RECORD: Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1795-6. Travels in Europe, Africa and Asia, performed between the years 1770 and 1779. London: W. Richardson and J. Egerton. Volume 1.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by AEL Data 01.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


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IN THE YEARS 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773.



Knight of the Order of Vasa, Professor of Botany in the University of Upsal,
and Member of various Academies and learned Societies both in
Sweden and other Countries.




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SO many relations of Travels have already been obstruded upon the Public, that the shelves in the booksellers shops are loaded with them. It might therefore seem needless to add to their number, did not the generality of them abound more in the marvellous than in simple and certain truths; did they not contain more ridiculous, and, frequently, insipid narratives, than articles of useful information; and did they not supply more obscure descriptions of animals, plants, and other productions of nature, than plain and intelligible names and characters of these different objects. How often is the reader's time wasted in toiling through a large folio, which scarcely contains as much useful matter or real facts, as would fill a single page! How often has the natural philosopher, as well as the cultivator of rural œconomy, sought in vain for useful information in many of these books, for want of understanding the barbarous

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names of natural objects, which the author has misreported, and frequently did not comprehend himself! Is not the nutmeg, of which almost all the travellers to the East Indies have made mention, and which for several centuries past has formed a considerable branch of the European commerce, is not the genus of this in a great measure unknown? Has not our knowledge of the animals and plants mentioned in the Bible, a book the most ancient, most sacred, and most universally read of any, been very imperfect till these later times, and are they not even now in some measure unknown to us? An ignorant traveller is apt to call foreign and uncommon animals by the names of those that he is already acquainted with; and, consequently, to consider all the different sorts of wild cats as tigers, and several species of the dog genus as foxes, and thus confound the jackall, or Samson's fox*, either with the common European fox, or with the ordinary house-cur, however dissimilar they are in their qualities.

Every traveller thinks himself under an obligation to turn author, and report something marvellous to his countrymen, although, perhaps, possessed of so small a stock of knowledge, as not to be able himself clearly to comprehend what he has seen or heard, much less to give

* Vid. Judges, Chap. XV.

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others a distinct idea of it. And this circumstance alone has produced more unintelligible books than can easily be imagined.

Upon the whole then, if relations of travels can either clear up the obscurities of ancient authors, or throw a new light on geography, political history, rural œconomy, physic, natural philosophy and natural history, and several other sciences, they will certainly not be superfluous.

When travellers pass through countries with as much knowledge and attention to the objects they meet with as some of the more modern travellers have done, the reader in perusing their books, imagines that he is following them, as it were, step by step, and with his own eyes sees what they have seen. And when every thing is set in a clear light, and rendered perfectly intelligible, the reader is always enabled to derive more or less advantage from them.

Many accounts have been published of the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE in Africa, and some of them in large volumes, in which one may naturally expect to find every thing mentioned which relates to that part of the world. Besides several detached tracts relative to this country, KOLBE, in 1727, published two solios in Dutch, which have been translated and printed in several languages, to the no small emolument of the booksellers; and two other descriptions

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of the Cape, which are little else than extracts of KOLBE'S prolix narrative, with some few additions, appeared not long ago in Dutch at Amsterdam, viz. in the years 1777 and 1778, in octavo. The celebrated astronomer DE LA CAILLE arrived at the Cape in 1751, and left it in 1753. The short account he gives of the Cape, consists, for the most part, of the relations of others, and those frequently resting upon very uncertain foundations. The travels of Professor SPARRMAN, printed at Stockholm in 1783, turn chiefly upon geography and zoology, of which KOLBE had treated in the old-fashioned obscure manner, so that zoology has gained considerably by the researches and discoveries of that learned professor.

So much, therefore, having been written, and consequently so much being known concerning this country, I might have saved myself the trouble, and my readers the expence of this publication. But as both my own countrymen, and also several foreigners who honour me with their friendship, have frequently signified to me their desire of being informed of the events that have occurred to me, and the discoveries I have made in my travels, and have, moreover, in the kindest manner, encouraged and persuaded me to publish these remarks; I could do no less than (at the few leisure hours I had, after

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an assiduous application to the duties of my office) collect and put in order the scattered observations I had made in the course of my long-continued and extensive travels.

With a view of facilitating the publication of it, I have divided my narrative into three parts; the first of which contains my travels through Denmark, Holland, and France, my voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, in Africa, my first expedition up the coast of Caffraria, and my residence at the Cape during the two first winters. The second part will contain my farther stay at the Cape the third winter, and two long journies into the country of the Caffres, and Namaquas land northwards. The third will comprize my voyage to Java and Japan, my residence there, and journey to the Emperor's court; and farther, my return by the way of Java, Ceilon, the Cape, Holland, England, and Germany, to Sweden.

I have carefully avoided introducing into this narrative any prolix descriptions (and particularly in Latin) of animals or plants, for fear of tiring out the patience of the generality of my readers; but, for the use of botanists and zoologists, I have thought proper to [publish them in separate works; still, however, I have taken care, as far as it might be done, to distinguish them by their proper and genuine names. The relations of others which have

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come to my ears, I have for the most part forborn to speak of, that nobody might be misled or confused by them; and have therefore merely given an account of what I myself have done, seen, or experienced.

I have likewise presented, in an artless unpremeditated order, the memorandums I had put down in my journal, thinking it less necessary as well as less useful to write an elegant romance or a well-compiled history, than to introduce naked and simple truths in the same order of time and place as they have occurred to me.

If the reader should find any passages in this narrative, that might have been either arranged in a better order, or more elegantly expressed, he will be pleased to recollect, that I neither had an opportunity of collecting the materials for it with a free and vacant mind, nor of arranging them properly afterwards, having been for the most part interrupted and disturbed by a great variety of other occupations. And if he will likewise be kind enough to consider, on the one hand, how much in the course of these last nine years I have already written and published for the advancement of the science I profess, and, on the other, the almost innumerable occupations in which I have been engaged, as well with respect to the instruc-

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tion of the students, as to the arrangement and making catalogues of various botanic gardens, and more particularly of different collections of natural history, I cannot but hope for his favour and indulgence.

In this volume, I am persuaded, various particulars relative to the Cape will be found to be mentioned and illustrated, which have been entirely passed over by others; and many useful and important propositions are advanced with respect to rural œconomy, natural history, medicine, geography, and natural philosophy, which were my principal objects, as also on the subject of historical geography, according to the difference of countries and circumstances. But in all these a great degree of perfection cannot be expected, when one travels through regions, little better than deserts; when one runs with the greatest rapidity through whole provinces, where the natives are almost wild, where not the least trace of literature or civilization is to be seen, and where all nature is enveloped in the swaddling clothes of simplicity and ignorance.

Besides geographical observations, the physical knowledge of countries, together with the different institutions for arts and sciences, political and œconomical establishments, architecture, the different customs and ways of living of different nations, the reader will find I have prin-

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cipally had in view the various discoveries, that may have been made, for the benefit of mankind, in natural history, physic, and rural as well as domestic œconomy; three sciences to which I am very much attached. And in consequence of these my endeavours, which I flatter myself have not been entirely fruitless, I have been enabled to propose, in this first part of my travels, the following natural products, as being useful, and most of them unknown before:—viz. As esculent and fit for food, the Cavia Capensis, Hystrix, Myrmecophaga, Gladiolus plicatus, the roots of Anise and of Gatagay, the Aponogeton distachyon, Arduina bispinosa, Mesembryanthemum edule, Euclea undulata, Strelitsia, Vitis vitiginea, Salicornia fruticosa, Zamia, Cassra, Guaiacum Afrum, Albuca major, and the Myrica.

As tried and approved medicines for various diseases, both internal and external: The Arctopus echinatus, various species of Geranium, the Bryonia Africana, Asclepias undulata and crispa, the Eriocephalus, Hæmanthus coccineus, Polygonum barbatum, Crotalaria perfoliatia, Piper Capense, Fagara Capensis, Mesembryanthemum edule, Osmitis camphorina and afteriscoides, the Adonis Capensis, Atragene vesicatoria, Adianthum Æthiopicum, Protea mellifera and grandiflora, the Oxalis cernua, Tulbaghia, Montinia, Turtle's blood, the Ricinus communis, Solanum nigrum, Sonchus

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oleraceus, crassula tetragona, lycoperdon carcinomale, and the seriphium.

As useful for the purposes of domestic and rural œconomy.

For ropes, the rind of the anthyllis.

For basons or bowls, tortoise-shells.

For window-blinds and chairs, ratans.

For tobacco, the cannabis sativa.

For tinder, the bupleurum giganteum.

For tea, the borbonia cordata.

For coffee, the brabejum stellatum.

For soap, the salsola aphylla.

For candles, the myrica cordifolia and quercifolia.

For trumpets, the fucus buccinalis.

For brooms and that ching, the restio dichotomus.

For mats and thatching, the cyperus textilis.

For fences and folds for cattle, the mimosa nilotica, arduina bispinosa, galenia Africana.

For quickset hedges, the aloe succotrina, zygophyllum morgsana, quince, apple and pear tree, hawthorn, euonymus, willow, rose bushe, bramble, yew-tree, elm, holly, box, lime-tree, dogwood, honeysuckle, cherry-tree, cercis, siliquastrum, lycium barbarum, maple, coronilla securidaca, lilac, oak, laurel, and myrtle; to which may be added, as borders in gardens, the shin-bones of sheep.

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For fuel, the protea grandiflora, conocarpa, hirta, speciosa, mellifera, and argentea, with various species of ericæ and bruniæ.

For various tools and utensils, camassie wood, the ilex crocea, olea Capensis and Europea, stink hout, the gardenia Thunbergia, the bamboo, and the curtisia.

Though I cannot flatter myself that every thing in this journal will be equally pleasing to all of my readers, or that all my readers will be able to derive the same advantage from the perusal of it; yet I am inclined to hope, that something will continually occur in it which will prove either entertaining or instructive to every one of them. And since the two first volumes, which treat chiefly of the Cape and the Hottentots (a country and people in which art has improved but little upon the wild simplecity of nature) cannot possibly be as interesting as the third, which will contain relations and observations respecting a civilized nation, that has both a regular government and other good institutions, and even vies with the Europeans themselves; I presume the reader will not impute this circumstance to any want of attention in me, but to the country itself and the natives, that could not possibly present more materials to an attentive traveller, than they actually possessed.


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AFTER having spent nine years at the University of Upsal, the most respectable in Sweden, and passed the usual examinations for taking the Degree of Doctor of Physic, I obtained from the Academical Consistory the Kohrean Pension for travelling, which, in the space of three years, amounts to 3,800 Copper Dollars*, and with my own little stock, enabled me to undertake a journey to Paris, with a view to my farther improvement in Medicine, Surgery, and Natural History.

On the 13th of August, 1770, leaving Upsal, I passed through Stockholm, Johnkoping, Halmstadt, and Helsingborg, to Elsineur, whither I was accompanied by M. BARKENMEYER, an

* About 451. 16s. 8d. Sterling. [T.]


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Apothecary, who, during my stay at Helsingborg, had shewn me many civilities.

On the 15th of September, I left my native country, little thinking that I should not return to it, till I had spent nine years in travelling through the remotest regions. During my passage across the Sound, the innumerable ships under sail resembled a vast forest; and those that lay in the road, appeared like a town floating on the water. At Kronoburg, they pay a toll, which is levied by the Danes on all other nations. Of this toll Sweden cannot partake, on account of the shoal water contiguous to her coasts, which yearly becomes shallower from a continual accumulation of sand, grass-wrack, (Zostera), and Sea-weed (Fuci), near Helsingborg.

As there was no ship in the road of Elsineur ready to fail for Amsterdam, I resolved in the mean time to make a trip the same day to Copenhagen, by the common-stage cart.* The road was very pleasant. After travelling a great way along the shore, and afterwards through thick forests of beech and oak, we entered the King's Park, in which, I understood, it was a capital offence to discharge fire-arms. By the

* In some parts of Germany and the North of Europe, they travel chiefly in carts, the roads being too rough for chaises or coaches. [T.]


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road-side, especially near Copenhagen, there were very fine avenues of horse-chesnut trees, (Æsculus Hippocastanum), the trunks of which had been wreathed, when young, into a spiral form at the bottom. Vines were pretty numerous in the hedges.

At Copenhagen I viewed the Botanical Garden, which they were just then removing. I also visited the Hospital, which, together with its Dispensary, I was told, was founded by the late unfortunate Queen, and now contained about 200 patients; at the same time I viewed several private Museums.

The Professors ZOEGA and FABRICIUS, who a few years before had been my friends and fellow students at Upsal, were the first whom I enquired after. Besides other civilities, they gave me free access to the Botanical Garden, and their own private Collections, particularly Professor FABRICIUS, whose collection of insects was well worthy of attention. These gentlemen would certainly have rendered my stay at Copenhagen longer, as well as more agreeable and more advantageous to myself, had they not been under the necessity of going, in the afternoon of that same day, on business of importance to Sleswick.

The streets of Copenhagen are paved at the sides with flag stones, for the convenience of

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foot passengers; and there are planks over the kennels. The houses have funk stories, in which the inhabitants generally live.

Having viewed several remarkable things in the City, such as the Royal Palace, the University, Frederick's Square, the Exchange, the Quay, the Port, &c. I hastened back towards Elsineur, in a return-cart, which was to convey me only part of my way, after which I was to proceed in a stage-cart; but having got near the Park, it being Sunday night, all the inns were so full of people, including ladies, as well with natural as artificial complexions, who had crouded together from all quarters to spend the Sunday evening here in siddling and dancing, that I could neither get horses, nor a room to sleep in for the night. And as the amusement of this noisy rout had no great charms for me, I resolved to walk away with my botanical knapsack under my arm, to some inn farther on. But not knowing a step of the road, and having no guide, I lost my way in the Park; when, darkness overtaking me, I was obliged to repose under a large tree, with the sky for my canopy, in the company of animals both same and wild. The next morning I resumed my journey on foot, and, it being a fine warm day, found my cloak, which had protected me in the night against the cold, very heavy and

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troublesome. Towards noon I arrived at an inn, where I procured a carriage, in which I proceeded to Elsineur.

I could plainly perceive, that near the shore the land has gained upon the water, by means of sand and sea-weed (fuci), though much less than on the Swedish side. Hence it appears evident, that the sound is already become narrower, and probable, that its breadth will be progressively contracted. On the shore I found several species of fucus, zostera, and salsola, as also muscles (mytilus edulis). By the sides of the roads were several fine gardens, many of them adorned with arbours of ever-greens.

The houses in Elsineur are built either entirely of bricks, or, as in Halland in Sweden, of wooden frames, with the spaces filled up with bricks. The numerous fountains that are seen in the squares, and in several streets of the town, are no less useful than ornamental; so that water may conveniently be had in a place, where, in other respects, dearth herself seems to have fixed her head quarters.

At my return to Elsineur, I soon found a vessel bound for Amsterdam, which had just arrived from Pillaw with corn. In her I set sail on the 18th of September, and soon lost sight of the Swedish and Danish Coasts. On the 21st, we were obliged, by a heavy gale of con-

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trary wind, to put into a harbour in Norway, about twenty miles from Fredrickshamn, where, among others, I found a Swedish ship. The mountains and the shore round this little harbour, are frightfully precipitous. The water near the shore abounded with star-fish (asterias), fuci, ulvæ, barnacles (lepades), cray-fish (canceres), and other marine animals. The Lobsters here (gammarus), were not much esteemed. Every thing was as cheap here, as it was dear at Elsineur. The mountains produced, at this season of the year, nothing but the Silene rupestris (a species of catch-fly), and a kind of rose, together with (empetrum nigrum) or crow-berries.

On the 24th we sailed with a fair wind; but soon again were opposed by a storm and contrary wind with rain, which lasted for several days, so that we saw nothing but thick clouds and the sea, the green waves of which frequently broke over our little vessel, and rendered the deck extremely slippery.

The diet of the crew of a Dutch ship is strong and nutritive, consisting of the seeds of French beans, with sweet and four sauce; stockfish, with mustard and potatoes; stewed grey, and boiled yellow peas; thick flummery, made of coarse-ground barley, with some fat in it; pudding, with fat and treacle; and coarse sour

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Dutch bread, with butter and a slice of cheese. They drink tea and coffee several times a day the former in general strong, and sometimes mixed with a little saffron, especially in bad weather; but the coffee is made weak, mostly without any sugar, always without milk or cream; of both they drink plentifully, to the quantity of ten or twelve cups at a time. The Captain and myself were the only persons on board who were indulged with a little sugarcandy, when we drank our coffee, together with English wheat-bread for our bread and butter, and rice gruel with raisins and butter in it.—Butchers-meat and bacon are always eaten with mustard. Brandy is seldom drank, except a pilot comes on board, or the weather is very bad. Wine is still less common. They take out beer with them, indeed, in earthen vessels, but do not often drink any; so that their food is strong and dry, and not a little greasy.—Cleanliness and neatness is the great object of their attention on board their ships, which they are perpetually scrubbing and painting.

On the 1st of October we arrived off the Coast of Holland. The Island of Texel first presented itself to us, and a pilot came on board to conduct us to Amsterdam. Here was an infinite number of ships, men of war, East and West Indiamen, and smaller vessels, some

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at anchor, others sailing in all directions; all which could not but prove an enchanting fight to an eye that was not accustomed to such prospects.

On the 2d, having arrived at the little town of Bergen, we were ordered, on pain of death, not to go on shore, because the ship came from Pillaw, on the borders of Poland, and was suspected of being infected with the plague.—Though I had come as a passenger, not from Pillaw, but from Elsineur, yet my trunks were brought on shore, to be kept in quarantain; but the ship, with its crew, was permitted to sail to Amsterdam. A surgeon, however, came previously on board, to enquire into the state of our health, and for the trouble of seeling the pulses of five persons, fairly pocketed his ducat, by way of convincing me and a few poor sailors of the profits attending his profession.

In the continuation of our voyage towards Amsterdam, on the Zuyderzee, we frequently met with islands almost covered with towns.—The horizon was skirted with forests of ships sailing different ways, and forming the most beautiful sea-piece. The tide here, on its changes, forms long and irregular spots of smooth water. In this sea we spent several days in sailing little more than fifty miles,

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as the wind at best was saint, so that we were for the most part obliged passively to obey the direction of the current. During our frequent calms, the crew were so earnestly employed in scouring, washing, and painting, that they did not even leave the dog's kennel unpainted. I had at this time also the pleasure of seeing a large vessel brought out by camels,* to the Texel; a method which they make use of, on account of the low water, to convey large vessels from the city into deep water. In this sea I saw nothing deserving the attention of a naturalist, but large masses of seed-weed (zostera) floating about.

On the 5th, towards evening, we arrived at the populous and splendid commercial city of Amsterdam, which extends along the shore in the form of a crescent. The harbour is crouded with an incredible number of ships. The largest vessels lie farthest from, and the smallest nearest to, the city, according to the depth of the water; and in such order, that they form a kind of wall several rows deep; and their num-

* The camels are two very large lighters, nearly full of water, between which, large ships that have been built at Amsterdam are made fast. The water is then pumped out of the lighters; and thus, by their buoyancy, the intermediate vessel is sufficiently raised to pass over the bar, which, being a security against a hostile fleet, is suffered to remain. [T]


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bers are such as to intercept the view of the city. Within these the city is bordered with several rows of piles, off which smaller craft and lighters can lie, and run up through their openings and bridges. Both towards the water side, and in the city itself, the banks of the canals are faced with brick-work, to which boats and small vessels can lay their sides.

The houses are in general very neat and elegant, though not always equally convenient.—Every where they are nearly uniform and regularly built of brick, five stories high, with pitchroofs covered with tiles. The gable ends are towards the street, and slope off, as it were, by steps, which give the houses a nobler appearance, than when the slope of the roofs is next to the street. The houses have in general a basement, or sunk story, which is made use of for work-shops, kitchens, and sometimes for dwelling apartments. The windows immediately above the street are very high, and in two divisions, as they give light both to the first floor, and to that beneath it, which in most of the common houses appear externally to form but one story. The walls are very thin, on account of the bad foundations in that marshy foil: and five stories in Amsterdam are hardly so high as three in Stockholm. The inside of the apartments, and still more frequently of

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the anti-chambers and passages, and sometimes even of the churches, is covered with small squares of Delft ware, and the floors are laid with white and other marble. The houses in general stand upon little ground, and have but few apartments, often but one on a floor, except in certain quarters of the town, where the houses, in point of size and magnificence, resemble palaces. The water is conducted to and from every street and house, by means of little covered channels communicating with the large canals. Throughout Holland chimnies are generally used; stoves are but scarce, the great utility of them being as yet little known in that country, where turf, which is their most common fuel, is probably unfit to heat them, and its fumes, if prevented by stoves from having a free exit, might be dangerous. The streets are paved in the middle with oblong granites of the best fort, and at each side with hard yellow bricks, or, as they are there called, clinkers. Close to the house, the street is laid as far as the outer steps project, with white marble slabs, or blue lime-stone. Though all the stones for paving are imported, yet in no other place do we meet either with such choice stones, or streets so well paved; besides that, the pavement or clinkers at the side of the houses, which is daily washed, is very agreeable to the foot-pas-

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senger, who is thus, not only secured from the inroads of carriages and horses, but likewise avoids being bespattered with dirt. Wheel-carriages are very little used here, except by physicians, who are obliged to make dispatch in visiting their patients; and who use large chaises with high wheels, drawn either by one or two horses.

The coaches, or rather sledges, are drawn by one horse upon sliders, by which means the houses are not shaken, nor the streets soiled.—Goods are also conveyed on sledges, or on a kind of wheel-barrow.

The whole city is interfected with canals, on which goods are conveyed in crast of a moderate size. On each side, rows of trees are planted, with lamps placed between them. Many of the lanes and alleys interfecting the streets, are very narrow.

At the same time that the eye of the stranger is entertained with viewing elegant buildings and other objects worthy of attention, the ear is charmed with the music of the chiming clocks in the Stadt-house, or town-hall, and of almost every church steeple in the city. They chime a little at the end of every fifth minute; longer at every quarter of an hour; and every hour just before the clock strikes, they play an entire piece.

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Among the chief and most remarkable buildings, is the Stadt-house, the Custom-house, and the Exchange; the first of which is scarcely to be paralleled. The outside of the Stadt-house is faced with free-stone: in the first floor is a large and lofty hall, the walls of which are decorated with marble of different kinds, and with several marble statues.

In so large and populous a city, where so much business is transacted, the streets of course are noisy. The mode of crying fruit, milk, &c. in the streets, saves the inhabitants much trouble. Immediately on my entering the city, I met a man with a rattle, which is a signal every morning to the inhabitants to bring out their ashes, &c. to be conveyed away in large carts, which have separate divisions for every kind of soil; this regulation prevents the canals from being choaked up with dirt, and the air from generating putrid diseases.

The inhabitants enjoy a degree of liberty, which is equally distant from restraint and licentiousness. Persons in a costly or in a mean dress, are equally exempted from reflections.—Without ceremoniously regarding either persons or occasions, they keep on their hats in the house, and even at church.

In like manner every one, whatever may be his religion or country, is at liberty to earn his

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livelihood in any way, so that it be but honest, that he may think proper; and without being checked in his pursuits by corporations, monopolies, or exclusive privileges. Strangers are likewise exempted from being visited, much less ill-treated, by toll-gatherers in this country, where happily no land-tolls* exist.

The day after my arrival, several criminals were punished on a stage crected near the Stadthouse; one of them was broke on the wheel, and the rest whipped. The magistrates, in their official dress, viewed the execution from the windows of the Stadt-house. It appeared to add great solemnity to the punishment, that those who had tried and condemned the offenders, should themselves superintend the execution; not, as in Sweden, where it is committed to an inferior officer, whose ignorance of this important duty often renders him either too mild, or too severe.

In my landlord's house I observed a very ingenious method of teaching children to walk.—A ribband was fastened under the child's arms, which passed through a ring that slid on a long iron rod fixed horizontally in the roof, so that the child could walk backwards and forwards along

* In this, very different from Sweden, where certain taxes are levied upon all sorts of goods entering the inland towns and sea ports. [T.]

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the room, without falling or taking up the time of an attendant.

On the 9th of October, I visited the Professors, Messrs. BURMANNS, who received me in a very friendly manner. In my daily visits to them, I had not only the pleasure of surveying their different and numerous collections in natural history, and the advantage of their valuable library, in which the late celebrated LINNÆUS put the last hand to his Bibliotheca Botanica, but was likewise invited every day to their tables, and requested to examine and give names to a great number of unknown minerals, insects, and plants, particularly of the grass and moss kind.

Here were some exquisitely beautiful petrifactions and corals; and the Library, so far as related to Medicine and Natural History, might be said to be quite complete. This rendered my stay at Amsterdam both agreeable and useful; and notwithstanding the advanced season, I should not have hastened from thence, had I not been deprived of my little stock of clothes and books, which, in my opinion, were both unjustly and imprudently kept in quarantain.—It could not but be imprudent, to suffer a ship suspected of infection, to enter a harbour crouded with ships, and the crew to frequent the towns freely for several days, and afterwards to

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send the ship and cargo back to the Texel to perform quarantain. It appeared likewise to be unjust, when there were no symptoms of infection on board, to detain the trunks of a passenger, who did not come from the suspected place, contrary to every usage on such occasions. This conduct excited my pity for a government, that, on so serious and delicate a conjuncture, must frequently entrust the execution of its orders to ignorant and imprudent officers. I endeavoured, by means of an application to the Swedish agent, M. BAILLERIE, to procure from the admiralty an order to deliver up my trunks; but all I could obtain, was a permit to get them at passing the Texel, if I should chuse to take a passage for France.—Thus I was obliged to change my route, and subjected to considerable inconvenience and expence.

In the mean time, I determined to travel about in Holland, and view some of their many curiosities, collections of natural history, and gardens.

On the 15th of Octocter, I went out in a carriage with Professor BURMANN, to a country house of his, near Amsterdam. His garden is sinely laid out in the English taste. The hedges were formed of yew (saxus), holly (ilex), beech (fagus), and oaks (quercus).

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Among the many rare plants now in bloom, were the amaryllis, ceilanica, and gladiolus tristis. In the wilderness I observed, among others, the kalmia latifolia, the œsculus pavia (or scarlet horse-chesnut tree); the clethra alnifolia, and the magnolia grandiflora.

At eight in the evening I went in the treck-schuyt (or passage-boat) to Leyden. These boats are generally used for travelling in Holland, where the whole Country is intersected with Canals. They are very long, and tilted over, to shelter the passengers from the weather: at one end is a cabin, which the skipper sometimes hires out to such persons as wish to sleep, or to fit separate from the common people.—These boats always see out on a certain day and hour, and arrive with the same regularity at the places of their destination. In the middle they have a mast, to the top of which is fastened a rope, by which a horse draws the boat. When the wind is favourable to them, they make sail; and the helm in both cases regulates the motion. Every passenger is entitled to bring as much baggage as he can carry, without any extra charge. As soon as the boat has set off, the passage-money is paid, which, considering the ease and convenience of this mode of travelling, is very trisling.


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The first thing I did in the morning of the 16th of October, was to visit Professor DAVID VAN ROYEN, who showed me his collection of plants from the Cape of Good Hope, and another which had lately been sent him from Ceylon. I next viewed the cabinet of natural history that was committed to the care of Professor ALLAMAND; as also the botanic garden, where I procured many rare plants for my own hortus siccus, and seeds and roots for the garden at Upsal. The botanic garden is situated near the university, and is surrounded with a stone wall. Though not very extensive, it is neat and elegant, divided into several quarters, and well furnished with curious plants. On three sides it is inclosed by the university, the apartments of the botanical professor, and of the gardener, the cabinet of natural history, and other necessary buildings.

Among other things worthy of attention, I was shown a hortus siccus, composed for the use of the lecturer, of all the plants that had flowered in the garden. This is certainly a proof of the professor's zeal for the science he teaches, and for the improvement of the students. At the gardener's, NICOLAS MEERBOURG, I saw also several fine specimens of animals preserved in spirits of wine; as well as of plants and insects, of which latter I bought

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and procured by exchange, several American and East Indian butterflies.

The houses at Leyden have the same external appearance as at Amsterdam, but have no sunk stories.

The edifice of the university is divided into separate apartments or lecture-rooms; the chairs are small, and there are benches with desks before them for the students.

The library is neat, though neither large nor much decorated.—Immediately under it, is the anatomical theatre.

I paid a visit to the learned and aged librarian, GRONOVIUS, was well received, and heard him bestow great encomiums on the learned assessor, SWEDENBORG, who a few weeks before had gone from thence to England.

I also visited the senator (scabinus) GRONOVIUS, a very polite and cheerful, as well as learned man, who, notwithstanding his many occupations, showed me his valuable collections of corals, fishes, amphibious animals, insects, minerals, plants, and books. The bottles that contained the specimens of animals preserved in spirits of wine, were covered with a glass-plate and a red cement, the composition of which was communicated to me. It answered the purpose so well, that the spirits appeared not to have evaporated much, though they had been

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even years in the bottles. These must be filled in the summer, and not in the spring, left the glass-plate should be broke by the rarefaction of the air. Among the minerals were many which had been sent him from Sweden, by M. GOTHER. Speaking of iron ores, he gave it as his opinion, that all iron was native, that was attracted by the load-stone.

I went to see the garden of that celebrated florist, VAN HAZEN, in the neighbourhood of Leyden. This gentleman sends yearly many thousands of roots, seeds, and shrubs, to differrent countries.

In the evening I walked to Zudwyk, where I met with a hearty welcome from a Mr. VITTBOM, a Swedish gardener; here I deposited the plants which I had purchased at Leyden, for the garden of Upsal, to be sent over the following spring. The elegant garden which VITTBOM superintended, was the property of Count HAHN, and was ornamented with vistoes, hedges, grottos, fountains, canals, English summer-houses, Chinese temples and bridges, and other decorations. As for walls, it needed no other than the deep canals by which it was surrounded, and which are the usual boundaries of property in this country, the very cattle never attempting to swim over them.

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On the 18th of October, in the morning, I took a walk to the Hague. The road is heavy and sandy, but is rendered agreeable by large cuts, or canals, ornamented with avenues of trees or cut hedges, and surrounded with a variety of beautiful feats. By the road-side grew poplars (populus alba), alders (betula alnus), common broom (spartium scoparium), German broom (genista Germanica), reed canary-grass (phalaris arundinacea), &c. The public houses, which were by no means few, were plentifully supplied with ale, wine, and mead.

I passed the palace of the Prince, near the Hague, which is decorated with an elegant garden. Before I arrived at the town, I viewed the physic-garden, which, though small, contains some very curious plants.

The Hague is a handsome town; the houses being larger than they usually are in Holland, bear a greater resemblance to those of Paris or Stockholm, and the slope of the roofs, which have no gable ends, is towards the street. The squares are tolerably large, and ornamented with trees.

Throughout all Holland turf is their usual fuel. Their chimneys have no register for opening and shutting the vent, which, as well as stoves, the Dutch do not think adapted to a damp country, being of opinion that it would

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render them more subject to gout and rheumatism; but the true reason probably is, their want of wood, which is very scarce and dear, and turf is not proper for heating stoves. Turf is sometimes sold by the ton, and sometimes by tale; it has a disagreeable smell like that of grease, which excites a head-ach and nausea in persons unaccustomed to it. It is cut into oblong squares; and though it burns slowly, and must be kindled with wood, it throws out a strong heat.

At half past three in the afternoon, I went in a treckschuyt to Amsterdam, where I arrived at six the next morning. Whenever the boats stopt at the inns, several women came up to us to sell us bread, fish, and other refreshments.

The country, between the Hague and Amsterdam, is very agreeably interspersed with numerous gentlemens' seats, situated on each side of the canal, and adorned with elegant gardens and summer-houses. The walls of their houses are frequently covered all over with ivy (hedera), and the box trees and hedges are formed by the shears into a thousand fantastic figures.

