RECORD: Lindley, John. 1853. The vegetable kingdom; or, the structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. 3d ed. London: Bradbury and Evans.

REVISION HISTORY: Images from Google Books. OCRed by John van Wyhe 8.2009. RN1

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The structure, Classification, and uses of plants,






' Methodum intelligo untune conveniontem qua) nee alienas species conjungit, nee cognates sep&ttA."—Raii'8yUoget jnxtf., p. 15.






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This work originated in a desire, on the part of the Author, to make his countrymen acquainted with the progress of Systematical Botany abroad, during the previous quarter of a century. When it first appeared, the science was so little studied that the very names of some of the best writers on the subject were unfamiliar to English ears. In our own language there was nothing whatever; and the Natural System of arranging plants, although occasionally mentioned as a something extremely interesting, was currently regarded as the fond speculation of a few men with more enthusiasm than sound judgment; and this, too, was the opinion expressed by persons who stood at the head of English Botany, in the estimation of many British Naturalists. The Author had himself severely experienced the want of some guide to this branch of Natural History, and he felt anxious to relieve others from the inconvenience which he had encountered; the more especially after he had undertaken the responsibility of filling the Botanical Chair in the then London University. At that time, too, there was nothing of foreign origin which could be advantageously consulted; for Bart-ling's Ordines had not reached England, Perleb's Lehrbuch was unknown, and both it and Agardh's- Classes were of too slight a texture to be generally useful to any except Botanists themselves. The importance of the Natural System in a practical country like Great Britain was too manifest' to leave any doubt in the mind of the Author that the good sense of his countrymen would lead to its universal reception when once placed within their reach. Nor lias he been disappointed. Fifteen years have sufficed to render tne once popular, but superficial and useless, system of Linnaeus a mere matter of history. Fuit Ilium.


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The Natural System of Botany being founded on these principles, that all points of resemblance between the various parts, properties, and qualities of plants shall be taken into consideration; that thence an arrangement shall be deduced in which plants must be placed next each other which have the greatest degree of similarity in those respects; and that consequently the quality of an imperfectly known plant may be judged of by that of another which is well known, it must be obvious that such a method possesses great superiority over artificial systems, like that of Linnaeus, in which there is no combination of ideas, but which are mere collections of isolated facts, having no distinct relation to each other. The advantages of the Natural System, in applying Botany to useful purposes, are immense, especially to medical men, who depend so much upon the vegetable kingdom for their remedial agents. A knowledge of the properties of one plant enables the practitioner to judge scientifically of the qualities of other plants naturally allied to it; and therefore, the physician acquainted with the Natural System of Botany, may direct his inquiries, when on foreign stations, not empirically, but upon fixed principles, into the qualities of the medicinal plants which have been provided in every region for the alleviation of the maladies peculiar to it. He is thus enabled to read the hidden characters with which Nature has labelled all the hosts of species that spring from her teeming bosom. Every one of these bears inscribed upon it the uses to which it may be applied, the dangers to be apprehended from it, or the virtues with which it has been endowed. The language in which they are written is not indeed human; it is in the living hieroglyphics of the Almighty, which the skill of man is permitted to interpret. The key to their meaning lies enveloped in the folds of the Natural System, and is to be found in no other place.

The great obstacle to the adoption of the Natural System of Botany in this country was the supposed difficulty of mastering its details ; but of that difficulty it may be observed, in the first place, that it is only such as it is always necessary to encounter in all branches of human knowledge; and secondly, that it has been much exaggerated by persons who have written upon the subject without understanding it.

It has been pretended that the characters of the Natural classes of plants are not to be ascertained without much laborious research; and that not a step can be taken until this preliminary difficulty

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is overcome. But it is hardly necessary to say, that in natural history many facts which have been originally discovered by minute and laborious research, are subsequently ascertained to be connected with other facts of a more obvious nature; and of this Botany offers perhaps the most striking proof that can be adduced. One of the first questions to be determined by a student of Botany, who wishes to inform himself of the name, affinities, and uses of a plant, seems to be, whether it contains spiral vessels or not, because some of the great divisions of the vegetable kingdom are characterised by the presence or absence of those minute organs. It is true that careful observation, and multiplied microscopical analyses, have taught Botanists that certain plants have spiral vessels, and others have none; but it is not true, that in practice so minute and difficult an inquiry needs to be instituted, .because it has also been ascertained that plants which bear flowers have spiral vessels, and that such as have no flowers are usually destitute of spiral vessels, properly so called; so that the inquiry of the student, instead of being directed in the first instance to an obscure but highly curious microscopical fact, is at once arrested by the two most obwous peculiarities of the vegetable kingdom.

Then, again, among flowering plants two great divisions have been formed, the names of which, Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, are derived from the former having usually but one lobe to the seed, and the latter two,—a structure much more difficult to ascertain than the presence or absence of spiral vessels. But no Botanist would proceed to dissect the seeds of a plant for the purpose of determining to which of those divisions it belongs, except in some very special case. He knows from experience that the minute organisation of the seed corresponds with a peculiar structure of the stem, leaves, and flowers, the most highly developed, and most easily examined parts of vegetation; a Botanist, therefore, prefers to examine the stem, the flower, or the leaf of a plant, in order to determine whether it is a Monocotyledon or a Dicotyledon, and rarely finds it necessary to anatomise the seed.

The presence or absence of albumen, the structure of the embryo, the position of the seeds or ovules, the nature of the fruit, the modifications of the flower, are not to be brought forward as other difficult points peculiar to the study of the Natural System, because, whatever system is followed, the student must make himself acquainted with such facts, for the purpose of determining genera. The common Toad-flax cannot be discovered by its

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characters in any book of Botany, without the greater part of this kind of inquiry being gone through.

In the determination of genera, however, facility is entirely on the side of the Natural System. Jussieu has well remarked " that whatever trouble is experienced in remembering, or applying the characters of Natural Orders, is more than compensated for by the facility of determining genera, the characters of which are simple in proportion as those of Orders are complicated. The reverse takes place in arbitrary arrangements, where the distinctions of classes and sections are extremely simple and easy to remember, while those of genera are in proportion numerous and complicated."

But really all considerations of difficulty ought to be put aside when it is remembered how much more satisfactory are the results to which we are brought by the study of Nature philosophically, than those which can possibly be derived from the most ingenious empirical mode of investigation.

Such were the motives which led to the publication, in 1830, of the first edition of the present work, under the name of an Intro-duction to the Natural System of Botany. No one would have more readily than the Author transferred the labour to another hand, if any other had been found. Indeed, he confesses that it was because the most capable of those whom he knew belonged to the class of men described by Lord Bacon, who " object too much, consult too long, adventure too little, repent too soon, and seldom drive business home/* that he undertook a task for which no man's abilities are in reality high enough. He could not but feel that: " To think nothing done while anything remains to be done is a good rule for perseverance, but to think that nothing should be done while a main thing remains undone, would be a most idle and thriftless maxim. If there be a good presently practicable, it may be done without any desertion of another good not so immediately attainable. And in effecting all secondary amendments, we have the satisfaction of feeling assured that there is a link between all real improvements, and that every sound reform is a step to others, though the connexion may not be broadly distinguishable."

' The Introduction to the Natural System was originally written in illustration of the popular system of De Candolle; but daily experience showed the insufficiency of that system, and the necessity of forming sub-divisions of the primary groups of plants higher than their so-called Natural Orders became so apparent, as

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to lead to serious attempts to carry out a plan of Alliances, in imitation of a few continental writers. These attempts were em-bodied in the second edition of the present work, which appeared in 1886, wider the name of A Natural System of Botany, Notwithstanding some glaring defects in the method then proposed, and a host of errors of a less manifest description, the views of the Author were favourably received by those best able to judge of their value. On the other hand, they have been severely criticised by writers who show a singular want of knowledge of the true bearing of such works. Those persons have imagined that a natural classification of plants is something which is suddenly to start into existence, perfect in all its parts, and their criticisms betray a total ignorance of the difficulties by which such a subject is surrounded. The Natural System of Botany may be likened to the plan of a vast edifice, at the construction of which many are labouring. Certain courts and quadrangles are easily set out; a particular style of architecture is agreed upon, and it may be even settled irrevocably in what places the state apartments and cellars are to be stationed. But when further details are to be discussed, many unsatisfactory attempts must be made by the architects, and many an awkward arrangement of the rooms proposed, before a final plan can be produced. If perfection in such small matters is impracticable, if it is impossible so to arrange all the details of even an edifice as to satisfy all critics, how much more hopeless must be the task of classifying the infinite works of the creation! To demand perfection in a work of that nature is little less than impious; for perfection is the attribute, not of man, but of his Maker.

The Author may now be equally charged with inconsistency in not adhering to his former plan of classification after having promulgated it. But he is not conscious of having ever pretended that it even approached permanency.—See Natural System, p. xiii. In fact, there is no such thing as stability in these matters. Consistency is but another name for obstinacy. All things are undergoing incessant change. Every science is in a state of progression, and of all others the sciences of observation most so. Since 1836 the views of the Author have, of course, been altered in some respects, although they have experienced but little modification in others. This is inevitable in such a science as that of Systematic Botany, where the discovery of a few new facts or half a dozen fresh genera may instantly change the point of view from which a given object is observed. The Author cannot

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regard perseverance in error commendable, for the sake of what is idly called consistency; he would rather see false views corrected as the proof of their error arises. His object, and, he thinks he may say that of every one else who has turned his attention to this question of late, has not been to establish a system of his own, which shall be immutable, but to contribute to the extent of his ability towards that end. He indeed must be a very presumptuous person, having a microscopically small acquaintance with his subject, who should even dream of being able to accomplish such a purpose. All that we can do is to throw our pebbles upon the heap, which shall hereafter, when they hav.e sufficiently accumulated, become the landmark of Systematical Botany.

Having stated thus much by way of preface, it only now remains to explain the plan of the work in its new form. Its object is to give-a concise view of the state of Systematical Botany at the present day, to show the relation or supposed relation of one group of plants to another, to explain their geographical distribution, and to point out the various uses to which the species are applied in different countries. The names of all known genera, with their synonyms, are given under each Natural Order, the numbers of the genera and species are in every case computed from what seems to be the best authority, and complete Indices of the multitudes of names embodied in the work are added, so as to enable a Botanist to know immediately under what Natural Order a given genus is stationed, or what the uses are to which any species has been applied. Finally, the work is copiously illustrated by wood and glyphographic cuts, and for the convenience of Students, an artificial analysis of the system is placed at the end. Some of these points demand a few words of comment.

In offering to the public a view of the present state of Systematical Botany, the Author has pursued the plan developed in the succeeding pages, of first taking certain characters common to very extensive assemblages of plants, by means of which Classes have been constituted; and, secondly, of breaking up those Classes into minor groups called Alliances, whose common characters are also more extensive than those of Natural Orders, and under which the Natural Orders are themselves assembled. Very short characters have been proposed, under the name of Diagnoses, for both Alliances and Orders; these are intended to express the prevailing tendency observable in each group, but do not include casual exceptions, for which the reader is referred to the descriptions immediately

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following the Diagnosis. The Alliances are the most important feature in the arrangement; and it is to be hoped will be found much better limited than they formerly were. The serious fault committed in the Author's former work, of founding Alliances upon single Natural Orders, has been avoided in every case except that of Palms, which in reality seem to form an Alliance by themselves. The name Alliance has been preserved in preference to that of class, family, circle, cohort, &c., because it is not susceptible of two interpretations, as is the case with all the others; it is employed as an English equivalent for the Latin term nixus, which aome have imagined was a misprint for nexus, but which was used in the sense of Cicero, and intended to express a tendency to assume some particular form of structure. If any one should inquire why no synonyms have been quoted to these Alliances, concerning which so many Botanists have lately occupied themselves, the Author's answer is, that they have hitherto been much too little agreed upon, except in a few very special cases, and that an examination of their history would involve an inquiry which must extend back to the Anthemides of Csesalpinus, and which belongs to the history of Systematical Botany rather than to its actual condition. The whole practice, indeed, of quoting synonyms is carried by Botanists beyond useful limits. It is in many cases a matter of courtesy rather than of utility; and for this reason, as no one is bound to be courteous to himself, the Author has very generally refrained from making references to his own writings, except when some real necessity for doing so appeared to exist. He may also state in this place, that throughout the present work he has struck out many of the citations given in the last edition, conceiving it useless again to occupy space with the names of authorities which can be always found by those who are desirous to search for them.

In pointing out the affinities of plants the opinions of the most judicious systematists have been consulted; among these the names of Arnott, Auguste de St. Hilaire, Bennett, Bentham, Ad. Brong-niart, Brown, Cambessedes, Decaisne, the De Candolles, Endlicher, the Hookers, the Jussieus, Martius, Miers, and Richard, stand in the first rank. In addition to the short discussion upon this subject which always follows the paragraph descriptive of a Natural Order there is appended to the list of genera a plan of indicating affinity now adopted for the first time. It consists of printing the name of the Order under discussion in capital letters; placing right

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xiv                                             PREFACE.

and left of it in small Roman letters the names of those Orders which are supposed to be in nearest alliance to it; and above and below it in italic type the names of such as are only analogous, or at least have a more distant affinity. The idea of this is borrowed from Mr. Strickland's excellent paper on the true method of discovering the Natural System in Zoology and Botany, printed in the Annals of Natural History, vol. vi. p. 184.

The uses to which plants are applied has been re-examined with great care, and principally re-written. This part was originally intended as a mere sketch of so vast and important a subject, and in truth it is little more even now. It is, however, materially enlarged, and the Author hopes better arranged. In preparing it great numbers of works have been consulted, and most especially the special treatises of Dierbach, Fee, Geiger, Guibourt, Martius, Nees v. Esenbeck, Pereira, Richard, and Royle, together with the capital condensation published by Endlicher in his Enchiridion, The Author was also strongly advised by one whose opinion has great weight with him, to introduce among the properties of plants an account of their proximate principles and ultimate constituents. But after a full consideration of the subject, he has come to the conclusion that it is not expedient to do so. In the first place, such matters belong to Chemistry, and not to Botany ; secondly, it does not appear possible to connect them with any known principle of botanical classification; and, moreover, the extremely unsteady condition of the opinions of chemists themselves upon the result of their own researches, and the uncertainty at present connected with the details of organic chemistry, would render the introduction of the supposed results of chemists embarrassing rather than advantageous. If it is true, as appears to be admitted, that such principles as Caffeine and Theine are identical, and that oils of Anise and Tarragon are chemically undistinguishable, it is clear that these substances can have no connexion with structure, or Botanical classification, if indeed they are not altogether artificial products produced by chemical processes, like Dr. Fownes's furfurol—a vegeto-alkali resulting from the distillation of bran, sulphuric acid, and water.

In forming the lists of genera, the Author is called upon to acknowledge the great assistance that he has derived from those of Professor Endlicher, which indeed he has ventured to take as the foundation of his own, making however considerable additions and material changes in some, and entirely re-writing others;


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PREFACE.                                               xv

m winch troublesome but necessary task he has been most essentially assisted "by the Key. M. J. Berkeley, who furnished the list of Fnngala, and "by Mr. Bentham, to whom he is indebted for those of Leguminous and Labiate plants and of Figworts. The reader will perceive that according to the custom of Botanists the names of genera which the Author adopts, are printed in Roman letters, and succeeded by others indented and printed in italics. The latter are either synonyms, or subgenera which do not at present appear to be of importance enough to be regarded as true genera.

In computing the number of species, attention has been paid not only to published statements, but also to such appearances of nndescribed species as the Author's own herbarium indicates, assisted occasionally by a little guess-work, where Natural Orders have not been recently examined with care, or where species have been notoriously founded upon trifling and unimportant characters. He does not however doubt that the numbers are in all cases too low. All they pretend to is as near an approach to truth as, under existing circumstances, is possible.

The illustrations are partly original, partly derived from other authorities. It would have been more useful if a larger number could have been introduced; but costly embellishments are not possible beyond a certain limit. Should the present work be favourably received, others may be inserted hereafter in the numerous blanks that have been left among the pages.

Finally, the artificial analysis of Orders given in former editions has again been improved, and is now adapted to the volume in its new dress. It is, however, no longer placed at the beginning of the work, but wul be found immediately before the indices. It has been gratifying to the Author to know that this table is habitually consulted by some of the most experienced Botanists.

There is still another point in which the Author has endeavoured to effect some improvement, and that is the nomenclature. Since the days of Linnaeus, who was the great reformer of this part of Natural History, a host of strange names, inharmonious, sesquipedalian, or barbarous, have found their way into Botany, and by the stern but almost indispensable laws of priority are retained there. It is full time, indeed, that some stop should be put to this torrent of savage sounds, when we find such words as Calucechinus, Oresi-genesa, Finaustrina, Kraschenninikovia, Gravenhorstia, Andrzejofs-kya, Mielichoferia, Monactineirma, Pleuroschismatypus, and hundreds of others like them, thrust into the records of Botany without

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xvi                                             PREFACE.

even an apology. If snch intolerable words are to be used, they should surely be -reserved for plants as repulsive as themselves, and instead of libelling races so fair as flowers, or noble as trees, they ought to be confined to Slimes, Mildews, Blights, and Toadstools. The Author has been anxious to do something towards alleviating this grievous evil, which at least need not be permitted to eat into the healthy form of Botany clothed in the English language.

No one who has had experience in the progress of Botany, as a science, can doubt that it has been more impeded in this country by the repulsive appearance of the names which it employs than by any other cause whatever; and that, in fact, this circumstance has proved an invincible obstacle to its becoming the serious occupation of those who are unacquainted with the learned languages, or who, being acquainted with them, are fastidious about euphony, and Greek or Latin purity. So strongly Has the Author become impressed witb the truth of this view, that on several occasions he has endeavoured to substitute English names for the Latin or Greek compounds by which the genera of plants are distinguished. Upon turning over the late volumes of the JBo-tanical Register many such instances will be found, in imitation of the well-known and usual English words, Houndstongue, Loosestrife, Bugloss, Soapwort, Harebell, &c. He cannot, however, boast of any success in these feeble attempts at reforming a great evil; nor, perhaps, ought he to have expected it. If such English names are not universally adopted, it is to be suspected that the circumstance is traceable to the indifference of the public to partial and inconsiderable changes, which are unseen in the ocean of Botanical nomenclature. That they are important must be admitted; that the person most careless as to the difficulties of articulation would prefer to speak of a Fringe-Myrtle rather than of a Chamaelaucium, or of a Gritberry than of a Comaros-taphylis, will probably be allowed on all hands; and therefore the Author does not confess discouragement at failure; but would rather invite suggestions as to more probable means of success. Mere translation is neither necessary nor desirable in all cases. Many Latin names have, from custom, been adopted into the English language, and no wisdom would be shown in attempting to alter such words as Dahlia, Crocus, Ixia, or even Orchis. Others again are so easily sounded, and so much in harmony with the English tongue, that nothing could be gained

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PREFACE.                                            xvii

by interfering with them; such, as Peuaea, Hugonia, Parkia, Mimosa, Arbntus, &c. And, finally, there is a large class of scientific words which are best Englished by an alteration of their foreign terminations; for example, Melanthinm may be changed to Melanth; Desmanthus to Desmanth; Lecythis to Lecyth; My-rospermnm to Myrosperm; and such an alteration would at once possess the great advantage of rendering English plural termina- tions possible. Melanthiums, Desmanthuses, Lecythises, &c., sound offensively to classical ears; Melanthia, Desmanthi, Lecythides, are, if not pedantic, at least beyond the skill of uneducated readers; bat Desmanths, Melanths, and Lecyths, are formed by the ordinary English plural termination without difficulty.

It is, however, to be feared that a long time will elapse before these views are carried out in such a manner as to insure their adoption. Bat in the meanwhile a commencement of the plan is practicable, and the Author hopes it will meet with support. The names by which the great groups of plants are known are few in number, and very often in use. There is certainly no reason why we should not at once English them; the practice, indeed, is already adopted to some extent by the substitution of the words Monocotyledons, Dicotyledons, Exogens, Endogens, Cryptogams, Phsenogams, &c., for Mo-nocotyledones, Dicotyledones, Exogenae, Endogenic, Cryptogams, Phaenogamae, &c. It is even carried further by speaking of Rosaceous plants instead of Rosaceae, Orchidaceous or Orchideous plants instead of Orchidaceae, or Orchideae, &c. But these amended names are still too long, and too un-English in sound to be in favour with the world which lies without the narrow circle of mere systematists; and no valid reason seems to exist for not immediately reforming that part of the nomenclature of Botany. The attempt has been already made in the Author's School Botany, where it will be found that by availing himself of well-known English names, or of the English word " wort," or by merely remodelling the terminations, a uniform English nomenclature has been secured for all the common European Natural Orders of plants. Thus for Nymphffiacese, Ranunculaceae, Tamaricaceae, Zygophyllacese, Ela-tinaceae, are substituted Water-lilies, Crowfoots, Tamarisks, Bean-Capers, and Water-Peppers; for Malvaceae, Aurantiaceae, Gentian-aces, Primulace», Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, are employed Mallow-worts, Citronwort8, Gentianworts, Primworts, Nettleworts, Spurge-worts; and the terms Orchids, Hippurids, Amaryllids, Irids, Ty-phads, Arads, Cucurbits, are taken as English equivalents for Orchi-

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xviii                                                PREFACE.

daceae, Haloragaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Iridaceae, Typhaceae, Araceae, and Cucurbitaceae. The principles kept in view in effecting those changes have been also observed throughout the present work, so ffcat standard English names for Classes and Orders are now no longer wanting. The Author confidently believes that every intelligent reader will admit that such names as Urn-mosses, Taccads, False Hemps, Pepperworts, Bristleworts, Chenopods, Hydrocha-rads, Scale-mosses, Birthworts, and Fringe-Myrtles are preferable to * Bry-a-ce-ae, Tac-ca-ce-se, Da-tis-ca-ce-ae, Elra-ti-na-ce-ae, Che-no-po-di-a-ce-ae, Des-vaux-i-a-ce-ae, Hy-dro-cha-ri-da-ce-ae, Jun-ger-man-ni-a-ce-ae, A-ris-to-lo-chi-a-ce-ae, Cha-mae-lau-ci-a-ce-ae, and other sesquipedalian expressions.

University College, London. October, 1845.

Note to the Thlbd Edition.—In the present Edition the reader will find much new matter, and a considerable number of new woodcuts. Many of the former illustrations have been replaced by better ones. The lists of genera have been completed up to the day on which each sheet was sent to press, as far as the materials at the command of the author permitted, and the whole of such additions have been indexed. Few changes have been made in the computed number of genera and species under each natural order, because, in the present very unsatisfactory state of systematical Botany, when a writer of no mean station converts one true species into three false genera and twenty false species, it seems hopeless to arrive at a much nearer approach to the truth than was attained in 1845. Many kind friends have again assisted the author in his task, and his most grateful general thanks are due to them, in addition to those separate acknowledgments which appear wherever new matter has been contributed.

July 21, 1853.

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PREFACE.............   vu

INTRODUCTION...........   xxi

Systems of Ray, 1703...........    xxxiii

—        LnetjEUs, 1751..........   xxxiii

—        JuasiEu, A. L., 1789.........    xxxiv

—        Browk, 1810..........   xxxv

—        Dk Candolle, 1813.........    xxxv

—        Agardb, 1825..........   xxxvi

—        Pbrlrb, 1026..........    xxxvii

—        Dumokxier, 1827.........    xxxvii

—        Bartlikg, 1830..........    xxxvii

—        Likdlet, 1830..........    xl

—        Hesb, 1832...........    xl

—        Schdltz, 1832..........    xl

—        Likdlet, 1833..........    xli

—        HoRAifjnow, 1834.........    xliv

—         Fries, 1835...........    xliv

—        Martius, 1835..........    xlv

—        Beomhead, 1836..........   xlvi

—        Likblby, 1836..........   xlvi

—        Ekdlicher, 1336-40.........    xlvii

—         Likdlky, 1838..........   xlix

—         Perleb, 1838         ...........   xlix

—         Lindlet, 1839..........   xlix

—         Baskerviixb, 1839..........   1

—         Trautvetter, 1841.........   1

—         Brosgniart, 1843..........   1

—         Heisnkr, 1843..........   liii

—         Horaxinow, 1843..........    liv

—         Jdbsiev, Adr., 1844.........   liv

—         LlSDLKY, 1845..........    lv

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THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.........       1

THALLOGENS............       5

ACROGENS........ ....     51

RHIZOGENS............     83

ENDOGENS.............     96

DICTYOGENS............    211

GYMNOGENS............   221

EXOGENS............   235









------------------------------------OF ECONOMICAL SPECKS ....    905»

ABBREVIATIONS...........    906

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That part of the material world which bears the name of the Vegetable Kingdom, consists, like the Animal, of a vast multitude of species, whose outer and inner forms alike offer a prodigious diversity of modifications of one common simple plan of structure. Organic vesicles, usually extending into tubes of various kinds, exclusively constitute what we call Vegetation ; bnt this simplicity of nature is attended by very complex details of arrangement, as is shown in trees, whose framework is knit together by countless myriads of such vesicles and tubes, entangled with an astonishing intricacy of simple arrangement.

Any living combination whatsoever of such vesicles constitutes a plant; but as the combinations themselves are countless, so are the resulting external forms; for, although two or three words may suffice to express all combinations whatsoever in their most general sense, as when the name of thallus is given to the simplest expansion of vegetable matter, while all the more complex forms are included under the name of axis and its appendages, yet ingenuity is exhausted in the attempt to distinguish by appropriate terms the manifold external forms assumed by that axis and the parts which it bears.

Hence it is that wherever the eye is directed it encounters an infinite multitude of the most dissimilar forms of vegetation. Some are cast ashore by the ocean in the form of leathery straps or thongs, or are collected into pelagic meadows of vast extent; others crawl over mines and illuminate them with phosphorescent gleams. Rivers and tranquil waters teem with green filaments, mud throws up its gelatinous scum, the human lungs, ulcers, and sordes of all sorts bring forth a living brood, timber crumbles to dust beneath insidious spawn, corn crops change to fetid soot, all matter in decay is seen to teem with mouldy life ; and those filaments, that scum-bred spawn and mould, alike acknowledge a vegetable origin. The bark of ancient trees is carpeted with velvet, their branches are hung with a greybeard tapestry, and microscopical scales overspread their leaves ; the face of rocks is stained with ancient colours, coeval with their own exposure to air; and those too are citizens of the great world of plants. Heaths and moors wave with a tough and wiry herbage, meadows are clothed with an emerald mantle, amidst which spring flowers of all hues and forms, bushes throw abroad their many-fashioned foliage, twiners scramble over and choke them, above all wave the arms of the ancient forest, and these too acknowledge the sovereignty of Flora. Their individual forms too change at every


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step. With every altered condition and circumstance new plants start up. The mountain side has its own races of vegetable inhabitants, and the valleys have theirs ; the tribes of the sand, the granite, and the limestone are all different; and the sun does not shine upon two degrees on the surface of this globe the vegetation of which is identical: for every latitude has a Flora of its own. In short, the forms of seas, lakes, and rivers, islands and peninsulas, hills, valleys, plains, and mountains, are not so infinitely diversified as that of the vegetation which adorns them.*

Botanists have gathered together these endless forms, have studied and arranged them, and calculated their numbers, which amount to more than 92,000 species: a mighty host whose ranks are daily swelled by new recruits.

This vast assemblage has not been gathered together in a few years; it is coeval with man, and we cannot but feel that the study of the distinctions between one plant and another commenced with the first day of the creation of the human race. The name indeed of Botany is modern; but its antiquity dates from the appearance of our first parents. We may assume it as a certain fact that the Vegetable Kingdom was the first to engage the attention of man, for it was more accessible, more easily turned to useful purposes, and more directly in contact with him than the Animal. Plants must have yielded man his earliest food, his first built habitation ; his utensils and his weapons must alike have been derived from the same source. This could not fail to produce experience, and especially the art of distinguishing one kino of plant from another, if it were only as a means of recognising the useful and the worthless species, or of remembering those in which such qualities were most predominant. This would involve from the very beginning the contrivance of names for plants, together with the collection of individuals into species; and the mental process by which this was unconsciously effected gradually ripened into the first rude classifications that we know of. By placing together individuals identical in form and the uses they could be applied to, species were distinguished ; and by applying a similar process to the species themselves, groups analogous to what we now call genera were obtained. The last step was to constitute classes, which were recognised under the well-known names of " grass, and herbs yielding seed, and fruit trees yielding fruit."

* It is in the tropica that the prodigious diversity of appearance among plants is most strikingly exem-

$ tilled. The beautiful forest scene, given as a frontispiece to this work, is copied from a plate in the rtcra BnuUiaui* of Dr. Von Martius, who deecrlbes it thus: " The landscape is divided into two unequal parts by a tree (*l rising to the height of 70 or 80 feet; H is EschweUera angustifolia. It is overrun with ropes which ding around it, or hang down in various festoons; these ropes yield a milky white or yellowish Juice when wounded, and probably belong to the Dogbanes or Asdepiads; other twiners, decorated with fine, large, beautifully green leaves, consist of species of Banisterta. Smilax, Serjania and Bignonia, voluptuously intertwined and entangled. A little above there Is a tuft of the large leaves of Anthericum glaucum, and from the summit of all hangs down some unknown kind of Bromelwort. On the left stands a slender Acada, whose bark is embraced by some parasitical climber ; then comes the Couratarl legatts, a high tree, whose timber is used in house-building: it forms a stem 80 or 70 feet high without a branch, and then spreads into a hemispherical head; owing to the slowness of its growtti it is overrun with epiphytes. In front of the Acada is a low tree with a dose head and a shining baric; that is a Ficus americana, and Banlsterias are shooting downwards from among Its branches. Before this lie the bones of some fallen giant of the forest, overspread with great tufts of Anthericum and EpiphyUum pbyllanthus. Close by, some Psychotria expands its large leaves and wide branches. A Hdiconia and a Phrynium start from the mud and marshy foreground; a great patch of Anthericum umbdlatum flourishes on the rotten trunk, and Just in front is a group of Agarics, such as we see in the woods of Europe. The taU tree on the right of Eschwdlera, with a smooth bark and pinnated leaves. Is an Inga; next it is a small bush of Leandra scabra, behind which is a thicket of Palicuria and Reneahnia nutans, backed by the Eriodendron lelantherum. The beautiful Patau to the right of them is Oeonoma Pohllana. The foreground on the right is occupied by Ficus longifolia, conspicuous with its ample foliage, and loaded with epiphytes of various kinds, especially with Antbericum glaucum. umbeOatum, and longitollum, and Caladium auritum. These and different kinds of Bflbergia have also taken possession of the rotten trunks in the neighbourhood. Near these is the white-barked Ceeropla peltata, with large green leaves hoary with down on the under dde." The cable-like dimbera on the extreme right are not named by Dr. Von Martius.

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INTRODUCTION.                                    xxiii

But as human intelligence advanced, and a knowledge of things increased, such rude distinctions were improved, and when no means existed of appreciating the value of minute or hidden organs, the functions and existence of which were unknown, objects were at first collected into groups, characterised by common, external, and obvious signs. Theophrastus had his water-plants and parasites, pot-herbs and forest trees, and corn-plants ; Dioscorides had aromatics, and gum-bearing plants, eatable vegetables and corn-herbs ; and the successors, imitators, and copiers of those writers, retained the same kind of arrangement for ages. It was not till 1570 that Lobel, a Fleming, improved the ancient modes of distinction, by taking into account characters of a more definite nature than those which had been employed by his predecessors ; but he was soon succeeded by others, among die most distinguished of whom were Csesalpinus, an Italian who wrote in 1583, the celebrated Tournefort, and especially our countryman, John Ray, who flourished in the end of the seventeenth century. The latter added much to the knowledge of his predecessors, and had so clear aud philosophical a conception of the true principles of classification, as to have left behind him in his Historia Plantarum the real foundation of all those modern views which, having been again brought forward at a more favourable time by Jussieu, are generally ascribed exclusively to that most learned Botanist and his successors. Ray, however, laboured under the great disadvantage of being too far in advance of his contemporaries, who were unable to appreciate the importance of his views or the justness of his opinions; and who therefore, instead of occupying themselves with the improvement of his system, set themselves to work to discover some artificial method of arrangement, that should be to Botany what the alphabet is to language, a key by which the details of the science may be readily ascertained. With this in view, Rivinos invented, in 1690, a system depending upon the formation of the corolla; Kamel, in 1693, upon the fruit alone ; Magnol, in 1720, on the calyx and corolla; and finally, Linnseus, in 1731, on variations in the stamens and pistil. The method of the last author has enjoyed a degree of celebrity which has rarely fallen to the lot of human contrivances, chiefly on account of its clearness and simplicity ; and in its day it effected a large amount of good.

It was soon, however, perceived by those who studied the Vegetable Kingdom profoundly, that no improvement could be made in the knowledge of its true nature, of the best manner of arranging it, or even of the purposes to which it might be applied, unless the philosophy of the subject wa& investigated ; and this became daily more apparent as the materials collected by botanical travellers accumulated. It was found that the few thousand ill-examined plants which inhabit Europe gave a most imperfect idea of the vegetation of the globe ; that methods of classification which were tolerable so long as species were few, became useless, or an incumbrance as the number increased, and that no real progress in Botany, as a branch of; science, could be hoped for so long as a few arbitrary signs were taken as the basis of all arrangement. The older Botanists knew little of vegetable physiology; and of the laws of vegetable structure they had at the most but a glimmering perception. Yet those subjects are the foundation of all sound principles of classification. The recognition of that fact immediately led to the investigation of new branches of knowledge, in which discoveries were daily made, and it has terminated in a universal adoption of the principles of Ray, improved and extended by the admirable views of Jussieu, as developed in his Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines


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xxiv                                     INTRODUCTION.

Naturales disposita,—a book of wonderful sagacity and most profound research.

Since the appearance of that work Botany has assumed a new position in the ranks of science, and the evidence from which conclusions are to be drawn has multiplied beyond all that could hare been anticipated. Twenty thousand species at the utmost could have been known to Jussieu in 1789; we have seen that the number actually on record at the present day amounts to more than 92,000. Vegetable Anatomy, the foundation of Vegetable Physiology, was at the former period in the state in which it had been left by Grew and Malpighi; it has since engaged the attention of the most acute and indefatigable observers, now armed with optical instruments of surprising excellence. The resources of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy have been enlisted in its cause; and the result is the accumulation of a prodigious mass of facts, the best mode of arranging which is the great problem that modern science has to solve.

That no artificial mode of classifying the vast materials of Botany could satisfy the human mind was clearly perceived and fully admitted by Linnaeus himself, when he declared a Natural System to be the primum et tdtimum in botanicis desideratum (Phil. Bot § 77). That no insuperable obstacle to its attainment could exist in the nature of things became evident the moment that the work of Jussieu was before the world. That Botanist for the first time proposed distinctive characters for the groups of genera, which he called Natural Orders, and those characters were framed with such skill that a large proportion of his distinctions is still unaffected by the progress of modern discovery. The manner in which he obtained the distinctions of his Natural Orders was thus described by himself:—" (Test ainsi que sont formees les families tris naturelles et gentraXement avoutes. On extrait de tous les genres qui composent chacune d'clles les caracteres commons a tout, sans excepter ceux qui nappartiennent pas d la fructification, et la reunion de ces caracteres communs constitue celui de la famille. Plus les ressemblances sent nombreuses, plus les families sont naturelles, et par suite le caractere gtntral est plus charge'. En procedant ainsi, on parvient plus surement au but principal de la Science, qui est, non de nommer une plante, mais de connoitre sa nature et son organisation entiere."

The Natural Orders thus obtained were bound together into a system by adopting the important distinctions of Acotyledons, Monocotyledons, and Dicotyledons, and then by subdividing the two latter into Classes mainly characterised by the insertion of the stamens or the condition of the corolla; as will be more particularly explained hereafter.

It was not, however, expected that the views of Jussieu should be just in all respects, or that his scanty materials would enable him to form a plan of classification sound and perfect in all its parts. On the contrary, his system abounded in errors and imperfections, and, in fact, the latter years of his life were occupied in striving to improve and consolidate it. The same object has been sought by great numbers of those who have succeeded him, and every few years of late have witnessed the production of some scheme of classification which, although founded essentially upon the groundwork of Jussieu, differed nevertheless in numerous details. In another place, the principal of these schemes will be mentioned. It will be for the present sufficient to say that, beginning with Brown in 1810, and ending with Adolphe Brongniart in 1843, the mass of suggestions and improvements which has been collected renders comparatively easy the task of applying Jussieu's principles of classification to the vast multitudes of species now forming the Vegetable Kingdom.

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The true principles of classification, however much they may have been amplified and refined upon, were in reality expressed by Ray, when he defined a Natural System to be that which neither brings together dissimilar petes, nor separates those which are nearly allied. However much the words of this definition may have been varied, it still retains the very meaning given to it by its author. A species, said Jussieu, consists of individuals very much alike in all their parts* ond retaining their resemblances from generation to generation. Those species are to be associated which correspond in the greater number of their characters; but one constant is of more importance than several inconstant characters. On these two axioms hangs the whole principle of Natural classification.— (Genera Plantarum Prsef.) And then he proceeded to show how a group of species combined upon this principle forms a Genus, of Genera an Order, and of Orders a Glass; the same rules of combination being observed throughout, with this difference only, that the larger the group the fewer the characters by which it is limited (Qud generalior enim extat plantarum ordinatio qu&libet, ed paucioribus utitur signis defnientwus).

But it is far more easy to lay down principles than to put them in execution. The definition of Ray is perfect, but its application is surrounded with difficulty. The very first point to settle in attempting to carry out his views is by what rule the dissimilarity or alliance of species is to be determined. In fact, very different ideas of likeness or unlikeness are entertained by different observers. The common people can see no difference of moment between a Daphne, and a Cherry, and a Rhododendron, but call then! all Laurels, although a Botanist fails to perceive their resemblance. On the other hand, there seems to the vulgar eye no connection between the Hemp plant and the Mulberry tree, and yet the Botanist brings them into close alliance. Nor are these conflicting views confined to the ignorant and the uneducated; such differences of opinion may be found among Botanists themselves. For instance, Linnaeus joined Arum with Phytolacca under his Piperita, and Convolvulus with Viola under his Campa-naeei, combinations which modern Botanists entirely repudiate ; and in like manner the association of Hugonia with Chlenads by Endlicher, of Nepenthes with Birthworts by Brown, of Planes with Witch Hazels by Adolphe Brongniart, of Vines with Berberries by the Author of this work, of Spurgeworts with Heathworts and Chenopous by Fries, are so many modern instances of peculiar views from which other Botanists withhold their assent.

It is therefore of the first importance to settle with something like precision what it is that constitutes likeness among plants, or, as it is technically called, their affinity.

The reason why the vulgar commit mistakes in judging of natural affinity is, because they draw their conclusions from unimportant circumstances, the chief of which are size, form, and colour. The similitude of size gave rise to the old notion that all trees made a class by themselves ; which is as if in a classification of animals the horse, the lion, and elephant were placed in a different part of the animal kingdom from the rat, the cat, and the goat. Form is another of the false guides which lead to error ; if all round-leaved or square-stemmed plants are to be associated, so ought glass to be classed with the diamond when it is cut to the same shape. Colour is less a source of mistake, and yet it is sometimes unconsciously employed by the superficial observer, as when he calls all yellow-flowered Composites Marigolds, and all white-flowered vernal bushes Thorns. It

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must be evident to the most careless thinker that such resemblances are trifling.

That which really determines affinity is correspondence in structure. It may be said that.those plants are most nearly related which correspond in the greatest number of points, and those the most distantly in which we find the fewest points of correspondence ; and this must be true when we remember that if every point in the structure of any two plants is found to be alike, then those two must be identical. But it will be obvious that an examination of all plants through every detail of their organisation is impracticable; it has never in fact been accomplished in any one case. Experience must have shown that the organs of vegetation are of very different degrees of value in determining resemblance in structure, that some are of paramount importance, others of less consequence, and others of comparative insignificance. Hence the relative value of characters forms a most important part of the study of the Botanist; it is in fact the pivot upon which all the operations of a systematist must turn.

The only intelligible principle by which to estimate their respective value is according to their known physiological importance ; regarding those organs of the highest rank which are most essential to the life of the plant itself; placing next in order those with which the plant cannot dispense if its race is to be preserved ; assigning a still lower station to such organs as may be absent without considerable disturbance of the ordinary functions of life; and fixing at the bottom of the scale those parts, or modifications of parts, which may be regarded as accessory, or quite unconnected with obviously important functions.                                                                             ' .

The first office which all organised beings have to perform is that of feeding ; for it is thus only that their existence is maintained. The second is that of propagating, by means of which their species is perpetuated. These being functions of the highest importance, it is reasonable to conclude that the organs provided for their proper execution must be of the highest importance also, and hence that they are beyond all others valuable for the purposes of classification. And, again, because the power of feeding must come before that of propagating, it might be conjectured beforehand that the organs destined for the former operation would afford the first elements of a Natural method. But since the action of feeding is very simple in the Vegetable Kingdom, because of the similar modes of life observable among plants, while, on the contrary, the act of propagation is highly diversified, on account of the very varied nature or structure of the parts by which it is accomplished ; so might we conjecture that the organs of nutrition would afford but few distinctions available for purposes of classification, while those of fructification would furnish many. And such is the fact. Hence it is that the great classes of plants are principally distinguished by their organs of growth, and that in the numerous minor groups such peculiarities are comparatively disregarded, their chief distinctions being derived from their parts of reproduction. These principles are more fully expressed in the following axioms:—

1. Peculiarities of structure which are connected with the manner in which a plant is developed are physiological; those which are connected with the manner in which parts are arranged are structural. Physiological characters are of two kinds, viz., those which are connected with the mode of growth {the organs of vegetation), and those which regulate reproduc-turn {the organs of fructification). Physiological characters are of greater importance in regulating the natural classification of plants than structural,

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INTRODUCTION.                                     xxvii

2.  All modifications of either are respectively important, in proportion ► to their connection with the phenomena of life.

3.  If we allow ourselves to he steadily guided hy these considerations, we shall find that the internal or anatomical structure of the axis, and of the foliage, is of more importance than any other character ; because these are the circumstances which essentially regulate the functions of growth, and the very existence of an individual.

4.  That next in order is the internal structure of the seed, hy which the species must he multiplied. Thus the presence of an embryo, or its absence, I the first indicating a true seed, the latter a spore, are most essential cir-! cumstances to consider. And so also the existence of albumen in abundance i round the embryo, or its absence, must be regarded as a physiological

character of the highest value: because, in the former case, the embryo

<              demands a special external provision for its early nutriment, as in oviparous

animals ; while, in the latter case, the embryo is capable of developing by

means of the powers resident in itself, and unassisted, as in viviparous

i             animals.

5. Next to this must be taken the structure of the organs of fructification, ' by whose united action the seed is engendered; for without some certain,

uniform, and invariable action on their part, the race of a plant must become extinct. Thus we find that the structure of the anthers, placenta, and ovules, are more uniform than that of the parts surrounding them, while their numbers are variable; and the condition of the filament, which appears of so little importance in a physiological point of view, is also inconstant.

fSo also the texture and surface and form of the pericarp, which acts as a mere covering to the seeds, is not to be regarded in these inquiries, and, in

>              fact, differs from genus to genus; as, for instance, between Fyrus and I            Stranvsesia, or Rubus and Spiraea, in the truly natural Rosaceous Order.

1                6. On the other hand, the floral envelopes seem to be unconnected with

functions of a high order, and to be designed rather for the decoration of plants, or for the purpose of giving variety to the aspect of the vegetable world ; and, consequently, their number, form, and condition, presence or J            absence, regularity or irregularity, are of low and doubtful value, except

J            for specific distinction. There seems, indeed, reason to expect that every

/             Natural Order will, sooner or later, be found to contain within itself all the

»             variations above alluded to. Even in the cases of regularity and irregularity

we already know this to be so ; witness Veronica and Scoparia in Figworts,              and Hyoscyamus in Nightshades, Delphinium in Crowfoots, and Pelargo-

nium in Cranesbills.

7. The consolidation of the parts of fructification is a circumstance but

little attended to in a general point of view, except in respect to the corolla;

but as it seems to indicate either the greatest change that the parts can

undergo, or, where it occurs between important and usually unimportant

organs, that in such cases the latter become essential to the former, it pro-

fe            bably deserves to be regarded with great attention. For instance, the

presence or absence of the corolla is often a point of little moment, and is,

we know, a very fluctuating circumstance. This iB especially true of those

Natural Orders in which the stamens and petals are separated ; as in Rose-

y            worts, Rhamnads, Onagrads, &c. On the other hand, when the stamens,

which are indispensable organs, adhere to the petals, the latter are more

V            constantly present, as in Figworts, Acanthads, Nightshades, &c.

There are also certain other principles which experience tells us the

>            systematist must keep in view ; and most especially that of regarding of

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ixviii                                   INTRODUCTION.

importance.whatever appears to be constant in its nature among nearly allied species. Nothing which is thus constant can be considered unimportant, for everything constant is dependent upon or connected with some essential function. Therefore all constant characters, of whatever nature, require to be taken into account in classifying plants according to their natural affinities. Of this nature are the internal structure of stems and leaves, the anatomical condition of tissue, the organisation of the anther, pollen, and female apparatus, and the interior of the seed.

On the other hand, whatever points of structure are variable in the same species, or in species nearly allied to each other, or in neighbouring genera, are unessential to the vital functions, and should be set aside, or be regarded as of comparative unimportance. Hence the badness of the Monopetalous, Polypetalous, and Apetalous divisions of Jussieu, depending upon the mere presence or absence, and union or disunion, of petals. The genus Fuchsia, for example, has petals highly developed; but in F. excorticate they are absent, and yet the plant differs no otherwise from the rest of the genus: the same is true of species of Rhamnus. Again, the Rue has the petals separate; and Correa, very nearly allied to it, has them combined.

All classifications in which the foregoing principles are observed are natural; and that will be the most stable in which they are employed with the greatest skill. Some writers, indeed, maintain that there cannot be more than one really natural system, any more than one planetary system ; and in a certain sense this may be true, inasmuch as we must suppose that one plan only has been observed in the creation of living things, and that a natural system is the expression of that plan. But, on the other hand, it must not be forgotten that such a plan may be represented in many ways ; and that although the order of nature is in itself settled and invariable, yet that human descriptions of it will vary with the mind of the describer. A universal history is a collection of events; but it is not necessary that all universal histories should follow the same order of narration. The events themselves are unalterable, but the way of combining them and causing them to illustrate each other is manifold.

In natural science, indeed, the mode of arranging the matter is susceptible of infinitely more variation than history : because in the latter subject time is an inflexible leader' who cannot be lost sight of. But in natural science there is no beginning and no end. It is impossible, from the nature of things, that any arrangement should exist which shall represent the natural relations of plants in a consecutive series. It is generally admitted by those who have turned their attention to a consideration of the manner in which organised beings are related to each other, that each species is allied to others in different degrees, and that such relationship is best expressed by rays (called affinities) proceeding from a common centre (the species). In like manner, in studying the mutual relationship of the several parts of the Vegetable Kingdom, the same form of distribution constantly forces itself upon the mind ; Genera and Orders being found to be apparently the centre of spheres, whose surface is only determined by the points where the last traces of affinity disappear. But although the mind may conceive such a distribution of organised beings, it is impossible that it should be so presented to the eye, and all attempts at effecting that object must of necessity fail. If in describing the surface of a sphere we are compelled to travel in various directions, continually returning back to the point from which we started; and if in presenting it to the eye at one glance we are compelled to project it upon a plane, the effect of which is to

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separate to the greatest distance some objects which naturally touch each other; how much more impossible must it be to follow the juxtaposition of matter in treating of the solid contents of a sphere!

An arrangement, then, which shall be so absolutely correct an expression of the plan of nature as to justify its being called the Natural System is a chimera.* All that the Naturalist ean do is to carry into effect the principles above explained, with a greater or less amount of skill; the result of which will be a Natural System.

When Linnsus attempted to form a Natural System, he merely threw together such genera as he knew into 67 groups, which ho called Fragments, and which were equivalent to the Natural Orders of Modern Botany. Jus-sieu advanced a step further, by forming 15 Classes, under which he placed 100 Natural Orders. At a later period the name Class was reserved for the three great divisions of Acotyledons, Monocotyledons, and Dicotyledons; and the Orders were collected into smaller groups called Sub-classes ; and thus, by degrees, the necessity of forming three grades of distinctive charac ters superior to genera was recognised. But our countryman, Dr. Robert Brown, whose sagacity is not the least remarkable part of his scientific character, long ago pointed out the insufficiency of even this amount of subdivision, and proposed the combination of Natural Orders into groups intermediate between Orders and Sub-classes. The necessity of this measure is now universally acknowledged ; attempts have been made for some years, by various Botanists, to work out the problem ; and I think it must be conceded that a real advance has thus been made, by the efforts of various independent observers, to the accomplishment of so very desirable an object. To such attempts the present work is an addition.

The leading idea which has been kept in view in the compilation of it has been this maxim of Fries: Singula sphoera (sectio) ideam quondam exponit, mdeque ejus character notione simplici opting exprimitur. I cannot but think that the true characters of all natural assemblages are extremely simple; nothing can be more certain than that their value diminishes in proportion to their complexity. If two objects are not to be distinguished by a few simple circumstances, they can hardly be called distinguishable at alL In the highest groups or classes it is always so, (see p. 4 ;) and there is no apparent reason why the same rule should not obtain in groups of a minor rank. Nevertheless, we find that this is too often lost sight of, and that long details of structure are substituted for precise words of distinction.

It may be, and certainly is in some measure, true, that insuperable difficulties are, in the present state of our knowledge, opposed to strict definitions of Natural Orders, and d fortiori of their Alliances, &c. But that is no reason why we should not endeavour to render their distinctive characters as precise as the nature of the subject will permit. Vague distinctions, which are at once the bane and opprobrium of Natural History, are so repulsive to the understanding as to deter the mass of mankind from giving it their attentive study. And it is not too much to assert that this vagueness arises more frequently out of the prejudices or mistiness of the Naturalist'8 own mind than out of things themselves. It will constantly happen that two groups may stand, by common consent, in the nearest conceivable relation to each other; it is quite possible, by one way of arranging

* STStemsfDud naturae tpdus absohttutn (quod mera empirla eaptant!) mens human* eapere occ patest; est quoddam supra naturate eojus clavem, manibns Y.lngenio numano non prensandam, euimnus tamtam tost Naturae auctor.—Fries Corpus Florarum, p. xvil.

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them, to render their distinctions nugatory, and by another, clear and precise. Now, if the supposed groups are really as closely allied, as for this argument we may assume them to be, it can be of no possible importance theoretically, whether a given Genus or Order is placed in the one or the other. The near consanguinity of the two does away with all importance in such a case. In Physical Geography it is of no consequence whether London is stationed in Middlesex or Surrey; and in like manner, in Theoretical Botany, the place of a given Order may be equally indifferent. But it may be of great consequence practically, because a definition of limits may be possible or not, according to the arrangement. For example, let us take the Solanal and Bignonial Alliances. These touch at the Orders of Nightshades and Figworts respectively. If Nightshades are placed in the Bignonial Alliance because of their intimate relation to Figworts, no apparent means remain of clearly denning what is meant by the Bignonial Alliance. If, on the other hand, Figworts are stationed in the Solanal Alliance, then the distinctive characters of that Alliance are also rendered obscure and difficult, or impossible of application. But place Nightshades in the Solanal, and Figworts in the Bignonial Alliance, and the language of Botanists affords as clear a discrimination as can be wished for. And so of other cases. Indeed, I am so persuaded of this, that in my opinion all instances of confused and vague characters are only so many proofs of Botanists not having clearly understood the plants that they have endeavoured to classify.*

It will, perhaps, be alleged that the doctrine just inculcated is directly opposed to the first principles of a Natural System: but such is not the case. No absolute limits, in fact, exist, by which groups of plants can be circumscribed. They pass into each other by insensible gradations, and every group has apparently some species which assumes in part the structure of some other group. Two countries are separated by a river whose waters are common to both banks: in a geographical division of territory the river may be assigned to either the left bank or the right bank, but such an arrangement is arbitrary; and yet the interior of the countries is unaffected by it. So with the groups of plants; it cannot be of any possible consequence whether an intermediate or frontier plant be assigned to one group or another, and convenience alone should be considered in such a matter. This long since led me to offer the following observations, the justice of which, much more experience entirely confirms :—" All the groups into which plants are thrown are in one sense artificial, inasmuch as Nature recognises no such groups. Nevertheless, consisting in all cases of species very closely allied in nature, they are in another sense natural. But as the Classes, Sub-classes, Alliances, Natural Orders, and Genera of Botanists, have no real existence in nature, it follows that they have no fixed limits, and consequently that it is impossible to define them. They are to be considered as nothing more than the expression of particular tendencies (nixus), on the part of the plants they comprehend, to assume a particular mode of development. Their characters are only a declaration of their prevailing tendencies."

We must not, however, deceive ourselves with the expectation that by this or any other expedient definitions in Botany will become possible. Mathematical precision is unknown in such subjects, and exceptions occur

* No Botanist will regard this na an offensive remark. It is the misfortune, not the fault, of men of science, that they cannot investigate everything with their own eyes, and that they are compelled, from the vastness of their subject, to take much of all they study upon trust. In Botany this is meet especially the case; for who has ever been able to examine one4enth of all the plants he speaks of, with minute accuracy?

LjOOQle *

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INTRODUCTION.                                      xxxi

toilWnown mles. " When Zoology/' says Mr. Milne Edwards, " is only

studied in systematic works, it is often supposed that each class, each

fanny, and each genus, present to us boundaries precisely denned, and

that there can. be no uncertainty as to the place to he assigned, in a natural

tkaeincaAion, to every animal the organisation of which is sufficiently

known. But when we study this science from Nature herself, we are soon

convinced of the contrary, and we sometimes see the transition from one

plan of structure to an entirely different scheme of organisation take place

by degrees so completely shaded one into the other that it becomes very

difficult to trace the line of demarcation between the groups thus con-

nected."—Ann. Sc. Nat. 1840, Sept. Ray long ago pointed this out in a

very remarkable passage, which cannot be too often quoted.

*' Verum quod alias dixi fllud hie repeto et inculco, non sperandam a me Methodmn undequaque perfectam et omnibus suis numeris absolutam, que et plantas in genera ita distribuat ut universe species comprehendantur, nulla adhnc anomala et sui generis reliqua, et unumquodque genus notis stub propriis et characteristicis ita circumscribat, ut null© inveniantur species incerti, ut ita dicam, laris, et ad plura genera revocabiles. Nee enim id patitur natura rei. Nam, cum Natura (ut dici solet) non faciat saltus, neque ab extremo ad extremum transeat nisi per medium, inter superiores et inferiores, rerum ordines nonnullas mediae et ambigue condi-tionis producere solet, que de utroque participent, et utrosque velut con-nectant, ut ad ntrum pertineant omnind incertum sit. Pneterea eadem alma parens in methodi cujuscunque angustias coerceri repugnat, sed ad libertatem et avrovo/uay suam nullis legibus obnoxiam ostentandam, in onoquoque rerum online nonnullas species creare solet, tanquam exceptiones a regulis generalibus, singulares et anomalas."—(Rah, Hist. Plant, vol. i. Prsef.) Linnteus did but copy this when he asserted that Nature makes no leaps (Natura non faeit saltus.—Phil Dot. 77.)

This doctrine has, however, been lately called in question by no less eminent a writer than M. Alphonse De Candolle, who requires that absolute limits should be assigned to all groups of whatever degree. "If," he says, "we cannot state in what respect two families differ permanently and universally, those two families are but one. Two pieces of land which touch each other form one island, and not two ; but two pieces of land which are separated by an arm of the sea, form two islands, and not one." —Annates des Sciences, series 3, vol. 1. p. 254. But this is a kind of reasoning wholly inapplicable to Natural History, for the reasons so admirably given by Ray, and is contrary to all experience. If the groups limited by M. Alphonse De Candolle himself are examined by this standard they alone suffice to demonstrate how visionary are such expectations. Mr. Bentham has satisfactorily answered the learned Botanist of Geneva. " We Botanists," he says, " cannot be so mathematically exact as geographers, and where an isthmus is very narrow, we must class the peninsula with the island. How often does it happen that two large Orders, say of five hundred to two thousand or three thousand species, totally distinct from each other in all those species by a series of constant characters, are yet connected by some small isolated genus of a dozen, half a dozen, nay a single species, in which these very characters are so inconstant, uncertain, or variously combined as to leave no room for the strait through which we ought to navigate between the two islands."—London Journal of Botany, 4. 232. It would be very convenient to find that the views of M. Alphonse De Candolle were practicable, but in truth they are quite Utopian*


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ixxii                                    INTRODUCTION.

While, however, the impracticability of absolute definitions is thus insisted upon, there can be no doubt that much more precision may be introduced than is too frequently found among them. Exceptions, although to some extent inevitable, are not uncommonly apparent, not real. It will frequently be found that a particular species is at variance with the definition of its Genus, or of a Genus with that of its Order, or of an Order with that of its Alliance; but, upon a full examination of all the structure of such supposed exceptions, it will turn out that they are misplaced, and do not in fact belong to the station which they occupy. Exceptions of this kind were formerly very common, but they are disappearing under the diligent criticism of modern observers. The genus Rhynchotheca may be taken as an example. The great feature of the Oranesbills is their beaked torus and folded-up embryo, and it is by that circumstance that they are essentially distinguished from their neighbours. But Rhynchotheca was described as having a beaked fruit and straight embryo ; it therefore formed an apparent exception to the definition of Granesbills. Investigation of the plant has however shown that its beak belongs to the carpels and not to the torus; and, therefore, it is merely an Oxalid, with a tendency towards the structure of a Cranesbill.

The manner in which the foregoing principles have been applied to practice has differed greatly, and the result has been schemes of various degrees of merit, some of which have dropped still-born from the press, while others continue to enjoy a well-deserved reputation. It would be alike unjust to their authors and the public to omit all mention of even the most obscure of these, each of whicn has been the result of much thought and patient study, and has doubtless contributed something to the progress of systematic science. But it would be beyond the object of the present sketch to treat them all at length, nor would the student derive any advantage from doing so. While, therefore, the following pages will be occupied by some account of every plan for a Natural classification of which I have any knowledge,* since the year 1789 inclusive, and of those of Ray and Linnaeus of an earlier date, such as are comparatively unimportant will be dismissed in a few words, and those only which have been really employed in practice will be stated at length. In order to render the latter more useful, references are given to the pages in the present work where an account of each Order may be found ; so that those who are accustomed to the use of other systems may not experience inconvenience from the arrangement proposed in the work now submitted to their consideration.

* I do not, however, Include the arrangements of the German Naturphllosophists; not, indeed, from any diareapect to those learned men, bnt because I must confess my inability to master their ideas, or to comprehend how their views are made applicable to any intelligible classification. The student wUl, I believe, find full information upon the subject in Oken's Lekrbueh dtr Ifaturphilotophie, edition of 1843. See also Refchenbach's Contptriut Regtd VryMibUit, 1828, the same author's Flora Qtrma-ttiea Bxeurtoria, 1830-2, and 6chulU ratutikhes System da PJtatutnrdcht, 1633.

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[What reference* an given after the names of Orders, In this put of the pxeeent work, they refer to the page where each Orders are to be found in the succeeding sheets].

1703. Rat, John.—(Methodu* Plantarum emendate et aucta).

Here we have the germ of the present methods of natural arrangement In fact the first divisions of the Vegetable Kingdom, proposed by Ray, are identical with those of JossieQ. Like him, he proceeded from the more imperfect to the most highly organised forms; the only difference being that he placed Dicotyledons before Monocotyledons. The author's words are " Floriferas di videmus in dicotylcdone*, quarom semina sata binis fbliis anmnalis, seminalibns dictis, quae cotyledonnm usam praestant, & terrft exeunt, vel in binos saltern lobos dmduntur,quajnviseos supra terram foliorum specie non efferant; et monocotyledons qiue nee folia seminalia bina efferunt nee lobos binos condunt Hoc divisio ad arbores etiam extendi potest: siquidem palmse et congeneres hoc respectu eodem modo a reliquis arboribus oifferunt quo monocotyledones k reliquis herbis."

His plan was this ;—

Plants are either

Flowerless, or Flowering; and these are

Dfcotyledones, or


Among the genera of Ray, which were what we now call Natural Orders, were Fungi, Mosses, Ferns, Composites, Cichoracete, Umbellifers, Papilionaceous plants, Conifers, Labiates, &c, under other names, but with limits not very different from those now assigned to them.

1751. Linnjbus, Charles.—(Philoecphia Botanica). *' Plant© omnes ntrlnqne affinitatem monstrant, uti Territorium in mappa geograplika." The following is the Natural distribution first proposed by Linneeus, under the name of Fragments. Many of his groups were taken from his predecessors ; others were contrived by himself. At a later period they underwent some alteration ; bnt the list now given will serve to show the learned author's plan. He never assigned any characters to these Fragments.

1.  Ptmrr*. Arum, Ac Piper, Phytolacca.

2.  Palm a. Cotypha, Ac, Cycas.

3.  Scitamiwa. Musa, Canna, Amonram, Ac 4* Obcridsjk. As now.

5w Bwata. Iris, Ac, Xyrb, Briocanlon, Aphyl lanther

S. Taiprtaloidrjb. Bntonms9AUsnia,8sgittaria.

7. Dbkudatjb. Crocus, Ac

& Spathacsa. Leooohun, Amaryllis, Ac

ft. Corokarur. Orntthogslum, Bcflla, Ac J&. hthiACKM. Lflium, Tulipa, Ac IU Moricatjb. Bromelia, Ac 13. Coadvhatjk. Anona, Magnolia, Ac, Thea

13.  Calamarijc Stirpus, Ac9 Juncus ?

14.  Gramma. As now.

15.  Coxi pkr*. Abies, Prous, Ac

I*. A mzktackm. Pistada, Atnus, Popolus, Jog-

lans, Qaercus, Ac 17. NogAMKKTACKiB. Xanthium, Its, Ac IS. Acorsoata. 3tatfce9 Protea, Hebenstreitia,

Brunia, Valeriana, Boerhaavia, Chtsea ? Ac lft. DimMp. Viburnum, RondeletSa, Cassine,

Rhus, Hex, Callicarpa, 1-awsonia, Ac 8* 8cAaau>A. Ficus, Ac 21. CoMrocnTA. As now, nearly. ST Umbsmatjk. As now. 3X McunaiuquA. Modem Crowfoots.

24.  Bi cowries. Asalea, Myrsine, Memecylon, 8*n-

talum, Ac

25.  Srpiaria. Jasmlnum, Ligustnun, Brunfefeift,


26.  CuLMiifi a. Tilla, Bixa, DiUenia, Clnsia, Ac.

27.  Vagina lbs. Polygonum, Lauras, Ac

28.  Corydajlrs. Melianthus9Kplmedium,Fnmarla9

Monotropa? Ac

29.  Contorti. Rauwolfia, Vinca, Asclepias, Ac

30.  RHOiADRft. Papaver, Podophyllum, Ac

31.  PoTAJirifKA. Capparis, Ac

32.  Campanacsi. Convolvulus, Lobelia, Viola, Ac

33.  Ltraioja. Solanum, Ac, Celsia, Digitalis.

34.  Colcmnipkka. Camellia, Oossypium, Ment-

xolia, Ac, but chiefly Mallowworts.

35.  SaimcoeA. Roseworts exclusively.

ISO. Comosa. Spirsea, FOipendula, Aruncuc 37. Pomacrjr. Punica, Pyrus, Ac9 Ribes* 38* Drupacra. As now.

39. Arbustiva. Philadelphia, end Myrtleblooras. 140. Calycanthkmjb. Oenothera, Ac9 Lythrum, Glaux, Rhexia.

41.  HKttPXRTBEAE. Citrus, Styrax, Gardnla.

42.  Caryophyllri. Cloveworts, with Franfcenla I           and Sclemathus.

43.  Asprripoujs. The modern Borageworts.

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44.  Btsllatjb. Galium, Ac, Hedyotis, Spigella,

Cornus? Coffea, &c.

45.  Cucurbitac**. Passiflora and Cucurbits.

46.  SvccvhtNTM. Cactus, Mesembryanthemum,

Sedum, Oxalia, Fagonia, fcc. be

47.  Tricocc a. Caxnbogia, Euphorbia, &a, Cliflbr-

tia, Sterculia, Ac

48.  Inuwdat*. Hippuris, Elatine, Ruppia, Xy-

pha, Ac

49.  Sarmkntacejb. Vitia, Hedera, Houstonia,

Ruscus, Smilax, Meniipermum,Aristolochia, Ac

50.  Trihilata. Sapindus, Malpighia, Begonia,

Berberlfl? Ac

51.   Precis. Part of modern Primworts.

57: Simquo&s. Crudfers.

58.  Vkrticillatjk. Labiates.

59.  Pkrsonata. Figworts, Hesamum, JusUcia,

Blgnftnia, Verbena, Ac

60.  Prrpohatjl Hypericum, Ciatua, Telephium.

61.  Statuminata. Ulmua, Celtis. Boeea.

62.  Candblarm. Rhizophora, Mimusops, Nyssa.

63.  Cymosjb. Lonicera, Loranthus, Ixora, Cinchona? Ac

64.  Fimcics. Aanow.

65.  Musct. Aanow.

I. Aloa. Nearly as now.

67.  Fungi. Aanow.

68.  Vagjb. All hi? doubtftil genera.

52. Rotacrjb. Geniiana, Lydmachia, Anagallis,i

Ac                                                                         At a later period Nos. 7,10,11,17, 26, 27,86,

63. Holrracka.—Spinacla, &c, Hernfcuia, CallU '38, 39,60, 61, 62 and 63, were cancelled; and four

triche, Petiveria, Jfec.                                       , added, viz.

54. Vrprbcula. Rhamnus,Ac,Lydum, Daphne, Gruinales. Craneabilla.

Ac                                                                     Calyciklorjr. Osyris, Trophia, Ilippophae,

65. Paptlionacra. As now.                                    j           Elseagnus.

58. Lomentacka. Leguminous plants, with'llRDRRACRJB. Hedera and Vitia, Ac.

jointed poda, Csesalpinieee and Mimosese. j Miscellak ra. A curioua mixture.

1789. Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de.—(Genera Pbmtarum tccundttm ordines natwales disposita, juxta methodum in horto regio ParUienxi cxaratum, anno mdcclxxiv). Adopting the views of Ray as to primary divisions, Jussieu applied them to the system of Tournefort, which had been in common use in France from the year 1694, and which was by far the best suited for the state of knowledge of the age m which it was promulgated. To this he added the position of the stamens with respect to the ovary, and thus constructed his 15 classes in the following manner :—

Acotyledones. Monocotyledones.

Dicotyledones. /




f Stamina hypogyna.


I------------epigyna. .

(Stamina epigyna.

{------------perigyna. .


(Corolla hypogyna. . I---------perigyna.

Class. I.


{Antheria connatis. Antheris distinctis.





( Stamina epigyna.





Diclinestrregulares....... . XV.

Under each of these classes he arranged ing their name from some genus, which 1 general structure.

Class I.               t              Class IV.

his Natural Orders as follows, usually deriv-he regarded as a good illustration of their

1.  Fungi, 29

2.  Alg«, 8

3.  Hepatic®, 58

4.  Musci, 64

5.  Filiccs, 74

6.  Naiades, 143

Class II.

7.   AroTde*. 127

8.  Typhe, U6

9.  Cyperoldec, 117

10.  Gramincc, 106

Class III.

11.  Palnuc, 134

12.  Asparagif200 13* Junci, 191 14. Lilia, 200

16. Bromelte. 147

16.  Asphodeli, 200

17.  Narcissi, 155

18.  Irides, 159

19.  Mus®, 163

20.  Connie, 165

21.  Orchides, 173

22.  Hydrocharides, 141

Class V.

23.  Aristolochize, 792

Class VI.

24.  Elseagnl, 257

25.  Thynielese, 530

26.  Proteae, 532

27.  Lauri, 535

28.  Polygone®, 502

29.  Atriplioes, 512

Class VIL

30.  Amaranth!, 510

31.  Plantagines, 642

32.   Nyctagines, 506

33.  Plumbaginea, 640

Class VIII.

34.  Lyslmachie, 644

35.  Pediculares, 681

36.   Acanthi, 678

37.  Jasmine*, 650

38.  Vitices, 663

39.  Labial®, 659

40.  ScrophularUe, 681

41.  Solane»,618

42.  Boragineic, 655

43.  ConTolvuli, 630

44.  Polemonia, 635

45.  Bignonise, 675

46.  Gentianem, 612

47.  Apodnece, 599

48.  Sapotae, 590

Class IX.

49.  GuaTacame, 595

50.  Rhododendra, 453

51.  Ericas, 453

52.  Campanulacea, 689

Class X.

53.  Cichorace®, 702

54.  Cinarocephafce, 702

55.  Corymbifene, 702

Class XI.

56.  Dipsaceffi,699

67.  Rubiace», 761

68.  Caprifdlia, 766

Class Xn.

59.  Arallse, 780

60.  Umbellifene, 773

Class XIII.

61.  Ranunculacero, 425

62.  Papaveracea*, 430

63.  Crucifene. 351

64.  Capparides, 357

65.  8apindi, 382

66.  Acera, 387

67.  Malpighise, 388 ' |68. Hyperica, 405

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tarac.                                      NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                  xxxv

«. Grttiflene, 400 7fc Aurantta, 4CT 71. Mete, 403 H. Ytiea,4» 73* Geraala, 403 74. Malvaceae, 368 7MIagnolUe,417

76.  Anonse, 480

77.  MenUpenna, 307

78.  Berberides, 437

79.  T0iacea>t371

80.  Cisti,349

SI. Rutaaw, 4® 83. Caryophylle«t 496

Clan XIV.

i85. Cacti, 746

f86. Portulacea, 500

|87. Ficoideie, 525

88.  Onagrse, 724

89.  Myrti, 734

90.  Melastonue, 731

91.  Salicariis, 574

92.  Rosaceae, 563

93.  Leguminoea>,544

94.  Terebintaee*, 465

95.  Rhamni,58l

Class XV.

96.  Euphorbia), 274

97.  Cucurbitaceas, 311

98.  Urtica% 258

99.  Amentacas, 248 100. Conifera, 226

1810. Brown, Robert—(Prodromm Florm Nwm ffoUandia, <ftc.) In this work the system of Jussieu is principally followed, but the Classes are omitted, and the sequence of the Orders is changed. The author states that he regards most of the Orders of Jussieu as being truly natural, but his classes, as the hitter candidly admits, often artificial, and apparently founded upon doubtful principles. It was the intention of Dr. Brown to publish a second volume of his work, and then to explain his views upon this and other subjects ; but that intention has not yet been carried into execution. It is here that we find the importance of the aestivation of the flower pointed out, and applied to the characters of Natural Orders. Those characters have been a model for succeeding writers.

1813. De Candollk, A. P.—(Thtorie £Umenlaire de la Botanique, ou Exposition des Principe* de la Classification NatwrtUe et de VArt de d&rire et tftiuditr Us Vfyltaux). In this work is to be found the explanation of the principles which guided its clear-minded author to the construction of a method of arrangement which has now almost superseded all others, partly because of its easiness and simplicity, and most especially because it is that which has been followed in the authors Prodromus, or celebrated description of species. He himself explains the course he has taken, to the following effect:—«I place Dicotyledons first, because they have the greatest numbers of distinct and separate organs. Then, as I find families where some of these organs become consolidated, and consequently seem to disappear, I refer them to a lower rank. This principle gives me the following series:—

) following I

L Dicotyledons % 3. 4. 5.

polypetalons and hypogynous. -and perigynous.

monopetalous ana perigynous.

----------------- and hypogynous.

apetalous, or with a tingle perianth.

6.  Monocotyledons; pturnogamous

                           7.--------------------; cryptogamoos.

8.  Acotyledona; leaty and sexuaL

9.  --------------- ; leafiest and without any known sexes.

1 have adopted this series partly because I think it that which is least removed from a natural sequence, and partly because it is convenient and easy for study. But let no one imagine that I attach the least importance to it The true science of general Natural History consists in the study of the symmetry peculiar to each family, and of the relation which these families bear to each other. All the rest is merely a scaffolding, better or worse suited to accomplish that end."—p. 206, first edition.

At this time De Candolle made no attempt to combine the Natural Orders in Alliances ; but at a later period (1819), in a second edition of the Thiarie, he proposed a few such groups, under the name of Cohorts, as will be seen bv the following list of his Orden, taken from the edition of 1819. In that of 1844, published by his son after his death, these Cohorts are all broken up, and considerable alterations are made in the sequence of the Natural Orders* I, however, prefer publishing his plan of forming Alii* aiices, rather than his last list, even although that does give his latest views of affinity.

L Vasccm* or Cotyub-domoc* Plawts ; that fa to say t furnished with ecOnlar tissue and reseda, and whose embryo b pcorjded with one or more cotyledons

1. Exogens or Dicotyledon*; that is to say, where the vestals are arranged In concentric layers, of which the youngest are the outer-loet, and where the embryo has opposite or vettfcfllate cotyledons.

A. Perianth double; that Is, where the calyx and corolla are distinct.

Tha la mi flora.

Petals distinct, inserted on the receptacle.

Cohort I. Carpels numerous, or stamens op* posite the petals.

1.  Rantwcnlaceat, 425

2.  Dffleniacett, 423

3.  MagnoliaceK, 417

4.  Anonaoese, 420

5.  Menispennee, 307

6.  Berberidea, 437

7.  Podophyllese, 430

8.  Nymphseaceae, 409

Cohort II. Carpels solitary or consolidated, placenta* parietal.

9.  Papaveraceoe9430

10.  Pwnariaceze,435

11.  Crucifene, 351

12.  Capparidere, 357

13.  Flacourtianen, 327

14.  Paasifloreae, 332 Vk Violacese, 338

16.  Polygale«,375

17.  Resedacese, 3S6

18.  Droteraeese, 43S

19.  Prankeniaceae, 340

20.  Ciatinese, 349

Cohort m. Oyary solitary, placenta central.

21.  Caryophylle*, 496

22.  Llneae, 486

23.   Malvaceae, 868

24.  Chlenacese, 486

25.  Byttneriacese, 363

26.  Sterculiace*, 360

27.  Tiliaceie, 371

28.  Klaeocarpese, 371

29.  Sapindaoen, 382

30.  Hippocastanese, 381

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31.  Aceracete, 387

32.  Malpightooese, 388

33.  HippocraUoeafi, 584

34.  Hjperidne*, 405

35.  Guttifene, 400

36.  Marcgraviacwe, 403

37.  8annentace»t 439

38.  G«ranle«, 403

39.  Cedrele*,461

40.  Meliace*, 4(53

41.  Heeperktae, 457

42.   Caraelliea, 396

43.  Oladne*, 443

44.  Rutaceae, 469

Cohort IV. Pratt gjmo-bade.

45.  Slmaroubese, 476

46.  Ochnaoeae, 474


Petals free or more or leas united, always perfigy-nous or inserted on thel calyx.

47.  Frangulacese, 581

48.  8amyde«, 330

49.  Zantfaoxylese, 472 60. Juglandeae, 292 51. Terebinthaceee, 465 62. Leguuxinosflp, 544

53.  Rosaces, 563

54.  Salicaritt, 574

55.  Taroarisdnefe, 341

56.  Melastomeee, 731

57.  MyrttoecB, 734

58.  Combretacea, 717

50.  Cucurbitacese, 311

60.  Loasese, 744

61.  Onagrariese, 724

62.  Flcoldese, 525

63.  Paronychiete, 510

64.  Portuiaceae, 500

65.  Nopale*. 746

66.  Groesulaceae, 750

67.  Craasulacett, 344

68.  SarifragesB, 567

69.  Cunoniaceae, 571

70.  Umbellifera,773

71.  Aialiaceae, 780

72.  Caprifoliesey766

73.  Lorantheae, 789

74.  Rubiaceae, 761

75.  Opercularfeae, 761

76.  Valerians®, 697

77.  Dlpaaceae, 699

78.   OdyceH»,701

79.  Compositas, 702

80.  Campanulaoeae, 680 8L LobeUaeea>,092

82.  Getneriee, 871

83.  Vacdniere, 757

84.  Ericlneae, 453


Petals united into an by-pogynous corolla, or not attached to the calyx.

85.  Mynlnece, 647

86.  Sapoteee, 590

87.  Ternstromicae, 396

88.  Ebenaceae, 505

89.  01eineeev616

90.  Jasmlneee, 650

91.  Strychneae, 602

92.  Apocynea, 599

93.  Gentianeae, 612

94.  Bignoniaoeae, 675

95.  Sesameae, 669

96.  Polemonideae, 636

97.  Conrohrulaceae, 630

98.  Boraglneaa, 655

99.  8olaneae9 618

100.  Antjrrhinea, 681

101.  Rh!nanthaceae,681

102.  Labiatae, 659

103.  Myoporineae, 665

104.  Pyrenaceae, 663

105.  Acanthaceaa, 678

106.  Lentibularieae, 686

107.  Primulaceae9 644

108.  Globularieae, 666


Perianth simple, or whose calyx and corolla form onty one envelope.

109.  Plumbagineae9640

110.  Plantagineae, 642

111.   Nyctagineee,506

112.  Amaranthaceaa, 610

113.  Chenopodeee, 612

114.  Begontaceae, 318

115.  PoTygoneae, 502

116.  lAurinea, 536

117.  Myristtceae, 301

118.  Proteaceae, 532

119.  Thymeleae, 530

120.  Santalacece, 787

121.  Elaeagneae, 257

122.  Aristolochieaa, 792

123.  f Buphorbiaceae9274

124.  Monimieae, 298

125.  Urticeae, 260

126.  Piperitae, 515

127.  Amentaceae, 254

128.  Coni/ene, 226.

2. Endogens or Monocotyledons ; that is to sav9 plants whose Teasels are arranged in bundles, the youngest being In the middle ofl the trunk, and whose' embryo is furnished with solitary or alternate cotyledons.


Fructification visible, regular.

129.  Cycadeae, 223

130.  Hydrocharideae, 141

131.  AlUmaceae, 209

132.  Orchideae, 173

133.  Drymyihizeae, 165

134.  Musaceae, 163

[Dr Candollk.

135.  Irideae, 159

136.  Hcemodoraceae, 151

137.  Amatyllideae, 155

138.  Hemerocellide«,*00

139.  ? Dioecoreae,%14

140.  Smilaceae. 215

141.  Lfflaoeae, 200

142.  Colchicaoe*. 198

143.  Junceee, 191

144.  CommeUneie, 188

145.  Palmae,133

146.  Pandaneee, 130

147.  Typhaceae, 126

148.  Aroldea?, 127

149.  Cypeiaceae, 117

150.  Gramlne*, 106

B. Cryptogams. Fructification- hidden, unknown or irregular.

151.  Naiades, 143

152.  Equlsetacese, 61

153.  MarsOeaceae, 71

154.  Lycopodineae9 69

155.  Filices, 78

II. Cjcllular om Acoty-lidonoub Plants ; that is to say, composed of cellular tissue only, not furnished with vessels, and whose embryo is without cotyledons.

A.   - Foliacsjb, having leaf-like expansions, and known sexes.

156.  Musd964

157.  Ilepaticae, 58

B.  Aphylla, not having leaf-like expansions, and no known sexes,

158.  Lichenes9 45 .159. Hypoxyla, 29 160. Fungi, 29 'Ml. Algae, 8

1825. Aoardh, Carl von.—(Classes Plantarwn).

This is a duodecimo pamphlet of 22 pages, with a coloured map,and is a recapitulation of the views of classification promulgated by its author between 1821 and 1826, in his Aphorism* Botanicu The object is to group Natural Orders in Classes, that is to say, in divisions subordinate to the primary ramifications of a system, and equivalent to my Alliances. u Classes/' says Bishop Agardh," should be formed by the same rules and on the same principles as Genera and Orders ; and therefore not by the breaking up of higher groups, but by the gathering together of lower groups. Yet, up to this time, all the so-called natural classes of plants nave been formed upon an opposite principle, with

the exception of the arrangement of Batsch.------We must distinguish, with Linnaeus,

between the character of a plant and its affinity. The former is derived from the latter, and not vice versd. Plants will sometimes agree in very few characters, which nevertheless are bound together by the strongest possible affinity. For instance, Ceratonia is very different from Leguminous plants, and Fraxinus from Jasmines ; yet they are nearly allied."

Agardh's primary divisions are nine ; namely,

1.  Aeotyledons.

2.  Peeudocotyledons.

3.  Ciyptocotyledons.

4.  Phanerocotyledons; Incomplete.

5. -----------------------; complete, hypogynous, monopetalous.

- polypetaloua

6. 7.


-, dlsclgynous, monopetalous. -9 polypetalous.

---------------;----------->, perigynou*.

But he adds, that the perigynous and discigynous structures run together, and that no iixed difference can be found between the monopetalous and polypetalous conditions.

The Classes or Alliances which are formed within these primary groups are contrived without sufficient regard io die definitions which precede them, and by which alone they are to be recognised. In fact, the principle of disregarding characters and trusting

[page break]

AwRM.!                                 NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                   xxxvii

merely to (presumed) affinity, is carried to such a length as to diminish the value of the groups ; and hence, no doubt, Agardh's method has never been adopted, notwithstabd-m* its merits in some respects.

He describes, in the following words, what he conceives to be the fundamental principles of natural classification :—

u Forma normalis in omnibus plantis non seque perspicua, sed ssepissime in quacum-qpe sectione sensim magis magisque prominet et explicatur, ita ut in quibusdam plantis perfectiseima appareat, et in aJiis vix perspicienda.

* Forma nonnahs constantior cernitur m frnctificatione, h.e. in flore et fractal, qnam h hahita, tarn quia in uuum tantum finem ilia explicatur, cum organa vegetationis indirecte etiam florem et fructum piteparare debent, quam etiam quia partes vegeta-tionis individuom tantum servant, fractals vero formam normalem perennem tueri debet.

* Sequitur tamen seepissime habitus fructificationem, ita ut plan toe quae flore et fructu non differant, habitu etiam quodam generali conveniant Non autem semper nee neces-Mrio.

« Hinc systems in fructificatione nititur.

* Ceteram observandum, quod fructua jamdudum plantam quamvis non explicitam eoirtinet, et quod plants antequam flos et fractals earn coronet, non perfecta est

u In sectione vero ilia, quam speciem vocamus, non fractals solus characteres prabet, quia in omnibus notis, prater quod e causis accidentalibus pendeat, con venire debent individua ejusdem specieL

u Affinhas plantarum componitur secundum nostram sententiam tarn e multitudine characterum quorumcumque in quibus conveniunt, quam ex eorum prostantia et prominentia.

*Sic sufficit vel levis nota in flore et fructu, ei multis notis habituaKbus conveniunt pkntas; et quo pauciores note pnestantiorum partium communes sun eo pturibus eonvenire debent in p&rtibus minoris momenti. Sic etiam quo maris prominet character quidam, eo minus dflaceranda sectio, etiam si pluribus aliis notis differunt plante sub.ea

1826. Pkrlkb, C. J.—(Lehrbuch der Natwrge$cJUchU der /Ummeidu.) See this aathort Oath, 1838. p. iHx.

1827. Dumobtikb, B. C—{Fforvla Bdgica.) The following is the system of this author, who does not appear to have given any account of its principles. His Orders are equivalent to Alliances. His Staminacia begins with Conifers and ends with Lemnads, and is die only part concerning which I fad any details:—

Classes. Bus-classics. Divisions.            Orders*

J( 1. JuliWgmls SbnpUtegmia { 2. Praetftagmla I 3. ThalamlteflpnU TubHloria . (*££=*


5. Fractitobk .                       / 0. Fructungulis

(Ungnlffloria { 7. Crilcimgalla

fBttegmia iDseorticaHa {


Ctpseffia . . .

Pollliisda _



PtaWMk 'ptoigrtnla

8. Thalamnngiitta ». Thalamffloria

10.  Frnctffloria

11.  CaUdfloria

12.  FructanHa ,13. Thalamaulia Q4. Ecslyptria \15. Calyptria H6L 8cat*Utn*a \17. Fungiiila

18. Grannlinia. Hi*. Cocculini* \». FsrUnia.

Character* or tub Orders.

J. Jolttegmla.—Flowering teste, placed on a catkin, L PnictMginia.—Floral envelops onev spigynous.

3.  Thalamfteffmia--Floral eavdopt one, hypogypoos.

4.  ThalamHnbla.—Tubs of a monopetakra* corolla liypogyaoos.

5.  FmetttaMa.—Tubs of a mooopetalous corolla tptgynous.

6.  Fractungolia.—daws of a potypstalous corolla epTgynoo*.

7.  Calfcongtitta,—Claws of a polypetalous corolla perigynooi,

8.  Thakmnngnlfai -Clawi of a polypetalom corolla hypogynom

9.  Thslandfloria—Corolla bypogynout. lft. Fnictiflork.—CorolUeplgynoni,

11. Calidfloria.—Corolla ptrigynous.

IS. FnidanUa<—Floral envelope one, epigynout.

13. TfataimiiWs —Floral envelope oat, hypogyaous.

[page break]




18S0. Basiling, Fr. Th.—(Ordines Naturala Plantantm, eorwnque Ckamctere* a Affinitates, adjtctd genenm erwmeratione). In this work the Vegetable Kingdom is divided into 8 principal divisions, and 60 sab-divisions or Alliances, called by the author Classes. The latter are furnished with detailed characters drawn up in the same manner as those of the Orders, and to the whole is prefixed an abridgment of the plan of classification. The synonyms of the . Alliances are slightly given; but it is remarkable that they do not contain any allusion to the anterior works of JPerleb and Agardh. As this work is the first in winch considerable details are introduced into the characters of Alliances, it seems worth stating, at length, its nature, which is as follows:—

[page break]


Clan L Fuihh. Confcmyvetn, 9 Gaateromyoetas, 29 Pjraioaiyoeltt, 29 Hymeoamycetes, 29

Clan 1L LlCHSHU.

Contothsfauni 45 H jmcBothalaml, 46 PyrenothalajDi, 45

c&n hl aus.

yoatochfmc, 18 Canferame.14 Floridw9» Pocao*,20

Clan IV. Mobcj. Hepatic*, 58

Clan T. Bhisocarfjk* fiablubcw, 71 ManOam*, 71 Uott«e, 71

Out VI. Ftucas. PoJypodJaees, 78 Ocnrandac««,78 Opb*ogb»ne9 77

Cte TIL Lycopodi-

Lytopotfaces, 69

C3an Vin. OomopTB-


Chance*, 26 Eqsbstaoan, 61

CIub IX. Glitmacra,

Grain fans, 106 Cjpaiacen, 117

CbMS X. JvncutM.


rviwiiiHmf 11£3

Clan XI. Eitutjb. BaimoBiMent 171 Hypoxiden, 150 Hnnodoneen, 151 Iitfen, 159 AMryffide*, 155 Brrmiilliowp, 147

One XH. Liuacrjk.

An*odelen9 300 <Wikacw,198 taBaoe»9315 Dioacmn, 314


Orchid**, 173

Cfa» XIV. Scitami-


Atncpc, 106 Camacnt, 108 Mm***, 163

Clan XT. Pauls.

Palme, 133

Ow XVI. Aroimjb.



Orootiaoa«9193 Typhacea, 128

Clan XVII. BmunuM.

N*Jadeae9 143 Podostemett, 483 Alfemace«9 309 Butomen, 908

Clan XVHL Hydro-charidra.

Hydrocharide*, 141 Clan XIX. Aaiaroi*-


Balanophorae, 89 Qrtfne»f 91 Asartoe*, 792 Tacceee, 149

Clan XX. PiPMRixM.

8aanzrae9821 PSpeiaoney 616 Chloranthaa*9 519

Clan XXI. Hydrofrl-


Cabombea, 41S Nymphasace*, 409 Ndumbooe»,414

Clan XXII. Corifrr*.

Cjtadne.SSS AMetfnn9296 Cupresshue, 298 Taxinje, 230

Clan XXIII. Amxnta-cbm.

Ctooariiien, 249 Myricne9266 Batulace*, 251 Cupnliferae, 290 Clmacen9 580

Clan XXIV. Urhcina.

Monimten, 298 Artocarpeae, 289 Drtfa»n9260

Clan XXV. Faoofy-

Polygonew, 502 Nyctaginee, 606

dan XXVL Protri-


Laorfaen, 535 tJantalacen, 787 Elaeagnen9 267 TTymelaen, 630 Proteacaae, 533

Clan XXVII. Sauci-ha


Clan XXVm. Agorr-


Plaiitagiiiee9 642 Plumbagine*, 640 Globnlarieae, 606 DSpaacefe9 699 Vateriane*9 697

Clan XXIX. COMPOSICalyoeren, 701 l&ynanth«n»9792

Clan XXX. Campawc


Goodenori**, 694 Sfrlideee, 696 LobelJacs*, 692 CampannlaoOT, 689

ClanXXXL Ericznra.

Vacdnton9767 Ericeae,453 Epacrktae, 448

Clan XXXH. Styra-


8tyrmcan9692 Bbenao8«9 696 Sapoten, 690




ArdUaone9 647 Primulacen, 644

|Clan XXXTV,

Uatibnlarto9 686 Scrophularinae, 681 Orobanchase, 609 Gnnerlen, 671 Seaamea?, 669 M Yoportnn, 665 Sdagineie96e5 VerbenaceA,663 Labiate, 669 Acanthace»9 678 Bignonlaceee, 675

Clan XXXV. Tubi< flora.

Potanoniaoefe, 636 Hjdroleaoen, 638 ConTo!nilaoett9 630 Cuacute*, <B3 8olanaceae, 618 Hydrophyllaae, 638 Bonaglnea, 666




Gentfanece9 613 Asdepiadeae, 623 Apocyneae, 699 Loganieae9 602

ClanXXXVII. Ruria-aits.

Lygodyaodaace»9 761 Rubiacen, 761 Oajntfoliaoaae, 766 Vibonme, 766

ClanXXXVIIL Lioua-


Jaaxnineae, 650 01ab*aa9«16





Clan XL. Umbrlli-


UmbeUifcrae, 773 Araliace«, 780 Hederaoeae, 780 Hamamelid6S9 784

Clan XLL Coccolina.

Berberldne, 437 Menl«p«rme«t 307


XXXLX Clan XLU. Trisr-


MyristionB, 301 Anonaone9 430

ClanXLIIL Polycar-ficai.

MagnollaoM, 417 DillaniaoeiB, 423 Pwonlaone, 426 Ranuxiciilaoen9 436

Clan XLIV. Rh«


Tmnandre», 374 Potygalen, 375 Raaedaene9 356 Pnmariacen, 435 PapaYeraoon, 430 Crudf«»9 361 Capparidan, 357

Clan XLV. Patoni-

8amjden9330 Homalinen, 743 Panifloren9 332 Turneneen, 347 Loaane.744 Cucurbitacne, 311 Gronulariaae, 760 NopalnB, 746

Clan XLVL Cjbtiflo.


Flacourtiaime, 327 MarcgravlefiB, 403 BixincK, 327 Ctettae*, 349 Violarine, 338 Droiemonp9 433 Tamarlad2ine9 341

Clan XLVII. Gurn-

Samngesieae, 343 Frankeniaceae9 340 Hypericme«9 405 Garcinle»9400

Clan XLVIIL Caryo-


CbenopodieoB, 512 Amamnihacan, 510 Pbytolaocaa, 509 Sderanthm, 628 Paronychia*!, 499 PortulaowB9 500 Alainefe. 496 Stlane«9496a

Clan XLIX. Buccu-


Ficoide*9525 Cranulaoen9 344 Saxlftaaoan, 667 Cunonlaowe, 571

Clan L. CALYcirvofua.

Halotagec, 722 Lytbarie*, 574 Onagrarin, 724 Hhiiophorace, 726 Vochyaien9 379 Combretaoeae, 717

Clan LI. Cajlycak-


Granate»t734 Calycanfheae, 640

[page break]


Class LIL Mrwrmm.

Memecjtott, 731 Mslastomaosfe, 731 Mjrtacte,734 *

Out Lm. Lampmw pbyum.

CamaUIaoea, 398 Terutramiaoett, 396 Chlsnaoee, 486


TOtaoi«9371 Steroollaoea, 360 Battneriacee, 363 IT ermnnnli first. 363 Dotnbqraoss, 363 Mahao*«9308


Gemnlaoea, 403 Lines, 485 Onlidaa, 488

ClattLVL Ampslidbjl

8annentaostt,43» Leeaees, 439 Meliaoea, 463 Cediska, 461

Class LVIL Malfio-


Malplghlacese, 388 Acerineee, 387 Coriariett, 475 Erythroxytaet 391 Bsptndaoese, 383 Hlppocastanaee,38S

|?RMsobolatt,30B Tropseolew, 366

Class LVIIL Tntcocc*.

SUckhotue*. 689 Euphorbiaceae, 374 Empetme, 285 Brunlacett, 785 Rhamneae, 581 Aquifollaosse, 597 Ptttosporoe, 441 Celastrines, 686 1 Hippocrateaoese, 584 ?Stapfajleaoe8e,381

Glass LEC Tutaaur


Odmaoea, 474 8lmarab6tt, 476 Zantboxyleae, 473


DIoanesB, 4» Rutace», 469 ZygophyllesB,*478 Aurantiace*, 407 Ainyridett, 459 Connarsceae»46d Cassuviete, 465 ? Jugbndeie, 393

Glass LX. CAtoparrjL

Pomaoee, 559 Ro*aoese,563 Di7sdew,563 Spirieacete, 563 Amygdalae, 587 Chry»obaUn*«, 543 Papilionacese. 544 8wartitae, 544 Osesalpinete, 544 544

] 830. Lindlet, John,—(An Introduction to the Natural System qf Botany, Ac.) This was a slight modification of De Candolle's plan, with the apetalous and polype-loos plants thrown together, and consequently with a different sequence of the Natural

talons Orders:

No attempt was made at forming the minor groups, now called Alliances.

Class I. Yasculams, or Flowering Plants. Sob-class L Exogens or Dicotyledon* Tribe 1. Angiospennse.

| 1. PolypeUlout, apetalous, and achlamydeous plants.

I' 3. Monopetalous plants. Gymnospennse.


Sub-class 8. Endogens or Monocotyledon* Tribe 1. Petaioidese. Tribe 3. Glumaceae.

Class n. Obllularis, or floweriess plants.

Tribs 1. FQicoideie; or Fern-like plants. Tribe3. Muscoidea; orMost-likeplants. TribeS. Aphylto; orLeafleesplants.

1882. Hess. J.—(Udxrsicht der Phtmtrogamuckcn naturlichm $flanzenfcmilitn mit ciner hurzcn charaktcristik dcnelbcn). This is essentially an imitation of the method of De Candolle, with some changes in the sequence of Orders. No attempt is made at forming groups higher than Natural Orders, and it cannot be said that the work has contributed to the progress of Natural classification. The great object of the author seems to have been to form a good series.

1882. Schultz, Carl Heinrich.—(Natilrliches System de$ PjlcmomrcicK* math miner inmcrtn organization). In some respects this is like the system of De Candolle. The author first breaks up the Vegetable Kingdom into Homorgana, which have an exclusively cellular construction, and Hetcrorganay which are formed with spiral vessels, and labciferous vessels in addition. These are evidently the Cellular and Vascular plants of De Candolle. His Heterorgaha he divides into Synorgana and JXchorganay the first having all the forms of tissue dispersed through a common cellular mass, the latter having them separated in the form of bark and wood; Synorgana are therefore Endogens, and Dichorgana Exogena. The principal peculiarity consists in laticiferous vessels or dnenchyma being made & mark of classification, a certain number of flowering plants being thus combined with floweriess, under the name of Homorgana florifera; viz., Charade, Naiads, Horn* worts, Podostemads, Seawracks, Hydrocharids, Lemnads, &c. Another peculiar feature, is the formation among Synorgana, or Endogens, of a Class called Synorgana dichor-ganoidcay which is regarded as intermediate in nature between Synorgana and Dichwgana. This Class is divided into 2 groups, of which the first consists of Peppers, Saurarads, and Chloranths, the second of Nycteffoe, Waterstars, Hippurids, Amaranths, Cycada, Waterlilies, Ac. The plan of this classification is as follows «—

[page break]




Homoqpaa ( Synocgana



. flarifcm 'L spoitftn




I Dtefaorgana (omnia florifera)

I. Homorgana rhixoeponu II. Homorgana pbylloepaia.

III.  Homorgana caulospora.

IV.  Homorgana florifera, V. Synoigana sporifera.

VI. Bynorgana gyipnantha. VII. fiynorgana coronantha. VIII. Synorgana palmacea IX. fynorgana dichorganoldea. X. Dichorgana kpldantba. XL Dichorgana perianthlna. XII. Dichorgana anthodiata. XIIL Dichorgana siphonantha. XIV. Dicborgana petalantha monooarpe. XV. Dichorgana petalantha polyeaipa.

1833. Lmdley, John.—(Nixus Plantar um).

Uris was an attempt, in imitation of Agardh and BartHng, to reduce the Natural Orders into groups subordinate to the higher divisions. Such group* were called Ntxn* (tendencies). The author threw aside the distinctions between perigynous and hrpogynous insertion as uncertain and leading to bad grouping; insisted upon the value of albumen as a primary character, and objected to the general principle that the sections of plants are to furnish their character, and not a character the section. Finally, be maintained that no sections are capable of being positively defined, except such as depend upon physiological peculiarities; and that ail other collections of species, by whatever name they are known, whose distinguishing marks are dependent upon structure alone, merely exhibit tendencies 9to resemblance in certain points, for which tendencies definitions are impracticable.

Keeping these principles in view, the following was the arrangement:—



( L Bxo

f Vasculare* . * . . < n. Bxo

. . . . {                                {TIL Eif»

(Erasculares. ... IV. Rhii

ExooMNJt. AnoiosramiUL





Sub-class I. POLYPETALA.

Cohort L Albdmtkosm ; embryo much smaller than the albumen.

K. L Amofef.

Nymph«ace« I Podopfaylleae I Hydropcltidese

Ndumboneie Cephaloteet

N. % JnonaU*. Myristicese Bfagnoliaeee Wintereee Anonacwfr

I Sohlgandrsa boieaiaeete

N. 3. Umbellate. VmbeUifera Araliace©

H. 4. GrossaUs. Grossulacea

Escalkraiese Bruniaoess

N. 5. PiUo*por*U$. Vites

Ptttospome Oladuace ?Dlon«a

Cohort 2. GrKosAsicjB; carpels arranged round an derated axis.

X. 1. Rutala. Ocknaeeae

Kntaceee »1

ZygophyHese Xanthoxylea

N. 2. Qgroniofef, HydroceresB

Tropseole® GeraniacesB Oxalidee Balsainlnese

N.8. C&HaUi. CoriarlesB

H. 4. FbrkmUi. Lfmnanthen

Cohort 3. Epiovjtm; oraiy inferior, generally with an epigynous disk.

If. I. Onagrales* Omgncem IChtasaceaB IHalorageaa Conbretaeee AlaagKese


N. S. Myrtato. Memecylees Myrtaoess Melastomaeess Lecythlde*


N. 3. Cornalt*. Hamamelktae Cornea Lorantbec

N.L Cruciate*. CiucLferse OVpsrideee

Cohort 4. Pari stalks t placenta parietal

N. S. FWoie*.       | N. 3. Pa$*kmale$. Violaoese                        Pteslfloreee

Bamvde»                        Papayacee

Monngeee                       Flacourtiace*

Drosemoese                     Malesherbiaeese

Frankeniace«                | Turneracea

N.4. CueurbUaU*. Cueurbitaew Losses* Cactee HumaUaese

N.5. Bwmiaks. Begoniaoes

N. 4. Bixedts. BixaCMB

V. 1. Gvttale*. Hteobotaa

Cohort 5. Calvcmm ; calyx incompletely wfaorled; two of the sepals being exterior.



I N. 9. Theales. iTernstraniacen

1 N. 3. ActraUs.



Hippocastanese |Polygale»


N. 4. Ctstaki. I linen

Cistinett Reaumurlese

N. 5. Berberak*. Berberidese

[page break]



[Ljwdlky's Nixus

Cohort 6. B\ncARPm; carpels consolidated, and none of the characters of the other Cohorts.

N. 1. Malvaks. Sterculiaceee Malvacefe Elseocarpese TiliaceiB Dipterocarpea

N. 2. McliaU*. Meliaoese

CedreleaB Humlriacesa Aurantiacese Bpondlacees

N. 8. Rhamnaks. Rhamnese ChaiUetiacess Tremandress

Nitimrlaceffi Burseraoen

N. 4. Euphorbia!**. Euphorbiacese Stackhouses Fouquieracese Celastrinese { Hippocnteacete

SStaphyleaoese Malpiffhiaoett 9 Eiythroxylea

N. 5. Siknak*. Portulacese Silenese Alsinese Tamarisdness Illecebress

Cohort 7. ApocARpm; carpels distinct, or separable, or solitary, and none of the preceding characters.

N. 1. Bomks. Rosacea | Pomacece I Sanguisorbesa

I Amy** *

N.2. Saxaks. Baueraoea Cunoniaces Saxifrages*

N.3. Fkoidakt. PiooidesB

N. 4. Crassak*. Crassulacea Oaladneie

N. & BakcmaUs. Amyridea Anacardiaces

Sub-class H. INCOMPLETES. Cohort 1. Tubipsra; cajyx tabular, often like a corolla, without the characters of the other Cohorts.

N.3. Proteaks. IGassytheo ******                     I N.5. Penaaks.

N. 1. Santalak*. Santalaoett

N. 9. DaphnakM. Elaeagnes




N. 4. Laureate.


Cohort 2. Curvsmbrya ; embryo curred round albumen, or horseshoe-formed, or spiral; calyx rarely

tubular. N. 1. Chenopodak*. | N. 2. Polygonaks. I N. 4. Sckrak*. I N. 5. Cocculak*. Amarantaceee                 Polygones*                     Sclerantbeae                    Menispermeas

Chenopodiacea                     j* 3 Pctivaks.         Nyctaginete

Phytolacca*                  |PetiTeriace»                  I

N. 1. Ammiaks. Cupulifera Betulinea

N. 3. UrUcaki. Urticea

Cohort 3. Rbctbmbryjr : calyx yery Imperfect; embryo straight.

Juglandea                    1 N. 6. Datiscaks.

N. 3. Casuaraks. P***?6* Gasuarinee                   |Lacisteme*

ftCeratophylleae f Artocarpese StQaginaGB Empetreae iMyrices

N. 4. Ulmaki. Ulmacece

Cohorts Achlamydba ; both calyx and corolla deficient.

N. 1. Piperak*. Chloranthea Saurureae Piperace*

N. 2. Salicinak*. Salidnem Plataneae Balsamifers

N.3- MonimUk*. Monhniese Atherospermea

IN. 4. PodosUmaks. Podottemea N.5. CallUraks. CaUitrichinese

Cohort 6. CoLUMNirB&JB; stamens monadelphous. N. 1. Nepenthaks.           |         N. 2. Aristokchiaks.



Bub class in. MONOPETALjE. Cohort 1. Polycarpa ; hypogynous (rarely epigynous) with a polycarpous ovary.

N. 1. Brtxiaks. Bradacea

N.2. Erteaks. Pyrolacea Ericea Yacciniese


N. 8. PrimuiakM. Prlmulacea Myrsinea |8apotea



N. i.NoUmak*. Nolanacea

N.5. Votmk*. Cuscutea Convolvulacese Polemonlacea Hydroleacea

Cohort 2. Eptgyna ; epigynous, with a 2- or many-celled ovary.

N. 1. Campanaks. Lobellaoea Campanulaoese ?Befrisiea ColumelUaoea

N. 2. Goodeniaki. StyHdea Goodenorla Scserolea

N. 3. CinchomO*. Cinchonaoess Lygodysodiaoea

N. 4. Capriak*. CaprifoUaeea

N. 6. 8kUak*. SteUata

Cohort 8. Dicabpjb ; hypogynous, regular-flowered, with a dicarpous orarj.

N. 1. Gentianaks. Gentlanea Splgellacea Apocynea Asdepiadese

N. 2. Okaks. Oleacev Jasminess

N. 3. Loganiaki. Loganlacese


N. 4. Echiaki. Boraginese Ehretiacese { HeUotropicese

Cordiaceas HydrophyLlese

N. & Solanaks. Solaneae Ceetrinese

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Cohort 4. Pkmonata; hypogrnoua, tmgular-flowered, wtth a dicarpous onuy. If. L Labiak*.



N. S. Bignortala. Btgnoniaeeae Pedattnee Cyttandracaaj

N. 8. Scrophulaki. Scrophularlacsae Orobanoben Gatnerea)

N. 4. amOolei. Acanthacea?

N. 6. ZoUOafaf. Lentibalarte

V. I. AsUraUM.

Cohort 5. Amrbgats ; onuy 1-celled.

K. 2. DipiaUs. I N. 3. Brunoniaks. iBninoniaoeie

N. 4. Plantain. (Plantagtoeee


N. & Ptoitfaki. Plumbsginese





OmsIIL ENDOGBNjB. Cohort L Efioyna ; stamens distinct, owrj inferior.

TL L itaomote.

N. 2. Narctnalet. Hypoxidea AmeryllidecB Hsemodoracett Bunnannise



N. 3. JMifas.

N. 4, Bnmdiaki. Bromeliaoett

N. & Hpdraki. Hydrocharldese

Cohort 2. Oywakmjs ; anthers united, owy inferior.




Cohort 3. Hypooyma; flowers on a plan of 3, coloured, ovary superior.

N. L Palmate. PiW


Melanthaee« Gflheriete Asphodele* LflJaeaie

N. 3. Commdaks. CommelinaoeaB

N. 4. AlUmaks. Butomese

N. & Juncaltt. Juneess Phfljrdren

Cohorts Impbspsct*; flowers herbaceous, or imperfect, or none; or finally of two parts and ooloured,

with a superior ovary.

N. L Pcmdaks. Qjdastfaaae

I        N. 2. Araks.

Aroide* Acoroidese

N. 3. TyphoUs. iTyphacese

N.4. 8mtUk$.

Dioscoreso SmOacen Roxbuighiacett

N.5. FtutHales.




Cohort 5. Gmtmacbjb ; scale-like bracts in place of a perianth.





f Briocaulonese



Bafflesiaceie Cytinen Balanophorett Cynomorieae


K. 1. FWcales.

I Pfcrfceriaceat OmrnxKCsceaB


N. 2. Lycopodala. Lycopodiaceae


N. 3. Muscat**. iMusd


| Jungermanniaceae


N. 4. Chorale* [Characeae

N. 6. FtmgaU*. Fungi Lichenes lAlgse

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xliT                                      NATURAL SYSTEMS.                          [Hoeahuiow.

1834. Horaiunow, Paul.—{Primm line* Systematis Natvr*, nexui natural* ommum evolutionique progressiva per manirtasccndaUts supcrstouctu)

Here the Vegetable Kingdom is divided into 4 Circles, vis.—

Circle 1* Bporopborw (or A cotyledons).

