807-1886.
1829 Cambridge friend of CD.
Halsey, Henry

Of Hanley Park, Surrey. Father of Mary H.
Halsey, Mary

Daughter of Henry H.
1848 Married Robert Wedgwood as second wife.
Hamond, Robert Nicholas, 1809-1883.

Mate, spent a lot of time ashore with CD. Went with CD to sacrament prior to voyage to Tierra del Fuego.
1827 Lieut.
1828 His elder brother Anthony married Mary Ann M, sister of Charles M.
1832 Jul. joined Beagle to replace Musters. "I have seen more of him than any other and like him accordingly"—CD letter home.
1833 May left Beagle for stammering.
1836 Married Caroline Musters, another sister of Charles M.
1882 One of CD's surviving shipmates from Beagle—LLi 221.
Hancock, Albany, 1806-1873.

Invertebrate zoologist. Of Newcastle-on-Tyne. DNB.
1849 "On the occurrence on the British coast of a burrowing barnacle, being a type of a new order of the class Cirripedia", Athenaeum, No. 1143: 966 (Bi 250, F1678), with notes by CD, read to British Association meeting 1849.
1855 CD thought him a "higher class of labourer than J. O. Westwood", and suggested him for a Royal Medal of Royal Society—MLi 80.
1858 Received Royal Medal of Royal Society.
1886 CD's letters to H published in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle, 8:263-265.
Hanley, Dr., see probably Hawley.
Harbour, Mr

A man employed by CD to collect beetles for him around Cambridge.
1829 CD to Fox, "I have caught Mr. Harbour letting Babington qv. have the first pick of the beetles; accordingly we have made our final adieus"—LLi 177.

Physician. Friend of CD at Edinburgh when a student, went on natural history trips together. Ashworth, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 55:112, 1934, identifies him as Willoughby Arding q.v., but CD says that he died young in India.
Harding, Elizabeth
1846 Nurserymaid at Down House, aged 13, from Staffordshire. Known as "Bessy". Got lost with William D, aged 3, and Frances Julia Wedgwood, aged 9, in Cudham Wood—Atkins 40.
Haredene Albury, near Guildford, Surrey.

The house belonged to Henry Drummond, an Irvingite.
1871 Jul.-Aug. CD and family spent a holiday there.

[page] 158

Harley, Agnes

Of Slindon, Sussex.
1907 Married Rowland Wedgwood as second wife.
Harriet, ?-circa 1950.

Second housemaid at Down House. Long description in Bernard D pp. 15-16.
until 1925 Stayed on with ED and then with Bessy D until latter's death 1925.

A gentleman farmer of Orange Court, Downe.
Harris, James

A sealer of Del Carmen on Rio Negro. Acted as pilot to Wickham in La Paz, whilst his friend Roberts acted for Stokes in La LiebreD and Beagle p. 75.
Harris, Sir William Snow, 1791-1867.

Electrical engineer. CD met at Plymouth. Known as "Thunder and lightning Harris". DNB.
1831 FRS.
1831 H's type of lightning conductor was fitted to all masts of Beagle, long before they were adopted by the navy for all ships.
1848 Kt.
Harrison, Frederic, 1831-1923.

Popular writer.
1871 CD to H on beauty—Carroll 392.
Harrison, Lucy Caroline, see Wedgwood.
Harrison, Matthew James
1874 Married Lucy Caroline Wedgwood and had offspring.
Hartfield, Village in East Sussex.  The houses are on the edge of Ashdown Forest.
?1840-1863 Can mean Hartfield Grove, a quarter of a mile from The Ridge, home of Charles Langton and family.
In biography usually means The Ridge, Hartfield, home of Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [II], built for her 1847, left 1868.
1855 George Howard D, aged 10, was allowed to ride the 20 miles from Downe alone—Atkins 41.
Hartfield Grove, House at Hartfield, Sussex, q.v.
Hartley, George Justinian
Married Mary Frances Wedgwood.
Hartung, Georg, ?1822-1891.

German geologist, specialist on geology of Atlantic islands.
1858 CD corresponded with, through Lyell, on Azores—LLii 112.
Harvey, William Henry, 1811-1866.

Algologist. DNB.
1856- Prof. Botany Trinity College Dublin.
1858 FRS.
from at least 1858 CD was a friendly correspondent with.
1860 Feb. 17 H read a "serio-comic squib" to Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association—LLii 314. This was published as a pamphlet An inquiry into the probable origin of the human animal etc., Dublin. CD's copy, at Cambridge, is marked "With the author's repentance, Oct. 1860".
1860 H wrote courteous but anti-Origin review in Edinb. Rev.
1860 Aug. CD to H about Whale-bear story, "I struck it out in the second edition"—MLi 162.
1860 CD to Gray, "Even [H] not nearly so savage against me as...when he published his foolish pamphlet"—Darwin-Gray 90.
1861 H wrote another review in Dublin Hosp. Gaz., May 15.
Hastings, Sussex.
1853 Jul. CD visited for day from Eastbourne.
Hatherly, Baron, see W. P. Wood.
Haughton, Rev. Samuel, 1821-1897.

Man of science. DNB.
1851-1881 Prof. Geology Trinity College Dublin.
1858 Feb. 9 H's address to Geological Society of Dublin is the first comment on the CD and Wallace statement to Linnean Society "If it means what it says it is a truism; if it means anything more, it is contrary to fact"—LLii 157.
1860 CD to Gray, with footnote CD to Hooker, "A review in the last Dublin Nat. Hist. Review is the most unfair thing which has appeared—one mass of misrepresentations", "Do you know whether there are two Rev. Prof. Haughtons at Dublin", "Can it be my dear friend?"—MLi 153.

[page] 159

Hawkins, Benjamin Waterhouse, 1807-1889.

Artist. H drew and put on stone the plates for Fish and Reptiles in Zoology of H.M.S. Beagle. H. made the Crystal Palace giant reptile replicas.
Hawkshaw, Sir John, 1811-1891.

Civil engineer. Of Hollycombe, Sussex. Father of John Clarke H.
1855 FRS.
1873 Kt.
1876 Jun. CD visited his home, Hollycombe, near Midhurst, Surrey.
Hawkshaw, John Clarke, 1841-1921.

Eldest son of Sir John H. Brother of Mary H. Known as Clarke.
1865 Married Cicely Mary Wedgwood. Three children.
Hawkshaw, Mary, ?-1863.

Daughter of Sir John H. Sister of John Clarke H.
Married Godfrey Wedgwood as first wife.
1863 Died in childbed.
Hawley, Dr Richard Maddock

This is the "Dr Hanley" mentioned in MLi p. 6. Lecturer in Physiology, Edinburgh. Medical author. Was English not Scots.
1807 MD Edinburgh.
1825 Oct. 26. CD and Erasmus Alvey D called on him on their arrival in Edinburgh.
1827 FRCP Edinb.
Healey, Mary, ?-1679.

Sixth generation ancestor of CD in male line.
circa 1600 Married William Darwin [I] as second husband.
Heathcote, Miss
1874 CD to Lyell, "I was glad to hear at Southampton from Miss Heathcote a good account of your health"—MLii 237.
Heathorn, Henrietta Anne, 1825-1915.

Of Sydney. Known as Nettie.
1855 Married Jul. 25 Thomas Henry Huxley.
1882 H was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Heaviside, Rev. James William Lucas, 1808-1897.

Canon of Norwich. Cambridge friend of CD, member of Gourmet Club.
1833-1838 Fellow of Sidney Sussex College Cambridge.
1836 CD met in Cambridge.
1838-1857 Prof. Mathematics H.E.I.C. Haileybury.

First editions in:
1930 Journal of researches (F207).
1948-1949 Autobiography (F1520).
1960 Origin of species (F700).
1867 "Hedgehogs", Hardwicke's Science Gossip, 3:280 (Bii 137, F1740).
Heer, Oswald, 1809-1883.

Swiss palaeobotanist and entomologist. Prof. Botany Zurich.
1850 H went to Madeira for his health.
1878 Royal Medal of Royal Society.
1878 H seconded CD's election to Fellowship Koenliglich-Preussiche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin.

[page] 160

Hellyer, Edward H., 1811-1833.