While I was waiting for a vessel to convey me to Rouen, I daily visited Professor BURMANN, and made use of his library, and cabinet of natural history. Here I perceived the unspeakable advantage of a professor having a library so near at hand, which affords him an

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opportunity of arranging it in scientific order, and of comparing the different subjects in his collection with the figures and descriptions of different authors, of which it is frequently necessary to consult not only one or two, but a hundred. The largest public libraries are, in this respect, less useful, because they are opened and shown only on certain days, and that frequently under the inspection of one librarian only, who cannot be supposed to interest himself in accommodating his visitors with books in all the branches of science alike, or with such a number of them as is often necessary; not to mention the inconvenience of frequent applications. These important considerations render it adviseable for professors to furnish themselves, as far as they are able, with libraries of their own; and also show, that notwithstanding all that has been said of the utility of large public libraries, much is wanting to render them as extensively useful as is pretended.—Among the many scarce books it contained, were RUMPHIUS'S shells and fishes, coloured, in large folio, drawn at Amboyna, by RUMPHIUS the son; the original drawings of PETIVER'S plants; MERINA's coloured drawings of butterflies; RUMPHIUS's plantæ Amboynenses, also coloured, &c. I likewise attentively examined his various collections of dried plants, from the East and West

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Indies, and Africa, but especially those of HERMANNUS and OLDENLANDIUS, which were bound. And as I arranged and described several plants belonging to the most comprehensive genera, such as Ixiæ, Ericæ, Aspalathus, &c. Professor BURMANN mentioned, that he would procure me an opportunity of making a voyage either to Surinam, or the Cape of Good Hope, at the expence of the States. I testified my sense of his friendly offer in the best manner I was able, and told him I would gladly accept it, and that I had no objection to spend a few years in an expedition of this kind; at the same time I could not help expressing my surprise, that he should place so much confidence in a stranger, whom he had known only for a few days. In answer to this, he assured me, that from the time that he had passed a summer at the university of Upsal, he had conceived, and still entertained, a great partiality for the Swedish nation, and that he had taken a great liking to me in particular, on finding with what readiness I named and described a great number of his non-descripts, a circumstance, which, he was pleased to say, filled him with astonishment.

The professor at this time complained, that his salary was so small, that it barely paid his house-rent, and that consequently he was obliged to support himself by his medical practice,

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which, being pretty extensive, took off his attention from a study, to which he was more inclined, and which was the proper object of his professorship. Here I could not help tacitly congratulating the professors in the Swedish universities, who are not under the necessity of dividing their attention between the cares of their subsistence, and their proper employment, the instruction of youth.

I now also took a view of the phyfic-garden, and the different hospitals in and about Amsterdam. The botanic-garden is situated near the town, is large and elegant, and contains several large orangeries and hot-houses, and a great number of succulent plants, and other curious productions from the Cape. The great American aloe (agave Americana) was in full blossom, and shown every day for money. Of the city hospital, Professor BURMANN, jun. had been for some time before appointed chief physician, in the room of his father, whose great age had obliged him to retire from his office. Seven or eight hundred patients were said to be supported here. Two women were generally in a bed, and the beds were all numbered. In the morning-visits, the number of the patient was put down on a slate, with the medicine prescribed to them for that day. The dispensary of the hospital was contiguous to it. The laza-

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retto (or pest-house) is situated at some distance from the town.

The air of this low country was at this time very damp and unwholesome. The air would not keep in curl without the help of pins; and plants could not be dried otherwife than before the fire. The atmosphere bore an appearance similar to the exhalations of a bath; there often fell a drizzling rain, attended sometimes with a fog, so thick as to occasion imprudent people to fall into the canals. A very singular phænomenon is sometimes observed, caused by an exhalation altogether opake suddenly arising, and as this subsides, which it generally does in a short time, at first only the heads of the foot-passengers are to be seen, and afterwards their bodies gradually come into view. Catarrhal severs (febres catarrhales) also now began to prevail.

During the cold season, women of the middling station in life kept themselves warm by means of chasing-dishes, containing live coals of turf, placed in perforated boxes on the floor, under their clothes.

As the Dutch in general are great smokers, a necessary part of the furniture of every sitting-room, is a copper chasing-dish, with live coals of turf to light their pipes, and a spitting-box,

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with a small mouth and broad brim, beside it on a table.

Tea and coffee are the usual substitutes for beer, which is but little drank in Holland. The coffee is always weak, and roasted but little, and is copiously used in the morning, sometimes with and sometimes without milk, and a bit of sugar-candy is kept in the mouth to sweeten it. Tea is drank in the same manner in the afternoon. On board of ship we sometimes had milk and water, with an infusion of tea or sage, and a little powdered sugar.

Soups are but little used; their diet is chiefly solid, and consists of vegetables, butcher's meat, and fish. This last is the most common, and the cheapest food. The common people at every meal eat two sorts of bread cut into slices, with butter, and a piece of cheese between the slices. Salt meat is hardly ever used. Fresh water fish, such as pikes and perch, is scarce and dear. Potatoes and sea-fish form the chief diet of the poor.

The ladies all wear small hoop-petticoats, and have frequently a pouch or bag at their side, with a large silver lock.

October the 26th I went on board a Dutch vessel bound for Rouen. In the harbour I observed many boats loaded with milk, vegetables,

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fruit, and other provisions, for the supply of Amsterdam.

November the 1st we set sail, and on the 5th arrived in the Texel, where I at last recovered my trunks by the good offices of Mr. ROSEBORN, our Commissary at Ausgell, at which place, all ships bound to and from Amsterdam, must be entered and cleared out. The island is surrounded with dykes, formed of seed-weed (zostera). A road goes round the island along the sea-shore, which, though elevated, being composed of clay, was, at this wet season, rather dirty.

The surface of this island, like that of a great part of Holland, is evidently lower than the surface of the sea, which is only prevented from over-flowing the land by the dykes, in the repairs of which immense sums are yearly expended.

From the element of water the Dutch derive all the advantages of their internal and external commerce. It fertilizes their meadows, which are the true source of their natural riches. At the same time, their security from this element costs them much expence and labour; but, in spite of all their precaution, the storms from the N. W. often cause irruptions of the sea through their dykes and sluices, deluging whole tracts of land, and laying even towns under water,

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to the great terror and danger of the inhabitants.

The soil in general is loose and marshy. We may therefore safely affirm, that scarcely any country in the world is naturally dirtier; but by the ingenuity and indefatigable industry of the inhabitants, it has been rendered incomparably neat and clean.

I lodged that night in a village, before which the vessel lay at anchor. Muscles (mytilus), and oysters (ostrea edulis), are eaten here, both boiled and raw, with vinegar, oil and pepper.—When the muscles are boiled till the shell opens, and eaten with sweet and four sauce, they are both relishing and nutritive. While the ship lay at anchor, the sailors went on shore in the evenings, and brought whole pails full of them on board. They sometimes used Spanish onions, instead of bread, with their peas and other victuals. Notwithstanding that they keep every thing clean and neat on board, I now discovered them to be very uncleanly at their meals, for they fed themselves with their fingers, which seemed very well secured against putrefaction, by a thick coat of tar.

On the evening of November the 13th, which was perfectly calm, a murmuring noise was heard from the sea, and the water swelled towards the shore, exhibiting a very beautiful

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phænomenon; for it sparkled like fire, or as if the light of the moon had been reflected from its surface; but this was only when it was agitated, as, for instance, when any thing was thrown into it, or it was stirred with an oar.

On the 15th, we left the Texel with a fair wind, but in the night a storm arose, which continued till the 17th, when we were in the English Channel, just between Dover and Calais, and plainly saw two light houses on the English shore. At length the gale increased so much as to split several of our sails, and the rain fell in torrents.

On the 18th, the wind being fair, we saw the French shore, which appeared very high.

On the 19th, we were within a stone's throw of the shore, which is very precipitous, projecting in irregular promontories, and seemed to consist of chalk, interspersed with red streaks. Towards noon we arrived at Havre de Grace, where several ships lay in the large harbour formed there by the shore. The sailors feet, which had been wet for several days, from the sea-water which had washed over the ship, were now swelled and blistered, an inconvenience which they remedied merely by rubbing their feet with brandy.

On the 20th of November, the Captain went to the town, to get a certificate of health (lettre de santé) and a pilot.

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The town is situated on a declivity, and is nearly surrounded with hills. Though not very large, it is neat, well situated, and has the advantage of an excellent harbour, which, at this time, contained about 150 vessels.—In the road there were some Hamburgh ships riding quarantain. The next day, towards noon, we arrived at Quillebæuf, at the mouth of the river Seine. Here a custom-house officer came on board to seal the hatches, and a pilot to conduct us to Rouen. The water was quite white from the chalk which forms the bottom. From the mouth of the winding Seine to Rouen, the distance was said to be thirty French leagues by sea, and only ten by land.

On the 23d, I went on shore. The farm-houses are very close to each other, and the lands are separated merely by quick-set hedges or apple and pear trees, hawthorn (cratægus oxyacanthus, prickwood, (euonymus), and willows (salices;) among which were wild briars (rofæ), and brambles (rubus cæsius), interwoven with ivy (hedera). Here I could not help indulging the patriotic wish, that Sweden might one day be so far improved, as to substitute quick hedges for its present wooden fences, which are not only expensive, but tend to destroy the forests. If, at the same time, the plantation of trees was encouraged, and the laws for


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securing them enforced, the country would soon assume a far more delightful appearance. The fruit trees here are planted regularly in rows. Apples were in such plenty, that a quart of cyder coft only three sols.

The houses are built with wooden frames wattled, and clay. The peasants wear wooden shoes, with socks or straw within them.

The wild plants growing here were (daucus carota) carrots, (bellis) daisies, (senecio) ragwort (mentha) mint, (betonica) botony, and (viscum) misleto. The helix hispida was found here on the trees.

In the evening, we came to a part of the river where we were surrounded with high hills, which intercepted the wind, so that we were obliged to hire horses from the peasants to draw the vessel up the river. When nearer Rouen, we observed several islands in the river.

On the 25th of November, towards noon, we arrived at Rouen, which is a large fortified town. Some of the houses are of stone, and others of frame-work and plaster. The convent is very extensive. The vessels run up to the bridge, directly opposite to the exchange and the parade. This exchange, which is opened only in fine weather, is inclosed with iron rails; and there is another exchange in the middle of the town. The whole street along the harbour

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is lined with custom-house officers; the entrance from the harbour to the city is through gates, which are shut at nine at night. The houses in general are covered with slate. The horses are small, and slow in motion. Both men and women rode on them, frequently two at a time. Asses are much used here, several of which were harnessed one before the other to large carts, and were ornamented with bells, which produced a very discordant kind of music.

Though the weather was not very cold, yet the inhabitants already wore waistcoats, lined with shag.

A kind of Dutch stoves were in common use here, which were made either of iron or Delftware, and were heated with brush-wood; these warm a room in a quarter of an hour, but their effect is merely temporary.

The shops of the tradesmen and mechanics are built with open fronts. It could not but appear strange to me, to hear the ordinary burghers and peasants speak in common the language which in other countries is peculiar to the gentry, and to see the servant-maids stalking about in their wooden shoes, and at the same time drest up in their fly caps and negligees, like ladies.

In every part of the city the inhabitants enjoy the benefit of fountains conveniently situated.


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I visited M. PINARD, the professor of botany here, and viewed his hortus siccus.

The botanical garden, which is situated at the end of the town is not very large; it is divided into two parterres, and has a round mount in the middle, and an orangery, which consists of three divisions, and is not very elegant.

An illicit commerce in tobacco is prohibited, under no less a penalty than that of slavery in the galleys. All the tobacco on board our ship was immediately entered and taken into custody; and the crew, who could not exist without this commodity, received only a weekly allowance of it, for their immediate use.

November the 29th, at four in the morning, when the city gates were opened, I was told the post-coach was just going to set out. Though this vehicle holds ten persons, there was no passenger in it but myself; it was loaded with a great deal of luggage, and was drawn by four horses. The cold was intense. A fog enveloped the country, and there was ice on the water.—Trees were planted at the sides of the roads, which were very broad. On all the hills there lay a great number of blue and yellow flints.—The houses on the road were built with limestone and flint.

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During this journey which lasted three days, I passed through several fortified towns. At the inns on the road a traveller may dine either in company with other people at a fixed price, or may chuse his own dishes, and dine by himself, paying in proportion. At every inn something must be given to the domestics (quelque chose pour le garcon), especially for being awaked in the morning, when the diligence sets out.

Mile stones are regularly placed along the road, and at every quarter of a mile there is a post with a copper-plate on it. Near the convents it was not unusual to meet with boys and other mendicants, who read the pater-noster for the edification of travellers.

The hedges were in some places formed of brambles (rubus), which, though prickly, were not thick set.

On the 1st of December, in the morning, I arrived at Paris. The luggage was all unloaded and searched in the inn yard. I took an apartment in the neighbourhood to hold my baggage, till I could get a lodging nearer to the colleges and hospitals in the city. And, as I had an address from assessor RIBE to a M. BERTH, his quondam landlord, I went in search of this person immediately, took a room at his house, and

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ordered my trunks to be carried thither that same afternoon.

I viewed the two hospitals, La Charité, and the Hotel Dieu; the former is neat; and the latter, which is very large, I afterwards visited daily, and hence had always an opportunity of learning something, either from the many chirurgical operations that are performed here, or else by attending the sick.

I next had the good fortune to become acquainted with two of my countrymen, who pursued the same studies with myself; this proved to be of considerable advantage to me, who being a stranger, could not otherwise so soon have been informed of the many opportunities this place affords for the improvement in the medical science. In the afternoon, among several churches we visited that of Notre Dame, from which the model of the Cathedral of Upsal was taken.—Most of these churches are built with cross ailes, and they are in general beautifully decorated. Three young girls stood before the altar in the church of the Hotel Dieu, and sang delightfully: this circumstance I have frequently observed since at other places.

December the 2d. The procession was performed at the Hotel Dieu, that is usually made there on the first Sunday of every month. The friars and nuns, who nurse the sick, were on

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this occasion clad in white, with black cloaks, and carried long candles in their hands.

My landlord reported my arrival, and gave in my address to the lieutenant of the police.

December the 9th, I attended divine service at the Swedish hotel. It was performed in the German language.

December the 14th, I viewed the convent of St. Genevieve, its library, cabinet of natural history, and fine gardens. The library is in the uppermost story, in the form of a cross, having book-cases all round the sides, and under the windows: the doors of the book-cases are of wire-work, and secured with locks. The books are all numbered. Between each book-cafe is placed the picture of some monarch or philosopher. The library is open on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, from two till five in the afternoon, and books may be borrowed from it. The cabinet of antiquities, and that of natural history, are contiguous to the library, and contain several amphibious animals and fishes stuffed, mummies, minerals, shells, and corals, but especially a great number of antiquities, all locked up within wire-work. The garden is neat, and is prettily ornamented with box cut in different forms.

On December the 24th, or Christmas eve, I saw the celebration and pompous ceremonies of the

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Catholic service in all the churches: this being performed in the night, the churches were well illuminated with a number of chandeliers.

That I might not suffer any time to pass away unemployed, besides visiting the hospital once, and sometimes twice a day, I engaged myself in anatomical dissections with M. DU MAS, surgeon to the Hotel Dieu. And while I attended the public lectures at the chirurgical college (St. Cōme), the medical college, or ecole de medicine; the botanic garden, or jardin royal; and the lectures in natural philosophy at the college naval, I did not neglect to attend private lectures upon anatomy, surgeny, and midwifery. The apparatus and method of teaching all these sciences, are as various as excellent: neither are they taught all at the same time, but successively, so that the professors, who give their lectures at different hours, may have numerous audiences, and the students not be perplexed with too many subjects at a time.

In the winter, anatomy is first read; then the chirurgical operations; afterwards chemistry and midwifery; towards summer, botany, pathology, and other branches of the sciences. Theory is always accompanied and illustrated by practice. And besides the public lectures, most of the professors and assistants deliver private ones, and that sometimes even gratis.

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At most of the professors public lectures, their assistants, or prevôts, are present; and when the professor has lectures upon any particular subject, the assistant immediately demonstrates it practically.

Though medicine and surgery are so amply discussed in public lectures, as would seem to render private instructions unnecessary, yet private lectures are very numerous; of which the chief use appears to be not so much the improvement of the students in theory, as to afford an opportunity of assisting with their own hands in the operations relative to surgery and midwisery. I therefore immediately engaged myself with Messrs. DU BUT and DU MAS, to go through a course of chirurgical operations, and afterwards to perform them myself every day under their tuition; and with M. SALAYRES, to improve myself in midwifery, and the various modes to be pursued in difficult labours.

From the account given above, the reader may collect, that at Paris there is the most considerable medical college in Europe; and that no other place affords so many opportunities for improvement in this science. The medical students at Paris exceed 3000, a number unequalled at any other university.

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The lecture rooms are, for the most part, built in a circular form, with benches gradually rising one above the other, and in the center and lowest part a table, at which the professor is seated, much in the same manner as at the anatomical theatre at Upsal. At the door there is always a guard to prevent noise and confusion, and to give more dignity and eclat to the act. No person is suffered to go in with a sword, or couteau de chasse, which would be inconvenient in such numerous audiences, not to mention more serious consequences. The gate of the hall is opened when the clock strikes; and in order to obtain a seat in some of the lower and more convenient forms, the pupils are frequently obliged to stand waiting at the entrance an hour before hand. Both when the professor enters, and when he finishes his lectures, a plaudit is often given by clapping of hands.

At the ecole de medicine, disputations are held every Tuesday and Thursday, when theses of half a sheet long are argued. The hall is at this time parted off. Without, a person sits at a table, dressed in black, and wearing a band, and distributes the theses. Within, the officiating professors are seated on benches lined with cloth, and in chairs. The respondent is seated by the side of the president, and like him clad in white

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linen robes. The opponents are dressed in black gowns and blue bands.

At l'ecole de chirurgie also disputations are held. The chairs are covered with laced velvet. Benches are placed all round, and chairs in the middle. All these formalities contribute to give dignity and solemnity to the act. A similar end is promoted by the professors delivering their lectures in their official robes, which are black, and ornamented with a white band. The French pronounce the latin so much like their own language, that at first it is difficult to understand them.

Incitements to diligence seem to be unnecessary, in a place where there are so many good opportunities for improvements in the arts and sciences; but yet they have not been forgotten. For this purpose, public examinations are held, where the students who most distinguish themselves receive gold and silver medals, and other rewards. On the 15th of February, I was present at a competition of this kind at St. Côme, where the pupils interrogated and responded to each other alternately. And in the month of March I attended an examination at the same place, when six professors put the questions. Here any Frenchman that pleased, except Parisians, might stand as a candidate. Those who are admitted to the ecole practique, or who obtain the

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prizes at these examinations, enjoy afterwards the privilege of dissecting and performing the chirurgical operations on dead bodies gratis.

The Hotel Dieu is the largest hospital in Paris, and perhaps in the whole world. The fund for its support is said to amount to six millions of livres, the greater part of which was formerly raised by voluntary contributions. The patients here are attended gratis, and their number is not limited. They are commonly carried hither on long litters, and their names entered at the admission-room. The entrance is through the church itself, to which an apartment is contiguous, having a row of beds, which, however, are not always occupied. At the bottom of this there are doors to other larger wards, which contain several rows of beds. A great number of the patients, especially the children, lie four in a bed. In the upper story the chirurgical patients are lodged; and the highest story of all is occupied by lying-in women, and by those who are in the last stage of pregnancy. The male patients are attended by friars, and the females by nuns. Their food is set on a table, and served out to them in basons. A close-stool covered over with cloth stands by each bed. At night the wards are lighted up with large lamp. When a patient dies, he is carried to the deadroom (salle des morts). Those who die before


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and after midnight are laid separately. Between ten and twenty persons die in general in the course of every twenty-four hours, and are sewed up in coarse unbleached linen. The number of patients generally amounts to about 3000, of whom 2000 are under the care of the physicians and 1000 under the surgeons. The number of them on the 1st of March, was 3950; and the week following they amounted to 3978.

The hospital of la Charité is much smaller, but neater and more elegant than the Hotel Dieu. It contains about 200 beds, and has a dispensary of its own. Only a certain number of patients is received here, to whom M. DUSCU, the director, gives tickets of admission.

The hospital of the Invalids, for the maintenance of old and disabled soldiers, has one spacious ward for patients, and is situated near town. The chapel belonging to it is large, and has an elevated choir, which is elegantly inlaid with different sorts of marble; part of its floor is depressed, and here no one is permitted to enter but the King, on which account it is constantly guarded by sentinels, as are also the doors of the chapel; many of these sentinels are old crippled soldiers. Adjoining to this hospital is the ecole militaire.

The Bicétre, or hospital for those that are afflicted with the venereal disease, is at a small

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distance from town; and those who are received into it, must previously procure tickets of admission.

The botanic garden (jardin royal), which is under the able direction of M. THOUIN, is extensive, and divided into two long partitions, inclosed within hedges, and the beds or subdivisions are bordered with box. Towards the street stands the cabinet of natural history, which contains several apartments; in the first of these, different sorts of woods, barks, seeds, roots, and fruits, are kept in bottles, with the names affixed to them in French, the bottles being inclosed in cases with glass doors.

In the second room is a fine collection of fossils in cases, placed on inclined planes: here are also various petrefactions, and specimens of polished marble. The third chamber contains birds in glass-cases of three different sizes; their eggs and nests are placed on the lowest shelves: here likewise occur some corals and shells, with insects in square glass-cases. To the cieling of the fourth apartment amphibious animals were suspended: here I saw a stuffed zebra, the skin of which had been brought from the Cape by M. DE LA CAILLE; also amphibious animals, fishes, insects, &c. preserved in spirits of wine. The room destined for anatomical preparations, was not yet quite finished. This collection is

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exhibited to the public from two till five, on Tuesdays and Thursdays. In every room there is a sentinel, who gives admission to people of a genteel appearance.

The lowest part of the garden forms a kind of wilderness, consisting of trees of various sorts. On the left hand are orangeries and hot-houses. Before these is a terrace on which pots are set out in the summer, and several small partitions for plants, inclosed with yew trees (taxus). Above these, on a rising ground, are other hothouses, and the gardener's dwelling-house, with a room for drying seeds. Behind the hot-houses and the orangery, on the same elevation, are walks and a grove, together with a hill, so high, that the whole city of Paris may be seen from it. This garden is open to the public, both for botanical purposes and for recreation. The hedges are formed of yew (taxus baccata), elm (ulmus campestris), holly (ilex aquisolium), box (buxus), lime trees (tiliu Europæa), dogwood (cornus mascula), honeysuckles (lonicera caprufolium, the double blossomed cherry-tree (prunus cerasus), the judas tree (cercis siliquastrum), lycium barbarum, coronilla securidaca, the lesser maple (acer campestre), lilac (syringa vulgaris), &c. The trees planted in the garden were chiefly the cut-leaved Montpellier, and common maple (acer plantanoides, monspessulanum, and

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(campestre), the common and kermes oaks (quercus ilex, and coccifera), the common cypress (cypressus sempervirens), the Bermudian cedar (juniperus Bermudiana); yew, elm, lime, and horse-chesnut trees, the circis, the phillyræa, both latifolia and media; the pyrus cydonia, or quince tree; and both sorts of platanus, or plane tree.

The water of the Seine, that runs through the city, is unwholesome, especially to strangers newly arrived. From the chalk it holds in solution, it has a milky colour, and is apt to occasion diarrhœas.

Large carts go about the streets in the morning to take away the soil, which the inhabitants have previously swept up close to the walls.

The outsides of the houses have for the most part a gloomy appearance, from the windows being placed near the inside of the walls. Before the windows of the second and sometimes the third story, there is often a little balcony with an iron railing, and the window opens inwards. Many of the floors are laid with bricks or stone, and consequently cold—to prevent their bad effects, the inhabitants wear at home large slippers lined with fur.

The beds, which are well furnished with clothes, are very high and large. The bolsters

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are cylindrical, and rather inconvenient to persons unaccustomed to them.

No streets are better lighted than those of Paris. The large lanterns suspended on cords over the middle of the street, project no shadow. Fruits and other necessaries are cried in the streets, as well as water, which is brought by men from the river for domestic uses.

The shoe-blacks make a tender of their services to the foot passengers, in every square, and almost in every street, which are extremely dirty all the year round, from the vast number of carriages passing and repassing, and from the kennels being in the middle of the streets. In Sweden such gentry would have no employment for three quarters of the year. In rainy weather the streets are scarcely passable for umbrellas, which are indispensibly necessary in a city where all the world follows the Japanese fashion of going bare-headed.

Very small muffs were worn here by both sexes, so early as in the month of December. In the middle of January, when the cold is generally intense, some people carried pitchers with charcoal in them, to keep their hands warm. During a thaw, water rushes with such impetuosity down the streets that go sloping towards the river, as to render them impassable.

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Auctions are often held in the open streets. The auctioneer did not make use of a hammer; but after two or three articles had been put up, he said adieu, and the money was paid down directly.

The tables in France are not always laid with knives and forks, which obliges the guests generally to carry clasp-knives about them.

The police is admirable; patroles are going both night and day, one close upon the heels of the other, to secure the peace of this large and populous city. In almost every street there is a commissary, who has a right to determine trifling disputes.

It sometimes happens, that people, either by accident or otherwise, die in the streets. And as it is impossible that all such persons should be known, they are carried to a particular house, and exposed to public view in a room with an iron grate before it, in order that the friends of the persons missing may know where to look for them, before they are buried, which is done within a certain time after.

The commerce of good offices is here carried to such a height, that a person who is obliged to be out in the night, will frequently find men with lanterns in the street, who for a trifle, will light him home.

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Le Palais des Marchands is a large elegant building, where all sorts of trinkets, &c. are sold. On new year's eve it is most splendidly illuminated, and all their fineries are displayed.

Luxembourg is a fine palace, having a spacious court and garden, which, as well as the Thuilleries, is open for every person to walk in, who has not a sword on. The gallery of pictures and drawings is open every Wednesday and Saturday, from ten till one o'clock. The history of MARY OF MEDICIS is placed on one side; and in the apartments on the other side, a great variety of other paintings.

Many of the convents are large, having their court-yards, and often beautiful gardens, open to the public.

Vauxhall, situated beyond the Champs Elizées, was founded and is kept in elegant order by some private gentlemen. On certain days there is a band of music, and every one that chuses it is at liberty to dance. Towards evening there is a display of fire-works. Admission is obtained by means of a ticket, which costs thirty sols.

Immediately after Christmas, the image of Christ, and that of the Virgin Mary with the holy insant, were placed all over the streets and houses, in little niches or cases, environed with crowns and tapers.


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In Lent, when meat is prohibited, all the butchers-shops in the city are shut up. Provisions are dearer at this time than at any other, there being a great dearth of eggs and milk, and butchers' meat being only to be had at the slaughter-house belonging to the Hotel Dieu, to the very great emolument of this place. In the day time, during the carnival, the people amuse themselves in a thousand different ways. A bullock with gilt horns, and otherwise decorated, is led round all the streets of the town, with a boy on his back. Many went masked along, on horseback, in coaches, or in chaises, in such fantastic dresses, and vast numbers, that a stranger might be easily induced to believe, one-half of the inhabitants had lost their senses.

Besides the diversions so much abounding at Paris, which entice such numbers of travellers to this splendid city, all the Swedes now residing here, and myself among the rest, had the honour of being presented to the then Prince Royal, the present KING of Sweden, and his brother, Prince FREDERICK ADOLPHUS.

But this joy was much damped by the news brought on the 1st of March, of his Swedish Majesty, ADOLPHUS FREDERICK's death, and of the subsequent illness of his Royal Highness Prince FREDERICK ADOLPHUS.


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On the 26th of March, his Swedish Majesty departed from Paris for Sweden in good health.

On the 29th, I took a walk to the Bois de-Bologne, a wood consisting chiefly of oaks, where the people assemble and dance.

At Calvaire, a high hill on the banks of the Seine, on the ascent of the hill the Passion of Christ is represented in seven acts, in seven different rooms, disposed two by two, in regular order. On the summit of the hill are placed three croses and the holy sepulchre, with a church. It now being Easter, the cross was presented to the populace to be kissed, who pressed forwards in crouds to the altar, and to the priests, who presented it to them. In the mean time, two friars receive upon plates their offerings on the occasion.

On the 30th, I was invited by two of my friends, Messrs. VEBER and VOLSTEINO, to accompany them to the Ecole Royale Veterinaire, near Charanton. The number of pupils here amounted to near 100, who lived sometimes two or three together, in chambers on the upper story. On the lower story is, on one side, the anatomical theatre, which is very large; and on the other side a long room, with three rows of seats in it, for the public examinations. On this day was held one of these examinations (concours), of which there are four or five in a year.

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The president and several of the deputies were seated at a long table, and on another smaller one were placed the anatomical preparations.—The president and assessors had paper before them to write their notes upon. The present subject was the mythology of a horse, which the students demonstrated two at a time, one putting questions and the other resolving them.—The two ablest competitors drew lots for the prize on this occasion.

During the examination their names were always mentioned. In the upper story was the museum, where excellent preparations of various animals were preserved within glass-cases. The director of this fine school lived in a large house adjacent to it. On one side of the yard was a smithy for the instruction of the students, which had two fire-places or chimnies, and two forges in each fire-place.

The Infirmary for diseased animals was divided into several apartments, which were placed in two long rows.

Here was also a small botanical garden, laid out for the cultivation of medicinal plants for the cattle, and furnished with a little hot-house.

The apothecary's shop too was very handsome. Those who boarded here paid twenty livres per month.

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Among the various sorts of sheep that I saw here, was a Turkish one, which having had its left thigh amputated, walked with a wooden leg.

April the 1st. Stained eggs ornamented with figures scratched on them, were sold in the streets during the Easter holidays; and Lent being at an end, pigeons were brought in to the town, and butchers' meat was hung up for sale in the shambles.

On the 25th of April, M. LA FAYE presented to the academy of surgery a woman thirty-six years old, who, in the seventh year of her age, had the small pox, in consequence of which, by means of abscesses or gangrene, she had lost her tongue piece-meal. For two years after this she could not speak; but had since accustomed herself to it by degrees. There were now no traces of the tongue remaining, but only the glands or almonds of the throat projected a little: yet she spoke very plainly, and in singing likewise articulated her words distinctly. This she performed by shutting her teeth close together, and by applying the under lip against the upper.

May the 2d. To-day the French guards, who wear a blue uniform with white lace, and the Swiss guards, whose uniform is red, after having marched with a large band of music to

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the church of Notre Dame, received their benediction for this year. On this occasion I went up into the steeple, which affords a most delightful prospect.

On the 14th of May, were celebrated the nuptials of the Compte de PROVENCE with the Princess of SARDINIA. All Paris was illuminated with candles and lamps, which were placed on the outside before the windows; and victuals and wine were distributed in the squares.

On the 25th, I visited the apothecary's garden, which, though small, contains several curious plants, and has at the bottom a grove for walking in. Free admittance to this garden may be obtained for twelve livres, and about six more in gratuities to the attendants, when the gardener presents the subscriber with a catalogue, by which the plants may be found that are not yet numbered.

On the 30th, the feast of the Sacrament, or Fête Dieu, was celebrated. The friars of all the churches paraded about their respective parishes, with le bon Dieu inclosed in a glass-box with a sun round it, and placed under a canopy, with music, drums, censers, and baskets of flowers. All the houses, as high as to the top of the first floors, were hung with tapestry of all sorts, which gave the streets so different an appearance, that a stranger could not without

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difficulty find his way home again. In the streets flowers were scattered, and in different parts of them altars erected, upon which the priests mounted, in order to give their benediction to the street and to the houses. During the procession, money was collected for the purpose of releasing prisoners from the petit chatelet. On this occasion a great many ridiculous situations and absurdities are exhibited. Parents were seen to throw their children on the ground, that the procession might pass over them, yet without hurting them.

In the afternoon I saw the gobelins, or the magnificent tapestry which is manufactured here, and is always publicly exhibited on this day.—All the walls of the court yard were hung with them on the insides, as well as the apartments. They represented several histories from the Bible, as also from OVID and other poets. The figures were full of animation.

On the 12th of June, I paid a visit to the famous enameller, M. ROUX, who makes eyes in enamel, representing all the disorders of that organ, as likewise artificial eye, to such perfection, that they cannot be distinguished from the natural. The different colours of the eyes he imitates with pieces of enamel of various colours, which he procures from Venice, and afterwards mixes them up with different metals.

