RECORD: De la Beche, Henry Thomas. 1830. Geological notes. London: Treuttel & Wurtz, Treuttel Jun. & Richter.

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GEOLOGICAL

NOTES.

BY

HENRY THOMAS DE LA BECHE, F.R.S. F.G.S.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR

TREUTTEL and WURTZ, TREUTTEL Jun., and RICHTER,

SOHO-SQUARE.

1830.

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[These Notes have already appeared in the Philosophical Magazine and Annals of Philosophy.]

Printed by Richard Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.

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I. Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Organic ifr> mains contained in the Oolitic Series of the Great London and Paris Basin, and in the same Series of the South of France,

A T the present time, when rocks, so dissimilar in their miner--** alogical character and thickness, are referred to the same geological epochs, from the nature of their organic remains, it becomes important to ascertain, as far as our information will permit, to what extent the opinions usually entertained on this head are well founded; and if they should appear to be only partially correct, to determine to what distances, fossils, supposed characteristic, may be available. Many serious difficulties attend an examination of this nature. 1st, Very able observers of rocks may not be good zoologists, or may not have had the fossils obtained by them from particular strata, determined by those that are. 2ndly,We want synonyms for the same shells to which different names have been assigned by different authors. 3rdly, We do not possess complete lists, even of the fossils found at various known places. And 4thly, We cannot state that any given fossil discovered in one rock may not occur in another because not yet found in it. We are however in general furnished with lists of those fossils which occur most abundantly at any given place; and the organic remains, supposed characteristic, are most frequently detailed, from the very general desire, now existing among geologists, to adopt this mode of identifying strata, so that, notwithstanding the difficulties above enumerated, we may, by comparing the lists of those on whose accuracy we can depend, arrive at some useful conclusions respecting the geographical distribution of organic remains in a given group of rocks.

B                                       M.EUe

i

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2 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

M. Elie de Beaumont has already remarked on the constancy of the geological facts observable in the oolitic belt of the great geological basin which contains London and Paris*;—and M. Dufrenoyf has shown that in the South of France appearances are not very materially different Therefore we may conclude that, though there may be many subordinate differences, there is a general resemblance in the mass of the oolite series in England and a large part of France, leading to the supposition that the rocks of which it is composed were formed under similar general circumstances.

It would appear that the three systems into which Mr. ConybeareJ has divided the oolite series of England, will be available in the parts of France comprehended within this sketch; therefore, in treating of the organic remains, we shall first consider the lower oolitic system, then the middle, and afterwards the upper.                                                       ,

As data whence to draw conclusions respecting the geographical distribution of the organic remains in the rocks under consideration, I shall avail myself, for the North of England, of the very excellent work of Mr. Phillips J. For the South of England I shall be compelled to use scattered information, as we have not any very detailed and published description of the organic remains contained in the oolite of this part of our island ||. For Normandy I shall have recourse to M. de Caumonfs work on Calvados f. For the North of France, to the memoir of M. Boblaye **. And for the South of the same country, to the observations of M. Dufrnoyff.

In order that the reader may judge of the general character of the oolite series of which the fossils will be noticed in the sequel, I have brought together the views of the geologists above named respecting the different portions of which they have particularly treated,

Note surl'uniformitequi regne dans la constitution de la ceinture Juras-sique du grand basin glologique qui comprend Londres et Paris.—Annate* de* Sciences NatweUe*. Juillet 1829.            f Annate* de* Mine*. 1899.

X Outlives of the Geology of England and Wales.

& Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire.

£ The lists of organic remains of the oolite contained in the well known * Outlines," &c. of Conybeare and Phillips, are much too general to be of service in inquiries of the present kind j but when local information could not be obtained, I have employed them for the midland and South of England* which principally afforded the materials for their construction.

% Essai sur la Topographic Geognostique du departement du Calvados. Caen 1898.

*+ Memoire sur la formation Jurassique dans le Nord de la France.— Ann. de* Sci. NatweUe*. Mai 1839.

ft Des formations secondares qui s'appuient sur les pentes meridionales des montagnes auciennes du centre de Ja France.—Part entitled " Formations Jurassiques du Sud-ouest de la France".—Annate* de* Mine*, torn. v.

im.

General

VjOOQlC

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.           3

General View of the Oolite Formation of Yorkshire (according to Mr. Phillips) *

a. fcifflhierldge clay..................depth uncertain.

b* Uppet calcareous grit............*.............. 60 feet.

c.   Coralline polite............................*....... 6*0

d.  Lower calcareous grfc........................... 80

e.  Oxford clay....................................... 150

f.  Kelloways rock.................................... 40

g.  Cornbrash limestone............................ 5

h. Upper sandstone, shale, and coal............. 200

f Impure limestone (Bath oolite)................ SO

k. Lower sandstone, shale, and Coal......*...... 500

/. Ferruginous beds (inferior oolite)............. 60

tn. Upper Has shale.................................. 200

n. Marlstone series.................................. 100

o. Lower lias shale..#..*,. .***.............*....... 500

Under the heads of different districts Mr. Phillips presents us with more detailed tabular views, from whence the following are selected:

("1. Upper calcareous grit, containing fossils resembling those in No< 3. 2. Coralline oolite, marked by corals, echini, plagiosto-

niffij melanise, &c. 8* Lower calcareous grit, pinnae, gryphaeae, ammonites,&c.

4.  Gray argillaceous earth, containing many fossils at the bottom.

5.  Ferruginous -or argillaceous sandstone, with remarkable gryphase* ammonites, &c. (Kelloways rock of the S.)f

6. Impure, sometimes oolitic limestone, full of shells, (the cornbrash of geologists).

7« Sandstone, shale, ironstone, and coaly with carbonized wood, ferns, and other fossil plants.

8.  Impure, often oolitic limestone and ironstone, with many fossil shells (oolite of Bath).

9.  Sandstone, shale and coal, with carbonized fossil plants.

'g' 10. Subcalcareous, irony sandstone, often containing 42 I           shells, called dogger (inferior oolite).

11.  Upper lias shale* or alum shale, with nodules of argillaceous limestone, ammonites, belemnites, &c

12.  Ironstone and sandstone strata, with terebratulae, pectines, cardia, aviculae, &c.

18. Lower lias shale, with gryphaeae, pinna?, plagiostomae,

&c4

* Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire, pp. 32, 33. f Ibid. p. 43. % Ibid. p. 35.                       B 2                                  General

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4 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

General View of the OoliticSeries in Somersetshire and Wiltshire.

It would be quite out of place to present a general view of this part of our island, as the labours of Smith and Conybeare are well known, and as the rocks in question constitute the' type of the oolitic series generally, if we except the Portland beds.

It may be remarked that the Bath oolite does not occur on the coast of Dorsetshire. A series of clays with limestone, resembling forest marble and cornbrash largely developed, there separate the inferior oolite from the Oxford clay.

The coral rag, as is often the case, is also wanting on the same coast; that is to say, the beds containing such an abundance of corals, whence the name, do not occur, though an equivalent to the Oxford oolite does.

General View of the Oolite Rocks of Normandy (according to De Caumont)*.

1.  Argile de Honfleur (Kimmeridge clay). Glos sandstones,

considered subordinate.

2.  Calcaire de Blangy.

3.   Coral Rag, consisting of a series of beds containing many

oolites * In my paper * On the coasts of France, and of the inland country adjoining; between Fecamp to St. Vaast:" inserted in the 1st volume of the Geological Transactions, New Series, and written from observations made in the spring of 1821, deceived by the mineralogical resemblance of this limestone, as developed at Hennequeville cliff, to some of the Portland stone, I attributed the Calcaire de Blangy to that rock: but I now perfectly agree with the French geologists, that the Honfleur and Havre clay is equivalent to the Kimmeridge. Subsequent examinations have shown me that this is very probable j consequently it was an error to refer the limestones in question to the Portland stone.

The following section, by M.de Caumont, of Hennequeville cliff, shows the superposition of the Kimmeridge (Honfleur) clay, the Calcaire de Blangy, and the coral rag.

1.  Chalk with gray flints, and numerous alcyonia......about 100 feet.

2.  Green earth.................. ..................... 40

3.  Argile de Honfleur................................. 60

4.  The same, alternating with many beds of ferruginous sand- > «q

stone full of quartz grains and globules of oolitic iron . )

5.  The same, alternating with many beds of more compact"!

sandstone, and full of broken shells forming a kind of > 10 lumachella.....................................J

6.  Sandstone more siliceous than the preceding, containing ? g

fewer shells......................................J

7.  Siliceous limestone, very hard, containing globules of J .

oolitic iron......................................................{

8.  Whitish and slaty siliceous limestone........................... 3

9.  Limestone resembling No. 7.................................... 2£

10.  The same, full of the interior casts of trigonise............... 1$

11.  Many beds more or less hard, resembling the preceding ... 3

.                                                          1*. oecl

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.             3

oolites and corals, passing, in the lower part, into a ferruginous and calcareous sandstone (calcareous grit of the English).

4.  Argile de Dives (Oxford clay). Black blue clay, rarely yel-

lowish : in the upper part, subordinate beds of oolitic lime* stone; in the lower, marly limestone of a gray, yellowish or blue colour, apparently represents the Kelloway rock.

5.  Cornbrash?

6.   Forest Marble, consists of a series of beds more or less

oolitic, and more or less sublamellar, is very often fissile, and contains fragments of shells and corals.

7.  Great Oolite. Upper beds sometimes resemble forest mar-

ble; middle and lower beds of a finer grain, rarely oolitic, not sublamellar, often as soft as chalk. Caen stone belongs to this division. M. de Caumont considers the clay of Port-en-Bessin as equivalent to the Caen stone.

8.  Inferior Oolite. Upper part resembles the Caen stone; con-

nection between the great and inferior oolite. In the lower part, two or three beds of yellowish or gray calcareous sandstone, containing ferruginous oolites; full of shells.

9.  Lias. Upper part contains belemnites; and the lower, the

Gryphsea incurva.—There seems an equivalent of the sand and marlstone of Smith upon the top of the lias. The above is condensed from the general descriptions contained in the Essai sur la Topographie Geognostique du De-partement du Calvados. It will be found not to differ materially from the general view I presented in my paper on Normandy, if the Portland beds be withdrawn ana the marl and marl-stone there noticed be considered equivalent to the Kim-meridge clay, except indeed that M. de Caumont considers the Port-en-Bessin marls as representing the Caen stone.

General View of the Oolite of the North of Irance (according to M. Boblaye).

The rocks of this class which M. Boblaye had occasion to observe,

12.  Bed of black flint, passing into a gray sandstone, and > . -. .

finally into the limestone.....................................5      *

13.  Many limestone beds passing into sandstone..................       4

14.  Yellowish limestone without shells, many beds............       5

15.  White marl..........................................................       1

16.  Yellowish white limestone containing casts of spiral shells...      6

17.  Whitish marl.......................................................       1

18.  Limestone resembling No. 16....................................       2

19.  Limestone full of corals (coral rag)..............................       6

20.  The same, more compact.......................................       5

21.  Oolite of the coral rag...........................................

" constitute

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6 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

" constitute a nearly equal thickness, about 500 metres (1640 English feet) from the lias to the coral rag inclusive.             4

"The maximum of absolute height is 350 metres (1148 English feet) in England* and 400 metres (1312 English feet) in the Ardennes*

" 1. The marls of Florenville, Rtouldizy, &c. are characterized by the Gryphala ineurva, plagiostomse, &c* as the lias.

" 2. The sandy limestones, the micaceous marls, the ferruginous limestones of Florenville, Orval, Carignan, Dreux, &cV perfectly represent that great sandy and ferruginous zone so well described by the English geologists, under the names of sand, marly sandstone, and inferior oolite. TheGryphaea cym-bium and Plicatula spinosa are its most characteristic fossils.

" 3. The fullers' earth is easily recognised in the blue marls of Lamouilly* Vaux, &c. It is also in their lower part that the fullers' earth of the Ardennes is found*

" 4. The great oolite appears with all its characteristics in the extensive quarries of Chauvaney, Brouesnes, Luzy, Ballon, &c.

" 5. The white marls of La Jardinette near Stenay, of Luzy, &c. offer the most perfect analogy with the Bradford clay of the English geologists; the fossils are the same; we more particularly mention the following: Turritella, Ostrea acuminata, Terebratula digona, T* coarctata, Cydarites ornatus, &c.

" 6. Above tnis well-defined geological horizon there reigns some uncertainty. If the forest marble is not recognisable with certainty in the coarse lumachella which covers the marls, in the compact madrepore limestones, and sandy limestones of Stenay; and if, moreover, the beds which, from their fossils and mineralogical composition, have appeared to me equivalent to the Stonesfield slate, do occupy a somewhat different position, and will not permit us to sustain the analogy;—it is not the same with cornbrash. Its fossils (wicula echinata, Terebratula subrotunda), and its mineralogical characters, are found in the coarse limestones of Stenay, Beaumont, &c.

" 7. -The marls of Stonne, Belval, Dun, &c. present us hi their composition, their thickness and their fossils (Gryphsea dilatata, Pinna lanceolata, &c), with the most perfect resemblance to the Oxford clay.

" 8. The sandy and ferruginous oolite corresponds with the calcareous and ferruginous sandstone which the English place at the base of the coral rag (calcareous grit).

" Lastly, the coral rag appears with its distinctive characters near Belval, Dun, &c. We have there found numerous univalves, Melania, Turritella, &c. Ostrea gregaria, Lima rudis, and the numerous echinites, mentioned by the English*."

* Annates dcs Sciences Naturelles, torn. xvii. pp. 79, 80.

General

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.          ?

General View of the Oolitic Series of Burgundy {according to M, Elic de Beaumont)*

" If we proceed from Flogny to Ancy-le-Franc, we observe the following rocks rise successively from beneath the green-sand and chalk.

" 1. Compact limestone which corresponds in its position with the Portland stone of English geologists.

" 2. A system of marly limestone and gray marl characterized by tne Gryphaea virgula (Kimmeridge clay).

" 3. A very thick series of compact limestones with a con-choidal fracture, of limestones with an earthy and cretaceous fracture, and oolite (Oxford oolite, coral rag).

w 4, Beds of a gray marly limestone with an earthy fracture, (calcareous grit, Oxford clay).

" From beneath these last rise the limestones, often oolitic, which form the plains and plateaux on the South of Ancy-le-Franc, limestones which are precisely the same with those of the Chammes d'Avenay, and the Valine de POuche, near the Pont d'Ouche.

" If the facts above mentioned are correctly stated, and if the long cliff or escarpment (the course of which through the north-eastern provinces and centre of France was noticed fifty years since by Guettard,) really contain the Oxford clay and coral rag among the beds of which it is composed, we may see the Bath oolite and Calcaire a polypiers in the oolite limestone, the beds of which rise on all sides from beneath those of tie cliff. The yellowish-white and marly limestone of Burgundy would then represent the Fullers' earth of the English, and the Banc bleu of Caen; the entrochite limestone would be the inferior oolite; and the second marly stage, which rests immediately on the gryphite limestone, would correspond with the thick marls which in England cover the lias; We should then see that the constancy of the geological facts, noticed in Great Britain, Normandy, in the Bas Boulonnais, and in the Ardennes, is preserved in Burgundy, as might be expected d priori *."

General View of the Oolite of the South of France (according to M, Dttfrtnoy).

" In the secondary basin of the S.W. of France, separated from that of Paris by the mountains of Auvergne, Limousin, and La Vendue, the oolite series may be divided into three distinct groups, corresponding with the three systems of the same formations in England. The separation of these groups Annates des Sciences Naturelles. Juillet 1829.

is,

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8 On theGeographical Distribution of Organic Remains

is, however, not nearly so well pronounced; the beds corresponding with the Oxford and Kimmeridge clays are but rarely observed in this part of France, and appear to be replaced by marly limestone: this is most commonly the case between the middle and superior systems.

" The numerous subdivisions noticed by the English geologists are but very imperfectly seen in the secondary basin under consideration; there are nevertheless some sufficiently constant.

" The lower is the only part of the oolite which appears on the eastern extremity of the basin; it forms a considerable mass on the N. of the department of the He>ault, which advances into the sea near Montpellier and Cette.

" The oolite formations are greatly developed on the W. of the basin; from Cahors to the ocean they form a chain with a mean breadth of twelve leagues: they are more than twenty-five between the mountains of Limousin and La Vendee.

" Between the two extreme points we have named, the three systems of the oolite may nearly always be seen; the inferior frequently resting on the marls and limestone which we have referred to the lias.

" In some localities (Milhau, near Villefranche, &c.) the inferior system presents micaceous marls containing Gryphaea cymbium, belemnites, &c. which may be compared to the sand of the inferior oolite: we also find sublamellar limestones, compact limestones containing beds of oolitic iron, and beds of a white oolite, furnishing excellent building-stone; the latter beds, well developed only at Mauriac, in the Aveyron, represent the great or Bath oolite. They are associated with polypifers as at Caen. In other parts of the basin, principally ui the east, this system is composed of compact limestones of a yellowish-gray colour, containing an abundance of silex, (environs of Nontron, Poitiers, &c.) and beds of slightly oolitic limestone. The beds of compact earthy limestone containing many ammonites and terebratulse appear to form the upper part of this system: by comparing these fossils with those found in the cornbrash in England, we are led to assimilate the rocks. The lower system is the thickest; it forms by itself more than three quarters of the whole depth; it occupies more than twelve leagues of the fifteen or sixteen which this formation covers between the Sables d'Olonne and Rochefbrt.

" The middle oolite system is in a great measure composed of marly limestone beds: yet in many places (Marthon, forest of La Braconne, Pointe de Duch6, Pointe d'Angoulin, &c.) considerable masses of polypifers are associated in it with thick beds of irregular and earthy oolite. The prodigious abundance of polypifers, the nature of the oolite, and the occurrence of

many

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.

9

many fossils, lend us to assimilate these beds with those named Coral Raff by the English, and the oolite which accompanies them to the Oxford oolite. These are the only two subdivisions which can be made in the middle group, and even these so pass into each other that, at the Pointe d'Angoulin and Marthon, numerous polypifers are found in the midst of the oolite beds. Beds of very marly limestone cover this system. We already find some of the Gryphaea virgula, the presence of which with us (France), characterises the clay separating this system from the upper. This group of the oolite covers a space about two leagues and a half broad between La Ro-chelle and Rochefort; it is more considerable between Poitiers and Angouleme, and between the last town and Confolens."

" The upper system is the most uniform in this basin ; it is often reduced to a few marly beds, containing a prodigious quantity of the Gryphaea virgula, attached to one another, and nearly forming by themselves a bed of lumachella. In some localities this is covered by compact marly limestone forming very thick beds (Cahors), in which this little gryphite, so characteristic in France, is found here and there-disseminated. From the environs of Angouleme to the ocean, beds of oolite are observed nearly constantly to cover these marls containing the Gryphaea virgula; they reappear in other places (Pointe du Rocher), and are immediately in contact with the green-sand. By comparing this system with that which exists in England, we may assimilate the oolite of which we have spoken with the Portland stone, while the lower beds of marl, containing the Gryphsea virgula, correspond with the Kimmeridge clay*."

The reader being now mi possession of what may be termed the mineralogical character of the oolitic series at the various places above noticed, I shall proceed to examine the organic character of the same series derived from the same authorities, commencing with the inferior system.

* Formations Jurassiques <!u Sud-ouest de la France. — Annates des Mines, torn. v. p. 430—434.

(3                                Organic

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Organic Remains of the Inferior System of the Oolitic Series.—Subdivision. Lias. [The Species marked in Italics occur in more than one locality.]

North of England. Yorkshire.—Phillips.

Dicotyledonous Wood,

Crocodile......,..........

Ichthyosaurus.............

Crustacea , Fish.......

Polypifers {rare)................

Echinites.........................

| Cidaris (smooth spine). Ophiura Milleri (Phil.). Pentacrinites Caput Medusa, > Briareus........

I

Belemnites tubularis (Y.& B.) ...

-------------compressus (Y. & B.)

elongatus (Miller).....

I Nautilus astacoides (Y. & B.)

lineatus............

annularis (Phil.).

Ammonites Walcotn.

South of England. Lyme Regis.—De la Beche.

Plants, Dicotyl, Wood, & Lignite Pterodactylus macronyx (Buckl.). Crocodile?

Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus.........

Ichthyosaurus communis .........

----------------platyodon.

———— tenuirostris.

----------------intermedius.

Crustacea.

Fish....................................

Ichthyodorulites(Buek!,& De laB.]

Dapedium polilum ..................

( Mam/ other Jiih.) Coprolites (Buckl.).

Polypifers(rflw)..,..................

Echinites..............................

Pentacrinites subangularis

--------------Briareus.....

-------------- basaltiformis.

Belemnites putilliformis...

« elongatus......

-------------acutus.........

Nautilus striatus............

-— intermedius.

Ammonites Walcotn.......

Normandy. Calvados.—De Caumont.

Lignite.

Belemnites (2 or 3 species). Nautilus truncatus.

Coal.

Plesiosaurus. Ichthyosaurus.

Fish.

Dapedium polilum. {Many other fish.)

Polypifers {rare). Echinites.

Pentacrinites Caput Medusa? ... ————— subangularis?

Ammonites Walcotn.

South of France. ™ZncheJD"<*»<*-

Pentacrinites Caput Medusa.

Belemnites pistilliformu.

-------------sulcatus.

-------------apicicurvatus.

Ammonites Walcotn.

I

i

a.

f

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Ammonites fimbriatus..........

--------— heterophyllus.

-------------Henleii...............

—— subcarinatus(Y.& B.).| ——— heterogeneus(Y.&B.). —\             crassus (Y. & B.).

------          communis.............

——— angulatus.

-------— annulatus.

-------------fibulatus.

-------------subannatus.

-------------maculatus(Y.&B.).

------—— gagateus (Y. & B.).

q

I

lteatus (Phil.).

—  arcigerens (Phil.)

—  brevispina.

—  Jaraesoni.

—  erugatu* (Bean.) ~ nitidus (Y, & BA

—  angu lifer us (PhiL).

—  lenticularis (Phil.).

—  crenularia (Phil.).

—  Clevelandicus(Y.&B.)|

—  Turneri. ...............

—  geometricus (Phil.) ...

—  vittatus (Y. & B.)

—  sigmifer (Phil.).......

—  Hawskerensis(Y.&B.)

—  Conybeari.

obtusus.................

striatulus.

ovatus (Y.&B.)

Mulgravius(Y.&B).

Ammonites fimbriatut ------------- Henleii.

— communis.

laevigatas, lataecosta. planicostatus. armatus.

ellipticus.

discus. Loscombi.

stellaris

Greenovii. BrookiL

Bucklandi. obtusus.

Davaei.

Ammonites Jimbriatus.

Strangewaysii.

— falcifer....

—  decipiens.

(A large ammonite sometimes 2 or 3 feet in diameter.)

-  Stokesiu

—  stellaris.

Bucklandi.

- falcifer.

Stokesii. Turneri.

Humphresianus.

I

J*

a

is

I e

[page break]

Table continued.

North of England. Yorkshire.—Phillips.

Ammonites cxuratns (Y.&B.)..

-------:-------concavus?..............

--------------elegansf

Gryphaea incurva (Sow.).........

depressa (Phil.) Maccuilochii....

Spirifer Walcotii.......

Terebratula punctata. ----------------resupinata

trilineata (Y. & B.) .

acuta.

bidens.

triplicata (Phil.).

tetraedra.

Plicatula spinosa...........

Pecten sublaevis...........

--------- equivalvis.........

---------lens.

Plagiostoma giganteuvi ..

----------------pectenoTdes

----------------rusticum ?

wicula inceauivalvis.....,

cjgnipw

Crenatula ventricosa ...

Cucullaea (smooth)......

Nuculaovum............

Pinna folium (Y. & B.)

South of England. Lyme Regis.—De la Beche.

Ammonites Birchii. -------------Bechei.

Gryphaea incurva (Sow.)..... -------------(another species).

Spirifer Walcotii.............

Terebratula ornithocephala.

----------------crumena.......

- serrata.........

Pecten

Plagiostoma giganteum

wicula incequivalvis

----------lanceolata.

Crenatula ? Cucullaea.

Nucula................,

Pinna............,.....

Normandy. Calvados.—De Caumont.

Ammonites concavus.

elegant.

Gryphaea incurva (Sow,). -----------dilatata.

Spirifer Walcotu.............

Terebratula ornithocephala

----------------acuta ............

----------------quadrifida.

Plicatula spinosa. Pecten barbatus ... ----------equivalvis.

Plagiostoma giganteum

Pinna lanceolata,

South of France. vfEc'he \ Dufr

* , S arcuata* Lam* Gryphaea } gow

-----.-------obliqujita.

------------MaccuUochiu

~ — cymbium.

-------------gigantea.

Spirifer Walcotii. Terebratula tetraedra. obsoleta.

Pecten equivalvis. ----------(other species)*

Plagiostoma sulcatum* --------------punctatum*

wicula inaquivalvU.

Nucula clariforniis. Pinna.

[page break]

o

______HUlana .....................

- HiUana.

Trigonia literata (Y. & B.)..........

Cytherea.

 

------crassiusculus.

------ Listen. 1

------abductus (Phil.).

 

Turbo undulatus (Phil.)...........

--------- imbricatus.

Turlio.

Inoceramus dubius.

Hippopodium ponderosum.

Cardium truncatum.

-—— multicostatum (Bean.)

Corbula? cardioideum (Phil.).

Corbis ?

Crassina minima (Phil.).

Helicina ejcpansa. Melanea.

Orthoceras elongatum.

 

Amphidesma donaciforme (Phil.).

——------rotundatum (Phil.)-

Sanguinolaria elegans (Phil.).

Mya literata.

Orbicula reflexa.

Rostellaria?

Actaeon.

Natica.

Serpula {very rare).

Dentalium giganteum.

 

Modiola cuneata.

Unio crassissimus.

Pholadomya gibbosa ----------------lyrata.

Modiola tcalprunt.

Trigonia striata.

>-----------(another species).

Pholadomya. Trochus imbricatus.

angl'u

Pleuro torn aria auglica. Def.

Lima antiqua.

------(another species).

8

a'

ft-

a a.

w

[page break]

14 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

List of Oiganic Remains in the Lias of the North of France, according to M. Boblaye.

Shells:—Belemnites (abundant); Ammonites (species not enumerated); Gryphaea arcuata Lam., (incurva Sow.); Ostrea or Gryphaea nana; Pecten (large); Plagtostoma gigantea; Plagiostoma punctata; Cytherea (abundant); Pleurotomaria ornata; Cirrus.

From the foregoing Lists the following Table of Lias Organic Remains which occur in more than one situation may be constructed:

Name.

North oflSouth ofl Nor-England.

England,

mandy.

iNorth offSouth France

ofl France.

Plants, Lignite or Coal......

Plesiosaurus..................

Ichthyosaurus................

Crustacea.....................

Fish............................

Polypifers.....................

Echinites......................

PentacrinitesCapntMedusae ------------------Briareus......

-----------------subangularis .

Belemnites (abundant)......

Ammonites Walcotii.......j

--------------fimbriatus......|

--------------Henleii.....,

communis.... planicostatus,

-------falcifer ...

-------Turneri...

-------stellaris...

-------Bucklandi

-------obtusus...

------- Stokesii...

Gryphaea incurva Sow. ) " " i. I

arcuata Lam. Maccullochii

Spirifer Walcotii.........

Terebratula ornithocephala|

—------— acuta........

----------------tetraedra...

Plicatula spinosa............

Pecten equivalvis............

Plagiostoma giganteum ... '             punctatum ...

wicula inaequivalvis.......

Modiola scalpnim..........

-----------Hillana.............

Trochus anglicus ... - imbricatus.

...

        I

Unfortunately

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France,            15

Unfortunately M. Boblaye has not furnished us with a list of the ammonites in the district noticed by him, otherwise we might probably have seen that some of those discovered elsewhere, were also found in the North of France. Ammonites concavus and A. elegans are marked as questionable in the North of England, but they are stated to occur in the lias of Normandy. The Dapedium politum is found in the South of England and in Normandy.

Of the organic remains above enumerated, the Gryphaea incurva S&w. (G. arcuata Lam.) appears the most characteristic fossil.—Belemnites are also abundant Unfortunately the synonyms of these fossils are not well understood; so that the species cannot be determined with precision. Ammonites Wal-cotii, Spirifer Walcotii, Pecten equivalvis, Plagiostoma gigan-tea, wicula insequivalvis, Modiola scalprum, have also a wide range. Ammonites Turneri and Terebratula tetraedra occur in localities widely separated from each other.

Ammonites Bucklandi is extensively found, though, by the accompanying lists, it is only noticed in the North and South of England and in Normandy.

Of the 91 species of fossil shells enumerated by Mr. Phillips in the lias of Yorkshire, 23 occur in the same rock in the other localities; of these, 15 are discovered at Lyme Regis, 9 in Normandy (belemnites not being specified), 2 in the North of France (neither ammonites nor belemnites being specified), and 10 in the South of France.

Of the 38 species mentioned as found at Lyme Regis, 19 have been observed in the other places; of these, 15 occur in Yorkshire, 8 in Normandy, 2 in the North of France, and 8 in the South of France.

* Of the 26 species enumerated in Calvados, 13 are discovered in the other localities; of these, 9 occur in Yorkshire, 8 at Lyme Regis, 2 in the North of France, and 6 in the South of France.

Of the 5 species noticed by M. Boblaye in the North of France, who unfortunately does not mention the species of either ammonites or belemnites, 3 are found in the other localities ; and of these, 2 occur in Yorkshire, Lyme Regis, Normandy, and in the South of France.

Of the 26 species noticed in the South of France, 15 are found in the other localities; and of these, 10 occur in Yorkshire, 8 at Lyme Regis, 6 in Normandy, and 2 in the North of France.

Lowest

[page break]

16          Chi the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Lowest System.—Subdivision. Inferior Oolite.

North of England. Yorkshire.—Phillips.

South of England. Dundry Hill.—Conybeare. Sowerby.

Normandy. Calvados.—De Caumont.

Dicotyledonous Wood.

Caryophyllia convexa (Phil.).

Meandrina.

Cidaris.

Shells. Mya calcieformis (Phil.).

------dilata (Phil.).

—— Kterata. — aequata (Phil.). Pholadomya obliquata (Phil.)

Crustacea. Echimtes.

Shells. Mya V. scripta. Panopaea gibbosa.

intermedia.

fidicula.

Cardita sindlis

Pholadomya obtusa....

---------s------lirata.

ambigua.

Cardinm acutangolum (Phil.)

-----------incertum (Phil.).

" striatulum.

gibberulum (Phil.).

Cardita similis.

----------lunulata.

Carditim.

Trigonia striata,

" angulata. ----------- costata...

Nucula lacryma................

----------variabilis.

— axiniformis (Phil.)..., Cucullaea reticulata (Bean).

