RECORD: Freeman, R. B. 1984. Darwin Pedigrees. London, printed for the author.

REVISION HISTORY: Scanned and OCRed by John van Wyhe; corrections by Sue Asscher, 3.2008.

NOTE: With thanks to The Charles Darwin Trust and Dr Mary Whitear for use of Darwin Pedigrees. Copyright. All rights reserved. For private academic use only. Not for republication or reproduction in whole or in part without the prior written consent of The Charles Darwin Trust, 14 Canonbury Park South London N1 2JJ.


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DARWIN PEDIGREES

by

R. B. FREEMAN

LONDON

Printed for the Author
1984

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© R. B. Freeman

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Contents
Preface
vii
Burke's Pedigree
1
Commentary
25
Appendix I, Name Variants
61
Appendix II, Darwins and the Royal Society
67
References
68
Index 73

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Pedigrees
1. Burke's Pedigree
1
2. Skeleton Pedigree
26
3. Ancestors of Erasmus Darwin
30
4. Ancestors of Mary Howard
32
5. Ancestors of Elizabeth Collier
33
6. Children of Erasmus Darwin
35
7. Ancestors of Susannah Wedgwood
36
8. Darwin, Wedgwood and Galton Relationships
38
9. Sibs of Susannah Wedgwood
40
10. Sibs of Elizabeth Allen
41
11. Sibs of Charles Robert Darwin
42
12. Ancestors of Emma Wedgwood
44
13. Sibs of Emma Wedgwood
46
14. Children of John Wedgwood
47
15. Children of Charles and Emma Darwin
49
16. Children and Grandchildren of Emma Darwin's brothers
51
17. Children of George Howard Darwin
52
18. Children of Francis Darwin
54
19. Children of Horace Darwin
56
20. Darwins and the Royal Society
66

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Preface

The first and principal part of this book is a facsimile of H. Farnham Burke's Pedigree of the family of Darwin, a work which appeared in 1888, without indication of place or printer, in an edition of sixty copies only.

The compiler, Henry Farnham Burke (1859-1930) had been appointed Somerset Herald in 1887. He became a most distinguished genealogist and was appointed Garter King of Arms and a Knight Commander of the Victorian Order in 1919. This Darwin Pedigree was his second compilation and he was later to produce many more works in the same field. His grandfather, John Burke (1787-1848), was the original compiler of the Peerage and Baronetage in 1826 and the Landed Gentry, 1833-1838. Henry's father, Sir John Bernard Burke (1814-1892), was Ulster King of Arms and took over the editorship of these works.

The book has not been reprinted since and is hard to find. There is a copy in the British Library and another in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, but the Cambridge University Library, the greatest repository of Darwin literature in the world, only holds it in photocopy. In America, the Library of Congress National Union Catalogue records only one copy, their own. No detailed search of other British libraries has been made, but no copy has ever appeared in Book Auction Records and I have never seen a copy offered for sale by a bookseller. The copy used for this facsimile is in the Sir Francis Galton archive in the Library of University College London. I am grateful to the Librarian, Mr F. J. Friend, for permission to use it.

Burke's Pedigree is the only full one that has ever appeared in print. George Howard Darwin, Charles Darwin's second son, was interested in genealogy from his youth and in the eighteen seventies he helped Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester (1821-1882), an American living in London, to collect information on the family, but it was never printed. Some of his notes are preserved in the Galton archive mentioned above. George's brother Francis, Charles' third son, gives a brief and highly selective pedigree from 1682 to 1882 in his Life and letters of his father (1887, Vol. I, p. 5). He mentions only those Darwins who are referred to by his father in the Autobiography.

Burke's work is unsatisfactory in that it considers only people, men and women, who were born Darwins and anyone who married a Darwin is given only the briefest pedigree. It has often been said, and is indeed true, that Charles Darwin, and to a greater extent his children, carried more genetic material of Wedgwood origin than of Darwin; yet his mother Susannah is described merely as 'Dau. of Josiah Wedgwood...the celebrated Potter'. For Charles' wife Emma, Burke gives no indication at all that she was Josiah's grand-daughter. The work is unsatisfactory for another reason, not of Burke's making; it is ninety-five years out of date.

The second part of this book, called a 'Commentary', is therefore devoted to rectifying these faults, although only a limited part of the family is considered. Some attempt has been made to place the Darwins and their collaterals in their social and geographic background over the past four hundred years. The name Darwin, to most people, means only Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), author of On the origin of species (1859). Historians who are interested in the origins of evolutionary ideas as well as those interested in the roots of the industrial revolution, and perhaps a few who read didactic poetry, will consider his grandfather, Dr Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), of importance. Three of Charles' sons, Sir George (1845-1913), Sir Francis (1848-1925) and Sir Horace (1851-1928), as well as some of the grandchildren, will be remembered by many now living. The additions affect only a limited part of Burke's work, the antecedents of Dr Erasmus Darwin's wives and those of his children and grandchildren. There are members of two, and in some cases three, generations beyond the grand-children who are now living. These have been ignored except for statements such as '3s2d'. Pedigrees for these antecedents and descendents have been made up from various sources, especially Karl Pearson's Life of Francis Galton (1914, 1930), Gwen Raverat's Period piece (1952) and my own Darwin companion (1978). The complexity of Wedgwood relationships have been cleared by Wedgwood and Wedgwood's excellent book (1980).

This commentary is followed by two brief appendices, the first listing names by which the same

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people are known in different circumstances, everything from baby talk to bishops, and the second tracing the details of membership of the Royal Society by Darwins and their relations.

The last part of the book consists of the index, an adjunct which is absent from Burke's original. This is intended to be rather more than a simple guide to the names of people who occur in the various pedigrees and in the commentary. Dates of birth and death are given in those cases where they are known, as are titles of honour and a prefatory 'Rev.' for Church of England priests. The Order of Merit, Fellowship of the Royal Society, the Royal Academy and the British Academy are given, with dates of election. Ranks in the armed forces of the Crown have been omitted. Married women are fully entered under their married names, but with cross reference under their maiden names. The object of this index is to provide a quick source of reference to Darwins and their relatives, a source which up till now has not been fully available. A few people who are not of Darwin stock, but who occur in the commentary, are also included. The names of those who appear only in the appendices are not included. A number of names of people whose birth is given, but are not known to have died is given; these are largely from the second half of the nineteenth century and are largely of women. This is because the obvious sources, such as the Dictionary of national biography, Who was who, and the registers of Oxford and Cambridge have been searched, but public records and probate registers have not.

Acknowledgments

A compilation needs the help of many specialists and I have received it most freely from the Library staff here. Above all, I must thank John Spiers who seems as happy checking early references as he is at understanding modern information techniques; Susan Grove has helped with the medical practitioners, Barbara Wells with the law and Gillian Furlong with archive sources. Anne Oxenham, map librarian to the Department of Geography, has checked places and O.S. map references. Peter J. Gautrey has, as so often in the past, helped me from his store of Darwin knowledge and the Cambridge archives. Francis William Darwin, of King's College London, one of the fourteenth generation of the name, has given me names and dates which have not yet reached the printed records. Finally, my wife, Dr Mary Whitear, has straightened my tortuous prose and read everything except the index. To these and to many others I extend my thanks.

R. B. Freeman        
University College London

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PEDIGREE

OF THE

Family of Darwin.

COMPILED BY

H. FARNHAM BURKE, Esq., F.S.A.,
Somerset Herald.

PRIVATELY PRINTED.
60 COPIES ONLY.

1888.

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Pedigree of Darwin.

 

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Pedigree B. (Vide p. 8.)

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Commentary

The earliest Darwin, of whom Burke could find any record, was a William who is known to have died before 1542. The latest are seven of Charles Darwin's ten grandchildren, as well as some infant collaterals who were born in 1888 or shortly before. The second pedigree gives a skeleton of the twelve generations between the first William and the death of Charles in 1882, showing only the direct line with wives and dates where known. The number of sibs in each generation with their sexes is also given. In 1888, when Burke wrote, all seven of Charles' children who had survived childhood were alive. All are now long dead; the last, Leonard, died in 1943 at the age of 93. They have been represented in this pedigree by the eldest male who had children and the same has been done for the grandchildren, with a token entry of '4s1d' for the great grandchildren, making fourteen generations in all. The members of two further generations, now living beyond this, have been omitted. This skeleton pedigree is intended to be used as a key which may be referred to when the generations are being considered.

The first William is a shadowy figure and so are the members of the second and third generations. A mandate of Thomas Cromwell, of 5 September 1538, compelled Parish Clerks to register baptisms, marriages and burials and this was confirmed by Edward VI and Elizabeth I, but it was not until 1598 that the Provisional Constitution of Canterbury instructed that these records should be kept on parchment, not on paper as previously, and back entered with copies held by the dioceses. Most surviving records therefore date from the accession of Elizabeth in 1558. Civil registrations of births, marriages and deaths only date from 1 July 1837 (6 & 7 Will. IV c. 85 & 86). The first William's dates are not known, no wife is named, no occupation is given and he has no recorded sibs. He was known however to have had two sons and to have lived at Marton (O.S. 121 840820) in the Lindsey district of Lincolnshire. The elder of these sons, who Burke suggests was also called William, died before 1542. The younger, John, had a wife called Margaret, was a yeoman, had no recorded children and died in 1542. This second William also had two sons, as well as four daughters, all of whom were married. The third William continued to hold Marton whilst his brother Henry, who was unmarried, held land at Hardwick in the parish of Torksey. Marton was and is a small village on the river Trent, six miles south of Gainsborough and close to the border with Nottinghamshire. Torksey is two miles further south (O.S. 121 838789) at the junction of the Trent with the Roman Foss Dyke canal to Lincoln. The area is good agricultural land, famous for cereals and for wool.

In the fourth generation, three sons but no daughters are recorded. The eldest, Rowland, inherited Marton and had a wife Elizabeth, but was childless. The second, Henry, held land at Kettlethorpe (O.S. 121 846758), three miles south of Torksey, and also inherited Marton on the death of his brother in 1588 without an heir. The youngest, Richard, inherited Torksey on the death of his bachelor uncle Henry in 1566. This Richard is the first Darwin whose signature is recorded by Burke; it comes from a terrier of the glebe of the vicarage of Marton which is dated 1577.

The people of these first four generations are characteristic of what is known of the yeomen of England in the sixteenth century and before. There are very few sibs known by name, but not because they had fewer children. Family sizes were probably about the same until late in the nineteenth century and infant mortality only decreased slowly until this century. Because the records are almost entirely from wills and documents of land tenure, only eldest sons and those who inherited land are named. The younger either worked for their elder brothers or found occupation in the towns; the daughters appear only as wives unless they were heiresses. Those who did hold the land were names on documents and nothing is recorded of them as people; no characters and no pictures remain.

Change comes with the fifth generation. William Darwin, eldest son of Richard, married a widow, Mary Healey, whose family came from Burrington (O.S. 112 835095) and Manton (O.S. 112 935027). Her first husband, Thomas Small, held land at Cleatham (O.S. 112 934017) as did this William. All these places are north of Gainsborough and now almost suburbs of the steel town of

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Pedigree 2. Skeleton Pedigree to Charles Robert Darwin in the male line, and in the senior male line to his great grandchildren.

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Scunthorpe. In 1613, William took employment under James I as Yeoman Warder of the Armory at Greenwich. Francis Darwin remarks that the post must have been a sinecure because the salary was only £35 a year, although such a sum was quite a decent income. He died in 1644 and took no part in the civil war.

His elder son, also William, served the King as Captain Lieutenant in Sir William Pelham's troop of horse. His lands were forfeited during the Commonwealth and he went up to Cambridge University where he matriculated in 1640 from Magdalene College. He does not seem to have taken a degree, but went to Lincoln's Inn in 1645 where he qualified and where he met Erasmus Earle of Heydon Hall, Norfolk (O.S. 113 118277). His lands were repossessed at the Restoration and he finally became Recorder of the City of Lincoln. In 1653, he married Erasmus Earle's daughter Anne. Earle is the first Darwin ancestor whose name occurs in the Dictionary of National Biography. He had been Secretary, with John Milton, for the English at the Treaty of Uxbridge, Own Serjeant to Oliver and Richard Cromwell and a member of the long parliament. He was pardoned by Charles II in 1660 and became Recorder of the City of Norwich. William Erasmus Darwin and his brother George Howard, Charles Darwin's sons, visited Heydon Hall, which is still in the family, in 1890 to see a portrait of their ancestor. There is also a slab memorial to him in the village church of SS Peter and Paul. Lord Lytton (Edward George Earle Bulwer Lytton, 1803-1873), the novelist and parliamentarian, was a direct descendent. In Lytton's novel What will he do with it? (Vol. 1, pp 284-296) Charles Darwin is charactered as Professor Long, the author of two volumes on Researches into the natural history of limpets. Darwin comments on the matter in his Autobiography.

Erasmus Earle is also important for the introduction of the rare christian name Erasmus into the Darwin family and its collaterals. St Erasmus, Elmo, is the patron of sailors, but Erasmus Earle had come by it through three generations of godfathers, the first of whom was Desiderius Erasmus, who had coined it in translation of his family name. It occurs seven times amongst Darwins, the first being a grandson of this William and Anne who was baptised in 1659, during the lifetime of his grandfather. Amongst collaterals it is found in the families of Fox, Galton, Hall, Parker and Randes; it survives today at least in the family of Barlow.

The only sib in this sixth generation was a brother, Thomas, who was married and had a son and a daughter. William, in spite of working in London and Lincoln, retained the family lands at Manton and Cleatham and his widow, Anne, was buried at Manton in 1691. They had five sons and one daughter. The eldest, again William, inherited Manton and Cleatham, although he is recorded from Holborn, Middlesex. One of his brothers died an infant, and the others worked in London and Hull, whilst their sister married a London haberdasher. This William, of the seventh generation, married an heiress from neighbouring Nottinghamshire who brought him a considerable estate to which the senior branch of the family eventually moved. Here Dr Erasmus Darwin was born and here this branch, although inherited through a female line, lives to this day. Ann Waring was the only child of Robert Waring of Wilford (O.S. 129 567378) by his wife, also Anne. After her husband's death in 1682, she married George Lascelles of Elston Hall (O.S. 129 759480), northwest of Nottingham. They had no children and the estate came to the Darwins on her death in 1722.

The surname Waring is the first example in these pedigrees of the use of such a name as a non-christian forename. The commonest form of such use, as in this case, is to perpetuate a name whose family has brought inheritance. Waring has been used seven times, always by Darwins, the first being a grandson, Robert Waring, who was born in 1725 and died an infant and the last, Charles Waring, Charles Darwin's tenth and last child was born in 1856 and also died an infant. The best known was Robert Waring Darwin, Charles Darwin's father, who was born in 1766, Ann Waring's great grandson. Several other surnames, such as Alvey and Hill, are also found used in this way. Another usage of such names is found in godchildren; Sir Charles Galton Darwin was named after Sir Francis Galton, his godfather. Perhaps the most common usage is to draw attention to some distinguished ancestor or relative. Darwin itself has been used sixteen times, four times by women, in the collateral families of Fox, Galton, Huish, Overton, Parker, Stowe and Wilmot, but it is often

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not clear which distinguished Darwin is being commemorated. Galton has been used eight times, by Bennett, Biggs, Darwin, Lethbridge, Moilliet and Wheler, one of them a woman.

William and Anne, of the seventh generation, had only two children, both boys; indeed William died after less than two years of marriage and when the younger son was a fortnight old. The elder son, again William, inherited Elston as well as Cleatham which he is said to have sold later. Nothing is said of the original family holding at Marton, nor is it mentioned anywhere later. He married three times and had nine children by his first two wives. Seven of the children died before he did; the other two married, but only the elder, William Morgan Darwin, had offspring, four daughters. He matriculated from Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1730 and qualified M.B. in 1736, practised as a physician at Gainsborough and was buried there in 1762, rather than at Elston which he should have inherited in 1760 on the death of his father.

William's younger brother and only surviving sib, Robert, was a barrister who lived at Elston, but died in 1754, six years before his brother. He was an early member of the Spalding Gentleman's Society, which was founded in 1710, and his name appears in a paper by Dr William Stukeley, F.R.S. on a 'human sceleton impressed in stone' which was published in Phil. Trans. for 1719. The skeleton was that of a fossil reptile and Stukeley describes Robert Darwin as 'my friend...a person of curiosity'. He married, in 1723/24, Elizabeth Hill of Sleaford, Lincolnshire (O.S. TF 065455) and had four sons and three daughters; it is through him that all later Darwins in the male line are descended. His widow died in 1797 at the age of 94.

Their eldest son, Robert Waring, head of the family in the ninth generation, matriculated at Cambridge from St John's College in 1743/44, but apparently did not take a degree. He qualified as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1751, but does not seem to have practised and lived as a bachelor at Elston all his life. Charles Darwin (in Krause 1879 p. 5) wrote of him 'He had a strong taste for poetry, like his youngest brother Erasmus. Robert also cultivated botany, and when an oldish man, he published his 'Principia Botanica'...the work contains many curious notes on biology—a subject almost wholly neglected in England in the last century'. This last remark is totally untrue; much excellent natural history was published in the late eighteenth century, including for example Gilbert White's Selborne 1789, and Robert's own brother's The loves of the plants in the same year which was the second part of The botanic garden 1791. The full title of Robert's book, the first by a Darwin, was Principia botanica, or a concise and easy introduction to the sexual system of Linnaeus, 1787. It was published at Newark and ran to a third edition in 1810. Robert Waring Darwin died in 1816 in his ninety-third year, having survived all his six younger sibs, and was until then Charles Darwin's senior living relative.