2.  Pseudospennse (containing Gymnbspenns tod Rhisanths).

3.  Coooophone (or Monocotyledons).

4.  Spermophor* (or Dicotyledon*).

Each of these is broken up into classes. Water-lilies, Sarraceniads, Peppers and their allies, with Nepenthes, are placed in the third circle; while Cistosrapes and Taccads stand in the fourth. The classes are in some instances extremely luxe, as, for example, the Thalamopetaleee, which contain 68 Orders, and are the equivalent of the Thalamifloral section of De Gandolle. By this author, as by some of the German Naturalists, Fungals and Algals are expelled from the Vegetable Kingdom, and form a part of a kingdom of Phjtozoa; for Mr. Horaninow divides the organic world into Vegetables, Phytosoa, Animals, and Man.

1835. Fries, Elias.—(Corpus Florarum provincialium Sued*.) In this work the author has given a general scheme of arrangement according to his own peculiar views, and has applied it to the Flora of Scania. He prefaces his plan with an exposition of his ideas as to the manner of constructing a Natural System, and, among other things, maintains that it is more likely to be perfected* by a small number of good observations clearly expressed than by a multitude of them. He regards germination as the first in rank of all the phases of vegetable life, manner of growth second, of flowering third, and of fruiting lowest of all, observing that the latter is the last stage of metamorphosis, beyond which there is nothing but the seed, whose constitution has nothing to do with that of the fruit The seed is the beginning of germination. He regards the fruit as of importance in distinguishing Orders, and employs three forms of it, to which paramount importance is assignable. These are 1, simple, with a central placenta ; 2, apocarpous, witn the carpels disjoined ; and 8, syncarpus, in which *the carpels are all consolidated. The first he divides into a, with one stigma, and 6, with two or more stigmas. The following is the general plan of his system, in which those numbers and letters have the value just assigned to them.


t Perianth genuine, complete, with a thickened disk for the insertion of the petals and stamens. Stamens inserted.

a. epigynous.


1. a. Bynantheme Dtoeacea 6. YaferianesB 8. Rnblaees 3. CaprifoUacea .

A. on the Corolla. I. Corouiflorje.

b. amphigynous.

TL AjfNULrrLOftje.

1.  a. Campsnalacee 6. Gesneriess


2.      Boraglneee Labiate

3.      Hydroleaoes

* hypogynou*.


1.  a. Solanaoea

Personate 6. GentlanesB

2.      Asclepiadea % Primnlaoes

B. on the Receptacle. II. Thalamflora.

a. tpigynous*


1.  a Cornecs

b. Celattrlnese Malpighiaoess

2.  a. Araliaoea 6. Umbellifene

3.      Loranthea

a. epiperigynoue.


1. a. Gelycanthem*

6. Rhamnea


1 8ueculente

S. Portnlacaeen

b. amtphigynous. V. Basiflorjk.

1.  a. Berberldea 6. Craciferse


2.  a. Nymptueace* 6. Rannnculacete

13. Balsaminese

c hypogynous.


1.  a. Cistines 6. Tiliacen


2.  a. Gruinales 6. MalYaeee

3.      Caryoptyltae

C. on the Calyx. IIL Ca t/rct flora.

b. ampkigynous. VIIL Toriflora.

1.  a. Legaminosc

Drupaoe* 6. Pomaoee

2.      Senticosae

3.       Paronydrfes

c hypogynous.


1.  a. Eridntt 6. Empetre©


2.      Euphorbtacese 3- Polygenes


[page break]




X. BmAcrniLOEju

H Apetatoaa. IV. Ikcomfutjb, with the disk not /VrtoiXA

XL JuLirLoitB.

L a. Vepreeote                         II. a. Fraxhiete 6, A&otoehla                            b. Juglandlncas

CncofUtaow                     I          Amentacea*

1 Artoeaipese                        iS. SaUdnesB 1 Urttoe*                              8. Myrlcwc

BsJanophorec                    I         Conifers

tLjoopodiaoee                   I         Bquisetum

thickened or stamlniferoua.

c son* or doubtfuL

XII. Nudiflosa.

1 a. Chloranthese

b. Piperaceet 2. SaururesD

CamtrichiMe 8. Naiadcee



f c\mpieU 1m S *»«*. a stances oplgynous.


LcOrcfaMes klridsa Nardssev 1 Hjdrocharidee? 1 Vslfaacria

Ttt series is eoiispkuous for its tat, epigysoua, retrogreoalio.


I 6. stamens amphlgjrnous.

XIV- IduiwuomM.

1. a. Lffiaceie

6. MclanthaooiB & Attsmaeea 3. Jn

This series is conspicuous for its flowers, central, amphigynous.

11 incomplete or 0.

c stamen* hypogynous.

XV. SrADicirLoa*.

L a. CaHaoes»

ft. Orontiaoest % Potamogetoness 3. Cyperaeese

ttt frroctaife, valvals.



This aeries is conspicuous for 1U vegetation, progresshre, hypogy-nous.



Qerm4naM*g threads

a. tolitorv* HmpU.                     I                  *- "™** ramifrt*g.

XVIL Piucaa.                      I                       XVIIL Musci.



a. rssait Colour herbaceous, XIX. Ami,

This series is conspicuous for its vegetation, and progressive.

b. absent Colour metallic. XX. Fuwoi.

This series is conspicuous for its fruit, and retrogressive.

1835. Martics, C. Ft. Ph. v.— (Conspectus Regni VegetabUis secundum characters wwrphologicos prmsertim earpiece in classes ordines et familial digestif Ac.)

ITie motto prefixed to this treatise, « Ye shall know them by their fruit," explains the principle© upon which Dr. Von Martius has constructed his system. He assumes that «because ttie fruit and its seed, or the parts analogous to them, constitute the crown and end of the whole nature and vitality of plants, on that very account it must be superior to the other parts in dignity." Accordingly its variations are scrutinised with modi care, and many new terms are proposed for the sake of expressing those variations with great precision.

Two primary divisions of the Vegetable Kingdom are admitted, viz.—1. Primitive Vegetation? consisting of all known plants except Fungals, which form of themselves the other division called 2, Secondary Vegetation. Primitive vegetation is separated into the following classes, viz.: I. Ananths, or - flowerleas plants; II. JLoxines, or Monocotyledons; III. Tympanochetes, or Gymno-gens; IV. Orthoines, or Dicotyledons. Each of the more extensive classes is broken up into certain sub-classes and series, under which are stationed Cohorts (or Alliances), in which the Natural Orders are finally marshalled. As the plan, which is very artificial, has never been adopted, it will be sufficient to give the Cohorts of one of the sub-tihrisUms, for winch purpose a portion of the second Sub-class of Orthoines may be elected.

Cohort 1. Mmocarpa $cabrifoli&.—Vr\\e*mt Morose, Artocarpese, Ulmaccee, Stllaginese, Hendoviaoese. Cohort % Haplocarpm columrtfiraMyrirtc**!. Cohort 3. Hapiocarpce chromanth*.—Thymelm, EUeagnees, Anthobole*, Osyridese, IWgerese, Her-

nandiaae, Aquttartnea, Proteacees, flantalacese, Nyssacese. Cohorts PolmlocarjkMckTcman1hm.—¥maanm. Cebott & Hoplocorp* oturtmAo,—Chenopodiaccee, Pcthreriaoess, Njctaginefe, *c

[page break]

xlvi                                      NATURAL SYSTEMS.                            [Bhomheap.

1836. Bromhead, Sir E. French, Bart.

This author's system first appeared in the Edinburgh Jowrn. Apr. 1886, and has since been more than once revised to embrace the later discoveries of the science. The last published revision was in the Mag. Nat. Hist. July, 1840. The writer proposes to proceed wholly by induction. The families are collected into Alliances, designated by a ter-a mination in ales, from some characteristic or well-known family contained in the assemblage- Each family is placed in that Alliance in which it may meet the greatest number offaxnilies of admitted affinity to it, the character being subsequently deduced from the assemblage so constituted, and used as a test of admissibility in the more doubtful cases. —See Mag. Nat. Hist. April, 1838. A sketch of characters for the whole series of Alliances as they stood in 1838 appeared in the EdMb. Phil. Journ. April and July of that year. He considers it an advantage that above 60 of his Alliances are to be found indicated or adopted with more or less accuracy by other Botanists. He has given some of these synonyms in the Phil. Mag. July, 1837, and in the Mag. Nat Hist. July, 1840. Hie author arranges with great care the contents of each Alliance in the order of the immediate affinities and transitions, and then places each Alliance between the two Alliances into which it passes. He considers himself to have thus established by induction a continuous series of Alliances, commencing with Algals and ending with Fungals, in which each family in a continuous succession stands between the two families of nearest affinity. The system thus resulting presents the aspect of two parallel races meeting in the Rhizanths, and presenting in their progress, at equal distances from the commencement, analogous Alliances, such, for instance, as Rosales and Fabales, Boraginales and Lamiales, Geraniales and Rutales, Ac. In the Alliances, and in the grouping of the Alliances, the system accords with the quinary method; but to this the author does not bind himself, remarking that quinary combinations very frequently occur, and that he has extended them for the sake of convenience, by leaning towards that method in cases where the limits of families are ambiguous.

He considers the theory of the circulation of organic forms to be confirmed by his method, but does not look on them as closed or re-entering circles. He would rather compare them to the approach of the returning parts of a spiral or to the similarity of the opposite ends of a fusiform figure.

The subjoined table of his Alliances shows their succession, but the transitions and contents of the Alliances could not be exhibited without giving his tables at length.

Racb op tub Atojk.

A-—Noetocstei. * B.—Fucsl689 rhodomelales, nlTfttos, chandot, oramndalsf.

C.— Ephedxabs, nqrriotes, ulmales, piperalM, halongales, oenotheratot, myrtalas, rosales, nxUStagsks, cucurbltalet, portulacalet, chenopodiales, polemonialss, boragfaales, solanata, gentbnalet, apocy-nalet, dnchonalet, sambucales, carnal*, geraniales, cifrtales, brasstealas, njmphialea, aiiatolocfalales.

C. 0.—Alinnales, restfate, agrortidalet, cocoalet, typhalet.


Rack op th« Fungi.

A —Mucorale*.

B.—Auricularialet, lycoperdales, nanaalee, Jungermannialet, lycopodlalee.

C.-Cupretaalet, betolales, rbamnalee, euphorblalee, teseulalee, hyperiealet, HuMnHflff, febalet, violates, pauffloralef, homallalee, ebeagnalet, acanthalct, lainiales, xiiinanttialea, erkalee, campanulalas, atonies, dipsacales, mynhiales, rotates, matales, laurales, magnollsles, menispeimales.

C. C-Aiparagales, Juncales, orchidalss, BingtberalM, nardwales.

1886. Likdley, John.—(A Natural System of Botany* &&, second edition.) The arrangement here adopted was nearly the same as that proposed in the Nixus Plantarum (see p. xli) An attempt was also made to reform the nomenclature of the Natural System, by making all the names of divisions of the same value end in the same way. The Orders were distinguished by ending in acea, the Sub-orders in em, the Alliances in ales, and certain combinations, called groups, in osm. It was conceived that certain advantages and conveniences would attend the establishment of uniformity in these matters. Botanists do not, however, appear to be as yet disposed to entertain this opinion, and the terminations have not been generally adopted, m part, no doubt, because of the difficulty of adapting them to Greek and Latin compounds.

1836-1840. Endlicheb, Stephen.—{Genera PUmtwrum secundum ordines naturaie


Upon this system has been published the most important systematical work that has

appeared since the Genera Plantarum of Jussieu, in 1789. It commences with plants

of the supplest kind, and closes with what the author regards as most complicated, viz*,

leguminous plants. It has been executed with great skill, but is too much dependent

[page break]




npou mere theoretical considerations, and is difficult to use in consequence of the boeenesB of the characters assigned to what the author names Classes, which are equivalent to my Alliances. The following are the details of his system :— No opposition of stem and root No spiral vends. No saxes. Spores lengthen- > THALLOPHYTA.

Born without soil: feeding by the rarfue: fructification vague


Bora on languid or decaying organisms: feeding from within: developing) Hy»t**ophvta.

Opposition of stem and root. Spiral vessels. Sexes in the more perfect.             . CORMOPHYTA.

Stem growing at the point only, using the lower part only for conveying 1

fluids. > Sp.-vessels 0. Both saxes present. Spores loose In spore-cases                   .Anophyta.

Sp.vessols . Male sex missing. Spores loose in one or maay-edledsporl p,

Both sexes present. Seeds embryoless, of many spores . . HyeUrophyta.

Stem growing at the circumference........Amphibbya.

Stem growing at both point and circumference......Acramphib*ya.

Ovules naked, receiving impregnation immediately by the foramen .             . Qymnosperma.

Perianth 0, nidlm. or simple, calydne or coloured, free or adherent             . Apetaku

Perianth doable, outer calycine inner oorolline, monopet. occasionally abortive. Gamopeiala. Perianth double, outer calydne inner corolline, parts distinct or united by \ r*ni******v* the base of the stamens, occasionally abortive. / DUUW€taia.

Region L THALLOPHYTA. Section 1. Protophyta.

Class 1. Alga.

IMatomacese, 12 Nostochintt, 18 Confervacese, 14 Chaxaceae, 96 Ulvaces*, 18 Florides, 23 Fucaceae.20

Class S. Uchenee.

Conlothalami, 45 Idiothalaml, 46 Gasterothalami. 46 yryrryniftthalaniij 45

Section 2. Hystbrophyta. Class 3. Futyi*

Gymnomycetes, 29 Hyphomycetes, 29 Gasteromycetes, 29 Pyrenomyeetes, 29 Hymenomycetes, 29

Region IL CORMOPHYTA. Sections. AcaoaavA.

Cohort T. AiforavTA. Class 4. Hepatic*. Rkdacee,57 Antfaocerotee, 00 Targtonfaeas, 58 Marchantincett, 68 JuafSTTnanniaceg, 59

Class 6. JtueeL ,63 ,64 Bryawee, 64

Class 12. QUmace*.


Class & Bquiieta. Equisetaceet, 61

Ctoss7. FUicti. Polypodiaces\ 78 HymanophyUete, 80 GWdieniacee, 80 8chizseacese, 80 Osmondaoes981 Maiattiaoee, 82 Ophioglossese, 77

Section 4. Amphibrya.

Class 8. HydropUrida.

Salviniaceae, 71 Marsfleaceag, 71

Class 9. BOaginu.

Isoetese,71 Lycopodiaoee, 69

Class 10. Zamke*


e. 106 Cypcracee, 117

Class 13- E*a*Uobl*st*.\

Cfcotrokpldee, 120 Hestfssw, 121 Rztocaalonee, 122 Xyride*,187 Commelyna**, 188

Class 14. Bdobi*.

,200 ,208

Pontederace*, 206 Liliacese,200 6mil*ce«, 216 \

Class 16. Artorhiue.

Class 15. CoromarU*.

I1nly<hW,180 Mehntbacasc, 196

iDioscorese,214 Taccaceee,149

j Class 17. JEWsato. iHydrocharide*, 141 Bunnanniaeea, 171 Irideee, 187 Hsemodoracese, 151 .Hypoxides, 154 ;AmaryHide«,155 BromeUaees, 147

, Class 18, Qynandr*. OwMdeiBf173 |Apoctasfaum,184

Class 10. Scitamine*. Zingiberaceet, 165 Caxtnacea, 168 Musaces, 163

Class 20. FluviaUi. Naiades, 143

Class 21. Spadicifiorct.

AroMe»f127 Typhacese, 126 Pandanee, 130

Class 22. Principe*. Palm®, 133 Cohort LGYMHoeraaMA.

Class 28. Conifer a, Cupreuinse, 226 Abietina, 226

[Cohort HI. Hystero-


Class 11. Rhizanthe*.

Balanophore®, 89 Cytfaie«f91 ------ »,93

Taxinese, 230 Gnetacest, 232

Cohort II. Apstalai

Class 24. Piperita.

Chloranthaoen, 519 Plpeiacese, 515 Saururea, 621

Class 25. Aqtialica.

Ceratophyltae, 263 CallHrichlnes, 284 Podostemess, 482

Class 26. Julifler*.

Casoarine*, 249 Hyrioetty256 Betulaoece, 251 Cupulifere, 290

[page break]




Sections* ActUMPRtBRVA.

Ulmaceae, 580 CeWde*,68a More*, 266 Artocaipeae,269 Urticaceae, 260 Cannabineae, 286 Antidesmeae, Plataneae, 272 Balsamifluae, 2S8 Salidneas, 254 Hensloviaceae, 570 Ladstemeae, 329

Class 27. OUrace*.

Cbenopodee, 618 Amarantaoeas, 510 Polygoneae, 502 Njeta*lxteaef 506

Class 28. Thymdem.

M<ralmia0eae,296 Atherospermeae, 900 Laurineat, 535 Gyrocarpeee, 535 Santalaoeae, 787 Daphnoideae, 530 AquOariaceae, 579 Blaeagneae, 257 Penaeaoete, 577 Proteaceae, 632

Class 29. SerpentarUt.

Aristolochiaoese, 792 Nepenthaceae, 287

Cohort UL Gamopmtaljb

Claw 30. Ptumbagines.

Plantaglneae, 642 Phimhagtnaaff, 640

Class 31. Aggregate.

Valerianeae, 697 Dipsaceae, 609 Composite, 702 Calycereae, 701

Class 32. Campanulin*.

Bninoniacas9 657 Goodeniaoeae, 694 Lobeliaceae, 692 Campanulaceae9 689 Stylidisae, 696

Class 38. Caprifolia.

Rubiaoeae, 761 Lonioeroae, 766

Class 34. Contorta.

Jasminese, 650 Oleaceae, 616 Loganlaceae, 602 Strycbnest, 602 Apocyne<£, 699 Aaclepiadete, 623 Gentianeac, 612 Spigelian, 602

Class 35. Nwui&r*. Labiate, 659 Verbenacoe, 663 Stilbinese, 607 Globulartaoeac96G6 S4aginett9 666 Myoporaoeae, 665 Confiaceae, 628 AsperifoU*. 655

Class 38. Tubijtor*. Ccmvolvulaoeae, 630 Polemonlaceae, 635 Hydrophylleae, 638

Sdanaoeae, 618 Class 87. PertonaUe*

Soropbualarineae, 681 Acanthace»9 678 Bignoniace*, 675 Gssnermoeae, 671 Cyrtandreae, 671 Pedalineae9669 Orobancbeat, 609 Ctricularinae, 686

Class 38- Petakmth*.

Primulaceae9 644 Myroineat, 647 Sapotaceae, 600 Ebenaces, 695

Class 39. Bteonui.

Epacrideae. 448 Ericaceae, 453 Vacdnteae, 757

Cohort IV. Dialyfb-


Class 40. JHscatUh*. Umbellifene, 773 AraliaoeaB9780 Ampelldese, 439 Cornaceae, 782 Lorantbaceee, 789 Hamamelldeae, 784 Brunlaceas, 785

Class 41. Corniculata. Crassulaoese, 344 Baxifcagacece, 667 Rlbesfaoese9750

Class 42. Polycarpica.

Menispermaoaae, 307 MyristicaoeseLSOl Anonaceaa, 420 Schizandracese, 305 Magnollaceat9 417 Dlllenlaceae, 423 Ranunculaeeae, 425 Berberideae, 316

Class 43. Bhaada.

PapsTeraoeae, 430 Cruclferae, 361

Capparideae, 357 Resedaoeae, 356 Datlacese, 316

Class 44. Ndumbia.

Nymphceaoeae, 409 Sarmceniese. 429 Cabombeae9 412 Nslumboneac,414

Class 45, Parictak*.

Cistaceas9 349 Droseracese, 433 Violaceae,338 Sauvageslaceee, 343 Prankenlaoeae, 340 Turaeraoece, 347 Samydacese, 330 Bixaceae,327 Homaliaceee, 742 Passifloreceae, 332 Malesherbiaceae, 335 Loaaaoeae, 744 Papayaoeae,301

Class 46. Peponi/bri.

Xandblrobeae, 8U Cucurbitaoeae, 311 Begonlaceae, 318

Class 47. OpunUa. Cactaceae, 746

Class 48. Caryophyllinect.

Mesembryaceae, 526 Portulacaoeae,600 Caryopbylleae, 496 Phytolaocaceae,5O0

Class 49. Columnlfara*

Malvaceae, 368 Stereuliaceae, 860 Buttnerlaceae. 363 Tiliaceas, 371

Class 60. GuU&ra.

Dipterocaipese, 398 Chlenaceaa, 486 Ternstromlaceae, 396 Clusiaceae, 400 Marcgroaviaoeae, 403 Hypericaceae, 405 Elatinaceae, 480 Reaumuriaoeae, 407 Tamarisdneae, 841

Class 51. Httperidti.

Humiriaceae9447 Olacaoeae, 443 Aurantiaceae, 457 Meliaceae, 463 Cadrelaceae, 461

Class 62. Aeera.

Acerinas, 387 Malpigbiaoeae, 388 Bythroxjleaa, 391

Sapindacaae, 382 Rhlxoboleae, 396

Class 53. PdvgaUma.

Tremandreas, 874 Polygaleas, 375

Class 54. Frangutactm. Pittosporeae, 441 Staphyleaceae, 381 Celastrineae9 586 Hippocrateaceae, 684 Ilicineae, 679 Rbamneae. 581 Chaflletiaceee, 683

Class 55. Trioocca

Empetreae, 286 Stadthouslaceae, 589 Euphorblaceae, 274

Class 66. Ter&MMtm.

Juglandeff, 292 Anacardiacee, 466 Buneraoeae, 469 Connaracese, 468 OchnacesB,474 Simarubaoee, 476 Xanthoxyleat, 472 Diosmeap, 469 Rutaceae9469 Zygophylleaa, 478

Claaa57. Gruinaks.

Geraniaceoe, 493 Lines, 485 Oxalldeaa, 488 Balsamlneae, 490 Tropaeoleae, 366 'Imnanthft1"*! 366

Class 58. Calycijtora.

Vochysiacee, 379 Combretaceas, 717 Alangleae, 719 Rhiaopboreae, 726 Phfladelpbe*,753 (Enotheresa, 724 Halorageae, 722 Lytbrarieae, 754

Class 69. MprHJlov*.

Melastomaeea*9 781 Myrtace«,734

Class 60. Borijtor*.

Pomaceaa, 559 Calycantheae9 640 Rosace»9663 Amygdaleae, 557 Chiysobalaneae, 642

Class 61. Leguminoiff. Papilionac*, 544 Swkrtsieac, 544 Mimosess9 544

1838. Lindley, John.—(Article « Escogmf' in the Permy Cyclopedia.) In this place the author's views, as explained in previous works, were considerably modified so far as regards Exogens. He proposed in the first place to abandon altogether the old divisions of Polypetalous, MonopetaJous,and Apetalous plants, and to reconstruct the whole fabric of Exogenous classification, upon the following principles:—

In the first place, the Orders whose embryo is furnished with an excessive quantity of albumen (a great physiological distinction), were formed into an Albuminous group. ------The remainder of Exogens then consists of Orders in which some have the sexes

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LiHDur.]                                   NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                             xlix

in distinct flowers, and others hermaphrodite flowers. As we know of no character intimately connected with the reproduction of the species which i* upon the whole so important as this, a Diclinous group was established, as had formerly been done by

Jusneu.-------The hermaphrodite Orders were then separated into those with the calyx, -

corolla, and stamens confluent at the base with each other and with the ovary, that is, having an inferior ovary, and those in which those parts are distinct, either altogether

or at least from each other, the former constituting an Epigynous group.------Finally,

die remainder of the Orders were divided into those with a monopetalous corolla combined with an ovary upon a binary plan (Dicarpous), and those which, if monopetalous, have the ovary simple or complex Polycarpous). The following table will put this m a clearer point of view:—

Albumen extremely abundant; embryo minute.....1. AistmnrosAi

Albumen absent, or In small quantity. Sexes In the ame flower.

Omry Inferior............2. Brtorxos*.

Ovary superior. Flowers, if monopetalous, not with a dicarpous orary .             3. Polycarposjl

Flowers monopetaloas, with a dicarpotu orary.....4. Djcasfosa.

i In different flowers ......... 6. Dicunosa.

Each of these groups would form a series by itself, the sequence of which ought to be natural, and to exhibit various lateral analogies with other groups. And thus the three Monopetaloas, Apetalous, and Polypetalous divisions were exchanged for fire others founded upon totally different principles. It will be seen that this scheme has been partly adopted in the present volume.

1838. Pcrleb, C. J.—(Claris Clastium ordinum et familiar***, atque Index

regni vegctabUi*.

This author admits nine Classes, each of which is subdivided into 48 Orders, which are themselves the equivalents of Alliances, and under these are arranged 830 Natural Orders, which he calls Families. Professor Perleb states that most of the ; Alliances employed in this book were proposed by him in his work entitled Lchrbuch der Naturg&ckicktt dee Pjlanzcnrtichs, published in 1826, which I have not seen.

The Clavi* deserves to be studied. The Alliances are often well constructed, but not , having the genera arranged under them, they are extremely troublesome to use ; and this is no doubt the reason why the work has attracted so little notice among Botanists. Sir Edward Bromhead has analysed it {Mag. of Nat. Mist., new eerie*, 1840, p. 329), and speaks of it as *a work of very great value." Professor Perleb's Classes are the following:—

danism or /leafless (usually with a thsDus; fruit Imperfect . . I. Psotofryta. Acotjtodons               \ leafy; fruit per*act, capsular.........n. Muecos*.

/Eodogensor feryptogamoos..............III. Filioka.

Monocotyledons (phanerogamous.............IV. Tmrsamim.

fperieath simple, often incomplete, sometimes 0...... V. Momochlamyx>c«.

.2*9 (                                (Corolla hypogynoua                     VI Thalamajttum.

S* Corolla numonetslous <


§1                                   (petals perigynous                . VIII. Calycopbtalju.

j5 o I Corolla pleiopetelous I

~ \                                ( petals hypogynous .... IX. TmauuAfbtala.

1839. Lindlkt, John,—(Botanical Register, p. 77, MieceOcmeom Matter.) On this occasion the author directed his attention to an extension of the primary bases of plants, which he proposed to raise to 8, in the following manner:—

Stats L Ssxcajl oa Ftowsame Plahts.

~ , - fcwciooene.    i 2**     4- Exogmt.

Division 1. Exogens. I**™*—9*    \ Class     II. Grmnogens.

(                     Class   III. Homogens.

lAMmMMf  f Class    IV. Dtetyogens.

YVMrim* * Kbimii J af99mmmm9m \ Class V. Endogens.

mrttkms. Knoogsns.4                     j    vi. Bporogens. ( (Rhisanths.)

Stats II, Bssxual oa Flowbblrss Plants.

nMM * i,           _         f Class VII. Cormogeiis.

uifMMm 3. Acrogtos.          —         \ class VIIL ThaUogens.

To what extent these views can be sustained will be discovered in the present volume.

Corolla monopetalous {

t Corolla perigynous.....VH. Calycavtha.

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I .                                        NATURAL SYSTEMS.                        [Baskeevol*

1889. Baskerville, Thomas.—(Affinities of Plants, with some Observations upon Progressive Development.)

The author of this tract was a yery young man, with little experience; but he possessed strong perceptive powers, and would doubtless have distinguished himself had fife been spired to him. But he died almost as soon as his little book saw the light. In the main he adopted the scheme of Orders in the Nixus Plantarwm, p. xlL ; but he criticised that arrangement with some skill, and avoided many of its worst errors. Bas-kerville's main purpose was to establish a theory of progressive development in the Vegetable Kingdom, and to show by maps and other schemes all existing affinities. The following observations deserve to be quoted:—

"Before we endeavour to establish any plan of affinity, it will be necessary to make a few observations upon a subject bearing closely upon that, namely, the respective rank or dignity of plants, and the means we possess of ascertaining the same. That this is no easy matter will appear when we reflect that imperfection is impossible in any work of supreme intelligence: our ideas of one plant having a station above that of another will not be drawn from any positive defect observable in the lowest, but from excellency we fancy to discover in the higher being. A Moss or Lichen is as perfectly fitted to the conditions it is intended to fulfil, and its organs as completely adapted to that purpose as the stately Palm, or magnificent forest tree. To imagine one plant, therefore, more noble than another, we merely imply that we consider its organisation, either by its complexity or some other character, to raise the plant possessing such qualifications above the surrounding species. When our investigations are confined to plants upon, or nearly upon, the same level, the problem is so intricate that it scarcely admits of solution; but when we take species separated by a long interval, the sum of additional properties enables us to decide with more certainty; yet the amount of difference is so trifling, and probably so exquisitely compensated for, that the balance is by no means so great as might be expected. In consequence of this it does not appear that any one has as vet been able to suggest what ought properly to be considered as the highest kind of plant; and the same difficulty would occur with regard to the lowest, were it not decided by the degree of proximity to the animal kingdom.

" It will be seen, therefore, that this kind of study is essentially comparative, and our proper attainment of it dependent upon the extent of our acquaintance with the vegetable species and their organisation, and on a proper interpretation of the importance % of the characters which we construct from these, which, as character scarcely ever main- * tains an equal value in all its relations, lays open another source of difficulty.0—p. 39.

1841.. ♦Tbautvetter, Ernst Christian.—(De Novo Systemate BotamooJ) This is a speculative disquisition upon the philosophical way of classing plants. The author begs mat he may be understood to have executed his task not like a Botanist, but like a philosopher ?non botanico Bed philosophico munere perfungi). He divides the Vegetable Kingdom into semi-plants and true plants; the former into Fam or Acoty-ledons, and Trunculi or Monocotyledons; and the latter into Herbs and Trees. The views of the author cannot be given better than in his own words:—a Flagrant naturae venatores nova semper et incognita visendi cupiditate. Nos vero antiquitatis alumni aliter sumus affectL" The treatise will be found m the Bulletin de la SoctiU Imperial* des Naturalises de Moscou, 1841, p. 509.

1843. Brononiart, Adolphe.—(Enumeration desQtfnres de Plantes cultivis au Museum

d'ffittoire Natwrtlle de Paris, suivant POrdre itabU dams ViooU de Botamque en


The apetalous division of Jussieu is abandoned on the ground that the Orders

belonging to it are an imperfect state of polypetalous Ordera, (called after Endlicher

dialypetalous). The impracticability of a lineal natural arrangement is insisted upon.

Rules are to be formed upon d, posteriori not £ priori considerations. Albumen is

regarded of high value, especially the difference between farinaceous albumen, and that

which is fleshy, oily, and horny, which last are taken to be slight modifications of each

other. Finally, the direction of the embryo is regarded of more importance in its

relation to the pericarp than to the hilum. The following are the details of the system :—

Division 1. CRYPTOGAMS. No sexual organs, Ac

Branch 1. Amphigsk*. No distinct axis or appendages, Ac Branch 3. Achoqrxm. Distinct axis and appendages, Ac

Divisions. PHANEROGAMS. Sexual organs evident, Ac

Branch 8* Mowocotylkdowb. Embryo with one cotyledon, Ac Ber. 1. Albuminate. Albumen, 8er. 2. Exalbuminota. No albumen.

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Blanch 4. Diootyijidons. Embryo with two cotyledons, ate. Sob-branch 1. Angiotptrwt. Ovules in an oruy. Set. L. ChvmopctdUx* Mouopetalous.

11. Perigpna. Stamens and corolla inserted on a adyx adhering to the ovaiy, |2. Hypogyna. Stamens and corolla inserted under the ovary. Ber. 2. JHaiypctaUt. Petals distinct. S1* BypogynG* fS. Perigynct.

Sub-branch & Qymoipcrmut. Ovules naked.

Qarnl. feo-

Zoospofese,8 Aplceporwc, 8 ChorirtospareeL,8

DtrWon 1. CRYPTOGAMS Branch 1. Auraiec**. Class 2. -ftdv*. Hyphomycetcs, 29 Gasteromycetes9 29 Hymenomyoetes, 29

ClanS. LickmoUkm. Lkhen*s945

Branch 2. AcRoesirm

Class 4. Mu$dnta.

Hepatic®, 58 Mud964

Class 6. JMidfue.

Fflkes,78 MarsUeecee, 71 Lycopodiaosae, 09 EauJsetace»9 61 ?Cbanee«996

Division 2. PHANEROGAM*. Branch 3. MoNOoorruDom.

Ser. 1. Albumrao&s.

V Perianth 0, or sepals Albumen

Class 6. Qlwmacea.

Gtamine*, 106 Cypemeeflt, 117

Class 7. Jauacfae*.

Restteees9 121 Brtocanlonese, 122 Xyride*9187 Commeljnaette, 188

Class 8L Aroidea.

Aj»cea>, 127 Typhnoes, 126

Bac 1* Gamopxtalm,

*»» Perigynous. Oass 16* Cnwpan«tt»«. CanipaimlacftWB, 689 LoMtaee, «tt Goodcniaeeae, 094 ?8t3rlidfe*,0M ?Cdj«arage,701 Bnuoniacw, 667

Qm 17. AfUroidea. Compostts, 703

Ctaat 1& Lontcerina. Dfpmoeie, 099 Y«farfaM*,«B7 CrtfoHwwe, 786

C1M19. fWfWB. Batriacae,761

*»* Hypogynss. t Anisogynae.

*,* Perianth 0, or double, sepaloid or peta-lold. Albumen not farinaceous.

dan 9. Pcmdanride*.

Cydanthete, 130 Frqrdnetfee, 130

~ " », ISO

Class 10. Ptanfcofcfe*.




Class 11. Lirioidoz.

Melanthaceae, 198 Lfflaosse, 200 GHlietiace*, 106

AmaryIUdacesB9166 Hypoxldacea9154 AsteUese9191 Taocacea, 149 Dioscureae, 214 hidacea, 159 Burmanniaceae, 171

*»* Perianth double, the innermost or both peta-loid* Albumen farina-ceous.

Class 12. BromtUoidea. Hatmodoracese, 161 VeUosieie, 151 Bromeliacea, 147 Pontedaritoeee9 206

Branch 4. Dicotyusdows.

Sub-brandi L C]M8B20.A$ctepiadac6CB.

Splgsliaeeae9 602 Loganiace», 602 Apocynaoeae, 699 Asctariadaceae9 623 Gent&naeese. 612

Class 21. Gmvolvulimea.

Polemoniace*, 635 Nolansee, 654 Conrohrulacese, 690

Class 22. AtpertfoU*.

Cordiaoe»9628 BoragInese9 665 Hydrophyllacese, 638 |?Hydrtdsaceaev638

Class 23. Sdaninea.

iCestrinee, 618 l&olanese, 618

Angioipentm. ** Antsostemoneea.

Class 24, Arsofuzfes.

Scrophulariae, 6811 Utricularte,686 Orobancheae, 609 Gesnerieae, 671 Cyrtandieae, 671 Bignonlaceas, 675 ( Pedatineae,669 Acanthaceae, 678

Class25. Sdagtnoide*.

?Jasm!neae, 650 Globular!*, 666 Sdaginec9666 Myoporineae, 665

Class 26. Verbcntnea.

Yerbenaceec9 663 Labiate, 659 Btilbineae,607 |?PlantagineK,642

Class 13. ScUamine*.

Muaaceae,163 Cannacea, 168 Zlagiberaoeae9165

8er. 2. ExALBVuino**

Class 14. Orcktoid**.

Orchidaceae, 173 Apostasieae9 184

Class 1& Fluvial**.

Hydrochartdeae, 141 Butomese9 208 AUsmaossBf, 209 Naladese9143 ,124

ttleogynsB. Class 27. Prinulinca.

Primulacese, 644 MyrsinaceaB, 647 Theophrasteat, 647 jEgicereae, 647 Phunbagines, 640

Clsss28. Ericoide*.

Epacrideae, 448 Ericaceae, 453 Pvrolace*,450 ? Monotropeae, 452 ? Brexlaoeae9 573

Class 29. Diospyroidea.

Bbenaceas, 695 ?01esoeae,616 BicinesB, 597 Brnpetrsae, 285 8apoteae,590 ?Styraceae9592

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Ser. 2. Df alypbtaub.

» L Hppoppnm. f Flowers complete. A. Cayz permanent


dan 30. Quttylcr*.

Clusiacese, 400 Marcgraaviaeeae9403 HjperidneK,405 Reaumuriaeese, 407 ?Tamarisdnea»9341 Cisttnee, 349 Bixaoese9 327 Ternstromlace*9396 Chlenacese9 486 Dlpterocarpeee, 303 .

Class SL Malvoidt*.

Tiliacese, 371 Malvaeese9 368 Sterculiacea, 360 Bnttneriaceg, 363

* Oligoetemonese.

Class 32. Croto*to*m.

Antidesmea, 269 Forestiereee, 283 Euphorbiaeete9 274

Class 33. Polppalinc*.

? Tramaadrese, 374 PolygnleaB, 375

Class 34. (kranioidet*

Balsamine*. 480 Tropaeolese, 366 Geraniaceee, 403 fLimnanthea,366 ?Cortar!aoese, 474 Line*, 485 Oxalldee9488 Zygophyllese, 478

Class 35. Terebintkim*.

Rutacese9 460 Diosmes, 469 Ochnaeese. 474 Shnarubes, 476 Xanthoxylese, 472 Anacardleae, 466 fConnaraoee, 468

Class 86. Hesptridea.

Burseraoe«e9 469 Aurantiacete, 467 Cedreleae. 461 Meliaeett9 463 Ximenea, 443 Nltrariace«e9388 ?Humiriacea,(6i#)447 Rrythroiylew, 301


Class 37. JStculinea.

Malpighlaoece, 388 Acezineae, 887 Hlppocastaneee, 382 ?RhisobolesB,808 Saplndacete, 382 Vochysie«,379


Viniferse. 439 Hippocrateaeese, 684 Cefastracese9586 Staphyleacese, 381 Pittosporeae, 441

, Class SO. VioUnea.

?SeuvagesieiB9343 |Violace«, 338 Droseracen. 433 ;Fmnkenlaceae9340

B. Caljx deciduous, * Albumen none or thin, Class 40. Crudjbrittta.

Resedacese9 366 CapparidacesB9 367 Grudferae9351

"Albumen thick, fleshy,

or horny. Class 41. Papaverine*. Fumariaceae, 435 Papareraceae, 430

Class 42. Berberinca.

Berberideae, 437 Lardisabaleae9 303 Menispennaceae9307

Class 43. MagnoUnea.

Sehlzandree. 306 Mjristicaoee. 301 Anonacee, 420 MagnoUacee9 417

Class 44. BammcuUnea.

Dfflenlaeett9 423 Ranunculacese9 425 ?Senacennie«9 429

*** Albumen double, the outer farinaceous.

Class 45. Npmphecim*. Nelumboneae, 414 NymphMcese9409 Cabombese, 412

11 Flowers incomplete. Never a corolla.

Class 46. Piperita.

8aururac9 521 Mpemcese, 515

Class 47. Urticine*.

Urttcsee9260 Artocarpece, 260

|Morm9206 CelUdese, 580 Cannabinee9 266

Class 48. Pdpgonoidea. Polygons*, 502


t Embryo curved round i farinaceous albumen.

Class 49. GarpophpUine*.

Nyctagineee9 506 Phytolaccece9 500 Chenopodece, 512 Basellee9524 Amaranthaceis9 510 Silenese9496 Alsinese9496 Paronychia 499 Portulaoe«9 500

Class 60. Cactoidta.

Mesembryanthemese9 625 Cactes*9746

ft Albumen fleshy or| horny.

Class 61. Crauulinem. Czmssulacen9 344 Elatinea, 480 Datiscen, 316

Class 52. Saxi/rapim*.

Francoaoeee9 461 Philadelphese9 753 8axifragac6tt9 567 Ribeeiae9750

Class 53. Passytorine*.

Lease*, 744 Papeyacese, 321 Turneraceee, 347 Maleeberbi*, 335 Passiflorew, 832 Ssmydese, 330 Homallnese, 742

Class 54. HamameUne*.

Platane«9272 Balsamifluje, 253 UamamelideflB9 784 Alangiee», 719 Bnudacae, 785

Class 66. UmbeUina

rmbeOite»9 773 Araliace*, 780 Corner, 782 ? Ganyaceae9 296

Glass 66. 8amtaUmm. ? CeratophyUese, 263 ? Chloranthaceie9 519 Lorauthe*?, 789 Sf>ntalacen9787 I01adneae,443


Class 57. Asarinc*.

? Balanophore«9 89 Raffiesiace®, 93 Cytineas, 91 Nepentheee, 287 Aristobchiacesft, 792'

ttt Albumen 0, or little.

Class 68. CueurbtUnea Begoniacese, 818 Nhandirhobe*9-311 Cucurbitaceee,311 Gronovieae, 744

Class 69. (Bnotkerint*.

Hatarage«e9722 (Enotheme, 724 Melastomacees, 731 Lythraoeae9 574 ?Khi2ophores»,726 Memecyle*9 731 # Combretaceae, 717 ?Myrt*c*e, 734

Class 60. Daphnoidc*. Gyrocarpee9 535 Lauraoese9535 Hernandiacecey 535 Thymelaoeae, 630

Class 61. Protet***

Proteacess, 532 El*eagnacee9 267

Class 62. Rhasmnoidtau Penaeaceae, 577 Rhamneae, 581 8tackhousieat9 589

Class63. MprtoUe*. Myrtaoese9 734 Lecythldetc, 739 Grauateae9 734 Calycantheset 540 ? Monimiw, 298

Class 64. Roeinet. Pomacew, 669 Neuraden9 563           

Spiraace»9563 Roeaces»9663 Amygdalece, 557 Chxysobalanacese9 642

Class 66. UffumJmo*** Papilionacese9} Ciesalpiniese. }644

Moringe«9 \ I Class 66. Amuntac**.

I Juglandee, 292 ?8alidnefe9254 Quercine99 290 .Betullnee9251 llyricesi, 256 ICasuarinees, 249

Bub-branch 2. Opwmoeperma.

Class 67. Coni/tr*.

Gnetaces, 232 <Taxineaf230 Cupressin m9 226


Class 68. CpeadoUUm. Cycadeee9223

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The great fault* of this arrangement, in bringing Amentaceous into pontact with Leguminous plants, in separating Chloranths to Pepperworts, Myrtleblooms from Hipmmds, and many each instances, need not be insisted on. Such a system cannot be founded on sound principles. It has, however, merits, and is decidedly the most forward step that the Botanists of the Modern French School have yet taken. The abandonment of the Apetaloe of Jussieu is more especially important.

IMS. Mri&xkr, Carl Yriedrich.—(Plantarum tmcularium genera tccundum Ordinet ftotarofet digesta, eorumque differentia et qffimtate* tabulis diagnostic* cxpoeita.) In the beginning of this large and useful work Professor Meisner intended to follow nearly the order observed by De Candolle in his Prodramui; and accordingly he commenced without any plan for throwing die Natural Orders into higher groups. Bat as he advanced in his labour he found the inconvenience of neglecting the latter, and, as early as p. 13, he commenced with his CUsb Malpighinse. His final views are giten in a Conspectus diagnosticum the skeleton of which is the following:—



t Diplochlamyda. * Dialypataloua or Polypetaloua.

Qui 1. Pdpcarpic*.

Raaancolaeae, 425 DBkmtoxm, 423 MnoKaiw, 417 Anonaa*,420 Menfepenname, 307 Befberidace*,437

Claaa 2. Sympktcoidta.

Nahunbon«, 414 HjdnroaltideB, 412

Kj1Dpu£CftCGflB9 400

Claaa 3. Bhaadeee.

e»430 FiittisHiotm9 435 Ctactfena, 351 Gappaiideae, 357 " ef356

i 4. Pdggattnm.

Ttamaiftdme, 374 Potygalaae, 375

Oast 14. Legumino«t. ne,544 ,336


Claaa 5. Parictalc*. (Claaa 8. LamprophplUe.

iDlpterocarp««e,393 jCMaenaeeae, 486 , Ternatnxmiacaae, 396 Gnttffen*9 400 Maitgnnlace*, 403 Hypericineae. 406

Ptttoapore*,441 Fnwkeniaeen, 340 Tamarisrice*, 341 Podostemeae9 482 Droeracett, 433 Violariea*, 388 Ciatine*, 349 BUaeae, 327 Samydeae, 330 Homalineae, 742

Clau 6. Caryaphylttna. Caryophylle*. 496 Scleranth6K,528 Paronychia, 499 Portulaoeae,500 Elatineffi,480

Claaa 7. CW«*m</irr«*.

Mahr*ee99368 Bottneriaceae, 363 Btercoliacaae, 360 Tiliacece, 371

Claat 9. Malpigkin*.

Hlppocaataaeie, 382 8apindace«f 382 Malpighiaceae, 388 Aoerineee, 387 Erythroxylea?, 391 Hippoerateaceee, 684 ?Coriaiie«,475

dan 10. HcsperUks,

Humbiaoeae, 447 Oladnase, 443 MeUoide»9 463 Anranttacog, 457 Ampelide*, 439

II. Calyciflorals.

Clasi 15. Bcftorm. Boaaeeas, 563 Caljmitbeat, 540 Ujrttoem, 734

116 Calpcanthcwuz. Mdastouttdes, 731 l*ffatari*K,574

Claaa 2L Rvbiacintce.

K»Uace»9761 Lygodyodeaceg. 761 Ca**ittfccer,7*6

9724 Ctombretaeese, 717 Rhiaopboraoeae, 726 Vochjaiese, 379

Claaa 17* Corniculata.

Saxiflragaceea, 567 Craaaolaoea*, 344 Surface* Francoaceae9 451 Flcoides, 525

Claaa 18. Peponi/era. Papayacsa>, 321 Turoeracete, 347 MaleaberMaoaaB, 335 Paaalfloraoea* 332 Behriaieae, 728 Loaaeae, 744 GroMularieae, 750 Cacteaa.746 Cncurbitaceie, 311

Claaa 19. Frangulaec*. Cabatrina®, 586

* * MonopeCaloua. a. Fruit inferior.

Claaa 22. Aggregate.

Vaferia&e*, 697 Dipaace*9 690 Compoaite, 702

Calycsraa, 701

Claaa 23. Campanuline*. Styiidaae, 696

Oaai 24. Ericine* I Claas 25. Ligustrin*.

5. Froit auperior.

XsoeWaaa%757 Brieaeaae/453 MoBotrop6ae9452 Bf*aitem9 448

IColumeUiacece, 759 lBoBvar!aoea>9 612 I Jasmines, 650 iOleace*9 <J15

Claaa 26. Plontagoide*.

|PlantaghMB,642 Plumbagine*, 640 Salradotaoaae, 652

Claaa 11. GruinaUs.

Geranlaceae9 493 Lines. 485 Oxalid**, 488 Ledocarpeaa, 488 Vhrtanaoaa>9 365 Balaamines, 490 Tropaaole»9 366

Claaa 12. Rutaoccc.

Zygopfayllaese, 478



Zanthoxylaoeae. 472


Ochnacas, 474


Claaa 13. Terebinth***.

Juglandea*9 292 Anyrridwe, 459 Caaam1a*9465 8pondiacafla,469 Buxaaraoao, 459 Connaiaees* 468

Rhanmeee, 581 Bruniace®, 785 Aquflarinea, 579 Cbailletiacss, 583

Claaa 20. UmbcUiflorcc

Hamamelidett, 781 Umbellifene, 773 Araliace«,780 Cornea, 782 A)angie*9 719 Loranthaceae9 780

Brunoniacee, 657 Goodenlacee, 694 Lobeliace*, 692 Campanulaeen, 689 PongaUea»9 689

| Claaa 27. PetalanUur-

Prlmnlaces, 604 MyntneK, 647

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Class 88. Btpradnta. Stynces, 592 Ebesaoea, 505 Sapote*, 500 Aquifdliace*, 597

Class 29. Omtorte.

?Rou8saeaeea Logantacea, 602 f G*ntUn*ce», 612

Class 32. Oleracea*

PettYeriaceae, 509 Polygonacese, 502 Briogonese, 502 Nyctagineae, 506 Chenopodteoeae, 512 Amarantaceae, 510 Pytolaccese9509

Class S3. Daphnoide*.

Monimietet298 Atherospermeie, 300 Laurinen, 536 Gyrocarpea, 535 GrubbiaoesB Nyssacesc>592 Helvingiaceas 296 Santaiacese, 787 Anthobole*



Apoqpnacee, 599 Asdepladea, 623

Class 30. TiMjlor*. Cuscutee, 633 Diapensiaceie, 606 'Retraces, 618 Polemontaoese, 635 Hydroletcea, 638 Hydrophylleee, 638 Convolvulacaae, 630

Solanaoeas, 618 Nolanacete, 654 Erydbea, 695 Cordiacos, 628 Bhretiaoo»9653 Bomgineae, 655

Class 31. Labiatijlora.

Labiate, 659 Verben&cece, 633 Acanthacew, 678

ft Monochlamyds.

Phalerieae Aquilarinece, 579 Thyraeleae, 530 Hernandle&, 630 Protectees, 532 Penaeaoefe, 577 Eleeagne*. 257 Myrtottce*, 301

Class 34. Scrpcrtfaria.

Arittolochlaoea, 792 Nepentheie, 287 ? Sanacennlee, 429

Class 35. Tricocea.

Bogoniacese, 318 Eupfa*rblacetB,274 Stackhouslace&, 589 Empetrece, 285

Class 36. Juliflora.

|Cupulifem,290 Gunneracee, 780 Cynocrambeae Garryacese, 295 Datteceee, 31 Patranjireae Forestieress Scepacese, 283 ?HenslowIace«,669 Ladstemese>329 Balsamffluae, 253 Platane»,272 Antldesmeee, 259 Salicine*, 254 Batideie9286 Celtideae, 580 I Urticacese, 260 Morete9266

Pedallaeeas9669 Bignoniaceae, 675 CyrUndracecel Gesneriaceae, 671 Scrophularinete, 681 Stilbinefe, Wl Myoporinece, 665 8elagiiieacv 666 OrobancheaB,609 Utricularieae, 686 Globularie®, 606

Artocarpes, 269 . Trewiaceae, 274 Cannabinere, 265 BetulacecDy251 Ulmaceae, 68G Myriceae, 256 Caauarinete, 249

Class 37. Piperin*.

Chlorantheae, 519 Piperaeeae, 515 SaaruteaB» 621

Class 38. Contfarm.

Gneiaoeae, 232 Cupreastneae, 226 Ablettneaa, 226 Taxineae, 230 Cycadeae,223


Class 39. BhiManthe*.

Balanopbome, 89 Cytlneae, 91 RafflesJaceae, 93

Class 40. SpadicijUmz.

Palms, 133 Paadanaoeae, 130 Typbacett,126 Aroideae,127

Class 41. Hdobi*.

Najadew, 143 Alismacee, 309

ButomeiB, 208 Hydrocharide*, 141

Class 42. Qynandra.

OrchJdeos,173 Apostasies, 184

Class 43. Sctiantfne*.

Zinglberaeeaa, 165



Class 44. Ensata. Burmanniacoae, 171

Irideae, 159 Hicmodoraeeae,151 Hypoxidete, 164 AmaiylUdeaB, 155 BromeUaoeae, 147

Class 45. ConorarUe.

Pontederaceae, 206 L0iace»,200 Dioscoreaoe»9 214 Ophiopogoneaa, 200 Taccaoea?, 149 Melanthaceae,198 Juncacete, 191 PhilydroiD, 186

Class 46. EnanticbbuUe.

Commelynaceee, 188 Mayaceae,189 Xyrideae, 187 EriocanleK, 122 Rettiaee®,121 Centrolepideae,120

Class 47. Qlumac&r.

Cyperaceae,117 Gxaminea*, 106


1843. Horaninow, Paul.—(Tetractys Natwra, sen sysUma quadrimembrc omnium

naturalium.) In this work the views of the author, as expressed nine years before in his Prima tinea (p. xKv.), are repeated with some modifications of detail His 4th Circle, or Sper-mophorse, are called Euspermae, and the number of the Alliances, called m Orders, much increased* They are, moreover, distinguished by the termination astro, as Rutaa-tra, Araliastra, &c No distinctive characters are proposed for any of the groups, so that .means are not afforded by the learned author of judging of the principles which have guided him in the details of his classification.

1844. Jussieu, Adrien de«—(Cours ifltmentaire d'Histoirt NatureUe: Botanique.)

This little work contains all the Natural Orders of plants now admitted, arranged on the plan of Jussieu, by his son. It is therefore the most recent exposition of the views of the learned authors. In addition to the names, an analysis of their distinctive characters is introduced in the original, to which a student may be usefully refe-rred. The arrangement is not however extracted, because it is merely artificial, and contrived for the purpose of finding a plant easily ; in which respect it may be compared to the Artificial Analysis affixed to the present work.

[page break]

Luidlkt.]                                NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                         It

1845. Lindlby, John.—{The Vegetable Kingdom, &c.) The following is the system employed in the present Work:—

CLASSES. 4$exual, or Fkwerim Plants.

landesstinguishable................I. THALLOQENS.

i sad lsnvas distinguishable.................II. ACROGENS.

8exual, or Flowering Plants.

ftueMflcatirespringfofawthaDus...............III. RHIZOGENS.

FnwuflcaliOB springing from a stem*                                                                                            m

Wood of item yotmgert in the cento* j cotyledon tingle.

LeaTespeamllel-Yiai, permanent; wood of the stem always confused . IV. ENDOQENS. Leaves net-veined, deciduous; wood of the item, wben perennkl,

arranged in a circle with a central ptth............y9 DICTYOGENS.

Wood of stem youngest at the drcumfetwnoe, always concentric; cotyledon* t or more.

Seed* quite naked . ..................VI. QYMNOOENS.

Beeda inclosed in seed-ressels................yil. EXOGENS.


Alltakcbs or Thalloobxs.

L ktAAi—Cellular JlovrrUss plant*, nourished through their whole surface by the medium in wMck

**** Vt9H lMtSjT waUr ** *"* d0mp ******* propagated by zoospores, co-it YvnaktmiCklkaarftywerUn                                                                                       IMng

in air$ propagated by spores, coUmrlcss or brown, and sometime? inclosed in

asei i destitute of green gonidia 3. UcwnALmL—Ceiiular Jtowerleu plants, nourished through their whole surface by the medium in

which they vegetate; living in air ; propagated by spores usually inclosed inasci;

and always having green gontdia in their thallus.

Natural Omnxae or THAixoeajta.


Crystalline, angular, fragmentary bodies, brlt-)

%U, and multiplying by spontaneous sepera- > 1. Diatomaeeee or Brittteworts, p. 13


Vesicular, filamentary or membranous bodies,")

muHiplied by looepores generated in the inte-> 2. Confcrvacem or Confervas. p. 14

rior at the expense of ttjdr green matter .) Cellular or tubular unsymmetrieal bodies,! fttrfir.jnr fTnBlniifi

multiplied by simple spoifor                                                      P'20

""SSSSST0') * *"—~ or RortanpUe, p. * Tubular syinmetrlcany branched bodies, maltl-)

piled by spiral coated nucules, Ailed with > 5. Cnaractm or Charadt, p. 96


iutaei 1, p. 99.

Spores genetaDy auaternste on distinct spore-f 6. Hwmenom§uUtt Aparicacea, or phone. Hymeaium naked......I                      ToadsiooU.

Spores generally auatornate on distinct sporo- f 7. OufcrosijKwfet, Jjeoperdacea, or phone. Hymenhnn inclosed in a perldium. I                      Pltfoatts.

Spores single, often septate, on more or loo ( - Camiamau* n~*im*~~ «-'dtottaictsporophores. Ploed of the fruit J * °w-w*cefc's,1/£,T*,,aM*» OT obsolete oTmere peduncles......\                       *****"-

Spores naked, often septate. Thallus floecoss f 9' B»*4m»Jgp*u»"' <*

Sporidfe contafaMd (generally eight together) In f 10. AscomtcOtt, HMmUactee, or

aad \                         htorels*

Sparse sarroanded by a vesicular reO, or spo- fll. Phpsompettei, Mucoracta, or

tangtum. Thallus floceoss......\                        lfoiifcb.


Nndeos breaking up into naked spores ... 13. Oraphidacea, or Letter-Lichen*. *'g£jJ&m*,mTrr) 13« CotUmaccanJeUrUeken.. NSricSuW<lf? tat*ro«»} H. Pameliacev* Leaf-LicHen,.



p. 45

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ivi -#                                   NATURAL SYSTEMS.                            [Lmounr.

Class II. ACROGENS. Alliances of Achogek&»

4.  MuecAua.—CWular (or MKubr). Spore-oases immersed or oalyptrate (i. e. either plunged in the

substance of (he frond, or inclosed within a hood having the same relation to the spores as oh involucre to a seed-vessel),

5.  Lycopodales.—Vascular. Spore-oases axuTary or radieal,one or manoeOed. Spores of two sort*. 6« FiutCAi***.— Vascular. Spore-oases marginal or dorsal, one-oeMed, usually surrounded by am dastie

ring. Spores of but one sorU

Natural Orders or Acroobns.

ALUAHCS 4. MU0QALB8, p. 54.

L Hmpaticm.

BPSSSTB. f?h!lrif. W5Ul0,lt/W0111 °j 15. Biceiaee*, or CrystalworU, p. ST Spore-cases vahretess or bursting irregularly,) 1A i/«*mi«ii//i«* *«* rjiumniYj «* ka

without operculum, but withrtitars . . J 16' **«**»*> or Liverworts, p. 58 Spore-cases opening by a definite number of)

equal valves, without operculum, but with > 17. Jungermanniacem,or Scafemasief ,p. 69


Spore-oases peltate, splitting on one side, with-1

out operculum, and with an elater to eveiy > 18, Bqutsctacem, or Horsetails, p. 81


S. Muea.

""S                                                  Mr*, or Splitmosses, p. (*

Bl3tG                   ?"! " .T"? j * *****<*>or Vrnmosses, p- 64

Alliance 5. Lycopodale*, p. 68*

S|b3S.il5T,1l,. *!D1fIy.S J0*"*1™} tL Lyeopodiaosm, or Cfeo»««*, p. 00

Bpore-cases many-celled, radicle (or axillary);) ~> M,MiiMM. ._ rjmmMrtl „ -i

reproductive bodies dteiinflar . . . , ,) ** rsUeaeem, or PepptrworUt p. 71

Almancb 8. Fii.ioai.B8, p. 74.

Spore-cases ringed, doral or marginal, dis\ 04 »*«„,««-* or Km « 78

tinet, splitting Irregularly . . . VY . ./ **«W«*»«««t <« rerns, p. 78

Spore-cases rfogless, dorsal connate, splitting) — n—«— » n*«»i* « m

irregularly by a central cleft TT. . ..) « &******> m t>anmadsf P-«

Class m. RHIZOQEN9.


Ovules solitary, pendolons; frnlt one-seeded. 96. Salanophoracem, or Cynomoriums, p. 89

Class IV. EN0OQEN&

Aluakcbs or Endoobns.

Flowers ghunaceooa; (that is to say, composed of bracts not collected to true whorls, but consisting

of Imbricated colourless or herbaceous scales). T. Glokalks.

Flowers petalold, or furnished with a true calyx or corolla, or with both, or absolutely naked; & ? (that is having sexes altogether in different flowers, without half-formed rudiments of the absent sexes being present). 8. Abalbb.—Flower* naked or consisting of scales, S or 8 together, or numerous, and then sessile on a simple naked spadix t embryo axUe ; albumen mealy orjleshy. (8ome have no at-bumen). » rALUALm*.-Fhwers perfect [with both calyx and corolla), senile on a branched scalp spadix t embryo vague, solid / albumen horny or fleshy. Some Palms are Q. IDs HvMaue.—Flowers perfect or imperfect, usually scattered t embryo axile, without albumen. -aquaUcs. (Someare Q.)

♦♦—Flowers furnished with a true calyx and corolla, adherent to the ovary; 0. U. Nabcmsalbs.—Flowers symmetrical; stamens8or 6, or more, all perfect; seeds with aOnsment

(Some Brometiacccs have a free calyx and corolla). 1*. Asiomale*.—Flowers unsymmelrical/ stumens 1 to 5, same at least of which are petaloid / seeds

uyfth ajbutfjen. IS. OncmDALUs.—Flowers unsymmetrkat / stamens 1 to 3; seeds without albumen.

[page break]

LwwjtcO                              NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                        lvii

%* FkmmfuriiiihedwHhat                                                        £.

14. Xyridalu.—Flowers haif herbaceous, %*-pctaloideous / albumen copious. 14. JuKCALw*.-FUmtr$ herbaceous, dry and permanent, scarious if coloured; albumen copious {Some Cailas haw no albumen).

16.  UuAix*~—Ftmcrr$ hexapctaloideom*, succulent, and withering; albumen copious

17.  ALmMALax-Flowcr* 24-pctaloidcous, apocarpal; albumen none. (Some Alismads are abso-

lute* ? <J).

Natuiul Oanns op Brooenfi. AixiAircs 7. Glimaub, pi 106.

Osaiy 1-edled, with 2 or more distinct (or) united) tries; orule ascending; embryo}

lateral, naked...........J

Oiary 1-ceOed, with S or more (distinct orj>

united styles; ornle erect; embryo basaL . I' Ovariesseveral(eometimeeunited) withlstyle) to each: ovule pendulous; glumes only;l styles 1-2; anthers. 1-ceQed; embryo ter-f

Ovary 1-2-3-celled, wkh 2 or 8 styles always;)

ovule pendnlons; glumes only; styles 2-3; >

anthers 1-eeDed; embryo terminal. . . j Ovary 2-3-edled, with 1 style to each oeU:

orule pendulous; a membranous 3-lobed IM j, wmmmm*. ~ ,M

cup witUn the glumes; anthers 2-ceDed; f* iocmOamm, orPtpeworts, p. 122

embryo terminal..........J

Aluamce 8. Araxjcb, p. 123.

Flowers 2 or 3, of which one only is ?. Spa-")

dix 0. Ovary one-celled, Ovulee erect.

iH|*My Slit #«..»

Flowers 00, on a naked spadix. Calyx scaly

or haSiy. Anthers with long filaments.

Unk solitary, pendulous. Seed adherent

to the pericarp. Embryo slit.....w

Flowers 00, naked, on a solitary ipadlx oo-)

tered by a single hooded spatha. Anthers

sessile. Seed loose. Embryo slit, axile. v Flowers 00, naked or scaly, on a spadix co* i

Tered by man spathes. Anthers stalked.

Seeds loose. Embryo soBd, minute . . .

29.  Gramlnacem, or Grasses, p. 106

30.  Cypcracem, or Sedges, p. 117

31.  Dtsvauxiacece, or BrisOcmorts, p. 120

32.  Bestiaeem, or BesUads, p. 121

84. IHsttaeem, orLemnads, or Duckweeds, p. 124

35.  TgphaceatorT*phadsfor Bulrushes, p. IX

36.  Araoem, or Arads, p. 127

37.  Psmdanaceeef or Serewpines, p. 130

Aixia*cs9. PAiJtaua>p.l33.                                38. Pabnacem, or Palms, p. 133

AluaKcs 10. Hyoslaus, p. 140.

Stamens eplgynons; ovary adherent .   . . . 39. Hpdrocharidacea, or if*oVocWo<i#, p. 141

Stem.hyp.; or.freejpoDen globose   . ♦ . 40. Naiadacsm, or ifoiaaX p. 148.

8b£?';. °T" ?°f.. \Tte; ""**/ r.}40 * ™***™* ** «*****, P. U4 a.

Stem.hyp.;; polleneon&xroid . . 41. Zosteracees, or Aawrackt, p. 146. AuxtsrcB U. NanaasALBS, p. 140.

F1PJd' <!"1?Yedt kJ"} 42. itomtttiee*, or BnmHiads, p. 147 Flowmhalf tripetaloldeou*; tubular. AlbuO raeca€W> „ Tdeeadit p. l49

men nesny . . . . .....j

Flowers heapetalotdeous, tubular, scarcely i

remote from the hOum, which is naked . J Flowers hexapetakrfdeous, much Imbricated.)


flowers hexapetaloideous, much imbricated.)

Stamens 6, or more; anthers turned inwards. > 46. AmaryUidace*. or AmarjUids, p. 1S5

Radicle next the hilum.......I

Flowers hexapetaloideous. Stamens 3, oppo-\ ... T.AMAm M f .- „ 1KO

site the sepali; anthers turned outwards. .] 47- Mdmnm. or Irids, p. 1»

A&tuftcs 12. Auomaim, p. 182.

Stwnmorethanl; (anthers 2<eUed, noj . Af,0, « d,, p, 153 Stmjbat 1; anther* 2<eued, embr> in »j jgf.ii.m, or fifcsrwr* P 166 StSSnsb<l! l) <!*,,.ll<!} M- " or Jlfamn/,, p. 168


Flowers regular. Stamens free, perigynous. . 51. Btfrmonniacece* or Burmanntads, p. 171 Flowers Regular, gynandrous. FlacenUe pa- J 6 0rchidMM% or p. 173

F1J3r V*f***% m!t. V*?T*) M- *V°*»**k«* or Apostasiads, p. 184

[page break]

Mil                                     NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                [Liitwjnr.

AhUAHcm 14. XraiDAUa, p. 186.

Sepals 0. Petals 2. Stamens 3, of which 2 are) pw.Mr|M_JMU. „ ir« n i*i abortive. Bmbiyo axile, in fleshy albumen.] M Philydracc*, or WattrwU, p. 186 Sepals 3. Petals 3* Stamens 8f fertile. Car-]

**          '" ™~ *          '**" V 65. Xyridaum, or Xyrids, p. 187

_ _ opposite sepals. Placenta* parietal* Embryo mmute, on the outside of fleshy albumen.............

Sepals 3. Petals*. Stamens 6 (or 3). Carpels opposite sepals. Placenta axile. Embryo trochlear, half immersed in fleshy albumen.............4

Sepals 3. Petals 8. Stamens 3; (anthers fuelled). Carpels opposite petals. Pla-oenta parietal. Embryo minute, on the outside of fleshy albumen

66.  Commdy*ace*t or SpiderworU, p. 188

67.  Mayacea, or Mayacs, p. 189

Alliancb 1& Jukcaus, p. 190.

Flowers scattered* Emtayo minute, undivided. 58. Juncacca, or Rushes, p. 191 H!S5«3Son<Sdr.,Udto: ** !} M« 0«*. or 0«m««d,. p. 1*3

Alliance 18. Liuaus, p. 196.

Perianth surrounded by a calydne involucre,')

the inner biaets of which are coloured and>60. OiUUstaesmtorOiUUsiads9p.i96


Perianth naked, flat when withering. Anthers]

turned outwards; styles distinct; albumen}61. Melantkacem, or MtUmths, p. 198


Perianth naked, flat when withering. Anthers!

turned inwards. Styles consolidated. Albu- > 62. UUace*f or LUywaris, p. 200

men fleshy............I

Alliance 17. AuaMALna, p. 207.

*XS*.tSSS*1!5 .T} <* **"*. « Butomads, p. 206 Flowers 3-petaloideous. Placentae few-seeded, \ „ Aium nr AiUmuU ~ mo

simple, and axlle, or basaL Emtaro solid J «-*««« «-«iwwl»fp.«9 Flowers scaly. Placentae few-seeded, simple)

and axlle, or baalL Embryo slit on one > 66. Juncaginace*, or Arrow-Brasses, p. 210

side, with a very large plumule . * . . J



(For Triuridaoe©, formerly referred here, see p. 144 a.)                              *

Flowers <? 9. Carpels several, quite conso-1 lidated. Placentas azQe. Flowers hexape- > 69. BMUacea, or Sarsaparillas, p. 216


Flowers p. Carpels several, quite consoll-*)

dated. Placentas parietal. Flowen 34*} 70. PMhsiaeem, or PhiUsiads. p. 217


Ftowers 9. Carpsereral,halfHxmscdidated.\ twz/i*. m p*-m, « oiq Placenta axiliFlowers 3-petaloideous. . j n- THUiaeem, or Pari*, p. 218

Flowers P. Carpels solitary, simple, many-) seeded, with long stalked anatropal seeds} 72. Roxburghiacta, or Roxburyhworts, p. 2JJ and a basal placenta........)



Stem simple, continuous. Leaves parallel-)

veined, pinnate. Scales of the cone antheri- > 73. Cpcadacut, or C*cads, p. 223


Ftem repeatedly branched, continuous. Leaves\w                     „,*«**

simpleTaoerose. Females in cones . . .) W- ««*. or Qmifirs, p. 226 Stem repeatedly branched, continuous. Leaves)

simple, often fork-veined. Females solitary. 1 __ _                M m

Membrane next the nucleus inclosed. An- f 76- Toxinem, or Taxa&s, p. 286

then 2-ceUed, op*dng longitudinally. . J

[page break]

Lwdixt.]                                NATURAL SYSTEM&                                        lis

Stan repcaiedlj branched, jointed. Lctvw)

celled, opening by porw.......J


Alliances or Exoosus.


Flowen £ ? f without any customary tendency to y

18.  A*cwtal**.—JTosoer* i» eotfcbu, aehlamydeous or monoehlamydeoms ; carpels superior; embryo

smaU, with littie or no albumen.

19.  UimcAi-«s-—Flowers scattered, monoehlasnydeous ; earpd single, superior; embryo large, lying in

a small quantity of albumen.

20.  Bctbosbi.a 1 ro — JTwr* Jftittirwi, monodfcUamytiam* ; carpels consolidated, supertSr; placental

axile; embryo surrounded by abundant albumen. {Albumen occasionally absent). 2L* QmeaKAue.—Flowers in catkins, mouoehlamydeous ; carpels inferior ; artryo amygdaloid, without

22.  OiUTALB.-Flowers monoehlamydeous, sometime*amentaceous: corpeb tyMor ; embryo minute,

in a large quantity 0/albumen.

23.  Mawiawraiuraa.—Flowers mcmodichlamydeous ; carpels superior % disunited ; embryo surrounded by

abundant albumen.

24.  CixsiTAJmFUwertmonodiddamydeous; carpels inferior ; placentas parietal; embryo without


25.  PatArxLBn*—Flowers dichlamydeous ; carpels superior, consolidated; placenta parietal ; embryo

surrounded by abundant albumen.


Flowen P, or <$ 0 ? ; stamens entirely free from the calyx and corolla.

26.  Violau*—flowers mmodfaUcNnpdams, jriottnteparietal orsutural; embryo straight, with little

or no albumen*

27.  OrtAL**.—Flowers monodiehlamydeous; placentas parietal or sutural; embryo curved or spiral,

with little or no albumen.

28.  Maltam*—Flower* monodieklamydeous; placenta* attUe; calyx valvate i* ctstieaUon; corolla

imbricated or twisted; stamens definite or 00; embryo with tittle or no albumen.

29. 8Anxn*U8«—Flowers monodichlamydeous, unsymmetrioal; placentas amis; calyx and corolla

imbricated; stamens definite; embryo with UtOs or no albumen. (Stamens rarely 00).

39. OuTTtrmsLALES.—Flowers monodkklamydeous; placentas axtte ; calyx imbricated; corolla imbricated or twisted; stamens 00; embryo with little or no albumen. (Stamens sometimes definite in number).

SL Nymmajlx*,—Flowers dichlamydeous ; placentas axUe or sutural; stamens 00 ; embryo on the outside of a very Lir qwvUity of maly albumen. (A part have no albumen).

St RutALm*.—Flowersmonoa%Mamydeous; placentas sutural or axile; stamens 00; embryo minute, indosed in a large quantity offieshy or horny albumen.

33.—Flowers monodichlamydeous, unsymmetrical in the ovary; placentas sutural, parietal,

oraxSe; stamens definite; embryo indose* ta a large quantity of fleshy albumen.

34.  Emjcales.—Flowers dicklamydeous, symmetrical in me ovary; placentas axUe; stamens definite;

embryo imdosed m a large quantity of fieshy albumen. (Stamens occasionally adherent to the corolla).

35.  Rvtaim.—Flowers mowdiehlamydeous, syiTtmtrical; placentae aaOe; calyx and corolla imbricated,

if present; stamens definite; embryo with little or no albumen. \OocasionaUy

31 Q.nAniaim.—Flowers monodiMamydeous, symmetrical; placentas axile; calyx imbricated; corolla twisted; stamens definite; embryo with little or no albumen.

37. Su-maxm.—Flowers momodiehlamydeous ; placenta free, central; embryo external, curved round a little mealy albumen ; carpels more than one, completely combined into a compound fruU. [SomemUahtly perigynous, others £ $ ,.

38L Cbshofodals*—Flowers monocUamydeous ; placentas free, central; embryo external, either curved round or applied to the surface of a UttU mealy or horny albumen ; carpets solitary, or, tf more than one, distinct. (Some sttghtly perigynous, others <J $ ).

30. PirnALM,—Flowers aehlamydeous ; embryo minute, on the outside of a large quantity of mealy


Flowen $, or <J 0 ? ; stamens growing to the side of either the calyx or the corolla; ovary superior, or nearly so. mX FtcotUAiM.—Flowcri monodiaUamydeous ; placentas central or axOs; corolla, if present, *polypeta-

lous; embryo external, and curved round a small quantity cf mealy albumen. 4L XiAPSJiALmB.—Flowers monochlamydeous; carpel solitary ; embryo amygdaloid, without albumen. «. RoaALcs.—Flowers monodlchlamydtous; carpels more or less distinct: placentas sutural; seeds

definite; corolla, if present, poiypetalous; embryo amygdaloid, with little or

no albumen. 43. SAxiraAOALKs.-Plotters mcnodichUmydeous; earpds consolidated; placentas sutural or axUe ;

seeds00; corolla, if present, poiypetalous; embryotaper, with along radide

and a Utile or no albumen.

[page break]

lx                                          NATURAL SYSTEMS.                              [Liwdlky.

44.  Rhamnales —FUneersmonodkklcmydeous; carpelsconsolidated; placenta* axils ; fruit capsular,

berried, or drupaceous; seeds definite; embryo amygdaloid, with little or no albumen.

45.  QtumAXALE*.—Flower* dichlamydeous, monopetalous ; placentae aktU or parietal; embryo minute,

or with the eotyUdonsmuA smaller than tte radicle, lying in a large quantity of albumen* 40. 8otANAi.ES.—Flower* dichlamydeous, monopetalous, symmetrical; placentae axils ; fruU %&oeUed; embryo larae, lying in a small quantity of albumen. lOccasionatty achlamydeoue or palypeUdous).

47.  (ujvujmb.—Flowers aMamydeous, monopetalous, symmetrical; placenta free, central; embryo

lying among a large quantity of albumen. (Occasionally monoohlamydeous, or polypetalous).

48.  Echi axes,—Flowers diehlamydeous, monopetalous, symmetrical, or unsymmetrical; fruU nuoamen-

taceous, consisting of several one-seeded nuts, or of dusters of them separate or separable; embryo targe, with little or no albumen. (Very rarely hypogynous !)

49.  Biqnoniales.—Flowers diehlamydeous, monopetalous, unsymmetrical; fruit capsular or berried,

with its carpds quite consolidated; placentae axile, or parietal, or free central; embryo with little or no albumen.

Sub-Clam IV. EPIGYNOUS EXOQENS. Flowers 9 or £ $ $ ; stamens growing to the side of either the calyx or corolla; ovfcry inferior or nearly so. 60. Campanalbs.- Flowers diehlamydeous, monopctalousi embryo with little or no albumen. .

51.  MYaTAwes.—Flowers diehlamydeous, polypetalous / placenta axile; embryo with tittle or no albu-

men. {Occasionally monochtamydcous).

52.  Cactalib.—Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous; placenta parietal; embryo with little or no


53.  Grossaus.—Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous/ seeds numerous, minute; embryo small, lying

in a large quantity of albumen*

54.  Cihchonalbs.—Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous; embryo minute, lying in a large quantity

Of albumen, 55* VhbuUsAlkb.—Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous ; seeds solitary, large; embryo small, lying in

a large Quantity of albumen. 56. AsAjuuca.—Flowers monochlamydeous ; embryo small, lying in a large quantity of albumen

Natural Orders op Exocjens.

A LLIAWCE 18. AttBNTALBS, p. 348.

"SSSr O"?*1"*:"™ Jn. C««*H»ac«, or 2*, p. 249 Ocolled. Orule 1, pendulous Radicle j j of BMm$rt,% p# „

Ovary 2-celied. Ovules 00. Seeds winged. . 79. AlUngiaeem, or L<quidambars,p.&3 Ovary 1-oelled. Ovules 00. Seeds cottony. . 80. Salicace*, or WWowworU, p. 254

°%lor0eUed °ratel'erect- ™*}n.Myrtcace*,oreaUworU,p.m °fflorUed: ?**}' fT??. *f!*) 82. Etoagnacc*, or OUaHer; p. 267 Alliancb 19. Urticales, p. 258.

Radicle superior. Oroles twin, suspended.)

Embryo straight, albuminous. Anthers > 83. BOlaginaosm, or Antidesmads. p. 259

2-lobed, with vertical fissures.....i

Radicle superior. Ovule solitary, erect. Em-)

brro straight, albuminous. Juioe limpid. > 84. Urticace*, or Nettleworts, p. 260

Radicle inferior. Embryo exalbuminous.\ oc „ s . ff             _ _

Plumule many leaved, large......) Cphyllacees, or Hbrnworts, p. 263

Radicle superior Ovule solitary, suspended.\ „ .,

Embryo hooked, exalbuminous.....J *** annaomaceat or Hempworts, p. 265

Radicle superior. Ovules solitary, suspended.) <_                     __              _

Embryo hooked, albuminous.....i °** Moracem, or Morads, p. 966

Radicle superior. Ovule solitary, erect or)

suspended. Embryo straight, exalbuminous. > 88. Artocarpacem, or Artocarpads, p. 269

Juice milky. Stipules lane, convolute . .) Radicle inferior. Embryo albuminous. Hu-)

mule minute. Juice limpid. Stipules large, > 89. Platanaceee, or Planes, p. 272


Alliance 29. Euphorbiales, p. 273.

°de1npSSr*' T' ™) *> EupHoH>iace*, or SpurpenrU, p. 174 Ovules definite, suspended, campylotropal. i +„ .                _e-

Radlele inferior, albumen mealy . . . . J *Gyo*Umone*, p. 382 Ovules definite, suspended, anatropal. Radl-l01 9tmBaMim nt, n «« . desuperior. <j amentaceous . . . ./ 91* Bcepacem, or Scepad*. p. 283

Ovules definite, suspended, amphHropal. Ra-\«, „ .„,..             «._.-*,

dide superior . . . . . 7 . ... .) w« CdUUrtckactm, or Stancwtt, p. 284

Ovules definite, ascending, anatropal. Radio a, ...              „ .___. mtM

cle inferior . . . 77. ..... .j " Smpdraeem, orCrowberriet, p. 285

Ovules solitary, ascending. ? naked, com-) BaHdem n 98ft bined into a succulent cone....../        'p' ""

Ovules 00, ascending. Radicle inferior. Seeds) „, . _ scobiform . TT ........j *. ? Nrpenihaee*, or A'epenUu, p. 287

[page break]




Atxuurcs SL QumnMAXcs, p. 289.

Ovary 1-ceUed. Orole solitary, erect

96. Jufflandacem, or Juglands, p. 389

Auiaxck XL Gajuiyalxs, p. 294.

PtS5L!T? T. T?*!* ";} W- <**>*«**, or (fan*!*, p. 285 Flowers fsscicled.' Leaves' alternate, stipulate! 98. Hetwingiace*, or Hetwityiadt, p.SH

AiUAacm 23. MmnarwtMUMWj p. 297.

A2TSs££ipSZ:} »-i<«orJfo»<s.ia*,p.»8 Albumen copious, solid. Seeds erect An-> 100. ttowpermatiM, or Pwm-Jbm™.

te«rs opening by recurred valves . . . .)          p. 300

Albumen copious, ruminated. Sepmli united) 1A1 „. . ..              _           '

iatoavahmtoeop .... ... . J 10L MyrUticactm, or /r«mwpt, p. 301

Afejmencop solid, parietal; am-j m arMja,, w ij,,,p>

Albumen copious, solid. Seeds pendulous;) embryo minute, internal. Stamens bypogy- [ 103. ScMsandraccm, or Kadtnradt, p. 306

AeeouU Pl}™.***


Fraftpuj Fmtent.,,Wcttyperietal. Mo-j 1W. e w<hlcmbUtf p 3U

PruttAy. Placenta strict parietal. } m. lhil**eimt <* MhUicait, p. *u

maion             T"**} >» «o«., or illed,. p. 818

Aixiaxcb 2S* Papayalm, p. 320.

Corolla monopetalous; ? without scales . . 108. Papayacem, or Papapads, p. 321

Corolla polypetalous; ? with scales in the) 1M ~ .             M                 __

throe* .\T .. ........] m Pa«f«, or Pmffiads, p. 323

Aluajice 28. Vroukxas, p. 326.

Flowers scattered, apetaloos or polypetalous. Petals and stameiis roth hypogynous. Leaves dotless, or with round dots only . . . ..

Flowers in catkins, apetalous, scaly, polygamous. Stamens unilateral ......

Flowers scattered, apetalous, tubular, hermaphrodite. Leaves marked with both round and linear transparent dots. (Stamens peri-gynoua)............

Flowers polypetalous or apetalous, coronetted. Petals perigynous, imbricated. Stamens on the stalk of the ovary. Styles simple, terminal. Seeds arlDate. Leaves stipulate .

Flowers polypetalous, coronetted. Petals perl-gynous, imbricated. Stamens on the stalk of the ovary. Styles simple, dorsal. Seeds without ariL Leaves without stipules .

Flower* polypetalous. Calyx many-leaved.) Petals perigynous. Anthers 1-celled. Fruit sttpltate, consolidated, siHquoee. Seeds without albumen. Stamens perigynous. .

Flowers pdlypetalous. Calyx many-leaved.1 Petals bypogynous. Stamens all perfect; anthers craved, and turned inwards. Fruit consolidated. Seeds albuminous . . . ..

Flowers polypetalous. Calyx tubular, ftirO rowed. Petals liypogynous, unguiculate. .

Flowers polypetalous. Calyx many-leaved. Petals hypogynous. Styles distinct. Fruit consolidated. Seeds 00, basal, comoee, without albumen ........

Flowers polypetalous. Calyx many-leaved. Petals hypogynous. Stamens partly sterile and petaioML; anthers opposite the petals, V d, turned outwards. Fruit consolidated. I Seeds albuminous...... - )

Flower* polypetalous or monopetalouse Calyx") many-leaved. Petals hypogynous. Fruit} follicular, apocarpous........)

Flowers polrpetidous. Petals perigynous, con- \ torted. Styles forked. Leaves exstipulate J

110.  Flacourtiacue, or BLrads, p. 327

111.  Lad$temacemf or LacUUmadt, p. 329

112.  Samydaeca, or Sampds, p. 330

113.  PasHjtoroct*, or PautomcorU, 332

114.  Matoherbtacem, or CrewnworU, p. 336

115.  Mortnaacea, or Moringads> p. 336

116.   Violace*, or VioktworU, p. 338

117.  Frankcniacea, or Fra*kenia<U9 p. 340

118.  Tamaricaeem, or Tamarisks, p. 341

119.  Sauvag€riace*, or Sauvagcads, p. 343

120.  Orastuiacea, or Housdeeks, p. 344

121.  Turneracea, or TurntrxuU, p. 347

[page break]

Ixii                                   * NATURAL SYSTEM&                               [Lindlbt

ALUAHCB 27. ClSTALBS, p. 348.

Stamens not tetradvnamous, generally tndefl-

nite. FlowersVorV- 8«d» with alto- [ 122. Cislace*, or Aocfc Jtaief, p. 849

men. Fruit cloted up........J

Stamens tetradynamous. Flowers \/ . . . US. Brasslcaccm, or OmOfirs, p. 351 Stamens not tetradynamous, definite. Flowers

not tetramerous. Seeds without albumen.} 124. Bessdacc*, or WddworU, p. 356

Fruit usually open at the point.....J

Stamens not tetradjnamous. Flowers \/o 19R n**~u*~*A~~~ ~ n_____M. «*»

Seeds without aUnunen. Fruit closed up .j m- PPidacem, or OyiparMf, p. 357

Alliance 28. Maltalm, p. 350.

Stamens free. Disk none. Seeds with albu-) men. Embryo curved. Petals permanent. J 128. Fivkmiacea, or Vivianads, p. 365

Stamens free. Disk nona Seeds without al-> 1M TVum-mLm*. ~* f. /. q** bumen. Embryo amygdaloid.....t "" ™3*****«i or /adfam CVesae*, p. 366

Stamens columnar, all perfect. Anthers 1-\ ioq ji-m- — Mw/*««ji/ » *u celled, turned inwards........] VWm Malvaetm, or MaUowworU, p. 368

Stamens free, on the outside a disk. Seeds) 1<V1 7™,. _ TJmtkA*fM„ «*< with albumen. Embrjo straight . . . J 131* TO««o», or I4ikfe»5tow«, p. 371

Alllawcs 29. Sapiitoalbs, p. 373.

Flowers complete, partially symmetrical.")

Calyx valvate. Anthersli-celled, opening > 132. Trcmandrae*rt <x Portworts, p. 374

by pores.............J

Flowers complete (irregular), unsymmetrical. ]

Petals naked. Anthers 1-celled, opening by > 133. Polygalace*, or Milkworts, p. m

pores. Seeds carunculate.......J

Flowers complete, unymmetrical, very irre-l

{StadiSSS1 £l?eb lSSSSff134- rochpae**, or Vochpads,p. 379

(In one case the ovary is adherent) ♦ J Flowers complete, partially symmetrical.)

Calyx imbricated. Ovules ascending. Stlg- > 135. Btophgkaee** or Bladder tfirfi, p. 381

mas simple. Leaves opposite, with stipules-1                                                       

Flowers complete, unsymmetricaL Petals)

usually arillate, wingless .....)

Flowers apetalous. Carpel solitary .... 137. PeUvcriacea* or Petivcriads, p. 386 Flowers complete, "<fjTnTTw*,4fal. Petals 1

naked or 0. Anth«; opening longitudinally. [ isg. Accracca, or Maples, p. 387

Carpels 2. Seeds without an aril . . . .)                                WF

Flowers complete, partially symmetrical- CalyxS

imbricated. Petals naked, stalked. Ovules!

hanhig by cords. Stigmas simple. Em- f ** Malpigkiacem, or Malpighiads, p. 388

bryo usually convolute........J

Flowers complete, partially symmetrical. CalyxS

Embryo straight..........j

Alliance 30. GurnrttALzs, p. 392.

Leaves simple, alternate, with large oonvo-)

lute stipules. Flowers symmetricaL Pe- f

tals equilateral. Calyx unequal, permanent, \ 141. DipOraeca, or Dipterads, p. 393

winged. Anthers beaked. Fruit one-celled, 1


Leaves simple, alternate, without stipules or]

*£~A»£S\™- Tcrntromta**. or ita* p. 306

few or single. Stigmas on a long style . J Leaves digitate, opposite. Flowers symmetric

cal. Petals equilateral. Stigmas sessile. [

Seeds solitaiy. Embryo with an enormous [


Leaves simple, opposite, without stipules.)

Flowers symmetrical. Petals equilateral.

Anthers adnate, beakless. Seeds solitary

or few. Stigmas sessile, radiating .... J Leaves simple, alternate, without stipules)

TihSlSSSTSSSifS >« to"*****,, or Marcgra. p. 408 nute. Stigmas sessile........J

143. Rhisobotact*, or RMscboU, p. m L144. auitaeta, or Gutti/en, p. 400

[page break]




aluaboe 3L NraraALaa, p. 408.

i united into a nwnjidlwl fnitt, with

Snoitos TV. V7 /. j I48* ****"**»« WrtirUUes, p. 409 CajdWbiet. Attjn»» «**«« T°™»\ u». Gi6«ii6«Mr, or WaUrikUUU, p 412 Cdilmm« 0. * Tonis honVj jr*,*., or wrotertu, p. 414

AUJAirca 32. RAWALae, p 416.

Carpela dkttnct. Bttpulea bm, coim>hrte.> * Corolls imbricated. Albuinea homogeneous, f Carpejsittstmct. Stipule* 0. Corolla *»bate.<

Carpel* distinct. Stipule* 0. *CoroU* imbril

ated. Anininan hnmnpMiAftM. Swdfl «Zil>


Chip* dtatinct Stipules 0. Corolla imbricated. Albumen homogeneous. Seeds wtth-out an aril............

Carpd* consolidated. Calyx permanent. Placentae axite ...........J

CSSSe4a.d°T. .} ™ *P*'™,orP«m»ort., p 430

UO. MagnoUacem, or MapnoUad*. p. 417 152. A*macu*forA*onad*, p. 430 158, DtUenlacem, or DiUmiad*, p. 423

154. JbftMmctffa, w Oroqftxto, p. 416 166. AirnicoiniadMp or SterracmicKlf, p. 42S

Axuasck 33. BnamaLSS, p. 432.

Flowers regular and symmetricaL Placenta parietal. Stamens alternate with the petals,

or twice as many..........,

Flowers irregular and unsjmmetrical. PlaO

esnte parietal. Stamens opposite the petals)

Rowers regular, sjmmetricaL Placenta sutu-N

raL Stamens opposite the petals. Anthers


with recurved ,—.........,

Flowers regular, symmetrical. Placenta axile.) Stamens opposite the petals. Anthers opening longitudinally..........

Flowers regular, symmetrical- Placentas axils and parietaL Stamens attenuate with the petals. Ovules ascending or horizontal. CoroDa tmhrieated........v

Flowers regular, symmetricaL Placentae axOe ) Stamens alternate with the petals. Ovules pendulous. Corolla valvate......j

Flowers regular, symmetricaL Placentas allied Stamens alternate with the petals if equal to

* them in number. Ovules pendulous. Corolla imbricated ..........

1«7. Dromra&m, or Sundew, p. 433 158. Fumariact*, or Fumtworti, p. 43b 1». Bertxridaeem, or Btrtxridt, p. 437 160. VUacem, or Vineworts, p. 489

131. PiUotporaetm, or PiUotponxU, p. 441

162. Olacacem, or Qlacads, p. 443

1163. CfriUace*, or CyrWads, p. 445

A U4awcs 34. BmicAUEd, p. 448.

Flowers polypetalous. Stamens all perfect*) monaddphous. Anthers 2-ceDed, with a > long membranous connective......J

Flowers monopetalous. Stamens all perfect,) free. Seeds with a firm sUn. Anthers) 1-ceHed, opening loiigftudinally.....1

Flowers half-monopetabus. Stamens all per-) feet, free. Seeds with a loose skin. Embryo) at the base of the albumen......)

Flowers polypetalous. Stamens half-sterile) and scale-like, free. Seeds with a firm skin j

Flowers half-monopetalous. Stamens all per- feet, free- Seeds with a loose sUn or wing. Embryo at the apex of the albumen . * .

Flowers monopetalous. Stamens all perfect, i free. Seeds with a firm or loose skin. An then 2-edled. opening by pores . .

164.  Hwmiriacc*, or Humiriads, p. 44'

165.  Bpacrtdacem, or Epacrids, p. 448

166.  Pprokux*, or Wlnttr-gretnt, p. 456

167.  Francoacem, or Francoad*, p. 451

168.  Momotropac&e, or Fir-rapa> p. 452

160. JEricaccm, or Htatktoortt, p. 453

Aixujfca 3& Rutaus, p. 450.

Fruit consolidated, succulent, indehiscent.) Petals imbricated. Stamens free, or nearly > 170. Awwtku, <x CUrvnworU, p. 4b7

so. Leaves dotted.........I

Fndt consolidated, hard, dry, somewhat val-1

TOl*r«Pe?iT?llrBte- 8twMMta*- Leaves} iTi. Amyridace*, or Amyridi, p. 459

generally dotted *.,......I

FruH consoUdttted, capsular. Stamens deeply ]

inonadelphous or nee. Seeds numerous, > 172, Ccdrelacem, or Cedrtlad*, p. 461


Fruit consolidated, berried, or capsular. Sta-)

mens deeply inonadelphous. Seeds few, > 173. Udiactm, or Mdiads, p. 463

wingless. Leaves dotless......J

Fruit apocarpous. Ovule single, suspended) 174. Anaeardiaet*, or Arwcard*, or Ttr*~

byacordildngfromthebaseofthecarpd J binths, p. 435

[page break]




Fruit apocarpous. Ovules collateral ascend- \ 17K ing,orthotropal, sessile........] 17°-

Frail Anally apocarpous, few-seeded, with th*\ Mricarp separating in two layers. Ortiles l \ sessile, pendulous. Flowers Q.....J

Fruit finally apocarpous, few-seeded, with the1 pericarp separating in two layers. Ovules sessile, pendulous. Flowers £-£-$

Fruit finally apocarpous, one-seeded, with thel pericarp not laminating, and a succulent conical torus...........

Fruit finally apocarpous, one-seeded, with the pericarp not laminating, and a dry inconspicuous torus. Albumen wanting. Leaves alternate, without stipules.......

Fruit finally apocarpous, few-seeded, with the pericarp not laminating, and a dry inconspicuous torus. Albumen present. Leaves opposite, with stipules.........

Fruit finally anocarpous,many-seededL Flow-}

Fruitftu apocarpous, many-seeded. Flow-) ers apetalous, very imperfect «.»/




(kmnaractm, or Connarads, p. 468 Rutaetm, or Ruttcorts, p. 489

Xanthoxylacm, or XantMoxpU, p. 472 Ocknaeem, or Ochnads, p. 474

8tmambacem9 or Quasrtads, p. 476

180. Zpgophyttacus, or Beaneapert, p. 478

18L 182.

Alliance 86. Gjeranialbs, p. 484.

Flowers symmetrical. Styles distinct. Carpels')

longer than the torus. Seeds with little or > 183.

no albumen............)

Flowers regular, unsymmetrical, with a perma- \

nent cup-like involucre. Stamens monadel- > 184.

phous. Albumen abundant......I

Flowers symmetrical. Styles distinct Carpels]

longer than the torus. Seeds with abundant > 185.


Flowers very irregular and unsymmetrical

without an involucre. Stamens distinct. > 186.

Albumen none...........J

Flowers usually symmetrical. Stories and ctr-) 1ft.

pels combined round a long beaked torus. . / *'*

Almancb 87. SiLawalu, p. 495.

Calyx and corolla usually both present and} symmetrical (4 and 4, or 5 and 6), the latter I rg* conspicuous. Ovules amphitropaL Leaves f1DO" opposite, without stipules.......J

Calyx and corolla usually both present and) symmetrical (4 and 4, or 5 and 5), the latter f 189 rudimentary. Ovules amphltropal. Leaves | with scarious stipules........J

Calyx and corolla both present and unsymO metrical (2 and 5), the latter usually con-1190 spicuous. Ovules amphitropaL Leaves f alternate, succulent, without stipules . . .J

Calyx only preeent, but often coloured. Ovules! 1<n orthotropeL Nut usually triangular . . .] AV1#

Elatinacem, or Water-pcppert, p. 480 Podo$Umacem> or Podosiemads, p. 482

Linacea, or Flaxworts, p. 485 Chkenacem, or ChUnads, p. 486 Oxalidacc*, or OxaXids, p. 488 Bcdmminactw, or Balsams, p. 490 Oeramiactm, or CrantsbWs, p. 498

CarpophpUace*, orSUmads, p. 496

IUecdnucem, or Knotworts, p. 499

Portulaee*, or Purslanes, p. 800 Potpytmaum, or Buckwheats, p. 502

Allianci 38. Chknopodaus, p. 606.

Sepals united Into a long (often coloured))

plaited tube, which separates from its base, I

the latter becoming hard, and forming a]

spurious pericarp..........J

Sepals separate, flat Stamens alternate with \ 1ftft Pk%ttALtJtJWM m pawla « iwm

thVsepalsorOO. Carpels several (or 1) . .] 1M- *W*tacw> or PAjrtofacca*, p. 509 Sepals separate or nearly so, flat. Stamens)

opposite the sepals. Anthers often 1-celled. I

Ovary 1, often several-seeded. (Flowers |

scarious, surrounded by imbricated bracts) J Sepals separate, or nearly so, flat. Stamens)

opposite the sepals Anthers 2-oelled. Ovary I

1, always one-seeded. (Flowers herbaceous, l


Atuaifca 39. PiraaALBS, p. 514.

Carpel solitary. Ovule erect Embryo lying) in vitellus. Leaves opposite or alternate, } 196. Piperacut, or Pepperworts, p. 515 with or without stipules.......J                              ™

Carpel solitary. Ovule suspended. Embryo) naked. Leaves opposite, with intermediate > 197. CUaramihacem, or Chloranths* p. 619 stipules.............J                                                    F

Carpels several, distinct. Ovule erect. Em-) bryo lying in viteUns. Leaves alternate, > i$g. Saururact*, or Saurvrads, p. 521

192. Npctaginacem, or Npetaffos, p. 506

194. Amarantactm, or Amaranths, p. 510

195. Chenopodiac#et or Chenopods, p. 512


[page break]

Lwdut]                                NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                        Ut

Auumci 40., p. 625.

Petals abeent- Sepals distinct Fruit inclosed) to a membranous or succulent calyi. Carpel > 1». BaseUaam, or Baxlladi, p. 524 tfagle, solitary. Beed erect.....J                                             .

szrpirr r*™:}*». m*******. <* **«*., P. .25

Fttals absent Carpels several, consolidated 201. Tctragoniacem, or Aixoons, p. 5*7 Petals abeent Sepals united into a tube.)

Carpel single, solitary. Fruit inclosed in >202. 8cUrtmUiac4*t or &Urantks, p. 628

the hardened calyx tube......J

AtUAVCt 41. DAraxAua, p. 529.

Anthen bunting lengthwise* Apetalous or)

polypetalous. Ovulesolitary, suspended. >20S. Thfmdacem, or Aq*iia<b, p. 530

Calyx imbricated.........)

Anthers bursting jangthwfee. Apetalous.) j p****,, or ProUadi, p. 582

Orules erect. Calyx valvate.....J

"eaves) linah

Anthers bunting by recurred valves. Leaves) mere colourless scales. Fruit buried in a > 206. Cassythacsm, or Doddtr-lastrtls, p, 588 snccnlent permanent calyx.

Auxurcc 42. Rosales, p. 539.

Plowen consisting of numerous Imbricated) Calvcanthaeem, or Calpcanths, p. 640 Cotyledons convolute . . . -)             


Flowen polypetslons (or apetalous v nearly or quite regular. Carpel solitary* Style proceeding from the base of the ovary .

Flowen pofypetalous (or apetalous), papilionaceous or leguminous. Carpel solitary ♦ with the style proceeding from the apex of the ovary............

Flowen polypetalous, regular, drupaceous. Carpel solitary, with the style proceeding from the apex of the ovary.....

Flowen polypetalous, regular. Carpels adhering to the calyx by their back . . .

Flowen apetalous. Carpel solitary, inclosed) in a hardened calyx-tube forming a false pericarp ..*.**..

Flowen polypetalous. Carpels free from the] calyx* and quite or nearly so from each other.............

M& Chrytobalmmctm, or Ckrpsobalans, p. 64*

200. Fabacem, or Leguminous plant*, p. 644

210. jPropocc*, or AlmomUoorU, p. 667 }211. Pomace*, or ApvUworU, p. 669 212. Sanguisorhactm, or SanguisorU, p* 601

\ 213. Rosace*, or Roseworts, p. 663

Aiaiabcb 43. BAxiruAOAura, p. 566*

Styles distinct* Leaves alternate . . . . 214- Saxtfragaeem, otSaxifiragcs, p. 867 Stotottnct Leaves opposite, without J ndrangcace*, or Hpdrangeads, p. 660

SJstJl P0*"* *** *"*} 216. Cunoniaeea. or Cmiotiia*, p 671 m&SX                                 ™* Bre*iace«,erBre*ia*s9 p. 573

Styles consolidated. Calyx tubular, perma- \

nent, with the petals in the margin* Albu-} 218. Lpthracem, or Loosestrifes, p. 674

menO. Leaves opposite......)

JUuabce 44. Rbamxalbs, p. 577.

Flowen apetalous. Ovary composed of 4)

carpels. Calyx tubular, with definite di- > 219. Peneeaceet, or BarcocoUads, p. 577

visions. Cotyledons consolidated . . .) Flowen apetalous Ovaiy composed of 2)

Flowers apetalous. Ovary composed of t\

carpels. Calyx imperfect, and irregularly (. 221. Vlmacem, or Elmcorts, p* 580 divided at the edge. Cotyledons thin and i

SSSSUX'. **.} » «—""* « Kkamna*. p. 581 Flowen polypetalous. Calyx valvate. Sta-)

mens alternate with petals. Seeds pendu-} 223. ChaiUeUacem, or ChaUlctiads, p. 583


'sZFpbo btk\] m. Hippocrates, or Hippo****., p. 584 "SUlftriS* ?** .imb,ie,,?d:} » ««*«** or ntfe-cr*.. p. 58* Ftoircn monopetalous. Stamens eptsepa-j stackhmitUuxm, or Stackhoutiadt, p, 589

Flown monopetalons. Stamens eplpeta.) loos. Ovules ascending. Radicle sliort.) SS7. BapoUuem, or Sapotadt, p 600 Cotyledons amygdaloid.......J

[page break]

liri                                      NATURAL SYSTEMS.                               [Lindley.

Flowers monopetaloua. Stamens epipeta)

lous. Ovules, in part at least, so-----*~* '

Radicle long. Cotyledons leafy

tons. Ovules, in part at least, suspended. > 228. Styracacas, or StoraxtoorU, p. 602

233.  Diapensiacut, or Dtapensiads, p. 606

234.  8titt>ace*f or ««&«#, p. 607

235.  Orobanchacem, or Broomrapes, p. 600

AtAlAHCB 46. GSJITtAlfAUS, p. 604.

8tipules0. Stigmas simple,sessile, radiating 220. Ebcnace*, or JBbtfiadf, p. 60S Stipules 0. Stigmas simple, at the end of a)

manifest style. Placentae axile. Seeds > 230. AquifoHacea, or HoUpworts, p. 607

definite, pendulous. Corolla imbricated J Stipules 0. Stigmas collected into a massive]

middle. (Albumen sometimes 0) * . ) Leaves opposite, with intenrenlng stipules . 232. Loganiacem, or JLaganiadi, p. 602 Stipules 0. Stigmas simple, at the end of a4)

manifest style. Placentae axile. Seeds

indefinite, peltate. Stamens intetpetalous, Stipules 0. Stigmas simple, at the end of a i

manifest style. Placentae axile- Seeds

definite, erect Corolla vallate. Flowers


StipufesO. Stigmas simple, at the end of a

manifest style. Placentae parietaL Flowers didynamous..........

Stipules 0. Stigmas simple, at the end of a4)

manifest style. Placentas parietal. Flow- > 236. QaUianac**, or QmUatmorU, p. 612

era regular...........J

ALUAKCC 46. SOLUf ALBS, p. 616.

Stamens free, 2 or 4........ 237. OUactm, or Oliwworts, p. 616

Stammsftee, 6. «*«»** arte. EmbryoJ m s 0T NighUKadu, p. 618



Stamens alternate with the petals. Styles*. Inflorescence drdnate..... J

Stamens opposite the petals. Fruit membra-1 nous, one-seeded. Styles 6. Stem herbaceous ....... . v

8tamens alternate with the petals. Style 1.1

Inflorescence straight ...... .j

Stamens opposite the petals. Fruit capsular, \

many-seeded. Style 1. Stem herbaceous

244. HpdrophpUacem, or HydrophpU, p. 638 246. Plumbaginacew, or Leadvorts, p. 640 246. Plantaginaee*, or Ribworts, p. G42 ____________________247. Primulace*, or PrimworU, p. 644

Stamens'opposite the petals. Fruit indehisO v . j«Um™». *j» cent, drupaceous. Style 1. Stem woody j m M******** or rcfWoA, p. 647

Aluanck 48. Echialbs, p. 649.

Regular-flowered Orders, passing from Solanales.

Flowera regular, symmetrical. Stamens 4.) „A „ f „                „ . .

FruKsimple. Stigma naked .... ] **>. Salnad&racem, or Safoadottub, p. 652 Flowers regular, symmetrical. Stamens 6. j

Stigma naked. Nuts 4, confluent Inflo. ) 251. Ehretiacem, or Ehrttiads, p. 653

rescenoe cirdnate.........J

Flowers regular, symmetrical. Stamens 6. ]

Nuts 6 or <y* Stigma naked. Inflores- / *52. Ndanaeem, or Nokmads, p. 664

cence straight.........0

Flowers regular, symmetrical. Stamens 6

Nuts 4 or$* Stigma naked. Inflores- J 253. Boraginact*, or Borapemrts, p. 666

eenoe cirdnate ......... j

** Imgolar-flowerad Ord«n, pustag Into BlgnonlaU.

F1oS55S,la,, UMynunetrical- Nnt8 4} 255. Lamia**, or Labiate, p. 659

Flowers irregular, unsymmetricaL Nuts! confluent. Ovules pendulous. Anthers > 257. Myoporacem, or Myoporads, \\ 665 2-celled............J

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Ltmnxr.)                .              NATURAL SYSTEMS.                                      Ixvii

Flowers irregular, unqrmmctrfcal. Nuts) confluent. Ovules pendulous. Anthers 1- > 268. Stlaginac«*y or Sctaoids, p. 666 celled.............)

Allumcb id. BrowovAue, p. 068.

Ftanmtf? parietal Fruit (Apralir or baccate* | Jlayo w*h minute cotyledons. Radicle J 200. Ctoneraum, or ©**wrwrfr, p. 671

P*S£[ irniun                     » »«-"«. <* O, p. 678

Placentae a±0e. Seeds winged, seeaile, without) jw--Aw- a* mm-iiui* ~ «**

albumen. Cotyledonslarge, leafy . . . .1 ** J8WWHftwi*»<* Bfc*mta<J#, p. 675 Placentte axfle. Seeds rrlnglnen, attached toS

hard placental proeeesee9 without albumen. \ 263. Acanthacm, or amOarfj, p. 678

Cotyledons large, fleshy......)

Placenta axfle. Seeds albuminous. Cotyle-

laoenue exiie. moos aiouminous. i/oiyie-

dons scarcely larger than, or not so large as, > 364. Scropkulartaet*, or Zinoriods, p.

the radicle :.'........"..)


Placenta free, central. Seeds minute, without l albumen Cotyledons much smaller than 1265* LentOmlarlactm, or Btf&nsortt, p. 686 the radicle ............J

AujAirca 50. Cakpaxalks, p. 688.

Owwrj 2- or more-celled. Anthem free, or

united. Stigma naked. Corolla valvate. > 266. Campcmulacem, or BcllwrU, p. <58U


Ovary 2- or more-celled- Anthers qragene-)

sfous. Stigma surrounded by hairs. Corolla > 267. Lobdiau*, or Lobdiads, p. 6(0

valvate, irregular..........1

Ovary 2* or more-ceDed. Anthers syngenesious)

or free. Stigma indusiate. Corolla indu- > 268. Qoodcntaeem, or GoodaUadt, p. 604


raLdirto a column. "corollaimbricafi6} ** ******* °* StyeworU, p. 696

Ovary 1-celladL Corolla valvate. Antherssyn-) gensalous. Ovule pendulous. Seeds albu- > 272. Calpceractm, or Galyocr$f p. 701 ruinous »* ..*.)

iuujfCB 61 Mtrtaum, p. 716.