...... cancellata (Phil.).

Modiola plicata...............,

----------- aspera?

----------- ungulata.

Mytilns cuneatus (Phil.).....,

GerviQia lata (Phil.)..........,

Lima proboscidea f

Plagiostoma gigantea.........

Pecten lent...................

—  abjectus (Phi IA

—  virguliferus (Pnil.).

wicula imequivalvis........

—— Braamburensrs. Ostrea solitaria..............

Terebratula triIineata(Y. & B.) ——— obsolete, ------------bidens(Phil.)

Trigonia striata.....

-----------costata.

clavellnta. Nucula.

Cucullaea oblonga..

Modiola cuneata.

-----------plicata.

----------- gibbosa.

Mytilus.

Lima proboscidea,

Plagiostoma gigantea.

----------------punctata.

--------           rigida.

Pecten lens.............

----------barbatus.

wicula costata.

Ostrea gregaria...........

---------palmata.

Terebratula intermedia

----------------carnea.

---------------- semigloba.

----------------digona.

1 ornUhoceph.

Vertelirae of Ichthyosaurus. Lignite.

Echinites.

Shells.

Pholadomya Manchisoni. ——— sequalis.

Cardita lunulata.

Trigonia striata. -----------costata.

Cuccullaea decussata.

Gervillia pernoides. Lima proboscidea.

------gibbosa.

Plagiostoma cluplicata. ----------------punctata.

Pecten comeus. ----------Vimineus.

wicula inajquivalvis.

Ostrea Marshii.

Terebratula concinna.

----------------biplicata.

emarginata.

----------------bullata.

------—— ovoi'des.

GoogI(

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.                 17

North of England. Yorkshire—Phillips.

South of England. Dundry Hill.—Conybeare ______Sowerby.

Turbo muricatus................

—— unicarinatus (Bean.). — laevigatas.

Trochus bisertus (Phil.).......

---------- granulates.

--------- pyramidatus (Bean.)

Melania Beddingtonensis?. lineata.

Nerita costata. Rostellaria composita. Nautilus lineatus ....*..

Belemnites...............

Ammonites striatulus,

{and two others not named.) Gastrocheena tortuosa. Psammobia laevigata (Phil.) Amphide8ma securiforme(Ph.)| Unio abductus (Phil.). Pullustra oblita (Phil.). Craasina elegans.

" (PhU.).

Terebratula media.

' ' spluBroidalis. perovalis.

Turbo ornatus.

Trochm fasciatus .... —— granulatus.             sulcatus.

- ornatus. --------- punctatus.

elongatus. ———- abbreviatus.

similis. --------- bicarinatus.

Isocardia concentrica, rostrata.

Lucina. Nucula lacryma.

---------variabilis.

—— axiniformis (Phil.).

Gryphaea.

Lingula Beanii (Phil.).

Orbicula.

Solarium calix (Bean.).

Turritella cingenda.

——— muricata.

-----------quadrivittata(Phil.)

Natica tumidula (Bean.).

--------adducta (Phil.>

Actaeon glaber (Phil.).

-------- humeralis (Phil.)*

Auricula Sedgevici (Phil.). Terebra vetuata (Phil.). Serpula deplexa (Bean.). Vermiculana compressa (Y .& B.).

Melania Heddtngtonensis. - lineata.

Nerita laevigata..........

Rostellaria—.............

Nautilus lineatus........

Belemnites...............

Ammonites kevhtsculus ———— discus. —— corrugatus. 1 contractus. —— Banksii. —— Broccbii.

------------- Blagdeni.

———— BraikenridgH, ———— annulatus. ———— falcifer. ————— Sowerbii. —— Brownii. —— elegans.

Normandy. Calvados.—De Caumont.

Terebratula lata. «——— spkardidalis. dimidiata.

Turbo ornatus. — rotundatus.

Trochus fasciatus. ---------granulatus.

' - sulcatus. ' ortuUus*.

--------- punctatus.

—— elongatus.

--------- abbreviatus.

---------concavus.

1 bicarinatus.

---------. irabricatus.

reticulatus.

Melania Heddingtonensis. —— lineata.

Rostellaria Parkinsonii. Nautilus obesus. Belemnites.

Ammonites lavhuculus. —— acutus.

Myoconcha crassa. Astarte trigonalis.

------— excavata.

—— elegans.

Cirrus nodosus.

—-— Leachii.

Pinna lanceolata.

Fistulana.

Donax.

Perna aviculoides.

contractus.

discus.

quadratus.

rotundua.

biplex.

Braikenridgii.

Gervillii.

Blagdeni.

tripBcatus.

Brongniartii.

annulatus.

complanatus.

Myoconcha cratsa.

Astarte planata.

— excavata.

—  rugata.

-------- imbricata.

Pinna pinnigena.

* The Trochus ornatus of Sowerby is the Pleurotomaria ornata of Defrance, and the T. granulatus of Sowerby is the P. granulata of Defrance.

DM. Boblaye

[page break]

IS On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

M.Boblaye furnishes us with the following list of the Fossils of the North of France: he considers the Gryphsea Cymbium as most characteristic of the marls and calcareous sands, and the Plicatula echinata of the ferruginous limestones:

Ammonites Deslongchampi, and many others. Belemnites trisulcatus (Blainville), and many others.

Gryphsea arcuata.

------------Cymbium,

.Plicatula spinosa (Sow). Plagiostoma pectinoi'des. Pecten (new species). Ostrea.

Lythodomus.

Modiola.

Pinna.

Encrinites.

Caryophyllia.

Turbinolia.

M. Dufrnoy mentions that near Aubenas a lamellar limestone rests on lias, and contains an abundance of Entrochi. He also states, that near Uzer the Ammonites are so abundant as almost to compose the rock: the principal are,

Ammonites elegans,

--------------annulatus.

With these are found Terebratula ornithocephala9 T. obso-leta, Modiola, and Unio crassissimus. Near Villefranche, micaceous argillaceous beds seem to afford a passage of lias into inferior oolite; they contain Gryphsea obliqua, G. Cymbium, and Belemnites,

From the above lists we may construct the following table of organic remains found in more than one of the localities enumerated; omitting Gryphsea Cymbium, the only fossil of the North of France found in either of the other localities.

Name.

Wood or Lignite.........

Echinites...................

Cardita similis............

—— lunulata..........

Trigonia striata...........

—— costata..........

Modiola plicata...........

lima proboscidea.........

Plagiostoma giganteum....

--------------punctatum....

Pecten lens...................

wicula inaequivalvis........

Terebratula sphaeroidalis... —— ornithocephala

——— obsoleta.........

Turbo oroatuu...............

Trochus granulatus.........,

Yorkshire.

.?

Dundry Hill.

Calvados.

...

South of| France.

 

 

 

 

Table

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.

19

Table continued.

Name.

Trochus fasciatus..........

——- sulcatus..........

---------ornatus...........

---------punctatus........

——— elongatus........

- abbreviatus......

---------bicarinatus.......

Melania Heddingtonensis...

—— lineata............,

Belemnites.................

Ammonites lseviusculus.,

———— discus........,

——------- contractus...,

------------- Blagdeni....,

-------------Braikenridgii

Myoconcha crassa.......,

Astarte excavata...........

Ammonites elegans.......,

------— annulatus....

Nautilus lineatus..........

Yorkshire.

... ...

Dundry Hill.

Calvados.

South of| France,

...

... ...

Of the seventy-two species of fossil shells enumerated in the inferior oolite of Yorkshire, thirteen have been met with in the other localities; and of these, eleven occur at Dundry Hill, seven in Calvados, and one in the South of France.

Of the sixty-seven species mentioned as found atDundryHill, thirty-two occur in the other localities; and of these, eleven are round in Yorkshire, twenty-four in Calvados, and three in the South of France.

Of the sixty species enumerated in Calvados, twenty-five are found in the other localities; and of these, twenty-four occur at Dundry Hill, and seven in Yorkshire.

Of the seven species of fossil shells noticed in the South of France, five are found in the other localities; and of these, three occur at Dundry Hill, one in Yorkshire, and one in the North of France.

From this it would appear, that there is a much greater resemblance between the zoological character of the inferior oolite of Dundry Hill and Calvados, than there is between the same rocks of the former place and Yorkshire.

D2

Lowest

[page break]

20 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Subdivisions: Cornbrash, Forest Marble, and Great

Oolite.

It has been considered that the former of these is a proper subdivision, and may be traced to considerable distances, but that the two latter may pass into or represent each other. Great difficulty must always attend these minute divisions. Mr. Phillips gives only five feet as the thickness of the cornbrash in Yorkshire; it is represented as from eight to sixteen feet in the neighbourhood of TelJisford and Farley Castle, near Bath; M. de Caumont doubts its existence in Calvados, though there is a rock which M. Desnoyers and myself consider may be referred to it; and M. Boblaye mentions it in the North of France, but it does not so clearly appear to exist in the South of the same country. The forest marble and great oolite seem to occur extensively. In Calvados the latter, according to M. de Caumont, is intimately connected with the inferior oolite.

Mr. Phillips observes (Illustrations, &c p. 158), "In the midland counties, the fuller's earth rock of Mr. Smith does by no means furnish a constant or well-marked line of distinction between the middle, great, or Bath oolite, and the interior oolite; and I am decidedly of opinion that in the northern part of Northamptonshire, and throughout Rutland and Lincolnshire, there is but one thick oolite rock beneath the cornbrash, resting upon brown sandstone which immediately covers the upper lias shale."

Great Oolite and Forest Marble.

There are in Yorkshire two large deposits of coal, sandstone, and shale above and beneath the beds considered by Mr. Phillips as equivalent to the great or Bath oolite; these contain numerous fossil plants. In the southern parts of England, and in the northern parts of France, these beds do not seem to have been developed: but from the researches of Mr.Murchi-son(Geol. Trans, vol. ii. p. 298-323), they would appear to have been formed under similar general circumstances in Scotland; thus showing that the causes which produced this accumulation of vegetable remains in Yorkshire, were not confined to that district, but extended at least to die north of our island. The following plants have been enumerated by Mr. Phillips in Yorkshire: the names assigned by M. Adolphe Brongniart to many of the same vegetable remains are given in a general list, that will be found in the sequel.

Fossil

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France. 21

Fossil Vegetables of the Inferior Coaly Sandstone, and Shale,

Yorkshire.

Equisetum...... 2 Species.

Lycopodites .... 1 ------

lliuytes....----- 1 -------

Scolopendrium.. 1 — Sphaenopteris. . 4

Neuropteris..... 1 Species.

Pecopteris...... 2 —

Cycadites....... 4 —

Fit

abellaria?..... 1

Fossil Vegetables of the Superior Coal, Sandstone, and Shaler

Yorkshire.

Equisetum...... 1 Species.

LycoDodites .... 1 —

luytes

Scolopendrium..   1  —

Aspleniopteris...  1  ~

Sphaenopteris....  4  —

Organic Remains of the

Plesiosaurus?

Plants.

Millepora straminea (Phil.).

Retepora?

Tubipora or Eunomia.

Cidaris vagans.

Echinus germinans.

Mya calceiformis (Phil.).

Panopaea gibbosa ?

Psammobia laevigata (Phil.).

Amphidesma decurtatum.

Pholadomya acuticostata.

-------------- nana (Phil.).

——— producta? —— obliquata (Phil.). Corbula depressa (Phil.). Isocardia mtida ?

' concentrica.

angulata?

Cardium cognatum (PhilA

----------acutangulum (Phil.).

----------semiglabrum (Phil.).

Cardita similis. Cytherea dolabra (Phil.). Pullastra recondita (Phil.). Crassina minima (Phil.). Lucina despecta (Phil.). Trigonia costata.

Neuropteris..... 1 Species.

Pecopteris......8 —

———- conjungens. Modiola imbricata.

----------ungulata (Y.& B.).

Pinna cuneata (Phil.). Cucullaea imperialis (Bean.). cylindrica (Phil.ju —— cancellata (Phil.).

Cycadites...... 4 ------

Flabellaria?.... 1 ------

Phyllites........ 1 ------

DicotyledonousWood.

Great Oolite,—Yorkshire.*

Cucullaea elongata. Nucula variabilis* '           lacryma.

Perna yuadrata. Gervillia acuta. wicula Braamburiensis. Plagiostoma cardnforme.

--------------interstinctum.

Pecten lens.

-------demissus (Phil.).

-------abjectus (Phil.).

Lima rudis. Ostrea Manhn.

--------gregarea?

—— sulcifera (Phil.). Gryphaea bullata? orgigantea. Terebratula spinosa (Smith). ——— globata.

-------------intermedia.

Natica adducta (Phil.). Turbo muricatus? Trochus monilitectus (Phil.). Delphinula?

Phasianella cincta (Phil.). Turritella cingenda. Melania Heddingtonensis.

---------striata?

Terebra vetusta (Phil.). Actaeon glaber (Bean.). Rostellaria composita? Nautilus.

Belemnites abbreviatus (Miller). Ammonites Blagdeni. Vermicularia nodus (Phil.). Serpula lacerata (Phil.).

* Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire, p. 149—158.

Organic

[page break]

22 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Organic Remains of the Great Oolite9—Calvados,*

wicula insequivalvis. Lima gibbosa. Ostrea Crista Galli. Pecten corneus. Terebratula biplicata.

-------------obsoleta.

Piants.

of the Forest Marble.—Calvados.

1 Trigonia gibbosa.

----------duplicata.

wicula echinata.

---------costata.

Gervillia perno'ides (Deslong.).

--------— siliqua.

monotis (Desl.).

---------- costellata (Desl.).

Lima proboscidea. Plagiostoma punctatum. Pecten corneus. —— vimineus.

>(Lam\)

vagans.

Crocodile.

Megalosaurus.

Teeth and palates of Fish.

Ichthyodorulites(Buckl.&Dela B.).

Ammonites.

Belemnites.

Pinna.

Mytilus amplus.

Organic Remains

Terebellaria ramosissima ' ——— antelope Berenicea diluviana Alecto dichotoma Idmonea triquetra Theonoa chlatratra Chrysaora damaecornis '              spinosa

Eunomia radiata Spiropora tetragona —— cespitosa —— elegans —— intricata Fungia orbulites Millepora dumetosa

----------- corymbosa

—— conifera

pyriformis —— macrocaule Caryophyllia truncata

----------------Brebissonii

Limnorea mamillaris

Entalophora cellarioides

Turbinolopsis ochracea

Eschara.

Alcyonium.

Clypeus sinuatus.

---------clumcularis.

Encrinites pyriformis.

Pentacrinites.

Apiocrinites.

Asteria.

Crustacea.

Modiola elegans.

Trigonia costata.

* De Caumont, Essai &c. pp. 153,154.

f Ibid. 147, 148. The list of the organic remains found in the beds, usually termed Forest Marble in Calvados, is here inserted immediately after that of the organic remains discovered in the great oolite of the same country; as by separating these beds in Calvados, we seem to be substituting theoretical opinions for facts. The Forest Marble, as it is termed, is not there distinctly separated from the great oolite, and can scarcely be considered otherwise* than the upper part of a series of beds of which the well-known Caen stone forms the lower part.

Organic

Ostrea Marshii. —— palmetta. Pinna pinnigena. Mactra gibbosa. Terebratula tetraedra. ——— biplicata.

--------------digona.

———-----coarctata.

-------------- reticulata.

--------------globata.

----;---------plicatella.

1 '                serrata.

truncata.

Patella rugosa.

Trochus elongatus.

Belemnites.

Nautilus truncatus.

Ammonites annulatus.

Nerinea.

Isocardia.

Lucina.

Plants.

[page break]

Ammonites.

Nautilus.

Belemnites compressus.

in the Oolite Series of England and France.          23

Organic Remains of the Fuller*s Earth (Terre & Foulon),— North of France.*

Terebratula media, Lutraria? J r„fa Donacites? } ~a8ts-Donacites Alduini?

Terebratula approaching vulgaris.

Organic Remains of the Great Oolite—North qf France.

M. Boblaye statesf that the fossils which appeared to him the most proper to characterize, by their abundance, the lowest beds, are Ostrea acuminata, Terebratula media, and a Madrepore composed of small cylindrical tubes united in bundles.

Organic Remains qf the White Marls {Bradford Clay) in the North qfFrance.%

Gryphsea lituola (Lam.). Astarte planata. Isocardium. Hemicardium ? Terebratula digona.                   coarctata. *

media, and others.

Ammonites vulgaris.

Nerinea.

Turritella.

Ampullaria or Turbo ?

Serpula.,

Pecten.

Spondylus imbricatus (or

Pinna (species analogous

the He d'Aix). wicula echinata. Ostrea cottata. -------acuminata.

Podopsis). to that of

Cydarites ornatus. Pentacrinites (numerous). Madrepora (various and abundant). Crustacea.

The most characteristic fossils are considered to be Gryphi lituola, Terebratula digona, and T. coarctata.

CORNBRASH.

Organic Remains of the Cornbrash in Yorkshire* §

Cellaria Smithii. Millepora straminea (Phil.). Cidans vagans. Clypeus clunicularig.

--------- orbicularis.

Galerites depressus. Pentacrinus Caput Medusae. Mya literata. Sanguinolaria undulata. PhoTadomya Murchisoni. ——— ovalis. Amphidesma decurtatum (Phil.). —— securiforme (Phil.). Unio peregrinus. Isocardia minima. Cardium citrinoldeum (Phil.). Trigonia clavellata. Modiola cuneata.

Pinna cuneata (Bean.). Plagiostoma rigidulum (Phil.). ——— interstinctum. Pecten JSbrotus.

demissus (Phil.). Ostrea Martha. Terebratula ovoides. Trochus granulatus. Terebra f granulata (Phil.). Melania Heddingtonensis.

---------vittata (Phil.).

Bulla? or Actseon. Ammonites Herveyi.

'— terebratus. Vermicularia nodus (Phil.). Serpula intestinalis (Phil.). Belemnites are not found in the cornbrash of Yorkshire.

* Boblaye, Ann. de$ Sci. Nat. vol. xvii. p. 57.            f &&> PP- 58, **

t Ibid, pp.60, 61.          $ Phillips's Illustrations, &c. p. 143—145.

Organic

[page break]

Terebratula tubrotunda.

Nucleolites columbaria.

Millepora-

Fish teeth.

24 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Organic Remains of the Cornbrash and Forest Marble,—North

of France.*

wicula echinata. Plagiostoma carduforme. Pecten fibroma. — lens, and two others. Gryphaea lituola.

Ostrea, large and flat, hinge very broad.

It will at once be observed how very little the lists of organic remains enumerated at the different localities agree with each other. Unfortunately we have no good detailed and published lists of fossils in the rocks under consideration, either in our midland or southern counties; but as Mr. Conybeare's listsf are principally compiled from these parts of England, I shall employ them, though by their general nature they do not exactly enter into the object of these notes, adding those fossils that have appeared in Sowerb/s Min. Conch, since the publication of the "Outlines."

The additions to Mr.Conybeare's lists are, for the cornbrash, Mytilus sublaevis, Isocardia concentrica9 Pecten annulatus, and Perna qitadratas—for the Stonesfield slate, Patella lata;—and for the Bradford clay, Terebratula coarctata, and Serpula tri-angulata. The additions to the list of great oolite fossils are considerable; the following are all from Ancliffin the environs of Bath.

Fossils of the Great Oolite,—Anclijf Terebratula furcata.

Astarte orbicularis.

pumila. Cucullsea minuta.

— rudis. Pectunculus minimus. ' oblongus. Area pulchra. Nucula variabilis.

mucronata. Ostrea obscura.

costata. Gryphaea minuta. Tngonia imbricata. —— cuspidata.

-----------Pullus.

Terebratula flabellula.

Orbicula granulata. Patella ancyloides.

Emarginula scalaris. Actaeon cuspidatus.

— acutus.

Nerita minuta.

costata.

Turbo obtusus.

Rissoa laevis.

------~ acuta.

——— obliquata. —.- duphcata. Buccinum unilineatum.

* Boblaye, Ann. det Set. Nat. vol. xvii. pp. 62, 63.

f Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales, p. 206—212.

Comparative

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France,

25

Comparative View of the Organic Remains of the Great Oolite (including Fuller's Earth and Bradford Clay), the Forest Marble, and the Cornbrash.

F. B. Fuller's Earth.—G. O. Great Oolite—B. C. Bradford Clay.— F. M. Forest Marble.—C. Cornbrash.

Name.

England. Conyb. and Sow.

Yorkshire. Phillips.

Calvados. De Caumont.

North of FranceJ Boblaye.

»

Crocodile...............

Megalosaurus..........

Fish teeth and palates

Crustacea...............

Plants....................

Belemnites.

Patella rugosa.....

Modiola imbricata Trigonia clavellata

--------— costata.......

Ostrea Marshii .....

---------Crista Galli

—— costata .....

------— acuminata.,

Pecten fibrosus ......

Plagiostoma cardiifonnei wicula echinata ....

—-----costata ......

Lima gibbosa.........

Terebratula subrotundaj —— intermedia

--------— digona ..

obsoleta

——--------reticulata

--------------globata ..

——--------coarctata

► C................

) X»-Wl« #*

» J?«JML» m%

.F.M.

>F.M.............

,F.M.&B.C....

,F.M.............

»C................

>C................

,C.,F.M.&B.C.

»C................

,F.M.,B.C.&G.O >G.O...........'..

I 13-v/t

»C.,F.M.&G.O.

««

♦ G.O.

 G.O.

\ \s*

c................

c................

i %*s* «

C. & B.C.....

C., B.C. & G.O. B.C.............

------—— media....

Isocardia concentrica.

Perna quadrata.......

Nucula variabilis.....

Clypeus sinuatus... —— dunicularis .

!

B.C.

c................

c................

G.O.............

(all beds) ......

(all beds)......

G.O. C.

G.O.... G.O.&C.

0 V-/»

G.O. ...

«#

G.O.

G.O.

»

.G.O.

 G.O.

  G.O.

#

C

G.O. G.O.

lJ"«v-J»

F.M. G.O.

P.MAG.O F.M.

 F.M.

 F.M.

  G.O.

tf.....

 F.M.......

 F.M.

 G.O.

 F.M. & C.

 FJJ.

F.M, G.O. F.M. F.M. F.M.

» F.M. .F.M.

 B.C.

  G.O. & B.C.

 F.M.&C.

 C.&F.M.

 B.C.,CAF.MJ

C.&F.M.

B.C.

B.C. F.E.

There are abundant remains of corals or polypifers in the great oolite or in the forest marble in the South of England, Normandy, and North of France.

From the above comparative list it will be perceived that there is a more general agreement between Mr. Conybeare's lists (obtained from the midland and southern counties of England) and those of Normandy, than there is between the same lists and those formed in Yorkshire;—possibly the circumstances that produced the coal and abundance of plants

E                                  which

[page break]

26 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

which accompany it in the latter locality, may have had great influence on the animal life of the vicinity.

M. Dufrenoy mentions that in the oolite beds of Mauriac, the upper contain many polypifers, and appeared to him analogous with the calcaire a polypiers of Caen (cornbrash and forest marble). He enumerates the following fossils in these beds:

Pecten obscurus.

----------fibrotus,

Terebratula tubrotunda. ——— perovalis. ——— tetraedra.

——---------concinna.

Plagiostome punctatum? ----------------ovale.

Modiola cuneata ?

Unio crassissimus.

Melania striata f

Ammonites annulatus.

Patella.

Eehinites {very $matt).

Encrinites.

Madrepores.

At Maisons Blanches, Ruffec, and Negres near Couh£, M« Dufrenoy remarks, " In the first of these localities the rock contains an abundance of smooth Terebratulae ; and strikingly resembles the limestone observed between Oxford and Blenheim, referred to the cornbrash." The fossils are:

Pecten obscurus. — laminatus.

.---------barbatus.

Plagiostoma punctatum Terebratula perovalis.

Terebratula bullata. —— ornithocephala. Ammonites elegans. ————— armulatut.

Rostellaria.

Of the 26 species mentioned in the Yorkshire cornbrash, 8 occur in France, one (Ostrea Marshii) being the same with one of the 3 of the great oolite: of these, 1 is found in the forest marble of Calvados ; 1 in die forest marble and cornbrash of the North of France; and 2 in the Mauriac beds, South of France. Of the two Echinites of the Yorkshire cornbrash, I is found in the forest marble of Calvados.

Of the 32 species of fossil shells enumerated in the forest marble of Calvados, 7 are found in the other localities: of these, 3 occur in the great oolite, and 1 in the cornbrash of Yorkshire; 3 in the white marls or Bradford clay of the North of France; and 1 in the Mauriac beds, South of France. Of these 32 species, 7 are noticed in the lists of Mr. Conybeare and Mr. Sowerby; 2 in the forest marble, 5 in the cornbrash, and 5 in the Bradford clay.

Of the 6 species noticed in the forest marble and cornbrash of the North of France, S are found in the lists of Mr. Conybeare and Mr. Sowerby: of these, 3 occur in the cornbrash, 1 in the forest marble, and 1 in the great oolite. Of the same 3 species, 1 occurs in the great oolite, and 1 in the cornbrash of Yorkshire; 1 in the forest marble of Calvados; and 2 in the Mauriac beds, South of France.

Of

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.         27

Of the 61 species of fossil shells enumerated in the Yorkshire great oolite, 7 occur in the lists of Mr. Conybeare and Mr. Sowerby; and of these, 6 are mentioned in the cornbrash, 1 in the forest marble, 1 in the Bradford clay, and 1 in the great oolite. Of the 61 species, 3 are stated to occur in the forest marble of Calvados, and 1 is found in the cornbrash and forest marble of the North of France. Melania striata is marked questionable in the great oolite of Yorkshire and in the Mauriac beds.

Of the 7 species noticed in the great oolite of Calvados, 3 occur in Mr.Conybeare's lists, 2 in the cornbrash, 1 in the forest marble, 2 m the Bradford clay, and 2 in the great oolite. None are mentioned either in Yorkshire or the North of France.

Of the 9 species contained in the white marls of the North of France, supposed equivalent to the Bradford clay, 4 occur in the lists of Mr. Conybeare and Mr. Sowerby, 2 in the cornbrash, and 3 in the Bradford clay. Of the 9 species, 3 are found in the forest marble of Calvados. None are mentioned in Yorkshire.

Of the 2 species noticed as characterizing the great oolite of the North of France, 1, Ostrea acuminata, is mentioned as found in the Bradford clay of Mr. Conybeare's lists, but is not noticed either in Calvados or Yorkshire.

Of the 3 species of shells, exclusive of Belemnites, in the fuller's earth of the North of France, 1, Terebratula media, is found in the same rock in England (Conybeare).

Of the 12 species enumerated in the Mauriac beds, 5 are found in the other localities, 2 being questionable: of these, 2 occur in the Yorkshire cornbrash, 1 being questionable at Mauriac; 1 is marked doubtful both in the Yorkshire great oolite and the Mauriac beds ; 2 occur in the cornbrash and forest marble of the North of France, and 1 in the forest marble of Calvados. Of these 12 species, 2 are found in Mr. Conybeare's lists; 1 in the cornbrash; and 1 in the cornbrash, forest marble, and Bradford clay.

By considering the cornbrash, forest marble, Bradford clay, great oolite, and fuller's earth, as a mass in which sometimes divisions can be made, while at others none can be observed, the most common fossils would appear to be fish teeth and palates, Clypeus clunicularis, Belemnites, Pecten fibrosus, wicula echinata, Terebratula subrotunda, T. digona, T. coarctata, numerous polypifers, and the Bradford encri-nite.

The following is a list of the fossils from the celebrated Stonesfield slate, which belongs to the division under conside-

E 2                                ration,

[page break]

28 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

ration, formed from the writings of Professor Buckland*, Dr. Fittonf, and M. Adolphe Brongniart J.

Didelphis.                                      | another banded and ribbed; both

Pterodactylus.

Megalosaurus Bucklandi.

Tortoise scales.

Crocodile scales, teeth, and bones.

Fish teeth and palates.

Ichthyodoralites.

Insects.

Vegetable Remains. Fucoides furcatus. Sphenopteris hymenophylloides. ——-? macrophylla. Tseniopteris latifolia. Zamia pectinata. — patens. Thuytes divaricata.

    expanse.

            acutifolia. ——— cupressiformis. Taxites podocarpoides.

Shells. Nerita. 2 species ; one banded;

Of the 10 known species of fossil shells here enumerated, 3 are found in the Yorkshire great oolite, and 1 in the corn-brash of the same county; 1 occurs in the great oolite of Calvados; 1 in the cornbrash and forest marble of the North of France; and 2 in the Mauriacbeds, South of France. The Plagiostoma cardiiforme, which one of the above shells is stated to approach, is found in the great oolite of Yorkshire, and in the cornbrash and forest marble of the North of France.

M. Dufr&ioy presents us with the following list of organic remains found in the beds between the Pointe Duch6, and the Pointe d'Angoulin. M. Dufrenoy seems inclined to refer the beds to the middle oolitic system; but their organic contents will do equally well, if not better, for that now under consideration.

preserving their colour.

Turritella?

Another spiral univalve.

Astarte.

wicula ovata.

Gryphaea. 2 species; one of small size, another large.

Lima rudis.

Modiola imbricata.

—— aliformis.

——, another species.

Mytilus.

Ostrea; a plicated species, and probably another.

Pecten jibrosus.

---------obscurus.

Pholadomya acuticostata.

Pinna.

PI agios torn a; nearest to cardnforme.

Terebratula obsolete.

—— maxillata.

Trigonia impressa.

Tsocardia concentrica (Sow.). Cardita obtusa (Sow.). Terebratula triquetra (Sow.).

-  m ornithocephala.

-   -i. acuta (Sow.). Lima antiqua (Sow.)* Actaeon cuspidatus (Sow.), Encrinites pyrifonnis,

Isocardia transversa (d'Obigny.). — brevis (d'Obigny.). Plagiostoma laeviuscuium (Sow.). Lima rudis (Sow.). Ostrea gregarea (Sow.).

--------expansa ?? (Sow.).

Myagibbosa (Sow,). Modiola.

* Geological Transactions, New Series, vol. i. p. 394. f Zoological Journal, vol. iii. p. 417*

t See list of vegetable remains, inserted in the Tableau des Terrains qui compotent Pecorce du Globe, par Alex, Brongniart, p. 413.

Nerinea.

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.         29

Nerinea. 2 species.

Gervillia.

Nerita.

Pteroceras.

Cidarites.

Spines of Cidarites.

Polypifers. Many species.

Serpiila.

Gryphsea? dilatata???

The same author presents us with the following list of organic remains from beds in the vicinity of La Rochelle, which may probably also belong to the system under consideration.

Astarte elegans (Sow.). — pumila (Sow, Area pulchra (Sow.).

- pumila (Sow.). ei pulchra (Sow.). Cucullaea elongata (Sow.).