Clerk on 2nd voyage of Beagle.
1833 May, drowned at Falkland Is, collecting bird for Captain.
Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von, 1821-1894.
1858- Prof. Physiology Heidelberg.
1878 H seconded CD's election to Fellowship Koenlich-Preussiche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin.
Hemmings, Henry
until 1856
Manservant to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [I] at Petley's, Downe, until her death 1856 when he returned to Maer.
1872 H was alive but with a bad heart.
Henderson, Thomas, 1796-?

Captain's Coxswain on 2nd voyage of Beagle. Quartermaster, Boatswain's Mate...if required.
Henry, Isaac Anderson, 1800-1884.

Lawyer and plant hybridiser, of Edinburgh.
1849 CD to H, on Phlox and Mimulus—Carroll 86.
1863 CD to H, on cross and self fertilisation and on the uselessness of the compound microscope—MLii 297.
1867 H offered to lend CD De Maillet's Telliamed, 1748—MLi 280.
Henry, Samuel P., 1800-1852.

CD met with his father a missionary in Tahiti—Narrative 2, pp. 524, 546, 615—Red Notebook p. 83.
Hensleigh, Elizabeth, 1738-1790.

CD's maternal great-grandmother. Of Panteague. Origin of name H in Wedgwood family.
1763 Married John Bartlett Allen as first wife.
Henslow, Anne

Daughter of J. S. Henslow. Married — Barnard.
1871 H to CD, telling him of a visit to Colchester mental asylum, seeing a girl with pointed ears—Carroll 389.
1871 CD to H, thanking her for information and praising John Stevens H—Carroll 390.
Henslow, Frances, ?-1874 Nov.

Daughter of John Stevens H.
1851 Married as his first wife J. D. Hooker.
1856 CD to Hooker, on her "pedestrian feats"—MLii 209.
1874 Dec. 25 CD to Gray, "The death of Mrs Hooker has indeed been a terrible blow. Poor Hooker came here [Down House] directly after the funeral and bore up manfully"—Darwin-Gray 62.
Henslow, Rev. George, 1835-1925.

Only son of John Stevens H. Botanist. Schoolmaster. Hon. Prof. to Royal Horticultural Society. V.M.H.
Headmaster, Grammar School, South Crescent, Bedford Square, London.
1873 The theory of evolution of living things, London.
1882 H was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.
Henslow, Rev. John Stevens, 1796-1861.

Married ?Jenyns. 1 son, 3 daughters. Father-in-law of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. DNB.

CD, when at Cambridge, was known as "the man who walked with Henslow". CD regularly attended his Friday evening gatherings, which continued every week in term until 1836 and were the forerunners of the Cambridge Ray Club 1837-. H became a strong personal friend of CD and looked after specimens sent back from Beagle voyage.
1818 FRS.
1822-1827 Prof. Mineralogy Cambridge.
1827-1861 Prof. Botany.
1830 CD to Fox, of Mrs H, "she is a devilish odd woman, I am always frightened whenever I speak to her, yet I cannot help liking her".
1835 H edited CD's letters to him as Letters on geology, privately printed for members of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (Bi 3, Fl).
1836 CD at Sydney to H, "my master in natural history"—LLi 264.
1837-1861 Vicar of Hitcham, Suffolk.
1854 H visited Down House when Hooker was staying for a fortnight.
1855 CD paid little girls in H's parish to collect seeds of Lychnis etc.—MLi 419.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin to.
1860 Sat. Jun. 30 H was in the chair of Section D at British Association Oxford scene.
1861 CD to Hooker, on H's death and the question of a biography, "The equability and perfection of Henslow's whole character"—MLi 188. "His judgement was excellent and his whole mind well-balanced; but I do not suppose that anyone would say that he possessed much original genius"—Barlow, Autobiography 64.
1862 Biography: 1862 Leonard Jenyns, with recollections by CD, 51-55 (F130).
1871 CD to Anne Barnard (H's daughter), "To the last day of my life I shall think of your father with the deepest respect and affection, and gratitude for his invariable kindness towards me"—Carroll 390.
1967 Barlow, Darwin and Henslow (F1598).

[page] 161

Herbert, John Maurice, 1808-1882.

County Court judge on Monmouth and Cardiff circuit. Cousin of C. T. Whitley. Close friend of CD at Cambridge and member of Gourmet Club. Nicknamed "Cherbury", from Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Home was Court, Calmore, Welshpool, Montgomeryshire.
1828 CD collected beetles with H at Barmouth, North Wales.
1839 H sent CD a silver forficula, i.e. asparagus tongs, as a wedding present—EDii 24.
1856 CD to H, thanking him for a book of poetry, "I shall keep to my dying day an unfading remembrance of the many pleasant hours, (especially at Barmouth) which we have spent together"—Carroll 121.
1867 May, CD invites H to Down House—Carroll 327.
1868 H had given CD his old microscope—Carroll 344.
1872 CD sent H 1st edition of Emotions—Carroll 425.
Herbert, S., see CD's manuscripts, 1978.
Herbert, Hon. and Rev. William, 1778-1847.

Poet and plant breeder. Dean of Manchester. DNB.
1844 CD to Hooker mentions him in relation to heaths from Cape of Good Hope.
1845 Warden of the Collegiate Church.
1845 CD visited.
Collegiate Church became a Cathedral in 1847 and H its Dean.
1847 CD visited in London and discussed hybridizing, "I...saw that he was very feeble", he died in his chair later in the same day—1863 Cottage Gardener 29:93.
Hermitage, House near Woking, Surrey.
circa 1847 Home of Henry Allen Wedgwood.

[page] 162


CD's name for a plant of morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, of exceptional vigour—Cross and self, Allan 252.
Herschel, Sir John Frederick William, Bart, 1792-1871.

Astronomer and chemist. DNB.
1813 FRS.
Knight of Hanover.
1836 Jun. CD dined with at Cape of Good Hope, at Lady Caroline Bell's house. Her comment on him "he always came into a room as if he knew that his hands were dirty, and that his wife knew that they were dirty"—Barlow, Autobiography 107. CD also dined with him in London.
1838 1st Bart.
1849 H edited Manual of scientific enquiry, to which CD contributed the geology (F325).
1850-1855 Master of the Mint.
1859 CD sent H copy of 1st edition of Origin.
1861 CD to Gray, on evolution as stated in H's Physical geography of the globe, 1861—LLii 373.
1863 [letter] "The doctrine of heterogeny and the modification of species", Athenaeum, No. 1852:554-555 (Bii 78, F1729).
Hewitt, Mr

A pheasant and poultry breeder of Birmingham. H is much quoted in Descent.
1868 Mar. CD to J. J. Weir on sexual preferences of pheasant cocks when crossed with poultry hens—MLii 69.
1868 Apr. CD to the same, H says "the common hen prefers a salacious cock, but is quite indifferent to colour".
Hewitt, Edward
Hewitt, Ginette

Married Sir Robert Vere Darwin as second wife.
Heywood Lodge, Heywood Lane, Tenby, South Wales.
1843-1864 Emma Allen and her sister Frances lived here after the death of their brother John Hensleigh A.
Higginson, Colonel Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911.

Of Newport, Rhode Island, USA.
1873 CD to H, he had enjoyed his Life with a black regiment, 1870, and also had his Atlantic essays, 1871.
High Elms

Estate of about 3000 acres marched with Down House grounds. A golf course in 1978.
circa 1842 Home of, and rebuilt, after burning down, by, Sir John William Lubbock, and then of his son Sir John L, Baron Avebury.
"High Elms"

Pseudonym of Edward Levett Darwin as an author.
Hildebrand, Friedrich Hermann Gustav, 1835-1915.

Prof. Botany Frieburg. CD often praised H for writing German which was as clear as French.
1866 CD to H, on his papers on fertilisation of Fumariaceae and Salvia—LLiii 280.
1868 CD to H, on graft hybrids—MLi 285.
Hill, The, near Abergavenny, Wales.
1830 Home of John Wedgwood.
Hill, Elizabeth, 1702-1797.

Daughter of John H. CD's great-grandmother.
1723/1724 Married Robert Darwin.

[page] 163

Hill, John

Of Sleaford, Lincolnshire. Married Elizabeth Alvey. Father of Elizabeth H. Fourth generation ancestor of CD in male line.
Hill, Richard, 1795-1872.

Of Spanish Town, Jamaica. Naturalist. H helped P. H. Gosse with Jamaica birds.
1859 CD to re Origin—Frank Cundall 1915 West India Committee Circular pp. 562-3.