The second brother, William Alvey, is said by Burke to have been at Cambridge and Lincoln's Inn, but he is not in Venn. He lived at Elston and married Jane Brown there in 1772. They had six children, three of whom died young, and one was unmarried. This William did not inherit Elston because he died before his elder brother; it went instead, and with it the headship of the family, to his only adult son, William Brown Darwin of the tenth generation. William Brown had a sister who married Samuel Fox of Thurlston Grange, near Derby. Their son, Rev. William Darwin Fox, became a lifelong friend of Charles Darwin after they had met whilst collecting beetles at Cambridge. William Brown Darwin married Elizabeth de St Croix and had seven children, four of whom died young. There is a sad memorial to three of them in Elston church, William Waring who died aged 13, Jane Eleanor aged 14 and Elizabeth aged 15. Two other daughters married and had children. Charlotte Maria Cooper, the elder, married in 1849 Francis Rhodes of Creskeld Hall, near Pool north of Leeds (O.S. 104 262455). Her elder and unmarried brother, Robert Alvey Darwin, inherited Elston on the death of their father in 1841. However, he died only six years later at the age of 21. He left the Elston Hall estate in his will to his brother-in-law, Francis Rhodes, on condition that he changed his surname to Darwin. This he did in 1850, but the headship of the family in the male line went to Robert Waring Darwin, Charles Darwin's father, from 7th December 1847 until his death on 13th November 1848. It then went to Charles' elder and bachelor brother, Erasmus Alvey, until his death on 26th August 1881. Charles himself held it briefly until his death on 19th

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April 1882, when it went to his eldest son, William Erasmus, who was married but had no children. On his death in 1914 it went, not to his brother, Sir George who had died in 1912, but to the latter's son, Sir Charles.

The third brother in the ninth generation, John, like the eldest, was at St John's College, Cambridge (M.A. 1757) and was ordained priest at Lincoln in 1755. He was the first Darwin to join the anglican priesthood and there was only one other, although there were several amongst collaterals. He became Rector of Carlton Scroop, Lincolnshire (O.S. SK 952451) in 1762. To this he added Elston in 1766, the advowson being the gift of his eldest brother. He never married and retained these two parishes until his death in 1805.

The fourth and youngest brother of this ninth generation was Erasmus Darwin, Charles' grandfather. He is the first Darwin to have a considerable biographical literature. The earliest is that of Anna Seward, the Swan of Lichfield, who wrote in 1804; it is an interesting account because written from personal knowledge, but a highly biased one. Charles Darwin himself wrote (in Krause 1879) partly at least 'to contradict flatly some calumnies by Miss Seward'. The most readable biography is that of Hesketh Pearson (1930) who was his great great grandson. Lord Cohen, in his John Ash Lecture 1967, has reproduced in colour the fine portrait by Joseph Wright of Derby. King Hele (1963, 1977) has twice covered the ground as well as editing the letters (1981).

Erasmus was born on 12th December 1731 at Elston Hall and was brought up there. He went to St John's College, Cambridge, like two of his brothers (M.B. 1755) and then to Edinburgh where he qualified as a physician, but he never took a medical doctorate. He set up in practice at Lichfield in 1756 and remained there until his second marriage in 1781 when he moved to Derby. He died at Breadsall Priory nearby (O.S. SK 381415) on 18th April 1802, eighty years less one day before his grandson Charles. He had been elected F.R.S. in 1761, the first Darwin to become a Fellow. He married twice, had four sons and one daughter by his first marriage and four sons and three daughters by his second. He also had two illegitimate daughters, born between his two marriages, fourteen children in all.

Dr Darwin was, for most of his life, grossly fat, strongly marked by smallpox and he stuttered badly. He over-ate absurdly, carrying large supplies, especially of fruit, sweetmeats and cream in his carriage. In his youth, he followed both Venus and Bacchus assiduously; in later life however he gave up alcoholic liquors almost entirely and preached abstention to his patients. He had a high reputation as a physician through a large part of the midlands and patients visited him from as far away as London. He was undoubtedly a fine diagnostician and, in spite of his overbearing personality, had a successful bedside manner. His published treatments seem to have been much like those of his contemporaries, prescribing the violent medicines of the time. He also made a lot of money, earning over a thousand pounds a year at the height of his fame, a very high figure outside London.

However, it is as a man of ideas that his name survives today. He was a founder member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, with Matthew Boulton and William Small, in 1766. It was so called because it held its meetings at the time of the full moon, so that the members could ride home afterwards with more ease and safety. It had about sixteen members at its height, and another seventeen, including Josiah Wedgwood, who were regular attenders, but not members. Fourteen of them were Fellows of the Royal Society. Some of its members, such as Boulton and James Watt, were practical engineers or industrial chemists, who earned their livelihood by putting their skills to the service of the industrial revolution. Others, including Darwin himself, James Keir and Thomas Day, were men of ideas. Cohen (p. 33) writes 'as an inventor, Darwin had a Da Vinci type of protean ingenuity. His Commonplace Book [now at Down House] is full of designs and speculations': canal lifts, speaking machines, steam carriages, even aircraft and submarines. Sir John Sinclair said of Darwin's Phytologia, which is dedicated to him, 'a most valuable performance...but on the whole it is too philosophical a description to be calculated for general use' and this statement could be more widely applied to most of Darwin's ideas. The Lunar Society finally died in 1809, the year of Charles Darwin's birth.

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Pedigree 3. Ancestors of Erasmus Darwin, to show distaffs.

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Erasmus Darwin founded two other learned societies. A Botanical Society at Lichfield seems to have had only three members, but it published translations of two of the works of Linnaeus, the translating being done by Erasmus himself. It started in the early seventies and died when he left for Derby in 1781. He replaced it with the Derby Philosophical Society whose library is still preserved in the Derby Museum. Interest in the Systema of Linnaeus was then at its height and, combined with Erasmus' enduring love of gardens, resulted in his production of The Botanic garden (1791, 1789), an allegorical and didactic poem which was much read at the time, although its heavy pomposity laid it open to easy parody.

His name is best known today for his early contribution to the theory of evolution; this he gave in his Zoonomia (1794-1796) and in his posthumous poem The Temple of nature (1803). He certainly believed that all life forms had come about through evolutionary change from the simplest, but the suggested cause was the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In this he preceded Lamarck, whose work he could not have known, and his views do not contain the element of conscious striving which his grandson was to find so unsatisfactory in Lamarck. However, his work had little influence on later evolutionary views, perhaps because, as with everything he wrote, the idea was there, but not the observational or experimental work to support it.

Pedigree No. 3 includes the female side of the ancestors of Erasmus and of his three elder brothers. It shows the origins of the forenames Alvey and Hill. The former has been used five times, always by men, and the latter three times, twice by women. Francis Alvey Rhodes Darwin, a great grandson of William Alvey Darwin, born in 1851, and Elizabeth Hill Darwin, William Alvey Darwin's daughter, born in 1782, were the last recipients of these forenames.

The ancestry of Mary Howard, Erasmus Darwin's first wife, is shown for three generations in Pedigree No. 4. Pearson (1914), in Plate E, has extended this backwards, through her mother Penelope Foley, to an absurd extent, to most of the crowned heads of Europe in the ninth century, including Alfred the Great and Charlemagne. Mary Howard was married at seventeen and had five children in ten years. In her later years she was often ill and took to drinking gin in secret. She died aged thirty.

Between her death in 1770 and Erasmus' second marriage in 1781, he fathered two illegitimate daughters. The family seems to have kept the details much to themselves, but the mother is believed to have been a governess, called Mrs or Miss Parker. His second wife, Elizabeth Collier, was herself illegitimate. Her father was Charles Colyear, second Earl of Portmore, and Pearson (pp. 18, 21) has suggested that the mother was a governess to his daughters by his wife, Juliana, Dowager Duchess of Leeds. Elizabeth Collier was the widow of Edward Sacheverel Chandos Pole of Radbourne Hall, Derby, (O.S. SK 287357), a man almost thirty years her senior, and she was to survive Erasmus by thirty years, dying in 1832 when Charles Darwin was in South America.

The fourteen children of Erasmus, the tenth generation, are summarized in Pedigree No. 6, four boys and a girl by Mary Howard, then the two Misses Parker, and finally four boys and three girls by Elizabeth Collier. Two of the first five, the girl and a boy, died as infants. The eldest, Charles, after whom Charles Robert was to be named, followed in his father's footsteps, training as a physician at Edinburgh, but died from a dissecting room wound at the age of twenty before he qualified. His posthumous book, Experiments establishing a criterion between mucilaginous and purulent matter (1780), was edited and added to by his father. The second brother, Erasmus, trained as a solicitor and practised in a rather desultory fashion in Derby. His interests seem to have been in demography and antiquarian matters. At the age of forty, he bought Breadsall Priory, the house that his father later took over, intending to retire there. He was of a depressive nature and committed suicide by drowning in the river Derwent in 1799. Neither of these two brothers married.

This left only the third son, Robert Waring, Charles Darwin's father, to carry on this part of the family. He qualified as a physician at Edinburgh and M.D. at Leyden in 1785. His thesis, on the spectral properties of light, was published in Latin there in that year, and in English in Phil. Trans. in 1786. His father reprinted it in Zoonomia five years later, his only published work. Robert set up in practice at Shrewsbury, at first living in the town, but in 1796 built The Mount at the top of

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Pedigree 4. Ancestors of Mary Howard.

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Pedigree 5. Ancestors of Elizabeth Collier.

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Frankwell. He gained the same success as a physician as his father had and also a great reputation for his kindness to poorer patients, being known as the Father of Frankwell. He was also skilled in his financial dealings and built up a considerable fortune. He seems however to have lacked his father's scientific curiosity: he was elected to the Royal Society in 1788 on the strength of the one paper, but this seems to have been more to please his father, who had put his name to the Secretary, rather than to any actual or potential scientific achievement.

Robert was over six foot tall, always corpulent, grossly so in old age, with a high squeaky voice. He married in 1796 Susannah Wedgwood, eldest child of his father's friend Josiah Wedgwood, by whom he had two sons and four daughters. His wife died in 1817, when Charles was just eight years old, and he died thirty years later, when Charles had seven children and had been at Down House for six years. It has often been said, particularly in relation to Charles' illness, that he was an overbearing parent and that Charles was much in awe of him. It is probably true that he became a little impatient of his son's early sporting inclinations and his unwillingness to qualify as a physician at Edinburgh or later as a priest at Cambridge. It is clear however that both his sons were extremely fond of him and he, for his part, was willing to support them financially, in moderate affluence, without their earning at all. The best short description of him is in Charles' Autobiography in its full version as transcribed by Nora, Lady Barlow (1958).

Almost as little is known of the two Misses Parker as is known of their mother. They were brought up with Erasmus' legitimate children and, when they were grown up, he started them in a boarding school for girls at Ashbourne near Rugby (O.S. 111 SK 175465). One of them, called Susan, later married a surgeon of Rugby, Henry Hadley, who worked for or with Erasmus and attended just after he had died in 1802. They had at least one child, also Henry, who became a physician. Erasmus wrote A plan for the conduct of female education in boarding schools, to help them when their school was starting. It appeared at Derby in 1797 and in the same year in London. It was sufficiently successful to be printed also in Dublin and Philadelphia, as well as being translated into German and Dutch.

Six of the seven children of Erasmus' second marriage grew to maturity, one, a boy, dying an infant. Three remained unmarried. Nothing whatsoever is recorded of the eldest son, Edward, nor of the second daughter Emma. The third son, John, was at St John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 1812) and was ordained priest at York, the second and last priest of the Darwin name. He became Rector of Elston in 1815, the advowson being in the gift of his ninety-one year old uncle, Robert Waring Darwin, and died in 1818. The remaining three married, but the youngest daughter, who had married Admiral Thomas James Maling, died in Valparaiso without children. The eldest daughter, Frances Anne Violetta, married Samuel Tertius Galton and bore three sons and four daughters. The second son, Sir Francis Sacheverel, married Jane Harriet Ryle and fathered three sons and seven daughters. Thus, of the twelve legitimate children of Erasmus, only three, Robert Waring, Frances Anne Violetta and Francis Sacheverel, had children.

The fathers of two of their three spouses were old friends and Lunar Society companions of Erasmus; both were Fellows of the Royal Society. Samuel Galton, known as John because his father was also Samuel, was a Quaker armament manufacturer, who, apart from justifying his profession in print to his co-religionists, wrote a charming work, in three volumes, about birds for children (1786-1791). The other was Josiah Wedgwood, the great potter, and the relationships here were far more complex. The Wedgwoods had been run of the mill Staffordshire potters for generations and this Josiah married his second cousin Sarah Wedgwood. His eldest daughter married Robert Waring Darwin and Emma, the daughter of his eldest son, also Josiah, married her first cousin, Robert's son Charles. The Wedgwood ancestry of Susannah is shown in Pedigree No. 7. The relationships between Wedgwoods and Darwins is made more complex because the eldest son of the second Josiah, again Josiah, married Charles' sister, Caroline Sarah.

The details of the relationships between Darwins, Wedgwoods and Galtons is given in Pedigree No. 8, which has also been extended to include Ralph Vaughan Williams, the musician, one of the two Darwin relations to have received the Order of Merit. He was a great nephew of Charles as well

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Pedigree 6. Children of Erasmus Darwin

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Pedigree 7. Ancestors of Susannah Wedgwood.

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as his first cousin twice removed. The Wedgwood relationship has been considered in some detail not only because of its complexity, but also because of the closeness of friendship between the two families. The descendents of Erasmus' second marriage as well as the numerous Galtons, excluding perhaps Sir Francis, seem to have been hardly known to the Darwins of Charles' generation and later, whereas Wedgwoods were always a part of the family circle.

Samuel Tertius Galton started as a banker, but gave it up in 1831. Pearson (p. 52) says of him that he did 'not seem to have been a man of quite the vigour or originality of his father, but he inherited his father's public spirit and much of his business capacity', and he left a great deal of money to his children. Dr Samuel Parr wrote in a letter 'Tertius Galton who is a demi-semi-quaker, a demi-beau in dress, and loves wonders and varieties in Science, and by profession a Whig'—Coke of Norfolk p. 126.

Francis Sacheverel Darwin (the Sacheverel came from his mother's first husband whose grandfather was Robert Sacheverel) was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and qualified as a physician at Edinburgh, M.D. 1807, with a thesis De hydrothorace published there in the same year. For the next two years he travelled in the Mediterranean countries, showing particular interest in epidemics of plague. He did not publish his diaries, except for a brief note on the volcanic island of Milo (Melos) in 1823, but parts were published in 1927. He practised for some years in Lichfield and whilst there was knighted for a loyal address on the accession of George IV in 1820. He became a J.P. and Deputy Lieutenant for Derbyshire. Later, he moved to Sydnope Hall, near Matlock (O.S. 111 SK 294641), and retired finally in 1847 to the family home of Breadsall Priory. He left three sons and seven daughters.

Also in this tenth generation was Josiah Wedgwood, second of the name. This Josiah became senior partner in the firm on the death of his father in 1795, but later in 1819 he moved away from the Etruria Works to Maer Hall, (O.S. 110 SJ 793383) where his daughter Emma spent much of her youth. He was nothing like as good a potter as his father nor of so enquiring a mind, but was a most upright man and tenacious of purpose. Charles Darwin applied to him the Ode of Horace (III, iii, 1) which begins 'Justum et tenacem propositi virum'. Sydney Smith said more bluntly 'Wedgwood's an excellent man—it is a pity he hates his friends'. He and Robert were close and it was through his intervention that Charles was able to go on the Beagle voyage. His wife was the eldest of nine daughters and two sons of John Bartlett Allen of Cressely, Pembrokeshire (O.S. 151 SN 065065), a notoriously bad tempered man, especially after the death of his first wife, Elizabeth Hensleigh, in 1790. Her sister, Louisa Jane, married Josiah's brother John. The name Hensleigh came into the family from here and is still used. Several Allens became family friends of the Darwins, especially perhaps the eighth daughter, Jessie, who married the Swiss historian J. C. Simonde de Sismondi.

Josiah the second had three brothers, one of whom died an infant, and three sisters. The elder brother, John, started as a partner in the pottery and also became a banker. He seems to have lacked business sense and left the pottery; the bank failed and he was left penniless, being supported by Josiah for the rest of his long life. What he was good at however was gardening and in 1805 he wrote to like-minded friends suggesting the formation of a society for the exchange of horticultural knowledge. Amongst these was William Forsyth, gardener to George III, and the outcome was the start of what was to become the Royal Horticultural Society, which today considers John Wedgwood to have been its founder.

The youngest brother, Thomas known as Tom, was perhaps the most intelligent and cultured of the whole family. He joined the pottery after studying at Edinburgh and showed particular interest in chemical aspects, but throughout his short life he was plagued by ill health. In youth 'he suffered from headaches, lethargy, depression, trouble with his eyesight and an intenstinal disorder diagnosed by one doctor as semi-paralysis of the colon, by another as chronic dysentery and by the down-to-earth Darwin as 'worms''—Wedgwood & Wedgwood 1980 p. 92. In later life, he showed an extreme state of manic depression; during his up periods he showed intense mental and physical activity and during the downs deep depression and intensely painful headaches. He ended up heavily addicted to opium and died aged 34. He had a most interesting circle of friends, including

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Pedigree 8. Darwin, Wedgwood, Galton relationships.

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Coleridge and Southey, and was financially generous to them. He also continued his chemical work when he could and as a result of part of it is known today as the father of photography. It was very much a beginning because he was only able to make a single print of each photograph and one which blackened completely unless kept in the dark. What he called his 'silver pictures' were described in the Journals of the Royal Institution, for June 1802, with notes by Humphry Davy, who he had known since his time at the Pneumatic Institute at Bristol.