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His apparatus, which, however, he does not show to every body, is as follows: On the table is fixed a brass plate, on which stands a lamp with a large wick. Under the table is a pair of bellows which he works himself with his foot, and the mouth of which passes upwards through the table: here a glass-tube is fixed to it, which is bent towards the flame of the lamp, and by means of which he brings the enamel into fusion. Having fixed his materials to the end of a tobacco-pipe, he first begins the globe of the eye, which is made wider and wider in circles, and then brought into a smaller compass, till only an aperture is left for the cornea, which is formed in that place by the addition of blue enamel. The end of the pipe is then heated, and the cornea is first of all blown, and afterwards the rest of the eye-ball. With a stick of blue and white twisted enamel, several dots are then made within the outward rim of the cornea; within this row is made a row of white dots, and within these another row of blue and white dots, all of which are melted together, and diffused over it by means of heat. After this some black enamel is laid on, to form the pupil, and on the outside of all a larger knob of fine and clear crystal glass, for the purpose of making the cornea transparent. All this is then wrought up by the flame into the natural form

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of the eye, by blowing it outwards from within. Lastly, in order to get the pipe loose, the stick of crystal is very slightly fastened to one side of the cornea, and the pipe is taken away, and at the same time the globe of the eye has its proper shape given to it behind.

The proper size and the circular form is given to the cornea and to the globe of the eye itself, during the blowing, by means of a pair of compasses. From the bulb so much is taken off behind, that the whole fits exactly, and the edges are made smooth and even in the flame. Previous to the pipe's being taken away, the globe is blown out at the two sides, in order to form the two angles of the eye. All this being done, a crystal-glass is fixed very slightly to the edge of the eye, and the stick that was before fixed to the cornea, is taken off; the mark made by it is closed up by blowing on the part, and the eye put into a box filled with live coals and embers, in order to cool by degrees. This artist works with spectacles in a darkened room. Before the flame of the lamp he has a plate, the convex side of which is turned towards the flame, the plate itself being fixed on a stand.

Every month he distributes eyes gratis to such poor people as stand in need of them. People in less affluent circumstances are supplied with them at a cheaper rate than the rich, by whom

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he is well paid, the price differing from one to twenty-five Louis d'ors. The surgeons may have them of him for six livres a piece. Any person who has had the misfortune to lose one of his eyes, and wishes to repair his loss with one of enamel, may go to the artist, who will take a pattern for it from his remaining eye. A draught of the eye is required, or else a very accurate description may be sent him by the post, and he will make an eye according to the orders. In all such cases he takes the precaution of putting by in a paper, samples of those sorts of enamel which he has used, to make use of, if necessary, another time. According to the different colour of the iris, the colours of the enamel must be chosen; in like manner with respect to radii, points, shades, and vessels. The eyes vary in size, according to the difference of age; and sometimes he makes them with angles or little hooks. One of these eyes may be worn three months, and even half a year, when, on account of its being injured by the friction, it must be changed. For an eye that represents some disorder, he charges a Louis d'or, or at least twelve livres. The number of eyes of this kind amount to fifty and odd.

On the 2d of July, towards evening, the effigy of a man was carried about some of the streets in the city, and afterwards beheaded and burnt.

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This was said to be done in remembrance of a man, who, many years ago, when in a state of intoxication, had assaulted, and run his sword through an image of the Virgin Mary, that he met with in his way just before a convent; for which he suffered the punishment which is still repeated in effigy, in commemoration of such a detestable action.

M. GEOFFROY, whom among others I visited, received me with the greatet politeness, and showed me his collection of insects. He had set them up all along the walls of a room in small glass-cases.

In one of the boats that run down the Seine, I took a passage to Versailles, and from thence to Trianon, for the purpose of seeing the royal botanic garden in this place, which is the most elegant of any that I have seen; and of examining at the same time the collection of plants of Messrs. RICHARDS, made by the younger of these gentlemen, in his voyage to Majorca and Minorca.

On the 18th of July, I went from Paris to Rouen, in order to take my passage in some vessel from thence to Amsterdam, and from thence to the East-Indies, in consequence of an offer made me during my stay at Paris, by Professor BURMANN, which I accepted with the greatest pleasure.

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In my passage to Rouen, which I made partly in boats down the Seine, and partly by land, I went to see the vast and remarkable engine at Marly, which carries water up to Versailles for the space of several leagues, and over considerable eminences.

Having travelled by day and night, I arrived at Rouen on the 19th.

The large bridge constructed here on the Seine, which is of a considerable breadth, is formed of boats, and may be taken to pieces.

The mountain near Rouen appeared to have regular beds or strata of chalk and flint, each bed being of the breadth of about a hand, or somewhat more. These strata reached only as far as to the middle of the mountain where they were succeeded by chalk. The flint is for the most part black, sometimes white, grey, yellow, or bluish, and at the same time exhibited many cavities and elevations. Though the chalk is thus interspersed with flints, yet stones are cut out of it for building, Near Paris the chalk appeared to be more mixed with petrefactions. The mountains near Bouille contained also flints, and near Quillebæuf it consisted of chalk rubble, with small pieces of flints.

On the 9th of August, I embarked in a Dutch vessel. We fell gently down the river, frequently casting anchor, and sometimes following


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the tide at ebb. The ebb, the nearer one approaches to the sea, becomes longer and longer, insomuch, that a great part of the land was left dry, and the ships lay aground, and stuck in the soft clay.

On all holidays the inhabitants of the villages were seen dancing and amusing themselves out in the fields. The girls had a particular kind of drefs, consisting of bare stays with bows of ribbands behind, and on the sides of the petticoats; gold and silver lace about the head, with a piece of linen hanging down on each side of it.

The mountains, besides chalk and flint, seemed to consist more or less of light or dark layers of chalk, of the thickness of an inch, formed by the tide. This is very conspicuous in the elevations which are yet under water, and become visible only at the ebb; the colour of these strata is owing to the clay being dark beneath them; but the sediment, which the water deposits on its surface, is lighter, or of a yellowish grey. This affords an evident example of the manner in which the beds of mountains are formed, viz. during the ebb, which comes on slowly, the water deposits a sediment, by which means small elevations are formed like promontories, resembling steps placed one above another; before the time of flood, which comes

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on rapidly, the sediment of each tide is become in some measure hard. The hills from Paris towards the sea, were for the most part of the same height as the castle-hill near Upsal: and bays were seen running into them, which sometimes shelved off gradually, and at other times were quite steep. Their steepness frequently proceeds from pieces falling down; this was clearly evident at low water from the small banks that are now forming for future generations.—Below the mountains, in some places, lay plots of level ground of different sizes, which the water had formerly accumulated by degrees, but had now left entirely; some of these were still bare, while others, though in a soft state, were already over-grown with grass and trees, and thus already formed into islands. Nearer towards Havre de Grace, the tide has formed near these islands, bays which resemble small harbours, and are in every respect similar to those that are seen on a larger scale near the higher mountains. All this clearly shows the formation of the mountains, as well as the decrease of the water. More towards the sea the flints appeared to be both in smaller quantity, and less mature, than higher up in the country; in the vicinity of the sea they were pale, were covered with a thicker grey coat, and seemed to be less hard. The flints are, no doubt, coagulated in

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and by the chalk, however dissimilar these two substances are separately considered. In bread, which, from impeded fermentation and cold, turns stony, one would scarcely suppose the hard part to be of the same materials with the rest, although it has only undergone the process of baking.

In going down the river a pilot constantly attended on board the vessel, to take care of the anchorage while in low water. On this occasion the vessel is frequently laid close to the shore, and in a small creek, where it lies on one side in the soft mud. Our pilot was imprudent enough on such an occasion to lay our vessel directly across one of these creeks, so that at low water it rested on its sore, and ast ends; and as it had no support in the middle, it broke in two, and was afterwards obliged to be taken to Havre de Grace to be repaired. This shipwreck on dry land put me under the necessity of sending my baggage on board another vessel, in which I continued my journey to Amsterdam.

Honfleur is a little town at the mouth of the river, that has a fine harbour, at which we arrived on the 22d of August. The tide left a great deal of the bottom dry. Here shrimps (cancer squilla), were caught in a net fixed between two sticks, which the fisherman pushed before him.

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From the wind the sailors get weak and red eyes; from the rolling of the ship, bandy-legs, and prominent posteriors; and from labour and handling of the rigging, hard and callous hands.

On the 30th of August, I arrived at Amsterdam, and was received with a hearty welcome by my patrons, the Professors BURMANNS.

In September the usual annual fair was held, which lasts three weeks, when booths are fixed in all the squares, and in many other places.

Whilst I was preparing for my long-intended voyage, I visited almost daily the physic-garden in the morning, and spent the evenings at Professor BURMANN's house, among his collections and in his library. In the physic-garden I examined, at his request, all the plants in the parterres, to see whether the names affixed to them were proper. The plants were arranged according to the system of VAN ROYEN, and close by each plant was placed a painted stick, with a number on it.

I also went to see the academy of painting, the anatomical theatre and its preparations, the exotic animals at Blue-John's, and other curiosities; and early every morning I took care to visit the hospitals. Blue-John's (Blaauve Jean) is a private house, where wine is retailed, and where various sorts of curious animals, birds, as well as beasts, sometimes very rare ones, from

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both the Indies and Africa, are kept in cages and exhibited. These beasts attract a great number of people to the house, and thus promote the sale of the landlord's wine; for the spectators are always obliged to buy one or more bottles of wine at a dear rate, though they are allowed to see the beasts gratis.

I had an opportunity of making acquaintance with a M. KLEINHOFF, who had been three years in the West Indies, and one and twenty at Batavia. At this time he lived at the distance of two day's journey from Amsterdam, upon his revenues; and gave me information in several particulars relative to the Indies.

I also became acquainted with a M. SCHELLING, who had been a long time in America, and was shortly to return thither in the quality of supervisor of the hospitals. Among other things he told me that the disease called jassi, or the yaws, to which the Americans were subject, was unknown in Europe, and was painful, chronic, and eruptive, causing a sensation in the skin like that which arises from the pricking of needles; it is cured by means of mercury. The leprosy he asserted to be very common in America: it makes its first appearance in the form of a small spot, which afterwards, by degrees, spreads all over the skin.—This spot is devoid of all feeling, even if burnt


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with a red hot needle; and in process of time, the fingers and limbs fall off while the patient is at work, without his perceiving it. With good diet the disease may be concealed for a long time, and when the eruption becomes universal, it generally goes away. Sudorifics are of service, but mercury hurtful.

On the 4th of November, a professor of laws was introduced into the Athenæum, or academy, here; who made an oration de jurisprudentia civili circa promovendam mercaturam. All the professors were dressed in black, and wore cloaks, bands, and large wigs with flowing curls, of which two hung in front, and one on each shoulder.

Since the preceding year, when I stayed a few weeks at Amsterdam, and passed many agreeable hours in Professor BURMANN's library and cabinet of natural history, that gentleman had, during my stay at Paris, passed a great many encomiums on my knowledge in natural history, in the presence of some gentlemen at Amsterdam; and at the same time represented to them, how serviceable I should be to them, as lovers of curious exotic plants, if I could but have the opportunity of going, at their expence, to some of the northern parts of Asia, especially Japan, from whence we had no plants in Europe, although it was probable, that they

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would bear the climate as well as others lately brought hither in great numbers from North America.

These gentlemen, who spared no expence for their fruit and pleasure-gardens, listened with pleasure to this proposal, and resolved to furnish me with the means and recommendations necessary for a voyage to Japan. And as no nation except the Dutch, is suffered to come into Japan, it was necessary for me both to understand Dutch and to speak it; to obtain this, I requested to be permitted previously to pass a couple of years at the Cape of Good Hope, and to be taken in the service of the East India Company.

The Dutch East India Company fit out their numerous ships at three different seasons. The largest fleet is ready in September, and is called the Kermes fleet; the second, which is less numerous, is ready before Christmas, and is called the Christmas fleet; the third, called the Easter fleet, sails about the time of that festival, and is the least.

As the first fleet lay ready in the Texel, only waiting for a fair wind, and the second fleet also was provided with all its officers, it was resolved, that I should be engaged in the capacity of surgeon-extraordinary in one of the ships then bound for the Cape of Good Hope, by

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which means I should be more at my leisure on the voyage, without being under an obligation to do duty any farther than I myself should please. By this I afterwards gained the great and inestimable advantage, that upon my arrival at the Cape I could stay three whole years, without being obliged to attend the ship to the different places whither it was sent.

I was consequently received on board the Schoonzigt, and had the pleasure to see it commanded by a Swedish captain, M. RONDECRANTZ, from Smaland, who was born near Calmar.

The little time I still had to remain, I spent in informing myself, as much as possible, of the state of this powerful East India Company, as well as of the œconomy observed on board their ships, and also of the regulations of their factories in the East Indies.

On the 6th of December, the crew that was to go on board the fleet, passed muster, and took the usual oaths in the East-India-House. After this their baggage was brought on board. All their chests, which they buy new, have the mark of the Company burnt on them in the India-House, and are then brought on board in the Company's own craft. A soldier is allowed to have a little box about two feet square, to contain his scanty store. A sailor, who wants a

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greater change of clothes, is allowed one as large again; but the officers may bring one or more large chests (besides baskets, bottle-cases, and casks of beer) as well for stowing merchandize in, as for provisions; though for the most part, besides these, they find means of conveying separate chests of clothes and provisions on board. In each ship there are above a hundred sailors, and from two to three hundred soldiers. A day or two previous to the crew's going on board, a drum is beat throughout all the streets, for the purpose of informing them of the time when they are to join the boats, in order to be transported on board the ships. On these occasions, if an officer lives in that street, they do him the honour of drumming violently, and for a long time before his door—an honour that always stands him in a few shillings, and draws a great concourse of people of all denominations about his house.

On the 10th of December, I had the honour of going with M. BEAUMONT, the director, in the Company's yacht to the Texel, where the ships, bound to different places in the East-Indies, lay ready, waiting only for the muster and a fair wind. I was amply provided with letters of recommendation to the Governor at the Cape, M. RYK TULBAGH, from M. RHEEDE VAN OUDSHORN, who, about Easter, was to go

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to the Cape in quality of Vice-Governor; and from the burgomaster TEMMINK, as also from Professor BURMANN and his mother-in-law, to M. BERG, counsellor of police; and to M. NETHLING, secretary of the court of justice.

We did not reach the Texel before the next day.

On the 14th, I had the pleasure of being present at the muster in the Nieues Roon Indiaman. As soon as the officers had been called over, they received their instructions, their cabins were given them, and the ship's council was appointed. The sailors and soldiers were then mustered, and their abilities enquired into afresh, although they had been examined previous to their being received at Amsterdam. If they now were found to be not so well qualified as the ought to be, a circumstance which was frequently decided by their looks alone, and the testimony of a surly skipper, their monthly pay, contrary to prior agreement, and to all justice and equity, was diminished to the value of a gilder or more. As soon as the director had taken his leave, the whole crew went aloft into the rigging, and waving their hats and caps, gave three cheers. This was acknowledged by the same number of cheers from the yacht; the ship then fired her guns, and was answered by the yacht.

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In the evening of this day, an unlucky accident happened on board the ship in which I was to sail. A soldier had his left foot torn off by the bite of a rope, near the capstan, in such a manner, that the tibia was separated at the joint, the fibula obliquely fractured, and the whole held together by the tendo achillis only. This disagreeable occurrence deprived me of the pleasure of spending my time on board the yacht, till all the ships had passed muster, with the Director BEAUMONT, who was a very amiable as well as sensible man, and was the occasion that I was obliged to go on board the Scoonzigt the next morning. The patient was then dressed, without our being able to find and tie up the artery, for which reason it was necessary to keep on the tourniquet; and, whilst preparations were making for the amputation of the leg, orders came for the patient to be carried to the hospital at Amsterdam.

We staid a fortnight longer for a fair wind, during which time I had an opportunity of making myself acquainted with the œconomical regulations observed on board, both with respect to the healthy and sick part of the crew. Each man singles out for himself a companion, in whom, during the voyage, he can place most confidence. The messes are so regulated, that seven men dine at a table, which has a

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caterer to keep order at it. To the sailors as well as soldiers are distributed wooden-bowls, as being less subject to accidents on board of ship, than earthen vessels.

As the crew had been but a week on board, I expected, on my arrival, to find no patients; but found, to my great surprize, that several men were already ill; I heard also, that the number of sick and dead on board the ships which had been lying in the Texel since September last, was so considerable, that when we failed, several ships, such as the Groendal, the Huyster Mey, the Krcenbourg, and the Hoenkoop, were obliged, for want of hands, to wait for a fresh supply, notwithstanding they had been sent out at first with more than three hundred men.

The causes of this epidemical disease, which I minutely investigated, I found to be multifarious. The air was at this time very heavy and moist, and the fog in general so thick, that nobody ventured to pass from one ship to another without taking a compass with him, in order to find his way back, as no light from any lamps or lanterns that were hung out could pierce through the fog. Till the ships get under sail, little or no order is observed, either in the œconomy of the ship, or among the crew itself. But what very much, if not solely, conduces to the increase of maladies, is undoubtedly

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the great number of diseased soldiers sent on board by the kidnappers (zeelverkoopers) with bodies partly emaciated, and partly replete with scurvy and corrupted fluids. These men, unaccustomed to the manner of living on board of ship, and to the damp cold sea-air, soon contract putrid fevers, and infect the rest of the crew. This happens the sooner, if they are also ill provided with clothes or dejected in mind.

And as these kidnappers, the most detestable members of society, frequently effect the ruin of unwary strangers, by decoying them into their houses, and then selling them to be transported to the East-Indies, I have thought it my duty to make some mention of them in this place, as a caution to all such as may have occasion to go to Holland. These man-stealers are citizens, who under the denomination of victuallers, have the privilege to board and lodge strangers for money, and under this cloke perpetrate the most inhuman crimes, that do not always come to the knowledge of their superiors, nor can be punished by the hands of justice. They not only keep servants to pick up strangers in the streets, but also bribe the carriers (kruyers) who carry the baggage of travellers from the ships to the inns, to bring strangers to lodge with them; who, as soon as they arrive,

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are generally shut up in a room, together with a number of others, to the amount of a hundred and more, where they are kept upon scanty and wretched food, entered as soldiers on the Company's books, and at length, when the ships are ready to sail, carried on board. The honest dealer, on the other hand, receives two months of their pay, and what is called a bill of transport, for 100, 150, or 200 gilders. In the two, three, or four months, during which they are shut up at the kidnapper's, they contract the scurvy, a putrid diathesis, and melancholy, (which break out soon after they come on board); and by their pale countenances, livid lips, and swelled and ulcerated legs, are easily distinguished from the others who are healthy and found. A transferable bill for a certain sum of money is sometimes given by the East India Company to persons enlisted in their service, as an advance of their pay, to enable them to fit themselves out; but this bill is not discounted by the Company, unless the person to whom it was given, serves to the full amount of the sum thus advanced. Thus if the person enlisted dies before he has served to the full amount of the bill, the deficiency is not paid. For this reason such a bill is always negociated at a great loss, proportionate to the strength of constirution or health of the assignee, and to the time

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that he appears likely to live. In fact, it is seldom negotiated at more than half its nominal value. Many innocent people, often of decent family and in easy circumstances, are trepanned by these man-stealers, and must go as soldiers to the East or West Indies, where they are obliged by the articles of their agreement to serve at least five years. Yet all do not fall into their hands in this unfortunate manner, but many having no other means of subsistence, go of their own accord to one of these traders in human flesh, who provides them with board and lodging on credit, and for his own security shuts them up, till they can be sent on board. It is unfortunately too true, that many persons are so unhappy as to fall in the manner above-mentioned into their snares; yet neither are these things done under the fanction of government, nor do they go unpunished when they are discovered.

Nevertheless, the directors of the East India Company can neither be desended, as not knowing of such scandalous practices that disgrace humanity, nor, indeed, be acquitted of favouring them at times. For as the company is often in want of men, and does not care to give better pay, they are obliged to overlook the methods used by these infamous traders in human flesh to procure hands; and if at the

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muster any one should think proper to lay open his case and misfortune, the director, not overscrupulous, never thinks such a one too good for the Company's service. So that the directors would be able to prevent all such illegal violence, if at the reception of their men, and especially at the muster of them on board of ship, they made a strict enquiry into particulars, or wished in the least to vindicate the rights of mankind. It is common to hear that these unfortunate persons have been deprived of their clothes and other property by the kidnappers, who in their stead have sent them out with two or three pair of worsted stockings, trowsers made of sail-cloth, 16lb. of tobacco, and a keg of brandy: of this scanty and certainly not very enviable property, the greatest part is frequently stolen from them on their arrival on board, so that they are afterwards obliged to run barefooted and bare-headed in the cold, having scarcely sufficient to cover their nakedness.

The crew being thus badly clothed, dejected in mind, and forced by rough means to hard and severe labour, it is not surprising that diseases should suddenly supervene, and be rapidly propagated. Out of twenty patients, at the beginning of the voyage, scarcely one is a sailor, but all of them soldiers from the kidnappers. Thus these dealers in human flesh undoubtedly occasion great

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loss and injury to the Company with their wretched supplies. This the Company might prevent, if they established a house on their wharf, in which poor people, who were desirous of being engaged in their service, might be decently fitted out, and maintained till such time as the ships were ready to sail, and afterwards serve to the amount of what had been advanced to them, without, at the same time, enriching an infamous ruffian.

Theft can hardly be carried to a greater height, than it is on board an East Indiaman during the time it lies in the Texel. Chests are broke open in the night, and emptied of their contents, so that the owner has not a single rag left for shifting himself: hammocks and bed-clothes are stolen, insomuch that the owners are obliged to sleep on the bare boards of the deck: shoes and night-caps are purloined from the feet and heads of those that are asleep; and the sick have frequently their breeches and stockings stripped from off their bodies: so that those who slept, when they awake, and the sick when they recover, must run about in the cold bare-headed, bare-footed, and half naked.

As long as the ships are at anchor in the Texel, the medicine chests must not be opened, but the necessary medicines are taken out as occasion requires. The patients are at this time

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kept on the lower deck under the forecastle; but as soon as the ship is out at sea, they are brought up between decks as long as the capstan is not used. For such patients as have no hammocks, a shelf is made of boards to sleep upon at one side, and at the other is placed one of the medicine-chests, the other being set just before the windlass, where during the whole voyage the patients are dressed.

The physician of the Company, indeed, Dr. FAMARS, had ordered, by way of preventing infection in the ships, that the attendants should hold a sponge filled with vinegar in their mouths, and wash themselves with vinegar; and the healthy should drink tamarind-tea, and take spirit of scurvy-grass; that the convalescents should have tincture of bark and fresh mutton; that the sides of the ship should be sprinkled with vinegar, &c.; but these and other precautions were not sufficient to put a stop to the prevailing contagion, which hardly ceased during the voyage, till almost all the half-rotten fellows sent in by the kidnappers were carried off.

On the 30th of December, at three in the afternoon, we set sail, and left the Texel with a favourable easterly wind, that had lasted, and even increased, for the space of twenty-four hours; Capt. MORLAND, of the ship Bovenker-

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kerpolder, as first in command, having previously given the signal, by the firing of guns, for weighing the anchors. A great number of East India and other merchant ships bore us company. After the pilot, the custom-house officers, and others, had taken their leaves, and left the ship, and we had passed the third tun or beacon, we fired our guns, and wished each other a happy voyage.

On the 31st, in the afternoon, we passed the Channel that separates England from France.

1772, Jan. 3, we had got out of the Channel into the Bay of Biscay, when the water, which hitherto had been green, now appeared quite of a blue colour, and the air was considerably warmer.

On the 4th, among other dishes, there were served up at night, at the officers' table, some pancakes, for which the domine or chaplain, as caterer, had given the flour out to the steward, and by mistake, or rather from gross stupidity, had taken almost one half of some white lead, which had been put into a pitcher, and set by in the cupboard, for the purpose of painting the ship; the extraordinary weight of which, however, did not excite any suspicion in him. The pancakes were thin, with brown spots here and there scattered over them, especially on one side, but otherwise white, and as dry as if there had


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not been a morsel of butter put into them.—The cook being suspected of having dressed them ill, and been too sparing of the butter, was called in, and severely reprimanded.—Most of the officers at table, however, ate a pancake apiece, which tasted somewhat sweetish, but betrayed no marks of poison. The remainder were consumed by the purser and boys, so that in all twenty persons partook of them. The effect of the poison was this, that some of them immediately threw it up again, especially the boys, as having the most irritable nerves; others did the same in the night following, and during the whole of the next day. The white-lead, settled at the bottom of the vessel, was of a dark-grey-colour. Though the verdigrise of some copper pan was now chiefly suspected, and the sea-sickness likewise came in for its share of the blame, yet at the sight of this sediment, it came into my head to examine it more narrowly. I therefore put a little of it on live coals, and with a blow-pipe melted it into lead.

At the same time I recollected, that the acid French wine which we drank at table, and which now rose on our stomachs, and tasted quite sweet, could not be so from the small quantity of sugar that was strewed on the pancakes, but might possibly have been rendered sweet by means of something of the nature of lead.

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This, though I could not conceive how it was brought about, induced me to make the experiment above mentioned. Those who happened to vomit in the evening, got rid of the lead, and recovered perfectly, as was the case with all the boys that were servants in the ship. Nor had several of the officers, that vomited soon, any farther inconvenience from it. Probably they had got some of the pancakes that were first fried, which consequently contained less white-lead. Others, however, paid dearer for their repast, a circumstance which deserves to be related separately. The Captain, having vomited, was well for a couple of days; but was afterwards seized with a violent cholic, which could not be alleviated either by emollients externally applied emollient draughts, or clysters, but continued for two days; after which a dose of laudanum was given in the evening, on which the cholic entirely left him, and never incommoded him afterwards. He was of a consumptive habit; and his cough kept away for several days in consequence of this accident. But nobody was more tormented than myself and the domine. In the morning of the 5th, I first began to have retchings, which continued almost all that day, so that I had in all between thirty and forty fits of vomiting, from which about five spoonfuls of a brown sediment precipitated to the bottom of


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the vessel. The pancake I had eaten was one of the uppermost in the dish, and consequently, was one of those that were fried last, and thus contained a great quantity of white-lead, which, on account of its weight, had sunk to the bottom of the pitcher. At the same time I was seized with the head-ach and cholic, which latter symptom however, was not very violent. Already on the same day the gums swelled near the roots of the teeth, forming small knobs, as it were, that seemed to contain white-lead, and were very sore; the glands also swelled in the mouth, as well as those under the chin. The saliva was very tough, and the tongue brownish. By means of copious drinking, the vomiting was promoted and rendered easy, and an emollient gargle was used to allay the swelling in the mouth. On the 6th I was in a complete, but gentle, salivation, and my mouth was ulcerated, especially at the sides, a circumstance which was accompanied with a disagreeable stench. My teeth were covered with a yellowish slime. My urine was reddish. In order to carry the peccant matter downwards, I took a gentle dose of physic. On the 7th the salivation proceeded gently, and the ulcers in my mouth grew quite yellow. On the 8th I was a little better; but the night following, the whites of my eyes were inflamed, an inflammation which was dispersed with the greatest ease, merely by the friction of the eye-

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lids. On the 9th the tears flowed copiously, were sharp and corrosive. The right-side of my face swelled, with a violent ear-ach, which was extremely troublesome, particularly in swallowing, so that it was with the greatest difficulty I could drink, but it was impossible for me to chew or swallow any thing solid. Towards noon a kind of red spots, of different sizes, appeared on my fingers, as if caused by cold, but which were not very sore: these vanished in a few hours, and made their appearance again in a couple of days. On the 10th the swelling of my throat abated, and the peccant matter, or particles of lead, moved from my head into my stomach, and caused fresh fits of vomiting. On the 11th this vomiting continued, with the appearance of a small quantity of blood. On the 12th the same, with more blood. I was now very low from the repeated vomitings. On the 13th I had only a nausea, and at times slight fits of the cholic. On the 14th my mouth and throat were so very dry, that they felt as if they were glued together, and the white-lead was perceived in my saliva. On the 15th I had the cholic again, with a stiffness in my knees, a symptom which was likewise experienced by four of the officers. On the 19th I had a head-ach and nausea, with great debility. On the 21st the cholic again, and flying pains in my right-arm, but fixed pains in my knees, under the soles of my feet,

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and between the very bones of my feet, insomuch, that I could hardly walk. In this state I continued till the 22d; afterwards I was tolerably well, and by degrees regained my strength, till the beginning of February, when my pains returned, attended with a violent rheumatism, which forced me on the 9th of February to take to my bed, on account of a weakness in my knees, which increased daily. By way of cleansing my stomach, I immediately took an emetic. On the 16th I had a violent head-ach, and pains in my joints, with cholic, and even fever at noon and in the afternoon, when the pains were most violent. During all this time I took cooling medicines for several days, and in the morning an ounce of elect. diapruni, which occasioned a cholera that weakened me apace, even to faintness, but immediately gave way to a dose of laudanum. And afterwards, though I was able to quit my bed, yet I was constantly afflicted with a heaviness in my head, and weakness in my knees, which continued without any remarkable alteration till the 23d, when the heaviness in my head increased, and was accompanied with a pain in my right-ear. On the 24th my head ached violently, with hard throbbings on the right-side, and that to such a degree, that when sitting upright in my bed, or otherwise in motion, I was almost in convulsions, and was

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under some apprehensions of an apoplexy. My ear-ach was also very violent, and at times I felt some symptoms of the tooth-ach, all on the right-side. I therefore ordered myself to be bled, and used the antiphlogistic regimen. On the 25th the same symptoms continued with almost unabated force, and I passed the night restless. On the 26th my ear-ach had entirely left me, and the throbbing in my head was much abated; but instead of these, I was seized with pains in all my joints, which in some of them were slight, in others again more severe, especially in my knees and elbows, so as to produce some degree of lameness. My cholic had abated, but a violent and momentary pain darted at times from my left kidney. When I lay on my back, I was troubled with an asthma (which was sometimes better and sometimes worse) and a dry cough. The symptoms (perhaps from the heat of the day) were always aggravated from ten in the morning till four in the afternoon, when my pulse likewise was high and intermittent. My stomach could not bear any thing acid mixed with my drink: as for instance, infusion of tamarinds, lemon-juice, &c. but only now and then a drop or two of spiritus nitri dulcis in my tea. The application of a blister to the nape of my neck did not abate my head-ach in the least. On the 28th the throbbing in my

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head ceased, as well as my dyspnœa, though my head still continued to be as heavy as lead, and I had an obscure pain in my joints. Towards evening this pain increased, even in the shoulders, lasted the whole of the 29th, after which it became still more violent. On the 1st of March, and the following days, it abated, but the heaviness in my head, and the weakness in my knees, together with some degree of pain, caused by the particles of lead deposited there, continued for a long time, and would undoubtedly have impaired my health in a greater degree than they did, had I not arrived in such a delightful country as that of the Cape of Good Hope; where I could use a great deal of exercise, and receive refreshment from all the agreeable fruits, vegetables, and wines, which this country, in the hands of the industrious Europeans, produces.

The domine, or chaplain, was at first likewise seized with violent vomitings and cholic, his gums swelling, as did also those of the commander of the soldiers, and their mouths broke out into ulcers, which turned yellow, though the latter of these gentlemen had not such violent fits of vomiting, nor was so much tormented with the cholic. Towards the end of January the domine had a fresh access of the cholic,

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which was with difficulty removed by emollients, and a few days after returned with a perfect iliac passion; neither rhubarb nor decoction of sena, nor the usual acid clysters, nor purgative pills, could remove this obstruction; recourse therefore was had to a clyster of a decoction of tobacco, which at first had no effect, for which reason it was repeated, when a passage was procured; but the cholic pains and the vomiting did not cease, till a considerable dose of laudanum had been exhibited.

The cook's mate also, in the course of a few days, when his first fits of vomiting were over, was also seized with the cholic, which at first yielded to the usual remedies, but afterwards returned, and increased to such a degree, that on the 2d of February we were apprehensive that an inflammation of the bowels had taken place, as the patient was almost raving mad with the pain, and attempted to rip up his own belly: he was therefore bled, and a clyster was administered, which eased him a little; but the following day his cholic turned to the iliac passion. No passage could be procured by strong clysters, purgative pills, nor even by tobacco-clysters at first, till two or three of them had been administered in vain. Laudanum was afterwards given him to ease his cholic, but this did not assist him so well as at first, but only gave him ease for a

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short time. On this account a blister was applied to the region of the stomach: this perfectly removed the cholic, but the patient was afterwards lame in one thigh, so as not to be able to walk, an inconvenience, however, which went away gradually of itself.