CD sent 1st ed. 0rigin to, copy on market 1981.
Hill, Major Richard Noel, 1800-1861.

A cousin of Capt. Owen of Woodhouse.
1820s A shooting companion of CD in the 1820s. Took part in a shooting joke at CD's expense—Barlow, Autobiography 54.
1848 5th Baron Berwick.
Hills, Mrs
1887 ED to Henrietta Emma Litchfield, "Old Mrs" H, a villager at Downe. ??wife of the next.

Gardener at Down House after CD's death. ??husband of the previous.
1899 Apr. H gave notice.
1964 First edition in: Origin of species (F702).
Hindmarsh, L.

See Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2:274, 1839.
1861 CD to, about Earl of Tankerville's wild white cattle at Chillingham, Northumberland—MLi 187.
"Historical sketch"

Of previous studies and ideas on evolution.
1860 Appeared in a shorter version, written before Feb. 20, in 1st German edition and 4th USA printing.
1861 First added to 3rd English edition of Origin, in answer to criticisms by reviewers.

Tahitian Chief.
1835 Nov. 26 CD discussed lightning conductors with H and several other Chiefs.
Hobart, Tasmania.
1836 Feb. 5-17 Beagle anchored in Storm Bay; CD landed.
Hobhouse, Arthur, Baron, 1819-1904.

Married Mary Farrer.
Hobhouse, Mary, see Farrer.
Höchberg, Karl

Of Lugano, Switzerland.
1879 CD to H, answering his queries on diet in relation to activity—Carroll 560.
Hochstetter, Ferdinand Christian, Baron von, 1828-1884.

Austrian geologist. Prof. Mineralogy and Geology, Imperial Polytechnic Institute Vienna.
1861 H wrote to Hooker that evolution was making "very considerable progress" in Germany—LLii 327.
Hocken, Thomas Morland, 1836-1910.

Ethnographer and book collector. Secretary of Otago Institute.
1880 Institute celebrated 21st birthday of Origin by sending illuminated address to CD.
1881 Feb. 21 CD to H thanking and expressing continued interest in NZ.
Hodgson, Bryan Houghton, 1800-1894.

Vertebrate naturalist of Darjeeling, India.
1862 Hooker wrote to H, who was a personal friend, in succinct praise of CD.
Hofmann, Augustus Wilhelm von, 1818-1892.

Chemist. Director College of Chemistry London. H helped CD with experiments for Insectivorous plants.—Carroll 491.
1851 FRS.
1864 Prof. Chemistry Berlin.
Holden, Rev. James Richard, 1807-1876.

Cambridge friend of CD. Rector of Lackford, Suffolk.

[page] 164

1877 [Letter of thanks by CD] in P. Harting, "Testimonial to Mr Darwin—Evolution in the Netherlands", Nature, Lond., 15:410-412 (F1776). CD had received an album of portrait photographs for his 68th birthday.
Holland, Mr
1857 CD to James Buckman, CD had asked "my cousin Mr. Holland of Dumpleton to make the enquiries, but as he is not on the spot, I have ventured to ask you". The enquiry was about a rare breed of pigeon—Letter DCPOD vol. 6 CUP 1990 2151 230307.
Holland, Edward, 1806-75.
1902 E. S. Holland A history of Holland, Edinburgh.
Holland, Sir Henry, Bart, 1788-1873.

Physician to Queen Victoria. DNB.

CD's second cousin. His grandmother, Catherine E. Willett née Wedgwood, was tenth child of Thomas W [III]; "A long and intimate friendship with whom (namely CD) I have more pleasure in recording than any family tie"—Holland Recollections of a past life—Woodall p. 2. Constantly kind to the D family in their illnesses.
1816 FRS.
1827 Harry Wedgwood to his mother: "Nobody shall persuade me that Dr. H. is either the most agreeable or the cleverest man in London. If he was he would not have shocked Charles Darwin by saying that a whale has cold blood"—EDi p. 198.
1853 1st Bart.
1859 CD to W. B. Carpenter, "I do not think (privately I say it) that the great man has knowledge enough to enter on the subject [evolution]"—LLii 223.
1859 Oct. CD to Lyell, CD hopes that H will not review Origin in Quart. Rev. because he "is so presumptuous and knows so little".
1859 Dec. CD to Lyell, CD had "found him going an immense way with us (i.e. all Birds from one)—good"—Carroll 184.
Holland, Saba, see Smith.
"Holly berries"
1877 "Holly berries", Gardeners' Chronicle, 7:19 (Bii 189, F1774).
1877 ["The scarcity of holly berries and bees"], ibid., 7:83 (Bii 190, F1775).
Hollycombe, near Midhurst, Surrey.

Home of Sir John Hawkshaw.
1876 Jun. CD stayed there—Journal.
Holmgren, Frithiof, 1831-1897.

Prof. Physiology Uppsala.
1881, 1887 CD letter to H on vivisection, The Times, Apr. 18; Nature, Lond., Apr. 21; Brit. Med. J., 1:660; also in a pamphlet by George Jesse and several times in Sweden. Also in LLiii 208 and Bettany 160-162, both 1887. (F1352-1356).
Holmwood House

1½ miles from Downe. George Bentham visited Down House from—LLiii 39. Atkins 103 says that the estate belonged to Earl of Derby.
1865 Home of Robert Rolfe, Baron Cranworth.
Home, David Milne, see Milne.

A small house 400 yards northwest of Down House. On two acres originally part of little Pucklands field. Bought by the Ds and in the Downe House School period a convalescent dormitory.
1930 Leased and added to by Sir Arthur Keith, 1930 until his death.
Hooker, Harriet Anne

Fifth child of Sir Joseph Dalton H and Frances Henslow. Married Sir William Thiselton Dyer.
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, 1817 Jun. 30-1911 Dec. 10.

Second son of Sir William Jackson H. Botanist. Biography: L. Huxley 1918; Turrill 1963; Allan, The Hookers of Kew, 1967. DNB.

H was CD's greatest personal friend and confidant, much more so than either Lyell or Huxley, and provided much plant material for CD from Kew. H preserved all CD's letters, see Janet Browne, J. Soc. Biblphy Nat. Hist., 8:351-366, 1978. Often at Down House.
1839 Jan. CD and H first met in company with Asa Gray at Hunterian Museum, R.C.S. Also in Trafalgar Square in company of Robert McCormick.
1844 Sep. CD to Lyell, "Young Hooker talks of coming here [to Down House]; I wish he might meet you,—he appears to me a most engaging young man"—MLii 120.
1845 CD to Henslow, CD was disappointed that H had not got some post at Edinburgh.
1847 FRS.
1851 Married l Frances Henslow, eldest daughter of J. S. Henslow. 4 sons, 2 daughters. Fifth child Harriet Anne H.
1854 Royal Medal of Royal Society.
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin.
1859 Nov. H accepted CD's theory in print in introductory essay to Flora Tasmaniae, I, pt 3, ic-xxviii; this is Vol. 3 of Botany of H.M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror, 1839-1843, 3 vols 1849-1860. The introductory essay was also available separately.
1865-1885 Director of Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, Surrey, in succession to his father.
1866 Aug. 27 H satirized Oxford meeting of British Association with allegory of new moon and savages' medicinemen at Nottingham meeting—LLiii 48.
1873-1878 PRS.
Frances Henslow died.
1876 Aug. Married 2 Hyacinth Symonds, widow of Sir William Jardine Bart. 2 sons.
1878 KCSI.
1882 H was Pallbearer at CD's funeral.
1885 H retired to The Camp, Sunninghill, Berkshire.
1887 Copley Medal.
1892 Darwin Medal.
1897 GCSI.
1897 VMH of Royal Horticultural Society.
1907 OM.
1908 Darwin-Wallace Medal of Linnean Society.

[page] 165

Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1785-1865.