Oimj 1-celled. Ovules pendulous. Leaves") dotlea. Seeds without albumen. Coyto-J dons convolute .J

°d3j&5                         » ****., or j. p. 719

Ovary with more than one eelL Flowers poly, petakmsorapetalous. Calyx open, minute. Stamens demit*. Ovules pendulous. Co* tyfedonsminute. (OecasSonaUyone-celled) .

Ovary with more than one cell. Flowers poly-' petalons or apetalous. Calyx valvate. Stamens definite. Ovules horizontal or ascending. Cotyledons flat, much larger than the

Ovary with more than one ceO. Flowers poly, petaloua. Calyx valvate. Stamens indefinite. Cotyledons flat, much shorter than the radicle, which germinates before the fruit falls .

Ovary with more than one cell. Flowers mono-petalous, conmetted. Calyx valvate. Sta-mens indefinite, monaddphous. Cotyledons amygdaloid........

Ovary with more than one celL Flowers poly* petalous. Calyx imbricated. Stamens definite. Anthers rostrate. Leaves usually dotless..............

Ovary with more than one cell. Flowers poly-}

esssLT ssSoi" iSss-oSS K **-*«*«*«. p. ™

Leaves usually dotted........J

Owy with more than one cell Flowers poly.}

hood. Anthers oblong. Leaves dotless. J

277. Haloroffact*, or Hippurid$f p. 722

278.  Onagractm, or Onagrads, p. 724

279.  RhUophorace*, or Mcmgrow$% p. 726

280.  BelviHace*% or Napohmworu, p. 728

281.  Mdoitomaee*, or MelasUmads, p. 731

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ALLIAffCK 62. CaCTALES, p. 74L

Sepals and petals distinct. Stamens opposite)

the petals. Styles separate. Orules pjndu- / 284.


Sepals and petals distinct Stamens scattered*)

Styles confluent Orules pendulous. Seeds} 285.

albuminous...........1 .

Sepals and petals numerous, undlstingulsh- j

able. Stamens scattered. Styles oonfluent > 286.

Ovules horizontal. Seeds without albumen J

ALUANCK 53. GRO68ALES, p. 749.

Fruit pulpy. Placentae parietal.....287. <

Homaliaeem, or Bomattads, p. 742 Loasace*, or Loasads, p. 744 Cactaccm, or Indian Figs, p. 746

GroMSulariacem, or tftrrantoeorU, p. 760 *&£&J££Li2P Md] «* ««»«*«.. or BvvUonUuU, p. 752

Philaddphace*t or SyrinQas, p. 743 BarrfttMiattff, or fiarrfnpfcmiarff ,p.754

Fruit capsular. Plaoentes axile. Styles


Fruit pulpy or fibrous. Placenta* axile. Style \9oa 1. StamensOO. Calyx imbricated . . .j*Wi

Axjuiakoe 64. Cinchowauw, p. 756.

Stamens epigynous *, anthers opening by pores. Stamens epipetalous, bursting longitudinally ;1

anthers sinuous. Flowers unsymmetrical . I Stamens epipetalous, bursting longitudinally -,

anthers straight Leaves with interpetiolar


Stamens epipetalous, bursting longitudinally;,

anthers straight Fruit consolidated. Leaves

without stipules..........J

Stamens epipctalous, bursting longitudinally;

anthers straight Fruit didymous. Leaves;

verticfllate, without stipules

AlUANCS 65. UMB«LLALK8, p. 772.

Fruit didymous, with a double epigynous disk. 206.

Fruit not didymous,withoutadoubleepigynous] disk, 3- or more-celled. Pentamerous flowers. Corolla valvate. Leaves alternate, without stipules. Anthers turned inwards, opening lengthwise.............

Fruit not didymous, without a double epigynous disk, 2- or more celled. Tetramerous flowers. Corolla valvate. Leaves opposite, without stipules..........

Fruit not didymous, without a double epigynous disk, 2-ceUed. Corolla imbricated. Leaves alternate, with stipules. Anthers with deciduous valves........,

Fruit not didymods, without a double epigynous disk, 3- (or 1-) celled. Corolla Imbricated. Leaves alternate, without stipules. Anthers turned outwards, opening lengthwise ..............

ALLIAJfC* 66* A&ARALK8, p. 786.

Ovary 1-cdled. Ovules definite, with a coated \ «01 nucleus                                                   '

291. 292.






VaceMacem, or Cranberries, p. 757 Cotwnelliacem, or CoiumeUiads, p. 759

CincKonaeem* or Cinekonads, p. 761 Captifdliact*, or Capri/oils, p. 766 GaUaeem, or 8UUattsf p. 768

Apiaetm, or UmbeUifers, p. 773 AraUacus, or IvywrU* p. 780

Contact*, or Cornels, p. 782 HamamuXidacem. or Witch-HaMels, p. 784

300. Brvniaeem, or Bruniads, p. 785

Ovary 1-celled. Ovules definite, with a naked \ ~


OvaryScelled. OvulesOO 803.

Santalacem, or 8emdalworis9 p. 787

Lorastihaem, or Lorenths, p. 789 AristoUKhiact*, or Mrttforfe, p. 792

[page break]



TITHBN the Animal Kingdom is studied as a vast whole, and not merely * * in the highly-developed classes of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles, the naturalist perceives forms with which he is most familiar gradually changing, organs which are indispensable to the highest orders of Animals disappearing, the limhs ceasing to he formed, all the internal structure of the body simplified, and, at last, nothing left hut pulpy and seemingly shapeless masses, such as inhabit shells. Let his power of vision be enlarged, and the microscope discovers to his amazement, that the Animal Kingdom has not ceased with the soft-bodied creatures at which his inquiry had stopped, but that a new and vast field of observation opens before him, teeming with myriads of forms, which are, as it were, the beginning of another kingdom of nature. Nevertheless, he soon finds that the smallness of the size of these creatures is no hindrance to their possessing the peculiar attributes of animal life. Though bones, and muscles, and external limbs, with veins, arteries, and nerves, may have disappeared, or become too fine for human vision, yet there is still left the animal motion, and the power of hunting for prey, of feeding by a mouth and by the destruction of other species, which is one of the great marks of animal structure. He sees that cells, although so small that the acutest vision and the most powerful instruments are alone sufficient to detect them, are the recipients of a stomach, of eyes, of a mouth. He perceives in such bodies all those elements of activity, by which the Animal Kingdom is in general so well distinguished from the passive Region of plants.

And hence it is that those who deal in generals only, without descending to particulars, pronounce with a voice of authority that the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms are sundered by decisive characteristics. The zoologist declares that the power of spontaneous motion, and the feeding by a stomach, are qualities confined to the Animal Kingdom. But numerous plants move with all the appearance of spontaneity; the spores of those Confervas which are sometimes called Zoosporous, swim in water with great activity; the filaments of Zygnemata combine with the energy of animal life ; and as for a stomach, it is impossible to say, that the whole interior of a living independent cell is not a stomach. Chemists once referred to the presence of nitrogen as a certain characteristic of animals; but plants abound in nitrogen. With more reason they now appeal to the existence of starch in plants, an organic compound unknown among the animal creation. And this is perhaps the lv                                           b

[page break]



beet mark of distinction that has hitherto been found ; for it is universally present in plants, and has enabled Mr. Payen to confirm by chemical evidence the vegetable nature of certain productions till lately regarded as Zoophytes, and therefore as belonging to the Animal Kingdom. {Ann. #c. Nat. 2. ser. xx. 65.)

But it has been long ago asserted by Bory de St. Vincent, and others, that there exist in nature organised bodies which are animal at one period of their lives, and vegetable at another! This, if true, would for ever put an end to the possibility of distinguishing the two kingdoms when they shall each have arrived at their lowest forms. Its truth has, however, been denied. On the contrary, Kiitzing, in his recent magnificent work on Algee, insists that it happens in his Ulothrix zonata, (Fig. I.) He asserts that in the cells of that plant there are found minute animalcules, with a red eye-point, and a

transparent mouth-place; that they are not in fact, distinguishable from Ehrenberg's Microglena monadina; these bodies, however, are animals only for a time. At last they grow into vegetable threads, the lowest joint of which still exhibits the red eye-point. This phenomenon, whidi Rut-zing assures us he has ascertained beyond all possibility of doubt, puts an end to the question of, whether animals and plants can be distinguished at the limits of their two kingdoms, and sufficiently accounts for the conflicting opinions that naturalists entertain as to the nature of many of the simpler forms of organisation.

Such being the case, it is not worth attempting to decide, whether the lowest forms of structure, to be presently mentioned, belong to the one Kingdom or the other. It will be sufficient that they have been regarded as plants by many eminent naturalists.

It is in this microscopical cellular state of existence that the Animal Kingdom ends, and the Vegetable commences. It is from this point that the naturalist who would learn how to classify the Kingdom of Plants must take his departure. He perceives that those species which consist of cells, either independent of each other (Brotococctts, Uredo), or united into simple threads (Conferva, Monilia), are succeeded by others in which the threads collect into nets (Hydrodictyon), or plates (Ulva), or the cells into masses {Laminaria, Ayaricus); peculiar organs make their appearance, and at last, as the complication of structure increases, a leaf and stem unfold as distinctly limited organic parts.

Those simpler plants which exist without the distinction of leaf and stem, are also destitute of flowers ; they are equally without the breathing-pores so abundantly formed in the skin of more complex species, and they multiply by the spontaneous formation in their interior, or upon their surface, of reproductive spheroids called spores. Among the many names that Botanists have given such plants, that of Thallogens is here preferred. A thallus is a fusion of root, stem and leaves, into one general mass ; and that is much the nature of these elements of Vegetable structure.

Fig. I. Ulothrix rowata, after Kotxing.—1. A portion of the plant discharging He vcgeto-aninial-cules; 2. the latter much enlarged, and in various state* of progress into a thread: 8. a young thread, or plant, three or four days old, much lees magnified.

Fig. I.

[page break]

THE CLASSES OF PLANTS.                                     3

Beyond ThaUogens are foond multitudes of species, which like the former are not furnished by nature with flowers, but which otherwise approach closely to the higher forms of structure, occasionally acquiring the stature of lofty trees. They have breathing-pores in their skin ; their leaves and stem are distinctly separated; in some of them, those spiral threads which form so striking a portion of the internal anatomy of a more perfect species, exist in considerable abundance; and finally, they multiply by reproductive spheroids, or spores, either formed without the agency of sexes, or, if the contrary shall be proved, at all events not possessing bodies constructed like stamens on the one hand and embryos on the other. Their stem, however, does not increase in diameter; it only grows at the end, and hence it has given to such plants the name of Acbogens.*

The changes which thus occur in the races of Thallogens and Acrogens, represent the progress of development in the remainder of the Vegetable Kingdom. A sphere, called a pollen grain, protrudes a tube into a soft pulpy receptacle in the interior of an ovule ; there the new plant takes its birth, at first in the form of a cell, which by degrees forms a thread (the suspensor), then generates a cellular mass (the young embryo), and eventually becomes a mass of cells arranged in the form of stem and leaves (the perfect embryo, with its cotyledons, radicle, and plumula). But this is not the end of growth ; H is rather the beginning. A loftier destiny awaits such plants ; flowers are to be formed, seeds to be fertilised, and this is to be effected by a complex Apparatus unknown in Acrogens or Thallogens.

Foremost among the more perfect races comes a most anomalous collection of species, called Rhizoqeks, or Rhizanths. These plants, leafless and parasitical, have the loose cellular organisation of Fungi; a spiral structure is usually to be found among their tissue only in traces. Some of them spring visibly from a shapeless cellular mass which stands in place of stem and root, and seems to be altogether analogous to the thallus of Fungi; and H is probable, that they all partake in this singular mode of growth. Their flowers are like those of more perfect plants ; their sexual apparatus is complete ; but their embryo, which is not furnished with any visible radicle or cotyledons, appears to be a spherical or oblong homogeneous mass. Rhizogens seem, in fact, of an intermediate nature between Fungal Thallogens and Endogens.

The remainder of the Vegetable Kingdom consists of plants having flowers, and propagated by seeds; that is to say, by bodies procreated by the mutual action of two manifest and undoubted sexes. Such plants are therefore called Phenogamous or Sexual.

Sexual plants are themselves divisible into two unequal masses. Of these masses one consists of species whose germination is endorhizal, whose embryo has but one cotyledon, whose leaves have parallel veins, and whose trunk is formed of bundles of spiral and dotted vessels guarded by woody tubes ; which bundles are arranged in a confused manner, and are reproduced in the centre of the trunk. These are Ekdooens.

The other mass is composed of innumerable races having an exorhual germination, an embryo with two or more cotyledons, leaves having a network of veins, and a trunk consisting of woody bundles composed of dotted and woody tubes, or of woody tubes alone, arranged around a central pith, and either in concentric rings, or in a homogeneous mass, but always having medullary plates, forming rays from the centre to the circumference, and

ThaUognui and Aerogen* together eonttitnte the Acotvlsdoito of Jusauu, the Exsmb*yo*ata m Ajuusji of Skkard, the AeAiut, Crtptoqama, or Mthmooahm of oft*-*, the NeME4of Frkt.


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reproduced in the circumference of the trunk, whence their name of Exogens.

Among Exogens there are, however, two totally different modes in which die influence of the pollen is communicated to the seed. The larger part of this great class consists of plants provided with the apparatus called style and stigma, through which pollen-tubes are introduced into the ovary during the act of fertilisation. But others are so constructed that the pollen falls immediately upon the ovules, without the introduction of any intermediate apparatus ; a peculiarity analogous to what occurs amoug reptiles in the Animal Kingdom: and, as was to have been anticipated, the plants in which this singular habit occurs prove, upon being collected together, to form a group having no direct affinity with those among which they had been previously associated. Hence Exogens have been broken up into 1. Exogens proper, or those having an ovary, style, and stigma ; and 2. Gymnooens, which have neither.

Among Endogens no difference has been remarked in the mode of propagation, but a material peculiarity has been noticed in the maimer of growth. In the great mass of the class the stem and root are formed in a similar way, or there is no considerable difference between them, and the leaves have no articulation with the stem ; but in a part of them the root is exactly like that of an Exogen without concentric circles, and the leaves fall off the stem by a clean fracture, just as in that class. Such fundamental distinctions have given rise to the separation by me of Endogens into 1. Endogens proper, and 2. Dictyogens.

This gives us for the whole Vegetable Kingdom the following

CLASSES. Asexual, or FlowerUss Plants, Stems and leaves indistinguishable . . .1. TH ALLOC ENS. Stems and leaves distinguishable                   . . II. ACROQENS.

Sexual, or Flowering Plants, Fructification springing from a thallus                . III. RHIZOGENS.

Fructification springing from a stem.

Wood of stem arranged in a confused manner, youngest in the centre :

cotyledon single. Leaves parallel-veined, permanent; Root much

like the stem internally .                . IV. ENDOQENS.

Leaves net-veined, deciduous; Root with the wood in a solid concentric circle . . V. DICTYOGENS. Wood of stem arranged in a concentric or uniform manner, youngest at

the circumference; cotyledons 2 or more. Seeds quite naked .... VI. QYMNOGENS. Seeds enclosed in seed-vessels . .VII. EXOGENS.

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Autdn, Link, in Bert. Hag. III. CaUulam, DO. Ft. Pr. LOS. (1815). AcotyWonew, rantt. ilpk. 71. HomonwiMwr, iVto 4*. 18S& Aphylte, Ed. prim. CiyptophyU, Link. Handb. 183. Thallopfajta, EndL Gen. p. 1. Amphlgnue, Ad. Bnmg. Enumeration, p. xL (1843i.

The whole of the plants stationed in this class are remarkable for the extreme simplicity of their structure. They have no wood, properly so called, although in the case of some sea-weeds and Fungi they must acquire considerable age. Those spirally-coated tubes which the old anatomists called trachea, because of their respiratory office, are unknown among them, unless occasionally in the form of local cells connected with the reproductive organs only; and consequently upon the surface of even the most perfect of them there is no sign of the organic apertures in the skin called stomates or breathing-pores. They are mere masses of cells. On their surface nothing is discoverable which can be regarded as analogous to leaves; for even in such sea-weeds as Hypnea, which resemble mosses in appearance, and in some of the Lichens which seem leafy, the exact symmetry which, without exception, characterises true foliage is wanting. In Chara alone, which is wholly leafless, do we find a symmetrical arrangement even of the divisions of the axis. Their mode of reproduction is not by pollen and ovules, or by sexual apparatus, as it is usual to call those parts, of which there is no sign, but by a special disintegration and solidification of some part of their tissue, spontaneously effected in various ways according to their kinds. It is true that such names as Antheridia and PistOlidia are met with in the writings of Cryptogamic Botanists, from which it might be inferred that something analogous at least to sexes was observable among such plants; but these are theoretical expressions, and unconnected with any proof of the parts to which they are applied performing the office of anthers and pistils. If it should be assumed,-as it has been by some, that they do represent sexual organs, it is to be remembered that it is a mere assumption unsupported by sufficient evidence. Even in Charas, in whose globule some writers have seen a true anther, so little reason is there to suppose that it deserves such a name, that, on the contrary, an observer, worthy of credit, assures us that he has seen it grow. So entirely, in the simplest forms of Thallogens, is all trace of sexes missing, that in some of them their reproductive matter has been regarded by certain writers as altogether of an ambiguous nature. In their opinion, it is even uncertain whether this matter will reproduce its like, and whether it is not a mere representation of the vital principle of vegetation, capable of being called into action either as a Fungus, an Alga, or a Lichen, according to the particular conditions of heat, light, moisture, and medium, in which it is placed; producing Fungi upon dead or putrid organic beings ; Lichens upon living vegetables, earth, or stones; and Alga? where water is the medium in which it is developed. Kutzing, (Ann. des Se. n. $. vol. ii. p. 225), endeavours to maintain the following propositions connected with this subject : " 1st, the formation of organic matter can only take place by means of the previously dissolved elements of other organic principles ; 2nd, simple globules, such as Cryptococcus, Palmella, and Protococcus, can give birth to different formations according to the influence of light, air, and tempera-

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ture ; 3rd, we must regard all the forms of lower Algae as vegetations of a very simple structure, and distinguish them from each other, notwithstanding that in certain circumstances they may raise themselves to vegetations of a higher form ; for in other circumstances they can exist and multiply independently; 4th, the same superior formation may he produced by primitive formations of altogether different kinds."

It is not easy to settle the limits of the alliances of Thallogens. Linnaeus and Jussieu had hut two divisions, viz., Algae (including Lichens) and Fungi; and they have been followed by some modern botanists, particularly Fries and Wahlenberg. Others have been satisfied with separating the Lichens from Algae, which, indeed, was virtually done by most of those who acknowledged but two divisions; and with admitting three equally distinct groups. Some, on the contrary, have sought to multiply the orders, as De Gandolle and others, by introducing a tribe called Hypoxyla; Greville by adopting the latter, Gastromyci, Byssoideae, and Epiphyte, and proposing a new group under the name of ChsBtophoroidee ; and finally, Adolphe Brongniart, who carries the number of groups in this division of Acotyledones as far as 12, viz. Lichens, Hypoxyla, Fungi, Lycoperdaceae, Mucedineae, Uredine®, Fucaceae, Ulvaceae, CeramiaceiB, Confervae, Chao-dineae, and Arthrodieae ; part of which have originated with himself, and others with Bory de St. Vincent. It is clear, however, that these groups are of very unequal degrees of importance, and that after all they must be reduced under the three great forms whose existence is universally recognised.

In what way those forms can be best defined is a very difficult question. It has been said that Algae are aquatics, while Lichens and Fungi are terrestrial; but Fungi will develop in water, when they assume the form of Algae. Lichens have been characterised by their shields, or reproductive disks containing spores lying in the fusiform spore-cases callpd asci; but a whole division of Lichens consists of genera without such asci. Then as to Fungi, they have been characterised by the want of a thallus, which is essential to Lichens; but the mycelium or spawn of Fungi is really a thallus ; and it is impossible to distinguish by that character the genus Verrucaria of Lichens from Sphaeria of Fungi. According to two of the most skilful of our modern systematists, the following are the distinctions of the three great groups:—

AOAADH (1821).

1.  Albs, Aquatic plants, filamentous, lamelliform, or leafy, Intensely and brightly coloured,

including spores, which are either contained in pericarps or scattered over the surface.

2.  Fongi. Fugacious, pulverulent, flocculent, crustaeeous or fleshy plants, arising out of the

destruction of organic matter (or capable of doing so), whitish, or coloured, not green, with their spores immersed.

3.  Lichens. Perennial plants, crustaceous, laminated or filiform, not of a leaf-green, including

spores plunged in a thallus as well as In shields.

Adolphe Bronqotart (1843).

1.  Alojb. Frond cellular, lhring in fresh or-salt water (rarely in very moist air), fixed by suckera

or little roots.

2.  Fdnoi. Thallus filamentous (or Mycelium), developed on land or in dead or living organ!-

bodies, producing reproductive organs externally.

3.  Lichknb. Frond of various forms, living in air, fixed by cellular fibrils, without a thallua

developed in subjacent bodies. Fructification, occupying limited spaces on the snrfaea of the frond, formed of thecse mixed with paraphyses.

Neither of these definitions is however satisfactory ; they hold indeed in many cases ; but many Fungi have not a filamentous thallus ; again some Lichens (especially if Collema be included) have a filamentous thallus, and some species are all but aquatic, e. g. Verrucaria submersa. In Algals again,

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in the terrestrial Vaucheri©, the terrestrial Sphsrozyga, Ac, the fruit is developed in free air ; so also in Botrydium, TrentepohUa, and some others.

Mr. Berkeley finds that " the main distinction between Fungi and Algals (including Lichens) consists in the fact that Fungi are universally nourished by the matrix by means of their mycelium, while Lichens and Algals are nourished at the expense of the medium in which they vegetate. In a few cortical species of Lichens, indeed, there is a very intimate connection between the bark and stroma, but then in these cases there are the green gonidia which do not exist in Fungi. It is true that moulds will vegetate in fluids; but as soon as they assume their normal form, there is a distinction between the immerged and free portion."

Following these views, I venture to propose the following as the characteristic marks of the

Alliances of Thallooens.

Algales.—Cellular flowerless plants, nourished through their whole surface by the medium in which they vegetate ; living in water or very damp places; propagated by zoospores, coloured spores, or tetraspores.

Fungalbs.—Cellular flowerless plants, nourished through their thaUus {spawn or mycelium); living in air; propagated by spores colourless or brown, and sometimes inclosed in asci; destitute of green gonidia.

Lichbkalbs.—Cellular flowerless plants, nourished through their whole surface by the medium in which they vegetate; living in air; propagated by spores usually inclosed in asci, and always having green gonidia in tfteir thallus.

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8                                                      ALGALS.

Alliance I. ALG ALES.—The Algal Alliance.

Ak». Juee. Gen. h. (1788); DC. FL Fr. J. *. (1815); Agardh Bynape. Alg. (1817); Specie* -rffe. (1821-im) i Bm$L Alg. (1824); Greville Alg. BriL (1880); Hooker, Brit. Fl. vol. J. pL 1. (1833); 4*««** JO. ,4fe<r Jforfc JfaWfcrroitrf; Dtcaisnein Ann. 8c. Nat *eer. wli.YTf 18, pasrtms KUtsingt PhpcoZgi* General*. Bndticher, Gen. Sum*. &-PhJ«*. £*£*"<\J \lCIT*\h LamouZmx Arm. Jfia. ». (1812); GaUlon in Diet dee 8c. MJffiO. (l8aB).-Hydrophyto, W. Tentam. (1819)-—Arthrodle*, Borp in JHcL Oaee. LfBL <1822).-Hydr©neiiiate»f NeeeinJfov. Act ifat (fer. 11. H». (1823); Ann. <fe* &. 13.439. (1828).—Chaodlae*, Confeme and Cenmla-rise, Bor* <» -Wet Oaw. S. and 4. (1823)--Cfo*tophoroldwe, GrwiUe J*. Edin. 821. (1824).— Hrdrophycw, JWct 8peL Of*. F*. 320. (laan.-Nemasoafwi, GaUlon in Ann. 8c. &r. i. 1.44. (1834)rpbycfcf, Ifon*Dto. Fnto. d»JHit JT. «*. fci* (1843).

Diagnosis.—CMtdwjlowcrlese plants, nourished through their whole surface bythemedxwm in which they vegetate ; living in water or very damp place* ; propagated by zoospores, coloured spores, or tetratpores.

It is here that the transition from animals to plants, whatever its true nature may be, occurs ; for it is incontestable, as the varying statements of original observers testify, that no man can certainly say whether many of the organic bodies placed here belong to the one kingdom of nature or the other. Whatever errors of observation may have occurred, those very errors, to say nothing of the true ones, show the extreme difficulty, not to say impossibility, of pointing out the exact frontier of either kingdom. If those ambiguous marine productions, which Pallas considered to be plants, but which Lamarck and much later writers have mostly placed among Zoophytes, have been shown by KUfcring and Decaisne to be merely sea-vegetables coated with calcareous matter, we have m that fact another testimony to the near approach of the two realms being through the Algal alliance* Indeed, if any faith is to be placed in the observations of Kutzing and Hornschuch, the one is capable of giving birth to the other. The former of these writers mentions (Aim. Sc Nat. 2. ser. 5. 376j a very extraordinary feet, if it be one. He cut to pieces the marine animal called Medusa aurita, washed the pieces carefully in distilled water, put them into a bottle of distilled water, corked it close, and placed itin a window facing the east. The bits of Medusa soon decomposed, and emitted a very offensive odour, miring which time no trace of Infusoria was discoverable. After a few days the putrid smell disappeared, and myriads of Monads came forth. Shortly after the surface of the liquid swarmed with extremely small green points, which eventually covered the whole surface ; similar points attached themselves to the sides of the bottle; seen under a microscope they appeared to be formed of numberless Monads, united by a slimy mass ; and at last, after some weeks, the Conferva fugaciaeima of Lyngbye developed itself in perfection.

Reissek, of Vienna, goes still farther. He professes to have observed the green colouring matter of ordinary flowering plants metamorphosed into confervse ; such forms were even witnessed by him proceeding from the pollen cells of plants (Bot. Zeit. 1844. July 19). Kutzing also believes that the lower forms of Algals are capable of being changed into more highly organised species, or even into species belonging to different families of the higher cellular plants. With regard to these astounding statements I cannot do better than avail myself of the excellent remarks of the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, than whom no one has a more intimate knowledge of the subject in Question. In Taylor's Annals of Natural History, vol. xiv. p. 434, he observes,u that such observations cannot be considered conclusive, apart from all prejudice either way, till a certain number of bodies ascertained to be precisely of the same nature be isolated, and the changes of these observed with every possible precaution to avoid error. At present it seems that there is not by any means sufficient proof that the objects in question really arise from germs of the same nature. The second remark we would make is, that there appears too often in treatises of this description to be great indistinctness as to the notion of what a species really is. We know that in the course of development higher bodies go through a vast variety of phases which resemble very closely true substantial species which have arrived at their full development; but we are not therefore to suppose, that in passing through their phases the production has really consisted of such a number of real species. In the sense of Agardh this may be true enough ; for when he pronounces the vessels and cells of phaenogamous plants to be Algse, his meaning appears to be, however strongly he expresses himself, merely that they are representatives of Algae, and resemble them in structure.

u We would remark, also, that the real difficulty of the case does not depend on the question as to the difference of animal and vegetable life. These evidently in certain parts of the creation are so intimately combined, that it is quite impossible to say where the one ceases and the other begins ; and there is really no reason why we should be

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ALGALS-                                                      9

incredukxis ms to the possibility of the same object being at one time endowed more especially with animal, and at another with vegetable life. Late observations on the reproductive bodies of some Algae show that their motion is produced by vibratile cilia, exactly in the same way as in certain animals. Bat it is exceedingly difficult to imagine the transformation of one real species into another. The same species may assume a vast variety of forms according to varying circumstances, and it is highly instructive to observe these changes ; but that the same spore should under different circumstances be capable of producing beings of an almost entirely different nature, each capable of reproducing its species, is a matter which ought not to be admitted generally without the strictest proof."

For what wise purpose the Creator has filled the sea and the rivers with countless myriads of such plants, so that the Flora of the deep waters is as extensive as that of dry land, we can only conjecture ; the uses to which they are applied by man are, doubtless, of but secondary consideration ; and yet they are of no tittle importance in the manufactures and domestic economy of the human race. One of the most curious facts connected with them is their property of growing occasionally upon living animate, which they destroy; this is the case with Achlya prolifera, to be hereafter noticed.

Their history and classification have occupied the attention of some of the most acute botanists of the present day. Bishop Agardh and his son, Greville, Harvey, Decaisne, and KQtzing, deserve to be especially named as most excellent and skilful investigators of a very obscure and difficult subject. It is those only who have made the subject their peculiar study who can determine which of the classifications proposed by these authors has the strongest claim on attention. I, at least, am unable to decide ; and therefore I have preferred to employ the arrangement made use of by Endlicher in his last Supplement, as that which is most likely to be permanently employed for some years to come. Those who wish to acquaint themselves with the views of the great Algologists of the day should consult the younger Agardh's Alga Maris Mcditer-raneiy Ac. (1842) ; Greville's Alga Britawmcm (1830} ; Harvey's Manual of British Algm (184H ; Decaisne9s papers in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles, 2 Series, voL. xviL (1842) ; KQtzing's Phycologia generalis, oder Anatomic, Physiologic und 8y$-temkunde dcr 7\*nge (1843), a most elaborate work, illustrated with eighty exquisite plates ; the KtesdchaUgcn BaciUarUn oder Diatomeen by the same author, with three plates, 1844, which we regret to say we know only by name; the younger Agardh's Adversaria in Systemata Algarum kodierna, 1844, and various papers of 3r. Montague.

Natural Orders or Algals.

Crystalline, angular, fragmentary bodies, brittle, and multiplying by 1 j DlAT0JIACBA

spontaneous separation.......« «J

Vesicular, filamentary or membranous bodies, multiplied by zoospores \9 rtAWWWftVArrjtt

generated in the interior at the expense of their green matter . . .]* w>wfbrvacea. CtUular or tubular umsymmetrical bodies, multiplied by simple sports 1 3 j«UCACB_

formed externally................./

Cellular or tubular wisymmetrical bodies, multiplied by tetraspores . 4 Ceramiacea Tubular symmetrically branched bodies, multiplied by spiral coated 1 * fHARArRjR

nmculcs, Jilted with starch..............j haracrjs.

*#* For the information of those who may wish to know something of the system of Kutzmg, which I do not adopt, the following list is extracted from his great work, to which toe reader is referred for an explanation of the peculiar views of its author.

I. CLASS.—ISOCARPEjE. Tribus h—Oymnospermece.             }         2Um0,nphoipblBU, De8mIdi,im* DM*-


8vbordo l.~Myeophycea.

L CsvPTOooccmjs.—Cryptococcui, Uhrtna, Sptut*

rocflua H. LmynmiTSJE.—Higiocrodt, 8bocrodi, Lep-tomitos, Mjrcothsmnion, ChamttMma, Ne-mftoeoecus, Chlonyphe. IIL SAraoLMsicj*.—Saprotegnla, Myoocoriium. IT. PHJBoraaBJL—StereonfiuiA, Pbaeonema.

thbordo II.—Chamaphycca. ▼ Dssmotu.- CZoaterium, Microtheca, Peats-

VI.  Palmbllcje.—Protoooccas, Microhaloa, Bo-

tryocystis, Mlcrocystii. Botrydina, Polycoc* cub, Palmella, lnoderma, Coocochiori», Gkeocapta, Tctratpora, Palmogkwu

VII.  Hyobooocckjb.—AcUnococcus, Bntophyta* lis, Hydrococcus, Dydnmis, Hehnintbo-nema.

Subordo 111.—TUcNaska. A. GixsosfPitus.

a.) ABeniocpermea*. fteias, Eusstram, XsntfaUiam, Stsurai- ' VIII. Oscillaimsa.—Spirulina, OscUUrla 'cl-tram, Crudgenla, Mertanopcedia, Sceno- j           nooephalus, Phormidhim, Hydroooleum,

dtnus. Temuthnt; Mkrasteriat, Spharraa-             Chthonobbutus.

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IX.  Lbptotriche** — Laptottnix, Aatarothrix,

Sympbyothrix, Synploca, Dictyothrix, En-totbrix, Ifiactta.

6.) Meaoapermen.

X.  LtJOfOCHUDBA.—Limnochllde.

XI.  Nootocbjb.—Noatoc, Harmoriphon, Anabae-

na, Sphaerosypu Cylindrospennum, Sper-mosira, Nodularta.

XII.  Scytonkmilk. — DrHo8iphon, Scytonema, Syncbsta, 8ympbyoaipbon, Slroeiphon,

e.) Paraapermee.

XIII.  Lyngby&b. — Sipboderma, Ampbittuix, Leibletaia, Lyngbya, Blennothrtx.

XIV.  Calotrichea. — Tolypothrix, Calothrix, Hypbeotbrix, Schixothrlx, Bchisodictyon, Dictyonema.

d.) Hyposperme*.

XV.  Masttchotrichea. — Merizomyria, Maa-tichothrix, Maatichonema, Schixoelpbon, Geocyclua.

XVI. RivuuiafBjB.—Phyaactta, Heteractla, Cba-laractb, Ainactis, Llmnactla, Riyularia, Dasyactia, Euactia.

B. Dbrmatosiphea. a.) Endoepermee. XVH. Hormidibjb.—Horaidium9 Goniotrichfum, Anogoniumteotila, Scbixogonium, Schizo-meris, Bangia* XVTIL Vl&tbichka. — Ulothrfx, Stygeodo-nittOL

XIX.  Conferve.—Dedogonluxn, Paicbobormi-um, Conferva, Spongopais, Rhlxodonlum, Bpboroplea, Cladopbora, Crenacantha, jEgagroptla, Bpongomoipba, Periplegma-ttum, Pffinia, Flacheria.

XX.  ZvoifEMBA. Mougeotia, Sirogonium, Btau-

ro8permum, Spirogyra, Zygnema, Zygo-

nium. XXL Hydbodictysa. Hydrodlctyon.

5.) Ectoapermei*. XXIL Protonbmba. Gongroaira, Protonema.

XXIII.  CHAifTRANSiEJB. Cbroolepua, Cbaatran-aia, Cblorotyliom.

XXIV.  Draparitaldibje. Draparnaldia.

XXV.  Ectocarpra. Ectoearpua.

XXVI. Bphacslarikjb. Spbacdarta, Halopteria, 8typocaulon, Bailia, Chaetopteria, Clado-atepboa.

Subordo IV.—JkrmaMbkuU*. XXVIL XJhrACKML—Pbyllactidium, Protodenna, Praaiola, Ulva.

XXVIII.  Phycoserjdbjb. — Fhycoaaria, IMplo-stromlum, Pbycolapatbum.

XXIX. Entbromorphex.—Enteromorpha, Chlo-rodphon, SUctyoaipbon, Dictyoslphon.

Bvbordo V.—CteloMajfe*. XXX. Vauchbribjb. — Botrydium, Vancberia,

Bryopaia, Valonia. XXXL Caulbrpbjk.—Caulerpa. XXXII. Codiejk.—Codium, Rhipoxonlum, Hall-

meda, Corallooephalua9 Rblpocepbalua. XXXIIL Anadyombnbjb.—Anadyomena.

XXXIV.   Polyphysea. — Acetabularia, Poly.

XXXV.  Dabycladea.—Cymopolla, Daaycladua, Aflcothamnlon.

XXXVI.  Charba.—Nitella, Cbaropaia, Cbaia.


XXXVII.  Lbmaniba.— Thermocodium, Lema-nia, Halyaiom.

XXXVIII.  Chatophorba.—Cbaetopbora, Cha&-toderma, Thorea.

XXXIX.    Batrachospbrmba. Batrachoaper-mam.

XL. Liaoorbjb.—Liagoia.

XLI. Mbsogubacba. — Cladoaipbon, Myrlactia,

Phycopblla, Corynophlaea, Corynephora,

Mesoglcea, Cbordaria.

Ordo HI.—PYCNOSPERMEJE. XLII. Chordba.—Chorda, Bpermatodunu, Ha-

lorhixa. XLIII. Enccbuba. — Endrilnm» Halodietyon,

Strlaria. XLIV. Dictyotsa.— Dichophyllium, Cutleria,

Btoeehoapermum, Bpatogloaaum, Halogloa-

amnf Halyaeria9 Stypopodlum9 Phycopteris,

Zonaria9PhyUitl8. XLV. SP0ROCBKB& —Sporochnoa, Carpomltra,

Deamareatia, Artbrocladla. XLVI. Lamikaribjb. — Phlccorhlxa, Lamluariat

Hafgygla, Phycocaatanum9 Alaria, Coateria,

Agarum, Thalaaaiophyllum, Leaaonla, Ma-

crocyatia, NeieocyaUa.

Tribtts II.—Anffiospermcat.

XLVII. Pucbjb*—Splachniditxm, Dnrvlllaea, Hor-moslra, Ecklonia, Himanthalla, Fucxw, Carpogloaauia, Physocaulon, Scytothalia, Phylospora, Sirococcua.

XLVin. CYflftoaiRB*.—Traptacantha, Halericat PhyDaoanttia, Cyatoaira, Hormophyta, Hm-lidrys, Pycnophycua.

XLIX. Sargabbbar. — Pterocaulon, Sargaaaom, Turblnarla, Carpophyllum9 Phyoobotrya.

L. HAiiOCHLOJB.—Bloeaevflloa.Spongocarpufl, H%-locbloa, Bfyagropala, Carpacanthua, Stro-pbyaalia, Coccophora, Scab«4af Carpodea-mla.


Tribus III.—Paracwrpccc. Ordo L—TRICHOBLA8TEJE. LL Callithamnibjb.—Callithamnlon, Ortffithala, HaluniB, Phlebothamnlon, Wrangella, Spy-ridia9 Ptflota. LII. CBRAMiBis. — Honnoeeraa9 Gongroceraa, Echlnoceraa, Aeantbooeraa, Ceramium, Centrooaraa, Microcladia.

Ordo H.-EPIBLASTEJE. LIU. Porphtbbjb. — Porphyra, Hildenbmndtia,

Peyasonella. LIV. Sponoitbjb. — Hapalidlum, Pneophyllnm,

Mdobeaia9 Spongitea. LV. CoRALUJtmm.—Amphlroa, CoraUlna, Jania.

Ordo m.—PERIBLASTEJE. LVI. GYMNOPHtJEACBA.—Oymnophliea9 Helmin-

thora, NaccarSa. LVH. CHTANOiK.-Chart&ngium, Thamiioclo-

Diumt Sarcopbycua. LVIIL HALYMBNiBAMyelomium. Halymania,

Dumontia, Halarachnlon, Catenella.

LIX. CAULACAimiBE.*-Caalacanthaaf Acantho-bolua.

LX. GioARTiifBJB. — Iridaea, Chondrodlctyoi Grateloupla, Maatocarpua, Chondroe, CboD-dracanthui, Eubymenia, Conatantinea, Cal-lophyUla, Sarcophyllla, Solleria, Furoallaria,

LXI. Rhynchoooocba.—Rbynchoooocua, CalM-

blepbaria. LXII. CYBTOcfcOwraJt. — Cyatoelonium, Hypno-

pbycua. LXIIL Gbudi&b.—Acrocarpua, EchinocauloD,

GeUdlum, Ctenodua. LXIV. Bphjrrocooobjb.—Bowletiai Bphaarococ-

€oa9 Trematocarpua. LXV. Tylocarpba.—Tylocarpua9Oneotylna9Pa-

chycarpua, PhyUotrius, Coccotylua, PhyK

lophora, Acantbotyloa.

Tribus IV.—Choristocarpe*. Ordo IV.—AXONOBLASTBjE. LXVL Dasyba.—Daaya, Eupogoniom, Tricfao* tltamnfon

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cotfcamnlon, Haloi

thanwlofi, Phjscop____

LXVliL CBOicDaiKJR. — Lop&va, Carpoeaakm, Chondria, Acanihophon.


LXIX. CBQtfBBOsiPHKJK.—Bonnemaisonla, Chon-drothamnion, Cbondroeiphan, Haloeaceion.

LXX. Champtbjr.—Champia, Lomentaria, Gas-tfodoalmn. Oedo VL—PLATYNOBLA8TEJS.

LXXI. Dyi,aaatwTB« — jEgtoptgrltam, 8chi«o-

gtoasum, Inocborion, Cryptopleiira, Phyco-diys, Hypogloeram, Delesaeria. LXXU.Botkyocarpkjb.—Neuroglo8aum,Botryo-

carpa. LXX1II. Amahbibm.—Polyxonia, Atnanria, LXXIV. RTTXPHUKAcajx.—Rytiphlca, Dictyo-

LXXV. Caefoblkpharidka. — Carpoblepharia,

Odonthalia. LXXVL Plocammc.—Plocamium, Thamnocar*

pus, Thamnophora. LXXY1L Claudibj*,—CUudea,

Aprrdh, Genera et Species Algarum, 1851. Harvey, Manual of British Marine Alges, 1848. Tknret Beeierches sur Us Zoospores des Algues et Us AnUUridiss des Cryptogams 1851*

Algals have a doable respiration like higher plants. By day they absorb carbonic acid and emit oxygen; by night it is the reverse! that is to say, they absorb oxygen and give off carbonic acid. The quantity of oxygen which they extricate during the day is very considerable. M. Aiml, who has made numerous experiments on this subject, has succeeded in collecting a litre by agitating marine plants spread over two square yards of surface. The same observer asserts that the colour of the thallus does not interfere with this phenomenon, a red or brown thallus disengaging as much oxygen as if it were green.—Payer, Bot. Cryptogam., 17.

M. Gustave Thuret has added greatly to our knowledge of the reproductive bodies of this alliance. The views of himself and M.Decaisne are referred to in another page, but it seems desirable to state in greater detail the substance of his admirable observations upon the zoospores, or active particles of the Algal alliance, of which mention is made at p. 14, and which were once supposed to be present only in Confervas, but have now been ascertained to be common to the whole alliance. The substance of M. Thuretfs discoveries is as follows:—

The name of Zoospores is given to the reproductive bodies of certain Algak which at a particular moment escape from the interior of a plant and disperse in the surrounding liquid, where they move with activity, aided by vibratile ciliae. In that state they much resemble infusorial animalcules, but they differ in having the property of germinating, that is, of developing into a tissue like that of the parent plant The reproduction of Algals by zoospores is a much more common phenomenon than has been supposed. Instead of being confined to the lower forms of the alliance, it occurs in the most completely organised forms, such as Laminarias, which are hardly more remarkable for their gigantic size than for the complexity of their structure.

Formation.—The zoospores seem to be always produced by a kind of coagulation of the matter contained in the cells, which collects into masses that are shapeless at first, but which gradually assume the form peculiar to these productions. Occasionally monsters are found among them. In Enteromorpha clathrata they unite in pain by their rostrum; in Bryopsis plumosa they grow together in masses; the facility with which such union takes place seenis to show that they are not provided with a true skin; as is otherwise proved by the readiness with which they dissolve in ammonia—this is, however, true of them only while very young: as soon as germination commences they have gained a very perceptible skin.

Jhdethn.—This always takes place with some force; it cannot arise merely from their pressing upon each other in too confined a place, because the same forcible rupture occurs when there is no close packing. The real cause seems to be the force with which a colourless mucilaginous fluid secreted in the spore-case gradually distends H, probably by endosmotdc action. The presence of this fluid is incontestable ; M. Thuret has often seen it draw the zoospores along with it when emitted; it even forms occasionally at the orifice of the spore-case a drop, in which the zoospores are detained for a moment before escaping into the water.

Influence of Light and Heat.—Usually the zoospores move in the direction from which light comes; but sometimes it is the contrary, and they seem to shun the light. In other cases some will go one way, some another, it seeming as if those having most vitality sought the light, and those with less avoided it. In a few, Vaucheria for instance, they have no predilection, nor is any phenomenon of the kind found in mucilaginous species, such as Laminaria saccharina, && Light exercises a manifest influence over the emission of zoospores; bright light favours their emission,

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11a                                                  ALGALS.

clouds or darkness the reverse. It usually takes'place at the earliest hours of the morning; in Vaucheria about 8 i.m.; in Cutleria at daybreak Euteromorpha clathrata is the only kind that has been seen to emit them in the afternoon. A high temperature is unfavourable, moderate warmth promotes the phenomenon; this is shown by the rapidity with which Algols brought into a warm room emit their zoospores.

Duration of the Motion.—The movement of zoospores generally lasts only a few hours, and seldom continues beyond the day on which they are emitted; sometimes, however, as in Ulothriz zonata, several remain active even on the third day. Motion is suddenly arrested by alcohol, ammonia, acids, iodine, &c; the latter colours them brown, which renders it more easy to perceive their ciliaa.

Their Relation to Infusoria.—M. Thuret wholly denies their identity with or mutability into animalcules. He points out their resemblance to the common Diselmis viridis, (or Chlamydomonas pulvisculus) which renders ponds green; and he believes that when the Diselmis has become attached to the edge of a vessel, and is motionless, assuming a spheroidal figure, that it has been confounded with germinating zoospores. He regards it as probable that observers have confounded all manner of microscopical globules, however different from each other in their nature; and that infusoria, zoospores, the spores of mosses, the green gonidia of lichens, ftc., all regarded as the same thing, have given rise to the notion that one kind of Alga could not only produce a different species, but even a moss, a liverwort, or a lichen. The reader is requested to consult M. Thuret's important memoir in the Annates dee Sciences NatureUes, sir. 3, voL xiv., or his Recherche* sur lee Zoospores des Algues et Us Anthiridies dm Crypto* games, (Paris, 1851,) and the admirable plates which accompany the treatise.

This author proposes to divide algals into two primary groups, of which one is propagated by zoospores, and the other not The zoosporous part he arranges thus :—

Zoospore* Decaiene (exclusive of Nostochine®, Rivularieee, Oscillatoriea, Pal-melle©, Lemaneee)—Apksporee* Decaisne (exclusive of Batrachospermea, Fuoaoe©, and some Dictyoteae).

§ 1. Chlorosporea, Colour,'usually green.

Bryopsideae; Confervea; Draparnaldieae; Ulvaoeee; (Edogoniea; Vaucheriea*; Saprolegnie©; Derbeeieee; Spongodieo.

§ 2. Pheoeporeee. Colour$ brown or olive.

                    Ectoearpea ; Myrioneme®; Chordarie® ; Sporochnees; Punctarie© ; Dictyo-

aiphone©; Scytosiphonea; Laminarieae; Cutlerieea.

That these zoospores are the means by which Algals are propagated seems to be proved by the following experiment made by Stackhouae, and recorded in his Nereis Britannica:

" Having procured a number of wide-mouthed jars, together with a siphon to draw off the water without shaking or disturbing it, on Sept. 7,1796,1 placed my plants (F. serratus, canaliculus, and tuberculatus,) carefully in the jar, with their bases downwards, as in their natural state; on the following morning I decanted off the sea water, and, letting it subside in the basin, I found a few particles at the bottom, which, on being viewed with the microscope, appeared to be little fragments detached from the surface by friction in carriage. I then poured a fresh quantity of sea water on the plants, and placed them in a window feeing south: on the following morning the jar containing the plants of F. canaliculars discharged into the basin a few yellowish grains, which, on examining them, I found to be the actual seeds of the plant; they were rather oval than pear-shaped, but the most curious circumstance attending the observation was, that each individual seed was not in contact with the water, but enveloped with a bright mucilaginous substance. It was easy to guess the wise economy of nature in this disposition, which, as hinted above, serves a double purpose; each equally necessary towards continuing the species. On the following morning a greater quantity of seeds were discharged by this plant and at this time a few seeds were procured from F. serratus; but this latter plant discharged such a quantity of mucous fluid that the sea water in which the plant was immersed was of the consistence of syrup, and consequently, the seeds being kept suspended, it was difficult to separate them* The seeds of F. canaliculars, however, were numerous, and visible to the naked eye, and after letting the water rest for a few minutes it was no difficult matter, by gently inclining the basin, to pour off the water and let the seeds remain. In performing this operation I was witness to an explosion or bursting

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ALQALS.                                                  11 b

of one of these seeds or pericarps, which agitated the water considerably under the microscope, and brought to my recollection the circumstance mentioned by Major Velley during his investigation of F. veaiculosus. I at last obtained a discharge of seeds likewise from F. bifurcatus (tuberculatus); these perfectly resembling the others. Having established this point, vis., that marine plants scatter their seeds in their native element without violence when ripe, and without awaiting the decay of the frond, I next procured some sea pebbles and small fragments of rode, taken from the beach, and having drained off the greater part of the water in the jar, I poured the remainder on them, and left them dry for some time that the seeds might affix themselves. I then fastened strings to the pebbles, and alternately sunk them in sea water in a wide-mouthed jar and left them exposed to the air, in order to imitate as nearly as possible their peculiar situation between high and low*water mark, and when the weather was rainy I took care to expose them to it In less than a week a thin membrane was discoverable on the surface of the pebble where the seeds had lodged, with a naked eye; this gradually extended itself, and turned to a darkish olive colour. It continued increasing in size, till at last there appeared numerous papillae or buds coming up from the membrane; these buds, when viewed with a glass, were rather hollow in the centre, from which a shoot pushed forth; in some instances they seemed on a short* thick footstalk, and in this Utter case resembled in some measure the pesizfe-formed seedling of F. loreus, and the others without stems were like the stemless Peris©. These plants continued to put forth the central shoots for some time, but their growth was not rapid after the first efforts; most probably owing to their confined situation; and as I was six or eight miles from the sea, and had not the opportunity of placing the pebbles in some of those pools which are left by the sea at low water, I discontinued the experiment99


Lhnoodfctyon, Ktzmg. In Palnuellec           I lnomerla, Suing, in Rivularie«.

Erebonema, B9m~ in Leptomltee.                 ] Chnaumatophora, Kteing. In Leptotrtchefe.

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Order I. DIATOMACE.dE. Brittleworto.

Diatoxnaceae, Agardh, 8y$L adL (1824); KUtsiiw, in IAnn*ay 8.529; Part of Chaodinee and Pi»-glllaria, Bcwy <» Diet Gtaw. S. and L (1&3); l&idtt*. On. /./ Jte</». in wc ifot JMrt. 11 et*?.

Diagnosis.—Crystalline, angular, fragmentary bodies, brittle, and multiplying bf

spontaneous separation. Crystalline fragmentary bodies, generally bounded by right lines, rarely included in curved lines, fiat, stiff, brittle, usually nestling in dime, uniting into various forms, and then separating again.

Those who have ever examined the surface of stones constantly moistened by water, the glass of hothouses, the face of rocks inthesea,or of walls where the sun never shines, or the hard paths in damp parts of (gardens after rain, cannot fail to have remarked a green mucous slime with which sucn places are covered* This slime consists of Algals in their simplest state of organisation ; they have been called Chaodiness by Borv de St. Vincent, whose account of them is to the following effect: " The slime resembles a layer of albumen spread with a brush; it exfoliates in drying, and finally becomes visible by the manner in which it colours green or deep brown. One might call it a provisional creation waiting to be organised, and then assuming different forms, according to the nature of the corpuscles which penetrate it or develop among it. It may further be said to be the origin of two very distinct existences, the one certainly animal, the other purely vegetable. This matter lying among amorphous mucus consists, in its simplest state, of solitary, spherical corpuscles; these corpuscles are afterwards grouped, agglomerated, or chained together, so producing more complex states of organisation. Sometimes the mucus, which acts as the basis or matrix of the corpuscles, when it is found in water, which is the most favourable medium for its development, lengthens, thickens, and finally forms masses of some inches extent, which float and fix themselves to aauatic plants. These masses are at first like the spawn of fish, but they soon change colour, and become green, in consequence of the formation of interior vegetable corpuscles. Often, however, they assume a milky or ferruginous appearance ;

and if in this state they are examined

under a microscope, they will be found

completely filled with the animalcules

caltai Navicularia,Lunulin8B, and Sty-

larise, assembled in such dense crowds

as to be incapable of swimming. In

this state the animalcules are inert.

Are they developed here, or have they

found their way to such a nidus, and have they

hindered the development of the green corpuscles f

Is the mucus in winch they lie the same to them

as the albuminous substance in which the eggs of

many aquatic animals are deposited f At present

we have no means of answering these questions.0

These form, no doubt, the extreme limits of the Vegetable and Animal Kingdom. Their regular form, and the power of separating into distinct particles, which the most of them have, are almost as much the attributes of the mineral, as of the vegetable, or even animal kingdom. Agardh in* eludes them among plants. KUtzing asserts that their life is as much animal as vegetable ; and thftt, at all events, Achnanthes, Gomphanema, Exilaria, Fragila-ria, Meloseira, Schizonema, Micromega, and Berkleya, are at least plants, if Frustulia, Cymbella, Navicula, Surirella, &c., are animalcules. He has also recently ascertained, that the frustules of Micromega are metamorphosed into green globular sp6res. Dr. Dickie of Aberdeen has observed something of the same kind. Mr. Ralfs, who has paid great attention to the history of these

Fig. IL-1. Blddulphia; 2. Grammonema ; 8. Eunotia; 4. Achnanthes; 5. Ampbitetrae; 6. Gloionema, A production once referred to this order, but determined by Mr. Berkeley to be the egg* of an tnaect.




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doubtful creatures, observes, thai one division of them, the Cymbellese, rapidly beoomo putrid, have a siliceous covering, and consequently their form ia not altered in drying, and they are not destroyed by fire. When in perfection they are generally brownish, and not unfireqtently become greenish when dry ; they are usually of either a quadrilateral or prismatic form, and often marked with streaks and dots. The Desmidiese, on the contrary, pntrify very slowly, have not a siliceous coat, and therefore altar their shape in drying. When in perfection they are generally of an herbaceous green colour, and most frequently have the fragments divided into two portions resembling each other in form, but sometimes differing much as to size. " This division is marked in Desmidium mucosum merely by a shallow groove passing round the joint, and in Desm. Swartzii bv notches in the angles, by which it is rendered still more apparent; whilst in Euastrum the two portions are connected only by a central chord." (Ann. N. H. 11. 448.) In another place (lb. 13. 377) this accurate observer recognizes the universal presence of starch among the Desmidieae, which, not being an animal product, seems to settle the question of die vegetable nature of at least that portion of Brittleworts.

Natives of still waters, and oozy places in the northern parts of the world.

The uses of these plants to man are unknown*


Suborder LCymbsllsjl — Individuals quite free, angular, «fli-

FnrtaUa, jI*.


HmpioidlOy Ktx.

Cymbdia, Ktx.

Navitula* Borj. StyDsria,?.

Skdbdmm. WaDr. Meridiom. Lkmophora, Ag.

ExUaritt, Grer.

/tyvwofetto, Kfttx. MdrtolpMa, Gray. Gomphonema, Ag.

Cymbophor*, Ktx.

Pattonepkora, Kt*.

Bphmophera, Ktx.


CoocoMmSy Ehr. Achnanthas, Bory. 8trtaWlaf Ag. Amphftatras, Bhr. lfthmia,4p.

BaeUlaria, Ehr. TabtDsria, JtaWr. T«aeUa,£%r. Fragilarla, Lyngb.

Bematoptata, Bory.

Temackium Wallr. GnunmoMma. Ag. Tetracydus, Raffs. Lysigonium, I*.



Vesiculifera Han. Oncobyna, Ag.

Suborder II. Hydholi-via-IndMduals en-

closed in tabes, angular.

Encyonema, Ktz. DicUea, Berk. Bjdrolinum, Link.

Schitonema, Ag.

Monema, Grer.

Oirodetla, GailL

8pcrvtopon(a , Bonnero. Honusockdia, Ag. Gloiodictyon, Ag. Hydruraa, Ag.

Gftoetfe, Boiy.

Corradorus. Gray. Mieromega, Ag.


Suborder HI. Dram-dibjb.—Indhiduali cylindrical.

Periarterial, Ehn

Xanthldlum* Euaatnun, Ehr.

Cosmarium. Menegh.


Heterocarpella, Turp. Odonteila, Ehr. (Cloetarfum, Bittsch. Tetmemorus, Ral/s. Mkraeterias, Aq. Staurastrum, Meyen. Pedlastrum, Meyen. Spherastrum, Msyen. Belierella, Bory.

Potareus, Rafin. Crudgeala, Morren. Sclenaca, Bitsch. Hellactia, Kim. Scenedeenras, Meyen. Tesiarthia, Turp. Bchinella, Ack. Deamidium, Ag.

Numbebs. Gbzi. 45. Sp. 467.



Rolf* British Desmidkcz (1848).

Mr. Thwsites has thus described the mode of conjugation in Brittleworts :— In Eunotia turgida, not very uncommon in ditches, the process of conjugation consists as in the Desmidieee, in the union of the endochrome of two approximated fronds, this mixed endochrome developing around itself a proper membrane, and thus becoming converted into the sporangium. In a very early stage of the process the conjugated frustules of the Eunotia have their concave surfaces in nearly close apposition, and from each of these surfaces two protuberances arise which meet two similar ones in the opposite frustule: these protuberances indicate the future channels of communication by which the endochrome of the two frustules becomes united, as wall as the spot where is subsequently developed the double sporangium, or rather the two sporangia. The mixed endochrome occurs at first as two irregular masses between the connected frustules, but these masses shortly become covered each with a smooth cylindrical membrane. Around the whole structure a considerable quantity of mucus is developed, by which the empty frustules are held attached to the sporangia. In Oomphonema and Cocconema each conjugated pair of frustules gives origin to two sporangia, and around each pair of frustules is developed a quantity of firm mucus or gelatine, which gradually disappears as the sporangia become mature.

Ctvbkllsjc Anlacocyatts, BassaU. Gyroelgma, Id. Hftzeehla, Id. SphfuctocTSti*,/* Sptuerophora, Id.

ADDITIONAL OENEKA. Dbsmjdiu. Holocystla, Hassan. TrigonocystiB, Id. GonioeyatU, Id. H valotheca, Rolfs. Didymoprium, Id.

DzAMnmuRy continued. Aptogomtm, Rolfs. Bpluerosoema, Id. Arthrodesmoe, Id. Didymocladon, Id.

Dbsktdikk,continued. Penium, Rolfs. Doddlum, Id. Spirotamia, Id. Ankistrodeamas, Id.

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Confervacese, Endl. gen. Suppl. ///.,». 10. Zoospennes, J. Agk. Alg. Med. I. flynspor** and Zoospermese, DteaUne in Ann. 8c. N. 2 #er. 18. 905.

Diagnosis*—Vesicular, filamentary or membranous bodies, multiplied by zoospores generated in the interior, at tint expense of their green matter.

Water plants, not commonly of a green colour, but occasionally olive, violet, and red ; inhabiting the ocean in some instances, but more commonly found in fresh water; some of them even belonging to both kinds of fluids; some found in mud, others floating freely, most attached, in some way, on rocks or as parasites. Cells solitary or many, globose, elliptical, cylindrical, or tubular ; sometimes variously branched ; some-tunes formed in slimy matter in which they are scattered, or irregularly heaped, or placed one above the other in a regular series forming an articulated frond ; some disposed in several rows and forming a thin layer, or some combined in the form of a net. Their mode of growth by a subdivision of the cells, of ramification by a lateral extension of such cells, a dividing

partition being eventually formed. The propagation by sporidia (internal cells, or a gelatinous substance which orgaa ~

organizes itself into cells,) found in each cell, singly, or in a definite, or indefinite number, formed from the colouring matter of one or more cells, or sometimes by the copulation of distinct individuals, and discharged by the opening or absorption of the mother celL— Endl

If doubts exist as to the Vegetable nature of the last order, or of some part of it, no question arises as to what that of Confervas is. Its genera are now admitted on all hands to be plants, since M. Decaisne's important discovery of the vegetable nature of several things which had been previously regarded as Zoophytes. Nevertheless, it is curious to see how much, at one period at least of their existence, they have of an animal nature, if the power of moving from place to place is to be taken as an indication of such a quality. It seems incontestable, notwithstanding the denial of Mohl and others, that many of the Conferva tribe, especially of the genera Conferva, Ulva, and their near allies, produce in their tubular threads reproductive bodies, or spores, which after a time acquire a power of rapid, and quasi-voluntary motion while in the inside of their mother ; that by degrees, and in consequence of their constantly tapping against the soft side of the cell that holds them, they escape into the water ; that when there they swim about actively, just like animalcules; and at last retreating to a shady place, attach themselves to a stone or some other body, lose their locomotive quality, and thenceforward germinate and grow like plants.—(/. Ag. Ann,. 8c. Nat. 2 scr.voL 6.)* It is

* "The filament* of Conferva eroa," saystheyounger Agardh, "are, asiswell known, articulated or divided at equal distances into little compartments (joints), which have no communication among themselves other than what results from the permeability of the dissepiments. The green matter contained in these joints appears at first altogether homogeneous, as if it were fluid; but in a more advanced state it becomes more and more granular. The granules are, at their formation, found adhering to the inner surface of the membrane, but they soon detach themselves, and the irregular figure which they present at first passes to that of a sphere. These granules congregate by degrees in the middle of the joint, into a mass, at first elliptical, but which at length becomes perfectly spherical. All these changes are conform* able to phenomena known in vegetable fife; those which are to follow have more analogy with the pheno-oa of animal life. At this stage an important metamorphosis exhfh.......

Fig. III.

_                                          8 exhibits itself, by amotion of swarming

<un mouvement de fourmiUement) in the green matter. The granules of which it is composed detach themselves from the mass, one after another, and having thus beoome free, they move about In the vacant space of the joint with an extreme rapidity. At the same time, the exterior membrane of the Joint is observed to swell in one point, tfll it there forms a little mammilla, which is to become the point from which the moving granules finally issue. By the extension of the membrane for the formation of the mammilla, the tender fibres of which It is composed separating, cause an opening at the end of the mammilla, and it

Fig. III.-L Protococcus viridis; 2. the same beginning to develop; 3. the same more advanced; 4 fc *. SchUogonium raurale; 6. A fragment of Ulva (Prasiolat furfuracea (KuUing).

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Auuia.]                                           CONFERVACEiE.                                                   15

even asserted by M. Thuret, that in Conferva glomerate and rivttlaris, the spores have special organs ox motion, of the nature of dike or tentacula, and that it ia by Uieir rapid action that the spores swim so freely in fluid.—(Ibid. xix. 267.) Motions of another ' kind have been noticed in the Oscillatorias ; and in the species called Zygnemas, they are so extraordinary as to approach nearly to the act of copulation in animals* In the buiguage of M. Decaisne, u the spores of these plants result from the coupling of two


tubes, of which one transmits to the other, by a peculiar mechanism, the substance which h contained, in order to form one or two spores distinct and separated by a partition, which is organised after the copulation." In tins coming together, the two tabes project one nipple from each of two opposite cells, which by degrees touch, after which, the points of the nipples are absorbed, a passage established between the cells, the colouring matter of one pourn into the other, till one of the cells is wholly emptied. ** IVa                                  Meyen states, that the red and green

Snowplants, which have been described as Conferva, and assigned to the genus Protococcos, are nothing more than the animalcules called Enchelis sanguinea, and Pnlviscnlus. But this does not affect the genus Protococcus, which contains production respecting whose vegetable nature no doubt is entertained.

Hydrodictyon utriculatum has the appearance of a green net According to M. Areschoug, the cells of this plant, when nearly ripe, contain a number of active spherical granules, which in the process of reproduction become elliptical, and are attached by their extremities, when an articulation is soon produced, so as to form pentagons or hexagons. Each granule becomes a cell of the new Uydrodictyon. (be Hydr. ntrie. di*9crtatio.)

b by ttdi passage that the granules escape. At Ant they issue in a body, but soon those which remain, evimmtiKg in a much larger space, hare much more difficulty in escaping, and it is only after innumerable fc™*fcfr»ffl (titubations) against the walls of their prison, that they succeed in finding an exit Prom the first instant of the motion one observes that the granules or sporules are furnished with a little beak, a kind of anterior process, always distinguishable from the body of the seed by its paler colour. It is on the taxations of this beak that the motion, as I conceive, depends; at least, I have never been able to dis-cover any cUte. However, I wul not venture to deny the existence of these, for with a very high power of a compound microscope one sees the granules surrounded with a hyaline border, as we find among the dilated Infusoria on applying a glass of insufficient power. The sporules, during their motion, always present this beak in front of their body, as if it served to show them the way; but when they cease to move, by bending it bade along the side of their body, they resume the spherical form, so that before and after the motion one sees no trace of this beak. The motion of the sporules before their exit from the joint consists principally in quick darlings along the walls of the articulation, knocking themselves sgainst them by innumerable shocks; and in some cases we are almost forced to believe that it is by this motion of the sporules that the mammilla is formed. Escaped from their prison they continue their motion lor one or two hours, and retiring always towards the darker edge of the vessel sometimes they prolong their wandering courses, sometimes they remain in the same place, causing their beak to vibrate in rapid dreke. Finally, they coBect in dense masses, containing innumerable grains, and attach themselves to some extraneous body at the bottom or on the surface of the water, where they hasten to develop flla-i like those of the mother plant. The spherical sporules elongate at first into egg-shaped bags, 1 to the strange body by the narrowest end. Theh development only consists in a continual jn, without emitting any root The green internal matter divides in the middle by a partition, wfckh appears at first sight as a hyaline mucilage, but which gradually dianges into a complete diaphragm. It Is thus, by successive divisions of the Joint first formed, that the young plant increases. The position of the mammilla in each Joint Is uncertain, at least I have seen It very different in neighbouring joints* The exit of the sporules does not take place at the same time in the different joints. One often sees those of one of the articulations already escaped, while in the neighbouring one they are not yet completely formed. Cocmnonly the uppermost joints empty themselves first, so that it is not rare to see all the upper part of a filament entirely transparent, whilst the lower part continues still to develop. In this manner the formation and dissemination of the seeds continue during the whole summer, and thus a single filament suffices for the formation of an infinite quantity of sporules. If one remembers that each Joint contains perhaps many hundred of spores, it is not astonishing that the water becomes perfectly covered with them; so thai we might readily take for a Protococcus, or other simple Alga, what are only the spores of a Conferva. I suspect that from such a mistake have arisen the theories of metamorphosis proposed by many modern apologists." ______________________

Fig. IV.—Spirogyra quinina (Kutzingj. C

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Confervas are more frequently found in the temperate parts of the world than within the tropica, occupying both salt and fresh water, but more especially the latter, and several species are common to both. One of them, the Tireaias ericetorum, grows on the groucJ, but in places that are very damp, and often inundated ; others among the oscillating species cover the humid surface of rocks or earth, and the interstices in the navement of cities; some even grow in hot springs of a very high temperature. Ulva tnermalis lives in the hot springs of Gastein, in a temperature

of about 117° Fahr. Dr.Lan-kester speaks of Oscillatoriaa found in the sulphuretted hydrogen water of Harrowgate (Awn. N. H. vii. 107); and Calothrix nivea is said to have occurred there also. They often give a peculiar colour to large bodies of water. The Red Sea has derived its nam* from the abundance of Tricho-desmium erythrseum which floats in it, and concerning which MM. Evernor Dupont and Montague have given a curious account.* Dunal states that the crimson colour of the salt-water tanks on the coast of the Mediterranean is owing to the presence of Protococcus salinus and Hsematococcus sali-nua, two of the most simple of this order. Haematococcus NoU tii stains crimson the marshes Flg-V-                                       ofSleswick.

Dr. Drummond ascertained that the Irish lake of Glaslough, which is remarkable for its peculiar greenness, owes its colour to the presence of Ids Oscillatoria ranges* cens. (Ann. N. H. L 1.) The green of the Grand-canal docks near Dublin has been found to arise from the presence of a Sphserozyga (TrichormusMiii.) and in like manner Mr. Thompson found that the water of Ballydrain lake is coloured green by SphsBrozyga (Anabaina) spiralis, and that in the same place broad verdigris patches proceed from collections                <o

of Aphanizomenon incurvum. (Arm. N. Hist, v. 88.) £«*           

It has also occurred that acres of inundated meadow ***%            C

land have been clothed to the depth of an inch with #™ a thick entangled layer of Conferva crispa, which               °l

tiien forms a texture not unlike that of some woollen r' fabric, whence it has gained the name of water- ~Zj>          v

flannel. ConfervsB sometimes attack diseased animal %T           \J \

tissue. Mr. Goodsir has described such an instance in the case of a gold-fish. (Aw*. Nat. Hist. ix. 336.)                      *** VI-

It has been ascertained that this is of retry common occurrence, and that the plant which makes the attack is the Achlya prolifera. This production has been carefully

« On the 8th July 1843,1 eatered the Red Beaby the straits of Babelmandel, onboard the Ataianta steamer. On the 16th the burning sun of Arabia suddenly awoke me with its brilliancy unannounced by the dawn. I was leaning mechanically out of the poop windows, to catch a little of the fresh air of night before the sun had devoured it, when, imagine my surprise to And the sea stained red as frr as the ey*

could reach behind the vessel.-----If I was to attempt to describe this phenomenon, I would say that the

surface of the ocean was entirely oorered with a dose thin layer of fine matter, the colour of brickdust, but slightly orange. Mahogany sawdust would produoe such an appearance.—When put into a white glass bottle, it became in the course of a day deep violet, while the water itself had become a beautiful rose colour. This appearance extended from Cosseir, off which we were at daybreak on the 16th May, to Tor, a tittle Arabian village, which we made about noon the next day, when it disappeared, and the sea becam* blue as before. During this time we must have passed through about SM miles of the red plant." Comptes rmdui, six. 171.—Similar appearances have been mentioned by Mr. Darwin; and Mr. Hinds, when at anchor off Ltbertad in the Pacific, and at the Abrolhos, perceived large quantities of another species of Trkhodesmtum, which exhaled a most disagreeable smell. To this cause, or one of the same kind, is probably referable the phenomenon mentioned in the Colombo Herald of May 14,1844 : " The sea to th« southward of Colombo, and, more lately, opposite the fort itself, has presented a very uncommon appear-

Pig. V.—1. Hydrodictyon utrlculatum ; 2. portion of full-grown plant; 3. portion of a Joint in which the granules have commenced to'dispose themselves in pentagons, the rudiments of the new plant, p. VI.—Sphnrosyga spiralis.

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Awals.]                                     CONFERVACILfi.                                            17

examined By Dr. linger. When arrived at its full growth, it consists of transparent tlireada of extreme fineness, packed together as closely as the pile of velvet; they greatly resemble, in general appearance, certain kinds of mouldiness. These thread* are terminated by an extremity about Ynr °' an "w* m diameter, consulting of a long angle cell, within which is collected some green mucilage intermixed with granules. Dr. Unger assures us that at this time no starch is present, but the whole of the green matter is of the nature of gum, as is proved by the action of iodine upon it The contents of the cell are seen to be in constant motion, directing themselves in lines such as are represented at Kg. 5. While this is going on, the end of the cell continues to grow, and at the same time the contents collect at the extremity, and distend it into a small howl in form resembling a club, immediately after which a chamber is formed, and tjhen the first stage of fructification is accomplished. The next change is observed to take place in the granular matter of the ctubhead, which itself enlarges, while the contents gain opaqueness, and by degrees arrange themselves in five or six-sided meshes, which are in reality the sides of angular bodies, thai are rapidly fanning at the expense of the mucilage above mentioned,                               Ffe*vn-

which has disappeared- It is not the least surprising part of this history, that all the changes above mentioned take place in the course of an hour or an hour and a half, so that a patient observer may actually witness the creation of this singular plant At this time all the vital energy seems directed towards changing the angular bodies in the inside of the clubhead into propagating germs or spores. Meanwhile the clubhead grows, and gives them a little room, and they in their turn alter their form and become oval. Then it is that is witnessed the surprising phenomenon of spontaneous motion in the spores, which, notwithstanding the narrow space in which they are born, act with such vigour that at last they force a way through the end of the clubhead. At first one spore gets out into the water, then another, and another, till at last the clubhead is emptied. AD this takes place with such rapidity that a minute or two suffice for the complete evacuation of the clubhead or spore-chamber. The spores, when they find their way into the water, are generally egg-shaped, and swim with their small end foremost ; but they are often deformed, in consequence of the narrowness of the hole through which they have had to pass. It even happens that they stick fast in the hole, and perish there. They are extremely small, their breadth not exceeding the 1896th

aaoe for soma days past Instead of its usual brightness, the surface has been to a considerable extent covered with what appean to the naked qre a sort of nasty firoth or scum, emitting a foetid smell. In the mornings, when tthas been usually calm, this scorn has presented itself in broad belts and fields, and by the afternoon, after being exposed to the sea-breeze, it is broken down into streaks, lying in the direction of the wind, which, if tt blows pretty fresh, disperses it altogether. We have examined some of this animal substance in a tumbler of salt water, and were not a little surprised to find, that while it floated oa the surface, in the form of a scum, some parts of a yellowish-green, and some of a purplish-brown colour, it tinged the whole water of a beautiful violet. We afterwards found that the whole water in fee bucket, in which it was brought from the sea, had acquired the same colour; and, indeed, it appeared to us the other day, when it was very abundant, as if the sea itself had been stained of this beautiful tint. We found, on minute inspection, that it consisted of an infinite multitude of small spindle-shaped bodies, each of which, in its turn, was a bundle of small threads Jointed but unbranched, and seemingly Tory brittle. We have no doubt but it is a vegetable production in the sea, something similar to the green substance whfch covers stagnant pools of fresh water. The most remarkable and unpleasant feature is its fcrtid odour* When we read in books of voyages, of ships sailing for so many hours through seas of a blood-colour, and similar wonders, we are apt to suppose the author is taking the liberty of a traveller; but witnessing such a phenomenon as this, is calculated to prepare us for giving them more credit"                            ______________________

g. Til. Aehlya prolifera.—1. The club-shaped spore-chamber; J. the same emptied of its spores; 3V 4. as pore-chamber much less magnified, containing two germinating spores, and a dead one ; 5. a piece of the thread at an early period, with the lines of motion.


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part of an inch. Their small end is the most transparent, and it is curious to see how constantly this is pushed forwards in the rapid evolutions made in the water by these living particles. This sort of quasi animal life does not last long—a few seconds, some minutes, or at the most half-an-hour. They often die : Unger assures us that he has seen them in the agonies of death, and itruggling convulsively (!), with all the appear-ance of animal life.

Porphyra laciniata and vulgaris are stewed, and brought to our tables as a luxury, under the name of Laver; and even the Ulva latissima, or green Laver, is not slighted in the absence of the Porphyra. Ulva compressa, a common species on our Bhores, is regarded, according to Gaudichaud, as an esculent by the Sandwich Islanders. Common Nostoc, commonly called star-jelly, a trembling gelatinous plant, that springs up suddenly after rain, is by superstitious persons supposed to possess virtue as a vulnerary, and in pains of the joints; oyster green or Ulva lactuca (the fipiop $ahdtr<ru>y of Dioscorides) is sometimes employed in scrofula; the ancients used it in inflammations and gouty affections; its taste is so bitter and salt that it is usually given with lemon juice.

The Conferrals found in many thermal springs, mostly species of Sptaerozyga, are used empirically as external applications to goitre, enlarged glands, &c. Henry has examined the Confervals in the springs of Vichy, Neris, and Vaux, and found small quantities of an alkaline iodide in each. (Chem. Qoz. 1844, p. 447.)

Suborder L — Palmel-lea*. Cells somewhat globose or elliptical, free, and more or less

distinct, or collected by means of a slimy layer into a frond.

Tribe 1- Protococcidn?. —The slimy substratum obsolete. Protococcus, Ag*

SphcmiUx, !*)mm.

Voccophysium, Link.

(Uobuiina, Turp.

Protosph<rria, Turp. Haroatococcus, Ag,

Gioioeoccus, Shutt, Chlorococcum, Grev.

Globutina, Turp.

Protospharria, Turp. Pleurucoccus, Menegh. llormospora, Breb. Stereococcus, Kilts.

Tribe2.Coccochloridir, — The slimy sttbstratum evident l'nlmella, Lyngb.

Priestteya, Meyen,

Chaos, Bcry.

Phytoconis, Bory.

Coccodea, Pal.

Merrtttia, Gray.

Sarcoderma, Ehr. Cocoochloria, Spr. Microcystis, KUtz.

Bicfuitia, Turp, Anacystis, Menegh. Oncobyrr>a, Ag.

liydrococcus, KQU. Mlcraloa, Bias*.

llylrothrombium, Ktz. Botrydina, Brebiss.

&uboT&etU.—yosloche<t. Cells somewhat globose or elliptical, coalescing into a simple or branched thread; united into several rows by means of a slimy substratum of various forms.

Nostoc, Vauch. linkia, Mich. Undina. Pries. Hydrococcus, Link.

Thrombium, Wallr.

Monormta, Berkel. Sphaerozyga, Ag.

Awbaitut, Bory.

Trichonttus, A 11m. Anhaltla, Schwabc.

Suborder IIL— Osdlla-torete. Cells tubular, naked or furnished with a slimy or gelatinous layer, continuous, but seeming to bo jointed in consequence of interruptions of the co louring matter.

Tribe L Rivularid*,— Tubes proceeding singly, or in pairs\froin a transparent otobute; collected, into a frond by means o/\ a gelatinous layer.

Gloiotrichbv /. Ag. Kivularia, Roth.

lynckia, Lyngb.

GaiUardotelta, Bory*

Stylobasis, Schw.

Stypnion, Raf. Zonotrichia, J. An. Diplotrichia, J. Ag.

Tribe 2. Osciilatorida*. —Tubes cylindrical, free, or wtwen into a frond, \falsely jointed in consequence of the ringed or\ streaked appearance of\ the colouring matter. Oscillatoria, Bosc.

Osciltaria, Bosc.

Trichophora, Bonnem.

Spirogyra, Nees.

Sptrutina, Turp.

Loten% Adams. Trichodesmium, Ehrenb, Microcoleus, Desmaz.

Vaginaria, Bory.

Mcrizomyria, Poll, Calothrix, Ag.

Ifempt'tia, Meyen.

Vlothrix, KiMz.

Biltvynctta, Bory. Lymcbya, Ag.

CgctomrmOt Bonnem.

liumida, Gray. Scytoneina, Ag.


Percursaria, Bonnem. Sphaeroplea, Ag. Cadmus% Bory. Sph&rogotui, Link. Spharoptcthia, Duby. Beggiatoa, Trev. Suborder IV. — Confer-ivy*.—Cellules resembling joints, arranged in a net, or more frequently in simple or branched threads, separate, or combined by common slime* Tribe L Hydrodicti da?.—Celts tubular\ combined by their pointed extremities into a net-tike [frond.

Hydrodictyon, Both. Microdictyon, Decaisne.

Dictylema, Raf. Talerodictyon, Endl.

TribeS. Zygnemida?,-Celts tubular, united by their truncated extremities into jointed threads, tchichare at first distinct, and then, by the aid of\ transverse tubelets tchieh discharge the eotourittg matter,brouglu into copulation. Mougeotla, Ag.

Serjicntinaria, Gray.

Conjugata, Lk. Zygnema, Ag,

Agardhia, Gray.

Globutina, Lk.

Stctlutina. Lk.

lucernaria, Kouasel.

Diadema, Pal.

Tyndaridea, Bory.

Leda, Bory. Sptrogyra, Lk.

Giioaspis, Gray.

Satmacis, Boty.

Tribe 3. Confervidne — Celts tubular, united by their truncated extremis ties into free, simple, or branched threads. Myxonemn, Fries.

Myxotrix, Frie«.

Nematrix, Fries,

Conferva, Fries.

Poiyspermat Vauch.

OUoroniton, GallL Hormiscia, Fries. Nodularia, Mertens. A phanizonien on, Morren, Tiresias, Bory.

(Edogonium, Lk. Dnipafnuldia, Bory.

Charospermum, Lk. Leptoniitus, Ag.

Saproleamia] Neea.

Pythium, Nees.

Sphtzrotiius, Kg. Achlya, Nees.

Hydronema, Cams, Hygrocrocls, Ag.

Tribe 4. Chortophori-dae.—Celts tubular, adhering by truncated extremities i n jointed b ranchctt threads coalescing into a gelatinous frond*

Cbatophom, Schrank.

Myriodactylon, Dsv. Tfydrocoryne, Schuxib. Coleochoete, Breb.

Suborder V—Siphonca*. Frond either moaosi-phonous, that is, consisting of a single cell, usually branched in various ways, with the branches continuous or jointed, distinct or variously united; or pleiosiphonous, consisting of many tubular cells, placed in contact, branched,and variously united or held together by means of intercellular matter.— Marine plants usually covered with calcareouj incrustations* Tribe 1. Caulerpidw.— Frond vumosiphonous, continuous, variously branched, and.filled with the reticulcttcdfibres of the continuous branch. Caulorpa, Lamx.

Chanvinia, Bory. Tricladia, U,

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Tribe S. AcetaBula-Mm,--Frond monosipho-nous. Jointed, with radiating or jtabeUi/brm branches at the end ; the brunches continuous, separate, or combined.

Polyphisa, Lamx. Acetabularfa, Lamx. Acetabulum, Toon.


Olivia y] RirfpWosipbon, JTont

Tribe 3. Hajjmedldsa. —Frond polyeiphonous, made up <f tubes which lore continuous or joint-ed% and branched more or\ tcssdeneety.

Udotea, Lanur. Flabctlaria, Link, JtMfNKonfem, Kfltx.

ArTafamHa, Ike,

Hal jmeda, Lamxt

PenldUut, Lamx. Nesea9Lnmx.

CoraUiodcndron, KU Esptra, ifee.

Anadyomene, Xawtr. ? Dlctyosphseria, Dec Tetraspora, Dec,

Pexisperma, Raf. BangUv Ifib.


Piwtefa, Menegfc. Stigonema, jto.

Qirardia, Gray. Ztenoa, IVwft.

Percursarisk, Bory.


aWmMwrjoAo. J. Ag. Uhra. 4$r.

JEirifcjTWrpAa, Lk.

/few, Fries.

Hydrosolen, Mart.

Tfcifec&zria, Roust.

Fistularia, Grev.

Ulvastrum, D. C.

J«Wrfe*rMa*, Taig.

AzmuJaria. Roust*

PhpUoma, Wlgg.

Trepposa, Lk. Porpbyra,.

Nmrans* Gkk. 66. Sp. 368. (Endl.) PosmoN.—Diatomacete. Confbrvacub.—Focacese.

Chlorospermeeo, Harvey British Marine Alga, p. 2.

A tendency to a quaternary division has been remarked by Mr. Thwaitae in llesocarpus scalaris, Tvndaridea iusignis, and Staurocarpua gracilis; the separation into 4 parts does not take place till the fruit is nearly mature. (Ann. Nat. His. X VII. 263.) A fissiparous mode of formation of the spores in Vesiculifera ooncate-oata has been described by the same acute observer at p. 384 of the work just quoted

The discovery of the spermatozoids of Lichens, by M. Itzigsohn, *hich has led to such interesting results in the hands of 1L Tulasne, naturally induced the author to extend his researches in other directions. In a letter addressed to M. Tulasne, in 1862, and which is published in the Annates da Sciences NaturclUs, he announces the discovery of spermatozoids in Spirogyra arcta and Conferva glomerata; and in the Botanische Zeitung, for the 25th of March, and 1st of April, of the present year, he has given a fuller report of his discovery, accompanied by numerous figures. When conjugation is commencing in the Spirogyra, but apparently not in the conjugating threads themselves, he finds the spiial band of endoenrome gradually resolved, more or less completely, into a number of distinct globose sacs (called by the author spennatosphsma), within whose cavity numerous globules are formed, whether furnished with a distinct cellular wall or not is uncertain, each of which gives rise to a spiral body endowed with active motion, resembling strongly the spermatozoids of mosses. These bodies if kept in water increase greatly in size, a circumstance which requires further observation. He detected the same organisms in Cladophora glomerata, and indicates bodies apparently identical with the above-mentioned mother-cells in CEdogonram, Mougeotia, and Bulbochsete, though in these genera he has not hitherto ascertained the existence of the spermatozoids. In Vaucheria he has also observed mother-cells, but the spermatozoids appear to assume a different form. The parent cells are themselves endowed with motion. No vibrating cilia have at present been found upon the spermatozoids. They have not, however, been examined under the most favourable circumstances for the discovery of such delicate organs.


Tiypothallus, Hook. 4 Harv.

OtuBcoccus, HassalL

Sorospora, HdssalL RivutarldUz.

Lithonema, HassalL OsciUatorida*.

Artluonema, ffassail


Zymtm&da. Mesocarpufi, HassatL Sphairocarpus, HassatL Thwaitesia, Montcne.

(tonfervida. Cladophora, Rutting. Microtpora, Hawiall.

Aplonema, HomoU.

Chloropteris, Montour**.

Compsopogon, Montagnt. Siphonem.

Cladothola, Hook.fiL Ualymtdida.

liastodia, Book. <fr Harv.

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20                                                  FUCACEjE.                                  [Thallookk*

Fig. VIII.

Order III.—Seaweeds.

Fhyceae, EndL Gen. Bupp. UL p. 19. (1843).—Aph»pore«f DeeaUne in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2ser. 17.90S.

Diagnosis.—Cellular or tubular wisymmetrical bodies, multiplied by simple spores farmed

externally. Plants sometimes inhabiting fresh water, bat more frequently salt water; the former approaching closely to Confervas. Frond either mono-siphonous, consisting of a single cell, which is sometimes uninterruptedly branched, or more commonly polysiphon-ous, composed of several cells, various in form, placed one above the other, or interwoven, barked or barkless, jointed or continuous, thread-shaped, or of various figures, and not uncommonly divided into a sort of trunk and leaflike blade. Mode of growth by division of the cells; of branching by lateral increase or a vague proliferousness. Mode of propagation by spores, contained in superficial cells, which are often bladdery (and called Vesicles), growing singly out of thin colouring matter, consisting of a single nucleus clothed by its proper cellular membrane (or epispore), and discharged by the opening of a transparent mother cell (or perispore). Vesicles (or original mother cells) scattered through the whole frond, or seated in particular parts of it, (often the points of the branches), sometimes on a peculiar receptacle, naked, or supported by small branches.— (Enctticlter.)

The reproductive bodies of these plants distinguish them from others of the alliance. In the words of Decaisne * they are simple, and result neither from a modification of green matter, nor from its concentration in a pre-existing cell; their structure is quite peculiar. In the beginning they are little warts, invested by a very thin membrane, placed close over an inner sac filled with green granules." (The black or brown colour assigned to them by Mr. Harvey is a mistake arising out of imperfect observation.) " All the spores are external, that is to say, inserted on the surface of a vesicle upon which they are generated. They are never found in the interior of the frond as in Confervas; and if in Seaweeds they can be compared, in consequence of their being contained in a common chamber or conceptacle, to the spores of certain Rosetangles, it can only be to the corpuscles enclosed in (he organs named Ceramidia by the younger Agardh, which however never have the double integument of Seaweeds. In most of the latter the spores appear at the base of certain flocks or filaments, which are simple or jointed, thread-shaped or dilated, or more or less filled with green matter; these flocks are wanting however in the greater part of the Dictyotidae, and their use is wholly unknown. There id no reason to suppose them male organs." Decaisne, indeed, in one place, treats as an absurdity Donati's calculation that a single individual of a Cystoseira (Acinaria) bears 545,000 male flowers and 1,728,000 females.

The younger Agardh, however, has within a few months expressed his deliberate opinion that in the Rosetangles (his Florideae) organs analogous to sexes are present. "lam very much inclined," he says," to adopt the opinion that the two sorts of fructification observable among them are the first attempts at the agency which in higher plants perform the office of sexes, without however having their qualities established, and each capable of producing a new plant without the aid of the other/' See his pamphlet called In systernata Algarum hodierna Adversaria (p. 8,) in which the reader will find abundant criticism of the views of Kiitzing and others concerning the Alg*l alliance.

M. Decaisne seems also to have altered his opinion upon this subject, for (Comptes Rendus, Nov. 11, 1844,) he and M. Thuret now describe what they suppose to be sexual organs in Fucus serratos, and other species, to which they even apply the Linnean names Monoecious and Dioecious. They describe the conceptacles of the males as being filled with articulated filaments bearing numerous antheridia in the form of vesicles containing red granules. " These antheridia are expelled by the orifice of the conceptacles ; if we examine them with a microscope, we see issue from one of their extremities transparent somewhat pear-shaped bodies, each enclosing a red granule. Every one of such bodies is furnished with very thin cihse, by means of which it moves with very great

Fi£. VIII .—1. Batrachonpermum moniliforme; 8. portion of a branch ; 3. summit of a branch, bearing a cluster of spom. *Decaisne.)

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Auuis.]                                          FUCACEiE.                                                  21

activity/1 Such bodies are regarded as analogous to the spiral threads of mosses and other cryptogamic plants. Indeed, according to M. Thuret, such threads are also fur- # nished with ciliary locomotive organs. But what proof is there that these curious bodies are pollen 1

One of the most remarkable plants of the order is the Hydrogastrum, which Endli-cher describes as a perfect plant, with root, stem, bud, and fruit, in imitation of the

most highly developed races, but cUl produced b$ the branching of one tingle cell.

Professor Morren thinks that he has ascertained that the animalcule called Rotifer vulgaris, is actually generated in the cells of Yaucheria da-vata. It lives in certain protuberances formed on the stem of that plant, travels quite at its ease within them, traverses the partitions, displaces the colouring matter. (Awn. Nat. Hixt. vi. 346.) Like all this alliance the Seaweeds have no particular geographical limits, but occur wherever the ocean or rivers spread themselves over the land. They are, however, remarkable for the enormous space which single species of them occasionally occupy ; some of them forming subaqueous forests in the ocean, emulating in their gigantic dimensions the boundless element that enfolds them, Scytosiphon filum, a species common in the North Sea, is frequently found of the length of 30 or 40 feet; in Scalps Bay, in Orkney, Fig. IX.                        according to Mr. Nefll, this species forms meadows,

through which a pinnace with difficulty forces its way. Lessonia fuscescens is described by Borv de St Vincent as 25 or 30 feet in length, with a trunk often as thick as a than's thigh. But all these, and indeed every other vegetable production, is exceeded in size by the prodigious fronds of Macrocys-tis pyrifera. a This appears to be the sea-weed reported by navigators to be from 500 to 1500 feet in length: the leaves are long and narrow, and at the base of each is placed a vesicle filled with air, without which it would be impossible for the plant to support its enormous length in the water; the stem not being thicker than the finger, and the upper branches as slender as common packthread." This plant, and Durviflsea utilis, was seen by Dr. Joseph Hooker in lat. 61° S. in large vegetating patches, whenever tfae water was free of icebergs ; and Scytothalia Jacquinotii as low as 63° S.

Some of the species are eatable, owing doubtless to the large quantity of gelatinous matter that they secrete. The young stalks of Laminaria digitata and saccharina are eaten under the name of " tangle." In Asia*, Sargassum acanthocarpum and pyriforme, with Laminaria bracteata, and m the Sandwich Islands, Sargassum cuneifolium, are also used for food. When stripped of the thin part, the beautiful Alaria esculenta forms a part of die simple fare of the poorer classes of Ireland, Scotland, Iceland, Denmark, and the Faroe Islands. The large Laminaria potatorum of Australia furnishes the aborigines with a proportion of their' instruments, vessels, and food.' On the authority of Bory de St. Vincent, the Durvillcea utihs and other Laminaridse constitute an equally important resource to the poor on the west coast of South America. In some of the Scottish islands, horses, cattle, and sheep, feed chiefly upon Fucus vesiculosus during the winter months; and in Gothland it is commonly given to pigs. Fucus serratus also, and Scytosiphon filum, constitute a part of the fodder upon which cattle are supported in Norway. In the manufacture of kelp, for the use of the glass-maker and soap-boiler, Seaweeds take their place among the more useful vegetables- The species most valued for this purpose are, Fucus vesiculosus, nodosus, and serratus, Laminaria digitata and bulbosa, Himanthalia lores, and Scytosiphon filum. It is principally, indeed, because of the quantity of soda which they contain that they are found so useful as manures. In medicine they have been occasionally employed, as, for instance, Fucus vesiculosus in Europe against scrofula, Sargassum vulgare in Portuguese India against calculus, and Sarg. bacciferum with some Laminarias in South America against tumours and strangury. But whatever medical value they possess seems to be owing to the presence of Iodine, which may be obtained either from the plants themselves, or from kelp. French kelp, according to Sir Humphry Davy, yields more Iodine than British ; and, from Fome experiments made at the Cape of Good Hope, Ecklonia buc-cinalis is found to contain more than any European sea-weed. Iodine is known to be a

Pig. IX. llydrogMtrum, iEndlML pnmcfc, p. 54, f. 47.)


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powerful remedy in cases of goitre. The burnt sponge formerly administered in similar cases, probably owed its efficacy to the Iodine it contained ; and it is also a very curious fact, that the stems of a sea-weed are sold in the shoos, and chewed by the inhabitants in South America, wherever goitre is prevalent, for tne same purpose. This remedy is * termed by them Palo Goto (literally, goitre-stick), and consists of fragments of the Sar-gassum bacciferum and Laminarias above alluded to* Iodine is principally obtained in Europe from the ashes of the Fuct vesiculoeus, nodosus, ceranoides, and serratus.

Suborder I.—Vaucheriee. Frond mono-or plelo-siphonous, without barlcThe utricles forming a lateral branchlet, proceeding either from the upper Joint of the branch, or occasionally from the lowest. Tribe 1. Hydroga* tridae —Frond produced from a single vesicle or tube, rarely from several thai are continuous and loosely interwoven. Hydrogastrumf Desv. Botrydium. Wallr. Bhizococcum, Desmaa. VaucheriA, D. C.

Ectosperma, Vauch. Biyopsis, Lamx. Valonia, Ginnan.

Physydrum, Raf. ? Codium, Black. LamarMa, Olivi. Agardhia, Cabrera. Spongodium, Lamx. Tribe 2. Dasydadidas. —Frond monostphonous, continuous, or jointed, with verUdUate branches, which are fhstigiate, Jotnted, and have the last Joint transformed into a vesicle.

Chama»dorfs, MonL lteqydadus, Agh.

Myrsidium, Raf. Neomeris, Lamx, Cymopolia, Lamx,

Tribe a. Ectocarpidss. —Treads Jointed, con-sisting cfa single row qf\ cells, variously branched. Vesicles derived from one Joint, eitherattheendqf\ the branches, or of the laterals. Leibllnia, Endl.

DesmaresteUax Bory. Chantransla, Fries.

AudricneUa, Bory.

Genicularia, Rons. Ectocarpus, Lyngb.

Lyngbya, Gaillon.


Opospcrmum, Raf. ?

Calospermum, Raf. ?

PylaieUa, Bory.

Bulbochaste, *AghJ*

Tribe 4, Batrachoeper-mldie—Frond potysi-phonous, composed of a prtmary thread surrounded by parallel ac-<*""? ones. Vesicles


terminal or lateral, clus*\ tend.                            '

Batrachospermum, Roth.

Charospermum, Lk.

DraparncMia, Bory.

MonUina, Bory.

Thorinia, Bory.

Lemanina, Bory.

QdaHnaria, RousseL

Torularia, Bonnem. Liagora, Lamx. Actinotrichia, Decaisnc. Galaxaura, Lamx.

Dichotomaria, Lomk.

Alysium, Agfa.

Microthoe, Dec Thoreaf Bory.

Polycoma, Palis. Myriocladia, J. Agh.

JEgira, Fries ?

TribeS. Chordaridae.— Frond polysiphonous, with flock* proceeding in all directions from the medullary sub stance, free in the circumference.

Cruoria, Fries. Myrionema, Orev.

Elachista, Aresch. Mesoglofa, Agh. Chordaria, Agh. Leathina, Gray.

Coryntphora, Agh.

Clavaktta, Bory. Uebmannia, J. Agh.

Suborder U. — Halyse-rece. Frond polysipho-sous, barked, jointed, or continuous. Vesicles scattered over the surface of the frond, or collected into heaps.

Tribe 1. Sphacelaridse. —Frmdjointed; vesicles lateral, solitary.

Sphaoelaria, Lyngb.

Ddisdla, Boiy.

Lyngbyella, Bory. Myriotrichia, Harvey. Cladottephus, Agh.

TribeS. Dictyotidae.— Frond continuous, membranous. Vesicles supported t* flocks, collected in heaps,or scattered over the upper surface qf the

Halvseris, Targ.

Ifeurocarpon, Web.

Dictyopteris, Lamx.

Polypodioides, Stack, Dictyosiphon, Orev. Dictyota, Lamx. Zonaria, /. Agh.

StfflHa, Nardo.

Zanardinia, Nardo.

Numbebs. Gen. 81

Padina, Adans.

TratUntekia, Web. Padinella, Aresch. Cutleria, Orev. Arthrocladia, Dtd>y.

Elaionema, Berk. Scytoeiphon, Agh.

Chorda, Stuck.

Fitum, Stack.

Chordaria, Lk. Soranthera, Postels. Punctaria, Orev. Asperococcus, Lamx.

Enccclium, Agh.

ffydroclathrus, Bory. Striaria, Orev.

Carmichaelia, Grev. Stflophora, J. Agh. ? Hildenbrandia, Nardo.

Bntfsia, Berk.

Tribe 3. Laminaridse. —Frond continuous, coriaceous, sometimes bearing bladders. Vesicles scattered, or collected in heaps,supported by flocks, growing on both sides qf thefrZd. Lessonla, Bory. Macrocystis, Agh. Nereoeyrtis, Postels. Ecklonia, Hornem. Laminaria, Lamx.

OiganUa, Stack.

Saccharina, Stack.

Musctfolia, Stack.

Polyschidia, Stack.

Palmaria, Lk.

Laminastrum, Duby.

Fasdata, Gray. Capea, Montagn. HaJkeria, Alalia, Orev.

Orgya, Stackh. Thalassiophyllum, Post. Agarum, Orev.

Myriotrema, LapjI. Costarfa, Orev,

Tribe 4. Sporochnido. —Frond continuous, between cartilaginous and membranous,flocksform-ed astride a capitate receptacle, bearing the vesicles.


Iksmia, Lyngb. THchlora, Grey. Trinitaria, Bory. Hippurina, Stack. Jfyalina, Stack. FtageUaria, Stack.

Suborder III. — Fucece. Frond polysiphonous, often bladdeiy. Vesicles seated in hollow conoeptacles formed of

. Sp. 452. (Endl.)

a folding In of the frond, pierced by a pore, and surrounded by flocks; concepta-cles scattered or collected upon a receptacle.

Tribe!. Lemanldtt.— Frond hollow, wholly converted into a receptacle. Lemanea, Bory,

Nodularia, Link.

Qongycladon, Link.

Trichogonea, Palis.

Vertebraria, Rouss.

Tribe 8. Fudd«.— Conceptades not collected upon a receptacle. Fucus, L.

Cervina, Gray.

Halidrys, Stack.

Bifurcaria, Stack. Osothalia, Dec. and Th. Pehretia, Dec. and Th. Carpodeemia, Ortv. Myriodesma, Dec Himanthalia, Lytyb.

Lorea, Stack. Xiphophora, Montagn Spbchnidium, Grev. Ihirvillma, Bory. Honnosira, Endl.

Moniliformia, Lamx*

MofiiUa, A. Rich. Castraltia, A. Rich.

Scaberia, Grev.

Tribe 3. Cystoseiridse. —Conceptaclcs or rtcep-.tacks distinct from the \frond.

Coeoophora, Ofrev. Halidrys, Lyngb.

Siliquaria, Gray. BlosseviUea, Dec.

Cystophora, J. Agh. Pystoseira, Agh.

Acinaria, Targ.

Machaia, Gray.

Catenaria, Raf.

Ascophylta, Stack.

Ericaria, Stack.

Monitiftra, 8tact Saigassum, Humph.

Baceularia, Gray.

Halochloa, Kttta,

Myagropsis, Kttta.

Spongocarpus, KUU. Turbinaria, Bory. Carpacanthus, Kutz. Phyllospora, Agh. Carpophyllum, Grtv. Marginarfa, A. Rich. Scytothalia, Orev.

8t4Zckhousia. Latnx. Selrococcus, Orev.           «

Polyphacum, Agh.

Osmundaria, Lamx

Positiow.—Confervaccae. Fltaceje.—Ceraniiacea?.

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Algaia]                                          FUCACKffi.                                                22 a

Melanospenneae, Harvey, British Marine Alga;, p. 3.

M. Thuret thus describes the antheridia, or supposed male organs of these plants: u The fructification of Fucaceee is contained in little spherical cavities, situated beneath the epiderm, and called conceptacles. Completely closed at first* the conoeptacles open eventually at the surface of the frond by a little pore or mouth (ostiolum) through which the reproductive bodies escape. Their exit is assisted by the hairs which line the conceptacles, and which all converge towards their mouth. These hairs are jointed and branched; it is they which support the antherids, and it is at their base that the spores are fixed. In certain species spores and antherids are found in the same conceptacle; in others, on the contrary, these two organs are produced in different conoeptacles, and on different individuals. Usually immediately below the mouth is found a row of thicker hairs, which close the entrance, and sometimes extend beyond it, in the form of a small spot.

" The antherids consist of little oval transparent sacs, inserted in great numbers on the hairs of the conceptacle. When they are young, we find in them nothing

Fig. IX. A.

more than a granular colourless matter; afterwards this matter condenses into little bodies which form a greyish mass, sprinkled with orange points; these are the antherozoids, which are so packed that neither form nor structure can be recognised. The antherids of Fucus, Ozothallia, Pelvetia, and Himanthalia, have a double envelope; that is to say, the transparent sac in which the antherozoids are immediately contained, is itself enclosed in another sac of the Bame size and degree of transparency. The latter remains fixed to the hair on which it is produced; the other is expelled through the summit of the first, and falls into the conceptacle,

Fig. IX. A.—Piece of the frond of Fucns platycarpus furnished with receptacles, natural size; 2. section of a conceptacle much magnified; 3. Jointed branching hairs detached from the sides of the conceptacle and bearing antherids; 4. an antberid full; 5. an antherid with only one aotherozoid left in it; 6, Antherozoids—after Thuret.

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225                                                FUCACEiR                                [Thallookns-

whence it glides as far as the mouth. The antherosoids which completely fill it, with the exception now and then of the two extremities, soon begin to be violently agitated; and then the sac opens at either one or both ends, gives them a passage, and they disperse in the water. In Halidrys* Pycnophycus, and Cystoseira, the second envelope of the antherid is absent; the outer sac only is found attached to the jointed hairs, and the antherosoids are expelled directly from it in a mass; for some time thev remain clustered in a bunch, struggling and turning upon one another before dispersing in the liquid.

" The antherozoids are very minute hyaline bodies, their length not exceeding the 200th of a millimetre. Each contains a granule of a greyish colour in Pelvetia* orange red in all the other genera: it seems sometimes to project from the surface; but this is probably a mere optical delusion. The locomotive organs consist of two very fine threads of unequal length. The form of these bodies and the arrangement of the threads is not exactly the same in all Fucacea. Thus in Fucus, Ozothallia, and Pelvetia, the antherozoids are in the form of a little bottle, whose neck, which is always foremost bears the shorter thread, while the longer proceeds from the red granule, and is dragged after it while the body is in motion. HaUdiys, Pycnophycus, and Cystoseira present an opposite arrangement: the body of the antherozoid appears ovate or spherical in one direction, compressed and sometimes rather convex in another; the two threads are inserted on the red granule, and during locomotion, the body turns upon itself, carrying before it the longer thread which it moves rapidly, while the shorter is motionless. The antherozoids of Himanthalia have the teme structure as those of the three last genera, although the antherids have a double covering as in the three first Finally, it must be observed that the form of these bodies is not very neatly defined; they are often combined in small irregular masses; sometimes no orange point is to be found; sometimes there are two. The move* ments are in general very active, and last for many hours; when they begin to slacken, the undulations of the threads become plainly visible. They cease in fresh water, as well as under the action of iodine, acids, fto. If brought into contact with ammonia the antherozoids dissolve, the orange granule alone remaining.

" The antherids continue to follow each other for a long time, the same conceptacle containing at the same time young, completely formed, and empty ones. Halidrys siliquosa seems to me to be the only exception. It is to be observed that empty sacs are to be found in conceptaclee, the mouth of which is still closed. In Fucacee when the spores and antherids are produced on different plants, those which bear the latter are known by the yellowish colour they communicate to the receptacle or part of the frond where the conceptacles are collected. If fronds in this state are long exposed to contact with air, small orange-coloured protuberances are seen to form at the orifice of each mouth; these protuberances are viscid and entirely composed of antherids. The same effect is produced by spores, which accumulate at the entrance of the conceptacles in little olive-coloured heaps. This phenomenon is very remarkable when one examines the rocks of the coast at low water in winter; especially if the weather is calm and moist: it gives Fucus vesiculosus and serratus, the two commonest species, a most singular appearance. If the fronds of a Fucus covered with orange-coloured protuberances are washed in sea water, the water becomes loaded with such a quantity of antherozoids, that it acquires a very bright orange colour, and every drop contains hundreds or thousands of these bodies. If the vessel is then placed near a window the water soon becomes clear, and the antherozoids collect on the lightest side, or sometimes on the darkest"

M. Thuret further observes, that although in some respects the antherozoids would appear to have some fecundating property, yet their resemblance to the zoospores of Pheosporous Alg© is such as to raise a doubt concerning their real nature. For further details the reader is referred to M. Thuret's memoir in the AimaU$ dc* Science Natwelfa.


Derbesta, Soiur.

CUdothele, Harp.

Struvin, SomUr. Chord arid.*.

Kalfsla, Berk.

Elachlttea, Frie*. Scytotharanus, Hook.

/. et Harv. Kpineatn, Harv. Cylmdrocarpas, Crouan.



Ptnnaria, Endl. Stereocladoti, Hook.

f. et Harv. Adenocystfs, Hook./. Taonia, J. Ag. Lltoaiphon,


PelvctU, Thurtt & Ihsc. Piatythalia, Sander. Cyktoskirid. Conturtnift, JEW*. Phacelocarpuft, Endl.

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Algaia]                                       CERAMlACEiE.                                              23

Fig. X.


Fumudka. J. Aoardh, Ala. Med. 54. (1842) ; EndL Gen. Supp. Hi. 33.—Choristospowta, Dccaiau in Ann. Aat Hist. 2 *r. 17, 30b\ (1842).