Though no life was lost in consequence of this unfortunate accident with the white-lead, yet, as I myself was the principal sufferer from it, it taught me to be more particular and careful with respect to my diet in the course of my travels afterwards.

January 17. To-day we made Port Santo on the starboard. The Dutch vessels, especially if they have been beating up and down a long time in the north-sea, in general make for St. Jago, in order to take in fresh-water and some provisions; though the water is said not to keep well on board. As we had a fair wind, we passed by this place, that we might not be retarded on our voyage.

On the 19th we had the lofty yellow and red mountains of the grand Canary on our right-hand, and Fort Ventura on our left.

On the 20th we got into the trade-wind.

On the 26th divine service was performed on board for the first time during the whole voyage, and consisted of prayers, singing, and reading in the Bible. Morning and evening prayers were

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afterwards read several times, when the weather was fine; but not often.

In the evenings and nights there appeared thousands of shining animals, like stars, in the track of the ship; as also large balls which threw a light, like faint flashes of lightening, in at the cabin windows.

On the 29th we were in lat. 15°.

In the night of February the 3d, and the following nights, when we were in the 8th degree of latitude, it lightened without any thunder being heard. This was said to be a sign of wind, though it did not prove so then. We caught some fish, and some large birds, called malmucks. The heat grew every day more and more intolerable; and lemon-juice with sugar was now an extremely acceptable and refreshing beverage.

On the 8th we saw an elegant water-spout. The column began below, near the water, in small scattered clouds as it were, from which it afterwards arose in the form of a slender arched chord with smooth sides, and when arrived above the middle of its height, grew thick by degrees, and terminated in a cloud. Its duration was but short, as it vanished soon after we descried it.

On the 21st the ship was followed by a great number of fifties, which have the last radius of the fin on their back, very long (ballistes).

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On the 22d, a little before noon, we passed the line. The heat was now so great that butter was liquid, like oil, and the sealing-wax on letters was so softened, that when the letters were laid together, the impression of the seal was effaced. Flying-fish (exocoetus volitans) appeared now in great numbers: they flew generally in one direction, and sometimes, though but seldom, in contrary directions. A kind of large birds of a black colour were seen, flying very high. The scurvy now began to prevail more than ever. Our water, notwithstanding that quicksilver had been put into it, grew putrid, and began to emit a cadaverous smell, and generated maggots, so that it could not be drank but in tea or coffee; but in the course of a few weeks it purified itself, and after having precipitated to the bottom all its filth and insects, became sweet and palatable. In the mean-time, rain-water was collected more than once, notwithstanding it had been prohibited, on the supposition of its generating diseases, besides, that it tasted of pitch from the cordage of the ship. Ale was reported to keep, if two eggs were put into the barrel to dissolve in it.

On the 28th we passed the line again. As soon as we were come a little to the southward of the line, the wind increased by degrees, though it was frequently rather unfavourable, driving us

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towards the American side above seventy leagues from the shore. The cold also increased daily, in proportion as we approached the southern pole.

On the 24th of March we were in the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope. Here we caught dolphins, and ate them.

On the 26th, the large birds, called malmucks, which are brown and white underneath, passed us in great numbers, which was considered as a sign of our not being far from shore. When tired, they sat themselves down to rest upon the waves. They did not appear on the following days.

On the 28th, a plant of the species called trumpet-grass (fucus buccinalis) was seen floating on the water, which was a sure sign of the vicinity of the Cape, from the shores of which it is frequently torn off, and carried out to sea by the waves.

The number of patients, which ever since the beginning of the voyage, had been very great, began now considerably to decrease, though not till very many lives had been lost.

The diseases most common on board were spotted fevers, putrid fevers, of a bad sort, catarrhal fevers more or less of a malignant nature, rheumatisms, erysipelas, scurvy, large and malignant ulcers, abscesses, coughs, diarrhœa, dysentery, the venereal disease, &c. The sailors that

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stood at the helm, and often perspiring profusely, did not take care to avoid catching cold, frequently fell sick. Still, however, diseases were more frequent and fatal among the soldiers, whose juices were corrupt and tainted.

Attendants were appointed, according as they were wanted, for the sick, to give them nourishment and medicines, to help them to get in and out of their hammocks, and to see that the convalescents on deck kept up in the fresh air.

Seldom did any fever terminate with a regular or good crisis; for the patients would either lay quite naked, or else quit their beds when in a perspiration, steal out of them to drink cold water, or to besprinkle themselves with it.—Hence various metastases supervened in the form of dreadful abscesses in their arms, hands, legs, and cheeks, some of which turned to gangrenes, and others exhausted the patients to death. Some of the sick were, more or less, afflicted with deafness. If the metastases affected the thighs, a violent pain in these parts was the consequence; if in the eyes, the patient could hardly see; if in the feet, it would produce a dropsy in the legs.—Some few were seized with the variolæ spuriæ. As to the symptoms of the fevers, several patients were taken with an obstinate vomiting, while others were afflicted with as obstinate a diarrhœa. In the malignant kinds of fever, a furor fre-

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quently supervened; but in one or two of the patients, a mild and harmless delirium acceded, in which they sung during the whole of the last twenty-four hours before they died.

During the voyage we had constantly about a hundred and fifty patients on the list, till we had passed the line, and the most infirm and disabled part of the crew were carried off by death.

With a view to the prevention of diseases during the voyage, orders were given that the ventilators should be constantly kept in play; and that special care should be taken not to suffer any disorderly fellow to sleep in the day, and get drunk at night; and, in order to introduce fresh air between the decks, that the air-sail should be kept constantly hanging through the main-hatchway. In fair weather the crew were kept upon deck, whither also their chests and hammocks were brought to be aired, whilst the ship was cleansed, smoked with juniper-berries and gun-powder, and sprinkled with vinegar. Besides these precautions, the sailors were encouraged to give themselves up to sports and mirthful amusements, to wash and keep themselves very clean, as also to dry their clothes, and change them frequently.

The patients were visited twice a day by the surgeon, viz. at eight in the morning and four in the afternoon, when the first dressing was per-

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formed. The names of such patients as were able to walk to the medicine-chest were set down on a board, together with the medicines to be given that day. Next, those who were confined to their beds were visited; after which the surgeon made his report to the captain, or the officer of the watch, if any died on the preceding night, as also of the number and diseases of the patients. The names of the deceased are taken down on a slip of paper, and a list is also made out of the sick, and delivered to the boatswain, that they may not be called upon watch.

The surgeon prescribes the diet of the patients, and the purser is to make provisions for it accordingly. Such as are extremely ill are indulged with some soup, or other dishes that come from the officers table. What may be wanted besides the medicines, or for the preparation of them, such as fresh water, sugar, vinegar, oil, lemon-juice, Spanish and white French wine, saltpetre, geneva, and the like, is put down upon a list, which is delivered to the firstmate.

When the surgeon has made his report of the death of any person, the mate of the watch immediately orders his chest to be brought upon deck, and distributes his clothes among those who have occasion for them.


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The surgeon keeps an account of the sick, with the medicines prescribed for them, as well as of the deceased, which list is delivered to the governor at the place of the ship's destination.

When the ship is in harbour, and any one dies on board, a jack is hoisted half-way up the staff, in consequence of which a coffin is sent in a boat to bring the corpse on shore; but if a man dies when the ship is out at sea, the corpse is sewed up in a hammock, laid out for the space of a few hours before the main-mast, and then thrown overboard with some ballast of sand or lead at the feet, that it may sink.

When a man makes his will, it is signed by the boatswain, the gunner, and a few others.

The ration or allowance of certain articles, such as oil, tamarinds, lemon-juice, butter, cheese, &c. which ought to be distributed once a week, or, at any rate, once in a fortnight, is frequently given out but once in a month or five weeks, just as the captain and first-mate chuse, or find it to suit their purpose. Hence it comes, that either several articles are embezzled and kept from the men, which the officers abovementioned afterwards dispose of, or else that the men get more at once than they have vessels to keep it in, or can stow in their small chests among their clothes and rags; not to mention, that when they get a larger ration than ordinary

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they are lavish of it at first, and afterwards have nothing left. It frequently happens also, that either the whole or some part of it is stolen from such as are not possessed of cunning enough to enable them to secrete it properly. The allowance of meat, however, and salt pork, is more frequently and more regularly distributed. Of vinegar, oil, salt, and pepper, the crew in general have as much as they stand in need of; but half a pound of butter only is allowed to each man per week, and three pounds and a half of bread.

The cook receives for every man, on Tuesday, a pound of salt-pork, on Thursday butchers' meat, on Friday stock-fish, on Sunday peas and meat, and sometimes, by way of change, barley-groats, peas and beans, potatoes, red-cabbage, and various kinds of onions, together with horse-radish and carrots, and sometimes fresh-meat or salt-pork, are also distributed among the crew. As soon as the ship was in the open sea, every man received three whole cheeses, of a few pounds weight.

The company sends out stockings likewise, and clothes made of coarse and thin cloth, which are delivered out upon credit to such as chuse to avail themselves of this privilege; this distribution is made at the captain's pleasure, to those whom he favours, and not always where it is wanted.


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On the 30th, several large birds appeared in sight, and by their arrival gave us to understand that we approached nearer to the Cape. Clothes were now, for the second time, distributed among such of the soldiers as had been hitherto halfnaked.

On the 7th of April, besantjes, or Portuguese men of war (bolothuria physalis) were seen sailing on the water. The large malmucks now also appeared in greater numbers, and a contrary wind prevented us from approaching nearer to the coast.

On the 10th, the effects of a deceased sailor were put up at auction before the mast. The sum amounted to sixty-eight guilders, one-half of which was given to the poor in Holland, and the other half to those at the Cape, without any regard being paid to the legal heirs of the deceased. At four in the afternoon a ship was seen, as also a little blue and white bird, of the size of a swallow, hovering over the water. Two whales (balænæ) passed us. Already the water, in consequence of its increasing shallowness, changed from black 10 green; a certain indication to the sailor of the vicinity of land.

On the 11th, land-birds were seen, which are distinguished from the sea-fowl by their slower flight, and by their fluttering more with their wings. Towards ten o'clock Table Mountain


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began to show its head, and the water was extremely green.

On the 12th, we were overtaken by a south-easterly wind, which prevented us from gaining the harbour, and obliged us to beat up and down for a few days at sea.

On the 14th, we saw whales spouting, the seals (phoca) sporting, and trumpet-grass (fucus buccinalis) floating in great abundance. Upon this last the land-birds would often sit down to rest.

On the 15th, a considerable number of sea-fowls were seen swimming before the harbour.

On the 16th, we arrived safely in the road in Table Bay, dropt our anchor, fired our guns, and with mutual joy congratulated each other.

Immediately on our arrival, the superintendant over the ships came to us from the town, accompanied by a surgeon; the former to fetch off the letters and papers for the company, and the latter to get information with respect to the number of people that had died during the voyage, and of those that were still indisposed. The number of the latter was now not very great, but that of the former amounted to a hundred and fifteen, of which ten died before we left the Texel, and two had unfortunately fallen overboard. The other ships in our company suf-

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fered a still greater mortality, viz. the Hoencoop one hundred and fifty-eight in all, of whom one hundred and thirty-six died while we were in the Texel. The William V. lost in all two hundred and thirty men, and the Jonge Samuel, of Zeeland, one hundred and three.

We were hardly come to an anchor, before a crowd of black slaves and Chinese came in their small boats to sell and barter, for clothes and other goods, fresh meat, vegetables, and fruit, all of which our crew were eager to procure.

In the road we found, among others, a Swedish ship, which had arrived but a short time before at this southernmost point of Africa, and had brought my friend, Professor SPARRMAN.

On the 17th, I went with the captain on shore, and took a lodging at M. HENDRIK FEHRSEN'S house.

Being safely arrived at the Cape of Good Hope, my first care was to wait on the lieutenant-governor, Baron JOACHIM VON PLETTENBERG, and the other gentlemen of the regency, to whom I was recommended, in order to deliver to them the letters I had brought with me. And as the respectable and universally-beloved veteran, Governor TULBAGH, had, in consequence of age and gout, on the 11th of August in the preceding year, exchanged this life for a better, I delivered the letters directed for him to Baron

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PLETTENBERG, who received me with the greatest kindness, and promised to assist me in my design of travelling into the interior part of the country, during the term of my residence in that quarter of the globe.

Whereas in my native country, to the northward of the equator, the most delightful of the seasons, spring, was now approaching; here, to to the south of the line, winter was stealing upon us, so that I could not as yet, or for several months to come, travel to any advantage through the interior parts of the country, but must wait till the beginning of September. The intervening months I employed in informing myself of the internal œconomy and institutions of the Company, and examined the plants and animals in the environs of the town, and in the neighbouring mountains, making also short excursions into the country, which I was in hopes of penetrating deeper into afterwards, and of viewing it with a curious and observing eye.

The Cape of Good Hope is the extreme point of Africa, and of the Old World, to the southward, and is probably the most capital promontory in the whole world.

BARTOLOMEW DIAZ, a Portuguese, was the first who discovered this promontory in 1487, and King Emanuel gave it the name of the Cape of Good Hope. VASCO DE GAMA visited it next

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in 1497, by order of the same monarch. According to the observations of M. de la CAILLE, it is situated in lat. 33 deg. 35 min. S. and in long. 35 deg. 2 min. E.

The ships that anchor in Table Bay, in a considerably extensive road, are somewhat above a mile distant from the town.

The day after our arrival our sick men were taken to the hospital, attended by the surgeon's-mate; and afterwards the soldiers, under the conduct of their commanding officer, who was to serve in the capacity of serjeant after his arrival on shore.

The town is very regularly built, from the shore along the declivity formed by the Table Mountains, and its streets cut the quarters at right angles, the whole being bounded at the back part by Table Monntain (Taffelberg), to the westward by Lion Mountain (Leuweberg), and towards the east, in some measure, by the Devil's Mountain (Duyvelsberg). So that it is most open towards the southern and eastern sides.

In disembarking, one is not incommoded here by the shutting of toll-gates or by custom-house officers. The town has neither walls nor gates, and yet enjoys a perfect security in a land of savages.

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The houses are all of brick, white-washed, and one, seldom two, but very rarely three stories high, and covered in for the most part with flat roofs of brick-work, or a kind of grass indigenous to this country (restio tectorum) laid upon very low frame work. On account of the violence of the winds that prevail here, the roofs cannot be tiled over, nor raised higher. The house of the lieutenant-governor, and the company's warehouse, were the only houses that were three stories high.

The domestics here do not consist of Europeans, but of black or tawny slaves from Malabar, Madagascar, or other parts of India. These, in general, speak either broken Portuguese, or else the Malabar, seldom the Dutch language, and learn various trades, by which they bring their masters considerable profit, especially such as are taylors, carpenters, bricklayers, or cooks. The slaves are let out by the month, week, or day, during which term they are to earn for their masters a certain fixed sum per diem. The male slaves wear their own hair, upon which they set a great value, wrapped up in a twisted handkerchief like a turban, and the females wreath up their hair and fix it on their heads with a large pin. Trowsers constitute the other part of their dress; and as a token of their servile condition, they always go barefoot, and without a hat.


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Previous to the company's sitting down to meals, either dinner or supper, a female slave brings a wash-hand bason and towel, to wash their hands, which is also done on the company's rising from table. In the houses of the wealthy, every one of the company has a slave behind his chair to wait on him. The slave has frequently a large palm leaf in his hand, by way of a fan, to drive away the flies, which are as troublesome here as they are in Sweden.

As well within as without the town, neat and excellent gardens are laid out, both for fruit and culinary vegetables, being watered by the streams that run down from the mountains. Among these that extensive and beautiful garden belonging to the company distinguishes itself, like an old oak amidst a thicket of bushes. It is from these gardens that the stranger, on his arrival, meets with his first refreshments; and from their superfluous stock the Dutch and other ships are supplied with stores for their voyage. The garden-seeds must be brought every year fresh from Holland, as they otherwise, almost all, degenerate in time, excepting the seeds of cauliflowers, which are brought to great perfection here, and on that account exported from hence to Holland, where they gradually degenerate.

Apples, pears, and other European fruits, are mellower and riper, but have not that flavour

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which they have in Europe, neither will they keep long. Nor are the peaches produced here equal in goodness to those of the south of Europe. They are sometimes dried like pears, with or without their stones.

The trees imported from Europe, such as oak (querous robur), the white poplar (populus alba), and others, shed their leaves in the winter, as they do in their native places, whereas the African trees do not part with their's. It is not long, however, before they recover their leaves again. This circumstance is singular enough: first, because the cold here in winter is not more severe than it is in Sweden in the autumn; and in the second place, because they shed their leaves to the southward of the equator at the very time that they put them forth to the northward of it. The lime-trees (tilia Europæa) do not thrive well, on account of the violent winds that rage here; and the same may be said of the hazel (corylus avellana), cherry-tree (prunus cerasus), gooseberry-tree (ribes grossularia & uva crispa), currant-tree (ribes rubrum & nigrum), all of which degenerates and seldom yield any fruit.

The myrtle (myrtus communis) grows to the height of a tree, though its stem is neither thick nor stiff, nor does it throw out many branches. For this reason it seems to be proper, and indeed, is frequently used, for forming

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high hedges, in a country subject to violent winds, as its supple stem bends to the storm.

The foot of the mountain, or the hills round the town, consisted of a red flame-coloured clay, which proceeds from the water's running down the cracks, and tinging the earth with its acid, charged with ferruginous particles. Higher up on the hills, lie scattered without order, stones of all sizes, that have been rolled down from the mountains.

Among others I visited M. AUGE, the gardener, who has made many, and those very long, excursions into the interior part of the country, and has collected all the plants and insects, which the late Governor TULBAGH sent to Europe to LINNÆUS, and to the Professors BURMANN and VAN ROYEN. And as he still continued his journies yearly into the country, he sold to strangers, as well herbals as birds and insects. It was of him that M. GRUBB, the director of the bank in Sweden, purchased that fine collection of plants, which was afterwards presented to Professor BERGIUS, and so well described by this latter gentleman in his book of the Plantæ Capenses. M. AUGE's knowledge of botany was not very considerable, nor did his collections in general extend much farther than to the great and the beautiful; but, in the mean time, we are almost solely indebted

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to him for all the discoveries which have been made since the days of Hermannus, Oldenlandus, and Hartogius, in this part of Africa.

The citadel is situated on the sea-shore, below the city to the eastward, and is surrounded with high walls and deep ditches; there is room enough in it for the governor, though he never lives there, as well as for the major, the other officers, and the soldiers. At sun-set the great gate is shut, when all the soldiers, that have not leave of absence, are summoned by beat of drum, and their names called over in each company. The little gate is kept open till ten o'clock, when the soldiers, who are absent, without having previously obtained leave of absence for the night, are summoned by a bell, and their names are called over; the gate is after this not to be opened till the morning, except in case of necessity, such as to fetch a midwife. A surgeon always sleeps in the castle.

The first thing a soldier must provide himself with, is his own uniform; this he receives of the company, but must serve to the amount of its value. Every third year the company orders a number of new uniforms to be made for the use of the militia, and at no other time. If it should so happen that the quantity ready-made should not suffice for recruits that arrive during

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this interval, they must for some time do their duty in their own clothes, and frequently in the jackets of the zeelverkoopers, or kidnappers, who have sent them thither.

Soldiers, who have received in Holland what is called a bill of transport, receive no pay till they have served to the full value of it. This takes at least a year and a half, or more; during which time they only receive a little subsistence-money and service-money. What more they may want for subsistence and clothes, they must earn by any trade that they may happen to have learned, or by doing duty for the others on their leisure days. A soldier who has learned a good trade, may earn half a dollar a day, and pays to him that does duty for him four schellings. They have also an opportunity of making something by washing for others. A soldier may indeed obtain double subsistence-money; but then, two guilders per month are deducted from his pay, for what they term subsidy-money.

The soldiers go upon guard every other or every third day, and consequently have a day or two to themselves. The same guard continues for twenty-four hours together, and consists in the smaller posts of a corporal and three men; but in the greater, of a serjeant and twelve men. When a man has been upon guard two hours, he is relieved, and exempt from duty,

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till four hours more are expired, when he goes upon guard again.

A soldier is obliged to serve five years, exclusive of the time taken up in the voyage, during which term he is not at liberty to return home; but by the favour of the officers, considerable deductions may be made from this term, insomuch, that sometimes a soldier returns by the same ship that brought him. Sometimes a soldier is also metamorphosed into a sailor for this purpose.

When his agreement is at an end, he may either return home or renew it; if he chuses the latter, which is generally done for three years at first, his pay is increased two guilders more per month; this term being expired, he may engage for two years more, and then receives a fresh augmentation of two guilders per month; but in case of his continuing in the service after that term, his pay is augmented no more, unless, indeed, he is advanced. A soldier, if he has received any education, may be advanced to be a corporal, serjeant, or officer, to be an assistant in a factory, or to be surgeon, if he has learned that art in Europe.

There are several means by which a soldier may be released from the obligation of doing duty. The most common way is by what they call a furlough; in this case he is exempt from


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all duty, and at full liberty to get his livelihood in what manner soever he is able, or by any trade that he may have learned. For this he pays four dollars per month, and to the adjutant of the company one shilling, in which case he receives his monthly pay. Of the men belonging to the garrison, there were now about one hundred and fifty that had furloughs. The profits of the furloughs are distributed among that part of the garrison that does duty, and are called service-money; a soldier receives eight or nine, a corporal twelve, and a serjeant sixteen shillings; the remainder is divided between the officers. The furlough-money is to be paid duly, the last day of every month, into the hands of the chaplain, whose duty it is to receive it. In time of war these furloughs are not given, but every one must then do duty. The governor takes from among the soldiers as many as he chuses, to work gratis for him; the major takes four and twenty or more; the fiscal two, the book-keeper one, and so on. These then are either to work for the above-mentioned gentlemen, or to pay them their furlough-money. The greater number there is taken of these men, the heavier does the duty fall upon the rest of the soldiers.

The soldiers receive their pay of the lieutenant of the company every four months; which for this reason is called the good month.

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If any person in the town or country wishes for a soldier, either as a teacher for his children, or to work in his shop, he may get one by the means just indicated; but if such soldier has taken up a bill of transport in Holland, this must now be repaid to the value of about eighty dollars, for which the fellow must serve till it is paid off: if in the mean time he should die, the loss will be on the side of the tradesman.

Sailors may in the same manner take out furloughs, by paying to the purser eight dollars per month.

A perfect immunity from service, as well as erasure from the paymaster's books, may indeed be also obtained; but on no other consideration than that of being held disqualified for the company's service.

There are others, called lichten, who neither do duty, nor have any furloughs, nor receive any pay, and are always at their full liberty in time of peace; but when once they enter into the service again, they must serve their five years out, for which they agreed.

Prayers are read in the citadel every morning and evening by a chaplain. On Sunday a sentinel is placed before the church-door, but within the church-door a soldier would scarcely be tolerated.

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Before the citadel, in a large convenient place, are laid the wine and water casks that come from the ships to be repaired; as likewise a great quantity of planks and spars. In order to prevent any thing from being stolen, a sentinel is placed here in the night-time. This post is not unprofitable, when the soldier happens to catch a young fellow engaged in close conversation with some female friend; in which case he must make the soldier a compliment of a few dollars to avoid being taken into custody, and discovered, or, at all events, incommoded and disturbed in his menûs plaisirs.

If a soldier falls sick, he is taken to the hospital, where he has medicines and his diet gratis, till he recovers, but he receives no pay, except his share of the furlough-money. Yet, if his disease is of a venereal nature, even this is with-held from him. If he does not chuse to go to the hospital, he is at liberty to go elsewhere, though then he is obliged to pay his own physician, his attendants, and other necessary expences, out of his own purse, but receives his pay and subsistence-money.

Chimnies are not used in this country, nor are they wanted; and to stoves they are utter strangers. Yet I have known a family or two that had a fire-place in their hall, though rather for pleasure than for any other occasion they

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had for it. The ladies have generally live coals in a kind of covered chaffing-dish or stove, which in winter time they set on the ground under their clothes to warm them.

The cold is severest in the months of August or September, especially on mornings and evenings, when it rains or blows hard. The wind feels very piercing on account of the thin clothing that is worn here. The winter at the Cape resembles the months of August, September, and October in Sweden.

The mothers in this country seldom put their children out to nurse, but suckle them themselves, for which reason they have, in general, easier labours.

There are a few families have descended from Blacks in the female line, for three generations back. The first generation proceeding from an European who is married to a tawny slave, that has been made free, remains tawny, but approaching to a white complexion; but the children of the third generation, mixed with Europeans, become quite white, and are often remarkably beautiful.

The slave-house of the Company is adjacent to the garden, and contains a great number of slaves, who work in the garden and on buildings, carry burdens from the ships, &c. Those that are sick here have a surgeon to attend

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them. The company brings the greatest part of its slaves from Madagascar, whereas private persons buy their's of the officers belonging to the ships, as well Dutch as French, that are on their return home from the East Indies, seldom of the English, and never of the Swedish.

Before the ships weigh anchor, all the convalescents are selected out from the hospital, and distributed on board the ships.

The officers of the ships, during their stay here, sell to great advantage several European commodities, such as wine, ale, tobacco-pipes, coarse and fine hardware, clothes, shoes, glass, and household furniture; the European hams, beef, sausages, tongues, herrings, stock-fish, salmon, and cheese, with some other articles, were also in great request.

Whereas the foreign ships, that stop here, lie in the roads a short time only to take in provisions, and then resume their voyage, the Dutch ships are obliged to stop a great while, in order to take the convalescents on board, who after all come thither in a very indifferent state of health. The Dutch have also occasion for a greater number of sailors to work their ships than other nations, as their rigging is made after the old fashion, with large blocks and thick cordage, heavy and clumsy in every respect.


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The company's garden is always open to the public. It is nine hundred and ninety-six paces ng, two hundred and sixty-one broad, and has forty-four quarters, which are separated from each other by hedges, consisting, for the most art, of oaks or bays (laurus nobilis), several ards in height. I observed here, that a royena illosa, that grew beside one of these oaks, had irly perforated one of its branches through the very trunk of the oak, in which it now grew ke a parasitic plant. In like manner I observed in another garden, in which a seat had been fixed between two trees, that the bark of e of the trees had grown over the feat, like a ngus (boletus), and held it fast. In the menarie were several rare and uncommon animals, d particularly great numbers of birds.

Male and female slaves though belonging different masters, frequently cohabit together, permission of their owners, in which case the children always become the property of him who the owner of the female slave. Though the an, that cohabits with the woman slave, be a ed man, or even a European, still their offering are slaves. So that the bonds of wedlock ong slaves are but loosely contracted, and sily broken through. A master has the right of astising his slaves with a whip, but has no power er their lives, as this belongs to the magistrate.

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If a slave is too severely treated by his master, he may complain to the fiscal; and if it then appears that he has been ill used, the owner is made to pay a considerable fine. If a slave lifts up his hand against his master or mistress, or any white man, he is punishable with death.

A slave can give no evidence; nor has he the power of bearing, much less of having in his possession, any kind of fire-arms: by these means the slaves, who always greatly exceed the Europeans in number, are kept unarmed. As soon as a slave is enfranchised, he wears shoes, stockings, and a hat, as a mark of his freedom.

In the months of April, May, and June, when the ships lie in the road, the naval officers frequently put up at auction such commodities as they wish to dispose of at this place: for this they pay five per cent. to the fiscal, who receives five dollars for every chest brought on shore, for which five guilders only were paid in Holland. All European merchandizes are sold here at thirty, fifty, and one hundred per cent. profit.

The winter months are reckoned here from the middle of May till the middle of August, during which time ships must not enter Table-Bay, on account of the stormy north-westerly winds that prevail then, and might drive them on shore; but they are obliged to anchor in False-Bay.

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Ratans split very thin, and fastened together with strings, so as to roll up easily, are much used here for window-blinds. They are also employed for making baskets, bottoms of beds, and seats of chairs.

The thick bamboo canes, though hollow, are very strong. They are used for making the sides of ladders, and as perches to carry burdens on; of the more young and slender stems are made fences, to set up on the tops of walls and of wooden pales.

The seed-vessels of the silver-tree (protea argentea) serve for fuel; the restio dichotomus (besem riet) for brooms.

Kukumakranka (gethyllis) is the name given to the legumen or pod of a plant, that grew at this time among the sand-hills near the town, without either leaves or flowers. This pod was of the length of one's finger, somewhat wider at top than at bottom, had a pleasant smell, and was held in great esteem by the ladies. The smell of it resembled in some measure that of strawberries, and filled the whole room.

On the clay-hills near the shore before the citadel, I observed people digging up the earth, which was mixed with a great many sea-shells, and puting it into baskets. This they washed till nothing but the shells remained. In like manner I saw them carefully gather the larger

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shells thrown up by the sea on the beach, and lay them up in large heaps to dry. These shells they burn to lime for building. For this purpose they make a pile of billet and bush-wood, within which the shells are laid and burned. In Robben Island a great quantity of shells are collected, and made into lime for the company's service, by the criminals exiled there. In the whole country there is no other lime to be found, nor any mountains containing either chalk or lime-stone.

Poets are said to be born so; but the Dutch here, and indeed all over the East-Indies, may be said to be born merchants; for in case the father does not trade, but carries on some handicraft business, his wife, daughter, or son must; and this is always done in a particular way of their own, and often without any regular system. There is scarce one regular merchant to be found; but every body carries on trade, and keeps a certain species of goods only, at a certain time of the year, by which he endeavours to gain the most he can.

Two winds in particular prevail here throughout the year, and are frequently very violent, viz. the south-east wind in the summer, and the north-west in winter. When the east or south-east wind begins to blow, it drives the clouds against the mountains, and away over them,

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which occasions a kind of drizzling rain up in those regions; the clouds are afterwards dispersed below the summit of the mountain; and when the clouds are carried off, the wind may continue indeed, but then it is always accompanied with fine dry weather.

The town has but one Calvinistical church, which is tolerably large and handsome. The Lutherans have not hitherto been able to obtain permission to erect one, though their number here is very large; the Calvinistical church is served by two clergymen, who live in the town, and are well paid.

The hospital is ill situated, and much out of repair, insomuch, that a new one will shortly be erected on a more extensive and convenient plan. The patients here are not remarkably well taken care of, on account of the small portion of medical skill possessed by the person who superintends the hospital; though the company spares for no expence with regard to them. I was informed, that the company pays 200 ducatoons per annum, or something more than 600 guilders, for the article of almonds only, for the patients, of which, perhaps, they do not get one. Every half year, the moiety of this sum is paid down, an exact calculation having been previously made, how many thousand of almonds may be had for that money, according to the then cur-

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rent price. So that the sum is always the same, though the quantity of almonds varies with the price; and the patients always receive the same quantity, that is, little or nothing. For every one in the hospital, that goes through a course of mercurial friction for the venereal disease, the surgeon receives eight dollars; and the patient must pay two dollars for his medicines, as it is not thought proper that he should be cured of this disease gratis.

Several streets in the town are adorned with canals filled with the water that comes from the superimpending mountains. But the bringing of the water by means of wooden pipes, from the same mountains down to the great bridge in the harbour, at the side of the citadel, where the ships unload, is of greater importance; as the ships boats may conveniently lay along-side of it, and fill their casks with the purest water.

The small-pox and measles are the most fatal distempers here; for the prevention of which they make the same provisions, as is done in other places against the plague. Consequently, as soon as a ship has anchored in the road, a surgeon is sent on board of it, to examine whether any body in the ship is at that time infected, or during the voyage has been infected with either of these diseases. In the latter case, no one from the ship is suffered to come on shore; but the com-

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mander is advised to go to some other place with the vessel; which, in the mean time, is furnished with whatever it may stand in need of. When at any time the small-pox is carried thither, every one flies in haste to the interior parts of the country. This infectious disorder, I observed, and some French ships, which they took for enemies, were the only things that at this juncture could inspire these rich farmers and burghers with fear, and make them shift their quarters. They were not yet become rational enough to adopt inoculation. In 1713, the small-pox was first brought here by a Danish ship, when it made a dreadful havoc among Europeans as well as Hottentots, only three houses having escaped. The Hottentots died in such multitudes, that their bodies lay in the fields and highways unburied.