Father of Sir Joseph Dalton H. CD knew and met often but was not familiar with. Biography: J. D. H., Ann. Bot., 16:ix-ccxxi, 1902; Allan, The Hookers of Kew, 1967. DNB.
1812 FRS.
1815 Married Maria Sarah Turner. 2 sons, 3 daughters.
1820-1841 Prof. Botany Glasgow.
1836 Kt of Hanover.
1841-1865 Director Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey.
Hoole, Rev.
1877 Curate at Downe church, presumably as a locum for Ffinden, then the vicar. H's wife Alice "poor Mrs Hoole" was an invalid—Darwin-Innes 243.
Hope, Lady

Lady [Elizabeth Reid] Hope, widow of Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hope, writer of evangelical tracts and on temperance. "Of Northfield". H was involved in CD's so-called death-bed conversion, see Atkins 51-52.
1882 Encouraged by Dwight Lyman Moody, she told the story to one of M's schools at Northfield, Massachusetts. Her story was printed in Watchman Examiner, Boston. Henrietta Litchfield denied the story in detail in The Christian 1922 Feb. 23 "The whole story has no foundation whatever". H was not present at CD's last illness and perhaps they never met.
1902 Alive in 1902 when a Mr Tucker, of the Salvation Army, asked her for details.

[page] 166

Hope, Rev. Frederick William 1797-1862.

Entomologist and print collector. Founder of Hope Chair of Zoology (Entomology) Oxford. CD gave him many insects which are now in Hope collection, Oxford—Poulton, Darwin and the Origin, 202. DNB.
1829 Feb. H gave CD specimens of about 160 species of beetles in London—LLi 174.
1829 Jun. CD visited Barmouth with H to collect beetles, but CD was ill and had to return to Shrewsbury after two days.
1834 FRS.
1837 CD to H, about Australian insects.
1838 CD to Lyell, "How much I disliked the manner [Hope] referred to his other works, as much as to say 'you everything I have written'"—LLi 292, Carroll 10.
Hope, Thomas Charles, 1766-1844.

The only teacher at Edinburgh of whose lectures CD approved. DNB.
1799-1843 Prof. Chemistry Edinburgh.
1804 FRS.
Hopedene, near Dorking, Surrey.

A house which was lent to Hensleigh Wedgwood. Near Abinger, built 1875—W&W.
1876 May 6-Jun. 6 CD stayed there—MLii 12.
Hopkins, William, 1793-1866.

Mathematician and geologist. Mathematical coach at Cambridge. DNB.
1837 FRS.
1860 H reviewed Origin in Fraser's Mag., Jun., Jul., against but friendly.
Hordern, Ellen Frances, 1830-1879.

Daughter of Rev. Peter H. Memorial in Downe Churchyard gives date of birth.
1856 Married Sir John Lubbock as first wife.
Horner, Anne Susan, see Lloyd.
Horner, Frances, 1814-?

Second child of Leonard H.
1844 Married Sir Charles James Fox Bunbury.
1894 Author of biography of her husband, London [1894], privately printed.
Horner, Francis [I], 1778-1817.

Barrister and statesman. Elder brother of Leonard H. Statue by Chantry in Westminster Abbey. DNB.
Horner, Francis [II], 1820-1824.

Sixth child and only son of Leonard H.
Horner, Joanna, ?1822-?

Seventh child of Leonard H. Unmarried.
1856 H wrote to CD about some beetles which she had—MLi 84.
Horner, Katherine Murray, 1817-1915.

Fourth child of Leonard H.
1848 Married Lt-Col. Henry Lyell, Sir Charles Lyell's younger brother.
1875 H asked CD to be a Pallbearer at Lyell's funeral. CD declined on grounds of ill-health—LLiii 197.
1882 H was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.

Author of:
1881 Life, letters and journals of Sir Charles Lyell, 2 vols.
1890 Memoir of Leonard Horner, 2 vols, privately printed.
Horner, Leonard, 1785-1864.

Son of John Horner. Linen draper of Edinburgh. Geologist. Fairly frequent correspondent of CD and met when CD was in London. Member of Whig circle and friend of Erasmus Alvey D. Biography: K. M. Lyell (daughter), 2 vols, privately printed 1890. DNB.

Married Anne Susan Lloyd. 1 son, 6 daughters: 1. Mary Elizabeth, 2. Frances, 3. Susan, 4. Katherine Murray, 5. Leonora, 6. Francis, 7. Joanna.
1813 FRS.
1826 H took CD to meeting of Royal Society of Edinburgh—LLi 40.
1827-1831 First Warden of University of London.
1833-1860 Factory Commissioner.
1846 H visited Down House with wife.
1860 CD sent 1st edition of Origin to.

[page] 167

Horner, Leonora, 1818-?

Fifth child of Leonard H.
1839 H dined with CD and ED at Upper Gower St.
1847 Sep. H visited Down House with the Lyells.
1854 Married Chevalier Georg H. Pertz.
Horner, Mary Elizabeth, 1808-1873.

First child of Leonard H.
1832 Married Sir Charles Lyell.
Horner, Susan 1816-1900.

Third child of Leonard H. Unmarried.

The following family horses are entered by name: Dandy, Dobbin, Flyer, Tara, Tommy.
Horsman, Samuel James O'Hara
circa 1868 Curate at Downe. H got, after a prison sentence, another curacy in Kent.
Horwood, John

1823-c. 1880. Sir John Lubbock's head gardener.
1862-1863 H superintended building of CD's hothouse.
Hotham, Harriet, 1810-1873.
1833 Married Sir John William Lubbock.
Houghton, Baron, see Richard Monckton Milnes.
Houseman, Emma, 1839-1929.

Daughter of John H.
1871 Married Lawrence Wedgwood.
Houseman, John

London bookseller. Father of Emma H.
Houseman, Laurence

So spelt in W&W, "Lawrence" in ED.
Howard, Mary, 1740 Feb. 12-1770 Jun. 30.

Daughter of Charles H and Penelope Foley. Known as "Polly". CD's grandmother. Drank gin.
1757 Married Erasmus Darwin [I] as 1st wife.
Died of drinking gin.
Howarth, Osbert John Radcliffe, 1878-1954.
1909-1946 Secretary British Association for the Advancement of Science.
1929-1954 Curator Down House.
1933 H and Eleanor K. H. (wife), A history of Darwin's parish, Southampton 1933.
Hubbersty, Nathan, 1803-1881.
1826 CD went on walking tour in North Wales with H.
1826-1828 Assistant master Shrewsbury School.
1832-1851 Headmaster Wirksworth Grammar School.
1839 CD suggested to H that he should do some plant-breeding experiments—4th notebook on transmutation.

[page] 168

Hudson, William Henry, 1841-1922. 

Ornithologist and popular writer. See Pampas woodpecker.
Hughes, Charles

H helped CD and became interested in geology.
1818-1819 Shrewsbury School.
1832 Nov. 11 CD met at Montevideo—CCD I.
Hughes, Frances see Fox.
Hughes, Thomas McKenny, 1832-1917.

Geologist. WWH.
1873-1917 Woodwardian Prof. Geology Cambridge.
1880 CD to H, about award to CD of a medal by Chester Natural History Society.
1880 Oct. took tea with CD and ED in Cambridge.
1889 FRS.
"Humble Bees"
1841 "Humble bees", Gardeners' Chronicle, No. 34:550 (Bi 142, F1658).
1885 "Ueber die Wege der Hummeln-Männchen", 84-88 in Gesammelte kleinere Schriften, Leipzig (F1584).
1965 1885 paper translated as "On the flight paths of male humble bees", 70-73 in R. B. Freeman, The works of Charles Darwin, London (F1580).
1968 "Charles Darwin on the routes of male humble bees", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), hist. Ser., 3:177-189. As 1965 translation but with transcript of CD's field notes added (F1568).
Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander, Baron von, 1769-1859.

German naturalist and traveller. CD once met, when CD was resident in London, at Murchison's house.
1815 Corresponding Member RS.

CD's copy of Personal narrative...1799-1804 1819-1829 was given him by Henslow before he sailed.
1881 CD to Hooker, "the parent of a grand progeny of scientific travellers".
Humphrey, Philip E., see Marston Bates.

Of 32 Sackville St, London.
circa 1868 Supplied curates for Downe Parish.

First editions in:
1873-1874 Origin of species (F703).
1882 Descent of man (F1084).
1913 Journal of researches (F208).
1955 Autobiography (F1521).
1959 Variation under domestication (F919).
1963 Expression of the emotions (F1199).
Hunt, Robert, 1807-1887.

Scientific writer. DNB.
1854 FRS.
1868 CD sent a third-person summary of his life for inclusion in Biographical memoirs of men of science, [1868].
Hutton, Frederick Wollaston, 1836-1905.