The eleventh generation was that of Charles Darwin himself. He had four sisters and one brother. The eldest sister, Marianne, was born at The Crescent, Shrewsbury, before their father had built The Mount. She married Henry Parker, a physician of Overton-on-Dee, Flintshire (O.S. SJ 375419), and had four sons and a daughter. The second sister, Caroline Sarah, married her first cousin, Josiah Wedgwood, third of the name. They lived at Leith Hill Place, near Dorking, Surrey (O.S. TQ 134425), and had four daughters. Their relationship is shown in Pedigree No. 8. The third daughter, Susan Elizabeth, was unmarried and continued to live at The Mount until her death in 1866. The fourth daughter, Emily Catherine, was the only one born after Charles. She seems to have been a sad person who 'had neither good health nor good spirits' and 'failed to work out her capabilities either for her own happiness or that of others'. When she was 53, she married Rev. Charles Langton, who had been previously married to Emma's sister Charlotte. He had been Vicar of Onibury, near Ludlow (O.S. SO 456793), but later lost his faith and resigned. They naturally had no children and she died three years later.

Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Charles' only brother, was born in 1804, the year after Susan Elizabeth and five years before Charles. After schooling at Shrewsbury he went to Christ's College, Cambridge and then to Edinburgh; he qualified M.B. in 1828. He moved to London, but did not practise; indeed he did nothing for the rest of his life and did not marry. He had a large circle of whig friends and sat on educational committees, but no more. Charles was fond of him and at his death in 1881 wrote to Sir Thomas Farrer 'he was not I think a happy man'. The Carlyles were amongst his friends and Thomas wrote in his Reminiscences (1881, ii, 208) 'he had something of original and sarcastically ingenious in him, one of the sincerest, naturally truest, and most modest of men'.

The available information on Charles Darwin's life, his work and his ideas, is very large indeed. That published in English alone is greater than that for any other scientist and much is also available in foreign languages. Almost all his own work, both in book form and in journals, as well as manuscript material which was not published in his lifetime, is at present in print, and at least the more important of his books have been continuously available since they first appeared. On the origin of species has been translated into more foreign languages, thirty-two or more, than any other scientific work. Many of his letters have also been published and it is to be hoped that a comprehensive edition of them, some 40,000, will eventually appear. It is only possible, from this plethora, to give a brief summary of the main events of his life, with a few comments on the more important of his published works. He was born on Sunday, 12th February, 1809 at his parents' house, The Mount, at the top of Frankwell, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. As a grown man, he was a little under six feet tall, with grey eyes and brown hair which began to recede before he was thirty, so that by middle age he had no more than a fringe at the back. All the portraits show a face youthful for his age until he grew his beard in 1864-1865, from which time he looked unchangingly old; it was copious with the moustache cut square across. Unlike his father and Darwin's grandfather, he never grew corpulent. He used reading glasses in his later years, but his hearing was always excellent.

He started his education at a day school in Claremont Hill, run by George Augustus Case, the pastor of the town's Unitarian chapel, but after one year moved as a boarder to Shrewsbury School, when Samuel Butler was headmaster. He remained there until June 1825 and, in the following October joined his brother as a medical student at Edinburgh, lodging at 11 Lothian Street. Erasmus eventually qualified, but Charles loathed the medical training and withdrew in April 1827 to be admitted to Christ's College, Cambridge, in the following October, although he did not go into

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Pedigree 9. Sibs of Susannah Wedgwood, Charles Darwin's mother

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Pedigree 10. Sibs of Elizabeth Allen, Emma Darwin's mother

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Pedigree 11. Sibs of Charles Darwin

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residence until the Lent term. At that time he intended to be ordained as an anglican priest and passed the ordinary B.A. examinations in December 1830, taking his degree at the end of the May term.

On 27th December 1831, he sailed from Plymouth on board H.M.S. Beagle, as a companion to her Captain, Robert FitzRoy, intending to study the geology and natural history of the countries visited, although he was not the official naturalist. After four years and ten months sailing round the world and visiting South America including the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego, the Galapagos, Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Cocos Archipelago, Mauritius, South Africa and South America briefly again, the Beagle made landfall at Falmouth on 2nd October 1836, where Darwin disembarked, never to leave the British Isles again. He went home to Shrewsbury and spent the next two years either there or living with or near his brother in London. He sorted his Beagle material, found experts who were willing to describe it for the press and wrote up the general results, as well as the geological observations, himself. It was during this time also that he was beginning to jot down his earliest thoughts on evolution. On 11th November 1838, he proposed marriage to his first cousin Emma Wedgwood and was accepted. Emma was the ninth and youngest child of his mother's brother Josiah and had been named after her mother's sister Emma Allen. The name had become rare in England until the popularity of Matthew Prior's poem Henry and Emma, a version of the ballad The nut brown maid, was published in 1709. They were married, from her home Maer Hall, on 29th January 1838, at St. Peter's church, by Rev. John Allen Wedgwood, a first cousin to them both and Vicar of the Parish. Charles had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 24th, and had been Honorary Secretary of the Geological Society since February of the previous year.

At the beginning of the year, Charles had rented a house, No. 12 Upper Gower Street, in the Bloomsbury district of London, and he took his bride there by train on their wedding night. They lived there until September 1842 and their first two children, William and Anne, were born there. However, he found that his health was not satisfactory almost from the start, with 'violent shivering attacks and vomiting' especially after entertaining company. Much has been written about his illness, almost all of it guesswork. The most complete and levelheaded account is found in Colp (1977), with the present opinion moving towards a chronic condition of Chagas' disease, although this was earlier discounted. He had been bitten by the vector, the benchuca bug or barberio, on 26th March 1836 at Luxan (Lujan de Cuyo) in Mendoza province, western Argentina. Partly on this account and partly because Emma had been brought up in the country and preferred it, they decided to move out of London.

They bought Down House, with 18 acres of land, and moved there in September 1842. The house lies just west of the village of Downe (O.S. TQ 432612) on the chalk of the North Downs in the county of Kent. Here their other eight children were born; three were to die young, Mary Eleanor in 1842 twenty four days after birth, when the family had only just moved, Anne Elizabeth, Charles' favourite child, at the age of ten of a fever at Malvern, and Charles Waring, the last born, who was mentally subnormal and never learnt to walk or talk, of scarlet fever at about eighteen months. Six of the remaining seven married, only the portly and rather simple Elizabeth remaining single at home. Charles and Emma remained together there for forty years and after his death she continued to spend the summers there for a further fourteen. The only changes over the years, other than to their family, were considerable improvements to the house and grounds; these are detailed in Atkins (1974).

There are two fallacies about their life at Down House which have been often repeated—that Downe was remote from London and that the Darwins lived a secluded, almost recluse, life. The village is thirteen miles from London Bridge as the crow flies, perhaps twenty by road and, until the railway came to Orpington, it must have been difficult to get there and back in a day, but after that it was easy to reach the house for Sunday lunch and return the same evening. That the Darwins lived secluded is even less true. They entered into the life of the village, had guests for lunch or long weekends, visited London, often staying with Charles' brother Erasmus or Wedgwood relatives, and took family holidays. When he was a member of the Council of the Royal Society in 1855-

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Pedigree 12. Ancestors of Emma Wedgwood

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1856, he attended meetings on sixteen occasions. He was away from home for about two thousand days between 1842 and 1881. What was true was that he kept to a rigid pattern of work and leisure when he was at home and tried hard not to be diverted from it, even when guests were staying in the house. Only by this means could he get through the enormous body of research and writing which he completed.

Charles wrote seventeen books which appeared in twenty one volumes, as well as editing and contributing to the Zoology of the Beagle, whose five parts came out between 1838 and 1843. There are more than 160 papers in periodicals and as parts of books written or edited by others, although some seventy of these are brief notes or letters. The first, the most enduring and the most readable, was his Journal of researches into the geology and natural history...of H.M.S. Beagle which first appeared as the third volume of Captain FitzRoy's Narrative of the first two voyages in 1839 and as an independent volume in the same year. It is better known in its second edition of 1845, when it was entirely rewritten and shortened for a more popular public and the title changed so that natural history comes before geology. It has been in print ever since and is usually known as The Voyage of the Beagle, a title that was first used in 1905.

Whilst he was turning his various general notes into the Journal, he was doing the same with his more specialized geological ones. These appeared in three volumes, Coral reefs in 1842, Volcanic islands in 1844 and South America with notes on other countries in 1846. Coral reefs is the most enduring of the three, his views on subsidence being largely supported and confirmed today; the other two are forgotten. Whilst he was still living in London, he began a taxonomic study of the barnacles of the world, examining the British fossil ones at the same time. His results on the living forms were published in two volumes by the Ray Society in 1851 and 1854, whilst the Palaeontographical Society produced the British fossils, again in two volumes, in the same years. The Ray Society volumes are still useful today, one hundred and thirty years later, but, more importantly, they taught Charles the procedures and limitations of taxonomic methods, lessons which were to stand him in good stead when he presented his views on evolution to the scientific world.

The story of Charles' relationship with Alfred Russel Wallace and the coincidence of their views has been written up so often that it is not necessary to repeat it here. Suffice to say that Charles started to write On the origin of species on 20th July 1858, after their joint paper had been communicated to the Linnean Society by Charles Lyell and J. D. Hooker on the first of that month, and after Charles had decided to put on one side the big book, in several volumes, which he had been thinking about for more than twenty years. It was all, except for the index, in corrected proof by 11th September 1859. John Murray's autumn sale to the trade was on 22nd November and publication day was technically the 24th. A lot of nonsense has been written about the whole 1,250 copies being sold to the public on the first day; probably about 1,170 copies were available for sale and there can be no information on how quickly they sold, although the trade had taken up the whole printing. The work went to six editions, much altered, up to 1872, with further small author's corrections in 1876, and sold a little more than twenty two thousand copies in England in Charles' lifetime. The changes which were made in the various editions are important particularly in regard to Charles' views on the inheritance of acquired characters; the later editions tending towards the view that it might happen, but he remained against the Lamarckian concept of striving towards improvements.

His next four books were intended to increase and summarize the information on variation and selection both from the scattered facts that were available and from his own work. Fertilisation of orchids (1862) was based on material obtained from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, as well as from commercial growers and from wild species. He intended to show that the complexity of the relations between orchids and insects was due to natural selection, although some of his readers attributed this to the powers of God. Variation under domestication (1868) was the only part of the intended big book which Charles himself prepared for the press and it is largely based on the observations of stock breeders, although some, especially about pigeons, is from his own breeding experiments. He had avoided discussing the evolution of man in the Origin, but in 1871 he brought

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Pedigree 13. Sibs of Emma Darwin, Charles Darwin's first cousins

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Pedigree 14. Children of John Wedgwood

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him into his theme in The Descent of man and at the same time gave his views on evolution in relation to sex. Finally in 1872, in The expression of the emotions in man and animals, he opposed the view that the expressions and associated muscle structures of man were peculiar to him and a God-given gift, attempting to show that their origins could be traced through the races of men and through other mammals.

His next five books were devoted to plant functions and were largely dependent on the availability of a heated greenhouse which he had built at Down House in 1862. On the movements and habits of climbing plants had first appeared in the Journal of the Linnean Society, in 1865, although it was also available as a slender book at the same time. After more work, a greatly enlarged second edition appeared ten years later, and finally, in 1880, he extended the ideas to show that the same functional methods occurred in flowering plants in general; in this book, Power of movement in plants, he was assisted by his son Francis. These two have little to do with evolutionary theory, but Insectivorous plants (1875) endeavours to show that carnivorous habits have been evolved in relation to impoverished habitats. The other two, Effects of cross and self fertilisation (1876) and Different forms of flowers on plants of the same species (1877) concern themselves with the complex genetical problems in which he was able to show the advantages of outcrossing. He might have approached more nearly to an understanding of the laws of particulate inheritance if he had not chosen such specialized examples.

His last book, The formation of vegetable mould, through the action of worms (1881) reverted to his earlier geological interests; indeed he had published papers on mould in 1838 and 1840. It was remarkably successful, selling six thousand copies before his death six months after it appeared. The famous worm stone by which he measured the rate at which objects on the surface sank was made for him by his son Horace in his Cambridge workshop; a copy can be seen at Down House today.

As has been stated above, biographical works about Charles are numerous, but the fundamental one remains the three volumes of Life and letters (1887) compiled by his son Francis with help from Emma and the other children. To these should be added the two volumes of More letters (1903), again by Francis with the help of A. C. Seward. His daughter Henrietta prepared Emma Darwin...a century of family letters (1904) in two volumes. It was privately printed for members of the family and friends, but reappeared in 1915 for the general public, although some personal matters were altered. Two other early biographies are still useful, Woodall (1884) contains some observations on Shrewsbury and Charles' childhood, and Bettany (1887) has the first attempt at a list of published works. An up-to-date and more complete list of works, including foreign editions, is in Freeman (1977), and a detailed collection of facts about his life can be found in Freeman (1978).

The last of the eleventh generation were the grandchildren of Erasmus Darwin's second marriage, half first cousins of Charles. Of the four sons and three daughters, three married but only two had children. Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin had three sons and seven daughters, none of whom seems to have reached any distinction. Two of his sons married, but only the eldest, Reginald, who was a J.P. for Derbyshire, had a child, Sacheverel Charles, who was in the Navy, becoming a Captain in 1885. He retired in 1892 but was promoted Rear Admiral in 1899. On his death, unmarried, on New Year's day 1900, the name of Darwin died out in this branch, to remain only in the sons of Charles. There is an obituary to this Darwin in The Times for 8th January.

Francis Anne Violetta Darwin married Samuel Tertius Galton and bore four daughters and three sons. Their fifth child and eldest son, Darwin Galton, was a J.P. and Deputy Lieutenant for Warwickshire. He married and had one son who died an infant, making an end to the name Galton in this branch. The second son, Erasmus, who did not marry, was also a J.P. and Deputy Lieutenant, for Somerset. Their seventh and last child, Francis, married, but had no children. Sir Francis, as he was to become, was a scientist of wide cast; starting as a traveller and explorer, he became interested in the analysis of weather and then of anthropometry. From there he became the founder of eugenics, or viriculture as he first called it, both words which he coined, and finally studied the inheritance of the mental attributes of man. He was born in Birmingham and went to King Edward's School there. Intending to qualify as a physician, he went for a year to King's

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Pedigree 15. Children of Charles and Emma Darwin

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College, London, before going to Trinity College, Cambridge, from where he took a pass degree in 1844. On the death of his father in the same year, he gave up the idea of becoming a physician, and for the rest of his life used his considerable inheritance to support his own work.

He had already made one journey in the near-east before going up to Cambridge and now went up the Nile to Khartoum and also visited Syria. His most important journey was however to unexplored land in south-west Africa, what is now Namibia, of which he gave an account in Tropical South Africa (1853). As a result of these travels, he was elected to the Council of the Geographical Society on which he served for many years, indeed Galton was a most ardent committee man, and became F.R.S. in 1856. However he made no more exotic journeys confining himself to Europe especially the alps, perhaps because of ill health.

He now became interested in methods of mapping the weather and forecasting it; the word 'anticyclone' is his. At the same time, he began his studies on inheritance in man and the collection of data on human attributes, the tabulation of which had previously been deficient. He had accepted his cousin Charles' ideas on evolution immediately on the publication of The origin of species in 1859. One human character which he had studied was fingerprints and, although this was only a minor part of his work, he is remembered as one of the founders of their use in criminal and documentary matters. Whilst the accumulation of human statistics continued, he himself became more interested in his 'conviction that the human race might gain an indefinite improvement by breeding from the best and restricting the offspring of the worst'—Sir George Howard Darwin in Dictionary of national biography. It was for this work that he coined the word 'eugenics'. Medawar and Medawar (1983, p. 87) write 'Galton's is the morality of the gas chamber', but it is these studies by which he is best remembered today.

In his later years, he accumulated academic honour, including Royal, Darwin and Copley medals of the Royal Society and Darwin-Wallace medal of the Linnean; he was knighted in 1909. In 1908, he wrote Memories of my life which contains a list of his voluminous publications. The basic biography is that of Karl Pearson, in two volumes (1914, 1930) which contains copious details of the Galton family pedigree. Forrest (1974) gives a more recent assessment. In his later years he was much incapacitated and totally deaf. He died at Grayshott, near Haslemere, Surrey (O.S. SU 870353), on 18th January 1911. He left money in his will for the foundation of a Chair of Eugenics at University College London, with the hope that his collaborator Karl Pearson might be the first incumbent. This he was, to be followed by his son Egon, who between them held it for fifty years. The word eugenics has now been dropped from the title.

The best known Wedgwoods of this eleventh generation were Charles Darwin's first cousins through his mother, Emma's brothers. Josiah the third of the name, known as Joe whilst his father was Jos, was the second child and eldest son. He became senior partner in the pottery in 1841, taking over from his father who died two years later. The firm, although still successful, was not the outstanding concern that it had been in his grandfather's day. He married Charles' sister Caroline and they had four daughters. He was thus not only Charles' first cousin, but his brother-in-law twice over. They lived at Leith Hill Place, west of Dorking, Surrey (O.S. TQ 134425), near enough to Downe for family visits to be frequent.