In 1755, this disorder appeared for the second time; and in 1767, in April, for the third and last time, being in like manner brought by a Danish ship. The last time the measles prevailed in these parts, they were the more destructive, as the surgeons sent out by the governor, from ignorance of the disease, treated it perversely. It is much to be lamented, that the account given of the medical practitioners of the Cape for some time past, should so exactly tally with that transmitted to us

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by KAEMPFER, in his Amœnit exot. Fascic. 3- p. 534 & 535, of the surgeons in the East-Indies.

The town is adorned with three large squares; in one of these stands the Protestant church; it likewise has a fountain in it, which furnishes the inhabitants of the town with water; in the other is the town-hall; and the third is lately laid out for the convenience of the country people who bring their goods to market, and in this is to be built the watch-house for the firemen.

On the shore itself several batteries of different sizes are erected for the defence of the city. The citadel is intended to protect them as well against internal as foreign enemies, but the batteries more particularly against the ships of a foreign power; and, in fact, these can do no more execution in the road than the citadel possibly can do. There were now, though in rather an indifferent state of repair, the great battery, the little battery, the new battery, the bones, and the line-guard.

In the beginning of July, I made a day's excursion to Mount Paarl, in company with Dr. LE SUEUR, who was sent for to see a patient that had been ill of a fever, and had now such a weakness in his joints and ligaments, that he could not lift his hands to his mouth, and his

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knee-pans were so loose, that he had lost the use of his legs likewise. Dr. LE SUEUR was a native of the Cape, but had studied in Holland, and taken his degrees at Groningen.

In many places the roads were intersected by large rivers, which were now so swelled by the heavy rains, that the water almost came into the carriage; the current being at the same time very strong.

The land in these parts was very poor, being merely loose sand, under which lay the solid rock, consisting of brown ferruginous clumps, composed of clay, vitriolic acid, and slate. In these meagre plains, nevertheless, phylicas, ericas, and proteas, grew in abundance.

At Paarl the cold is felt more sensibly in the mornings and evenings than at the Cape, and the hoar-frost frequently damages the vegetables in the gardens. The easterly winds are said to be very powerful here, and in summer time to blow the grains of wheat out of the ear.

Butter is churned every day in the summer, and every other day, or every third day, in the winter. They usually pour luke-warm water into the churn, in order that the milk may coagulate the better.

The houses are generally situated at the foot of the mountains, from whence water runs

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down to them. The want of water in other places, and the consequent poverty of the soil, must be considered as the reason why this country, so excellent in other respects, cannot be very closely inhabited. The African soil is intrinsically meagre; but its fertility, which is so much cried up by many, must be ascribed to the excellence of the climate; for those spots where water and a little mould are to be found, and which consequently are capable of cultivation, produce a rich harvest of corn, delicious fruits, and excellent wines. The chief object of the farmer, when chusing a spot for his abode, is to find an earthy soil in the vicinity of water.

Every peasant builds his own house, sometimes of brick, sometimes only of clay, lime, and sand. Every one of them possesses a great number of horses, oxen, cows, sheep, goats, ducks, and geese, which in the day time are driven out on the hills, and tended by a slave, and driven home again at sun-set. At night all these animals sleep in the open air, each species separately, in a place fenced in by a mud-wall. This is said to be very detrimental to the wool of the sheep (the ovis laticauda). It was pleasant in the highest degree to see the lambkins, which are kept, while they are young, in the house, go in the evenings, to meet their mothers on their return home. As soon as they

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heard the voice of their dams at a great distance, the little hungry creatures began to cry out and run towards them; but if they could not see their mothers distinctly, they would immediately run back again. When their dams approached still nearer, their cries increased, and the lambs ran full speed to meet them, and followed them home again. The wool of these African sheep, which have large tails, is none of the best, and is not employed either in the manufacturing of cloth or for any other important purpose, much less is it exported. M. HEMMING, however, had, a few years before, a piece of cloth woven from it large enough to make a complete suit of clothes.

I frequently observed the shin-bones of sheep used, both in town and country, either for setting round the trees in the streets, or for dividing the parterres in the flower-gardens, where they had a very pretty effect, the end of the ginglymus articulation being placed uppermost.

Wolves were caught by an easy and ingenious method: a square or oblong house was erected, either of brick or only of clay, of the height of six feet or more, without any other covering than a few wooden bars. In the front a low opening is left, with a trap-door before it. In the house is laid a bait, tied to a rope that is fastened to a peg. This peg is brought through

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the lower part of the back wall, and stuck into a piece of wood, which hangs down the wall on the outside; to the upper part of this piece of wood is fixed another rope, that passes over the top of the house, and is fastened to the trap-door, which it thus keeps suspended over the aperture. The wolf having entered the house, pulls the bait, and at the same time pulls out the peg from the piece of wood, when the trap-door falls down, and makes the wolf prisoner.

The stile of building in the country, among people in good circumstances, is nearly similar to that in town, viz. first there is a hall at the entrance of the house, and before this is a long gallery; on each side of the hall is a room; and on one side of the gallery is the kitchen, and on the other a bed-chamber. People of inferior circumstances had a gallery, with a chamber on each side of it, and the kitchen behind. The poorer sort had huts of clay, with doors and windows almost pervious to the weather.

The water that runs down the mountains to the farms that lie below them is frequently conducted by art to different places, such as to artificial fountains, or to gardens, for the purpose of watering them in time of drought, or to fish-ponds, to supply them with water.

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Such waters as accumulated in the plains below the mountains, and formed rivulets, which at times were so deep in certain places, as to make ferries or boats necessary for passing them, the farmers rendered useful to themselves, by damming them up, in order to make them overflow their vineyards planted on their banks, when the water gently running off from them, manured the soil, and rendered it fertile.

The vineyards near Paarl flourished amazingly, and vines were seen here fifty years old. A vine was said to bear so early as the second year after it was planted, but to yield a full vintage in the third. All the vines here were kept low, in order to make them produce large clusters.

In this place a church was erected and provided with a Calvinist minister and a clerk. Divine service, however, is not performed every Sunday; but when the minister is gone on a journey, sick, or otherwise hindered, the clerk reads to the congregation some portion of the Bible.

The farmers, or colonists, all through the country are, as well as the inhabitants of the city, all burghers, and are consequently obliged to be always in readiness, in case of a war, to defend their country. For this purpose they are

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divided into companies, and certain persons among them appointed their officers.

On the sudden approach of danger from any enemy, the whole body of the inhabitants may be summoned by the firing of guns and hoisting of flags. For this purpose cannons are planted at proper intervals, and at the side of each stands a flag-staff, to give signals in case of the approach of an enemy, or of any great fleet belonging to a foreign power. In such case, seven guns are fired from the Lion's Head. The cannon on the banks of Zour Rivier is next discharged, which is repeated by another placed at a greater distance, then by a third, and so on; the flag being always hoisted before the firing of the gun, by which means the alarm is soon given throughout the whole country.

As an antidote against the bite of serpents, the blood of the turtle was much cried up, which on account of this extraordinary virtue, the inhabitants dry in the form of small scales or membranes, and carry about them when they travel in this country, which swarms with this most noxious vermin. Whenever any one is wounded by a serpent, he takes a couple of pinches of the dried blood internally and applies a little of it to the wound.

Surgeons, apothecaries, and others, when they cannot find in this country the usual and genuine


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medicinal plants, look for others that somewhat resemble them, either in their flowers, leaves, smell, or general habit, and then give them the same names. The physician, who hears this quid pro quo mentioned, must not let it puzzle or mislead him.

The leaves of the Calla Æthiopica, a plant which grew even in the ditches about the gardens near the Cape, were said to serve for food for the (yzer-varken) or porcupines.

The root of the arctopus echinatus, which grew both near the Cape and in other places, was of a soft texture, and contained a very white and pure gum, which was used in the form of a decoction, as an excellent purifier of the blood, and likewise as a remedy in the gonorrhœa.

The root of the bryonia Africana served the country people for an emetic; infused in wine or brandy it proves an excellent purge, especially if a piece of bread be eaten after it.

The geranium cucullatum, a fragrant plant, was used as an emollient, inclosed in small bags.

Of the leaves of the borbonia cordata the country people made tea.

The montinia acris though it is of a very acrid nature, was said to be eaten by the sheep.

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The Hottentots eat the fruit of the brabeium Stellatum, a large shrub that grows near brooks and rivulets called wilde castanien (wild chefnuts), and sometimes used by the country people instead of coffee: the outside rind being taken off, the fruit is steeped in water to deprive it of its bitterness; it is then boiled, roasted, and ground like coffee.

The gout and dropsy were common diseases in this country, proceeding from the great quantity of wine that was drank, and the very varying and cold winds.

The fields were by no means so thickly covered with grass here as they are in Europe, where the grassturf, with its great variety of flowers, forms the most beautiful carpet; but the grass grew very thin, shewing the bare sand between the blades, so that one could not with any pleasure lie down on it to rest one's self.

The barley, after it had attained to a considerable height, was mowed once or oftener, and given to the horses as fodder. It was said, that it might be cut in the month of August, when in the ear. I frequently saw bundles of it brought to town in this state to market. The barley in this country is cultivated chiefly for the use of horses; a few bundles of it being cut every evening, after the horses are come in


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from grass, and laid in the stable, or else out in the yard, where these animals are tied up, for their night-provender.

Beer is never brewed in the country, where the people, when thirsty, drink water, tea, coffee, or wine; but a brewery has been established near Cape Town. The Cape beer, however, is never remarkably good, but generates wind in the stomach, and soon turns sour. This is the reason why they are obliged to import their beer from Europe; the Dutch, Danish, and English beer, which they sometimes drink in small quantities at their meals, being held in particular esteem.

The vineyards must be dug every year, and the ground turned, yet without disturbing the vines. In manuring them, the old earth is dug away from around the vines, and so that a hole is left in which the manure is laid. If a vine dies, a branch of an adjoining vine is bent down into the hole, where it soon strikes root, and afterwards cut off at the top.

A widow at the Paarl had three Hottentots in her service; they spoke with much delicacy and softness, clacking lightly and rapidly with their tongues both before and while they pronounced their words. Their complexion was brown, but by no means inclining to black, be-

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ing more like that of a sun-burnt European. The apparent brownness of their complexions, in fact, proceeded more from the great quantity of stinking grease with which they besmeared themselves than from nature. The girls were fond of smoking tobacco, which they did with a pipe so short, that the bowl of it came close to their lips. Their hair is of a singular nature, being quite black, and twisted up together like short wool, so as to resemble the nap upon frieze, the interstices between each lock being quite bare.

On my return to the Cape, I saw, towards the end of June, a body of Hottentots, men, women, and children, to the number of nine and fifty, brought up about one hundred and fifty miles from the interior part of the country, where they had committed various acts of violence against the colonists. They had been taken by a Hottentot captain, of the name of KEES, in the cleft of a mountain, where they had concealed and fortified themselves against a party of peasants and soldiers ordered out against them, and had for a long time defended themselves, by rolling large stones down upon their enemies. In two villages they had carried off the cattle, killed the inhabitants, plundered the houses, and taken possession of several fire-arms. They did not deny their crimes,

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but asserted that they acted so in their own defence, the Europeans making every year fresh encroachments upon their lands and possessions, and forcing them continually farther up into the country, whence they were driven back again by the other Hottentots, or else killed. These Hottentots were Boshiesmen, of a dark brown complexion, some of whom were naked, wearing only a band round their waists, which covered the pudenda before. Others wore, hanging loose over their shoulders, a sheep's skin, the ends of which scarcely met before, the upper part going, like a calash, over the head. The women had their little ones hanging behind on their shoulders; and girls eleven or twelve years of age had already children. The women were adorned with ear-rings, and broad rings of metal round their wrists. Their mouths and cheek-bones were very prominent, so that they bore the strongest resemblance imaginable to apes. After these Hottentots had been confined for some time at the Cape, they lost their colour, and became almost white.

On the 28th of June, the Javanese here celebrated their new-year. For this purpose they had decorated an apartment in a house with carpets, that covered the cieling, walls, and floor. At some distance from the farthest wall an altar

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was raised, from the middle of which a pillar rose up to the cieling, covered with narrow slips of gilt paper and silk alternately: from above, downwards, ran a kind of lace between the projecting edges. At the base of this pillar were placed bottles with nosegays stuck in them. Before the altar lay a cushion, and on this a large book. The women, who were all standing or sitting near the door were neatly dressed, and the men wore night-gowns of silk or cotton. Frankincense was burned. The men sat cross-legged on the floor, dispersed all over the room. Several yellow wax candles were lighted up. Many of the assembly had fans, which they found very useful for cooling themselves in the great heat necessarily produced by the assemblage of a great number of people in a small space. Two priests were distinguished by a small conical cap from the rest, who wore handkerchiefs tied round their heads in the form of a turban. About eight in the evening the service commenced, when they began to sing, loud and soft alternately, sometimes the priests alone, at other times the whole congregation. After this a priest read out of the great book that lay on the cushion before the altar, the congregation at times reading aloud after him. I observed them reading after the Oriental manner, from right to left, and imagined it to be

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the Alcoran that they were reading, the Javanese being mostly Mahometans. Between the singing and reading, coffee was served up in cups, and the principal man of the congregation at intervals accompanied their singing on the violin. I understood afterwards, that this was a prince from Java, who had opposed the interests of the Dutch East-India Company, and for that reason had been brought from his native country to the Cape, where he lives at the company's expence.

On the 30th of June I visited Paradise, and other farms belonging to the company, and situated below Table Mountain. Rondebosch is a villa belonging to the governor. On this eastern side, along Table Mountain, the south-east wind does not blow so hard as at the Cape, for which reason also both trees and shrubs grow here. Among other trees, the pine (pinus sylvestris) was conspicuous by its elegant crown-Wild vines (wilde druyven, vitis vitiginea) made a distinguished figure at this time with their red berries, which resembled cherries, and were eatable.

In the beginning of July, I set out on an excursion on foot, for a few days, to Constantia and the neighbouring farms. In some places rivulets ran across the road between the vallies down

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from the mountains, and at this time they were difficult to pass.

Ferruginous stones (eiser klippen), or stones containing iron, were found here, as well as nearer to the Cape.

I observed the clouds to be driven in contrary directions, the lower clouds coming from the south-east, and the upper being carried towards the same quarter.

The domestic animals, which otherwise are kept in the open air throughout the whole country, were here sheltered under a shed, that was open in the front.

On my return to town, I had the opportunity of seeing a Chinese burial. In their burying-ground at a short distance from the city, small ratans are stuck up, fastened together with cotton-thread, so as to form an arch or a vaulted roof over the tomb.

In a large hog that was killed, were found several round worms (lumbrici), which was said to be a common cafe here with these animals.

July the 21st, I took a walk to Paarl and Stellenbosch.

From the Cape the horizon, on the land side, appears bounded by high mountains, that stretch across the whole country. The plain between the Cape and these mountains, which is one day's journey long, is for the most part an

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uncultivated tract of sand, and destitute of water, which for the most part is no where to be met with but near the smaller scattered hills, which lie about as it were insulated, and without any very evident connexion with each other, A traveller who has not been provident enough to bring water with him, has no other resource for assuaging his thirst in this burning heat, than strictly to examine, whether any black shepherds are to be found attending their matter's flocks in the neighbourhood, who may either have water themselves, or may be able to inform him where to find it. In the winter season, however, on account of the frequent rains, large tracts of this plain lie under water.

The name of kapock-bird was given to a very small bird, that forms its nest (which is as curious as it is beautiful, and is of the thickness of a coarse worsted stocking) from the down (pappus eriocephali) of the wild rosemary-tree (wilde rosmaryn).

In the months of April and May the seed is put into the ground; but in June and July the earth, which often has lain fallow for several, sometimes ten, twelve, and fifteen years, is ploughed up. The larger bushes are previously pulled up by the roots, and the smaller ones left for the plough; all the bushes are then

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collected, and burnton the field, which are richly manured by the ashes. The spots on which the combustion has been performed, always produces a thicker and more luxuriant grass than usual; so that such places are easily distinguishable in a meadow by the high tufts of grass. The wheat here was said to yield, in general, at the rate of eight and ten, but frequently fifteen, twenty, and twenty-five to one; whereas in many other places again, the produce is still more abundant. I was even told, that at one farm, fourteen bushels of seed had produced about fifty-five quarters of grain.

The ant-eater, or aardvarken (myrmecophaga), digs large holes in the earth, in which in the day time he lies secure from his enemies. The country was full of such holes. This animal was said to be so strong, that several oxen together would not be able to drag it out of its retreat. It digs very expeditiously. The flesh of it is eaten, and especially the hams, when hung up and dried. It lives on several sorts of ants, especially the large red ones, which build their hillocks of clay, and are very common, increasing every year.

The daughters of the colonists are sometimes with child by their fathers' black slaves. In this cafe, in consideration of a round sum of money, a husband is generally provided for the girl, but

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the slave is sent away from that part of the country.

Hospitality is carried to a great length among the farmers throughout all this country, insomuch that a traveller may, without being at any expence either for board or lodging, pass a longer or shorter time with these people, who with the greatest cordiality receive and entertain strangers. On the contrary, a stranger finds it very dear living in town, where he is obliged to pay at least a dollar, if not a dollar and a half per day, for his board and lodging.

The farmers in general make four regular meals a day, viz. breakfast at seven, dinner at eleven, their afternoon's luncheon at four, and supper at eight.

A soldier here is not at liberty to marry, left, as in this case he must live with his wife out of the citadel, he should run in debt in the town, and in consequence of this, incur the usual punishment, which is transportation to Batavia. Nevertheless, it would be much better that a soldier or corporal should be at liberty to marry, and, receiving his pay, do his duty, and on those days when he is exempted from duty, earn his livelihood by teaching, or by some trade; and, although many, as daily experience evinces, for want of this regulation, fall into bad courses, and ruin themselves by connexions with black

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women; not to mention, that a married soldier, in case of a war supervening, always fights for his country, his wife and children, with greater courage and spirit than another; yet, in defiance of reason and common sense, all such men are obliged to quit the service and become free citizens. This freedom, however, they do not obtain but on condition of entering again into the company's service, if necessity should require, and this in the same capacity as that in which they left it.

Though the town is entirely under the company's jurisdiction, and consequently is subject to the governor and fiscal; yet, in what concerns the management of its particular affairs, it has its own mayor and aldermen, with other necessary officers.

The burghers, both in the town and throughout the whole country, are enrolled as militiamen for the defence of the colony, being divided into several companies of foot and horse, and commanded by officers from among their own body. They meet every year to do their exercise, and in the town they go upon the municipal guard, &c.

The dead are buried without either clergyman, prayers, or the ceremony of throwing earth on the body.

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The ceremonies of marriage and baptism must always be performed in the church; private baptism, in case of necessity, not being suffered.

Slaves are very seldom enfranchised: the free blacks are not permitted to go upon the municipal guard; but in time of war they are obliged to throw up batteries with their spades, which are their weapons. They are commanded, however, by one of their own body. The slaves, whom each master of a family must drive before him out of his house himself when required, against the enemy, are also formed into companies. The burghers, as well as the servants of the company, are then stationed each at his post. All the civil officers are stationed within the castle, and others at the batteries in different places.

In the month of August the winter drew near to its end, and the fields began to be decorated with flowers; it therefore now became necessary for me to think of such preparations as would be useful and requisite for me in my approaching long journey into the interior part of the country, a journey, relative to which a promise had been given me, that I should make it, in a great measure, at the company's expence.

I therefore provided myself with necessary clothes, as well as with boxes and bags, for col-

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lecting roots and seeds, with boxes and pins for insects, a keg of arrack for preserving serpents and amphibious animals, cotton and boxes for stuffing and keeping birds in, cartridge-paper for the drying of plants, tea and biscuits for my own use, and tobacco to distribute among the Hottentots, together with fire arms, and a large quantity of powder, ball, and shot of various kinds. Shoes for the space of four months were no inconsiderable article in this account, as the leather prepared in the Indies, is by no means strong; besides, that it is quite cut to pieces, or soon worn out, by the sharp stones that occur every where in the mountains.

My equipage consisted of a saddle-horse, a cart covered with sail-cloth, like an ammunition-waggon, and three yoke of oxen, by which it was to be drawn through the whole of the journey. My travelling companions were AUGE, the gardener, who had before made eighteen journies of different lengths into the country, and was now to be my sure and faithful guide; M. IMMELMAN, a youth, the son of a lieutenant in the army, together with LEONHARDI, a serjeant, who undertook this tedious journey for the sake of shooting the larger animals and birds; and lastly, two domesticated Hottentots, one of whom was to drive, and the other to lead our oxen.


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Every one that travels in this country, performs his journey pretty nearly in the following way. A large waggon, worth from one hundred and twenty to two hundred dollars, and covered with a large tilt of fail-cloth, is commonly drawn by five or six yoke of oxen, which are driven by a man with a long whip, but led through the rivulets and by the farms. The horses are but weak in this part of the world, and find no where in Africa either pasture or water; consequently they cannot be used for long journies. Nor are horses employed for carrying any wares on their backs up to town from the farms that lie near it, but there are some few wealthy persons that now and then put two or three pair of them into a waggon for short journies. Still, however, they are made use of all over the country for riding on. When farmers, that live far down in the country, go up to the Cape, they generally take five or six spare oxen with them, for the purpose of changing cattle in a journey which lasts several weeks. The whip is an instrument which might seem to command respect not only from the oxen, for whose service it is principally destined, but from every one else.

Thus equipped, I set out with my company from the Cape on the 7th of September for Jan Besis Kraal, a small grazing farm belonging to

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the company, and situated by the sea-side, where we arrived at eleven o'clock.

All over the sandy fields the protea hypophylla was seen creeping and procumbent, with its leaves standing up erect on each side of it. Near Eland's Fontain, (or Elk's Fountain) a plant of this species was seen standing upright like a bush, much resembling the former, but with broader leaves.

We proceeded on our journey till twelve o'clock, when we came to another farm belonging to the company, called Riet Valley: afterwards to MOSTERT'S Farm, and lastly, passing by Brack Fontain we came to Groene Kloof (the Green Valley), a considerable grazing farm belonging to the company, at the distance of eight hours journey from the Cape. In this pleasant place we remained a whole week, as well because we found a great deal to collect here, as because that, in consequence of the refraction of the sun-beams from the burning sand, I was unfortunately attacked with a very violent inflammation in my eyes, which I did not easily get rid of.

The country has indeed been much inhabited and cultivated by the European colonists, but as yet no mile-stones have been set up, nor have the farms and rivers every where received suitable names. The farms are frequently called

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after their owners, and the distances between places are measured by the time required to travel over them in a waggon drawn by oxen, which answers pretty exactly to a sea-league per hour. All this occasions travellers a great deal of trouble, and is the cause that I am obliged to call the places, which I passed in my travels, by the Dutch names, by which they are known on the spot.

The sandy and low plains, which we traversed, abounded at this time in bulbous plants, besides others which were now sprung up in consequence of the heavy rains that had fallen during the winter, and which with their infinitely varied flowers decorated these otherwise naked heaths.

The roots (bulbi) of the iris edulis, when boiled and served up at table, tasted much like potatoes.

The African flowers vary greatly as to colour, especially on the upper part, and are more constant on the under part.

Flamingoes (phænicopterus ruber) were seen in abundance, wading every where in the ponds and puddles, in which were found also ducks and snipes (scolopax capensis). In the plains were heard among the bushes the korrhaan (otis). The baantje (a small bird), and deer of various kinds were seen running about,

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such as harte-beests (capra dorcas), steen-boks (capra grimmia), divers (capra ———), as well as the stately ostrich, distinguished by its black feathers from its grey females.

A clay, impregnated with sulphur, was shown me, which is to be found near a fountain hard by Paard Mountain.

The seed-vessels of a species of Euphorbia, pulverized, were used for poisoning wolves.

Here I saw, for the first time, the oleum Ricini, or castor oil. The seeds were said to be boiled in water, and the oil is skimmed off as it rises, which is taken, in as large a dose as that of a tea-cup full, for a gentle purge. The leaves of the shrub dried, and applied round the head, were affirmed to be serviceable in the head-ach.

On the 14th, we passed Oranie Fontein, or Orange Fountain, and Uyle Kraal, or the Owl's Kraal, in our way to Thé Fontein, or Tea Fountain, a journey of six hours; and afterwards passing by Elk's Fountain (Eland's Fontein); got to Saldahna Bay the next day.

The farmers on this side of the Cape have neither vineyards nor much arable land, but instead of these plenty of cattle. Butter is made here every day, in a churn like a pump; and the butter-milk, excellent as it is, is thrown out to the calves and dogs. Indeed, they scarcely


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allow their milk to cream beforehand. As to household furniture, they were in great want of it.

We left our saddle-horses at a farmer's house; after which we crossed the harbour in a vessel to the Company's Post, where we staid several days.

Here was plenty of game, consisting of antelopes, ducks, and other animals.

The expressed juice of the sow-thistle (son-chus oleraceus) was used for cleansing and healing ulcers.

The black juice of the cuttle-fish (sepia) mixed up with vinegar, was used for making ink. This animal has real eyes, consisting of a cornea, choroidea, and a crystalline lens, with all the humours usually found in the eye.

Among the servants I found ELISAEUS HYPHOFF, who was in the capacity of a cook here, and was the son of M. HYPHOFF, director of the bank in Stockholm.

The albuca major grew in this neighbourhood tall, straight, and elegant. Its succulent stalk, which is rather mucilaginous, is chewed by the Hottentots and other travellers, by way of quenching their thirst.

There were a great many sand-banks in the harbour, which were seen at low water.

Grass grew on the islands in abundance; but here were neither sheep nor oxen in them.

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While I was botanizing, I found a dead tiger near the shore. He had probably been eating some poisonous plants, and afterwards went in quest of water, before he fell down.

On the islands without and round about Saldahna Bay, seals (phoca) were caught in abundance, from the blubber of which a good and useful oil was prepared. The skins of the smaller sort of these animals are used only for shooting-bags and tobacco-pouches. The large seals, I was told, would weigh fourteen or fifteen hundred weight. With respect to these creatures, a disagreeable accident had happened here lately: a soldier was sent out to shoot them, and having wounded one of them, which lay as though it were dead, he went to open a vein in order to draw off its blood, as the oil is supposed to be the better for this operation, when on a sudden the seal caught hold of his hand, which the soldier pulling back in haste, his thumb was bitten off, and the tendon drawn out to a great length.

From Saldahna Bay we returned to Thé Fontein, and at a farm there had an opportunity of seeing with what dexterity the peasants perform the castration of their oxen, fifty of which, two years old, and one at three years, went through this operation in one evening. The cord of a whip was fastened round the horns, and a rope round one of the hind-legs. The animal being

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by this means thrown down on one side, its four legs were tied together. They then cut with a knife on the exterior side through all the integuments quite to the testicle; after this they laid hold of the testicle and scraped the funiculus, continually twisting it at the same time, till the testicle came away.

Great complaints were made of the seed-vessels of the rumex spinosus (dubelties), which grew very common here, as the sharp prickles of them cut the feet of the slaves and others, who walked bare-footed.

In wet years, the pharnaceum mollugo (muggekruyd) grows copiously here, and is said to make the cattle, that feed on it, very fat.

Difficult as it is to come within reach of it, we at last shot a korhaan, a bird which in its flight cries kok-karri, kok-carri.

The secretary bird (falco secretarius), made its appearance frequently, with its beautiful head and long legs; it runs very fast, and lives on the serpents it catches. I was told, that its young are not reared without difficulty, as they are very apt to break their legs. Yet I saw at Constantia an old bird that was tame. They lay two or three eggs, and are said to build their nests with twigs upon bushes. They are almost always found solitary, and in no great abundance.

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The black berries of a bush called Kraijebosch, or crow-bush, were greedily devoured by the crows at the Cape.

On the 25th, we left Thé Fontein, and ferried over Berg-Rivier (Mountain River.)

The root of Anise (anys wortel) was eaten here roasted, and tasted well; it is either roasted in the embers, or boiled in milk, or else stewed with meat. The farmers sometimes make their slaves dig up a large quantity of them, which they sell in town.

The root of the gatagay is likewise roasted in the embers and eaten, but has a bad and disagreeable taste.

Wherever we went, we observed a black-beetle (trichius laticollis) occupied the whole day throughout in rolling large balls of dung with its hind-feet, and constantly going backwards. With its fore-feet it digs large holes in the sand, and also throws the sand on one side with its scutellum. It probably lays its eggs in these balls, which it afterwards buries in the sand. More than once we observed two of the insects here spoken of assisting each other in rolling away one of these balls.

The oats brought hither from Europe are now looked upon as the worst of weeds in this country, as the grains are easily shaken out of the ears by the violence of the winds that pre-

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vail here, and sowing themselves, choak up all the other corn. It is to no purpose to lay a piece of land so spoiled fallow for several years, for when the field comes to be ploughed up, the oats, having lain unhurt in the ground, shoot up afresh.

They gave the name of nightingale (nachtigall) to a bird, which in its notes and gestures imitated several other birds.

The oppblazers (pneumora) a kind of grass-hopper, were caught in the evening. After sun-set they begin to make a singular noise, by rubbing their barbed hind-legs against their empty and transparent stomach. It was supposed that this sound was heard at a great distance. As I perceived that these, like many other nocturnal insects, were fond of light, I ordered a large fire to be made in the field, near which they were caught, while they were marching up to it. Their whole body is, as it were, a bladder, and so empty, that these creatures cannot be carried about stuck through with a pin, like other insects.

Nests of finches (loxiæ) made of the stalks of grass, curiously interwoven, hung on the branches of trees over ponds, with a long and narrow neck, by which the bird used to enter. This neck prevented the birds of prey from getting at the young ones, and the water, over which the

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nest hung on low shrubs and bushes, kept off foxes and other beasts of prey.

The cattle were liable to various grievous distempers, of which they sometimes also died.

The bloody sickness (blaar or bloodziekte) is a disease of the cattle, in which the veins all over the body are extremely turgid. Letting of blood and violent exercise were said to be serviceable in this distemper. The flesh of such beasts as die of it, is not eatable.

The spongy sickness (sponziekte) begins in this manner; first a foot swells, and then by degrees the whole body. This disorder sometimes lasts three days, but at other times proves fatal in as many hours. If the foot is taken off immediately, the creature's life may be saved. The flesh of such an animal likewise is not eatable. This distemper, in my opinion, can proceed from no other cause than the bite of some serpent, a kind of reptile, which, in this warm quarter of the globe, is but too common.

The lame distemper (laamziekte) is, when the cattle are unable to stand. It comes on gradually, and is slow in its progress. After the death of the animal the bones of its legs are found to be quite empty, and without marrow; instead of which they are filled with water.

The horned cattle, as well as horses, are afflicted with the stranguary, or a retention of their

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urine, after feeding on the euphorbia genistoides, which contains a milk that does no injury to the stomach and bowels, but corrodes the bladder, and especially obstructs the urinary passages. If the penis is pressed, this viscid matter is squeezed out. The peasants therefore either press it out, or with a straw push it back again. When the cattle are supplied with good and fresh water, this disease cannot get the upper hand; but in summer, when the water is thick and impure, so that it cannot dilute the peccant matter, the cattle die.

On the right side of Groote Berg-rivier (or great Mountain-river) was seen Ribeck-castle, which is a high and large solitary mountain; and to the left, Picket-berg. We passed by the Honing-bergen, and in the evening arrived at a farm belonging to one GRILING.

On the 26th we crossed the river called Four and twenty river, and came to the farm of Arnhem, from thence to little Mountain-river, and farther through Roode zands-kloof (Red sand valley) to Wafersland or Roode Zand. The cleft, through which we passed from the sandy plain, that lies low towards the Cape, but gradually rises till it comes to Roode Zand, is one of the few chasms left by the long ridge of mountains, through which it is possible for a waggon to pass, though, perhaps, not entirely without danger.


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In some places it was so narrow, that two waggons could not pass each other. At such narrow passes as this, it is usual for the drivers to give several terrible loud smacks with their long whips, which are heard at the distance of several miles, so that the waggon that arrives first may get through unimpeded, before another enters it.

As soon as we had passed the mountains as far as to Roode zand, the country appeared much higher than the side from which we came. At one end this country is bounded by high mountains, called Winter-hoek (or Winter-corner) because their tops, almost the whole year throughout, are covered with snow; at the other end it is open, with a range of mountains projecting into it, and forming an angle, called Mostertshoek, and grows wider and wider the nearer it approaches to the south.