Army Officer and geologist. Curator of Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand.
1861 H reviewed Origin in The Geologist, 132—LLii 362.
1861 CD to H, on his review, praising it—MLi 183.
1867 CD to Kingsley, "a very acute observer"—Carroll 330.
1892 FRS.
1899 Author of Darwinism and Lamarckism, old and new, London 1899.
Hutton, John Balfour 1808-1884.

Botanist. Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
1861 CD sent H Gray's Natural selection not inconsistent with natural theology, 1861—Darwin-Gray 76.

[page] 169

Hutton, Richard Holt, 1826-1897.

Unitarian clergyman, which he later abandoned. Man of letters.
1875 H was a member of Vivisection Commission.
Huxley Family

For information:

Oriana Huxley Waller, daughter of THH's daughter. Married 1905 Edmund Sidney Pollock Haynes, 1877-1949. Their daughter Renée married Jerrard Tickell. One of their (?2) sons got a K in ?1983.

Sir Crispin (Charles Cervantes) T, 1930-? KCVO 1983, twice married, 2 sons 1 daughter.
Huxley, Henrietta Anne, see Heathorn.
Huxley, Sir Julian Sorrell, 1887-1975.

Zoologist. Eldest son of Leonard H and Julia Frances Arnold. Author of works on evolution and biological popularizer. WWH.
1909 Feb. 12 H was present at CD celebrations at Oxford.
1919 Married Marie Juliette Baillot.
1938 FRS.
1939 The living thoughts of Darwin, selected by H, translated into many languages.
1958 Kt.
Huxley, Leonard, 1860-1933.

Fourth child of Thomas Henry H. CD was his godfather—Jim Moore. Biographer of his father and of Hooker.
1885 Married 1 Julia Frances Arnold (1862-1908). 2 sons, 1 daughter: 1. Julian Sorrell, 2. Aldous.
1912 Married 2 Rosalind Bruce. 2 sons: 1. Andrew.
Huxley, Marian, 1859-1887.

Third child of Thomas Henry H.
1878 H made pencil sketch of CD, now at National Portrait Gallery.
1879 Married John Collier.
Huxley Testimonials
[1851] Testimonials for Thomas H. Huxley, F.R.S., candidate for the Chair of Natural History at the University of Toronto. London, Richard Taylor printed. CD's letter at p. 4 (F344). The Chair went to William Hincks, brother of Sir Francis Hincks, then Prime Minister of Upper Canada.
Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825 May 4-1895 Jun. 29.

Seventh child of George H and Rachel Withers. Man of science and educationalist. Biography: L. Huxley (son) 1900; F. Chalmers Mitchell 1900. DNB. EB.

Frequent correspondent and often at Down House, but was never on such close personal terms with CD as was Hooker see Bartholemew, M., Ann. Sci., 32:525, 1975. H was known as Darwin's bull-dog. "I am Darwin's bull-dog" he once said.
1845 MB London.
1846-1850 Surgeon on HMS Rattlesnake, mostly in Australian waters.
1850 FRS.
1854 Prof. Natural History School of Mines London.
1854 Apr. CD to H on archetypes.
1854 CD to Hooker, about H's Royal Institution lectures "I think his tone is much too vehement"—MLi 89.
1855 Married Jul. 25 Henrietta Anne Heathorn. 3 sons, 5 daughters:
1. Noel, 1856-1860.
2. Jessie Oriana, 1858-1927.
3. Marian q.v.
4. Leonard q.v.
5. Rachel, 1862-1934, married 1884 Alfred Eckersley.
6. Henrietta, 1863-1940, known as "Nettie", married 1889 Harold Roller.
7. Henry, 1865-1965, married 1890 Sophia Stobart.
8. Ethel Gladys, 1866-1941, known as "Babs" and "Pabelunza", married 1889 John Collier (as deceased wife's sister).
1859 CD sent 1st edition of Origin to.
1860 Apr. H reviewed Origin in The Times and Westminster Rev.
1860 Sat. Jun. 30 H defended Origin against Bishop Samuel Wilberforce's attack at Oxford meeting of British Association—LLii 32-323.
1860 "Time and life: Mr. Darwin's 'Origin of species'" Macmillans Magazine 1:142-48.
1871 Nov. 2 H to Haeckel "The dogs have been barking at his heels too much of late"—Life of Huxley, 2nd edition ii 62.
1873 £2100 subscribed by CD and other friends to let H have a long rest after nervous breakdown. All H's children were looked after by ED at Down House whilst he was away—MLi 72.
1875 H was member of Vivisection Commission. He saw and agreed to Litchfield's draft for bill—LLiii 204.
1880 H lectured to Royal Institution on "The coming of age of the Origin", published in Nature, Lond. and in Science and Culture. CD sorry that he could not attend—LLiii 240.
1882 CD left him £1000 in his will—MLi 72.
1882 H was Pallbearer at CD's funeral.
1883-1885 PRS.
1892 PC.
1887 H on the reception of Origin in 1859-1860, "How extremely stupid of me not to have thought of that"—LLii 179-204.
1890 H retired to Hodeslea (a name which he invented and believed related to the origin of his surname), Stavely Rd, Eastbourne, Sussex, which he designed and had built.
1891 Anthony Rich left H his house, Chappel Croft, Heene, Worthing, Sussex, and contents. H sold house for £2800.
1908 E. R. Lankester of H "the great and beloved teacher, the unequalled orator, the brilliant essayist, the unconquerable champion and literary swordsman"—Darwin-Wallace celebrations at Linnean Society 29.
1909 E. B. Poulton of H: "the illustrious comparative anatomist, Huxley, Darwin's great general in the battles that had to be fought, but not a naturalist, far less a student of living nature"—Darwin and the Origin 58.

Main works:
1863 Evidence as to man's place in nature.
1863 On our knowledge of the causes of the phenomena of organic nature.
1873 Lay sermons, addresses and reviews.
1873 Critiques and addresses.
1881 Science and culture and other essays.
1893-1894 Collected essays, 9 vols.

[page] 170

Hyatt, Alpheus, 1838-1902.

Palaeontologist. H worked especially on fossil cephalopods. Pupil of L. Agassiz and friend of Cope.
1872 CD to H about H's and Cope's ideas on acceleration and retardation in evolution. CD wrote on the back of one of H's papers "I cannot avoid thinking this paper fanciful"—LLiii 154, MLi 338.
1877 CD to H on inheritance of acquired characters—LLiii 232.
1881 Curator of Museum of Boston Natural History Society.
1868 "On the character and hybrid-like nature of the offspring from the illegitimate unions of dimorphic and trimorphic plants", J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.), 10:393-437 (F1742).

[page] 171

Hyman, Stanley Edgar, 1919-.
1963 Darwin for today the essence of his work, New York. Selections by H (F1618).

[page 172]


"Icebergs Making Grooves"
1855 "On the power of icebergs to make rectilinear uniformly-directed grooves across a submarine undulatory surface", Phil. Mag., 10:96-98 (Bi 252, F1681).
Ilkley, near Otley, Yorkshire.
1859 Autumn CD to water cure there, stayed at Wells Terrace. CD was there when Origin was published.
Imperatorskaya Akademiya Nauk (Academia Scientarum Imperialis Petropolitana), St Petersburg.
1867 CD Corresponding Member.

CD's gyp (servant) at Christ's College, Cambridge.
1858 Impey was still there when William Erasmus D went up to Christ's.
Inchkeith, Fife.

Island in Firth of Forth. CD visited with Ainsworth when at Edinburgh and was benighted, took refuge in lighthouse—Ainsworth Athenaeum 1882 May.
Index Kewensis

Originally supervised by Hooker and carried out by B. Daydon Jackson—LLiii 352, Kew Bull., 29, 1896.
1882 Jan. CD sent a first £250 and left a letter desiring that his children should send a similar sum for four or five years.
1892-1895 4 vols, with 12 subsequent supplements to 1959, and a supplement since quinquennially. List of plant genera and their contained species, with relevant literature. Wording of announcement in Vol. 4 "The expense of preparing the work has been entirely defrayed by the members of the family of the late Charles Darwin".
Ingall,Margaret Rosina, ?-1922.

Daughter of Richard Ingall of Valparaiso, Chile. Known as Rosina.
Married Alfred Allen Wedgwood.
Inglis, Sir Robert Harry, Bart, 1786-1855.