Diagnosis.—Cellular or tubular wui/mmetrical bodia9muUipl by tetraspores. Seaweeds of a rose or purplish colour, seldom olive or violet Their ceils long and tubular, or round and short, or polygonal ; sometimes arranged in a single row; sometimes disposed in several parallel rows, and of equal length, forming an articulated frond; sometimes in several rows, and of unequal length, when they constitute a cellular frond. The propagation by means of spores (called also Sphierospores and Tetraspores), formed in fours (or threes), within a transparent peri-spore, or mother cell, and collected in bodies of many different forms and structure.*

The subdivision of the reproductive bodies or tetraspores into four, or occasionally three particles, is the great feature of this natural order, and at once distinguishes it from the rest of the alliance. M. Decaisne lays great stress upon this point, first used by * himself for systematical purposes, and he attaches quite a secondary value to the various modes in which such spores are grouped. To rank those modes more highly c'&ait sacr$ei- &vi-demment wne faulc des consideration* de la pins haute valcur a un carac&re qui n'acFatUre importance que (T&rt plus visible, etpar smite plus facile a saisir que le premier. It is, however, a very striking peculiarity of the Roeetangles, that thepr should have so much greater a variety of fructification than their allies, and this, in connection with the quaternary structure of their spores, seems to indicate their being the highest form of the Algal alliance.

Although the subdivision of the spores                                        a

by four is of uniform occurrence among these plants, yet it takes place in different ways, and is subject to certain modifications, concerning which the language of M. Decaisne is instructive. " I have shewn," he says,«in another place, that the sphsero-spores, or quaternary reproductive bodies, which M. Kfitzing has perhaps better called Tetraspores, offer three modifications. They are either little spheres, which divide into four wedge-shaped par-tides with a round base (Delesseria, Ce-rmmium, &c) ; or oblong bodies, which are cut across into four distinct spores (Hypnea, Catenella, Ac) ; or, finally, oblong bodies, which divide vertically and transversely, so as to form segments of cylinders, rounded at one extremity, and truncate at the other, as in Peysonnelia. The mode of formation, and the essential organisation of these spores, is the same in each type, whether the tetraspores project beyond the tissue, or are organised in the interior of the frond. When young, the tetraspores show no exterior membrane, but appear as a reddish spherule, the development of which may be followed

Pig. XI.

For the explanation of the terms invested to express these forms, see Decaisne in Ann. des &. NaL 2 *r. 17, 348.                           ____________________________

Ffe. X.—1. Chondria obtusa ; 2 Griffiths!* sphsrica; 3. Gr. corallina.

F|g. XL—Magnified branch of CoraUina officinalis ; 2. a section of its spore case fceramidium) with the tettatporesinsita ; 3. a tetnwpore ; 4. Cytnopolia barbata ; 5. a cross section of the stem of Dasv dados cbwefonnis, showing Its rings of growth.

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24                                              CERAMIACEiE.                              [Thauogens.

in the different species of Griffithsta. We see them enlarge for a certain space of time, and present the appearance of a rose-coloured globule ; but at a more advanced period the external envelope dilates, becomes transparent, and the central body, confdderabl v increased in size, tends to separate into four parts or distinct spores, each invested with a special envelope, and of the most brilliant carmine colour. This structure brings to mind, with some slight differences, that of pollen grains." And then M. Decaisne goes on to explain how, by a stoppage of growth, or by interior multiplication, the quaternary character of these bodies majr be affected.

According to Endlicher, the maximum of this order is found in the ocean between 36° and 48° N. lat. They are entirely marine.. Towards the pole and the equator they diminish in numbers, and are comparatively rare in the southern hemisphere. Rhodo-dermis Drummondi covers the rocks of caves with patches of a dark blood or brick-red colour.

It is among the genera of this order that occur the seaweeds whose gelatinous qualities render them valuable as food. Many species are so used among Indian nations. Of them Plocaria tenax, and Candida, are the principal; and the material out of which the swallows construct the esculent nests which are so highly valued by the Chinese, is supposed to be a sort of Gelidium. The British Plocaria oompressa, and Ghondrus cris-pus (or Carrageen moss),have been found to possess similar qualities; and another species of the order, on the south-west coast of New Holland, furnishes a jellv of great excellence. Rhodomenia palmata, the dulse of the Scots, dillesk of the Irish, and saccharine Fucus of the Icelanders, is consumed in considerable quantities throughout the maritime countries of the north of Europe, and in the Grecian Archipelago ; Iridtea edulis is still occasionally used, both in Scotland and the south-west of England. Laurencia pinnatiftda, distinguished for its pungency, and hence called Pepperdulse, is eafen in Scotland ; and even now, though rarely, the old cry,« Buy dulse and tangle/' may be heard in the streets of Edinburgh.

But it is not to mankind alone that such marine Algals have furnished luxuries, or resources in times of scarcity. Several species are greedily sought after by cattle, especially in the north of Europe. Rhodomenia palmata is so great a fevourite with sheep and goats, that Bishop Gunner named it Fucus ovinus. One species is invaluable as a glue and varnish to the Chinese. This is the Plocaria tenax, the Fucus tenax of Turner's Historia Fucortm. Though a small plant, the quantity annually imported at Canton from the provinces of Fokien and Tchekiang is stated by Mr. Turner to be about 27,000 lbs. It is sold at Canton for 6d. or 8rf. per pound, and is used for the purposes to which we apply glue and gum-arabic. The Chinese employ it chiefly in the manufacture of lanterns, to strengthen or varnish the paper, and sometimes to thicken or give a gloss to silks or gauze* It seems probable that this is the principal ingredient in the celebrated gummy matter called Cnin-chon, or Hai~tsai, in China and Japan. Windows made merely of slips of Bamboo, crossed diagonally, have frequently their lozenge-shaned interstices wholly filled with the transparent gluten of the Hai-tsaL On the southern and western coasts of Ireland, our own Ghondrns crispus is converted into size, for the use of house-painters.

In medicine we are not altogether unindebted to Rosetangles. The Plocaria Hel-minthochorton, or Coreican Moss, as it is frequently called, is a native of the Mediterranean, and had once a considerable reputation as a vermifuge. To Hypnea mua-dformis similar qualities are ascribed in the Greek Archipelago. Several species furnish Iodine, which gives them an odour of violets. Rytiphfoea tinctoria yields a red dyeing matter, the Fticus of the ancients. The Plocaria Candida, or Fucus amylaceus, has been found to consist of pectine, sum, and starch, with a pretty considerable quantity of inorganic matter, especially sulphate of Kine. (Ch. Qaz* 1843, 638.) The Tsan-tjan or Kanten (called Fucus cartjlaginosus), used in China as a substitute for the edible birds'-nesta, seems to have a similar composition.


Suborder I. — Ceramets. Frond tubular, jointed. Farell« containing a loose matt of semi-transparent granules in a gelatinous envelope. Tetraspores ex-ternaL

Camthamnton, Lpngb. Hallia, Harvep. Griffithtia, Agh.

Plumarta, Lk.

Polpchroma, Bonnem. Wrangelia, Agh.

8pyridiaf Harv. Binders, J. Agh. Ceramium, Adams.

Boryna, GrateL

Dictyderma, Bonnem. Ptilota,*.

Plumaria, Stackh. Microdadia, Orev. ? Haplolegma, Mont.

Suborder II.—Crmtone-mete. Frond cellular. Favellidla containing a firm mate of compact granules within a gela-

tinous envelope. Tetra-spores globose or oblong, formed out of cells of the circumference.

a) Glolocladidse. Crouania, J. Agh. Dudresnaya, Bonnem. Naccaria. Endt.

Chertospora. Agh.

CapUlaria, Stackh. Gloiocladla, J. Agh. Gioiopeltis, J. Agh. Nemalion, Taiy.

HdmUdMora, Fries.

b)  Nemastomldt*. Catenella, Orev. Endocladia, J. Agh. Irlda*, Borp.

Nemattoma, J. Agh. DOmo, Btackn.

c) Spongiocarpid*. Furcellaria, Lam*.

Fastigiaria, Stackh. Polyidee, Agh.

Spongiocarpus, Grev. Rhododermis, Harv. Tburetia, Dec.

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PeymooneHia* Dee. aqpamaria* Zanard. PtirriojprTmtm, Tttg. Phyllophora, 0rw. Protyfcra, Stackh. Jtft9*ra»tf»tta, Stock. Stenograimna, i/arr. Cbondrua, Ore*.

PoJjrmorpAa, Stackh-Gymuogongrua, Jfart

JAiWia, Fries. Dssyphlsea, Jfont

d) Gasterocarpid*. Dumontia, lonur. Halymenia, <7*. Kallymenla, A.

CfetuCafttfofa, Posteb. Ginannia, JtfcmZ.

*t Coccocarpidic. Cryptonemla. X Agh* Gelidxum, Lamx. Suhria, JA, Grnteloupia, A.

Pkoracis, Bat Gisartina, Xoaur.

Jfaamtttaria, Stack. Chrysymcnia, J. 4$*. /) Cteaodontidse, Afml. Ctenodns, KUU. Nothogenin, Jfoni,

Suborder HL-Lointnifi-mr. Frond cellular. Ceramidla baring pear-Bhaped granules at the base of a cup-shaped envelope, which finaHy bursts by a pore. Tetraspores scattered within the branches.

Lomentaria, Ljrwb. OipUcdadia, Grev. Qastridium, Grev.

Kati/brmia, 8tackh.

Sedoidea, Stackh. Champia, 4pA.

Mertentia. Roth. Laurenda, Zamx.

Cornea, Stadch.

Otmundia, Stackh. Asparagopsis, Jfont.

Lictoria, J. Agh. Bonnemaisonia, -rfpA.

No, Grev.

Boukeia, Grev. Thysanodadia, JJmH.

Ikli$eay Lamx.

Jfoamto, J. Agh.

Lcnormandia, Mont Suborder IV.—Rhodome-

&<r. Frond Jointed.

Ceramidla as before.

Tetraspores enclosed in

transformed branches


Dasya, A.

SUchocarpus, Agfa.

Bhodonema, Martins.

Atperocaulon Grev.

Orateloupia, Bonnem.

BUiHus, Gray.

GaiUona, Bonnem.

BaiUoupiana, Gris. Polysiphonia, 6rw.

Hutchinsia, Agh.

Qrammita, Bonnem.

Corradoria9 Mart,

FVrto&tiaia, Gray,

Dicarpella, ~

Graitl&upeUa, Bory. Hetrosiphonla, 3/on** Alsidium, A.

mpAiWa, Staekh.

Boetryehia, Mont.

J%MartAam*{idR,Kllts. Digenea, 4A. Rhodomela, jA.

Jfescaria, Stackh. Acanthophora, Lamar. Pollexfexia, #ar*. Dictyomenia, Grw,

Volubilaria, Lanut.

Spirhymemda, Dec.

Carp&phylluyn, Suhr. Botryocarpa, ftw. Odonthatia, Ijwp&.

Wmfrriarta, Stackh. Rytiphlcea, pA. Polyzonla, SuAr. LevelUea, ifcc, Amanita, Zaaur. Heterodadia, D«r. ♦Coralline*. Corallina, Totcrn.

TUanephpUum, Nardo. Jania, £<n*r. HallptQon, i. Amphlroa, Xanur. Arthrocardla, Itec. Eurytion, ifec. Cheuoeponun, Ztec. Mdobesia, Xantr.

Agardhia, Mengh.


Awfutte*, KGti.

Nullipara, Lam.

**Anomalophyllee. Dictyurue, Bory.

Calidictyon, Grev. Hemltrema, JL Br.

Martenria, Her. Claudea, JLanur.

LamourotuHa, Agh.

OneiUia, Agh. ? Thaumasia, yA.

Suborder X. — Sphitro-coccea. Frond cellular.

Coccidla enclosing dosely-packed oblong granules arising from the base, within a spherical cellular envelope which finally bursts: Tetraspores in indefinite heaps, scattered over the frond.

Hypnea, Lamx. Plocsria, Nets.

Gracilaria, Grev.

Hclminiochortoi, Lk. Rhodomenia, Grev.

Falmaria, Stackh.

Bifldia, Stackh.

Ctfiarfa, Stackh. Henngia, J. A. Sphserococcus, Orw.

CSwtmopt/Wfa, Stackh.

Suborder VI. — Ddeue-ria. Frond cellular. CocddisB as before. Tetraspores in definite heaps, or collected in Sporophylls.

Plocamium, Grev.

Acrtidea, Stackh, Thamnophora, Agh. Aglaophyllum, MonL

MtophyUum, Grev.

Papyracea, Stackh.

Datesonxa, Bory.

lfomu*ioW<o>8preng. Hymenenaf Grev. Delesseria, Lamx.

Hydrolapatha, Stacklk

Membranopttra. Solieria, /. Agh. AcropeltLs, MonL ? Hydropuntia, MonL

Numbkks. Gen. 88. Sp. 682. (EndL)

Position.—Fucace*. CnuMiACB&—Charace».

Rtodospermea), Harvey British Marine Alga, p. 3.


Hanowia, Bonder.

Ptilocladia, Id.

Daayphila, Id. Crxptonemxv.

Mychodea. Hook.JtL

Rhabdonia, Id. btnneiUartct.

Cladhymenia, Harp.

Atractophora, Crouan.

Gclinana, Bonder.

Apoplilea, Harvey.



Jeannerettca, Hook. jiL

Boetaychia, Mont

Btictoeiphonia, Harw.

Lenonnandia, Sander.

Gramniitclla, Crouan.

Kutzingia, Id

Trigemea, Id. Spharoeoccece.

Sarcomerio, Sander.

Dicranema, Id.

Acanthococcua, Hook. jit.

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Onv. Fl. Edin. xvtt. (1884); EndUch. Gat. It. ; SchnUsi. <c.-Char««, EUUtng, Phycolofiia, p. 813. Diagnosis,—Tubular symmetrically branched bodies, multiplied by spiral-coated nucules,

filed vith starch. Water plants composed of an axis, consisting of parallel tubes, which are either transparent or encrusted with carbonate of lime, and of regular whorls of symmetrical tubularbranches. Organs of reproduction, lateral, round, succulent, brick-red globules, and axillary nucules. The globules, consisting of triangular valves, enclosing centripetal tubes and slender annular threads ; the nucules having two coats, of which the external is transparent and usually surmounted by Ave teeth ; the internal firm, epiraUy-ribbed, filled with starch granules of various sizes.

The genera of which this little order is composed are among the most obscure of the vegetable kingdom, in regard to the nature of their reproductive organs; and accord-ingly we find them, under the common name of Chara, placed 1            by Linneeus among Gryotogamous plants near Lichens; then

referred by the same author to Phamogamous plants, in Mono> cia Monandria; retained by Jusaieu and De Candolle among Naiads, by Brown at the end of Hydrocharaceae, and by Lcman to Halorageas; referred to Confervas by Von Martius, A -an Hi, and Wallroth ; and finally admitted as a distinct order, upon the proposition of Richard, by Kunth, De Candolle, Adolphe Brongniart, Greville, Hooker, and others. Such being the uncertainty about the place of these plants, it will be useful to give a rather detailed account of their structure, in which I avail myself chiefly of Ad. Brongniart's remarks in the place above referred to, and of Agardh's observations in the Ann. dec Sciences, 4. 61.

Chants are aquatic plants, found in stagnant fresh or salt water; always submersed, giving out a fetid odour, and having a dull greenish colour. Their stems are regularly branched, brittle, and surrounded here and there by whorls of smaller branches. In Nitella the stem consists of a single transparent tube with transverse partitions; A remarks that it is so like the tubes of some , as to offer a strong proof of the affinity of the ord In Chara, properly so called, there is, in addition to this tube, many other external ones, much smaller, which only cease to cover the central tube towards 6 the extremities. In the axils of the uppermost whorls of these branchlets the organs of reproduction take their origin ; they are of two kinds, one called the nucule, the other the globule ; the former has been supposed to be the pistil, the latter the t anther.

The nucule is described by Greville as being « sessile, oval, solitary, spirally striated, having a membranous covering, and the summit indistinctly cleft into five segments ; the interior is filled with minute spondee. FL Edin. xvii. This is the general opinion entertained of its structure. But Brongniart describes it thus :—Capsule unilocular, munospermous ; pericarp composed of two envelopes : the outer membranous, transparent, very Plg. xii.                     thin, terminated at the upper end by five spreading

Fig. XII.—1. Chora vulgaris; 2. a portion of a branch with a nucule and globule ; 3. the globule mors auguifled ; 4. the spiral tubes of the latter; 6. a nucule cut open ; 6. a nucule in germination.

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Aloau.]                                         CHARACEjE.                                               27

teeth; the inner hard, dry, opaque, formed of five narrow valve*, twisted spirally." DUL CUm. 1. c He founds his opinion of the nucule containing but one germinating body upon the experiments of Vaucher, of Geneva, who ascertained that if ripe nucules of Chan, which have fallen naturally in the autumn, are kept through the winter in water, they will germinate about the end of April; at that time a little body protrudes from the upper end between the five valves, and gradually rives birth to one whorl of branches, which produce a second. Below these whorls the stem swells, and little tufts of roots are emitted. The nucule adheres for a long time to the base of the stem, even when the latter has itself begem to fructify. Hence it is reasonable to conclude that the nucule is really one-seeded* Brongniart remarks, that it is true, when a fresh nucule of Chara is cut across, an infinite number of little white grains are squeezed out; bat if these were really all reproductive particles, how would they ever find their way oat of the nucule, which is indehiscent! he considers them rather of the nature of albumen. And he is the more confirmed in his opinion, because in Pilularia, the tbecae of which also contain many similar grains, but one plant is produced by each theca. These grains have been ascertained by the observations of KUtzinp to be really starch, iodine colouring them violet; yet Endlicher describes them as spirally-striated spores* Finally, Amid has described (Ann. de* 8c. 2.) the nucule in another way. He admits H to be one-seeded, but he considers the points.of the five valves to be stigmata, and the valves themselves to be at once pericarp and style. These observations seem to show that the five valves of the nucule, as they are called, are a whorl of leaves, straight at first, and twisted afterwards ; and that the nucule itself is analogous to the bod of flowering plants.

The globule is described by GreVflle as "a minute round body, of a reddish colour, composed externally of a number of triangular (always t) scales, which separate and produce its dehiscence. The interior is filled with a mass of elastic transversely undulated filaments The scales are composed of radiating hollow tubes, partly filled with minute coloured spherical granules, which freely escape from the tubes when injured." Vaucher describes them as " tubercles formed externally of a reticulated transparent membrane, containing, in the midst of a mucilaginous fluid, certain white articulated transparent filaments, and some other cylindrical bodies, closed at one end, and appearing to open at the other. These latter are filled with the red matter to which the tubercles owe their colour, and which disappears readily and long before the maturity of the nucule." The account of the globule by Agardh is at variance with both these. u Their surface," he remarks," is hyaline, or colourless ; under this mem* braoe is observed a red and reticulated or cellular globe, which has not, however, always such an appearance ; often, instead of this reticulated aspect, the globe is colourless, hut marked by rosettes or stars, the rays of which are red or lanceolate. In the figures given by authors, one finds sometimes one of these forms, sometimes the other. 1 have myself found them both on the same species ; and I am disposed to believe that the last state is the true kernel of the globule, concealed under the reti-snhted scale. (When the globule is very ripe, one may often succeed, by means of a slight degree of pressure, in separating it into several valves, as is very well shown in Wallroth's figures, tab. 2. f. 3. and tab. 5. These valves are rayed, and no doubt answer to the stars, of which mention has been made.) The kernel contains some very singular filaments; they are simple (I once thought I saw them forked), curved and interlaced, transparent and colourless, with transverse strise, parallel and closely packed, as in an Oscfllatoria or Nostoc; but what is very remarkable, they are attached, several together, to a particular organ formed like a bell, which is itself also colourless, bat filled with a red pigment. This bell, to the base of which on the outside they are fixed, differs a little m form in different species. It is slender and long in Chara vulgaris, thicker in C. firma, shorter in C. delicatula, and shorter still in C. collabens. I have not succeeded in determining the exact position of these bells in the kernel. I have often thought they were the same thing as the rays of the rosettes or stars upon the globule above mentioned; whence it would follow that they are placed near the sur&ce, while the filaments have a direction towards the centre. The bells are not numerous ; they often separate from the filaments, and readily part with their pigment, which renders it difficult to observe them, and has caused them to be overl< joked." That these globules, whatever their nature may be, have no resemblance in structure to anthers, is clear from these descriptions, whichever may be eventually admitted. Nevertheless Fritsche, the patient investigator of pollen, regards them as anthers t WaUroth says he has sown them, and that they have germinated j but this observation requires to be verified.

Jn the annular or chambered threads of Chara are found in abundance little spiral bodies having an active motion when discharged into water, and resembling entirely the so-ealled animalcules in mosses, &c. M. Thuret, who finds tentacula in the spores of Confervas,a0cribeeasiimlar moving apparatus to these bodies, adding that they are turned

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28                                                 CHARACEiB.                                        [Algals.

brown by iodine and not dissolved by ammonia as animalcules are. (Ann. Sc. N. 2 $er. 14, 65.) They are probably analogous to the elastic spires of Equisetum.

There are two other points deserving of attention in Charas; 1st, the calcareous incrustation of some species; and 2dly, the visible and rapid motion of the sap in the articulation of the stem.

Of the genera, Nitella is transparent and free from all foreign matter; but Cham contains, on the outside of its central tube, a thick layer of calcareous matter, which renders it opaque. This incrustation appears, from the observations of Greville (Ft. Edin. 281), not to be a deposit upon the outside, and of an adventitious nature, but a result of some peculiar economy in the plant itself; and according to Brewster, it is analogous to the siliceous deposit in Equisetum, exhibiting similar phenomena.

Whatever is known of the motions of the fluids of vegetables has been necessarily a matter of inference, rather than the result of direct observation; for who could ever actually see the sap of plants move in the vessels destined to its conveyance t It is true that it was known to botanists that a certain AbW Corti, of Lucca, had, in 1774, published some remarkable observations upon the circulation of fluid in some aquatic plants, and that the accuracy of this statement had been confirmed by Treviranus so long ago as 1817; but the fact does not seem to have attracted general attention until the publication, by Amici, the celebrated professor at Modena, of a memoir in the 18th volume of the Transactions oftiu Italian Society, which was succeeded by another in the 19th. From all these observers it appears, that if the steins of any transparent species of Chara, or of any opaque one, the incrustation of which is removed, are examined with a good microscope, a distinct current will be seen to take place in every tube of which the plant is composed, setting from the base to the apex of the tubes, and returning at the rate, in Chara vulgaris, of about two lines per minute {v. Ann. de$ Sc. 2.51. line 9) ; and according to Treviranus this play is at any time destroyed by the application of a few drops of spirit, by pressure, or by any laceration of the tube. Such is the nature of the singular phenomena that are to be seen in Charas. Those who are anxious to become acquainted with the details of Amici's observations will find his first paper translated in the Annales de Chimic, 13. 384, and his second in the Ann. des Sc. 2. 41 ; that of Treviranus is to be found in the latter work, 10. 22. The observations made upon Chara circulation by the foregoing authors have been much extended by the careful inquiries of Solly, Slack, and Varley, whose remarks are to be found in the Transactions of the Society of Arts, vol. 49, p. 177, and vol. 50, p. 171 ; and by Donne*, Dutrochet, and others, in the Ann. Sc. Nat. 2 *er. vol. 9fpp. 5, 65, 80, and 10, p. 346. As however they relate to physiological and not to systematical questions I forbear to dwell upon them in this place.

The creation of plants of this order would appear to have been of a very recent date, compared with that of Ferns and Palms, or even Algals, if we are to judge by their fossil remains, called Gyrogonites, which are found for the first time in the lower freshwater formation, along* with numerous Dicotyledonous plants resembling those of our own sera. In the recent Flora of the world they make their appeal ance everywhere in stagnant waters, in Europe, Aria, and Africa, in North and South America, in New Holland, and in either India. They are most common in temperate countries.

We can scarcely claim any knowledge .of their uses. Their stems, often encrusted " with lime in the state of carbonate according to some, and of the phosphate according to others, are probably useful as a manure. The fetid effluvium arising from them is regarded as very unhealthy, and one of the sources of the malaria of the Campagna of Rome.

GENERA. Cham, L.                          Niteila, Ag.                          Charopaia, Knit.

Numbkbs. Gen. 3. Sp. 35.


Position.—Ceraniiacece. Ch a races.------------


Fl*. XII.*- A magnified view of Nitella, with the motion of its sap shown by arrow*.

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28 a

Muidtr « Ann. Nat. Hi»L 17,854, and 890. fimto'i Journal of Botany, KA 1,198, and 298. Farley in 7Wm.JVicro«e.&ie.XoMi.2,88. Uwd, Bttherthc* tur Us Zoospore* da Algiuu, jC 66 (1861).

IT»e following is M. Thuret's account of the structure of these plants (Recherche*, p. 66). The antherids of Chara fragilia, faetida, and hispida, are identical in structure. They appear in the form of orange-red globules immediately beloV the pore-cases. These globules consist of eight valves, or slightly concave triangular cells, crenelled at the edge, the crenels dovetailing together so as to form a sphere when united. Each crenel corresponds with a partition which is directed towards the centre of the valve, but which stops at about a third of its breadth. That part of the lining of the valves which is turned towards the centre of the antherid is clothed with a layer of red granules; the rest of the cell contains nothing more than a colourless liquid, and it is the thickness of this transparent part which causes the antherid to appear as if-Burrounded by a whitish ring.

Upon the centre of each valve an oblong vesicle is fixed perpendicularly, filled with orange granules arranged in lines, and presenting an instance of remarkable circulation (See Ann. da Sc Nat. 2. tar. 1.14, p. 65,1840). The eight vesicles emanating

Fig. XII."

from the eight valves converge in the centre of the antherid, where their extremities we united by means of a little cellular mass. A ninth vesicle, of the same nature as the other*, but larger, and shaped like a bottle, fixes the antherid to the plant Its broad base is planted in a branch of the Chara, while, by its opposite extremity, it penetrates the four lower valves, hollowed out for the purpose, until it reaches the cellular mass which forms the centre of the antherid From this point proceeds a gteafc number of wavy transparent tubes, internally divided by partitions, in each

Pig. XII.*-—1. Antherid and spore-case of Chara fragiM* not much magnified; ». the same at a later period, slier the dehiscence of the antherid; 3. three of the valve* which cover the antherid represented at the moment of dehluence; 4 an empty tube, in which a few antherozoida are left; ft. Anthjosoida—after Thuret.

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joint of which is born a thread-like antherozoid, rolled up several times upon itselt When these £ubes are young their joints contain only a small granular mass—a sort of nucleus—of an oval form and greyish colour; at the base of the tubes the nuclei are less regular in form; they have also a higher refractive power, and their edges are better defined. At a later period the nuclei disappear, and on each side of the joint a brilliant point arises, encircled with black, the first indication of the appearance of an antherozoid, and produced by the circumvolution of their thread-like body. By degrees these brilliant points become more numerous; the outline of the antherozoids becomes more .distinct, and the numerous transverse lines which they form on the walls of the tube render it impossible to distinguish the partitions. The formation of antherozoidtf appears to begin always at the upper end of the tubes. By degrees the antherid dehisces; the valves turn back on the branch of the Chan, dragging with them the oblong vesicle fixed to their centre; to the extremity of the vesicle adheres a portion of the cellular mass, on which are seated the tubes filled with antherozoids: strange is the appearance then observed with the microscope. The antherozoids are seen twisting and turning all ways in the cavities which enclose them. Eventually they escape by a sudden movement resembling the action of a spring. When free the antherozoid resembles a thread twisted like a corkscrew, with three or four turns, exactly like fragments of spiral vessels. The field of the microscope is quickly covered by these little thread-like bodies, swimming with a singular tremulous motion. They turn upon their axis, always preserving the screw form, for their spire seems to have some stiffness, and their motions are caused by tlje continual agitation of two very long ciliae, of excessive fineness, which spring from a little behind the anterior extremity of the spire on which they seem to fold themselves. The posterior extremity, that is to say, the one which is dragged along by the progression of the antherozoid, is rather granular, thicker, and less neatly defined than the rest of the body. When the activity of the <rili» diminishes, it is easy to see the motion originate at their base and extend by waves in the direction of their length. Iodine, alcohol, ammonia and acids stop their movements. The cilia resist the action of ammonia longer than the rest of the antherozoid.

M. Thuret considers the antherozoids of Charas to be unquestionably of the same nature as those of mosses, and he believes that their function is that of impregnation, especially since the spore-cases appear to be constructed for that purpose; for the latter are surmounted by five cells, which form a kind of stigmatic coronet, and when the spore-case is young the cells surround afemall catial which, at a later period, disap-peaqi, as soon as the reproductive body has arrived at a certain stage of growth.

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* Thaixogeh*.]



Alliance II. FUNGALES.—Tee Fungal Alliance.*

Fragi, Juts. Oen. 8. (17»); DC. FL Fr. 2. «5. (1816); Nees das System der PUzs und Schwdmme, 11817); Fries Syst Myeolog. (1821); Syst Oft. Vtg. (1825) ; EUnch. Fung. (1828) ; Adolphs Brongn. in Diet Class. 6. 155. (1824); Qrcv. ScotL Crypt. Ft. 6. (1828); Hooter British Flora, 457. (1830); Berk, in Id. vol. I pi. 2. (1835); Montagns in Hist de Cuba BoL p. 239. (1838-1842), translated, with Notes, in Ann. tfNat. Hist vol. 9.p. 1. by Berk. (1842); Corda Anleitung, (1842). —Epiphyte. Link i Grev. Fl.Edin. xxv. (1824).—Gasteromycl, Orev. FL Edin. xxiv. (1824).— Mycetes, Spmw- Syst 4, 370. (1827).—Uredineae, Mueedinese, and Lyooperdhcea, Ad. Brongn. in Met. Class. L e. (1824t.-Byssaoee, (in put) JFV-. Syst Orb. Veg. (1825).

Diagnosis—OdltdarJlowerles9 plants, nourished through their thattus (spawn or mycelium) ; tiring in air ; propagated by spores colourless or brown, and sometimes inclosed moid; destitute of green gonidia.

4                     6               6                  7                           * 8

Fig. xm. Plants consisting of a congeries of cellules or filaments, or both variously combined, increasing in size in the more perfect species by addition to their inside, their outside undergoing no change after its first formation, chiefly growing upon decayed organic substances, or soil arising from their decomposition, frequently ephemeral, and variously coloured, never accompanied as in Lichens by reproductive germs of a vegetable green called gonidia; nourished by juices derived from the matrix. Fructification either spores attached externally, and often in definite numbers, to the cellular tissue, and frequently on peculiar cells called sporophores or basidia, which are in many cases surmounted by fine processes which immediately support the spores, and called spicules or sterigmata; or inclosed in membranous sacs or asci, and then termed sporidia. Teasels of the latex have been observed in Agaricus fcetens, by Corda. Spiral filaments, Eke the elaters of Jungermannia, exist in Trichia and Batarrea. They were first detected by the younger Hedwig, and described afterwards by Kunze and Corda. Mr. Berkeley detected them in the latter genus, and has very recently observed them, but very sparingly in Podaxon. The spores of fungi germinate either by a simple elonga-

It is impossible to look at the huge mass of genera collected by Botanists under the name of Fungi, without perceiving that they in troth consist of groups equivalent to those called Natural Orders in the Algal Alnsncft, as waD as in other parts of this arrangement. And if I had inch an acquaintance with the subject as would Justify my doing so, I should have presumed to break up the members of this Alliance into similar order*. It would, however, be presumptuous in me, with whom Fungi have never been aspedal study, to disturb the arrangements of those learned men who have made this investigation fee business of thefr lives.

The following admirable account of the Alliance has been most kindly prepared by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, whose knowledge of the Bpedes Is unequalled in this or any other country. This gentleman permits me to state, that in his opinion the divisions here called orders may be regarded as Natural Orders, hi the sense in which that term is applied to Algals.

F|g. Xm.—1. Arcyrlaflava 2. Geastrnmmultttdum ; S. Muoor caninus ; 4. Hymenium of an Agaric; 5. Agaricus eepsstipes; & Tennkmlaria trichella; 7. Vertical section of Hypoxylon.punctatum; & Angteidfum ibraosum. From Orevflle's Cryptogamio Flora, with the exception of No. 4.

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tion of the episporium, or by the profusion of the inner membrane which exists in most case*, and is easily separated from the outer in the asci of nfliny species of Sphseria. Fungals absorb oxygen and exhale carbonic acid. They abound in nitrogen.

Fungals are distinguished from Lichens by their more fugitive nature, their more succulent texture, their want of a thallus or expansion independent of the part that bears the reproductive matter, but more especially, as Fries has pointed out in his Lickmogra-pkia Buropcea, in their never containing germs distinct from the fructifying bodies of a vegetable green so constant in Lichens. Many species indeed of Sphieria accord very closely in their mode of fructification, producing like the Lichens distinct nuclei in the centre of their substance, which at length burst through the cortical layer, though the fructifying disc is not exposed* In the Phacidiacei, however, the cups sometimes approach very nearly to the shield of Lichens; so nearly, indeed, that they are occasionally mistaken for one another.

From Algala there is, as regards structure, scarcely any palpable difference ; but the most obvious distinction between Fungals and the two great divisions just mentioned consists in their mode of growth. Lichens and Algals do not derive nutriment from the substance on which they grow, but from the medium in which they are generated. Both are produced occasionally on the hardest subtances, from which it is impossible that

they should derive much nutriment* Fungals, on the contrary, live by imbibing juices impregnated with the pe* ciUiar principles of their matrix. It is true that many species of moulds will vegetate in liquids without any peculiar point of attachment, but these in general are in a very anomalous condition, and are in consequence often referred to Algals ; but as soon as they begin to revert to their true characters, there is a distinction between the free and submerged portion, the former being supported by the juices imbibed by the latter. A few species indeed of Fungals may almost be called aquatic, such asCantharellusloba-tus, Agaricus epichysium, Pearfza clavus, Vibrissea truncorum, Leotia uliginose ; but in most of such cases it will be observed, that it is not the habit of the whole genus but merely exceptional; and in all there is an attachment to a matrix, from which it is highly probable that a portion at least of their nutriment is derived, especially in an

early stage of growth. In fact, these cases having been stated by way of anticipating objections, it is rather the medium in which Fungals and Algals are developed that distinguishes them, than any peculiarity in their own organisation. While there is so near an approximation of these families to each other, particularly in the simplest forms, it is important to remark that," with a single exception,9' perhaps, no spontaneous motion has been observed in Fungals, which, therefore, cannot be considered so closely allied to the Animal Kingdom as Algals, notwithstanding the presence of nitrogen in them, and the near resemblance of the substance by chemists called Fungine, to animal matter. Molecular motion, indeed, takes place in the particles which give consistence to tne milk of the lactescent Agarics, but this is very different from that which has been so repeatedly observed in Algals, and which is produced in many instances by minute cilia which invest the reproductive bodies exactly as in the Animal Kingdom. Spontaneous motion has, however, been observed in Achlya prolifera, which is possibly a species of Mucor developed in water ; Linn. 1843, p. 129.

Fungals are almost universally found growing upon decayed animal or vegetable substances, and scarcely ever, except in the lower groups, upon living bodies of either

* It to, however, to be remembered, that obeervatton hat shown that Lichens corrode the hard bodies on which the/ grow, from which it is, perhaps, to be inferred, that they do to a certain extent real!j feed upon them.                              ____________________________

Fig. XII.—Muco* mueedo, reaj highly magnified, exhibiting I, the spawn or mycelium.

Fig. xn.

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Thaixoghks.]                                 FUNGALES.                                  '              31

Kingdom ; in which respect they differ from Lichens, which very commonly grow upon

Fig. xni.

Fig. XIV.

die living bark of trees. The more simply organised species are not confined to dead or putrid substances, as is shown by their attacking various plants when in a state of perfect life and vigour ; for it has been incontestably proved by the discoveries of L6veill6 and Corda, that the extensive tribe of EjpiphyUous Fungi really belong to this division, and are not mere anamorphoses of the cellular tissue, as is the case with some productions usually, referred to Fungi, as Erineum, Taphrina, &c* Many observations, also, have been made of late years on the development of Fungi on living animal .tissues. Of this

It U not merely alterations of the epidermis of plants which assume the appearance of Fungi; galls also, or tubercles caused by the attacks of insects, bear occasionally a wonderful resemblance to such bodies ; so much so indeed, that

they have been referred to them even by good botanists, on a hasty and superficial inspection. For here, as in other branches of the creation, we observe somewhat of that wonderful analogy by which, in each distinct claas or eren division of natural productions, the same, or extremely similar forms are repeated, though accompanied by an organisation totally different; and It is this amongst other circumstances which makes it so absolutely necessary to examine into the intimate structure of the works of the creation, before venturing to pronounce upon their proper place in the system. Several of these galls have been figured by Mr Curtis in his interesting entomological articles In the " Gardeners9 Chronicle ; n such, for example, as Oak-spangles,jirodueed by Diplolepis lenticular!*; Oak-currants, by Cy-nfpe Quereus pedunculi, Woolly-oak galls, which owe their origin to the puncture of Cynips Quer-cus raafluH ; Elm-galls, brought on by the attacks of the Aphte ; in the ease of galls, however, it is but a superficial examination which can possibly deceive, for

Fig. XV.

F|r. XIII.—Ertneum Jutfandis.                           Fig. XIV.—Rrineum botryocephalum [Corda).

F|g. XV.—Oak8paagles.-3. Upper side; 4. underside; 2. silk button galls; d. a section of one with a larva in the interior. See Curtis in Qardmers' <Jhnmicky 1M3, p. 5S.

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32                                                 FUNGALES.                                 [Thalukjem.

nature are the 6o6pes ▼ggftantes of the West Indies; the Muacardine, which is fio destructive to silkworms, and on which so many excellent Memoirs hare been written ; the mould, Vhich so often causes the death of the common house-fly in autumn ; and above all, the curious instances which have been recorded of the development of moulds in the mucous membrane of the viscera of vertebrate animals, and in certain cutaneous disorders in man.

Mouldiness, for instance, has been found by M.Deslongchamps on the internal surface of the air-cells of an Eider-duck while alive y and Mr. Owen observed a similar growth in the lungs of a Flamingo.—Aim. Nat. Hut. viii. 230. Col/Montagu had previously remarked it in the same situation in the Scarp-duck.—lb. ix. 131. Gruby observed the

Pig. XVI.                                                        Ftg# xvn.

site. And, as if to make the resemblance to some Fungus more dose, the gall appears to make an abor-tire attempt to penetrate the opposite surface of the leaf9 almost exactly in the way which is observable In the curious production which is sometimes so injurious to Pear-trees. But even in this case, where there is no trace of the inclosed grab or pupa, the texture of the walls of the gall is so (liferent

from that of Fungals that it can scarcely deceive, on any moderately accurate examination.

There is yet another production, referred to Fungals by Bernhardi, and after him by Fries and others, which, however, is probably to be regarded neither as a disease nor parasite. These are the tuberous bodies so common on the roots of leguminous plants. Their exact nature and use at present is not known; but a Memoir on them has been prepared some time by M. Desmaai&res. They appear a veiy few days alter the germination of the seeds, and are accompanied by a Uttle bed of vessels, in which they are nestled. At an early stage of growth, the contents of their cells become blue, when treated by iodine, which Is not the case when their pulpy contents have acquired a salmon-coloured hue, when .in some awes the granules are simple and oblong, in others forked. There can be little doubt that they are of some importance to the plant, though they are not, like common tubers, destined for the reproduction of the species, as the* pass through the phases of vegetation in a short time, and soon become ruptured and discharge their contents. No insect has ever been observed in them, nor indeed does it at

. all appear that they are of the nature of galls. It is possible that in very dry situations, and in time of drought, the nutriment collected in them is serviceable to the plant; but this is very doubtful.

Fig. X VI.-Galls on the leaf of an Ochnaceous plant.

Fig. XVII.—Woolly Oak-gall, produced by Cyn{ps Quercus mrnuli.—< Curtis.)

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Ffe. XXL

crusts of Tinea fibrosa and Porrigo Inpinosa to be accompanied by moulds, Compte* SemL Aug. 1841 ; and these observations hare been extended by Dr. Bennett, Trans. ♦ fiogf. &c RLy voL xv*, Part 2, p. 277, Who has also observed a mould growing on the fining membrane or cheesy matter of tubercular cavities in the lungs of man ; as also the development of a mould on the skin of living gold-fish. Much information found on the subject in the place above quoted.

In their simplest form Fungi are little articulated filaments, composed of simple cellules placed end to end; such is the mouldinees that is found upon various sub-stances, the mildew of the Rose-bush, and, in short, all the tribes of Mucor and Mucedo; in some of these the joints disarticulate, and appear to be capable of reproduction ; in others, spores collect in the terminal joints, and are finally dispersed by the rupture of the cellule that contained them. In a higher state of composition, Fungi are masses of cellular tissue of a determinate figure, the whole centre of which consists of spores attached, often four together, to the cellular tissue, which at length dries up, leaving a dust-like mass intermixed more or less with flocci, as in the puff-halls, or sporidia contained in membranous* tubes or asci, like the thecn of Lichens, as in the Sphaerias. In their most complete state they consist of two surfaces one of which is even and imperforate, like the cortical layer m Lichens ; the other separated into plates or cells, and called the hymeoiom, to whose component cells, which form a stratum resembling the pile of velvet, the spores are attached by means of little processes, and generally in fours, though occasionally the number is either less ox1 greater. Many of these cells remain barren ; but after a time there

is a succession of fertile cells                                   3

constantly making its appear* ance above the surface of the hymenium ; and, what is more remarkable, the spicules or sterigmata, which support and give rise to the spores, have been observed by Corda to produce a succession of fruit, a new more beiiig produced where the old one had fallen. This, he informs us, is very easy of observation in Agaricus plu-teua. Besides the barren and fertile cells, other bodies are observed which have been supposed by authors to perform the office of anthers. These have long been known in the                                   Ftg.-XXIL

dunghill Agarics, but they appear to be pretty generally distributed. The true struc-' tare of the more perfect Fungi has only been recognised within a few years, though HuBer, half a century since, gave a correct figure of it in Agaricus comatus, and there are indications of it scattered through many works. Llveills Memoir in Annales des Sciences NatureDes, that of Berkeley in the Annals of Nat History, of Phoebus in Nova Acta Cecs. Leop., and those of Berkeley and Tulasne in the Ann. of Nat. Hist and Ann. des Sc Nat on the fructification of Lycoperdons, as also that of the Messrs. Tukme on Hvpogieous Fungi, may be consulted on this subject

Upon this kind of difference of structure, Fungi have not only been divided into distinctly marked tribes, but it has been proposed to separate certain Orders from them under the name of Byssacese, Gasteromycd, and Hypoxyla: the first comprehending the filamentous Fungi found in cellars, and similar plants; the second Lycoperdons and the like ; and the third species which approach lichens in the formation of a distinct nucleus for the sporules, such as Sphieria. But Fries considers the first as a distinct group, and the two last as Fungi.                                            .

Some writers have questioned the propriety of considering Fungi as plants, and

Ffr. XXI.—Botrytis carta.                      ,                                                              „

Tig. XXII.—1. Spore-stalk of Agariens dins, with Its four long sterigmata and small spores ; 2. spore-stalks of Ac. semiovatus, with spores in various states of development; 8. a*A and sporidia of HeheOa +'*f****; 4. sporidium of Tuber magnatum (Piedmonteoe Truffle),/™* a sketch by Dr. Jfoa-lame; S. sporidfum of Pesfsa aurantia. with Its two nuclei; 6. single spoMdhunof Hehrella elastic*, wttb a largo globose nucleus.

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have proposed to establish them as an independent Kingdom, equally distinct from animals and vegetables ; others have entertained doubte of their being more than mere fortuitous developments of vegetable matter, called into action by special conditions of light, heat, earth, and air — doubts which have been caused by some remarkable* circumstances connected with their development, the most material of which are the following: they grow with a degree of rapidity unknown in other plants, acquiring the volume of many inches in the space of a night, and are frequently meteoric, that is, spring up after storms, or only in particular states of the atmosphere. It is possible to increase particular species with certainty, by an ascertained mix* ture of organic and inorganic matter exposed to well-known atmospheric conditions, as is proved bj the process adopted by gardeners for obtaining Agaricus caxnpestris, a process so certain, that no one ever saw any other kind of Agaricus produced in Mushroom-beds, except a few of the dunghill tribe, where raw dung has been placed near the surface of the bed; this could not happen if the Mushroom sprang from seeds or sporules float-ing in the air, as in that case many species would necessarily be mixed together; Fungi ve often produced constantly upon the same kind of matter, and upon nothing else, such as the species that are parasitic upon leaves: all which is considered strong evidence of the production of FWgi being accidental, and not analogous to that. of perfect plants. Fries, however, whose opinions must have great


weight in all questions relating to Fungi, argues against these notions in the following manner : " The sporules are so infinite (in a single individual of Reticularia maxima I have reckoned above 10,000,000, so subtile (they are scarcely visible to the naked eye, and often resemble thin smoke), so light (raised, perhaps, by evaporation into the atmosphere), and are dispersed in so many ways (by the attraction of the sun, by insects, wind, elasticity, adhesion, &c), that it is difficult to conceive a place from which they can be excluded." I give his words as nearly as possible, because they may be considered the sum of all that has to be urged against the doctrine of equivocal generation in Fungi; but without admitting, by any means, so much force in his statement as is required to set the question at rest In*short, it is no answer to such arguments as those iust adverted to. It seems to me that a preliminary examination is necessary into the existence of an exact analogy between all the plants called Fungi ; a question which must be settled before any further inquiry can be properly entered upon. That a number of the fungus-like bodies found upon leaves are mere diseases of the cuticle, or of the subjacent tissue, is by no means an uncommon opinion ; that many more are irregular and accidental expansions of Vegetable tissue in the absence of light, is not improbable ; and it is already certain that no inconsiderable number of the Fungi of botanists are actually either, as various Rhizomorphas, the deformed roots of flowering plants growing in cellar, clefts of rocks, and walls ; or mere stains upon the surface of leaves, as Venu-Jaria grammica ; or the rudiments of other Fungi, as many of Persoon's Fibrillarias. Those who are anxiou to inquire into these and other points, are referred to Fries9

Fig. XXIII. — Aseroe pentactina.

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Thallogms.]                                  FUNGALES.                                                 35

works generally, to the various writings of Noes von Eeenbeck, and to the Scottish Ciyptogamic flora of Greville. In the ensuing list of genera, I have chiefly availed myself of the writings of Fries. The disposition, however, of the genera has been modified in conformity with recent discoveries as to the real structure of the more highly organised species, and the numerous discoveries of Corda, where their affinities were at all clear, have been recorded. That it must be a matter of extreme difficulty to form any precise opinion concerning Fungi, without long experience, will be apparent from the observations of Fries upon the genus Thelephora. (Elcnchus, p. 158.) He asserts that out of mere degenerations or imperfect states of Th. sulphurea, the following genera, all of winch he has identified by means of unquestionable evidence, have been constructed ; viz., Athelia of Persoon, Ozonium of Persoon, Himantia of Persoon, Sporotrichuin of Kunze, Alytosporium of link, Xylostroma, Racodium of Persoon, Ceratonema of Persoon, and some others. Th. Fr. Nees von Esenbeck aim assures us that the same fungoid matter which produces Sclerotium mycetospora in the winter, develops Agaricus volvaceus in the summer. It would thus seem that the opinions of those who have asserted that the species or genus of a Fungus depends not upon the seed from which it springs, but upon the matrix by which it is nourished, are at least specious ; especially if we take the above fact in connection with the experiments of Dutrochet, who obtained different genera of Houldiness at will, by employing different infusions. He says that certain acid fluids constantly yield Monilias, and that certain alkaline mixtures equally produce Botrytis. Ana. de» 8c. 2 acr. 1.30. For a description of the gradual development of an Agaric, see this ingenious observer's Memoir in the Nouv. Ann. du Mum. voL iii. p. 76. For the views of Unger upon spurious Fungi, which he considers nothing but morbid conditions (eruptions) of vegetable matter, see the Awn. des 8c. vol. ii. n. $. 209; and Berkeley's remarks thereupon, in Hook, Brit. Fl. vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 361.

Since, however, the remarks of Unger were published, L£veiUtf and Corda, almost at the same time, and quite independently of each other, made their discovery of the Mycelium of Uredines and Puccini®, and Corda has succeeded in making many germinate. Unger's speculations, therefore, must be considered as much in-validated, at least so far as their being mere transformations of the cellular tissue, as is the case in Erineum. Whether animal and vegetable bodies are ever produced without pre-existent germs, belongs to quite another question. And, as regards the genera Ozo-mmn, Hiraantia, Ac, they are now regarded by all good mycologists as mere barren states, or anamorphoses of other species ; and the same is probably true of many of the more anomalous Fungi; and the observations of Lveille, in the Annales des Sciences Natu-relles, go very far to prove that the whole genus Scle-rothnn belongs to the same category. Some of them, as Acrospermum cornutum, and Sclerotium mycetospora, are undoubtedly mere forms, and have no right whatever to be considered as species; others arise from the condensation of the filamentous tufts of moulds ; others, as S. lotorum, are little excrescences upon the roots, and the celebrated Ergot is produced by the action of a minute parasite. There is indeed a difficulty about such species as Sclerotium scutellatum ; but there is little doubt that, in the mam, Leveille's observations, even though from the nature of the subject the proof is not rigorous, are founded in fact Some supposed species of Uredo are merely the young of Puccinia, Aregma, &c.; but there are also true species of the genus. See Henslow, Jounu of Roy. Soc. Ag. 1841, vol. ii. p. 2.

Kiitring, in his Prize Essay on the Transformation                 Fig. XXIV.

of Plants, asserts that from one and the same organic

material, even when it has acquired form and colour, different vegetables may be developed, which, according to the circumstance of the surrounding medium, are Algab, Fungi, lichens, or Mosses; and that even the spores of these, when pro-

Pig. XXIV.—Pucdnia gnuninis (common Mildew), with Its spawn or mycelium penetrating the cell f the plant on which U grows.

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36                                                 FUNGALES.                                 [Thallogbwil

duced, are capable of generating plants belonging to different Orders. This has been long a favourite theory in Germany, but it has not been so folly developed before. NcAvwrhundige Verhandelingm van de Soil MaaUch. der Wetensch. te Haarlem. Tweeds Yen. 1. Deel

The subject, as regards the possible development of Algals, &c, from Infusoria, has been rehandled by the same author in a Memoir just published at Nordhausen. Those who are not convinced by his reasonings, will at least be ready to acknowledge the great research and patience with which they have.been followed out His observations are entitled to the greater attention, because he is well acquainted with the various forms assumed by cellular plants, though his great work on Algals scarcely shows him to have accurate notions as to the limits of genera and species.

The Fungi by which most extra-tropical countries are inhabited are so numerous, that no one can safely form even a conjecture as to the number that actually exists. If they are ever fortuitous productions, the number must be indeterminable; if many are mere diseases, and the remainder fixed species, then the knowledge of 'their nature must be reduced to a more settled state before any judgment upon their number can be formed. Fries discovered no fewer than 2000 species within the compass of a square furlong in Sweden; of Agaricus alone above 1000 species are described; and of the lower tribes the number must be infinite. Sprengel, however, does not enumerate in his Systcma Vegetabilium more than between 2700 and 2800; but when we consider that his genus Agaricus does not go beyond number 646, although 1000 at least are described, it is not improbable that the rest of his enumeration is equally defective, and that the number of described Fungi perhaps amounts to between 4000 and 5000. Of tropical species we know but little; their fugitive nature, the difficulty of preserving them, and perhaps the incuriousness of travellers, as well as their scarcity in the damp parts of equinoctial countries, have been the causes of

the proportion in 'such climates between Fungi and other plants being unknown. Mr. Berkeley has taken occasion, from the publication of a list of Java Fungi by Junghuhn, to institute a comparison between those of Java and the Philippine collection made by Mr. Cuming. Neither list can, indeed, be considered as complete, bui m both oases die proportion of Fungi remaining to be described is probably much the same. Parts of the Philippines are situated in a degree of latitude in the northern hemisphere exactly corresponding with that of Java in the southern. The number of species described by Junghuhn is 113, that collected by Cuming about 40. Of these

. only i of the species are common to the two localities, and out of these four are species or Polyporus common to all tropical countries. Of Junghuhn's Fungi 3= arrf Coniomycetes, 9= are Hyphomycetes, 7= Gasteromycetes, 18=| Pyrenomyoetes, 10=* Discomycetes, and 66, or above £, Hymenomycetes. In Mr. Cuming's collection there are no species of the first, second, and fifth Families; of the remaining Families l=Jk belongs to Gasteromycetes, 5=r£ are Pyrenoinycetes, and 33, or more than £, are Hymenomycetes. It will be observed that the proportion of Pyreno-mvcetes is the same, and there is even a greater proportion of Hymenomycetes in the Philippines. Of the Hymenomycetes in Java* 40 are Polypori; in the Philippines, 19, taking the genus in its widest sense. There is now an opportunity of contrasting with these the Fungi of Cuba, which have been so well worked out by Dr. Montagne. The species of that island, as &r as at present recorded, are 115, of which 4=: are Coniomycetes, 10= Hyphomycetes, 9= Gasteromycetes, 25=fc Pyrenomycetee, 8= Discomycetes, and 59=r£ Hymenomycetes. The proportion of Pyrenomycetes is nearly the same as in Java and the Philippines, and the predominance of Hymenomycetes is equally striking. Of this number 28, or ±, are European species ; whereas among the Philippine Fungi there are but 2, whole in Java there are 42. Of these the greater part are very common aperies. With the exception of European species, 5 only are common to Cuba and Java, and 4 to Cuba and the Philippines ; and these, with one exception, species universally distributed. The species which forms an exception is Micropeltis applanata, which, as it is a minute Epiphyllous plant, may possibly have been overlooked in other countries. The number of Fungi peculiar to Cuba is very large. Cuba, then, has but little in common with Java and the Philippines, when the cosmopolites and European species are excepted. Several species, however, are identical with those of North and South America, extending in one instance even as far as Juan Fernandez ; and there are one or two isolated species which call to mind Mauritius, Ceylon, and Australia. The genus Polyporus, as usual, predominates, counting 31 species, of which 8 are European } or, if Favolus and Hexagonia be included, the number

* It wfll be obsenred that in the list of genera given below, the Discomycetes and Pyrenomyoetes are comprised in one group under the name of Asoomyoetes. The Discomycetes correspond with the three first Suborders.

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Yhjlllogbks.]                                  FUNGALES.                                                 87

smotmts to 35; When the climates are at all analogous, and the range of the thermcK meter at certain seasons similar, it is astonishing how great a resemblance, and even identity, there is between the Fungi of very distant portions of the globe. North America ' produces far the greater part of the European species, with a certain portion peculiar to itselC, Hundreds of the same species of Sphsena and Agaricus occur in that country which are found with us. The curious genus Mitromyces, which seemed peculiar to that country, has been found in Java, Van Diemen's Land, and New Holland. And it would, perhaps, be difficult to point out any specific group peculiarly characteristic of the coun try. Bat the same resemblance exists, to a great extent, also in the southern hemisphere. In the island of Juan Fernandez, winch was so carefully investigated by Bertero, scarce a third of the species differ from European Fungi. The same is the case in the Flora of New Zealand and Australia, from whence I possess a large quantity of species ; and though there are many new forms, and some belonging to genera not hitherto found in Europe, a large proportion of the species are identical. In the rams Agaricus the species in countries of every variety of climate are often identical. The African Mycology is remarkable for the varied forms it produces amongst the puff-balls and allied genera, especially in that tribe which is called Podaxinese* They commence at die south of Europe, in the environs of Marseilles ; abound at the Cape «f Good Hope, and form a rery remarkable feature still in the Fungi of Swan River. Two species of the African genus Secotium occur at the Swan River ; and possibly a . third, and a very beautiful species, occurs in New Zealand, A species of Podaxon was found by Dr. Hooker at Porto Praya, identical with the East Indian species. A single imperfectly known species occurs m the warmer parts of North America. The gams Oathrus, which is perhaps the most beautiful amongst Fungi, though unknown in the more northern latitudes, has a most extensive geographical range. A line, running obliquely from the Isle of Wight through Germany, defines its northern limits: two species, one of the allied genus Ueodictyon, occur at the Swan River; and a magnificent species of that genus occurs in New Zealand, and is eaten by the natives. On the whole, then, it will be seen that the geographical limits of Fungi are by no means so definite as those of Phsenogamous plants. Some species are found in every part of the globe ; and several tropical forms are either universally dispersed, or occur m spots separated from each other by many thousands of miles. In the genus Poly-poras every country seems to have species peculiar to itself; and from the number of new forms which daily occur, the genus seems to be almost co-extensive with Agaricus. It is in this genus, probably, if in any, that the species will be found to follow the most meady a geographical arrangement

A large volume might be written upon the qualities and uses of Fungi. They may be said to be important, either as food or as poison, or as parasites destructive to the plants upon which they grow. As food, the most valuable are the Agaricus campes-tris, or common Mushroom, the various species of Helvetia or Morel, and Tuber or Truffle; but a considerable number of other kinds are used for food in various parts of the world, of which a useful account will be found in De Csndolle's excellent Eesai *w k$ Propriiii* Midicale* de* Plantc*> in Persoon's work, S*r le* Champignon* comestible*, in a paper by GrevOle in the 4th volume of the Transaction* of the Wernerian Society, and in Hoque'&Hi*Lde*C?iamp. comestible* et vcneneux, ed. 2,1841. A Ions list might be given of works on the subject, some of them like those of Vittadini, Phoebus, and Krombholx, very admirably got up.

About half a dozen species only are eaten in London, and in Paris none are permitted to appear in the markets except the common Truffle, Morel, and Mushroom, the latter being cultivated to a very considerable extent in the ancient quarries which run under parts of the city.

It is necessary to exercise the utmost care in employing Fungi the nature of which is not perfectly* well ascertained, in consequence of the resemblance of poisonous and wholesome species, and the dreadful effects that have followed their incautious use. But the greatest caution and knowledge will not always avail, for it appears that some species which are in general perfectly wholesome, sometimes produce very disastrous consequences. A family at Cambridge a few years since suffered from eating mushrooms; a part of what were gathered were submitted to the writer of the present * remarks, and proved to be Ag. person&tus, a species sold sometimes in the London markets, and ascertained by Mrs. Hussey, who has paid great attention to the subject, to be most excellent for food* The case perhaps is similar to that of the prejudicial effects sometimes experienced by persons after eating mussels, and may be considered as a ttoe exception.

It is true that many kinds are named by Pallas as being commonly used by the Russians, which are plentiful in countries where they are not employed for food; but, in the first place, it is net perhaps quite certain that poisonous and wholesome species

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38                                                 FUNGALES.                                 [Thaliens.

are not confounded under the same name; in the next place, climate may make a difference; and lastly, much depends npon the mode in which they are cooked. Upon this subject Delile observes, that it was ascertained by Paulet, m 1776, that salt and vinegar removed every deleterious principle from that most poisonous plant the Agari-cus bulbosus; that it is the universal practice in Russia to salt the Fungi, and that this may be tfie cause of their hannlessness, just as the pickling and subsequent washing of the poisonous Agaric of the Olive renders it eatable in the Cevennes; but that, nevertheless, it is much wiser to run no risk with unknown Fungi, even taking such precautions—a remark to which he was led by the lamentable death of a French officer and his wife, in consequence of breakfasting off some poisonous Agarics, which were nevertheless eaten bv other persons in the same house with impunity. It was probable that in that case a difference in the cooking was the cause of the difference in the effect of the Fungi; but it was a sufficient ground for distrusting all Fungi except the cultivated ones. So strongly did the late Professor L. C. Richard feel the prudence of this, that although no one was better acquainted with the distinctions of Fungi, he*would never eat any except such as had been raised in gardens in mushroom beds. One of the most poisonous of our. Fungi is the Amanita muscaria, so called from its power of killing flies when steeped in milk. Even this is eatenin Kamchatka, with no other than intoxicating effects, according to the following account by Langsdorf, as translated by Greville, from whom I borrow it:—

" This variety of Amanita muscaria is used by the inhabitants of the north-eastern parts of Asia in the same manner as wine, brandy, arrack, opium, &c is by other nations. Such Fungi are found most plentifully about Wischna, Kamchatka, and Wilkowa Derecona, and are very abundant in some seasons, and scarce in others. They are collected in the hottest months, and hung up by a string in the air to dry; some dry of themselves on the ground, and are said to be far more narcotic than those artificially preserved. Small deep-coloured specimens, thickly covered with warts, are also said to be more powerful than those of a larger size and paler colour. The usual mode of taking the Fungus is, to roll it up like a bolus, and swallow it without chewing/ which, the Kamchatkadales say, would disorder the stomach. It is sometimes eaten fresh in soups and sauces, and then loses much of its intoxicating property; when steeped in the juice of the berries of Vaccinium uliginosum, its effects are those of strong wine. One large, or two small Fungi, are a common doze to produce a pleasant intoxication for a whole day, particularly if water be drank after it, which augments the narcotic principle. The desired effect comes on from one to two hours after taking the Fungus. Giddiness and drunkenness result in the same manner as from wine or * spirits; cheerful emotions of the mind are first produced; the countenance becomes flushed; involuntary words and actions follow, and sometimes at last an entire loss of consciousness. It renders some remarkably active, and proves highly stimulant to muscular exertion: by too large a dose, violent spasmodic effects are produced. So very exciting to the nervous system in many individuals is this Fungus, that the effects are often very ludicrous. If a person under its influence wishes to step over a straw or small stick, he takes a stride or a jump sufficient to clear the trunk of a tree; a talkative person cannot keep silence or secrets; and one fond of music is perpetually singing. The most singular effect of the Amanita is the influence it possesses over the urine. It is said that, from time immemorial, the inhabitants have known that the Fungus imparts an intoxicating quality to that secretion, which continues for a considerable time after taking it For instance, a man moderately intoxicated to-day will, by the next morning, have slept himself sober, but (as is the custom) by taking a teacup of his urine he will be more powerfully intoxicated than he was the preceding day. It is, therefore, not uncommon for confirmed drunkards to preserve their urine as a precious liquor against a scarcity of the Fungus. The intoxicating property of the urine is capable of being propagated; for every one who partakes of it has his urine similarly affected. Thus, with a very few Amanita a party of drunkards may keep up their debauch for a week. Dr. Langsdorf mentions, that by means of the second person taking the urine of the first, the third of the second, and so on, the intoxication may be propagated through five individuals."

It is universally known that the common Agaric is cultivated with as much certainty by good gardeners as any other vegetable. The excellent Boletus edulis has been partially cultivated in the south of France by inclosing a portion of a wood, and watering the ground with water in which the tubes had been steeped. Borch raised Tuber Borchii from the sporidia about the year 1780, and the growth of the common Truffle has been attempted with more or lees success. Mr. Drummond has sent over the spawn of a large variety of Agaricus campestris from the Swan River, which he says is as fer superior, to tho common mushroom as the improved peas to the old varieties, and it has been submitted to Mr. J. Henderson, but it is feared that it is too old to run.

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h he particularly alludes are probably Polyporua portentosus, Berk., a species which 1 only be eaten in the absence of all other food, and a species of Cyttaria hitherto

Polyporos fomentarins has been artificially produced in Germany, but merely by placing wood in a farourable situation, and keeping it well moistened. Five or six crops were obtained in the year. {Rom. and Uster. Mag. iv. p. 182.)

A curious species which grows on the living branches of the South American beeches, and which has been described by Mr. Berkeley in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, under the name of Cyttaria Darwinii, forms a principal part of the food of the natives of Tierra del Fuego during many months of the year.

Fungi are much used in Australia by the natives, especially of the genus Boletus. The large truffle Mylitta australis, BerL, which attains a weight of more than two pounds, is known under the name of native bread. The marsupial animals are particularly fond of Fungi, and some species they hunt for so greedily, devouring them before they bunt through the earth, that it is very difficult to obtain a well-grown specimen.

Mr. Backhouse also informs us that Fungi are much used byjthe natives. Two to which he i could <

unrecorded by botanists. One or two species are used in medicine. Sphaeria sinensis, Berk., described in Hook,

Lond. Journ. of Bot., is a celebrated remedy amongst the Chinese, and is much praised in Du Halde's book, but probably without reason.

Many Fungi were admitted into the old Pharmacopoeias, as Exidia auricula Judxe, Polyporus officinalis, Tremella mesenteries, but at present they are little if at all used.

Lysurus mokusin is considered by the Chinese as an excellent remedy in gangrenous ulcers. It is also eaten, but is often poisonous. The jelly-like volva of the nearly allied genus Deodictyon is eaten in New Zealand.

Ergot of rye is well known for its specific action on the uterus, and is in consequence one of the most valuable remedies of the modern Pharmacopoeia. It is, however, said to be uncertain. It is unhappily no less notorious for the dread-ful effects it produces on the human frame when it exists in considerable quantities in bread-corn, causing the most terrible ulcers and gangrenes, which at length destroy the limbs. Similar effects have been experienced from the use of mouldy provisions. Interesting details on the subject will be found in Burnett's Outlines, and in Professor Henslow's Report on the Diseases of Wheat, in the Journal of the Royal Society of Agriculture, 1841, vol. ii. part 1. Copious details will also be found in Phoebus's Deutschlands Cryp-togamische GewUchae. On the real nature of Ergot Smith and Quekett's Memoir, Linn. Tr. xviii. p. 452,3, and xix. p. 137, should be consulted. Corda has lately confirmed the observations of Messrs. Smith and Quekett; and more recently a Memoir on the subject has been published by Fife.

Of parasitical Fungi, the most important are thos« which are called dry rot, such as FWyporus destructor, Merulius lacrymans and vastator, &c, which are the pest of wooden constructions: next to these come the blight in corn, occasioned by Poecmia graminis; the smut and ergot, if they are really anything more than the diseased and disorganised tissue of the plants affected; the rust, which is owing to the ravages of Uredos and Puccinue; and finally, in this class is to be included what we call mildew, minute simple articulated Mucors, and Mucedos. The effects of different moulds on bread, preserves, &c, are but too well known. In some cases, however, as in cheese, provisions are thought to be improved by them. The decay of fruit, according to the observations of Mr. Hassall, appears to be in great measure pro* duced by them. The genus Rhizomorpha (which it mav be observed is a spurious ffenus, consisting of imperfectly developed Sphserise, Polypori, &c.) vegetates in dark mines far from the light of day, and is remarkable for its phosph6reseent proper-Fig. XXIY.*—Sphaerla tfn*« The right hand figure represents the manner In which it is made «p for sale.

Pig. XXIV.«

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ties. In the coal mines near Dresden the species are described as giving those

places the air of an enchanted castle; the roof, walls, and pillars, are entirely covered with them, their beautiful light almost dazzling the eye. The light is found to increase with the temperature of the mines. Ed. P. J. xiv.

Several species of genuine Fungi have been observed to be phosphorescent .in various parts of the world. Agaricus Gardneri, Berk*, which grows on a sort of Palm called Pintada in Brazil is highly luminous. Such also is the case with Agaricus olearius in the South of Europe, as observed by Delile. (Arch. de la Bof. vol. ii. p. 619*) Mr. Drummond has found two or more luminous species at the Swan River, {Hook. Load. Jounu of £oi.ii.p.263;) and Rum-phius observed the same phenomenon in Amboyna. It is a most remarkable circumstance, and one which deserves particular inquiry, that the growth of the minute Fungi, which \ constitute what is called mouldiness, is effectually prevented by any kind of perfume. It is known that books will not become mouldy in the neighbourhood of Russia leather, nor any substance, if placed within the influence of some essential oil. Polyporus fomentarius, or an allied species, is used in India as a styptic, as well as for Amadou. It is also em* ployed by the Laplanders and others as Moxa. (Ainslie/i.B.) TheBoleti, when wounded, heal much in the same manner as the flesh of animals. (Edm.


Pig. XXV.

PhiloiopJuJoum. xiv. 369.)

A very curious phenomenon takes place in several species of the genus Boletus, and analogous appearances present themselves in other genera. The flesh, when broken, changes very rapidly from yellow or white to deep blue, and if the juioe be squeezed out, though at first colourless, it quickly becomes blue. Professor Robinson of Armagh has ascertained that this is not a chemical action, but believes it to arise from some change in the molecular arrangement Tannin, though prejudicial to most vegetables, is not so always to Fungi. A species of Rhizomorpha is often developed in tan-pits. The greatest proper heat met with by Dutrochet in the Vegetable Kingdom, with the

Fig. XXV.-Sphmrla RoberUii, growing from the caterpillar of a New Zealand moth called Heptthu Tiretcens.

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exception of that of the spadix of Arum, was in Boletus senens. (Ann. da 8c. Nat. Feb. 1840.) Ftmgine, which was considered as a simple body, has been shown by Payen to eoiiastofcelbiiaieaiida&ttymatter. Payen communicated to Dr. Montague, as the result <tf his analysis, the following list of substances which enter generally into the composition of Fungi: 1. Water. 2* Cellulose, constituting all the solid part of the membranes of the tissue. 8. Three nitrogenized substances; one insoluble in water; a second soluble, cosgnkble by heat; a third soluble in alcohol. 4. Fatty matter analogous to wax. 5. Fatty substances, one fluid at an ordinary temperature, the other solid, crystaOisable at the same temperature. 6. Sugar! 7. Matter capable of being turned brown by the action of free air. 8. An aromatic substance. 9. Traces of sulphur 10. Traces of nits of silex and potash. (Ann. of Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 294.) Some species, as Agari-cos cantharellus, (Havana coralloides, and Agaricus piperatus, contain a sweet sugary matter, which, according to Liebig, is Mawntte.—(Annalen, Feb. 1844.) M. Bonjean, is of opinion that the poisonous qualities of Ergot are owing to an oily acrid principle. (Jour*, de Ch. Med.) Unlike other plants, Fungi, instead of purifying the air by robbing it of its carbonic acid and restoring die oxygen, vitiate it by exhaling carbonic acid and absorbing oxygen. This has been proved experimentally by Dr. Marcet of' Geneva, and will probably explain the cause of Fungi being so universally destitute of green colouring matter, which we know results from the decomposition of carbonic acid. Certain Fungi in an imperfect state are said by Caignard-Latour, Schwann, and others, to be connected with the process of fermentation. The curious circumstance that in certain bakehouses all the broad becomes ropy, and though sometimes prevented from assuming this condition by repeated washing of the walls and floor with chloride of Erne, die evil is occasionally so obstinate as to prove the ruin of the establishment, is probably dependent on the same cause. Dutrocnet believes that he has witnessed the growth of a Peniciflium from the globules of milk. (Oaiffnard-Latour, L'InstiL Feb. 1837; Mtym Jahrtsb. 1838; Ihdrochet Awn. des Sc. Nat. N. S. Zool. vol viii.)

V Although the Fungal Alliance Is not here formally broken up into  Natural Oanms, yet the fotknring may be regarded as their name* and peculiar characters :—

Spores gcncruUpquaternaU on disUnctSp*                                       .  { 8' HJ£!££™, W

Sports general** quatemats on distinct Spirophores, Hpmentum inclosed  / 7. GAereRomrcane, or

inaPeridium...........  \         Lycopkrdactcjs.

Spores sityU, often septate, on more or Uss distinct 8porophores9Flocci of   ( 8. ComoMvesna, or

thc/ruit obsolete or more peduncles.......   \         UacDOfACS*.

Sports naked, septate. Thattus Jtoccoss......  { * HSSSSi *

Sporidiaecntmincd centrally eig                          . . .        {"vSEcm!*

Sports surroundb, a vesicular rHit                     ThaUusJIoccoss.  { PSS5ISi™/"


Cobob8 I.—Sporiftri. Ordo I —HTMSNOMYoraa.

- I. Aparieini, Ft. Agaricve,!.

'AnniDaria, %Fr. .THcboloina, Fr* *Clytocybe, Fr. Om&mUFr. ♦CoflybU, Fr. **(yoena, Fr. ♦PWuroteu, Fr. VoiYaria, Fr. ftsfteua, J*. *EntoLoaia, Fr. CtttopOus, Fr. Kodak, Fr. Leptooia, Ft. Nolanea,/V.

Hebdoma, Fr. Flainnmia, Fr. Nancoria, Fr. 'Qatar*. Fr. ♦Crepitus, Fr. Ptofllota, Fr. Hjrpfaokna. Fr.

♦PsOocybe, Fr. ,+Psathyra, Fr. Panaotns, Fr. ♦PsathyieUa, Fr. Coprinua, P. BolbHtaa, Fr. {Cortinarlns, Fr. tphkgmactum, Fr. .♦Myxaeium, Fr. |*Inoloma, Fr. 'Dermocybe, Fr. Telamonia, Fr. ♦Hygrocybe, Fr. Paua. Fr. Gomphldius, Fr. Stylobrtes, Fr. Hygrophorus, Fr. Lactarius, P. Russula,P. ICanthareUna, Adans. Phlebophom, Lev. HeUomyces,IA**tf. PterophyUui, LtoeUl. NycttOis, Fr. Maranmim, Fr. Lentous, -Fr. [Panus, Fr.

XerotuB.Fr. Troria, Fr. Schisophyllum, Fr. Lenzttas, Fr. Hymenogramme, Mont.

Berk. Junghnhnfo, Corda.

Suborder II. Polpporet, Fr.

I Boletus, JHU. Ccriompces, Batt, Hypodrps* P«>.

. sJStos, Midi.

Polyporus, Mich.

Trametas, Ft.

Dtedalea, Pers.

Cydomyces. Elotsch.

Bexagonla, Fr. Favoku,P.B.

|Favolus, Fr.

Glcoporns, Mont.

iLaschla, Fr.

Merulhu. BaU. Epicbytium, Tode. p£rotfaeLiumt Ft.

Suborder III. Hpdnei,


(Fiatollna, Bull. Hydnum, L.

Manina, Scop. Heridum, Fr. Sistotrema, Fr. Irpex, Fr. Radulum, Fr. Phlebia.-tfr. Grandlnia, Fr. I Odontic Jr. Kneiffia, Ft.

Suborder IT. Auric**

laHnitFr. Icraterellus, Fr. |Thdephora, Shr.


Stereum, Lk. Bypolyssus, Berk. AurlcularKa, Fr. Cora, A. Dldyonema, P. Midotts, Fr. [Cortlchim, Fr, iGuepinia, Fr.

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Cyphella, Fr.                   I Clavaria, L.

llypochnus, Ehb.              Calocera, Fr.

* * ai   I Crinula, Fr.-Suborder V. Clavati. Typbula9 Fr.

Sparasaia, fr.                  | Piatfllaria, Fr.

Suborder VI. lini.

Tremella, DM. Coryne, Nees.

Trcmd* 1 Exidia, Fr.

Naemateiia9 Fr, Dacrymycea, fr. Lemalia, Fr. Hymenula, Fr.

Tig. XXVI.

Suborder I. Sph&rone-

mei% Cord*. Microthyrium. Dem. Coniothyrium, tarda. Sacldium, #«#. Leptoatroma9 FV\ Phoma, Fr. Leptothyrium, Kze. Acbnothyrlum, Kze. Apiosporium, Kze. Microihedum, Oorda. Cryptosporium, Kze. Spbsronema, Ft. ApospbaeriA, Berk. 8. acuta, Hoffm. Acroapermum, Tode. IMplodia, Fr. Henderaonla, Berk. Llchenopaia, Schuxin. Pyrenotrichum, Mont. Vermicularia, Tode. Phlyctidlum, Not. Septoria9 Fr. DilophoaportuiK9 Deem. Neottioaporia, Dem. Peetalozzla, Not.

Fig XXVI.—1. Poly 3 and 4, tbe lame more 1

Ordo II.—Gabtbromvcctks.

Suborder I. Podaxinei,


Montagues, Fr. (Jyrophrninium, Mont. Polyplocium, BiYh, Secotiuui, Kze. Podaxon, Dmv. Cauloglossum, Fr. Cyclodenua, A7.

Suborder If. Hypogceit

Berk. Gnutieria* VUL Splanchnomyces, Corda. Ilvmenangium, KL Octaviana, Tut. Melanogaster, Cord. Hyperhiza, Bote. Hydnanghim, WaUr. Hysterangium, ViU.

Suborder TIT. Phalloidei.

Fr. Phallus, L. Aseroe, LabilL Calathiscua, Mont Lysurus, Fr. Simbhim, KJ. Clathrus, Mich. Laternea, Titrp. *Coleua. Cav. $ Scch. ♦Clethria, Brown. lloodictyon, Tul.

Suborder IV. Tricho-

gastrts. Itatarrea, P. Tulostoma, P. Lycoperdon, Tourn.

Scolecotrichum, Berk. Phellorinia, Bnk. Broomeia. Berk, Geaster, P. Plecostoma. Aw. Myriofetoma, Detv. IHpIoderma. Lk. Boviata, DUl.

Ordo III.-Coniomycktbs, Fr.

Schizoxylon9 Fr. Schixothedum, Corda. PMdium, Kze. Excipula, Fr. Selridlum, Nees. Pbragmotrichum, Kze. Endotrichum, Corda. Scbixoxylon, P.

Angiopoma, Uv. Prosthemium, Kze. Asteroma, D. C. Couturia, Castg. Bryocladium, Kze.

Suborder II. Melanco-niei, Corda.

Melanconium, Lk. Stegonoeporium, Corda. Stilboepora. P. Seimatoaporium. Corda. Asteroeporium, Kze. Cytiapora. Fr. Ceuthoapora, Orev. Nemaapora, P. Coryueum, Kze. Selenosporium, Corda. Bactridlum, Kze. Botryoepora, Schwein. Myrlooephalum, Not. Hyperomyxa9 Corda.

Suborder III. Phragmo-trichaceL

Endotrichum, Corda.

Suborder IV. TorutacH. Cord.

Toruia, P. Conoplea9 P. Ceratoapora, Schtecin. ClaaterUpora, Schtcein. Spefra, Corda. Dictyoaporium, Corda. Gyrocerus, Corda. Helicomyces, Corda. Biapora, Corda. Septonema. Corda. Trinunatoatroma, Corda. Alteraaria, Corda. Dicoccum, Corda. Sporidesmium, Lk.

IIippoperdon9 Mont. Mycenaatnim, Dtev. Scleroderma, P. Polyaaocum, Deep. Polyangium. Lk. Ciliciocarpua, Corda. Arachnion, Schwcin. Polygaater, Ft. Mitremyo&KNee$. iTJenococcum', Fr. Pilacw, Fr.

Subord.fV. Myxogastrt*. Lycogala, Mich. Reticularia, Bull. thaJium, Lk. Ptychogaater, Corda. Spumaria, P. Didenna.P. Polyachiamium, Corda. Didymium9 P. Trlpotrichia, Corda. Tricbampbora, Jungh. Pbysamm, P. Angioridium, Grrv. Tricboacytale9 Corda. Craterium, Trent. Stegobolua, Mont Stegaanu Corda. Diachea, Fr. Stemonitia, Ofed. Dictydium, Schrad. Cribmria, Schrad. Arcvrla, Hill. Trichia, Hall. Perichaena, Fr. Licea, Schrad. Cirrholua, Mart.

Suborder VI. Nidula-

riaeei. Nidulariaf P. Cyatbua, HaU. Crudbulum, 7W. Sphicrobolua, Tode. Tbelebolus, Tode. Atractobolua, Tode.

Conlothedum, Corda. Hymenopod!umf Corda. Ecbinobotrya> Corda. Spilocaea, Fr.

Suborder V. PucciniaH* Xenodochua, Schlecht. Aregma9 Fr. Trlpbragmium9 Lk. Puccini*, P. Gymnoaporangl.uin9 Lk. Podlaoma, Lk.

Suborder VI. CaomacH9 Corda.

Uredo9 P. Pileotaria, Cazlg. Uatilago, Lk. Sporiaorium9 Ehb. Teatlcularla, KL Tuburdnla9 Fr. Cronartium, Fr. Rofltella, Rtb. Grapbiola, PoU. jEcidium, OmeL

loclum inqulnans, divided verticallyt natural aize; 2. flood and spores ; * l.-Berkelep.

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Suborder I. Imriaeri. Corda.

Podosporhun, Schwcin. Ccratodadium, Corda. Aathina, PK Pterula,PK 6corfa*9PK Dacrina, JV. Gentium, J* *.& fyaueaalon, JfoaL

Suborder n. OUbacei. Graphium, Corda. Sft&bum, Tode. Corallodftndrop, Jwk. Ceratopodium, Gmfa. Hyalopua, Gonia. Doratcanyce*, Gordo, gyconta, Tode. Phycomyoes, £a?. TuWularfe, Ifcfe. Perioia, JV. CHidopodium, Gmfa. Chatcwtroma, Orda. VoIateUa, T«fc. Btemorfa, Jf <*«7. Fmartiiin, Uk. IDcaparium, Jfort Bpteoocam, !* Sphseroepora, Schwtifu

FUNGALES. Ordo IV.—Hyphomycstm.

Suborder III. Dtmatki,

Fr. Btaebybotrys, Corda. Cephalotrichum, Fr. Rhopalomyoee, Corda. Sporocybe, Fr. (Edamium, JV. Myxotrichum, Kze. Gonatotrichum, Nee$. Hehninthosporiuxn, Lk. Exosporram, Lk. Blastotrichum, Corda. Leptotrichum, Corda. Mystroeparium, Corda. Stemphylium, JFatfr Septosporium, Corda. Tncha%um9 Gordo. Amphitrichum, Corda. Triposportan, Corda. Hefieoma, Corda. HeUcoeporium, Corda. Cladotrichum, Corda. Dematiam, P. Polythrindum, Km. Cladosporium, Lk. HeBcotrfchum, Nets. Macroeporium, Fr. Arthrinlum, Kze. Gonlosporiujn, Lk. Sporophleum, Nets, Gamptoom, Lk.

Suborder IV. Muce-dines, Ft. Aspergillus, Mich. Botrytis, JMcA. Chsetopsis, Grev. Streptothrix, Corda. Campsotrichum, Ehb. Men£spora,P. Sporophleuin, Nee*. Polyactis, Lk. Oadobotryum, Sou. Gonatobotrys, Corda. Rotryocporium, Corda. Clonostachys, Corda. 8oeptH>mycee, Gordo. Vertidllium, Nee*. Pteronoapora, Corda. ActinocKadluin, Ehb. Gliocladlum, Corda. Acmosporium, Corda. Corethropts, Corda. Cephalotheduin, Corda. Hajriotrichum, Lk. Cephalosporin Corda* Brachycladium, Corda. Arthrobotrys, Corda. Penkillium, Lk. Coremium, Corda. Rhodocephalus, Corda. Briarea, Corda. Styeanus, Corda.

CoaoRn YL—Sporidiifcri. Ordo V.—AacoMYcrrss, Berk.

Suborder I. BwUacH,

Ft. Motehdla, DM. HeJreCa.L. Verpa,Sfc. ' Geqejoasmn, P. Mitrula, IV. Spathulea, PV\ Leotia, JKK. Rttalaa, PV-.

Daamaiicrafla, XA. Solaria, P. Aecobolue, JVrt. Agyrium, Jft*. St3ctJs,P.

Cmtodlacua, Cfrrda. Mrilll Iwaporium f Corda* Qryptomyces, Qrtw. Propolis, Gorda. Bulgaria,.

Sanaa, JV. MtWa,JV.

' Suborder II. TtafettMtf,

Fr. Tuber, AHe*. iChoiromycea, Pitt. |Pachyphl«us, 7W.

CtoJr. Mdanoxantkue, 1                                  TuL Balsamia9 F«t PIcoa, Ptt*. Genoa, VUL Sphanroeoma, EloUech. Endogone, Lk. —            *,Xee$.

♦Triblidium, Fr. ♦Clithris, Fr. Heteroephajrla, Onetr. Glcmium, Mvhl. Lopbtum, Fr. Actldhun, Fr. CHoetomum, Fr. Rhytisma, Fr. Pbaddium, Fr. Hytterhunv Fr. Sporomega, Fr. Allograph urn. Lib. HyiierogmpUum>Cmla. LabreUa9A-.

Suborder IV. Spharia-

cet9 Ft. Hypocraa, Fr. Acroephjeria, Corda. Tbamnomyoasf Ehb. Hypoxylon, Bull. Spbwia, £. 80gmeafy. Saccothedum, Mont.

Suborder IIL Phacidi-

acti.Fr. \Btefr9 Fr. Patellaria, Fr. TympaniSt Tod. JDermea, Fr. Cenangtam, Fr. Cordieritet9lfmt [♦Sclerodermis, Fr.

Ordo VI.—pHYeoMYCKTsa, Berk.

Suborder I. Antermarid,

Corda. Antennarla, Lk. PleuropyxiB, Corda* Piaomyxa, Corda.

Suborder n. Mucorini.

Pr.* Phyoomyoee, Ag. Aacopbora9 Tode. Pilobolu89 Tode. pycnopodJum, Cbrda. Chordoftylum, Tode. Hydrophom, Tode. Mueor, Afic*. Cbionypbe. 2%tbn. Sporodinia, 1*.

Fig. XXVU.


MonUii, JSNU. Dactvlium, Nee*. Dendryphium, Corda. Rhinotridbum, Corda 9porodum9 Corda. Gonatorbodiuit Corda Sporotrlchum, Lk. Acreoioniuxnf Lk. Oidium, Uk. Lanoaa, Fr. Fualdium, Lk.

ISuborderV. 8eptdoni*it

Fr. Aaterophora, Ditm. 3epedonium9 Lk. |£ygodeunus9 Corda. (onotoepom, Corda. AmphibUatrum9 Corda. CoUarium, Lk. |Fualaporiuxny Lk. Epochnium, Lk. SooUootrichum, I*. Myaothedum, DUm. Pi0onia9 Fr. Gyrothrix, Corda. Tricholeconium, Corda. Aleuriama, I*. [Dendrlna, Fr.

gplanchnonema, Corda. Melanoepora, Corda. Haploeporium, Afoul. Pemphldium, Mont. Hicropeltis, MonL Diaeoaiaf Lib. CbeOaria, Lib. Dothldea, Fr. Cory&elia9 Fr.

| Suborder V. PerUpori-

aoH9 Ft. Laalobotrya9 Kat. Eiyaiphe. Hedw. Fit. Perlaporium, Fr. ChaHomium, Kze. Meliola, Fr.

Suborder VI. Onygenei.

Berk. Spadonla, Fr. OnygenafP.

Calyssoeporium, Corda. Hemiacyphe, Corda. Crateromyoea, Corda. Rbizopusy Ehb. Acrortalagmua, Corda. Thelactia, Mart. HeHcostylum, Corda. Endodromia, Berk. Diamphora, Mart. Didymocrater, Mart. Syafete§9JfA6. MeUdium, Eechw. Eurotium9 Lk. Myriococcum, Fr. Catdogarter, Corda. gerita9P. Dicho6porium> Nees.

9 The mode of fructification b exactly intermediate between that of Agarlcus and Spbasrla. The Kprodactife bodlea appear to spring from some definite point, and the same point produces a suoces-

V\g. XXVII. Piaomyra raoodloidea, Corda.—I. Natural alae; 2, the ftmgus greatly magnified; S, a spore-eaae bursting and discharging its §pon*--<rfUr Corda.

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Genera not sufficiently known, * Papular!*, Fr. Phyll*dium9 Fir. Hypodermium, Lk. Schlzoderma, Kze. Protomyces, Unger Gymnosporium9 Corda. Leucosporium, Corda* Chromosporium, Corda* Conlflporlum, Lk. Coccularia, Corda. Entomyclium, WaUr. Myxosporlum, Corda. Fusoma, Corda. Apotemnoum, Corda. Ramularia, Unfcr. Athelia, P. Acrothamnium, Nees. Alytosporium9 Lk. Capillaria, P. Circlnotrichum, Nees. Plecotricum, Corda. Mlalnomyces9 Corda. Chrysospoiium9 Corda. Chromelosporium, Corda Myxonema, Corda. Melanotrichum, Corda. Mexnnonium, Corda. Merosporium, Corda.


Coccotrichum, Corda. Didymaria, Corda. Scolicotrichum, Kze. Myxocladium9 Corda. Soxedosporium, Corda. Azozma, Corda. Mydonotrichum, Corda. Macroon, Corda. Coccosporium, Corda. Diplosporinm, Lk. Mydonosporium9 Corda. Gliotrichum, Esehw. Baianlum, WaUr. Gongylodadium, WaUr. Ospriosporium, Corda. Trichostroma9 Corda. Medusula9 Corda. Spondylodadium9 Mart Acrophyton, Eschw. Clisoeporium, Fr. Tipularla, Chev. Asterothedum, WaUr. Amphisporlum, Lk. Hyphella, Fr. Trichoderma, P. Ostracoderma, Fr. Ostracococcum, WaUr. Myrosporium, Corda. Cylichnlum, WaUr. Goupllia, Merat

Diploderma, Lk. Anteia, Fr. Ceratophora, Bumb. Hydnocaryon, WaUr. Ascospora, Fr. Hercospora9 Fr. Coccobolus, Fr. Ostropa, Fr. Hypospila. Fr. Gibbera, Fr. Valsa, *V. Podostromium9 Kze. Collacystis, Kze. Pyrenlum, Tode. Adnula9 Fr. Bderococcum, Fr. 8areav Fr.

Phymatostroma, Corda. Melanostroma9 Corda. Gliostroma, Corda. Dennosporium, IJtm Chroostroma, Corda. Crocyaporium, Corda. Myxadum, WaUr. Myxomphalon, WaUr. Hirneola, Fr. Amphicorda, Fr. Eplchyslum, Tode. Gyrolophium, Kze. Sporendonema9 Deem.


C»lotporfum9 Lie. Dryophilum ,'Schtcein. Malacharia9 Fie. Spurious Genera.

Rhizomorpha9 Aeh. Byssus, L. Mycoderma9 P. Mycomater, Fr. Tophoia9 Fr. Herpotrichum9 Fr. Fibrillaria, P. Himantia, P. Capillaria. Ozouiura, Lk. Chaetosporium, Corda Erineum, P. Septotricbum, Corda. Physoderma, WaUr. Cephaleuros, Kze. Sphinctrina9 Fr. Sclerotium. P. Rhizoctonia, Fr. Spermoedia9 Fr. Pachyma, Fr. Nosophlsea9 Fr. Peribotryon9 Fr. Ectostroma, Fr. Institale, Fr.

&c. &c. fcc.

Ndhbebs.—Gen. 598. Sp. 40001 M. J. B.

ng. xxvni.

ton of spores. At least this ia the case, according to Corda, in some genera. Should this structure he found to prevail generally, it would become a question whether they should not be associated with the sporlferous fnngi, the vesicle being regarded simply as a veil. I am myself inclined to this view, but at present think it savours too much of theory to venture to propose it.

Fig. XXVIII. Acrostalagmus dnnabarinus.—1. A patch, the natural siae; 2. plants very highly magnified ; 3 a portion of the fructification still more magnified ; 4, 5. spores contained in gelatinous heads; 6. a point of a branch with two spores remaining upon it.

I am indebted to my valuable friend, the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, for the following additional remarks:—

Attention has of late been frequently called to parasitic fungi, because of their real or supposed connection with the diseases which have proved so disastrous to potatoes and grapes. It is at least clear that these diseases are constantly attended by specific fungi, which are highly destructive, but it is very probable that the exciting cause has been the introduction of foreign manures into general use, which have imured the constitution of the subjects, and rendered them liable to any external attack. As in the history of all diseases, and especially as regards infection and contagion, a thousand anomalies occur on every side, but the notion above stated is the only one which meets the generality of undoubted facts, and which does not clash with what is clearly ascertained respecting the agency of fungi in these cases, for like Puccinia fframinis, both Botrytis tnfestans and Oidium Tuckeri are developed amongst living, though possibly unhealthy tissues which are either immediately destroyed or materially affected by their presence. No cure has been discovered for the potato

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THAixooEHaJ                                    FUNQALEa                                              44*

murrain, but the use of a solution of sulphur and lime is constantly effectual in * the grape mildew, and is equally applicable to all diseases which proceed from a similar parasite, as peach and rose mildew, hop mildew, Ac.—Sort. Trans., Gard.

Mr. Graham attributes the rapid destruction caused by fungi amongst living tissues, not to the mere exhaustion consequent on their nutrition, but to the agency of dead mycelium acting as a putrefactive ferment—Journ. of Roy. Agric Soc.

The effects of fungi on animal structures have lately been more perfectly studied, and a host of facts are now on record, which shew that many diseases, especially those *hich are cutaneous, are attended with the growth of fungi The case of Mus- cardine has long been known, but that of Porrigo lumosa and others are no less certain. Full information on this point will be found m Robin's Vigikmx qui croit-mnt nor VHomme ct lee Anfaumx. A great deal has been written respecting the supposed occurrence of fungi in the evacuations of patients suffering m>m cholera. Much arose from incorrect observations, and there is no reason to believe that there is any foundation for the notion that the disease and the vegetable were at all connected. It is, however, singular that very complicated bodies did constantly accompany the disease in the West of England, and that no one has yet been able to refer them to their proper origin. They were once supposed to be identical with Bunt, bat their size ana structure are quite at variance with this notion*—See LoncL Med. Gaz. Sep. 28, 1849, " Budd on Malignant Cholera.91 " Griffith and Berkeley on Cholera Bodies," mLond.Me<L Gaz. 1849. Report of 060. Phye. on Cholera Bodies.

It has been long known that poisonous fungi are more dangerous in proportion to their age, and it has been supposed that this circumstance was due to the increased number of spores. A case has just been reported to us in which serious though temporary inconvenience was experienced from tasting a small quantity of the spofes of Zaetariue neeator.

New light has been thrown by Monsieur Tulasne on the nature of ergot It appears, not only from his researches, but from other facts which were observed about the same time, that ergot is really a myceloid state of certain fungi allied to the well-known Insect Fungus of New Zealand.—TuL in Oomptes Rendm, 1861. It is curious, that notwithstanding the strong specific action which ergot exercises on the uterus, and the frightful disease which it causes, when existing in any considerable quantity, in bread-corn, that it is devoured raw with impunity by children in some parts of the continent, who know it under the name of St, John s Bread. If what is stated above respecting the true nature of ergot be correct, the (Hdvum abortiforient must be a . second form of fruit, in accordance with many facts observed lately in fungi Fries long ago announced the feet, that several genera supposed to be distinct are in fact merely different forms of fructification, as Cytispora of Sphmia, Dacrymyces Urtica of Peaza Fuearioida, fee. These views were, however, considered problematical till the matter was taken up by Tulasne, who has collected many facta connected with the subject, while Messrs. Berkeley and Broome have in more than one instance detected two supposed genera growing from a common stroma. Sphasria inquinam, for instance, was discovered bearing asci internally, and naked spores (Stttbospora) on the outside of the same perithecium. In Tympanis also, in the same cup, perfect asci were found br the side of naked didymous spores. The mycelium of Spkceria Demazierii was * observed to have distinct spores towards the tips of the filaments, constituting it a true mould. It is very probable that the genera of fungi will be greatly reduced by the continuance of such observations, and that double fructification will be found as general amongst fungi as it has been found to be the case by Tulasne amongst lichens. —See TuL in Oomptes Rendue, 1851. Berk and Br.9 in Hook Lond. Jowrn., 1851.

Fungi have the power of penetrating very deeply into compact cellular and vascular structures by means of their mycelium. In hard wood which has been long exposed, mycelium is found not only running between and over the various tissues, but within their cavity. It has been stated that strong scents, such as that of Russia leather, are unfavourable to the growth of fungi It is, however, certain that in damp rooms books bound in strong-scented leather are as subject to be attacked as others.

Since the publication of the first edition of this work, the Messrs. Tulasne have extended their observations to various genera of fungi, but nowhere with greater success than amongst those which grow beneath the surface of the earth. The growth of the asci and sporophores from the cellular tissue, and the various forms which it            *

assumes, are figured with such precision as to leave nothing for future observation. AH attempts at artificial cultivation at a distance from the truffle layers have uniformly failed, and their elaborate work, which enters into every detail of history as well as structure, gives no prospect of success,—Champignons Bypogies, 1851. The present warm summer has produced in France a repetition of the curious



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phenomenon of the appearance of blood-coloured spots on various articles of food. Dr. Montague, when at Rouen iji July, had many opportunities of examining food of various kinds, both animal* and vegetable, which was so spotted in a few hours. He found the red substance to be precisely the same with that reported on by Ehrenberg at Berlin, and he was able to propagate it at pleasure on rice paste. He refers the production to the genus Palmella, but the whole history is against its being an Alga. It is more probable that it is a fungus of the lowest order, similar to the white opaline specks which so often occur on meat and other substances in an incipient state of decay.—Montagne in Comptes Rcndus, 1852.

Dr. Hassall announced in the Lancet, two years since, the discovery of the full development of the yeast fungus; but as his fungus merely appeared on a solution of malt, it was as uncertain as before what was the true nature of the yeast plant. Mr. Berkeley and Mr. O. H. Hoffman succeeded in tracing its development from the globules of yeast to a perfect state, exactly according with the plant of Dr. Hassall, but their observations have not yet been published. By similar observations of thin Blices of a sclerotium inclosed in a microscopic cell, they were enabled to trace the development of its cellular tissue into a mucor, thus confirming the notion that Sclerotia are really nothing more than a compact mycelium.—HorL Fronts., 1848.

Few subjects are more obscure than that of the production of parasitic frmgi. It is almost certain that the reproductive bodies circulate with the sap into the most intimate cavities, and in a form so minute as not to be recognised by the most searching microscope. A curious case is noticed by Mr. Berkeley in the Gardener's Chronicle for Sep. 20,1851, of a new fungus produced on Nocera onions from seed, received from the Horticultural Society. This feet by itself is of little importance, had not the same thing occurred in a different part of the oountrv with seed received from the same quarter. The Rev. M. A. Curtis has lately sent the same thing on a very white skinned onion from Pennsylvania. Something similar was observed with plants of Pvracantha raised from Russian seeds in the garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick.

Perfect moulds belonging to more than one genus, and amongst them Penicillium, have been found inclosed in amber.—Berk, in Ann. of Nat. Hist., Dec. 1848.

Hiatula, Fr. next Leplota. Stropharia, Fr. Pilosaoe, Fr. .

Rhymovis, P.

Buthea. Opatowskl. Llmaclum, Fr. Camarophyllus, Fr. HygroOTbe, JV.

next Psalliota.


eubgenera phorus.

of Hygro-

Arfhenia, Fr. next Nyctali*.

CollybiiuLliK Rotates, Fr.

> subgenera of Polyporns.

| subgenera of If arasmlus.

Eupolyporns, Fr. 4 Pomes, Fr. Polystlcta, Fr.         ±

Tbeleporus, Fr. next Herullus.

Arrbyttdia, Berk, near Merulius.

Jticimophora, P.« Pblebla. . Mucronia, Fr. next Odontic

Cyuutoderma, Jungk. next Cladoderris. 'Malaebodennum, Fr. subgenus of Stereum.

Awwi, Fr.« Hypolyssus.

*CUlcla, Fr."             J rab8ener* rf Cor*

Midotis, according to Fries asdgerous9 to

be removed to Dermea. *Contopbora, Psrs. subgenus of CorHoium.

Acurtis, Fr. next 8para68is. - Onaaonaria.CoTdh = Typbula.

SeptoooUa, Bonorden = Tremella.

Dendrodocbitnn, Ben. near Tremella.

2S3& |i—-».

Femsjonfa, Fr. next Exldla.

Phyllopta, Fr. next Nawnatelia.

tylmdrocotla, Bon.«. Dacrymyoes.

Hormomyces, Ban. near Dacrymyoes.

Eptdochium, Fr. )

Catinula, Uv.          Uext Hymenula.

Sareopodlum, SKb. )

RUsopogon, TuL&c.— Splanchnomyces, Oda.

Satyrinus, Bobc. Bf uttaus, Fries. Corynitis, Berk. Aseropbsllns, Mont. Dictyopballus, FsrrotteL Dlctyopbora, Desvaux.

next Phallus.

MyceffLiboechnts = Batarrea. Sckboetoma, Ebb. = Tulostoma. 8coledo€arpust Berk. = Araobnlon. Langermannia, Rostk. = Lyooperdon. Favillea, Fr. next Phellorinia, Xylopodium, Mont, near Pbeilorlnla.

Trichocotyle, Cda. Trichoccma, Ju

Jungh. [ l»fi>« Broomela, Tricbaster, Cternai, next Oeaster.

Sackea, Rostk. = Bovista.

Bclerangium, lAv. near Scleroderma. Sterrebeckia, Lk. before Polygaater.

Husseia, Berk, next Mltremyces. Xyloidium, Ctern. before Reticularis IHptherium, Ehr. = Retlcularia. Lindbladla, Fr. next jEthallum. Leocarpus, Lk.         \

SSSMr* «*»*»

Carcerina, Fr.          J

Comatrichaj Prenss. = Pbysarum.

*$%%&&>""> l—o—.

Stegobolus, Mont, should be placed amongst Li chenales. near Parmella.

SSSS&Lm. } — «—Ifc Nassula, Fr. next Crtbraria. Hyporhamna, Cda. = Trichla. Lachnobotaa, JFK next Trlobia.

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44 c



Pbelonitis, Ckev. Lfgtiyota. JV. Haltexopbora, End.        )

Daeryoboloa, Jr. next Tbelebolu*. Zvthia,JV. Clisoaporiom, JV. Pteococcum, Deem, et ' Mont.

jSSJ: \ * Aeroepennam.

Spha-roptrie/zv. next Dlplodla.

Podceporium, Bon. s Sptwroptls.

Phlyctena, Item.

Aeooeporay Z*&.

Atcberaonia, Jfcnl.

FiggoUa, Berk 4 Br.

Cyetotricha, Berk. <* Br. ,

Diecoeia, Lib. = Phlyctidiam.

Pinnularia, L4v. next Pblyctidinm.

Aecbocbyta. Ltferl.

CbeOaria, Libert.

Pbylloaticta, P.

Robergea, /fem.

Erioepora, Berk. e\ Br*

Ceeatia, AitaiAorrt.

Sdgmella, L*r.

M yxornria, £er*. 4 J>\

M yropyxia, Cujttfi, near Myxormia.

Croekxeaa, JV.        ">

CKnterhun, JV. vbefore DUopboeporium.

Dotblorm, JV.          J

RMOardi*, Ctst = Peetalouia.

Ypellonla, Z*». next Asterotna. Papularia, JV. next Melanconfam. JftaMopeffwa, CbeY. = Stflboepora. Boetrydkia, Fr. = Cytispora. Peeeadia, JV. next Cytispora. Melasmia,Z*>. }

55»# [™«CTtUpon, Jfetfemjaa, Mont. J DiseeUa, Iferi! 4 *. next Nemaapora. Ptptoetomain, Ltw.

next Spbarcnema.

near Bpbjeropsis.

near Sep toria.


Weinmannedora, Fr. Lamyella, Fr. Sabenhorrtta, JV.          I

Kreteebmaria, JV.         /

CyJIndroepoTiam, Orev. near Nemaspora.

«25,?aS,* }=xCylindn«pariiiin.

Pbcentarta, Bmtr$waid1 near Coryneun. Damnoeporiura, Cda. s Bectrldlum. Ckeiroeporaf Pr. = Mynooenbalnm. Bperraema, Ztefin. near Pllidium. Gongmneriaa, iVt*«*. near Setrldlnm. Teniola, Bonorden, near Torola.


Tetnpka, ArJt 4 A*, near 8poiidetmlnm. Soteoodonta, Owl. next Poednia. Aealyptoepora, Item, near Poocinia. Cromyeee, JUv. before Uredo.

Podocystte, Lte. j # Coleoeporium, Ze*. UextEpitee. Crstopua, Z4r.        J

Rarenelia, ftr*. if ttirt. near Pileolaria. Pericriimm Bonorden » Uatilago pro parte. Mkxobotryon, Ldv.         \

T&%*L. JoextUetilago.

g&Sf' lr Uatilago. Jtarartfeofa, Mart. = Tutrareinia. Peridennlum. XJfc. before Cronartium. Protomycea, Ung. next <£ddidm. ftcbingla, NUg. next Protoniyees, TUaeblidiatn, Prenm. near Isaria.

SSSuT JoearStUbnm.

Atraetinm, Lk. next BUI bum. Mieroeera, Desm. next Atracttam. JEdoeephahimj Prenst. = Perleonia. PdcUIU, JV. next Tnbercolaria.

SSk Jn-rTuberaUaria. Rhopalidlum, Frt next Biennorla.

Xylocbons! Fr. before Eplooccmn. . Cooooepora, WaUr. before Sphjeroeporinm, &Jtoata.

[ next Myrlophyta.

SehUodertna, K§e* Stromclla, JV. Pbylloddia, JV.

Nodulisporium, Prenss. = Btachyobotrys. Calcariiporium, Preuu. near 8tachyobotrya. Cordana, Prcu$*. near Rhopalomycee. Actinospira, Cda. = Myxotrtchom. Opbiotriehumy Kte. next Myxotrlohnm. Bolacotricba, Berk. 6 Br. near Myxotriebum. Placentnria, Rabenborat = Perlola. Epiclinium, JV. next Exoeporinm. Cometella, Schmin, before Stemnhyliom. Passalora, JV. before Helleoepoiiun. Auicladiwm, Bonorden. } = ciadowrium.

Didytnotriehwm.BGQ. Zygosporinm, Mont. 1

next BotrytU.

J = Haplaria.


j near PolyacUi.

J = Menltpora. : BotryoaporintD, Oda.

_r____r____. near Cladoeporlnm.

Helicocoryne, Cda. near Podosponom.

Drepmiepora, Berk. A Cnrt.

Priswmria, prenas. = Camptonm.

Stigmatella, Berk, near Aspergillus

Trieboeporam, JV.

Bamolaria, Dy.

Peronospora, Cda.


Monoeporium, Bon.

Synsporlum, Preuee.

Cepbalocladia, Cda.

Haplaria, Lk.


Chloridium, Lk.

Polyactia, Lk.

Botryocladium, Preoaa.

Scao8porimny Prtue*.

Macroeporium, Preuse.

CylindrotrichvMj Bon.

Cylindivcephalum, Bon.

Pkywtatotriekumf Bon. =

CocomUporiam, Preuse. near'Ctonatobotrya.

Sporotheca, Cda. next Botryoeporinm.

Botryocbete, Cda. near Botryosporlum.

Cylindropbora, Bern, next Vertlcilliinn. Cylindrodendntm, Bom. near Verttdllium. Oompbinarla, Preuee. = Haplotricbom. Papnlaspora, Preuee. near Haplotricbom.

SSSSSl- JtPemdUlam. Honnodendrnmy Bonorden, near Penidlliom. Sttmmaria, Prensa. = Coremium. Coprotricbomf Bonorden, near Monilla. Diplocladtui*, Bon. = Dactylitis*. Ulocladimn, Preuee. 1

Anodotrlchun Preuee. j Hermiactye, Preuaa. es Dendrypblnm, Nematogonvtm, Deem. = Rbmotrlcbum. 8pblnctro8poriumt Kwe. next Rblnotricbtun. Spbsroniyoee, Mont, before Oidlom. Alysldiura, J&«. next Oidinm. Acroeporiuin. Bonorden, near Odtimn. CyUndrium* Bonorden, next Fnsidiom. Aeterotrichum, Bonorden = Aateropbora.

nxsssmsr- }—*—

FueicoUa, Bon = Fusieporinm. TbyaanopyxbvCeeati. )        Myrotbedum.