We took up our lodging with a man of the name of DE VETT, a descendant of one of the French families, which came with the first colonists that settled in this part of Africa, to lay out vineyards, and plant fruit-trees.

Tintirinties is a name given to a species of Ornithogalum, with a white flower, from the sound it produced, when two stalks of it were rubbed against each other.

In order to give our cattle time to rest a little, and, in some measure, recover their lost flesh,

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we passed almost a fortnight at this agreeable place, during which time we had the opportunity of drying the plants and seeds we had already collected, and of visiting all the hills and mountains in the environs.

On the 28th, therefore, we set out on an excursion across the cataract and the mountains, to a sadler's, named SWIEGER, and the next day went on to a man of the name of OLIVIER, with whom we left our horses, and ascended the mountain on foot.

On the 1st of October, we made an excursion over Mount Witsen; on the other side of which was a tract of land, or rather a cleft in the mountain, narrower than Roode zand, but about four times higher. From this eminence, Table mountain, near the Cape, was seen: and by reason of the coldness of this place, and the backwardness of the summer, the plants flowered here at least one month later, than in other parts of the country. Snow frequently falls here to the height of three feet, which lies several days, but higher up on the mountain, a still longer time. Behind this valley, mountains were seen, and behind these, still higher ridges of other mountains; on the other side of which, the Bokkevelden or Goat-fields, were said to be situated. In this narrow, lofty, and cold tract of land, there were several grazing farms, but no

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corn was cultivated there, as this latter commodity could not be transported from thence over the mountains. It took us up a full hour to pass the mountain on horseback.

Being returned to Roode-zand, the much celebrated Snake-stone (Slange-steen) was shown to me, which few of the farmers here could afford to purchase, it being sold at a high price, and held in great esteem. It is imported from the Indies, especially from Malabar, and costs several, frequently 10 or 12, rixdollars. It is round and convex on one side, of a black colour, with a pale ash-grey speck in the middle, and tubulated, with very minute pores. When thrown into water, it causes bubbles to rise, which is a proof of its being genuine, as is also, that if put into the mouth, it adheres to the palate. When it is applied to any part that has been bitten by a serpent, it sticks fast to the wound, and extracts the poison; as soon as it is saturated, it falls off of itself. If it be then put into milk, it is supposed to be purified from the poison it had absorbed, and the milk is said to be turned blue by it. Frequently, however, the wound is scarified with a razor, previous to the application of the stone.

I was informed that the Hottentots, when bitten by a serpent, immediately go in search of a toad, with which they rub the wound, and thus effect a perfect cure. They have also the art of

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extracting the poison, by causing another person to apply his mouth to the wound, and suck it, after scarifying the flesh all round it with a knife.

A serpent (Coluber scut. adb. 197. squam. caudal. 124) was found here, called the Boomslang, or (tree-serpent) on account of its being frequently found in trees. The length of it was eight feet; supra totus fuscus, squamis linea elevata carinatis; subtus totus flavescens.

The tulbaghia alliacea (wilde knofflook, or wild garlic) the root of which smells very strong of garlic, was reported to be a charm for serpents.

With the poison of serpents, and the juice of the sideroxylum toxiferum (gift-boom, or poison-tree) the Hottentots poison their arrows, which they use against antelopes and wild buffaloes, as also against their enemies.

The scrota of sheep are sometimes served up at table, roasted, and tasted very well, but were apt to rise on the stomach.

The aponogeton distachyon (waater uynties, or water lilies) grew in many places, in shallow puddles of water, very plentifully, and from its white flowers that floated on the water, exhaled a most fragrant odour. The roots roasted, were reckoned a great delicacy.

Cucumbers, which were cultivated in the gardens, were served up at table, by way of desert,

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being pickled first in salt water, and afterwards in vinegar, with Cayenne pepper.

From a decoction of the solanum nigrum (or deadly night-shade) and the sonchus oleraceus (or sow-thistle) which were sound growing wild near almost every farm-house, were formed, with wax and lard, some excellent salves, for healing of wounds and ulcers of all kinds, remedies which were as common as they were approved.

The swallows (hirundo rustica) were now, in the months of September and October, extremely busy in the mornings and evenings in building their nests, and that in the very houses of the farmers, the doors of which are seldom shut; sometimes, though very seldom, they fix their habitations in the clefts of rocks. They build their nests here of clay, which they work up with their bills, and carry in small scraps to their habitations, which thus become daily more round and complete. The swallows, which constantly return hither at this time, migrate every year from hence, as they do in Europe, without the country people being able to ascertain whither they retire during winter.

A report that was very general at Roode-zand, struck me with the greatest astonishment, and excited my curiosity in the highest degree. The inhabitants all assured me with one voice, that there was a bush to be sound on the mountains,

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on which grew various wonderful products, such as caps, gloves, worsted stockings, &c. of a substance resembling a fine plush. I importuned almost every body in the neighbourhood to procure me, if possible, some of these marvellous products, and I resolved not to leave the place till I should have unriddled this mystery. In the course of a few days, I had several of the leaves brought me down from the mountains, which were covered with a very thick shag or down (tomentum) and very much resembled white velvet. The girls, who were used to the management of these leaves, began immediately, with singular dexterity and nicety, to strip off this downy coat, whole and entire as it was, without rending it. After it had been taken off in this manner, it was turned inside outwards; when the green veins of the leaf appeared on one side. Accordingly, as the leaf was more or less round or oval, divers of the above-mentioned articles were formed out of it, the shape being now and then assisted a little by the scissars. The stalks of the leaves furnished stockings and ladies' fingered gloves; the smaller leaves, caps. So that the matter was not quite so wonderful, as it was wonderfully related. But in the mean time, it remained still for me to find out to what plant these leaves belonged, and this forced me to climb up myself the highest summits of the

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mountains, where they grow. The plant, indeed, was not scarce in those places, but it cost me a great deal of trouble before I could find one in flower, or in seed, and when I did, I was convinced that this plant belongs to the genus of bupleurum bupleurum giganteum. The downy coat, resembling fine wool, being well dried, was also used for tinder, and answered the purpose extremely well.

Roode-zand has a fine church, and its own appropriate minister. To this parish, all who live farther down in the country must necessarily belong; though they scarcely come more than once a year up to church, on which occasion they generally bring their children with them to be baptized.

On the 6th, having made here a fine collection of plants, birds, and seeds, and our cattle being perfectly refreshed, we left this beautiful spot, and penetrated into the country over several rivers, such as Hartebeest's rivier, (where we took up our lodging for the first night with MICHAEL DE PLOI), Hex rivier, Breede rivier, and so on to Matties valley and Brandsteeg, and crossing Mattjes kloof, arrived at the house of PETER DE WETT, near the hot bath, where we rested a day for the sake of using the bath, and of visiting the neighbouring mountains.

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Before we reached DE PLOI'S house, near Hartebeest's rivier, we passed by a mountain, called Slangenkop (serpent's head), which may, perhaps, be considered as the most remarkable in its kind. It stands separated from the other ridges of mountains, like a large solitary rock, and is not very high. On one side of it is a large and deep crevice, which makes this rock remarkable, as every autumn almost all the serpents of the neighbourhood creep into it, and assemble together, in order to remain there secure and unmolested, during their torpid state. Towards summer, when the heat begins to set in, serpents of many different kinds, and frequently coiled up together in large knots, are seen coming out from this hole, in order to spread themselves afterwards all over the fields, each to its respective place of abode, and by means of proper food, to recover the flesh which they have lost in this retreat.

The colutea vesicatoria bruised, was used in diseases of the eyes. The pyrus cydonia, (or quince-tree), grew here, being planted out for hedges.

The Hot-bath has its source at the foot of the mountain, on the east side of the ridge, in a sandy soil. The springs are seven in number, one of which is very large, compared with the others. The second or uppermost, is of a mid-ling size, to the southward of which the first is situated, and the third close by it. Below

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these is a fourth, and the fifth is situated a few yards farther off, and between these two the sixth, which does not spring up in any one regular place, but bubbles up alternately out of several places. The lowermost is the largest, and boils with great force. The water is quite boiling hot, so as even to be fit for scalding animals in. The smoke is seen to rise as it were out of a pot boiling over the fire, and continues so to do in the stream that runs down from it, to the distance of two musket-shots. The sides and bottom of the channel have no sediment; but a green conferva grows in it. The stones that lay in the channel, and at this time were elevated a little above the surface of the water, were nevertheless covered with a grey coat, and in the channel a soft stone was found, which might be scraped with a knife, and was used instead of chalk. A piece of blue woollen cloth did not change its colour in the water, neither did blue sugar-paper, a sign that the water contained no acid. By sugar of lead it was no otherwise affected than that it acquired the colour of milk, and with powder of Peruvian bark it became rather brown. The vein runs always equally strong, without increasing or diminishing; yet the water was said to be hotter in summer. Linen may be washed in it, without being coloured by it, and meat may be boiled in


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the usual manner in the bath itself, without acquiring any disagreeable taste; all which proves the purity of this water.

From the springs, the water, in running down, gathers together into several cavities of different sizes, in which people may sit down to use the bath. Over two of these pits small huts were erected for the convenience of the company; and to these cold water could be brought at pleasure from a stream that ran down from the mountains. Indeed, it would be too venturesome to go alone into this bath; as the heat of the water, which increases the palpitation of the heart, drives the blood into the extremities, and the veins of the lower parts of the body, which are in the bath, become so expanded, that the blood is derived in too great a quantity from the head, and one is in danger of falling into a swoon in a quarter of an hour. Sometimes both nausea and vomiting supervene.

Among the invalids, who were here at this time for the benefit of their health, were two who had a peculiar claim to our pity. The one was a countryman, who had a malignant ulcer in his stomach, in consequence of being gored by a mischievous ox: he could not take any thing into his stomach except a very small quantity of the bath water, as he vomited continually. The other was a slave, who had a large

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fleshy excrescence on his right shoulder, which had pushed the arm out of joint before; this was occasioned by a smart blow on the shoulder-blade, that he had received by a fall.

The mesembryanthemum edule grew here in abundance, and especially in the sandy plains, and was called Hottentots figs (Hottentots vygen) the fruit when ripe and peeled, tasting tolerably well; it varies greatly in the colour of its blossoms, which are sometimes red; at other times, carnation, yellow, or white.

On the 9th of October we passed over Maurice's Heights to Koree. From this hill the mountain, in one of its sloping sides, was seen to consist of slate (schistus scriptura candida) in laminas, but very brittle and unfit for writing upon. On the other side of this eminence were seen also the Carrow Plains, which are very dry, steril, and bare of grass, being covered with a great number of succulent plants only, and bushes.

The prickly bush of the arduina bispinosa now bore ripe berries, which were said to be eaten by the Hottentots.

I had here an opportunity of seeing the same operation performed upon a great number of lambs, as I had before seen done with respect to oxen: the farmer himself castrating them with a small knise, with which he laid open the scro-

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tum. The testicles then were drawn out successively, and very dexterously separated.

In this place, where the farms stand closer together than elsewhere, the sheep were marked, and particularly in the ears. When it rained any great length of time, the sheep grew stiff, and some of them died. In consequence of this, they were also attacked with the dropsy (ascites), which the peasants cured by tapping them in the belly.

The sheep are sometimes shorn in this country, though the wool is seldom made use of; but the sheep-skins are frequently given to the slaves unshorn.

The zygophyllum morg sana, a handsome shrub, now adorned the hills with its blossoms, and appeared to be very proper for arbours.

A place or fold, where sheep as well as horned cattle were inclosed in the open air, was called a kraal. This place was always near the house. It was surrounded either by a mud-wall or by very prickly bushes. For the purpose of letting the cattle in or out, an opening was left, before which was placed a gate or door. In these parts, where there was plenty of wood, these kraals were inclosed by felled trees, consisting of the mimosa nilotica and arduina bispinosa, the most prickly of any almost in all

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Africa. These fences keep off wolves, foxes, and other beasts of prey, as well in consequence of their breadth, as by their prickles.

The mimosa nilotica, while it is cutting down, may sometimes happen to fall upon a man, and its prickles to enter deep into his body, on which occasion they may chance to break off, and stick fast in it.

The antelopes eat the leaves of the mimosa nilotica, and frequently the prickles of it run into their feet, without doing them any injury.

In the crevices of the mountains a great number of dasses (cavia capensis) were found, which were generally supposed to have the menstrual flux: and the sand-hills to the right harboured near the summit of their sides a deep white sand, which was driven about by the wind.

In a river, which had a small creek, and in this a deep hole, I saw in miniature the manner in which Nature forms whirl-pools, or maalstroms. Above the hole, the froth and other impurities were carried round in a direction contrary to that of the current, and were drawn down in the centre.

On account of the flooding of the rivulets we were obliged to remain here a few days; and from hence we took our route on the 14th over the river Koree, which we crossed twice, and afterwards passed over Sand River, which

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is frequently dried up, to Riet Fontein (Reed Fountein) and farther over CLAS VOGT'S Rivier to a farm which at this time belonged to one LE ROUX.

The viscum capense, a parasitic plant, was seen disseminated every where on the branches of trees (especially of the rhus) by means of its berries, which the birds are fond of.

On the 15th, passing by GERT'S house, we crossed a very deep river, in our way to PHILIP BOTA'S: and went from thence past DROSKI'S house to JACOB BOTA'S.

Here they showed me a specimen of cat silver (mica argentea) found in the mountains, which was mixed with a transparent and irregularly crystalized calcareous spar; as also a kind of bitumen, which the country people were pleased to call dasses-p—; supposing it to be the inspissated urine of the great mountain rat (cavia capensis) that is found there. I was informed that this bitumen was to be found in great abundance in the cracks and crevices of the mountain, especially at one large projecting krants, or summit. The bitumen was very impure, and known to the country people on account of its great use in fractures.

The branches of the wax-shrub (myrica cordifolia) the berries of which are covered with a fat substance resembling bees-wax, were put

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whole into a pot of boiling water, in order to melt and skim off the wax. It resembles grey impure wax, is harder than tallow, and somewhat softer than wax. The farmers use it for candles, but the Hottentots eat it like a piece of bread, either with or without meat.

On the 17th, passing by Bruynties Rivier and Leeuwe Rivier (Lion River) we came to Keureboom's Rivier, which is so named from the trees (sophora capensis) which grow near it in abundance.

An infusion of the root of asclepias undulata was used as a remedy for the colic.

Crystals of gypsum, which were said to be found in the mountains of Africa, were used for cleansing ulcers, when pounded and sprinkled upon them.

On the 18th we passed Puspas Valley and Rivier, and arrived at Zwellendam, the residence of one of the company's land-drosts, whose jurisdiction extends over all the interior part of the country that lies beyond this spot, and whose office is in some respect, though not absolutely, similar to that of the governor of a province.

The acrid berries of the fagara capensis were used both here and in other parts of the country in the colic.

After dining with the land-drost, M. MENTZ, by whom we were received with the greatest

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hospitality, we continued our journey across the broad river, known by the name of Buffeljagt's River, to one of the company's posts, called Riet Valley (Reed Valley), where we stayed several days, to arrange the collections we had made, and to repair our wretched carriage, which had been shattered to pieces by the strong and mountainous roads; a cart so small, old, and crazy, that probably nobody, either before or after us, can boast of having made, in such a vehicle, so long and dangerous a journey into this mountainous country.

The plains now began to abound more in grass, and looked something like meadows.—The mountains which had followed us, as it were, all the way from Roode Zand, now terminated gradually in large declivities like steps, and hills. In the same proportion, likewise, the herds of cattle became larger, and occurred more frequently; while the vineyards and corn-fields which, however, were not wanting as yet, grew more and more scarce.

We were told that infectious distempers frequently prevailed among the cattle here, and that the boandziekte was not uncommon. It was described as first attacking the lungs and liver, and then the other parts of the body; in consequence of which the flesh became so soft and

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tender, that there was hardly any cohesion left between the fibres.

Not far from this farm of the company's, which particularly furnishes it with large timber, in a clest in the mountains, stood a large wood, called Grootvader's Bosch, or Grandfather's Wood. To this we made an excursion, with a view of becoming acquainted with the indigenous trees of Africa. After passing by a farmhouse called Rietkeul, we arrived at Duyvenhoek's Rivier, at a spot which had obtained the name of Helle (or Hell) on account of the mountain at this part forming a very deep valley. The forest was very thick and lofty, but unfortunately the trees at this season had neither blossom nor fruit on them, to satisfy my curiosity.

Camassie-bout was a very fine sort of wood, used for the borders of chests of drawers, and of other pieces of furniture.

Stink-bout (stink-wood) which resembles the walnut-tree, is a tall tree, and is used for making writing-desks and chests of drawers.

Geel-bout, or yellow wood (ilex crocea) is a large tree, the wood of which is very heavy, more or less of a pale yellow colour, and is used for making tables.

A rock crystal that was found here was shown to me, of the length of the little finger, and pointed at both ends.

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A species of pepper (piper capense) that was found in abundance in the wood here, was called by the country people staart pepper (or tail-pepper) and used by them as a spice.

We left our cart at the company's post, and in the place of it procured a large waggon tilted over with sail-cloth, together with ten fresh oxen to continue our intended expedition to the Coast of Caffraria.

Not far from this farm there lived a few Hottentots, who were sometimes employed in the service of the farm and the company. They were quite mad after brandy and tobacco, and seemed to place their whole delight in filth and stench. Their bodies were besmeared all over with grease, and powdered with the powder of bucku (diosma); and to show us respect as strangers, they had painted themselves besides with red and black streaks. The women wore a triangular piece of skin, and the men a bag or pouch, on the fore-part of their bodies, for the fake of decency. Round the neck, arms, and waist, they were decorated with strings of blue, white, red, and motley coloured glass-beads in several rows. Some of them wore rings of iron, brass, or leather round their arms. A sheep-skin thrown over their hips, and another over their back constituted the whole of their apparel. The tobacco-pipe was continually in their mouths. They subsist upon their cattle,

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and upon bulbous roots, which they are very ready at finding out and digging up in the fields.

For want of clocks, the colonists always measure time by the course of the son.

On the 23d and 24th we passed over Krakcus Rivier, and Krakous Heights (Krakous Hoogt) and at noon arrived at Vett Rivier, and afterwards crossing this river, passed by several farmhouses.

In these plains the aloe-tree (aloe perfoliata) from the leaves of which the gum aloe distils, grew in greater abundance than I ever observed it to do in any other place.

The sheep here were feeding on various poisonous plants, such as the rhus lucidum, lycium afrum, &c.

On the 25th we visited MARTIN LAGRANS, at Palmit Rivier, a farmer, who had as many fowls as supplied him with a hundred eggs every day.

From thence crossing Zoet-melks Rivier (New-milk River) and passing by Zwarte Valley, or Black Vale, we came to a farm called Wel te Vrede (Well satisfied) near Valse Rivier (or False River).

Hard by Zwarte Valley, to the left, the rock plainly appeared to contain iron.

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On the 27th, passing by Groote valley, or the Great valley, and crossing the broad river, called Goud's river, we arrived at DANIEL PINARD'S.

Here, we were informed, the Rabies canina and vulpina had prevailed.

I observed that the peasants here practised a curious method of clearing their poultry-houses from vermin. These houses are constructed of clay, almost like large ovens; and when they are infected with vermin, the owners have nothing more to do, than to put a little straw into them, and set it on fire, in order to be rid of these unwelcome guests.

On the 28th, we passed by a large rock, which, on account of its harbouring bees, has obtained the name of the Honey rock (Honing klip) and reached a farm-house, situated near Attaquas kloof. The Honey-rock yields, at a great distance, a remarkable echo, that repeats several syllables successively, on which account, it was an object of attention to us in this place.

The wood of the olive-tree (olea capensis) which was white and very heavy, served to make chairs of.

It is true, wheat was not sown here in great quantities, but the soil was said to be so fertile, and the roots of the thinly sown corn to branch out so much, that every grain always produced several ears. They assured us that they had fre-

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quently counted twenty, nay, as far as eighty ears, that proceeded from one root. This I conceived to be scarcely credible, and in order to gain more accurate information on this subject, I undertook to count them myself in the field; when I found, that from one single grain of wheat, a great many ears had frequently sprung up, though the number of those that I examined, did not amount to more than one and forty.

The Hottentots we had hitherto met with in our expedition, had either been brought up by the Europeans, or in the neighbourhood of their farms, and consequently were often much altered from their natural state. Those we visited now, and especially after this period, lived mostly at a greater distance from the Europeans, had sometimes villages and families of their own, and presented themselves to us more and more in a state of nature, that is to say, in the state in which we were desirous of becoming better acquainted with them.

A century ago, it was much easier to search into, and get acquainted with the peculiar manners and mode of living of this people, at which period they dwelt nearer the Cape, were more numerous, and enjoyed their pristine liberty. Now, the way to their abodes is very long, their societies small, their manners and way of life

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much altered, and the whole nation under great restraint.

Some of those that lived as servants with the colonists, spoke Dutch tolerably well. When the farmers first settled in this part of the world, they found the Hottentots to be very much afraid of gunpowder and fire-arms, not being able, as they expressed themselves, to form the least idea of their arrows, meaning their balls, of which, after they were shot, they could not discern the flight; nor of their screws, which they could not pull out again, as they could nails.

We heard frequent mention made of a Hottentot, who had died a few years before, and who, in consequence of having been tossed by a wild buffalo, had lost the whole of his lower jaw, notwithstanding which, he had lived twelve or thirteen years after the accident. He could not speak a word; as for his victuals, he pounded them between two stones (which are commonly used by the Hottentots, instead of a pestle and mortar) and then crammed them down his throat with his fingers. He made, likewise, shift to smoke tobacco, by holding his hand over the aperture. At last he had the good fortune to shoot the very buffalo, which had brought this disafter upon him.

The leaves of the Atragene visicatoria were used by the country people in this and other places,

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instead of cantbarides. Bruised, and applied to any part of the body, in the space of half an hour, they raised a large blister, which keeps open a long time. The root also cut into slices, and applied to any part of the body, draws so powerfully, that if it lies on all night, the sore will keep open for a month. This plant grew chiefly near the precipices of mountains; and is used in rheumatic and other pains.

All along from Roode-zand, we had now proceeded nearly due south-east, through a country surrounded on both sides with mountains, of which, the ridge that lay to the right of us was now at an end, without reaching as far as the sea-shore. The ridge we had on our left, stretched still farther on, so that as we wished to penetrate deeper into the country, we were under the necessity of crossing it.

Such a passage may be effected through Attaquas kloof, a vale of such a length, that it requires almost a day's journey to pass through it.

On the 29th, we took a resolution to send our waggon this way, with Mr. IMMELMAN, and to make a round on horseback ourselves, through the verdant and woody country of the Hautniquas, (which lay to the right of us, and extended quite to the sea-shore) and afterwards to cross the


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mountains in another place, and join our waggon in Lange kloof.

With this view, passing by little and great Brack-rivers, we came to Zout fontein, a farm, belonging to a man of the name of VIVIER; afterwards we rode through a woody dale, and past a colony, where we faw only a few Hottentots tending the cattle, and at last arrived at Klein fontein, or the little fountain, near Wittel's rivier.

The following days we continued our journey past two or three colonists' houses, to GEORGE BOTA, at his farm of Sandvliet, near Keerom rivier, where we rested ourselves a little. In our road we caught a yellow serpent, six inches long, and not venomous, under some stones.

Of the bark of the Antbyllis, the Hottentots have the art of making ropes, by means of which they ascend trees, as by a ladder, when they want to get honey out of them. For this purpose, they first tie a noose round the trunk, in which they put one foot, then they fasten another noose higher up, and when mounted in that, untie the former, and so on.

Roads, that can be properly so called, are not to be found in all this southern part of Africa; yet the way which people in general take, when they travel, is pretty well beaten in the neighbourhood of the Cape; farther down in the coun-

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try indeed, very often not the least vestige of a road appears. Therefore in plains that are either very extensive, or covered with underwood, it may easily happen that a traveller shall lose his way; so that he ought to be well acquainted with, and accurately observe the marks, by which he may get into the right road again. He must see then whether there be any sheep's dung in the fields, which shews that there is a farm-house in the vicinity; and likewise, whether he can discover any herds of cattle grazing, or any corn-field.

The country here, in general, consisted of extensive plains, full of rich pasture, interspersed with hillocks, and valleys, that abounded in wood and water.

The trees in the woods were large and tall, but for the most part crooked and mishapen, and at the same time covered with moss, like those in the northern regions.

The Hottentot women here, wore a little cockle-shell (nerita bistrio, and the cypræa moneta) by way of ornament, both on their caps, and round their wrists, in the form of bracelets. Their cap is a slip of buffalo leather, of a hand's breadth, without any crown, ornamented on the outside with these shells in various rows, according to the different taste and wealth of the owner.


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The Hottentots of this place had a custom, which is not general with this nation, of wearing a bag of leather, that hung by a strap over their shoulders, quite down on their hips. At the lower end it was ornamented with thongs of leather, like fringes, to which were tied shells, that made a rattling noise. This bag served to keep various articles in.

Other Hottentot women wore on their heads a striped conical cap, made of several narrow slips of black, white, and brown lamb-skins, in their natural state, sewed together. These caps were also, sometimes, decorated with glass beads, fixed on them in various forms, or hanging down like strings of pearls.

Round their arms and legs they generally wore rings of ox-hides, which I had here the opportunity of seeing made. The slips, cut from the hide, were beaten till they were quite round, and both the ends stuck so fast together, that it could not be perceived where they were joined. These rings they afterwards forced over their feet, wearing, especially the women, such a number of them, as to cover half the leg, or more. I have also sometimes seen them wash, and afterwards grease these rings.

In the eggs of ostriches, as I was informed, a stone was sometimes found, which was set, and used for buttons.

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There are instances of an European's having married a Hottentot woman, who has then been baptized. But it has more frequently happened, that a colonist, without regular marriage, has had several children by a Hottentot mistress, and that these children have been baptized when they were several years old.

In many places I observed the land to have been set on fire for the purpose of clearing it; though in a very different manner from what is done in the north. Divers plains here, produce a very high sort of grass, which being of too coarse a nature, and unfit food for cattle, is not consumed, and thus prevents fresh verdure from shooting up; not to mention that it harbours a great number of serpents and beasts of prey. Such a piece of land as this, therefore, is set on fire, to the end that new grass may spring up from the roots. Now if any of these places were overgrown with bushes, these latter were burned quite black, and left standing in this sooty condition for a great length of time afterwards, to my great vexation, as well as that of other travellers, who were obliged to pass through them.

Almost every day we were wet to the skin, in consequence of deluging showers of rain, which were sometimes accompanied with thunder. Though at this season they have always fine weather near the Cape, it appeared as if winter

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and the rainy season had not yet taken leave of this part of the country. The rain was the more troublesome to us, as, besides that we had no opportunity of getting shelter here, and the short intervals of sun-shine were not sufficient to dry us when wet to the skin; the ground, likewise, especially of the hills, was now so wet and slippery, that our horses, being, according to the invariable custom of the country, unshod, stumbled continually, and in many places we were in great danger of breaking our arms and legs.

On the 2d of November we were overtaken by some remarkably heavy showers, when we crossed Quaiman's drift, a river, which like many other rivers here near the sea, rises and falls with the tide; and after passing through several woody vales and rivers, at length arrived at Magerman's kraal, a colony or grazing farm, belonging to FREDERICK SEELF.

More weary and wet, or in a worse plight, we never could have been, and worse we could never have been accommodated than at this place. No European dwelt here, but a black female slave, acted in her master's absence as mistress of the house, and had the superintendance over a great herd of cattle, and over the Hottentots that tended them. The house was an oblong cottage, constructed of timber, and daubed all over with clay. In this, I and my companions, with

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a great number of Hottentots, were obliged to pass the night, happy to have some kind of shelter from the rain, wind, and cold.

As in the course of the few days since we had left our waggon, we had made some collections, and therefore could not possibly stow every thing upon our horses backs, we were under the necessity of taking three oxen from the house abovementioned, to carry our baggage, and three Hottentots to lead them.

Oxen are much used in these parts, when tamed and broken in by the Hottentots, to carry burdens. These oxen have a hole through the cartilage of their nose, in which is put a stick, at both ends of which are fastened straps, like a bridle, by the help of which the oxen are guided.

In different places we observed pits dug, like those in which wolves are usually caught, and in which, when well covered over by the Hottentots, buffaloes and wild beasts are taken.

The Hottentots always carry the javelin or two (assagays) with them on their journies. These assagays consist of an iron-spear hollowed out on each side about six inches long, with or without an iron shaft, which is sometimes round and smooth, and sometimes grooved. This spear is fastened with thongs of leather to a slender rounder stick, five feet long, made of the Assagay wood (Curtisia faginea), and tapering towards the end.

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With these lances, which they throw with great dexterity to the distance even of 100 paces, they defend themselves against their enemies and wild beasts, and are able to kill with them, buffaloes, and other animals.

Instead of China-vessels and calabashes, poverty had taught them to use the shells of the tortoises, which frequent the bushes in the sandy plains, particularly the Testudo minuta and geometrica.

From their frequent besmearing themselves, as well as from the heat of the climate, the Hottentot women have always very slabby breasts, that hang down very low. And therefore, at the same time that they carry their infants on their back, they can with the greatest ease throw the breast to them over their shoulder. These in shape and size sometimes very much resembled calabashes; but among the curious sights that attracted our notice in this solitary place, was a Hottentot girl, whose breasts were so long, that they hung down as low as to her thighs, and were the largest that I ever saw among this people.

Here also I learned a curious way of baking bread speedily without an oven. The flour was kneaded up with water in the usual manner to dough, of this afterwards a thick cake was made, which was laid in the embers, and covered with them, so that in consequence of the heat com-

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municated to it, it was soon thoroughly baked; but the ashes that adhered to it made it so dirty, that they were obliged to scrape it before they could eat it.

The Hottentots always sit before the fire, squatted down upon their hams, on which occasion the women constantly lay the covering of their modesty, which here is worn in the form of a square, underneath them. The huts in these parts were formed of wooden stakes, round, and were convex and low, and covered with straw mats, in the form of a hay-stack, with a small aperture in the front, where the fire is made.

At the dawn of day, on the 3d of November, we set out again on our journey, and crossed several rivers, such as the Krakakou, Ao, Koukuma, and Neisena. The woods we passed through were narrow and full of prickly bushes. We could find no other passage through them than the tracks of the Hottentots, so that we were obliged almost to creep on all fours, and lead our horses by the bridle. AUGE, the gardener, having travelled this way before, was now our guide, and we had left the Hottentots with our oxen behind us. In the afternoon we arrived at Koukuma Rivier. We forded over one of its branches, and intended to pass through a thicket to a farm which we discovered on an

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eminence on the other side of this thicket, belonging to one HELGERT MULLER; but we had not advanced far into the wood before we had the misfortune of meeting with a large old male buffalo, which was lying down quite alone, in a spot that was free from bushes, for the space of a few square yards. He no sooner discovered AUGE, who went first, than roaring horribly he rushed upon him. The gardener turning his horse short round, behind a large tree, by that means got in some measure out of the buffalo's sight, which now rushed straight forwards towards the serjeant, who followed next, and gored his horse in the belly in such a terrible manner, that it fell on its back that instant, with its feet turned up in the air, and all its entrails hanging out, in which state it lived almost half an hour. The gardener and the serjeant in the mean time had climbed up into trees, where they thought themselves secure. The buffalo after this first atchievement, now appeared to take his course towards the side where we were approaching, and therefore could not have failed in his way to pay his compliments to me, who all the while was walking towards him, and in the narrow pass formed by the boughs and branches of the trees, and on account of the rustling noise these made against my saddle and baggage, had neither seen nor heard any

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thing of what had passed. As in my way I frequently stopped to take up plants, and put them into my handkerchief, I generally kept behind my companions, that I might not hinder their progress; so that I was now at a small distance behind them.

The serjeant had brought two horses with him for his journey. One of them had already been dispatched, and the other now stood just in the way of the buffalo, who was going out of the wood. As soon as the buffalo saw this second horse, he became more outrageous than before, and attacked it with such fury, that he not only drove his horns into the horse's breast and out again through the very saddle, but also threw it to the ground with such violence, that it died that very instant, and all the bones in its body were broken. Just at the moment that he was thus occupied with this latter horse, I came up to the opening, where the wood was so thick, that I had neither room to turn my horse round, nor to get on one side. I was therefore obliged to abandon him to his fate, and take refuge in a tolerably high tree, up which I climbed.