Politician. MP for Oxford University. Inglis was legal guardian of Laura Forster's mother, Laura Thornton. DNB.
1813 FRS.
1820 2nd Bart.
1854 CD took breakfast with him in company—MLi 79.
1881 "Inheritance", Nature, Lond., 24:257 (Bii 230, F1795).
Innes, Rev. John Brodie (1817-1894)

Letters to and from CD edited by R. M. Stecher, Ann. Sci., 17:201-258 (F1597). They contain a lot of information about people at Downe not contained in other sources.
1842 Curate of Farnborough, Kent.
1846-1869 Vicar of Downe.
1859 CD sent 1st edition Origin to.
?1860 CD to Innes, "I do not attack Moses, and I think Moses can take care of himself."
1862 Innes retired to his ancestral home Milton Brodie, Forres.
until 1871 Downe was served by curates until G. S. Ffinden became Vicar in 1871.

"Brodie Innes and I have been fast friends for thirty years, and we have never thoroughly agreed on any subject but once, and then we stared hard at each other, and thought one of us must be very ill"—LLii 288.
1882 Innes was on "Personal Friends invited" list for CD's funeral.

[page] 173

Innes, John William Brodie, 1848-1923.

Son of J. B. Innes. Barrister and novelist. Innes occurs in letters between CD and his father, as a child and young man.
Insectivorous Plants
1875 Insectivorous plants (F1217).
1875 2nd thousand, with 6-line errata slip (F1218).
1875 3rd thousand, 6 errata corrected, but with a further 6 on slip (F1219).
1888 2nd edition, revised by Francis Darwin (F1225).
1969 Facsimile 1st edition (F1235).

First foreign editions:
1875 USA (F1220).
1876 German (F1738), Russian (F1244).
1877 French (F1237).
1878 Italian (F1242).
1965 Romanian (F1243).
1873 [letter] "Inherited instinct", Nature, Lond., 7:281, introducing a letter without title from William Huggins, ibid., 7:281-282 (Bii 170, F1757).
1873 "Origin of certain instincts", Nature, Lond., 7:417-418 (Bii 172, F1760).
1883 "The late Mr. Darwin on instinct", Nature, Lond., 29:128-129 (F1804), summary, with last 3 paragraphs in full, of a communication by Romanes to Linnean Society of London, published in full in Mental evolution in animals, 1883 q.v.
Institucion Libre de Ensenanza, Madrid.
1877 CD Honorary Professor.
Institut, see Académie des Sciences.
Ipswich Museum portraits
Set of 60 lithographs of distinguished scientists prepared 1850, for British Association meeting at Ipswich 1851. Paid for by G. Ransome chemist and druggist in Ipswich.

Portrait of CD is by T. H. Maguire, dated 1849, printed by M. & N. Hanhart. CD is seated in a Down House study chair. This is the only engraving of CD from life. Copies should carry a facsimile signature "Charles Darwin" centre and a raised blind Ipswich Museum stamp with arms bottom right.
Iquique, Peru.

See Benchuca.
1835 Jul. 13-14 Beagle at.

Jul. 13 CD landed and made short journey to saltpetre mines.
1827 May CD visited Belfast and Dublin at end of a tour in Scotland, his only visit to Ireland.

[page] 174

Isaac, Charlotte, see Holland.
Irvine, Mrs

Landlady of 12 Upper Gower St, from whom CD rented the house—Brent p. 258.
Isle of May, Fife.

Firth of Forth. CD visited with Ainsworth and Greville when at Edinburgh—Ainsworth Athenaeum 1882 May.

? a local clergyman near Downe—CD-Innes 219.
Isle of Wight, Hampshire.
1837 Nov. CD visited C. D. Fox there.
1846 Sep. 12 CD and ED visited on day trip from British Association meeting at Southampton.
1858 Jul. 17-Aug. 12 Family holiday at Sandown and Shanklin.
1868 Jul. 17-Aug. 20 Family holiday at Freshwater.

First editions in:
1864 Origin of species (F706).
1871 Descent of man (F1088).
1872 Journal of researches (F211).
1876 Variation under domestication (F920).
1878 Climbing plants (F863).
1878 Expression of the emotions (F1200).
1878 Insectivorous plants (F1242).
1878 Cross and self fertilisation (F1269).
1882 Vegetable mould and worms (F1407).
1883 Fertilisation of orchids (F823).
1884 Different forms of flowers (F1299).
1884 Movement in plants (F1347).
1888 Coral reefs (F818).
1919 Autobiography (F1522).
1960 On the tendency of species to form varieties (F368).

[page 175]


1894 A parrot bought by ED 1894.
Jackson, Mrs.

Wife of William J, she had been a nurse; "the most perfectly tidy person I ever saw, with a row of shiny black buttons down the front of her dress and an overwhelming sense of propriety"—Bernard D p. 13.
Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, 1846-1927.

Botanist on staff at Kew, in charge of Index Kewensis. Secretary to Linnean Society.
1909, 1910
Darwiniana, 1910, contains three essays published elsewhere, 1909, republished as a pamphlet with alterations; one gives a list of plants named after CD.
Jackson, William
1875 J was a manservant at Down House.
1875 Succeeded Parslow as butler.

"A little man with very red cheeks, little loose curly wisps of side whiskers; not very tidy and not at all smart, nor, I imagine, very efficient"—Bernard D p. 11.

J made model of Down House in cork, once in Galton Collection at University College London, now at Down House.
circa 1882 Retired.
1882 J attended CD's funeral, walking in procession with Parslow behind the family mourners, but ahead of the official representatives.
Jäger [Jaeger], Gustav, 1832-1917.

Zoologist of Stuttgart.
1875 CD to J, thanking him for copy of his book In Sachen Darwins insbesondere contra Wigand, 1874.
[1869] Author of Die Darwin'sche Theorie und ihre Stellung zu Moral und Religion.
1897 Problems of nature, London, translations of some of J's papers, prints two letters from CD thanking J for books sent.
Jameson, Robert, 1774-1854.

Mineralogist and natural historian. DNB.
1804-1854 Prof. Natural History Edinburgh. CD found his lectures "incredibly dull"—Autobiography.
1808 J founded Wernerian Society, Edinburgh.
1823 J founded Plinian Society, Edinburgh.
1854 CD to Hooker, about Forbes "I wish, however, he would not praise that old dry stick Jameson"—MLi 79.
Jamieson, Thomas Francis, 1829-1913.

Geologist of Ellon, Aberdeen. Correspondent of CD.
1862 J was the first person to give correct solution to parallel roads of Glenroy, Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 19:235-259, 1863.
?1865-1879 Housemaid at Down House. Not the same person as Emily Jane. Head housemaid and leaving to get married—Bernard D p. 15.
Janet, Paul, 1823-1899.

French philosophical writer and entomologist.
1857-1864 Prof. Logic Lycée Louis le grand Paris.
1864-? Prof. Philosophy Sorbonne Paris.
1866 CD to Wallace, "As for M. Janet, he is a metaphysician, and such gentlemen are so acute that I think they often misunderstand common folk"—LLiii 46.

[page] 176


First editions in:
1896 Origin of species (F718).
1949 Coral reefs (F319).
1949 Descent of man (F1100).
1949 Different forms of flowers (F1300).
1954 Journal of researches (F216).
1972 Autobiography (F1524a).
Jardine, Sir William, Bart, 1800-1874.

Scottish cabinet naturalist, especially of birds. 7th Bart. J's relict Hyacinth Symonds married Hooker. DNB.
1860 CD to Lyell, CD had had a letter from J who opposed CD on evolution, but his attack on CD's ornithological accuracy is worthless—Carroll 201.
Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse, 1841-1905.

Greek scholar. Married Caroline Reynolds. J was much in Cambridge Darwin circle after CD's death.—Period piece. DNB.
1875-1889 Prof. Greek Glasgow.
1887-1905 Prof. Greek Cambridge.
1900 Kt.
1902 FBA.
Jeens, Charles Henry, 1827-1879.
1874 J made steel engraving from Rejlander photograph of CD for Nature, Lond. Jun. 4.
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, 1809-1885.

Malacologist. DNB.
1840 FRS.
1860 J was anti-Origin, letter referred to in LLii 260.
Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming, 1833-1885.