The brother who was best known to the Darwins was Hensleigh, the seventh child of Josiah; he took his name from his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Hensleigh. He married Frances Mackintosh, daughter of Sir James Mackintosh by his second wife Catherine Allen and thus his first cousin. They had three sons and three daughters. Hensleigh qualified as a barrister and was a Police Magistrate and Registrar of Hackney Cabs, living in London, and the Darwins often stayed at his house. He is remembered by his three volume Dictionary of English etymology (1858-1865). One other brother, Henry Allen, was a particular friend of his sister Emma. He married his first cousin, Jessie Wedgwood, one of John's children, and had three sons and three daughters. He was a barrister working in London, but is remembered for his charming fairy story The bird talisman; originally published as a serial in The Family tutor for 1852, it was privately printed for Emma in 1887, so that she could read it to her grandchildren. It was finally published in 1939, illustrated by

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Pedigree 16. Some children and grandchildren of Emma Darwin's brothers

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Pedigree 17. Children of Sir George Howard Darwin

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Gwen Raverat, daughter of Sir George Darwin, and one of those grandchildren.

The members of the twelfth generation were adult when Burke wrote his Pedigree and, apart from Sacheverel Charles Darwin and Francis Rhodes, who had changed his name to Darwin, who have been mentioned above, were all the children of Charles. Of these seven, six married, but only three had children. They are listed in Pedigree No. 15. Charles' considerable fortune was divided between them at his death, Emma being already provided for, the men getting about £56,000 each and the women £37,000, so that each had enough for it not to be necessary for them to earn a living. However, all except the simple Elizabeth, did so and indeed were successful in their careers. These seven, alone amongst all the Darwin families considered here, have a joint biography. Period piece: a Cambridge childhood (1952) was written and illustrated by Gwendolen Mary Darwin, under her married name of Mdme Raverat; she was 67 at the time. It is not about what these seven did, although there are some facts including a pedigree, but about what they were like, as seen through the eyes of a child; and a splendid book it is.

The eldest child, William Erasmus, was the only survivor who had been born in London before the family moved to Down House. He was educated at Rugby and then at Christ's College, Cambridge, B.A. 1862, where he is said to have been looked after by the same gyp, called Impey, who had looked after his father. In 1877, he married an American, Sara Sedgwick, whose sister, Theodora, was the wife of Charles Elliot Norton, Professor of Italian at Harvard; they had stayed at Keston Rectory, near Downe (O.S. TQ 419630) in 1868 and met the Darwins then. There were no children of the marriage. William was the least intellectual of the brothers and indeed the only one who published nothing, as well as being the only one who never grew a beard. He joined Grant and Maddison, bankers of Southampton, eventually becoming a partner and lived at South Stoneham, north-east of the city (O.S. SU 440155). In 1902, on the death of his wife and the amalgamation of the bank, he moved to London where he lived next door to his brother Leonard in Egerton Street. He died there in 1914. William was the child whose infant character was described by his father in a paper in Mind, Vol II, pp 285-294, 1877. He was the least hypochondriac of all the seven, but did have the misfortune to lose his right leg as a result of a fall whilst hunting.

The second son and fifth child, George Howard, was educated at Clapham Grammar School by its founder headmaster Charles Pritchard, who was already F.R.S. and later became Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford. From there he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, at first as a commoner, but was later elected a scholar. He was second wrangler and second Smith prizeman in 1868 and was elected a Fellow in the same autumn. He was called to the bar in 1874, but owing to continuing ill health he never practised and continued to work on physical and astronomical problems in Cambridge after his ten year fellowship had expired. In 1883, he was appointed to the Plumian Professorship of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. So long as he held a Fellowship he could not marry, but as a Professor he could and in 1884 he married Martha Haskins Du Puy, known as Maud. She was a New England American and a niece of Lady Jebb whose husband Richard was Professor of Greek at Glasgow and from 1887 at Cambridge. They had two daughters and three sons, one of whom died at birth. He had been interested in heraldry and genealogy in his youth and maintained a general antiquarian interest throughout his life. He had also helped his father with some of the illustrations for Insectivorous plants, 1875. He had been elected F.R.S. in 1879 and became K.C.B. in 1905 after he had been President of the British Association meeting in South Africa. Most of his numerous publications were in learned journals and these, with biographical matter added, were reprinted in five volumes in 1907-1916. His only popular work, The Tides, 1898, was the outcome of a lecture course given at Boston in the previous year. All his married life was spent at The Grange, later Newnham Grange, a large house on the river by the Silver Street bridge; it is now a part of Darwin College. Sir George had inherited Down House on his mother's death, but he never lived there. After a short private let, it was rented by Downe House School, until 1922 when it moved to Cold Ash, near Newbury.

Francis, the third son and seventh child, was a botanist and a good all round naturalist. He was also a competent musician, playing wood instruments to his mother's pianoforte. He went to

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Pedigree 18. Children of Sir Francis Darwin

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Clapham Grammar School and then to Trinity College, Cambridge, taking first class honours in the natural science tripos, B.A. 1870. He then qualified as a physician at St George's Hospital, London, although he never practised. He married three times and was three times widowed. His first wife, Amy Richenda Ruck, came from Machynlleth in North Wales and her brothers had been at Clapham Grammar School with the Darwin boys. They lived at the Old Vicarage, Downe, but she died in childbed at the birth of the their son, Bernard Richard Meirion, in 1876. His second wife was Ellen Wordsworth Crofts, a Fellow of Newnham and lecturer in English; they had one daughter, Frances Crofts, and she died in 1903. Lastly, he married Florence Fisher, relict of Professor Frederic William Maitland. She was 49 at the time; they had no children and she died in 1920.

At the beginning of his career and during his first marriage he acted as research assistant to his father, particularly in his work on movement in plants. He then moved to Cambridge where he became a Fellow of Christ's College and a University Lecturer in Botany, being appointed Reader in 1888 and retiring in 1904. It was a time of great change in the teaching of the subject, away from formal morphology and classification, and towards plant physiology; a change in which Francis took a leading part. As a background to his teaching he wrote, with E. H. Acton, The Practical physiology of plants in 1894, and, for beginners, The Elements of botany in the following year. He also published two volumes of general essays, Rustic sounds, 1917, and Springtime, 1920, which show something of the charm of his personality. He will be best remembered for his excellent editing of the basic biographies of his father, three volumes of Life and letters, 1887, and, with A. C. Seward, two further volumes of More letters, in 1903. He had been elected F.R.S. in 1882, shortly before his father died, and was appointed Knight Bachelor in 1913. After Charles died, Emma bought a large house, The Grove, in the Huntingdon Road north of the town, where she spent the winters. Francis had a house built, which he called Wychfield, on surplus land there where he spent most of the rest of his winters, with summers in Gloucestershire.

Leonard, the fourth son and seventh child, went into the Royal Engineers. After training at Woolwich, he was commissioned in 1870 and retired as a Major in 1890. He does not seem to have been involved in any wars, but went on scientific missions including Transits of Venus in 1874 and 1882. After he retired, he became a Member of Parliament for Lichfield as a Liberal-Unionist from 1892 to 1895; he stood again in 1895, but was not re-elected. For the rest of his long life, he interested himself in social problems, as well as becoming President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1908-1911. He wrote on Bimetallism, 1897, The Need for eugenic reform, 1926, and other social subjects. He married twice, but had no children. His first wife, Elizabeth Frances Fraser, known as Bee, was the sister of a brother officer, General Sir Thomas Fraser, and the second, Charlotte Mildred Massingberd, had been a companion to Emma. During his first marriage, he lived in London, next to his brother William, off the Brompton Road, but after the second he moved to Forest Row, East Sussex (O.S. TQ 425351), on the edge of Ashdown Forest.

Horace was the fifth son and last surviving child. He went, like three of his brothers, to Clapham Grammar School and then to Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. 1874. He was sickly as a child and young man, an illness which was eventually recognized as a grumbling appendix, typhlitis as it was then called. After appendectomy in 1893, his health was greatly improved. After taking his degree, he determined to become a mechanical engineer, to cater for the increasing demand for scientific instruments in the universities. He served an apprenticeship with Eaton and Anderson, at Erith in Kent, and then returned to Cambridge where, with A. G. Dew Smith, he set up a workshop in Botolph Lane. This was originally just known as the Shop, but in 1885 it became the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, with Horace as Chairman. It was highly successful and the demand for its apparatus and his special knowledge increased beyond Cambridge, especially perhaps in instrumentation for the infant aircraft industry. He was Major of Cambridge in the jubilee year, 1887, and did a great deal to improve the relationships between town and gown. He was elected F.R.S. in 1903, so that for nine years three of the five brothers were Fellows. In 1918, he was appointed K.B.E. for his work on the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. He had married, in 1880, Emma Cecilia Farrer, known as Ida, only daughter by the first marriage of

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Pedigree 19. Children of Sir Horace Darwin

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Thomas Henry Farrer, a civil servant who was to be made a Baronet in 1883 and a Baron in 1894. They had one son, Erasmus, who was killed in Ypres in 1915, and two daughters. Like his brother Francis, he built a house, The Orchard, on spare land which belonged to his mother at The Grove, Huntingdon Road.

Henrietta Emma was the fourth child and third but only married daughter. Her husband, Richard Buckley Litchfield, twelve years her senior, was a short rotund man with a large beard, who was a solicitor in the Ecclesiastical Commission. He did good works, including the Committee of the Working Men's College, and played the mouthorgan; his brothers-in-law were inclined to laugh at him. They married in 1871, but had no children. Henrietta was remarkable for her extreme hypochondria. At the age of 13, she was given breakfast in bed because she had a temperature; she never got up for breakfast again throughout her long life. Her valetudinarian habits and the patience of her husband are splendidly described in Chapter VII of Period piece. Nevertheless she was intelligent and well read. Before her marriage, her father had trusted her to improve his style in the Descent of man and she also helped with his biography of his grandfather. Later, after her mother's death, she put together an excellent biography of her which has been considered above. During their married life they lived in London, first in Bryanston Square and later in Kensington Square. After his death in 1903, she moved to Gomshall, west of Dorking, Surrey (O.S. TQ 089477), in an area filled with relatives and friends.

Burke does not consider the Wedgwoods of this or the previous generation because he ignores all lines which are not directly Darwins. However, the Darwins carried more genetic material of Wedgwood origin that of Darwin, not only because Charles had married his first cousin, but also because his Wedgwood grandfather had married a cousin, whereas no Darwin had ever married a Darwin relative. There were no outstanding men amongst the Wedgwoods of this generation, Charles' first cousins once removed; they continued to run the pottery, although several preferred the life of a southern gentleman to their Staffordshire roots, and the trade went through difficult times. There was however one woman whose name was known far beyond the family circle. Frances Julia Wedgwood was the eldest child of Emma's brother Hensleigh, and was known as 'Snow' because when she was born, on 6th January 1833, it was snowing. She was a tiny woman, under five foot high and weighing less than seven stone, and she was badly deaf from birth. She never married, indeed appears never to have intended to, although she did have intense mental relationships with some of her male friends. Amongst these was Robert Browning who she saw alone once a week in 1864-1865, shortly after the death of his wife, Elizabeth Barrett. She also had deep feelings for several religious leaders of the time, visiting the circle of Scottish Presbyterian Thomas Erskine of Linlathen and later the Christian Socialist movement of J. F. D. Maurice in London.

Snow was very much a product of the female emancipation of her time, intensely earnest and deeply evangelical. In 1860-1861, she published an article on the boundaries of science in Macmillan's magazine. She sent a copy to Charles Darwin who replied politely 'I could not clearly follow you in some parts, which is in the main part due to my not being at all accustomed to metaphysical trains of thought'. Marianne Thornton, in 1867, was more blunt 'I do find myself so wicked for finding Snow such a dreadful bore...begging to discuss fate and free will...so tactless a woman I never came near and gets worse'—E. M. Forster, Marianne Thornton, 1956, p. 223. She wrote two novels in her youth, both published in 1858, Framleigh Hall by J. W. and An old debt, under the pseudonym of Florence Dawson. Both were reprinted under her own name when she was better known. Her biography of Wesley, 1870, was successful and ran to three editions. She herself considered Moral ideal, 1888, to be her most important work. She had spent many years on this statement of her philosophical and moral position and continued to do so, new and altered editions appearing up to 1907. Her last work, apart from a collection of essays in 1909, was Message of Israel, 1894; it considered the Old Testament, book by book, in light of her beliefs. Snow lived in London, at 16 Landsdowne Road, Notting Hill, but spent much of her time visiting relations and religious friends.

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There remains to be considered the thirteenth generation, the grandchildren of Charles Darwin, with brief mention of a few of their children, the fourteenth. There are also some of the same generations on the Wedgwood side, who are not considered by Burke. Seven of the Darwins are in Burke, two being born in their grandfather's lifetime. There were ten grandchildren in all, five from Sir George, two from Sir Francis and three from Sir Horace.

Sir George's family are shown in Pedigree No. 17; he had three sons, the youngest of whom died at birth, and two daughters, all of whom were born at Newham Grange, Cambridge. The eldest son and second child, Charles Galton, was educated at Marlborough and Trinity College, Cambridge, obtaining a first class in part 2 of the mathematical tripos in 1910. After a short period at Manchester under Ernest Rutherford, he joined the Royal Engineers for the duration of the war, gaining an M.C. He returned to Cambridge as a Fellow of Christ's in 1919 and was elected F.R.S. in 1922. This was the fifth father to son generation, but his father had died in 1912, so that they were not Fellows at the same time, although his uncles, Francis and Horace, both overlapped with him. After a short spell as Master of Christ's, 1936-1938, he became Director of the National Physical Laboratory in the latter year. He was a Vice-President of the Royal Society in 1939, having received a Royal Medal in 1935. He was made K.B.E. in 1942 and retired in 1949. Sir Charles was a theoretical physicist with an outstanding ability to recognize new ideas and to interpret their importance. He married Katharine Pember in 1925 and they had four sons and one daughter. These four are the only males to bear the name Darwin today, except the senior branch of Elston Hall who had changed their name from Rhodes in 1850, on inheritance. Sir Charles considered the future of science and of mankind in The next million years, 1952.

Sir George's eldest child and elder daughter, Gwendolen Mary, was trained at the Slade School of Fine Art in London from 1908 to 1911 and whilst there lived with her widower uncle William in Egerton Street. She married Jacques Paul-Pierre Raverat, a Belgian artist, and had two daughters. She always used her married name, Gwen Raverat, in her working life and her book Period piece, 1952, which she illustrated herself, has been repeatedly referred to above. She illustrated a considerable number of books amongst them being the only published edition of The bird talisman, which was written by her great uncle Henry Allen Wedgwood. She also illustrated some of the poetry of her cousin Frances Cornford. Gwen Raverat lived in or near Cambridge for most of her life.

The third child and second daughter, Margaret Elizabeth, married Geoffrey Langdon Keynes, surgeon and distinguished bibliographer, brother of John Maynard Keynes, first Baron Keynes, and had four sons. He was knighted in 1955 and elected F.B.A. in 1981. Their son, Richard Darwin Keynes, Professor of Physiology at Cambridge since 1972, became F.R.S. in 1959, the first of two to carry the Fellowship into the sixth generation, but breaking the father to son continuity. Sir Geoffrey died in 1982 at the age of 95. They lived at Lammas House, Brinkley, near Newmarket (O.S. TL 629548).

The family of Sir Francis is given in Pedigree No. 18. His only son, Bernard Richard Meirion, married Elinor Mary Monsell and had one son and two daughters. Bernard was a copious writer particularly on sporting matters, with golf, for which he was The Times correspondent, his favourite. He was a widely cultured man and contributed the introduction to the first edition of The Oxford dictionary of quotations, 1941. He also wrote books for children with his wife, the Tootleoo books, 1925, 1927, being particularly successful. His only son, Robert Vere, always known as Robin, was a painter, who early in his career was art master at Eton, and then, from 1948 to 1967, extremely successful Principal of the Royal College of Art. He was knighted in 1964 and became a full Academician, the only Darwin to do so, in the last year of his life, 1972. He married twice, but had no children.

Sir Francis' only child by his second marriage, Frances Crofts, married Francis Macdonald Cornford, Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy at Cambridge and F.B.A. 1937. They had three sons and two daughters. Frances was a poet, a minor but by no means negligible member of the Georgians; her collected poems appeared in 1954. Their eldest son John, himself a promising poet, was killed in 1936 when a member of the International Brigade in the Spanish civil war. The

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second son, Christopher, was an artist and joined his cousin, Sir Robin, at the Royal College of Art.

The family of Sir Horace is given in Pedigree No. 19. His eldest child and only son, Erasmus, was educated at Marlborough and Trinity College, Cambridge, taking the mathematical tripos. After training in Manchester, he joined his father's firm as a director and then became Secretary to Bocklow, Vaughan of Middlesborough. He joined the Green Howards as a territorial at the outbreak of war and was killed at Ypres in 1915. He was unmarried. There is a brief notice of him at the beginning of the first volume of Emma Darwin, 1915.

The elder of the two daughters, Ruth Frances, became a civil servant and from 1932 to 1949 was Senior Commissioner Board of Control. She married, at the age of 65, William Rees Thomas, psychiatric physician, who had been Medical Superintendant of Rampton Hospital. Her younger sister, (Emma) Nora, carried out some genetic research at the John Innes horticultural station before she married, but then became the first person to study the unpublished manuscript material of her grandfather Charles in depth. Her transcription of The Diary of the voyage of the Beagle, 1932, was followed by Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle, 1945, and his letters to his Cambridge mentor, John Stevens Henslow, 1967. She also transcribed Charles' Autobiography, 1958, restoring those parts which Francis felt it necessary to omit in 1887. Her transcription of the ornithological notebooks, 1963, was part of a wider study of the natural history material by Sir Gavin de Beer and others. She married Sir (James) Alan (Noel) Barlow, a senior civil servant who was made G.C.B. in 1947 and inherited as second Baronet in the following year. They had four sons and one daughter. Their eldest son, Sir Thomas Erasmus, the third Baronet, was a regular naval officer in submarines, D.S.C. 1945, retiring as Captain, and is a Deputy Lieutenant for Buckinghamshire. Their third son, Horace Basil, was Royal Society Research Professor of Physiology at Cambridge until 1982. He was elected F.R.S. in 1969, the second of the great grandchildren to be so, but not in the lifetime of Sir Charles.