Terebratula perovalis.

Modiola.

Lutraria ovalis (Sow.).

Lucina.

Pholadomya Proteii.

Ammonites annulatus. Mytilns pectinatus. Turritella muricata. Trigonia. Dicerata. Cardium.

Ammonites Lamberti. Caryophyllia,

Middle Oolitic System.—Subdivision: Oxford Clat and Kelloway Rock.

Yorkshire.—Phillips.

Midland and S. England. —Conybeare.

Calvados.—DeCaumont; De la Beche.

Mya literata, O. C. & K.

------calceiformis, K. (Phil.)

Sanguinolaria undulata, O.C. Crassina lurida, O. C.

--------carinata, O. C.(Phil.)

Pholadomya obsoleta, O.C.&

K. (Phil.).....................

Corbis ? ovalis, K. (Phil.) |

--------lsevis? K.

Corbula curtansata, K. (Phill Amphidesma recurvum, K.

(Phil.; Lucina lirata, K. (PhiU Crassina carinata, K. (Phil.) Cardium dissimile,K.(Murcn)| Trionia clavellata, K. Modiola cuneata, O. C. &K. ?| pulchra, K. (Phil.)

Ichtht/otaurut............

Pholadomya deltoid ea,K.

Crocodile. Ichthyosaurus. Plesiosaurus. Fish.

Pholadomya ovalis. ——— ambigua.

Exogyra digitata, K.

Isocardia concentrica.

Trigonia elongata. ——— clavetiata. ——— costata.

Nucula elliptica, O. C. (Phil nuda,O.C.(Y.&B.)

Cucullaea concinna, O. C. &

K.?(Phil.) Pinna mitis (Phil.) O.C.& K. ?l Triffonellites politus (Phil.)|

Plagiostomaduplicatum.O.C. &K..

finely striated, O.C.

Modiola subcarinata. Nucula pectinata.

Pinna tetragon a.

wicula expansa (Phil.) O.C &K.

Plagiostoraa obscurum, K. wicula inaequivalvis, K.

byG00gl(

[page break]

SO         On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Yorkshire.—Phillips.

Midland and S. England. —Conybeare.

Calvados.-—De Caumont 4 De la Beche.

wicula Braamburiensis, K. Lima rudis, K.

Pecten Jibrosus, K............

lent, K. --------demissus (Phil.), K.

Pectenjtbrosus, K..

Ostrea inaequalis (Phil.), O.C

------— undosa (Bean), K.

——- archetypa (Phil.), K.I ——— Mtarshiif K..........

Ostrea palmetto, O. C.

Gryphaea incurva, K.

Gryphaea dilatata, K. . Perna quadrata, K..... Terebratula ornithocephalaJL] socialis (Phil.), K.

dilatata, O. C.

Lima proboscidea. Pecten lens.

— vimineus. Ostrea gregarea.

— phcatilis. —— palmetto.

------minima (Deslong.).

— carinata. —— MarshU. Gryphsea Maccullochii.

Turbo sulcostomus (Phil.),K. Cirrus depressus (Phil.), K. Trochus guttatus (Phil), K. Turritella muricata, K. Rostellaria trifida (Bean),O.C|

bispinosa (Phil.),K.

.          O. C» <

Patella

Belemnites sulcatus (Miller), O.C. &K.

gracilis (Phil.),O.C|

Nautilus hexagonus ?, K. Ammonites plicatilis, K.

------vertebralis? O.C....

------oculatus(Phil.), O.C.

------Vernoni (Bean), O.C

------athleta(Phil.)O.C.& K.|

------Kcenigi, K................

------bifrons (Phil.), K.

------Gowerianus, K.

— perarmatus, K.

— Calkmensu, K. .........

—— Duncani, X.............

— gemnatus (Phil.), K.

- subtevii, K...»*.....*..

------flezicostatus, (Phil.)

------funiferus (Phil.), K.

(nearly resembles A,

excavatus) —— lenticularis, (Phil.) Serpula intestmalis(Phil)O.C Astacus rostratus (Phil.), K. Astacus, O. C. Tooth of Squalus, O.C. Saurian bone, K.

Fossil Wood .......

Spatangus ovalis, K.

Perna avicidoides, O. C. Terebrat. orntihocephalaJL

Rostellaria, O. C. & K.... Patella latisrima, O. C. , Belemnites, O.C.&&. Nautilus, O.C. &K..... Ammonites armatus, O.C.I

Perna aviculoides. Terebrat. omiihocephala. —— biplicata.

Kcenigi, K.

Calloviensit, K. Duncani, O. C.

— ntbUevu, K.

Serpula, O.C.

Dicotyledonous Wood

Trochus Gibsii. Rostellaria.

Belemnites.

Nautilus.

Ammonites armatus. — communis.

omphaloides.

plicomphalus.

acutus.

Duncani.

subkevis.

excavatus.

annulatus.

Serpula+quadrangularis.| Ananchites bicordata. *Galerites depressa. patella.

Nucleolites scutata.

Cidaris.

Veget. remains(abundant.)|

f The organic remains marked with an asterisk are from the observations of M. Desnoyers.

n M. Boblaye

VjOOQlC

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.           SI

M. Boblaye furnishes us with the following lists of organic remains in the Stenay blue marls and the Oxford clay; these he has kept distinct, because he is not certain whether the former should be united to the combrash or to the Oxford

clay.

Fossils of the Stenay Blue Marls,—North of France.

Plesiosaurus.

Ammonites coronatus?

Serpula.

Ostrea nana ? or Gryphaea.

Ostrea.

Trigonia costata.

--------clavettata.

Pecten {small). Nucleotides.

Organic Remains, Oxford Clay,—North of France.

Pinna lanceolata (Sow.). Pholadomya.

(approaching P. Protei)

Ammonites. Belemnites. Ostrea pectinata.

pennaria. - - gregarea.

—  flabelloides (Lam.),

------ deltoidea (Sow.).

Gryphaea du'atata. Anomia.

Modiola tulipea (Lamarck).

Mytilus.

Terebratula (approaching T. subro-

tunda). ——— media (Schlot). Pecten.

From the above'materials, the following list may be constructed, of organic remains which occur in more than one of the localities mentioned: the Stenay marls being considered as part of the Oxford clay; they may indeed represent the Kel-loway rock.

Name. |

York-shire. 1

Mid. and S. Engl,

Calvados.

North of] France.1

 

1

0

      1

      I

      1

  1

      I

      1

  1

      1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1 Terebratula ornithocephala..

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Of

[page break]

32 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Of the 63 species of fossils enumerated in the Oxford clay of Yorkshire, more than one half are new: but of the remainder, 12 occur in the other localities; of these, 8 are mentioned in Mr. Conybeare's lists, 7 are discovered in Normandy, and 2 in the North of France.

Of the 16 species noticed in Mr. Conybeare's lists of Midland and Southern England, 11 are found in the other localities, and of these, 8 occur in Yorkshire, 7 in Calvados, and 1 in the North of France.

Of the 34? species enumerated in Calvados, 12 are found in the other localities; and of these, 7 are discovered in Yorkshire, 7 in Midland and Southern England, and 4 in the North of France.

, Of the 11 species, not questionable, mentioned as found in the North of France, 4 are discovered in the other localities; and of these, 2 occur in Yorkshire.

It will be observed that the Gryphasa dilatata is found in all the localities; and that Ammonites Duncani, A. subl&svis, and Terebratula ornithocephala, are common to England and Normandy.

Subdivision: Coral Rag, Oxford Oolite, and Calcareous Grit.

Organic Remains of the lower Calcareous Grit of Yorkshire.*

Gryphsea bullata ? i              chamaeformis.

inhaerens.

Dicotyledonous Wood. Spongia.

Crinoidal columns. Echinus germinans. Cidaris vagans. Spatangus ovalis. Clypeaster pentagonalis (Phil.)* Galerites depressus. Pholadomya simplex (Phil.)* '                deltoidea ?

Sanguinolaria undulata. Mya literata. Isocardia tumida (Phil.). Crassina carinata ? Venus.

Lucina crassa. Modiola tripartita. wicula ovalis (Phil.). Lima rudis.

Ostrea gregarea. Terebratula socialis. Cirrus cingulatus (Phil.). Actaeon retusus (Phil.). Turritella muricata. Rostellaria bispinosa ? (Phil.). Trochus granulatus. —— btcarinatus. Belemnites sulcatus. Ammonites Sutherland** ? ——- perarmatus. —— instabilis.

—----- Solaris (Phil.).

—----- vertebralis.

Dentalium.

Serpula lacerata (Phil.).

Organic Remains of the Coralline Oolite of Yorkshire.

Dicotyledonous Wood. Crocodile. Ichthyosaurus. Palatal teeth of Fish.

Astacus rostratus (Phil.). Spongia floriceps (Phil.). Turbmolia dispar (Phil.). Caryophyllia cylindrica (Phil.).

* Phillips's Geology of Yorkshire, p. 134—136.

flbid. p. 126—132. Caryophyllia,

byGoOgli

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France.

S3

Caryophyllia, like C. flexuosa (Sol.

--------------likeC. cespitosa(S.&E\.)

A&trxafavoskades (Smith). ' inaequalis.

--------micastron.

—— arachnoides.

---------tubulifera (Phil.).

Meandrina.

Pentacrinus Caput Medusae. Cidaris florigemma (Phil.). ' — intermedia (Flem.). —— monilipora (Y. & B.). Echinus germinans (Phil.). Clypem sinuatus. ——— emarginatus (Phil.). ——— dunicularis.

-------- dimidiatus (Phil.\

—  semisulcatus (Phil.). Spatangus ovalis (Park.). Galerites depressus. Pholas recondita(PhiL). Modiola? inclusa (Phil.). Mya literata.

Pholadomya (like P. Murchisoni). Amphidesma? recurva. Psammobia laevigata (Phil.). Tellina amoliata (Phil.). Corbis laevis ? Cras8ina ovata (Smith).

....... elegans.

----------aliena (Phil.).

----------extensa (Phil.).

Venus.

Cytherea.

Corbula curtansata (Phil.).

Cardium lobatum (Phil.).

Isocardia rhomboidalis (Phil.).

Cardita sirailis.

Trigonia costata.

-----------claveUata.

Hippopodium ponderosuro.

Nucula.

Cucullsea oblonga.

-----------contracta (Phil.).

-----------triangularis (Phil.).

-----------pectinata (Phil.).

' elongata ? Area quadrisulcata. — aemula (Phil.) Modiola imbricata?

---------ungulata (Y. & B.).

Trigonellites antiquatus (Phil.). Pinna lanceolata. Perna (juadrata. Gervilha aviculoides.

wicula expansa (Phil.).

--------: ovalis (Phil.).

——— elegantissima (Bean).

-------- tonsipluma (Y. & B.).

PI agiostoma laeviusculum. ———— rigidum.

--------------rusticum.

--------------duplicatum.

Pecten abjectus.

--------inaequicostatus (Phil.).

---------cancellatus.

---------demissus.

--------lens,

——— viminalis.

«— vagans.

Lima rudu.

Ostrea gregarea (Smith).

----r— 8olitaria.

— duriuscula (Bean). Chama or Gryphaea? mima (Phil.). Gryphaea bullata ? Terebratula intermedia. ——-— globata. —————— ornithocephala.

-----------— ovata?

--------------obsolete ?

Orbicula? radiata (Phil.).

Delphinula.

Natica arguta (Smith).

------- nodulata (Y. & B.).

-------cincta (Phil.).

Turbo muricatu*.

-------funiculatus (Phil.).

Trochus granulatus.

--------? tornatilis (Phil.).

Turritella muricata.

-----------cingenda?

Terebra melanoses (Phil.)

-------? granulata.

Melania Heddingtonentu.

---------striata.

Bulla elongata (PhilA Murex Haccanensis (Phil.). Ammonites perarmatus. triplicatus. licatilis. illiamsoni (Phil.).

— Lamberti.

— Sutherlandis.

— sublaevis.

— lenticularis. vertebralis et cordatus.

:

Belemnites sulcatus? (Miller).

_________fusiformis? (Miller).

Vermicularia compressa (Y. & B.). Serpula squamosa (Bean).

Organic

[page break]

34 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Organic Remains in the Coral Rag and Calcareous Grit of Midland and Southern England.*

Wood.

Ichthyosaurus.

Cidaris papillata (ParkA

.--------intermedia (Pane.).

------— diadema (Park.).

Clypeus clunicularis.

----------sinuatus.

CaryophylliaapproachingC.carduus. »                  cespitosa?

Astrea favosioides (Smith). —— approaching A. annularis. Ammonites excavatus. —— giganteus. ———— plicatilis. ——— vertebraUs. splendens.

Melania striata.

Turbo muricatus.

Helix?

Trochus bicarinatus.

Ampullaria.

Turritella?

Ostrea gregarea.

--------Crista Galli (Smith).

Pecten Jlbrosus. lens.

--------arcuatus.

---------similif.

Chama.

Trigonia.

Lima rudis.

Lithophaga.

Mytilus.

Modiola.

Serpula.

Nautilus.

Belemnites.

Melania Heddingtonensis.

To these may be added, Pinna lanceolate Trigonia costata9 and T. clavellata, as found at Weymouth. Ostrea deltoidea enters into the upper calcareous grit, and Gryphaea dilatata into the lower calcareous grit of the same place.

Fossils of the Coral Rag of Normandy.\

Clypeaster,

ci;JNumcrous-

Caryophyllia. ~\

Astrea.          > Numerous.

Madrepora. j

Ammonites.

Nautilus.

Melania Heddingtonensis.

Trochus.

Nerinea.

Ostrea gregarea.

-----— minima.

           a large species.

Lucina or Tellina.

Pecten Jlbrosus?

--------lens?

--------similis?

Modiola.

Lima.

Ampullaria.

Venus.

Lucina.

Chama.

Trigonia.

Gervillia.

Mytilus.

Pinna pinnigena.

Dicerata (very abundant).

Fossils of the Coral Rag in the North of 'France.%

Polypifers (numerous). Crinoidal remains (numerous). Turrilites, appr* T. Babeli (Brong.). Melania striata (numerous).

? approaching M. lactea.

Echinus.

Echinital spines, (numerous).

Plagiostoma rigidum.

Pecten.

Ostrea gregarea.

Lima rudis.

Terebratula, appi* T. digona.

Turritella/

Terebra appr* T. sulcata (numerous).

Cidarites globatus (Schl.).

* Conybeare, Outlines of England and Wales, pp. 187,188. f Desnoyers, Annates des Sciences Naturelles, torn. iv. p. 371 Caumont, Topographic GeognosHque du Calvados, pp. 128,129. J Boblaye, Annates des Sciences NatureUesy torn. xvii. p. 72

and De

M. Elie

[page break]

in the Oolite Series of England and France. 35

M. Elie de Beaumont notices numerous polypifers and echinital spines in the coral rag and Oxford oolite of Bur* gundy. The same rocks also contain large Nerinese, Deci-ceratse, large fibrous shells, dentated oysters, striated Tere-bratula?, vegetable impressions, &c*

M. Dufrenoy describes rocks, which he considers equivalent to coral rag, near Marthon and Rochefoucault, and states that they contain an abundance of polypifers of the same kinds as those of the coral rag, and numerous crinoidal remains.f

The reader will perceive that, though the coral rag and Oxford oolite occur in numerous parts of England and France, their organic remains have not been well determined, excepting by Mr. Phillips in Yorkshire. The other published lists are exceedingly defective, more particularly in the catalogue of the polypifers from which the rock has received one of its names. The following list, therefore, of organic remains which have been noticed in more than one of the localities, will be exceedingly meagre; whereas if the polypifers had been better known, it would have been quite the contrary.

1 Name.

York, shire.

Midi, and S. Engl.

Normandy.

North of 1 France. 1

     

 

 

 

 

  f

 

.?

 ♦

 

 

 

:::::::::::::::

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1 Melania Heddingtonensis.

1 __— strinttt

 
 
 

Astrsea favosioides is the only polypifer among the numerous species contained in the coral rag, which has been probably determined in more than one locality, unless, indeed, we except the Caryophyllia stated to resemble C. ceespitosa of Ellis and Solander.

Annate* de* Science* Naturcttet, Juillet 1829. t Annate* de* Mine*, 3* liv. 1829, pp. 404 & 406. F2

Of

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36 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Of the 13 species of Echinites enumerated in the coralline oolite and calcareous grit of Yorkshire, 6 were first named by Mr. Phillips; of the remainder, 3 are found in Midland and Southern England. The species of Echinites are not enumerated in the Continental lists.

Of the very numerous fossil shells of the Yorkshire lists, the greater proportion are new; 12 of the remainder are found in the other localities; 12 in Midland and Southern England; 3 in Normandy (one being questionable); and 3 in theN. of France.

Of the 21 species contained in Mr. Conybeare's lists,, or noticed in the Weymouth beds, 12 are found in the other localities; and of these, 12 are found in Yorkshire, 3 in Normandy (1 being questionable*), and 3 in the North of France.

Of the 7 species mentioned in Normandy, 3 are questionable; of the remainder, '3 are found in Northern, Midland, and Southern England, and 1 in the North of France.

Of the 5 species determined with certainty in the coral rag of the North of France, 3 are found in Northern, Midland, and Southern England, and 1 in Normandy.

Ostrea gregarea occurs in all the localities; and Lima rudis, Melania Heddingtonensis, and M. striata, are extensively distributed. It is probable, that when the Echinites and roly-pifers shall have been determined with care, many species will be found widely dispersed. Upper Oolitic System.—Subdivision: Kimmeridge Clay.

We unfortunately at present possess very little information respecting the distribution of the organic remains of either this subdivision or the following. Mr. PhHlips gives the following list of the Kimmeridge clay fossils in Yorkshire

Ammonites plicomphalus? Fragments of Ammonites.

Dicotyledonous Wood. Ostrea deltoidea. Belemnites.

Organic Remains in Midland and Southern England.-.

Plesiesaurus recentior.

Astarte ovata.

Ichthyosaurus.

Trigonia costata.

Belemnites.

clavellata.

Nautilus.

Venus.

Ammonites.

Modiola.

Trochus.

Cardita (Pholadomya).

Turbo.

Cardiuni.

Melania Heddingtonensis.

Mactra.

Ostrea deltoidea.

Tellina.

-------Crista GaUi.

Chama.

Pecten.

Terebratula.

wicula.

Serpula.

Astarte lineata.

 

Two other questionable species might be added.

f Geology ot Yorkshire, p. 125.

X Conybeare, Outlines, &c. pp. 178, 179.

Fossil*

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in the Oolite Series of England and France,

Fossils of the Kimmeridge Clay (Argile de Honfleur) of Normandy.*

37

Gavial, long-snouted.

—I—, short-snouted.

Plesiosaurus recentior.

Ichthyosaurus.

Pholadomya Protei (Alex. Brong.).

Amphidesma securiforme (Phil.).

' recurvum (Phil.). Trigonia costata. Mya depreua. Isocardia ?

Gervillia siliqua (Deslong.). —— pernoides (Oeslong.). Donacites Alduini. Inoceramus* Lucina. Cucullsea. Terebratula.

Gryphaea virgula.

Ostrea deltoidea.

-------Crista Galli.

-------gregarea.

Pteroceras Oceani (Alex. Brong.). Ponti (Alex. Brong.).

------~— Pelagi(Alex. Brong.)

Melania Heddingtonensis.

---------striata.

Rostellaria composite.

Trochus.

Belemnites.

Teredo.

Serpula.

Cidaris.

Lignite.

Of the organic remains contained in the Kimmeridge clay of other parts of France little is known, except that the Gryphaea virgula is very abundant, and as characteristic of this day in that country as the Ostrea deltoidea is in England.

M. Dufrenoy, describing some marls near Angouleme, gives a list of the following fossils, but seems to refer them to the upper part of the middle oolitic system, though they pass (descent to the Pont de la Trouve) into marls full of the Gryphaea virgula.f

Mya mandibulata.                              I Pholadomya acuticosta.

------depreua.                                 I Trigonia claveUata.

Pholadomya ovalis.                         | Natica sinuosa??

Besides the Gryphaea virgula contained abundantly in the Kimmeridge clay of the environs of Cahors (South of France), M. Dufr£noy mentions Terebratula perovalis. Lignite occurs in this clay or marl near the Pont de Rodes.

From the above the following small Table may be formed:

1 Name. 1

Yorkshire.

Midi, and S. Engl.

Nor-mandy.

Angou- 1 leme. 1

1 Plesiosaurus recentior ...

m

*

♦::::

 
 
 
 

* Alex. Brongniart, Tableau des Terrains, 8fc. pp. 410, 411; De Caumont, Mag. and Annals, March 1830.

Topographie Geognostique du Calvados, pp. 117, 118,- a»d Phillips, PAtf. lag. and Annals, March 1830. f Annates des Mines, deuxieme se>ie, torn. v. p. 414.

Subdi-

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88 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Subdivision: Portland Stone.

Although this rock, as has been before stated, is observed in points crowning the oolitic series in England and France, its organic remains have not been well described except in Midland and Southern England: I shall therefore content myself by referring to Mr. Conybeare's lists.*

It cannot have escaped the reader's observation, that many fossils are common to several parts of the oolitic series;—to show the various beds in which the same organic remains may occur, and at the same time to convey an idea of the organic contents of the oolitic series in general, I have formed the following table from the authorities already mentioned, and from others that will be noticed in their places. Such a table must necessarily be very defective, and can only answer temporary purposes; but it is hoped that it may be useful

Organic Remains of the Oolitic Series.

vegetable remains.

Alga, Fucoides furcatus (Ad. Brong.), Stonesfield slate (Ad. Brong.).f

Equisetacece. Equisetum columnare G4rf. Brong.). Lower carbonaceous series, Yorks. * (Phil.). Brora (Murch.).

Filices, 1. Pachypteris lanceolata (Ad. BrongX Coal, shale, fyc. between inf. and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 2.--------—— ovata (Ad. BrongX Coal, shale. 8rc. between inf. and great

oolite. .Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Pecopteris Reglei (Ad, Brong.). Forest marble. Maraers (Desn.).

2.  <               Desnoyerii (Ad. Brong.). Forest marble. Mamers (Desn.).

3. -----------polypodioides (.drf. Brong.). Coal, shale, $c. between cornbrash

and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 4.----------- denticulata (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, $c. between combrash

and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 5. ----------- Phillippi (Ad. Brong.). Coal, 4c of the oolitic series. Yorks.

(Ad. Brong.).

Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales, p. 176. f Abbreviations of authors' names:

Beaum.......Elie de Beaumont.

Bobl.........Boblaye.

Al. Brong.. .. Alexandre Brongniart. Ad. Brong..... Adolphe Brongniart.

Buckl........Buckland.

Conyb........ Couvbeare.

Cut...........Cuvier.

DeC.orDeCau. De Caumont. Desn..........Desnoyers.

Dufr......Dufrenoy.

Jaeg.......Jaeger.

Lam*.......Lamouroux.

Murch.... Murchison.

Phil.......PhiUips.

Sow......Sowerby.

Sternb.... Sternberg.

Y. & B.... Young and Bird.

Dela B... De la Beche.

6. Pecopteris

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in ike Oolite Series of England and France.           39

6.  Pecopteris Whitbiensis (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, c. between cornbrath

and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Sphaenopteris hymenophylloides (Ad. Brong.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.).

Coal, shale, fyc. between gt. and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.--------------? macrophylla (Ad. Brongi). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.).

3.               , Williamsonis (Ad. Brong.). Coal, Cfc. of the oolitic series.

Yorks. (Ad. Brong.). 4.--------------crenulata (Ad. Brong.). Coal, fyc. of the oolitic series.

Yorks. (Ad. Brong.). 5.--------------denticulata (Ad.Brong.). Coal,%c. of the oolitic scries. Yorks.

(Ad. Brong.).

1.  Taeniopteris latifolia (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, fyc. between cornbrath and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.  —— vittata (Ad. BrongX Coal, shale, fifc. between cornbrath and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Cycadece.

1. Pterophyllum Williamsonis. Coal, shale, &c. between cornbrath and great

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Zamia pectinata (Ad. Brong.). Stonesfield slate. (Buckl.). 2.--------patens (Ad. Brong.). Stonesfield slate. (Ad. Brong.).

3.          - longifolia (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, #c. between cornbrath and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.  —— pennaeformis (Ad. Brong.). Coal,shale, 8fc. between great and in-

ferior oolite. Yorks. (PhilA 5.------- elegans (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, Sec. between great and inferior

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 6.-------Goldiaei (Ad. Brong.). Coal, %c of the oolitic series. Yorks. (Ad.

Brong.)

7.           . acuta (Ad.Brong.). Coal,8fc. of the oolitic «erto.Yorks.(Ad.Brong.)

8.           i laevis (Ad.Brong.y Coal, Stc. of the oolitic series.Yorks. (Ad.Brong.).

9.            Younai (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, fyc. between great and inferior

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

10.          i- Feneonis (Ad.Brong.). Coal, %c. of the oolitic series. Yorks. (Ad.

Brong.).

11.          Mantelli (Ad. Brong.). Coal, shale, $c. between great and infe-

rior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Zamites Bechii (Ad. Brong.). Forest marble. Manners (Desn.). Lias.

Lyme Regis (Be la B.). 2.---------Buck]aadu(Ad. Brong.). Forest marble. Maroers (Desn.). Lias.

Lyme Regis (De la B.).

3. _____ lagotis (Ad. Brong.). Forest marble. Mamers (Desn.).

4.______hastata (Ad. Brong.). Forest marble. Mamers (Desn.).

Conifens.

1. Thuytes divaricata (Stemh.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.> «. -------- expansa (Sternb.). Stonetfield slate (Buckl.).

3. ______ acutifolia (Ad. Brong.). Stonetfield tlate (Buckl.).

4. --------- cupressiformis (Sternb.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.).

I. Taxites podocarpoides Urf. JBrong.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.).0

MAMMA-

* Mr. Phillips has very kindly furnished me with the following synonyms

of

[page break]

40 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

MAMMALIA.

Didelphys Bucklandi (Broderip.). Stcnesfield slate (Buckl.).

of the plants noticed by him in the coal, shale, &c. of the Yorkshire oolitic series.

Phillips: Geology of Yorkshire.              Brongniart: Prodrome, &c.

Upper Shale, Coal,'and Sandstone. 17. Sphaenopteris ? longifolia. PI. 7- Fig. 18.----------------latifolia.

PI. 8. Fig.

PI. 8. Fig.

19.  Cycadites tenuicaulis.

20.  —— comptus..........

£1. —— sulcicaulis.......

22.-----------Decten.

23. Unknown leaves.

24.-----------leaf.

25. Small vegetable bodies in groups.

1.  Strobilus?

2.  Winged seed.

3.  Lycopodites uncifolius....

4.  Aspleniopteris Nilsoni? \

Sternb.......\

5.  Scolopendrium solitarium.

6.  Sphaenopteris digitata.

7.  Variety of ditto.

8.  Pecopteris paucifolia.

9.  Phyllitesnervulosus.£!fern6'

10.  Pecopteris caesnitosa.

11. -----------crenifolia.......

12.-----------curtata.

13.  Neuropteris lobifolia.

14.  Pecopteris ligata........

16. -----------recentior.

16.------------r exilis.

17.                  hastata .....

18.                  branch. Dicotyledonous wood.

Lower Shale, Coal, and Sandstone.

Pterophyllum Williamsonis. Zamia longifolia. .

Lycopodites Williamsonis. Taeniopteris latifolia? Taeniopteris vittata.

Pecopteris polypodioides.

Pecopteris denticulate.

Pecopteris Whitbiensis.

PI. 10. Fig. 1. dycadites latifblius......

2.-----------gramineus ...

3.-----------lanceolatus...

4.-----------pectinoi'des...

5. Winged seed.

6. Sphaenopteris lanceolata 7: Pecopteris curtata.......

8. Sphaenopteris stipata....

9. Neuropteris laevigata....

10. Sphaenopteris muscoides.

11. Thuytes expansa? Sternb,

12. Flabellaria viminea?£fero.

13. Equisetum laterale Equisetum columnare...

Seed-vessel 1. Y.& B. PI. 1. f. 2. ) 9nA 2.Y.&B. — r.7.> J5?f 3.Y.&B - f.2.\

Zamia Youngii.

— Mantelli. —— pennaeformis.

Pachypteris lanceolata. Pecopteris Williamsonis? Sphaenopteris hymenophylloides. Pachypteris ovata.

Brachyphyllum.

Equisetum columnare.

REP-

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in the Oolite Series &f England and France.           41

REPTILES. Pterodactylus raacronyx (Buckl.). Lias. Lyme Regis (Buckl.).

---------------species not known. Stonesfield slate (Buck!.).

Crocodilus Bollensis (Jag.). Lias. Boll in Wurtemberg (Jaeg.).

------------gavial, short-snouted. Kim. clay. Havre (Al. Brong.).

---------------------long-snouted. Kim. clay. Havre (Al. Brong.).

Crocodile of Caen. Great oolite (De Cau.).

              of Mans (Cuv.). Great oolite (Brong.).

-----------remains, species not determined. Lias. Yorks. (Phil). Lias?

Lyme Regis (De la B.). Cornbrash. Engl. (Conyb.). Stones-field slate (Buckl.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Megalosaurus Bucklandi. Stonesfield slate (Buckl.). Megalosaurus, species not known. Great oolite. Normandy (De Cau.). Geosaurus Bollensis (Jag.). Lias. Boll (Jaeg.).

1. Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus (Conyb.). Lias. Lyme Regis, Bristol, &c.

2. ----------------recentior (Conyb.). Kim. clay. Engl. (Conyb.). |JTti». clay,

Honfleur (Brong.).

3.--------------carinatus (Cuv.). Great oolite. Boulogne (Brong.).

4.--------------pentagonus(Cut>.). Great oolite. Ballon &Chaufour (Brong.).

5. --------------? trigonus (Cuv.). Great oolite. Calvados (BrongA

' species not determined. Oxford clay. Stenay (Bobl.). Oxford clay. Calvados (De la B.). 1. Ichthyosaurus communis (De la B.). Lias. Lyme Regis, &c. Engl. (Conyb. &c). Lias. Boll, Wurtemberg (Jaeg.).

g. --------------platyodon(ZtefoJ?.). Lias. Lyme Regis, &c. Engl. (Conyb.

&c.}. Lias. Boll, (Jaeg.).

3.  __ tenuirostris (DelaB.). Lias. Lyme Regis, &c. (Conyb. &c).

Lias. Boll (Jaeg.). 4.--------------intermedius (Conyb.). Lias. Lyme Regis, &c. (Conyb. &c).

Lias. Boll (Jaeg.). —:------------species not determined. Lias and inferior oolite. Normandy

(DeCau.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford clay. England

(Conyb.). Oxford clay. Normandy (Dela BA Great oolite.

Reugny (Brong.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (PhilA Cole. grit.