Electrician and engineer. DNB.
1865 FRS.
1865 Prof. Engineering University College London.
1867 CD to Kingsley, the review is telling and hostile, but lacking in knowledge.
1868 Prof. Engineering Edinburgh.
1869 Francis D, "my father, as I believe, felt the review to be the most valuable ever made on his views"—LLiii 107.
1869 CD to Hooker, "Fleeming Jenkins [sic] has given me much trouble, but has been of more real use to me than any other essay or review"—MLii 379.
Jenner, Sir William, Bart, 1815-1898.

1854-1879 Physician at University College London.
1863 CD consulted—Journal.
1864 FRS.
1868 1st Bart.
1877 KCB.
Jenyns, Leonard, later Blomefield, 1800-1893.

Anglican priest and naturalist. Vicar of Swaffham Bulbeck, Cambridgeshire. Henslow's brother-in-law.
Wrote Fish for Zoology of the Beagle.
circa 1845 J changed his surname on inheritance, when he moved to Bath.
1845 CD about J "At first I disliked him, from his somewhat grim and sarcastic expression...but I was completely mistaken, and found him very kind-hearted and with a good stock of humour". Also a biographical note—MLi 49.
1859 CD sent J 1st edition of Origin.
1862 J wrote Memoir of John Stevens Henslow, with recollections by CD 51-55 (F830).
1887, 1889 Chapters in my life, for private circulation, Bath; reprint with additions 1889, Bath.
Jesperson, P. Helveg
1949 "Charles Darwin and Dr Grant", Lychnos, 159-167. A useful source of information on CD's time at Edinburgh University.

[page] 177

Jesse, George Richard, 1820-1898.

Civil engineer. Anti-vivisectionist.
1881 J had written, very politely, to CD on the subject.
1881 J's pamphlet (F1356) reprints CD's letter to Frithiof Holmgren, which had appeared in The Times, Apr. 18 (Bii 226, F1352).
John, see Edmonston.
John, see Jordan.
Johnson, Charles Richardson, 1813-1882.
May joined Beagle for 2nd voyage. Acting mate on return of Beagle from 2nd voyage.
1879 Vice-Admiral—LLi 221.
Died same week as CD.
Johnson, Henry

1826 J was at Edinburgh with CD. CD to his sister Caroline, saying that J had changed his lodgings for the third time.
1880 CD to J about excavations at Wroxeter and about worms—N&R 74.
1883 J was still on Medical Register.
Jones, Henry Bence, 1814-1873.

Physician. Of St Georges Hospital. CD's physician for many years. DNB.
1846 FRS.
1866 Apr. 27 CD met at Royal Society soirée.
Jones, Richard, 1790-1835.

Master at Haileybury, successor to Malthus. Generally known as "Old Jones"; moved in scientific circles and was partial to a lot of wine, especially port; he liked to share his food and drink with young men.
Jones, ?Thomas Rymer, 1810-1880.

Physician and naturalist.
1834 FRS.
1836-1874 Prof. Comparative Anatomy King's College London.
1838 CD to Lyell, "Old Jones" was going to quarrel at the Newcastle meeting of British Association. CD dined with.—LLi 295, Carroll 10.
1854 CD to Lyell, about a meeting of the Geological Society, J had told CD about Prestwich's views on red clay with flints.
Jordan, John
1839 end Manservant at CD's house, 12 Upper Gower St, London.
Journal, see Darwin's Journal.
Journal and Remarks, see Journal of researches 1839.
Journal of Researches, see also Voyage of a naturalist, Voyage of the Beagle.

CD's first published book and probably his most read.

"Charm arising from the freshness of heart which is thrown over these virgin pages of a strong, intellectual man and an acute and deep observer"—Quart. Rev.—Leonard Huxley p. 27.
1845 He sold the copyright of the 2nd edition to John Murray for £150 and so made no profit from it or from its many subsequent printings or translations.

GB editions:
1839 As Vol. 3 of R. Fitz-Roy, editor, Narrative of...H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, sub-title Journal and Remarks (F10), CD's text was completed and printed in 1838.
1839 Independent issue of same text, Journal of researches into the geology and natural history etc. (F11).
1840 Reissue (F12).
1845 2nd edition, Journal of researches into the natural history and geology etc. (F13).
1860 Edition from stereos with postscript added (F20).
1890 Edition with postscript incorporated in text, final definitive edition (F58).
1890 First Murray illustrated edition (F59).
1916 English braille edition, based on 1890 (F168).

First foreign editions, in whole or in part:
1844 German (F188). The 1st German is the only translation based on the 1st English.
1846 USA (F16).
1860 French (F180).
1870 Russian (F226).
1872 Swedish (F259).
1875 German of 2nd edition (F189).
1876 Danish (F174).
1877 Italian (F211).
1887 Polish (F223).
1891 Dutch (F176).
1900 Greek (F206).
1902 Spanish (F249).
1913 Hungarian (F208).
1930 Hebrew (F207).
1949 Armenian (F169), Estonian (F179), Serbo-Croat (F244).
1950 Slovene (F248).
1951 Georgian (F187).
1954 Japanese (F216).
1956 Czech (F171).
1958 Romanian (F225).
1963 Lithuanian (F222).
1967 Bulgarian (F170).

[page] 178

Judd, John Wesley, 1840-1916.

Geologist. Prof. Geology Royal College of Science London. Correspondent and visitor to Down House—LLiii 352, MLi 375. DNB.
1877 FRS.
Jukes, Joseph Beete, 1811-1869.

Geologist. DNB.
1850-1869 Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland.
1853 FRS.
1860 J was pro-Origin—LLii 293.
1848 CD to Hooker, "The man, not content with moustaches, now sports an entire beard, and I am sure thinks himself like Jupiter tonans"—MLi 65.
Justice of the Peace
1857 CD appointed
1859 His only recorded attendance on bench—LLii 225.
1881 CD to Romanes, he was, as a magistrate, giving orders daily to allow pigs to cross roads, at a time of swine fever.

[page 179]


Kaiserlich-Koenigliche Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna.
1867 CD Honorary Member.
Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna.
1871 CD Foreign Corresponding Member.
1875 Honorary Foreign Member.
Karslake, Sir John Burgess, 1821-1881.

Barrister. DNB.
1866 Kt.
1867-1868, 1874-1875 Attorney-General.
1875 Member of Vivisection Commission—LLiii 201.
Kay, James Phillips, see Shuttleworth.
Kay, William, 1807-1861.

Physician of Clifton, Gloucestershire. Naturalist friend of CD at Edinburgh.
Kay-Shuttleworth, Sir James Phillips, Bart, see Shuttleworth.
Keeling Islands, see Cocos Keeling Islands.
Keen, Mr and Mrs

British residents in Argentine.
1833 Nov. 22-26 CD visited their estancia on river Beguelo (CD spells Berguelo) and collected a skull of "Megatherium", actually Toxodon, from a nearby hill, Cerro Perico flaco (CD calls it Cerro del Pedro Flaco)—Winslow, J. Hist. Geogr., 1:347-360, 1975.
Keith, Sir Arthur, 1866-1955.

Surgeon, anthropologist and darwinian. K was much involved in the purchase of Down House for the British Association and its later acquisition by the Royal College of Surgeons. K retired to Homefield, a small house on the western side of the Down House estate.
1913 FRS.
1921 Kt.
1942 "A postscript to Darwin's Vegetable mould through the action of worms", Nature, Lond., 149:716.
1955 Darwin revalued, which contains a last chapter on the later history of Down House, as well as much other information which is not available elsewhere.
Kelvin, Baron, see Sir William Thomson.
Kemp, William

Scottish amateur geologist of Galashiels, Selkirk. "Almost a working man", "partially educated", "a most careful and ingenious observer".
1843 K sent CD seeds from a sandpit near Melrose, found under 25 feet of white sand, which germinated into a common Rumex, an unrecognized species of Atriplex, and two species of Polygonum. The case in the end not proven—MLii 243-244, Darwin-Henslow 151.

[page] 180

Kempson, Louisa Frances, see Wedgwood.
Kempson, William John
1864 Married Louisa Frances Wedgwood and had offspring.
Kendall, Thomas, 1778-1832.