The buffalo having finished this his second exploit, suddenly turned round, and shaped his course the same way which we had intended to take.

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From the place I was in, and the eminence I had gained, I could plainly perceive one of the horses quite dead, the other sprawling with its feet and endeavouring to rise, which it had not strength to do, and the other two horses shivering with fear, and unable to make their escape; but I could neither see nor hear any thing of my fellow-travellers and companions, which induced me to fear that they had fallen victims to the first transports of the buffalo's fury. I therefore made all possible haste to search for them, to see if I could in any way assist them; but not discovering any traces of them in the whole field of battle, I began to call out after them; when I discovered these magnanimous heroes sitting fast, like two cats, on the trunk of a tree, with their guns on their backs, loaded with fine shot, and unable to utter a single word.

I encouraged them as well as I could, and advised them to come down, and get away as fast as possible from such a dangerous place, where we ran the risk of being once more attacked. The serjeant at length burst out into tears, deploring the loss of his two spirited steeds; but the gardener was so strongly affected, that he could scarcely speak for some days after.

Thus we went back to the very spot from which we set out, and after passing over some very tiresome hills, arrived at the place of our

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destination; but as the searjeant could not cross the river without a horse, I took him up behind me, and after having left him my horse, walked on to the house.

Here my first care was to dispatch some Hottentots to the thicket, to take the saddles off the two horses, which hereafter might be of service. These Hottentots armed themselves with lances, their usual weapons, and informed us that they had before observed that one solitary buffalo haunted that wood, which, as they said, was so spiteful, that he had been driven away from the herd by the other buffaloes, and was obliged to live alone.

No European was to be found in this place, there being none but Hottentots, nor any other hut than those which were inhabited by the Hottentots themselves, and which, on account of the vermin they harboured, no European, even in a case of the greatest necessity, could ever think of lodging in.

We were therefore obliged, with a straw mat under us, a saddle under our head, and a fire at our feet, to pass the night in the open air. Fortunately for us, the sky was very clear and serene; but at the same time the cold was so great, that we could not sleep, being obliged every hour to rise and warm ourselves all over before the fire, for the purpose of making which we had had the foresight to order a sufficient

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quantity of logs and brush-wood to be brought to the hut the night before.

Hemp (Cannabis satica) was cultivated here by the Hottentots in a very small inclosure. This is a plant universally used in this country, though for a purpose very different from that to which it is applied by the industrious European. The Hottentot loves nothing so well as tobacco, and with no other thing can he be so easily enticed into a man's service; but for smoking, and for producing a pleasing intoxication, he finds this poisonous plant not sufficiently strong, and therefore in order to procure himself this pleasure more speedily and deliciously, he mixes his tobacco with hemp chopped very fine. It is surprising, that this nation, although, before the arrival of the Europeans it had no intercourse with the rest of the world, and consequently was ignorant of the use of tobacco, should, notwithstanding, become so distractedly food of this poisonous plant; and that for it and brandy they could be induced to sell to the Dutch a considerable portion of their land near the Cape; a transaction which has cost them so dear, both with respect to their liberty and to the land of their fore-fathers.

On the 4th we quitted this place, and in the evening reached PETER PLANT'S farm, called Melkbout Kraal, near the Deep River.

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The serjeant was obliged to put up with an ox by way of nag for two days, as no horse was to be found hereabouts; this answered tolerably well, though it was very fatiguing, as well on account of the breadth of the ox's back, as because he could use no stirrups.

On the 5th we crossed Pisang River, to go to JACOB BOTA'S farm, called also Pisang Rivier.

This farm, which was entirely a grazing farm, was situated not far from the sea-shore, and a whole society, consisting of more than fifty Hottentots, were here in the service of this farmer, lived in his vicinity, and were supported by him. The harbour here was very wide and beautiful.

The farmer himself was not at home, having set out for the Cape that very day; but an old faithful Hottentot was in the mean time our kind and attentive host, and gave us all necessary assistance.

My two fellow-travellers, not having yet got the better of their terror, and wearied out with the many crosses they had met with in the course of their journey, now resolved here to set bounds at once to their dangers and their curiosity, small as this latter was, and to make the best of their way back from hence to the Cape, where they might get more wine to drink, and be less

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liable to be frightened by buffaloes. But when I represented to them what a cowardly appearance this would have, and that they had made but a small collection as yet, likewise that we were separated from our waggon, our other fellow-traveller, and the rest of our baggage; adding besides, that though they should accompany me no farther, I was nevertheless determined to pursue my journey, they were at last persuaded to alter their refolution.

However, I let my doleful companions rest here for a few days, while I visited the seashore, and the adjacent mountains, which were covered with shrubs and bushes of various kinds, and particularly with the Arduina bispinosa, so that in several places they were impenetrable; and in these I was frequently so much entangled, that I was obliged to crawl for a long way on the tops of the stiff bushes, which with their sharp prickles tore my hands and clothes quite to tatters. The bare-footed Hottentot who accompanied me, was so much lacerated and so bloody, as to be a real object of compassion; but in my search after plants, having lost my way in the thicket, we had no other resource left. At the foot of the mountains were flat rocks, on which seals lay sleeping in the sun; a circumstance, whence the mountain has its name of Robbeberg (or Seal Mountain.)

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It projects a great way into the sea, like a peninsula, and is covered with small sea-shells (Conchæ).

The Robbeberg is a singular mountain, and different from any other that I have seen in Africa. Its middlemost stratum is a very firm concretion of round and irregularly-shaped pebbles, and indurated lime, about four fathoms broad. It perfectly resembles a piece of masonry. The uppermost stratum appeared to me to be a brownish rock. The lowermost is sand-stone. On another side of the mountain there is a heap of indurated sand, which the water has scooped holes into. In some places he sand had concreted with clay in a tubular form, and large masses of it had fallen down. The flat foot of the mountain, towards the sea, had various holes in it of different sizes, some of them as round as if they had been turned, and others oblong. On one side, the lowest stratum was a whitish-grey quartz, that was greasy to the touch. The mountain had, moreover, long clests and crevices, in which hung a number of thick stalactites, covered with a fine down-like substance, which was sometimes quite green. The sand-stone was of a very fine grain.

The Strelitsia, with its yellow flowers and blue nectarium, grew near this spot, and was one of the most beautiful plants, of which the bulbs

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were procured to send to Europe. The Hottentots were said to eat the fruit of it.

The Hottentots were at no great pains in dressing their victuals. Buffalo's flesh was merely cut into slices, and then smoked, and at the same time half broiled in the embers over a few coals; this was eaten without bread, though, perhaps, it was in the first stage of putrefaction.

It is a custom among the Hottentots, that if a cow is barren, she must be killed; but in this case its flesh is eaten by married people only, and not by those that are single.

Grease is the great dainty of the Hottentots, which they are not only fond of eating, but can also drink without finding any inconvenience from it.

The small huts of the Hottentots are at times so full of vermin, both of the hopping and creeping kind, as not to be habitable by them; they are then forced to remove them to another place, a removal which does not take a very long time, neither is it particularly expensive. I have seen it performed with the greatest agility and dispatch. First, a few withies were fixed in the earth, and bent in the form of arches to determine the height of the hut, and give it a rotund figure. These are afterwards covered with rushes, or mats made of rushes, (Cyperus textilis) which keep out both wind


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and rain. All round the bottom dung is laid, to make the hut tight and close in that part.

Su Koa (Potteslaan) was the name given by the Hottentots to a drum they sometimes used to beat to their music. Over a pot with water in it was extended a sheep-skin, which had previously been well soaked, and was tied round the edge of the pot with a leathern thong. The fingers of the left hand being placed near the edge, and the thumb in the middle, they beat with the two first fingers of the right-hand upon the other edge, which produced a dull heavy sound, that had nothing pleasing in it. To this wretched music a Hottentot would dance in the following manner: holding in his right-hand a string fastened to the roof or wall, and remaining on the same spot, he hopped first on one foot, and then upon the other, all the while beating time with them. During this he writhed his body in various curves, and threw his head from one shoulder to the other in a semicircular direction; all the while singing, and all this to a certain modulation. One of these dances will sometimes last a considerable time, and throws the dancer into a violent perspiration. They always wipe the sweat off their faces with a fox's tail.

I observed several things for which the Hottentots had no words in their own language, such as coffee, housings, company (compagnie).


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The women carried their infants on their backs under the sheep-skin, which they call a kross; the child was fastened by a leather strap that went round the mother's and its own neck, and was farther secured by another strap that passed over the kross under its posteriors, the mother all the while attending to her business as usual.

Some of the women here wore strings of glass-beads round their legs, others had the dependent sides of their kross ornamented with beads, which, among other things, they receive of the farmers for their wages. Others had a tortoiseshell hanging at their backs, in which they preserved either their tobacco or bucku (diosma). For want of clay tobacco-pipes they use wooden ones.

The farmers themselves, for want of proper vessels, were often obliged to keep their milk and honey in leathern bags.

The fields hereabouts were full of wild buffaloes, so that it was not uncommon to see a hundred or two of them in a herd. They generally lie still in the thickets and woods in the day time, and in the night go out into the fields to graze.

The house in which we were lodged was roomy and large, well constructed of clay, with doors, and with shutters before the window-holes, as glass windows could not be easily procured from so great a distance as the Cape. The whole roof

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in the kitchen was hung with thick slices of buffalo's flesh, which, being dried and smoked, they ate as hung-beef.

Buffaloes were shot here by a Hottentot, who had been trained to this business by the farmer, and in this manner found the whole family in meat, without having recourse to the herd. The balls were counted out to him every time he went a shooting, and he was obliged to furnish the same number of dead buffaloes as he received of balls. Thus the many Hottentots that lived here were supported without expence, and without the decrease of the tame cattle, which constitute the whole of the farmer's wealth. The greatest part of the flesh of the buffalo falls to the share of the Hottentots, but the hide to that of the master.

The Hottentots dressed the buffaloes hides in the following manner: the hide was stretched out on the ground by means of stakes, after which warm ashes were strewed over it, and the hair scraped off with a knife or spade.

For want of the shoes usually worn in other places, which could not be procured so far up in the country, and which frequently even the farmers at the Cape cannot afford to buy, they generally wear here what are called field-shoes, which the country people usually make themselves, in a way peculiar to them, for the most

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part of buffalo leather, sometimes of neats leather, and sometimes, though more rarely, of the striped hide of the zebra.

It was pleasing to observe with what cordiality the Hottentots, as well those who lived upon the farm, as the strangers who had accompanied us hitler, offered each other the regale of the tobacco-pipe. Having set themselves down in a circle, the pipe went from one to the other round the whole company. Each man taking a few large whiffs, at last gets his mouth full of smoke, a small part of which he swallows, and puffs out the remainder through his nose and mouth.

From the woods of Houtniquas the peasants, who live near the district of Muscle Bay, sell both rough and cut timber, notwithstanding the length and roughness of the road; but from hence the farmers have nothing else to carry to market, except oxen for slaughter, and butter. If any kind of navigation were set on foot either from this coast or from Muscle Bay, the carriage would be easier, and the commodities, especially the timber, cheaper; but this has as yet either not been thought of, or else, perhaps, it has not been deemed of any use.

Our crest-fallen serjeant having now in some measure recovered his spirits, and procured the loan of a saddle-horse here, we resumed our

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journey on the 10th of November, travelling up the country, and towards the mountains, in hopes, on the other side of them, of meeting with our waggon, and better fortune. Passing by another farm, belonging to BOTA, we went through two rivers to Malagass kraal; and afterwards proceeded up Keureboom's rivier to Jackall's kraal.

At Keureboom's rivier, Houtniquas land terminated on this side, a land abounding in grass, wood, and buffaloes. We farther rode over the mountains, and all along them beyond Keureboom's rivier to PETER JAGER'S farm.

Here we were refreshed, thirfty as we were, with Hottentots fack-milk, as it is called, which, perhaps, few travellers, unless urged by extreme thirst, will be able to prevail on themselves to taste. It is a very acid, cool, and refreshing milk, remarkable as well for the vessel in which it is kept, as for its great age. I had formerly imagined, that the four milk of Norrland (in Sweden) which is several months old, was the oldest milk in the world, but I now found that the Hottentots fack-milk might at least be considered as grand-mother to the Norrland milk. The vessel in which it is kept, is the hide of an antelope (Eland, Capra oreas) which is sewed up close together, and hung up against the wall. Other hides were said to be not so fit for the purpose. In one of these sacks thus hung up, new

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milk is put, which turns sour and coagulates. Every day more new milk is poured in, which likewise soon coagulates, as the sack is not cleaned out for the space of several months at least, and frequently not for a year or two.

The Hottentots seldom churn any butter; and when they do, it is only to besmear themselves with. The Maquas Hottentots are said to churn in the following manner: new milk is poured into a leathern bag, which two Hottentots holding by the ends, shake the milk in it from one end to the other, till it coagulates.

On the 11th, we passed over the very lofty mountains that lead to Lange kloof, in our way to farmer MATTHEW ZONDAG's. Watery clouds hung all over the mountains, by the piercing vapours of which, though it did not rain, we were wetted quite to the skin. The sides of the mountain that we passed over, were sometimes so steep, and the path so narrow, that we did not cross it but at the hazard of our lives, and shuddered when we looked down the precipice. The country on the other side, or Lange Kloof, was very elevated, in comparison with that from whence we came, and consequently the mountains there were low, when compared with the dreadful height which they exhibited on the other side, towards the sea coast.

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At this farm they made soap from a ley, prepared from the Canna bush (Salsola aphylla) which was boiled a long time and inspissated; when mutton suet was added till the mass acquired a proper consistence. It was then poured out, and formed into long squares.

On the 13th, we paid a visit to PETER FRERE, a man, who was a great hunter of elephants, and had made long journies, as far as into the country of the Caffres. Among other particulars, he informed us, that the Hottentots cannot count farther than five in their own language.

On the 16th, going from this man's farm here, called Misgunst (or Envy) on the banks of Diep rivier (or the Deep river) we passed by another farm of his, near Aapies rivier, in our way to Klipp-drift, and afterwards across Krakeel rivier, to MATHEW STREIDUNG's.

Here I saw a great number of tombs, consisting of small heaps of stones. I strictly enquired after their origin, but no European could give me any account of them. An old Hottentot informed me, that the inhabitants of this tract had died of ulcers, in great numbers, which gave me no small reason to conclude, that this place had been well inhabited, and even populous, and that it was the small pox which had made this extraordinary devastation.

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On the 17th, after passing PETER NICKERT's farm, called Onverwagt, we went over Waageboom's rivier, to HENRY KRUGER's.

The wild Turkey (Tantalus) which now began to make its appearance, was said to quit the country during the winter, and to return in the months of September and October.

The Meloë chichorei, with its many varieties, devoured the beans, and other products of the gardens.

In Lange kloof it is very cold in the winter, and snow falls, just as at the back of Witsen mountain.

On the 18th, we arrived at THOMAS FRERE's, near Kromme rivier (or Crooked river).

The country as far as here, gradually sank lower and lower as it proceeded towards the seashore, so that Lange kloof was far more elevated than the country about Kromme rivier.

On the 19th we arrived at Essebosch, a fine forest, in almost a plain and level country. It had rained the whole day, and it continued pouring during the evening and night, so that being wet to the skin, we were under the necessity, four of us, to crouch under the tilt of our waggon, in expectation of better weather in the morning. The Hottentots, who accompanied us, were obliged to take shelter under the waggon, as it was quite impossible to keep up any fire.

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On the 20th, fair weather and sun-shine; but as we could not get at any dry clothes, we were obliged to let those we had on, dry on our bodies in the sun. We now rode on to Diep rivier, Leuwe bosch rivier, and so on to Zee-ko rivier.

Here we were informed, that lions were sometimes seen in the mountains, and that they had formerly resorted thither in great numbers; but were now mostly extirpated.

The Bread-tree (Zamia caffra) is a species of palm, which grows on the hills, below the mountains, in these tracts. It was of the height and thickness of a man at most, very much spread, and single. I have sometimes seen from one root, two or three stems spring. It is out of the pith (medulla) of this tree, that the Hottentots contrive to prepare their bread. For this purpose, after scooping out the pith, they bury it in the earth, and leave it there for the space of two months to rot, after which they knead it, and make it into a cake, which, in their usual slovenly and filthy manner, they slightly bake in the embers. I observed that the tree stood in dry sterile places, between stones, and grew slowly.

At Kromme rivier, a shell-fish (Solen siliqua) was said to be found in holes in the banks, which it is impossible to catch by digging after it; but

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the method of fishing for it was, by running a stake into it, and then drawing it out.

The ridge of mountains, which at Roode zand we had on our left hand, and afterwards in Lange kleaf on the right, and which were continued quite from Witsenberg, now terminated here before it reached the sea-shore; whereas the ridges on our left hand were continued farther, and had the Carrow plains behind them.

The berries of the Guarri bush (Euclea undulata) had a sweet taste, and were eaten by the Hottentots. Bruised and fermented, they yield a vinegar, like that made from Pontac.

The Crassula tetragona, as being somewhat of an astringent nature, boiled in milk, in the quantity of a handful, is used as a remedy for the diarrhœa.

On the 22d, we arrived at JACOB KOCK's, near the mouth of Sea-cow river, not far from the sea shore, a man whom we now visited for the second time in the course of our journey.

The interior coat of the stomach of sheep dried, pulverized, and taken inwardly, was said to excite vomiting, and to be serviceable in fevers.

The blood of a hare was asserted to be a cure for the St. Anthony's fire, if rags dipped into it, and then dried, were worn upon the body, but not applied to the part affected.


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Many people here likewise concurred in assuring us, that the blood of a tortoise, used externally, as well as internally, was of the greatest service to such as were wounded by a poisoned arrow.

At this place we staid several days, as well with a view to regulate and put in order what we had already collected, as to investigate all the neighbourhood, and likewise to give rest and pasture to our weary and emaciated cattle.

During this time, however, we made a journey on horseback to Cabelsauw rivier, and from thence to Camtour's rivier, which is very broad and deep, and by which also Looris rivier empties itself into the ocean.

Hottentots and Caffres lived promiscuously near this river, as on the frontier of the two countries, the real Caffraria beginning several miles farther up in the country.

The Caffres that lived here, were taller than the Hottentots, more undaunted and valiant, better made, blacker and stronger. They wore round their arms, by way of ornament, rings, either of iron or ivory, and were armed with javelins, which they knew much better how to manage than the Hottentots did. The ivory rings were half an inch in breadth, and they generally wore several of them on each arm.

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Their dances were extremely curious. Two or more of them placing themselves side by side, or back to back, balanced themselves on their toes, striking the ground now and then with their heels; during which, they moved every limb, and almost every muscle, especially their eyes, forehead, neck, head, mouth, and chin, keeping time in every motion. The music to this dance was a rough screaking kind of singing, accompanied sometimes with a whistling noise, to produce which, they drew their lips on one side, shewing their teeth, from between which the sound issued. The women kept running about all the while, singing and jumping to the same time, with a continual motion of their head and limbs.

In the tip of one ear they had a hole, in which was stuck a porcupine's quill.

We were shewn here ear-rings of two different shapes, made of copper, mixed with silver, which they said they had obtained from nations living farther up in the country.

Here too we saw baskets wrought by the Hottentots, that were so tight and close, as to hold milk or water. Bottles also made of the bladders of the rhinoceros, were used for the same purpose.

The Caffres, as well as the Hottentots, have in each village, or horde, a chieftain, on whom

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they frequently bestow that appellation of captain, and who is their leader in their hunting expeditions, and against their enemies.

These nations, though destitute of fire-arms, nevertheless kill buffaloes and wild beasts with their javelins, called assagays. When a Caffre has discovered a spot where several buffaloes are assembled, he blows a pipe, made of the thigh-bone of a sheep, which is heard at a great distance. In consequence of this, several of his comrades run up to the spot, and surrounding the buffaloes, and at the same time approaching them by degrees, throw their javelins at them. In this case, out of eight or twelve buffaloes, it is very rare for one to escape. It sometimes happens, however, that while the buffaloes are running off the premises, some one of the hunters, who stands in the way of them, is tossed and killed, which, by the people of this nation, is not much regarded. When the chace is over, each cuts off his share of the game that is killed.

Besides the wild animals they may chance to take in hunting, the Caffres, who inhabit the most delightful meadows that can be imagined, along the coast, possess large herds of tame horned cattle. Their oxen are commonly easy to be distinguished from others, as they cut them in the lower part of the neck, in such a manner, that long slips of skin hang down from it; they

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likewise do the same with respect to their ears, and force their horns to grow in various singular forms. The company got formerly from them and the Hottentots, a great number of cattle, fit for slaughter, in exchange for tobacco, brandy, glass beads, and bits of iron; but now this is seldom the case, although this traffic is prohibited to all the farmers.

The Hottentots, in the service of the colonists, frequently use tobacco-pipes of clay, though these are so short, that the bowl of the pipe comes into contact with their lips. They are short, because in the carriage of them to so great a distance from the Cape, they are apt to break. But otherwise, both Caffres and Hottentots, use a pipe, either made of a long, slender, and hollow stick, with a hole near one end of it, in which is put another hollow stick that is short, and has at top a cylindrical stone, which is hollowed out, and is the bowl that holds the tobacco; or instead of the long stick, an antelope's horn, viz. of the (Capra oryx) near the pointed end of which is bored a hole; in this is put a short hollow stick, and upon that the stone bowl. In smoking, they stretch their mouths over the wide end of the horn, and draw in a few large whiffs. The smoke they keep some time in their mouths, and then swallowing a part, puff the rest out again. The pipe then passes

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on to the next, and so goes round the whole circle. When strangers come to a kraal or village, they are always treated with the tobaccopipe, which circulates in due form from one to the other.

The Hottentots had boiling vessels of burnt clay, of their own making.

The beans of the Guajacum afrum, though a poisonous shrub, are boiled and eaten by the Hottentots. Their water they keep in the intestines of animals. The women who carried their children on their backs, gave them suck under their arms, by bending the little creatures heads down to the breast.

Sea-horses (or Sea-cows, Hippopotamus) were still to be seen in great numbers in Camtour's river; though many of them have been shot of late, and consequently their number has been greatly diminished. The processus mamillaris of this animal was said to be an effectual remedy for the stone and gravel. We wounded indeed several of these huge beasts, but could not kill them; neither did any of them come up the following night, though we staid there till the next morning.

A few Hottentots who had pitched their tent here, for the purpose of consuming a sea-horse that had been shot some time before, lived in

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the midst of such a stench, that we could hardly pass by them without being suffocated.

A great number of the Caffres accompanied us back to Sea-cow River, and displayed various specimens of their arts, probably with a view of getting some of our good tobacco, to which they had taken a particular fancy.

We were told here, that a colonist had been bitten in the foot some time before by a serpent, of the species called Ringhals (or Ringneck) as he was walking along in the grass barefoot, as is the custom here, in default of shoes and stockings, which the peasants seldom wear, except when they go up to Cape Town or to church. I informed myself accurately of the symptoms produced by the bite. It seems the man was several miles distant from home when he met with this accident. He then immediately dispatched his slave to his house to bring him a horse with all speed, on which he went home, after having bound up his leg tight, in order to prevent the poison from spreading upwards. On his return home he grew so sleepy, that his wise could not without great difficulty keep him awake. He also became quite blind in an instant, and remained so for the space of a fortnight. His leg was swelled to such a degree, that the flesh covered the bandage over, like a sheath, insomuch that it could not easily be removed. An

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incision was made round the wound with a knife, and the foot washed with salt-water. He drank new milk copiously, and that to the quantity of several pails full in a night, but cast it all up again. After this the serpent-stone was applied to the wound. By means of this he gradually recovered; but still, though it is now several years since the accident happened, he has pains in the part on any change of weather, and at times the wound breaks completely out again.

The cattle, which constituted the farmer's wealth in these plains, were subject to several, and those peculiar, diseases.

The Tung-ziekte is a disease of the cattle, in which vesicles or bladders break out on the tongue, discharging a thin ichorous matter. In consequence of this distemper the cattle cannot eat, but grow lean, and sometimes die. The farmers are accustomed to rub the bladders off with salt.

The Klaw-ziekte is a disease, in which the hoofs of the cattle grow loose, so that they cannot walk. It appears to proceed from the summer heats, especially if the oxen have been driven on journies in the day-time. This distemper is esteemed here to be insectious. It is certain, that it attacks one ox after another successively, so that I have seen whole droves affected with


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it; but it seems to me rather to proceed from some common and general cause, than from infection. At first they are lamed by it, and afterwards become unfit for journies. This disease, however, leaves them in general of its own accord in the course of one or two weeks.

I saw some Chinese hogs here belonging to different farmers.

A yellow Chrysomela devoured, and did great damage to, the culinary vegetables in the gardens.

In the beginning of December we directed our course back again, after we had refreshed our oxen, and visited the country farther up than it has as yet, on that side of the Cape, been inhabited by Europeans.

In our journey up Langekloof, I observed one farm, the no less convenient than advantageous contrivances of the husbandmen to apply the rivulets that ran down from the mountains, to the watering of their vineyards and gardens. The water is always conducted over these lands in a channel to the more elevated parts, from whence they let down little rivulets or streams between the vines and the beds. When there is no occasion for watering, these streamlets are stopped up with a little earth. By the same methods water was carried to mills, fish-ponds, and other places.

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On the 6th we returned to MATTHEW ZONDAG's and on the 7th arrived at Wolfekraal; on the 8th, having crossed Keureboom's Rivier, we proceeded to Diep Rivier, and on the 10th came to Gans Kraal (Goose Kraal). Behind the low mountains lay Camenassie Land.

The sickles for reaping corn were jagged at the edge like a saw.

The Lycyperdon carcinomale grew here on the ant-hills, the brown powder of which was said to be used in cancers.

On the 10th we came to Ezelsjagt; on the 11th to Dorn rivier (or Thorn river) afterwards to Groote Dorn rivier, keeping always to the right, and leaving Attaquas kloof to the left.

On the 13th we crossed the barren Carrow plain, and paid a visit to GERT VAN NIMWEGEN.

The sheep here ate the tender leaves of the Mimosa nilotica.

The Meloë cichorei did great damage to the apple-trees and other vegetables in the gardens, the leaves of which they consumed entirely.

A Mesembryanthemum, with a white flower, was chewed by the Hottentots, for the purpose of quenching their thirst, after it had been suffered to putrify, and been properly prepared.

A species of Coccus, called Harpuys, that was found on the branches of trees, was said to prove mortal to sheep.

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On the evening of the 14th, we arrived at GERT CLUTE's farm, at Slange rivier (Snake river) which lay so deep in the cleft of a mountain, that I should suppose no one would expect to find a habitation there.

All this tract of land was exceedingly dry and meagre, the husbandman's cattle consisting only of sheep.

On the flat rocks that projected from the sides of the mountains, we observed a great number of tigers, which were more common here, than I have ever seen them in any other place.

The soil was a clay, impregnated with salt; and every where on the hillocks, and on the banks of the river, the salt was crystalized by the heat of the sun, in like manner as I had observed it to be on the hills near the Cape.

We had now a dreadful, long, dry and barren plain to cross, which is scorching hot in the day time, and which, in consequence, its want of water could afford us no place for baiting. We therefore employed a great part of the day in baiting, and in the evening, when it began to be a little cooler, in resuming our journey, we passed several large rivers, the banks of which were covered with wood, but which were now quite dried up; and at length we arrived in the morning to deserted house, situated on the side of the mountains to the left.

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Here we saw quickset hedges of the Aloë succotrina.

On the 15th and 16th we continued our journey, proceeding to the farms of Welgevunden, Watervall, and Muysen kraal.

On the 17th we came to a farm belonging to one SMIDT; and on the 18th, after crossing the mountains, we went through Platte kloof.

As we proceeded farther on the 20th and 21st, we passed several farms in our way to the company's post at Riet valley.

While we baited here, we paid another visit to Grootvader's bosch, where various sorts of trees are felled for the use of the company. I hoped now to find several trees in blossom; but the season was not yet far enough advanced.

The Calodendrum, however, was then in blossom, the honeyed juice of which I perceived beautiful butterflies sucking, without my being able to reach either the one or the other. But by the help of my gun, which I loaded with small shot, and fired in among the trees, I got some branches with blossoms on them.

On the 24th we crossed Breede-rivier and Rivier Zonder end (or the River without end) which latter is very deep, and therefore has a ferry for the accommodation of travellers.

Continuing our journey on the 25th and 26th, we passed the company's post at Tigerbook, and then proceeded along the Rivier Zonder end, to

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another post of the company's, Zoete melk's valley.

The country was already grown very arid, in consequence of the scorching summer heats and the high and drying winds.

Psoralea pinnata (Pinnwortel) was a plant, of which the country people in many places complained, as being the worst weed in the gardens, on account of the roots striking deep and firm in the ground, and consequently being difficult to eradicate.

A blue Chrysomela devoured and damaged the corn.

In a diagonal direction across Platte kloof, lay the Elephant's (Olyfant's) warm bath, which I had not now time to visit.

The increase of the summer heat had caused the flies to multiply in such numbers, as to be even extremely troublesome at most of the farms. In order to diminish the number of them in the house, small boughs were hung up to the roof, and sprinkled several times in the day with new milk; and when the flies had settled on them in great numbers, a long bag was set under them, into which they were shaken down. The bag was then twisted round, so that the flies could not escape.

The Secretary-bird, which is a great destroyer of serpents, after having trod them under his

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feet, and beat them with his pinions, so that they cannot hurt him, devours them. This bird eats not only flesh, but roots also.

Wild chesnuts (Brabejum stellatum) are so eagerly devoured by the wild boars, that they seldom or ever leave one on the ground to spring up, unless it should chance to fall between stones.

On the 27th we arrived at the warm bath of Zwarte Berg, or what is called the bath agter de berg (i. e. behind the mountain).

The spring arises from a hillock at the foot of the mountain, to the westward of it; and chiefly from two sources. The water is moderately warm, and deposits a great quantity of a light yellow ochre at the bottom of the channels in which it runs. The hillock consists of an iron ore or a ferruginous lava; and is heavy, black, shining, of a very close texture, and strikes fire with steel. The very road is black, owing to the dust of the broken ore, which lies upon it like soot. The water has a chalybeate or inky taste, but by no means sulphureous. It became black on mixing Peruvian bark or blue vitriol with it, and white with sugar of lead. The patients here use the water both for bathing in, and at the same time for drinking, though without any regulations or proper diet. The water is carried by a channel from its source into a boarded hut, where there are a few steps, on

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which the patient may sit as deep in the water as he chuses. The company has caused a brick house to be built here, the care of which they have left to an old man. The few rooms that are here for the accommodation of the patients, are parted off by means of sail-cloth into many small cabins; some of the patients live in their own tents or waggons, and others lodge at the farm that is situate at the bottom of the hill. The bath is used the whole year throughout, but most in summer, or from August to February. The mountain above it is called Zwarte-berg (or the Black-mountain).

On the 28th we left this place, and came to a farm belonging to one BADENHORST, where they were extremely busy in threshing out their wheat. Barns for laying up the corn are neither to be found, nor indeed are they wanted in a country, in which at this season of the year, there is nothing to be apprehended from rain, so that the farmers can keep their corn in a stack in the open air. The great heat makes the straw so brittle, that it crumbles to pieces, and therefore cannont be touched at any other time than in the morning and evening, when the air is become somewhat cool. For threshing, they prepare in the open air, a plain and level spot, which they fence in with a low and round wall of clay. Here they scatter the corn loosely about, and then turn in

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a number of horses, either loose, or, as is more frequently the case, joined together in a team, in order to tread out the grain. In the center of this area stands a man, who holds the foremost horse by a halter, and on the outside of it another man, who, with a long whip, drives the horses continually round, and keeps them in a hard trot. Thus the straw is trodden quite to chaff, and rendered totally unfit for thatching. In this manner, half a dozen men, with a few horses, are able to thresh out clean in one day 120 bushels of wheat. Oxen are seldom used for threshing, as their dung would spoil the corn.