Midi. Engl. (Conyb.). Kim. day. Oxford (Buckl.). JTtm.

clay. Weymouth (De la BA Kim. clay. Honfleur (Brong.). Saurian bones occur in the KeUoway rock and Bath oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

in the Portland stone (Buckl. & De la B.). Tortoise. Stonesfield slate (Buckl). Lias.? Engl. (Conyb.).

INSECTS. Elytra of coleopterous insects (Leach). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.).

FISH.

Dapedium politum (De la B.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.). Lias ana Oxford clay of Normandy (De Cau.).

Fish, species not yet determined, several in the lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.). Barrow, Leicestershire (Conyb.).

Ichthyodorulites CBttcA/. $ DelaB.). Different kinds. Lias. Lyme Regis, and elsewhere in Southern and Midland Engl. (Conyb. & De la B). Kimmeridge clay. Near Oxford (Buckl.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.). In t\\z great oolite. Normandy (DeCau.).

Fish palates and teeth. Lias. Lyme Regis and Somersethire, &c. (Conyb.). Stonesfield slate (Buckl.). Great oolite. Normandy (De Cau.) Cornbrash and forest marble. North of France (Bobl.). Coral, oolite. Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

G                                        CRUSTA-

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42 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

CRUSTACEA. Astacus rostratus {Phil.). Kelloway rock and coral, oolite, Yorks. (Phil.) species not determined. Oxford clay & Lias, Yorks. (Phil.).

Crustacea, not yet determined. Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lyme Regis (De la B.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Can.). StonesfieUt slate (Conyb.). Bradford clay. North of France (Bobl.).

ZOOPHYTA. 1. Spongia floriceps (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

—— Lower cole, grit, Yorks. (Phil.). Inferior ooUte. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). Alcyonium. Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.). 1. Turbinolia dispar (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Species not stated. Inferior oolite. Lias. N. of France

(Boblaye). 1. Turbinolopsis ochracea (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (DeCau.). 1. Entalophora cellarioides (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy.(De Cau.). 1. Limnorea mamillaris (Lamx.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Can.). 1. Caryophyllia cylindrica (P/til.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). g. __— truncata (Lam*,). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

3.--------------Brebissonii (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Can.).

4. -----s---------convexa (Phil.). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (PhilA

5.--------------like C. cespitosa (Ellis). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Coral rag. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). 6.--------------like C. flexuosa (Ellis). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Great oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). 7. '                  approaching C. carduus (Park.)'. Coral rag, great oolite.

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Caryophyllia, species not stated. Inferior oolite, N. of France (Bobl.).

Rochelle beds. (Dufr.). Numerous remains, Coral rag.

Normandy (De Cau.). Inferior and great oolite, Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). I. Millepora dumetosa (Lam*.). Forest marble, Normandy (De Cau.). 9. ----------- corymbosa (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

3.  —— conifera (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

4.  —— pyriformis (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

5.------------ macrocaule (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

6.------------straroinea (Phil.). Great oolite and cornbrash. Yorks. (Phil.).

" species not stated. Cornbrash and forest marble. N. of France (Bobl.). Forest marble. Mamers, Normandy (Desn.).

Favorites........ Forest marble, Mamers, Normandy (Desn.).

1. Astrea favosioides (Smith), Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag and great oolite. Midi, and S. England (Conyb.).

2.-------iraequalis. Coral, oolite. Yorks. (PhilA

3. ------- micastron. Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.------- arachnoides (Flem.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.------- tubulifera (PhU.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.------- resembling A. siderea. Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl.

- (Conyb.). Astrea, species not stated. Coral rag. Normandy, numerous (De Cau.). Great oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

Cellepora.......... Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

1. Fungia orbulites (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

Fungia

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in the Oolite Series of England and France,          45

Fungia, species not stated. Inferior oolite, Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.) 1. Spiropora tetragona (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.)> 2.-----------cespitosa (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

3. -----------elegans (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

4.                intricata (Lamx.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.). Cyclolites elliptica (Lam.). Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). -----------species not stated. Bradford clay. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.)

1. Eunomia radiata (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

----------orTubipora. Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Chrysaora damaecornis (Lamx.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

2.-----------spinosa (Lamx.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

1. Theonoa chlatrata (Lam*.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

1. Idmonea triquetra (Lam*,). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

1. Alecto dichotoma (Lam*.). Bradford day. S. Engl. (Conyb.). Forest

marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

---------species not stated. Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

1. Berenicea diluviana (Lamx.). Bradford day. S. Engl. (Conyb.). Forest

marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

1.  Terebellaria ramosissima (Lam*.). Bradford day. S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

2.  —— antilope (Lamx). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.). Retipora?.......... Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Madrepore.......... various and abundant. Bradford day. N. of

France (Bobl.). Coral rag. Normandy (De Cau/). Great oolite. N. of France (Bobl.). Portland stone. Wiltshire (Convb.). Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Mauriac beds, S. of France (Dufr.). 1. Cellaria Smithii. Cornbrash. Yorks. (Phil.).

Meandrina. Inferior oolite and coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inferior oolite? (Conyb.).

Eschara......Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

Thamnasteria Lamourouxii (Le Sauvage.). Coral rag. Normandy (De Cau.)*

Explanaria mesenterina (Lam*.). Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Polypifers, genera doubtful. Lias (rare). Lyme Regis (De la B.). Lias (rare). Yorks. (Phil.). Lias (rare). Normandy (De Cau.). Coral rag (numerous). N. of France (Bobl.). Coral rag (abundant). Burgundy (Beaum.). Coral rag (abundant). 8. of France (Dufr.).

RADIARIA.

1. Cidaris florigemma (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). «. -------- intermedia (Park.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. ---------monilipora(F. £.».). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4. -------- vagans (Phil.). Calcareous grit, cornbrash, and great oolite.

Yorks. (Phil.).

5. -------- papillata (Park.). Coral rag. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

6. ---------diadema (Park.). Coral rag. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

7.             1 subangularis (Park.). Inferior oolite. Midi, and S. England.

(Conyb.).

8.--------- ornata. Bradford day. N. of France (Bobl.).

9. Cydarites globatus (Schl.). Coral rag. N. of France (Bobl.).

Cidaris. Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.). 0 2                                    Cornbrash,

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44 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Combrash, Bradford day, great oolite, inferior oolite, Has.

Midi, and S. fcngl. (donyb.). Coral rag, forest marble,

Normandy (De Cau.). Cidaris spines. Great oolite and lias. Yorke. (Phi!.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). Oolite beds. Lower system. S. of

France (Dufr.). Coral rag. Normandy (Desn.). 1. Echinus germinans (Phil.). Coralline oolite, calcareous grit, and great

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Echinus. Coral rag. N. of France (Bob!.). 1. Clypeus sinuatus {Park.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag,

cornbrash, forest marble, great and inferior oolite. Midi.

and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Forest marble. Normandy (De

Cau.).

fl.--------- emarginatus {Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. ——— clunicularis (Smith). Coralline oolite and cornbrash. Yorks.

(Phil.). Coral rag, cornbrash, great oolite, inferior oolite*

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Forest marble. Normandy

(De Cau.).

4.---------dimidiatus {Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.---------semisulcatus {Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.---------orbicularis {Phil.). Cornbrash. Yorke. (Phil.).

1. Spatangus ovalis (Park.) Coralline oolite, calcareous grit, and KeUoway

rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

Spatangus....... Cornbrash and forest marble. N. of France (Bobl.).

1. Clypeaster pentagonalis (Phil.). Calcareous grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

Clypeaster...... Coral rag. Normandy (De Cau.).

1. Galerites depressus. Coralline oolite. Calcareous grit. Cornbrash. Yorks.

(Phil.). Oxford day. Normandy (Desn.). Normandy (Desn.).

patella. Oxford day.

1. Ananchites bicordata. Oxford day. Normandy (Desn.). 1. Nucleolites scutata. Oxford day. Normandy (Desn.).

8. -------------columbaria. Cornbrash and forest marble. N.ofFr. (Bobl.).

Nucleolites. Oxford clay. N. of France (Bobl.).

Echinites, genera not stated. Inferior oolite. Normandy (De Cau.).

Spines of. Coral rag. Burgundy (Beaum.). Spines of

Coral, rag. N. of France (Bobl.). Forest marble. Mamers.

Normandy (Desn.). Mauriac beds, S. of France (Dufr.)..

Asteria...... Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.).

Ophiura Milleri (Phil.). Lias. Yorkshire (Phil.). 1. Apiocrinites rotundus (Mill.). Forest marble. Normandy (De C.) Bradford clay and great oolite. Midi', and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Forest marble (Buckl.). Great oolite. Farque, Alsace

(Brong.). Forest marble. Normandy (De Cau.>

g.-------------pratii (Gray). Great oolite. Bath (Lonsdale).

1. Pentacrinites Caput Medusae (Mill.). Cornbrash and coralline oolite.

Yorkshire (Phil.). Inferior oolite and lias. Midi, and S.

Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. Yorkshire (Phil.). Lias. Alsace,

Gundershofen, Figeac (Brong.). 9.-------------- subangularis (Miller). Inferior oolite and lias. Midi, and

8. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. S. Engl. (Conyb.). 3.-------------- Briareus (MUl.). Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias.

Yorkshire (Phil.). <L ——— basaltiformis (AM.). Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Lias. Alsace (Voltz). 5. —               tuberculatus (Mill.). Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Lias. Alsace (Voltz).                                                   J

Pentacrinites.

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hi the Oolite Series of England and France.         45

Pentacrinites. Forest marble. Normandy (De C). Bradford day N. of France (Bobl.). Cornbrash, forest marble, great oolite. Engl. (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Wotton-under-Edge (Lonsdale).

Crinoidca, genera not determined. Inferior oolite and coral rag, N. of France (Bobl.). Maunac beds, S. of France (Dufr.). Calc.grit. Yorkshire (Phil.).

MOLLUSCA.

1. Pholas recondite (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorkshire (Phil.). g.           ? compressa (Sow.). Kim. day. Oxford (G. E. Smith).

1. Pholadomya Murchisoni (Sow.). Sandstone, limestone and shale. Inver-

brora, Scotl. (Murch.). Coralline oolite f cornkrash. Yorks.

(Phil.). Inf. oolite. Normandy (De Cau.).

2.-------------simplex (Phil.). Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.-------------deltoidea (SowX Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.)- Kelt, rock

and cornbrash. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). 4---------------obsolete (PhU.). Oxford day and Kelt. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  —— ovalis (Sow.). Cornbrash. Yorks. (Phil.). Portland-stone.

(Conyb.). Oxford day. Normandy (De C). Kim. clay ? Angouleme. Rochelle limestone (Dufr.).

6.-------------acuticostata (Sow.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Kim. clay.

Cahors, S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Kim. clay? Angouleme (Dufr.).

7.-------------nana (Phil). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

8. __ producta (Sow.). Great oolite? Yorks. (Phil.) Comb., inf.

oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). 9.-------------obliqnata (Phil.). Great oolite, inf. oolite, and lias. Yorks.

(Phi).

10. -------------fidicula (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

11.  — hrata (Sow.). Comb. Midi, and S. Engl. Inf. oolite. Dun-

dry (Conyb.). Lias. Normandy (De C).

12.  ——— obtusa (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

13.  ——- ambigua (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Oxford

day. Normandy (De C). Lias. S. of France (Dufr.). Lias. Alsace (Volte). 14.-------------aequalis (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Normandy (De C).

15. -------------gibbosa {Sow.). Lias. Normandy (De Cau.)

16.  —— Proteii (firong.). Rochelle limestone (Dufr.). Kim. clay.

Havre, and the Jura (Brong.).

1. Panopsea intermedia (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

S.          gibbosa (Sow.). Great oolite? Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Dundry (Conyb.).

1. Mya literate (Sow.). Coralline oolite, calc. grit, Oxford clay, Kelloway rock, comb., inf. oolite, and lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Shale, sandstone, and limestone. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

S.------depressa (Sow.). Oxford clay? Yorks. (PhilA. Kim. clay ? Angouleme (Dufr.). Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.). Shale, limestone, and sandstone. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

3.------calceiformis (Phil.). Kelt, rock,great oolite, and inf.oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.).

4.------dilate (Phil). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  _ aequate (Phil.). Inferior odite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6. ------V. scripte (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Greet oolite.

Alsace

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46 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Alsace (Brong.). Micaceous $andstone. Western Islands,

Scotl. (Murch.). 7. Alsace mandibulata (Sow.). Kim. clay t Env. of Angouleme (Dufr.). 1. Sanguinolaria undulata (Sow.). Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). Cole, grit, Oxford clay, and cornbrash,

Yorks. (Phil.).

8.---------------elegans {Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

Sanguinolaria. lias. Ross and Cromarty, Scot. (Murch.). lias.

Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Crassina ovata (Smith). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.---------- elegahs (Sow.). Coralline oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. ----------aliena (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.----------- extensa (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Pbil.)\

5.  ———~— carinata (Phil.) Cak. grit, Oxford cloy, and Kelt. rock.Yorki.

(Phil.).

6. ---------- lurida (Sow.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

7.  —-------- minima (Phil.). Great oolite, inf. oolite, lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Amphidesma decurtatum (Phil.). Comb., great oolite, Yorks.

(Phil).

2.---------recurvum. (Phil.) Coralline oolite f Kelt, rock, Yorks.

(Phil.).Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.).

3.      —---------securiforme (Phil.). Cornb.,inf. oolite, Yorks. (Phil.).

Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.).

4.                       donaciforme(Phil). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

5. ---------—— rotundatum (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Lutraria Jurassi (Brong.) Forest marble. Ligny, Meuse (Brong.). 1. Gastrochsena tortuosa (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Psammobia laevigata (Phil.). Coralline oolite, great oolite, and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Lucina crassa (Sow.). Sandstone and rubbly limestone. Braambury

Hill, Brora (Murch.). Calc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.). Lincolnshire (Sow.). Grent arenaceous formation. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

2. -------- lirata(PAi7.).Kc//.roc&. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. -------despecta(PA*/.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Lucina, species not stated. Coral rag and for. marb. Norm. (De Cau.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Shale, $c. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

1.  Unio peregrinus (Phil.). Cornb. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. -----abductus (Phil.). Inferior oolite and lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

8. ------concinnus (Sow.). Idas. Yorkshire (Phil.) Inf. oolite. Mid.

and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

4.  — crassiusculus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  — Listen (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S.

Eng. rConyb.).

6.------acutus (Sow). Cornb. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

7. -----. crassissimus (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). lias.

Norm. (DeC). For.marb.f Mauriac, and inf. oolite. Uzer. S.ofFr.(Dufr.). — species not stated. Portland stone. (Conyb.).

1. Pullastra

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.         47

1.  Pullastra recondite {Phil.). Great oolite. York* (Phil.).

2. ---------- oblite {Phil.). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

, species not named. Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

Venus, species not named. Coralline oolite, calc.grit, and lias. Yorks.

(Phil.). Portland stone. (Smith.). Coral rag. Norm.

(De C). Sandst., shale, Sfc. Inverbrora, ScotL (Murch.). Cytherea dolabra (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). ——, species not named. Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias.

N.ofFr.(BobL).

1.  Corbis tevis (Soto.). Coralline oolite f Kell. rock f Yorks. (Phil.).

2. ------ovalis (Phil.). Kell.rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Tellina ampliate (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Astarte cuneate (Sow.). Portland stone. S. Eng. Inf. oolite f Dundry

(Conyb.).

2.  — excavate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (DeC).

3.  —— lurida £Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

4.  —— ovata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

5.----------planata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Nona. (De C). Bradf. clay.

N.ofFr(Bobl.). 6.----------rugate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

7. ---------- imbricate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

8.  — orbicularis (Sow.). Great oolite. Bath (Sow.).

9.               trigonalis (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry.

10.  —— orbicularis (Sow.). Great oolite. And iff, near Bath (Cook-

son).

11.  —— pumila (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

Rochelle limestone (Dufr.).

19. ----------elegans (Sow.). Rochelle limestone (Dufr.). Shelllimest. and

calc. grit. Portgower, &c. Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

Astarte...... Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1. Corbula curtensate (Phil.). Coralline oolite and Kell. rock, Yorks.

(Phil.). 8.             depressa (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5. ---------? cardioides (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.  —— obscura (Sow.). Brora (Murch.).

1.  Cardium lobatum (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2, ---------- dissimile (Sow.). Kell. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Portland stone.

Portland (Sow.). Rocks of the oolite series. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

5. ---------- citrinoideum (Phil.). Cornb. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.----------cognatum (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  _ acutangulum (Phil.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.).

6.  —— semiglabrum (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

7.                 incertum (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

8.  —— striatulum (Sow.). Sandst., limest. and shale. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). Inf.oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

9. ---------- gibberulum (Phil.). %Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

10. Cardium

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48 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

10.  Cardium truncatum (Sow.), lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Sandsthmett.,

tgc. Inverbrora? (Murch.).

11. ---------- multicostatum (Bean). Liat. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Isocardia rhomboidalis (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. ---------- tumida (Phil.). Calc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.   ,             minima (Sow.). Comb, and great oolite 9 Yorks. (Phil.).

4.   —— concentrica {Sow.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.). Oxford clay. Norm. (Dc C). Comb. Northamptonshire (Sow.).

5. --------- angulate (Phil.). Great oolite f Yorks. (Phil.).

6.               rostrata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil).

, species not mentioned. For. marb. Norm. (De C). 1. Cardita similis (Sow.). Coralline oolite, great oolite, and inf. oolite.

Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). 8.-----— tabulate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (De C ). 3. striata. Lias. Norm. ? (De C).

—— species not mentioned. Portland stone (Conyb.). 1. Trigonia costata (Sow.). Coralline oolite, great oolite, and inf. oolite.

Yorks. (Phil.). Comb.Jbr.marb., and Brad. clay. Mid. and

S. Engl. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Oxford clay, for.

marb., and inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Oxford clay. N. of

Fr. (Bobl.). 9.             clavellata (Sow.). Coralline oolite, Kell. rock, and comb.

Yorks. (Phil.). Portland stone and comb. Mid. and S.

Engl. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Oxford clay. Norm.

(DelaB.). Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Kim. clay f

Angouleme (Dufr.). Sandst., shale, $c. Inverbrora, Scotl.

(Murch.).

3.              conjungens (PAiX). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.  i            striata (Sow.). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Dundry (Conyb.). Inf, oolite. Norm. (De C). Idas. S.ofFr. (Dufr.).

5. --------- angulata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.) Inf. oolite.

Near Frome (Sow.).

6.  ——— literate (Y.fy B.). Lias. Yorkshire (Phil.).

7.  —— gibbosa (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.). Forest marb.

Norm. (De C).

8.  — duplicata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

For. marb. Norm. (De C).

9.               elongata (Sow.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C). Oxford

clay. Eng. (Sow.). Great oolite. Alsace (Volte). 10. — imbricate (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cookson). li. —_ cuspidate (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

12.  —— pullus (Sow.). Great oolite. A nclifF (Cookson).

' species not stated. Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm. (De C). 1. Hippopodium ponderosum (Sow.). Coralline oolite and lias. Yorks.

(Phil.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). 1. Nucula elliptic* (Phil.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. Nucula

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in the Oolite Series ofEngland and France.         49

3.  Nucqla nuda ( Y. $ B.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

S. ---------variabilis (Sow.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

4.             lachryma (Sow.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5. --------- axiniformis (Phil.). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6. -------- ovum (&>».). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).                      %

7.      - pectinata (Sow.). Oxford clay. Norm. (DeC).

8. -------- clariformis. Lias. S. ofFr. (Dufr.).

9.  .            mucronata (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

            species not stated. Corallitie oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf.

oolite. Dundry. Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1.  Cucullsea oblonga (Sow.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf.

oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

2.       ,          contracta (PAi/.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.),

3.   i             triangularis (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4. ---------pectinata (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.   !            elongate (Sow.). Coralline oolite f and great oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.). Rochelle limestone (Dufr.).

6.   »            concinna(PA&). Oxford clay and Kelt, rock f Yorks. (Phil.).

7.                imperialis (Bean). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.),

8. ----------cylindrica (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

9.                 cancellata (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

10.                reticulata (Bean). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

11.                decussate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

19. i minute (&ra>.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson). JS.              rudis (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

i             species not stated. Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Mid. and

8. Eng. (Conyb.). 1. Area quadrisulcate (&»>.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

8. -------amula (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. —— pulchra (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson). . Rochelle limestone (Dufr.).

         species not stated. Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1.  Pectunculus minimus (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath

(Cookson).

2.------------- oblongus (Sew.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath

(Cookson).

1. Crenatulaventrioosa(i&w.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

-------------species not stated. Portland stone (Conyb.).

1. Inoceramus dubius (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Modiola imbricate (Sow.). Coralline oolite? and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Comb. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

2.----------ungulate (Y. $ B.). Coralline oolite, great oolite, and inf.

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.)-

3.    , , bipartite (Sow.). Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.). Sandstone and

limestone. BraamburyUill, Brora (Murch.).

4.  __ cuneate (Sow.). Oxford clay, Kelt, rock? and cornb. Yorks.

(Phil.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

'                     H                                 5. Modiola

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50 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

5.  Modiola pulchra {Phil.). Kelt. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Oolite. Suther-

land.

6. ---------plicata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Comb. Mid. and

S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

7.  i            aspera (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Comb. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.).

8.             scalprum (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. S. of Fr.

(Dufr.).

9. ----------Hillana (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng.

(Conyb.).

10.---------laevis (Sow). Idas. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). *

11. ----------depressa (Sow,). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

12.  — minima (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

13.  __ suhcarinata (Lam.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

14.  »           elegans (Sow.). For. marb. Norm. (De C.).

15. ----------tulipea (Lam.). Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

16.              pallida (Sow.). Shale and grit, Dunrobin Reefs, &c. Scot!.

(Murch.).

1.  Mytilus cuneatus (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.  — amplus. Great oolite. Norm. (De C).

S. -            pectinatus (Sow.). Kirn. clay. Weymouth (Sedgwick). Ro-

chellc limestone (Dufr.).

4.              sublaevis (Sow.). Comb. Eng. (Sow.).

5.  ——— soleno'ides. Kim. clay. Cahors, S. of Fr. (Dufr.). ---------- species not stated. Coral rag, inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng.

(Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm. (DeC).

1.  Trigonellites antiquatus (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. ----------------politus. (Phil.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Mactra gibbosa. For. marb. Norm. (De C.).

1.  Pinna lanceolate {Sow.). Coralline oolite and calcareous grit. Yorks.

(Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

2. ------mitis (Phil.). Oxford clay and KeU. rock f Yorks. (Phil.).

S. -------cuneata (Bean). Comb, and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.------folium ( Y. Sf B.) Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  —— pinnigena. Coral rag, for. marb., and inf. oolite. Norm.

(De C).

6.  — tetragona (Brocchi). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

7.            granulata (Sow.). Kim. clay. Weymouth (Sedgwick).

Kim. clay. Cahors., S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Idas. Skye (Murch.). 1. Perna quadrata (Sow.). Coralline oolite, Kelt, rock, and great oolite.

Yorks. (Phil.). Comb. Bui wick (Sow.). 1 species not named. Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Gervillia aviculoides (Sow.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Calcareous grit.

Oxfordshire (Phil.). Oxford clay. Mid. and S. Eng. Inf.

oolite. Dundry Hill (Conyb.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De

la B.). Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl.

(Murch.). 8.----------acuta (Sow.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.  —— lata (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4. Gervillia

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in the Oolite Series of England and France. 61

4.  Gervillia pemoides (Dei/.). Oxford clay, for. marb., great oolite, and

inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

5.              ' siliqua (DesL). Oxford clay and for. marb. Norm. (De C).

6.  —— monotis (Dm/.). For. marb. Norm. (De C).

7.              costellata (Desl.). For, marb. Norm. (De C). — species not stated. Coral rag. Norm. (De C).

1. wicula expansa (Phil.). Coralline oolite, Oxford clay? Kelt, rock, and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). S.             ovalis (Phil.). Coralline oolite and cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.                elegantissima (Bean). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.                toDsipluma (Y. % B.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.              Braamburiensis (Sow.). Sandstone. Braambury Hill, Brora

(Murch.). Kelt, rock, great oolite, and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.  i             insquivalvis (Sow.). Inf. oolite and lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

Kell. rock. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Norm. (DeC). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Great arenaceous formation. Western Islands: and shell limest. and grit. Portgower, Scotland (Murch.). Lias. Lyme Regis (DelaB.).

7.  — echinata (Sow.). Liast Yorks. (Phil.). Comb. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.). For. marb. Norm. (De C). Brad, clay, comb., and for. marb. N. of Fr. (Bob!.).

8.                cygnipes (Y. fy B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Western

Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

9.              costata (Sow,). Comb, and Brad. clay. Mid. and S. Eng.

Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). For. marb. Norm. (De C).

10.              lanceolate (Sow.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.).

11. ------:— ovata (Sow). Stomtfield slate (Sow.).

1.  Plagiostoma laeviusculuAi (Sow.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Coral rag

and calcareous grit. Oxon (Phil.). Coral rag. Marthon, S.ofFr.(Dufr.).

2.         i          rigidum (Sow.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Coral rag.

Oxon (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Coral rag. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

3.  —— rusticum (Son?.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Calc. grit.

Oxon (Phil.).

4.  _ duplicatum (Sow.). Coralline oolite, Oxford clay, and Kell.

rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Dun-robin oolite. Scotl. (Murch.).

5.-------------rigidulum (Phil.). Combrash. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.-------------interstinctum (Phil.). Comb, and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

7.                    cardiiforme (Sow.). Great oolite f Yorks. (Phil.). Comb, and for. marb. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

8.  — giganteum (Sow.). Inf. oolite and lias. Yorks. (PhilA.

Inf. oolite. Dundry? Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Lias. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

9.                   obscurum (Sow.). Kell. rock. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

H S                              10. Plagiottoma

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52 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

10.  Plagiostoma pectinoides (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Shale and grit.

Reefs at Dunrobin, SootL (Murch.).

11.  _— punctatum (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry. Lias. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.). For. marb. and inf. ooHte. Norm.

(DeC). Lias. N.ofFr. (Bobl.). Lias. S.of Fr. (Dufc\).

1ms. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). 42.                 sulcatum. Lias. S: of France. (Dufr.)

IS.-------------ovale (Sow.). For. marb. f Mauriac, S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

14.  _—— Hermanni (Voltz). Lias. Alsace (Voltz).

15.  ___ obliquatum (Soto.). Sandstone and limestone. Braambury

Hill, Brora. Sandst., UmesU, and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

la. —-----------acuticosta (Sow.). Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). 17.                 concentricum (Sow.). Lias. Ross and Cromarty, Scotl.

(Murch.). i               species not stated. Bradford clay and great oolite. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.). 1. Pecten abjectus (Phil.). Coral rag. Yorks. and Oxon. Cole, grit, great oolite, and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

8. ------inaequicoslatus (Phil.). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Calc. grit.

Oxon (Phil.). S. -------cancellatus (Bean). Coralline oolite. Yorks. Oolite. Sutherland ? (Phil.).

4.   — demissus (Phil.). Coralline oolite, Kelt, rock, cornbrash, and

great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.   — lens (Sow,). Coralline oolite, Kell. rock, great oolite, inf. oolite,

and lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Coral rag and Oxford clay. Norm. (De C). Cornb. and/or. marb. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Jijf. oolite. Alsace, and Stranen near Luxembourg (Al. Brong.). Sandst., limest., and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.). <$. _ viminalis (Sow.). Coral rag. Yorks., Oxon, and Wilts (Phil.).

7.   — vagans (Sow.). Coral rag. Yorks. and Oxon. Calc. grit.

Yorks. (Phil.). For. marb. Norm. (De C). Sand*, and rubbly limest. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

8. ------ fibrosus (Sow.). Kelt rock and cornbrash. Yorks. (Phil.).

Coral rag, Kell. rock, cornb., for. marb., Brad, day, and inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm.? (De C). Cornb. and for. marb. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). For. marb. t Mauriac, S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Rubbly limestone, $c. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

9. ------virguliferus (Phil.). Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

10. ------ subtevis (Y. 4- B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

11. ------equivalvis (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.) Inf. oolite. Mid. and

8. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Lias. S. of Fr.

(Dufr.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). 13. _ lamellosus (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.). IS. — arcuatus (Sow.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

14. Pecten

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in the Oolite Series of England and France. 53

14.   Pecten similis (Sow.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral

rag. Norm.} (De C).

15.  — laminatus (Sow.). Comb. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

lo\ — barbatus (-Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C).

17.   — vimineus (Sow.). Oxford clay, for. marb., and inf. oolite. Norm.

(DeC). Forest marble. Malton (Sow.). Rubbly limestone, fyc. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

18.   —- Gorneus (Sow.). For. marb., great oolite, and inf. oolite. Norm.

(De C).

19.   — obscurus (Sow.). For. marb.f Mauriac, S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

20. -------annulatus (Soto.). Comb. Felmersnam (Marsh).

—- species not named, many in various beds.

1.  lima rudis (Sow.). Coralline oolite, cole, grit, Kelt, rock, and great

oo/ifc. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral rag. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Rubbly limestone, $c. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

2. ------ proboscidea (Sow.). Inf. oolite? Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Dundry (Conyb.). Oxford clay, for. marb., and inf. oolite. Nons.(DeC).

3. ____ gibbosa (Sow.). Comb, and inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng.

(Conyb.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

4. ____ antiqua (SowJ). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. S. of

Fr. (Dufr.). 1. Exogvra digitata (Sow.). Kelt. rock. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1.  Chama mima or Grypha&a mima (Phil.). Coral oolite and calc. grit.

Yorks. (Phil.).

2. ---------crassa (Sow.). Bradford clay. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1. Plicatula spinosa (Sow.). lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Inf. oolite. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Great arenaceous formation. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

1.  Ostrea gregarea (Sow.). Coral rag. Yorks., Wilts, &c. Calc. grit

and great oolite f Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Coral rag and Oxford clay. Norm. (De C). Oxford clay and coral rag. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Kim. clay. Havre. (Phil.).

2.   — solitaria (Sow.). Coral rag and inf. oolite. Yorks., Oxon, &c.

(Phil.).

5. ------ duriuscula (Bean). Coralline oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.   -------inaequalis (Phil.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  -------undosa (Bean). Kelt. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.   ------archetypa (Phil.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

7.  ____ Marshii (Sow.). Kell. rock, comb., and great oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.). Comb, and Fuller's E. Mid. andS. Eng. (Conyb.). Oxford clay, for. marb. and inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

8. -------sulcifera (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

9. ____ deltoidea (Sow. $ Smith). Kim. clay. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford

clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Kim. clay. S. and Mid. England. (Conyb.). Shell limest. and calc. grit f Portgower, &c.

Scotl.