There were four Wedgwoods of this thirteenth generation of distinction. The eldest of these was Cecil, the only child of Godfrey by his first wife Mary, daughter of Sir John Hawkshaw, who had died of complications after his birth. He was a potter who became a partner in 1891, Chairman in 1905, and first Mayor of Stoke-on-Trent in 1909-1910. Cecil was a territorial soldier in the North Staffs Militia, serving in the South African war where he was awarded the D.S.O. in 1902. He served again in the Great War, but was killed at La Boiselle in 1915. Wedgwood and Wedgwood describe Major Cecil (p. 128) as looking like a viking. He married Lucie Gibson of Cork and had two daughters.

Clement Francis Wedgwood had four sons and one daughter by his wife, Emily Catherine, daughter of James Meadows Rendel, F.R.S., a dock and harbour engineer. The second son, Josiah Clement, was a potter and a Member of Parliament. He married, as his first wife, Ethel Kate Bowen, only daughter of Charles, Baron Bowen, a judge, and they had two sons and five daughters. He was M.P. for Newcastle-under-Lyme, first as a Liberal, then for Labour and finally as an Independent. He became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and a Privy Councillor in 1924 and was elevated to the Lords as Baron Wedgwood of Barlaston in 1941. He had distinguished service in the Great War, in the Dardenelles and Mesopotamia and was awarded the D.S.O. in East Africa in 1915.

The third son of Clement, Ralph Lewis, was at Trinity College, Cambridge, with his youngest brother Felix and during that time made friends with their younger Darwin cousins; their characters as young men are described in Period piece. Ralph married Iris Veronica Pawson and they had two sons, one of whom died an infant, and one daughter. He joined the London and North Eastern Railway, ending as Chief General Manager, and after retirement was Chairman in 1944 of the wartime Railway Executive. He was knighted in 1924 and made a Baronet of Etruria in 1942. He served with the Royal Engineers during the Great War, being Brigadier General in 1916. In his old age, he rented Leith Hill Place from the National Trust which had inherited it from his cousin and friend since Cambridge days, Ralph Vaughan Williams. His only daughter is Dame (Cicely) Veronica Wedgwood, the distinguished narrative historian. She was educated at Lady Margaret

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Hall, Oxford, of which she is now an Honorary Fellow; she was appointed D.B.E. in 1968 and O.M. in 1969, and elected F.B.A. in 1975.

The youngest son, (Arthur) Felix, married Katherine Longstaff in 1910 and they had two daughters and a son. He became a civil engineer, but was killed at Buequoy in 1917, while a Captain in the North Staffs Militia. He wrote a novel Shades of a titan, 1910, a complex story about a South American dictator, as well as some short stories which were privately printed posthumously.

The thirteenth generation, Darwins and Wedgwoods, with a few from the fourteenth, have now been considered. Those of the fifteenth who are grown up and some of whom are married and those of the sixteenth, who are mostly children, are not included.

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APPENDIX I.

Name Variants.

The names which are used in the text and in the index are the full formal names. Such names, consisting as they do of a surname preceded by one or more forenames, are seldom if ever used either in speech or in writing. The names which are used vary with the age of the person addressed and with the familiarity of the people concerned. They also vary with the period of use and with the social class. Such variants make it difficult to recognize who is being spoken or written to, or who is being spoken of or written about.

It is convenient to divide such names into those which relate to the forenames from those which relate to the surnames or names of title. The commonest variants of forenames are firstly where some one name other than the first is used, secondly where a name is used in a familiar form which is often remote from its origin in spelling—Molly or Polly for Mary, Dick or Hodge for Richard, and thirdly true nicknames and hypocoristic forms which bear no relation to the true forenames except where they may be infantile attempts to say the true name.

Surnames, whether single or double, usually attach to a person throughout life, although they may be changed and, in the case of married women, are changed, but they do not have the same legal status as do forenames. There are however two groups of people, peers and their spouses and senior clergy, whose names may be changed during their lives in such a way that their original surnames are seldom if ever used. There are no Darwins in this category, no peers, no bishops, but there are a few people who occur in Darwin literature whose names do change in this way. These have been given in a second list.

Abbety — A nickname given by Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin, in childhood, to some member of the family at Down House.
Alderman, The — Aaron Wedgwood, 1722-1768, from his pomposity.
Alex — Alexander Charles Wood, 1810-? by Robert FitzRoy.
Allen — John Allen Wedgwood, 1796-1882.
Ape — Carlo Pellegrini, 1839-1889, signed his cartoons thus from 1869.
Audrey — Doris Audrey Makeig-Jones, 1894-1968.
Annie — Anne Elizabeth Darwin, 1841-1851.
Babsey — Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin, 1876-1961, in infancy.
Baccy, Backy — Sir Francis Darwin, 1848-1925, in childhood.
Baugh, I —  Launcelot Baugh Allen, 1774-1845.
Baugh, II — George Baugh Allen, 1821-1898.
Bee — Elizabeth Frances Darwin, 1846-1898.
Berry — Bertram Hensleigh Wedgwood, 1876-1951.
Bessy, I — Elizabeth Wedgwood, 1764-1846.
Bessy, II — Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, 1793-1880.
Bessy, III — Elizabeth Harding, fl. 1846.
Bessy, IV — Elizabeth Darwin, 1847-1925.
Bob — Seymour Phillips Allen, 1814-1861.
Bobby — Charles Robert Darwin by his brother Erasmus when E was at Cambridge and C still at school.
Body — Henrietta Emma Darwin, 1843-1929.
Boo — Sir Horace Darwin, 1851-1928, by Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin in infancy, because B called engines boo-boos.
Boofy — Ruth Frances Darwin, 1883-1973.
Bro — James Mackintosh Wedgwood, 1834-1864.
Budgy — Henrietta Emma Darwin, 1843-1929.

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Catty — Emily Caroline Langton, 1810-1866.
Cellarius — Samuel Butler, II, 1835-1902.
Cherbury — John Maurice Herbert, 1808-1882, from Baron Herbert of Cherbury.
Chucky — Susan Elizabeth Darwin, 1803-1866.
Cid, The — Sydney Smith, 1771-1845.
Clarke — John Clarke Hawkshaw, 1841-1921.
Cool of the evening — Richard Monckton Milnes, Baron Houghton, 1809-1885.
Darwin's bulldog — Thomas Henry Huxley, 1825-1895.
Darwin's true knight — Alfred Russel Wallace, 1823-1913.
Doddy — William Erasmus Darwin, 1839-1914, in childhood.
Don Roderick — Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, Bart, 1792-1871.
Doveleys — Frances Wedgwood, 1806-1832, and Emma Wedgwood, 1808-1896, in childhood.
Dubba. Dubsy — Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin, 1876-1961, in childhood.
E, Effie — Lady (Katherine Euphemia) Farrer, 1839-1934.
Eliza — Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, III, 1795-1857, as an adult.
Elizabeth — Susan Elizabeth Darwin, 1803-1866.
Em — Emma Darwin, 1808-1896, by her sisters.
Ernie, Erny — Ernest Hensleigh Wedgwood, 1838-1898.
Etty — Henrietta Emma Litchfield, 1843-1929.
Evvy — Margaret Evans, fl. 1880.
F — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, meaning father, by Emma Darwin in writing to their grown up children.
Fan, Fanny I — Frances Wedgwood, 1800-1889.
Fanny, II — Frances Wedgwood, 1806-1832.
Fanny, III — Frances Biddulph, fl. 1830.
Fanny Frank — Frances Wedgwood (née Mosley), ?-1874.
Fanny Mack — Frances Wedgwood (née Mackintosh), 1800-1889.
Father of Frankwell — Robert Waring Darwin, 1766-1848, by his poorer patients.
Felix — Arthur Felix Wedgwood, 1877-1917.
Flycatcher — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, by all ranks on the Beagle.
Frank, I — Francis Maitland Balfour, 1851-1882.
Frank, Franky, II — Sir Francis Darwin, 1848-1925.
Frank, Franky, III — Francis Hamilton Wedgwood, 1867-1930.
Gas — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, as a schoolboy, because of interest in chemistry.
Genie, The — Gwendolen Mary Raverat, 1885-1957, at school and later.
Geoff — Geoffrey Wedgwood, 1879-1897.
Granny — Susan Elizabeth Darwin, 1803-1866.
Gwen — Gwendolen Mary Raverat, 1885-1957.
Hal — Henry Allen Wedgwood, 1799-1885.
Harriot — Henrietta Emma Litchfield, 1843-1929.
Harry, I — Henry Allen Wedgwood, 1799-1885.
Harry, II — Henry George Allen, 1815-1908.
Hen — Hensleigh Wedgwood, 1803-1891.
Hens, The — Hensleigh Wedgwood and his wife Frances, 1800-1889.
Hoddy Doddy — William Erasmus Darwin, 1839-1914, in infancy.
Jack — Hon. John Collier, 1850-1934.
Jane — Louisa Jane Wedgwood, 1771-1836.
Jem — James Ingall Wedgwood, 1883-1950.
Jemmy — Sir Horace Darwin, 1851-1928.
Jenny, I — Louisa Jane Wedgwood, 1771-1836.
Jenny, II — Jane Baillie Carlyle, 1801-1866.

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Jike — John Clement Wickham, 1798-1864.
Jimmy — Alexander Burns Usborne, 1809-?1887.
Joe — Josiah Wedgwood, 1795-1880, rarely Jos.
John — John Edmonston, fl. 1825.
Johnny — John Hensleigh Allen, 1818-1868, as a child.
Jos, I — Josiah Wedgwood, 1769-1843.
Jos, II — Josiah Wedgwood, 1795-1880, rarely.
Katty, Catty — Emily Catherine Langton, 1810-1866.
Kitty, I — Catherine Mackintosh, 1765-1830.
Kitty, II — Anne Elizabeth Darwin, 1841-1851.
Kitty and Lydia — Susan Elizabeth Darwin, 1803-1866 and Jessie Wedgwood, 1804-1872, when young women, after Kitty and Lydia Bennett, in Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, because they were flirts.
Kitty Kumplings — Anne Elizabeth Darwin, 1841-1851.
Lena — Emily Caroline Langton, m. 1867.
Litches — Richard Buckley Litchfield, 1831-1903, and his wife Henrietta Emma, 1843-1927, by Emma Darwin writing to her sons.
Long John — John Wedgwood, 1705-1780.
Lotty — Charlotte Langton, 1797-1862.
Mack — James Mackintosh Wedgwood, 1834-1864.
Madonna, The — Mary Ryan, servant to Julia Margaret Cameron.
Mammy — Emma Darwin, 1808-1896, by Charles Darwin in later years of marriage.
Man who walked with Henslow — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, when at Cambridge, from his friendship with Professor John Stevens Henslow.
Mary Ernest — Mary Wedgwood, ?-1952.
Maud — Lady (Martha Haskins) Darwin, 1861-1947.
Mildred — Charlotte Mildred Darwin, 1868-1940.
Mim — A name given by Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin, 1876-1961, in infancy to some member of the family at Down House.
Molly, I — Mary Mackintosh, fl. 1850.
Molly, II — Mary Wedgwood, 1874-1969.
Mone — Marianne Thornton.
Mustard and Pepper — Emma Wedgwood, 1809-1896, and Frances Wedgwood, 1806-1832, in childhood when naughty.
Nain — Mary Anne Ruck, fl. 1880, by Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin; North Welsh for grandmother.
Nanna — Maryanne, his nurse, by Bernard Richard Meirion Darwin.
Nettie, I — Henrietta Anne Huxley, 1825-1915.
Nettie, II — Henrietta Roller, 1863-1940.
Nigger — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, in writing to Emma Darwin, in the sense of her slave.
Nora — Lady (Emma Nora) Barlow, 1885-.
Pedigree, Mrs. — Frances Wedgwood, 1806-1832, as a child, from her love of making lists.
Philos, I — Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 1804-1881.
Philos, II — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, by officers on Beagle.
Polly — Mary Darwin, 1740-1770.
Postillion — Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882, by Frances Owen, just before Beagle voyage.
Ras, I — Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 1804-1881.
Ras, II — Erasmus Darwin, 1881-1915.
Rhadamanthus minor — Henrietta Emma Litchfield, 1843-1929, by Thomas Henry Huxley, from her strictness when correcting manuscript.
Robin — Sir Robert Vere Darwin, 1910-1973.

[page] 64

Rosina — Margaret Rosina Wedgwood, fl. 1870.
Sad — Harriet Surtees, 1776-1845.
Sally, I — Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, 1795-1857.
Sally, II — Sarah Wedgwood, 1734-1815.
Sis — Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi. 1773-1842.
Skim, Mrs — Mary Anne Schimmelpennick, 1778-1856.
Skimp — Sir Horace Darwin, 1851-1928, as a child.
Slip-slop, Little Miss — Emma Darwin, 1808-1896, as a child.
Snow — Frances Julia Wedgwood, 1833-1913, because born in a snowstorm.
Soapy Sam — Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, later Winchester, 1805-1873, from his habit of 'washing' his hands when preaching.
Sophy — Katherine Elizabeth Sophia Wedgwood, 1765-1817.
Spengle — Stephen Paul Engelheart, ?1830-1885.
Sukey — Susannah Darwin, 1765-1817.
Swan of Lichfield — Anna Seward, 1747-1809.
Tim, Tiny Tim — Alfred Allen Wedgwood, 1842-1892.
Theta — Sir Thomas Henry Farrer, Baron Farrer, 1833-1894.
Titty — Emma Darwin, 1808-1896, by Charles Robert Darwin in early years of marriage.
Tom, I — Thomas Wedgwood, 1771-1805.
Tom, II — Thomas Josiah Wedgwood, 1797-1862.
Tom, III — Thomas Campbell Eyton, 1809-1880.
Useful Thomas — Thomas Wedgwood, 1734-1788, from his making Queen's useful ware.
Veck, Trotty — Henrietta Emma Litchfield, 1843-1929, as a child. Toby Veck, know as Trotty because he was a message carrier, was main character in Charles Dickens, The Chimes.
Venerable P, The — Joseph Parslow, 1809/10-1898, after The aged Parslow in Charles Dickens, Great expectations.
Violetta — Frances Anne Violetta Galton, 1783-1874.
Whuffler — William Whewell, 1794-1866.


Argyll, 8th Duke of, 1847 — George John Campbell, 1830-1890.
Avebury, 1st Baron, 1900 — Sir John Lubbock, Bart, 1834-1913.
Avebury, Baroness Lady Alice Augusta Laurentia Lane Lubbock, ?-1947.
Bradley, George Granville, 1821-1903 — Dean of Westminster Abbey, 1881-1902.
Bulwer, Sir Edward George Earle Lytton, Bart, 1803-1873 — 1st Baron Lytton, 1866.
Butler, Samuel, 1774-1839 — Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1836.
Canterbury, Archbishop of, 1868 — Archibald Campbell Tait, 1811-1882.
Carlisle, Bishop of, 1868 — Harvey Goodwin, 1818-1891.
Cavendish, William, 1808-1891 — 7th Duke of Devonshire, 1858.
Cecil, Georgiana, 18 — Marchioness of Salisbury.
Cecil, Mary Catherine, 18 — Marchioness of Salisbury.
Cecil, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne, 1830-1903 — 3rd Marquis of Salisbury, 1868.
Colyear, Catherine, 1657-1717 — Countess of Portmore.
Colyear, Charles, 1700-1785 — 2nd Earl of Portmore, 1730.
Colyear, David, c. 1656-1730 — 1st Earl of Portmore.
Colyear, Juliana — Countess of Portmore.
Cranworth, 1st Baron 18 — Robert Monsey Rolfe, 1790-1868.
Derby, Countess of — Lady Mary Catherine Stanley.
Derby, 13th Earl of, — Edward Smith Stanley, 1775-1851.
Derby, 15th Earl of, 1870 — Edward Henry Stanley, 1826-1893.
Devonshire, 7th Duke of, 1858 — William Cavendish, 1808-1891.