Not in holy orders but a schoolmaster.
1814 Early missionary for Church Missionary Society in New Zealand, arriving 1814.
1823 K was dismissed for living with a Maori girl and then went native.
1815 Author of the first book published in New Zealand, The New Zealander's first book, Sydney printed.
1835 CD mentions K (spelling "Kendal") in "Moral state of Tahiti, New Zealand etc.", 1836, q.v. in company with John King, but CD did not meet.
Kennedy, Mr
1834 Aug. 28 CD to RF: "Corfield took me to dine with a Mr Kennedy, who talks much about the Adventure and Beagle; he says he saw you at Chiloe"—Keynes p. 235.
Kennedy, Dr Benjamin Hall, 1804-1889.

Classical scholar. DNB.
1836-1866 Headmaster of Shrewsbury School.
1867-1889 Regius Prof. Greek Cambridge.
1881 Oct. CD saw "old Dr. Kennedy of Shrewsbury" at Cambridge.
Kensington Square, London.
1883-1903 No. 31, home of R. B. Litchfield.
Kent, William, ?-1882.
Jul. passed as Surgeon.
Jul. joined Beagle as Assistant Surgeon.
1836 Oct. Assistant Surgeon on return of Beagle from 2nd voyage.
1838 Appointed Surgeon.
Keppel Island
1855 Mission to Fuegians started, the building called Sulivan House after Admiral B. J. S.
1898 Transferred to Tekeeneka.
1911 Old building sold.
Kerner von Marilaun, Anton, Freiherr, 1831-1898.

German botanist.
1878 CD wrote prefatory letter to translation by W. Ogle of K's book Die Schützmittel der Blüthen gegen unberufene Gaste, Innsbruck 1876, Flowers and their unbidden guests, London (F1318).
Kew Gardens, see Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Kew Index, see Index Kewensis.
Keynes, Sir Geoffrey Langdon, 1887-1982.

Physician and bibliographer. WH.
1917 Married Margaret Elizabeth Darwin. 4 sons.
1955 Kt.
Keynes, Richard Darwin, 1919-.

Son of Sir Geoffrey K. The first member of the present generation of Ds to carry the continuous D Fellowship of Royal Society into sixth generation from Erasmus D [I]. WH.
1959 FRS.
1972- Prof. Physiology Cambridge.

1979 Editor of The Beagle record, Cambridge. Contains much unpublished material including extracts from Covington diary, many plates mostly by Martens, list of 307 Martens watercolours.
Keyserling, Alexander Friederich Michael Leberecht Arthur, Count von, 1815-1891.

Russian palaeontologist. K is referred to in Historical sketch in Origin. See J. A. Roger, Isis, 64:487-488. Calendar gives forenames as "Alexandr Andreevich" and no "Count".
1860 K wrote to CD about Origin LLii 261.
King, Colonel

Of Hythe, Kent. CD corresponded with K about pigeons—Variation i 184.

[page] 181

King, Sir George, 1840-1909.

Physician and botanist. DNB.
1871-1898 Superintendent of Botanical Garden Calcutta.
1873 K sent CD Aldrovanda for Insectivorous plants, and also helped with Worms—LLiii 216.
1887 FRS.
1898 KCIE.
King, John

Not in holy orders, a shoemaker by trade.
First missionary for Church Missionary Society in New Zealand, arrived 1810.
1835 Dec. CD met Mrs K and their son, but K was away—"Moral state of Tahiti, New Zealand etc.", 231.
King, Philip Gidley [I], 1758-1808.

Father of Philip Parker K, grandfather of Philip Gidley K q.v.
3rd Governor NSW.
King, Philip Gidley [II], 1817-1904.

Son of Philip Parker K. Naval officer. Midshipman on 1st and 2nd voyages of Beagle. CD very friendly with.
1832 Apr. 25 CD at Botofogo Bay to Caroline D "I believe King is coming to live here, he is the most perfect pleasant boy I ever met and is my chief companion"—D and Beagle pp. 64-6.
1836 Feb. K left Beagle to remain with his father at Sydney.
1880- K was a member of Legislative Council of Sydney—LLi 221.

Sketch of Fitz-Roy by K in Mitchell Library, Sydney, in Keynes p. 16
K drew the diagrammatic layout of Beagle which first appeared in Journal of researches 1890. A photograph of the original with mss caption is at Down House. Section of Beagle by K 1890 at Hallam Murray's request, found by Geoffrey Keynes in map pocket of Narrative, now at Mitchell Library, with a letter to Capt. Fisher, reproduced in Keynes p. 21. Also a drawing of quarterdeck and poop cabin at CUL—p. 39.
King, Philip Parker, 1791-1856.

Born Norfolk Is. Son of Philip Gidley K [I] q.v. Father of Philip Gidley K [II] q.v. Naval Officer. Surveyor and geologist. Biography D. F. Branagan 1985 Spec. Publ. Soc. Hist. Nat. Hist 3 pp. 179-93. DNB.
1824 FRS.

K commanded, as Captain, Adventure on 1st voyage of Adventure and Beagle. Collected plants which Robert Brown was dilatory in identifying. Settled in Australia with rank of Rear Admiral.
1836 Jan. 23 CD spent evening with K at Dunheved outside Sydney.
1836 Jan. 28 CD stayed with K 30 miles from Sydney and visited his relatives, the MacArthurs, for lunch "beautiful very large country house" which Keynes identifies as Camden Park—p. 346.
King, Richard, ?1811-1876.

Surgeon and naturalist. DNB.
1833-1835 K was on Sir George Back's arctic expedition.
circa 1850 CD listened to him and other arctic men discussing expeditions at Athenaeum—MLi 58.
King George's Sound, Western Australia.
1836 Mar. 6-14 Beagle anchored there, CD landed.
Kingsley, Charles, 1819-1875.

Anglican clergyman. Author and naturalist. Curate and later Rector of Eversleigh, Hampshire. EB DNB.
1859 CD sent 1st edition Origin to, "That the Naturalist...should have sent a scientist like me his book..."—LLii 287.
1860 CD to Henslow telling him that the "celebrated author and divine" who is quoted in 2nd edition Origin was K—MLi 174.

Sent K 4th edition Origin—Carroll 330.
1867 CD to K about Duke of Argyll's Reign of law and Fleeming Jenkin's review of Origin.
1873 Canon of Westminster.
Kinnordy, near Kirriemuir, Forfarshire.

Home of Sir Charles Lyell's father and later his.
Kippist, Richard, 1812-1882.

Botanist. CD often wrote to K to borrow books. DNB.
1842-1881 Librarian of Linnean Society.

[page] 182


Cambridge friend of CD. Not traced.
1831 K was interested in going with CD to Canary Islands.
Klein, Rudolf Emmanuel

Botanist. K helped CD with Insectivorous plants.
Knight, Thomas Andrew, 1759-1838.

Botanist. A distinguished plant hybridizer. A selection from the physiological horticultural papers...a sketch of his life, London 1841.
1805 FRS.

CD drew extensively on his work in Variation. Knight's Law, sometimes called Knight-Darwin Law, "nature abhors perpetual self fertilisation"—MLii 250. See Francis D, Ann. Bot., 13:13, 1899.
Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent.

Seat of Baron Sackville.
1846 Sep. 22 CD, ED and Susan D made day trip to.
Koch, Heinrich Hermann Robert, Fr. C. L., 1799-1852.

German mineralogist. CD sent him copy of Fossil Cirripedia—Lychnos, 1948-1949: 206-210.
1851 K sent CD fossil cirripedes.
Kölliker, Rudolph Albert von, 1817-1905.

Swiss biologist.
1844 Prof. Physiology and Comparative Anatomy Zurich.
1847 Prof. Physiology, Microscopy and Comparative Anatomy Würzburg.
At some time between 1860 and 1864 K visited Down House—LLiii 29.
1860 CD to Huxley who had suggested K as possible translator of Origin into German—MLi 139.
1861 Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen und der höheren Thiere, Leipzig.
Koeniglich-Bayarische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich.
1878 CD Foreign Member.
Koeniglich-Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin.
1863 CD Corresponding Member.
1878 CD Fellow.
Kollmann, Julius Constantin Ernst, 1834-1918.
1876 K to CD on atavism and extra digits—MLi 393, Variation I 459.
Kongeligt Dansk Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen.
1879 CD Fellow.
Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien, Stockholm.
1865 CD Foreign Member.
Kongliga Vetenskaps-Societeten, Uppsala.
1860 CD Fellow.
Koninklijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsche-Indie, Batavia.
1880 CD Corresponding Member.

First editions in:
1957 Origin of species (F732).
1965 Autobiography