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54 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Scotl. (Murch.). Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.). Sandst., limett., and shale. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

10.   Ostrea expansa {Sow.), Portland stone (Conyb.).

11.   — Crista GaUi (Smith). Coral rag, for, marb., Brad, clay, and great

oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Great oolite. Norm. (De C.).

12.   — palmetto (.Sow.). Oxford clay. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

Oxford clay and for. marb. Norm. (De C). IS. — acuminata (Sow.). Bradford clay and inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng, (Conyb.). Great oolite and Brad. clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

14.   — rugosa (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

15.   — minima (Desl.). Coral rag and Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

16.  — plicatilis. Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

17.   ——— carinata (Lam.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

18. ------- costata (Sow.). Brad. clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Great oolite.

Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

19. ------ pectinata. Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

20.   — pennaria. Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

21. -------flabelloides (Lam.). Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). -

23. — lasviuscula (Sow.). Lias. Eng. (Sow.).

23. — obscura (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

1.  Gryphaea chamajformis (Phil.). Calc. grtf. Yorks. And Oolite Suther-

land (Phil.).

2. ---------- bullata (Sow.). Coral, oolite? Calc. grit? (Phil.). Oxford

clay. Lincolnshire (Sow.). Oolite of Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

3.   .             inhaerens (Phil.). Calc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

4. ---------dilatata (Sow.). Kell. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford clay.

Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Oxford clay and lias. Norm. (DeC). Oxford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Oxford clay. Burgundy (Beau in.). Great arenaceous formation. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

5.   , i          incurva (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Idas. Mid. and S.

Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Lias and inf. oolite. N. ofFr. (Bobl.). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Lias. Metz, Salins, Amberg. (Al. Brong.). Lias. Western Islands,Scotl. Lias. Ross and Cromarty, Scotl. (Murch.).

6.   '             nana (Sow.). Kim. clay. Oxford (Sow.). Shale and grit.

Dunrobin Reefs, ScotL (Murch.). Lias and Oxford clay ? N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

7. ----------Maccullochii (&*».). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxfordclay. Norm. (De C). Lias. S.ofFr. (Dufr.).

8.                depressa (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

9.   _ obliquata (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias.

S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). 10.          .. cymbium (Lam.). Inf. oolite. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Lias.

S. of France. Inf. oolite. Villefranche, S. of France (Pufr.).

11. Gryphaea

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.           SS

U. Gryphsa lituola (Lam.). Brad, clay, cornb., and for. marb. N. of Fr.

(Bobl.). 12. __ gigantca (Sow.). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufir.). Lias. Ross and Cromarty, Scotl. Great arenaceous formation. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). IS. '             minuta (Sow.). Great oolite. AncliflF, Somerset (Cookson).

14. —— virgula (Defrance). Kim. clay. Havre (Al. Brong.). Kim. clay. Burgundy (Beaum.). Kim. clay. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Kim. clay. Weymouth (Buckl. & De la B.). 1. Lingula Beanii (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Spirifer Walcotii (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Idas. Bath, Lyme Regis (De la B.). Lias. Norm. (De CX Lias. S. ofFr. (Dufr.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

1.  Terebratula intermedia (Sow.). Coral, oolite and great oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.). Cornb. Mid. and S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

2.  — globata (Sow.). Coral, oolite f Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

For. marb. Norm. (De C). Oolite. Env. of Bath (Sow.).

5.  i              omithocephala (Sow,). Coral, oolite and Kelt. rock.

Yorks. (Phil.). Kelt, rock, cornb. Lias t Mid. and S. Eng.

Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Oxford clay, and lias. Norm.

(De C). Inf. oolite. Uzer, S. of Fr. (Dufr.). 4. ------------ ovata (Sow.). Coral, oolite f Yorks. (Phil). Inf. oolite.

Mid.and S. Eng. (Conyb.). 5.------------- obsoleta(Sow.). Coral, oolite? Inf.oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

Cornb., Brad, clay, great oolite, and inf. oolite. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.). Great oolite. Norm. (De C). Lias

and inf. oolite. S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

6.                  socialis (Phil.). Calc. grit and Kell. rock. Yorks. (Phil.);

7.                  ovoides (Sow.). Cornbrashf Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (De C). Bubbly limestone, Sfc. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

8.  —— digona (Sow.). Cornb. Yorks. (Phil.). Cornb. and Brad.

clay. Mid. and S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). For. marb. Norm. (De C). Brad, clay and coral rag f N.ofFr. (Bobl.).

9.  __ spinosa (Townsend and Smith). Great oolite. Yorks.

(Phil.). 10.-------------trilineata (Y.$ B.). Inf. oolite, and Has. Yorks. (Phil.).

11.                  bidens (Phil.). Inf. oolite, and lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

12.------------ punctata (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.) Inf. oolite. Mid.

and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). . 13. __. rcsupinata (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

14.  ___ acuta (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite, and lias.

Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C).

15.  ,                triplicata (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.)

10. i             tetraedra (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Mid.

and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). For.

marb.t

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56 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

marb.f Mauriac, S. of FY. (Dufr.). Lias and micaceous sandst. Western Islands, Scod. (Murch.).

17.  Terebratula subrotunda {Sow.). Comb, and inf. oolite. Mid. and

S. Eng. (Conyb.). Comb, and for. marb. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). For. marb.f Mauriac, S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

18. --------------obovata {Sow.). Comb. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

19. --------------reticulata(S»u*A). Brad. clay. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

For. marb. Norm. (De C).

20.  ——— carnea (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). SI. -------------- semigloba (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

23.                    media (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite,

great oolite, and Brad. clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Dunrobin oolite. Scotl. (Murch.).

23.  __ cramena {Sow.). Inf. oolite and liasf Mid. and S. Eng.

(Conyb.).

24.                    lateralis (Sow.). Fuller's earth. Mid. and 8. Eng. (Conyb.).

25.                    concinna {Sow.). Full. E. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.)

Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). For. marb. f Mauriac, S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

26.                    biplicata {Sow.). Oxford clay, for. marb., great oolite, and

inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

27.                      tetrandra                 For. marb: Norm. (De C).

28.                     coarctata (Sow.). For. marb. Norm. (De C). Brad.

clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). Brad. clay. Bath. (Loscombe.).

29. --------------plicatella {Sow.). For. marb. Norm. (DeC).

SO.                     serrata(Sow.). For.marb. Norm. (DeC.). Lias. Lyme

Regis (De la B.).

31.                    truncata {Sow.). For. marb. Norm. (De C).

32.  .                lata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

33.  —— dimidiate (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

34.                 . . bullata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Inf. oolite.

Bridport, S. Eng. (Sow.).

35.                     sphseroidalis (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Inf.

oolite. Dundry (Braikenridge).

36.                     emarginata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Inf.

oolite. Env. of Bath (Sow.).

37.  —— quadrifida                 Lias. Norm. (De C).

38.                    i numismalis                Lias. Norm. (De C).

39.                     perovalis (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Braikenridge).

For. marb.f Mauriac, and Kim. clay, Cahors, 6. of Fr. RochelU limestone (Dufr.). 40.--------------mazillata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Env. of Bath. (Sow.).

41.                     flabellula {Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cook-

son).

42.  .—— furcata (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

43.   —— orbicularis (Sow.). Lias. Bath (Sow.).

44.                     hemisphserica(&Np.). Cheat oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

45.  — inconstans {Sow.). Shell limest. and cole. grit. Portgower,

&c. N. of Scot!., and shell limestone, Beal. Isle of Skye (Murch.).

Cyclas....... Portland stone (Smith).

Lithodomus

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in the Oolite Series of England and France,         57

Lithodomus              Inf. oolite. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). .

1. Donacites Alduini (Al.Brong.). Inf. oolite f N.of Fr. (Bobl.). Kim.

clay. Havre and the Jura (Al. Brong.). l'. Orbicula reflexa (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). 2.----------? radiata (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.              > granulata (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cookson).

              species not stated. Inferior oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Delphinula              Coral, oolite and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Natica aguta (SrotfA). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. ------nodulata ( T. % B.). Cora/, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

S. ------cincta (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.   —- adducta (Phil.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5. ------tumidula (Bean), Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

— Species not stated. Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Turbo muricatus (Sow.). Coral, oolite, great oolite, and inf. oolite.

Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). 2.------ funiculatus (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.  — sulcostomus (Phil.). Kell.rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.  — unicarinatus ( Bean). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 5.------- tevigatus (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6. ------- undulatus (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

7. -------ornatus \Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (De C).

8.  — rotundatus(Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

9.  — obtusus (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cookson).

          species not stated. Corn6. and great oolite. Norm. (De C).

1.  Trochus granulatus (Sow.). Coral, oolite, cole, grit, comb., and inf..

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

2. ----------? tomatus (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. ----------bicarinatus (Sow.). Cnlc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag.

Mid. and S. Eng. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). 4________guttatus (Phil.), Kell. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

5.  —— monilitectus (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

6. ----------bisertus (Phil). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

7.----------pyramidatus (Bean). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

8.  ——- anglicus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). IAa*. Mid. and S.

Eng. (Conyb.).

9. ---------- similis (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry. And Hat. Mid. and'S.

Eng. (Conyb.).

10. --------- concavus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

Inf. oolite. Norm.

11.----------dimiiKatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

12. ——— duplicates (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). IS. __ elongatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). For.

marb. and inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

14.  ——— punctatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (De C).

15.  .            abbreviates (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (DeC).

I                                   16. Trochus

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58 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

16.  Trochus fasciatus (Sow,). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (De C).

17.  __ sulcatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (De C).

18.  —— ornatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite*

Norm.(DeC.) Lias. N. of Fr.(BobL).

19.  —— imbricatus (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (De C). Idas. S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

20. ---------- Gibsii(&w.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

31. ----------reticulars (Sow.). Inf oolite. Norm. (De C).

'            species not stated. Portland stone and Bradford clay. Mid.

and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm. (De. C). 1. Turritella muricata (Sow.). Coral, oolite, cole, grit, Kell. rock, and inf.oolite. Yorks.(Phil.). KocheUe limestone (Dufr.). SheU limestone and grit. Portgower, &c. Scotland (Murch.).

2.-----------cingenda (Sow.). Coral, oolite? great oolite, and inf.

oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.-----------quadrivittata (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.-----------concava (Sow.). Portland stone. Tisbury (Benett).

.. species not stated. Portland stone, coral rag f comb., for. tnarb., Brad. clay. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Brad. clay. N.ofFr. (Bobi.). 1. Myoconcha crassa (&m>.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Sow.).

1.  Terebra melanoides (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.                ? granulata (Phil.). Coral, oolite and comb. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.              vetusta (Phil.). Great oolite and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.              sulcata               Coral rag. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

1.  Rissoa Uevis (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cookson).

2. ------- acuta (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

3.-------obliauata (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

4. -------duplicate (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff (Cookson).

Ancilla, species not stated. Great oolite and for. marb. Norm. (De C).

1. Emarginula scalaris (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, Somerset (Cookson),

1. Melania Heddingtonensis (Sow.). Coral, oolite, comb., great oolite, and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag. Midi, and S. Engl. Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Coral rag and inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Rubbly limestone, fa. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.). Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.).

£. — striata (Sow.). Coral, oolite and great oolite f Yorks. (Phil.). Coral rag and lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Coral rag. N.ofFr. (BobIA Kim. day. Havre (Phil.).

3. ---------vittata (Phil.). Cornb. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.---------lineata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dundry

(Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

---------species unknown. Great oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

1. Bulla elongata (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Murex Haccanensis (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Cirrus cingulatus (Phil.). Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. -------depressus (Phil.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

3.  — nodosus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

4.  — Leachii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

species undetermined. Lias. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). l. Acteeou retusus (Phil.). Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

8. Actffion

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.           59

2. Actaeon glaber (Bean). Great oolite and inf. oolite. .Yorks. (Phil.).

3.---------humeralis (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.---------cuspidatus (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

5.---------acutus (Sow.). Great oolite. Auclif£ near Bath (Cookson).

1            species not stated. Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

Nerinea, species not stated. Coral rag and for. marb. Norm. (De C). Brad. clay. N. of Fr. (Bob!.).

1.  Rostellaria bispinosa           Calc. grit? and Kelt. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

2. -----------trifida (Bean). Oaford clay. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. -----------. Parkinsonii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

4.                  composite (Sow.). Sandst., Umest, and thole. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). Great?, inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford clay. Weymouth (Sow.). Kim. clay. Havre (Phil.). —— species not stated. Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford clay, Kelt* rock, comb.,forest marb., and inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De C).

1. Pteroceras oceani (Al. Brong.). Kim. clay. Havre, the Jura, and the Pertedu Rhone (Al. Brong.). Great oolite. Alsace (Voltz>

g. __ ponti(.4/.2?roflg.). Kim. clay. Havre and the Jura (Al. Brong.).

3.-------.----Pelagi (Al. Brong.). Kim. day. Havre and the Jura (Al.

Brong.).'

1.  Patella latissimajf&w.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford clay.

Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

2.  —— rugosa (Sow.). Forest marble. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

For. marb. Norm. (De C).

3.  — laevis (Sow.) Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

4. -------- lata (Sow.). Stonesjleld slate (Sow.).

5. --------ancyloi'des (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff; near Bath (Cookson).

6.              nana (Sow.). Great oolite. Anclift; near Bath (Cookson). 1. Phasianella cincta (Phil.). Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1.  Solarium calix (Bean). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.             - conoideum (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.).

1.  Nerita costata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Great oolite. Ancliff,

near Bath (Cookson).

2.  — sinuosa (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.).

3. ------- laevigata (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Shell limestone

and calc. grit. Portgower, &c, Scotland (Murch.).

4. -------minuta (Sow.). Great oolite. Ancliff, near Bath (Cookson).

1. Auricula Sedgevici (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

1. Buccinum unilineatum (Sow?). Great oolite. Ancliff; near Bath (Cookson). ——- species unknown. Shale, sandst., and limest. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). Tornatilla, species unknown. Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Ampullaria, species unknown. Coral rag, comb., and inf oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm. (De C). Brad, clay. N. ofFr.(Bobl.). 1. Planorbis euomphalus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1.  Helicina polita (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Cropredy (Conyb.).

2.             > compressa (iSW.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

3. -------- expansa (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

4.  _ gofarioides (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

1.  Belemnites sulcatus (Mill.) Coral oolite? calc. grit, Oxford clay, and

Kelt. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Shale, sandst., and limest. Inverbrora, Scotl. (Murch.).

2.                fusiformiu (MM.). Coral, oolite? Yorks. (Phil.).

I 2                                     4. Belem-

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60 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

3.  Belemnites gracilis {Phil.). Oxford clay. Yorks. (PHI.).

4. -----------abbreviatus {Mill.). Great oolite. York*. (Phil.). Lias.

Ross and Cromarty, Scotl., and Micaceous sandst. Western . Islands, ScotL <Murch.).

5.   -*---------elongates {Mill.). Lias. Yorks. (Pbil.). Lias. Ross and

Cromarty, Scotl. (March.). 6.-----------trisulcatus (Blamoille). Inf. oolite. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

7. -----------compressus {Sow). Fuller** E. N. of Fr. (Bobl.> Inf.

oolite. Yorks. (Sow.).

8. -----------dilatatus              Fuller's E. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

9. -----------apicicurvatus {Bl.)\ Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Lias. Alaii.

(Al. Brong.).

10. -----------sufcatus           Lias. S. of Fr. (Dafr.). Reefs at Dunrobin,

ScotK (Murch.).

11.----------- pistilliformis (Blain.). Lias, a of Fr. (Dufr.).

12.               brevis (Blain.). Lias. Alais (Brong.).

Belemnites, species not stated. Kim. clay and inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Kim. clay, coral rag, Oxford day, Kell. rock, Stonesfield slate, Bradford day, and inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.). Oxford clay, for. marb., great oolite, inf. oolite, and lias. Norm. (De C). Lias. N. of Fr. (Bobl.). 1. Turrilites Babeli (4£ Brong.). Coral rag? N. of Fr. (Bobl.> 1. Orthoceras elongatum {Dela B). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.). 1. Nautilus hexagonus {Sow.). Kdl. rock? Yorks. (Phil.). Cole. grit. Oxford (Sow.).

ft.---------- lineatus(£ou>.). Inf. oolite and lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Dundry (Conyb.). 3.----------astacoides (Y. $ B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.    ,           annularis {Phu\). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.>

5. ----------obesus (Sow.). Inf.oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (De C).

6. ----------sinuatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Oxford clay. Norm,? (De la B.).

7.             - intermedius (Sow.). Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

8.  —— striatus (Sow.). Lias. Mid), and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias.

Alsace {Brong.).

9.----------truncatus (Soto.). Lias. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb ). For.

marble and lias. Norm. (De Cau.> 10. '             angulosus (iyOrbigny). Portland stone. Isle d'Aix (Brong.).

-----------species not stated. Great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Kim. clay,

coral rag, Oxford clay, Kell. rock, Stonesfield slate. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Coral rag. Norm. (De Cau.). Fuller's earth. N. of Fr.(BobL).

1.  Ammonites perarmatus (Sow.). Coral, oolite, cole, grit, and Kell. rock.

Yorks. (Phil.). Oolitic rocks. Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

2.  __ plicomphalus (Sow.). Kim. clay? Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford

day. Norm. (De C).

3. -------------triplicates (Sow.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). Portland-

stone (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

4.  —— plicatilis (Sow.). Coral, oolite, and Kdl. rock. Yorks.

(Phil.). Coral, rag. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

*.-------------Williamsoni (Phil.). Coral, oolite. Yorks. (Phil.j.

6.           1 Sutherlandiae (Sow.). Sandstone. Braambury Hill, Brora

(Murch.). Coral, oolite, and cole. grit. Yorks. (PhilA

7.-------------sublaevis (SowX Coral, oolite, Kell. rock. Yorks. (PhiL).

Kell.

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in the Oolite Series of England and France,         61

KeU. rock, Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Oxford day-Norm. (DelaB.).

8.  Ammonites lenticularis (Phil.). CoraL oolite f Kell. rock, and lias

Yorks.(Phil.).

9.  —— vertebralis & cordatus (.Sow.). Coral, oolite, calc. grit, and

Oxford clay. Yorki. (Phil.). Coral rag. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Oolite of Braambury Hill, Brora (Murch.).

10. -------------initabilis (Phil.). Calc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

11. -------------solans (PhU.). Calc. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

12. -------------oculatus (Phil.). Oxford day. Yorks. (Phil.).

13.-------------Vernoni (Bean). Oxford day. Yorks. (Phil.).

14.-------------athlete (PAH.). Oxford day and Kdl. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

15. -------------Koenigi (SowX Kdl. roc*. Yorks. (Phil.). KeU. rock.

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Micaceous tandtt. Western

Islands, Scot. (Murch.).

16.-------------bifrons (Phil.). KcU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

17. —__ Gowerianus (Sow.). Shale, tandst. and Ihnest. Inverbrora,

Scotl. (Murch.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). 18.-------------Calloviensis (Sow.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). KeU. rock.

Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.). 19.------------- Duncaoi (Sow.). Kdl. rock. Yorks. (Phil.). Oxford day.

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De

Cau.).

20.-------------gemmatus (Phil.). KelL rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

21.-------------Herveyi (Sow.). KeU. rockf comb. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf.

oolite. Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.), 22.-------------flexicostatus (Phil.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

23. -------------funiferus (PhU.). KeU. rock. Yorks. (Phil.).

24. -------------terebratus (Phil.). Cornbrath. Yorks. (Phil.).

26.------------- Blagdeni (Sow.). Great oolite. Yorks. Phil.). Inf. oolite.

Dundry (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De Cau.).

26.-------------striatulus (Sow.). Inf. ooUte and Has. Yorks. (Phil.).

27. -------------beterophyllus (Sow.). Liat. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi.

and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

28.-------------subcarinatus (Y. £ B.\ Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

29.------------- Henleyi (5ou>.). Lias. Yorks. (PhU.). Lias. Midi, and S.

Engl. (Conyb.).

30.-----------<- heterogeneus (Y.$B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

31.-------------crassus (Y.$B.). Laos. Yorks. (Phil.).

32.-------------communis (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl.

(Murch.).

33.  __ aneulatus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.).

34.                ... annulatus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (PhilA Inf. oolite, and lias

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Oxford day, forest marble, inf. oolite. Norm. (DeC). Inf. oolite. User, S. of France. RocheUe limestone. (Dufr.). Inf. oolite and lias. Montdor, . Lyon (Al. Brong.).

35.-------------fibulatus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

36.-------------subarmatus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

37.-------------maculatus (Y.$ B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

38. -------------gagateus (Y.fy B.). Lias. Yorks. (PhilA

39. -------------planicostatus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi.

and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

40.-------------balteatus (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

41. Ammonites

byG00gI(

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62 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

41.  Ammonites arcigerens (Phil,). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

42. -------:------brevispina (Sow.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

IAtu. Yorks. (Phil.).

43.   ,,               Jamesoni (Sow.). Lias. Western Islands, Scot. (Murch.).

- Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

44.  ------------erugatus (Bean). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). La Spezia lime-

stones (De la B.). 45.-------------fimbriates (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). IAas. Midi, and

S.Eng. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). 46.-------------nitidus (Y. <$ B.). IAas. Yorks. (PhU.>

47. -------------anguliferus (PhU.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

48.                   crenularis (PhiL). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

49.-------------Clevelandicus(r. ££.>) Lias. Yorks. (Phil.),

50.-------------Turneri (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. S. of Fr.

(Dufr.)

51. -------------geometricus (Phil.). Lias. Yorks (Phil.).

52.-------------vittatus (Y.$B.) Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

53. -------------sigmifer (PhU.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

54.-------------Hawskerensis (Y. $ B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

55. ------------- Conybeari (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. Alsace: Gundershofen and Bux-

weiller (Al.Brong.). Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). 50. ------------- Buckiandi (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb). Lias. Norm. (De Cau.). 57.            . . obtusus (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Lias. Midi, and

S. Engl. (Conyb.). 58.-------------Walcotii (Sow.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite and Has.

Midi, and S. Engl. (Conyb.). IAas. Norm. (DeC). Lias.

S. of Fr. (Dufr.).

59. -------------ovmtus (Y.$B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

60.------«-------Mulgravius(Ir.4'j&.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

61. ------------. exaratus(r.4-B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.)-

62.-------------Lythensis (Y. * B.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

63. -------------concavus(£ot0.). Lias? Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Mid.

and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). 64.-------------elegans (Sow.). Lias? Yorks. (Phil.). Inf. oolite. Dun-dry (Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C). Inf. oolite. Vzer,

S. ofFr. (Dufr.). 65. --------— discus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry. Comb. Mid. and S.

Engl. (Conyb.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

66.------------- Banksii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

67. —————— Braikenridgii (SowJ). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Inf.

oolite. Norm. (De C.> 68.-------------Brocchii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

69. ------------- Sowerbii (Miller.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

70.  —— fa\cikr (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Conyb.). Lias. Norm.

(De C). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). 71.------------- Brownii (Sow.). Inferior oolite. Dundry (Conyb.).

72.                  ' la?viusculus (Sow.). Inferior oolite. Dundry (Braiken-

ridge). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

73.  —— acutus (Sow.). Oxford clay, inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

Lias. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.).

74.                 - contractus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Sow.). Inf. oolite.

Norm. (De C).

75.                 >- giganteus (Sow.). Portland stone, coral rag and lias. Mid.

and Engl. (Conyb.). Portland stone. Isle d'Aix (Brong.).

76. Ammonites

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.        63

76. Ammonites Lamberti (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.). Rochelle

limestone (Dufr.).

77.------------» Nutfieldiensis (Sow.). Portland stone (Conyb.).

78.             excavatus (Sow\ Coral rag. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Oxford clay. Norm. (De la BA Lias. Norm. (DeCA

79.-------------. splendens (Sow.). Coral rag. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

80. -------------armatus (Sow.). Oxford clay, and lias. Mid. and S.

Engl. (Conyb.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De la B.> 81.-------------modiolaris (Sow.). Fullefs earthf Mid. and S.Engl.

(Conyb.).

82.------------- jugosus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Eng. (Conyb.).

83.-------------Stokesii (Sow.\ Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Lias. Norm. (De C). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). 84.-------------Strangewaysii (Sow.)* Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Engl.

(Conyb.). Lias. Norm. (De C).

85.------------- falcatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

86. ----------— Brookii (Sow.). Inf. oolite $ lias. Mid. and S.Engl. (Con.).

87.  '                 Bechii (Sow.). Inferior oolite and lias. Mid* and S. Eng.

(Conyb.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.).

88. -------------stellaris (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S, Engl. (Conyb.).' Lias.

Norm. (De C).

89.-------------Greenovii (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.J. 90.------------- Loscombi (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.). 91.------------- Birchii (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Lias.

Lyme Regis (De la B.).                                               ,

92.-------------omphaloides (Sow.). Oxford clay. Norm. (De la BA Gt.

arenaceous formation. Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch A

93. -------------quadratus. Inf. oolite. Norm. (De CA

94.-------------Gervillii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

95.-------------Brongniartii (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

96.-------------biplex (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Lias. Ross

and Cromarty, Scotl. (Murch.).

97.-------------rotundus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C). Kim. day.

Purbeck (Sow.).

98.------------- complanatus. Inf. oolite. Norm. (De C).

99.-------------decipiens. Lias. Norm. (De C).

100.-------------Deslongchampi. Inf. oolite. N. of Fr. (Bobl.>

101. -------------vulgaris. Bradford clay. N. of Fr. (Bobl.).

102.-------------coronatus. Oxford clay? N. ofFr. (Bobl.).

103.-------------Humphresianus (Sow). Lias. S. of Fr. (Dufr.). Inf.

oolite. Sherborne (Sow.).

104__________Parkinsoni (Sow.). Lias. Bath (Sow.).

105.-------------Gulielmii (Sow.). Oxford clay. S. Engl. (Sow.).

106.-------------Davaei (Sow.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.).

107.                 ... planorbis (Sow.). Lias. Watchet, Somerset (Sow.).

108.             i Johnstonii (Sow.). Lias. Watchet, Somerset (Sow.).

109. -------------corrugatus (Sow.). Inf. oolite. Dundry (Braikenridge).

110.-------------rotiformis (Sow.). Lias. Yeovil (Sow.).

111.------------- multicostatus (Sow.). Lias. Bath (Sow.).

112. -------------laevigatas (Sow.). Lias. Lyme Regis (De la B.).

113.-------------lataecosta (Sow.). Lias. Lyme Regis (Murch.).

114. _-----_ Murchisonse (Sow.). Micaceous sandst. Holm Cliff,

Western Islands, Scotl. (Murch.). Inf. oolite. Allington, Bridport (Murch.).

Ammonites,

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64 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Ammonites, species not mentioned. Coral rag, great oolite. Norm. (De C.). Lias, inf. oolite, Fuller* s earth. N. of Fr. (Bobl.> Kim. day. Yorks. (Phil.).

Annulosa.

1.  Vermicularia compressa (Y.& B.\ Coral oolite, and inferior oolite*

Yorks. (Phil.).

2.  ——— nodus (Phil.). Cornbrash and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.). 1. Serpula squamosa {Bean). Coral oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.--------lacerata (Phil.). Cole, grit, and great oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

3. -----— intestinalis {Phil.). Oxford clay and cornbrash. Yorks. (Phil.).

4.---------deplexa {Bean). Inf. oolite. Yorks. (Phil.).

5. ---------capita (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

6.-------- triquetra. Inf oolite. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.).

7. —— quadrangularis. Oxford day. Normandy (Desn.).

8.---------sulcata {Sow.). Cole. grit. Oxford (Sow.).

9. —— tricarinata {Sow.) Cole. grit. Oxford. Coral rag. Steeple Ashton, "Wilts. (Sow.).

10.  —— triangulata (Sow.). Bradf. clay or great oolite. Bradford (Sow.).

11.  .           runcinata (Sow.). Coral rag. Oxford (Sow.).

— species undetermined. Coral rag, Oxford clay, comb., forest marb., Brad, clay, great oolite. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Brad. clay.

1.  Dentalium giganteum (Phil.). Lias. Yorks. (Phil.).

2.  —— cyundricum (Sow.). Lias. Mid. and S. Engl. (Conyb.). Dentalium, species undetermined. Cole. grit. Yorks. (Phil.).

Summary of the foregoing List. Mammalia: Didelphys, 1 species. Reptilia: Pterodacty-lus, 1 species, and probably another; Crocodilidse, 5 species, and probably others; Megalosaurus, 1; Geosaurus, 1; Ple-siosaurus, 5, one being questionable; Ichthyosaurus, 4, and probably others; Testudinata, species undetermined. In-secta : Coleopterous. Pisces : 1 species, and many others not determined; Ichthyodorulites, or fish spears; palates, teeth, &c. Crustacea: Astacus 1; many other crustaceous remains undetermined. Zoophyta: Spongia, 1, and probably others; Alcyonium, species not determined; Turbinolia, 1, and others not determined; Turbinolopsis, 1; Entalophora, 1; Limnorea, 1; Caryopbyllia, 79 and others; Millepora, 6; Favosites, species not determined; Astrea, 6; Cellepora, species not determined; Fungia, 1, and probably others; Spi-ropora, 4; Eunomia, 1, and probably others; Cyclolites, 1; Chrysaora, 2; Theonoa, I; Idmonea, 1; Alecto, 1, and probably others; Berenicea, 1; Terebellaria, 2; Retipora? Cel-laria, 1; Thamnasteria, 1; Explanaria, 1; Madrepora, Mean-drina, and Eschara, species not determined; remains of other Polypifers, genera doubtful.

RADIARIA.

Cidaris, 9; Echinus, 1, and probably others; Clypeus, 6;

Spatangus,

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in the Oolite Series of England and France,            65

Spatangus, 1; Clypeaster, 1; Galerites, 2; Ananchites, 1; Nucleolites, %; and numerous Echinital remains of undetermined genera; Asteria, species not determined ; Ophiura, 1; Apiocrinites, 2; Pentacrinites, 6; and Crinoidal remains, genera not stated.

CONCHIFERA AND MOLLUSC A.