[page] 65

Ely, Dean of, 1839 — George Peacock, 1791-1858.
Farrer, 1st Baron, 1893 — Sir Thomas Henry Farrer, Bart, 1833-1894.
Farrer, Baroness — Lady Katherine Euphemia Farrer, 1839-1934.
Fellowes, Newton — Earl of Portsmouth.
Goodwin, Harvey, 1818-1891 — Bishop of Carlisle.
Hatherley, 1st Baron, 1868 — Sir William Page Wood, 1801-1881.
Herbert, Hon. William, 1778-1847 — Dean of Manchester.
Houghton, 1st Baron, 1863 — Richard Monckton Milnes, 1809-1885.
Kelvin, 1st Baron, 1892 — Sir William Thomson, 1824-1907.
Leeds, Duchess of — Juliana Colyear, 1704/5-1794.
Lichfield and Coventry, Bishop of, 1835 — Samuel Butler, 1774-1839.
London, Bishop of, 1856-1868 — Archibald Campbell Tait, 1811-1882.
Lubbock, Lady (Alice Augusta Laurentia Lane), ?-1947 — Baroness Avebury.
Lubbock, Sir John, Bart, 1834-1913 — 1st Baron Avebury, 1900.
Lytton, 1st Baron, 1866 — Sir Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer. Bart, 1803-1873.
Mahon, Viscount, 18 -1855 — Philip Henry Stanhope, 1805-1875, courtesy title, 5th Earl Stanhope, 1855.
Manchester, Dean of — Hon. William Herbert, 1778-1847.
Milman, Henry Hart, 1791-1868 — Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, 1849.
Milnes, Richard Monckton, 1809-1885 — 1st Baron Houghton, 1863.
Monteagle, 1st Baron, 1839 — Thomas Spring Rice, 1790-1836.
Monteagle, 3rd Baron, 1909 — Thomas Spring Rice, 1849-1926.
Nukahiva, King of — Charles Philip Hippolytus, Baron de Thierry, 1793-1864, self-styled.
Oxford, Bishop of, 1845-1869 — Samuel Wilberforce, 1805-1873.
Patten, John Wilson, 1802-1892 — 1st Baron Winmarleigh, 1874.
Peacock, George, 1791-1858 — Dean of Ely, 1839.
Portmore, Countess of — Catherine Colyear, 1657-1717.
Portmore, Countess of — Dowager Duchess of Leeds, Juliana Colyear.
Portmore, 1st Earl of — David Colyear, c. 1656-1717.
Portmore, 2nd Earl of — Charles Colyear, 1700-1785.
Portsmouth, Earl of — Newton Fellowes.
Rayleigh, 3rd Baron — John William Strutt, 1843-1919.
Rice, Thomas Spring, 1790-1836 — 1st Baron Monteagle, 1839.
Rice, Thomas Spring, 1849-1926 — 3rd Baron Monteagle, 1909.
Rolfe, Robert Monsey, 1790-1868 — 1st Baron Cranworth, 1850.
St. Paul's Cathedral, Dean of, 1849 — Henry Hart Milman, 1791-1868.
Salisbury, Marchioness of — Georgiana Cecil.
Salisbury, Marchioness of — Mary Catherine Cecil.
Salisbury, 3rd Marquis of, 1868 — Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, 1830-1893.
Seymour, Richard Adolphus, 1775-1855 — 11th Duke of Somerset.
Sherbrooke, 1st Viscount, 1880 — Robert Lowe, 1811-1892.
Stanhope, 5th Earl, 1855 — Philip Henry Stanhope, 1805-1875.
Stanhope, Philip Henry, 1805-1875 — 5th Earl Stanhope, 1855.
Stanley, Edward Henry, 1826-1893 — 15th Earl of Derby, 1870.
Stanley, Edward Smith, 1775-1851 — 13th Earl of Derby.
Stanley, Mary Catherine — Countess of Derby.
Strutt, John William, 1843-1919 — 3rd Baron Rayleigh, 1873.
Tait, Archibald Campbell, 1811-1882 — Bishop of London, 1856-1868; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1868
Thierry, Charles Philip Hippolytus, Baron de 1793-1864 — King of Nukuhiva. c. 1845, self-styled.
Thomson, Sir William, 1824-1907 — 1st Baron Kelvin. 1892.

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[See image view]

Pedigree 20. Darwins and the Royal Society. Dates give birth, election and death

[page] 67

Wedgwood, Josiah Clement, 1872-1943 — 1st Baron Wedgwood, 1941.
Wedgwood, 1st Baron — Josiah Clement Wedgwood, 1872-1943.
Westminster, Dean of, 1881-1902 — George Granville Bradley, 1821 -1903.
Wilberforce, Samuel, 1805-1873 — Bishop of Oxford, 1845-1869, Bishop of Winchester, 1869.
Winchester, Bishop of, 1869 — Samuel Wilberforce, 1805-1873.
Winmarleigh, 1st Baron — John Wilson Patten, 1802-1892.

APPENDIX 2.

Darwins and the Royal Society

It has often been noticed that Darwins have been Fellows of the Society in father to son sequence for longer than members of any other family. Pedigree 20 shows that from the election of Dr Erasmus Darwin in 1761 until the death of Sir Charles in 1962 gives a span of 201 years in five generations and includes seven Fellows. The qualifications demanded for election over this period vary considerably, but six of the seven were undoubtedly able research scientists. The exception is Robert Waring Darwin, who is said to have been elected to please his father, and whose one research paper, submitted for his medical doctorate at Leyden (1785), is said to have been prepared for the press by the latter. He was only 19 when he wrote it, 22 when elected and he remained a fellow for 60 years.

However, this is merely a matter of inheritance of a surname. Erasmus Darwin has nine descendent Fellows, two of them on the present list and extending the family span to 223 years. It is also true that Josiah Wedgwood was ancestor to eight Fellows, although none has born the name. Seven of these eight are also of Darwin stock and are shown in Pedigree 20. The two who have no Wedgwood are Robert Waring Darwin and Sir Francis Galton. The eighth, Dr Rendel Sebastian Pease, who was elected in 1977, is not of Darwin stock, being the grandson, through his mother, of the first Lord Wedgwood. His sister, Jocelyn Richenda Gammell Pease, is married to Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, who has been a Fellow since 1955 and President since 1980. Their six children, who are great grandchildren of Thomas Henry Huxley, have thus a common ancestor with the present day Darwins in Josiah Wedgwood.

[page] 68

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[page] 73

Index

Allen, Caroline, née Romilly, ?-1830 41
Allen, Catherine, see Mackintosh
Allen, Elizabeth, née Hensleigh, 1738-1790
33, 41, 44, 50
Allen, Elizabeth, see Wedgwood
Allen, Emma, 1780-1866 41
Allen, Frances, 1791-1875 41
Allen, Georgina Sarah, née Bayly, ?-1859 41
Allen, Gertrude, née Seymour, ?-1825 41
Allen, Harriet, see Surtees
Allen, Jessie see Simonde de Sismondi
Allen, John Bartlett, 1733-1803 37, 41, 44
Allen, John Hensleigh, 1769-1843 41
Allen, Lancelot Baugh, 1774-1845 41
Allen, Louisa Jane, see Wedgwood
Allen, Octavia, 1779-1800 41
Allen, Sarah Elizabeth, see Wedgwood
Alvey, Elizabeth, see Hill
Alvey, Matthew, fl. 1660 30
Alvey, Susannah, née Rawlinson 30
Arkwright, Frances Jane, see Galton

Barclay, Lucy, see Galton
Barclay, Martha, see Bromhead
Barlow, (Emma) Nora Lady, née Darwin, 1885- 12, 56, 59
Barlow, Horace Basil, FRS 1969, 1921- 56, 59, 66
Barlow, Sir (James) Alan Noel, Bart, 1881-1966 56, 59
Barlow, Sir Thomas Erasmus, Bart, 1914-
56
Barton, Frances Sarah, née Darwin, 1822-1881
19
Barton, Rev. Gustavus, ?-1846
19
Bayly, Georgina Sarah, see Allen
Baynton, Dorothy, fl. 1637
4
Baynton, Isabell, née Darwin. ?-ante 1637
4
Baynton, Martha, fl. 1637
4
Baynton, Mary, fl. 1637
4
Bellamy, Joane, née Darwin, ?-ante 1566
3
Bennett, Adéle Vera Harcourt, née Galton, 1859-?
22
Bennett, Rev. Frederick, 1844-?
22
Bennett, William Lionel Galton, 1887-?
22
Bent, Miss, see Turton
Bent, Edith Lucy, 1867-?
22
Bent, Emma Sophia, 1844-?
21
Bent, Elizabeth Eva, 1869-? 22
Bent, Frances Maud, 1872-? 22
Bent, Harold Edward Furnival, 1878-? 22
Bent, Kathleen Mabel, 1877-? 22
Bent, Louisa Constance, 1870-? 22
Bent, Rowland Theodore, 1868-? 22
Bent, Sophy Elsee, 1876-? 22
Bent, Sophy Flora, 1873-1874 22
Bent, William Ernest, 1874-? 22
Bent, William Theodore, 1836-? 21
Bickmore, Louisa Lilla, see Wilmot
Biggs, Amy Mary Constance, see Pearson
Biggs, Rev. George Hesketh, 1823-? 23
Biggs, Harcourt Galton, 1863-? 23
Biggs, Lucy Amelia, née Moilliet, 1833-?
23
Biggs, Lucy Evelyne, 1864-? 23
Biggs, Sophy Adele, 1858-? 23
Biggs, Rev. Walter Bree Hesketh, 1856-?
23
Bonar, Euphemia Rebecca, see Fox
Booth, Amy Laura, see Webster
Bosanquet, Frederick Charles Tindal, fl. 1880
16
Bosanquet, Gertrude Mary, née Fox, 1854-?
16
Bosanquet, Theodora, 1880-?
16
Boulton, Matthew, FRS 1785, 1784-1809
29
Bowen, Charles Synge Christopher, Baron, 1835-1894
59
Bowen, Hon. Ethel Kate, see Wedgwood
Bradney, Beatrice Elizabeth, see Noel
Bridgeman, Selina, see Bristowe
Bristowe, Albert William, 1858-?
16
Bristowe, Albertine, née Lavit, 1835-?
16
Bristowe, Alice Mary, 1855-?
17
Bristowe, Amilia Mary, 1868-?
16
Bristowe. Anna Maria, see Webster
Bristowe, Charles John, 1862-?
16
Bristowe, Edith Caroline, 1859-1911
16
Bristowe, Frederick Edward, 1866-?
16
Bristowe, Georgiana Emily, 1858-?
17

[page] 74

Bristowe, Sir Henry Fox, 1824-1893 17
Bristowe, Henry Orlando, 1851-? 17
Bristowe, Isabella, 1857-1858 16
Bristowe, Leonard Hugh, 1859-1934 17
Bristowe, Mary Ann, née Fox, 1800-1829 15
Bristowe, Samuel Boteler, 1822-1897 16
Bristowe, Samuel Ellis, 1800-1855 15
Bristowe, Selina, née Bridgeman, 1825-1886 17
Broadhurst, Arabella, née Darwin, 1723-1778 7
Broadhurst, John, fl. 1750 7
Bromhead, Ann, née Darwin, 1748-1837 7
Bromhead, Benjamin, 1773-1848 7
Bromhead, Charlotte, née Hamilton, ?-1804 7
Bromhead, James, 1778-1801 7
Bromhead, John, 1742-1818 7
Bromhead, John, 1774-1775 7
Bromhead, John, 1776-1837 7
Bromhead, Martha, née Barclay, ?-1833 7
Bromley, Ellen, née Lyndon, fl. 1678 32
Bromley, Mary, see Howard
Bromley, Thomas, fl. 1678 32
Brown, Ann, see Stowe
Brown, Jane, see Darwin
Browne, Ann, fl. 1600 3
Browne, Edward, 1611-post 1637 4
Browne, Henry, c. 1620-? 4
Browne, Thomas, c. 1620-? 4
Browne, Wilferic, c. 1620-? 4
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 1806-1861 57
Browning, Robert, 1812-1889 57
Bulwer, Edward George Earle Lytton, see Lytton
Bunbury, Milicent Adéle, née Galton, 1810-1883 21
Bunbury, Milicent Galton, see Lethbridge 21
Bunbury, Rev. Robert Shirley, 1810-1846 vii
Burke, Sir Henry Farnham, 1859-1930 vii
Burke, John, 1787-1848 vii
Burke, Sir John Bernard, 1814-1892 vii
Burslem, Margaret, see Wedgwood

Butler, Louisa Jane, see Galton
Butler, Samuel, 1774-1834 39
Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881 39
Case, George Augustus, ?-1831 39
Causton, Elizabeth, née Lacy, m. 1607 3
Causton, Robert, m. 1607 3
Chance, Emily Mary, see Fox
Chester, Joseph Lemuel, 1821-1882 vii
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1772-1834 39
Collier, Miss, fl. 1747 33
Collier, Elizabeth see Darwin & Pole
Colyear, Catherine, née Sedley, Countess of Portmore, 1657-1717 33
Colyear, Charles, Earl of Portmore, 1700-1785 31, 33
Colyear, Sir David, Earl of Portmore, c. 1656-1730 33
Colyear, Juliana, née Hale or Hele, Countess of Portmore, Dowager Duchess of Leeds, 1704/5-1794 31, 33
Cook, Brian, m. 1762 7
Cook, Charlotte, née Darwin, 1746-? 7
Cook, Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1743-? 7
Cook, Henry, ?-1779 7
Cornford, Christopher 59
Cornford, Frances Crofts, née Darwin 12, 54, 58
Cornford, Francis Macdonald, FBA 1937 54, 58
Cornford, Rupert John, 1915-1936 58
Crewe, Frances, see Wedgwood
Crofts, Ellen Wordsworth, see Darwin
Darby, Yvonne, see Darwin
Darwin, Alice or Ann, see Hanson
Darwin, Amy Richenda, née Ruck, 1848-1876 12, 49, 54, 55
Darwin, Ann, née Fox, ?-1590 3
Darwin, Ann, 1727-1813 9
Darwin, Ann, see Bromhead
Darwin, Ann, see Fox
Darwin, Ann, see Randes
Darwin, Ann Eliza Thomasine, 1828-? 19
Darwin, Ann or Alice, see Hanson
Darwin, Anna Maria, 1719-1754 7
Darwin, Anne, née Earle, 1634-1691 5, 26, 27, 30
Darwin, Anne, née Waring, ?1662-1722
6, 26, 27, 30
Darwin, Anne, 1709-1714 7

[page] 75

Darwin. Anne, see Browne
Darwin, Anne, see Stowe
Darwin, Anne Elizabeth, 1841-1851 12, 43, 49
Darwin, Arabella, see Broadhurst
Darwin, Arthur William, 1864-? 14
Darwin, Bernard Richard Meirion, 1876-1961 12, 54, 55, 58
Darwin, Caroline Edith, 1861-? 14
Darwin, Caroline Sarah, see Wedgwood
Darwin, Charles, 1758-1778 10, 31, 35
Darwin, Sir Charles Galton, FRS 1922, 1887-1962 12, 26, 27, 29, 52, 58, 66, 67
Darwin, Charles Robert, FRS 1839, 1809-1882
vii, 10, 26, 28, 29, 34, 38, 39, 42, 46, 53, 66
Darwin, Charles Waring, 1855-1928
14, 58
Darwin, Charles Waring, 1856-1858 12, 27, 43, 49
Darwin, Charlotte, see Cook
Darwin, Charlotte Elizabeth Anne, 1850-1868 14
Darwin, Charlotte Maria Cooper, sometime Rhodes, 1827-1885 13, 28
Darwin, Charlotte Mildred, née Massingberd, 1868-1940 55
Darwin, Dorothy see Holland
Darwin, Edith Mary, née Fairbairn, 1853-? 14
Darwin, Edward, 1782-1829 18, 34, 35
Darwin, Edward Levett, 1821-? 18
Darwin, Eleanor, 1721-1722 7
Darwin, Elinor Mary, née Monsell, m. 1906 54, 58
Darwin, Elizabeth, fl. 1588 3, 25
Darwin, Elizabeth, ?-1594 3
Darwin, Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1688-1713 6
Darwin, Elizabeth, née Mason, fl. 1698 6
Darwin, Elizabeth, née Hill, 1702-1797 6, 26, 28, 30
Darwin, Elizabeth, 1712-1736 7, 28
Darwin, Elizabeth, née, Collier see also Pole, 1747-1832 8, 30, 31, 33, 35, 38
Darwin, Elizabeth, née Hutton, ?-1751 7
Darwin, Elizabeth, 1763-1764 10, 35
Darwin, Elizabeth, née de St Croix, 1790-1868 13, 28
Darwin, Elizabeth, 1820-1835 13,
Darwin, Elizabeth, see Cook
Darwin, Elizabeth, see Hall
Darwin, Elizabeth, see Stowe
Darwin, Elizabeth, 1847-1926 12, 43, 49
Darwin, Elizabeth Frances, née Fraser, 1846-1898 16, 49, 55
Darwin, Elizabeth Hill, 1775-1776 15
Darwin, Elizabeth Hill, 1782-1804 15
Darwin, Ellen Wordsworth née Crofts, 1856-1903 12, 49, 54, 55
Darwin, Emily Catherine, see Langton
Darwin, Emma, née Wedgwood, 1808-1896 10, 26, 34, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46, 50, 53, 55
Darwin, Hon. Emma Cecilia (Ida), née Farrer, 1854-1946 12, 49, 55, 56
Darwin, Emma Elizabeth, see Wilmot
Darwin, Emma Georgiana Elizabeth, 1784-1818 20, 34, 35
Darwin, Emma Nora, see Barlow
Darwin, Erasmus, 1659-1736 6
Darwin, Erasmus, 1707 and died that year 7
Darwin, Erasmus, FRS 1761, 1731-1802 vii, 8, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 38, 66, 67
Darwin, Erasmus, 1759-1799 10, 31, 35
Darwin, Erasmus, 1881-1915 12, 56, 57, 59
Darwin, Erasmus Alvey, 1804-1881 10, 28, 39, 42, 43
Darwin, Florence, née Fisher, 1864-1920 49, 54, 55
Darwin, Frances, fl. 1659 5
Darwin, Frances Anne Violetta, see Galton
Darwin, Frances Crofts, see Cornford
Darwin, Frances Sarah, see Barton & Huish
Darwin, Francis, 1669-1693 5
Darwin, Francis, né Rhodes, 1825-1920 13, 28, 53