Rotaea flava, Oeeati. ) u*** mJ™*m*auuM Phyeocpora, JV. before Ptllonla. Glenospora, Berk. A Deem, near Pstlonia.

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Lnext Pexixa.

BromUra,IAr. Mitropkcra, lAr. Gyromitra. FY. neit Morchella, Blverpa, Fr. subgenus of Helvella. Cidarls, Fr.                )

Cudonia, Fr.               Vnext Khizina.

Disdna, Fr.               )

Otidea, P. subgenus Fezlze. Helotium, Fr. Chlorospl$nium, Fr. Dubenia, Fr. Pyionema, Mart. Psilopezia, Berk. Orbllia, Fr. before 8olenia. Angelina, Fr. before Asoobolus. Biedera, Fr.               )

Calloria, Fr.               Vbefore Agyrium.

Niptera, Fr.              )

Lichenopsis, Sehwein. next Stictis, not Hen-dersonia.

JHS*, }.«»».

Xylographa, Fr. next Propolis.

Ombrophila, Fr. before Bulgaria.

Microstoma, Bernstein, near Bulgaria* = Pes. protntcta, Ft. Not. Act Upa. 1851.

Enslinia, Fr. next Cyttaria.

Schmitsomia. Fr. next Ditiola.

Hydnotrya, Berk. & Br. before Hydnobolites.

Aechion, Wallr. = Tuber. Oogaster, Gda. subgenus of Tuber.

Hydnocystis, IW. next Picoa.

Stephensia, zfct near Qenea.

Panrocotylis. Berk, near Stepbensla.

Genabea, ZU. next 8pharosoma.

Ceratogaeter, Gda. = Elaphomyoes.

Bloxamia, Berk, dt Broome, near Btegia.

TAchnella. FY. before Patellar!**

IbpeUa, Chev. = Patellaria.

Laquearia, Fr.            1

Hymenobolus, Mont. Vnext Patellaria.

Trochila, FY.              J

Urnula, Fr. before Cenangium.

Colpoma, FWftr. next Cenangium.

Glouiopsis, Jfo*. before Olonium.

Ostrona. 2?V.

Rhaphidospora, Fr.

Gibbera, #.

Didusna, iV.

Phleeoecoria, Wallr.

Neuredum, &«. Ik-uw-* pv.

Enhells, JfV.            j-before Rhytisma.

Melanosurue, Not = Rhytisma.

Lophoderma, Fr. next Rhytisma.

Coccomyoes, itttf. next Fhacfdium. Hypoderma. B.C. subgenus Uysterii.

Lopbodermium, Not. next Hysterium.

8chiaothyrium, Deem, near Hysterium.

Hoimospon, a**, next Hypocroa.

Cordyceps, Fr.

Kentrosporimm, Wallr.

Xylaria, Sekrank.

iivelllea, Fr.

Phytacio. Uv.

Lnext AcUdlum.

before Thamnomyoes.

I-next Hypoxylon.

Camillea, Fr.

BadUaria, Mont Vnext Thamnomyces.

Poronia, Fr.

Dtatrype, Fr.


Toreellia, Fr.

Endothia, Fr.

Melogramma, Fr.

Nectria, Fr. before Bphieria.

Isothea, fV.

HypospUa, Fr.

Stigmatia, Fr.

Ceratostoma, Fr.

Scopinella, IAv.

Massaria, Not.

Hercospora, Fr. } next Spharia.

Venturia, Not.

Roeellinia, Not.


Oomyoes, Berk. <fr Br. near 8ph»ria. *

Halonla, Fr.

Pyrenophora, Fr.

Circinaria, Bon. = Sphserto cirdnnato.

Puetularia, Bon. = 6. pustulate.

Synsphetria, Bon. = 8. versatile*.

fyremodochium, Bon. = 8. lignoen.

Pyrenodermium, Bon. = 8. connaUs.

Ascostroma, Bon. = 8. glebosse.

Pulvinaria, Bon. = 8. pulvinatie, Ac

Coleroa, Baben. near Dotbidea.

Microthyrium, Deem, next Micropeltls, not Co-

nlothyrium. Alphitomorpha. Wallr. = Erysiphe. Podoepluera, Kee.           x

8ph»rotheca, Liv. Pbyllactinia, Uv. Uncinula, Liv. % Microsphwria, Liv. Calochdia,L6v.

lSSS.%. JneitPeri-porium. Soorias, Fr. has asd, and is therefore not reified

tolsaria. Capnodium, Mont, next Scoriae. Dendrovogon = Antennaria.

ssarw }—*—*

Pleurocystis, Am. subgenus Ascophorn.

Eurotium, which has aaoi, must be remored near Onygena.

CoUacyetie, Kce.

AscomyoeSy Mont. & Deem, near Huoor. Note.—The views of the affinities of Mucorini mentioned in the note have lately been singularly confirmed by a structure which *has been detected by Tulaane in the genus Hymenangium. M.l.B.

Scopularia, Preuss. = Oliotrichum, an Alga.

Hystricapsa, Preuss. = Trichoderma.

Crocieporium, Cda. = Dermosporium.

Trichostroma, Preuee.

Plenodomus, I¥euee.

Chsanocarpus, Beb.

Chfletotrichum, Bab.

next Erysipbe*

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THAU06K&1                                UCHENALES.                                             45

Alliahce III. LICffENALES.—The Lichenal Alliance.

klgm, t 8. Llchenes, Jus*. Qen. 6. (1789).-Lichenes, Hqffmf Enumerat. Lickenum, (1784); Aeka-rius Frodr. Lichen. (1798); Id. Metkodus, (1803); Id. Lickenogr. Univer*. (1810); DC. FL Fr. i 32L (1815) ; FWet in AH. Helm. (1821); Agardh Aph. 89. (1821); EtehweUcr 8vtt. Lick. *}?*£ ; ¥****** **»»"*. *r IfcscWm. (1824); Qrev. Flora Edin. xix. (1824); Meyer Uber d*B*t*k*Hu*g% fc der Fleekt. (1825); Fie Mith. tick. (1826); Fries Spst. Orb. Veg. 224. (18251; Mariius in Bat. Zeitung, 193. (1826); Fit in Diet. Close. 9. 360. (1826/; Fries Lichenogr. Biropen. (1831); Eschw. in Mart. FU Bras. 1, 61. (1833); Hooker BriL Fl. toL ii. pt 1.129. (1833.; Bndlick. Gen. p. 11; 2** tugew. aatom. Baton. a»iM. ytoc. 8. — Graphide», Chevalier HisL des Gnq*M6t. (1834, *c.)

Diagnosis.—GeHn&r fiowerless plants, nourished through their whole surface by the medium in which they vegetate; living in air; propagated by spores usually inclosed in a$6, and always having green gomdia in their thaUu*.

Pig. XXIX.

Perennial plants, often spreading over the surface of the earth, or rocks, or trees, in dry places, in the form of a lobed and foliaoeous, or hard and crustaceous, or leprous substance, called a thallus. This thallus is formed of a cortical and medullary layer, of which the former is simply cellular, the latter both cellular and filamentous ; in the

crustaceous species the cortical and medullary layer differ chiefly in texture, and in the former bein£ coloured, the latter colourless; but m the firuticulose or foliaceous species, the medulla is distinctly floccose, in the latter occupying the lower half of the ihallus, in the former enclosed all round by the cortical layer. Reproductive matter of two kinds; 1, spores naked, or lying in membranous amylaceous tubes (thecee) immersed m nuclei of the medullary substance, which burst through the cortical layer, and colour and harden by exposure to the air in the form of little discs called shields ; 2, the separated These, called gonidia, or gongyli, are

fig. XXX. cellules of the medullary layer of the thallus.

Fig. XXIX.—1. Shield* of Variolar!* amara; 29 a portion of the thallus of the same plant; i>. a piece of the thalhis of Sticta puhmraacea, with lacunae and soredia; 4. thallus of the same, bearing shields ; 5.shield of Opagrapha soripta; 6. thallus of the same ; 7. shields, young and old, of Lecanora perella j 8. shields of Bttomyces ruftia; 9. part of thallus of Peltidea carina; 10. section of a shield of Sticta polnionaeea; 11. Podetia of Cenomyoe cocdnea; IS. section of a shield of Bseomyeee rutus; 13. shield* of Endocarpon miniatum; 14. thallus of the same. Chiefly from GrevUle's Flora Edinensis.

Fig.XXX.—BecUonofashleldofParmeUaparietina. Link.

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46            »                                 LICHENALES.                               [Thallookhs.

universally of a green colour, ind either Ke singly or in dusters Ijeneath the cortical

layer of the thallus, or break out in clus-3                  2                4                tert called soredia, or in cups called


Nothing can be more varied than the appearance of lichens. If the grey, and yellow, and brown stains upon old walls, ancient churches, and other buildings are carefully examined, those appearances will always be found to arise from minute Lichens having taken possession of the surface of the stones, to which they adhere, drawing their food from the atmosphere ; small wields are scattered over their surface, sometimes round, but not unfrequeutly like dark clefts or lines, giving the Lichen the appearance of being covered with 1                                     broken letters. Others are found on trees

Fig. XXXI.                              and pales, forming broad patches of various

colours, some being of the richest golden yellow ; others spread upon the ground in plantations and heath*—these have usually a much larger growth ; some Main hang from the branches of venerable trees, which they clothe with a shaggy beard of grey; and, finally, a few start up upon the heath, grey and deformed, but eventually fashioning themselves into tiny goblets, the border of which is studded with crimson shields. According to Fries, Lichens " are types of Algals born in the air, interrupted in their development by the deficiency of water, and stimulated into forming a nucleus by light No Lichen is ever submersed (Verrucaria submersa i* an exception) ; there is none of which the vegetation is not interrupted by the variable hygrometrical state of the atmosphere ; and, finally, none that ever develop in mines, caverns, or places deprived of light On this account, their shields are more rare in the fissures of mountains, or in shady groves, than in places fully exposed to light In wet places, also, their shields are not produced ; for so long as they are under the influence of water they are hardly distinguishable from Hydrophycee (forms of Algals); as, for instance, Collema, &c But these plants, when exposed to the sun, do perfect their shields, as is found by Nostoc lichenoides, foliaceum, &c, which, when dry, are ascertained to be Collema limosum, flaccidum, &c, surcharged with water.9' By being acquainted with this rule, the same author says, he has succeeded in discovering many Swedish Lichens with shields, which have for many years been constantly found sterile; as Parmelia conoplea* lanuginosa, gelida, &c.; and he even asserts that he has succeeded artificially in inducing sterile Lichens to become fruitful, as Usnea jubata, and others.—Plant. Mom. 224. Lichens consist, according to Eschweiler, of a medullary and a cortical layer of tissue, of which the former is imperfectly cellular or filamentous, and bursts through the latter in the form of shields (apothecia), which contain a nucleus, consisting of a flocculent gelatinous substance, among which lie the cases of sporules* These cases (thecee) are transparent membranous tubes, either simple or composed of several placed end to end, which either lie free in the nucleus, or are themselves contained in other membranous cases (asci). In the beginning Lichens are stated to be in all cases developed in humidity, and to be, in fact, at that time, mere Phyceae or Confervoe; but as soon as the humidity diminishes, the under part dies, and an inert leprous crust is formed, which ultimately becomes the basis of the plant Hence Lichens consist of two distinct sorts of tissue,—living cellules forming the vegetating part, and dead cellules the cohesion of which is lost; when separate, the former is Palmella botryoides, and the latter Lenraria. Of these two sorts of matter, the leprous is incapable of perpetuating the Lichen, while every part of the living stratum has been ascertained to become reproductive matter. See Fries, as above quoted, and Meyer Ueber die Bntvrickdung, <fccM der Flccktm. The investigations of the latter are exceedingly interesting. By sowing Lichens, he arrived at some curious conclusions, the chief of which are, that, like other imperfect plants, they may owe their origin either to an elementary, or a reproductive, generating power — the latter capable of development like the plant by which they are borne: that decomposed vegetable, and some inorganic, matter, are equally capable of assuming organisation under the influence of water and light; and that the pulverulent matter of Lichens is

Fig. XXXL—Section of the shield of PanneUa tlllacea; the green gonidla are the black dot* beneath the skin; 2. a portion of the same more magnified, showing the spore-esses and pmraphjies ; &. a tuorsel of the shield of Cladonla coedfera; 4. spores of PsrmeUa parietina.

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Thauoqxto.]                                UCHENALES.                                               47

that which is subject to this kind of indefinite propagation, while the spores lying in the shields we the only part that will really multiply the species. He further says, that he has ascertained, by means of experiments from seed, that supposed species and eren some genera of Acharius, are all forms of the same ; as, for instance, Lecanora ceriua, Lecidea lnteo-alba, and others, of the common ParmeHa parietina.

The distinction between Lichens and Fungals has already been fully explained by Mr. Berkeley (p. SO). It is, therefore, only necessary, in this place, to give a few details concerning the geographical distribution and uses of the order, or cluster of orders, which Botanists combine under the name of Lichens.

Pulverulent Lichens are the first plants that clothe the bare rocks of newly-formed :danda in the midst of the ocean, fohaceous Lichens follow these, and then Mosses and Liverworts. (PUnOU, Anm. 8c. 6. 54*) They are found upon trees, rocks, stones, bricks, pales, and similar places; and the same species seem to be found in many different parts of the world: thus, the Lichens of North America differ little from those of Europe. They are not met with on decaying matter, where they give way to fond ; but they often occupy the surface of living plants, especially their bark. In the tropics they lay hold of evergreen leaves. Their chosen climate is one that is temperate and moist; aspects to the north or west are also their favourite resort, for they shun the rays of the noon-day sun. No place seems to be a more constant haunt than the surface of sand-stone rocks, and buildings, in cool and moist countries. They are met with, in one place or other, from the equator to the pole, and from the sea-shore to the limits of eternal snow. The finest species are found near the equator ; the most imperfect, such as the crustaceous genera, which can hardly be distinguished from the rocks they grow upon, are chiefly observed on mountain-tops, and near the pole. The Idiothalami are most abundant in tropical America.

Lichens have been remarked bv De Candolle to possess two distinct classes of characters, the one rendering them fit for being employed as dyes after maceration in urine, the other making them nutritive and medicinally useful to man. Braconnot has ascertained that oxalate of lime exists in great abundance in lichens, particularly in those which are granular and crustaceous. The common Variolaria, which is found upon almost every old beech-tree, contains rather more than twenty-nine per cent. (Bd. P. /. 13.194.) Lichens that grow on the summit of fir-trees have been found by John, of Berlin, to contain an uncommon proportion of oxide of iron, a curious illustration of the peculiar powers winch various plants possess of separating the inorganic matters presented to them in their food. (Ibid. 2. 394.) Of those used in dyeing, the principal crustaceous lands are, Lecanora perella, the Orseille de terre, or Perelle d'Auvergne of the French, Lecanora tartarea (or Cudbear), hiematomma snd atea, Variolaria lactea, Urceolaria scrupoea and cinerea, Iridium Westringii, Lepraria chlorina ; of the foKaceous species, Parmelia saxatilis, omphalodes, encausta, eonspersa, and parietina, Sticta pulmonacea, Solorina crocea, and Gyrophora deusta and pustulata; but the most important are Roccella tinctoria and fiioiformis, the dye of which makes litmus, and is largely used by manufacturers under the name of OrchaD, or Archill, or Orseille des Canaries; there are other species capable of being employed in a similar manner, as Usnea plicata, Evernia prunastri, Alectoria jubata, RamaKna scopulorum, and several Cenomyces. Dr. Robert Thomson finds the common yellow pale Lichen (Parmelia parietina) to contain a peculiar colouring matter, called Parietin, of a bright yellow. This is heightened by a drop of nitric, muriatic, or sulphuric acid ; while minute quantities of ammonia, or other alkalies, change it to a rich red inclining to purple.

Agardh considers Lichens more nearly allied to Fungals than toAlgab: he remarks, that if Sphseriaa or Peadzss had a thallus, they would be Lichens, and that the same part is all that determines such genera as Calycium, Verrucaria, or Opegrapha to be Lichens, and not Fungi. He adds, that all the transitions from Akals to the state of Lichens, which have been detected by modern inquirers, are mere degenerations into the form of the Lichen tribe, and by no means into Lichens themselves.

According to Fries, lichens have the vegetation of Algals, and the fruit of Fungals. (Sytcma, 52.)

Fries refers Byasacete to lichens with the following short character:—* Aerial, perennial, constantly growing/ with a filamentous texture ; consisting of solid fibres (either few or several glued together with a common bark), unchanged and permanent Fructification homogeneous, growing externally, and naked." Syst. Orb. Vcg.29\. Some of these plants appear to be meteoric productions; cm one occasion thev are said to have suddenly oveitun all the leaves of pines on the side next the wind in the neighbourhood of Dresden ; cm another, on the 29th of Aug. 1830, to have in an instant spread over the sails and masts of a ship at Stockholm ; and Fries is disposed to consider the cobweb-

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like matter, that overruns the gran in the mornings of spring and autumn, of this nature, and not of an animal origin. See & 0. Veg. 818.*

The nutritive properties of Lichens proba-A ilfijfc wy depend upon the presence of an amyla-y ceous substance analogous to gelatine, which, according to Berzelius, ocean in the form of pure starch or amylaceous fibre, to the amount of 80.8 per cent in Cetrariaislandica. This plant, which is the Iceland Moss of die shops, is slightly bitter as well as mucilaginous, and is frequently used as a tonic, demulcent, and nutrient; Cetraria nivalis, Sticta pulmonaria, and Alectoria usneoides, will all answer the same purpose. Tripe de Roche, on which the Canadian hunters are often forced to subsist, is the name of various species of Gyrophora; several kinds of Leca-nora inhabit even the deserts of Asia in large quantities, and are eaten by the nomade tribes of those regions. The Rein-Deer Moss, which forms the winter food of that animal, is Cenomyce rangiferina. Parmelia parietina, Borrera furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, Cenomyce pyxidata and coccifera, are reputed astringents and febrifuges, and Peltidea aph-thosa an anthelmintic. Alectoria Arabum (Oschnah) is said to be sedative and soporific. Peltidea canina was once regarded as a specific in hydrophobia. Sticta pul-monacea is used in Siberia for giving a bitter to beer, and in this country is employed, under the name of Lungs of the Oak, as a nourishing diet for weak persons. Evernia vulpina, called Ulf-mossa by the Swedes, is believed by that people to be poisonous to wolves ; but this requires confirmation. See De Cand. B*ai Mid. 318, and Agardh, Aph. 94.

According to the chemists, Lichens contain several peculiar principles; such as Cetrarine, Picrolichenine, Stictine, and V arioline, which are bitter; and the colouring matters called Orcine, Erythrine, Parmelochro-niine (also called Vulpuline and Vulpinic acid), Strych-nochromme, Steychnery-thrine,Lecanorine,&c: and finally, from Usnea florida,

Fig. XXX1U.

* Nothing, however, can be more heterogeneous than the mas* of genera collected by Fries under the unfortunate name of Byssackj*. Biany of them are spurious genera, others true Funnb, a few anomalous Lichens, and a small portion not easily arranged under Fungals, Algals, or Liehensl An excellent notice will be found by Dr. Montagne in the History of Cuba, and the latest information on the sutyect in the article Byssacteq in the new Diet d'Hist Nat. By excluding such genera as CllfcU and Cccnogiuin, which the example of Parmelia gossypina will Justify us in uniting with Lichens, w* have remaining a very natural, though small group, which may be distinguished under the name <f Collemacec; and Dr. Montagne, who has lately had some correspondence on the subject with

Fig. XXXII.—Cetraria Wandica: a a. its shields; b. a shield magnified and divided vertically. Fig. XXXIll —Sticta pulmonaria, or Lungs of the Oak.

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hirt* and pKcata, Parmelia fraxineaand farinacea, and various others, M. Knop baa obtained a substance called Uanine or Usnic acid. This author finds the sulphur-coloured and yellowish-green lichens are especially rich in usnine, for instance, Lecidea geo-graphica and Parmelia sannentosa. Usnine acts a conspicuous part by its various metamorphoses and combinations in the alterations of colour of many lichens. In all lichens however it is accompanied by yellow or green resins, which in common with it partake of the property of becoming red by ammonia and exposure to the air; this red colouring however is destroyed by sulphuretted hydrogen, Usnine occurs in the thallus as well as in the fruit-discs. The shields of the Oadoniee contain near the fruit-bearing vesicles quill-shaped cylindrical cells* which are coloured pale red at the base, but * darker towards the apex by a colouring substance, which dissolves in ammonia and potash with a wine-red, in sulphuric acid with a carmine-red colour; the sulphatic solution is precipitated by water; the alkaline solution is not decolorized by sulphuretted hydrogen. The nearly scarlet-red fruit-discs of the Qadonise become brown and blackish-brown with age. In fact, the fruit-discs of the lichens containing usnine are precisely similar in colour to the thallus, or brown, reddish-brown and carmine-red. The sulphur-yellow lichens contain most usnic acid, and indeed in a free state ; the other colours are probably produced by the action of the alkalies and earths of the vegetable salts in the lichens, the ammonia of the rain-water assisting the chemical action of the usnic acid, which is otherwise insoluble in water. In this manner the green, red and brown colours may originate. The silver-white Cenomyce rangiferina probably contains the usnic acid in die state of an earthy salt Lecidea geographica is sometimes sulphur-yellow, sometimes yellowish-green. If some pure yellow specimens be suspended in a glass over a solution of carbonate of ammonia, they become covered with carmine-red globules, after frequent washing entirely lose the usnic acid, and finally become grayish-white like dead lichens. The Parmelise and Usneee continue of a brilliant green colour in shady and moist places, but when exposed to the heat of the sun they become brownish-black; if treated as above with ammonia and dried, they likewise present similar colours. The fruit-discs of the Qadonue also turn brown under similar treatment. The cause of all these changes is the usnic acid, which itself is of a yellow colour, but becomes oxidized in combination with bases by exposure to the air, forming various coloured compounds. Cfiem. Gaz. 1844. 182.

Fig, XXXlll*

In this, as in the Fungal alliance, I have forborne formally to break up Lichens into several Natural orders, and have preferred to leave the task to others more skilled than myself in this branch of Botany ; but it is not to be doubted, that hereafter the pro-

!mS!S\w]nM(mm emace« have strictly the tlufl the fruit of a Lichen. The folio wing genera are comprised in the group:—

f011™ A<*-               I ftmalyeeb, Ft.              i Omphnlidlum, Mep. et I Lichina, Aa.

I*ptogtum, Fr.               llyxopuntla, MonL et Fiotw.              " Myrianrfui, Mont, and

I                       I Paulia, F4e.                  \ Berk.

s Nat, rather than to propose a distinct natural order. But every thing eeema to indicate the neoeerity of pUdn«Ui«mai*rt under tome kind of denomiiuUon.             J                             * necewiy

F|g. XXXIII*.-Panned tillacea.                                        _

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priety of carrying out the principle** of ordinal division reoognised elsewhere, will be introduced among Lichens. In the meanwhile the evidence that lias been collected seems to point to such a mode of grouping as is indicated in the following proposed


Nucleus breaking up into naked spares .......

Nucleus bearing asci; thaUus homogeneous, gelatinous or cartilaginous Nucleus bearing asd ; thaUus heterogeneous, pulverulent or cellular .


l.—Ooniothalamea. Shield! open; tbt nu-deus breaking up into naked spores.

Pulveraridse. Arthronta, Aeh. lndllaria, Fr. Arthronarla, Fr. Pulverarla, Aeh.

Leprafia, Achar.

Pulina. Adam.

Phytoconis, Bory.


Calydde. Coniocarpon, DC.

Vonioloma, Flttrk. TiachlUa9 Fr. Galydnm, Psrs.

CypheUvm, Aeh.

Acolium, F6e. Coniocybe, Aeh.

Sclerophora, Cher.

Fulgia, Cher.

IL—Idiothatame*. Shields eloeed at llntJ afterwards open; the nucleus gelatinous, made up of naked) spores*

* Graphite. Coniangium, Fr. Ustalla, Fr.

Pyroehroa, Eschw.

Ptatyaramma, Meyer. Sderophyton, Eschw. Lecanactls, Esehw.

LeeanoUs, Rehb. Opegrapha, Fers.

Hysterina, Acb.

Ozystoma, Eschw.

Beaphis, Eschw.

Leueooramtna, Meyer.

Qraphis, Eechw.

Ftsntrtiia, Fie. Graphic, JV.

Leiorreuma. Esehw.

Platygramma, Meyer.

Glyphid*. Medusula, J&cfew.

Bareographa, V6&.

Asteriseat Merer. Chiodecton, -4c*. [Glyphls, Jc*.

* Umboride. Uroeolaria, Jc*.

Polystroma, Clement. iThelotrema, -4c*.

Hymenoria, Ach.

<4f»t*r0car?mm, Meyer.

?iyren*Ia, F<*e.

?*ddt*m, F6* Limboria, Jcfc.

Gyroetomum, #*. Cliostomum, IV.

*** Pyxlnidse. Cmbilkeria, ffcf***

ZawJWa, Men*.

Oyrophora, Achar.

(fyromtum, Wahlsnb.

Cfc/mio, Vent. Pyxine, JV.

m.—Oasterothalamses. Shields always dosed, or opened by the irregular separation of the thallodial covering. | Nucleus endoeed, containing asd, deUques* lng or shrhrdling up.

Verruearldsc. Diovygma, Esehw. Pyrenothea, Fr.

L*prantha\ Dufour*

Thrombium. Wallr.

Otlatinaria, Flftric Pyrenastrum, Esehw.

Jxtrfnentarta Fee* Verrucaria, Are.

Tiypethdids. Sphaaromphale, Beiehb.

Begestria, Fr.

BegestreOa, Fr. Myeoporum, Meyer.

Fprothelium, Eschw.

itorotfotAfum, Fr. Astrotheliumv JEbeA*. Tripethetium, £j>r. I -Bottrfiam, Achar.

Ophthalmidium, Eschw. OceUularia, Meyer.

Kndocarplds. Pertu*aria,/>C.

Porina, Ach.

Porophora, Meyer. Bagedia, .*<*. | StigmatUHuniy Meyer.

Enterographa, F£e. Endocarpon, JTofo.

Xw*wmloc<ifpon, Bscfi w.

Sphaerophoridse. 81phula9 Fr.

Dufourea, Ach. Sphaerophoron. Ar«.

CoraUoides, Hoflkn.


Shields open: nucleus

forming a disk, permanent and bearing


EphsWd*, Micarea9 Fr. .Ephcbe,/V. Coenogonium, Ehrenb.

"Leddelde. Leddea, Aeh.

CatiOaria, A char.

Echinoplaeaj Fit.

Myriotremat F*e.

Bhisocarpon, Ramond. |Pat*llarla, Ar*.

Biatora, Fr.

Lepidoma, Ach.

Piora, Hoffkn.

Cinetaaria, Fie.

iWwsraria, Willd.

yiffTTKcaria, Hoffcn.

4*a*r<*Aaauz, Necs. Baeomyoes, ftr*, Sphyridium, FW, Cladoota, ffqffm.

Cenomyee, Achsr.

enptoeterio, FMrk.

Scyphophorus, DC.

Helopodium, DC.

Ctadonia, Acb.

&Ao*maf-i<i, Ach.

CtfraiPtia, Ach.

*VxiKi«m, Schreb.

12 Graphidackjb.


14. pAimauACJue.

(Stereocaulo &Are&. TAamnticia, Vent.

♦ Parmdiadse.

OralecU, c*. Dirina,-Pr. Cillda. Ceenogium. Parmella, JV.

J>oMora, Achar.

ywaiwarui, DC.

Urccolaria. Fr.

PWycffe, Wallr.


Aoro, Fr.

Kacodtiija, Ft.

Zeora, Fr.

mpfttfema, Fr.

Amaria, Delis.

ZJarta, Boffin.

Pkyscia, Fr.

Hagenioj Eschw.


Platisma, Hoftn. StioU, 5cAfY*.

Pulmonaria, Hoffm.

Beticularia, Baumg.

Crooodia, Link.

? PUctocarpon, F*a. Pdtigera. JTOW.

Flcltidea, Ach.

aiitecstis9 HaU.

£Ho(£rrma9 F6e.

&>toriaa, Acb.

&mmerjfett«a9 Fldrk.

Nephroma, Achar.

***♦ Usnddn. Cetrarla. Jcfc

Physcia, DC.

ComieuWia, Hofltai.

Coelocaukn, Link. Roooella, Z>C. Ramalina, cAor.

PlatyphyUum, Vent. Erernia, c*.

Borrera, Ach.

Bryopogon9 Lk.

INeuropogon, Nees. Usnea, Irofna.

ReichenbacMa, 8pr.

NUMBERS. Gen. 58. Sp. 2400. (<&&) Position.—Marchantiaceas.—Ltohinalbb.—Fungale

* Arranged principally according to Bndlicber.

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Thallogkns/|                                 LICHENALES.                                             50 a

Addkvdum :—

Tolas**, MSmoire pour servir * VHtstoire Organography $t PhysMogique des Lichens, 1852. Bayrhofsr Star Lichenen und derm befruchtotng, 1861. HoUt sur entwuMungsges. von Borrera ciliaris, 1849.

U. Tulasne, in the beautiful memoir above quoted, has demonstrated the presence universally in lichens of concoptacles, or, as he names them, spermogones, in which occur minute bodies analogous to the antherozoids of Charas, Sea-weeds, and other Thallogens, but motionless, and therefore distinguished under the name of spermatia. The following is a brief abstract of the discoveries of this admirable observer:—

Pig. XXXIII.**

The coneeptacles of lichens are those minute dark specks, or dots, which are fomili»r to the students of such plants, and which Hedwig long ago supposed to be male organs. In Parmelia tiliacea they are particularly easy to observe in the form of black points scattered, or more frequently collected in groups, on the lobes of the thallus; their section presents a dark greyish very hygrometrical tissue. Their cavity is simple, opening by an imperceptible pore on the surface of the thallus. They are lined by an infinite multitude of little articulated branches which converge towards the summit of the organ, and produce, each at its extremity, solitary spermatid The latter are straight! and some which were measured while still adhering to the cell that bore them were found to be from feths to ths of a millimetre in length; it is probable, however, that these eventually separated into two, for when free these spermatia are scarcely more than from pfeth to jjjfeth of a millimetre long* When the spermogone is full grown, and filledwith spermatia, its sides are so harJ that it may be picked out of the thallus with the point of a needle. Tins organ has nothing to do with producing shields, as M. Bayrhofer has supposed.

The last named observer gives the following account of what he supposes to be the fructification of Lichens. He describes them as either hermaphroditic, monoecious, or dioecious. In the two former cases there is a prothallus and thallus, in the latter an hypothallus. The prothallus is the firet stage of development arising from the germination of perfect or imperfect spores. Upon this is seated either a male or female stratum. In dioecious Lichens, such as Cliostomum, Pyrenothea, Spiloma, &c., antherids, with imperfect spores (androspores) are produced, or barren structures resembling apothecia. When, however, both sexes are united in the prothallus, a thallus arises, which consists of two principal strata: the male, which is composed of the radical stratum and the filamentous one above it> the tips of whose threads produce the male gonidia; and the female composed of the gonimic, which gives off the female gonidia, and the corticaL All these are present onlv in the most perfect lichens. The gonimic stratum is never absent; any of the others may occasionally be deficient. In the hermaphrodite Lichens, the male gonidia are much larger than the female, and greenish yellow; whereas in the monoecious species* they are of the

Fig. XXXIII.#P—Perpendicular section of the Spennogone of Urceolaria actinoetroma discharging Its spermatia; a. the cells which generate the spermatia in Borrera elllaris-Vfer Tukme.

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50                                                 LICHENALES.                               (Thallogmcs.

same size and colour. Threads from the two strata, proceeding in opposite directions, penetrate each other. The apothecia consist of two principal parte, the one seated above the other; the lower wall gives off threads which our author calls proephyses, the tips of which bear cylindrical cells, endowed with spontaneous motion, sometimes growing singly, sometimes forming short chains, which are either terminal or lateral The upper surface, or hymenium, produces the female prosphyses directed downwards, while an intermediate stratum, seated just above the point of production of the androspores, consists of a quantity of female gonidia, from whence proceed the asci and paraphyses. In the dioecious species the male apothecia are distinct, and the individuals which produce them are described under the names of Pyrenothea, Cliostomum, Ac

After the far more careful and extended observations of Tulasne, there can be little doubt that the principal part of these speculations is founded in error.

The spermogonee, M. Tulasne states, vary somewhat in structure, but they are all formed essentially upon the plan above described They are mostly plunged in the substance of the Lichen, but are occasionally superficial like the shields of gymno-. carpous Lichens, as in Cetrarias, Cladonias, &c. In form they are generally globular/ elliptical, or irregularly oblong; sometimes with a sinuous outline. The shell, usually hard and crustaceous, varies much in thickness; it is often black, or dark coloured, especially towards the summit of the spermogone; in other cases it is so pale as to be lost among the surrounding tissue. Its cavity may be simple, undivided, or multiple and divided in different ways into a variable number either of separate pockets or of narrow sinuosities, all communicating with a common aperture. The tissue which fills the spermogones is very greedy of water.

The spermatia are in all cases terminal or acrogenous with respect to the part which bears them. They are usually linear bodies of excessive tenuity, veiy short or somewhat long, straight or curved, destitute of appendages, motionless, and united to a mucilage the presence of which is concealed by its extreme transparency* Iodine colours them brown; liquid ammonia appears not to exercise any influence over them. They would be truly analogous to the antherosoids of Camthamninm and other Sea-weeds, if they were not born naked instead of developing in a spiral cell M. Tulasne sees no objection to their performing the same function.

Remarks to the same effect have been made by It Bornet upon the common Ephebe pubescens, referred by one author to Algals, and by another to Lichens. He finds spermogones in this plant, abundantly, in little spheroidal swellings of the branches of the thallus; and in fusiform swellings of the same nature immersed apothecia; the latter being confined to one individual, and the spermogones to another, this author, adopting the hypothesis of sexuality among Lichens, regards Ephebe pubescens as being dioecious. Ann. *&, ser. 3, xviii. 155.

With regard to the shields, or apothecia, the substance of M. Tulasne's observations may be stated succinctly as follows. The hymenial tissue which invests the disk of the open shield of Parmelia and similar Lichens rests on a layer of very fine cells, whose structure is usually less regular than that of the epidermal layer. This layer proceeds from the filamentous matter of the medulla, or rests immediately upon it.

------The disk of the shield consists entirely of paraphyses and thecaB mixed together,

placed vertically on the tissue from which they rise, as in the hymenium of the-caphorous Fungi, These two parts hold together with such tenacity, that they can

hardly be dissociated without the aid of chemical re-agents.------In Parmelia parietina

tincture of iodine, employed by itself, colours deep blue the amorphous sub-hymenial tissue, the membrane of the thecse, and the paraphyses, with the exception of the terminal cells of the latter, which preserve their natural yellow colour, almost without alteration. The addition of sulphuric acid after iodine has no effect upon the yellow part. These seem to be general facts, to which however there are some exceptions.

------The paraphyses are certainly jointed, not simple as Meisner supposes. They are

not abortive tnecse, but bodies formed of lines of cells, of which the upper are short and coloured In order to see this feet distinctly, it is indispensable that the compact elements of the shield should be disaggregated by some acid The thick-sided condition of the theca is part of their proper nature, and is not caused by the secretion

of intercellular matter, as has been said------Acids also show that the thee© are really

bodies attached to a parent cell by a point at the base, but are otherwise free, however much they may be glued to the adjoining parts. Without the assistance of acids,

this is not to be seen.------The theory of Schleiden that the thee© and paraphyses are

the terminations of the branches of a filamentous underlying structure is inadmissible.

------The spores contained in the spore-cases or thecce of Lichens are much like those

of Fungi, except that the former are veiy seldom spiny or warted It is in feet only in Solorina saccata and Thelotrema exanthematicum that 1L Tulasne has seen such

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THALL0OKH&]                                   LICHENALES.                                                  50 e

a structure; in the former, the surface of the spores is granular; in the latter, it is

bristly, with extremely fine transparent distant points.------The contents of the spores

usually consist of mucous granular matter which iodine stains deeply yellow-brown. Their shell is thin and unaffected by iodine, even after having been treated with . sulphuric acid, which distends it without dissolving it, unless the acid is very concentrated.------The largest spores seen by M. Tulasne among European Lichens occur in

Pertusaria communis, where they are Tfo to fy of a millimetre long, by the -082 or '039 of a millimetre broad; only two or three of those are usually produced in each theoa. Such is the siae of these spores, that when scattered on a slip of glass, dry, they are visible to the naked eye, and may even be counted. See his memoir above quoted, and the Annaies da Sciences, $er. 3. vol xviL, 1852.

To the species of Lichens possessing nutritive qualities have to be added the Leca-noras eeculenta and affinis, which sometimes appear suddenly in immense quantities in Persia, Armenia, and Tartary, where they are eagerly devoured by the natives, who

Fig. XXXIII.*"

fancy that they must fall from heaven, not knowing how else to account for the prodigious numbers of these plants, of the origin of which they are ignorant Parrot aays that in some districts in Persia they cover the ground to the depth of five or six inches. Eversmann, who had an opportunity of studying the species on the riven Emba and Jaik, and also near Lake Aral, was convinced that, even in the earliest stage of growth, the plants have not the slightest attachment even to a grain of sand, but that their thallus is developed freely, as was at first declared by Pallas. A species or variety has lately been found in large quantities in Algiers, and TraviranuB informs us that specimens supposed to have descended from the clouds at Mount Ararat exist in the Museum of Natural History in the Armenian Convent of & Lazzaro, in an island of that name near Venice. The curious production in question is eaten both by men and animals in the several countries extending from Algiers to Tartary, where it is produced. The sheep, however, which feed upon it in Algiers do not thrive, in consequence, it is supposed, of the large amount of oxalate of lime which it contains, amounting, according to Gobel's analysis, to nearly 66 per cent. The individual plants weigh from a few grains to two scruples or upwards, even when dry, and when swollen with moisture nearly twice as much.

Pig. XXXIII.t—A. Lecanora esculent*; B, Lecanora afitais.

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50 d



Palas mentions another Lichen which is eaten by the Kirghiz Tartan, under the name of Earth-bread. This, however, has a veiy different habit, covering the surface of the steppes with a whitish grey crust and breaking into many fragments when the soil is dry. It appears to be eaten only in cases of extreme necessity, and is constantly accompanied by the common Noetoc,—Berkeley in Gardeners' Chronicle, 1849, p. 611.

Tulasne has made the curious observation that some of the species of this order are true parasites upon other Lichens.


Bysaophytum, Montagne,

near Spiloma. Thyaanothedom, Mont.

6 Berk, near Btereo-


Ascidlum, Fie, near The-

lotrema. Acroscyphua, LeveQU,

near Sphnrophonnu

Myrlanglum, Berkeley,

near Collema. Pastihoe, Decalsne —




AbrothaUna.0eiVa( Bcutnla, Tulasne. CeUdlom, Tulasne. Phacopsls, Tulasme.

Fig. XXXIII **

Fig. XXXIII.—A greatly magnified view of a perpendicular section of Parmelia aipolia, shewing the theca in the shield, a / bf the hypotheciam and some gonldia beneath it; c, the medullary region: and d, the gonlmic layer--a/kr Tulasne.

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ACROGENS.                                            51

Class n. ACROQENS.

PMUBOOOTTunxMrs*, Agardh, Aph. 79. (18U)<—HaratomnaA, Friet, Byst. Orb. Ytg. 1.80. 11886). Acbobrya, MotU. in Mart. Ft. Crypt, p. 68; BndUeh. fen. p. 4S. «* Fart.)—AcRoaur«, d. fiivVH. Awn. p. xlfl. (1843).

With this class a great advance in structure is accomplished. The simplicity which is so remarkable in Thallogens is exchanged for a complicated apparatus of many kinds. All the species have stomates or breathing-pores on their surface : in the great majority there is a distinct stem and leaves, the latter of which are always arranged with perfect symmetry; and in those species which approach Thallogens, (as the Crystalworts, which stand close upon Lichens) the thallus has all the texture of leaves, although a separate stem is refused to them. There is, however, no trace of flowers, properly so called; and yet in the involucre of many Liverworts, and in the spore-cases of Mosses, an arrangement of leaves occurs, which appears to be the forerunner of the flowers of more perfect plants. Sexes, however, are wholly missing; that is to say, nothing can be found which resembles the anthers and pistil of flowering plants, except in some vague external circumstance: we want satisfactory evidence that any order of Acrogens possesses organs which require to be fertilised the one by the other in order to effect the generation of seeds. Hence those reproductive bodies of Acrogens which are analogous to seeds are called spores. Mr. Griffith takes, however, a very different view of this question, and assigns true sexes to Acrogens.

He thinks it probable that we have at least three modifications of the phenomenon of fecundation "among the higher acotyledonous plants. In one the male influence is applied to the apex of a pistillum, in the second to a nucleus without the intervention of a pistillary apparatus. In the third the male influence is exerted on a frond itself, and is followed by the development of the young capsule from a point in the substance of the frond corresponding to and sometimes distant from the place to which the male influence has been applied. This is founded on observations made on Anthoceros in 1836, from which it would appear that the place of exsertion of the future capsules is pointed out by a slight protuberance, over the apex of which a flake of matter like the so called male matter of Musci and Salvinia is spread, sending down to some distance within the frond a tube-like process, which causes the dislocation of the cells of the tissue with which it comes into contact. The future capsule is stated in his notes not to be appreciably pre-existent, and its situation is only pointed out by a bulbifbrm condensation of the tissue of the frond. The young capsule during its development ascends along the same line, and pushes before it a corresponding cylindrical body of the tissue of the frond, the calyptra of authors." But, it seems to me, that this very complexity of action is more like variations in self-propagation, than phenomena of fecundation, which, among the plants in which that action certainly takes place, is subject to no such modifications.

A large number of Acrogens have no true spiral vessels, which are confined to the more highly developed forms, such as Ferns, Clubmosses, and Horsetails; but there is a very general tendency to the production of spiral

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52                                            ACROGENS.

threads iu their cells. This has been long known to exist in the bodies called elaters among Liverworts, and traces of it have been recognised in the leaves of certain mosses, such as Sphagnum.

" So far as I am aware," says Schleiden, " the occurrence of a spiral formation has been observed in the reproductive organs of Hepatic© only in the elaters or fruit-valves. But it is not less strikingly developed in the organs of vegetation in Marchantiaceae. The parenchyma of the leaf of Marchantia polymorpha and Fegatella conica consists almost entirely of cells whose partitions appear distinctly porous, or (especially in M. polymorpha) beautifully thickened with net-work. This thickening of the partitions of the cell takes place to so great a degree in the older parte and in the proximity of the midrib, that by transverse sections the pore-channels may be plainly recognised. Amongst mosses, the true Dicrana, for example D. Schraderi, spurium, &c., are distinguished by the cells of the leaf having very thick sides, and their partitions evidently pierced by very wide, or funnel-shaped pore-channels, just as happens in the epidermis of many phanerogamous plants; and still more conspicuously do these spiral and porous formations display themselves in SphagnesB, and in the nearly related group of Leucophane® established by Hampe."—{Ann. NcU. Hist. v. 73.) The same tendency is still more remarkably apparent in a curious formation of loose short spiral threads generated in the cells of the bodies called Antheridia, and elsewhere; which, because of an apparently spontaneous motion when they are floating in water, have been thought to be animalcules of the genera Spirillum or Vibrio.

In general, Acrogens are plants of very small stature. But in Ferns they occasionally acquire the size of trees; always however growing with a simple stem in such cases, unless when their growth is interrupted by accident. If they branch naturally, they do so in a forking manner. Their stem, instead of increasing by the deposition of matter originating in the leaves, appears to be a mere extension of one common vegetating point, which becomes cylindrical and long, when it is capable of being acted upon by the influence of light. It may be regarded indeed as a mere combination of the bases of leaves, gradually evolved one from the bosom of the other.

The orders of Acrogens seem to resolve themselves into three Alliances, of which the lowest in organization in some respects is the highest in others. This which is named the Muscal, inasmuch as it includes the true Mosses, has no spiral vessels, no veins to its leaves, and its species are of diminutive size; but it has reproductive organs of two very distinct kinds, and its spore-cases are usually elaborately provided with elaters at least, and often with a complicated arrangement of rudimentary leaves. The two others have a far larger stature, are abundantly furnished with scalariform or true spiral vessels in their stem, but their reproductive organs are of the most simple kind, and never assume different forms in the same individual. The one called the Lycopodal Alliance has scaly leaves and pulverulent spores, always of two sorts, contained in cases which usually open by definite valves; the other, called the Filical Alliance, has thin expanded veiny leaves and granular spores of only one kind enclosed in cases which burst irregularly.

The affinities of Acrogens are well ascertained. Ricoia and its neighbours are closely allied to Lichens. Horsetails may be looked upon as an approach towards the structure of Ephedra among Gnetace®, or of Casuarina in Galeworts. The Clubmosses evidently approach Coniferous Gymnogens in their small scale-like imbricated leaves and coniferous fructification.

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Ferns themselves have in their foliage the peculiar veining of certain genera belonging to the order of Yews in Gymnogens; they also approach Cycadaceous Gyinnogens in their simple cylindrical stems and gyrate foliage, which hears the fructification on the margin. Nor are the Urn Mosses (Bryaceae) without their resemblance to the order of Yews when we compare some of the larger species with the little Dacrydia of New Zealand, which are only a few inches high.

Alliances of Acrogens*

Muscales.—Cellular (or rascular). Spore-cases immersed or calyptrate (i. e. either plunged in Hie substance of thejrond, or enclosed within a hood having the same relation to the spores as an involucre to a seed-vessel.)

Ltcopodales.— Vascular. Spore-cases axillary or radical, one or many cetied. Spores of two sorts.

Fiucales — Vascular. Spore-cases marginal or dorsal, one-celled, usually surrounded by an elastic ring. Spores of but one sort.

The foregoing statement respecting the reproductive organs of Acrogens represents what appeared to be, in 1845, the amount of positive knowledge that botanists had acquired upon that subject. Since then, numerous microscopical observers have occupied themselves with a search for what are supposed to be the equivalents of sexee in the higher orders of plants, and Mr. Henfrey has ably condensed their views in a Report to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, read at their meeting in 1851. The general result is that organs analogous to the spermatogones of Lichens, and the conceptacles of Algals, have been found everywhere; and the general fact that Acrogens, in addition to their spores, are furnished with moving spiral filaments or antherozoids is placed beyond a doubt It must also be admitted that there is some circumstantial evidence to show that the antherozoids are intended to replace the pollen grains of flotwering plants : but at present there i» no direct proof of the fact. Since Mr. Henfrey's report, above alluded to, is that of a good and conscientious observer, who has himself studied the subject, the additional observations introduced into this edition are borrowed largely from the report above alluded to.

He observes that, in regard to the existence of two sexes, and the necessity of a process of fertilisation, we have several kinds of evidence.

a 1. The inferences to be deduced from the universality of the existence of two kinds of organs in connexion with the reproductive process. We have seen that theee exist in all the families at some period or other of the life of the representative of the species. In the Mosses and the Hepatiae they occur in the fully developed plant. In the Ferns and the Equisetace®, they occur upon cellular structures of frondoee character, developed from all the spores, which frondose bodies or pro-embryos have an existence of some permanence, especially in the JSquisetacese. In the Lycopodiace®, the Isoetacea, and Rhizocarpese, the pistillidia occur upon vary transitory cellular structures produced from one kind of spore, the larger; while the smaller sporee at once develope in their interior cellules, containing moving spiral filaments such as occur in the antheridia of the other families.

"2. The inferences to be deduced from the observations on the development of theme plants in which the two kinds of organs, occurring in distinct places, can be separated. Strong evidence has been brought forward that the dioecious Mosses, as ther are called, do not produce sporangia when the pistillidia are kept apart from the antheridia by natural accident. The majority of observers state that the large spores of the fihizocarpea do not germinate if the small spores are all removed from con* tact with them; a few counter-statements, however, do exist. Again, the mqority of authors, and all the recent ones, state that only the large spores of the Lycopodiaceee and Isoetaceae produce new plants; while some older writers believed that they had Been the small spores do so*

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53 a                                     * ACBOGENa

"3, The direct observation of a process of fertilisation, of which we have only testimony from two authors, Suminski and Mercklin, in reference to the Ferns alone; since the assertions of Schleiden in regard to the Rhizocarpe© have been demonstrated by Nageli, Hofmeister, and Mettenius, to have been based on very imperfect observation,

" The circumstantial evidence furnished under the first head seems to me very strong—so much so that I am inclined to adopt the idea of sexuality on this ground, as the legitimate provisional hypothesis arising out of our present knowledge, especially when supported so strongly as it is by the. negative evidence indicated under the second head.

" The positive evidence of the third head is certainly veiy insufficient as yet, considering the extreme delicacy of the investigation. Suminski's other observations on the details have been contested in many particulars; and Mercklin, the only other observer who asserts that he has seen the spiral filaments within the so-called ovules, describes the conditions differently, and states that he has only been able to observe them positively there three times. At the same time the difficulty of the investigation should make us hesitate in attaching too much weight to the failure of the other observers in tracing a process of fertilisation; moreover, it is quite possible that actual entry of the spiral filaments into the canal of the ovules or pistillidia is not always, if ever, necessary.

"The facts before us, then, appear to me strong enough to warrant the adoption of the views propounded by the latest authors on this subject, and the acceptance of the hypothesis of sexuality in the vascular Cryptogams as the most satisfactory explanation of the phenomena as yet observed. The question lies now much in the same condition as that of the sexuality of flowering plants before the actual contact of the pollen-tubes with the ovules had been satisfactorily demonstrated.

"Further argument* may be adduced from grounds lying out of the preceding statements, viz., 1. The late discovery of two forms of organs in the Alga, Lichens, and Fungi, which, although imperfect at present, lead to the expectation that the analogues of the antheridia and pistillidia of the Mosses, so long known, will be found in all Gryptogamous plants. 2. The analogies between the processes of animal and vegetable reproduction which appear to be offered by these new views of the nature of the phenomena in the vascular Cryptogams. To this last argument I shall merely allude, as it may be considered to lie beyond the special province of the vegetable physiologist; yet when we recollect the imperceptible character of the gradations of the lower forms of the two kingdoms, there seems far sounder ground than is allowed by Schleiden for arguing from apparent analogies between the phenomena occurring in the two great kingdoms of nature.

" Under the second point of view mentioned above, the fects of structure may soon be disposed of, so far as the analogies of form are concerned; the antheridia of the Mosses, Hepaticte, Ferns, and Equisetaceo, agree with the small spores of Isoetes, Selaginella, Pilularia, and Salvinia, in producing the cellules in which are developed the moving spiral filaments which constitute the essential character of the organs of the one kind; while the pistillidia of the Mosses and Hepatic® agree with the so-called €ovules9 of the Ferns, Equisetaceee, Lycopodiacero, Isoetaoesa, and Rhizocarpese, in general structure, and in the presence of the central large cell from which the new form of structure originates*

" The great differences depend on the position in time and space of the organs, in the different classes, and the nature of the immediate product of the so-called 'embryo-sac,9 the large central cell of the pistillidia and ' ovules.9

" In the Mosses and Hepatic® the pistillidia occur upon the plant when the vegetative structure is perfect,—and the immediate product of the great cell is a sporangium. If a process of fertilisation take place here, we may regard the antheridia and pistillidia as analogues of the anthers and pistils of flowering plants, the sporangia of their fruits; or, with Hofineister, we may regard the phenomenon as an instance of an ' alternation of generations,' where the pistillidium would be looked upon as an ovule> producing (in the sporangium) a new individual of totally different character from that developed from the spore (the leafy Moss plant in the usual acceptation of the term).

" In the Ferns and Equisetaoea, we find the spores producing a frondose structure of definite form, upon which are developed antheridia and pistillidia, or' ovules.1 Here then we seem to have one generation complete, and the new development from the pistillidium or ' ovule9 appears in a totally new form, producing stem and leaves which have a distinct individual form and existence, and produce the spores after a long period upon temporary parts of the structure, on the leaves; and by no means .cease to exist when those are matured. Here we seem to have a real 'alternation

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ACROOENS.                                               53 J

of generations,' and Hofineister compares the whole permanent plant of the Fern or Equisetum to the sporangium of the Mosses and Hepatic* In all the other families, the Lycopodiacese, IsoStaoea, the Rhusocarpea, the pro-embryo is a very transitory production, and is developed from a different spore from the spiral filaments. This pro-embryo is clearly analogous to that of the Ferns and Equisetaeesa; and if the existence of sexes be a feet, we have here a dioecious condition as contrasted with a monoecious condition in the two last-named families. Hofineister here again assumes that the pro-embryo developed from the large spore is an intermediate generation between the two perfect forms of the plant

" It is rattier difficult to decide upon the real analogies of these structures with those of the flowering plants. The resemblance of structure is so close between the pistil-lidia of the Mosses and Hepatic©, and the 'ovules' of the other vascular Cryptogams, that they must be regarded as analogues, and then the former could not well be conceived to be analogous to the pistils of flowering plants, but rather to ovules: if this be the case, the sporangium must be considered the analogue of the perfect plant in the Fern, Ac, and the leafy stem as the analogue of the pro-embryo of the Ferns, &c The pistUlidium of the Mosses can, indeed, hardly be regarded as analogous to the fruit of a flowering-plant, as in that case the spores would be ovules produced long after fertilisation; and, on the other hand, if we consider the pistillidia of the Moss as an ovule, which it might t*, analogous to that of the Conifer©,—in which a large number of embryonal vesicles or rudiments of embryos are produced after fertilisation on the branched extremities of the suspensors,—then we seem to lose the analogy between the product of the pistillidium of the Moss and that of the ovule of the Fern, unless we would regard the entire plant of a perfect Fern as analogous to the ovule of a Conifer.

" Perhaps the time has hardly come for us to arrive at any conclusion on these points. The phenomena in the Ferns and Equisetaeea, as well as in the Rhisocarpe*, Lycopodiacefe, and Isoetaeea less strikingly, seem to present a series of conditions analogous to those which have been described under the name of ' alternation of generations' in the animal kingdom; and seeing the resemblance which the pistillidia of the Mosses have to the ovules of the other families, we can hardly help extending the same views to them: in which case we should have the remarkable phenomenon of a compound organism, in which a new individual forming a second generation, developed after a process of fertilisation, remains attached organically to the parent, from which it differs totally in all anatomical and physiological characters. It is almost needless to advert to the essential difference between such a case and that of the occurrence of flower-buds and leaf-buds on one stem in the fhanerogamia, as parts of a single plant, yet possessing a certain amount of independent individuality. These are produced from each other by simple extension, a kind of germination; while the Moss capsule, if the sexual theory be correct, is the result of a true reproductive process."

In a postscript to the above report, Mr. Henfrey makes some further observations : be particularly alludes to a work by Dr. W. Hofmeister upon the higher Cryptogams, which contains an elaborate series of researches upon this subject He there confirms all his previous statements, and all the essential particulars given by Suminski, Nageli, Ifettenius, &c«, excepting the fact* of the impregnation by means of the spiral filaments or spermatozoids, which however he considers it warrantable to assume.— u The comparison of the course of development of the Mosses and Liverworts on the one hand, with the Ferns, Equisetacege, RhLsocarpeoe, and Lycopodiaceao on the other, reveals the most complete agreement between the development of the fruit of the former and the development of the embryo of the others. The archegonium of the Mosaes, the organ within which the rudiment of its fruit is formed, resembles perfectly in structure the archegonium of the lftliooids (in the widest sense)! that part of the protballium in the interior of which the embryo of the frondescent plant originates. In the two great groups of the higher Cryptogams! one large central cell, originating free in the archegonium, gives origin by repeated subdivision to the fruit in the Mosses, and to the leafy plant in the FiUcoids. In neither of them does the subdivision of this cell go on; in both does the archegonium become abortive, if spermatic filaments do not reach it at the epoch when it bursts open at the apex.

* Mosses and fllicoids thus afford one of the most striking examples of a regular alternation of two generations widely different in their organisation. The first of these, produced by the germinating spore, developes antheridia and archegonia, sometimes few, sometimes many. In the central cell of the archegonium, in consequence of a fertilisation through the spermatozoids emitted from the antheridia, becomes developed the second generation, destined to produce spores, which are always formed in a number much greater than that of the rudimentary; fruits of the first generation.

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£3 e                                               ACROGENB.

"In the Mosses the vegetative life is exclusively committed to the first, the production of fruit to the second generation. Only the leafy stem possesses roots; the spore-producing generation draws its sustenance from the foregoing. The fruit is usually of shorter duration than the leaf-bearing plant. In the Filicoids the opposite condition obtains. It is true the prothallia send Out capillary rootlets; those of the Polypodiaoead and Equisetace® under all circumstances! those of the Rhizocarpea and Selaginelto frequently. But the prothallium has a much briefer existence than the frondescent plant, which in most cases must vegetate for several years before it oomes to bear fruit. Yet the contrast is not so strong as it appears to be at first sight. The seemingly unlimited duration of the leaf-bearing Moss-plant depends upon constant renovation. Phenomena essentially similar occur in proliferous prothallia of the Poly-podiacea and Equisetaoeo. The structure of the lowest (Anthocetve, Pdlia) is less complex, and the duration of the fruit-bearing shoots is little longer than that of the fruit itself. On the other hand, the ramification of the prothallium of the Euise* taoeee is exceedingly complicated; its duration is even equal to that of a single shoot

u It is a circumstance worthy of notice, that in the second generation of Mosses, as of the Filicoids, destined to produce spores, more complex thickenings of the cell-walls regularly occur (teeth of the peristome of Mosses, wall of capsule and elaters of Liverworts, vessels of Filicoids, &c), while in the first generation, springing from the spores, such structures are found only rarely and as exceptions.

" The manner in which the second generation arises from the first, varies much more in the Filicoids than in the Mosses. The Polypodiacea and Equisetace© are hermaphrodite; the Rhizocarpese and Selaginell® monoecious. All the Filicoids agree in the fact that the first axis of their embryo possesses but a very limited longitudinal development; that it is an axis of the second rank which breaks through the prothallium and becomes the main axis; further, in the end of the axis of the first rank never becoming elongated in the direction opposite to the summit. All Filicoids are devoid of a tap-root, and possess only adventitious roots.

"In more than one respect does the course of development of the embryo of the Conifers stand intermediately between those of the higher Cryptogams and the Phanerogams. Like the primary parent-cell of the spores of the Rhizocarpese and SelagineUa, the embiyo-sac is an axile cell of the shoot, which in the former is converted into a sporangium, in the latter into an ovule. In the Conifers the embryo-sac also very early beoomes detached from the cellular tissue surrounding it. The filling-up of the embryo-sac with the albumen may be compared with the origin of the prothallium in the Rhizocarpese and Selaginellfe. The structure of the ' oorpuscula' bears the most striking resemblance to that of the archegonia of Sahinia, still more to that of the Selagmelte. If we leave out of view the different nature of the impregnation, in the Rhizocarpese and Selaginellee by free-swimming spermatic filaments, in the Conifer© by a pollen-tube (which perhaps developes spermatic filaments in its interior), the metamorphosis of the embryonal vesicle into the primary parent-cell of the new plant in the Conifers and Filicoids is solely distinguished, by the latter possessing only a single embryonal vesicle which completely fills the cavity of the central cell of the archegonium, while the former exhibits very numerous embryonal vesicles swimming in it, of which only one pressed into the lower end of the ' corpusculum* becomes impregnated. The embryo-sac of the Conifers may be regarded as a spore which remains enclosed in its sporangium; the prothallium which it forms never comes to light. The fertilising matter must make a way for itself through the tissue of the sporangium, to reach the archegonia of this prothaUium."

I confess that I am bv no means satisfied with some of these opinions. The adoption of Steenstrup's theory of alternate generations seems to arise too much from d priori considerations, and the statements regarding the impregnating action of the spiral filaments in Ferns appears to be wholly hypothetical

Let us take for illustration Hofmeister's account of the development of the organs of Lypacods (Annates dee Sciences, ser. 3, xviil 183.) It is only in Selaginella helvetica, says this author, that he has been able to make out what happens in the micro-spores (powdery matter) after they are sown. In the beginning of March he sowed them in earth and sand kept constantly moist Five months afterwards, he found in each microspore, almost without exception, a great quantity of small spherical vesicles, whose diameter was scarcely equal to of a line, and which did not quite fill the cavity in which they were lodged. When these microspores were carefully pressed, the vesicles were easily squeezed out* and there appeared in some of them a veiy fine spiral thread, or spermatozoid, which, when liberated, stirred with a gentle motion. This is no doubt a remarkable fact; but it stops short of the proof

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ACROGEN&                                               53 d

demanded, that the spiral threads are for the purpose of impregnation; a ftinction which seems the more doubtful when another statement by Hofmeister is connected with their appearance. This ingenious observer expressly declares, that the spiral threads were generated about six week* hefore he could discoyer on the prothallium of the macroepores (granular matter) sowed at the same tme9 the first rudiment of an archegone. But if the spiral threads were to impregnate the archegone, why, it must be asked, are they not formed so as to be ready to act at the moment when the archegone is prepared to receive them, as occurs between pollen and stigma. If this can be explained, it would next be necessary to enquire—first, wh*t the spiral threads were doing during the six weeks that they laid on the damp sand before the archegone was ready; and secondly, by what means these bodies " qui s'agitaient d'un movement asses lent" contrive to reach the archegones.

It must not however be omitted, that Hofmeister expressly declares that " si, dans mes essais de culture, je recouvrais d'une cloche de verre les macroepores et les microspores sem&s ensemble, l'exp&ience n'aboutissait k rien de satisfaisant.-------

Les mdmes spores donnaient, au contraire, promptement des embryons, quand je placais pros d elles, sous la cloche, des individus vivants et bien fructifies de l'esp&oe de Selaginella k laquelle ces spores appartenaient." By which we presume it is intended to say, that although the spiral filaments are behindhand when sown artificially, yet they keep time when left upon the plant But where there is a positive observation on the one hand, and only a conjecture on the other, the former would seem to be the more important of the two.

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Alliance IV.—MUSCALES.—Thb Moscal Alliance.

Cuxvlaku rotiAcvjs, JXX. I**or. Eton. 349. (1819).—P*Bin>ocoTYLBi>oirs«t dan I. Agardh, Apk. 103. (1882).—HxTBKONBincA, J»W» $**. Oi*. P<qp. S3. (1825) *npart—Acorruumirn, Ctau 2. d. £nwu»farf fe Dfc*. Ctau. 6.150. (1834).—Cbtftooawc, 2d Oird«, T. /. i. Jf«e» v. Bam-beek and ftnultr Handb. dtr Med. BoL 1. IS. (1830).—Hotatica and Mosci, J5fctffcA<r Qen. H. and 49.

Diagnosis.—OOitZar or vaecnlar Acrogene, frith the epore-cam either plunged in the eubetcmce of the frond, or enclosed in a cap-&be hood. Next after the Algal aeries follows that which derives its name from Mosses, presenting at one point a structure nearly as simple as that of Lichens, and at another a complexity of organization unknown elsewhere among Acrogens. The Grystalworts (RicciacesB), by which the series begins, are mere lobes of green or purple parenchyma floating in water or spreading over mud, and multiplied by reproductive particles (spores) generated in hollow flask-like cases. Then follow masses of species gathered together under the names of Liverworts (Marchantiaoese) and Scalemosses (Jungerman-niaceae), whose stems and leaves are, in the majority of instances distinctly separate, and among whose spores are formed elastic threads with a powerful hygrometric quality and of unknown use. Finally the ranks are closed by Splitmosaes (Andreeacee), and Urn-Mosses (Bryaceee), which have in all cases a distinct axis of growth, symmetrical leaves, and a complicated reproductive apparatus formed by the adhesion of leaves in rings or whorls: in emulation, as it were, of flowers, in the more completely organized classes of Endogens and Exogens.

In the opinion of a large number of modern observers there are two sexes in all these plants, the one bearing the name of Antheridia (or false anthers), and the other of

Pistiffidia (or fidse pistils). That *                        such organs exist is certain; the

question is whether or not they are to be looked upon as connected with sexual qualities. Those who regard them in that light have naturally taken the imbedded oblong antheridia of Marchantia, and the stalked reticulated ones of Jungermannia, for anthers; but Hooker, in his beautiful Monograph of the Utter' genus, and also in his British Flora, (p. 459,) is unsatisfied as to their nature. Greville, in the Flora Bdinentie, is in a similar state of uncertainty; and Agardh admits nothing more in them than a resemblance to male organs, adopting the opinion that they are a particular form of gemmules. Mirbel considers the cups or baskets of Marchantia to be filled with little buds, and the peltate receptacles to be male flowers, while the stalked receptacles are masses of pistils. (See his admirable Memoir, vii.) On the other hand Greville and Arnott, in the fourth volume of the Trantactiont of the Wemerian Society, speak thus positively against the sexuality of the organs in question :—

" What the organs really are, in the plants under review, which the accurate Hedwig so well figured and described under the name of stamens, we leave to others to decide; but we cannot help entering our protest against those bodies called Stamina and PistiUa (the young thecse) being regarded in a similar light with the same organs in more perfect plants. * Though,' says Sprengel, «I have formerly been a zealous advocate for Hedwig's Theory of the Fructification of Monet, it has nevertheless appeared to me an insurmountable objection, that the supposed anther can again produce buds and strike roots; which is certainly the case with regard to the disks of Polytrichum commune,

JSi,SSIp[;i"l.,<HIDg P°pe-CM" ** P*»P»V«e» of Malum caspidatam. 2. Antheridi* tad puapbyMt of Pol ytrirham eoramuno. - 'Link.


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Acboqhb.]                                      MUSCALES.                                                  55

Bartramia fontana, Bryum palustre, undulatum, cuspidatum, punctatum, and with those of Tortala ruralis. In Bryum argenteum we Bee the buds containing the supposed anthers constantly drop off, strike root, and produce new plants; this I have observed myself times out of number. Still more in point is the experiment first made by David ftfees, of sowing the steUube of Polytrichum commune, containing merely club-shaped bodies, when he found that plants came up, which in their turn produced fruit Another excellent naturalist, Dr. Both, has made similar observations with regard to Hypnum squarrosum and Bryum argenteum. It is more probable, therefore, that these supposed anthers are mere gemmae, produced by the superabundance of the juices, and hence surrounded by succulent filaments.'19 Fries also, in his Plamim Jwmcnemem, xxxi, expresses himself thus, " Musci sunt esexuales et in dicta organa masmlina mens esse gemmae vix dubium videatur."

Nevertheless, in the face of this evidence, Adolphe Brougniart retains a belief in the sexuality of Mosses, and in the male functions of tne axillary bodies; and he says, with justice, that it appears from Brown's mode of describing Mosses, that he entertains a similar opinion. Dr. Taylor also thinks that the Liverworts show the presence of two sexes in the most evident manner. (Linn. Trans, xvii. S75.) That the flask-like bodies called pistillidia are female organs he considers proved by the germination of the dark brown particles (spores) that are contained within them. He admits that no direct evidence exists to show that the antheridia are male organs; but he says that they discharge a viscid whitish liquor, which is rapidly dissolved in the air, uniformly precede the pistillidia, and have fulfilled their office before the seeds (spores) are ripe. Dr. Montague foQowB on the same side (Awn. Sc. Nat. 2 Ser. ix. 100), with the sweep, ing assertion that "no body now-ardays (1838) doubts that Mosses and Liverworts have two sexes." Mr. Valentine, in two elaborate papers (JK*m. Trans* xvii, 465, and xviii. 409), denies the sexuality of some plants at least of the Muscat Alliance; justly observing, however, that the experiments mentioned by Sprengel and Mees are unsatisfactory, there being no proof in them that it was the antheridia which grew; it might have been the whole mass of the stellate disks in which the antheridia occur. Mr. Valentine relies upon the very important fact, first remarked by himself, that the pistillidum, in which the spores are produced, is not in existence at the time when the antheridia are in action. lake Mohl and Agardh, he maintains that the spores, although equivalent to seeds, are almost identical with pollen grains. " The only difference," ha adds,«that I can find between pollen and sporulee is, that the coat of the latter is of a more rigid and opaque texture. From this difference it is that the sporules rarely burst in a sudden manner upon the application of water; but when they do, the moving particles are discharged loose in the water, precisely in the same manner as are those of nollen."

Upon this point however Mr. Griffith observes, that " it is to be borne in mind, that whereas pollen is die result of a simple separation constituting a primary and independent process; in Musci, Hepatic®, Salvimdse, the spores, otherwise so similar to pollen, are the result of a secondary process, dependent on a primary one which appears to be remarkably analogous to phanerogamic fecundation.59

Finally, Unger in his account of the anatomy of Kiccia (Linnaa, xiii. 13), states that antheridia and pistillidia are alike at first, that the contents of the first are lost, of the second retained, and that the first perishes while the second is permanent,—whence it is reasonable to presume that die emission from the antheridia is a necessary condition far the formation of spores. He therefore regards them as male and female.

It seems clear from all these statements, that the question of sexes in the Muscal Affiance is undecided. There is no doubt that two very different sorts of organs exist among its species; but it does not appear to me that we have sufficient evidence at present to show that the antheridia are male organs. So far as they are concerned wo have conjecture and nothing more. All that is proved is: 1. That the spores are bodies which reproduce die plant, and are, therefore, analogous to seeds; and 2. That the structure of the antheridia and pistillidia is wholly at variance with that of anthers and pistils properly so called.

Mr. Griffith, nevertheless, in an elaborate Memoir on Azolla and Salvinia, published in the Calcutta Journal of Natural History, adopts in the fullest extent the opinion that Acrogens have sexes, as will appear hereafter. It is, however, to be remarked that the question is not, whether there may not be in such plants as these some trace of a male and female principle, or certain organs in which it is probable that such a principle resides; but whether there is any such structure as that which we know to be sexual in all the classes of plants higher than Acrogens. And I must confess, after reading Mr. Griffith's very learned and ingenious observations, that my opinion remains unshaken as to the existence of most essential differences between Acrogens and other plants in *U that regards die organs of reproduction.

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A remarkable point of structure in liverworts is the spiral filament, or elater, as it is called, lying among the sporulea within the spore-case. This consists of a single fibre, or of two, twisted spirally in different directions, so as to cross each other, and contained within a very delicate, transparent, perishable tube. They have a strong elastic force, and have been supposed to be destined to aid in the dispersion of die sporules,—* most inadequate end for so curious and unusual an apparatus. It is more probable that they are destined to fulfil, in the economy of these plants, some function of which we have no knowledge.

One of the most extraordinary points in the history of the Muscal Alliance, is the fact that in the cells of the <antheridia are generated bodies having what seems to be spontaneous motion, and apparent! v of the same nature as the spermatic animalcules of animals. This unexpected fact has been fully and correctly described by Meyen, (Ann. Sc Nat. N.&x~ 319), who has found the same creatures (!) in the correspond.

ing organs of Chara and Mar-chantia. Unger has also published an elaborate Memoir upon this singular subject. (Ann. Sc. N.S. xi. 257 and 274.) He describes the spiral threads of Sphagnum thus :—a These animalcules consist of a thick and swollen body having a slender threadlike appendage. The length varies between the Fig. XXXV.                                        00026 and 0M20 or , to

,£* of aline Vienna measure. The length of the appendage is about 4 J longer than the body, so that the total length of the animal may be stated to be the 0.01 of a line." It is to be observed by those who may search for such bodies that they can only be found just when the antheridium is completely formed, and that a magnifying power of at least 600 diameters is required for their detection. Unger regards them as analogous to the genus of animalcules called Spirillum. It is so improbable that animals should be generated in the cells of plants, unless accidentally, that we cannot but entertain grave doubts whether, notwithstanding their locomotive powers, these bodies are really any thing more than a form of vegetable matter ; and it is worth considering if they may not after all be a diminutive representation of the clavate processes surrounding the spore of Equisetum, and perhaps of the elaters found in the spore-cases of Liverworts. This is certain, that the spores and elaters of Equisetum, when at rest, have very much the appearance of the Spirilla in the antheridium of an Urn Moss or a Chara; and since it has been proved that the spiral filaments of Equisetum arise from the splitting of a cell in which a spore is generated, there seems no reason why a similar action mould not take place in cells that are destitute of spores. As to the motion, how are we to tell that it is not a hygrometrical action 1 There is as active a motion in the elaters of Equisetum as in the spirilla of Mosses, only it arises in the former from drying and in the latter from floating in water. Nageli has lately found the spiral threads of Liverworts in the leaves of Ferns.

Equisetum may be regarded as a link between this alliance and Chara on the one hand, while its high degree of composition brings it into the neighbourhood of Ferns and Clubmosses.

By some Botanists the orders of the Muscal Alliance are separated into two neat groups, Hepatic® and Musci; of which the former are without an operculum and have for tiie most part elaters, while the latter have an operculum and always want elaters. But such distinctions seem to be of hardly sufficient importance to be employed fur higher purposes than the distinction of Natural orders.

1. Hepatic*.

Natural Orders of Muscals.

Spore-case* valueless, without operculum or datert . .    15. Ricciacsa.


Spore-cases opening by valves, with an operculum, with-1  lg Auvkaackm*

Spore-cases valvcUss, with an operculum, without elaters .    20. B&yacea.

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Muscalbs.]                                     RICClACEiE.                                                57


Order XV. RICCIACEjE.—Crystalworts.

Kicoxjk, Necs Lebtrvt* 86; Bhchtf in Jfov. Act. xvM. 9.964; Undent, ibid, xtM. 411—Riociacsa,

<EW/. Gen. rrii.

Diagnosis.—Sport-ca*c* valvdcss, without operculum or daters. Terrestrial herbs, of diminutive size, inhabiting mud or water, swimming or floating, usually annual, their leaves and stems blended into a frond of a cellular structure,

creeping, preen or purple underneath, with a distinct epidermis, and a cavity of air-passages beneath it in some species. Antheri-dia immersed in the frond, with their mouth projecting in the form of a papilla, or a slender cone. Pifltilhdia in the frond of the same or a different individual,inunersed or superficial, sessile or stalked ; the common involucre either missing or scaly ; the involucels none, or in the form of little bladders perforated at the point. Spore-cases membranous, united to a calyptra, or distinct from it, globose, bursting irregularly when ripe. Spores triangular, pyramidal, and half round, without elaters.—EndI. These little plants form a plain transition from Thailogens to Acrogens. They have that combination of leaves and stem into what is called a frond, which is characteristic

of Lichens, and their spores may be not unaptly compared to the tetraspores of the Rose-tangle order. But, on the other hand, their spores are collected in large numbers within organs resembling the pistils of phienogamous plants ; they have a distinct axis of growth, and an epidermis is distinctly formed with stomates for breathing with. (Sec Lindenbeiy, 1. c.) While, however, for the latter reasons, they are to be regarded as more elevated in the scale of organization than Lichens, or similar plants, they are inferior to Liverworts and Scale-mosses, because of the absence of those spiral springs called elaters, hy which, in the latter orders, the spores are dispersed; and to Split-mosses and Urn-mosses, because they want the complicated apparatus which is added to the spore-cases of those orders, under the form of either an operculum, or peristome. According to Endlicher, the Crystalworts pass through Corainia into the tribe of Liverworts, and by Sph«ro-carpus into that of Scalemosses. There is a detailed account, by linger, of the anatomy of Riccia glauca, in the Linn*a9 vol. xiii. p. 1. The genus Durieea is regarded by Messrs. Bory and Montague as forming the nearest transition to Liverworts ; they describe it as fructifying under water, which is very seldom the case with the other Crystalworts. Aim. Sc. N. 3 ser. i. 225.

Of the species hitherto known, two-thirds have been observed in Europe, and the remainder in various parts of the world. Several species in North America, the Cape of Good Hope, and Brazil, appear to be very similar to those of Europe.—EndL The uses of Crystalworts are unknown.

ns. xxx vn.


Dortm,B.#Jf<mt. Rfcda, Mich. Lichenoides, Bisch. RkdeDa, A. Broun.

I Hemfcemnata, Bisch.    I 8phttiocarmis, Mich* Riceiocarpus, Cord. Oxymittm, Bisch. SalvinUUa, Httbn.          Ruppinia, Cords.

I Banna, Raf.            I Coninia, Raddi.

QUntheria, Trerir. BrUsocarpus, Bisch. Tcssclinia, Bum. part.

Numbers. Gen. 8. Sp. 29. Lickenacta. Position. Bryacese.—Ricciacz.—Marchantiacese. Ccramiacem.

PIS, XXXVL—1. Ricda natans, a lobs magnified; 3. a portion of it, showing the ipore-cases cat open; 3. spores.

PIS. XXXVII.—Riccia glauca. 1. A young spore-case ; 2. an antheridium ; 3. spores as they lie In the mother cell. 1 lingers

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Ordkb XVI. MARCHANTIACEJE.—Liverworts.

Hepatic*, Juss. Gen. 7. (1789); DC. Fl. Fr. 2. 415. (1815); Agardh Aph. 104. (18S2); Nees db Esenb.inMarUus,Fl.Bras.l.m. (1833); Hooker's British Flora, vol. iL p. 97. (1833); Bischoff de Hepaticis in Act. Acad. NaU Cur. xyii. pan 2. (1836); Ann. des Sc. 2. set. 4. 309. (1836).— Marchantiaceae and Targioniaoen, Ed. pr. Endl. Gen. zx. — Mannhantier and Targioniese, Nees Lebcrmoosc, 84.—Marchantiea, Taylor in Linn. Trans. 17. 377. Diagnosis.—Spore-ca*e*vcdvdcs8yorbursti7ig irrtgularlyvrithoutopercrt

Plants growing on the earth or trees in damp places, composed entirely of cellular tissue, emitting roots from their. under-side, and consisting of an axis or stem which 8                 is leafless, but bordered by membranous expansions, which

sometimes unite at their margins, so as to form a broad lobed frond, having a distinct epidermis pierced by stomates. An-theridia either immersed m the frond, or placed on disk-like sessile or stalked peltate receptacles. Pistillidia lurking within involucres, either placed below the edge of the frond, or on the edge or under-side of stalked heads. Spore-cases stalked, opening by irregular fissures, or by separate teeth. Spores globose, with elaters.

With these plants organization advances another step. To the spores of the Grystalworts are added spiral threads or elaters for their dispersion ; and various lacerated membranes surrounding the spore-cases seem to be imitating the calyx and corolla of perfect plants. There is still, however, a want of true leaves, which are fused, with the stem, into a frond. The principal part of the order has the spore-cases raised on a long stalk, and clustered into a head ; but this character is missing in Targioneee, which Endlicher regards as a distinct order. In these plants, as in Mosses and Charas, each cell of what are called the antheridia contains a body resembling an animalcule of the genus Vibrio, which moves about rapidly in water, as soon as it is liberated from its birth-place. Germination takes place by an universal increase and enlargement of the spore, which becomes lobed, as it were, by the swelling of die cellules, and is afterwards nourished by the emission of a radicular fibre. The original development of Ferns and liverworts is much the same. FL Bras. i. 299.

The Liverworts differ from Crystalworts in having elaters and invohicrate spore-cases, and from Scalemosses or Jungermanniaceae, in the want of power to separate their spore-cases into distinct valves.

Natives of damp shady places in all climates; two were found in Melville Island. The only atmospheric condition to which they cannot submit is excessive dryness.

Little is known of their uses. De Candolle thinks it probable that the larger lands will be found to resemble foliaceous Lichens in their qualities. A few are slightly fragrant, with a subacrid taste. They have been employed in liver complaints, but their use seems a mere superstition. It is, however, alleged that MarchanUa hemisphserica has really proved advantageous in dropsical affections.


Suborder I. Marchan-tk jB.--Sporo-cases capita ie. Involucels membranous, regularly slit

Grimaldia, Radd.

Pleurochiton, Radd.

Syndonisce, Radd.

Mannia, Cord. Duvalla, Nees. Petalophyllum, Nees. Plmhriaria, Nees.

Hypenantron, Cord.

IHctyochiton, Cord. Fegatella, Radd.

Conocephalus, VaiU.

Cynocephalum, Wigg. Lunularia. Michel.

Bedgwickia, Bowd. Plagiochasma, Lehm.

OHona, Cord.

Sedgwickia, Bisch.

At tenia, Font.

Ruppinia, L. f. Antrocephalus, Lehm. Rebouillia, Radd.


Astereila, Palis.

Rhakiocarpon, Cord.

Achitcny Cord.

f Mesoregmaf Cord. Sauteria, Nees.

Hampca, Nees. Dumortiera, Nees.

Hyrophila, Mack.

Hygrophyla, Tayl.

TSpathysia, Nees.

tarchantla, March.

Astromarchantia, Noes!

CKlamidium, Cord.

Preissia, Nees. Chomiocarpon, Cord.

Suborder II.Targionk m. - Spore-cases submar-ginal, solitary, lnvolu-oels wanting.

Targioniaf Michel. Cyath odium, Lehm. f Carpcbotos, Schvetn.

Atbalamia, Falconer.

Numbers. Gen. 15. Sp. 20 !

EquisctcLcea. Position. Ricciaceae.—Marchantiaceje.—Jungermanniacese. LichcnacesB.

Fte. XXXVIIL—1. Marchaiitia eommutata, natural sise; 2. a head of sporec the disk which bean the spore-coses; 4. elater; 6. granular spore.

s; 3. a section of

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Order XVII. JUNGERMANNIACEiE.—Scalebiossrs.

Hmatkuom, | I Junganaannlaoeee et LeJeunlacese, DumorL Comment Botan. 112. (1822K—Junger* mionkcw rf Anthoeerfnea, /d. &M09. /uierm. 6. U831).-Hepaticarum of matt other <<* ttlfcorj.-Jungermanniecee, Nixus PL 84. (1*38).—Nees v. Esenb. NaturaeschickU der Euro pa-isehe* Lebcrmoose. voL L (1833).—E*dL Gen. xxL

DuGHOsis-powwa opening by a definite number of equal valvee, without operculum,

but with elaten. Creeping mow-like plants, either with imbricated very cellular leaves surrounding a central axis* or with the leaves and axis all fused into one common leafy expansion.

AntheridiascatteredfreeyOrimmened. Pistillidia solitary, with both involucre and involucel. Spore-i without an oper-


Suborder!. Jchobrmaw-v*A.-8pore-«aees 1 or 4 valved without a co-

culum, 4-purted, or 4-              Ffe« XLI.

valved, with or without a central columella. Spores mixed with elaten.

Here the approach to a higher organization becomes more manifest Instead of a frond con-sistmff of a stem and the leaves not distinguishable from it, we have, in the majority of cases, well-defined separate symmetrical leaves ; and in the section Anthocerotece there is a central columella, which is evidently a transition to the structure of the Urnmoeses. These Scalemosses differ from the Liverworts in the regularly valvate condition of the spore-cases, and in their long-stalked simple fruits. In Blasia and others, the habit is that of the Liverworts.

Shady woods in hot climates appear to be most prolific in these plants, which, however, seem capable of growing wherever the climate will produce Lichens. The tropics are very rich in them.

Their uses are unknown.

Ifeteerid*. Mctegsria, Radd. Eehinom4triumyCoT&. BeMmoopna, DmnorL Faseiola, Dumort.

Aneurids. THchostjrllam, Cord, Annua, DumorL

GENERA. £0»tr<<i, Radd. MeUgeria, Cord. SarcomUrium, Cord.

Haplolaenida. Blasia, Michel. SymDhjrogyiia, Nees

Pillla, Radd. BcopuHna, Dumort

Dlplomttridje. HoDia, Endt. Sfctfa.EndL

Diphlaena, Dumort DUaena, Dumort. Corfaea, Nees. DiplomUrium, Cord.

Codonid*. Fossombronia, Radd. Codonia, Dumort.

Jubulidse. Lcjeunia, Lib. Pbragmlooma, Dumort* FruUania, Nees. Jubula, Dumort.

Bruopteris, Nees.

Schulthesia. Radd. Physanantbus, Labg. Ptvcba&thuf t Nees.

TFruUantoidee, Radd. Madotbeca, DumorL

Betlincinia, Radd.

Antairia. Radd.

Porella. Dick*. Radula9 Dumort

Radulotypus, Dumort.

CandoUea, Radd. part.

Fig. XXXIX.—1. Spore-case of Jungermannia hyalina ripe and bunting; 1 the same. Terr younc and cowed wtth its calyptia; a. Elater and spots; 4. Antberidium. Fig. XL—JmwermanniaMdentata. Fig. XL1.-L Monoclea ofspata, a Utile magnified 9. Spore-case sad columella; 3. Slater and

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PUUd«. Ptffldlwn, Neet.

Btepharozia, Dumort. Trichocolea, Nees.

Thrichoka, Dumort.

ThricoUa, Dumort.

MMtigophoridK. Sendtuera, Endl.

Mastigophora, Nees. 6chisma, Dumort.

Trichomanid®. Physiotium, Nets. Herpettum, Neet.

Mastiyophora, Nees.

Pleuroschisma, Dum. Lepidoada, Dumort.

Mastigobryum, Nee*.

Pleuroschismatypus% Dum. Calypogeia, Radd. part.

Cincinnulus, Dumort.

GeocalycidK. Gougylanthus, Nees. Geocalyx, Nets. Saccogyna, DumorL Syckorea, Cord*

JtragennannidK. Gymnoscyphus, Cord. Cheiloscyphus, Cord.

Marsupella$ Dum.port Harpanthua, Nees Gymnanthe, Taylor.

Lophocolea, Nets. Jungermannia, Dill.

Aplozia* Dumort.

Lophosia, Dumort.

Cephalosia* Dumort.

Anthelia, Dumort*

Blepharostat)*}, Dum.

Odontoschisma, Dum. Plagiochila, Nees eiMonL

Baduloe sect., Dumort.

Scapania, Dumort.

Candollea, Radd.

? Notarisia, ColL Gymnomitrid*. Alicularia, Cord.

MesophyUa, Dumort. Acrobolbos, Nees.

Sarcoftcyphui, Cord.

Marsupia, Dumort.

Martupella, Dumort Gynwomltrium, Nees.

AcoUa, Dumort. Haplomitrium, Nees.

Afnioptfe, Dumort.

Suborder II. Akthockr-otkjr.—Nees. Spore-cases pod-shaped, split on one side, or 2-vahred* with a columella.

Anthocerot, Mich.

Anthocerltes, Corda. Monodea, Hook. Cladobryum, Noes.

Numbkks. Gen. 42. Sp. 650!

Position. Marchaatiaoeie.—Junobrmanniace&—Andnncese.

The genera present a wonderful variety in the reproductive organs, but in almost all the existence of pistillids and antherids has been demonstrated, and in most cases the development of the spore-cases from the so-called pistillids has been traced. In those in which the plants most resemble Mosses (Bryaoeea) in vegetation, as in Jungermannise, the pistillids are very like those of Mosses; this is also the case in Marchantia; but in Pellia, Anthoceros, and other genera, the rudiment of the spore-case bears a striking resemblance to the so-called ovules of Ferns, Rhizocarps, ftc, occurring upon the expanded fronds the same way as those bodies do upon the pro-embryos of the said families. In all cases the physiological stages are analogous to those of Mosses; since the pistillids produced upon the fronds or leaf-bearing stems developed directly from the spores, go on to produce a spore-case alone, in which the new spores are developed, without the intervention of the stage of existence presented by the pro-embryo of Ferns and Horsetails (Equisetace©), where the pistillids and antherids occur upon a temporary frond, and the former give origin to the regular stem and leaves of the plant—Hmfrey.


Steetaia, Lekm.« Blyttta, EndL Pleuranthe, Taylor, near JuDgermaunia.

Zoopsia, Booker p.

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Muscaleb.]                                  EQUISETACEiE.                                              61

Order XV1IL — Horsetails.

Equbetece*, DC. Ft. Fr. J. 680. <1805); Agardh Apk. 119. (18»i; Kau&tss Emm. FUUum, I. (1834); Addfhe Brongniari HM. Veg. Fas. 99. (1828.)—Endl. Gen. xxv. LinkjUic. sp. p. 9.

Diagnosis.—Sport-cases peltate, splitting on one side, without operculum, and with an dater to every spore.

Leafless branched plants with a striated fistular stem, in the cuticle of which silex is secreted; the articulations separable and surrounded by a membranous toothed sheath. Stem fistular, with many longitudinal cavities in its circumference; chiefly consisting of cellular substance, but coated externally with a layer of hard woody tubes, from which plates of a similar nature project towards the centre, partially dividing the longitudinal cavities from each other. Stomates arranged longitudinally on the cuticle. Spiral vessels veiy small but abundant Spore-cases opening inwards by a longitudinal sKt, attached to toe lower face of peltate scales* which are collected into terminal cones. Spores, oval grains, wrapped round with a pair of highly elastic davate elaters.

Hie remarkable plants blown by the vulgar name of Horsetails, seem to have no very decided affinity to any existing order. With Ferns their relation is not obvious. In the arrangement of their reproductive organs they have a striking resemblance to Zainia»and in their general aspect to Ephedra or Casuarina. Their germination is that of Cellular plants, and approaches nearly to Urnmoeses. The structure of their stem is well described by Ad. Brongniart in his History of Fossil Vegctabies, as are, indeed, other parts of their organisation : see Tables 11 and 12 of that work. This ingenious writer entertains the opinion that the green body, which is known to be the spore, is a naked ovule, and the four swollen filaments that surround it four grains of pollen united in pairs to the base of the ovule. In the last edition of this work I adopted M. Brongniart's view, and accordingly placed Equisetum with Conifer®, an error so very obvious, as to have called forth rebukes, which were richly deserved. The development of the swollen filament* has been carefully observed by Mohl, Henderson, and others, who have demonstrated that they are really produced by the spiral splitting of the cell in which the spore is formed ; in fact, they appear quite analogous, as Mr. Griffith has stated, to the elaters of Marchantiaand its allies, to which the order bears, perhaps, a nearer relation than to any other plant To regard Horsetails as a high form of the Muscat alliance seems to me more expedient than to station them with Ferns and Gfabmosses, to which they seem to have no immediate affinity. The resemblance between the peltate scales of Equisetum and the heads of spore-cases in Marchantia, is too obvious not to strike the most unpractised observer. Link calls these scales Spondochia.

The germination of the spores has been explained, both by Agardh and BischofT. The                            vtttt former (Aphor. 120) describes it thus: from Fig.XLin. three to fourteen days after they are sown, they send down a filiform, hyaline, somewhat clavate, ample root, and protrude a confervoid, cylindrical, obtuse, articulated, torulose thread, either two-lobed (in E. pratense) at the apex, or simple (in E.nalustre). Some days after, several brandies grow out and are agglutinated together, forming a body resembling a bundle of confervoid threads, each of which pushes out its own root. The account of Bisehoff (Nov. Act. Acad. N. Our. 14. t. 44.) is not materially different: he finds the confervoid threads, or numerous processes of cellular development, go on

F|g. XUL—Equieetura arrenee. 1. A peltate diek eeea from the tide. Fig. XL1I1.—Rquiaetura; IU tpom wrapped round by elaters.

*ig. XLlf.

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62                                              EQUISETACK&                                 [Acrookm.

growing and combining! until a considerable cellular man is farmed ; then this mode of development ceases, and a young bud is created, which springs up in the form of the stem of the Equisetum, at once completely organised, with its air-cells, its central cavity, and its sheaths, the first of which is formed before the elongation of the stem, out of the original cellular matter.

Horsetails are found in ditches and rivers in most parts of the world, within and without the tropics.

None are of importance in a medical point of view; they are said to be slightly astringent and stimulating, and have even been recommended as diuretics and emmenagogues ; they are, however, not now employed. In economical purposes they are found to be useful for polishing furniture and household utensils—a property which is due to the presence of a great quantity of silex in their cuticle. According to the observations of John of Benin, they contain full thirteen per cent, of siliceous earth. The ashes have been found by chemists to contain half their weight of silica. The quantity of silex contained in the cuticle of Equisetum hyemale is so great, frat Sivright succeeded in removing the vegetable matter and retaining the form. On subjecting a portion of the cuticle of Equisetum hyemale to the analysis of polarised light under a high magnifying power, Brewster detected a beautiful arrangement of the siliceous particles, which are distributed in two lines parallel to the axis of the stem, and extending over the whole surihoe. The greater number of the particles form simple straight lines, but the rest are grouped into oval forms, connected together like the jewels of a necklace, by a chain of particles forming a sort of curvilinear quadrangle, these rows of oval combinations being arranged in pairs. Many of those particles which form the straight lines do not exceed the 500th of an inch m diameter. Brew* ster also observed the remarkable feet, that each particle has a regular axis of double refraction. In the straw and chaff of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Rye, he noticed analogous phenomena; but the particles were arranged in a different manner, and displayed figures of singular beauty. From these data it is concluded that the crystal* line portions of silex and other earths, which are found in vegetable tissues, are not foreign substances of accidental occurrence, but are integral parts of the plant itself, and probably perform some important function in the process of vegetable life. A very large quantity of starch is found during winter in the rhizomes ; in whose cells, during the month of October, the particles may be seen in active motion, passing up one side, and retreating by the other, much in the same way as in Chant. This I have of tea noticed in Equisetum fluviatile.

GENUS. Equisetum, L.

Numbxbs. Gen. 1. Sp. 10


Position. Marrthantiacem.—Equisetacba.________


The first discovery of the analogy between the development of the spore in germination in the Ferns and Equisetacea, is due to ML G. Thuret, who saw the spores of the latter produce a cellular pro-embryo somewhat like that of the Ferns, and in this were developed antheridis of analogous structure, emitting cellules containing many spiral filaments. This announcement was confirmed by M. Milde, whose observations extended over some months, during which time no "ovule" was produced, but he saw what appeared to be the rudiment of one. Dr. Mettenius states that he has met with decaying " ovules " precisely like those of the Ferns, upon the pro-embryo of one Equisetum; and thus the evidence is completed, so for as the occurrence of the two kinds of organs is concerned.—Henfrty.

H. Thuret> in his last work {Reckerchu} &c«), describes the

antheridfl as growing at the end of the lobes of the prothal-

lium. They are larger than in Ferns. The terminal cells of

the lobes separate to allow the antherozoids to escape, and remain on the lobes like

minute coronets. The antherozoids themselves resemble those of Ferns.

Fig. XLIV.—Antherid of Equisetum, magnified; with three antberasolds, still mora magnified, seen at the side—<tfUr Tkvret.

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Order XIX. ANDRACE.—Splitmossm.

Andneacea, lHxu$ PL 24. (1833); Brit. Gen. xxii. Diagnosis*—pore-outf cpmimg by valve$f with an operculum, without elatcrt. Branching mom-like reddiah or brown plants, with imbricated ribbed or ribless leaves.

Spore-eaee with a calyptra, seated on a fleshy apophysis, splitting longitudinally into four equal valves whose summits are always bound together by the persistent operculum. Peri-stome 0. Spores surrounding a central columella.

1 j 11 ii a u s considered the only genus of which this order consists, the same as Jungcrmannia; more recent observers have withdrawn it to associate with Urnmosses. It hardly, however, belongs more to the one than the other; if it agrees with Urnmosses in having an operculum, it disagrees in having a valvular spore-case ; and if it accords with the ScaJemosses in the latter circumstance, it differs from them in the former, and in the want of elaters-

Natives of cold and temperate regions, especially on rocks in bleak places, as high as the limits of eternal snow, where they form a close mat

Their uses are unknown.


Andrea, Ehr. Aeroechisma, Hook.JU. Pttrophiia, Brid.

Numbers. Gew. 2. Sp. 13.

Position.—Jungermanniacese.— A n d r £acea.—Bry acese.

Pig. XLIV.

Mr. XLIV.—1. Andnmnfralls, nstntal tbe; 2. the asms much magnified ; a. spore-case with the torn jairptia; 4. spore-case after the discharge of the spores ; 5. columella with a few spores adhering; 6. aadnca rapertris much magnified ; 7. its antheridla and thread-like paraphyses.-/foofcr.

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Order XX- BRYACEJB.—Urnkossks.

Muad, Jus*. Oen. 10. tl789>; Htdwig Deter, ei A dumb. (1787-17W) ; Bridel Museoiog reeentrum aXHedJ. Specie* Mu%r. Frondos. IMIWM ** * %*Pfft pam. (1806); Bridtf &w* (1806.1819) ; ?Td*r Tahul. Muse. Frondos. (1813); DC. 17.;FV.1.488. (1815); T. >. I. **# de Muscor. Propaa. (1818); Hooker and Taylor, Muse. Brit. (1818); Hooker. Muset Exotici (1818-1820); Aaardh Aphor. 105. (18M); Oreville and Arnottin Wern.

FL Bdin. m.il8UM Ad. Brongn. in Diet. Class. 11. 248. Ii«l5-** « * « <18»).-Biyace*f fif. pr. (1836); JSW/. Qen. nhr. - Sphagnaceie, i?nd/. Gen. xxitt.

Duoiiosis-—Spor*cases valveU$s9 with an operculum, without datcrt. Erect or creeping, terrestrial op aquatic, cellular plants, having a distinct axis of growth, destitute of a vascular system, and covered with minute imbricated, entire, or serrated leaves. Reproductive organs of two kinds, viz. L Antheridia, which are axillary,

cylindrical or fusiform 12                           3                                     4                ' - -

stalked sacs, containing a multitude of spherical or oval particles emitted upon the application of water, and coiled up bodies which move in water with activity; 2 Pistillidia, or flask-like bodies inclosed within a convolute bract, which is eventually carried up upon the point of the spore-case. Spore-cases, or ripened pistillidia, hollow urnlike vessels, seated upon a seta or stalk, covered by a membranous calyp-tra, closed by a lid or operculum, beneath which are one or more rows of cellular rigid processes, called collectively the peristome, and separately teeth, which are always some multiple of four, and combined in various degrees ; the centre of the theca is occupied by an axis or columella, and the space between it and the rides of the theca is filled with sporules. Spo-rules in germination protruding confervoid filaments, which afterwards ramify, and form an axis of growth at the point of the ramifications.

These little plants, which form one of the most interesting departments of Cryptogenic Botany, are distinctly separated from all the previous tribes by the peculiar structure of weir reproductive organs, in which they resemble no others, except the Scalemosses, whose approach, however, is more apparent than real. In their organs of vegetation they are strikingly similar to many Clubmosses, to which, perhaps, an approach is made by Sphagnum, whose spore-case has no peristome, on which account, indeed, that genus is regarded as a distinct Natural Order by Endlicher.

For a long time Urnmoeses were considered to be destitute of stomates; but first Treviranus, and afterwards Valentine, distinctly proved those organs to be present; (Lin*. Tram. 18, 259). In addition to such apertures, some of the cells of certain species of Sphagnum are pieroed with large round openings ; and Reaper has observed, that such perforated cells are the habitation of the animalcule called Rotifer vulgaris. (Fhra, 1838, p. 17.) Mohl has observed similar openings in the cells of Leucobryum vulgare, (Dieranum glaucum,) and Octoblepharum albidum ; he thinks they are formed subsequently to the construction of the cells. Ann. Sc N. $. xiiL 108. Schleiden confirms

Fig.XLY.-l. Peristome of Tortula raralis; 1 Theca of Ceratodon tentative! of tensl organ* In Meeds longbeta; 4. Brjum roeeum; albUum; 6. Apopfajiisand thee*of SpUchnum lutsum.

; S» Supposed lepie-of OctoMepharum

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McbcalksJ                                     BRYACEJE.                                                 65

this, and adds to the list of porous Urnmosses, Octoblepharum cylindricum, Didymo* don sphagnuides, and Leacohryum minus, albidum, and longifolium.

Mr. Griffith (Oalc. Journ. v.) strenuously advocates the sexuality of the Antheridia and RstaUdia, warding the fonneras a true male apparatus, and the latter as a pistil containing an ovule. not know that he has anywhere adduced proof of the validity of this opinion; and it is difficult to comprehend upon what evidence that theory depends; it may, however, he presumed, that he considers the spores to be analogous to embryos, formed in vast numbers. This admirable observer thinks, that evidence in favour of fecundation in some way in Mosses and Liverworts, is afforded by the breaking up of the tissue, terminating and closing what he calls the style, that is to say, the point of the mstillidium, subsequently to the application of a particular matter, whereby the style becomes a canal, opening externally by a browning observable in the orifice of this canal, extending downwards until it reaches the cavity of the (his) ovary, and by a corresponding enlargement of a cell (his ovule) existing in that cavity. Mr. Valentine, however, does not regard these appearances as connected with fecundation.

An uninitiated person, reading the definition of a genus of Urnmosses, might suppose that to be the tribe in which an approach to the animal creation most nearly takes place. Unacquainted with the exact meaning of the Latin words employed by Brvologists, he might understand by the peristomium a jaw, by the calyptra a nightcap, and by the struma a kind of goitre ; and when he saw that teeth beloiued to this jaw, he would naturally conclude that it was really a vegeto-animal of which he was reacting. Struck with the evident absurdity of giving such names to parts of plants, without at the same time explaining their real nature, I formerly ventured to call the attention of naturalists to the subject by the following paragraph in'the Choline* of the Firtt Prm-dpU* of Botany.

* The calyptra may be understood to be a convolute leaf; the operculum another ; tlie peristomium erne or more whorls of minute flat leaves j and the theca itself to be the excavated distended apex of the stalk, the cellular substance of which separates in the form of spondee."

The reasoning upon which I conceived this hypothesis to be sustained, was the following:—Every one agrees in describing the calyptra as a membrane arising from between the leaves and the base of the young spore-case, and as enveloping the latter, bat having no organic connexion with it: when tne stalk of the spore-case lengthens, no corresponding extension of the parts of the calyptra takes place; so that it must be either ruptured at its apex (as in Jungermannia), or at the base ; and in the latter case it would necessarily be carried up upon the tip of the spore-case, which it originally enveloped. Now, what can be more reasonable than that such an organ, situated as thus described, should be one of the last convolute leaves of the axis which the spore* ' case terminates, bearing the same relation to the latter as the convolute bractea to the flower of Magnolia, or, to speak more precisely still, as the calyptriform bractese to the-flower of Pileanthus! If the calyptra be anatomically examined, especially in such genera as Tortula and Dicranum, no difference in its tissue and that of the leaves will be observable; and that very common tendency to dehisce on (me side only as the 1 diameter of the theca increases, which characterises the dimidiate calyptra, may be understood to be a separation at the line where the margins of the supposed leaf united; in the mitriform calyptra this separation at a given line does not take place, and the consequence is an irregular laceration of its base. The analogy of the calyptra being of this nature, the next inference would naturally be, that the part it contains corresponds with a flower-bud. Upon this supposition, the external series of parts belonging to this supposed bud would be the operculum ; the adhesion of this organ to the spore-case, which would answer to the apex of the axis, or to the tube of the calyx of flowering plants, would be analogous to what occurs in Eucalyptus, or perhaps more exactly to that of Esctecholtzia. As to the number of the parte, in a state of cohesion, of which it is made up, it will be observed that in the paragraph above quoted, it is stated to be one only. My reason for adopting this conclusion was the absence of any trace of division upon its surface or in the substance of its tissue, and also the apparent identity of nature between it and the calyptra when both are young, in the Tortula and Dicranum genera already cited. With regard to the peristomium :—The teeth, as they are called, occupy one or more whorls; they are evidently not mere lacerations of a membrane, because they are in a constant and regular number in each genus, and that number is universally some multiple of 4, as the floral leaves of flowering plants are ordinarily of 3,4, or 5 ; they have the power of contracting an adhesion with each other fey their contiguous margins, as the floral leaves of flowering plants; they alter their position from being inflexed with their points to the axis, to being recurved with their points tuned outwards,—exactly as happens in flowering plants; the teeth of the inner

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66                                                 BRYACEiB.                                     [Acrogkw-

peristomftim often alternate with those of the outer, thus conforming to the law of alternation prevalent in the floral leaves of flowering plants; and, finally, if we compare the various states of the leaves of Buxbaumia aphylla with the teeth of other Urn-mosses, it is impossible not to be struck with the great similarity in the anatomical structure of the two. These considerations led me to the conclusion, that the calyptra, operculum, and teeth of Urnmosses, are all modified leaves; and hence that the spore-case is to be considered more analogous to a flower than to a seed-vessel. With regard to die membrane, or epiphragma, which occasionally closes up the orifice of the spore-ease, it may be considered as formed by the absolute cohesion of the leaves of the peristome, just as the operculum of the genus Eudesmia is formed by the cohesion of petals; and this is confirmed, first, by Calymperes, in which the membrane ultimately separates into teeth, and by the fact that the horizontal membrane exists most perfectly in such genera as Polytnchum and Lyellia, in which there is no distinct peristome. As to the internal structure of this curious apparatus we may regard the spore-case as the hollow apex of the axis, the sporules as a partial dissolution of its cellular tissue, and the columella as the unconverted centre. That the end of the axis or growing point of plants frequently becomes much more thickened than the spore-case of Urnmosses, requires no illustration for those who are acquainted with Eschscholtzia, Roea, or Calycanthus. That tissue is frequently disintegrated for particular purposes, is proved by the production of pollen out of the cellular tissue of an anther, and by the general law of propagation that seems to prevail in all the lower alliances of plants ; the same phenomenon may be therefore expected in Urnmoeses. That the columella should be left in this dissolution of the tissue might be expected, from its being a continuation of the seta or axis of development, the tissue of which is more compact, and of course less liable to separation, than the looser tissue that surrounds it; this is analogous to the separation of the pollen from the connective of most plants, or from parts only of the anther of all those genera which, like Viscum, iEgiceras, or Rafflesia, have what are called cellular anthers-Mr. E. Quekett has lately proved the general accuracy of these views by the discovery of a monstrous moss, in which common leaves take the place of the spore-case, its peristome, and other apparatus. As this is a very curious subject, I extract at length his observations, with a few unimportant omissions:—" Soon after Mr. Ward made known his plan of growing plants in cloeely-glazed cases I had constructed a small case, in which were placed various Mosses, both m fruit, and having the tendency to form fruit. Among the number was a mass of Tortula fallax, showing, at the time, the early condition of the seta, capped with a calyptra. After watching the progress of the plants, it was discovered that the Tortula, which, when placed in it, showed every tendency to produce fruit, now presented, instead of fruit advancing to maturity, a miniature forest of elevated stems, leafy above and below, but in the intermediate portion, destitute of leaves j in fact, all appearance of capsules approaching maturity was dissipated* On 'placing some of the plants under the microscope, it was evident that the specimens were rarnished with the usual leaves at the base of the plant,—the seta existed, and presented the usual brown colour, quite destitute of leaves, but in the place of the capsule, there was a continued elongation of the seta, of a green colour, bearing several green leaves, varying in number in different specimens, being generally from about twelve to twenty. It appears that the capsule had scarcely commenced to be formed, when the elements Of the modified leaves, (which I conceive would have otherwise formed the capsule and peristome), having received an increased degree of heat, combined with more moisture than is natural to these plants, occasioned by the structure of the case, and by its position, instead of being converted into the ordinary capsule and peristome, the matters which entered the plants were not appropriated to the development of organs of reproduction, but underwent a change into a state fitting them apparently for the purposes of nutrition."