Pholas, 2, one questionable; Pholadomya, 16; Panopaea, 2; Mya, 7; Sanguinolaria, 2; Crassina, 7; Amphidesma, 5; Lutraria, 1; Gastrochania, 1; Psammobia, 1; Lucina, 3; Unio, 7; Pullastra, 2; Venus, species not stated; Cy therea, 1; Corbis, 2; Tellina, 1; Astarte, 12; Corbula, 4, one questionable; Cardiura, 11; Isocardia, 6; Cardita, 3; Trigonia, 12; Hippopodium, 1; Nucula, 9; Cucullaea, 13; Area, 3; Pectunculus, 2; Crenatula, 1; Inoceramus, 1; Modiola, 16; Mytilus,5; Trigonellites, 2; Mactra, 1; Pinna,7; Perna, 1; GerviJlia, 7; wicula, 11; Plagiostoma, 17; Pecten, 20; Lima, 4; Exogyra, 1; Chama, 2; Plicatula, 1; Ostrea, 23; Gryphaea, 14; Lingula, 1; Terebratula, 45; Spirifer, 1; Do-nacites, 1 ; Cyclas and Lithodomus, species undetermined; Orbicula, 3, one questionable; Delphinula, species not stated; Natica, 5; Turbo, 9; Trochus, 21; Turritella, 4; Myocon-cha, 1; Terebra, 4; Ancilla, species undetermined; Emar-ginula, 1; Patella, 6; Rissoa, 4; Melania,4; Bulla, 1; Mu-rex, 1; Cirrus, 4; Acteeon, 5; Nerinea, species undetermined; Pteroceras, 3; Rostellaria, 4; Phasianella, 1; Solarium, 2; Nerita, 4; Buccinum, 1; Auricula, 1; Pianorbis, 1; Helicina, 4; Tornatella and Ampullaria, species undetermined; Belem-nites, 12, and most probably others; Orthoceras, 1; Turri-lites, 1; Nautilus, 10, and probably others; Ammonites, 114.

AN NU LOS A.

Vermicularia, 2; Serpula, 11; Dentalium, 2.

VEGETABLE REMAINS.

Fucoides, 1 species; Equisetum, 1; Pachypteris, 2; Pe-copteris, 6; Sphasnopteris, 5; Tasniopteris, 2; Pterophyllum, 1; Zamia, 11; Zamites, 4; Thuytes, 4; Taxites, 1.

Upon a review of the above lists, it will, I think, be observed that our knowledge of the vegetable remains is too limited to enable us to form any general conclusions respecting them. Mammalia have been only observed in one locality, Stonesfield. Of Pterodactyles our knowledge is limited. Crocodiles seem to have existed during the whole deposit of the oolite, and to have been widely distributed; the same may be said of the Ichthyosaurus and the Plesiosaurus. Neither Pterodactyles,

K                            Crocodiles,

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66 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

Crocodiles, Ichthyosauri, nor Plesiosauri, have yet been observed in the South of France. The Geosaurus has at present only been noticed in the lias of Wurtemberg, and the Megalosaurus in the Stonesfield slate, near Oxford, and in the great oolite of Normandy*. Respecting Tortoises, Turtles, and Fish, we do not possess information that can lead to any useful conclusions. Insects are yet known only in the oolite at Stonesfield. Polypifers occur in considerable abundance in particular places, and, as it would appear, principally in the oolite that has been thence named Coral rag, and in the upper part of the great oolite, which has thence obtained the name of Calcaire a Polypiers in Normandy. It has been imagined that the Coral rag is a constant rock in the oolitic series; which is supposing that during the deposition of the oolite there was a time when the whole bottom of the sea was covered by an universal coral reef, and that the same polypifers could exist under various pressures of water; suppositions that are at variance with the habits of existing polypifers. When polypifers do however occur in any abundance, they have been observed in the strata above noticed, in both cases accompanied by remains of the genera Clypeus and Cidaris. By reference to the above lists, it will be also observed that several shells are common to the coral rag and great oolite. The Crinoidal remains contained in the oolite appear principally Pentacrinites and Apiocrinites; the former occurring abundantly and widely distributed in the lias; the latter in the great oolite, or its accompanying beds, the cornbrash, forest marble, or Bradford clay.

Of the Conchiferous and Molluscous remains entombed in the oolite, 540 species have, according to the foregoing list, been determined; of these 114 (more than one-fifth) are Ammonites, which are not only abundant as species, but as individuals, so that some beds are almost wholly composed of them. The great abundance of Ammonites and Belemnites may be stated as a great characteristic of the oolitic series: they are particularly numerous in the lias.

As far as our knowledge of the organic characters of European rocks at present extends, the shells contained in the oolitic series, though frequently not confined to particular portions of that series, even in England and France, still seem as a mass characteristic of it within the limits noticed in this memoir. The following shells, according to the foregoing list,

* Dr. Buckland informs me that, in the year 1826, he recognised many bones of the Megalosaurus in the museum of Besancon from the oolite of tthat neighbourhood. 1'xlilio'jinO                            >i                            contained

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in the Oolite Series qf England and France.           67

contained in the oolite, have been noticed in the chalk and green sand:

1. Terebratula subrotunda. Chalk. Sussex (Mantell). &-------------carnea. Chalk. Suss. (Mant.). Chalk. Paris and Normandy (Al. Brong.).

3.------------ ovata. Chalk and green sand. Suss. (Mant.).

4. -------------biplicata. Green sand. Suss. (Mant.).

5.-------------lata. Green sand. Suss. (Mant).

6.-------------ornithocephala. Green sand. Perte du Rhone, Fis (Al.

Bronff.).

1.  Gervillia aviculoides. Green sand. Suss. (Mant.)*

2.  ——-- acuta. Green sand. Suss. (Mant.).

1. Cucullae deeussata. Chalk marl. Suss. (Mant.). Chalk marl. Rouen

(Al. Brong.). 1. Turbo rotundatus. Green sand. Blackdown (Sow.). 1. Rostellaria Parkinsoni. R. Sowerbii (Mant.). Green sand. Blackdown.

(Sow.). Suss. (Mant.). 1. Ammonites splendens. Gault. Suss. (Mant.) 8.               - laevigatas. Gault. Suss. (Mant.).

]. Cirrus depressus. Chalk. Suss. (Mant.).

1. Exogyra digitata. Green sand. Lyme Regis, abundant (De la B.). 1. Mya mandibulata*. Green sand. Devizes, and Lyme Regis.

Whether we are to conclude that the same species occur in the cretaceous and oolitic groups depends on the credit we may consider due to the respective authors cited; in fact, to their ability in determining specific differences;—no easy task, but I do not see why, with our present limited knowledge, we should determine the question without further examination.

It has been generally supposed that the rocks of the oolitic series have been deposited in a sea; and the great abundance and proportion of marine organic remains entombed in them would seem to render this supposition probable. We have no data by which to form any conception of the extent of such a sea. The portion of the world occupied by the oolitic rocks, noticed in the foregoing remarks, is of insignificant extent, comprised within a few degrees of latitude and longitude. How far the oolitic series may hereafter be found to extend, it would be difficult to say. It is possible that it may merge in some other great rock deposit, or even be considerably developed at the expense of die cretaceous rocks above or the red sandstone rocks beneath.

It will be remarked that terrestrial plants, lignite, or coal, occur more or less throughout the whole series. May we not therefore conclude that dry land existed in, or not far distant from, the comparatively small space containing the organic remains enumerated in the foregoing table ? The principal deft Supposed to be Mya mandibula of Sowerby.

K 2                                     posit

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68 On the Geographical Distribution of Organic Remains

posits of carbonaceous matter would seem to be Brora, and Yorkshire.

Most of the great Saurians now buried in the oolite would seem also to have required the protection of land; for though the Ichthyosauri might, like the Porpesse, brave the waves of an ocean, the structure of the Plesiosauri would seem to unfit them for such exposure; and, judging from the habits of modern crocodiles, the ancient species are not likely, from choice, to have quitted the neighbourhood of land. The Pterodactyles probably flew over the land, and the Didelphys must have lived upon it

The quantity of corals contained in the forest marble, great oolite, or coral rag, would seem to show that the places, where these remains are the most abundant, must have had a comparatively shallow covering of water at the time these Zoophytes existed.

The evidence, therefore, would seem to be in favour of a comparatively shallow sea, interspersed with dry land, for the formation of so much of the rocks usually termed oolitic, as occur within the space treated of in these notes. The great abundance of Oysters and Gryphites may probably also be in favour of comparatively shallow water*.

I have been thus particular in enumerating what may appear to be evidence of comparatively shallow seas, because the same deposit may have been, and probably was, going on in contiguous and deeper portions of the ocean, and because these continuous portions of the same formation may differ very considerably both in mineralogical and organic character. Thus the oolitic series of England and of France may be represented even so near as Italy and Greece, by a series of beds so different in organic contents, as at first sight to be considered distinct

Endeavours to trace the small divisions into which the oolitic series of England has been separated, are no doubt useful if our attention be directed to an examination of the areas over which certain minor causes may have operated: but when these small divisions are supposed to be general, and geologists expect to meet with cornbrash in China, much mischief ensues, and much valuable time and talent is wasted in endeavours to prove that

* It Is remarkable that the three great argillaceous deposits of the oolitic series contain an abundance of either Gryphites or Oysters, and that the Saurian remains are most commonly observed in the same strata. Thus the Ostrea deltoidea in England, and the Gryphaea virgula in France, have been termed characteristic of the Kimmeridge clay; the Gryphaea dilatata is a common shell in the Oxford clay; and the Gryphea incurva Sow. (G. arcuata. Lam.) is abundant in the lias.

the

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in the Oolite Series of England and France.           69

the whole surface of the world is minutely the same as any given quarry, province, or even kingdom.

It does not seem irrational to infer that such minute divisions, characterised by peculiar fossils, can only be traced over comparatively small areas, unless we are to suppose that the same animals and vegetables existed over the whole surface of the globe at the same time,—that these were suddenly destroyed —imbedded 10, 20,100, or 400 feet deep, as the case might be, —that then there was a new creation,—then a total destruction, and so on.

So far as respects the limited area of which we have been treating, there do appear to have been certain general or nearly similar causes in operation. Consequently, though many species of shells &c. are not strictly confined within tne small limits usually assigned them, still in the oolitic series taken as a mass there wouldappear to be a general resemblance in organic character.

Belemnites seem to have been equally abundant in the lower parts of the series everywhere. Tne Grypheea incurva is found under similar circumstances in Scotland, England, and France; and the same may be said of many other shells. Ichthyosauri of the same species occur in similar situations in Germany, England, and the North of France.

It therefore would appear that, during the deposit of the oolitic series, the geographical distribution of the animals, whose remains we now find entombed in its various beds, was not widely different throughout the area treated of in these notes. It also would appear, although some animals may have existed in one place and not in another, and although these remains may occur in various beds in one locality and be confined to one bed in another, that the organic character of the mass is similar in Scotland, England, and France.

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I

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II. On the Formation of extensive Conglomerate and Gravel

Deposits,

AT the present time, when actual causes are by some geologists considered adequate to the production of nearly all the phenomena which we observe in the structure of the earth's erust, it becomes important to ascertain, as far as our knowledge will permit, the value of such causes, and thence judging how far the whole, or any part of them, may have been capable of forming the rocky masses of which the surface of our planet is composed.

It has been imagined that extensive conglomerate and gravel deposits are owing to causes similar to those now existing; in some cases to the joint action of rivers on their beds ana seas on their shores, and in others solely to the action of the former. To ascertain if such causes could have produced such effects, we should examine the present action of seas on their coasts and rivers on their beds, so far as regards the production of rounded gravels.

1. Action of Tidal Seas on their Coasts.

It has long been known, and often remarked, that seas gain on some coasts and lose on others; in other words, that seas cut away and destroy rocks, even the hardest, in some places, and pile up the detritus, acquired either from this destruction, or from rivers, in others. Rayfair has well observed, that rounded gravel " can only be found in the beds of rivers, or oh the shores of the sea; for in the depths of the ocean, though currents are known to exist, yet there can be no motion of the water sufficiently rapid to produce the attrition required to

B                                      give

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ii                       On the Formation of extensive

give a round figure and smooth surface to hard and irregular pieces of stone*." Although it is acknowledged that no trituration of rock fragments into rounded gravel is now effected in the bottom of the ocean, it has been supposed that gravels formed or collected on the shores of continents or islands are conveyed there, to be consolidated, and converted into beds of conglomerate. An attention to die effects of seas on their coasts will, however, show us that these gravels do not travel outwards into great depths, but that the ocean exerts its power to throw them back upon the dry land whence they were derived. Attention to a sea coast with a shingle beach during a gale of wind will show this. Every breaker is more or less charged with shingles, which are forced forward as far as the broken wave can reach, and in their shock against the beach drive others before them, that were not held in momentary mechanical suspension by the breaker. By. these means, and particularly at the top of high-water, the shingles are projected on the land beyond the reach of retiring waves. Heavy gales and high tides combined seem to produce the highest beaches; they do indeed sometimes cause breaches in the ramparts they have raised against themselves, but they quickly repair it The great accumulation of beach upon the land being effected at the height of the tide, when the tide ebbs, it is quite clear the sea cannot deprive the land of what it has thrown upon it. In moderate weather and during neap tides various little lines of beach are formed, which are swept away by a heavy gale; and when these little beaches are so obliterated, it might be supposed by a casual observer that the sea was diminishing the beach; but attention will show that the shingles of the lines, so apparently swept away, are but accumulated elsewhere. These remarks of course only apply to such situations where the sea, during gales, has no access to cliffs or piers, from whence there might be a back-wave carrying all before it; but to such situations, and they are abundant, where the breakers meet with no resistance, and strike nothing but the more or less inclined plane of a shingle beach. Even in cases where the waves in heavy gales and high tides do reach cliffs, and for the time remove shingle beaches, it is curious to see how soon these latter are restored when the weather moderates, and when the breakers, in consequence of a diminished projecting force, cease to recoil from the cliff behind.

Shingle beaches travel in the direction of the prevalent winds, or those which produce the greatest breakers; of this, excel--

* Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory, p. 7.

lent

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Conglomerate and Gravel Deposits.               Hi

lent examples are seen on our southern coast, where the prevalent winds being W. or S.W. the beaches travel eastwards. If rocky projections or points of land occur on the east of any shingle beach so travelling, the sea soon forms a considerable barrier against itself, more particularly when the mouths of valleys or flat lands back the shingles; such flat lands or mouths of valleys thus obtaining protection from the ravages of the sea (Plate II. fig. 2). If the streams which discharge themselves into the sea from such valleys or flat lands are small, their mouths are barred by the beach, and the water percolates through the shingles. Such streams, in cases of flood, cut through the shingle a passage again to be dammed up by the effects of a gale of wind.

It would appear that though shingle or pebble beaches travel coastways, in consequence of the general direction of the breakers, there is no evidence of their being transported outwards or into the depths of the ocean. The seaward front of most shingle beaches, particularly when they defend tracts of flat country, is bounded by a line along the edge of the beach; above this line the beach generally makes a considerable angle with the sands, in cases of sandy flats.

In cases where shingle beaches are not entirely quitted by the tide, sandy, shelly, or very fine gravel soundings are commonly obtained a short distance from the shore, unless the bottom be rocky, in which latter case it is generally a mixture of sand, rock, or fine gravel* and shells. In fact, if the present continents or islands were elevated above, or the sea depressed beneath, the present ocean level, shingle beaches would be found to fringe the land, but not to extend far seaward.

It is but rarely that the pebbles on shingle beaches are found to have travelled considerable distances, even along shore; in the Chesil Bank indeed,—that extraordinary ridge of pebbles about sixteen miles long, which connects the Isle of Portland with the main land,—the shingles seem to have travelled twenty or thirty miles from the westward. This bank is remarkable on many accounts, and among others for the power the sea has exhibited of heaping up a barrier against itself, even when not backed by land, provided it has two solid resting places

* These gravels are generally fine, very different in size from the common shingles of beaches. It might be supposed by persons unaccustomed to take soundings, that the gravels marked on charts were coarse, resembling shingles; but in general such gravels do not exceed the size of a nut, and are most commonly smaller. Such fine gravels are very frequently mixed with shells; and no soundings are more common on coasts,particularly our own coasts, than gravel with shells, sand and gravel, and sand and shells.

B2                                            for

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W                  On the Formation of extensive

for each end of the bank (See fig. 1.)* It also appears that the shingles do not travel from the bank (see fig. l.)> f°r Portland Roads have a bottom of clay, the continuation of the Kim-meridge clay of the base of Portland and the Ferry Point, affording one of the best holding grounds for vessels in the Channel; and the bottom to the S.W. of the bank is sand, fine gravel with shells, or rock *.

Shingle beaches are generally formed on the sea shores under consideration, from the harder parts of the neighbouring coasts, destroyed by the joint action of atmospheric agency, land springs, and the sea. The softer portions are soon washed away, and even the harder, first forming the shingles, are eventually ground down into sand. It is, however, by no means uncommon to find, in coasts composed of both hard and soft materials, taluses of blocks or large indurated concretions, detached from the cliffs, and defending them from that quick destruction that would otherwise ensue.

The effect of the joint action of the sea and air upon hard rocks is well seen in the Scilly Islands. There the granite decomposes into its usual blocky forms, the angles gradually disappear, and eventually the masses fall on the beach, where the tremendous breakers of that coast grind them against each other into balls, and often hurl them high up on the shore.

I know not how Playfair could have imagined that following waves were merely confined to the shore f, for the destruction of coasts of equal hardness almost always bears a proportion to the extent of open sea to which they are exposed, allowance being always made for the force and duration of prevalent winds.

The power of the sea to erect barriers against itself, under other circumstances than those previously noticed, is very ably

This bank also possesses considerable interest in another point of view. The hills behind the bank are composed of clays and loose rubbly or slaty limestones (Forest marble, Cornbrash, Oxford clay, Oxford oolite, and Kunmeridge clay), which, if not protected by this mass of shingles, would soon be swept away before the heavy seas rolling in from the Atlantic, and breaking with so much fury on this coast. That they have not been thus attacked is evident, for the large rounded forms of the hills and dales are only here and there marked by little cliffs, cut by the water intervening between the bank and main-land ; it therefore seems fair to conclude, that since the existing order of things the Chesil Bank has existed, and that the main-land behind it has not, since it acquired its gentle undulatory form, been attacked by the furious waves from the Atlantic.

t Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory, p. 432.—Had it been the Professor's fate to have lain in the trough of a heavy following sea in the mid. die of the Atlantic, or to have rejoiced in the dexterity of the helmsman in avoiding the shock of a far seen heavy wave, he would hardly have supposed that following waves were confined to the shore.

illustrated

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Conglomerate and Gravel Deposits.                v

illustrated by Mr. R. C. Taylor, in his Geology of East Norfolk. After observing that the land encroachment at Lowestoft Ness had been effected at distinct and distant intervals; that its form had been influenced by the direction of the currents in the channel, and the position of the adjacent shoals, and that the lines of growth are indicated by a series of concentric ridges or embankments, inclosing certain areas, he observes, " a rampart of heavy materials is first thrown up to an unusual altitude, by some extraordinary tide, attended with a violent gale. Subsequent tides extend the base, and heap up lighter substances on its summit. Sand is blown from the beach and fills the interstices. The Arundo arenaria and other plants, by degrees obtain a footing; creep along the ridge, give solidity to the mass, and in some cases form a matted covering of turf: meanwhile another mound is forming externally, and by the like process rises and gives protection to the first Occasionally the sea forces its way through one of the external and incomplete mounds, but it is singular to observe how soon the breach is repaired*."

In tropical countries the advance of the Mangrove trees outwards from sheltered situations at the bottoms of creeks, bays, or the mouths of rivers, has a great tendency to increase land at the expense of the sea. So long as the sea continues sheltered, it throws up no barrier against the Mangroves; but when their strange stilt-like roots have advanced the mass of these trees to places exposed to the waves, the sea accumulates a beach against them, forming lagoons or lakes f.

I have observed off Jamaica, that the coral reefs and islands are protected on the side of the prevalent winds and breakers by shingle beaches composed of rounded pieces, and, occasionally, large fragments of coral J. *

* On the Geology of East Norfolk, p. 52, and the highly instructive plate 6.

f Lakes of this description at Albion, south side of Jamaica, contain numerous alligators (Crocodilus acutus, Cuv.) and marine fish. The zoology of some of these lakes would be interesting to geologists, as they become brackish from the heavy rains that drain into them from the mountain sides, and may thus contain marine and fresh-water animals.

J I remarked one or two curious instances of the growth of land behind such beaches at Old Harbour. There are many islands, some covered by Mangrove trees; one in particular struck me: on its windward side there was a beach of coral shingles, evidently on the increase, the older or back part bound together by tropical sea-coast creepers; behind these were the Mangroves, mixed, if my recollection does not fail me, with some other tropical sea-shore trees near the beach, but alone and advancingintothe sea on the leeward side of the island, where, not being exposed to the breakers, they accumulated silt and mud about their roots, and thus extended the island in that direction.

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vi

On the Formation of extensive

From what has been above stated, it will be seen that the sea endeavours to throw back upon the land the detritus it has received from it, and even, as in the case of corals and shells, of hard substances that have been formed in it, and that the pebbles or shingles are not likely to quit the coast under ordinary circumstances *; indeed the common velocity of tides seems inadequate to transport them in moderate depths, where the power of the waves on the surface of the sea ceases.

2. Action of Titleless Seas on their Coasts.

The principal difference between these and those above noticed, consists in the phenomena attendant on the discharge of rivers into them, which will be noticed under the head of rivers. Shingle beaches are accumulated, and protect lands behind them, but from the want of tide we do not see their bases, and they appear of inferior dimensions to those on tidal seas. From the want of tide, which should successively present different portions of a cliff to the greatest action of the breakers, the destruction of coasts is not so great, and the spaces of open sea being more or less limited, the battering power of the breakers is greatly inferior to that of the great ocean swell, discharged on a tidal coast. Still the same rejection of detritus derived from the land will be observed when it does not fell into deep water, beyond the reach of the moving power of such seas; and we know of no current sufficiently strong in tide-less seas to distribute the gravel that has been thrown into their deep waters.

Large lakes present nearly the same phenomena as to shingle beaches as tideless seas; and a* most of them are lower at one time than another, we may observe the shingle beaches better; and it is by no means uncommon to see a skirting of shingle round them when their waters are low.

3. Action of Rivers on their Beds. Rivers most frequently, though not always, take their rise among hills and mountains, and are supplied either by the melting of snows or glaciers, the draining of rain waters, or by springs. The two former particularly bring down fragments formed by decomposition from the neighbouring rocks, into the bed of the river. In mountainous regions fragments of rocks of greater or less dimensions fall into the river from the mountain sides. The river also undermines its banks, and the loose decomposed surface of the rocks tumbles into it.

* Even in the case of sands, which do not enter within the scope of this memoir, there is a tendency in the sea to throw them upon the land. Witness the sandy Dunes, so common on various coasts.

From

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Conglomerate and Gravel Deposits.                 vii

From these sources the river obtains the materials for its gravel. The greater the velocity of the water, the sooner will the angular fragments be ground by attrition into pebbles. Rivers are most rapid in hign mountain ranges, having to find their way from a high to a much lower level in comparatively short distances. Now as the decomposition and the fall of rocks is. greatest amid high mountains, and as the rivers are most rapid in the same situations, the greatest quantity of river gravel is there produced.

In low situations, where rivers lose their rapidity, gravels are rarely formed, but sands or mud are common. In times of flood, gravels formed in their beds, in the high lands, are brought down into their beds in the plains; but even these do not appear to travel far. It is asserted, but has not been proved, that rivers carry their gravels to considerable distances; but I cannot avoid suspecting that pebbles derived from great gravel plains, or from cliffs of loosely aggregated conglomerate, such as the Nagelfluhe of Switzerland, cut away by the rivers, and thus carried into their beds, have been sometimes mistaken for gravels transported from great distances by the rivers. There is no want of gravel, composed of pebbles from the high Alps, in the bed of the Rhone, where that river quits the lake of Geneva, or in the bed of the Ticino, where it quits the Lago Maggiore; and I presume no person would imagine that the gravels have been brought down by either river from the Alps, as all such pebbles must have been quietly deposited in the bottoms of the respective lakes. In both instances the gravels have been derived from conglomerates formed by more general causes, cut through by the rivers after they have.quitted the lakes. Innumerable other instances might be produced. The same observation applies to rivers cutting great gravel plains, where they obtain pebbles, derived originally from distant rocks, from their banks, but to the transport of which, by the rivers, physical obstacles oppose themselves. Such obstacles commonly present themselves in the shape of lakes, the beds of which it is impossible the rivers could have cut. Into these the rapid and detritus-bearing rivers deposit their gravels and sand, so that such rivers constantly tend to fill up lakes so situated. The detritus, thus driven into a lake, will always be deposited in a peculiar form, variously modified according to the depth of the lake, and the pebbly or sandy nature of the detritus.

In cases where rivers discharge pebbles into lakes, that of the Drance torrent for instance, which deposits its pebbles in the lake of Geneva, the advance is gradual and local. It is obvious that the stratification resulting from these causes must

have

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viii                     On the Formation of extensive

have a peculiar figure; and supposing a lake, nearly filled by these means, to be examined after drainage, the beds of gravel, sand or clay, would be very irregular, and not be disposed horizontally.

To take examples from the Alps; the present transport of river-formed pebbles from a large part of these mountains is prevented by numerous lakes on their north and south sides. On the north the Rhine deposits its mountain detritus in the lake of Constance, and the Rhone its transported pebbles and sands in the lake of Geneva. Between these the lakes of Zurich, Lucerne, &c. receive the gravels of other alpine rivers. On the south the Lago Maggiore receives the alpine detritus of the Ticino, the lake of Como that of the Adda, and the lakes of Garda, &c. perform the same office to other rivers. From these circumstances it will be evident that the river-formed pebbles of a large portion of the Alps cannot travel by the rivers into either the ocean or the Mediterranean: it might at first sight be supposed that the Po could transport the river* formed pebbles of a large portion of the Alps into the Adriatic; but the Po becomes a sandy-bedded river before it receives the Ticino.

It may also be supposed that though the Rhone can transport no alpine detritus beyond the spot where it enters the lake of Geneva, yet that, after it has quitted that lake, it can carry all the pebbles borne down by the Arve from the district of Mont Blanc. I have often stood at the junction of the two rivers* and could not perceive that there were marks of any great transport of pebbles by the Arve, though it held, as is common to most alpine glacier waters, a considerable quantity of sand in mechanical suspension. The banks of both the Arve and the Rhone afford abundance of rounded alpine pebbles, and it would be no easy matter to say, how much of the pebble bed of the Arve was derived directly from the Alps, and how much from its banks near Geneva. But supposing the Arve did bring down abundantly pebbles from the Alps, their progress would seem to be checked at the gulf known as the Perte du Rhone.

As a general feet, it may be fairly stated that rivers, where their courses are short and rapid, bear down pebbles into the seas near them, as is the case with the torrents in the Maritime Alps; but that when their courses are long, and changed from rapid to slow, they deposit the pebbles where the force of the stream diminishes, and finally transport mere sand or mud to their mouths, as is the case with the Rhine, Rhone, Po, Danube, &c.

4. /)»-

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Conglomerate and Gravel Deposits.                  ix

4. Discharge of Rivers into Tidal Seas.

Tidal rivers, when large, most frequently keep their mouths open, though there is always a tendency to form bars and sandbanks; as for example, the Thames, the Severn, the Seine, the Loire, the Tagus, the St Lawrence. In such situations, the detritus, if any, is small enough to be held in mechanical suspension.

Some tidal rivers, or rivers which discharge themselves into tidal seas, form deltas when the force of the current is considerable, the tides small, or the seas not much subject to storms setting in shore, but merely to land and sea breezes. Of the mouths of such rivers, the Missisippi, the Oronoco, the Ganges, and the Yellow River of China, are examples. The detritus brought down by such rivers to their mouths is either sand or mud; therefore they do not contribute towards the formation of gravels at the bottom of the ocean.

Tidal rivers, when small, have a tendency to be blocked up by the sea, which often increases the bars into long banks of pebbles or sand, and it is with difficulty that the rivers deliver their waters into the sea: if the line of coast keeps the direction of the prevalent winds, the difficulty is increased, and the river generally gains a cliff or some hard ground, for one of its banks, before it can effect its escape into the sea. Good examples of these embouchures are seen on our southern coast The Teign has a tendency to be blocked up by the bank upon which part of Teignmouth is built, named the Den, which the easterly winds, producing the greatest breakers on this beach, drive across the mouth of the river from E. to W., and the Teign escapes by the side of the Ness Point, which affords it support The Axe is also deflected from its course by the pebble tank thrown up from W. to E. by the prevalent W. and S. W. winds, which here afford the heaviest breakers, and it escapes into the sea by supporting itself against Axmouth cliff; the sea, however, is constantly endeavouring to bar up its passage (fig. 2.).

The harbour at Shoreham is a good example of a river deflected from its straight course by banks thrown up by the sea (fig. S). The river in this case escapes through a gap which it has formed in the bank itself.

It is obvious that in these cases the sea rejects the detritus it receives from the rivers, and forces it back, with the cliff detritus, upon the land.

The great flats on the western coast of South America are excellent examples of mud and sandy detritus forced back upon the land.

C                               5. Dis-

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X

On the Formation of extensive

5. Discharge of Rivers into Tideless Seas, These discharges are more or less modified, according to the open waters and prevalent winds to which they are exposed ; and in general they tend to push forward deltas be-Fore them (fig. 4.), which more or less protrude according to the depth of water into which the rivers deliver themselves, the greater or less shelter of the coasts, the quantity and nature of the detritus held in mechanical suspension, and the force of the current. Those rivers which push forward great deltas, such as the Nile, Rhone, Po, Danube, and Volga, bear mud and silt before them, and of these materials the deltas are almost wholly composed. The rivers which bear down pebbles into tideless seas are short, rapid, and of the torrent kind. Most frequently, from the high and mountainous nature of the coasts, the gravel is deposited in deep water, and therefore, being out of the influence of breakers and waves, remains quietly at the bottom, unless carried by currents sufficiently strong to remove it: of currents so strong we have not any known examples in a tideless sea. Nice will afford a good example of such deposits. The Var and the Paglion bring down pebbles into the Mediterranean, which are almost immediately conveyed into deep water and remain undisturbed, extending but a short distance seaward; for the gravel soundings obtained further from the coast must not be confounded with the river detritus, such soundings being upon the prolongation of the tertiary conglomerates beneath the level of the sea*.

If tideless seas, such as the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, were to become dry, these deltas and gravel deposits would be very apparent, both more or less presenting the advance noticed in the case of lakes, and we should not have beds of detritus parallel to the coasts, but a series of projections with a stratification peculiar to each, but not common to the

whole.                             ------------

Upon a review of the phenomena productive of gravels on sea beaches and in river beds, it will, I think, appear probable that in neither case could pebbles be furnished in such a way as to afford materials for those great deposits of gravel and conglomerate, which we observe in rocks that must have been formed at various epochs; the coasts present lines of shingle or sand, more advanced in cases of the embouchures of rivers into tideless, generally calm, or nearly tideless seas, and the rivers afford mere lines of pebbles. To make these

* It should always be recollected that in gravel soundings the probabilities are as great of finding rounded pebbles beneath the sea as on the surface of the land.

materials

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Conglomerate and Gravel Deposits.                  xi

materials available in the formation of extensively deposited gravels and conglomerates, some greater and more general force than the action of seas on their coasts, or rivers on their beds, must collect them together. This force it seems natural to seek in masses of water more or less voluminous according to circumstances. To produce these at various times and in greater or less abundance, the various dislocations of strata everywhere so observable, seem adequate. It is now known that mountains have been raised at different epochs, and that horizontal strata, even those deposited at comparatively recent geological epochs, have been shattered and broken into faults, a large proportion of which are only covered by the gravels that have been termed diluvium. Can we imagine that such

great convulsions and disruptions of our planet's crust could ave been unaccompanied by violent movements in the mass of waters, and that debacles, as they are called, have not been frequent and great? It seems but rational to infer that such debacles or deluges must have more or less resulted from every great convulsion, and have been more or less extensive according to the power of the disrupting force. Such causes could easily form the extensive gravel and conglomerate deposits we now observe, not only by their own destructive power, but also by amassing all the river and sea-shore gravels within their influence.