[page] 76

Darwin, Sir Francis, FRS 1882, 1848-1925 vii, 12, 48, 49, 53, 58, 66
Darwin, Francis Alvey Rhodes, 1851-? 14
Darwin, Sir Francis Sacheverel, 1786-1859 18, 34, 35, 37, 48
Darwin, Sir George Howard, FRS 1879, 1845-1912 vii, 12, 26, 27, 29, 49, 52, 53, 58, 66
Darwin, Georgiana Elizabeth, see Swift
Darwin, Gerard Lascelles, 1852-1888 14
Darwin, Lady (Ginette), née Hewitt, fl. 1950 54
Darwin, Gwendolen Mary, see Raverat
Darwin, Hariot, see Maling
Darwin, Harriet, née Jessopp, m. 1850 18
Darwin, Henrietta Emma, see Litchfield
Darwin, Henry, ?-1566 3, 25
Darwin, Henry, ?-1590 3, 25
Darwin, Henry, ?-1615 died an infant 4
Darwin, Henry, 1789-1790 18, 35
Darwin, Sir Horace, FRS 1903, 1851-1928 vii, 12, 48, 49, 55, 56, 59, 66
Darwin, Ida, see Lady (Emma Cecilia)
Darwin, Isabell, ?-post 1566 3
Darwin, Isabell, see Baynton & Pannill
Darwin, Jane, née Brown, 1746-1835 8, 28
Darwin, Jane Eleanor, 1824-1838 13, 28
Darwin, Lady (Jane Harriet), née Ryle, 1794-1866 18, 34, 35
Darwie, see Bellamy
Darwin, John, ?-1542 3, 25
Darwin, John, 1607-1628 4
Darwin, John, ?-1639 3
Darwin, John, fl. 1659 5
Darwin, John, fl. 1659 another 5
Darwin, John, 1661 and died that year 5
Darwin, Rev. John, 1730-1805 7, 29
Darwin, Rev. John, 1787-1817 18, 34, 35
Darwin, John Alvey, 1784 and died that year 13
Darwin, John Hill, 1780-1781 13
Darwin, John Robert, 1835-?
18
Darwin, Lady (Katharine), née Pember, 1901-
26, 52, 58
Darwin, Leonard, 1850-1943 12, 44, 55
Darwin, Margaret, ?-post 1542 3, 25
Darwin, Margaret, ?-post 1593 4, 26
Darwin, Margaret, see Lacy
Darwin, Margaret Elizabeth, see Keynes
Darwin, Marianne, see Parker
Darwin, Martha, née Harris, 1586-post 1611 3
Darwin, Lady (Martha Haskins (Maud)), née Du Puy, 1861-1947 12, 26, 49, 52, 53
Darwin, Mary, née Healey, ?-1679 4, 25, 26
Darwin, Mary, fl. 1679 5
Darwin, Mary, née Seeker, 1683-1747 6
Darwin, Mary, née Hurst, 1705-1766 6
Darwin, Mary, 1716-1720 7
Darwin, Mary, née Howard, 1740-1770 8, 26, 30, 31, 32, 35, 38
Darwin, Mary, 1745-1756 7
Darwin, Mary Ann, née Sanders, m. 1843 18
Darwin, Mary Eleanor, 1842 and died that year 12, 43, 49
Darwin, Mary Eleanor, see Griffith
Darwin, Mary Jane, see Worsley
Darwin, Maud, see Martha Haskins Darwin
Darwin, Mildred, née Massingberd, 1868-1940 49
Darwin, Milicent Susan, see Oldershaw
Darwin, Monica, née Slingsby, fl. 1920 52
Darwin, Reginald, 1878-? 18, 48
Darwin, Richard, ?-1584 4, 25, 26
Darwin, Richard, 1663-1698 5
Darwin, Robert, 1682-1754 6, 26, 28, 30
Darwin, Robert Alvey, 1826-1847 13, 28
Darwin, Robert Henry, 1875-? 14
Darwin, Sir Robert Vere, RA 1972, 1910-1973 54, 58
Darwin, Robert Waring, 1724-1816 7, 28, 34
Darwin, Robert Waring, FRS 1788, 1766-1848 10, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 38, 40, 42, 66, 67

[page] 77

Darwin, Sir Robin, see Robert Vere Darwin
Darwin, Rowland, ?-1588
4, 25
Darwin, Rowland, fl. 1588
3, 25
Darwin, Ruth Frances, see Thomas
Darwin, Sacheverel Charles, 1844-1900 18, 48, 53
Darwin, Sara Price Ashburner, née Sedgwick, 1838-1902 12, 49, 53
Darwin, Sarah Gay Forbes, see Noel
Darwin, Susan Elizabeth, 1803-1866 11, 39, 42
Darwin, Susanna, 1729-1789 9
Darwin, Susannah, née Wedgwood, 1765-1817 10, 26, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 42
Darwin, Thomas, ?-?1632 4
Darwin, Thomas, ?-1661 5, 27
Darwin, Thomas, fl. 1659 5
Darwin, Thomas, ?-1695 5
Darwin, Violetta Harriot, 1826-1880 19
Darwin, Waring, 1725 and died that year 7
Darwin, William, ?-ante 1542 3, 25, 26
Darwin, ?William, ?-ante 1542 3, 25, 26
Darwin, William, ?-1580 3, 25, 26
Darwin, William, 1573-1614 3, 25
Darwin, William, c. 1573-1644 4, 26
Darwin, William, 1620-1675 5, 26, 27, 30
Darwin, William, fl. 1659 5
Darwin, William, 1655-1682 6, 26, 30
Darwin, William, fl. 1679 5
Darwin, William, 1681-1760 6, 27
Darwin, William Alvey, 1726-1783 8, 28
Darwin, Willam Alvey, 1767 and died that year 10, 35
Darwin, William Brown, 1774-1841 13, 28
Darwin, William Erasmus, 1839-1914
12, 27, 29. 43, 49, 53
Darwin, William Morgan, 1710-1762 7, 27
Darwin, William Robert, 1894-1970 52
Darwin, William Waring, 1823-1835 13, 28
Darwin, William Waring, 1854 and died that year 14
Darwin, Yvonne, née Derby, fl. 1940 54
Davy, Sir Humphry, Bart, FRS 1803, PRS 1818, 1778-1829 39
Day, Thomas, 1748-1789 29
de St Croix, Elizabeth, see Darwin
Dew, Albert George, see Smith
Dorchester, Catherine, Countess of, see Colyear
Du Puy, Martha Haskins (Maud), see Darwin
Earle, Anne, see Darwin
Earle, Erasmus, 1590-1667 5, 27
Erasmus, Desiderius, 1466-1536 27
Erskine, Thomas, 1788-1870 57
Etough, Daniel Oliver, 1821-1868 9
Etough, Eleanor Sophia, 1846-? 9
Etough, Gertrude, née Hall, 1815-1848 9
Fairbairn, Edith Mary, see Darwin
Farmfield, Ann, see Hill
Farrer, Hon. Emma Cecilia (Ida), see Darwin
Farrer, Sir Thomas Henry, Bart, Baron, 1833-1894 39, 57
Finlay, Sophia Harriet, see Moilliet
Fisher, Florence, see Darwin
FitzRoy, Robert, FRS 1851, 1805-1865 43, 45
Fletcher, Harriet, see Fox
Foley, Elizabeth, née Turton, fl. 1708 32
Foley, Paul, fl. 1708 32
Foley, Penelope, née Paget, fl. 1670 31, 32
Foley, Philip, 1653-? 32
Forsyth, Ann, née Noel, 1853-1887 14
Forsyth, Thomas Hamilton, m. 1873 14
Fox, Agnes Jane, 1849-? 15
Fox, Ann, née Darwin, 1777-1859 15
Fox, Ann, see Darwin
Fox, Charles Wood, 1847-? 16
Fox, Edith Darwin, 1857-? 16
Fox, Eliza, 1801-1886 15
Fox, Eliza Ann, see Martyn
Fox, Ellen Elizabeth, see Webster
Fox, Ellen Sophia, née Woodd, 1820-1887 15
Fox, Emily Mary, née Chance, m. 1880 16
Fox, Emma, 1803-1885 15
Fox, Erasmus Pullein, 1858-? 16
Fox, Euphemia Rebecca, née Bonar, m. 1876 15
Fox, Frances Maria, see Pearce
Fox, Frederick William, 1855-? 16
Fox, Gerard, 1885-? 16
Fox, Gertrude Mary, see Bosanquet
Fox, Gilbert Basil, 1864-? 16

[page] 78

Fox, Harriet, née Fletcher, 1799-1842 15
Fox, Harriet Emma, see Overton
Fox, Julia, 1809-? 15
Fox, Julia Mary Anne, see Woods
Fox, Louisa Mary, 1850-1853 16
Fox, Mary Ann, see Bristowe
Fox, Reginald Henry, 1860-? 16
Fox, Robert Gerard, 1849-? 16
Fox, Samuel, 1765-1851 15, 28
Fox, Samuel, 1793-1859 15
Fox, Rev, Samuel, William Darwin, 1841-? 15
Fox, Theodora, 1853-1878 16
Fox, Victor William Darwin, 1883-? 16
Fox, Rev. William Darwin, 1805-1880 15, 28
Fraser, Elizabeth Frances, see Darwin
Fraser, Sir Thomas, 1840-1922 55
Galton, Adéle Vera Harcourt, see Bennett
Galton, Amy Caroline, see Johnson
Galton, Darwin 1814-1903 20, 48
Galton, Elizabeth Ann, see Wheler
Galton, Emma Sophia, 1811-1904 21
Galton, Erasmus, 1815-1909 20, 48
Galton, Ewan Cameron, 1856-1944 22
Galton, Frances Anne, née Moilliet, 1834-? 21
Galton, Frances Anne Violetta, née Darwin, 1783-1874
20, 34, 35, 38, 48
Galton, Frances Jane, née Arkwright, 1817-1894 20
Galton, Sir Francis, FRS 1860, 1822-1911
20, 27, 38, 48, 66, 67
Galton, John Samuel Phillips, 1841-1842 20
Galton, Louisa Jane, née Butler, ?-1897 20, 38
Galton, Lucy, née Barclay, 1757-1817 38
Galton, Lucy Ethel, 1855-? 22
Galton, Lucy Harriot, see Moilliet
Galton, Mary, née Phillips, 1822-1869 20
Galton, Milicent Adéle, see Bunbury
Galton, Robert Cameron, 1830-1866
21
Galton, Samuel (John), FRS 1785, 1753-1832 34, 38, 66
Galton, Samuel Tertius, 1783-1844 20, 34, 35, 37 38, 48
Galton, Violet Darwin, 1862-? 22
Gibson, Lucie, see Wedgwood
Griffith, John Charles, 1852-? 14
Griffith, Mary Eleanor, née Darwin, 1857-? 14
Hadley, Henry, ?1766-1830 34
Hadley, Susan née Parker, fl. 1800 34, 35
Hall, Ann, 1781-1846 9
Hall, Catherine, née Litchford, 1761-1841 9
Hall, Catherine, 1782-? 9
Hall, Catherine Frances, 1812-? 9
Hall, Charles, 1786-1852
Hall, Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1725-1800 9
Hall, Elizabeth, née Middlemoor, m. 1781 9
Hall, Elizabeth, see Vaughton
Hall, Elizabeth Mary, 1799-? 9
Hall, Erasmus, ?-1790 9
Hall, George, ?-1787 9
Hall, Gertrude, see Etough
Hall, John, 1790-? 9
Hall, Juliet, 1786-1859 9
Hall, Juliet, 1810-? 9
Hall, Robert, 1758 and died that year 9
Hall, Robert, 1782-? 9
Hall, Robert, 1784-1861 9
Hall, Susanna, 1792-1801 9
Hall, Rev. Thomas, 1717-1775 9
Hall, Thomas, ?-1785 9
Hall, Rev. Thomas, 1753-1801 9
Hall, Thomas, 1780-1781 9
Hall, Thomas, 1783-1802 9
Hall, Thomas Benjamin Litchford, 1813-1855 9
Hall, William, 1759-1790 9
Hall, William, 1787-?
9
Halliwell, Josephine Annie, see Noel
Halsey, Mary, see Wedgwood
Hamilton, Charlotte, see Bromhead
Hanson, Alice or Ann, née Darwin, fl. 1659 5
Harrison, Anne Dorothea, 1877-? 11

[page] 79

Harrison, Geoffrey Richard, 1876-1882 11
Harrison, George Basil, 1882-? 11
Harrison, Lucy Caroline, née Wedgwood, 1846-? 11
Harrison, Lucy Ursula, 1884-? 11
Harrison, Matthew James, 1846-? 11
Harrison, Thomas Edmund, 1879-? 11
Hawkshaw, Sir John, FRS 1855, 1811-1891 59
Hawkshaw, Mary, see Wedgwood
Healey, Mary, see Darwin
Hele or Hale, Juliana, see Colyear
Hensleigh, Elizabeth, see Allen
Hewitt, Ginette, see Darwin
Hicks, Frances Sharpe, née Webster, 1847-? 17
Hicks, Reginald, 1871-? 17
Hicks, Stanley Edward, m. 1870 17
Hill, Ann, née Farmfield, 1632-1708 30
Hill, Elizabeth, née Alvey, 1666-1724 30
Hill, Elizabeth, see Darwin

Hill, John, 1678-1717
4, 30
Hill, William, ?-1682 30
Holland, Dorothy, fl. 1590 3
Holland, Elizabeth, see Stowe
Holland, John, fl. 1680 4
Hollins, Mary, see Wedgwood
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, FRS 1847, PRS 1873, OM 1907, 1817-1911 45
Howard, Charles, ?-1717 32
Howard, Charles, 1706-1771 32
Howard, George, ?-1734 32
Howard, Mary, née Bromley, 1678-? 32
Howard, Mary, see Darwin
Howard, Penelope, née Foley, 1708-1748 32
Hughes, Frances Jane, née Fox, 1806-? 15
Hughes, Rev. John, 1794-1873 15
Huish, Caroline Eliza, see Williamson
Huish, Florence, see Wavell
Huish, Frances Sarah, née Darwin, 1822-1881 19
Huish, Frances Violetta Darwin, 1858-? 19
Huish, Francis Darwin, 1850-? 19
Huish, Marcus, 1815-1868 19
Hurst, Mary, see Darwin
Hutton, Elizabeth, see Darwin
Huxley, Sir Andrew Fielding, OM 1983, FRS 1955, PRS 1980, 1917-
67
Huxley, Lady (Jocelyn Richenda Gammell), née Pease, 1925- 67
Huxley, Thomas Henry, FRS 1850, PRS 1885, 1825-1895 67
Impey, fl. 1840 53
Irlam, Susan, see Wedgwood
Jessopp, Harriet, see Darwin
Johnson, Amy Caroline, née Galton, 1858-? 22
Johnson, Rev. Herbert, 1845-? 22
Keir, James, 1735-1820 29
Keynes, Sir Geoffrey Langdon, FBA 1981, 1887-1982 52, 58
Keynes, Lady (Margaret Elizabeth), née Darwin, 1890-1974 52, 58
Keynes, John Maynard, Baron, 1887-1946 58
Keynes, Richard Darwin, FRS 1959, 1919-
52, 58, 66
Koelle, Letitia Louisa Carmela, see Noel
Lacy, Elizabeth, see Causton
Lacy, Margaret, née Darwin, fl. 1570 4
Lacy, Margaret, fl. 1593 4
Lacy, Richard, fl. 1630 4
Lacy, Thomas, ?-1607 4
Lacy, Thomas, fl. 1588 4
Lacy, Thomas, fl. 1630 4
Lacy, William, fl. 1588 4
Lacy, William, fl. 1630 4
Langton, Rev. Charles, 1801-1886
39, 42, 45
Langton, Charlotte, née Wedgwood, 1797-1862 39, 42, 45
Langton, Edmund, 1841-1875 11
Langton, Emily Caroline, née Langton, m. 1867 11
Langton, Emily Catherine, née Darwin, 1810-1866 11, 39, 42
Lascelles, Anne, 1633-1708 27
Lascelles, George, m. 1680 27

[page] 80

Lavit, Albertine, see Bristowe
Leeds, Dowager Duchess of, see Colyear
Leigh, Mary, see Wedgwood
Lethbridge, Edward Galton Baron, 1867-? 21
Lethbridge, Emma Millicent, 1870 and died an infant 21
Lethbridge, Frederick Shirley Baron, 1877-? 21
Lethbridge, Hugh Copland Baron, 1880-? 21
Lethbridge, John Charles Henry, 1868 and died an infant 21
Lethbridge, John Christopher Baron, 1845-1886 21
Lethbridge, John Guy Baron, 1873-? 21
Lethbridge, Lucy Amy, 1872-? 21
Lethbridge, Milicent Galton, née Bunbury, 1846-? 21
Lethbridge, Robert Christopher Baron, 1875-? 21
Litchfield, Henrietta Emma, née Darwin, 1843-1927 12, 49, 57
Litchfield, Richard Buckley, 1831-1903 12, 49, 57
Litchford, Catherine, see Hall
Little, Ann, née Randes, fl. 1700 5
Little, Henry, fl. 1743 5
Longstaff, Katherine, see Wedgwood
Longueville, Cecile, see Parker
Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart, FRS 1826, 1797-1875 45
Lyndon, Ellen, see Bromley
Lytton, Sir Edward George Earle Bulwer, Bart, Baron, 1803-1873 27
Macfarlane, Archibald William, m. 1886 19
Macfarlane, Caroline Eliza, née Huish, 1855-? 19
Mackintosh, Catherine, née Allen, 1765-1830 50
Mackintosh, Frances, see Wedgwood
Mackintosh, Sir James, 1765-1832 50
Maitland, see Fisher & Darwin
Maitland, Frederick William, 1850-1906 54, 55
Maling, Harriot, née Darwin, 1790-1825 20, 34, 35
Maling, Thomas James, ?-1849 20, 34, 35
Mason, Elizabeth, see Darwin
Massingberd, Emily Caroline, née Langton, m. 1867 11
Massingberd, Mildred see Darwin
Maurice, John Frederick Denison, 1805-1872 57
Meynell, Emma Maria, née Wilmot, m. 1866 19
Meynell, Godfrey Franceys, 1843-? 19
Milton, John, 1608-1674 27
Middlemoor, Elizabeth, see Hall
Moilliet, Alexander Keir, 1880-? 23
Moilliet, Amy Elizabeth Lucy, 1871-1878 23
Moilliet, Bernard Rambold Keir, 1876-? 23
Moilliet, Constance Madeline Keir, 1885-? 23
Moilliet, Emma Sophia, see Bent
Moilliet, Evelyn Shuckburgh Galton, 1877-1882 23
Moilliet, Frances Anne, see Galton
Moilliet, Grace, née Shuckburgh, ?-1876 22
Moilliet, Hubert Mainwaring Keir, 1877-? 23
Moilliet, James, 1806-1878 21
Moilliet, James Keir, a twin to John Lewis M., 1836-1909 22
Moilliet, Rev. John Lewis, a twin to James Keir M., 1836-? 22
Moilliet, John Lewis, 1882-? 23
Moilliet, Lucy Amelia, see Biggs
Moilliet, Lucy Harriot, née Galton, 1809-1848 21
Moilliet, Sophia Harriet, née Finlay, m. 1885 22
Moilliet, Tertius Galton, 1843-? 22
Moilliet, Theodore Albert, 1883-? 23
Monsell, Elinor Mary, see Darwin
Mosley, Frances, see Darwin
Noel, Anne, see Forsyth
Noel, Beatrice Elizabeth, née Bradney, m. 1885 14
Noel, Cecil Edward Berkeley, 1850-1869 14
Noel, Edward Andrew, 1825-1899 13
Noel, Edward William Middleton, 1880-? 14
Noel, Eleanor Agnes, 1859-? 14
Noel, Francis Charles Methuen, 1852-? 14