Mr. Quekett objects, however, to that part of the theory which assumes the spore-case to be the hollowed apex of the axis; he considers the theca and operculum to be the representatives of a consolidated calyx; the corolla to be the lining membrane, whose fringed edge constitutes a peristome, which is either single or double, and appears to be the representative of the reproductive apparatus; and the columella to be the receptacle, torus or axis on which these several organs are arranged.

Fine illustrations of the Anatomy of Urnmosses will be found in Link's Autgew. Anat. BoL Abbild. Fobc. 4.

Urnmosses are found in all parts of the world where the atmosphere is humid: but they are far more common in temperate climates than in the tropics. They are among the first vegetables that clothe the soil with verdure in newly-formed countries, and they are the last that disappear when the atmosphere ceases to be capable of nourishing vegetation. The first green crust upon the cinders of Ascension consisted of minute

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Mooes; they form more than a quarter of the whole Flora of Melville Island; and the black and lifeless soil of New South Shetland is covered with specks of Mtases struggling for existence. How they find their way to such places, and under what laws they are created, are mysteries that human ingenuity has not yet succeeded in unveiling. The Sphagna occupy vast tracts of morass with their spongy stems and leaves.

The slight astringency apd diuretic qualities of Polytrichum and others caused them to be formerly employed in medicine, but they are now disused. In the economy of man they perform but an insignificant part; but in the economy of nature, how vast an end! Sphagnum forms part of the food of the reindeer; and in the polar regions the inhabitants dry it and make it into a sort of bread " misero vit» deliciae." EndL


Afchldtam, Brid. Phasctun, L.

Pyxidiuw EhrtL PlMiridfum, Brid. ' Bxuehta, Schwasgr. VoiHa, Moug.etNestl.

8aproma9brid. Pbysediuin, Brid. Voitla, Harnseh. Gymnostomiim, Hedw.

PolHm, Ehrh.

Anodontium, Brid.

Pbjaeomitrimn, Brid.

- Hymeaoetomum, ft. Br.

Hymeaontyiiinn. Brid.

Pyiamftditun, BrU.

Ppramtiduia, Brid. Qyopfcila, Brid.

Botticria, Bri&. Batosthymenhiin, Brid. Schktidium, Brid.

Harrisonia, Adans. OrlmmtSj Ekrh. Jl ydropogoo, Brid. Dryptodon, Brid. Kacotnitrlum, Brid. HotomUrfum, Brid. Orthothaca, Brid. Cinclidotm, Palis. Tetraphts, Hedw.

TctrodonHum, Schw.

TetroemU, BrkL

Georgia. EXuh.

TetrapUis, Hedw. Brrrbopodon. Sehwaegr.

CUisostoma, Brid. CampjJopue, Brid.

Thpsanomitrion, Schw. OedJpodfom, Sckwatgr. Orthodon, Borp. Brenodan, Brid.

Cyrtodon* R, Br.

JHssodon* GtBT. et Am. Aplodon, A. Br. Splachnum, L. Ipycmapophysiumjtehb.

Apophysis, Hedw.

JHscapopkpsium, Rchb.

Cystapopkysivm, Rchb.

Jpodatdhus, La-Pyl.

Ulota, Mohr.

LeioUwca.BM. Gryptocarpon, Dozy. IMacroinitriinn, Brid. Schlotheimia, Brid.

Sthizodon, Swarts. Orthodontium, Schw. Zygodon, Book.

Amphidium, Nee*.

Qagea, Radd. Codonoblepharum, Schw Weissia, Hedw.

Afoetia, Ehrh.

Swartsia, Ehrh.

CavanUUa% Barkh.

Brachpodus f Ffirnr.

BrachpodonUum, Fain. Dtocettum, Brid. Cataecoptua, Brid.

Jfeicmia, Brid. Coscinodon, 8pr.

Anaealppta, RObL

Trimatium, PrthL Mielichoferia, Homseh.

Eurpbasis, Brid.

Oreas, Brid.

Auchmangium, Brid. |Galymperea,£*. J Crypkium, Palls. Octoblepharum, Hedw. |CatnpjrlodoDtliUDf Schw. Leocophanee, Brid. Oncophorus, Brid. Trematodon, Rich. jDicnuram, Hedw. Ceratodon, Brid.

Aegiceras% Green. Trichostomum, Htdw. Dtdymodon, Hedw.

BitrichUm, Timm. |pilipogonf Brid. PlanbeUa, Brid. Desuatodon, Brid. iLeticoloma, Brid. Barbula, Hedw.

MoUia, Schrank.

BtrMotrichmm, PaHs.

TorUda, Hedw. |Svntricbia9 Web.eiMohr.\ Encalypta, Hedw.

Stiadophpsium, EndL Leersia. Hedw.

Systyliom, HornsdL BeMleria, J7**. Wardia, J5T<w*. e< ffarr. Trident hnn,tf<xrt, Rafnaria, JT<4ir. Twioria, Jfool

Phrissotrickia, Brid. Biaehystetaim, Jtefcatnb.

Brachypodium, Brid.

Oippkemitriom, Brid. Gtyphomftrtam, ScAw.

OrfBUkia, R. Br. Otrhotricbuair Jfed*.


Bmckytrkkum, Rfthl,

[Cynodonttam, Arid.

tyMnfoditaii, Hedw. Ptychoetonram, Hornseh.

Brachymeniitmj Hook. Hemirinapdam, Brid. C]adodlum,Brid. Biyum, X.

foftmi, Hedw.

IVtttlepaUte, HoAn.

I JW*2i_AdjfcM-CyncUdnun, Bwarts.

mMyodon, Palis. Leptoetomum, /{. Br. Leptotheca, Bchwoegr. lfegalaaghun9 BHd.


cidadtmffusii, Bchw. Pohlia, Ifedw.

Amphtrhimm, Green.

lagemum, Brid* Paludella, jEta. Mnlum, MM.

Orthoppxis, Palls. | Aulacomnlon, &A

Qpmnocephalus, Schw.

J'Wiconia, Palls.

BrrtM, Hedw.

Peromnion, Schwaegr. I Arrtienopterum, Hedw.

Masehalarrhax, Spr. Bartramia, Hedw.

Cepkaloxis. Palto. Pbflonotis, BWd.

Cprtopodium, Brid.

CrppUmte* Hook. Glypbocaipns, A. Br. Plagiopos, BHd. Conoetomum, 5tr. Entoethodon, &a««yr. Funaria9 /f«dw.

Koelreutera, Hedw.

Strtphtdium, Palls. Meeria, J5Wv. ; Ambliodw*, PaUs. Diplocomhim, IT*.

THfaif, Ehrh. |Timmiaf J7«dv.

OfAopAra, Brid. Polytricham* X.

P<V<ma<ww, PaUs.

CoAaWMa, Ehrii.

OHj>olrichum, DC.

rfestnn, Fall*.

Callibrpum, Web. PrflopOum, BrW. Lyellja, & Br. ; Qomphwphorus. Brid. Buxbaumia, Toi/.

£aecot*0rif»i9 Palls. , Bippopodtwm, RShl. Diphjidum, IT«6. rt if.

Hpmcnapogon, Palis. |Dawsonia, A. Bn

TripUctma, La-Pyl.

AylM>iMHisi9Bridl |Hypmimt Xfiui. 8tereodon9 Brid. Fabronla, Baddf. I SUrtophpllum, Brid. MascbaJanthos, &aid2.

Pttrtyynandrum, Hed.

PtetvooniwBt Sw.

AfoadkoldcarpiM, Spr. Leptohymenhun, &Atcr.

Haptohpmeni*m, Schw, Anacampiodon, Brid. Pylaiaaea> Jtev. Leakea9 A»dw. Omalia, Brtd. Hemiraglst Brid.

HeHcodonUumt Schw. Isothedom, BrW.

lAnoectanrium, Bedie.

Hedwaf Hook. ] £na*Mit*, Brid. Endotrichum, Auy. Syniph>sodoD, Bosy. Neckeray Hedw.

BlcutKfria, Palis.

Cprtopue, Brid.

Distkhia, Brid.

Crpptopo&ia, RAhl. |Aotinodonthun9 &A».

Aetinodon, Brid. DaKonia, Joo*.

Macrodon, An. Bendropogon, ScWsip. Rhcgmatodon, Bridt PclerodonUum, ScfttNuyr. Prionodon, f.ifid/. Leocodon, &*w«rr.

Fuscima, Schiank.

Ceca(Kps«isi9 Palis. Pterobryonf Homsch. Leptodon, IT€5.

Io#io,Brid. Dicnemon, Schwaegr.

Eucnemis, Brid.

//o//ia, »eb. lAstrodontlam.&ftMwvr.

Piaubelia, Brid. Symphyodon9 Ifmt JAntltriehla, BrW.

<4*0«iedm. Hook. Climadnmf IT*.

P<>rotrfe*ifl», Brid.

Zp«*richia9 Brid. Trachykma, BrW. JHookeria, Antl*.

PterpgophpUutn, Brid.

Hppopterpoiwm f Brid.

HeiicepAptium, Brid.

CWMop*oru», Palis.

OuuUpKora, Brid. Racopflum, Polif.

nfcrto, PaUS. Cryphaea, Brid. | Pifofrfcftttm, Palis.

Mettorium, Brid. Erpodlum, Brid. ICaroTaglia, £iad/.

Kseiieckia, Brid. LepMopilom, Brid.

iVocaypodiKssBrid. Fontinalis, X. [Spiridens. 2f«». iRhlsoniam, Brid. Schistostenv IPc*.

JHcksorSa. Ehrh. Drepanophyllani, RidL Phyuogonlain, Brid. Phyllaghun. Brid. EasUchiaTBrid. Octodkeraa, Brid. Fiisidens, Hdw.

.Pwciiaa, Schrank. , BcMstophplkm, ¥*lk. [Sphagnum, JHU.

Numbebs. Gen. 44. Sp. 11001

Position. Jungerniaimiace©.—Brtacbje.—Andrcoaceae.

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67 a                                               BRYACEiE;                                     [Acrogkks.

Mr. Henfrey thus states the case as regards the fructification of these plahts :— The antherids oocur in the axils of the leaves or collected into a head, enclosed by numerous variously-modified leaves, at the summit of the stem. They are produced either on the same heads as the pistillids, or in distinct heads on the same individuals, such mosses being called monoecious; or the heads are found only on distinct individuals, such mosses being termed dioecious. The structure of the antherid is exceedingly simple: it consists of an elongate, cylindrical, or club-shaped sac, the walls of which are composed of a single layer of cells, united to form a delicate membrane. Within this sac are developed vast numbers of minute cellules, completely filling it, and, the sac bursting at its apex at a certain period, these vesicles are extruded., When the nearly perfect sacs are placed in water, the vesicles within appear to absorb water, and swell so as to bunt the sac of the antherid, and often adhering together, they oollectively appear to form masses larger than the cavity from which they have emerged. Through the transparent walls may be seen a delicate filament with a thickened extremity, coiled up in the interior of each vesicle. Often before the extrusion, but always shortly after, a movement of this filament is to be observed when the object is viewed in water under the microscope. The filament is seen to be wheeling round and round rapidly within the cellule, tiie motion being rendered very evident by the distinctness of the thickened extremity of the filament, which appears to be coursing round the walls of the cellule in a circle.

The pistillids of Mosses are the rudiments of the fruit or capsules. When young, they appear as flask-shaped bodies with long necks, composed of a simple cellular membrane. The long neck presents an open canal like a style, leading to the enlarged cavity below, at the base of which, according to Valentine, is found a single cell projecting free into the open space. This single cell is the germ of the future capsule; at a certain period it becomes divided into two by a horizontal partition, the upper one of these two again divides, and so on until the single cell is developed into a cellular filament—the young seta; the upper cells are subsequently developed into the urn and its appendages, and as this rises, it carries away with it, as the calyptra, the original membrane of the pistillid, which separates by a circumscissile fissure from the lower part, the future vaginula. These observations of Valentine are not exactly borne out by those of Schimper in some of the details. According to this author, the lower part of the pistillid (the germen of Brown) begins to swell at a certain time, when a capsule is to be produced, becoming filled with a quantity of what he terms " green granulations." As soon as the thickness has become about that of the future seta, the cell-development in the horizontal direction ceases, and its activity is directed chiefly to the upper part, which begins to elongate rapidly in the direction of the main axis. This elongation causes a sudden tearing off at the base, or a little above it> of the cell-membrane enveloping the young fruit, and the upper part is carried onwards as the calyptra; the lower part, when any is left* remains as a little tubular process surrounding the seta. While the young fruit is being raised up by the growth of the seta, the portion of the receptacle upon which the pistillid is borne, becomes developed into a kind of collar, and at length into a sheath (the vaginula) surrounding the base of the seta which is articulated into it there.

Hofmeister describes the details much in the same way as Valentine. He states that there exists at the point where the " style * and " germen " of the pistillid join, a cell, developed before the canal of the style has become opened. In those pistillids which produce capsules this cell begins at a certain period to exhibit very active increase; it becomes rapidly divided and subdivided by alternately directed oblique partitions into a somewhat spindle-shaped body formed of a row of large cells. Mean* while the cells at the base of the germen are also rapidly multiplied, and the lower part of the pistillid is greatly increased in size. The spindle-shaped body continues to increase in length by the subdivision of its uppermost cell by oblique transverse walls, and the opposition which is offered by the upper concave surface of the cavity of the germen, causes the lower conical extremity of the spindle-shaped body to penetrate into the mass of oellular tissue at the base of the germen, a process which resembles the penetration of the embryo into the endosperm in the embryo-sac of certain flowering plants. The base of the spindle-shaped body, which is in fact the rudiment of the fruit* at length reaches the base of the pistillid, and penetrates even some distance into the tissue of the stem upon which this is seated. The growth of the upper part going on unceasingly, the walls of the germen are torn by a circular Harare and the upper half is carried upwards, bearing the calyptra, the lower part forming the vaginule. Hie upper cell of the spindle-shaped body then becomes developed into the capsule, and the calyptra often becoming organically connected with this, as the base of the seta does with the end of the stem; it* in such cases,

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Muscales.]                                       BRYAC&&                                             £7 5

undergoes farther development during the time it is being carried upwards by the growing fruit

The view now entertained by Schimper, Hofmeister, and others, of the reproduction of the Mosses, ia that the antherids are truljr male organs, and that they exert, by means of the spiral'filaments, a fertilising influence upon the pistillid; it being assumed that those bodies, or the fluid they are bathed in, penetrate down the canal of the style or neck-like portion of the pistillid to reach the minute cell—the supposed embryonal cell—situated in the globular portion or germen of the pistillid, and thus render it capable of being developed into a perfect fruit.

No such process of fertilisation has actually been observed in Mosses; all the evidence is at present circumstantial,—but this is very strong. In the first place, it is stated as an undoubted fact by Schimper and Bruch, that in the dioecious Mosses, thoee on which the antherids and pistillids occur in separate plants, fruit is never produced on the so-called male plants, and never on the so-called female, unless the males occur in the vicinity; several examples are cited in the work of Schimper above referred to. When the sexes occur alone, the increase of the plant is wholly dependant on the propagation by gemma or innovations. Mr. Henfrey, in conclusion, expresses his opinion that, by tlie discovery of antherids and pistillids in other higher Cryptogams, the arguments from analogy greatly strengthen the hypothesis of the sexuality of Mosses; but he admits that further observation is required, for the direct proof of the occurrence here of a pftcess of fertilisation,—an opinion in which I wholly concur. To my mind, the arguments respecting the antherozoids of Mosses amount in the present, as in other cases, to nothing more than this—that if antherozoids are not for the purpose of fertilisation, it is impossible to say for what they are intended.

Lantadus-Beninga has published in the Nov. act Acad. NaJt. Our., Vol. xx, an elaborate examination of the nature of the spore-case of this order, especially with reference to the peristoma The scientific botanist who makes Urnmosses a special study, will find an examination of that memoir indispensable.

ADDITIONAL GENERA. Spruces, Hook,/, near Holomltrium.

Bigodinm, Eun*, near Hypnnm.


r,nearLeskea. i, do. near Bryum. Aaehlstodon, do. near Trtchostotnum. DtplosUchom, do. near FlssMens.

Cymbana. Taylor, near Ftssldens* Bartramtdula, Bruch, near Bartramla. Phtlcmotnla, do.               do,

Hedwigidiom, do. near Hedwlgia. Cainpyiosteliam, do. near Dicrsnum, Gartkea, MUUor, near Phaacum. BrachymitrioiL T'ajrtor, near Enealypta. Aulacopilum, WUio*, near Splachnum. Aerobryum, Doty, near Cryphrau

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Alliance V.—LYCOPODALES.—-The Ltoopodal Alliance.

Diagnosis,—Vascular Acrogensy with axillary or radical one—or many-celled spore-casaf and spores of two sorts.

The formation of leaves, which in the Muscat Alliance had become complete, is in this group carried still farther ; for the leaves are now capable of generating spore-cases in their axils. That tendency to form spiral vessels which in Muscales is confined to the cellular tissue, with the single exception of the Horsetails, is now a characteristic of this Alliance, the axis containing in all cases spiral tubes in abundance. The larger of the Clubmosses seem to imitate Coniferous Gymnogens in their manner of growth, and in their tendency to collect their spore-cases in cones. The Pepperworts evidently exhibit an approach to that system of converting leaves into seed-vessels which is so generally characteristic of flowering plants. Here too it would seem that we have a great approach to the manner in which sexual organs are formed in the more perfect classes.


Spore-case* 1-3-cdJed, axillary; reproductive bodies similar . .21. Ltcofodiacbjc SportooM mm                                                                        1 Mahsileacea.

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O&dxr XXL—LYCOPODIACE.—Clobmossm.

._,_____, Smart* ByncpHs FiUcum (1806); R. Brtmm Prodr. 1*4. (1810>; Apardh Aph. H2.

(1822) ; QrcvWc Flat. Ed4n. adl. (IBM); Martha lc. pi. crypt. 37. Q834I.—Lycopodiacee?, DC. J? *V. 2. 257. (1815); Ad. Bnmgn. 1m Diet Clast. 9. 681. (18M); Link. FUie. 8p. 166; EndL


Diagnosis.—ZcqpociaWcrcsfWM, w* 1-3-odfed axillary jport-oues, and the reproductive bodice all of the same nature.

Usually mow-like plants, with creeping stems and imbricated leaves, the axis consist-ing of one solid cord of annular vessels, or of a reticulated column of such vessels intersected by cellular tissue ; or stemless plants, with erect subulate leaves, and a solid conn. Spore-cases 1-3-ceiled, axillary, sessile, either bursting by distinct valves, or

indehiscent, and containing either minute powdery matter, or sporules, marked at the apex with three minute radiating elevated ridges upon their proper integument, or irregularly tuberculated.

Intermediate as it were between Ferns and Coniferce on the one hand, and Ferns and Mosses on the other; related to the first of those tribes in the want of sexual apparatus, and in the abundance of annular ducts contained in their axis; to the second in the aspect of the stemaof some of the larger kinds; and to the last in their whole appearance, Lycopodiaeess are distinctly characterised by th,eir organs of reproduction. These are generally considered to be of two kinds, both of which are axillary and sessile, and have from 1 to 3 regularly dehiscing valves, the one containing a powdery substance, the other bodies much larger in size, which have been seen tp germinate. In conformity with the theory that all plants have sexes, the advocates of that doctrine have found anthers in the former, and pistils in the latter; but, as in other similar cases, this opinion is entirely conjectural, and founded upon no direct evidence: all that we really know is, that the larger .bodies do gerpiinate, and, if we are to credit Wilde-now, the powdery particles grow also. He says he has seen them. I think it is hardly to be doubted that the latter are the abortive state of the former. Link, however, takes quite a different view of the matter, and regards the larger bodies as Antheridia, while the smaller he calls spores. {Ausgew. AnaLBot.Abbild.fa*c.4.t.4.) According to Salisbury, in the Lmncem Tran-tactions, voL 12. tab. 19, Lycopodium denticulatum emits two cotyledons upon germinating; but, supposing this observation, which requires confirmation, to be exact*it is much more probable that the two little scales so emitted are primordial leaves than analogous to cotyledons. The genus PhyDogloasum b remarkable for having the foliage, and mode of growth of Isoetes combined with the firnctafication of a Lyoopodium, and offers a strong argument

PIS.XLTI.-1. Berohardia dfcbotoma; 2. its tntm-case; 8. the tame, cat across; 4. Lycopodium ABBotfmim; ft.tteiporo-caae, with the teste to trhidi It is azfflaiy. flg. XLV1I.-1. Spore-case of Lyoopodinm dentfculatam opened; 2. sntheridlum; 3. spore.—Lias.



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70                                             LYCOPODIACEiE.                               [Acboobws.

to those who would place the former genus in tide natural order. It is said to have quite the appearance of Plantago pusQla.

According to Ad. Brongniart, the stem of a Lyco-podium is almost identical, anatomically, with the root of Ferns.

In geographical distribution these follow the same laws as Ferns, being most abundant in hot humid situations in the tropics, and especially in small islands. As they approach the north they become scarcer; but even in the climate of northern Europe, in Lapland itself, whole tracts are covered with Lycopodium alpinum and Selaginoides.

The powder contained in the sore-cases of Lvco-podium clavatum and Selago is highly inflammable; shaken out and collected it is employed under the name of Lvcopode, or vegetable brimstone, on the Con-                 F XLYIII

tinent, in the manufacture of fireworks,and in pharmacy

to roll up pills, which when coated with it may be put into water without being moistened. The plant of Lycopodium clavatum has long been used as an emetic, and that of L. Selago as a cathartic; but it is said that if the dose is not small it is followed by faintness and convulsions; it is regarded as a powerful irritant, and has been externally employed for keeping blisters open, and as a counter-irritant in cases of inflamed eyes. The most remarkable plant of the order, however, is the Yatum condenado (Yatum Great Devil, and condenado accursed,) which appears to be the Lycopodium rubrum of Chamisso. Sir W. Hooker, who calls it L. catharticum, states that it acts most vehemently as a purgative, and has been administered successfully in Spanish America in cases of elephantiasis. According to Vastring, Clubmosses are likely to become of importance in dyeing; he asserts, that woollen cloths boiled with Lycopodiums, especially with L. clavatum, acquire the property of becoming blue when passed through a bath of Brazil wood. Lycopodium Phlegmaria is reputed an aphrodisiac. So also the rock* lily, a name sometimes given to Selaginella convoluta, Spring, also called Lycopodium squamptum, a plant remarkable for its hygrometrical properties, rolling up into a ball when dry and unrolling again when damped, is asserted by Martins, who found it abundantly in the provinces of Bahia and Pernambuco, to act upon the mucous mem* brane, especially of the uropoetic system. " Potentiam virilem amissam ejus decocto reduci posse perfaibent, quo jure nescio." He, however, advises a full trial to be made of these and the East Indian species.


LepidoUs, Pali*.         I IHphetachgwn, Palis.

ChamaeeHnis, Mart. I Qymnogynum, Palls. Selaglnella, Spring.          FhyllogloiMim, Kunze.

Tmedpterfe, Bernh. Psttotum, Stout*.

Bernhardt wmd.

tfo/frianma, WDM.

IViifaca, Palls. Lycopodium, Linn. Selago t Hooltet Gran. Huperria, Bemh.

StachwynandrumfV*. Numbers. Gezc. 1. Sp. 200. (Hooker.)

Oomferm. Positioh.—-Ophioglossace®.—Ltcopodiacejc—Maruleacees.

Fig. XLVIIL—Lycopodium apodum—after Paper.

Spring Monographed* la famMe dee LycopodiaakstUo. Br*s*b,1842A9. Karl Miller inBoian. Zeilmng,

The following ample account of modern attempts to explain the nature of the reproductive organs of Lycopods is condensed from Mr. Henfrey*s valuable report, to which I am already so much indebted:—

The fructification of this femily consists, as is well known, of spikes clothed with fruit-leaves, bearing on their inner faces sporangia containing spores. These spores are of two kinds. One sort occur in large numbers in their sporangium, and are very small; the others are much larger, and only four are met with in a sporangium* Spring, who has devoted great attention to the general characters of the Lyoopods, has given especial names to the two kinds of spore-cases; those with the four large spores he calls oophorids, those with the small spores antherids; but he did not mean to attribute a sexual antithesis, merely a morphological one, as he expressly states.

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Lyoofodalb,]                            LYCOPODIACRfi.                                         70 a

The general impression with regard to the import of the two kind* of spores has long been, that the large spores alone are capable of producing new plants; and five years ago, Dr. C. MttUer published a memoir, of which the following are the essential results:—

The large spores are more or less globular bodies, usually flattened on the surfaces in which they are in contact with the oophorid; thus, while the outer aide has a spherical surface, the inner side has three or four triangular surfaces, as in L. selagi-noides and L. denticulatum. They possess two coats, the outer very thick, and composed of numerous cells, the cavities of which are almost completely filled up by deposits of secondary layers. This outer coat exhibits various forms of raised markings on its outer surface, and in some cases these seem to form a distinct layer—a kind of cuticle, capable of being separated from the subjacent cells. The inner coat of the spore is usually perfectly structureless, and not very firmly attached to the outer coat In L. gracillimum Dr. Mailer observed below the outer coat a structure composed of a layer of rather large parenchymatous cells, which could be easily isolated; and as there was no structureless membrane within this, he regarded the layer as the proper inner coat. This observation is important in relation to the discrepancies between MUUer's statements and those of Mettenius, to be spoken of presently. The cavity of the spore is filled with granular mucilage.

When the spore is placed in favourable circumstances for germination it begins to swell up, and if the contents be examined with the microscope, a few minute cells will soon be found to have become developed in the mucilage. This cell-formation commences at a determinate spot upon the inner coat of the spore, the cells being so firmly applied that they appear blended with this inner membrane. The cell-formation goes on till an obtuse conical process is developed, which breaks through the outer tough coat of the spore, and this process is recognized as the germinal body or heim kirper, corresponding to the pro-embryo of the other Cryptogams. From this, which at this period does not by any means fill the cavity of the spore with its lower portion, an ovate process is produced, at first obliquely directed upwards, the bud of the future stem, and a conical process taking the opposite direction representing the radicle. On the ascending process a distinction can soon be observed between the terminal bud, a little oval body, and a short thread-like stem on which it is supported; as the bud opens, the leaves appear in pairs.

With respect to the import of the spores, Mailer says: "Up to the present time it remains doubtful what purpose is served by the antherid spore. Some persons maintain one opinion, others another. One author declares he has seen it germinate, another that he has never been able to do so. Kaulfuss relates that Fox sowed Lye. Selago, and Lindsay L. cernuum with success, and that L. clavatum sprung up abundantly with Willdenow. With himself it did not succeed; but the garden-inspector, Otto of Berlin; raised L. pygmseum several years in succession from seed. The last case, however, is readily explicable, since L. pygmseum possesses oophorids.* GOppert states that he has seen the development of young plants from antherid spores in L. denticulatum. Miiller, however, doubts whether the observation was exact, since Gdppert never mentions seeing a young plant actually adherent to an antherid spore, and the young plant he figures closely resembles a Fissidens. In his own attempts to raise plants from antherid spores, MQller in every case foiled. He does not deny, however, that they mav be capable of germination, eepeciallly as some Lycopodiacea appear to be devoid of oophorida.

In 1849 appeared M. Hofmeiater's notice on the fructification and germination of the higher Ciyptogamia, in which he indicated the existence on the pro-embryo of Selaginella, of a number of peculiar organs, composed of four papilliform icells, enclosing a large globular cell in the centre. In one of these large spherical cells the young plant is produced.

In 1850, Mettenius published an essay on the Propagation of the Vascular Oyptogams, and in this is to be found a full description of the organs mentioned by Hofinaister, but overlooked by C. If tiller. According to this author, the large spores of Selmginella involvens possess two coats, each composed of two layers; and in an early stage of the germination, the inner layer of the outer coat, together with the inner coat, form the walls of a globular body which does not wholly fill the cavity enclosed by the outermost membrane. This globular body is firmly attached to the outer membrane immediately under the point of junction of the three ridges separating the flattened surfaces of the inner side of the spore. The globule enlarges until ita walls come to be applied closely to the outer layer, completely filling up the large cavity. Then between the two layers of the inner coat, at a point immediately beneath the point of junction of the three external ridges, a process of cell-formation commences, producing a flattened plate of tissue interposed between the two layers;

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70 b                                           LYCOPODIACEJE.                               [AcBOoras.

this structure is the pro-embryo. The cells are at first in a single layer, but the central ones soon become divided by horizontal septa, so as to produce a double layc r, and finally, four or more tiers of cells one above another. The outline of the pro embryo, seen from above, is cellular, spreading over the upper part of the spore, On its surface appear the so-called ovules. The first is produced at the apex of the pre-embryo; the rest> to the number of twenty or thirty, arranged upon its surface in th?ee lines corresponding to the slits by which the outer coat of the spore bursts. These ovules, closely resembling those of Salvinia, Pilularia, the Ferns, &c., consist of a globular cell, surmounted by four cells, which rise up into four papillae, and leave a canal, or inter-cellular passage between them, leading down to the globular cell or embryo-sac. The four cells are usually developed into four or five cells> one above the other, by the production of horizontal septa; sometimes they are developed unequally, and to a considerable extent, so as to form papillae, presenting an orifice between them at some point on the outer surface, indicating the canal leading down to the embryo-sac.

During the development of the ovules, a delicate parenchyma is produced in the great cavity of the spore, finally entirely filling up this spore. Before it has completely filled it, the embryo makes its appearance in the embryo-sac of one of the ovules.

The first change in this sac is the appearance of a nucleus; from this cells are developed representing the suspensor of the embryo. The cells of the suspensor multiply and form the process which penetrates down into the parenchyma of the cavity of the spore; at the lower end may be detected the embryo, a minutely cellular body. Dr. Mettenius never saw the embryo produced in the embryo-sac before the suspensor had broken through the bottom of it to penetrate the parenchyma of the spore-cell; it was always within this parenchyma, and attached to the end of the suspensor. In this point he is decidedly opposed to Hofmeister, who states that the embryo originates in the embryo-sac, whence a young embryo attached to its suspensor may easily be extracted from the spore.

The part of the embryo opposite to the point of attachment of the suspensor corresponds to the first axis of the Rhizocarpeee, which never breaks out from the epore-oell in Selaginella; it pushes back the loose parenchyma of the spore-cell as it becomes developed, and when completely formed, is surrounded by a thin coat composed of several layers of the parenchymatous cells much compressed, enclosed in the still existing inner coat of the spore. On one ride of the point of attachment of the suspensor the embryo grows out towards the point where the spore-cell has been ruptured, thus apparently in a direction completely opposite to the end of the axis. As it enlaiges, it produces in this situation the leafy stem growing upwards, and the adventitious root turning downwards. The pro-embryo is at first distended like a sac, and finally broken through on the one side by the first leaf, on the other by the adventitious root; upon it may be observed the numerous abortive ovules, with their embryo-sacs filled with yellow contents; part of its cells grow out into radical hairs. Dr. Mettenius several times saw two young plants produced from one spore; the ends of their axes lay close together, and separated inside the cavity of the spore. No account is here given of the characters exhibited by the small spores, or of anything like a process of fertilization; yet there is indicated in the foregoing description of the so-called ovules, a clear analogy between these bodies and the so-called ovules of the Ferns and Rhizocarpeae. These points will be referred to again at the close of the report Hofmeister further states that spiral filaments are produced from the small spores of Selaginella, but he does not say that he has seen them, or give any authority. So far Henfrey.

Mr. Thuret reports (Recherche* mr Us Zoospores de$ Algue*f Ac. p. 81) that he has often tried to make the spores of L. clavatum and inundatum grow, but could never succeed, any more than with those of Adder's-tongues (Ophioglossaceie), which are very analogous to those of Lycopods. " Must we then conclude," he say?, " with M. Spring, that these genera consist exclusively of males ? I would prefer to suppose that the true fructification of these plants still remains to be discovered."

(See also page 53 d)

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Order XXII. MARSILEACE.—Pbpferworts, or Rhizocarps.

Rttmarpe, Batsch. Ttob. Jff. (1803); Agardh Aph. 111. (1822).-Rhizosperm», Both. DC. FL Ft. S. m. ll815).-Hydrouterides, WUld.Sp.PL 5. 634, (1810).-Marsileace«, JL Brown Prodr. lWf 11810); Qrtv. FL Edinens. xii. (1824); Ad. Brongn. in Diet. Class. 10.196. (1826); DC. and ihifc*, 542. (1828); Martius, tc. PL CrypL 121. (1834); Endl.gcn. xxxIy.-Salviniee, Ju«. M3ftfr6. £*A». 853. (1815)*—SalYiniaee*, Bar* On*. ifcK. 15. (1830); MarUus, Ie. Plant. CrypL 123. (1834) * Ed. Pr. Endlick gen. uxiil.—Isoetese, Rich. Bartl. Ord. 16. Bndiich. gen. xur.-Stlviniiie ud Asol-lime, Griffith in Calcutta Journ., toI. t.

DfAGitottis.—Lycopodal Acrogcns, with many-celled radical spore-cases, and the reproductive bodies of two different kinds.

Stemkss plants, creeping, or floating; leaves usually stalked, sometimes sessile and scaly, occasionally destitute of lamina, and rolled up in vernation. Reproductive organs enclosed in involucres! and of two kinds; the one, clustered and stalked, or crowded confusedly without stalks, and distinct from the second, or mixed with it, or in contact with it; the other, simple oval bodies, sometimes having a terminal nipple, from which germination uniformly proceeds. [Stem and leafstalks filled with longitudinal cells. A central ample fascicle of vessels composed of scalariform ducts and prosenchyma, enclosing in the middle a quantity of elongated cells containing starch. Leaves with nerves, veins and stomates.—Martxus.]

The Order to which Pilularia and Marsilea belong                       ,

consists of floating or creeping plants, often having the circulate vernation of Ferns, with their reproductive organs in close cases, called involucres, springing either from the root, or from the petioles of the leaves. These involucres contain oval bodies of two kinds, one of which has been called anther, and the other capsule. Figures of Marsilea vestita and polycarpa have been published by Hooker and Greville, at t. 159 and 160 of their nobl? fames Filicum. From these, and the more detailed observations of Esprit Fabre, it is clear that the involucre of that genus consists of an involute leaf analogous to the carpellary leaf of flowering plants.

Esprit Fabre has also shown, (Awn.Sc.Nal. 2ser. 7.221, 9. 115 and 381, and 12. 255,) that on the side of a mucilaginous cord, which I regard with Braun as a midrib, proceeding from the involucre when it opens, there arise oblong plates bearing two sorts of bodies packed closely, sometimes intermixed, but sometimes separated, so that each occupies a different side of the plates (which are leaflets). He regards these two sorts of bodies as anthers and ovules, and says, that their mutual position is such, that the side which bears the ovules is above that which bean the anthers. The u ovules " are from 10 to 15 on each side, whitish, semitransparent, ovoid, obtuse at one end, and terminated at the other by a nipple. The " an.

then " are little flattened parallelopi-*                pedons, rounded at each end. " They

consist of a membranous sac, very

thin and transparent, in which you see

numerous pollen grains. The latter are

spherical or elliptical, often pointed

on one side. When you crush them

beneath the microscope, spermatic <

granules of extreme smallness are

seen to come out." Germination of

this species takes place, according

to the same observer, from the

nipple at the point. He thinks, that

the two sorts of bodies are certainly

anthers and ovules, because, if they are

left apart in water they putrefy, while, on the other hand, if mixed together in water, he has seen the sides of the "anthers" burst, and the « grains of

Fig. XLIX.—1. Growing plant of Marsilea pubescent; 2. an involucre opened by 2 vahres, from which fins a leaf whose lateral leaflet! are loaded with spores; 3. on involucre which has opened, and from wUditbesporiferousleafisdiieiigagiiigttaelf; at A is seen the ride which Fabre regards as anthers.

Fig. XLIX.

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Fig L.

poUcn " collect about the nipple at the surface of the water, after which the « ovules " fell to the bottom, where, at the end of seven or eight days germination commences. These observations, however, require to be repeated: for Braun (Flora, 1839, p. 297,) and Griffith each regards both sorts of bodies as sporules. Fabre's experiment calls to mind those of Professor Savi of Pisa, upon Salvinia, another plant of this Order. He put into different vessels, 1st, the seeds alone ; 2d, the male globules alone ; and 3d, both mixed. In the first two vessels nothing appeared ; in the 3d, the seeds rose to the surface of the water and fully developed. But Duvernepr haa since published a dissertation upon this plant, m which he states that, having repeated the experiments of Savi, he has not obtained the same results, and that the seeds, when separated from the supposed male organs, developed perfectly.

The structure of Pi-lularia is analogous. From the very correct and careful observations of Valentine, (Linn.TraUB. 18.483,) it has apparently been proved, that the so-called anthers of that plant are, as I formerly suggested, nothing but abortive spores.

Folio ving Jussieu, Salvinia and AzoUa were separated in the last edition of this work as a distinct Natural Order, a view that Endlicher has since taken. But upon a full consideration of the structure of these plants, or of what is known of it, it does not appear to justify the separation. like Pilularia and Maralea, they have two distinct kinds of reproductive bodies enclosed in involucres, and that seems to be the main feature by which Pepperworts are known as an Order from Lycopodiacese. For the same reason it appears better to combine with them Isoetes, instead of reu

ring that too as the type of still another Order. Griffith does not include Isoetes among these plants i but I cannot assent to the propriety of erect-injrevery genus in this curious Order into a Suborder. The genera Salvinia and Azolla have been the subject of some elaborate observations by Mr. Griffith, (Calcutta Journal, vol. v.), who elevates each into a Suborder, and throws an entirely new light upon their structure. He regards them as having true sexes, the male being certain necklace-shaped threads found at an early stage, in contact with what he denominates an orthotropous ovulum. But strange to say, this so called ovulum, instead of giving birth to an embryo, becomes the parent of reproductive bodies

of two totally different lands, having not even the smallest resemblance the one to the other, although the matrix out of which they are evolved is identical at an early period of the organisation. I regret that Mr. Griffith's most curious memoir only reached me as this sheet was goin to press, so that it was impossible to have cuts prepared to illustrate his observations, for which the reader is referred to the work above quoted All I can do is to give in a note the substance of his descriptions of Salvinia and Azolla.*

*SalvintavcrticiUata.—Male organs? articulated hairs cm the stalks of theomU; each Joint containing a nodeus and a brownish fluid; OyuIs nearly sessile, concealed by the roots, and party covered

4uPig'JjrMar,nef P*beecens 1* different states of germination; advancing from L the spent, up to 4. we nerrect young plant.

Fig. U.-1. Pdularia giobnliferm; S. spore-case, natural site, banting; 3. the same younger and magnified; 4. a section of the spore-case, showing the large and small spores, (after Yalentlneh

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Ltcopodalm.]                             MARSILEACRB.                                             73

Delile has published an account of the germination of Iaoeteg aetacea, from which it appears that its sporules sprout upwards and downwards, forming an intermediate solid hidy, which ultimately becomes the stem, or conn; but it is not stated whether the points from which the ascending and descending axes take their rise are uniform. In Pilularia Mr. Valentine finds, that germination takes place invariably from a fixed point Delile points out the great affinity that exists between Isoetes and Lycopodknn, particularly an the relative position of the two kinds of reproductive matter. In Lycopodium, he says the pulverulent spore-cases occupy the upper ends of the shoots, and the granular spore* cases the lower parts : while, in Isoetes, the former are found in the centre, and the latter at the circumference. If this comparison is good, it will afford some evidence of the identity of nature of these bodies, and that the pulverulent ones are at least not anthers, as has been supposed ; for in Isoetes the pulverulent inner bodies have the same organization, even to the presence of what has been called their stigma, as the outer granular ones; so that, if Isoetes has sexes, it will offer the singular fact of its anther having a stigma. The anatomy of Isoetes is described by Mohl in the Zmiums, xhr. 181.

Hie Pepperworts evidently approach the CSubmosses through Isoetes, which is some-times referred to the one Orier, sometimes to the other. Their genus Azolla appears to bring them into contact with JungermanniacesB. According to Mr. Griffith, Marsilea evidently appears to connect Salvima with Ferns ; u its important differences from Sal-vim* consist in the capsules, which correspond to the secondary capsules of that family, being developed within the substance of a modified leaf, in their occurring mixed with each other, Mid in the spores of the pedicellate capsules not becoming imbedded in apparently cellular masses."

All are inhabitants of ditches or inundated places. They do not appear to be affected by climate so much as by situation, wherefore they have been detected in various parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America ; chiefly however in temperate latitudes.

Uses unknown.

GENERA. FOnlarfa, Linn.                    I AioDa, Lorn.                        I Isoetes, Una.

Ifantlea, Xfcm.                    I Carpanthus, Kaf.                       Calamaria, DDL

Lemma, Jos.                     I Bhiioiperma, Meyen*         I

ZatwrtanmVa, Neck.         | Salvia!*, MiduL                   \

Nuxbebs. Get. 5. Sp. 24.

FiUee$. Position—Lycopodiaceee,—Mamit.kacejl—Jungermanniacen.

with hair*; tegument open at the top; mature reproductive organs solitary, or in racemes of 3-6> about As sfa» of a pea, covered with brown rigid hairs. The upper on* of each raeemet (or lowest ae regards gMJorml situation,) contain innumerable sphsrrical bodies, of a brownish colour and reticulated cellular surface, terminating capillary simple filaments. These Main contain a solid whitish opaque body. The other, which occupies the lowest part of the raceme, and which is the fiiat and often the only one developed, is more oblong, containing 6-18 larger, oblong-orate bodies, on short stout compound stalks: colour brown, surface also reticulated. Each contains a large, embocsed, opaque, ovate, free body, of a chalky aspect: it is three-lobed at the apex, and contains below this a cavity lined by a yellowish mem* btane, filled with granular and viscid matter and oily globules.

Asoila pinnata.—The growing points preeent a number of minute oonfervoid filaments, the assumed ale organs, which at certain periods may be seen passing into the foramen, the ovula becoming resolved into their component cells within the cavity of that body ; organs of reproduction in pairs, attached to the stem and branches, one above the other, concealed In a membranous involucrum; ovula atropous, obkNg-ovate, with a conspicuous foramen and nucleus, around the base of which are cellular protuberances ; capsules of each pair either diflbrm—in which case the lowest one is oblong-ovate, the upper globose or both of either kind, generally perhaps the globose, presenting at the apex the brown remains of ths foramen, and still enclosed in the involucrum; upper half generally tinged with red; the oblong-ovate capsule opens by drcumdsion; with the apex separate the contents, which consist of a large yellow sac contained in a fine membrane, the remains of the nucleus (or the secondary capsule.) The sac is filled with oleaginous granular fluid, and surmounted by a mass of fibrous tissue, by which K adheres slightly to the calyptra; on the surface of the fibrous tissue are 9 cellular lobes (the three upper the largest), which when pulled away, separate with some of the fibrous tissue, and so appear provided with radJdee. The globose capsule has a rugose surface from the pressure of the secondary capsules within; Sieee are many in somber, spherical, attached by long capfllifonn pedicels to a central much branched rweptade; each contains two or three cellular masses, presenting on their contiguous faces two or three ndkitem prolongations, la their substance may be seen imbedded numerous yellow grains, the spores.

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73 a                                           MARSTLKACRfi.                                 [Aobookot.

Very fall details respecting the structure of this order are given by Mr* Henfrey, whose report is here quoted almost literally:—

The spores of the Iso&es lacustris are of two kinds, analogous to those of the Lyoopods; both kinds being produced in spore-cases imbedded in the bases of the leaves, but the large spores are found in great numbers, not merely four in a sporangium as in the Lyoopods. The development of the spores was little known until the publication of an essay on the subject in 1848, by Dr. C Miiller, forming a sequel to his researches on the Lyoopods.

Miiller compares the complete large spore, as discharged from the sporangium, to the ovule of flowering plants; and he describes it as a globular sac enclosed by three coats, which he names the primine, secundine, and the nucleus. The outermost coat, or primine, is stated to be composed of a thick cellular membrane exhibiting a raised network of lines, which give it the aspect of a cellular structure, but are m reality analogous to the markings on pollen-grains. The outer surface exhibits the lines indicating the tetrahedral arrangement of the spores in the parent oell, as in Selaginella, and it is at the point of intersection of these that the membrane gives way in germination. The next coat, or secundine, is another simple membrane lining the firrt. The nucleus is a coat composed of delicate parenchymatous cells, but among these are found groups of peculiar character. These are described as consisting of a large cell divided by two septa crossing each other at right angles, projecting from the general surface, being either oval in the general outline, or having four indentations opposite the cross septa, so as to give the appearance of the structure being composed of four spherical cells. The cells surrounding them are of irregular form, different from the generally six-sided cells of the rest of the nucleus. Many of these groups occur on the nucleus, always at the surface of the coat where the primine and secundine afterwards give way, scattered without apparent order over it, but one always near the point of the opening. To these structures Dr. Mtlller did not attribute any important function, explaining them merely as produced by peculiar thickenings of the tissue to protect the pro-embryo during germination. The contents of the nucleus were stated to resemble those of the cavity of the spores of Selaginella.

In these contents, which become dense and mucilaginous, a free oell is developed near the upper part of the cavity; this is the rudiment of the embryo, and by cell-multiplication it becomes a cellular mass, which soon begins to exhibit growth in two directions, producing the first leaf and the first rootlet, projecting from a lateral cellular mass, which the author calls the i€ reservoir of nutriment." The embryo then breaks through the coats, the first leaf above, and the first root below, the coats remaining attached over the central mass of the embryo. The subsequent changes need not be mentioned here, further than to state that the leaves succeed each other alternately, and are not opposite, as in the Lycopodiace©; moreover, no internodes are developed between them, so that the stem is represented by a flat rhizome, like the base of the bulk of many Monocotyledons.

In the paper by Dr. Mettenius, already alluded to, we find some very important modifications of, and additions to, this history of development of the spores of Isogtes, bringing them into more immediate relation with the other vascular Cryptogams.

This author describes the spore-cell as a thick structure, composed of several layers; in some cases he counted four. It completely invests the pro-embryo, which is a globular cellular body filling the spore-cell. Among the cells of the outermost layer of the pro-embryo (which layer forms the nucleus of Dr. Miiller), on the upper part, are produced the ovules, fewer in number than in Selaginella, arranged in three rows converging upon the summit of the spore, these rows corresponding to the slits between the lobes of the outer coat of the spore. The four superficial cells of the ovules (which are evidently the peculiar groups mentioned by MUller, and previously noticed by Valentine) grow much in the same way as in the Khizocarpece and in Selaginella, into short papillae. The embryo is developed in the substance of the proembryo, displacing and destroying its cells, and a globular portion (corresponding to the u reservoir of nutrition9' of MUller) remains within the spore after the first leaf and rootlet have made their way out. This body is the analogue of that portion of the embryo of Selaginella which penetrates into the cavity of the spore, and to the end of the first axis in the Rhizocarpeaa.

The most important point, however, of Dr. Mettenius's researches relates to the phenomenon exhibited by the small spores. In the water in which the spores were sown, he observed moving spiral filaments resembling those of the Ferns. He was not able to trace all the stages of development of these spiral filaments from the small spores, but he obtained nearly all the evidence relating to their origin which Nageli has done in reference to the similar organs in the Pilularia. In the small

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            Ltcopodalbl]'                           MARSILEACJLE.                                           73 6

?             spores minute vesicles ate produced of varying size and number, seen through the

outer coat. The inner coat or spore-cell breaks through the outer coat either in the

middle or at both ends at the projecting ridges, by which they are originally in

contact with the other spore-colls. Its contents are expelled, as is proved by finding

numerous empty membranes. The expelled vesicles are met witn in considerable

number in the water, and contain one large or several small granules, and in them

the spiral filaments are apparently produced; but the actual course of development

J>              was not observed. In one case a spiral filament was seen half-way out of the spore*

I               cell in active rotation, finally emerging completely, so that the moving spiral filaments

[               are probably developed in the vesicles, while these are still contained within the

8DO»H*li NO actual connexion of these moving spiral filaments or spermatozoa with

I               the so-called ovules has yet been traced.

I                   In 1843 Schleiden announced that he had observed a process of impregnation in

[               POularia* in which the small spores acted the part of pollen-grains, producing tubes

which entered into a cavity on the surface of the large spore or " ovule,*9 and, in

accordance with his views of impregnation in general, became the embryo.

'                   u After the ripe spores have lain a longer or shorter time in water, a process of

|                cell-formation commences at that point of the snore within the proper, internal

spore-cell, whence results the formation of a cellular body occupying only a small

i                portion of the internal cavity of the spore. The cells multiply rapidly, and break

through the exine, appearing externally as the green cellular papilla called the

4 Beim-wulst' by Bischoff, the * papilla of the nucleus' by Schleiden. I see no ground

why this should be named otherwise than as the pro-embryo. In Pilularia it is very

soon seen,—where the pro-embryo consists of only about thirty cells, completely

enveloped by the exine, and where the only external evidence of its existence is a

t               little protuberance,—that the pro-embryo consists of a large central cell surrounded

*              by a simple layer of smaller ones. The smaller cells covering the apex of this large

{               cell, four in number, elongate into a papilla before the pro-embryo bursts through the

exine, which splits regularly into twelve to sixteen teeth; subsequently they become

i              divided by horizontal walls, and then appear as the organ which Schleiden, and after

I              him Mettenius, supposed to be pollen-tubes produced from some of the small spores.

K             These papilliform cells most certainly originate from the pro-embryo, a fact which

If             takes away all material ground from Schleiden's theory.

U                 "The four papilliform cells separate from each other, and leave a passage leading

f              to the large central cell. In this cell the young plant originates shortly after thq

smaller spores, which never produce pollen-tubes, begin to emit the cellules containing l             spiral filaments discovered by Nageli. I observed and dissected out an embryo

+            consisting of only four cells. It completely filled the large central cell, and there

(was not the least trace of a pollen-tube attached to it u The organization of Salvinia is somewhat different from this. On every pro-embryo, several, as many as eight cells of the outer surfeoe of the cellular layer next I              but two to the obtuse triangular cellular body, acquire a considerable size, a spherical

f              form, and become filled with protoplasm; the four cells covering each of these larger

cells lose the greater part of weir chlorophyll, and separate from each other to leave !               a passage leading down to the large central cell. In this large cell the young plant

originates. The number of these organ* in Salvinia allows the possibility of the I               occurrence of poly-embryony in this genus; I observed two embryos on one pro-

"              embryo in one case.

u It is out of the question to talk of a 'larger pollen-tube' in Salvinia. Mettenius has already shewn that the structure of the small spores renders such a product from them impossible.1'

Dr. Metteniufl's Essay on the vascular Cryptogams, already frequently referred to, confirms the preceding account in all essential points, some slight criticisms relating only to the structure of the coats of the spore; and it adds a description of the development of the "ovules" in the pro-embryo of Marsilea Fabri, which agrees closely with that in Pilularia. Hofineister has recently announced the discovery of >            the production of cellules containing spiral filaments from the small spores in Salvinia,

just as NSgeli saw them in Pilularia.

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74 .                                                FILICALES.                                  [Acroobns.

Alliance VL—FILICALES.—The Filical Alliance.

FOIeet, Juss. Qen. 14. (1789); Swarts Bynops. FUieum (1806); WWd. Sp. PL vol. v. ; JL Brvum Prod. 145; Afardh Apk. 115. (1822); KauJfuss Enum.t Hooker and Qrevilie lames Fiiicum; Blumef Ft. Java ; SchoWs Qcnera FUicum; Mohl et Martins Plante Cryptogamica BrasUienses, p. 40. (1834); Hooker Species FUicum ; BnmgniarttVeg. Fossilts, p. 141 \Presl. Tcntamenpteridopra-phia; J. Smith in Hooker Journ. BoL; Endl. fen. p. 58; Hooker and Bauer, Genera FUieum ; Link, FUicum Specks.

Diagnosis.—Vascular Acrogens, urith marginal or dorsal one-celled sport-cases, usually surrounded by an elastic ring; and spores of only one kind.

These are leafy plants, producing a rhizome, which creeps below or upon the surface of the earth, of rises into the air like the trunk of a tree ; this trunk consists of a woody cylinder, of equal diameter at both ends, growing at the point only, containing a loose cellular substance which often disappears ; it is coated by a hard, cellular, fibrous rind, which is much thicker next the root than at the apex, and it is itself composed of the united bases of leaves. Wood, when present, consistsalmost exclusively of large scalar!form or dotted ducts, imbedded in hard plates of thick-sided elongated tissue, which usually assumes an interrupted sinuous appearauce, but occasionally,according to Brown, forms a complete tube in Dipte-ris, Platyzoma, and Anemia, Leaves coiled up in vernation, with annular ducts in the vascular tissue of their petiole, either simple or divided in various degrees, traversed by simple, dichotomous, or netted veins of equal thickness, which are composed of elongated cellular tissue, with occasional ducts ; cuticle frequently with stomates. Reproductive organs consisting of spore-cases arising from the veins upon the under surface of the leaves or from their margin, either pedicellate, with the stalk passing round them in the form of an elastic ring, or sessile and destitute of such a ring ; either springing from beneath the cuticle, which they then force up in the form of a membrane (or indusium), or from the actual surface of the leaves. Spores arranged without order within the spore-cases. Sometimes the leaves are contracted about the cases, so as to assume the appearance of forming a part of the


reproductive organs, and sometimes the place of spore-case is supplied by the depauperated lobes of the leaves.

The plants called Ferns are the most gigantic of Acrogens, sometimes having trunks forty feet high* They approach Flowering classes by Cycadaceee, which may be considered to have much affinity with them, on account of the imperfect degree in which the vascular system of that Order is developed, of their pinnate leaves with a gyrate vernation,

Fig. LH.—Tree-Ferns, from Biume.

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AcroqeksJ                                       FILICALES.                                               75

and their naked ovules borne upon the margin of contracted leaves, m the spore-cases of Ferns are upon the leaves of Osmnnda. To Coniferous Gymnosperms they also advance ▼cry closely through Salisburia, whose leaves might be mistaken for those of a Fern. The affinity of Ferns with Equisetum, consists more in a want of flowers, and the nresenee of annular vessels, than in any similarity of habit Gubmoeses are readily known by their axillary spore-cases dehiscing by regular valves. Pepperworts are so very different, that it is difficult to find points of comparison between them, except the gyrate leaves of some of the genera.

lie organ in Ferns which deserves the most particular attention is the theca, or case that contains the reproductive matter. By many it is named capsule; but as that kind of pericarp is essentially connected with the power of conveying fertilisation from the male apparatus to the ovules, and implies the existence of a certain definite relation between the various parts that it contains, nothing of which kind i* found in the spore-case of Ferns, it is not necessary to insist upon the impropriety of applying such a name. Easy as it is to show that the spore-case is not analogous to a capsule, it is &r less so to demonstrate with what organs or modifications of organs it really has an analogy. I am not, indeed, aware that this had been attempted, all botanists seeming to consider it a special organ, until, in the Outlines of the First Principles of Botany, I ventured to hazard the following theory: u The thecae may be considered minute leaves, having the same gyrate mode of development as the ordinary leaves of the tribe; their stalk the petiole, the annulus the midrib, and the theca iteelf the lamina, the edges of which are united." I was led to this opinion, first, by the persuasion that there was no special organ in Ferns to perform a function which in flowering plants is executed by modifications of leaves; and, secondly, by the examination of viviparous species. Observation has shown us that the leaves of flowering plants have the power of producing leaf-buds from their margin or any point of their surface; and in certain kinds of Grasses it has been found that they can produce flower-buds also. In Ferns, which are exceedingly subject to become viviparous, the young plants often grow from the same places as the spore-cases, or from the margin; and in a viviparous Fern, of which a morsel was given me by Dr. Wallich. the young plants form little clusters of leaves in the place of soil Upon examining these young plants, it appears that the more perfect, though minute, leaves are preceded by still more minute primordial leaves or scales, the cellular tissue of which has nearly the same arrangement as the cellules of the spore-case; and the resemblance between the midrib of one of these scales and the ring of a Polypodium is striking. It fe, however, necessary to add, what is only implied in the little work from which the foregoing extract is taken, that this explanation applies only to the gyrate Ferns. With regard to those with striated spore-cases, or with what is called a broad transverse ring, they may either be considered not to have the midrib of the young scale, out of which the case is supposed to be formed, so much developed; or the case may be still considered a nucleus of cellular tissue, separating both from that which surrounds it and also from its internal substance, which latter assumes the form of sporules, in the same way as the internal tissue of an anther separates from the valves under the form of pollen. This conjecture seems confirmed by the anatomical structure of those striated cases which consist of a cluster of spore-like areolae of cellular tissue at the base and apex, connected by extended cellules of the same description, as in Gleichenia; and is far from being weakened by such cases as those of Parkeria. In Ophioglossum another kind of provision is made for the production of spores, which in that genus seem to have no spore-case beyond the involute contracted segments of the leaf which bears them. What are called the thecte in Ophioglossum seem more analogous to the involucre of Manrilea.

It has been thought that sexes occur in these plants, and different parts have been pointed out as the anthers; more especially tittle threads which contain a grumous matter, sometimes exuded in the form of a crust, and spring up among the spore-cases. Some pro-bafcOitv seems to have been given to the presence of anthers by what has been con sidered an occurrence of Mule ferns, principally belonging to the genus Gymnogramma, some account of which will be found in the Qcvrdenerj VkronicU 1844, p. 500; but it does not appear to me that there is good evidence to show that such instances are

Pig-LIIL—Young sport-c*M sad aoOiaridte                              LU*.

H 2

Fig LIU,

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76                                -            FILICALES.                                    ' [Acrogeks.

connected with hybrid action; and I agree with link, in hia first view of the question that the function of the Antheridia nondum eitpenpecta et decfarata, an opinion which he has, however, since abandoned in favour of these bodies being anthers. They may be bodies Analogous to anthers; but if so they have none of their structure.

Nigeli has lately mentioned that the spind threads, with an active motion, already mentioned under Mosses, also exist in some Ferns. He found them abundantly in the germinating leaf of Aspidium augescens, and elsewhere, traced their development, and determined that they are produced among the earliest cells that go to the composition of a fern-leafl (See Schleiden and Nagdi, ZeiUchriftftir Wmauck. Bot. s. 1.168. t. 4.)

The stems of Ferns, when arborescent, an objects of great interest to the botanist, partly on account of their rarity, secondly, because of their singular structure, and especially because they offer the highest form of development in Flowerlees Plants. It has not been till lately that they have been well understood; they have now, however, received full illustration from Mohl, in Martina's beautiful Iconee Planlarum Crypto-gamicarum. One of the most interesting of them is that of the Baranetz or Barometz, called also the Scythian Lamb, in which, by cutting off the leaves, except a small portion of the stalk, of a woolly-stemmed species, and turning it upside-down, simple people have been persuaded that there existed in the deserts of Scythia creatures half animal half plant

The veins of the leaves of Ferns have been sometimes described as dichotomous; it is only, however, in a certain number that this peculiarity occurs. In some they are simple, in others they are collected in lozenge shaped meshes, and in some they are still differently arranged. Langsdorf and Fischer seem to have been the first to pay attention to these peculiarities, which have been admirably applied to the characters of genera by Adolphe Brongniart and Presi, who have shown them to be of the first importance in distinguishing genera.

Bory de St Vincent elevates Ferns to the rank of a class, intermediate between Monocotyledons and Acotyledons; but at the same time he attaches no importance to the descriptions of those writers who, having seen the germination of the sporules, have attempted to prove an identity between them and Monocotyledons in that respect He justly observes, that the irregular unilateral scale which has been seen to sprout forth upon the first commencement of their growth is extremely different from the cotyledon of Monocotyledons, which pre-exists in the seed and never quits it, but swells during germination, and acts as a reservoir of nutriment for the young plantlet He moot properly regards it as an imperfectly developed primordial leaf.

In some modern books of Botany Ferns are broken up into several distinct natural orders, which in my opinion are not to be maintained. But it does appear that three essentially distinct groups exist among them. Of these the largest portion consists of what were once named " dorsiferous ferns," in all which the spore-case is furnished with an elastic ring or band; in two other groups, of inconsiderable extent, the spore-cases have no such band. In one of them the cases are often immersed in the tissue of the back of the leaf, and partially, or entirely, united by their touching edges into many-celled bodies; in the other, the spore-cases appear to be nothing more than an alteration of the edge of a contracted leaf. Hence arise the three fouowing orders:—

Natural Orders op Filicals.

Stv, distinct, 2-valved, formedon ths margin o/<* J2S. Qphioglossacra

8pore-case$ ringed, dwsal or marginal, distinct, splitting trre-1 24 p0LTP0OUCRA gularly /*

Spore-case* ringlets, dorsal, connate, splitting irregularly by *1 2s Dakjraolr. ventral cbjft /*

No part of Mr. Henfrey's report is of greater interest than his skilful description of the alleged foots published concerning Ferns by numerous modern observers; and although it is in some degree a repetition of what these pages already contain, yet it deserves to be quoted at length.

"This class formed, for a long time, the great stumbling-block to those who sought to demonstrate the existence of sexuality in the Cryptogamous plants. The young capsules were generally considered to be the analogues of the pistillidia of the Mosses. and the young abortive capsules, which frequently occur among the fertile ones, were supposed by some authors to represent the antheridia. Mr. Griffith, shortly before

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J             AcROOMKa]                                     FILICALE&                                               76 a

f               his deaths noticed a structure which he was inclined to regard as the analogue of the

- antheridium in certain of the ramenta upon the petioles.

* In the year 1844, Professor Nageli published an account of his observations on the germination of certain Ferns, and announced the discovery of moving spiral filaments closely resembling those of the Char®, on certain cellular structures developed upon the pro-embryo or cellular body first produced by the spore* It is not worth while to enter into an analysis of his observations, as they have since been clearly shown to

*               have been very imperfect; it is sufficient to state that he described only one kind of

organ, and from his description it is evident that he confounded the two kinds since

»                discovered, regarding them as different stages of one structure. The announcement

of this discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only in the Ferns but in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that the existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were not to be regarded as in any way connected with the reproductive processes.

" But an essay published by the Count Suminski in 1848 totally changed the face of the question, and opened a wide field for speculation and investigation on this subject, iust as it was beginning to fell into disfavour. Count Suminski's paper gives a minute

\                history of the course of development of the Ferns from the germination of the spore

to the production of the regular fronds, and he found this development to exhibit phenomena as curious as they were unexpected. The cellular organs seen by N&geli were shown to be of two perfectly distinct kinds, and moreover to present characters which gave great plausibility to the hypothesis that they represented reproductive organs; moreoverrthis author expressly stated that he had obtained absolute proof of sexuality, by observing an actual process of fertilisation to take place in the so-called

\               ovules, through the agency of the spiral filaments or spermatozoa.

,                    " The main points of his paper may be briefly summed up as follows. The Fern

[                spore at first produces a filamentous process, in the end of which cell-development

goes on until it is conyerted into a Marchantia-like frond of small size and exceedingly

I                delicate texture, possessing the hair-like radicle hairs on its under side. On this under

side become developed, in variable numbers, certain cellular organs of two distinct kinds. The first* which he terms antheridia, are the more numerous, and consist of

I                somewhat globular cells, seated on and arising from single cells of the cellular Mar-

chantia-like frond. The globular cell produces in its interior a number of minute vesicles, in each of which is developed a spiral filament, coiled up in the interior. At a certain epoch the globular cell bursts and discharges the vesicles, and the spiral filaments moving within the vesicles at length make their way out of them and swim

£              about in the water, displaying a spiral or heliacal form, and consisting of a delicate fila-

ment with a thickened clavate extremity; this, the so-called head, being said by Count

L              Suminski to be a hollow vesicle, and to be furnished with six or eight cilia, by means

of which the apparently voluntary movement of the filament is supposed to be effected. " The second kind of organ, the so-called ' ovules,9 are fewer in number and present different characters in different stages. At first they appear as little round cavities in the cellular tissue of the pro-embryo, lying near its centre and opening on the under side. In the bottom of the cavity is seen a little globular cell, the so-called embryo-sac. It is stated by Count Suminski that while the ovule is in this state, one

I                or more of the spiral filaments make their way into the cavity, coming in contact with

the central globular cell. The four cells bounding the mouth of the orifice grow out from the general surface into a blunt cone-like process, formed of four parallel cells arranged in a squarish form and leaving an intercellular canal leading down to the cavitv below. These four cells become divided by cross septa, and grow out until the so-called ovule exhibits externally a cylindrical form, composed of four tiera of cells, the uppermost of which gradually converge and close up the orifice of the canal leading down between them. Meanwhile the vesicular head of one of the spiral filaments has penetrated into the globular cellule or embryo-sao, enlarged in size and undergone multiplication, and in the course of time displays itself as the embryo, producing the first frond and the terminal bud whence the regular Fern stem is developed In considering the import of these phenomena, the author assumes the analogy here to be with the process of fertilization in flowering plants, as described by Schleiden, regarding the production of the embryo from the vesicular head of the spermatozoa as

i                representing the production of the phanerogamous embryo from the end of the pollen

tube after it has penetrated into the embryo-sac.

" The promulgation of these statements naturally attracted great attention, and since they appeared, we have reoeived several contributions to the histoxy of these remarkable structures, some confirmatory, to a certain degree, of Suminski's views, others altogether opposed to them.

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76 b                                               FILICALE8.                                     [Aoboouib.

In the early part of 1849, Dr. Wigand published a series of researches on this subject* in which he subjected the assertions of Stuninski to a strict practical criticism; the conclusions he arrived at were altogether opposed to that author's views respecting the supposed formation of the organs, and he never observed the entrance of the spiral filaments into the cavity of the so-called ovule.

" About the same time M. Thuret published an account of some observations on the antheridia of Ferns. In these he merely confirmed and corrected the statements of NHgeli respecting the antheridia, and did not notice the so-called ovules.

" Towards the close of the same year, Hofmeister confirmed part of Suminaki's statements, and opposed others. He stated that he had observed distinctly the production of the young plant (or rather the terminal bud for the new axis) in the interior of the so-called ' ovule,' but believed the supposed origin of it from the end of the spiral filament to be a delusion. He regards the globular cell at the base of the canal of the ' ovule' as itself the rudiment of the stem, or embryonal vesicle (the embryo originating from a free cell produced in this), analogous to that produced in the pistillidia of the Mosses. He also describes the development of the ovule differently, saying that the canal and orifice are opened only at a late period by the separation of the contiguous walls of the four rows of cells.

About the same time appeared an elaborate paper on the same subject by Dr. Hermann Schacht* whose results were almost identical He found the young terminal bud to be developed in the cavity of one of the so-called 'ovules,' which were developed exactly in the same way as the pistillidia of the Mosses. He stated, also, that the cavity of the ' ovule' is not open at first, and he declares against the probability of the entrance of a spiral filament into it, never having observed this, much less a conversion of one into an embryo.

"In the essay of Dr. Mettenius already referred to, an account of the development of the so-called ovules is given. His observations did not decide whether the canal of the ' ovule,' which he regards as an interoeUular space, exists at firsts or only subsequently, when it is entirely closed above Some important points occur in reference to the contents of the canaL

" The contents of the canal in a mature condition consist of a continuous mass of homogeneous, tough substance, in which fine granules, and here and there large corpuscles are imbedded. It reaches down to the globular cell or * embryo-sac,' and is in oontact with this. This mass either fills the canal, or diminishes in diameter from the blind end of the canal down to the' embryo-sac;' in other cases it possesses the form represented by Suminski, having a clavate enlargement at the blind end of the canal, and passing into a twisted filament below. In this latter shape, it may frequently be pressed out of isolated' ovules' under the microscope, and then a thin transparent membrane-like layer was several times observed on its surface. In other oases the contents consisted of nucleated vesicles, which emerged separately or connected together.

" The embryo-sac oonsists of a globular cell containing a nucleus, and this author believes that the commencement of the development of the embryo oonsists in the division of this into two, which go on dividing to produce the cellular structure of the first frond.

" With regard to the contents of the canal the author says,' Although I can give no information on many points, as in regard to the origin of the contents of the canal of the " ovule," yet my observations on the development of the " ovule " do not allow me to consider them, with Suminski, as spiral filaments in course of solution ; just as little have I been able to convince myself of the existence of the process of impregnation described by that author. It rather appears to me that the possibility of the entrance of the spiral filaments and the impregnation cannot exist until the tearing open of the blind end of the canal in the perfectly-formed ovule, as after the opening of the so-called ' canal of the style, in the pistillidia of the Mosses.

M Another contribution has been furnished by De Mercklin (Beobadiimgm an dan Prothallum dtr FarrenhxnUtr, St. Petersburg, 1850), the original of which I have not seen, but depend on analyses of it published in the Sotam$che Zeitung, and the Flora for 1851, and further in a letter from De Mercklin to M. Schacht, which appeared in the IAnmma at the close of last year. He differs in a few subordinate particulars from M. Schacht in reference to the development and structure of the protJialliwn, or pro-embryo, and of the antheridia and spiral filaments; but these do not require especial mention, except in reference to the vesicular end of the spiral filament described by Schacht, which Meroklin regards as a remnant of the parent vesicle, from which the filament had not become quite freed. The observations referring to the so-called ovule and the supposed process of impregnation are very important; they are as follows :—

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Acboqeh&]                                      FHICALES*                                               76 c

"1. The sphal filaments swam to one and the nme organ.

"2. They can penetrate into the 'ovulaf This m seen only three times in the coune of a whole 'year, and under different circumstances; twice a spiral filament was seen to enter a still widely open young 'oral*,' then come to a state of rest, and after some time assume the appearance of a shapeless mass of mucilage: the third case of penetration occurred in a fully-developed ' ovule,' through its canal; it therefore does not seem to afford evidence of the import of the spiral filament, but certainly of the possibility of the penetration.

"3. In the tubular portion of the 'ovule/ almost in every case, peculiar club-shaped, granular, mucilaginous filaments occur at a definite epoch, these filaments, like the spiral filaments, acquiring a brown colour with iodine. These mucilaginous bodies sometimes exhibit a twisted aspect, an opake nucleus, or a membranous layer, peculiarities which seem to indicate the existence of an organisation*

"4. These club-shaped filaments are swollen at the lower capitate extremity, and have been found in contact with the 'embryo-sac' or globular oell which forms the rudiment of the future frond.

"5. The spiral filaments, which cease to move and fall upon the prothallium, are metamorphosed, become granular and swell up." " Hence the author deduces the following conclusions:—

"That these clavate filiform masses in the interior of the 'ovule' are transformed spiral filaments, which at an early period, while the ovule was open, have penetrated into it; which leads to the probability that—

" 1. The spiral filaments must regularly penetrate into the ' ovules/ and u% They probably contribute to the origin or development of the young fruit frond (or embryo). In what way this happens the author knows not, and the details on this point given by Count Suminski remain unconfirmed facte."

" An important point in this essay is the view the author takes of the whole process of development in this .case. He regards it as not analogous to the impregnation in the Phanerogamia, since the essential fact is merely the development of a frond from one cell of the prothallium, which he considers to be merely one of the changes of the individual plant; while all the other authors who have written on the subject, with the exception of Wigand, call the first frond, with its bud and root, an embryo, and regard it as a new individual, or at all events a distinct member of a series of forms constituting collectively the representatives of the species.

" Finally, Hofmeister, in his notice of this essay in the ' Flora,9 declares that the development of the soncalled ' embryo/ or first frond, commences, not Vv the sub-division of the globular cell or ' embryo-sac,9 but by the development of a tree cell or 'embryo-vesicle' in this, like what occurs in the embryo-sac of the Phaneroffamia; and he asserts that this is the first stage of development from the globular cell in all the vascular Cryptogams, including that found in the pistillidia of the Mosses.99

Long as this extract is, I have thought it desirable to insert it for the sake of the curious statements which it reports. It will, however, be apparent that in this case, as in that of Lycopods, there is no evidence that the organs called sexual are really so. The argument used at p. 53 d, applies here with equal force.

Owing to the extreme difficulty of obtaining any manageable divisions (genera) in this alliance, founded upon mere peculiarities of the reproductive organs, it has been proposed by Presl, Ad. Brongniart, J. Smith and others, to take into account the peculiar arrangement of the veins. To this some object The question has been very well discussed in a paper read in Feb. 1858, before the Linnean Society, by Mr. Thoa Moore, who contended that whether groups called genera were to be formed in consideration of the peculiarities of their venation as well as fructification was a mere question of words. The constant and unvarying occurrence of parallel free veins and of reticulated veins in the primary groups of flowering plants, and the occurrence of intermediate smaller groups, in which peculiarities of venation are associated with other characters, were mentioned by him as significant facts in support of giving prominence to the character of venation in the Ferns; whilst the little variety offered by the aggregations of naked or covered spore-cases, which are here the only parts of fructification really available for generic definition, renders it a matter of necessity that other characters should be taken into account in the case of these lower groups of vegetation, than those employed amongst flowering plants, whose more perfect reproductive organs offer the diversity requisite for purposes of classification. The most available additional characters consist in the constant and unvarying diversities of the vascular structure, which, moreover, can be perfectly relied on; because, whatever modifications are presented in a particular species, are constant to that species. He therefore concluded that without lowering

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76 d                                               FILICALES.                                     [Acrogeot.

the importance of the fructification of Ferns, as affording distinguishing characteristics of generic groups, the modifications of venation might with convenience and propriety be admitted to share the same office; and, according to this view, if two wild species presenting constant organic differences in fructification, Bhould not be placed in the same genus, so neither should species presenting constant organic differences in the development of their vascular structure. The question u whether or not a reticulated venation is in itself a sufficient generic distinction among the Ferns," was answered by Mr. Moore in the affirmative, on the ground that, a genus being an arbitrary group, aU that is required in a generic character is a constant difference from established genera in the structure or development of some important organ. The vascul&r system of plants is held to be of the highest importance in the vegetable economy, since it is not unfrequent—and more common among Ferns than most other plants —to find such extraordinary means of propagation as adventitious buds, developed in connection with it In Ferns, particularly those points of the veins which normally serve as the receptacles which bear the sort, in other cases beoome viviparous and develope gemmso from which plants are ultimately produced. On these grounds and the peculiarities of venation exhibited by flowering plants, the author arrived, though with'much deference, at a conclusion opposed to that of the botanists who exclude venation in Ferns from the sources available for generic distinction.

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Fiucaub.]                              OPHiOGLOSSACEiE.                                           77

OaoxR XXIIL—Addkrs* Tongues.

OpUogkwe*, ABr.UlflS, (1810); 4*mfft j*. US. (18»); Mart ic. PL Crypt SB. I18S4); Link. FiUcumSpccks, p. 15; BmU. Qen. xxxlL

Diagnosis.—FMcal Acrogem, with ringlets, distinct, 2-valvcd spore-cases, formed on the margin of a contracted leaf Stem erect, or pendulous, with a cavity in the middle, instead of pith, and two or three woody bundles placed round it in a ring. Below, the stalks of the leaves and the spike become blended together. Leaves with netted veins sometimes forked. Spore-eases collected into a spike formed out of the sides of a contracted leaf, 2-valved, without any trace of an elastic ring. Spores resembling fine powder.

These little plants exhibit a manifest transition to Chib-mo«es, with which they closely agree in the valvate nature of their spore-cases; but in the latter they are axillary, while in the former they are planted on the margin of a contracted leaf. The curious little genus Phylloglossum seems to be an imitation among Clubmosses of the habit of Adders' tongues. link finds, in the hollow stem, whose cavity is surrounded by woody bundles, a structure intermediate between that of Clubmosses and Horsetails.

Adders' tongues are most abundant in the islands of tropical Asia, occurring however in the West Indies, and by no means uncommon m temperate latitudes of both worlds. In the tropical parts of Africa, and in Barbary, they seem unknown; at the Cape of Good Hope and in Tasmannia they are uncommon.

The herbage of the order is mucilaginous, whence the species have been employed in broths. Ophioglossum vul-gatum and Lunaria botryoides have been used in medicine as vulneraries, but they seem to possess that quality as little as the magical virtues once ascribed to them. Hehnintho-stachysdulcis is regarded in the Moluccas as a slight aperient, is used as a pot-herb, and its young shoots as asparagus. The Hay dans fancy Bctrychium cicutarium to be an alexipharmic.

Fig. LIT.

OphioRlossum, Linn. OpModenns, Blttm. Helminthoitechys, Klf.

GENERA. Botryopteris, Prwl. 0phMa,l>e9Y. < Botrychium, Suxtrta.

Numbers, Gen. 4. Sp.

Botrypusy Rich. RhlsogloMum, Prrsl. Cheirogloeaa, Id.

Lycopodta&ce. Posrriox.—Polypodcre (Osmundidro). Ophioolossac&e.—Dansoacece.


Fig. L1V.—Ophioglossum vulgstum, diminished.

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H 'i





GynUt, Swarix Bvnojxit FUicum, (1806)—FIlkw mc, WUtd. Sp. PI. 5.99. (1810.)—Polypodiaee*. R. Brown Prodr. 146. (1810); Aaardh Aph. 116. (1822); Kaulftut Enumerate, 66. (1884); Borp in Diet. Clan. 0. 686. (1824); Martitu Ic. PL Crypt. 83. (1834).

Diagnosis.—.fflicai Acrogetu, with ringed 9pore-caees9 growing on the bade or edge of the leaves, distinct, and splitting irregularly. The vast number of plants of the Filical Alliance, collected under this head, are so much alike in many respects, that to separate them into distinct natural orders seems to roe contrary to all the rules that govern Botanists in their limitation of such groups. The great mark by which they are known is the presence on the spore-cases of a ring or band of coarse meshes, distinctly different from the tissue of their sides, and too strong to be broken through when the case opens to discharge its contents. Whether the band is vertical or horizontal, complete, incomplete, or otherwise, seems unconnected with any physiological peculiarities that can be pointed out, and to be of no greater importance than for the subordinate purposes of classification. The order consists for the most part of species bearing their spore-cases on the back of leaves, usually named fronds; with the exception of the suborder called Hymenophyllett, a group of thin, delicate, membranous species, whose leaves open their edges for the protrusion of a vein, over whose surface the spore-cases are arranged* But, independently of all other reasons for regarding the Hymenophylleee as a mere form of the great order of Ferns, the existence of such genera as Cibotmm, Deparia, &c, among Ferns not Hvmenophvlleous, forbids our attaching much importance to tLat peculiarity. A very remarkable deviation from the common plan of structure seems at first sight to occur in Osmundeee and Schizete, in which the spore-cases are collected together upon contracted leaves, after the manner of the Adders' tongues; but such plant* have no combining character, occurring among HymenophyllesB as well. The passage of the true Ferns into neighbouring orders is not very gradual If we regard them as resting on the one hand upon Danaea-worts, they can scarcely be said to touch Adders9 tongues on the other, unless the great character of the ringed spore-cases is left out of consideration, and then Osmundeoe may be taker as the connecting link.

The following proportions borne by Ferns to other plants in different latitudes will serve to give some idea of the manner in which they are geographically distributed. There is an enormous disproportion between Ferns and the rest of the Flora in certain tropical islands, such as Jamaica, where they are l-9th of the Phanogamous plants; New Guinea, where D'Urville found them as 28 to 122; New Ireland, where they were as 13 to 60; and in the Sandwich Islands, where they were as 40 to 160; and it is clear, from the collections of WalKch, that Ferns must form a most important feature in the Indian Archipelago. Upon continents, however, they are far less numerous: thus, in equinoctial America Humboldt does not estimate them higher than l-36th ; and m New Holland Brown finds them l-37th. They decrease in proportion towards either

pole: so that in France they are only l-63d'; in Portugal, 1-116th; in the Greek Archipelago, 1 -227th; and in Egypt, 1-971st Northwards of these countries their proportion again augments, so that they form 1-31st of the Phsenogamous vegetation of Scotland; l-35th in Sweden; 1-18th in Iceland; l-10th in Greenland; and l-7th at North Cape. (See a very good paper upon this subject by D'Urville, in the Ann. dee Sc. Nat. 6.51.; also Brown's Appendix to the Congo Voyage, 46L) Brown has observed (Flinders, 584), that it is remarkable, that although arborescent Ferns are found at the southern extremity of Van Dieman's Island, and even at Dusky Bay in New Zealand,

Fl*. LV,-i. Put 0f the leaf of Asptdium Lonchitia; % a magnified view of a mortal of Asp. exaltatuiu.

Fig. LV.

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in nearly 46* Booth latitude, yet thev have in no earn been found beyond the northern tropic. For an excellent account of the geographical distribution of Tree Ferns, see Martimt lames Plauttmm Oryptogamicaruw, j>. 81.

The leasee generally contain a thick astringent mucilage, with a little aroma, on which account many are considered pectoral ajid lenitive, especially Adiantum pedatum and CapiUus Veneris; but almost any others may be substituted for them. Capillaire is so called from being prepared from the Adiantum Capillus Veneris, a plant which is consideied to be undoubtedly pectoral and slightly astringent; though its decoction, if strong, is, according to Ainslie, a certain-emetic The Peruvian Polypodium fl*l«gn«i Acrostichum Huacsaro, and Polypodium crassifolinm, are said to be possessed of important medicinal properties, especially the former; their effects are reported to be solvent, deobstruent, sudorific, and antirheumatic; antivenereal and febrinigal virtues are also ascribed to them. The leaves of Adiantum melanocaulon are believed to be tonic in India. (Aindie, 2.215.) The tubes of the pipes of the Brazilian negroes are manufactured from the stalk of Mertensia dichotomy which they call Samanbaya. The stem of many species is both bitter and astringent; whence that of several, especially Aspidium Rlix Mas, and Pteris aquilina, has been employed as an anthelmintic; and Nothochlaenapiloselloides has been used in India to subdue sponginess in the rams. They have also been given as emmenagogues and purgatives. Osmunda regalia has been employed successfully, in doses of 3 drachms, m the rickets. The rhizomes of Nephrodram eeculentum are eaten in Nipal, according to Buchanan. Diplazium escu-lentam, Cynthea medullaris, Pteris eeculenta, and Gleichenia Hermanni, are also occasionally employed for food in different countries. Speaking of Pteris eeculenta, the Taamannian fern-root, Mr. Backhouse says,a Pigs feed upon this root where it has been turned up by theplough; and in sandy soils, they will themselves turn up the earth in search of it. The Aborigines roast it in the ashes, peel off its black skin with their teeth, and eat it with their roasted kangaroos, &c. in the same manner as Europeans eat bread The root of the Tara-fern possesses much nutritive matter; yet it is to be observed, that persons who have been reduced to the use of it, in long excursions through the bush, have become very weak, though it has prolonged life." Pteris aquilina and Aspidium Filix Mas have been used in the manufacture of beer, and A«pidium fragrans as a substitute for tea. Agdh. The fragrance which gives its name to the latter species occurs occasionally elsewhere. Polypodium phymittodes is employed, along with Angiopteris evecta, in preparing the cocoa-nut oil of the South Sea islands; Aneunia tomentosa smells of myrrh, and Mohria thurifera of benzoin.


\. — Polypodek. Endl. Gen. xxvt. Bpote-eaies talked, with a vertical ting; ipora roundidi or oblong.

Aerostlchtnn, L. Pohrbotiya, H. B.

J&noiphia, flehott. OteniM, Radd


Rkfadopteris, Schott. Stenoehlna, /. 8m. Lomagrmmma, J 8m. Aeoatopteris, Prttl. ftUPOtemia, Prtri. (.'aw of bid. Prw«

Platycertum, Dav.

Cvrtogonfom, J. As. Pliotbiopterie, J. 8m. Poedlopterifl, Etthw.

£oft&*, 8chott. jGrmnopteriit Prtri. 1 Bpmendepis, Kaulf.

UpiochiUu, Kaalf.

Anapauria, PreeL BeaiionJtls, Linn. Antrophyi m, Kaulf. Loxogmir ma, Blum. Polytaenum, Iktv. Uptogn>mmaf J. 8m. Gynmogramma, Duv.

INeorogrw nwiaf Prtri. Calomelanos, Prtri. |Ceteraeb, Adans. GrammHb, SwarU. Xiptaopterto, Kaulf.

MicropUri*, Dee*. ChQopteris, Prttl.

Synammia, Fn*l. Cnrptogramma, R. Br. Dfblemma, /. 8m. Selliguea, Borv.

Dtafiramma, Blum. iMicrogramma, Prttl. 8tegnogramma, Blum. 8pfa«ratepbanos,S. 8m. . Menisci um, Schrtb. ITaenitis, 8wart*> Pleurograinma, Prtri. iTsenlopete, J. 8m. Pteropsis, Prttl.

Chilogramme, Blum. Monogramma, Cammtrs.

CocMidium, Kaulf. Adenopbonu, Qaudich.

AmphoradeniumfDcs9. Nothochlaena, R. Br. \Cincinaluf Desr. iDrymo loemni, Prtri. I Polypodium, Linn.

CUnoptcrU, Blum.

IHcranopterUi Blum.

PhtgopUris, PretL

Lastraa, Bory. Goniopterls, Prtri.

Pleocnemia, Prtri. AmbUa, Prtd. Gonlophlebium, Blum. Marginalia, Prtri. Ptairoffontum, Prtri Cyrtophlebium, R. Br.

Campplontu rum9 Presl Pblebodlum, R. Br. IMctyopterie, Prtri. Pbymatodas, Prtri. Anaxetum, SchotL

PUuridium. Pml Diyoftacbyum, /. 8m. Dnrnaria, Prtri.

bipteris, Retnw.

Microtorut, Link. Aglaomorpha, SchotL

Ptwmium, PretL PleoSdtlB, H. et B.

? Paragramme, Bl. Ntphobohu, Kaulf.

CondoUea, Mtab.

Pprrhoria, Mb*.

tyobptorw, Dot. QjreLophonu, Prtri. 8ey opterls, Prtri. Lecanopterls9 Rrinw.

Onychium, Relnw. (Hlymodon, Prtri. Ohellantbes, SwarU. Hypolepit. Prtsl. Ocbropterlsf /. 8mm Lcrochttls. Lbm. Adiantnm, Linn.

Fig, LVI.-iKnta»BiolHym«nocy»tticauca»ica.

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Hewardia, J. Sm. Cassebeera, Kaulf. Platyloma, J. Sm. Doryopteris, J. Sm. Pteris, Linn. Allosarus, Bcrnh.

Gcratodactylis, J. Sm,

PhorolobuSy Desv. Ainphlblestta, PresL LUobrochia, Prest. Campteria, Presl Monogonia, PresL Jainesonia, Hook. Salpichlaena, J. Sm. Blechnum, Linn.

$adUriat Kaulf.

Acropteris, Link part.

Haptopteris, PresL Lomaria, Witld.

stegania, R. Br. Vittaria, Smith. Struthiopteris, Willd. Onoclea, Linn.

Angtopteri$y Mitch. Cnlypterlum, Bernh. Hagiopteris, PresL Neottopteris, J. Sm. Asplenium, Linn.

Onopttris, Bernb,

BelvUia, Mirb. part.

Acroptcris, Link. Thamnopteris, PresL Darea, Juss.

Caenopterii, Ber*. Hemidictvum, PresL Allantodia, R.Br. 1 >oodia, R. Br. Woodwardia, Smith. Scolopendrium, Smith. Antigramma, Prcsl. Caraptosorus, Link. Onychtura, Kantf.

LeptoftegiQy Don, Diplazium, Swartz.

Callipteris, Bory. Anisogonlum, PresL Digrammaria, Prest. Oxygonium, PresL Didymochlaena, Dcsv.

Monochlacna, Gaud*

Hippodiumt Gaudich*

Tegulariat Heinw.

Ceramium, Reinw.

Ilysterocarpus, Langs. Nephrolepla, Schott. Nephrodium, Rich. Oleandra, Cav.

Xeuronia, Don.

Ophioptcris, Rduw. Dryopteris, Adans.

Lastrcta, Presl. fhclypterls, SehoU. Arthrobotrys, Prest. Aspidium, Swartz.

Psidopodium,Veck. Polystichum, Roth.

. Rumohrla, Radd. Phanerophlebia, Prtsl. Fadgenia, Hooker. Oyclodlum, Presl. Cyrtomium, PreH. Sagenia, Presl. Saihmium, Presl. Cystopterls* Btrnh. Acrophorus, Presl. . 1 Leucostegia,Pr*t. Lindaaea, Jhyand. Bchizolomla, Qa*d.

Hymenotomia, Gaud. Isoloma, J. Sm. Dictyoxiphium, Hooker. Synaphlebium, J. Sm. Odontosoria, / 8m. Davallia, Smith. Microlepla, Presl. Saccoloma, KauJf. Humata, Cav. Pachypleuria, Prest. Colposoria, PrtH. I Wibtlia, Benih. Odontosoria, Pres I. Stenolobus, Prtsl. Proeaptia, Presl. Cystidluxn, J. Sm. IMckaonla, Merit. Balantium, Kaulf. Culdta, Prest. ISitolobium, Desv.

Denstaedtia, Bernh. Leptopleuria. Prest. PatanJa, PresL \p*d*fSLHU. Cibotium, Kautf. I. Pinonta, Gaudich. J Deparia, Hook et Orev. Woodala, R. Br.

Phpsematium, Kaulf. IDiacalpe, Blum. Hymenocystis, C.A. Mey* .Hypoderris, R.Br. iSphaeropteris, R. Br.

Peranemaf Don.

Podeitemaf R. Br.

PrionopUrist Wall.

II. — Cyathetf. Kau{f. Enum. (1824) ; spore-cases with a vertical ring, usually sessile on a more or le&s| elevated receptacle ; spores 3-cornered or 3-lobed.

Thyrsopteris, Kunz.

Pantcutaria. Coll.

? Chonta, Molin. Schizochlaena, /.An. Hemitelia, it B:. Cnemidaria, PresL Ahophila, R. Br. Hapiophlebia, Mart Dicranophlebia, Mart. IMetaxya, Presl.

?Am-phid*smiumt Sent.

Trichopteris* Park. Trichipteris, PresL 1 Chnoojiiiora, Kaulf. Arachniodes, Blum. iGvmnosphaera, Blum. jCyathea, Smith. I Sptutroptcris t Bernh. Schizocaina, J* Smith.

Notocarpia, PresL Dispheraia, PresL ICnemldaria, PresL Matoniaf R. Br.

III.  Parkerea;. Hooker, sxot.Jl. p. 147.(1825); spore-case* very thin; surrounded by a broad Imperfect. sometimes I obsolete ring.

Ceratopteris, Brongn.

EtlobocarpuSi Kaulf.

Tckozoma R. Br.

Cryptogenis Rich.

FitrcaHa Desv.

Crpiftogramma, Grev-Parkeria, Hooker.

Fig. LYII.

EmlL Gen. xxxviL— Sj>ore-cases marginal t placed upon the surface of a vein extended beyond the edge of the leaf, with a complete horizontal ring; spores convexo-tetraedral.

Hymenophyllum, Smith.

|Trichomanes, Linn. DidymoglQSSum> Desv. Hymenostaehys, Bory. Feexz, Bory-Lecanium* Presl. Cardiamanes, Presl. RitgaUdluS) PresL OphalomencSi PresL Neurophyllum, PresL Microponium, PresL Abrodictyum, PresL Meringiumt PresL Hemiphkbium, PresL lsCt*tocyonium, PresL Myrmecostylum, PresL PtychopfiyUum* PresL Sjtfutiwyoniumt PresL Hymenoylossum, PresL

[Loxsoxna/it. Br.

V.—Gleichcnea. Schta-matopteridesv Willd. I. c.69. (1810).—Gleiche-nese, R. Br. L c. 160. (1810); Kaulfitss l. c. 36. (1824). — Bory, L c. (1824). —Pleurogy-ratap, Bcrrth.—Gleiche-niacefle, Mart tc pt. 105.'1834); Endt.gen. xxviii.; spore - cases donai, with a transverse occasionally oblique ring, nearly sessile, and bunting lengthwise internally; spores oblong, or kidney-shaped.

Fig. LV11L

IV. Hymenaphylka*. Endl. prod. Sorf. 16. 1183.1); Martii tV. pL crypt. 102. ri8M)4

Fig. L1X.

«leichenia, Smith. Mertensia, Wittd.

BicranopteriSj Bernh. Sticiierus, PresL Watyzoma, R. Br. CaljTnella, PresL

VXrHgcftfaBWt. Mart ic.jA, crypt 113. (1834|; EndLgen.xx\x ; spore-cases dorsal, with a complete terminal contracted ring; spores pyramidal or conical.

Aneimia, Swart*.

OtnithojyUrist Bernh. Aneinidictyont /. Sm.

Fig. LVil.-Antrophyum Iwonll.           FIr. LVIIL-Spoicaaea and cap of Trichomanes radicans.

                                            * Ig. LIX,—Spore-casea of Mertensia ttexuoiuu

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'fichim, Smith.

Rkipidium, Berah.

Lophidium, Rich. Actinoetachys, Walt. Lygodhun, SwarU*

Hydroglossum, Wffld.

Upcna, Car.

Cttisium. Rich.

Mamondia, M irb.

OdvntopUris, Bernh.


GisopUris, Bernh. > VaUifilix, Thouars. , Lygodictyon, /. £#». Mohria, Acart*.

VII. — Osmundeee. Of-mnndaceae, JL £r. /. c 161. (1810); rdA, J.c.115. (1822); A'auJ-A« * * 42. (1834) ; | Endl. gen. zzx.; Aero-

gyrate, Bernh.; sport-cases dorsal, or pani-ded9 stalked, with a broad donal incomplete ring, opening vertically; spores oblong or roundish.

Osmund*, Lfo*. Aphyllocarpa, Gar,

Todea, ritfd.


Fig. LX.

Numbers. Gen. 183. Sp. 2000.

Position.—Danseaceee.—Polypodiacilb.—OphiogLoeaaceee. P%. LX-Sehlzaea dichotoma; 1. its spore-case. F|g. LXI.-Spore-case of Todea Fraxeri.


Syngramma, J. 8m. near Grmnogramma. Leptopterls, Prtsl. near Todea. Aneimidictrum, Presl. near Aneimia. Spat haptens, Presl. near         do.

Haplodictyom, Presl. near Pleocnemia. Microbrochia, Pre*. ) Poljrdictyum, PresL v near Aspidinm. Ani0oeampinmf Pred.) Brachyaorus, PresL near Diplaaium. Anchistea, Presl. near Doodis, Lorineeria, Presl. near Woodwardia. Microetegia, Fred, near Diplaaium. Ochlogr&mma, Presl near Callipteria. Pareatla, Presl. near Colposoria. Pycoodoria, Presl. near Pteris. Parablechnum, Prest. ) Diataxia, PresL           > near Blechnum.

Mesothema, Presl, ) Gyroaorium, PrssL ) Galeogloiea, Presl. >near Niphobolns. Scytopteris, Presl. )

Cionldium, T. Moore,

Sphaerosticbum, Presl. )

Polycamplum, Presl. Vnear Niphobolus.

Apalophlebia,J*e#fc >

Spicanta, Presl.          )

Blechnopsis, PresL > near Blechnom.

Oithogramma, Presl. )

Crypsinus, Presl. near Marginalia.

.Mlcroterus, Presl. near Polvpodium.

Macropletbus, Presl. near Gymnopteris.

Heterogonla, Fresh near Stenosemia.

822 **.}"* *»»

Lomarldium, Presl. near Lomaria. Paltonium,Prest. near Pteropsis. LemmapbvllunvPresl. near Drymoglossun. Microstaphyla, Presl near Osmunds.

sssaws? }--«»»->

Anetlom, SplUgerber. near Acrostichum.

Hymenodtum, F6e. Chefropleuria, Prtsl. near Gymnopteris.

near Deparia.

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Order XXV.—Danjbaworts.

Agjimte. Swart*. Byhops. (1806).—Poropteridei, WiUd. LcOS. (1810).—Dan»ace«f Agardh, I. c. 117. (182&).-Marattiace«, Kautf. /. c. Si. (1824) ; lory, I. c (1824); Mart. ic. pi. crypt. 119. (1884); xxxL; UtULJUic. tp. p. 31.

Diagnosis—FiliccU Acrogens, with rimgless dorsal spore-cases, combined in masses, asplitirrrgrlyby acmtralc

With all the habit of Dorsiferous Fern*, these plants are widely the peculiar nature of their spore-cases, which are neither like those of Adders-tongues. To the latter they approach the nearest, but instead of being connected with, and perhaps fashioned Out of, the margin of a contracted leaf, they appear sunk within, or more rarely seated upon, the back of the leaflets. The entire want of that elastic ring, which, in some state or other so strikingly characterises true ferns, gives them a far stronger title to be regarded as a distinct order, than the trifling differences which have in the eyes of some botanists elevated little groups of the latter to that dignity.

Fig. LXII. In addition to this, their spore-cases are always united more or less by their inner faces,

as if in anticipation of the prevailing tendency among the carpels of flowering plant*. For this reason they maybe regarded as the highest form of the highest Alliance among Acrogens.

The few known species of the Order are all tropical in both hemispheres. Some form trees.

The bruised leaves of the fragrant Angiopteris evecta, an arborescent species, are said to be employed in the Sandwich Islands to perfume the cocoa-nut oil. The rhizome of Marattia alata is eaten by the Sandwich Islanders in time of scarcity, according to Mr. Hinds : this would appear to be the Nehai,andnot the former plant

Kaulftuits, Blum. AngiopUrii, Hoffman.

( Ckmtntea, Car. I Dan**, Smith.


I Eupodiam, J. 8m. I Marattia, Swart*


M jrtokeca, Cotnm. CeUuUhsm, Thouln.

NuMBBBa. Gzn. 5. Sp. 15. (J. Smith.) Position.—Polypodiacess.—Danjbacka.—Ophioglossacese.

Fig. LXII.—Dan** alata. 1, CoDecMon of spars osssi; 2. Motions of tb* tarns and spares, 2 of which an highly magnified.


Fstlodochea, Prssi. near Anglopteria. Ditcostegia, Prtsl. ) Gymnotheca, do. V to Marattia. 8tibssia, do j

sstsrt }»—.

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RHIZ06ENS.                                           83


RhlnatW, Blum. FL Jatm, (1888); Emdlieker Mdttcmota, p. 10. (1831); Ed. prior, p. 380; Emdt

0m. p. 78.

These are parasitical plants destitute of true leaves, in room of which they have cellular scales. Their stem is either an amorphous fungous mass, or a ramified mycelium, sometimes, perhaps always, appearing to he lost in the tissue of the plants on which it grows; and is very imperfectly supplied with spiral vessels, which in some instances seem to he wholly deficient. No instance of green colour is known among them; hut they are hrown, yellow, or purple. They are furnished with true flowers, having genuine stamens and carpels, and surrounded hy a trimerous or penta-merous calyx, or absolutely naked. Their ovules appear to he constructed upon the same plan as in other flowering plants. The true nature of their seeds is in most species quite unknown; hy some they are described as breaking up into a mass of spores, hy others as consisting of a cellular nucleus abounding in grumous corpuscles (Endl.), and in general they may he regarded as too small for exact observation; hut it is certain that in some instances they have a minute undivided embryo enclosed in mucilagino-granular albumen.

At this point of the Vegetable Kingdom we find a most curious assemblage, which, with many of the peculiarities of Endogens, seems to be an intermediate form of organisation between them and Thallogens. They have no relation to Acrogens, although they follow at this place, but they agree with Endogens in the presence of sexes, and sometimes in the ternary structure of their flower; they have, however, scarcely any spiral vessels, and their seeds appear, as far as they have been examined, either, as some say, to want the cotyledons and axis of other flowering plants, or to lose themselves in a mass of pulp, from which they are almost indistinguishable. In their amorphous succulent texture, in their colour, often in their putrid odour when decaying, in the formation of a mycelium or spawn, which is evident in Helosis, and is with good reason suspected to exist in others, and in their parasitical habits, these plants resemble Fungals, while in their flowers and sexes they accord with Arumworts, or similar Endogens.

Rhizogens all agree in being of a fungus-like consistence, and in their habits of living parasitically on the roots of other plants. They very generally stain water, or spirit, of a deep blood-red colour. Their forms are exceedingly diversified; some have the aspect of a Mushroom, or develop a head like that of a Bulhrush (Typha): others push forth a thyrse of flowers, or an elegant panicle; while some have their bloom in a head like that of some Cynaraceous plant. In Helosis and LangsdorJfia the rhizome, which is horizontal and branched, and which at intervals throws up perpendicular flowering stalks, is quite analogous to the spawn * of

The existence of a myeslium has also been adverted to by Dr. Brown. (Lhm.Trtmt.xlx.tSt.) He suggest* that in Rafflesta the eartteet effort of the teed, after being depoatted in its proper nidus, may consist In the formation of a cellular tissue extending latently under the bark of the stock. He remarks that in Pilostyles and Cytlnus, where the plants are closely approximated, their possible origin torn a common base or thallus, is rendered the more probable by the parasites in the former genus, whfch is dksdous, being produced generally, perhaps always. In groups of the same sex, and by these groups, which are often very denes, not unfrequently surrounding the branch of the stock. He adds, Sowwrsr, that tins view Is not sustained by sufficient observation, but that there are circumstances la both fsneta fevourable to the hypothesis, especially In Ptlostyios.

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Fungala. In Cynomorium, Scybaliura and Balanophora, this part is wanting, and in its room the roots of those genera emit roundish deformed tubers collected in a circle upon the roots of other plants, and growing into them by some unknown process. Blume says, " that at the period of germination of Balanophoress there is produced from the roots of the Fig on which they grow an intermediate body, of a fleshy nature and intimately combined with its superficial woody layers, and that this intermediate body is penetrated by their spiral vessels, which render it woody." He moreover adds, that " several seeds of Balanophoren germinate on nearly the same points of the Fig-root; hence this woody body, or luxuriant product of the juices that are sucked out, has generally an irregular form, and the plants proceeding from such tubers grow out in different directions, much in the same manner as the tubers of a Potato generate their offsets: with this difference, however, that in a Potato the eyes of the plant are in the circumference, while in Balanophora they are placed in the centre, and on that account the intermediate body where the offsets break out, has necessarily a conical extension." Something of the same kind occurs in Scybalium, whose tubers are expanded in an irregular form about the root of some unknown tree, are fleshy, and composed even in the substance of the stalk of somewhat irregular cells and no spiral vessels. In the room of leaves these plants have scales, which differ from true leaves in the want of colour, a character common to all other plants parasitical on roots. A vertical stalk (stipes), sometimes terminated by a solitary head of flowers, sometimes bearing several heads variously arranged upon the stalk, is found in all the genera of Balanophoracea; which moreover agree in this that the flower-heads, which at first are sessile on the rhizome and concealed by many rows of imbricated scales, resemble the leafy rosette of a Sempervivum without colour, or rather the very small bud of a Rafflesia. The genuine species of Helosis show on their rhizome roundish conical buds seated on a very short stalk, or altogether sessile, enclosing the rudiments of the future head within a very thin involucre, as a fungus within the volva; this latter after a time splits into three or more segments, and emits the flower-head enlarged and furnished with a stalk, which is altogether naked except at the base, where it is surrounded by the scale-like segments of the withering involucre. This is the most simple form of involucre, which in the other genera becomes more and more complicated, and finally runs into numerous series of imbricated scales which clothe the stipes more or less completely. In those genera which grow upon the bark of the stems of trees, there are some diversities of structure in the organs of vegetation that are very remarkable. Blume tells us that Ramesia Patma appears upon the creeping roots or stems of Cissus scariosa in the form of solitary or clustered hemispherical dilatations, which look like excrescences or expansions of the root. These excrescences are something of the nature of leaf-buds, consisting of layers of scales and a more solid centre. As the latter increase in size they burst through the wrapper by tearing it irregularly from the apex towards the base, and develop themselves in the form of numerous scales, at first flesh-coloured, then brownish, and finally deep purple, which surround the flowers. As soon as these parts are exposed, ricnly nourished as they are by the humid air that surrounds them, they grow with such rapidity that it is reported that Rafflesia, which, when full-blown, is a yard across, and when unexpended, is as large as & middle-sized cabbage, only takes about three months for its complete formation. Brugmansia has a similar mode of development.

At one time it was believed that Rhizogens agreed with Fungals in the

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total want of spiral Teasels. That, however, was a mistake: Spiral vessels do not exist among them. Brown says that he has discovered them in Rafflesia, in which he originally failed to perceive them, and in several other cases. Martins also found them in Langsdorffia, in the form of bandies lying in the rhizome, stem and branches, and Mohl in similar parts of Helosis, but in small quantity compared to the mass of the plants. . Brown adds that " the vascular system of all these parasites is uniform and more simple than that of the far greater part of Phenogamous plants; that the spiral, or slight modifications of it, is the only form of vessel hitherto observed in any of them; and that the large tubes or vessels with frequent contractions, corresponding imperfect diaphragms, and variously marked surface, which have received several names, as vasa porosa, punctata, vasiform cellular tisane, dotted ducts, &c, and which are so conspicuous in the majority of arborescent Phtenogamous plants, have never been observed in any part strictly belonging to these parasites. (Linn. Trans, vol. zix. 231.) He, however, does not attach systematical importance to this curious fact.

The flowers are in general formed upon some symmetrical plan, the proportions varying from genus to genus. But in a singular deformed genus called Sarcophyte the flowers are not reducible to symmetry, as far as has yet been observed. It has not, however, been examined in a philosophical manner.

The seeds of many Rhizogens have escaped the observation of those who have had the best opportunities of examining them. Even the seeds of the common Cytinus Hypocistis of the South of Europe are unknown. But if there has been a want of facts concerning this part of the structure there has been speculation in abundance for which the reader is referred to the last edition of this work. I can positively confirm the statement of the elder Richard (Mem. Mas. viii. t. xxi.), who gives to Gynomorium coccineum an embryo. I find in that plant that the seed consists of a mucilaginous mass filled with angular particles, which are doubtless loosely cohering cells. They contain starch in a very minutely globular state, but are chiefly composed of gum. On one side of this seed is a globular embryo, looking like a speck, but found, when properly examined, to be a globose mass of cells, destitute of starch, enclosed within the albumen, and apparently undivided on any part of its surface. It is, however, difficult to speak positively upon this point, on account of its smallness, and I am not sure that it is not very slightly 2-lobed. Francis Bauer too ascertained the ovules of Rafflesia Arnoldi to have the ordinary structure, a strong indication that the seeds would not be so anomalous as has been represented, and he found an undivided embryo in the seed of the same plant, (Linn. Trans, xix. t. xxv.), a circumstance confirmed by the observations of Brown. Ferdinand Bauer found in Hydnora Africana what seems to be a central embryo* (Ibid. t. xxx.) of the same nature, and the researches of Weddell and Dr. Hooker leave no further room for doubting that all Rhizogens are truly embryonate.