According to this theory, the extent of gravels would correspond with the extent of the disturbing forces, and would be general where these forces were appliea generally, and partial where these forces were applied partially.

Explanation of Plate I.

Fig. 1. Represents the Chesil Bank, and the soundings on either side of the bank j and a small shingle beach, near Weymouth, defending Lodmoor Level from the sea. A small beach, called the Drift, is thrown up by the sea, on the N.W. end of Portland, and nearly incloses a triangular space, into which the sea enters at high water. Scale 8} miles to 1 inch.

Fig. 2. The mouth of the Axe river, Devon, affords an example of a shingle beach defending a low country from the sea, and of a river turned from its direct course by a shingle bank, and forced to seek support from a cliff in order to escape into the sea. Scale 2 inches to 1 mile.

Fig. 3. Example of a river deflected at a right angle from its course by a bank thrown up by the sea. Scale 1 inch to 1 mile.

Fig. 4. Delta of the Nile. Scale 70 miles to 1 inch.

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[ xii ]

III. On the Excavation of Valleys.

TWO opinions have been entertained by geologists, as to the causes that have excavated valleys: some contending that they have been produced by the rivers that now run in them, aided by the bursting of lakes and meteoric agents; while others consider that the greater proportion of such valleys have been formed by what has been called diluvial action, and by other causes operating at the bottom of ancient seas. It appears to me that these two rival theories may be reconciled with the facts presented by nature, and that both are, to a certain extent, correct It would, I think, be almost impossible to deny that rivers, more particularly those discharged from the many lakes that probably once existed, have cat deeply into the land, and have formed gulleys, ravines, and gorges: but again, it seems utterly at variance with the relations of cause and effect, to suppose that valleys, properly so called, could have been formed either by the discharge of lacustrine waters, or by the rivers that now run, or could ever have run, in them.

In the discussion of this subject, we should consider only such valleys as, by the correspondence of horizontal or nearly horizontal strata on their opposite sides, show that the strata were once continuous, and that their continuity has been destroyed by the removal of the intermediate portions;—of course, the very numerous valleys formed by rents and contortions, and such as have been termed valleys of elevation and depression, as well as those of original formation, do not enter into our present consideration.

It seems to me that aqueous excavations are of two kinds: 1. Those produced by vast and violent causes not now in action ; and, 2. Those resulting from the continuous and gradual operation of lakes, rivers, and other agents that have been termed meteoric: the latter series of causes operating upon valleys that most frequently owe their prior existence to the former series, and both offering very distinct appearances. Excavations of the second kind, or those produced by actual streams, present cliffs, gorges, and ravines; while the first are marked by grand and extensively rounded outlines, and by valleys of a breadth and magnitude which would seem only referable to a voluminous mass of moving waters.

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On the Excavation of Valleys.                  xiii

I shall endeavour to illustrate my opinions the following examples.

1. Valleys of Excavation in Dorset and Devon.

Valleys of the first class, which have been usually termed valleys of denudation, are very common in districts where rocks are not far removed from an horizontal position; these, to take examples from our own country, are very abundant in Dorsetshire and the east of Devon. In these valleys, the former continuity of the strata on either side is most apparent, and neither elevations nor depressions could have caused them: they are exclusively due to the excavation of the materials by which their sides were connected. The question then arises, what has excavated them? At the bottoms of each of these valleys we find a small stream, the natural drain of the land. Could these streams have cut out such valleys as they now flow through ? If there be any true relation between cause and effect, they could not. Fig. 1. (Plate II.) represents a general section of the valleys of Lyme Regis and Charmouth. The summits of the hills are chiefly composed, as has already been noticed by Professor Buckland, of angular flint and chert, the remains of the former superincumbent strata of chalk and green-sand, that have been partially dissolved in place. Beneath this is green-sand, with an unequal upper surface, resulting from the causes that produced the gravel; still lower is the lias in which the spacious valleys of Lyme and Charmouth have been principally scooped out: in the bottom of each valley is a little stream, which I have necessarily represented in the section on a scale much too large. If I had confined myself strictly to proportions, it would have been invisible; vet to such insignificant streamlets, and the rain-waters which acted in conjunction with them, the advocates for the excavation of valleys by actual causes would refer the whole. The most remarkable of these valleys is that of the Char at Char-mouth, which forms the sole channel of drainage to a district many miles in length. The actual force of this stream, even with every assistance from floods and rains, has not accom-

Elished more than a cut varying from four to fifteen feet deep, ounded by perpendicular walls: these walls composed for the most part, not of the lias strata that have been widely excavated, but of flint and chert gravel, and drifted materials such as are strewed over the valley at all heights, from the bed of the actual river to the tops of the hills. The question may be asked, why, if some solvent power has been able to produce the unrolled gravel on the summits of the hills, it has not been able to cause the valleys themselves. If these valleys in the lias

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xiv                    On the Excavation of Valleys.

had been equally covered by a briche en place, composed of fragments of lias, it might be urged that they also were produced by dissolution of the lias. No such breccia has been found in them; and the only remaining adequate agent seems to be a voluminous mass of moving waters, to the duration of which I will not venture to assign a time. This seems to have acted on the rocks in proportion to their hardness and composition.

Such valleys as those of Lyme and Charmouth occur in all countries where nearly horizontal strata have not been much disturbed; and the causes that produced them seem to be the same with those that have also operated extensively upon the great escarpments of strata, leaving outliers and other marks of former continuity, which some great overwhelming force has interrupted*.

2. Valleys of Excavation in Jamaica which cannot be referred to Rains or Rivers*

Depressions on the earth's surface existing when the present order of things commenced, would become channels or drainage to rain-water accumulating into streams and rivers. There are however depressions in which not even a rivulet at present flows, and of these we have examples in the white limestone districts of Jamaica, where the inhabitants are compelled to obtain water exclusively by collecting the rain in tanks; yet in these districts the natural inequalities of the land present the same forms of hill and dale as occur elsewhere; and even the violent rains in this tropical climate form no continuous rivers, but are swallowed bv numerous sink-holes or natural cavities that pervade the white limestone of Jamaica. One great valley is remarkable; it is situated between the Carpenter and Santa Cruz mountains, and is excavated in a white limestone interstratified with a red sandstone. It continues inland some miles from the sea at Alligator Pond Bay. The bottom is in general an arid plain or savanna, here and there studded with insulated masses of rock bounded by broken cliffs; these rocks are covered with vegetation, and resemble, in this respect, oases in a desert. They consist of white limestone in nearly horizontal beds, varying from four to ten feet in thickness, and seem to be the remains of continuous strata, which

* This force seems to have been exerted very generally; for in all countries there are inequalities of surface, independent of stratification: and it is by no means uncommon to see the higher parts of curved and contorted strata removed, so that in sections strictly representing them, we are obliged to add imaginary dotted lines to render the curvatures intelligible to persons unaccustomed to geological investigations.

have

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On the Excavation of Valleys.                     xv

have been nearly destroyed by some great force, but certainly not by that of the waters that now run in the valleys; for there is neither river nor rivulet throughout its whole extent The river that rises suddenly near the sea, and flows but a short distance at the lower termination of this long and wide valley* is most probably derived, like many similar Jamaica streams, from waters swallowed by sink-holes in the interior of the island.

3. Valleys of 'Denudation subsequently cut into Ravines, and otherwise modified by existing Causes.

As the smooth-sided valleys of denudation I have been describing form the present drain of pluvial waters, I proceed to consider what changes these waters, and the streams resulting from them, have effected in the original outline of such valleys.

These changes are often very considerable, and sometimes so modify the valleys that their features derived from denudation are nearly obliterated. When the original valley has been scooped out of soft substances, such as soft sandstone or conglomerate, a river resulting from the drainage of the land will have cut a gorge or ravine with cliffs of greater or less height on either side according to circumstances. Of this modification of a valley, the Vallon Obscur, near Nice, will afford an example; a, a, fig. 2. are the sides of the original valley; b9 b9 the gorge or ravine formed by the torrent that has cut through the nearly horizontal strata of tertiary sandstone and conglomerate down to its present bed. The same rocks in the same vicinity afford other examples of this modification of original valleys, so that in some cases it would be difficult to say whether they are original, or have been produced by actual meteoric causes. These conglomerates and sandstones are generally of easy disintegration, and readily give way.

4. Action of Rivers in nearly level and spacious Valleys.

Rivers when flowing through extensive and nearly level valleys seem to effect little beyond an occasional change of bed; but when a bank, a small hill, or the foot of a mountain, opposes their progress, they assail it, and form cliffs, the materials of which, if soft, fall into the stream, or make undercliffs, which are in time removed, and the work of destruction slowly continued (fig. 4. a.); or when the cliff thus formed is of harder materials, blocks are accumulated in a talus at its base, and the cliff is in a great measure secured from further attack (fig. 4. b.). There is scarcely a river of any considerable length or breadth which does not afford examples of cliffs thus produced ; very frequently they overhang flat or gently sloping land, on which the river has flowed while employed in cutting

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xvi                    On the Excavation of VaUeys.

the cliff. It is not a little curious to trace, in countries where rivers wind considerably, the various obstacles that have determined the course of the stream, causing it to attack and destroy the original more or less rounded forms of the bases of the hills.

5. Rivers escaping from Plains through Gorges.

It is by no means uncommon to find plains of greater or less extent bounded on all sides by high land, and through which a principal river meanders, entering at one end by a valley, and passing out through a gorge at the other, augmented by tributary streams from the surrounding hills; sometimes these plains have no principal river passing through them, but only numerous small streams descending from the heights, ana which uniting in the plain, pass out of it also through a gorge. In such cases the plain often presents the appearance of a drained lake, and such as all beds of existing lakes, if deprived of their waters, would assume. Fig. 5. is intended to convey a general idea of the interior of such drained lakes; b. representing the gorge through which the waters have passed during the gradual cutting down of the hill.

The lake of Geneva would appear once to have been much more extensive than at present, and to be only the remains of a greater lake which has been partly drained by the cutting down of the gorge at the Fort de PEcluse. The gorge at Narni seems to have let out the waters of a lake, the ancient bed of which now forms the plain of Terni. These examples have principal rivers now running in them: the bed of the Rhone runs through the drained part of the ancient lake, the remainder of which constitutes the existing lake of Geneva, and the Nera flows through the plain of Terni; and if the respective gorges through which the waters escape were again closed, these rivers would again form lakes on the surface of the plains*.

The celebrated Rheingau may perhaps also be cited as an example of a gorge having drained a mass of waters behind it; for if closed, a lake would be formed over the plains of the Rhine back thence towards Basle.

These appearances are not confined to one part of the world; it is very easy to see from the descriptions of intelligent tra-vellers, that they exist verv commonly: I have myself observed examples in Jamaica. The district named St. Thomas in the

* The great fertile plain of Florence seems once to have been the bed of a laket the drainage of which was effected by a cut through the high land that bounds it on the west. If this outlet were closed, the waters of the Aroo would again cover the plain and convert it into the bed of a lake.

Vale

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On the Excavation of Valleys.                 xvii

Vale is a marked one: here we have low land bounded on all sides by hills which would form the banks of a lake, were not the waters let out by the gorge through which the Rio Cobre flows. Luidas Vale, in the same island, is a district surrounded on all sides by high land, and would form a lake, were not the waters, derived from heavy tropical rains, carried oif by sink-holes in the low grounds. In consequence of this escape of the waters a lake cannot be formed, and therefore no discharging river, which should deliver the excess of waters over the lowest lip of the high land. This vale therefore presents no such gorge as would have resulted from the cutting power of a draining river, such as has taken place at St. Thomas in the Vale.

It is needless at present to attempt a further enumeration of these appearances; they will readily present themselves to the minds of those who have attentively examined any large district, particularly a mountainous district: but the famous gorge of the Via Mala in the Grisons is too striking an example to be omitted.

The valley of Domleschg, at the upper part of which stands Tusis, is separated from that of Schams by a lower cross range of mountain, which would bar the progress of the Rhine down the valley, and convert the valley of Schams into a lake, were it not for the opening of the Via Mala, which has been cut through the cross range.

Upon entering the gorge of the Via Mala, ancient rounded gravel will be observed to compose the upper part of the cliff and to rest upon soft gray schist It seems not to have been formed, but to have been cut through by the causes that excavated the gorge. The same gravel forms terraces in the valley of Schams, also cut through at the upper extremity of the Via Mala. As we descend the gorge it will be observed in many places high above the river, reposing on the schist The gorge itself is of considerable length, its general breadth from nfty to seventy yards, and its depth several hundred feet. The road that passes through it may be said to be notched and tunnelled in its sides. This place presents us with two epochs. 1. That when some great catastrophe broke away portions of the high Alps, with sufficient force to round the fragments, and lodge them above the margin of the gorge, as well as at the bottom of the ancient lake. 2. That in which the river has excavated the narrow gorge, cutting through the gravel and through the rock beneath it Fig. 3. will afford a general idea of this celebrated spot; the height of the gorge being there represented very considerably greater than its real proportion to its length; a, a, the cross range cut through; b, b, gorge

D                                          of

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I

xviii                   On the Excavation of Valleys.

of the Via Mala, excavated by the Rhine; c9 c, c9 bed of the actual river, which has cut through the bed of the ancient lake as well as the gorge; a\ d\ supposed surface of the ancient lake; g*g9g>g9g, ancient gravel. It can I think be scarcely doubted that this gorge has been formed by the river that now rushes along it, and still continues its excavations. It has cut below the ancient bed of the lake, as may be seen where the gravel level has been destroyed and torn away at the higher extremity of the gorge.

The same violent cause which has lodged the gravel in the higher parts of the Via Mala, has also deposited an immense abundance of the same rolled fragments between Tusis and Coire, which actual causes tend constantly to destroy and carry away. The accumulation of mountain detritus produced by actual meteoric influences upon this gravel is also seen on both sides of Coire; from different ravines the torrents throw out daily upon the valley of the Rhine the disintegrated fragments of the mountains, and these have arranged themselves in the form of a talus at the bottom of each ravine upon the more ancient gravel, in the same manner that sand poured through a notch in a block of wood would arrange itself upon a table on which the block rested;—in this illustration the table represents the ancient gravel; the notch in the wood, the ravine in the mountain; and the sand, the modern detritus. This ancient gravel, between the junction of the two Rhines and Coire, is cut into cliffs and ravines, and undergoes daily diminution from actual causes. It contains large blocks and boulders, which would seem to refer the epoch of its formation to that which scattered blocks from the Alps in all directions. The gravel upon the higher part of the Via Mala is the same as here mentioned, and is probably of the great block epoch, and it must have been subsequent to this that the gorge itself was cut out, gradually draining the lake behind it

The celebrated falls of Niagara afford an example of a river now in the act of cutting a gorge, which, if time be allowed, may let out the waters of the lake above it. If this should ever be accomplished, the gorge will resemble those we have been describing, and show equally with them, that existing rivers may excavate gorges and precipitous channels, but that these excavations are entirely distinct from valleys of denudation. In all such cases as this, and in the minor effects of meteoric influence, we have gorges, ravines and gulleys, cliffs, taluses and landslips,-—all tending to destroy the more or less rounded forms of anterior valleys which were excavated by a force acting generally and with enormous power; a force scarcely re* ferable to any other cause than a voluminous mass of overwhelming waters.

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On the Excavation of Valleys.                    xix

P.S. I admit that considerable changes have been and continue to be effected on the earth's surface by causes actually existing. In the time of hurricanes, tropical rains effect that which an inhabitant of milder regions would scarcely credit In Jamaica, the great hurricane of 1815 produced numerous cliffs and landslips in the mountains of St. Andrew and Port Royal. The gulleys also in this island are very numerous and deep, particularly in the great gravel plains. This gravel the torrents do not produce, but only tend to cut up and destroy; so also do the rivers which traverse it; the effect both of rivers and torrents being to make precipitous excavations not only in stratified rocks, but also in these beds of gravel, the origin of which must be referred to some more powerful, more general, and more ancient cause.

Although I consider that many gorges have been cut by the gradual discharge of lakes, and by the rivers that now flow in them, I by no means suppose that all gorges or ravines have been thus formed: many evidently were not; and of these, some have rivers now flowing through them, others contain no stream whatever. The gorge of Clifton near Bristol, through which the won passes, may be cited as an example of the hrst kind; if this were closed, the resulting lake would be drained in the direction of Nailsea, and exert no action on the rocks of Clifton. The carboniferous limestone districts of England abound in examples of the second kind; viz. of gorges entirely dry, or through which the rills now passing are much too insignificant to have caused them.

D2

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[ XX ]

IV. On the Differences, either Original or consequent on Disturbance, which are observable in the Secondary Stratified Rocks.

"VTUMEROUS smaller variations in the mineralogical struc--*- ture of the secondary stratified rocks have been long acknowledged and pointed out by many geologists. The greater or less development of a limestone or sandstone formation, the want of certain beds in a given series, the alteration of rocks within short distances from masses or veins of trap, &c, have for some time been remarked, and the greater or less importance that should be attached to these circumstances, upon the whole, fairly appreciated: but the greater changes, such as the substitution of dark compact limestones and sandstones for the green-sand of England and the North of France, though long since noticed by M. Alex. Brongniart; the transformation of the whole oolite system into compact dark-coloured limestones resembling those commonly called transition ; the occasional change of all the limestones from the chalk to those in the red sandstone formation inclusive, into dolomite, more or less crystalline according to circumstances, with other differences on the great scale,—have not generally met with that attention which the importance of the subject, in a geological point of view, seems to require.

This inattention has probably in a great measure arisen from the value attached to the different mineralogical structures which, it was supposed, characterized rocks deposited at different geological epochs. Thus all crystalline limestones were considered primitive; all dark-coloured limestones, when compact and of a certain mineralogical structure, transition ; and all sandstones, when of the necessary colour and hardness, grauwacke: and when contrary opinions were advanced, there was generally supposed to be some error on the part of the observer. It is true, many geologists did not admit this dependence on mineralogical structure; but it is equally true, that the greater number were in favour of it.

Geology, perhaps more than any science, requires a combination of observations ; it is only from an accumulation of facts that any real progress can be made, and it is quite clear that this requires the labours of the many. Fortunately, in the resent day, there is no want of those who continually contri-ute to our stock of knowledge, more particularly in this quarter

of

6

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On Differences observable in the Secondary Stratified Rocks, xxi

of the world ; and we see that Europe, though no very large portion of the earth's surface, is fruitful in examples of great differences in the mineralogical structure of the same formations. Such being the case, what still greater changes may we not expect in far distant countries?

New facts frequently lead to new opinions; and many of the latter, which were excellent in their time, and greatly tended to the advancement of geology, must be modified, should the former require it. Truth should be our only object. We search, in order to comprehend the structure of our planet's crust; but how can we expect to accomplish this, if we imagine that Geology in its infancy has attained maturity?

A change of opinions respecting the value attributable to mineralogical structure, by no means detracts from the merit of those who have been accustomed so strongly to insist on its importance. On the contrary, if districts have been well described with reference to this character,—as is, for instance, the Tarentaise by M. Brochant,—what difference does it make in the merit of such a description, whether the limestones there noticed be transition or lias ? The mineralogical detail still retains its original value. Without the labours of the many excellent observers who have attached so much importance to the mineral character of formations, Geology could never have occupied the rank it now does among the sciences: these labours were as necessary to its development, as those of the present day are to clearer and more extended views. We can only reason from the facts in our possession ; therefore those who come after us must have much more facility in arriving at just conclusions than we can ever expect to obtain. Werner is not the less entitled to our thanks, though his ideas respecting the formation of rocks so little accord with those now most commonly received ; and he is not the less, on this account, the cause of a great advancement in the science.

The necessary limits of a note of this nature preclude any long detail. I shall therefore content myself for the present, with a few striking examples of the very great changes observable in the mineralogical structure of the oolite formation (including the lias) in the Alps and Italy, which it is hoped will be sufficient to show the very litde importance of this character, when we may be desirous of determining the geological epoch of a rock, and are unassisted by organic remains*.

Those accustomed to the oolite formation, as it occurs in

* Even when we have this assistance, it would seem safer, particularly in the case of the more modern rocks, to judge from the general nature of these remains, rather than from any particular species supposed to be characteristic.

England

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xxii                   On the Difference* observable in

England and the North of France, supporting the great mass of green-sands, chalk and tertiary rocks, which constitute so large a portion of both these countries, would at first sight be little prepared to find this mass of light-coloured and often tender limestones, with their mixtures of clays or marls, con* verted, either from disturbance, or from the original nature of the deposit, into hard, dark and compact limestones, resembling those commonly called transition, sometimes mixed with gypsum and dolomite; in fact, in mineralogical structure very different from the same formation in England and the Nortn of France, where it has suffered little disturbance beyond the fractures called faults.

M. Von Buch's letter on the Dolomite of the Tyrol, is dated 1822, and his account of the Southern Tyrol, 1823. In these memoirs he states his opinion, that the dolomite mountains .of that country, so remarkable for their forms and their frequent crystalline character, are probably the limestones of the country altered by the intrusion of the black or augite porphyry among them, which he supposes converted the compact limestone into a very crystalline rock, highly charged with magnesia. It would be here out of place to enter into a detail of the facts he has brought forward: I shall content myself with a reference to the map and sections, which will at least show the shattered and broken state of this part of the Alps. This Tyrolese limestone, though, commonly referred to the Jura limestone, has not yet been well determined; but certainly a part at least of their continuation towards the lakes of Como, &c. is of that epoch. Those of the Tyrol are gray and shelly, and they may represent in part the chalk or green-sand series.

In 1825, M. Von Buch visited the lakes of Orta, Maggiore and Lugano, for the purpose of more particularly examining the porphyries in those districts. The result was a note on the phenomena presented by the relative position of the dolomite, limestone, and porphyries of the Lago di Lugano, which appeared first, I believe, in a German Journal, and afterwards in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles for February 1827. In this he took occasion to insist on the analogy observable in the phenomena of this district and those of the Tyrol, pointing out the dolomite mountain of San Salvador as an excellent example of the truth of his theory.—The following is his description.

After mentioning the red conglomerate of San Martino, containing pieces? of quartz and quartziferous porphyry, he adds : "These beds dip rapidly at 70° to the S. and form a promontory in the lake? of Lugano) on which the chapel of San Martino is built. This rock appears in place for about ten minutes

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the Secondary Stratified Rocks,                   xxiii

nutes walk, the dip of the beds diminishing to 60°. It is then covered by a compact smoke-gray limestone, in beds about a foot thick. These dip as the beds on which they rest, and have the same inclination on the side of the mountain ; but in their prolongation towards the lake, the dip continually diminishes, until at its level it is scarcely 20°. The beds, as they rise, describe a curve that somewhat resembles a parabola. The further we advance on the road, the more we find these beds traversed by small veins, the sides of which are covered by rhombs of dolomite. Similar crystals are also observable in small cavities of the rocks. As we advance, the rock appears divided into fissures, and the stratification ceases to be distinct Lastly, where the face of the mountain becomes nearly per* pendicular, it is found to be entirely formed of dolomite. There is no marked separation between the limestone and the latter rock. By the increase of the veins and geodes, the calcareous rock entirely disappears, and pure dolomite occurs in its stead." ****** "As we advance along the high road, the purer we find the dolomite, and at the same time the whiter and more granular."

" The road cut out of this mass of dolomite is not half a league long. We then observe the rocks retreat, the Monte Salvadore fall rapidly to the S., its sharp crest becoming broader, and chesnut-trees covering the side of the mountain, which previously presented a mere mass of bare rocks. From hence to beyond Melide the mountains are composed of dark augite porphyry mixed with epidote, the same as it also appears at Campione, Bissone, and Kovio."

In the highly interesting geological map which M. Von Buch has published in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles for November 1829, and which comprehends the lake of Orta, the southern parts of the Lago Maggiore, and the Lago di Lugano, he represents a small portion of mica-slate and red porphyry between the mass of dolomite and augite porphyry, close to the lake. The map is one of considerable detail, and shows other masses of dolomite in contact either with the augite porphyry or the granite, which, if not changed limestone, occur at least singularly among it. There will also be observed a very great connexion between the granite and porphyry, more particularly as regards their line of direction, that of the great range of the Alps. The granite is of that kind commonly known as the granite of Baveno.

Now be our opinion of M. Von Buch's theory of the formation of dolomite what it may, the fact of the passage of this gray compact stratified limestone into an unstratified crystal-fine rock charged with magnesia, and the presence of a large

mass

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xxiv                 On the Differences observable in

mass of augite porphyry on the side of the crystalline rock, remains still the same. With the theory that has been connected with these appearances, I have nothing now to do; my present purpose is only to show that these compact gray limestones and dolomite may both belong to the oolite formation.

Fortunately the neighbouring lakes of Como and Lecco, which I examined last May, are very instructive as regards the connexion of these limestones and dolomite. If we proceed from Como by the lower lake of the same name to Bellaggio, we meet only, if we except gravels and transported blocks*, with gray compact and schistose limestones, on either side of the lake, until we reach either the side of a mountain named Croci Galle, or the opposite island of San Giovanni Battista. But if we proceed from Lecco by the lake of Lecco also to Bellaggio, the shores on both sides are formed of dolomite, if we except some gray schistose and compact limestones with anthracite at Olcio and Lierna, a few contorted beds of the same rocks opposite Abbadia, and a mass of gypsum included in the dolomite near Limonta. Now if the direction of the beds be worth any thing, part at least of the gray limestones of the Lago di Como are converted into dolomite in the Lago di Lecco, as indeed is better observed by ascending the Monte San Primo, situated between the two lakes, where looking along the line of direction of the limestone beds constituting its crest, towards the lake of Como, we have limestone; towards the lake of Lecco, dolomite. Some of these limestones seem to represent the lias, for at Moltrasio and other places we find belemnites, ammonites, and other shells, among which are Ammonites Bucklandi, sometimes of very large size, A. hete-rophyllus, &c.

A short distance south of Bellano, the general mass of limestones and dolomite is separated from the gneiss and mica slate of the northern part of the lake of Como by conglomerates and sandstones, the former of which closely resemble the Rothe Todte Liegende. It contains peices of gneiss, mica slate, &c. as also pieces of the red quartziferous porphyry that appears on the lake of Lugano: the paste or cement often exhibits imperfect felspar crystals ; and the whole, in fact, strongly reminds one of the Exeter red conglomerate, or Rothe jTodte Liegende. This rock traverses the lake, to the north of a litde

* These blocks are in great abundance in the vicinity of the Lago di Como ; they occur at very great heights above the level of the lake, frequently of very considerable size ; they are composed of granite, gneiss, mica slate, talcose slate, &c. &c, and may be considered as the records of the violent catastrophe which has torn them from the high Alps and carried them into their present position.

place

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the Secondary Stratified Rocks.                   xxv

place named La Gaeta; the line thus separating the gneiss and mica slates from the dolomite and limestone, gives that of the general direction of the two latter ; and it might be supposed that the limestones and dolomite on each side would correspond, as do the gneiss and mica slates on the N. : this, however, is not the case; for if from Bell ano we follow the eastern shores of the lake of Como, back to Bellaggio, we have a very different section from that obtained by passing from La Gaeta to the same place by the western coast. To the red conglomerate near Bellano succeeds dolomite, for a short distance, and afterwards compact gray limestones to Varenna, near which are the celebrated black marble quarries: hence to the Fiume del Latto there is a continuation of the same limestones, in thinner beds, with schist containing anthracite, crowned near the cavern (out of which rushes the river high up the side of the mountain at the latter place) by dolomite, gradually descending to the level of the lake opposite Bellaggio. This section is then principally of gray compact limestone; while the whole section on the other side is through dolomite, if we except the mass of gypsum included in it at Nobiallo, and a few beds of gray limestone south of Menaggio. There is therefore no correspondence between the sections, notwithstanding the general direction of the rocks as shown by the red conglomerates, gneiss, and mica slates, which do correspond.

The limestones and dolomite, more particularly the former, are highly disturbed and contorted; [and igneous rocks which seem to have caused these appearances have pierced through them at the lake of Lugano.

If there be more limestones than one on the lake of Como, it is difficult to trace them ; lias seems to form a part, quite different, mineralogically, from what it appears in England. Probably a considerable portion of these limestones may eventually be found to represent the oolite formation generally.

In a note on thegeological position of the fossil plants and belemnites found at Petit Cceur near MoutieVs on the Taren-taise*, published in 1828, M. Elie de Beaumont observes, that the system of beds described by M. Brochant in his memoir on the Tarentaise, and which in many places contains considerable masses of granular limestone and micaceous quartz rock, as well as large masses of gypsum, belongs to the oolite formation. He founds this opinion on the circumstance, that the most ancient secondary rocks of that country, in which no fossils have been found that have not been also discovered in the lower part of the oolite system, can be traced to the en-

Annates des Sciences Naturelles, torn. xiv. p. 113.

E                                     virons

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xxvi                On the Differences observable in

virons of Digne and Sisteron (department of the Basses Alpes), where they afford a great abundance of those fossils supposed to be characteristic of the lias.

In a notice on the geological position of the fossil plants and

Saphite found at the Col du Chardonet* (department of the autes Alpes), published in 1828, the same gentleman remarks, that as the traveller quitting the Bourg d'Oisans (Piedmont) approaches the continuous range of primitive masses that extend from Monte Rosa towards the mountains on the west of Coni, he perceives that the secondary rocks gradually lose their original character, though*certain distinguishing marks may still be traced, thus resembling a half-burnt piece of wood, in which the ligneous fibres may be traced far beyond the part that remains wood, into that converted into charcoal.

The quartz rocks of these countries appear to M. Elie de Beaumont to be an alteration of the anthracite sandstones, the variegated green and reddish schists that accompany them, a change from the schistose clay, and the gypsum a substitution for the limestone.

He has also remarked the original difference that exists between these secondary rocks of the interior of the Alps, and the same formations of other countries; and thence concludes, that very little importance should be attached to the difference of mineralogical structure which exists between the beds above noticed, and that of the lower portions of the oolite formation, occurring undisturbed in other parts of Europe, of which these Alpine rocks appear to him the enlarged prolongation.