[page] 81

Noel, Gerard Frederick, 1881-? 14
Noel, James Wriottesley, 1861-? 14
Noel, Josephine Annie, née Halliwell, m. 1879 14
Noel, Letitia Louisa Carmela, née Koelle, m. 1887 14
Noel, Matilda Catharine, 1857-? 14
Noel, Robert Gambier Lascelles, 1855-? 14
Noel, Sarah Dorothy Beatrice, 1886-? 14
Noel, Sarah Gay Forbes, née Darwin, 1830-? 13
Noel, William Frederick, 1849-? 14
Noel, Wilmot Juliana, née Snow, m. 1886 14
Norton, Charles Elliot, 1827-1908 53
Norton, Theodora, née Sedgwick, fl. 1880 53
Oldershaw, Frances Amy, 1866-? 19
Oldershaw, Rev. H., fl. 1860 19
Oldershaw, Henrietta Constance, 1863-? 19
Oldershaw, Milicent Evelyn, 1862-? 19
Oldershaw, Milicent Susan, née Darwin, 1833-? 19
Osborne, Juliana, see Colyear
Overton, Agnes Frances, fl. 1860 16
Overton, Annie Maud, fl. 1860 16
Overton, Charles Ernest, 1865-1933 16
Overton, Ellen Margaret, fl. 1860 16
Overton, Rev. Frederick Arnold, 1862-1935 16
Overton, Harriet Emma, née Fox, 1837-? 15
Overton, Henry Bernard, fl. 1860 16
Overton, Samuel Charlesworth, fl. 1860 15
Overton, William Darwin, ?-1883 16
Owen, Edward Mostyn, m. 1866 11
Owen, Henrietta Susan, 1867-? 11
Owen, Henry, 1868-? 11
Owen, Mary Susan, née Parker, 1836-? 11
Owen, Maud, 1869-1887 11
Owen, Ralph, 1871-? 11
Owen, Richard, 1874-? 11
Paget, Penelope, see Foley
Pannill, Elizabeth, fl. 1637 4
Pannill, Isabell, née Darwin, ?-ante 1637 4
Pannill, Jane, fl. 1637 4
Parker, Mrs or Miss, fl. 1775 4, 31, 35
Parker, Miss, fl. 1800 34, 35
Parker, Cecile, née Longueville, m. 1860 11
Parker, Rev. Charles, 1831-? 11
Parker, Darwin Harry, fl. 1870 11
Parker, Erasmus Darwin, fl. 1870 11
Parker, Francis, 1829-1874 11
Parker, Frank Cecil, fl. 1870 11
Parker, Henry, 1788-1858 11, 39, 42
Parker, Henry, 1827-1892 11
Parker, Marianne, née Darwin, 1798-1858 11, 39, 42
Parker, Mary Susan, see Owen
Parker, Robert, 1825-? 11
Parker, Susan, see Hadley 
Pate, Ann, see Waring
Pawson, Iris Veronica, see Wedgwood
Pearce, Alexander, m. 1876 16
Pearce, Frances Maria, m. 1876 16
Pearce, Margery, 1881-? 16
Pearce, Nathaniel, 1879-? 16
Pearson, Amy Mary Constance, née Biggs, 1855-? 23
Pearson, Edward Hesketh Gibbons, 1887-1964 23
Pearson, Egon Sharpe, FRS 1966, 1895-1980 50
Pearson, John Hesketh, 1886-? 23, 29
Pearson, Karl, FRS 1896, 1857-1936 31, 50
Pearson, Thomas Henry Gibbons, 1833-? 23
Pease, Jocelyn Richenda Gammell, see Huxley
Pease, Rendel Sebastian, FRS 1977, 1922- 67
Pember, Katherine, see Darwin
Phillips, Mary, see Galton
Pole, Edward, ?-1762 33
Pole, Edward Sacheverel Chandos, 1718-1780 8, 33
Pole, Elizabeth, née Sacheverel, m. 1717 33
Pole, Elizabeth, née Collier, see also Darwin, 1747-1832 8, 30, 31, 33
Portmore, Charles, Earl of, see Colyear
Portmore, David, Earl of, see Colyear

[page] 82

Pritchard, Charles, FRS 1840, 1808-1893 53
Randes, Ann, née Darwin, 1664/5-1743 5
Randes, Ann, see Little & Weekes
Randes, Erasmus, ?-1723 5
Randes, Hannah, fl. 1723 5
Randes, Henry, ?-1723 5
Randes, Richard, ?-1715 5
Raverat, Gwendolen Mary, née Darwin, 1885-1957 12, 52, 53, 58
Raverat, Jacques Paul Pierre, ?-1925 52, 58
Rawlinson, Susannah, see Alvey
Rayner, Thomas, ?-ante 1566 3
Rendel, Emily Catherine, see Wedgwood
Rendel, James Meadows, FRS 1843, 1799-1856 59
Rhodes, Francis, later Darwin, 1825-1919 13, 28
Rhodes, Charlotte Maria Cooper, née Darwin, later Darwin, 1827-1885
13, 28
Romilly, Caroline, see Allen
Ruck, Amy Richenda, see Darwin
Rutherford, Sir Ernest, FRS 1903, PRS 1925, OM 1925, Baron, 1871-1937
58
Ryle, Jane Harriet, see Darwin
Sacheverel, Elizabeth, née Staunton, 1672-? 33
Sacheverel, Elizabeth, see Pole
Sacheverel, Robert, 1669-? 33, 37
Sanders, Anges Marian, fl. 1850 16
Sanders, Charles Henry Martin, 1862-1890 16
Sanders, Sir Edgar Christian, 1871-1942 16
Sanders, Eliza, fl. 1870 16
Sanders, Eliza Ann, née Fox, 1836-1874 15
Sanders, Gerard Arthur Fletcher, 1869-1942 16
Sanders, Harriet Monica, fl. 1870 16
Sanders, Rev. Henry Martyn, 1831-1902 15
Sanders, John Fox, fl. 1870 16
Sanders, Laura Katherine, fl. 1870 16
Sanders, Mary Ann, see Darwin
Sanders, Rhoda, fl. 1870 16
Sedgwick, Sara Price Ashburner, see Darwin
Sedgwick, Theodora, see Norton
Sedley, Catherine, see Colyear
Seeker, Mary, see Darwin
Seward, Anna, 1747-1809 29
Seymour, Gertrude, see Allen
Shuckburgh, Grace, see Moilliet
Simonde de Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard, 1773-1843 37, 41
Simonde de Sismondi, Jessie, née Allen, 1771-1855 37, 41
Small, William, 1734-1775 29
Smith, Albert George Dew, né Dew, 1848-1903 55
Snow, Wilmot Juliana, see Noel
Southey, Robert, 1774-1843 39
Staunton, Elizabeth, see Sacheverel
Stowe, Ann, née Brown, m. 1667 4
Stowe, Anne, née Darwin, fl. 1566 3
Stowe, Darwin, fl. 1638 4
Stowe, Elizabeth, née Holland, fl. 1580 4
Stowe, Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1609-post 1639 4
Stowe, Henry, fl. 1566 3
Stowe, John, fl. 1580 3
Stringer, Mary, see Wedgwood
Studdy, Lucy Elizabeth, née Wheler, 1847-? 21
Studdy, Thomas James Aylmer, fl. 1890 21
Stukeley, William, FRS 1717, 1687-1765 28
Surtees, Harriet, née Allen, 1776-1847 41
Surtees, Matthew, ?-1827 41
Swift, Rev. B., fl. 1870 19
Swift, Benjamin, 1866-? 19
Swift, Francis Darwin, 1864-? 19
Swift, Georgiana Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1823-? 19
Thomas, Ruth Frances, née Darwin, 1883-1973 12, 56, 59
Thomas, William Rees, 1887-1978 58, 59
Tindal, Nicolas, later Worsley, m. 1875 18
Turton, Elizabeth, see Foley
Turton, Mrs, née Bent, fl. 1670 32
Turton, Penelope, see Howard
Turton, William, fl. 1670 32
Tyler, Anne, see Wedgwood
Vaughton, Elizabeth, née Hall, 1754-? 9

[page] 83

Vaughton, Elizabeth Ann, 1778-1780 9
Vaughton, Johannah, 1780-? 9
Vaughton, Mary, 1779-? 9
Vaughton, Roger, c. 1746-? 9
Vaughton, Simon Harris, 1782-? 9
Wallace, Alfred Russel, FRS 1905, 1823-1913 45
Waring, Ann, née Pate, 1632-1709 27, 30
Waring, Ann, see Darwin
Waring, Robert, ?-1662 27, 30
Watt, James, FRS 1785, 1736-1819 29
Wavell, Florence, née Huish, 1853-? 19
Wavell, Frances Gwendoline, 1881-? 19
Wavell, William, m. 1880 19
Webster, Amy Laura, née Booth, m. 1878 17
Webster, Amy Rose, 1879-? 17
Webster, Anna Maria, née Wolferstan, ?-1848 17
Webster, Anna, Maria, née Bristowe, 1826-1862 17
Webster, Baron, 1845 and died that year 17
Webster, Baron Dickinson, 1818-1860 16, 17
Webster, Baron Dickinson, 1850-? 17
Webster, Baron Dickinson, 1876-? 17
Webster, Charles Payne, 1845-1862 17
Webster, Ellen Elizabeth, née Fox, 1852-? 16, 17
Webster, Frances Sharpe, see Hicks
Webster, Gladys Nina, 1883-? 17
Webster, Godfrey Fox, 1852-? 17
Wedgwood, Aaron, c. 1624-1700 36
Wedgwood, Aaron, 1666-1743 36
Wedgwood, Anne, née Tyler, m. 1836 47
Wedgwood, (Arthur) Felix, 1877-1917 51, 59, 60
Wedgwood, Caroline Louisa Jane, 1799-1825 47
Wedgwood, Caroline Sarah, née Darwin, 1800-1888 11, 38, 39 42, 46, 50
Wedgwood, Catherine, 1774-1823 40
Wedgwood, Cecil, 1863-1915 51, 59
Wedgwood, Charles, 1800-1820 47
Wedgwood, Dame (Cicely) Veronica, FBA 1975, OM 1969, DBE 1968, 1910- 51, 59
Wedgwood, Clement Francis, 1840-1889 51, 59
Wedgwood, Elizabeth, née Allen, 1764-1846 37, 40, 41, 44, 48
Wedgwood, Emily Catherine, née Rendel, 1840-1921 51, 59
Wedgwood, Emma, see Darwin
Wedgwood, Hon. Ethel Kate, née Bowen, 1869-1952 51, 59
Wedgwood, Florence Ethel, née Willett, 1878-? 51
Wedgwood, Frances, 1806-1832 46
Wedgwood, Frances, née Crewe, m. 1834 47
Wedgwood, Frances, née Mackintosh, 1800-1889 46, 50, 51
Wedgwood, Frances, née Mosley, ?-1874 46, 51
Wedgwood, Frances Julia, 1833-1913 51, 57
Wedgwood, Francis, 1800-1888 46, 51
Wedgwood, Gilbert, 1588-1666/7 36
Wedgwood, Godfrey, 1833-1905 51, 59
Wedgwood, Henry Allen, 1799-1885 46, 47, 50, 58
Wedgwood, Hensleigh, 1803-1891 46, 50, 51
Wedgwood, Hope, née Wedgwood, 1844-1935 51
Wedgwood, Iris Veronica, née Pawson, 1889-1982 51, 59
Wedgwood, Jessie, née Wedgwood, 1804-1872 46, 47, 50
Wedgwood, John, 1766-1844 37, 40, 41, 47
Wedgwood, John Allen, 1796-1882 43, 47
Wedgwood, Josiah, FRS 1783, 1730-1795 29, 34, 36, 38, 40, 44, 66
Wedgwood, Josiah, 1769-1843 34, 37, 38, 40, 41, 44, 46
Wedgwood, Josiah, 1795-1880 38, 39 42, 46, 50
Wedgwood, Josiah Clement, Baron, 1872-1943 51, 59
Wedgwood, Katherine, née Longstaff, m. 1910 51, 59
Wedgwood, Katherine Elizabeth Sophy, 1842-? 11
Wedgwood, Louisa Jane, née Allen, 1771-1836 37, 40, 41, 47
Wedgwood, Lucie, née Gibson, ?-1939 51, 59

[page] 84

Wedgwood, Lucy Caroline, see Harrison
Wedgwood, Margaret, née Burslem, 1594-1655 36
Wedgwood, Margaret Susan, see Williams
Wedgwood, Mary, née Leigh, ?-1719 36
Wedgwood, Mary, née Hollins, 1667-1743 36
Wedgwood, Mary, née Stringer, ?-c. 1765 36
Wedgwood, Mary, née Halsey, m. 1845 47
Wedgwood, Mary, née Hawkshaw, ?-1863 51, 59
Wedgwood, Mary Anne, 1796-1798 46
Wedgwood, Sir Ralph Lewis, Bart, 1874-1956 51, 59
Wedgwood, Richard, 1701-1780 36
Wedgwood, Richard, 1767-1768 40
Wedgwood, Robert, 1806-1880 47
Wedgwood, Sarah, née Wedgwood, 1734-1815 34, 36 38, 40, 54
Wedgwood, Sarah Elizabeth, 1764-1846 38
Wedgwood, Sarah, Elizabeth, 1778-1856 40
Wedgwood, Sarah Elizabeth, 1793-1880 46
Wedgwood, Sarah Elizabeth, 1795-1857 47
Wedgwood, Sophy Marianne, 1838-1839 11
Wedgwood, Susan, née Irlam, ?-1760 36
Wedgwood, Susannah, see Darwin
Wedgwood, Thomas, c. 1618-1679 36
Wedgwood, Thomas, 1660-1716 36
Wedgwood, Thomas, 1685-1739 36
Wedgwood, Thomas, 1771-1805 37, 40
Wedgwood, Thomas Josiah, 1797-1862 47
Wedgwood, Dame Veronica, see Cicely Veronica Wedgwood
Weekes or Wickes, Ann, née Randes, fl. 1700 5
Weekes or Wickes, Carew, fl. 1700 5
Wheler, Edward, 1798-1879 21
Wheler, Edward Galton, 1850-? 21
Wheler, Elizabeth Ann, née Galton, 1805-1906 21
Wheler, Lucy Elizabeth, 1847-? 21
Wickes see Weekes
Willett, Florence Ethel, see Wedgwood
Williams, Rev. Athur Charles Vaughan, 1835-1875 11, 38
Williams, Hervey Wedgwood, 1869-? 11
Williams, Margaret, 1870-1931 11
Williams, Margaret Susan, née Wedgwood, 1843-1937 11, 38
Williams, Ralph Vaughan, OM, 1872-1958 11, 34, 38, 59
Wilmot, Cicely, 1879-? 19
Wilmot, Rev. Darwin, 1855-1935 19
Wilmot, Dorothy, 1878-? 19
Wilmot, Edward Darwin, 1882-? 19
Wilmot, Edward Woollett, 1808-1864 19
Wilmot, Emma Elizabeth, née Darwin, 1820-? 19
Wilmot, Emma Maria, see Meynell
Wilmot, Frances Jane, fl. 1860 19
Wilmot, Louisa Lilla, née Bickmore, m. 1876 19
Wilmot, Reginald Mead, 1852-? 19
Wilmot, Sacheverel Darwin, 1885-? 19
Wilmot, Woollett, 1847-1879 19
Wolferstan, Anna Maria, see Webster
Woodd, Ellen Sophia, see Fox
Woods, Julia Mary Ann, née Fox, 1840-? 15
Woods, Samuel Everard, m. 1883 15
Worsley, Acton Carill, 1878-? 18
Worsley, Charles Carill, 1800-1864 18
Worsley, Charles Nicolas Carill, 1876-? 18
Worsley, Clementia, 1881-?
18
Worsley, Elizabeth, 1857-? 18
Worsley, John Acton Carill, 1877 and lived one day 18
Worsley, Mary Clementia, 1845-1848 18
Worsley, Mary Jane, née Darwin, 1817-1872 18
Worsley, Nicolas Carill, né Tindal, fl. 1878 18
Worsley, Ralph Carill, 1881-? 18

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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