Such being the supposed facts that have been ascertained with regard to these singular parasites, it only remains to notice some of the views entertained regarding them by systematic botanists. Dr. Robert Brown, who, aided by the microscopical drawings of the two Bauers, has had peculiar advantages for considering the question, appears to be opposed to the idea of regarding Rhizogens as a distinct class. He considers Rafflesiads as being unquestionably allied to Birth worths, and therefore as a form of Exogens. Ilis objections to regarding Rhizogens as a distinct class are as follows.


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He denies the absence of spiral vessels, which he himself and others once' supposed to be a characteristic of some at least among them, and asserts that the vascular texture of Rhizogens is not essentially different from that of any perfectly developed Phanogamous plants. But, as was stated in the last edition of this work, the true question to be considered is, not as to the presence or absence of spiral vessels, but as to their abundance. In Exogens or Endogens equally developed they would be most copious, and would exist in all the foliaceous organs; and it is no argument against'the importance of this circumstance, to say, that spiral vessels have no existence in certain Endogens, as Lemna, for instance ; for in that and similar cases the small degree in which such plants are developed, may be considered to account for the absence of spiral vessels; just as in a common Exogen, the spiral system does not make its appearance until the general development of the individual has made some progress.

So, indeed, in Ferns and other Acrogens of high degree, we have no right to say that the vascular system is absent; on the contrary, in the centre of the stem of Glubmosses, and in the soft parts of that of Ferns, either spiral or scalariform vessels exist in abundance; but they do not make their appearance in the foliaceous organs as in more perfect plants.

Brown also attaches no importance to the supposed homogeneity of the embryo of Rhizogens, because the same structure, he says, exists in Oro-banche and Orchids. But with regard to Orobanche, that plant has a slightly two-lobed embryo lying in a mass of albumen, so that I do not see how it can be brought into comparison with that of Rhizogens; and as to Orchids we have no right to say that their embryo is essentially different from that of common Endogens, except in its smallness.

The late Mr. Griffith adopted the views of Brown, and endeavoured, by new arguments, to show that Rhizogens cannot be regarded as a peculiar class in the Vegetable Kingdom. He asserted that these plants are not similar in their parasitism, and that in those he had examined there would appear to be two remarkably different types of development of the embryo. And he was persuaded that Rhizogens are an entirely artificial class, not even sanctioned by practical facility.—(Proceedings of the Linncan Society, No. XXIl.y p. 220., where this author's views are given in detail.)

Arguments like those of both Brown and Griffith never appeared satisfactory to me. Most of the species brought together to constitute the class of Rhizogens seem to have little relation to other parts of the system. It is true that the genera differ much from each other in the details of their fructification; though not more than the genera of some other classes; but the character of the order does not depend upon the fructification. It depends upon the great peculiarity in the manner of growth, already pointed out; and 'the fructification is connected with questions of a subordinate degree. All the classes of plants depend equally upon such considerations ; and, therefore, Rhizogens are logically a class. It was indeed singular that so acute a botanist as Griffith should not have perceived how much his position was weakened by comparisons like the following. He particularly directed attention to the resemblance between the pistil of Balanophorads and that of Mosses, or more especially to that of some evaginulate Liverworts, and to the effects produced by the action of the pollen on their styles. " Indeed,'* he observed, " in the development of the female organ, in the continuous surface of the style before fecundation, and in its obvious perforation after, Balanophora presents a direct affinity to a group of plants with which otherwise it has not a single analogy." In another genus, called Phaocordylis,

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he found that the hairs in which the fruits are imbedded present a remarkable analogy with the paraphyses of Drepauophyllum and certain Nockene, and also with bodies which he suspected to be the male organs of Ferns. Sorely this is a class of peculiarities which should indicate a group of lower rank than Exogens or Endogens.

Dr. Hooker, without adopting Griffith's views, is of opinion, after a most minute examination of Balanophorads, that that order at least has no claim to be separated from Exogens, but that it has a plain affinity to Onagrads. In order that the arguments adduced in support of this view of a very difficult question may be exactly stated, I have requested my acute friend, who has had ample opportunities of examining Balanophorads, to favour me with his own statement; and the reader will find it in the succeeding page.

There is an account of Rhizogens by Endlicher in his Meletemata, which contains a summary of all that was in 1832 known concerning them. For further information the reader is referred to Blume's Flora Java? ; Martins' Nova Genera, Ac., vol. 3; Brown's Observations on Rqfflesia, in the 13th and 19th volumes of the Linnean Society's Transactions; Griffith, in the Proceedings of the same learned body, the various works quoted at the head of the following natural orders, and in a note by Dr. Hooker upon Cynomorium in Webb's Bistoire Naturelle des Canaries, iii. 431.


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Order XXVL—BALANOPHORACE.—Cynomoriums.

Balanaphorew, Rich, in Mem. Mus. 8, 429. (1822); Endliehcr Meletemata, p. 10. (l$&2); gen. xxxtx. Metsntr, p. 366; Junghuxs in nov. act. xviil. suppl. ; Griffith, Proceedings Linn. Soc. No. xxiL

Diagnosis.—Stems amorphous, fungoid ; pedwncles scaly: flowers in spikes ; ovules solitary, pendulous ; fruit one-seeded.

Fig. LXIH.

" Leafless, brown, red, white, or yellow (never green) root-parasites, with underground fleshy horizontal branched rhizomes, or more generally amorphous tubers, from which spring erect simple (rarely branched) peduncles, that are naked, or covered with scattered or imbricating scales, rarely combined into an involucre. Flowers red, yellow, or white, unisexual (rarely bisexual), monoecious or dioecious, collected into dense, spherical or cylindrical, entire, lobed, or branched heads, often mixed with simple articulated filiform or club-shaped filaments. Bracts very variable, or absent; sometimes, when the heads are lobed, large, peltate, and imbricated, each subtending and often covering a lobe (branch) of the head; at other times the bracts are scattered promiscuously amongst the flowers; sometimes they are peltate, and connected by their contiguous edges into an areolate indusium, that falls away piecemeal as the head enlarges; at others the flowers are arranged on their Btipes. Male flowers conspicuous, usually white, pedicelled, exserted beyond the filaments and female flowers, generally at the base of hermaphrodite heads, or scattered irregularly amongBt female flowers, rarely wholly naked, then consisting of anthers crowded on a branched spike. Perianth tubular or funnel-shaped, entire or split, or more frequently 3-5-lobed, with valvate aestivation; lobes patent, or reflexed, fleshy, white, or highly-coloured. Stamens usually 8-5, with both filaments and anthers more or less connate or free, the latter frequently forming a lobed 6-12-celled mass, bursting outwards, or rarely inwards. (Stamen solitary, epigynous, and introrse, in bisexual flowers of Cynomorium. Stamens 39 nearly free and extroree in Langsdorffia; 3 and free in Sarcophyte, where each filament bears a capitate anther, that breaks up into a many-celled mass. Anthers

£}g- LXIIL 8cybalium fungiform*. 1. A male plant; 2. a female; 8. male flowere with hairs between them; 4. female*; S, a vertical section of a female, with the two pendulous ovules; 6. a section across a ripe fruit

-t ??* J£IV« Cyomorium oocclneum. 1. A section of the ripe fruit, showing the embryo on the right of the albumen; 2. a portion of the nucleus very highly magnified, showing the embryo and the angularcelUmmonff which it lies. N.B. These cells are separatedby the pressure of a compreesorium.

Fig. LXJV.

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Rhizogwis.]                            BALANOPHORACEE.                                          89

numerous and anfractuoee in Polyplegia.) Pollen globose, yellow, 1-3-nucleate. Female flowers very minute, densely crowded, sessile or stalked, sometimes seated round the base of a dub-shaped pedicel (Balanophora), shorter than the filaments amongst which they often nestle, and beyond which the styles protrude; generally consisting of a compressed ovarium, with 1-2 styles. Perianth seldom apparent, tube closely investing the ovary, and not distinguishable from it; limb 2-lipped, or none; rarely (Cynomorium), there are 6 irregularly inserted valvate pieces of the perianth. * Ovary 1-celled (2-celled according to Endlicher in Scybalium). Ovule a solitary naked pendulous nucleus; position of apex unknown. Styles 1 or 2, filiform, each with a simple papillose stigma. (Style flattened in Cynomorium, having two parallel chords, and two papillose stigmatio points. In Sarcophyte, the female flowers coalesce into fleshy capitula, which are sessile on a branched axis, and have sessile stigmata.) Fruit a small compressed nut; epicarp rather fleshy; endocarp crus-taceous. Seed solitary, pendulous, filling the cavity of the pericarp. Albumen ot large, hard, densely packed grains, adherent to the delicate membrane that surrounds them* Embryo lateral in Cynomorium and Corynasa; spherical, undivided, and soft in the former; harder, compressed, and lobed in the latter.

" A very remarkable natural order, displaying much variety in habit and structure of the floral organs, but agreeing in all essential characters, especially in those of reproduction. They have been likened to Fungi in appearance and mode of growth by some, but others fail to recognize any such similarity. They differ wholly from that natural order in consistence, anatomy, structure, slow mode of growth, and in having conspicuous brightly coloured male flowers.

"The earliest stage at which I have examined Balanophora, and some allied American plants, presents a minute amorphous cellular mass, nestling in ruptures of the bark of the root of the plant, which is henceforward the stock. Vascular tissue forms in the axis of this mass, which swells, and displacing more bark, enlarges to a tuberous rhizome, that in most cases finally envelopes the root, to which it is attached on one side only. In Helosis and Langsdorffia, a branched rhizome is formed underground. This rhizome has a dicotyledonous arrangement of its vascular plates, and sometimes gives off rootlets, which, when they come in contact with other root-fibres of the stock, induce a specific action on them, terminating in destruction of the bark, and a further attachment of the parasite. In no case has the germination of the embryo been observed, but the subsequent stages of growth so entirely resemble thorn of Loranthacea, that there appears no reason to expect any anomaly in the first stages.

« The rhizome, when tuberous, is generally covered with large lentioels (?), consisting of cellular, often cruciform pustules, uncovered by the cuticle. In these tubers the arrangement of the vascular bundles into plates is also exogenous, resembling closely in anatomical details that which prevails in some species of Loranthaceo. Bundles of vascular tissue run from the tuber (or rhizome) into the peduncle, where they are often symmetrically arranged, and supply the scales, the bractesa, and the lobes or branches of the inflorescence. The cellular tissue is composed of large nucleated cells, full of resinous matter (and some starch grains ?); the vascular of woody tubes; large, barred, spirally-marked, seldom unreliable tubes, of bothrenchyma, and of cylindrical and hexagonal, simple and septate tubes; also of copious thick sclerogen tubes and cells, with perforated walls. There are no true spiral vessels, and the vascular tissue is always in contact with the wood of the stock, which latter sometimes ramifies in the tuber. This contact is sometimes so intimate, that it is impossible to separate the vascular bundles of the parasite from those of the stock; and after long maceration, the latter may hence be traced apparently running continuously up the peduncle, and into the head of flowers. The peduncle bursts from any part of the tuber or rhizome; in its youngest state it is generally covered by imbricating scales; vascular bundles form independently in its substance, and descend to join those of the rhizome. The cuticle of the peduncle and scales has no stomates, whose functions are probably performed by the lenticels of the rhizome. The filaments that nestle amongst the female flowers of the American genen and of Ph&ocordylis, appear to be abortive female flowers in most cases, but may, in these and others, be also in part reduced, deformed, or displaced segments of a perianth, as analogy with Cynomorium suggests. They have been compared with the paraphyees of mosses,* with which they have no further affinity or analogy than that both are cellular organs. The ovaria have also been likened to the pistillidia of Mosses and Hepatic®, to which they bear no relation in structure, origin, or function. In the youngest state, the female flowers of some American species are 2- and even 8-lobed, with as many styles.

* Griffith, linn. Soc. Trans, v. 20, p. W and 102.

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90                                         BALANOPHORACRfi.                    [Rhizogbks.

u In endeavouring to determine the affinities of Balanophoreee, I have confined my attention to the organs of reproduction, which, whether male or female, are perfect, and typical of Ptoenogamic plants in all respects, though reduced in number and proportion of parts; at the same time rejecting the more prominent, but comparatively unimportant characters of growth and appearance, colour, parasitism, and the inability of most observers to find embryos in some, such being conspicuous in others. The exogenous arrangement of the vascular bundles of the rhizomes, lobed embryo of Corynea* and decidedly dicotyledonous one of Mystropetalum are the most important positive characters hitherto observed, by which to determine the division of the vegetable kingdom to which Balanophorea should be referred, which is hence Dico-tyledones. The one-celled inferior ovarium, with often two styles, adherent two-lipped or truncate perianth, unisexual flowers, epigynous stamen when the flowers are bisexual, solitary pendulous ovule, and the structure of the albumen and embryo wherever these are made out, are all typical of plants referred to or closely related to Halorageae, an order in which there is a great tendency to imperfection of the floral organs. The female inflorescence of Lepidophyton (n. g. ined.) differs in no respects, except in having larger braotese, from that of Gunnera scabra; whilst the dense albumen of all Balanophorea, composed of laige grains covered with a membranous testa, that adheres to the walls of the pericarp, and the minute embryo, also characterize the seed of all species of Gunnera. The bisexual monandrous flowers of Cynomorium in many respects closely resemble those of Hippuris, and its perianth is more highly developed, though more irregular in insertion. Equally strong and decided points of affinity may be found in the male flowers, both in the development and suppression of their parts, but such details are unsuited to these pages.

" Balanophore© are found on the roots of various Dicotyledonous plants (Vines,' Maples, Oais, Aratiaceo, &c. &c,) and abound in the mountains of tropical countries, especially the Andes of Peru and Colombia, the Himalaya (where they ascend to 11,000 feet in Lat. 28° N.) and Ehasia Mountains of India. In the old world one (Cynomorium) is found in Malta, N. Africa, the Levant, and Canaries; another on the west coast of Africa; Sarcophyte in South Africa. Eight or ten species inhabit the Indian Continent, and others its islands, the north coast of Australia and Polynesia. As many are found in Mexico, Central and South America, and Jamaica (where Phyllocoryne, n. g. ined., is called Jim Crow's Nose). A few are Brazilian, and Mr. Miers informs us that one grows on the Pampas.

"The direct uses are few. They seem, as far as anything is known of them, to be styptics. The Cynomorium coccineum, or Fungus melitensis of the apothecaries, long had a great reputation in that way; and various kinds of Helosis have had a similar character. Sarcophyte, a Cape plant, is said to have an atrocious odour. P&ppig says, that Ombrophytum, which in Peru springs up suddenly after rain, in the manner of the toadstool, is called Mays del Monte, in consequence of its resemblance to a kind of Maize, and is quite insipid, on which account it is cooked and eaten like Fungi This, if true, presents a remarkable contrast with the Balanophoras of India, whose spikes are very slowly developed, and decay after ripening their seeds very gradually indeed. Lepidophytum is also eaten in Bolivia. Cups, used throughout Tibet, are turned from knots produced on the roots of maples by the Himalayan species."


Tribe—Balanophoridw.                            |             Tribe—Helosidote.

BaUnophora, ft>r$t.                              \                Helosis, Rich.

Ojnopmlc, EndL PolwUthia, Griff. Sarcocordylis, Wall. Tribe—Cynomorid®. Cynomorium, MichtL


Sarcophyte, Sparrn.

Ichthyoema, Schltcht. Tribe—Lophophytidete.

Lophophytum, SchoU. Archimedea, Leand.

Ombrophytum, Pdpp. & End I.

Lepidophytum, HookJU-                                                                          J. D. Hooker.

aOdasia, Hut.

Lathrtpophila, Leand. Langsdorffia, Mart. Scybalium, Schott. Phaeocordylis, Qriff.

T Rhopalocntmi*, Juugh. Corynea, HookfiL. Phyllocoryne, HookJU.

Thonningia, Sckwm. Hasmatostrobus, Endl.

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Order XXVII. CYTINACEJS.—Cistusrapks.

Cjtinwe, Addph. Brongn. in Ann. da. Sc. Nat. 1. 29. (18S4); Rndlichcr Mdetemata, p. 13. Oen. xl. Mcisner, p. 907. JL Brown in Linn. Trans, xix.—Piftiac*e, <4amtt. Aphor. BoL p. 340. (1826).— Artatolochte, } Cytina», link /famfe. 1. 368. (1829).—Hydnonw, JL Br. Linn. Trans. 19. (1844).

Diagnosis.—Flowers in jp&e* of *A* end o/ a *xrfy item, with a $-6-parted calyx f anthers opening by slits, and innumerable ovules growing over parietal placenta.

Flowers 0,or$ soUtaayandstemlessyordusteredatthetoptf imbricated scales, the males uppermost, the females lowermost, in the aril of a bract, and supported on each side by a bractlet. Perianth tubular-campanulate, with a spreading 3-&-lobed limb, the segments imbricated, the exterior alternating with the bractlete

or induphcate and valvate. Anthers sessile, 2-celled ; their cells distinct, opening longitudinally; four dissepiment-like membranes in Cytinus alternate witli the segments of die perianth, and join its tube with the column* $ Perianth as in the males, but epigynous. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, with vertical or parietal placentae, covered by innumerable ovules; style cylindrical, j oined to the tube of the perianth by septiform processes, with a thick stigma, or free, and consisting of several styles, each having a free stigmatic apex. Fruit berried, leathery, one-celled, with innumerable seeds buried in pulp, and having a hard leathery skin firmly attached to the nucleus. Seed in Hydnora, with a small undivided embryo in the centre of cartilaginous albumen, and in Cytinus ex-albuminous according to Brown.

In these we have a near approach to the common condition of Endogens, both in structure and habit, if we compare Cytinus with some Bromelworts.

But the appearance of Hydnora is so peculiar that we know nothing to contrast it with, except some such Fungus as a Geaster, like which it grows half-buried in the soil. Its innumerable seeds distinguish it from Rafflesiads, as well as its caulescent habit and slit anthers.

The history of this extraordinary plant has been folly given by Ferdinand Bauer and Dr. Brown, in the 19th vol* of the Linnean Transactions, from which place the accompanying cuts are taken. The genus is regarded by Brown as the type of a peculiar Order: and perhaps with justice. But for reasons elsewhere given, I demur to the formation of all Orders that depend upon a single genus.

Cytinus is parasitical on the roots of Gstus in the South of Europe ; the rest are from the Gape of Good Hope, where Hydnora is parasitical on the roots of succulent Euphorbias, and of Cotyledon orbiculatum.

Hydnora Africana (Jackals Kost or Kauimp), smells like decaying roast-beef, or some fungus (Harvey) ; when roasted it is eaten by the African savages. Cytinus Hypo-eistis (Arwtjrr* Diosc.) contains gallic add, and according to Pelletier, has the property of precipitating gelatine without containing tannin ; its extract is still officinal in the South of Europe, under the name of Succus Hypocistidis; it is blackish, sub-acid, astringent, and is employed in haemorrhages and dysentery.

Ffe. LXV.-Cyttnus HypocistJs. 1. A flower; 2. a head of anther*; 3. a transverse rection of the

Fig. LXV.

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CytJnua, L

HypocUU*, Toum. Hjdnora, Thunb.


AphftHa, L Iiypoiepis,/Vr/. Phelypaa, Thunb.

Numbebs. Gkn. 4. Sp. 7.

Hpobanche* Bparnn. Tkyrrtne, Gled. fThtomla. Qriff.

Saixosiphon, Blume.

FwujaU*. Position.-llafflesiacoae,—Cytinacsjs.—Balanophoracese. Bromcliace* t

Fig. lxvi.

Fig. LXV1L

Fig. LXVI. A plant of Hydnora Africana. Fig. LXVII.—A longitudinal section oi it Ferd. Bauer.

Blume suggest* that Thiamia (his genus Sarcosiphon) may be the type of a new order of Rhisanths. He describes it as a leafless parasite, growing on the roots of trees, resembling in appearance an Angiogastrous Fungus, and smelling like stinking fish. Miers refers this genus to Triurids (see p. 172).

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Rhj2U>gb«s.]                               RAFFLESIACK*.                                             93


Rafflesiice*, BndUcher Mektmata, p. 14. (1832); fen, xU.McUner, p. 367; 1L Brown in Linn.

Tram. 19. 241.

Diagnosis.—Stemless and staUdess; Jbwers Snorted, sessile an the branch* of trees, solitary, with antfurs opening hypo**, and innumerable ovules growing over parietal

Stemless plants, consisting merely of flowers growing immediately from the surface of branches, and immersed among scales; flowers hermaphrodite, or dioscious. Perianth

superior, globose or campanulate; the limb 5-parted, with the segments imbricated or doubled inwards in aestivation ; the throat surrounded by calli, which are either distinct ) l or run together into an entire ring. Column (synema) hypocrateriforni or sub-globose, adhering to the tube of the perianth ; anthers numerous, distinct, or somewhat connate, adhering by the base, in one row ; 2-celled, with the cells opposite, and each opening by a vertical aperture, or concentrically many-celled with a common pore. Ovary inferior, I -celled, with many-seeded parietal placentae; styles conical, equal in number to the placentas, run together within the column, but pro-3 jecting beyond it, and then distinct Fruit, an indehiscent pericarp, with an infinite multitude of seeds. [Embryo undivided, with or without albumen.—R. Brown.']

These extraordinary plants have no stems whatever, but consist of flowers only, supported by scales in room of leaves. Among them is the very remarkable species described by Brown in the 13th vol. of the Linnean Society's Transactionsf under the name of Raffle-sia, to which those may be referred who are desirous either of knowing what is the structure of one of the most anomalous of vegetables, or of finding a model of botanical investigation and sagacity, or of consulting one of the most beautiful specimens of botanical analysis which Francis Bauer ever made. They differ from the Cistusrapes in having no proper stem, in their anthers being porous, and in their flower, which constitutes the whole plant, being divided by 5, like Exogens, instead of 2 or 3, like Endogens. An affinity has been suggested with Birth worts, to which this Order seems to have no immediate relationship.

Natives of the East Indies, on die stemsofCissijor of South America, on the branches of leguminous plants.

Rafflesia Patina is employed in Java as a powerful styptic, in relaxation or debility of the urino-genital apparatus, and Brugmansia seems to possess similar qualities.

GENERA. RArrvtBKM, Jt Br. iBnigmansia, Blum*. |**Apodanthkjb, R. Br.lPUoetylea, Guillen. Rafflesla, A. Br.                 Zippdia, Rchb.            Apodanthes, FaiL              FrosUa, Bert

ftapris, 0r0IA.              I MycttanVu.Rchb. \                                    I

Numbers. Grn. 5. Sp. 16.

A ristclochiaeem t Position.—Balanophoraceas—Rafflesiacejc—Cytinaceis.

Fig. LXYill.

Flg.LXYIir.—Pfloetyles Berterli <$ I. A verticil section of a flower; 2. a young flower bursting through the bark; & a head of stamens*

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94                                           MYSTROPETALINiE.                             [Rmzoowts.


" A genus of monoecious root-parasites. Stem sheathing, covered with imbricating scales, terminated by a dense-flowered head. Flowers with three villous bractceeu Males on upper part of the spike; of three valvate sepals connate at the base. Stamens two, inserted on the petals and opposite them; anthers posticous; pollen angular. Female flower; perianth superior, tubular, 3-toothed, minute; ovary 1-celled, with one pendulous ovuIq, seated on a disc; style filiform; stigma Globed. Fruit a spherical achene, 1-celled, with one albuminous seed filling the cavity; structure as in Baianophoreea.

" Mystropetalum is well described by Griffith (note in Linntan Transactions, voL xix. p. 336), who, however, strangely overlooked the pendulous ovule and the embryo, which, though small, is very evident, broad, has a short blunt radicle pointing upwards, and two short broad cotyledons, just as in Gunnera. The testa is a very thin membrane. Albumen of very large hard grains. The genus appears near Loranthacete in many respects, and betrays some affinity with Composite, It is another, in short, of the many incomplete epigynous orders, such as Loranthacese, Santalace©, Cornea, Araliace®, Balanophoreee, Gunneracea, Halorageae, Ac. &c, which are all obscure, often imperfect as to floral envelopes and ovules, and of very difficult and uncertain affinity."

ONLY GENUa Mystropetalon, Harvey.

Two species only are known, both natives of S. Africa.

J. D. Hooker.

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KNDOGENS.                                                 95


Haying now passed in review the absolutely sexless plants, called Thallo-gens, and all that class which, under the title of Acrogens, comprehends a numerous race among whom the existence of a double sex is conjectured to exist, and having, moreover, disposed of the curious Rhizogens, which, to a fungal mode of growth join a complete sexual apparatus, we pass to Endogens, or Monocotyledons.

Here we find a vast multitude of species, with extremely diversified habits, among whom occurs every attribute supposed to be connected with the most, perfect structure. Leaves and stems are distinctly separated; spiral vessels, breathing-pores, and sexes, are in a condition that admits of no further complication ; and we find in the great majority everything which constitutes as elaborate an arrangement of parts as we have any knowledge of in the vegetable kingdom.

This great class bears the name of Endogens, in consequence of its oew woody matter being constantly developed in the first instance towards the interior of the trunk, only curving outwards in its course downwards. That palm-trees grow in this way was known so long since as the time of Theophrastus, who distinctly speaks of the differences between endogenous and exogenous wood.* But that this peculiarity is also extended to a considerable part of the vegetable kingdom is a modern fact, the discovery of which we owe to the French naturalists Daubenton and Desfontaines. The path being thus opened, the inquiry has subsequently, and more particularly of late years, been much extended, and the result is the conviction that all those numerous races to which Jussieu applied the name of Monocotyledonese, agree essentially in this manner of growth. We may take the palm-tree as typical of the endogenous structure. In the beginning the embryo of a palm consists of a cellular mass of a cylindrical form, very small and not at all divided. As soon as germination commences a certain number of cords of ligneous fibre begin to appear in the radicle, deriving their origin from the plumule. Shortly afterwards, as soon as the rudimentary leaves of the plumule begin to lengthen, spiral and dotted vessels appear in the tissue in connection with the ligneous cords ; the latter increase in quantity as the plant advances in growth, shooting through the cellular tissue, and keeping parallel with the outside of the root. At the same time the cellular tissue increases in diameter to make room for the ligneous cords (or woody bundles, as they are also called). At last a young leaf is developed with a considerable number of such cords in connection with its base, and, as its base passes all round the plumule, these cords are consequently connected equally with the centre which that base surrounds. Within this a second leaf gradually unfolds, the cellular tissue increasing horizontally at the same time; the ligneous cords, however, soon cease to maintain anything like a parallel

**E£W U rat ftHtfm*, rkulif*iiy&Xn* ami f«M(4f, it TUi*»t, Atvt. **) ** &XA«rk w(»U(n/*ir»' r» li, fwMrnpM, tm.'EXmm, Uvfrt' my*%ifrttifprfurwmtrmXmfiur il\k xm) f«W rtnt *ii mark riftirn, iJJJt xmrk ri wttt i%U», £rrt f*b ihmi ri*wi iiMfUtt' W umi mm *i/ V «» *#!»«» iXmt ?x«»' *«i) nmi t«v +*mmh liitftum 9minrm limlfk nmr Mi*, fhtophr. Hist. 1. 8.


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96                                            ENDOGENS.

direction, but form arcs whose extremities pass upwards and downwards, losing their extremities in the leaf on the one hand, and on the other in the roots, or in the cellular integument on the outside of the first circle of cords ; at the same time the second leaf pushes the first leaf a little from the centre towards the circumference of the cone of growth. In this manner leaf after leaf is developed, the horizontal cellular system enlarging all the time, and every successive leaf, as it forms at the growing point, emitting more woody bundles curving downwards and outwards, and consequently intersecting the older arcs at some place or other ; the result of which is that the first formed. leaf will have the upper end of the arcs which belong to it longest and much stretched outwardly, while the youngest will have the arcs the straightest; and the appearance produced in the stem will be that of a confused entanglement of woody bundles in the midst of a quantity of cellular tissue. As the stem extends its cellular tissue longitudinally while this is going on, the woody arcs are consequently in proportion long, and in fact usually appear to the eye as if almost parallel, excepting here and there, where two arcs intersect each other. As in all cases the greater number of arcs curve outwards as they descend, and eventually break up their ends into a multitude of fine divisions next the circumference where they assist in forming a cortical integument, it will follow that the greater part of the woody matter of the stem will be collected near the circumference, while the centre, which is comparatively open, will consist chiefly of cellular tissue ; and when, as in many palms, the stem has a limited circumference, beyond which it is its specific nature not to distend, the density of the circumference must, it is obvious, be proportionably augmented. It is however a mistake to suppose that the great hardness of the circumference of old palm wood is owing merely to the presence of augmenting matter upon a fixed circumference ; this will account but little for the phenomenon. We find that the woody bundles next the circumference are larger and harder than they originally were, and consequently we must suppose that they have the power of increasing their own diameter subsequent to their first formation, and that they also act as reservoirs of secretions of a hard and solid nature, after the manner of the heartwood of exogens.

When the growth of the stem of an endogen goes on in this regular manner, with no power of extending horizontally beyond a specifically limited diameter, a trunk is formed, the sections of which present the appearances shown in the accompanying                p»s LXX-

cut. There is a number of curved spots crowded together in a confused way, most thick and numerous at the circumference, comparatively small and thinly placed at the centre ; and the only regular structure that is observable with the naked eye is that the curves always present their convexity to the

. *,?_-. *». -'-Vs.*:."..*

Fig. LXIX.

Fig. LXIX.—Horizontal section of a Palm stem. Fig. LXX.—Longitudinal section of a Palm tree.

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circumference. When there is no limited circumference assigned by nature to an Endogen, then the curved spots, which are sections of the woody arcs, are much more equally arranged, and are less crowded at the circumference. Never is there any distinct column of pith, or medullary rays, or concentric arrangement of the woody arcs ; nor does the cortical integument of the surface of endogenous stems assume the character of bark, separating from the wood below it; on the contrary, as the cortical integument consists yery much of the finely divided extremities of the woody arcs, they necessarily hold it fast to tho wood, of which they are themselves prolongations, and the cortical integument can only be stripped off by tearing it away from the whole surface of the wood, from which it does not separate without leaving myriads of little broken threads behind.

This is the apparent and general structure of the most perfect among Endogens. It is of course modified exceedingly according to the nature of particular individuals, and may even be reduced to nullity, as is the case in Lemna, Tillandsia usneoides, Naiads, and similar plants.

Schleiden, who treats this subject in a merely anatomical manner, thus describes the peculiarities of Endogens or Monocotyledons, and the manner in which they differ from Exogens or Dicotyledons.

In all plants, he says, the woody bundles, whose development always proceeds from the interior to the exterior, are either limited or unlimited in their growth. Commonly every woody bundle consists of three different physiological parts ; firstly, of a tissue of extreme delicacy, capable of rapid development, in which new cells are continually generated and deposited in various ways, in two different directions, viz. next the circumference, in the shape of a peculiar kind of lengthened cellular tissue with very thick walls, the liber ; and next the centre, in the form of annular, spiral, reticulate, and porous vessels : secondly, of woody cells, which are either uniform in appearance, or different, and form the wood, properly so called. Up to a certain period the development of the vascular system in Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons proceeds upon the same plan ; but in Monocotyledons (En-dogens) the active, thin, solid, delicate cellular tissue, suddenly changes; the partitions of its cells become thicker; their generating power ceases ; and when all the surrounding cells are fully developed, they assume a peculiar form, ceasing to convey gum, mucilage, and other kinds of thick formative sap.

From this cause all further development of vascular bundles is rendered impossible, and therefore Schleiden calls the woody bundles of such plants " limited." In Dicotyledons (Exogens), on the contrary, this tissue retains, during the whole lifetime of the plant, its vital power of formation ; continues to develop new cells ; and so increases the mass, ceaselessly augmenting both the exterior (liber), and the interior faces (wood), for which reason Schleideu calls such woody bundles ''unlimited/' This, he continues, happens according to the climate and nature of the plant: either pretty continuously, as in Cactacese ; or by abrupt periodical advances and cessations, as occurs in forest trees of Europe. In the latter, the stem forms an uninterrupted tissue, from the pith to the bark, during every period of life, and the bark is never organically separate from the stem ; what is considered their natural separation in the spring, is only a rent produced by tearing the delicate tissue already spoken of, which is present, even during winter, and constitutes the foundation of new annual zones, although compressed, and filled with gum, starch, and other secretions. In the spring, being expanded and swoUen by the new current of sap, it is deprived of its contents by their solution.

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98                                            ENDOGENS.

This difference between limited and unlimited woody bundles affords, iu Schleiden'8 opinion, the only universal distinction between Endogens and Exogens. In the annual Exogens the unlimited woody bundle, checked in its further development by the death of the plant, has, it is true, in so far some similarity to the limited one of Endogens; yet, sufficient research shows the difference distinctly, for the formative layer in the former constantly retains to the last moment its generating power. (See Annals of Natural History, iv. 236.)

The distinction between Endogens and Ezogens, whether it be as we have first described it, or such as Schleiden states, is so obvious and universally recognised, that one would have thought them beyond the reach of controversy. Nevertheless, M. de Mirbel has very recently (Comptes Rendu*, Oct. 1844, p, 699) asserted, that, according to his theoretical views of their structure, a great number of Monocotyledons are Ezogens, more especially Dra-ctsna, Phoenix, ChamsBrops, and Bromelia. Meneghini, moreover, long since pointed out the fact that Yucca gloriosa arranges its woody bundles in con-centrical circles, (Ricerehe suUa Struttura del Caule nelle Piante Monocoti-ledoni, Padova 1836) and the same tendency is discoverable in some other Endogens allied to Yucca. But the mere gathering together the woody bundles into imperfect rings, does not in any degree invalidate the distinction between Endogens and Exogens, because their whole manner of growth is different. The fibrovascular tissue which forms the wood of Yucca gloriosa itself, is in fact present in the form of arcs, just as much as in a Palm-tree.

In many of the larger kinds of Endogens the stem increases principally by the development of a single terminal bud, a circumstance unknown in Exogens, properly so called. In many however, as all grasses, the ordinary growth takes place by the full development of axillary buds in abundance.

In general there is so great a uniformity in the structure of an endogenous stem, that the common cane or asparagus illustrates its peculiarities sufficiently. There are, however, anomalous states that require explanation.

Grasses are endogens with hollow stems strengthened by transverse plates at the nodes. This is seen in the bamboo, whose joints are used as cases to hold rolls, or in any of our indigenous species. In this case the deviation from habitual structure is owing to the circumference growing faster than the centre, the consequence of which is the tearing the latter into a fistular passage, except at the nodes, where the arcs of ligneous tissue, connected with the leaves, cross over from one side of the stem to the other, and by their entanglement and extensibility form a solid and impenetrable diaphragm. That this is so is proved by the fact, that the stems of all grasses are solid, or nearly so, as long as they grow slowly; and that it is when the rapidity of their development is much accelerated that they assume their habitual fistular character. In the sugar-cane grass the hollowness of the stem is indeed unknown. Independently of that circumstance, their organisation is sufficiently normal. ,

Xanthorhsa hastilis has been shown by De Candolle to have an anomalous aspect. When cut through transversely, the section exhibits an appearance of medullary rays proceeding with considerable regularity from near the centre to the very circumference. (Organograpkie Vfy&ale, t. vii.) But such horizontal rays are not constructed of muriform cellular tissue like real medullary processes, but are composed of ligneous cords lying across the other woody tissue; they are in fact the upper ends of the woody area pulled from a vertical into a horizontal direction by the growth of the stem

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ENDOGENS.                                            99

and the thrusting of the leaves to which they belong from the centre to the circumference. Such a case throws great light upon the real nature of the * more regular forms of endogenous wood*.

Other appearances are owing to imperfect development, as in some of the aquatic species of this class. Lemna, for example, has its stem and leaves fused together into a small lenticular cavernous body; and in Zanni-chellia and others, a few tubes of lengthened cellular tissue constitute almost all the axis.

By far the most striking kind of anomaly in the stem of Endoeens is that which occurs in Barbacenia, and which was originally noticed in the first edition of this work, p. 334. In an unpublished species of Barbacenia from Bio Janeiro, allied to B. purpurea, the stems appear externally like those of any other rough-barked plant, only that their surface is unusually fibrous and ragged when old, and closely coated by the remains of sheathing leaves when young. Upon examining a transverse section of this stem it is found to consist of a small firm pale central circle having the ordinary endogenous organisation, and of a large number of smaller and very irregular oval spaces pressed closely together but having no organic connection; between these are traces of a chaffy ragged tissue which seems as if principally absorbed and destroyed. A vertical section of the thickest part of this stem exhibits, in addition to a pale central endogenous column, woody bundles crossing each other or lying parallel, after the manner of the ordinary ligneous tissue of a palm stem, only the bundles do not adhere to each other, and are not embodied as usual in a cellular substance. These bundles may be readily traced to the central column, particularly in the younger branches, and are plainly the roots of the stem, of exactly the same nature as those aerial roots which serve to stay the stem of a screw pine (Pandanus). When they reach the earth the woody bundles become more apparently roots, dividing at their points into fine segments, and entirely resembling on a small scale the roots of a palm-tree. The central column is much smaller at the base of the stem than near the upper extremity. A figure of this structure will be found under the order H»modorace«e.

The age of endogenous trees has been little studied. When the circumference of their stem is limited specifically, it is obvious that their lives will be limited also; and hence we find the longevity of palms inconsiderable when compared with that of exogenous trees. Two or three hundred years are estimated to form the extreme extent of life in a date-palm and in many others. But where, as in the Dragon TreeB, the degree to which the stem will grow in diameter is indefinite, the age seems, as in Exogens, to be indefinite also: thus a famous specimen of the Dracaena Draco, of Oratava in Teneriffe, was an object of great antiquity so long ago as a. d. 1402, and is still alive.

Important as the character furnished by the internal manner of growth of an Endogen obviously is, it is much enhanced in value by its being found very generally accompanied by peculiarities of organisation in other parts. The leaves have in almost all cases the veins placed in parallel lines, merely connected by transverse single or nearly single bars. Straight-veined . foliage is therefore an external symptom of an endogenous mode of growth. When such an appearance is found in Exogens it is always fallacious, and is found to be owing to the excessive size and peculiar direction of a few of the larger veins, and not to be a general character of all the venous system; as is sufficiently obvious in Rib-grass, Gentian, and many more.

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The flowers too of Eudogens have in most cases their sepals, petals, and

stamens corresponding with the Dumber three, or clearly referrible to that type; and the pistil usually participates in the same peculiarity. Where such a proportion exists in Exogens,itisusu- . ally confined to the sepals and petals by themselves, or to the pistil by itself, not extending to the other organs. In En-dogens it is almost universal in all the whorls of the flower, although sometimes obscured by the abortion, dislocation, or cohesion of particular parts, as happens in the whole of the extensive natural order of grasses.

The effect of the manner of growtli in Endogens is to give them a very peculiar appearance. Their trunks frequently resemble columns rising majestically with a plume of leaves upon their summit; and the leaves, often very large—the fan-sh aped leaves of some palms are from 20 to 30 feet wide— have most commonly a lengthened form, resembling a sword blade if stiff, or a strap if weak and broad. These peculiarities are connected with others belonging to endogenous vegetation in its most rudimentary condition. The embryo of an Endogen is, in its commonest state, a small undivided cylinder, which protrudes from within its substance a radicle from one end and a plumule from a little above the radicle; in Fig. i.xxr -Yucca aioifoito.                    other cases its embryo has a

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ENDOGENS. '                                 101

slit on one side, in the cavity of which the plumule reposes; or, finally, the embryo is a flat plate as in grasses, with the plumule and radicle attached to its face near the hase.' In the latter case the flat plate is a solitary cotyledon, which, in the second instance, is folded together so as to give the embryo the appearance of being'slit, and which in the first, or most habitual, condition is not only folded up, but united at its edges into a case entirely burying the plumule and cotyledon. Hence the embryo of an endogen is called monocotyledonous; a name that is really unexceptionable, notwithstanding the occasional appearance of a second rudimentary cotyledon, as occurs in common wheat. M. Adrien de Jussieu has endeavoured to show that the slit, which is generally supposed to be peculiar to the Arums and their allies, is of general occurrence in the endogenous embryo. (Ann. Se. N. Ser. xi. p. 341.)

It has already been stated that the radicle is protruded in germination from within the substance of the embryo; the base of the radicle is consequently surrounded by a minute collar formed of the edges of the aperture produced by the radicle upon its egress. For this reason Endogens are called endorhizal.

Hence the great natural class of plants forming the subject of these remarks has five most important physiological peculiarities, by all which combined, or usually by each of which separately, the class may be characterised.

1.   The wood is endogenous.

2.  The leaves are straight-veined.

3.   The organs of fructification are ternary.

4.  The embryo is monocotyledonous.

5.   The germination is endorhizal.

It may however be readily supposed that, viewed as a large class of plants, Endogens are essentially characterised only by the combination of these five peculiarities, and that occasional deviations may occur from every one of them. Thus in Naias, Caulinia, Zannichellia, and others, which constitute a part of what Professor Schultz names Homorganous floriferous plants, the whole organisation of the stem is so imperfect that the endogenous character is lost; but their true nature is nevertheless sufficiently indicated by their straight veins, monocotyledonous embryo, &c. The examples of a concentrical arrangement of the woody bundles, above alluded to, may be regarded as instances of endogenous development tending towards the exogenous, and are usually looked upon as cases of transition from one form to the other—perhaps not very correctly. Of a similar nature are the resemblances between the columnar Cycadaceous Gymno-perms and Palms, between the livid, foetid, one-sided calyx of Aristolochia and the equally livid, fmtid, one-sided spathe of Araceous Endogens, or, in another point of view, between such lenticular plants as Lemna in Endogens, with the leaves and stems fused, as it were, together, and similar forms of stem and leaf among Marchantiaceous Acrogens.

Really intermediate forms of vegetation connecting Endogens with other clauses, are extremely uncommon. One of the most striking is that which occurs between Ranunculace® and Nympheacen on the part of Exogens, and AJismacess and Hydrocharacee on that of Endogens; if Ranunculus lingua, or better R. parnassifolius, is contrasted with Alisma plantago, or Damasonium, leaving out of consideration subordinate differences, it will be found that there is little of a positive nature to distinguish them except the albuminous dicotyledonous seeds of the former as compared with the exal-


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102                                 *        ENDOGENS.

buminous monocotyledonous seeds of the latter; and the resemblances between Hydropeltis and Hydrocharis in the other case are so very great, that Schultz and others actually refer them to the same class.

Endogens probably contain more plants contributing to the food of man, and fewer poisonous species in proportion to their whole number, than Exogens. Grasses, with their floury albumen, form a large portion of this class, to which have to be added Palms yielding fruit, wine, sugar, sago ; Arums, Arrow-roots, Amaryllids, &c., producing arrow-root; the nutritious fruit of Plantains; the aromatic secretions of (ringers; and Orchisworts, forming salep. Among the deleterious species we hare no inconsiderable number among Amaryllids, Arums, Melanths, and even Lilies.

In this, as in all other large groups, the extremes of development are so far apart, that one would be tempted to doubt the possibility of their being mere forms of each other, were it not certain that numerous traces exist in the vegetable kingdom of a frequent tendency to produce the typical structure of a natural association of whatever kind in both an exaggerated and degraded state, if such figurative terms may be employed in science. For instance, the genus Ficus contains some species creeping on the ground Eke diminutive herbaceous plants, and others rising into the air to the height of 150 feet, overspreading with the arms of their colossal trunks a sufficient space of ground to protect a multitude of men; the type of organisation in the willow is in like manner represented on the one hand by the tiny Salix herbacea, which can hardly raise its head above the dwarf moss and saxifrages that surround it; and on the other by Salix alba, a tree sixty feet high. Then among natural orders we have the Rosal structure exaggerated, on the one hand, into the arborescent Pomaces, and degraded, on the other, into the apetalous imperfect SanguisorbesB; the Myrtal type, highly developed in Myrtus, and almost obliterated in Hippurids (Haloragen); the Urtical, in excess in Artocarpus, and quite imperfect in Ceratophyllum; Grasses, presenting the most striking differences of perfection between the moss-like Knappia, and Bamboos a hundred feet high; and the Lilial in equally different states of development, when Asparagus is compared with the Dragon-tree, or an autumnal squill with an arborescent Yucca. So, in like manner, we find at one extreme of the organisation of the class of Endogens, Palms, Plantains, and arborescent Liliaceous species, and at the other, such submersed plants as Potamogeton, Zannichellia, and Duckweed, the latter of which has not even the distinction of leaf and stem, and bears its flowers, reduced to one carpel and two stamens, without either calyx or corolla—and therefore at the minimum of reduction, if to remain flowers at all—in little chinks in its edges.

The classification of Endogens is not a subject upon which there is any very great diversity of opinion among botanists. If the natural orders are sometimes not distinctly limited, they are, upon the whole, grouped much better than those of Exogens; and although it may be expected that some changes have still to be introduced into this part of systematic botany, yet there seems no probability of the limits of the natural orders themselves being disturbed to any considerable extent.

The principles of classification here adopted are the following:—

In the first place, all those numerous species whose flowers are like grasses are stationed by themselves, and constitute the Glumal alliance. They are not perhaps so close upon flowerless plants as some hereafter to be mentioned, but they form, as a whole, the lowest condition of structure to which a great mass of Endogens is reduced. Their flowers may be

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ENDOGENS.                                         103

regarded as made up of scales, analogous to bracts, without any thing that can be strictly called either calyx or corolla being ever present. These bare in many instances the sexes separated; but their glumaceous structure OTerrules this peculiarity.

Next to them seem to be stationed Bulrushes; plants with scales too for their floral envelopes, but arranged in rings, and so falling within the definition of at least a calyx. Their sexes are disunited, and that important circumstance associates them with Palms, Arums, and other arborescent tropical plants, together with a small group of water plants, or Hydrals. This separation of the sexes appears to be a mark of very great importance, when it is complete; and must not be confounded with another kind of separation, in which flowers of one sex have the other sex present in an imperfect condition, and often become actually hermaphrodite. All such cases, although set down in books as monoecious or dioecious, are by no means diclinous, and are excluded from the division containing the Aral Alliance, with the exception of Palms, in which flowers are occasionally altogether hermaphrodite, and which, therefore, form a real exception to the prevailing character of this part of the classification.

The remainder of Endogens are typically hermaphrodite, the number of exceptions to that character being very few. One division of them has the ovary adherent to the calyx and corolla, the other has that organ free, a portion of the Narcissal Alliance having both characteristics. The line of

orders thus associated is closed by the Alismal Alliance, some of whose species are almost exogenous as has been already mentioned, while others,

. being truly diclinous, carry the circle of affinity back to the Hydral Alliance.

Alliances of Endooens.

I.   Glum ales.—Flowers glumaceous ; {&at is to say, composed of bracts not

collected in true whorls, but consisting qf imbricated colour-less or herbaceous scales),

II.  Flowers petaloid, or furnished with a true calyx or corolla, or with both,

or absolutely naked; $ $ (that is, having sexes altogether in different flowers, without half-formed rudiments of the absent sexes being present).

Arales.—Flowers naked or consisting of scales, 2 or 3 together, or numerous,

and then sessile on a simple naked spadix ; embryo axile ;

albumen mealy or fleshy. {Some have no albumen.) Palkalbs.—Flowers perfect (with both calyx and corolla), sessile on a branched

scaly spadix; embryo vague, solid; albumen horny or

fleshy. Some Palms are 0. Htdrales,—Flowers perfect or imperfect, usually scattered ; embryo axile,

without albumen—aquatics. (Some are $.)

III.-—Flowers furnished with a true calyx, and corolla, adherent to ike

ovary; £.

Nabcissales.—Flowers symmetrical; stamens 3 or 6, or more, all perfect; seeds with albumen. (Some Bromeliacew have a free calyx and coroUa.)

m x 2

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104                                         ENDOGEN&

Amomales.—Flowenunsymmetrical; stamen* 1 to 5, some at least of which

arepetaloid; seeds with albumen. Oa<5Hn>ALB8.—Flowers unsymmetrical; stamens 1 to 3 ; seeds without + albumen.

IV. Flowers furnished with a true calyx and corolla, free from the ovary; £.

Xtridales.—Flowers half herbaceous, 2-Z-petaloideous ; albumen copious. J UN c ales.—Flowers herbaceous, dry, and permanent, scarious if coloured ;

albumen copious. {Some Callas have no albumen.) Liliale8.—Flowers hexapetaloideous, succulent, and withering; albumen

copious. Ausmales.—Flowers Z-G-petaloideous, apocarpal; albumen none. (Some

AUsmacecB are absolutely $ <?.)

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Alliance VII. GLUMALES.—Thb Glumal Alliahcb. Diagnosis*—Qhmaceom Endogenic

The great mass of herbage known bv the name of Sedges and Grasses, constitutes perhaps a twelfth part of the described species of flowering plants, and at least nine-tenths of the number of individuals composing the vegetation of the world ; for it is the chief source of that verdure which covers the earth of northern countries with a gay carpet during the months of winter. Such forms of vegetation are provided by nature with true flowers, that is to say, with stamens and pistils, the action of the former of which upon the latter is indispensable for the creation of a seed; but there is little trace of the calyx and corolla, which are commonly characteristic of the more perfect races of plants; not that floral envelopes are wanting, but they do not assume the whoried or ringed position of the parts which form a calyx and corolla; they merely consist of minute green or brown bracts placed one over the other, and sometimes appearing to be united by their edges. There is also great simplicity in their pistil, but one ovule being formed in each cavity, * whatever number of carpels (indicated by the stigmas) may be employed in the construction of it Their foliage is as ample as it can be to have any considerable degree of development, consisting of fine thread-shaped veins running side by side from one end of the leaf to the other.

It is usual to restrict the term glumaceous to Grasses and Sedges ; but there seems no intelligible reason why the Cordleafe (Restiaoeee,) Pipeworts (Eriocaulacen,) and . Bristleworts (DesvauxiaceseJ) should be omitted, for they have precisely the same £abit and the same substitution of imbricated scales for calyx and corolla. It is only among the Pipeworts that we have the beginning of a calyx, in the form of a membranous tube surrounding the ovary. They do not, however, indicate a more complex condition; rather less so mdeed than in Grasses and Sedges; for their pistils are perfectly sample, while those of the latter are invariably formed by the coahtion of at least 2 carpeUarr leaves for each cavity of the ovary.

Two divisions may be formed among the orders, viz.:—

1.  Ovule erect or ascending j pistil compound.—Oraminacea and Oyperacea.

2.  Ovules pendulous ; pistil simple.—Desvauxiacea, Hestiaccm, Bnocamlacc*.

Hie first set touch Palms, the latter Rushes; the whole, in consequence of their spiked-inflorescence, scaly floral envelopes, and great tendency to a separation of the sexes, pass naturally into Bulrush worts (Typhaceae).

Natural Okdxbs of Glumals* Ovar. 1-ceUed, with 2 or more distinct (or united) etylee ; ovule \OQ nil4MliriB

a*xnding; cmbiyo lateral, naked..........f*- <«*»»«*

Osor. 1-ctUcd, with 2 or mare (distinct or) united styles; ovrde\ Ctpbracm.

erect9 embryo basal ...... . %.....f

(har. several (sometimes united) with 1 style to each; ovule pen-I*. ti«waii*ia*m - dmbme; glum* only; st. 1-2 ; an*. \-celled; embryo terminal J31' Desvauxiacbjl Ova*. \-2rZ-celledf with 2 or 3 stylet ahoaye; ovule pendulou$;\w *>_-..

fflwordy; 4.2-3;anth.\<cUed;embw                  . J82' UmlACRJ

O. 2'Z<eUedy with letyk to each ceU; ovuk                  amm-1

brtmoms Z-lobcd cup within the glumes; amthere 2-ceUcd; em* V 83. Euocaulackjc

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106                                            GKAMINACEiE.                                 [Endookw.

Order XXIX.—Grasses.

Graraina, Just. Gen. 28. (1789).—Gramlnee, R.BrownProdr.leg. (1810); Palisot de Beauv. Agraiol.; . KunthinMem.Mus.Z.(8; Id. in N. Q. et Sp. Humb. et Bonpl. l.Si; TurpininMhn. Mum.6. 426; Trinius Fundam. Agrostol.; Dumortier AgrosL Belg.s Trinius Diss, de Gram. Unty. H Saqui/.s Dtla Harpe in Ann. Be. 6.336. 6. 81; SaspaU in Ann. des8c. 4.171. 421 6.287. 433. 6.224.384.7.336; Seet v. Esenbeek AgroHol. Brasil.; Eunth vol. 1*2; Bndl. Qen. iW.Mcisn*r,p.m.

Diagnosis.—Olumal EndogtfUf wUA ipliUskealhed leaves, a owrcdUd ovary, and a lateral naked embryo.

Evergreen herbs, occasionally having stems of considerable size and living for many years. Rhizoma, fibrous or bulbous. Stem cylindrical, usually fistular and closed at

10                  9                                    8 7 0                  6


Fig. LXXIL—L Locofta of Agrostfts alba; 2. palec and stamens, *c. of the same; 3. peleee of Leersla oryxoides; 4. pistil, stamens, and hypogynous scales of the same; 6. locusta of Polypogon monapelienala; 6. pale», Ac of the same; 7. locusta of Stipa pennata; 8. rachls, bractes*, and florets of Cjnosurua cria-tatus; 9. locusta of Cynodon dactylon; 10. pales*, and aborttre floret of the same.

Fig. LXXIII.—1. Locusta of Corynephorus canescens; 2. palee, Ac of the tame; 3. locusta of Pbalaris aquatica; 4. locusta of Alopecnros pratenals; 6. locusta of Aira caiyophyllea; 6..floret of the same;7.1ocusUofFestucaduriuscula; 8. locusta of Glyceria fluftans; 9. floret of die same; 10. locuata of Eragrostis possformls.

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Glumales.]                                GRAMINACEJS.                                            107

the joints, covered with a coat of silex, sometimes solid. Leaves narrow "and undivided} alternate, with a split sheath, and a membranous expansion (ligula) at the junction of Btalk and blade. Flowers green in little spikes called locustoe, arranged in a spiked, racemed or panicled manner. Flowers usually g, sometimes monoecious or polygamous ; consisting of imbricated bracts, of which the most exterior are called glumes, the interior immediately enclosing the stamens pales, and the innermost at the base of the ovary scales. Glumes usually 2, alternate ; sometimes single, most commonly unequal. Pale® 2, alternate ; the lower or exterior ample, the upper or interior composed of 2 united by their contiguous margins, and usually with 2 keels, together forming a kind of dislocated calyx. Scales 2 or 3, sometimes wanting ; if 2, collateral, alternate with the palete, and next the lower of them ; either distinct or united. Stamens hypogynous, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or ' more, 1 of which alternates with the 2 hypogynous scales, and is therefore next the lower paleee ; anthers versatile. Ovary simple; styles 2 or 3, very rarely combined into one ; stigmas feathery or hairy ; ovule ascending by d broad base, anatropal. Pericarp usually undistinguishable from the seed, membranous. Albumen farinaceous; embryo lying on one side of the albumen at the base, lenticular, with a broad cotyledon and a developed plumula ; and occasionally, but very rarely, with a second cotyledon

on the outside of the plumula, and alternate with the usual cotyledon.

This most important Order offers

great singularities in its organisation,

although it is one in which, formerly,

botanists the least suspected anomalies

to exist They found calyx and corolla

and nectaries here with the same facility

as they found them in a Ranunculus;

and yet such organs exist in no one

genus of Grasses. Their so-called

lowers consist of green scales, not

placed in whorls, but arranged one

above the other, and are undoubtedly                                  m l

constructed of bracts alone. Not a trace

is discoverable among them of calyx or            *** LXXTV.

corolla, properly so called, unless certain scales usually present, next

the ovary, are to be so considered. Brown's account of their construction is still the best that has been published. He says*—

" The natural or most common structure of Gramineae is to have their sexual organs surrounded by the floral envelopes, each of which usually consist of two distinct valves ; bat both of these envelopes are, in many genera of the order, subject to various degrees of imperfection or even suppression of their parts. The outer envelope, or gluma of Jassieu, in most cases containing several flowers with distinct and often distant insertions on a common receptacle, can only be considered as analogous to the bracteee or involucrum of other plants. The tendency to suppression in this envelope appears to be greater in the exterior or lower valve ; so that a gluma consisting of one valve may, in all cases, be considered as deprived of its outer or inferior valve. In certain genera with a simple spike, as Lolium and Lepturus, this is clearly proved by the structure of -the terminal flower or spicula, which retains the natural number of parts ; and in other genera not admitting of this direct proof, the fact is established by a series of species showing its gradual obliteration, as in those species of Panicum which connect that genus with Paspatum. On the other hand, in the inner envelope, or calyx of Jussieu, obliteration first takes place in the inner or upper valve ; but this valve having, instead of one central nerve, two nerves equidistant from its axis, I consider it as composed of two confluent valves, analogous to what takes place in the calyx and corolla of many irregular flowers of other classes; and this confluence may be regarded as the first step towards its obliteration, which is complete in many species of Panicum, in Andropogon, Pappophorum, Alopecurus, Trichodium, and several other genera. With respect to the nature of this inner or proper envelope of Grasses, it may be observed, that the view of its structure now given, in reducing its parts to the usual ternary division of Monocotyledons, affords an additional argument for considering it as the real perianthium. This argument, however, is not conclusive, for a similar confluence takes place between the two inner lateral bractese of the greater part of lrideee ; and with these, in the relative insertion of its valves, the proper envelope of Grasses may be supposed much better to accord than with a genuine perianthium. If, therefore, tins inner envelope of Grasses

Fig. LXXV.

Pig: LXXIV.—1. Section of grain of Maize; 2. the embryo extracted and viewed in ftxmt FigT LXXV.—Section of an Oat; o ovaiy, t testa, a albumen, r radicle, g plumule, c cotyledon.

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108                                           ORAMINACE.                                 [Endookot.

be regarded as consisting merely of bracteee, the real perianthram of the or must be looked for in those minute scales, which, in the greater part of its genera, are found immediately surrounding the sexual organs* The scales are. in most cases, only-two in number, and placed collaterally within the inferior valve of the proper envelope. In their real insertion, however, they alternate with the valves of this envelope, as is obviously the case in Ehrharta and certain other genera; and their collateral approximation may be considered as a tendency to that confluence which uniformly exists in the parts composing the upper valve of the proper envelope, and which takes place also between these two squamae themselves, in some genera, as Glyceria and Melica. In certain other genera, as Bambusa and Stipa, a third squamula exists, which is placed opposite to the axis of the upper valve of the proper envelope, or, to speak in conformity with the view already taken of the structure of tnis valve, opposite to the conjunction of its two com. ponent parts. With these squama the stamina in triandrous Grasses alternate, and they are consequently opposite to the parts of the proper envelope ; that is, one stamen is opposed to the axis of its lower or outer valve, and the two others are placed opposite to the two nerves of the upper valve. Hence, if the inner envelope be considered as consisting of bracteee,and the hypogynous squamae as forming the perianthium, it seems to follow, from the relatioa these parts have to the axis of inflorescence, that the outer series of this perianthium is wanting, while its corresponding stamina exist, and that the whole or part of the inner series is produced while its corresponding stamina are generally wanting. This may, no doubt, actually be the case ; butasit would be, at least, contrary to every analogy in Monocotyledonous plants, it becomes in a certain degree probable that the inner or proper envelope of Grasses, the calyx of Jussieu, notwithstanding the obliquity in the insertion of its valves, forms in reality the outer series of the true perianthium, whose inner series consists of the minute scales, never more than three in number, and in which an irregularity in some degree analogous to that of the outer series generally exists. It is necessary to be aware of the tendency to suppression existing, as it were, m opposite directions in the two floral envelopes of Grasses, to comprehend the rod structure of many irregular genera of the order, and also to understand the limits of the two great tribes into which I have proposed to subdivide it. One of these tribes, which may be called Paniceee, comprehends Ischsemum, Holcus, Andro-pogon, Anthistiria, Saccharum, Cenchrus, Isachne, Panicum, Paspalum, Reimaria, Anthenantia, Monachne, Lappago, and several other nearly related genera; and its essential character consists in having always a locusta of two flowers, of which the lower or outer is uniformly imperfect, being either male' or neuter, and then not unfrequently reduced to a single valve. Ischsemum and Isachne are examples of this tribe in its most perfect form, from which Anthenantia, Paspalum, and Reimaria, most remarkably deviate, in consequence of the suppression of certain parts: thus Anthenantia (which is not correctly described by Palisot de Beauvois) differs from those species of Panicum that have the lower flower neuter and bivalvular, in bong deprived of the outer valve of its gluma; Paspalum differs from Anthenantia in the want of the inner valve of its neuter flower, and from those species of Panicum whose outer flower is univalvular, in the want of the outer valve of its gluma; and Reimaria differs from Paspalum in bang entirely deprived of its gluma. That this is the real structure of these genera may be proved by a series of species connecting them with each other, and Panicum with Paspalum. The second tribe, which may be called Poaceee, is more numerous than Panicesa, and comprehends the greater part of the European genera, as well as certain less extensive genera peculiar to the equinoctial countries ; it extends also to the highest latitudes in which Phfienogamous plants have been found; but its maximum appears to be in the temperate climates, considerably beyond the tropics. The locusta in this tribe may consist of 1,2, or of many flowers; and the 2-flowered genera are distinguished from Panicete by the outer or lower flower being always perfect, the tendency to imperfection in the locusta existing in opposite directions in the two tribes. In conformity with this tendency in Poaceee, the outer valve of the perianthium in the single-flowered genera is placed within that of the gluma, and in the many-flowered locusta the upper flowers are frequently imperfect There are, however, some exceptions to this order of suppression, especially in Arundo Phragmites, Campulosus, and some other genera, in which the outer flower is also imperfect; but as all of these have more than two flowers in their locusta, they are still readily distinguished from Paniceae." Brown in Flindcrt, 580. According to this view, in a locusta of several florets, the scales at its base, or glumes, are bracts, and each floret consists of a calyx formed of one sepal remote from the rachis, and two cohering by their martins and next the rachis ; the little hypogynous scales are the rudiments of two petals, and the stamens alternate with these m the normal manner. This may be rendered more clear by the following diagram, in which the triangle ABB represent the outer series, or pale®, or calyx, A being the inferior valve, and B B the superior, formed of two sepals united by their con*

Digiti-zed by

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tiguous margin at z. If die triangle C D D be understood to represent the next scries, the position of the parte will be at the three angles; and in reality the

two scales that are usually developed _______________V,_______________

do occupy the places D D ; while the 0                                                  JE

third, whenever it is superadded, is stationed at C. The triangle E E F indicates by its angles the normal position of the first series of stamens, which are actually so situated, the stamen F which is opposite the sepal A alternating with the rudimentary petals D D. The objection to this is, that the parts of the supposed calyx or paless are not inserted upon the same plane, or truly vertkillate, and oonse<guently do not answer exactly to what is required in a floral envelope ; and it is on this account that Turpin rejects Brown's opinion, giving the pale® the name of spathelle,                                  A

And considering them bracts of a second                           Fig. LXXVI.

order. Kunth entertains a somewhat different view of the nature of the floral envelopes, considering the hypogynous scales to be analogous to the ligula, and the normal state of Grasses to be hexandrous. See B*umtratio, vol. i. p. S, 4.

Raspail, in a memoir upon the structure of Grasses, hazards a theory, that the midrib of Ac bracts of Grasses is an axis of development in cohesion with the bracts, and that when it separates, as in Phleum, Bromus, or Corynephorus, it is attempting to revert to the functions of ulterior development, for which it is more especially destined. Among other things, he states (Ann. da Se. 4. 276. E) that he should not be surprised one day to find some Grass in which the midrib of the lower palea actually became a new axis bearing other florets. I mention this for the sake of remarking that such a ease is known, without however admitting that it is any confirmation of Raspafl's views, which are at variance with the laws of vegetable development, for reasons which are so obvious, as to render it altogether unnecessary to give them here. I have a monstrous Barley, the Hordeum iEgiceras of Royle, cultivated as Wheat in the Himalayeh mountains, specimens of which Icommunicated in 1830 to M. Kunth and others, in winch the midrib of the lower palea actually becomes saccate towards the apex, bearing an imperfect floret, with stamens, ovary, and hypogynous scales in its cavity. The well* known tendency to a special development of buck in the margins of certain leaves, in Perns, and according to the observations of Turpin, in the whole substance of certain monocotykdonotw leaves, leaves nothing in tins net to excite surprise or to rive rise to new theories; but it is worth mentioning as the only instance upon record of a flower-bud with sexual apparatus being developed under such circumstances.

The embryo is here described in conformity with the views that are most commonly taken of its nature ; that is to say, it is considered to consist of a dilated lenticular cotyledon applied to the albumen on one ride, and bearing a naked plumule on the other side, next the testa. It is proper, however, to remark, that the opinion of the late L. C. Richard, that the part commonly called cotyledon is a peculiar process, and that the plumule is a bodv contained within the apparent plumule, has been adopted by Nees v. Eaenbeck, in his Agrostologia Brasilienris, but with some difference. Rich* ard considered the cotyledon to be a part of the radicle, to which he gave the name of macropodal, in consequence of its great supposed enlargement in Grasses and some other families; Nees v. Eeenbeck, on the contrary, seems to entertain the opinion that this cotyledon is a special organ, for which he retains Richard's name of hypoblastus, although he does not adopt the view that botanist took of its nature. But I think if we consider the improbability of any special organ being provided for Grasses, which is not found elsewhere, and if we consider how nearly alike are the embryos of Grasses and certain Arumworts, in which the plumule lies within a cleft of the cotyledon, it is impossible to doubt the identity of the hypoblastus of Richard and Nees v. Esenbeck, and the cotyledon of other Monocotyledons. Indeed, the latter himself appears, in one place, to hesitate about the accuracy of distinguishing them, when he says (p. 9), u Turn vero hypoblastuspars quaedam habendaest cotyledoni analoga, magisque ad interiora seminis quam ad externam corculi evolutionem spectans."

In some Grasses a portion of the inflorescence assumes a nearly bony texture. « This change takes place in Coix, in the involucre ; in Chionachne and Sclerachne, in the outer valve of the glume of the female locusta ; and in Tripsacum, in the rachis of the spike," Bennett m mrtfcld'i Plant* Javanica!, p. 19; where the systematic reader will find some

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110'                                           GRAMlNACEiE.                                 [Enoogkhs.

curious and important details relating to the structure and affinities of the genera of Grasses.

The stem of Grasses seems to be so much at variance in structure with that of other Endogens, as to have led Agardh to remark, that it is the least monocotyledonous of all Monocotyledonous plants. It is probable, however, that its peculiarity does not depend so much upon any specific deviation from the ordinary laws of growth, as upon a separation of the parts at an early period of their growth. The stem of a Grass, it must be remembered, exists in two different states,-«~that of the rhizome, and of the straw : the rhizome, which is the true trunk ;* and the straw, which may be considered a ramification of it. The rhizome grows slowly, and differs in no respect from the stem of other Monocotyledons, as is evident in that of the Bamboo. The straw, on the contrary, which grows with great rapidity, is fistular, with a compact impervious diaphragm at each articulation ; a feet which must be familiar to every one who has examined corn, or the joint of a Bamboo. In the beginning, when this straw was first developed, it was a solid body like the rhizome, only infinitely smaller; but in consequence of the great rapidity of its development, the cellular tissue formed more slowly than the woody vascular bundles which it connects, and in consequence a separation takes place between the latter and the former, except at the articulations, where, by the action of the leaves, and their axillary buds, is formed a plexus of vessels, which, growing as rapidly as the straw, distends, and therefore never separates in the centre. Something analogous to this occurs in the flowering stem of the common Onion among Monocotyledons, and in Umbelliferee among Dicotyledons. The stem of Grasses is not, however, always hollow; in the Sugar Cane it is solid, as in common Endogens.

The relation that exists between Palms and Grasses will be adverted to in speaking of the former order : Nees v. Esenbeck considers Grasses to be a sort of Palms of a lower grade. In reality, the habit of the genera Calamus and Bambusa is nearly alike ; the inflorescence of Grasses may be considered to be the same as that of Palms, the floral envelopes of the latter taken away, and only their bracts remaining ; and, finally, the leaves are formed upon exactly the same plan, with this difference only, that those of Grasses are undivided. With Sedges, however, it is that Grasses are most properly to be compared. While a manifest tendency, at least to the degree of verbcillation requisite to constitute a calyx, evidently takes place in the paleee of Grasses, Sedges are destitute of all trace of such a tendency, unless the opposite connate glumes of the female flowers of Carex, or the hypogynous scales of certain Schosni and others, be considered an approach to the production of a perianth. For this reason, Grasses may be considered plants in a higher state of evolution than Sedges. Independently of this difference, the orders are usually known by the stems of Grasses being hollow, those of Sedges solid; the leaves of Grasses having a ligula at the apex of their sheath, which is split, while the sheath of Sedges is not split, and is destitute of this ligula; and, finally, the embryo of Grasses is external, lateral, and with a naked plumule, while that of Sedges is undivided and enclosed within the base of the albumen.

As nothing can be uninteresting which is connected with the habits of a tribe of such vast importance to man, I extract the following account of the geographical distribution of Grasses by Schouw, from Jameson's Philosophical Journal for April, 1825:—u The family is veijy numerous: Persoon's Synopsis contains 812 species, l-26th part of all the plants therein enumerated. In the system of Roemer and Schultes there are 1800 ; and, since this work, were it brought to a conclusion, would probably contain 40,000 in all, it may be assumed that the Grasses form a 22nd part It is more than probable, however, that in future the Grasses will increase in a larger ratio than the other phanerogamic plants, and that perhaps the just proportion will be as 1 to 20, or as 1 to 16* Greater still wilTbe their proportion to vegetation in general, when the number of individuals is taken into account; for, in this respect, the greater number, nay perhaps the whole of the other classes, are inferior. With regard to locality in such a large family, very little caifbe advanced. Among the Grasses there are both land and water, but no marine, plants. They occur in every soil, in society with others, and alone ; the last to such a degree as entirely to occupy considerable districts. Sand appears to be less favourable to this class; but even this has species nearly peculiar to itself. The diffusion of this family has almost no other limits than those of the whole vegetable kingdom. Grasses occur under the equator ; and Agrostis algida was one of the few plants which Phipps met with on Spitsbergen. On the mountains of the south of Europe, Poa disticha and other Grasses ascend almost to the snow line ; and, on the Andes, this is also the case with Poa malulensis and dactyloides, Deyeuxia rigida and Festuca dasyantha.

" The greatest differences between tropical and extra-tropical Grasses appear to be the following:—1. The tropical Grasses acquire a much greater height, and occasionally


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GunuLB.]                                  GRAMWACRfi.                                            111.

assume the appearance of trees. Some specie of Bambusa are from 50 to 60 feet high* 2. The leaves of the tropical Grasses are broader, and approach more in form to those .of other families of plants. Of this the genus Paspalus affords many examples. 3. Separate sexes are more frequent in the tropical Grasses. Zea, Sorghum, Andropogon, Olyra, Anthistiria, Ischtemum, iEgilops, and many other genera, which only occur in the torrid zone, and are there found in perfection, are monoecious, or polygamous. Holcus is perhaps the only extra-tropical genus with sepitrate sexes. 4. The flowers are softer, more downy, and elegant 5. The extra-tropical Grasses, on the contrary, far surpass the tropical in respect of the number of individuals. That compact grassy tun, which, especially in the colder parts of the temperate zones, in spring and summer, composes' the green meadows and pastures, is almost entirely wanting in the torrid zone. The Grasses there do not grow crowded together, but, like other plants, more dispersed. Even in the southern parts of Europe, the assimilation to the warmer regions, in this respect, is by no means inconsiderable. Arundo donax, by its height, reminds us of the Bamboo ; Saccharum Ravenna, S. Teneriflfo, Imperata arundinaoea, Lagurus ovatus, Lygeum spartum, and the species of Andropogon, iEgilops, &c py separate sexes, exhibit tropical qualities. The Qrasses are also less gregarious, and meadows seldomer occur, in the south than in the north of Europe. The generality are social plarits.

u The distribution of cultivated Grasses is one of the most interesting of ail subjects. It is determined, not merely by climate, but depends on the civilisation, industry, and traffic of the people, and often on historical events. Within the northern polar circle, agriculture is found only in a few places. In Siberia grain reaches at the utmost -only to 60°,in the eastern parts scarcely above 55°, and in Kamtschatka there is no agriculture even in the most southern parts (51°). The polar limit of agriculture on the North-west coast of America appears to be somewhat higher; for, in the more southern Russian possessions (57° to 52°), barley and rye come to maturity. On the east coast of America it is scarcely above 50° to 52°. Only in Europe, namely, in Lapland, does the polar limit reach an unusually high latitude (70°). Beyond this, dried fish, and here and there potatoes, supply the place of grnin. The grains which extend farthest to the north in Europe are barley and oats. These, which in the milder climates are not used for bread, afford to the inhabitants of the northern parts of Norway and Sweden, of a part of Siberia and Scotland, their chief vegetable nourishment. Rye is the next which becomes associated with these. This is the prevailing grain in a great part of the north-earn temperate zone, namely, in the south of Sweden ami Norway, Denmark, and in all the lands bordering on the Baltic ; the north of Germany, and part of Siberia. In the latter another very nutritious grain, buck-wheat, is very frequently cultivated. In the zone where rye prevails, wheat is generally to be found ; barley being here chiefly cultivated for the manufacture of beer, and oats supplying food for the horses. To these there follows a zone in Europe and western Asia, where rye disappears, and wheat almost exclusively furnishes bread. The middle, or the smith of France* England, part of Scotland, a part of Germany, Hungary, the Crimea and Caucasus, as also the lands of middle Ajja, where agriculture is followed, belong to this zone. Here the vine is also found ; wine supplants the use of beer ; and honey is consequently less raised. Next comes a district where wheat still abounds, but no longer exclusively furnishes bread, rice and maize becoming frequent To this zone belong Portugal, Spain, part of Franco on the Mediterranean, Italy, and Greece ; further, the countries of the East, Persia, northern India, Arabia, Egypt, Nubia, Barbary, and the Canary Islands ; in these latter countries, however, the culture of maize or rice towards the south, is always more considerable, and in some of them several kinds of sorghum (doura) and Poa Abyssinica come to be added. In both these regions of wheat, rye only occurs at a considerable elevation ; oats, however, more seldom, and at last entirely disappear ; barley affording food for horses and mules. In the eastern parts of the temperate zone of the Old Continent, in China and Japan, our northern lands of grain are very unfrequent, and rice fc» found to predominate. The cause of this difference between the east and the west of the Old Continent appears to be in the manners and peculiarities of the people. In North America, wheat and rye grow as in Europe, but more sparingly. Maize is more reared in the Western than in the Old Continent, and rice predominates in the southern provinces of the United States. In the torrid zone, maize predominates in America, rice in Asia, and both these grains in nearly equal quantity in Africa. The cause of this distribution is, without doubt, historical; for Aria is the native country of rice, and America of maize. In some situations, especially in the neighbourhood of the tropics, wheat is also met with, but always subordinate to these m other kinds of grain. Besides rice and maize, there are, in the torrid zone, several lands of grain, as well as other plants, which supply the inhabitants with food, either used along with them, or entirely occupying their place. Such are, in the New Continent, yams (Dioscorea alata), the manihot (Jatropha manihot), and the batatas

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(Convolvulus batatas), the root of which, and the fruit of the pisang (Banana Musa),

furnish universal articles of fo6d. In the same zone, in Africa, doura (sorghum), pisang, manihot, yams, and Arachis nypogssa. In the East indies, and on the Indian Islands, Eleusine coracana, E. stricta, Panicum fru-mentaceum; several palms and Cycadese, which produce the sago; pisang, yams, batatas, and the breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa). In the islands of the South Sea, grain of every kind disappears, its place being supplied by the bread-fruit tree, the pisang, and tacca pinnatifida. In the tropical parts of New Holland there is no agriculture, the inhabitants living on the produce of the sago, of various palms, and some species of Aram. In the high lands of South America there is a distribution similar to that of the degrees of latitude. Maize, indeed, grows to the height of 7200 feet above the level of the sea, but only predominates between 3000 and 6000 of elevation. Below 3000 feet it is associated with the pi. sang, and the above-mentioned vegetables; while, from 6000 to 9260 feet, the European grains abound : wheat in the lower regions, and rye and barley in the higher ; along with which dhenopodium Quinoa, as a nutritious plant, must also be enumerated. Potatoes alone are cultivated from 9260 to 12,300 feet. To the south of the tropic of Capricorn, wherever

r'culture is practised, considerable resem-ce with the northern temperate zone may be observed. In the southern parts of Brazil, in Buenos Ayres, in Chile, at the Cape of Good Hope, and in the temperate zone of New Holland, wheat predominates ; barley, however, and rye, make their appearance in the southernmost parts of these countries, and in Van Diemen's Land. In New Zealand the culture of wheat is said to have been tried with success ; but the inhabitants avail themselves of the Acrostichum furcatum as the main article of sustenance. Hence it appears, that, in respect of the predominating kinds of grain, the earth may be divided into five grand divisions, or kingdoms. The kingdom of rice, of maize, of wheat, of rye, and lastly of barley and oats. The first three are the most extensive ; the maize has the greatest range of temperature ; but rice may be said to support the greatest number of the human race."

It is a very remarkable circumstance, that the native country of wheat, oats, barley, ana rye, should be entirely unknown; for although oats and barley were found by Col. Chesney apparently wild on the banks of the Euphrates, it is doubtful whether they were not the remains of cultivation. This lias led to an opinion, on the part of some persons, that all our cereal plants are artificial productions, obtained accidentally, but retaining their habits, which have become fixed in the course of ages. This curious subject has been discussed in the Qardenerf Chronicle for 1844, p. 555, 779, &c, whither the reader is referred Fig. LXXVJL-Setaii. gUuca.              for farther information.

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GuntAun.]                                  GRAMINACEjE.                                             113

The uses of this most important tribe of plants, for fodder, food, and clothing, require little illustration. The abundance of wholesome focula contained in their seeds renders them peculiarly well adapted for the sustenance of man; and if the Cereal Grasses only, such as Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats, Maize, Rice, and Guinea Corn, are the kinds commonly employed, it is because of the large rise of their grain compared with that of other Grams; for none are unwholesome in their natural state, with the exception of Loliom temulentum, a common weed in many parts of England, the effects of which are undoubtedly deleterious, although perhaps exaggerated; of Bro-mns purgans and catharticus, said to he emetic and purgative; of Bromus mollis, reported to be unwholesome, and of Festuca quadridentata, which is said to be poisonous in Quito, where it is called Pigonil. To these roust be added Molinia varia, injurious to cattle, according to EndHcher; and a variety of Paepalum scrobiculatum, called Hureek in India, {Graham?$ Bombay Plants, p. 234), which is perhaps the Ghohona Grass, a reputed Indian poisonous species, said to render the milk of cows that graze upon it narcotic and drastic. (Madras Journal, 1837, p. 107). It is however uncertain how far the injurious action of some of these may be owing to mechanical causes, .which, in the case of the species of Calamagrostis and Stipa seem to be the cause of mischief in consequence of their roughness and bristles. In their qualities the poisonous specie* seem to approach the properties of putrid Wheat, which is known to be dangerous.

Among corn plants less generally known may be mentioned Eleusine coracana, called Natchnee, cm the Caromandel coast, and Na Ragee, or Mand, elsewhere in India; Pha-laris canadensis, which yields the canary seed ; 25zania aquatica or Canada Rice ; Pas-pahim scrobiculatum, the Menya or Kodro of India, a cheap grain, regarded as unwholesome ; Setaria germanica, yielding German millet; Panicum frumentaceum, called Shamoola, in die Deccan ; Setaria italica, cultivated in India under the name of Kala kaagnee or Kora kang ; Panicum mihaceum, a grain called Warree in India; and P. pflosum, called Bhadlee. Penicillaria spicata or Bajree ; Andropogon Sorghum or Dona, Doora, Jowareeor Jondla; and Andropogon saccharatuaor ShaJoo,are aim grown in India for their grain. A kind of fine-grained corn, called, on the west of Africa, Fundi or Fundungi, is produced by Paspalum exile ; and finally, both the Teff and Tocusso, Abyssinian corn plants, are species of this order ; the former Poa abyssinica, the latter Eteosine Tocusso, (IAmmm, 1839). Even Stipa pennata is said to produce a flour much Uke that of Rice.

The value of Grasses as fodder for cattle is hardly second to that of their corn for human food. The best fodder Grasses of Europe are usually dwarf species, or at least each as do not rise more than 3 or 4 feet above the ground, and of these the larger kinds are apt to become hard and wiry ; the most esteemed are Lolium perenne, Phleum and Festuca pratensis, Cynosurus cristatus, and various species of Poa and dwarf Festuca, to which should be added Anthoxanthum odoratum for its fragrance. But the fodder Grasses of Brazil are of a far more gigantic stature, and perfectly tender and delicate. We learn from Nees von Esenbeck, that the Gaapim de Angola of Brazil, Panicum spectabile, grows 6 or 7 feet high : while other equally gigantic species con stitute the field crops on the banks of the Amazons. In New Holland the favourite is the Aftthistiria austraHs or Kangaroo Grass; in India the A. ciliata is also in request. But the most common Indian fodder Grass appears to be Doorba, Doorwa, or Hurrva-lee, Cynodon Dactylotu Gama Grass, Tripsacum dactyloides, has a great reputation as fodder in Mexico ; and attention has lately been directed to the Tussac-graas of the Falkland*, Festuca flabellata, a species forming tufts 5 or 6 feet high, and said to be unrivalled for its excellence as food for cattle and horses. (See Gardener's Chronicle, 1843, p. 181).

The fragrance of our sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum), is by no means confined to it. Other species are Hierochloe borealis, Ataxia Horsfieldii,»nd some Andropogons ; their odour is said to be owing to the presence of benzoic add. The most famous species are Andropogon Iwarancusa and Schoananthus, the latter the Lemon Grass of English gardens ; A. Calamus aromaticus, which Dr. Royle considers the plant of that name described bv Dioecorides, and the " sweet cane" and "rich aromatic reed from » Car country" of Scripture ; and the Anatherum muricatum, called Vetiver by the French, and Khus in India, where its fragrant roots are employed in making tatties, covers for palanquins, Ac

This fragrance is connected with aromatic secretions which have in part recommended Grasses to the notice of medical practitioners. The last mentioned plant (Anatherum muricatum), is said to be acrid, aromatic, stimulating, and diaphoretic; another species, A. Nardus, is called, because of its quality. Ginger Grass, or KosheL The roasted leaves of Andropogon Schopmanthus are used in India, in infusion, as an excellent stomachic. An essential oil of a pleasant taste is extracted from the leaves in the Moluccas; and the Javanese esteem the plant much as a mild aromatic and

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114                                           GRAMINACEiE.                                  [EnDoasro.

'stimulant (Aindte, ii. p. 58.) The farmer is erne of the Grass oik of Nemaur, called in India Ivarancuaa, and described in Brewster's Journal, ix*p. 333. Many others partake of the same qualities. But it is not merely for their aroma that Grasses are used medicinally. A cooling drink is employed in India from the roots of Cynodon Dacty-lon. The hard stony fruits of Coix Lachryma (Job's-tearo), have been supposed to be strengthening and diuretic ; and the latter quality has been recognised in many others, especially the common Reeds, Phragmites arunmnacea and Calamagrostis in Europe, Perotis latifolia in the West Indies, and the Brazilian species of Gynerium, A decoction of Eleusine indica is employed in Demerara, in the convulsions of infante, according to Schomburgk. Donax arandinaceus is astringent and subacrid* The creeping roots of the Quitch or Quick Grass, Triticum repens, of Tr. glaucum and junceum and Cynodoa Dactylon and Kneare, have some reputation as a substitute for Sarsaparilla. A decoction of the root of Gynerium parviflorum is used in Brazil to strengthen the hair.

Sugar is a general product of Grasses. Gynerium saccharides, a Brazilian Grass, derives its name from that circumstance. It exists in great quantity in the Sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum) ; Maize so abounds in it that its cultivation has been proposed in lieu of the Sugar-cane ; and it is probable that the value of other species for fodder depends upon the abundance of this secretion.

For economical purposes Grasses are often of much importance. The strong stems of the Bamboo are employed instead of timber and cordage. The Arundo arenaria and Elymus arenarius (Marram Grasses) are invaluable species for keeping together the blowing sands of the sea-coast, by their creeping suckers and tough entangled roots. Hie first is employed in the Hebrides for many economical purposes, being made into ropes for various uses, mats for pack-saddles, bags, hats, &c. Some of the Reeds of Brazil, called Taquarussa, are living fountains: they grow from 80 to 40 feet high, with a diameter of six inches, form thorny impenetrable thickets, and are exceedingly grate-fid to hunters; for, on cutting off such a Reed below a joint, the stem of the younger shoots is found to be fiill of a cool liquid, which quenches the most burning thirst Reeds and other coarse species furnish in Europe the materials for thatching. The reeds (sometimes 16 feet long), from which the Indians of Esmeralda form the tubes whence they blow the arrows poisoned with the deadly Urari or WooraH, are single internodes of the Arundinaria SchomburgkiL (Linn. Trans* xviii. p. 562.) A coarse but good sort of soft paper is manufactured in India from the tissue of the Bamboo, and the very young shoots of that plant are eaten like Asparagus.

Besides these things the inorganic products are remarkable. That the cuticle contains a large proportion of silex, is proved by its hardness, and by masses of vitrified matter being found whenever a hay-stack or heap of corn is accidentally consumed by fire. In the joints of some Grasses a perfect siliceous deposit is found, particularly in a kind of Jungle Grass mentioned in a letter from Dr. Moore to Dr. Kennedy of Edinburgh* It is also said that Wheat-straw maybe melted into s colourless glass witn the blow-pipe, without any addition. Barley-straw melts into a gass of a topaz yellow colour. The siliceous matter of the Bamboo is often secreted at the joints, where it forms a singular substance called tabasheer, of which see a very interesting account in Brewster's Journal, viii. p. 268. It was found by Turner that the tabasheer of India consisted of silica containing a minute quantity of lime and vegetable matter. Sulphur exists, in combination with different bases, in Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats, Maize, Bullet, and Rice.

For an account of the disease called Ergot, see p. 39, in the Fungal Alliance. It seems to be found in all Grasses, but most abundantly in Rye and Maize. When mixed with flour, in any <jnantity, it causes a mortification of the limbs, and the most horrible poisoning. Medical men have however found it to exercise a decidedly powerful stimulant effect upon the uterus, on which account it is now frequently and success-fully employed by European practitioners in cases of difficult parturition.* The ergot

Ergot Ii a disease which causes the grain of Rje to lengthen, harden, turn black, and form horns or spurs upon the ears. Where Rye is the food of man or of cattle, most dreadful consequences have followed the use of the spurred grains. Some curious observations hare lately been made upon it by M. Bofljean. He says thai the action on animals is extremely similar to that of morphine, although it In fact contains no trace of that substance. The first effect is to produce a loss of appetite and stupefaction ; when It begins to act, dogs howl frightfully until they are completely under Its Influence, and then He down and groan. In fowls the comb and crop become black. It appears that the Ergot which breaks with a white fracture is quite as dangerous as that which U violet; but until H Is quite ripe tt has no dangerous action; six or eight davs are sufficient for its maturity, and even its being very did, hard, and dry seems in no wy to impair its venomous qualities. M. Bonjean adds that Ergot contain* two principles entirely different: one, of an oily nature, is venomous; the other* of a watery character, ta harmless, but produces the extraordinary medical effects for which Ergot is employed—in particular In stopping the most frightful cases of hemorrhage. He asserts that the watery part, which he calls hemostatic extract, may be prepared without difficulty, and that he has administered as much aa S drachms of H, which Is equal to 9 or 10 drachms of the Ergot, without any dangerous consequences.

The beet Ergot Is obtained from Rye which Is grown on dry, airy, elevated regions, and where the

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of Maize is, according to RouKn, very common in Colombia, and the use of it is attended with a shedding of the hair, and even the teeth, of both man and beast Mules fed on it lose their hoofs, and fowls lay eggs without shell. Its action upon the uterus is as powerful as that of Rye ergot, or perhaps more so. The country name of the Maize thus affected is Mais peladero. This statement however requires confirmation.



AsprtUa, Sctuneb.

Hamaloctnchru*, Mteg. Blepharochloa, Endl. Potamochloa, Qriff. OmsLinn.

IfalUbrunia, Kunth. Potamophila, R. Br. Hydrochloa, P. Br.

Hydropyntm, Lk.

MeihmmLk. Zinnia, L. Hygrorvx*, Ifcc$. Caryochlo*, Trim.

</rnufo, SchnuL Lulobt, Jus*. Ehrfaart*. Tkunb.

TVwfera, Rich. Tetrarrbena, R. Br. Mkrolsena, A. Br. Diplax, &* Plaint, P. Br. Leptaspls, P. Br*

U.—Phalart*. Lygeuxn, L*


bUhagro$U*t G*rtn. Chionanche, R. Br. Bderaehne, R. Br. Polytoca, R Br. Connioopte, Linn. Cryptic Ait.

AnHtragus, Gsertn.

BekocUoa* Host. MhoTAdant.

Sturmta, Hopp.

Ckwmagro$U$ , Barkh-Alopecuras, L.

Colcboehnc, Palls.

ToxxttUa, Sari. Linraas, TWa. Ruclnnanni*, #ort.

Joachimia, Tan.

£rw*maii*fe, Nutt FfctauD, X.

Stettpkurus, Adam.

attodUM, Pfclis.

Ajtodon, Lk. Kngerhuthia, ifacr. Cbondrotaena, iftcr.

Prfawacfrnt f Nees. Hilaria, J5f. if. JT.

Hcjcarrhena, PresL Fhalaris, £*». DJmphls, 1W*.

Batdingera, G«rtn.

Typhoid**, MOnch, Holcas,£. Reynaudia, AmA. Despretzia *imA.


Reimaria, P?fl$y.

ispalum, X.

<4j&fiopttf, Sch.

Owia, Pen.

GarnoUa, Brongn. Milium, X.

MUiarium, Mnch.

IptocorPpA&i*, Nees. Amphicarpum, Jta/fn. 01yra,£.

X«tec*«e. Palis.

ifedcfta, Bertol. Strephium, Schrad. Thrim, Kunth. Eriochloa, JTimA.

(Bdipachm, Lk.

Helopui, Trin. Urochioa, PaM*.

Axonoput, Palis.

Coridothha, Nees. Rhynchelytrum, 2f#t. Panlcum, £faa.

IHgitaria% Scop.

Daetybn, VOL

Syntheritma, Schrad.

HymtnacAne, Palis.

Strtptostachys, Palis.

Monachne, Palis.

<4u£axanfttu, Ell.

Aukucia. Nutt.

TOaiarfum, Spr.

IWctowAne, Nees.

Otachyrium, Nees. Ichnanthus, Pa/it. Biuffia, Nees. Isachne, JL Br.

Meneritaria, Harm. Stenotaphrum, IWn.

JtoW&oetfo, Sw. Acratherum, X*. Berghausia, £WI.

MiMtHa, Nees. Melinls, Po/i*.

Suardia, Schrank. . TrisUgis, Neee. |Thysanolsena, Jfeet. Cluetium, #«#. Oplismenus, Potfr.

Orthopogcn9 R. Br.

Hippagrostis, Rumph.

Echinocloa, Palis. Berchtoldia, P«rf. Chamaerhaphls, JL Br. Pennlsetum, IZfcft. 8etarla, Pott*. Gymnothrix, PaMf.


Btduraf Fres. Penidllarla, Ac. Cenchrus, X<im,

Panicastrdlo, MicheL Trachyoxus, Rfictenft.

Traehys, Pen.

TraehyHachys, Dietr.


Coltadoa, Pen. Lappago, ScAre.

Lopholepfs, 2>e<»i<m.

HolboeUia, WaU. LaUpes, /CttnM. Echinolwna, Xtettr. NaTicularia, B<rrW. Thooarea, P«rt. Aficro<Aowan0a9Thouan. Spinifex, Xdm. Nenrachne, B. Br.

IV.—S«pe«. rsopsis, Bus*. Hlepyrum, Raf. Greenia, ifica. PiptathCTum, Po«#.

lAmcAw, Trin. Lasiafrostis, Uc. Dichelachne, BW/. Orthoraphium, JVw. Macrochloa, JTimt*. Stipa, Xim.

Aojrfto, Trin.

PijXocKtrHum, Pwsl.

ArisUUa, Trin.

Jarava, Ruls et Par. Erioooma, JTtiO. Streptachne, B. Br. Aristida, Xitifi.

Chaiaria, PaHs.

Curtopoyon, Palis.

P$eudachnei E&dL

ArepCacAfie, Kunth.

MraAmm, Palis. SUpasrostis, J«w.

V.—Agro$U*. MOhlenberBia, &Ar«.

Podosamum, Kunth«

2Virtoc«aaf Trin.

D«Wmm, Michx.

Brachytlytrum, Palis. Clomena, PaJte. Ljcaras, H. B. C Coleaatiras, Sfuf.

BcAmicWo, Trmtt.

WUlibalda, Sternb. Phippsia, B. Br. Colpodlum, IWn. Cinna, X. EpicampeSi Pneil. Echinopogonf Po/<#. Sporobolua, B. Br.

Heleochloa, Palis.

Agrosticuta, Raddi.

CakXheca, Steud. VcrosUs, Xlnn.

rricocKtim, Auct.

Fiirti, Auct.


Apera, Palis. Gastrtdfum, Po/i#* NowodwonJqra, iWsL

Ratpattia, Presl.

Chatotropis, Kunth. P<4jpogon9 Bec Cheturus, X*. gopogon, IFOM. Pereflema, Prwf«

TI.—ArundUmea. Sericura, Bank. Calamsgrostii, dan*. Deyeuxia, Oar. Lachnagrostis, IVffi. PenUpogon, B. Br. Ammophila, Bait.

Pjamma, Pails.

imri#, Rafln. Arundo, Xlnn,

ftiwx, Palis.

ScoiocMoa, Koch.

2WcAoonf Roth. Ampelodeemos, X*. Graphephorum, Itov. Phragmitea, IWn.

Czernpa, PresL Amphidonax> JV*«. Gynerium9 B. B. JT.

Vn.—Pappophort*. Aniphipogon, B. Br. DipiopogoB, B. Br.

iWp<Vtm<a, PaUs. Trirhaphisf B. Br. Pappophorum, 5cAtieb. Enneapogon, Besv. PolyrluwSiis, Trin.

uraphiSt 2Vin.

Carethrum, VahL Cottaea. JTtmA. Ecbinaria, 2totf

PanicastreUa, Mtacb. Catbestocum, PreW.


Mlcrochloa. B. Br. Bchcraefeldia, Biintt. Cjnodon, BWi.

Diaitaria, Juss.

JWpfa, KAlr.

CSspHoto, Adaas.

Cbferem, Lagase. DactylocteniuiD, JT«d. Eustachys9 Bcw.

Schultetia, Spr. Chloris, fiw.

Apogon, EndL

AuA/orif, Kunth.

Actinochioru, Pans.

Geopogon, Endl.

Tflnijww, Deaf. Leptochloa, Pottf.

lepioitachyg, Myer.

Oxydenia, Nutt

Diplachne, PaBs. Eleusine9 Q<*rtn. ITarpochloat Btmtt. Ctenlum. Pans.

soO ta> Mndjr or chalky In character. When Its form is somewhat long, and ft is of a yew dark colour or if it has been gathered in plains or damp valleys, it is of inferior quality. On chemical analysis9 according to the experiments of VawraeJin, Wiggen, and other., H yields n4rly half its weighuS! resin, wax. fatty matter and gum, all hydrogenous principles, and a little alhumen, and nitrogenous xtrart. If the season hM been * wet one, or if the Ewot has been gathered in moist places! these Principles lose their relative proportions; and the spurred Rye, approaching nearer in quality to good grain, contains but few oleo-reslnous principles. It is worthy of remark, that this parasitic andn la onjy met with on the finest plants of Rye in shady places, or towards the ends of fields recently cleared of wood, and when the carbonic principles and a rich soil abound.—Chemical Ga*ttU.

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116 3



The value of some of the generic distinctions upon which botanists have hitherto relied is seriously disturbed by the curious discovery made by M. Esprit Fabre that J&rilope is merely the wild form of Triticum, that is to say, of cultivated Wheat

The supposed poisonous qualities of certain Grasses has become more doubtful than ever. It is certain that Bromus catharticus is a nonentity, Feuillle's figure, on which this species has been founded, being made up of Br* secalinus and some purgative Iridaoeous rhizome (Medic, and (Econom. Bot. p. 27/ And the noxious qualities of Darnel or Lolium temulentum seem to rest upon no certain proo£ That formidable list of mischief belonging to its seeds, of which Haller says so much, resembles what might be expected of some ergotdsed Grass. At all events the properties of Darnel should be made the subject of renewed inquiry.


SoJS'jL Brongn. } near °rA Laaiolytrum, SteudL near Fhalaris. Knappia, Sol — Mibora.


Fsammaphila, Fries, near Ammophila. Donacium, Fries, near Arundo.


JHn&a, PaL — Eutrlana, Antinoria* Part, near Aira. Harpachne, HochM. near KOleria. NarduniB, Bois$. Aniaantha, Q. Koch.


Roegneria, C. JTocA, Semftdcua, Pari next Bromus. Aulonemia, Qoudot. > __ jx

CaeteWa, Rn. Lepidopyronia, A. Rich. Eremopyrum, LedUb. ) Pycnopvrum, C. Koch. ) Heteranthelium, HochM.


Didaotylon, ZoU. near Oropetium. Monachyaon, Purl.

Psilopogon, HochM. I "*** *w-MyriadSwta, ZoU.

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GlumausJ                                 CYPERACEjE.               #                                117

Order XXX. CYPERACE2B. Sbdobs.

Qrpsreid**, Jnu. Gen. 96. (1780).—Cjperacea, R. Brown Prodr. SIS. (1810) ; LetUboudoU, Btmi:' KtcsvonEtateckimLimnaa, 9.878 ; SndL Oat. iliiL, MHtner, p. UO ; Eunth. Emm. wot. 2 ; Net$ ab £n». in Ft. Bnu.fatc. 4.

Diaommul— Gl*m*dEndogeiu with vhtU leaf-Junthsy a one-cdled ovary, and cm embryo enclosed within the bate of the albumen.

Grass-like herbs, growing in tufts and never acquiring a shrubby condition. The stems are never hollow, and seldom have any partitions at their nodes; they are frequently angular, and are sometimes enlarged at the base into conns or tubers. The

leaves are narrow or taper, and, when they* wrap round the stem in the form of a sheath, never have that sheath slit Flowers £ or ©* ?, consisting of imbricated solitary bracts, of which the lowermost are often empty, very rarely enclosing other opposite bracts at right angles with the first, and called glumes. Calyx none. Stamens hypogynous, definite, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,10, 12 ; anthers fixed by their base, entire, 2-ceIled. Ovary 1-seeded, often surrounded by bristles called hypogynous sets j ovule erect, anatro-pal j style single, trifid, or bifid ; stigmas undivided, occasionally bifid. Nut crus-taceous or bony. Albumen fleshy or mealy, of the same figure as the seed ; embryo lenticular, undivided, enclosed within the base of the albumen ; plumule . inconspicuous.

Sedges so nearly resemble Grasses in appearance, that the one may be readily mistaken for the other by incurious persons ; they are, however, essentially distinguished by many important points of structure. In the first place, their stems are usually angular, not round and fis-tular; there is no diaphragm at the articulations ; their flowers are destitute of any other covering than that afforded them by a single bract, in the axil of which they grow, with the exception of Carex, Uncmia, and Diplacrum, m which 2 opposite glumes are added; and, finally, the seed has its embryo lying in the base of the albumen, within which its cotylo-donar extremity is enclosed, and not on the outside, as in Grasses ; a very important fact, which it is the more necessary to point out, since Brown describes it (Prodr. 212) as lenticular and placed on the outside of the albumen. The additional glumes above adverted to form what Limuean botanists call die nectary or aril! Brown mentions a case where these glumes, which he calls a capsular perianth, included stamens instead of a pistil. According to Turpin, rudiments of the



Fta. LXXVIIL—fidrpw lacostrl*. 1. A flower lurrounded with hypogjrooua britfle. 2. a seed; 3, a section of H, showing die lenticular embryo. Vig. LXXIX.— Utricle or additional glumes of Carex Hyularis.


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118                               #           CYPERACEjE.                                  [Ehdookis.

latter sometimes appear in different species of Mariscus. Sedges approach certain Restiads in the peculiar state of the flowers and in general habit They are, however, clearly distinguished from that order by their seeds being erect qot pendulous, and by their more complicated ovary, which is always formed by 2 or 8 carpellary leaves, although enclosing only one ovule, while Restiads have but one carpellary leaf to each ovule. The sheaths of the leaves of Restiads are slit, like those of Grasses. Sedges stand then in the same relation to Restiads as Buckwheats to Chenopods. The

species are extremely difficult to determine! and the distinctive characters of the genera were unsatisfactory, until Professor Nees v. Esenbeck rearranged the Order m the place above quoted.

Found in marshes, ditches, and running streams, in meadows and on heaths, in groves and forests, on the blowing sands of the sea shore, on the tops of mountains, from the arctic to the antarctic circle, wherever Phsenogamous vegetation can exist Humboldt remarks, that in Lapland Sedges are equal to Grasses ; but that thence, from the temperate zone to the equator, in the northern hemisphere, the proportion of Sedges to Grasses very much diminishes. As we approach the Line, the character of the order also changes: Carex, Scirpus, Schoanus, and their allies, cease to form the principal mass, the room of which is usurped by multitudes of species of Cypenis, by Kyllinga, Mat

riscus, and the like, genera comparatively unknown in northern regions, or at least not forming any marked feature in the vegetation. A few species are common to very different parts of the world, as Scirpus triqueter, Eleocharis capitata, and Fuirena umbellata, to New Holland and South America, and several Scirpi to Europe and the southern hemisphere.

While Grasses are celebrated for their nutritive qualities, and for the abundance of fcecula and sugar they contain, Sedges are little less remarkable for the frequent absence of those principles: hence they are scarcely sought for by cattle. The roots of Carex arenaria, disticha, and hirta, have diaphoretic and demulcent properties, on which account they are called German Sarsaporilla. Those of CVperuses are succulent, and filled with a nutritive and agreeable mucilage. In Cyperus longus (the Ktmipoi of Hippocrates) a bitter principle is superadded, which giveB its roots a tonic and stomachic quality. The tubers of Cyperus hexastachyus or rotundus are said by General Hard-wicke to be administered successfully in cases of cholera by Hindoo practitioners, who call the plant Mootha. Those of C. pertenuis, or Nagur-Mootha, are, when dried and pulverised, used bv Indian ladies for scouring and perfuming their hair. The root of Cyperus bdoratus has a warm aromatic taste, and is given m India, in infusion, as a stomachic The root of Scirpus lacustris is astringent and diuretic, and was once officinal Remirea maritima, a common plant in tropical America, is said to be powerfully diaphoretic and diuretic ; and the same qualities are ascribed to Kyllinga odorata and Hy-poporum nutans. The leaves of Cotton-grasses, Eriophorum, were once used in diarrhoea, and the spongy pith of the stem to destroy tape-worms. Cyperus Iria has a reputation in India as a useful medicine in suppression of the menses, and in colic. Tne root of Kyllinga triceps is employed in tne East Indies in diabetes, and as a stomachic, for which its acridity combined with some aroma has recommended it The root of Scle-ria lithosperma is supposed upon the Malabar coast to have antinephritic virtues. The tubers or conns of Cyperus esculentus, (the /iaXiwOaXAi} of Theophrastus), called by the French Souchet comestible or Amande de terre, are used as food in the south of Europe, and are employed in the preparation of orgeat; Dr. Royle adds, that when roasted they have been proposed as a substitute for coffee and cocoa. The Chinese cultivate several species for food, especially the Pi-tsi or Scirpus tuberosus, which Noes v. Esen* beck regards as a bulbous form of LimnocMoaplantaginea. And Dr. Royle informs us (TUudr. p. 413), that the Croerus bulbosus of vaW (C. jemenicus L.), called Sheelandie-aresee in Madns, and Pun-drempa bv the TeUngas, hays tubers which when roasted or boiled taste like potatoes, and would be valuable for food if they were not so small* Scirpus dubius of Roxburgh, (the AUikee of the Telingas) is given on the same autho. rity as having tubers, which the natives say are as good as yams.

The Papyrus of the banks of the Nile, Papyrus antiquorum, of which boats, paper, and ropes are made, is a plant of this family; it is said to be called Babeer in Syria, and is described by the Arabians (Avic. c 54S), by the name Fafeer and Burdee: the former evidently of the same origin as the Greek and Syrian names. A species of the genua Papyrus (P. corymbosus, N. ab £., P. Pangorei Arnott) is hardly of less use in India, being extensively employed for making the mats so much used there for covering the floors of rooms, and which are also so much esteemed in Europe. Dr. Ainslie says that a species, called Bora and Toonghi, which he refers to C. textilis of Thunberg, is employed in the peninsula for the same purpose. Some of the species of Scirpus, especially S. lacustris, are sometimes substituted for rushes in making baskets and chair bottoms, Ac.; Cyperus textilis is employed in making ropes, and as the Papyrus

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. was by the indents. The species of Eriophorum, called Cotton-grass in I, from having their fruit clothed at the base with a silky or cotton-like substance, of which paper and wicks of candles have been made, and pillows stuffed, has a species (£. comoeum, Wall, cannabinum, nob.), Bhabhur of the natives, of which the leaves, previous to the jrfant flowering, are in the Himalayas extensively employed for rope-making. Cyperus inundatus probably, with other species, helps much to bind and protect the banks of the Ganges from die rapidity of the stream and the force of the tides; as in Holland Garex arenaria is carefully planted on the dikes, where its far-extending roots, by mutually interlacing with each other, fix the sand and give strength to the embankment" (BoyU> Illustr. p. 415.) Cyperus Hydra, called Nut-grass in the West Indies, is said to be a pest there, overrunning the Sugar-cane plantations, and rendering them barren.




Ftauo, Pali*


Scuria, Rafin.

Trtodia* Rata,

Trasut, Gwy. Vodnia, Pen. Hoppia, Seee. Scboeooxjphtam, Nee*.


TrOspis, -Wee*.

DUepis, End].

FhUelmamda, Konth. Ehrna, Schrad.

Kobrals, WUU.


xHplacnnny R. Rr. Ptjcfeocaiya, JLBr. Scter*,**?.

<>K»rfropii#, Nets* Pteracteria, /tef. Befabofepis, &*r. Ophryoederia, Neee. Macrolomla, if« Osmotderla, JFee*. Xastfeotderia, ifcw. Acrocarpas, Jfaef. Cephalocarpas, Jlfae*. Cfyptaagnina, &Ar. Lagenocaupui, JV«#. Cboadnriomla, Nets Tnebyknia, ifief. Hymeoolytnmi, &*r. Been mil els f Urongn* Calyptrocarys, JV«*. Hypoporum, Nets, Ajwgyna, JT«*. Anlaearfayndras, /fee*

IV.—Rbjuchosporese. * Bhynchotporida.