Without entering into the subject of all the changes which M. Elie de Beaumont considers he can trace even in the range of the Alps itself, it is enough for my present purpose that fossils characteristic of the lias are found in rocks which bear no mineralogical resemblance to it, as seen in England. On the contrary, we there find the mineralogical structure which was once considered characteristic of tne rocks commonly called transition.

After having examined the environs of Nice in the winter of 1827-28, I presented an account of the Geology of that neighbourhood to the Geological Society, which was read in November, 1828, and published in their Transactions, vol. iii. New Series. In it I described the two great secondary deposits which occur near Nice: first, a marly arenaceous limestone, which, though unlike the green-sand of England mineralogicallv, except in the presence of green grains embedded in a few compact limestone beds, seems nevertheless:

An. det Set. Nat. torn. xv. p. 363.

the

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the Secondaty Stratified Rocks.                 xxvii

the equivalent of that formation;, and secondly, a rock which, though it contains both crystalline dolomite aud gypsum, I referred to the Jura limestone, in consequence of its minera-logical structure so closely resembling the light-coloured compact limestones of that formation. I also took occasion to insist on the little value that could be attached to the presence of either dolomite or gypsum, and cited instances of their appearance in many formations.

That dolomite is not characteristic of formations, even supposing it an unchanged rock, we have now abundant proof; but I know of no more striking examples than are to be found in the neighbouring department of the Var, where M. Elie de Beaumont has found dolomite in the tertiary rocks (freshwater limestone), dolomite in the green-sand, dolomite in the oolite formation, and dolomite in the muschelkalk; and all these rocks are there well characterized, which is so far fortunate as it prevents mistake. From the numerous observations that have been lately made, it would appear that the theory of the peculiarly dolomitic character of the limestones of the red sandstone formation, though useful in England, the North of France, and Germany, would lead to great error in the South of France, the Alps, and many parts of Italy, where so many formations above these rocks are charged with dolomite, and its frequent accompaniment, gypsum.

M. Elie de Beaumont has by a series of observations traced the various formations of the Jura and Savoy down to within a few leagues of the high-road section observed between Nice and the Col de Tende; and it would appear from these, that the representatives of the oolite formation and green-sand continued to form the calcareous Alps to within that distance. Judging from this section, as described by Dr. Buckland *, it would appear to be the same as that of various parts of Dau-phiny, wnere, fortunately, fossils enable us to form conclusions respecting the ages of the different rocks; and these would seem to place the lias as the lowest part of the series, notwithstanding the dolomite and gypsum sometimes contained in it.

The limestones connected with the red sandstone formation at Toulon, and extending thence towards Frejus, belong to the muschelkalk, and contain the characteristic fossils of that formation; indeed, if we are to look for other limestones in the Alps, between the lias and the red conglomerates, it would seem much more probable that we should find the muschelkalk than any equivalent of the zechstein formation of Germany; for the

* Geol. Traiw.New Series, vol. iii. p. 187—190.

E 2                                   former

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xxviii                On the Differences observable in

former rock is not far distant from the Alps, both in Switzerland and Provence. As yet, however, no limestones containing the muschelkalk fossils have been discovered in these mountains.

But to return to the Nice limestones.—It would appear from the series of observations made by M. Elie de Beaumont, and above alluded to, that these light-coloured Jura-looking limestones, containing dolomite and gypsum, either belong to some development of the lower part of the green-sand formation, or to the upper part of the oolite series *. As yet, however, we have no very good zoological evidence to show to which it should be referred.

The only other example that I shall at present offer to the attention of the reader, is taken from the environs of La Spezia, which I examined in April 1829, and is fortunately very illustrative of a great mineralogical change in what is probably the oolite formation.

On tne west side of the gulf of La Spezia there is a range of mountains extending along the coast nearly to Xevanto, their breadth augmenting as they advance N. W. The sections afforded by various portions of these mountains are composed of the following rocks, easily observed up any of the cross valleys and along the coast from Porto Venere to Monte Rosso.

1. Limestone Series. 1 a. Upper beds compact and gray, vary-(the upper rocks.) J ing in intensity of tint, more or less traversed by veins of calcareous spar; here and there in-terstratified with schistose beds, and even argillaceous slate. The beds most commonly thick. The variety with light-brown veins, so long known by the name of Porto Venere marbles, forms part of these. b. Dolomite; varying in appearance, not unfrequently

M. Elie de Beaumont is inclined to consider them as referable to the green-sand series. The following note shows the connection of the decided representative of the green-sand and the limestones in question.—Speaking of the rocks in the southern part of the Alps, M. Elie de Beaumont says: " I have not mentioned the small portion of rocks containing nummulites which advance from the E. of the primitive mountains of I/Oisans to within a short distance of the Monestier de Briancon. This nuxnmulitic system is intimately connected with the white compact limestone of Nice, of Provence, of the fountain of Vaucluse, of the summit of Mont Ventoux, of the departments of the Drome, the Isere, &c, in which are found nummulites, milliolites, hippurites, &c, as well as very beautiful oolites. This same system is connected with the fossil deposits of Brianconnet (department of the Basses Alpes), of Villard le Lans (Isere), the mountains of the Grande Chartreuse, or the Mont du Chat, of the high longitudinal valleys of the Jura, of the Perte du Rhone, of Thonne, and of the Montague des Fis."—Antilles des Sciences Natures, vol. xv. p. 380.

pure

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the Secondary Stratified Rocks.                xxix

ure and crystalline, when most so nearly white/ resem-ling at a distance statuary marble; in some places beds may be distinguished, in others stratification cannot be traced.

c. Numerous thin beds of dark-gray compact limestone.

a\ The same kind of beds alternating with light-brown schist, containing a great abundance of ammonites, be-lemnites, and small nodules of iron pyrites.

e. The same brown schist alternating with a few thin beds of light-coloured compact limestone.

f. Light-brown schist alternating with dark-gray thin-bedded limestones as in d.

2.  Brown Shale.—This does not effervesce with acids.

3.  Variegated Beds.—Greenish-blue and reddish argillo-cal-

careous rocks, more or less schistose, the calcareous matter being often very small.

4.  Brown Sandstone.—Principally siliceous, though some of

it does contain calcareous matter; is sometimes micaceous; occurs in thick, thin, and schistose beds; has sometimes been called grey wacke; is one of the macignos of the Italians.

5.  Gray Siliceo-calcareous Schist and Sandstone.—Tor the

most part contains mica; may be considered as a mixture of calcareous, siliceous, and argillaceous matter, in which sometimes one predominates, sometimes the other; when the calcareous predominates there is a gray compact limestone. The whole is much traversed by veins of calcareous spar, and even, though rarely, by veins of quartz. Contains a largejucus at Vernazza. Such is the section afforded by these mountains, No. 1. being the uppermost rock, and No. 5. the lowest To give, however, a clearer idea of this series, it should be stated, that it is covered, as may be seen near La Spezia, by a micaceous siliceo-calcareous sandstone, the general colour of which is either brown or grey; it is mixed with schist, and even argillaceous shale. This is another of the rocks named macigno by the Italians. The mica is sometimes wanting.

It is not my intention here to enter into a detailed account of the environs of La Spezia, which requires the necessary plans and sections, and is moreover intended for another place; but it remains for me to show, that at least a part of the above section may belong to the oolite formation. As far as our knowledge of organic remains extends, the presence ofbelem-hites alone would seem to show that the limestones, notwithstanding their perfect mineralogical resemblance to what have been termed transition limestones, belong either to the oolite

series

I

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zzx                 On the Differences observable in

series, or to the cretaceous rocks. Of fifteen species of ammonites which I obtained from the mountain of Coregna, one is the A. erugatus of the Yorkshire lias (Phillips's Geo], of Yorkshire); and another resembles the A. Bucklandi; whilst two have been discovered in the coal measures, viz., A. Listeri aud A. biformis. The remainder Mr. J. de C. Sowerby considers new, and has named; one being dedicated to Sig. Gui-doni of Massa, the discoverer of these fossils in the limestones of La Spezia. Notwithstanding the conflicting nature of the evidence, similar, as regards the mixture of coal-measure fossils with those of the lias, to that observed by M. Elie de Beaumont in the Alps, I am inclined to consider this range of limestones as equivalent to the lias or some member of the oolite series, as has been the course adopted by M. Elie de Beaumont in the case of the rocks noticed by him in the Alps. The change in the oolite formation would therefore appear to be as great here as in the Alps, and probably the cause that has effected the one produced the other.

The dolomite in this range of mountains occurs singularly in the midst of the other beds, like an enormous bed or accumulation of beds. As all the strata near it are nearly perpendicular, it might even be considered a vein, did not dolomite also occur in the same rocks on the other side of the gulf: the whole country has, however, been violently convulsed apparently by serpentine and diallage rock, which sometimes occur beneath and sometimes above the same beds, and sometimes may even be seen to cut them. In feet the diallage rock and serpentine of this part of Liguria seem to have acted precisely in the manner of trap rocks, and to have burst up through the stratified formations, after the epoch of the oolite series, and probably after that of a part of the tertiary rocks, for they also are violently disturbed.

It is hoped that the examples above given, and which might easily be multiplied, of the great mineralogical differences observable in rocks that would appear to have been formed at the same geological epoch, will be sufficient to show the importance of the subject, and induce those not inclined to assent to the theories that have been connected with part of them, at least to examine into the facts; as by so doing they may discover others, which, either coupled with those before observed, or considered by themselves, may lead to new views, and to the general progress of Geology. We cannot expect that the same rocks should be developed in the same way over the whole surface of our globe; Europe alone proves the contrary: yet although the parts of a group, like that of the oolite formation, may not be determinable, the whole as a mass may; and to facilitate

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the Secondary Stratified Rocks.                  xxxi

cilitate the study, rocks in countries distant from each other should first be considered on the large scale, leaving the minute divisions (perhaps very useful in one part of the world, but of comparatively little value out of that part,) for examination, till after the existence of the group of which they form a part has been fairly established. It moreover happens, that in countries we may chance to visit, certain rocks may be better developed than in those where the smaller divisions have been first established, which would thus require very considerable modifications* Besides, rocks may ana do occur in one country and not in another: the muschelkalk is a case in point; its existence was long denied,—and why? merely because it had not been observed or was not developed in those, countries where its existence was so denied. Now if in one part of France there is a rock like the muschelkalk, not to be found in the same group in another part of the same country, what right have we to suppose that, in Europe alone, we possess every formation which has been developed on the earth's surface ?

V: Sketch

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I xxxii ]

V. Sketch of a Classification of the European Bocks.

fTO propose in the present state of geological science any * classification of rocks which should pretend to more than temporary utility, would be to assume a more intimate acquaintance with the earth's crust than we possess. Our knowledge of this structure is in reality but small, and principally confined to certain portions of Europe; and even in many of these portions we are continually presented with new views and a detail of newly-discovered phenomena by able observers, which so modify our previously received opinions, as in many instances almost to amount to a change of them. Still, however, a large mass of information has been gradually collected, particularly as respects this quarter of the world, tending to certain general and important conclusions; among which the principal are,— that rocks may be divided into two great classes, the stratified and the unstratified;—that of the former some contain organic remains, and others do not;—and that the nonfossiliferous stratified rocks, as a mass, occupy an inferior place to the fos-siliferous* strata, also taken as a mass. The next important conclusion is, that among the stratified fossiliferous rocks there is a certain order of superposition, marked by peculiar general accumulations of organic remains, though the mineralogical character varies materially. It has even been supposed that in the divisions termed formations, there are found certain species of shells, &c. characteristic of each. Of this supposition extended observation can alone prove the truth; and in order properly to investigate the subject, geologists must agree to what mass of rocks they should limit the term formation; i£ as some now do, they apply it to every accumulation of ten or twenty beds, which may happen, in the district they have examined, to contain a few shells not found in the strata above and beneath, the investigation is not likely to lead to any extended conclusions.

To suppose that all the formations, into which it has been thought advisable to divide European rocks, can be detected by the same organic remains in various distant points of the globe, is to assume that the vegetables and animals distributed over the surface of the world were always the same at the same time, and that they were all destroyed at the same moment, to

The term fossiliferoui is here confined to organic remains.

be

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Sketch of a Classification of the European Rocks, xxxiii

be replaced by a new creation, differing specifically if not ge-nerically from that which immediately preceded. This theory would also infer that the whole surface of the world possessed an uniform temperature at the same given epoch.

It has been considered, but yet remains to be proved, that the lowest fossiliferous rocks correspond generally in their fossil contents, in places far distant from each other. Let us for the moment suppose this assertion to be correct. To obtain this uniform distribution of animal and vegetable life, it seems necessary, judging from the phenomena we now witness, that there should also have been an uniform temperature over the surface of our planet To obtain this, solar influence, as it now exists, would be inadequate; we must therefore have recourse to internal heat to produce the effect required. In the present varied temperature of the earth's surface, if we imagine a rock to be formed which should envelop every animal and plant now existing, the fossil contents of one district would differ from the fossil contents of another; if we except men, whose bones would more or less become the characteristic fossils of those portions of the rock which might overlie the present dry land. The rock supposed to be now formed would present a striking contrast with the old fossiliferous, and we should have two very distinct accumulations of organic remains. The question arising on such phenomena would be, Has so great a change of organic character been effected gradually or suddenly? To suppose it sudden will not agree with the phenomena presented to us, even by the now known European rocks; and if it be considered gradual, we cannot expect that rocks should every where contain the same organic remains, even those that have been commonly called secondary; consequently the organic remains considered characteristic of any particular formation in one part of the world, may not be found at all in an equivalent formation in another.

Upon the theory that the world cooled in such a manner that solar heat, as now existing, gradually acquired its influence, the warm climate vegetation would gradually be re-strained within narrower limits, until it became circumscribed as it now is; consequently all rocks formed within the tropics would probably contain warm climate plants, while these would gradually cease on the N. and S.; so that it would be by no means safe to deduce the kind of Flora that should be found in any given rock in the tropics, from the fossil plants discovered in an equivalent rock in Europe. If vegetable life might under such circumstances so vary, there seems no good reason why animal life might not equally differ. To what extent the

F                                       mass

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xxxiv                   Sketch of a Classification

mass of organic fossils found in any particular European formation or group of formations may exist in equivalent rocks (of Africa or America for instance), remains to be seen. In the present state of our knowledge, it is only safe to state that certain remains have been discovered in a given rock, not that they are absent from it.

The old divisions into primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary, are now admitted by many persons to be founded on an erroneous view of nature; yet such is the force of habit, that many geologists, aware of the fallacy of these divisions, still continue to use the terms, and we hear nearly as much as ever of transition rocks. Would it not be imagined by a person first directing his attention to the study of geology, that there were three great marked periods, during each of which rocks of a peculiar character, distinct from each other, were formed, and that there was a transition or passage only between the first and second of these. J appeal to those who have examined rocks in the field, and not merely in cabinets and museums, whether or not the student would entertain correct opinions. These divisions may be said to have been made in the infancy of the science, and doubtless contributed much to its present comparatively advanced state; but it should always be recollected that they were formed from limited observations, and were connected with particular theories, which recent and more accurate observations have shown to be any thing but correct If it shall be proved that there is an occasional passage between the old tertiary and secondary classes, there would appear to be more or less transition throughout the whole series of the stratified rocks, showing that the term transition, at least, is incorrect A great mass of evidence is, indeed, in far-vour of a break at the epoch of the Exeter Red Conglomerate (Rothe Todte Liegende)> resulting from a great derangement in the previously existing rocks, and the grinding and rounding of detached portions of them into gravels, which when comparative tranquillity was restored, were deposited in horizontal beds on the disturbed strata. Yet able observers assert, that there is an occasional passage of these rocks into the coal measures, upon which they so commonly rest in an unconformable manner. We have now so many instances of great differences in the mineralogical structure of the same formations, either original or consequent on disturbance, that such structure is no longer a character of importance; and it yet remains to be seen how many of the strata supposed to belong to the primitive class are altered rocks.

M. Brongniart's division into " Sediment Rocks" would be

both

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6f the European Mocks.                     xxxv

both natural and useful were it certain where such rocks commenced, and that all those necessarily included in the class were so formed. This division has been much used in France of late, and would appear infinitely superior to the terms secondary and tertiary.

In offering the annexed sketch of a classification of European rocks to the attention of the reader, it is merely my intention to show that divisions can be made for practical purposes, independent of the theoretical terms primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary; terms which not being founded on an enlarged view of nature, but grounded on peculiar views, now doubted, there would appear no good reason for preserving. It is not presumed that this classification will be adopted, and I am well aware that many just objections can be made to it; but it pretends to nothing beyond convenience: and if geologists could be induced to use something of this kind, or any other that would better answer the purpose of relieving us from the old theoretical terms, I cannot out imagine that the science would derive benefit from the change.

In the accompanying Table, rocks are first divided into stratified and unstratified, a natural division, or at all events one convenient for practical purposes, independent of the theoretical opinions that may be connected with each of these two great classes of rocks. The same may perhaps also be said of the next great division; viz. that of the stratified rocks into superior or fossiliferous, and inferior or non-fossiliferous. The superior stratified or fossiliferous rocks are divided into groups, nearly the same as those which I published in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles for August 1829. I have myself found them useful in practice, more particularly in the examination of districts distant from each other.

Stratified Hocks.—Group 1. (Modern) seems at first sight natural and easily determined; but in practice it is often very difficult to say where it commences. When we take into consideration the great depth of many ravines and gorges which appear to originate in the cutting power of existing rivers, the cliffs even of the hardest rocks which more or less bound any extent of coast, and the immense accumu* lations of comparatively modern land, as for instance those great flats on the western side of South America, there is a difficulty in referring these phenomena to the duration ofi comparatively short period of time. Geologically speaking, the epoch is recent; but, according to our general ideas of time, it appears to be one that reaches back far beyond the dates usually assigned to the present order of things.

Group 2. (Erratic Block) comprises those superficial gravels,

F 2                                 breccias,

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xxxvi                    Sketch of a Classification

breccias, and transported materials so commonly occurring in situations where actual causes could not have placed them, but where, on the contrary, such causes tend to destroy them. The most extraordinary feature of this group is the distribution of those enormous blocks or boulders found so singularly perched on mountains, or scattered over plains far distant from the rocks from whence they appear to have been broken. Many valleys appear to have been scooped out of horizontal or nearly horizontal strata at this epoch; the force which excavated them having acted often upon strata shattered and broken into faults. Of course a general modification of the previously existing forms of mountain and valley must have taken place, if we are to consider the catastrophe general. Much information is yet wanting respecting this group, which it is hoped those observers who have been more especially occupied with it will soon afford us.

Group 3. (Supercretaceous) comprises the rocks commonly known as tertiary: they are exceedingly various, and contain an immense accumulation of organic remains, terrestrial, freshwater, and marine. The recent observations of some able geologists have shown that the upper members of this group approach more closely than was formerly supposed to the existing order of things. We yet require much information respecting even the European rocks composing this class, notwithstanding the labours of those who may almost be said to have devoted their exclusive attention to them. The group is characterized by the first appearance, in the ascending series, of any abundance of the mammiferous animals, many genera of which are now extinct.

Group 4. (Cretaceous) contains the rocks which in England and the North of France are characterized by chalk in the upper part, and sands and sandstones in the lower. The term " cretaceous" is perhaps an indifferent one; for, possibly, the mineralogical character of the upper portion, whence the name is derived, is local, that is, confined to a particular portion of Europe, and may be represented elsewhere by dark compact limestones or even sandstones. As however the geologists of the present day are perfectly agreed as to what rock is meant when we speak of " the chalk," there seems no objection to retain it for the present. The French geologists have long considered the sands beneath the chalk, known as green-sands, as belonging to the same formation with the chalk. That the fresh-water character of the shells contained in the Wealden rocks is more or less local it seems but rational to infer; for it cannot be imagined that all the waters of the globe became suddenly fresh in order that these rocks might be formed, and

as

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of the European Rocks.                  xxxvii

'as suddenly salt again for the deposition of the green-sands and

.chalk. Some French geologists moreover consider that in

France there is a marine equivalent of the Wealden rocks.

As far as our observations of fossil organic remains have yet extended, it would seem probable that the ammonites and belemnites ceased to exist after the formation of this group; for, as yet, their remains have not been detected in Group 3. Should this, after a greater extent of the world has been examined, be found generally true, it will be a most valuable guide in determining the relative ages of this and the previously noticed group, in cases where the mineralogical structure is of no avail.

Group 5. (Oolitic) comprises the various members of the oolite or Jura limestone formation, including lias. The term oolitic has been retained upon the same principle as that of cretaceous: in point of fact even in England and the North of France the oolites, properly so called, form but an insignificant part of the mass of rocks known by the name of the oolite formation ; this character is also not confined to the rocks in question, but is common to many others. In the Alps and Italy the oolite formation is replaced by dark and compact marble limestones, so that its mineralogical structure is of no value, Saurians would appear to have been abundant in some places. The prevailing fossil characteristic seems the extraordinary quantity of ammonites and belemnites, the remains of which are so numerous in this group. It is remarkable that the nautilus should have been continued down to the present time, and that the other camerated shells which swarmed at this epoch should not now be found. The belemnites do not appear to occur beneath the lias, at least as yet we have no well authenticated instance of such occurrence.

Group 6. (Red Sandstone) contains the variegated marls (Marnes iristes, Keuper) the Muschelkalk, the New Red Sandstone (Gres Bigarre', Bunter Sandstein), the Zechstein, and the Exeter Red Conglomerate (Rothe Todte Liegende). The whole is considered as a mass of conglomerates, sandstones, and marls, generally of a red colour, but most frequently variegated in the upper parts. The limestones may be considered subordinate. Sometimes only one occurs, sometimes the other, and sometimes both are wanting. There seems no good reason for supposing that other limestones may not be developed in this group in other parts of the world. When the muschelkalk is very compact with broken stems of the lily encrinite*, one of

* Encrinites moniliformis. Miller.

its

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xxxviii                 Sketch of a Classification

'tis characteristic fossils, it might easily be mistaken for some of the varieties of the carboniferous limestone. In some places the new red sandstone contains an abundance of vegetable remains, at others none can be detected in it The saurians first appear in the ascending series, at least in any abundance, in this group. As I have before observed, the lower part of this group generally rests unconformably on the inferior rocks, and seems to have resulted from a very general upheaving and fracture of the preexisting strata.

Group 7. (Carboniferous) Coal-measures and carboniferous limestone. The former would appear in the greater number of instances to be naturally divided from the group above it, but the latter would seem more allied to that beneath: there is however so much connection, in this country, between the coal-measures and the carboniferous limestone, that it would appear convenient for the present to keep them together. Judging from Europe, the coal-measures present us with the largest mass of fossil vegetables.

Corals were common, but they occur in as great abundance, if not more plentifully, now; though the recent species, generally speaking, differ from the fossils. But product®, the abundance of which characterizes this group, are now unknown; and the crinoidea which occur in these rocks in multitudes are very rarely found in a living state.

Group 8. (Gratumacke) This may be considered as a mass of sandstones, slates, and limestones, in which sometimes one predominates, sometimes the other; the old red sandstones of the English geologists being the upper of its sandstones. Tri-lobites are the most remarkable and abundant fossils of this epoch, and corals and orthoceratites occur in great numbers. It is difficult to fix the inferior limits of this group.

Group 9. (Lowest Fossiliferous) It is very difficult in the present state of our knowledge to say whether or not this constitutes a separate group from No. 8; and I have here introduced it more in accordance with the views of other geologists than with my own. A difference in miueralogical structure proves nothing; the changes in this respect are so various, that the different appearance of one slate from another, if not shown to occupy a different geological position, is of no value. It has indeed been supposed that the Snowdonian slates are older than the grauwacke series, but we yet require the proof of this.

Inferior or Non-fossiliferous Stratified Rocks.—It would be useless in a sketch of this nature to enumerate the varieties of slates and other rocks that enter into this division,

they

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of the European Rocks.

xxxix

they will readily present themselves to the mind of the geologist; recent observations show that many rocks to all appearance of this division may belong to the preceding. M. felie de Beaumont, in one of his late letters to me, states that mounting the Val Bed ret to from Airolo to the foot of the Col, which leads into the Haut Vallais, he found " an alternation, many times repeated, of small beds of a compact and grey-black limestone, and a nearly black limestone mixed with clay slate thickly studded with crystals of garnets and staurotides. Both the one and the other of these rocks contain a considerable number of belemnites transformed into white calcareous spar, but of which the general forms and alveoli are nevertheless very visible, and can leave no doubt as to the nature of the fossils. As these limestone beds are the prolongation of those in which the gypsum of the Val Canaria is found, and as these are the same with those in which the dolomite of Campo Longo occurs, we can assure ourselves that all the curious mineralogical phenomena of the St. Gothard have been introduced into beds contemporaneous either with the oolite series or the green-sand." Now when such important changes as those noticed by my friend M. Elie de Beaumont can be fairly traced, what may we not expect to find in the sequel, when geologists shall cease to be contented with referring a particular mineralogical structure to the old divisions, transition and primitive, of which the former seems only to have been created as a geological trap.

UNSTKATiFiEn Rocks.—This great natural division is one of considerable importance in the history of our globe. To the rocks composing it, and the forces which threw them up, may be attributed the dislocations and fractures in the stratified rocks every where so common, and in many instances their elevations into lofty mountain ranges. In many of the great chains the trap rocks are visible along their line of elevation, as was first observed by M. Von Buch in the Alps,—on the southern side of which they are exposed at intervals; and it is on this side that there is so much dolomite in the limestones. To assert that igneous rocks cannot be present along the whole of this line because not every where visible on the surface, is like affirming that there is no table beneath a cloth spread on it except in the cases where there may be a few holes. We are too apt in judging of the mass and thickness of rocks to compare them with our own size, and imagine them enormous, expressing surprise at the immense forces which it must have required to raise such masses into mountains; when if they were compared, as they ought to be, with the mass of the world, the thickness becomes trifling, the highest mountains insignificant

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xl

Sketch of a Classification

significant, and the forces required to raise them comparatively small.

That granitic, trappean, and serpentinous rocks have exercised a great influence on the present position of the stratified rocks, few geologists will doubt. The igneous origin of the two former is also very generally admitted; but though the third is not so generally referred to that origin, I know not how we can deny that it was produced by a cause somewhat similar to that which produced the .others, when we consider its mode of occurrence, more particularly in the Alps and in Italy.

The geological dates of the elevations of mountains is a most important subject, and one on which M. Elie de Beaumont read a very interesting paper, in June 1829, before the Institute of France*. His recent observations have tended to confirm his previous remarks on four of these epochs. 1st That the Ezgeberge, the Cote d'Or, &c. have been elevated between the epoch of the Jura limestone and the green-sand and chalk. (Groups 5 and 4 of the annexed Table.) 2nd. That the Pyrenees and Apennines were thrown up between the epoch of the chalk and tertiary rocks (Groups 4 and 3). 3rd. That the Western Alps were raised between the tertiary epoch and the first " terrains de transport." 4th. That still later, there was an elevation of mountains, in which were comprised some in Provence, the Central Alps, &c.

How far the igneous rocks have been connected with these phenomena remains to be seen; but, as before stated, it is by no means fair to infer that because not seen on the surface they do not exist beneath. Volcanoes, properly so called, both existing and extinct, seem to have exerted a minor influence in the elevation of strata compared with that exerted by the igneous rocks which were shot up previous to the action of these volcanoes. Elevations of land do however take place apparently from the causes that produce volcanoes; and of these the rise of land noticed in Chili by Mrs. Maria Graham, in consequence of the earthquake of 1824, is a striking example.

Should the annexed Table succeed in calling the attention of geologists to other divisions than those made in the infancy of the science, and grounded on particular theories, one supposing three great epochs and a transition between the first and second of these, another considering rocks divisible into two great classes, a primary and secondary, the primary con-

* This paper has been published in the Annates des Sciences Naturellet, 1829 and 1830.

taining

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of the European Bocks.                          xli

tabling organic remains in its upper part,—my object will, as I before stated, be fully answered. We are yet acquainted with so small a portion of the real structure of the earth's exposed surface, that all general classifications of rocks are premature; and it seems useless to attempt any others than those which are comparatively local, calculated for temporary purposes, and of such a nature as not to impede, by an assumption of more knowledge than we possess, tne general advancement of geology.

Classification

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c

1

Superior Stratified, or Fossi-

UFJEROUS.

1. Modern Group

2.  Erratic Block 1

Group . . . /

3.  Supercretaceous 1

Group .J

4.  Cretaceous Group

5.  Oolitic Group . .

Inferior Stratified, or Nok-

FOSSIUFSROUS.

6. Red Sandstone! Group . . .j

7.  Carboniferous 1

Group . . .j

8,  Grauwacke Group

9* Lowest Fossilife-1 L rous Group . j

{No determinate or-1 "der of superpo- V sition . . . .J

{!

1. Volcanic Group . 4. Granitic Group

Classification of European Rocks.

4 Detritus of various kinds produced by actual causes. Coral Islands. Stalagmitical incrustations. Peatbogs. &c

Transported boulders and blocks; gravels on mountains, hills, and plains, which actual causes tend to destroy.

The various rocks knomi as tertiary; characterised by a grat aburuLmL-e of LerriH trial, marine, and freshwater remains, some of which approach, and others resemble, those now existing.

Chalk, green-sand, and Wealden rocks; the latter perhaps a local variety of a marine formation.

Rocks usually known as the Jura limestone or oolite formation, including lias.

Variegated paarU (JWmc* Insets JTeuper), Mus-helkalk, New Red Sandstone (Gris Bigarri, Bunler fimdrfria), Zecbstein, Exeter Red Conglomerate (Gris Rouge, Rothe Todte Liegende).

Coal Measures. Carboniferous limestone.

Old Red Sandstone, Grauwacke, Grauwacke limestones, Grauwacke clay slates.

Snowdonian Slates. Tintagel Slates. &c

Talcose Slate. Clay Slate. Flinty Slate. Micaceous Slate. L Gneiss, &c. &c

Ancient and Modern lavas, Trachyte, Basalt, &c. Greenstone, Basalt, Porphyry, Amygdaloid, &c. Serpentine, Diallage Rock. Granite, Syenite, Porphyry, &c.

Apparent difference in the mass of animal fife from that which previously existed*

Valleys cut in previously horizontal, or cracked strata; modification of the anterior forms of mountain and valley.

First appearance of any abundance of mam-miferous animals in the ascending series.

Last appearance, in the ascending series, of Ammonites and Belemnites.

Great abundance of Ammonites and Belemnites; last appearance of Belemnites in the descending series.

first appearance, in any abundance, of Saurians in the ascending series.

Abundance of vegetable remains, Encrinkes and Product® common in the limestone. Trilobites common.

Organic remains rare*

It would seem that the superior stratified may, from various circumstances, assume the appearance of the inferior stratified rocks.

The trappean and granitic rocks so pass into each other, that they can often be considered only as modifications of the same

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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