Morfria,JV«r. Mtrospora, Jfay, Hapkwtjlis, Jfcer. Pterotbeca, /Verf. Cabptratrfis, ifee*. EphlpptefajDchhiin, ffter

CephaUmehecmu, Use* Dlpfoduele, Jtof. Ceratoschcmns, ife*t. Rhjnehospora, PaJW. Ch«to«pora, R.Br.

CbrpAa, Banks A 6oL

jfeferoefcslt, Neat. ' Cyathocoma, Jte#.

Eueyaihocoma Fenii.

Ideieria, Kunth. Trianoptfles, Aruf.

Rtik&nfa, Stead. Nemochloa, Jf«#.

Nomochloa, Palis.

PUurostachye, Brongn. Machserina, FoM. Buekia, iV«#. Lepidoeperma, laMtt.

Ltpidotosperma, Rdm. etSch.

Sclerochatium, Nees. Oreobaliis, R. Br.

[Spermodon, Patf*.

Triodon, Rieh. PsQocaxya, JVht. Astroschcnuis, -Weca jPtOodicta, itoe#. JDfohrompna, Rick. jZosteroepermuiii, Poto.

RfeMfiaicferma, Jf«e#.

Halotchcmus, Nets. Etynantbus, PaMt. | VincenHa, Gaud. CbapeUiera, ifcef.

Rawiiwa, Gaudich. Sdunras, Ifen.

Tortfttftfeiii, Desr.

? 8ch*nopsisf Lestib.

Gtu*m*a, Presl. Gymnoscheraus, 2f«e#. Isocbcenus, ifeet. Remirea, u«.

Jffcyfo, Schreb.


[Cladfom, P. Br.

Lampraarya, R, Br. Mordotia, Gaud* Melachne, Schrad. IHdymonema, PresL

RfafKfHa.PnsL Gahnla, Porjt Caustis,R.£r. Evandxa, R. Br.


Chiystftbrix, LinnJU. Pandanopbylhim, lfa#**. Leplronia/Rfc*.

uumdrachnt, R. Br. Cberlsandra, R. Br.


Hemlearpba, ito. Lipocaipba, ife».

Hypaxyptum, R. Br.

Hypclytrum, Lk. Platylepte, £«m. HTOolytrum, Rick.

Beefti, Palta.

WWs, Prad. Dtplatia, Rfc*.



Mehnocnmto, Fo«.

Bypofapit, Palis. Slckmannia, -8T«f. Anoiporum, Jf«#.

** nemtchkenUU*.

Hemlchlieiia, ScArcu*. AcrolepU, ftAnul. | BypopMalium, Nees. Plourachne, &Arod.

♦ Ficinid*.

Fulrraa, Ro«5,

Fcwinarfa, L. C. Rich. Vaathlera,.Rfc*. Fidniaf&Arad.

5cAamid<um, New. Oxycaryum, JViw. Blopharolepit, JVtef. Oncoylb, lfart. Fimbrialis, Vakt.


JHchOoetyU, PaUs.

BcMaotnim, Deiv.


Hotos'diamZt', Lk.

JEtewltoii, Lk. Trichelortylit, £«».

Dichostyu, Palis. Ntmum, Poii#. Helothrix. JT«f. Sdrpus, iL Pterotopte, &Anwi.

Malacochat*, Nees

HpmettochaU, Palls.

Blytrospcrmw*, C. A.

Blynnusf Pans. Bmothryon, /Tscf. Eleochsria, R. Br.

EUogenus, Ns«s.

Outtocyperus, Ness.

Scirpidium, Ness. Androtrichum» Brcwyii. ABdrocoma, -Wee*. Eriopbommf £,

LinooroiHt, Lam.

2Wcft4pfc<>rif*i, Pen.

X.—Cypereis. Dnlichluro, Rirt.

P/#wn£Ata, Rich. Comofltemum, JITcca Diclidhun, &*r. Qyperasf X<fm.

Torrepa* RaoIL Pspyrus, IF«/d.

SirUiiigU, Xiftfk ariscos, FaW. Adulpa, Bosc Cowiotiia, Nees. Opctiola, Gnin. Trpoctphalon, Forst. Abflgsardla9 FoAJ.

Wflf Rich. LeptoschaBnast AVc#.

Uncertain Genera. Mapaola,«M. Diaphora, iotir. Haplostenram, Ran. Diplarrhinus, Ra/Ca. Dirtlchmus, Rq,/!rt. Tetrsrift, Pai<#. Catagyna9Pafi#. Tricostalariam.

NCMBEB8,—Grh. 112. Sp. 2000.

Jcorocetf. PoeiTiON.—Graminaceee.—Ctpbrace.—Restiacero. Typkacem.

ADDITIONAL GENERA. Hydroachcenua, Zollinger, near Kyllinga. I Mesomelieua, Nets, near Caipha. Ascolepis, JVto, — Isofepia                                    Psilocarya, A. Qray, near Rbynchospora.

Ertospora, Rock*. nearRhynchosporum.               Diploecyphus, LUbm. near Sclerla.

Galllea, Pari, near Cyperus*                           I Trioostularia» Neee, near Machrcrina.


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Order XXXI. DESVAUXIACEJE.—Bristleworts.

Desvauxiese, Nixus Plantarum. p. 23. (1833)f a } of Reetlaoee; Bartt. Ord. Nat. p. 36; Martins Om-sptctus, No. 38,-Centrolepide*, Desvaux in Ann. des Be. 13. 36. (1828); Endl. fen. xlhr. ; Meis-ner, Oct*.p. 409; Kunth* Bnum. 3. 487.

Diagnosis.—Gfamal Endogens, with several ovaries (sometimes consolidated), a pendulous ovule, \-2stamcn8, l-ctlled awthen, and terminal embryo.

Little tufted herbs, resembling email Scirpi. Leaves setaceous, sheathing at the base. Scapes filiform, undivided, naked. Flowers enclosed in a terminal spathe. Glumes one,

in front, or two somewhat opposite each other. Pales 0, or one or two tender scales parallel with the glumes. Stamen 1, very rarely 2; anther simple. Ova-ries from 1 to 18 attached to a common axis, distinct or partially united, 1-celled, with a single stigma to each ; ovules solitary, orthotropal. Fruit as many 1 -seeded utricles, opening longitudinally; seed pendulous ; embryo lenticular, placed within the extremity most remote from thehilum.

The main distinction of this Order consists in the ovaries, which are variable in number, and usually distinct from each other round a common axis, in the manner of a Ranunculus. Occasionally they are partially united ; in all cases they change to little one-seeded utricles. The stamen, which is usually solitary, has a second added in the genus Gaimardia, which does not seem to be otherwise different. Aphelia has only one carpel, and this is regarded by Endlicher as a near approach to Sedges; but it is really very different, for the single ovary of that order is evidently made up of from 2 to S carpels enclosing a single ovule ; while in Apheua, as in all the Order of Brifrtleworte, the ovary consists of buta single carpel.

All inhabit the South Sea Islands; and nearly all New Holland. They are of no known use.


Aphelia, JL Br. Alepyrum, Jt. Br.

GENERA. |          Cratroleptt, LabUL             I

I             Desvauxiat R. Br.            |

Numbers. Gen. 4. Sp. 15. (Kunth.)

Gaimardia, Gaudich.

Position. Restiacese.—Dbsvauxiaceje.—Eriocaulaceee.

Fig. LXXX,—Centrolepls fascicular!* 1. A head of flowers; 2. a single flower separated; 3. an ovary with the style cut off.—EndUcher.

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Gujiules.]                                    RESTIACEiE.                                              121

ORDER XXX11. RE8TIACE-fi,—Rkstiadb.

t9 R. Brown, Predr. 243. OfflO); Kunth in Numb. N. O. tt Bp. 1. ttl. (1815); Agardh A ph. 166. i!8») a f of Juncee; Bees «, E$enbeck. in Linneta. 5. 627. (1830* et 7. 614. (18S2); Bndi. Gen. ihr.; JMmtr, Gen. p. 408; Amtt Aitim. 8. S81.—Elaglee, ftwv. ineod.loc. >1&H).

Diagnosis.—(Thmol Endogens, with al-b-ceUed ovary, a pendulous ovule, 2-3 stamens, 1-eelled cmthers, and terminal embryo. Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs. Leaves simple, narrow, or none. Culms naked, or more usually protected by sheaths, which are sUt, and have equitaat margins. Flowers generally aggregate, in spikes or heads, separated by bracts, and most frequently unisexual. Glumes 2-6, seldom wanting. Stamens 2 to 3, attached to 4 or 6 glumes and opposite the innermost; anthers usually unilocular and peltate. Ovary I- or more-celled, cells monospermous; styles or stigmata never fewer than 2, although the ovary be 1-celled ; and otherwise equal in number to the cells of the ovary ; ovules pendulous. Fruit capsular, or nucamentaceous. Seeds inverted ; albumen of the same figure as the seed ; embryo lenticular, on the outside of the albumen, at that end of the seed which is most remote from the hilum.

According to Brown, the principal character dis tinguishing this order from Rushes and Sedges consists m its pendulous seed and lenticular embryo placed at the extremity of the seed opposite to the umbilicus. From Rushes it also differs in the order of suppression of its stamina, which, when reduced to 3, are opposite to the inner glumes ; and most of its genera are distinguishable from both these Orders, as well as from Commelina-cete, by their simple or unilocular anthers.—(Flinders, 579.) But in truth it is essentially distinguished from the order of Rushes by its glumaceous flowers, as well as by the characters already named If the glumes are absent, it is then only to be known from Sedges by the pendulous ovules, terminal embryo, and by the sheaths of its leaves being slit. The tri-petaloid flower and polvspermous fruit of Xyris, a genus formerly referaed here, are characters indicating a far superior degree of evolution, and sufficient to separate it as the representative of a peculiar order ; a measure which Brown anticipated when he remarked (Prodr. 244.), that the genus Xvris, although placed by him at the endof Restiaceee, is certainly very differentf rom the other genera, m the inner segments of the periafith being petaloid, with the stamens proceeding from the top of their ungues, and in its numerous seeds. Pipeworts are known by their having a membranous sheath between the glumes and ovary, and thus indicating an approach to the petaloid Orders, especially to Xyrids.

All are extra-European, and chiefly found in the woods and marshes of South America, New Holland, and southern Africa. They have not been found in America.

The tough wiry stems of some species are manufactured into baskets and brooms. Will-denowia teres is employed for the latter purpose, and Restio tectorum for thatching.


Rbodocotna, Bees. l4ptoearpu9. JL/lr. JxKOcaiya, Jt. Br. Ctaetanthns, R. Br. P?poi>nSp R. Br*

<W«Wfcra, Nees. Vafm.Ktk.


I WOldesowia, Thunb. lfematanthu$f Neat. HjpodJscus, Jfect I Leueoplocufl, Nets* \ If essuthus, Nee*. LAnthoehartus, Bees. I Ceratocsiyum, Set*.

Lepldanttras, Bees. Anarthrla, R. Br. Lyginia. R. Br. Lepyrodlav it. Br. Thamnochortiis, Berg. Staberoha, Kunth. Elegfe, TMunb.

Chondropetalum, Rottb. Restio, Linn.

Calor»phu$9 Labffl. Calopsis, Palis. Cannomoia, Palie. Boeckhia, KuntK

Position. Cyperacea.—Restiacea—Kriocaulace©. Nuhbsbs. Gen. 28. Sp. 171 (Kunth.)

Peainocladna, N. ab B. near Restio.________j________Lepldobolua, N. ah B. near Restio.

Pig. LXXXL—Lepyrodia hermaphrodite 1. A flower: 4 the same when the fruit is ripe; 8 the ovaries; 4. the fruit in a state of dehiscence; 5. the seed, cut vertically, of Restio dichotomns.

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Erlocaolonee, L. C. Richard in H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et 8p. PL 1. J61. (1815); Desvauxin Ann.8c.13. 36.; Martins in Act. Acad. Cm. Nat cur. 17.; Endl. Gen. xUL ; Mclsner. gen. p. 407 ; Eriocau-lae, ffaiit*. eiMffn. 3. 403.; -<<c<. cod. Wisstnck. Berlin, Mr. 1841.

Diagnosis.—Giumal Endoaens, with a 2-Z-celled ovary, a pendulous ovule, 2-cclled anthers, a terminal embryo, and a Globed cup within the glumes.

Perennial marsh-plants, with linear cellular spongy leaves sheathing at the base. Flowers capitate, bracteate, very minute, £ <j>. Glumes two* unilateral, or 3. A membranous tube, with 2 or S teeth or lobes, surrounds the ovary. Ovarv superior 3- or 2-celled ; ovules solitary, orthotropal ; style very short; stigmas as numerous as the cells of the ovary. Dehiscence of the capsule loculicidal. Seeds solitary, pendulous, coated with wings or rows of hairs. Embryo more or less lenticular, lying upon the albumen at the end of the seed most remote from the hilum.

This order is usually combined with RestiaceaB (or Cord-leafs) from which, in a memoir in the 17th vol. of the Nova Acta, Yon Martius separates it on the following grounds, Restiacesa : Flowers in spikes. Calyx glumaceous . Stamens in a single row, 1-8, opposite the petals ; anthers generally 1 -celled. Seeds with out rows of hairs. Enocaulaceee : Flowers in heads, unisexual. Calyx sepaloideous A-Stamens 3, 6, 2, 4 ; if in two rows, with the inner row most developed ; anthers 2-celled. Seeds solitary, with rows of hairs. The most important distinctions seem to consist in the presence among the Pipeworts of a membranous tube, which may be regarded as the most distinct approach, in the Giumal Alliance, to the corolla of the petaloid series, and in the anthers being 2-celled, not 1-celled ; a further indication of a higher order of development Xyrids, with a perfect corolla, may be regarded as the link which connects these plants with some of the more perfect orders of En-dogens.

Many remarkable species are figured by Bongard in Memoirs of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg!*, 6th eeriee, \.p. 601., Ac.

A large number of species is collected under

this head; all of which are amphibious or

aquatic. According to Endlicher, two-thirds

are found in the tropics of America, and half the remainder in the north of New Holland.

A few occur in North America, and one is found in Great Britain, in the isle of Skye.

Eriocaulon setaceum, boiled in oil, is said to be a popular remedy for the itch in the

East Indies.

Fig. LXXX1I.

Lachnocaulun, Kth. Eriocaulon, L.

Dupatpa, Fl. flam.

NaemytMa, Huds.


iTonina, AW.

Hpphpdra, Schrab, Phllodici, Mart

Bandalia, Petty.

Spharochloa, Palii. Leucocephala, Boxb. Paepalanthus, Mart

Numbebs. Gen. 9. Sp. 200 (Kunth).


Position.—Restiacese.—Eriocaulackjr. Xyridacca.

ICladocanlon, Gardn. Stephanophyllum, GuiU. ? Symphaobnt, Palisot

Fig. LXXXIL—Toniaa fluTiatffli. I- £ flower; 2. centre of do.; 3 ? an £ flowers: 4-taction of ripe fruit | 6. seed ; 6. faction of do.—MarUus.

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ARALBS.                                                   123

Alliance VIIL A RALES.—Thb Aral Alliance.

Diagnosis—Unisexual pctaloid or naked flowered endogenic with a simple naked spadix, and an embryo in the axis of mealy orjlcshy albumen. It is here that we find the lowest structure known among flowering plants. Lemna,in the I<emnad order, has a lenticular frond, in a cleft of whoee edge lark a couple of flowers, one $ and the other ?, enclosed in a membranous bag. Tn Pistia, of the same Lemnad order, the leaves are separated from the stem, the flowers are more separated, and the $ has the beginning of a calyx. In Ambrosinia, also associated with Lemna, a complete bearded spathe is formed, and the £ is of a more complicated structure. From these plants we pass into the Arads, with naked flowers growing in dense spikes or apadixes, and they lead, on the one hud to the palm-like Screw Pines, and on the other to the sedgy Typhads, by means of which, especially the former, a communication is effected with the princely Palms. By another transition, into the Orontiacess of hermaphrodite hypogynous Endogens, a passage is formed into Lilyworts on the one hand and Peppers on the other. In fact, as I stated long since, theAral alliance, and more especially the Araoeous order, is the centre of a luge system whose rays pierce very remote parts of the vegetable kingdom. Through Lemna this alliance passes into the Hydral by way of the Naiads. The Spadicifior* of modern botanists, or Spadicicaipm of Bhime (Rumphia 2. 74) are nearly the same plants, except that Meisner includes Palms among them, to which there seems some objection.

Natural Orders of Arals. Flown 2 or 3, of which one only is ?. Spadix 0. Ovary one-celled. \

Ovules erect. Embryo slit.......

Flowers 00, on a naked spadix. Oalyx scaly or hairy. Anthers with

long filaments. Ovule solitary, pendulous. Seed adherent to the

pericarp. Embryo slit .               ......

Flowers 00, naked, on a solitary spadix covered by a single hooded]

spathe. Anthers sessile. Seed loose. Embryo slit, axils . . \ Flowers 00, naked or scaly,ona spadix covered by many spathes. AntJicr*\

stalked. Seeds loose. Embryo solid, minute




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ORDER XXXIV, PISTIACE.—Lemnads, or Duckweeds.

Pistiacsje, Rich, in Humb. etBonpl. N. Q.etSp. I. 8k (1815); Lindi. in Hooker** Fl. Scot J. 191. (1821); tynopr. 251. (1839) / BndL 0m. p. 233; JfW«wr, p. S68; Jftmft. «mm. 3. 7; Bf«mt, JlMV*ia*.76.-LBMifAC«*,i)C.aJkf/>i*yf63i(1888;i .Bktt.Cemp.aW; Jfeimer, j>. 363 ; Xuntt. cmm. S. 8- BchMden in Lirmcta, xiil. 884/ Hoffman in Tydeckr. v. naL Qetch. Lepden (1838).

Diagnosis.—Aral Endogem with 2 or SJlowers, of which one only i$$fno epadix, a one-celled ovary, erect ovules, and a dit embryo.

Floating or land plants, with very cellular, lenticular, or k>bed fronds or leaves, Bome * .i_------i_w_ j_x__ -* ___!------1---------* —.— f« _:-*:i Flowers appear-

of them wholly destitute of spiral vessels, except perhaps in the ] ing from the margin of the fronds, 2 or 3, naked, enclosed in a spathe, bat without a spadix. $ Stamens definite, often mona-delphous (pollen globose, mnricated, with a single aperture in Lemna Schleiden) : $ Ovary 1-celled, with one or more erect ovules; style short; stigma simple; ovules auatropal, hemianatropal, or atro-paL Fruit membranous or capsular, not opening, 1- or more-seeded. Seeds with a fungous testa, and a thickened indurated foramen ; embryo either in the axis of fleshy albumen, and having a lateral cleft for the emission of the plumule, or at the apex of the nucleus, covered in by a hardened endostome.

The common Duckweed (Lemna) may be regarded as being the most simple of all Phtenogamous plants- Its stem and leaves are fused into a minute lenticular frond, which pullulates by openings in its sides ; its roots are simple fibres, tipped by a calyptra, which Schleiden regards as a peculiar organ, and its flowers are two in number, one male and the other female, lying concealed in a slit of the frond ; they have neither calyx nor corolla, but are enclosed in a delicate membranous bag. Lemna is indeed but one remove from a Crystalwort (Riccia, p. 57) ; species of which have even been mistaken for Lemnas by some authors, according to Schleiden.

All the true Lemnas are almost entirely destitute of spiral vessels, which the same author found abundantly in the old L. polyrhiza, now called Spirodela, A Lemna indeed mav be said to consist of a small plate of cellular tissue, and a couple or three flowers. There is however in the fresh water of tropical countries a very common floating plant, called Pistia, which may be regarded as a Lemna with the leaves and stem separated, and the flowers more highly developed ; there being a distinct snathe for the inflorescence, and a kind of cup-like calyx to the male flower. And V/J then again the Mediterranean gives birth to Ambrosinia, a little land plant, with leaves of an ordinary kind, and a small spathe inclosing a couple of flowers, of which the uppermost has many mona-delphous stamens, perfectly destitute of a calyx, and an ovary which is like that of Pistia. If we disregard the simplicity of this structure, and consider the organisation as if it belonged to plants of a more highly developed character, it will be found that these are really nothing but Arads, the spadix of which is reduced to two or three flowers of different sexes. But while the accuracy of this view of the nature of the Duckweed order is generally acknowledged, it must Fig. LXXXIII. be borne in mind that this very reduction of parts is inconsistent with the notion of Arads, properly so called ; and hence the necessity of constituting a particular order. I find from an examination of seeds of Pistia, most kindly procured from India for me by Dr. Wallich, that the embryo is a minute body lying within the apex of the albumen ; in Lemna it occupies the axis; in both there is a fungous testa, with a remarkable induration of the foramen of the secundine. The embryo of Pistia is very minute, and, as far as I can see, solid ; but Horkel says it is slit, and in Lemna there is certainly a cleft on one side for the emission of the plumule, just as in Arads. Most

Pig. LXXXIIL—PUtia Stratiotst. I. A spathe with ita 2 flowers; 2.a section of s seed-madiTa seed; I. the same cat perpendicularly.

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modem aystmnatigts regard Pistiacese and Lemnaeets as distinct sub-orders of Arads, from which I separate diem on account of their want of spadix, Ambrosinia connecting them with die curious genus Cryptocoryne. By some oversight, both Adrien de Jusrieu and EndKcher regard Lemnacete as exalbuminoua*

Lemna inhabits the ditches of the cooler parts of the world; Piatia the tropics; Ambrosinia the basin of the Mediterranean*

Pistia Stratiotes grows in water-tanks in Jamaica, where, according to Browne, it is acrid, and in hot diy weather impregnates the water with its particles to such a degree as to pre rise to the bloody flux. A decoction of the same plant is considered by the Hmdooetanees as cooling and demulcent, and they prescribe it in cases of dysuria. The leaves are also made into a poultice for haemorrhoids* See aieo Martiui MaL Med. Bra*. 97.

GENERA. Lmm, L.                  \ Triimrtophace, 8ehUUL iPtotia. L.                    I Ambroshiia, L

WoUHs.Wk.              8pirod«U, Sekleki.           Zala,Umx.                  Ucrio, Tai*

HorMia.RAb.         I                                1                               '

Numbsbs. Gbn. 6. Sp. 20.




The'leaves of Pistia have no stomates, but are tarnished instead with jointed lax hairs.—Griffith* Not. III. 124,211; which consult for numerous details and speculations as to the import of organ*


Grantia, Qrty. nsar Lemna. Apiospermumffotoci.) Nexfc pft

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126                                              TYPHACEjE.                                   [Ekdogbhs.

OaDKR XXXV. TYPHACE.—Typhads or Bulrushes.

Typhae, Juss. Gen. 25. (1789).—Aroidwe, J 3. A Brown Prodr. 888. (1810).—Typhtoeae, Agardh Aph. 189. U*B3). Kunth. enum. 3.88. (1841).—Typhaoe«t DC. and Duby% 483. (1828) ; Richard in Arch, de Bot. voL 1. p. 198; Bndlich. gen. budii. ; Iffim. p. 380.—Typholdew and SpaiganioUtae, Knt. fianrf*. 1.132.138. (1829), as sections </Cypenu*«. SchnUdcin dissert, 1845.

Diagnosis.—-4raZ Endogens, with numerous JUnoers on a naked spadix, a scaly or hairy calyx, long filaments, a solitary pendulous ovule, a seed adherent to its pericarp, and slit embryo. Herbaceous plants, jprowingin marshes or ditches. Stems without nodes. Leaves rigid, ensiform, with parallel veins. Flowers £ ?, very closely arranged upon a spatheless spadix. Sepals = mere scales, 3 in number or more ; sometimes a mere bundle of hairs. Petals wanting. £ : Stamens 3 or 6; anthers wedge-shaped, attached by their base to long filaments, which are sometimes monadefphous. $ : Ovary single, superior, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, pendulous, anatro-pal ; style short; stigmas simple, linear. Fruit dry, not opening, 1-celled, 1-seeded, made angular by mutual pressure. Seed pendulous, with a membranous skin adhering to the pericarp. Embryo in the centre of mealy albumen, straight, taper, with a cleft in one side, in which the plumule lies; radicle next the hilum.

Jussicu, following Adanson, distinguishes these from Arads, with which Brown re-unites them, retaining them, however, in a separate section. They are generally regarded as a distinct tribe by most writers, and seem sufficiently character* ised by their calyx being 3-sepaled and half-glumaceous, or a mere bundle of long hairs, by their lax filaments, wedged anthers, solitary pendulous ovules, and peculiar habit Agordh refers Bulrushes to glumaceous Monocotyledons, on account of the analogy between the calyx of Tvpha and the hypogynous hairs of Eriophorum, a genus of Sedges; and a similar view of their affinity has been taken by Link ; and in fact they do appear to constitute a direct transition from the glumaccous to petaloid Endogens, for although their floral envelopes are mere scales, yet they are arranged in regular whorls. In habit they are hardly distinguishable from Sedges. In another point of view they may be looked upon as diminutive species of Screw-pines (Pan-danaceee), and Kunth so considered them formerly : but their simple fruit, solitary ovules, and the slit in the side of their embryo, offer sufficient marks of distinction.

Found commonly in the ditches and marshes of the northern parts of the world, but uncommon in tropical countries : one species occurs in St. Domingo, and another in New Holland. Two are described from equinoctial America. Fig. LXXXlv.                           They are of little Known use. The

powdered flowers have been used as an application to ulcers. The pollen of Typha is inflammable, like that of Lycopodium, and is used as a substitute for it De Candolle remarks that it is probable the facility of collecting this pollen which is the real cause of its use, and that any other kind would do as well. The rhizomes of Typha abound in starch, are somewhat astringent and diuretic, and are employed in the east of Ana. in dysentery, gonorrhoea, and the measles; they are also used as food. The pollen, mixed with water, forms a kind of bread in Sonde, Western Australia, and New Zealand.

GENERA.                              |        NUMBEB8, QXN. 2. Sp. 13. (Kunth.)

Typha, X.

Spaiffaniuxn, L. Platanaria, Gray.




Pig. LXXXIV.—1, Typhalatifolia; % its fruit; 3, a soction of the seed; 4, the embryo; 5, a stamen. —Ktes v. Bsenbeck.

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AralkuJ                                           ARACE.E.                                                127

Order XXXVL—Arads,

AaoiD**, Juss. Gen. S3. (1789); *JL Brown Prvdr. 333; Blume, Rumphia 1. 74 ; Bndl. Gen. ixxii.; MeUner,p.9W; Kunth tnton.3.1; Martius in Bot.ZeUung, 1831f p. 440. Richard in Arch. de Bat L 11.—Abacs*, Schott MeUUmata, 16. (1832).

Diagnosis.—Aral Bndogens, with numerous naked flowers on a solitary spadix covered by a simple hooded spatha, sessile anthers, loose seeds, and a slit axile embryo.

Herbaceous plants, frequently with a fleshy conn ; or shrubs ; stemleos or arborescent, or climbing by means of aerial roots. Leaves sheathing at the base, convolute in the bod, usually with branching veins ; sometimes compound! often cordate. Spadix generally enclosed in a spathe. Flowers £ $, naked, arranged upon the surface of a spadix, within a spathe. $ : Stamens definite or indefinite, hypogynous, very short; anthers 1- 2- or many-celled, ovate, turned outwards. $ ,at the base of the spadix, Ovary free, 1-celled, very seldom 3- or more-celled, and many-seeded ; ovules erect or parietal, sessile, or attached to long cords, orthotropal, campylotropal, or occasionally anatropal; stigma sessile. Fruit succulent Seeds pulpy ; embryo in the axis of fleshy or mealy albumen, straight, taper, with a cleft in one side, in which the plumule lies; (radicle obtuse, usually next the hilum, occasionally at the opposite extremity. R> Br.) Albumen sometimes wanting.

The hooded spathe of the order ofArads affords a character not to be mistaken, and, connected with their diclinous naked flowers, gives them their most essential diagnosis; Bulrushes are distinguished by their long anthers and want of spathe; Screw-Pines by their solid embryo and compound fruit; and Duckweeds by their reduction to the simplest state in which flowering plants can exist The whole of these Orders, taken together, are known by their general tendency to develop their flowers upon a spadix, by their want of floral envelopes, or by those parts not assuming the distinct forms of calyx and corolla, but existing only in the state of herbaceous scales. With the exception of Screw-Pines, they are all also known by their plumule lying within a cleft of the embryo ; a structure found in few other monocotyledonous plants, except Nai-ada, in which the embryo is otherwise widely different, and the hermaphrodite Orontiacese, which are so much like Arads in all but the combination of their sexes.

Natives of all tropical countries abundantly, but of temperate climates rarely. In

Fig. LXXXV.—1. Spathe of Arum maculatum; 2. Its spadix loaded with flowers; 3. an anther; 4. a toansrene section of an ovary ; 6. a cluster of ripe fruits ; 6. a seed; 7. a section of the same, showing

Pig. LXXXVL—A single fruit divided vertically, so as to show the seeds in situ. Ffc. LXXXVIL—A perpendicular section of one of the seeds.


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128                                                                             [Endooeto.

cold or temperate climates they are usually herbaceous, while in tropical countries they are often arborescent and of considerable sire, clinging to trees by means of their aerial roots, which they protrude in abundance. In America, according to Humboldt (Distr. Qiogr. 196), their principal station is on the submontane region, between 1200 and 8600 feet of elevation, where the climate is temperate and rains abundant

An acrid principle generally pervades this Order, and exists in so high a degree in scone of mem as to render them dangerous poisons. The moat remarkable is the Dumb Cane, or Dieffenbachia Seguina, a native of the West Indies and South America, growing to the height of a man : this plant has the property, when chewed, of swelling the tongue, and destroying the power of speech. Hooker relates an account of a gardener, who a incautiously bit a piece of the Dumb Cane, when his tongue swelled to such a degree that he could not move it; he became utterly incapable of speaking, and was confined to the house for some days in the most excruciating torments." The same excellent botanist adds, that it is said to impart an indelible stain to linen. P. Browne . states, that its stalk is employed to bring sugar to a good grain when it is too viscid, and cannot be made to granulate properly by the application of lime alone ; Grypto-coryne ovata is used for the same purpose. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta excite violent salivation and a burning sensation in the mouth, as I have myself experienced. Milk in which the acrid root of Arum triphyllum has been boiled lias been known to cure consumption. DO. Notwithstanding this acridity, the fiat under-ground conns, called roots, and the leaves of many Arads, are harmless, and even nutritive when roasted or boiled; as for instance, those of Caladium bicolor, poecile and violaceum, Colocasia esculenta, hima-lensis, antiquorum, mucronata, and others, which, under the names of Cocoa root, Eddoes, and Yams, are common articles of food in hot countries. Nevertheless the iuice of Caladium bicolor is cathartic and anthelmintic Whole fields of Colocasia macrorhiza are cultivated in the South Sea Islands, under the name of Taraor Kopeh roots. The conns of the Arum maculatum are com-

" monly eaten by the country people in the Isle of Portland ; they are macerated, steeped, and the powder obtained from them is sent to London for sale under the name of Portland Sago. They are universally cultivated in India, and known there under the names of

, Kuchoo and Gaglee. Arum nymphaeifolium, which Dr.

" Roxburgh considers oniy a variety of C. antiquorum, is but rarely cultivated in Bengal. Arum indicum, Man-kuchoo and Man-guri of the Bengalese, is a species much cultivated about the huts of the natives tor its esculent stems and small pendulous tubers. Arum campfcnulatum, now Amorphophallus, 01 of the Bengalese, and which deserves to be called the Telinga Potato, is also much cultivated, especially in the Northern Cir-cars, according to Dr. Roxburgh, where it is highly esteemed for the wholesomeneos and nourishing (quality of its roots. In the Himalayas, the species which is called Colocasia himalensis forms the principal portion of the food of the hill-people. Jtoyfe. (Medicinally, the root in its recent state is stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant) A similar starchy substance is yielded by Xanthosoma sagittifolia (Chou caraib), Peltandra vir-ginica, and the huge and hideous Amoiphophalli of the Indian Archipelago. The spadixes of some species have a fetid putrid smell; others, such as Arum cordi-folium, Italicum, and maculatum, are found to disengage a sensible quantity of heat at the time when they are about to expand* The emanations from Arum Dracun-culus are extremely inconvenient; when in flower they produce dizziness, head-ache, and vomiting, A writer tn the Annals of Chemistry says that he was attacked with violent head-ache and sickness after gathering about 40 of the spadixes. Amorphophallus orixenms               7%.LXXXViu.

having exceedingly acrid roots, is, when fresh, applied in India by the natives in cataplasm to excite, or bring forward tumours. Dr.

Fig. LX XX VIII.—Arum maculatuiru

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Roxburgh pronounces it to be certainly a most powerful stinudant; other species are likewise employed, as A. mantanum, Roxb., (macrortuxoo, AinsKe). The plant called by the latter Draconthim polyphylhun is exhibited internally when its acrimony has been subdued ; it is considered antispasmodic, and is also said to be useful in asthmatic cases. An emmenagogue issaid to be prepared from it in the Society Islands. Agardh considers that the acrid principle, which, notwithstanding its great fugacity, has been obtained pore, is no doubt of peat power as a stimulant 4P*» *'* e Colocasiaa are remarkable for being milky. Various species of Philodendron hare a turbid acrid juice, and are found useful in cleansing foul ulcers ; they are also employed for many other purposes in Brazil. See Martim Mat. Med. Bra$. 96, who mentions Dracontium pdyphyDnm, Arisen* Pythonhim, and Monstera Adansonii, as caustics.


*L—Ofypiocory*e4t+ Stamens distinct from tfas pbtfls, which an several, whorled round tbebasaof thespadix, and there comMnod Into a many-celled ovary.

Btgrlocnaeton, Lepr.


Stamaos and piatfli nu nanus, with radtmen-taty ocgans Jntcipoeed. Spadix naked at the end. Cell* of the an-thenlarger than the eosnecthre.

Aitannn, Tomrntf. Arfcasme, Mart           j

Haras, A***

Homaid, Adans.

Iichanm, Bhune. Arum, Linn.

Qigarum, Caeealp.

Bminium, Bhune. Typbonfam, SckotL

Sinvromaium, Schott

Theriophomtm, Blum. Dracunenlus, Ttmrntf. Pythonium, SchotL

Thom#miaLW$XL Amorphophauns Bfumt,

Omdarum, Rekshanb.


UL-CaladUa. Stamens and pistils numerous, contuoons or stpantedtarthsradl-mentaiy bodies. Spe-

dlx nsoalbr naked at point. CeQsofantheis wtth a very thick connective.

Remnsatia, SchotL Gonatanthus, Kl Colocasta, Rap. Caladhun, Vmt. Peltandre, Rctftn.

LeconMa, Tan. Xanthosoma, SchotL Aoontias, Schott. Syngontmn, SehotL Cukasia, PaUs.

Denhamia.Bcbott. PModendroa, SchotL

CUortyiM, Schott.



IV.—Anaport*. Stamen* and plstOi numerous, contiguous, usually barinc the rudimentary bodies intermixed with the pistils. Point of spedlx mrely naked. Calls of the anthers Inunereed in a very thick fleshy connective.

8pethkarpe, Hook. DMhnbachia, SehotL Ptoellia, JVwor.

Athtntrvt, Bhun.

Hemicarpurvs, Neec. Aglaonema, SchotL Homalonema9 SehotL Rkhardia, Kunth.


Numbkbs. Gen. 26* Sp. 170. Position*—Lemn

Orontiacem. -Arackjb.—Typhacosa. Palmaam.

T%e rhizome of Lagenandrm toxicaria, called in Western India Vutsunab, is so deadly that the natives are not allowed to gather it-— Law. TherootoftheAmbatcha, or Aram Abyserinicum, is eaten raw, if peeled—<A. JUch. All those which are used as food when green, require to be prepared by boiling in several waters, the leaves, &c, being pressed every time the water is changed


Aifcpsis, /. Graham. JUmusattOt Wight. Cyrtodadon, Qmff. near Aglaonema.

Legenandra, DahOL, near Cryptocoryne. Btaurostigma, Scheidw. near Spathicarpa.

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130                                            PANDANACEA                             ' [Emdookm.

Ordxr XXXVII. PANDANACEjE—Scrkwpines.

Pandaae«, R. Brown, Prodr. 340. (IglO); De Cand. Prapr. MM. J78. (1816); Agardh Aph. US. (1822); Oaudichaud in Ann. des 8c. 8. 609. (1824); 8choUetEndlicherMeletemata9p. 16. (1882).; McUner.p. 359; Kunth Enum. 3. 93; Bennett in Horslleld, PI. Jav.&l Blum* Rumphia, 1.165.—Cydanthea?, Potteau in Mem. Mus. 9. 84. (1822); SchoUet End Other > Mekte-mate, p. 16. (1832); MarUus Conspectus, No. 22. (1885).—Cydantfaacese, ed. pr.—Freydnetiea?, Ad. Brongn. tableau my. (1843).

Diagnosis,—Aral Bndogens, with numerous naked or scaly flower*, arranged on a spadiz covered by many spathes, stalked anthers, loose seeds, and a solid minute embryo.

Trees or bushes, sometimes sending down aerial roots, sometimes weak and decumbent. Leaves imbricated, in three rows, long, linear-lanceolate, amplexicaul, with their margins almost always spiny; or pinnated, or fan-shaped ; the latter being true leaves, the former, perhaps, mere leaf-stalks. Floral leaves                                       i

smaller, often coloured, and spathaceoua

Flowers <J ? or polygamous, naked, or furnished with a few scales, arranged on a wholly covered spadix. $ : Stamens numerous. Filaments with single anthers ; anthers 2-4-celled. ?: ovaries usually collected in parcels, 1-celled; stigmas as many as the ovaries, sessile ; ovules solitary, attached to the suture, or very numerous, and springing from as many parietal placentae as there are styles, anatropal. Fruit either fibrous drupes, usually collected in parcels, each 1-seeded ; or many-celled berries, with polyspermous cells. Albumen fleshy, with a minute embryo at the base next the hilum, not slit on one ride.

Although this Order is certainly very distinct from Arads, it is by no means easy to define its limits. Blume says it is principally known by its numerous spathes to each spadix, and its narrow, sessile, 3-rowed leaves, spiny at the back and edge, (Rumphia2. 155); but this applies only to Pandanese proper, for the Cyclantheous division has the flabellate or pinnate foliage of Palms, and to all appearance establishes the connection between the Aral and Palmal Alliances.

The species of Pandanus and Freyci-netia have the aspect of gigantic Brome-lias, bearing the flowers of a Spargani-um. While there is no analogy with the former in structure beyond the general appearance of the foliage ; the organisation of the fructification bears so near a resemblance to the latter as to have led to the combination of Screwpines and Typhads by botanists of the first authority. But when we contrast the naked flowers, the compound highly-developed fruit, the spathaceous bracts, the entire embryo, and the arborescent habit of the for*


Fig. LXXXVIII.—1. A Pandanus ; 2. a stamen of Freydnetia imbricata ; 3. an ovaij of ditto; 4. the transrerse section of the same; 5. a perpendicular section of its seed.-£fem;.

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mer, with the half-glumaceous flowers, the simple fruit, the want of spathaceous bracts, the slit embryo, and the herbaceous sedgy habit of the latter, it is difficult to withhold our assent from the proposition to separate them. Brown remarks (Prodr. 341), that these have no affinity with Palms beyond their arborescent stems. But, on the contrary, Cyclantheee, which, following Poiteau and others, I formerly adopted, have, with the structure of Pandanese proper, the foliage of Palms, and are in reality a connecting link between the two Orders, At least, Carludovica evidently is so, as is Hooker's figure in the Botanical Magazine, t 2951, and Cyclanthus seems to have no peculiarity beyond a curious spiral arrangement of its £ and ? flowers in alternate rows.

Mr. Bennett has pointed out an error made by Gaudichaud, who places the embryo at the apex of semitraasparent albumen. He states, that it is certainly at the base, as indeed Bhime has shown in a beautiful figure of Freycinetia imbricata. Screw-pines are remarkable among arborescent monocotyledons for their constant tendency to branch, which is always effected in a dichotomous manner. Their leaves have also a uniform spiral arrangement round the axis, so as to give the stems a sort of corkscrew appearance before the traces of the leaves are worn away. The Chandelier Tree of Guinea and St. Thomas's derives its name (Pandanus Candelabrum) from this peculiar tendency to branching. According to F& (1. 223), Nipa ought to be referred here, and not to

Palms, an opinion adopted' by Kunth, but not by End-licher. A figure of it will be found at p. 133, in a sketch of the vegetation of Palms. The Tagua plant, or Vegetable ivory, referred hither by Endlicher and others, seems to be a true Palm. According to Mr. Bennett, the seeds of Freycinetia and Pandanus have such an abundance of raphides in their testa, that those crystals are conspicuous to the naked eye.

The Screw-pines are abundant in the Mascaren Islands, especially the Isle of France, where, under the name of Vaquois, they are found covering the sandy plains. There they have peculiar means given them by nature to subsist in such situations in the shape of strong aerial roots, which are protruded from the stem, and descend towards the earth, bearing on their tips a loose cup-like coating of cellular integument, which preserves their tender newly-formed absorbents from injury until they reach the soil, in which they quickly bury themselves, thus adding at the same time to the number of mouths by which F!g LXXXIX.                                    food can bo extracted from

the unwilling earth, and acting as stays to prevent the stems from being blown about by the wind. They are common in the Indian Archipelago, and in most tropical islands of the Old World, but are rare in America, ffwnb. de Dulr. Oeagr. 198. The Frey cinetias are scrambling plants, often of considerable stature, found in the Indian Archipelago and adjacent islands. The Cyclanthese are exclusively American, from Peru andBrazil.

Fig. LXXXIX.-Fruit of Freydnetto Imbricate. M

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The seeds of Pandanus are eatable. The flowers of Pandanas odoratissimus are fragrant and eatable, and are reckoned in India aphrodisiac. The juice of Nipa, as it flows from the pounded spadices, furnishes one of the inferior kinds of Palm wine. Some plant of this Order is probably the " Palm " mentioned by Mr. Drummond as having a fruit which the natives of the Swan River find wholesome when fermented for some time, but which without preparation, produces violent vomiting and other dangerous symptoms. Hook. Journ. 356. The fruit of several is also an article of food. The leaves are used for thatching and cordage, and their juice is employed in diarrhoea and dysentery. The immature fruit is reputed emmenagogue*—Sumo. 1. c


I.— Pandanea. Leaves simple. Rowan naked.

Pandanus, IAnn. fit. Arthrodactylti, Font. Keurva, Forsk.

Marquartia, Hassk. Preydnetla, Gaudkh.

|IL Cydanthee. Leaves flahellate or pinnate.

Flowers usually tarnished with a calyx.

CariudovieaJtei* et Pav. Ludotrta, Pen. SWmfa, WiUd.

Nipa, Rumpk* Cyclanthua, Pott.

Cyclo*antht$f POpp. Wettinla, Pdpp.

Numbers. Gen. 7. Sp. 75.


The unezpanded leaves of Carludovica palmata yield the material from which the far-famed " Panama hatafV are plaited. This species of Carludovica is distinguished from all others by being terrestrial, never climbing, and bearing fan-shaped leave*. The leaves are from 6 to 14 feet high, and their lamina about 4 feet across. In the Isthmus, the plant is called Portorico, and also Jipijapa, but the latter appellation is most common, and is diffused all along the coast as far as Peru and Chili; while in Ecuador a whole district derives its name from it—Seemawn.


Hasskarlia, Walp. «* Marquartia.         I                 Hombronia, Id.

Pandanophyllum, Ha$sk.                                        Jeannerettta, Id.

Parrotiav Oaud.                                                     Joinvil]»a> Id.

Biyantia, Id.                                                         Rousslnla, Id.

Dorystigma, Id.                                                     Souleyetia, Id.

Euduxia, Id.                                                         Sussea, Id.

Fiaquetia, Id.                                                        Tuckeya, Id.

PoulUoya, Id.                                                        Vinaonia, Id.

Heteroetlgma, Id.                                I                 Victoriperrea, Bombr.

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Alliance IX. PALMALES.—The Palmal Alliance.

Diagnosis.—Unisexual (or bisexual) Endogenic vnth perfect flown, seated on a branched scaly spadix, and a minute embryo lodged below the surface of horny orjUshy albumen.

At this point the vegetative force of Endogens acquires its maximum power, resulting for the most part in trees of gigantic stature, always forming wood, and occasionally

arriving at dimensions wholly unknown among other plants, as in the instance of some of the Calami or Rotangs, which Rumphius assures ns are sometimes as much as 1200 or even 1800 feet long, (Rurnphiaf 2. 158.) A writer in the Linneea, (14- 263) asserts that Palms are nearer Arads than to any other order of Endogens, and I think him so right that I should have followed Meisner in including Palms in the Aral alliance, if it had not been for their perfect floral envelopes, the uniformly indeterminate station of their embryo, and the tendency that exists among them to form 0 flowers ; which circumstances bring them close upon Lily worts, and seem to indicate a higher degree of organization than we find among the incomplete, flowered, constantly 5 $ Aral plants. The general opinion of Botanists seems to be in favour of regarding Palms as one natural order, an opinion to which it does not seem at present desirable to object. It may however be observed, that the scaly-fruited genera, called Lepidocaryinee by Martius, Calameie by Kunth, and Calamime by Griffith, offer in that

1                               Pig. XC.                                          2

circumstance, and also in most instances in their habit, a very considerable deviation from the condition of the other genera, and seem to indicate the existence of at least one natural order to be struck off the true Palms.

Fl* XC.—Palm Tm$ (Blame). 1. Corypha Gsbaaga; i. Nips fhitlcans <iee PaadanactK .


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Patau*, Juss. Qm. (1789); R. Brown, Prodr. 986. (1810) ; Von Martha Palm. Bras. (1824 to 1836); id. Programma (1824); Bartl Ord. Nat. 63. (1830); Endl. am. Lutv.; RoyU Illustrations, p. 3HP; B/u»wf Rumphia, vol. 2. poarfm; JSTtinA. mum. 3. 168 ; Jfrfwur, p. 364. QHflUh in Calcutta Journal qf Natural History, vol. ?.- Phytetephantea*, Martins Conspectus, No. 21. (1836).

Diagnosis.—Unisexual (or bisexual) Endogcns, with perfect flowers, seated on a branched scaly spadix, and a minute embryo lodged below the surface of horny or fleshy albumen.

Trunk arborescent, simple, occasionally shrubby, sometimes branched, rough with the dilated half-sheathing bases of the leaves or their scars ; in the Rotangs flagelliform, and extremely long; occasionally armed with stiff spines. Leaves clustered, terminal, usually very large, pinnate or flabelliform, plaited, with parallel simple veins ; in some

cases eroded and wedge-shaped Spa-dix scaly, terminal, of ten branched, enclosed in a 1- or many-valved spathe, which is often woodv. Flowers small, supported by scaly bracts, <J ?, or occasionally £. Sepals 3, colourless, fleshy or leathery, persis-tent Petals 3, often larger, and sometimes deeply connate. Stamens inserted into the base of the perianth, usually definite in number, opposite \ the segments, to which they arc equal v in number, seldom 3; sometimes indefinite in number. Ovary free, usually composed of 3 carpels, completely united, or partially 30 ; occasionally of 2 or 1 only. Ovules solitary, very rarely 2, erect, orthotropal, oranatropal in various degrees. Styles continuous with the carpels. Fruit drupaceous, or nut-like, or berried, often with a fibrous rind. Seed filling the cavity in which it grows, often reticulated. Albumen cartilaginouH, often ruminate, frequently furnished with a central or ventral cavity ; embryo lodged in a particular cavity of the albumen, usually at a distance from the hilum, dorsal and indicated by a little nipple, taper or pulley-1 fchaped ; plumule concealed, scarcely visible ; the cotyledonar extremity becoming thickened in germination, and either filling up a pre-existing cavity, or one formed by the liquefaction of the albumen in the centre. The race of plants to which the name of Palms has been assigned is, no doubt, the most interesting in the vegetable kingdom, if we consider the majestic aspect of their towering stems, crowned by a still more gigantic foliage ; the character of grandeur which they impress upon the landscape of the countries they inhabit; their immense value to mankind, as affording food, and raiment, and numerous objects of economical importance ; or, finally, the prodigious development of those organs by which their race is to be propagated. A single spathe of the Date contains*about 12,000 male flowers ; Alfonsia amygdalina has been computed to have 207,000 in a spathe, or 600,000 upon a

Pig. XCL—1. Inflorescence of Chamnrops humilis, in its spathe; 2. a portion of the same, with the fruit ripening ; 3. a male flower ; 4. a female flower ; 6. a ripe fruit; 6. a section of another rarlety, showing the seed ; 7. a seed with a portion of the surface cut away, to display the embryo.

Fig. XCL

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Palm alb.]



angle individual; while every bunch of the Seje Palm of the Oronoco bean 8000 fruit* They are very uniform in the botanical characters by which they are distinguished, especially in their fleshy colourless 6-parted flowers, enclosed in spathes, their mi* nute embryo lying in the midst of albumen and remote from the hilum, and their arborescent stems with rigid, plaited or pinnated, inarticulated leaves, called fronds ; but their aspect and habit* are extremely various. To use the words of the most accomplished travelk r of our own, or any age ;—u While some (Kun-thia montana, Aiphanes Praga, Oreodoxa firigida) have trunks as slender as the graceful reed, or longer than the longest cable, (Calamus Kudentum, 500 feet), others (Jubsea spectabilis and Coeos bu-tyracea) are 3 and even 5 feet thick: while some grow collected in groups (Mauxitia flexuosa, Chamterops humilLs), others (Oreodoxa regia, Martin cary-otsefoHa) singly dart their slender trunks into the air; while some have a low cau-dex (Attalea amygdalina), others exhibit a towering stem 160-180 feet high (Ce-roxylon andicola) ; and while one part flourishes in the low valleys of the tropics, or on the declivities of the lower mountains, to the elevation of 900 feet, another part consists of mountaineers bordering upon the limits of perpetual. snow." To which may bej added, that while many have I a cylindrical undivided stem, [ the Doom Pahn of Upper1 Egypt, and an allied species, the Hyphsene coriacea, are remarkable for their dicho-tomous repeatedly-divided trunk. The Calami, or Rotangs, and the siliceous secretions of their leaves, indicate an affinity with Grasses, which would hardly be anticipated, if the grasses of our European meadows were compared with the Cocoa Nuts of the Indies, but which becomes more apparent when the Bamboo is placed by the side of the Cane. The Rattan Palms, called by Rumphius Palmijund, are described as inhabitants of dense forests, where the rays of die sun can hardly penetrate, in which situations they form spiny bushes which obstruct all passage into those Jungles, rising to the tops of the highest trees and falling again, so as to resemble a prodigious length of cable, adorned however with the most beautiful leaves, pinnated or terminating in graceful tendrils.

Von Martius, the great illustrator of this noble family, speaks thus of their habits and geographical arrangement:—" Palms, the splendid offspring of Tellus and Phoebus, chiefly acknowledge as their native land those happy regions seated within the tropics, where the beams of the latter forever shine. Inhabitants of either world, they hardly range beyond 35° in the southern, or 40° in the northern hemisphere. Particular species scarcely extend beyond their own contracted limits, on which account there are few countries favourable for their production in which some local and peculiar species are not found ; the few that are dispersed through many lands are chiefly Cocoe nucifera, Acrocomia sclerocarpa, and Borassus flabelliformis. It is probable that the number of species thus scattered over the face of nature will be found to amount to 1000 or more. Of these not a few love the humid banks of rivulets and streams, others occupy the shores of the ocean, and some ascend into alpine regions ; some collect into dense forests, others spring up singly or in clusters over the plains." Progr. 6. The testimony of Von Martius is confirmed by Humboldt, who also asserts that there must be an incredible number still to discover in equinoctial regions; especially if we consider

Fig. XCII.

Fig. XCII.-Sagos Rumphli. 1. a flower; 2. the same opened; 3. a section of an ovary; 4. a section of a seed of Sagus fllaris; 5. fruit and remains of spadlx.- Blum*.

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136                                              PALMACEiG.                                   [Endogens.

how little is yet known of Africa, Asia, New Holland, and America. He and Bonpland discovered a new species in almost every 50 miles of travelling, so narrow are the limits within which their range is confined. A different opinion appears to be entertained by Schouw, a respectable J)anish writer upon botanical geography, whose views deserve to be quoted, although he is far from having had such personal means of judging as Humboldt and Von Martius. He seems to consider that we are acquainted already with the greater part of the Palms; for he says, "it appears from the reports of travellers that such Palm woods as those of South America are less frequent in other parts of the world. Africa and New Holland seem to be less favourable to this tribe, for on the Congo, Smith found only from 3 to 4 Palms ; in Guinea we know merely of the same number; and of the other African Palms, 6 belong to the Isles of Bourbon and France; New Holland has, in the torrid zone, three species, while Forster's Prodrowut of the Flora of the South Sea Islands contains four." It is, however, not to be forgotten that Blume and Griffith have alone added 65 new species to the list of Indian Palms. Blume is of opinion that great numbers still remain to be discovered "in immensis illis et fertflissimis regionibus ouarum pleraeque primitivA atque intacti vegetation* eonte-guntur, neque unquam ab Europceis tastratae sunt" The most northern limit of Palms is that of Chanusrops Palmetto in N. America, in lat. 34°-S6°, and of Chamterope humilis in Europe, near Nice, in 43°-44° N, lat. They are found in the southern hemisphere as low as 38° in New Zealand. "It is remarkable that no species of Palm has been found in South Africa, nor was any observed by M. Leschenault on the west coast of New Holland, even within the tropic." Brown in FMnden, 677.

Wine, oil, wax, flour, sugar, salt, says Humboldt, are the produce of this tribe ; to which Yon Martius adds, thread, utensils, weapons, food, and habitations. The most remarkable is the Cocoa Nut, of which an excellent account will be found in the Trans, of the Wernerian Societyf vol. v. The root is sometimes masticated instead of the Areca Nut; of the small fibres baskets are made in Brazil The hard case of the stem is converted into drums, and used in the construction of huts; the lower part is so hard as to take a beautiful polish, when it resembles agate; the reticulated substance at the base of the leaf is formed into cradles, and, as some say, into a coarse kind of cloth. The unexpanded terminal bud is a delicate article of food ; the leaves furnish thatch for dwellings, and materials for fences, buckets, and baskets ; they are used for writing on, and make excellent torches ; potash in abundance is yielded by their ashes; the midrib of the leaf serves for oars ; the juice of the flower and stems is replete with sugar, and is fermented into excellent wine, or distilled into a sort of spirit, called Arrack ; or the sugar itself is separated, under the name of Jagerv. The value of the fruit for food, and the delicious beverage which it contains, are well known to all Europeans. The fibrous and uneatable rind is not lees useful: it is not only used to polish furniture and to scour the floors of rooms, but is manufactured into a kind of cordage, called Coir rope, which is nearly equal in strength to hemp; and which Roxburgh designates as the venr best of all materials for cables, on account of its great elasticity and strength. Finally, an excellent oil is obtained from the kernel by expression. The juice which flows from the wounded spathes of Borassus flabelliformis, Raphia vinifera, Mauritia vinifera, the Cocoa Nut, and other Palms, is known in India by the name of Toddy. Independently of the grateful qualities of this fluid as a beverage, it is found to be the amplest ana easiest remedy that can be employed for removing constipation in persons of delicate habit, especially European females. According to Roxburgh, Caryota urens is highly valuable to the natives of the countries where it grows in plenty. It yields them, during the hot season, an immense quantity of this toddy, or palm wine. The best trees will yield at the rate of 100 pints in the twenty-four hours. The pith, or farinaceous part of the trunk of old trees, is said to be equal to the best Sago ; the natives make it into bread, and boil it into thick truel; these form a great part of the diet of the people whose country it inhabits, and during famines they suffer little while those trees last Roxburgh found it highly nutritious. He ate the gruel, and thought it fully as palatable as that made of the Sago we get from the Malay countries (Sagus tovis). FL Ind. S. 625.

The finest Sago is prepared from Sagus laavis and genuina, trees forming immense forests on nearly all the Moluccas, and so rich in starch that each individual is reckoned to furnish from 600 to 8001b. of Sago (Rumphia, 2. 148) ; a similar substance is however yielded by Caryota urens, Phoenix farinifera, and many others.

The Saguerus saccharifer (or Arenga saccharifera) is one of the most important of the Order. Blume describes it (Rumphia, vol. 2. p. 126) as being from 20 to 25 feet high, and very common in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, the Moluccas and Philippines, where it is of the greatest value on account of its saccharine secretions. This juice is obtained continually from the spadixes in large quantities, by wounding and pounding them while on the trees; it yields by fermentation an intoxicating

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Palmalm.]                                    PALMACEjE.                                              137

beverage, and, when boiled, a kind of sugar, consumed for various purposes. When the trees are exhausted by the incessant draining of their fluids, Sago of good quality is obtained from the trunksas much as 150 to 200 lbs* weight from a single tree. The timber is extremely hard, and fit for building purposes; and the leaf-stalks yield annually from 4 to 7 lbs. of the strong black fibres, resembling horsehair, called Gomutie, which are extensively used in the manufacture of cables and various kinds of rope ; they are also employed for stitching together thatch, for making brooms and for similar purposes. {Are these the vegetable bristles now so largely imported for making brooms t) The midribs of the side leaves are converted into pens called Pansuri, and the fine arrows which the Indians blow from their long tubes. Fmallv, there is at the base of the leaves a fine woolly material (Baru) much employed in caulking ships, as stuffing for cushions, and as tinder. Their "Cabbage" is moreover eatable, like that of the West. Indian Cabbage Palm, Areca oleracea, whose huge terminal bud is known by this name. Egyptian Bdellium, a gum-resinous substance, formerly employed as a diuretic and diaphoretic, is obtained from Hyhsene thebaica. Besides the Saguerus already mentioned, very considerable quantities of sugar are procured from Phoenix sylvestris, a kind of wild date, which Dr. Roxburgh computed to furnish annually in Bengal 100,000 cwt. of date sugar.

The well known Betel Nut is the fruit of Areca Catechu, and remarkable for its narcotic or intoxicating power; from the same popular fruit is prepared a kind of Catechu. It has, however, been thought doubtful whether the intoxicating effect of the Betel nut is not owing to the Piper leaf in which it is wrapped when eaten, rather than to any special property of its own.

Blume tells us that the Asiatic nations would rather forego meat and drink than their favourite Areca nuts; whole ship-loads of which are annually exported from Sumatra, Malacca, Sam, and Cochinchma. They contain a large quantity of tannin, which has caused them to be employed in some put of India for dyeing cotton cloths. The leafstalks, spathes, and timber are employed for many domestic purposes, and in Malabar an inebriating lozenge is prepared from the sap* (Rumphia, 2. 67.) In the opinion of this author, the practice of chewing the nuts, although offensive to* Europeans, is really very conducive to health in the damp and pestilent regions of India, where the natives live upon a spare and miserable diet As to the Brazilian Palms, Martins states that the kernel of various species of Attalea, when rubbed in water, form an emulsion used in medicine, both externally and internally. The juiceof the unripe fruit of Cocoa schizophyllus is employed in slight ophthalmic attacks.

The fruit of a few of them is eatable; as, for example, the Date Palm, Phoenix daetylifera, which furnishes the most important part of their food to the tribes of the . desert; some other species of Phoenix eaten in India ; the Cocoa Nut, too well known to require description; and the Doom Palm, Hyphsene thebaica, which is called in Egypt the Gingerbread Tree, because of the extreme resemblance of its brown mealy rind to that sort of cake ; Zalacca edulis, a kind of Cane, with a juicy, pulpy covering to its seeds, much esteemed by the Burmese ; and a few others of less importance. In some, however, the fruit is extremely acrid.

The fruit of Saguerus saccharifer is of that nature, exciting severe inflammation in the mouth of those who chew it; it was the basis of the " infernal water*' which the Moluccans used in their wars, to pour over their enemies; nevertheless, the unripe albumen forms a beautiful kind of sweetmeat, which the Chinese and Indian nobles drink with their tea; it is prepared by soaking in lime-water and boiling in refined sugar. The same acridity occurs in the fruit of Caryota urens and some others.

Oil and wax are only of less common occurrence than farinaceous secretions. Palm oil, of which enormous quantities are employed in Europe as a sort of grease, and in soap and candle making, is chief!v obtained from Elais guineensis and melanococca, and theee trees are also said to yield the best kind of Palm wine. (Enocarpus Bacaba and many Cocoime are other species whose fruit contains oil. The Ceroxylon andicola, or Wax Palm of Humboldt, has its trunk covered by a coating of wax, which exudes from the spaces between the insertion of the leaves. It is, according to Vauquelm, a concrete inflammable substance, consisting of l-3d wax and 2-3ds resin. It is a very remarkable feet, first noticed by Brown (Congo, 456), that the plants of this order whose fruit affords oil belong to a tribe called by him Cocoinse, which are particularly characterised by the originally trilocular putamen having its cells when fertile perforated opposite the seat of the embryo, and, when abortive, indicated by foramina coca. A species called Carnauba, in Brazil, throws off waxy scales from its leaves.

Cocoa-nut oil is imported into England in considerable quantities, and it is surprising that it is not more generally used in England ; for, instead of the detestable


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smell oi fish-oil, it has rather an agreeable odour; and it is readily consumed in open glass vessels, with floating or standing wicks, whatever the temperature of the air may be.

The natural secretion of the fruit of Calamus Draco constitutes the best D'jurnang or Dragon's Blood, a dark coloured inodorous insipid resin ; a second and rather inferior kind is produced from the fruit from which the natural secretion has been removed by heat and bruising ; the third and most inferior kind appears to be the refuse of the last process. It is doubtful whether this article is procured from the plant by incisions, as has been supposed.—Griffith.

The roots of the American Palmetto have been found to contain a large quantity of ' tannin.

There seems no end to the economical purposes to which the products of Palms are applied. Their huge and hardskinned leaves are universally employed as thatch. All the hard-wooded sorts furnish excellent timber. The Brazilian Indians, especially the Puris, Patachos, and Botocudos, manufacture their best bows from the wcJod of a species of Cocoa-nut, called the Airi, or Brejeuba. Palmyra wood is produced by Borassus flabelliformis. Among those best known in Europe are the Rattens, belonging to various kinds of Cane, and so much valued for their flexibility on the one hand, and flinty hardness on the other. Palm walking-sticks (under the name of Penang lawyers), are also very extensively used in England. Mention has already been made of the valuable horse-hair-like bristles obtained from Saguerus saccharifer. Fibrous matter is also procured from Sagus fllaris, a Malay plant, whose bristles are dried and used for sewing linen garments. Ropes and strings are prepared in Afghanistan from the Maizurrye Palm, a species of Chamaerops, according to Mr. Griffith.

Thousands of boys and girls are employed in Java in weaving into baskets and bags the young leaves of the Gebang Pahn (Corypha Gebanga, BL), one of the most useful of all the species of India ; its pith furnishes a sort of Sago ; its leaves are used for thatch and broad-brimmed hats; fishing-nets and linen shirts are woven from its fibres; ropes from its twisted leaf-stalks ; the root is both emollient and slightly astringent: sliced, it is used in slight diarrhoeas, and Waits even says that it is a most valuable remedy for the periodical diarrhoeas which, in the East Indies, attack Europeans out of health.— Rumphia, 2. 60.

Finally, the hard albumen of some species is turned to use in manufactures. The Hyphsene furnishes materials for rosaries; and Date kernels have been used by die turner; but the most celebrated is the Vegetable Ivory. This is the produce of a tree found on the banks of the river Magdalena, resembling Palms in its leaves, which equal those of the Cocoa-nut in dimensions, in its torulose scaly stem, and, finally, in the remarkable structure and weight of its fruit—Bumb. The Spanish Botanists Ruiz and Pavon also met with it in the groves of Peru in the hotter parts of the Andes, and named it Phyte-lephas macrocarpa. The natives of Columbia call it Tagua, or Cabeza de Negro (Negro's head), in allusion, we presume, to the figure of the nut Almost all we know about it is contained in the following memorandum, published by the Spanish writers above mentioned. « The Indians cover their cottages with the leaves of this most beautiful Pahn. The fruit at first contains a clear insipid fluid, by which travellers allay their thirst; afterwards this same liquor becomes milky and sweet, and it changes its taste by degrees as it acquires solidity, till at last it is almost as hard as ivory. The liquor contained in the young fruits becomes acid if they are cut from the tree and kept some time. From the kernels the Indians fashion the knobs of walking-sticks, the reels of spindles, and little toys, which are whiter than ivory, and as hard, if they are not put under water— and if they are, they become white and hard again when dried. Bears devour the young fruit with avidity." The toys prepared from it by the turner are well known in the London shops, and are much admired for their beautiful texture.

For further details concerning the useful qualities of this interesting race, see Dr. Rayle's Work in the place above quoted.


I. Arecee.

Charaedorea, WUld.

Nunnczharia, Ruix Par.

Nunnetia, Wffld. liyocpathe, Mart. Morenia, Ruis et Pat. Kuntbia, H. et B. Hyopborbe, Qttrtn.

Sublimit* t Com men. Lcopoldinia, Mart.

IRuterps, Mart. CKnocarpus, Mart 'oreodoxa, WUUl.

Kentia, Blume. Oncotperma, Blume. Areca, Linn.

Euterpe, G«ertn. Dypois, Norotih.

Noronha, Tboun. Seaforthia, A. Br.

Oranla, Zippel.

Arautiaca, BL Ptycbotpsrma, Lab.

DtymophUna, Zlpp. Harina, Hamill.

Orania. BL

Wallichia, Roxb.

WrighUa, Roxb. Iriartes, Ruiz ft Pat.

Ceroxyion, II. et B. Cyrtoctachy*, Dl.

Calyptrooslyx, Bt. Iguanura, Bl. |Saguenu, Rumpk.

Arenga* Lab.

Qomutui, Rumph. Caryota, Linn. IL Calamee.— (Ltpido-

caryee, MarUxu; Gala

mime, Griffith) * Pinnated. Calamus, Linn

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Palm ales.]

Paimijttnciu, Rnmph. Zalacca, Heinw. Plectocomia, Mart Ceratolobus, Blume. Dvmonorope. Blume. Calamongus, Qriff. Kugetaona, Qriff, Rapbia, Pa/i#. Sagus, GdT*n,

Afcfnuyfcm, Bottb.

* * Fan-leaved. Mmriti*. Htm. JIL Lepidoearyum, Jfarf.

III. Bonsieft. * Fan-leaved.

Bonnus, Lmn.

Umtaruj, Rumph.

f Pkolidorpus, Blume. Lodolcea, ZaMA. Latania, Commtrs.

Cleophora, Gflertn,


Hypbarae, Otertn. Cuci/bra* Delil. Ztotuna, Lam.

* * PinnaUd. Bentindda, Berry.

Keppteria, Mart. Geonoma, FPtt/<*.

Gynettum, Poiteau.

Fotiay, Aubl. Afanicaria, Ocrri.

Ptiophora, Jaoq.

IV, Coryphee.

* 1. Sabalida. Corypha, I'»».

ToMera, Mart Gembanga, Blume.

Llvistona, it -Br.

LIcuala, Bump*.

jSaribua, Bump*. Bissula, Rumph.

P*kycla, B*«»*,

Brahea, Afar*. Copernida, AfaW | Caranaiba, Blare. Plso. Cnrosophila, BJwiw. Saba], dow. Chainaeropa, Una

OftawwrtpA**, Pont.

Phanix, CaT. Trithiinax, Jlforl. Rbapis, Lfon J«. Thrinax, Linn.JU.

J1. Phmicida. Phoenix, Lttm. Btofe, Ait.

V. Cocoese.

Deanoncos, Mart. Jititara, ftUrcgr. Bactris, Joe?. Guilielma, Afar*. Martlnwte, RuUeiPav.


Acrocomiu, If art. Astrocaryum, (7. IK. (? Meyer. Toxophamix, Schott.

* * Unarmed. Attalea, /f. B. tf. Kl&fe, Joe?.

(Am#uif Kunth. Cocoa. £**».

Langsdorfla, Raddl. Syagrus, 3fart Oiplothemium, Jfart Maximilian*, Jfart Jubca, tf. B. #f.

Molinaa. Better. Orblgnya, Jtfar*.

? Alagoptera, Jfoe*. Phytekpbaa, Butt <rl Pa v

Elephantueia, WUid Nipa9 7%Ka6.

Nppat Kumph.

Numbehs. Gkn. 73. Sp. 400,—(1000 Martiua.)


Pandanacae* Palmac&£.

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Alliance X. HYDRALES.—The IIydral Alliance.

Diagnosis—Unisexuai aquatic Bndogcni, with perfect or imperfect flower*, not arranged on a epadtx, and without albumen.

The essential character of the Hydral Alliance consists in its £ $ flowers and exal-buminous seeds ; it is therefore necessary to expel all those genera, which, like Potamo-geton, have been placed among the Naiads although they are 0 ; for in troth there is nothing except the diclinous character which can distinctly divide the Arrow-grasses from the Naiads. Among the Frogbits, however, a couple of genera occur which are described as being truly £ and yet cannot be referred to any other Order, and they therefore con* stituta real exceptions to the otherwise positive distinction. The Hydrals are all, as their name indicates, strictly aquatic, no instance of a land-plant occurring among them. They divide into three well-marked Orders, namely :

Stamens epigynoue; ovary adherent.......89, Hydbochabidacsa.

Stamene hypogyncue ; ovary free; pollen globoee . . . 40. Naiadaole. SUmen$ hypogynou* ; ovary free ; pollen confervoid . . 41. Zoreracb«.

The genera of these Orders demand, however, a much more careful examination than they have yet had, and considerable changes may be expected among them ; for it is uncommon to find in the same Order so much diversity of condition as occurs among the Naiads and Frogbits as at present constituted.

The order of Triurids, in the former editions referred to Dictyogens, upon erroneous descriptions, now finds a place here with the following diagnosis : Stamens hypogynov* ; ovaries 00, free ; embryo rudimentary ;

pollen globose..............40 M» Tbiuhidaoejl

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HydjuiaJ                            HYDROCHARIDA0EAL                                     141

Order XXXIX. HYDROCHARIDACEl.—Htdrocharam.

Hjtoocharides, Jus*. Gen. 07. (1788.H-Hydrocharidw, DC. Fl. Fr. S.886. (1815); R. Broum Prodr. 344. (1810); Richard in Man. Mu$. yoL 1.363. (1815) s Agardh Apk. 1*7. (1822), Bndl.ffen.Ux. Mdsner, p. SSk-ValUsaeriacee and Stratiote*, Lin* /fomlft. 1. 181. (18»\—Anachtridese, £ j>,161.

Dugnosis.—ffydml Endogau wth epiffyn

Floating or water-plants. Leaves with parallel veins, sometimes spiny. Flowers enclosed in a spathe, $ % (or occasionally Q). Sepals 3, herbaceous. Petals 3, peta-loid, occasionally absent Stamens definite or indefinite. Ovary adherent, composed of several carpels, and 1- 6- 8- 9-celled ; stigmas 3-6 ; ovules indefinite, anatropal, often parietal. Fruit dry or succulent, indehiscent, with 1 or more cells. Seeds without albumen ; embryo undivided, orthotro-psl, with a plumule more or less lateral and generally manifest.

Such appear to be the essential characteristics of this singular group of plants, whose inflorescence lives and passes through all the stages of its existence under water, except just at the time when fertilization is necessary, when the flowers rise above the surface for a few hours. Darwin has celebrated the so-called phenomena connected with this function in Yalisneria spiralis, (see his Loves of the Plants); but they are greatly in need of more accurate investigation. Mr. Que-kett, in an elaborate memoir on this plant, {London Phys. Journ. 1. 65,) considers that a part at least of the statements are fabulous.

It is not easy to determine what is the immediate affinity of Hydro-charads. Their exalbuminous seeds and diclinous flowers distinguish them from Bromeliaceae, to which their adherent ovary, and the habit of the Water-soldier (Stratiotes) seems to approach them ; from Naiads, their indefinite seeds and adherent ovary equally divide them. By their tripetaloideous flowers, with an inferior ovary, they are separated from AUsmads, with which some agree in habit and want of albumen, but from which they differ in their car-pelhry leaves being definite, not indefinite. Commelynaceoo are at once recognised by their superior trilocular ovary. Agardh refers here Trapa 1 Linnaeus placed Hydrocharads along with Palms! in his natural arrangement. Hydrocharis Morsus Kanie has been compared, and not unaptly, to a pigmy Nymphsea. Perhaps, taking into account their diclinous flowers, the universal presence of a spathe and their aquatic nature, they may be regarded as approaching to Arads through Lemnads.

Natives of fresh water in Europe, North America, and the East Indies. One species is found in Egypt (Da-masonium indicum), and two VaUisneriae in New Holland. A few occur in estuaries of the sea.

Nothing is known of their uses, unless that the fruit of Enhalus is eatable, and its fibres capable of being woven, according to Agardh Upk. 128). The Jangi of Hindostan, called VaDisneria alterntfolia by Roxburgh, Hydrilla 3] by Hamilton, is one of the plants used in India for supplying water mechanically to sugar in the process of refining it," as clay is used in the West Indies to permit the slow percolation of water. "—Itoyle. The herbage of Hy-drocharis Morsus Ranse is mucilaginous and slightly astringent Ottilia and Boottia are eaten m India as potherbs.

Pig. XCHI.

Fig. XCTIL-Stratlotes abides. 1. a flower and spathe; S. a flower split open; 3. a fruit in its tpathe; 4. a section of the fruit; 5. an embryo.

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Tribe I.— Valisnereae Ovary 1-ccUed.

Udora, NutL Elodea, L. C. Rich. Philotria, Rafln. Anacbarb, Bieh. UydrtUa, Rich. IHydrotpondphtttHikL



Lagarodpbon, Harvey. Vaftsneria, Michel.

Physkium, Loordr. Blyxa, Thouart.

Saivala, WaU.

Tribe II. — Stratioteer. Ovary 6-8- 9-ceUerf.

Stratlotet, Linn.

Aloidu, Boerb. Enbalus, L. C. Rich. OtteUa, Pert.

Damiuonium, Bchreb.

Hymenothcca, 8alisb. Bootia, WaU.


Limnobium. L. C. Rich. Hydromystria,V.G W. Meyer. Jaiambioea, Llav. et Lex. Hydrocbaris, Linn. Btratiok*, DUlen.


Numbers. Gen. 12. Sp. 201

Piatiaccat. Hydrocharacs.—Naiadaocee. Bromcliacea.


Apalanthe, Planchon, near Udora. Nechamandra, Id. near Valisnerio. Egeria, Id. near Hydrilla.

T DiploeJphon, Dene.

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Order XL. NAIADACEJE.—Naiads.

Naiades, Jua. Gen. 18. (1789) in part.—Fluviales, Vent. Tabl. 2. 80. (1799/; Kunlh Enum. 3. 111.— PotamophUic, Rich. Anal.Fr. (1808).—Potame*, Juu. DicL 8c. Nat. 43. 93. (1826).—Naiadew, Agardh Aph. 125. (1822;; End*, gen. lxxi. MeUner, p. 363.—Flutialee, Rich. Mint. Afta. 1. 364. H815).—Uydrogetones, Link. Handb. 1. 282. <1829 .

Diagnosis.—Hydra! Endogcns, with hypogynom slamcm, a free ovary, a complete cmbiyo,

and globo&e pollen.

Water-plants, inhabiting both the ocean and fresh water. Leaves very cellular, with parallel veins, and membranous interpetiolar stipules. Flowers inconspicuous, often arranged in terminal spikes, 6 ? Perianth of 2 or 4 pieces, often deciduous, rarely wanting. Stamens definite, hypogynous. Ovaries 1 or more, superior ; stigma simple ; ovule solitary, pendulous and ortho-tropal or campylotropal, or erect and anatropaL Fruit dry, very rarely opening by regular valves, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Seed erect or pendulous ; albumen none; embryo with a greatly enlarged radicle, and a latent cleft for the emission of the plumule.

In this Order we have the nearest approach to the great class of Thai-logens. Many of them live under water. The perianth is reduced to a few imperfect scales, and there is in some of the genera either a total absence of spiral vessels, or that form of tissue exists in a very rudimentary state. Pollini asserts, according to De Candolle, that spiral vessels do exist in them ; but Ami-ci, on the other hand, maintains that there is no trace of them, at least in Caufinia. The manifest affinity of Naiads to Arrow-grasses determines a relation on the part of the former to Arads, which is confirmed by die tendency to produce a rudimentary spathe in some of them, and by their undoubted resemblance to the Duckweeds. It is remarkable that Adanaon was aware of this relationship between Arads and Naiads, to which, however, Jussieu, whose Naiades are a veiy heterogeneous assemblage, did not assent The species of the Order, as now circumscribed, are generally translucent cellular plants, destitute of stomates, having no epidermoidal layer, and perishing rapidly upon exposure to air. Amici has seen the sap circulate in the transparent joints of Caulinia fragilis, which he states is the unknown plant upon which Corti made observations relating to the same subject. See Amici in Ann. dee Sc. 4. 42. Mr. Griffith has remarked that, although the difference between the development of the vegetable carpel leaf and vegetable ovulum is in general sufficiently apparent, an exception has appeared to him to be presented by Naias, in which the future pistil seems to be derived from an annular growth round a centra? body, which subsequently becomes the ovule !

Ft*. XCIV.-Zannlchellia pahistri*. 1. A flower; 2. a duster of ripe orariee; 3. an ovary opened to exhibit the ovule; 4. a vertical section of a seed, showing the folded up embi7o.

Fig. XCIV.

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Common in extra-tropical countries, either inhabiting fresh water, or die shores of the ocean, but also found near the equator. Their uses are unknown.


CMltola, WiUd.

Itinera. GmaL Kriu, WiUd.

FtuvialU, MlcheL

Phylloapadlx, Hock. ZanalcheDta, Mitkd. LOm, H.B.K. HcteroHpltu, Hook.

ITetrondnm, W. Cathonlha, Rich. Halodula, JBW/. Dipfcutttera, Thoiun.

Althonk, Prftt.

Numbebs. Gen. 9. Sp. 16.

Juncaginace*. Position.—Hydrocharidacen—Naia.dacb>b.—Zosteraceee. Thallogau.

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Htdralm.]                                  TRIURIDACEiE.                                          144 a

Order XL. bis. TRIURIDACE.—Triurids.

Triurbcea.—Mien, t» Lkm. Trans. 19, p. 80, (1841); #"* 2Va*u. 21, p. 66.—Triuraceaj.—Oo«fa*r, in Lkm. Tram. 19, p. 100, (L6i3).—Trluridwwe.—Lindley, kuj. op. ed. 1, p. 21S, (1846).

Diagnosis.—Hydro! Endogens, with hypogynous stamens, 00 free ovaries, rudimentary embryo, and globose pollen.

Little perennial subhyaline plants with a creeping rhizome. Stem simple, erect, of cellular texture, having a small central axis of fibrous tissue, with minute bracteiform alternate colourless sessile leaflets, destitute of ner-Tnres. Inflorescence in terminal, long*spikeletted, or few-flowered racemes, with alternate pedicellated monoecious or dioecious, rarely polygamous, minute flowers; pedicels bracteated at base. Perianth similar in both sexes, hyaline, with a short tube at base, and a border divided into 84-6-8 ovate acute segments, valvate in aestivation, which are sometimes furnished with extremely long processes, coiled and enclosed in the bud. Stamens few, variable in number, almost sessile upon a fleshy receptacle, which is sometimes depressed in the bottom of the perianth, or frequently large and elevated in the form of a cone; anthers 4-locular, 2-lobed, 2-valved, sometimes formed of two separate lobes. Ovaries numerous, aggregated on a receptacle springing from the torus, 1-locular; ovule solitary, erect from the base. Style excentric, sometimes lateral, or nearly basal, smooth or feathery. Stigma obsolete or subclavate. Carpels numerous, small, drupaceous,                     Fig, xcv.

radiating horizontally from the receptacle, obovate,

marked by the persistent nearly basal style, coriaceous and indehiscent, or sometimes utriculoee, bursting longitudinally by a dorsal fissure, 1-seeded. Caryopsis obovate, enveloped in an arilliform network. Testa ovate, hard, testaceous, transversely marked with ladder-shaped stria. Nucleus opaline, enclosed in a cancellated integument, and composed of a number of homogeneous cells containing an oily grumous substance, without any trace of an embryo.—Mien MSS.

The foregoing character has been obligingly communicated to me by Mr. Mien, who has made the order the subject of special study, the result of which he has published in the 21st voL of the Transactions of the Linnean Society. Along with the general description of the order I was also favoured with the following memorandum:—" One of the most singular features is the existence of inembryonal seeds, for we have here a perfectly developed albuminous kernel, without any trace of the usually enclosed embryo. The late Mr. Griffith in his admirable memoir on Balanophora, (Tram. Limn* Soc 20, p, 101 and 102, pi. $tftg. 9—14), has pointed out the same occurrence in the seeds of that genus. In Rafflesia we see an embryo, as in Cuscuta, reduced to the most simple form, i e. a mere homogeneous cellular or granular mass, pullulating without the appearance of either radicle, cotyledon, or plumula. In Bunnanniacese, the embryo consists of a reticulated arilliform network, enclosing a nucleus that bears no indication of either radicle or cotyledon. It appears, therefore, probable that in the Burmanniace®, Balanophoraceee, Triuriacese, &c- the exembiyonal embryo is a body homogeneous in texture, consisting of a series of cells or cytoblasts, which have the power of pullulating at certain points, and thus perform all the requisite purposes of reproducing their very simple form of structure, in a somewhat analogous way to that which the ordinary embryo effects in the more complex organisation of vascular fibres and elaborate tissues in the higher orders of phanogamous plants. We find something analogous among the Aracea, where Amorphophallus possesses an ex-albuminous simple nucleus, homogeneous in texture, and where one of its extremities pullulates at 1, 2, or 3 points, throwing out fleshy lobes which overlap each other. Aglaonema, too, has a solid nucleus, which in germination throws out several squamulse at each end, and the nucleus of Cryptocoryne, according to Schott, emits several

Fig. XCV.—Magnified analysis of Sdaphila tene\lA—a/Ur Mume. 1. male flower; 2. female do.; 3. ripe pistil; 4. ovary; 5. ripe seed.

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144 b                                        TRIURIDACEiE.                                   [Endogens*

gemmules in a similar manner. This has been confirmed by the researches of Griffith, showing that in Ambrosinia the embryo, at first quite homogeneous and entirely cellular, throws out from different parts of its surface minute oblong cellular bodies, which soon enlarge until they become five or six times the length of the original nucleus, from which they finally detach themselves, assuming the form of a laie plumula, and serving as the germs of future plants. This bears much analogy to the germination of Ceratophyllum, which throws out an external series of processes, that have been compared to a great number of cotyledons, while the still more numerous inner series bears the semblance of a highly developed plumule. The leaves of this last-mentioned genus appear destitute of nervures, and to consist only of confervoid parallel cells, which divide themselves dichotomously into hair-like segments, thus denoting a lower degree of development than has been assigned to it. The genus, too, has monoecious flowers, with a simple perianth, with valvate aestivation, almost sessile anthers, an unilocular carpel with a solitary ovule.

" I have shown that the supposed facts upon which Mr. Gardner suggested the relation of the Triuriace® to the Menispermaceae and Smilaces, and of Sciaphila and Hyalisma to the Urticaceas, are founded in error, and that their affinity towards the Naiadaceae, which the structure of Triuris first suggested, is much confirmed by the subsequent additions to our knowledge of the organisation of other genera of this family. They agree with that order through Potamogeton in their inconspicuous cf $ flowers, a perianth of four segments with valvate aestivation, several distinct carpels, containing a single ovule, and seeds with a testaceous putamen containing a large macropodous embryo. Some analogous points of structure in the fruit and seed of Pistia have also been indicated by the same authority.

" All the plants constituting this family have been found in intertropical South America, Java, Ceylon, and the Philippine Islands, always in moist shady places, and deriving their nourishment from the roots of trees.

GENERA. Tribe Tbivkrjr.           I           Tribe 8ciaphileje.

Triuria, Mien.                            8oridium, Miert,

Hexurls, Mier».                          Sciaphila, Bl.

PeltophyUum, Gardn. J           Apfiylleia, Champ.

| Hyalisma* Ctuunp.

Numbers. Gen. 5. Sp. 8. Ceratophyllaccce. Position.—Naiadaceee.— Triuridacea—Alismace©—Burmanniaccce. Araceee" The only observation that I would make upon the foregoing views is that what Mr. Miers terms an inembryonal embryo I should rather call an exalbuminous embryo.

Fig. XCV. bis.

Fi#. XCV. bi$ —1. IlexuraGardueri; 3. its flower; 5. its carpel; 4. anther of Triurte hyalina —Miws.

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Hydra lbs.]



Order XLI. ZOSTERACE.—Sea wracks.

Zosterins.—2f«# ob JSteaft. ex Knnth.—Zoeteres.—Ktatih. emm*. 8. 115.(1841).Poddoniew/d. Diagnosis.—ZTraJAufc

Marine plants resembling sea weeds and living among them. Leaves grassy, thin, sheathing at the base. Flowers very minute, absolutely naked, or surrounded by 3 scales, $ $, arranged within herbaceous spathes. $ Anthers definite in number, one or two-celled, sessile ; pollen filamentous,, resembling fine confervsa. $ Ovary free, one-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous, campylotropal; or parietal with the foramen downwards ; stigmas 1 or 2, capillary. Fruit drupaceous, one-seeded. Seed pendulous; albumen 0; embryo antitropal or homotropal, with a very large radicle, and a highly developed plumule lying in its cavity.

If we are to find anywhere a positive intercalation of flowering with flowerless plants it is here, where with naked flowers, but distinct sexes, we have the pollen in a condition that may be well compared to the elaters of Marchantia and its allies, and totally l different from all that is known in other flowering plants. The habit too is quite that of sea weeds. It therefore seems expedient to separate these genera from the Naiads, which are an Order higher in organization, and in fact differ in nothing from the common types of flowering structure, except in their simplicity. The manner in which fertilization takes place among these plants is unknown. Zostera marina, whose flowers of both sexes are inclosed in a spathe filled with air, offers indeed no insuperable difficulty to the supposition that in such a situation, although the plants are under water, yet the flowers may be in a dry medium ; but, as Vaucher has observed, this does not3 assist us to understand how fertilization is effected in Zostera | marithna which is dioecious. Does the confervoid pollen float to theplace where it is wanted t

The bottom of the ocean is the locality of these plants, which occur from the North Sea to the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean and the coasts of Arabia. One species indeed, Amphibolis zostenefolia, is seen on the shores of New Holland, and another in the West Indies.                                                                   5

They can scarcely be said to form any part of the vegetation subdued by man, except in the case of tne Sea wrack, Zostera .TOMHna, which is a common material for packing, and for stuffing cottagers' cushions, and has also been used for tumours, owing apparently to the iodine of the sea weeds that are gathered with it

Qpmodoeee, Ktnig. Amphfbolia, Agh. OrauwuUtra, Rehb.

GENERA. Thalaasla, 8oL Zoate»,£.

Potidonia, KOn. Kernerv,vr. Cauiinia9DC.

NuMBRRa Gm. 6. Sp. 12 (Kunth).





pit XCV.—Zostera Nolttt. 1. An anther; 2. a portion of a nrnthe opened, to show the? and <? flows; S. a section of the otaiy; 4. a seed; & the tame cut in half, to show the plumule; 6. an anther opened and dtarimiging its confervoid pollen.—Sm$ r. Escnbeck*


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146                                           NARCISSALBS.                                  [Ekdogbhb.

Alliance XL NARCISSALES.—The Nabcissal Alliance.

Diagnosis*—Epigynous petdloid Endogens, with symmetrical flowers, 3 or 6 stamens, and

albuminous seeds.

From the Hydral Alliance and its higher forms, such as the Water Soldiers (Stra-tiotes), we pass, by an easy transition, to the Narcissals, which may be regarded aa hermaphrodite Hydrals growing on dry land, and having albumen in their seeds. This transition is effected by the firomelworts (Bromehaceae), which have quite the same habit, and in addition a tripetaloid flower. This point being settled, the remainder of the Alliance consists of plants which might be regarded as Lilials, if their ovary were not adherent; for it is difficult to separate the Irids from Melanths or the Amaryllids from Lilyworts, by any other precise character.

The principal difficulty in limiting this Alliance arises out of the Bromelworta, some of whose genera have the ovary absolutely free: but such plants are not at all like any other oart of the system, and if their calyx is free, it is so fleshy or permanent as to have all the external appearance of being adherent to the ovary.

While however there is, as has been stated, a gentle passage from Hydrals into Nareia-sals, we find, on the other hand, the Aral Alliance provided here with its representative in the form of the Taccads, which have much the habit of some Arads, and nevertheless an adherent ovary and almost tripetaloideous flower. These plants have also a very evident resemblance to Orontiaceie.

Natural O&debs of NABaasAU. Flowers tripettdoideoue, §4ecmd> imbricated. Albumen mealy . 42. Bbomkuackb. FlowmhatftripetaMde               AUnmen fleshy . . . . 43. Taocacka.

FUnoenhexaptiakiid                                            Stamens ZA

opposite the petals, or 6; anthers turned inwards. Radicle \

remote from the hUum> which is naked Flowers hexapetaloideous, much imbricated. Stamens 6; anthers]

turned innards. Radide remote from the hxlum, which is often]


L44. Hjbmodoracxjl

► 45. Htpoxidacee.

FUnoershexapetaloids(m,m                         Stamens 6, or more; \A„ AiliWfiniJI„

anthentJZ* Radicle next the hilum . \ . . ,j46- Amaryllidacr*.

Flowers hexapetaloideous. Stamens $, opposite the sepals; anther*} 4- IriDAcejs.

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Order XLII. BROMELIACEJB.—Bromslworto.

BromtUe, Jnn. Ota. 49. (1780); Diet Be. Not 6. 847. (1817).~Bn)maUMM», Unit, in BoL Rtg. fol 1088. (1817); Bortt. Ord.Bat.4A. (1890) ( Bckult. f. in Mm. and 8ch. 8y*L Veg. vol. 7. (1890); Bndl. Qm. Ixr.; Mttm. p. 80S. TUandito, A dr. Jus*. Ours EUm. tab. 9.

DiAOHOSUr-AarvumZ Bndoffcns with tri-pdaloideous six-leaved Jkwen having imbricated divisions, and mealy aUmmm.

SteaileaB or short-stemmed plants, with rigid channelled leaves often corned with cuticular scales, and spiny at the edge or point. Flowers with gay colours, in racemes

or panicles. Calyx -parted or tubular, persistent, never withering, more or less cohering with the ovary, usually herfaa-> Moos, sometimes coloured. Petals 3, coloured, withering or deciduous, equal or unequal, rigidly imbricated. Stamens 6, inserted into the tube of the calyx and s corolla; anthers opening inwards. Ovary 3-celled, many-seeded ; ovules anatropal; style single ; stigma S-lobed, or entire, 4 often twisted. Fruit capsular or succulent, 3-celled, many-seeded. Seeds innumerable in most cases, always numerous, with a leathery skin, or tapering into a s slender thread ; embryo taper, curved or straight, minute, lying in the base of mealy albumen, with the radicle next die hilum.

Stratiotes among the Hydrocharads has so much the foliage of this Order as to render it probable, taking the fructification also into account, that the nearest affinity of 7            6                              the Bromelwort Order is with the former.

Fig. XCYI.                          It is, however, essentially distinguished

by its seeds having mealy albumen. This circumstance also cuts it off from the Amarylhds and Hypoxida, The habit of Bromel-worts is peculiar; they are hard dry-leaved plants, often with a scurfy surface ; the species are frequently capable of sustaining long drought without inconvenience. There can be no doubt about the Order belonging to an epigynous series, and yet the whole race of TiHandsJas has the ovary free ; but it is never, I believe, wholly so, but has always so much union to the calyx at the base as will show its adherent tendency. Besides, the sepals are always as fleshy, to the last, as if they were absolutely incorporated with the ovary. Nevertheless, Adrieen de Jussieu regards the free genera as a peculiar Order, which he calls Tillandsiese.

An, without exception, are natives of the continent or islands of America, whence they have migrated eastwards in such numbers as to have established themselves as part of the present flora of the west coast of Africa, and some parts of the East Indies. They are aO capable of existing in a dry hot air without contact with the earth ; on which account they are favourites in South American gardens, where they are suspended in the buildings, or hung to the balustrades of the balconies; situations in which they flower abundantly, filling the air with fragrance.

The most remarkable species is the Pine Apple, or Ananas, which is well known for the sweetness and fine aromatic flavour of its fruit; in its wild state, however, and unripe, its fruit is excessively acid, burning the gums. In the West Indies it is employed, along with Bromelia Phigmn and others, to destroy intestinal worms, and to promote the secretion of urine. Tillandsia usneoides hangs down from the trees in the woods of tropical America Eke long dry beards, and is used for stuffing birds, and in the

Ffe. XCVL—1. Flower of Bromelia festnosa; S. a flower of Pltcairnia ringens; 3. the stamens of the tune; 4.JU teed; 5. across section of the seed of Bromelia Pinguln; 6. a section of to seed; 7. a cross section of the 01*17 of Bromelia £sstooea.


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preparation of an ointment used against haemorrhoids. Puya chilensis yields an extract used in healing broken bones ; a transparent gum flows from the spike of Pujra lanuginosa. A #yellow colour is extracted in Brazil from the root of Billbergia tanctoria* Ropes are made in Brazil from a species of Bromelia, called Grawatha : and yery fine muslin has been manufactured irom the fibres of the common Pine Apple.


_______, Lindl.

Ananas, Tournef. Bromelia, Linn.

Karatas, Plum.

Ananas, Gaertn. Aechmea, Ruiz et Par.

(kchmta, Jum. Billbergia, Thunb. Hohmher SchultJU. Acanthoetactys, Klotsch.

AnDococcui| Rrongn. Cryptanthua, Klotsch. Brocchinia, SchulL JU. PUcairnia, HeriL

Hepetis, Swartz.

Spirasfyma, Herit. Vrietia. Lindl. Neumannla, Brongn. TMandria, Linn.

Renealmia, Plum.

Amalia, Hort. htopan.

Sitrpsia, Nutt. Caiaguata, Plum.

IfcWtfai, Bert. Guunaonia, Ruiz et Par. Bonapartea, Ruiz et Pav.

Acanthospora, Spr.

Misandra, Dietr. Naria, Mart. Cottendorfia, SchulL JU.

Djckia, SchulL JU. Encholirium, Mart Pouretia, Airfi et Pav.

Puya* Molina.

Renealmia, Peuffl.

AchupaUa, Humb. Hechtia, Klotsch. Dasyttriou, Zuec. 7 Routinia, Brongn..

Numbebs. Gki. 23. Sp. 170.

ffydrochatidaoem. Position—Haemodorace®.—Bbomeliacra—Hypoxidaceee.


DiBleganthus, Ltmairt. Chevalieria, Gaudich. Gucsmclio, Id.

Pironneava, Gaudich. PholidophyUuin, Vis.

Fig XCV1.*

Pig. XCVL*—<Scbmea fulgent— PaxUm.

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NabcmbalbsO                                TACCACEjE.                                               149

Order XLIII. TACCACEJE.—Taccads.

Tmcbk, PreH. Beliq. Hank. L 149. (1830); BarU. Ord. Nat. 82. (1830).—Taceace*. Key, ice. 70. (18S6) ; Ed. prior, oexxxiz.» Endl. Gen. Mil.—Meitner, p. 403.

Diagnosis.—Narcu*dB*dagtmwM                                                andJkAy albumen.

Large perennial herb*, with a tuberous root Leaves all radical, stalked, undivided or pedatifid, the segments pinnatifid and entire, with curved parallel veins. Stipules 0.

Flowers placed on the top of a simple taper or angular furrowed scape, in umbels, 6, regular, surrounded by undivided bracts forming an involucre. Perianth adherent, with a cylindrical ribbed tube; limb petaloid, the petals rather the longest, persistent Stamens 6, inserted into the base of the segments of the perianth, distinct; filaments dilated, petaloid, hooded at the apex ; anthers inserted below the points of their filaments in their concavity, 2-celled, the cells distinct Ovaiy composed of 3 connate carpels, 1-celled, or half 3-celled, with 3 parietal polyspermous placentae ; ovules ascending and anatropal, or horizontal and amphitropal; styles 3, connate ; stigmas connate at the base, radiating, 2-lobed. Pericarp berried, indehiscent, 1-celled, or half 3-celled, many-seeded. Seeds hinate or somewhat ovate, striated. Albumen fleshy. Embryo placed inside the albumen in the region of the hilum, or remote from it.

Personally I have had no opportunity of examining critically the plants which com-poee this small Order. They are in some respects like Arads, in others like Ginger-worts (Tacca hems); but certainly have nothing to do with Dicotyledons. Bhime has the following remarks upon Tacca. Envm. 1. 82. " The genus Tacca offers the type of a new family between Araceae and Aristolochiacese. To tne former it approaches closest in habit, especially in the leaves, but it is very different from them in the structure of the parts of fructification. For in no species of true Aracese is a corolline perianth, properly so called, to be found ; what we have the custom of calling so in Dracontium and others, is nothing but scales, and not even a calycine integument; the perianth is, moreover, superior in Tacca. By this superior perianth the affinity with Aristolochiacese is evident; but from those too Tacca differs in the situation of the stamens, which are not as in that Order adherent to the pistil with the anthers opening outwards, but are placed on die perianth itself with the anthers turned inwardly." In Tacca it is probable that there are several germinating points upon the embryo, analogous to the double or triple plumule of Dracontium ; hence embryos of such a kind may be said to be tubers formed m the fruit itself. Brown lone since stated (Prodromes, 1810) that a relation is established between Arads and Birthworts by means of Tacca. See also Agardh'e Aphorisms, 245. For my own part, however, this resemblance to Birthworts seems so very slight as to be unworthy of notice. The true relation is with the Arads, or at least with those 0 plants which are now separated under the name of Orontiaceee, of which these seem to be an epigynous form. Endlicher compares them with Yams, to which they appear to have even less resemblance than to the Birthworts.

Fff. XCVn.—l. Tacca integrlfolia; J. fruit of T. phmatiflda; 3. teed of do. with half the tetta removed; 4. taction of its albumen and embryo.—Gartner.

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Found in damp maritime places and woods in the hotter parts of India, the South Sea Islands, and the tropical parts of Africa.

" The plants of this family are possessed of some degree of acridity, both in their tubers and in their herbaceous parte, as Rumphius informs us that the tubers of T. pinnatifida, dubia, and montana are rasped and macerated for four or five days in water, and a fecula is separated in the same manner that sago is, and like it employed as an article of diet by the inhabitants of the Malayan and Molucca Islands. In Otaheite and other Society Islands, they make cakes of the meal of the tubers of T. pinnatifida, which are the Tacca youy of some navigators; they fonn an article of diet in China and Cochin China, as also in Travancore, where Dr. Ainslie informs me they attain a large size, and that the natives eat them with some acid to subdue the acrimony/1—BojfU.


Tacea, ForsL                      |                      Atacda, Prtik

NuMBfifis. Gen. 2. Sp. 8.

9                                                   OrontiacecB.



Gardner was of opinion that Trichopodium should be transferred from BirthwortB to this order, a further indication of the natural affinity of the latter to either Endogens or Rhizogens.

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Order XLIV. HMODORACE.—Buwd Room

BmmodamomtR.Bn»mtProdr.f»AmO)i Agardh. Aphor. 170. (18B); EmdL Gen. btl.; JMimt, p.vk-Y10a&tD. 1km in Bd4*. Ph. Journal. IUH>).

Dikanoeis.—Narciual Bndogmt with htxapetaMdeous tabular flowers, 3 stamens apposite' the petals or 6, anthers turned inwards, and radide nmote from the hikm which is

Herbaceous plants with fibrous perennial roots and permanent sword-abaped eqnitant leaves, which are mostly in two ranks. Flowers 0. Perianth usually mom or leas woolly, adherent; the sepals and

petals in many cases undis-flTlniiii                                     tinguishable and united into

a (cylindrical) tube. Stamens

arising from the sepals and

petals, either S and opposite

the petals, or 6; anthers bursting inwardly. Ovary with the

cells 1* 2- or many-seeded,

adherent, usually 3-celled,


Fig. XCIX.

personally 1-celled, with a placenta occupying only a point of the axis; style simple ; stigma undivided; ovules amphitropaL Fruit covered by the withered perianth, capsular, valvular, seldom mdehiseant, somewhat nucamentaeeous, with the placenta easily separable from the dissepiments, if any. Seeds either definite or indefinite, fixed by the base or peltate, winged or wrinkled and angular. [Embryo lying in cartilaginous albumen, short, straight, with the radicle usually remote from the tulum. Bndl.]

The distinction between these and Amaryllids consists in their perianth not having the regular eqmtant position of sepals and petals which is found in the latter, in their constantly equitant leaves, and in tneir flowers, which have frequently a woolly surface, and a small limb compared with the tuba From Irids they are divided

Ftg. Xc V ill.—Blanco* fsnmnms. 1. a flower and ovary of Conostylii maul* opened. Fig. XCIX.—Hmnodocum ipicatum. 1. A flower spread open; 2. a cross lection of the owy; 3. an anther.

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by the Dumber of their stamens, and by their anthers turning inwards, or, if theii stamens are reduced to three, then, by those organs being opposite the petals; and by their simple stigma. Dr. Herbert includes all the hexandrous genera in Amaryllids; and limits the Order to those having 3 stamens and an adherent ovary; but, although it maybe very difficult to express in satisfactory language the exact differences between the Blood-roots and Amaryllids, yet I think there can be no doubt of their real distinctness, and that the diagnosis now assigned to them does sufficiently characterize them. In Brazil, Southern Guiana, and also in the Mascaren islands, there occurs a race of these plants which may be compared to the Conestyles of New Holland on a gigantic scale. Martius, who calls them Vellozias, describes them as perennial Lilies, with

their trunks closely covered by the withered remains of leaves, branching by forks, and bearing at their points tufts of leaves in the manner of a Yucca or Dracaena; some of them are from 2 to 10 feet high, with a trunk sometimes as thick as a man's body. I find die structure of that trunk most curious. It con* dsts of a central slender subcylindrical column, which never increases in diameter after its first formation, and which has the ordinary monocotyledonous structure. Outside of the column are arranged great quantities of slender fibrous roots, which cohere firmly by their own cellular surface, and form a spurious kind of wood, which is extremely like that of some kinds of Palm wood, only it is developed by constant additions to the very outside of the stem. Something analogous occurs in Pandanus, but it is in some tree ferns only that this mode of growth is exactly repeated. Don proposed to make an Order of the Vellozias ; but till their structure and that of the Bloodroots shall have been thoroughly investigated this step is premature.

As to Wachendorfia and its allies, with triandrous flowers, and free ovary, Mr. Herbert looks upon it as the type of an Order (Wachendornaceee) quite unconnected with Hsemodorum and Conostylis, and he is possibly right; but in the meanwhile, as we know very little of these genera, it seems most expedient to dismiss them from the Blood-roots and station them in reserve among the Lilies. Endlicher states that the genera of this Order have the cells of the ovary opposite the petals, and this, if so, would certainly be an important characteristic ; but 1 cannot confirm the statement: it is in truth very difficult to determine such a point in the majority of the genera, whose sepals and petals are all apparently on the same plane. The true Haemodoraceae are smooth and dissimilar in habit to Conostylis and its allies; wherefore a couple of additional sub-Orders may be conveniently admitted here, for which better characters may be hereafter found

The species occur in North America sparingly, and the Cape of Good Hope ; several are described from the more temperate parts of New Holland, and a good many Vellozias and Barbacenias occur in Brazil and the Mascaren islands. A Barbacenia (Alexandrinae) growing from 10 to 12 feet high has also been noticed by Sir R, Schomburgk in the Southern parts of British Guiana,

De Candolle remarks, that the red colour found in the roots of Lachnanthes tinctoria in North America, where it is used for dyeing, prevails in Haemodorum, and deserves to be studied in the rest of the Order. The natives of the Swan River live on the roots of such plants, especially of Hiemodorum paniculatum and spicatum, and Anigozanthus floridus, which are mild and nutritious when roasted, but acrid when raw. Hook. Jowm. 2. 355. One of the most intense bitters known is Aletris farinosa. It is used in infusion as a tonic and stomachic, but large doses produce nausea and tendency to vomit It has also been employed in chronic rheumatism.

Ftg. c.

Fig. C—Lanaicspt with VeHostaa; MarUus.

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l.-Hamodortet. Perianth amooth,

abort. Hsmodonim, 8m. Phleboeaiy*, JL Br.

UConos&et. Perianth woolly,

la, Berg.

Lachnanthee, £»**.

Htrititra, Gmal.

QyroOuca, Sallab.


GENERA. Lanaria, TOtcno.

Argolasia, Jan.

tea, ReU. Anigoaanthue, I«M«.

.Aifearfa, 8allab.

fuqpoaaniaw, Reich.

8ckwagrichaUa, 8pr. Androatemma, Ltau. ConoctyHa, JL fir.

BbUKOa, 2*Ktf.

Numbbbs. Gbn. 13. Sp. 50.


Aletria, I*m. Tiibouanthee. JSrwU.

HI.?— Velio***.

YaOoda, Afart

Xcrophyta, Comm.

Campderia, A. Rich.

Jfairffci, A. Rkh. Baxbacenia, FoncWU.

FiMco, Stand.

LiLiacc*. Powtxok.—Irid»oe»- Hjwodobacb*.—Anutfyllidaoese.

Pig. CI.

Fig. CJ« Bocttona of tha atcm of a Braafliaa Velloata; 1. tranavanely) S, 3. longitudinally.

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154                                         H                                [Ekdogkhs.

Obdbb XLV. HYPOXIDACEJE.-Hypoxids.

Hypoxide*, B. Br. inFUnder*(1814)} Agardh Apk. 184(18B); JBd. prima, ife. 236 (1880); AnK. fen. MIL JMjntr, p. 887.

Diagnosis.—Narcissal Bndogms with heaMpetcfoideow                    are mutch imbricated,

6 stamens with amthere turned imoard$> and a radicle remote from the hihm, which is often strophiolate.

Herbaceous plants with a tuberous or fibrous perennial root. Lewes always growing from the root and crown, nowhere else, linear, entire, plaited, of a dry texture. Scapes simple or branched, occasionally very short. Flowers complete, 0. Perianth petaloid, adherent to the ovary, 6-parted, with the sepals coarser than the petals. Stamens 6, inserted into the base of the segments of the perianth ; filaments distinct; anthers turned inwards. 2-celled, erect, opening lengthwise. Ovary adherent, S-ceUed, with the cells opposite the sepals ; style terminal, simple ; stigmas distinct or combined, [crowned by an operculum formed by the base of the style.—Herbert] ; ovules 00, axile, amphitropaL Fruit indehiscent, dry or berried, 1* 3- 3-eelled ; seeds 00, roundish, with a lateral hilum, and a beaked strophiole. Emb