Having left this place, we crossed Booter-river, where we saw the sea-shore, and passing by little Houthoek, went over great Houthoek and Hottentot Holland's kloof. This mountain is very high, and on the Cape side there is a road over it, that on account of its precipices has a most dreadful appearance. This, and the road however, that goes over Roode Zand, are almost the only, at least, the most common roads, by which all the inhabitants of the country must pass with their large and heavy loaded waggons. At the foot of the mountain lie several pretty farms, which, any more than the mountains and the sea-shore, I did not leave unvisited.

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Here we kept New year's day, and, together with almost all the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, went down to the sea-side to pass the whole day in mirth and pleasure.

Here we found thrown up by the surge, the Trumpet-grass (Fucus buccinalis) in which they blew like a trumpet.

Finally, having spent a whole day in crossing the very level and extensive sandy plain that lies between Hottentot Holland and the Cape, we arrived at the town on the 2nd of January 1773.

My first care after my return to the town, was not only to look over and put into order the collections of animals, plants, and seeds, that I had made during my four months journey; but likewise to get them ready for being sent to Europe by the homeward bound ships. Therefore, after having well dried the seeds, spread out the plants, and glued them on imperial paper, packed up the birds and insects in cases, planted the live trees, and laid up the bulbous roots in boxes, I sent considerable quantities of each to the botanical gardens at Amsterdam and Leyden, by several of the homeward-bound Dutch vessels. What I had still remaining, I divided into different parcels, and packed up for my patrons and friends in Sweden, especially the Archiaters and Chevaliers LINNÆUS and BÆCK, Professor

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BERGIUS and Dr. MONTN; these I had an opportunity of sending in Swedish ships by the favor of several naval officers who honoured me with their friendship.

The following months I passed as I had done the last year, in botanizing in the environs of the Cape, and in making short excursions into the country, as well as in examining and arranging my collections, and in making descriptions of such of them as were new and before unknown.

M. SONNERAT, a Frenchman, who, being an excellent draughtsman, had accompanied M. COMMERÇON in that capacity in his extensive travels round the world, and to many different parts of India, was lately arrived at this town in a French vessel from the Isle of France. I had soon an opportunity of making an acquaintance with him at the house of M. BERG, Secretary of the Police, and more particularly while we resided together at this gentleman's villa in the neighbourhood of Constantia, where we remained a few weeks for the sake of botanizing, and of shooting a great number of beautiful Cape birds for the cabinets of the curious in Europe.

Among the many excursions we made together, we resolved in the middle of January to visit Table-mountain, and examine what might be the produce of its summits at this season of the year. Each of us was furnished with fire-arms,

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provisions, paper, and other necessaries, which were carried by two slaves whom we had hired in the town for this purpose. At three o'clock in the morning we quitted our abode, and ascended the foot of the mountain before the sun could rise, and by its scorching rays render the journey too fatiguing to us. At a little after eight we reached its summit, where it was moderately and agreeably cool. We were also recompensed for our trouble by a great number of rare plants, especially of the Orchideœ, as they are called, which I never afterwards could meet with either here at other seasons, or indeed at all in any other mountain. Among these the Orchis grandiflora, or Disa uniflora (BERGH Plantœ Capenses) was conspicuous by its beautiful flowers; of the Serapias tabularis we found only one specimen; the Serapias melaleuca was distinguished by its black and white flowers, the most uncommon in nature; and with great difficulty, and at the hazard of my life, I got for the first and last time the blue Disa longicornis, which is as beautiful, as it is singular in its form. This last plant grew in one spot only, on a steep rock, and so high up, that in order to come at it after we had clambered up the side of the rock as high as we could, I was obliged to get upon the shoulders of M. SONNERAT, when, with a long stick, I beat down five of these plants, the only spe-


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cimens that were then in bloom. M. SONNERAT, who before had not had an opportunity of collecting as many plants at the foot of the mountain as I had, made in this one day only, a collection of 300 different species; but was so singularly unfortunate, though he had brought with him three pair of shoes for this excursion, as to return to town barefooted. The number of sharp angular stones which are rolled down from the mountain, and lie both at its foot and in the clefts through which the road goes, not only tear the soles, but also the upper-leathers of shoes; so that your thin French pumps are by no means sulted for excursions upon the mountains, which require shoes made of waxed leather with thick soles.

Table-mountain has acquired its name from its appearing from the town and harbour, as if it were cut smooth and level like a table. When one is arrived on the top of it, it appears pretty even in front, but on the other side it goes off in gradual inequalities, like very broad steps. In the clefts on the top there are several streams, which run down to the town and its environs, and supply them with good, fresh, and cool water. I could not discover any visible spring, nor any lake with fish in it, as some pretend there are; but all the water that was there, was collected partly from rain, and partly from the

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clouds, which diffuse themselves over the mountain, without falling down below in rain. On the summit were several mouldered and decayed stones, of a strange appearance, seeming as if they had been erected by art.

The height of Table Mountain is 3350 feet, or, according to the calculation of DE LA CAILLE, 3353 feet at the western angle, which is the lowest. The Devil's Mountain borders upon this to the east, and is thirty feet lower, though on account of its peak it appears to be somewhat higher. Table Mountain constitutes, with the Devil's and Lion's Mountains, one mountain, and is connected with them at the bottom, though it is separated from them by considerable vales at the top.

One may ascend and descend Table Mountain in several places, in front, behind, and at the sides, all which paths I reconnoitred this and the following years, in the fifteen times that I went up to the summit in the course of my three years abode in the neighbourhood.

In front the mountain is accessible only by the large cleft, which is distinctly seen almost in the middle of the mountain. This ascent is the most used, notwithstanding that it is the steepest, and particularly near the summit, where it grows at the same time very narrow, having, as it were, perpendicular walls on both sides. The foot of

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the mountain, below which the town itself is situated, is about a third part of the height of the whole mountain; which gradually swells, from gently sloping hills, overgrown with thickets, into steeper eminences, covered with stones that have rolled down from the summit; here the cleft begins, which at first is about fifty or sixty paces broad, but by degrees is contracted to six or seven, and at the top is almost choaked up with stones of an enormous bulk. High up in this cleft I found pieces of a fine loose sandstone of various sizes, which, when rolled lower down, crumbled away into small gravel and sand.

Table Mountain, as well as the Devil's and Lion's, and other mountains, have their strata or layers in common with those of Europe. The uppermost strata are quite horizontal, but the lower ones lie in an oblique position. At top the rock appears to be a kind of sand-stone, or lava; the middle stratum trapp, and the lower-most state. On the top of Table Mountain there are found both dissevered stones, and firm rocks projecting from the surface, which have mouldered away considerably, not only at the top and sides, but likewise at bottom, so that large cavities are formed in them. These substances are thus decayed not only by water that has been left in their cavities, but evidently by the

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very air also, the moisture of which penetrates into the minute and subtle crevices of these stones, and dissolves them.

The large stones which have rolled down, and lie on the hills at the foot of the mountain, and have a very ancient appearance, are a kind of trapp, which have excavations in them of different magnitudes, apparently formed in them by something that has undergone a gradual decay. These stones, as well the large as the small, have frequently pieces of quartz both in the inside of them and on their surface, which evidently shews that these latter have not been formed there, but were inclosed in them, as they are not concreted with the stony matrix, which is tolerably hard, but have a smooth and polished surface.

The rock, in the lowest strata of which the mountains are formed, is of a loose texture, of a dark colour, and may be scratched with a knife. It is sometimes of a lighter, or of an ash-colour. Both air and water are capable of corroding it, so that laminæ of a hand's breadth appear standing erect on their edge like a cock's comb crystal. These lowermost beds of slate, which are covered on the outside with mould and grass, sometimes constitute half the height of the mountain. And these beds run from south to north, not absolutely in a horizontal

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direction, but sunk to the westward, and rising to the eastward, with mouldered and sharp-edged laminæ, which are continued quite below the surface of the water, as is plainly seen by the rocks in the sea, as well those that are above, as those that are under water.

The old hospital having been for a long time in a ruinous condition, as well as of an inconvenient structure, the Company had resolved to build a new one on a larger scale, and in a more convenient situation; for which purpose proper artists, with the necessary tools and materials, had been sent from Holland. The spot for erecting this edifice on was chosen at the eastern end of the town, between Table Mountain and the citadel, where it would be exposed to the sun and wind. The ground-stone was laid by Governor VAN PLETTENBERG, in the month of November of the preceding year; and the building now went on every day, though but very slowly; a circumstance owing to the interested conduct of those who were appointed to superintend it, who not only gained by protracting the work, but also employed part of the workmen, as well as of the materials, on their own private buildings.

Two violent winds chiefly prevail on this southernmost promontory of Africa. The one blows boisterously almost every day in summer,


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which is called the Good Season (Goede Mousson); the other in winter, which is called the Bad Season (Quaade Mousson). The south-east wind is violent, and attended with dry and very fine weather; the north-west is tempestuous, and, for the most part, accompanied with showers of rain. The former brings short and violent gales, following close upon each other, which often increase to that degree of force, as to blow up not only dust and sand, but also gravel and small pebbles into the face of such as are exposed to it, who, being neither able to see nor go forwards, must either stand still, or else throw themselves down upon the ground. On such occasions strangers frequently exhibit ridiculous scenes, their hats, wigs, or hair-bags, being carried away by the wind the whole length of the streets. Not only boats but small craft, are likewise sometimes overset in the road, and the people in them lost, as was three times the case this year; in consequence of which, when the wind is high, no boat will venture to go to or from the ships.

The south east wind springs up for the most part towards noon, after a fine warm, and calm morning; about eleven, twelve, or one o'clock, it rises higher, and keeps up till three, four, or five o'clock, or even later, frequently leaving the evening serene and agreeable. Thus the morn-


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ing may be very warm and require light cloathing; but on the increase of the wind, the air begins to feel colder, and frequently one finds it necessary to put on a great-coat. These sudden changes are the cause that one is very liable to catch cold here, and that the inhabitants are in general subject to rheumatic pains. This violent wind, though in some respects it renders the summer less agreeable than it would be otherwise, yet still it makes the heat more tolerable.

Before the south-east wind begins to blow, the clouds are commonly seen gathering upon the mountains; and Table Mountain in particular, covered at the top with a heap of light clouds, appears as if it wore a periwig. On the wind's increasing, these clouds are seen precipitating down the fore-part of the mountain, without producing any rain. Sometimes, however, it will happen, though seldom, that the wind shall blow, and no clouds lie on the mountain: likewise, that all the clouds being dissipated on the fore part of the mountain, the wind shall continue with clear and fine weather. The south-east wind is a low wind, driving from the most part along the ground. The north-west wind also, is sometimes observed to drive the higher clouds in a direction contrary to that in which the south-east carries the lower ones, and the

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birds are seen flying in a calm atmosphere between these two contrary currents of air.

In winter time the north-west and south-west winds prevail, which bring rain, and are dangerous for the shipping that lie in the road.

These winds change in April, when by degrees the south-east ceases, and is succeeded by the north-west. So that April and May are months of intermission, as well as August and September, and, on the days when it does not rain, the most pleasant in the whole year.

In January and the months following, the road is the most resorted to by ships from Europe and the East Indies, for the purpose of taking in refreshments at a place where the air is wholesome, and the most plentiful supplies to be had of wine and all kinds of provisions. When a ship has anchored in the road, nobody from the town is suffered to go on board of her for the first three days, under a penalty of forty rixdollars.

The Cape may with propriety be stiled an inn for travellers to and from the East Indies, who, after several months sail, may here get refreshments of all kinds, and are then about half way to the place of their destination, whether homeward or outward bound.

Strangers that arrive here from Europe, are sometimes attacked with a diarrhœa, occasioned

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by the many vegetables and fruits with which this country abounds, but which is not of so dangerous a nature here as at Batavia.

Such strangers as are desirous of settling in this country, are at liberty here, as in Holland, to get their livelihood in what manner they please or are able, either by a handicraft business or commerce, or, as is most frequently the cafe, by both.

It is a general custom in this country to sleep an hour or two in the afternoon, at the time that the heat is the greatest.

At table the uppermost seat is never given to any of the guests; but the host and hostess are always seated at the upper end, one on each side of the table, and the company all around. The host always advances towards the stranger who is his guest, and taking him by the hand enquires after his health. If the person comes on horseback or in a carriage, he is invited to alight and walk in. The lady of the house does not rise, but salutes him by a nod of the head.

The French were at this time in very little estimation, on the one hand, because they generally came without ready money, and were obliged to trade on credit, or else with bills of exchange; and on the other, because the African colonists feared, that if a war broke out, these

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strangers would assist in taking the place; in which respect they thought themselves more secure with respect to the English, with whom they were in alliance. A French officer, though dressed to the best advantage, and frequently wearing a star on his breast, as a mark of his merit and his king's favour, had but little respect paid him; whereas an English mate of a ship, with his hair about his ears, was much esteemed on account of his being flush of money, and of his nation's being in alliance with Holland. Yet it was the French who most enriched the Cape merchants, as, on account of the credit they took, they were obliged to pay more than others, and at the same time had occasion for a greater quantity of merchandize, not only for their ships, but also for their garrison in the Isle of France.

The coins current here come either from Europe or the East Indies. The most common from Europe, which is here always termed the Mother Country (Vaderland), are ducatoons, shillings, and doits (Duyten). Ducatoons, either old or new, are, like every other species of coin, of more value here than in Europe, in general 25l. per cent. more, that is to say, twelve skellings, or seventy-two stivers. The shillings are seldom any thing more than sestehalves, such as in Holland are worth five stivers

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and a half. Two-pences (dubbeltjes) and single pence (or stivers) are scarce; as also are ducats, and the gold coin called riders (goude reijers). Dutch gilders are hardly ever seen. The Cape gilders are imaginary, and reckoned to those that receive salaries, at the rate of 16 stivers each. A rixdollar is valued at eight shillings, and a ducat at eighteen. Spanish piastres (Spanse matten) are willingly taken at the rate of nine Dutch skellings. From various places of the East-Indies, rupees of different kinds are imported, which are equivalent to half a rixdollar, and pass current with every body. No money is coined, or suffered to be coined in this country.

The kind of corn generally cultivated in this country is wheat, and it richly repays the labour of the husbandman. Small quantities have been exported to the Indies for the use of the better fort of people there; but the voyage has been looked upon as too long, and the freight too expensive to send any to Europe, till the preceding and this present year, when some has been sent to Holland, where it has been found to be much heavier than the European wheat. Poland, the granary of Holland, having for several years past been visited by war, and partly laid waste, and the crops having been in general bad all over Europe, the Dutch East India Company determined to send some small

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vessels to the Cape to import wheat; and last year they sent one vessel, and this year two frigates. For a freight of wheat, the farmer is paid 18 rixdollars. A freight contains ten muddes, or about 20 bushels.

Rye is scarcely ever sown here, except in small quantities for pleasure, or else by some farmer, who chuses to use the straw for thatching, instead of the Restio dichotomus.

The olive-shrub (Oleo Europæa) was common on the hills near the town, as well as in other places. The leaves are narrower than in the European olive; and the fruit seldom comes to maturity. For this reason it is not used for pressing oil out of it, but frequently as an astringent in diarrhœas. In other respects, this shrub so nearly resembles the European, that it cannot possibly be of a different species.

At the farms and villas near the town, European trees are frequently planted for the sake of ornament and shade, such as the oak, chesnut, pine, myrtle, lemon, and orange trees, which, when in blossom, diffused the most fragrant odour.

The summer in Europe has a much more agreeable appearance, with its leaf-bedecked woods and flowery meads, which after a forlorn and dreary winter, so infinitely cheer our eyes, than it does here, where no meadows are seen; and the woods are full of prickles, and of a me-

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lancholy aspect. In the meadows in Europe the ground is covered so thick with grass, as to appear like a carpet; but here the stalks of the grass are at a considerable distance from each other, and exhibit in the intervals between them, the bare and sandy ground.

As there are no forests in the vicinity of the town, except the few small ones that stand high up in the clests of the mountains, wood, which is used in the kitchen only, is both dear and scarce. Almost all the fuel used here, is brought in by the slaves, who obtain it by digging up the roots of Proteæ, and lopping off the branches of the underwood. Of this brushwood, together with the roots, the slave makes two separate faggots, and tying one to one end, and the other to the other end of a stick, carries them home on his shoulders. Two of these faggots, to make which it is a day's work, sell for two skellings.

Every slave is obliged to earn for his master, two skellings daily, which makes about 80 rix-dollars in a year; so that in a few years the master gets his purchase-money back again, though the slave, by such a heavy rental, cannot obtain the remission of any part of his slavery, which increases with his years, and is cemented with his blood.

Tamarinds, on account of the acid they contain, were sometimes used instead of vinegar, in

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this manner: the pulp of them was rubbed on beef, cut into thin slices, which, after being dried a little in the sun, were fried in a frying-pan, and were very tender, and well-tasted.

Cauliflowers, which in the gardens of the Cape, and especially in Robben-island, that lies just before the harbour, are brought to such perfection, as not to be equalled in any other part of the world, are frequently pickled in vinegar, with Cayenne pepper (or Capsicum) and afterwards eaten with meat by way of sallad.

Some of the farms near the Cape, had fences made of pieces of iron-ore (Yzer-klippen) which were found in the environs.

The Arctopus echinatus (Ziekte-trooft) a low umbelliferous plant without stalk, and even with the surface of the ground, grew in common near the town, on the clay hills below the mountains. On account of the hard prickles it bore, as well on its leaves as on its ripe seeds, it was a terrible plague, especially to the slaves, who go barefoot, and are frequently wounded by it.

One of the ships belonging to the fleet that arrived at this time from Holland, brought the corpse of the governor RHEEDE VAN OUDSHORN, who died on his passage hither. The admiral's ship came into port with her colours lowered half-way, to signify its loss. The corpse was brought on shore, with all the pomp usual

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at the interment of a governor; the bells tolled, and the ships in the road fired a gun every minute, which did not a little contribute to the pomp and awsulness of the ceremony. Before the corpse, two led horses went in procession, followed by the sceptre, and the armorial bearings of the deceased; and after it came trumpets, kettle-drums, soldiers, and burghers, on horse-back, commanded by the major. By the death of this gentleman, whose favour I had previously acquired at Amsterdam; I sustained a great loss, with regard to the powerful support and assistance which he had given me reason to expect from him, in his capacity of governor, in my excursions into the country.

During my stay in town, I visited several times the Leeuwve-kop (Lion's head) a mountain that stands to the westward of Table Mountain, and rises to an almost inaccessible peak; from this peak it runs out in a long sloping ridge, and terminates in a curved eminence, called the Leeuwe-staart (Lion's tail). Below its peak, the Leeuwe-kop is so steep in one place, that if one wishes to ascend to it, a cord must be fastened to the rock, by the help of which, one must clamber up by a side that is almost perpendicular. The uppermost layer I found to consist of a loose red sand, which crumbles away, and falling down, leaves great cavities behind it. On the

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very top of the peak, where a perpetual guard is placed for the purpose of discovering the approach of ships, there is a small hut, with a fire-place in it for dressing provisions; three guns, one of which is fired for every ship that is seen; and a flag-staff to hoist a flag on. By the number of guns fired, government is immediately informed whether it is a single ship or a fleet that approaches. In the evening, the sentinel goes down to his house, which is situated in the cleft between Table Mountain and the Lion's head. When the ships that are descried, approach, a flag is hoisted on the Lion's back (Leeuwe-rug), and when they enter the harbour, the colours are hoisted on the citadel, till they have saluted it. If any ship should come within sight of the Cape, and afterwards pass by it, the flag on the Lion's back is struck, as soon as it disappears. The flag that is hoisted varies every month, and is like a watch-word on the field of battle; for the colour of the flag is appointed by the directors in Europe, and made known only to the respective regencies at Batavia and the Cape, and in sealed letters to the captains of the outward and homeward bound ships. Thus the captains of the ships may discover, if on a sudden eruption of war, the Cape is fallen into the hands of the enemy, and in such cafe, keep away from the harbour. In time of war, when any

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great fleet is descried making its approach, the whole colony through the interior parts may be summoned with the greatest expedition, by the firing of guns, the hoisting of flags, and the kindling of fires, which are disposed at certain places, and distributed at such distances, that these signals may always be seen or heard from one place to the next.

Robben Island is situated at the entrance of the harbour, about four miles from the town. The ships that run into the harbour must always pass by this island, which then hoists the Dutch flag. Sometimes, when a strong south-east wind prevents the ships from entering, they anchor beside it. This island was formerly the refort of a great number of seals, whence it also derives its name; but now these animals having been driven away from it, it is become the retreat of chameleons, quails, and prisoners for life (called here banditti), who are obliged to collect every day on the sea-shore a certain quantity of shells, which are burned to make lime for the buildings erected by the company. These prisoners for life, are not only black slaves who have been guilty of misdemeanours, but also Europeans, who have committed heinous crimes.

Though the Lutherans in this town were numerous, yet they had not a church of their own. The bigotted zeal of the Calvinistic clergy had

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hitherto been able to prevent so beneficial an institution from taking place, as that of an edifice to the glory of that God, whom they themselves professed to worship, and for the use and convenience of their fellow-citizens. The Lutherans were thus under the necessity of performing their public worship in a loft, which they had fitted up for that purpose. Still, however, they had not an opportunity of celebrating divine service oftener than when any Swedish ship arrived, the chaplain of which understood and spoke the German language. On such occasions also the holy communion was celebrated, and the money that was put into the plate, became the property of the minister.

The ships now sailed in different squadrons succeffively for Europe, a few only at a time, as in time of peace may be done with safety. On the other hand, if peace is at all dubious, or a war breaks out, they go a great many together, in two or three fleets.

It will sometimes happen, and that even by permission, that a soldier and a sailor shall change places, and succeed each other in their respective services.

Before a ship sails, the account is made out of every man on board, which accounts are sent with the ship, or else may be taken out at the pay-office by such as chuse so to do; so that

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every one may know what is due to him of his pay. If any one settles in a place, and gets other employment in the service, he may take up his pay every third or fourth month, but the guilder is then estimated at fifteen or sixteen stivers only, so that the loss is considerable. But if he chuses to leave it untouched till the end of the year, his account is made out in the month of August, when the books are closed, which account he may negotiate at eighteen, nineteen, and sometimes twenty stivers per guilder, and thus lose little or nothing. A bill of this kind is like a bill of exchange, for which the Dutch East-India Company gives the full value in Europe, and which, in the mean time, is readily accepted by merchants, and others who want to remit money to Europe. Otherwise, as 25 per cent. is gained on all money exported from Holland, in like manner 25 per cent. is lost on all money that is carried back in specie to Holland.

The effects of the sailors and soldiers who have been taken into the hospital, and died there, are fold by auction, and chiefly at that period, when the greatest number of patients is brought in, and when the greatest number dies. The money is laid out on their interment. In general the corpse is sewed up in a cloth, and carried out in a hearse; but if the effects of the de-

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ceased, after the best part of them have been embezzled, still amoont to a small sum of money, a coffin is bestowed upon him of ten rixdollars value. If what the defunct has left behind him amounts to still more money, it is expended in wine at the funeral; and great care is always taken, that nothing should be left for his relations and heirs. In general at such auctions the whole cheft, opened, but not always thoroughly examined, is sold at a venture.

The Cape lobster (Cancer arctos) which is caught here, is equal in size to that (Gammarus) which is taken near the Swedish coasts, but has no large claws, and is craggy all over, and covered with erect prickles. It has a strong and not very agreeable taste.

The Medusa's head (Asterias caput Medusæ), one of the most singular and curious animals in nature, was sometimes caught in the ocean off the Cape. It is but rarely that it is found thrown dead upon the shore. In order to preserve it whole and undamaged for the cabinets in Europe, it must be caught far out in the sea by fishermen, who must take great care that they do not break off any of its limbs, and that the animal do not too much contract and entangle its outermost and most slender branches. The animal, when alive, or just after it is dead, is of a reddish or deep carnation colour; and

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on being dried, turns greyish. It should be dried in the shade, during fine weather, and in an open place, where the wind has free access to it; for in the fun the animal melts away, and, if placed too much in the shade, it might chance to putrify. For this wonderful animal the fishermen frequently get six, nay, even sometimes ten rix-dollars. It may be sent to Europe in a box filled with carded cotton.

On the shore just before the town were found various sorts of bivalve shells, and especially many large and beautiful species of Patellæ.

Strand dubbeltie was the name given to an Umbilicus veneris, or the upper valve of a cockle-shell, which was covered all over with tubercles.

Below the mountains, and near the shore, are several hillocks of sand of different sizes, which are drift-sand, and some change their place twice a year, according to the winds that prevail. Some of them have already begun to settle and acquire solidity, and are covered with some few plants.

Among these the ridge of sand-hills below the Lion's Tail is remarkable, which seems plainly to indicate the manner in which mountains were formerly produced, and their different strata formed. This ridge of sand, which stands just before the battery, runs from south to north,


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and keeps in the same line as the mountains near the Cape and in all the country do, inclining more or less to the east or west, and consequently in the same direction as the winds that prevail here. It increases every year to the northward, quite down to the sea-shore. At the western end it forms a curve, and goes off with a gradual slope, a circumstance which is occasioned either by the adjacent sand-hill that runs in the same direction, and is solid and firm, and is used for a place of execution, or else by the Lion's Tail, which impedes the passage of the wind. The sand of this ridge is loose, and driven to and fro in summer; in winter it is somewhat firmer from the rain, but still almost as loose as a heap of drift-snow. Some parts of it may probably be a little more firm than the rest. Just as the sand is driven, the strata are formed, and they lie here, as in the mountains, inclining obliquely towards the horizon. Some layers are looser, others again harder, according as the drift-sand was more or less pure or mixed before it was hardened by the rain. These strata run either in a straight line, or in waves or streaks of black and white sand, which at a distance give the whole ridge the appearance of an agate. The black sand is thrown up by the sea, as well as the white. The former is in a small quantity, and the latter is driven more

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by the wind, and forms hills. This ridge of sand lies directly opposite to the transverse end of Table Mountain. The top of it is level, and of a middling height; towards the south it goes off gradually with a long slope; to the northward it is steep, where the sand is carried far over the spot below, which is sheltered by the ridge from the wind. The wind can in the space of one day lay sand an inch deep upon its surface, which commonly does not fall equally, but here and there in spots. Stones and other things that lie in the way, are bare on the southern side, but on the northern are covered with a ridge of sand running out in a point, just as the snow is disposed in the northern regions, when it falls with a high wind. In the same manner the strata of mountains appear to have been formed by the winds and waves, and to have derived their origin from the same cause, viz. from the two predominant winds.

The Testudo Geometrica was known here by the appellation of the Syren (Syrentie). This land-tortoise, which probably is the most beautiful of its kind, was found very common in the sandy downs among the bushes. The shells of such as were very small, and consequently the most beautiful, were used for making snuff-boxes.

Round the hills near the Cape grew the Cliffortia ruscifolia and the Borbonia lanceolata, much

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resembling juniper trees, and like the Polygala Heisteria, with their sharp leaves pricking the foot passengers; while the Asparagus Capensis, with its recurved thorns, tore their clothes and retarded their passage, for which reason it has received from the inhabitants the name of Wakt en beetje, Stop a bit.

The Tulbaghia aliacea (Wilde knoflook, or Wild garlic) which grew both in the sands near the Cape and in other places in the country, was used in hectic fevers, either boiled in water or in some kind of soup.

At several farms near the Cape I had an opportunity of seeing wine made, and of receiving information with respect to the various sorts of wine, which are made here in great quantities. The pressing, which is done in March, is performed in general, for want of proper tools and contrivances, in a more simple manner here than it is in Europe. The slaves gather the grapes, and put them into a large vessel. For the pressing they make use of a vessel, the bottom and sides of which are bored full of holes; this vessel is set in the inside of a larger vessel upon a cross piece of wood laid at the bottom of the latter; this outside vessel has a spigot and faucet, through which the juice, as fast as it it is pressed out, may run into a tub placed beneath. The grapes being laid in the inner vessel, heaped up to the brim, three or four slaves, after having

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previously mashed their feet very clean in a tub of water standing at the side, get into the vessel that contains the fruit, and holding themselves fast by a rope fixed to the cieling, trample upon the grapes, and squeeze out the juice as long as they are able. In the mean time, the must that runs out is put into large high vessels to ferment. If the aperture is obstructed by grapes or stalks, so that the juice cannot easily run out, they push them away with a stick, to the end of which a few bristles are fixed. The trodden grapes, before they are farther pressed, are put, stalks and all, upon a coarse strainer (or the bottom of a bed) made of rattans, on which they rub the fruit with their hands, till the husks go through it; the stalks in the meantime remaining behind, which are now separated and thrown away, as they are supposed to make the wine austere and bitter. The husks are then put into the fermenting-vessel, which the next morning is in full fermentation, during which process the thick parts subside, and the must grows clear, when it is barrelled off, by putting a wicker basket into the bung hole of the barrel, and filtering the wine through it. The grounds, which remain in the fermenting-vessel, are afterwards put into a square vessel or vat, pierced full of holes at the sides and bottom, which vat is placed on a cross piece of wood in a larger vessel, with a spigot and faucet at the

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side. At the top there is a screw of wood or metal, by means of which the last drop of juice is pressed out from the husks. From the dregs and husks, that remain over from the last pressing, brandy is distilled. No yeast is used for accelerating the fermentation. The white and green grapes yield white wine, and the red, red wine. The muscadine grape, both red and white, produces the Constantia wine, and the blood red grape, the wine called Pontac. Names are bestowed accordingly as they resemble more or less the products of the European grapes, though the resemblance is not always perfect.

A great number of dogs are frequently kept in the farms; they follow the cattle into the fields along with the slave, keep wild beasts away from the farm, sometimes protect the master from the outrages of his slaves, and are serviceable in hunting and on journies.

The horns of the rhinoceros were kept by some people both in town and country, not only as rarities, but also as useful in diseases, and for the purpose of detecting poison. As to the former of these intentions, the fine shavings of the horns taken internally, were supposed to cure convulsions and spasms in children. With respect to the latter, it was generally believed, that goblets made of these horns in a turner's lathe, would discover a poisonous draught that was put into them, by making the liquor ferment till it ran

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quite out of the goblet. Such horns as were taken from a young rhinoceros calf that had not yet copulated, were said to be the best, and the most to be depended upon. Of those, goblets are made, which are set in gold and silver, and made presents of to kings, people of distinction, and particular friends, or else sold at a high price, sometimes at the rate of 50 rixdollars a goblet. The horn is of a conical form, thick at the bottom, and truncated at the top, a foot long, frequently in old rhinoceroses, and is placed forward on their snout. Two or three inches from this, the African two-horned rhinoceros has another smaller and shorter horn. In colour, it most resembles the horn of a bullock. When I tried these horns, both wrought into goblets, and unwrought, both old and young horns, with several sorts of poisons, weak as well as strong, I observed not the least motion or effervescence; but when a solution of corrosive sublimate, aqua phagædenica, or other similar substances, was poured into one of these horns, there arose only a few bubbles, produced by the air, which had been inclosed in the pores of the horn, and which was now disengaged from it.

Though few countries can boast of so much venison and game as this colony, still here, as in Europe, at a certain time of the year, hunting and shooting are prohibited. Thus from May to August, nobody is allowed to hunt or shoot, at least near the town.

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The hospital I very seldom visited, as I could not possibly derive any improvement from any thing I saw there. I observed, however, in this place, what I never saw any where else, viz. that the attendants on the sick were provided with ropes ends, with which they now and then corrected turbulent patients. Mirum same morborum remedium! Both in the hospital and on board of their ships, the company had, for the greater part, ignorant and unskilful surgeons; and, in general, when a skilful surgeon was found among them, he was a foreigner. When emetics or such kind of remedies were prescribed, they were sometimes written down on the headboard of the bed; and of other medicines, a doss was commonly administered immediately, which were carried ready made up in a box after the surgeon, when he visited the patients. What most contributes in this place to the recovery of the sick, is the excellent refreshments of fresh meat and vegetables, that are to be had here. The principal surgeon makes his report to the governor every day of the number and state of the patients.

At Zeeko valley the company has a farm, where straw (Restio tectorum) is cut and prepared for the purpose of thatching, as follows: A bundle or sheaf, after it is cut, is held by the top, and all the shorter stalks that are loose in it, are shaken off from it. The remaining long ones

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are then spread out in rows to dry, and afterwards tied up in bundles. With this the houses are commonly thatched both in town and country; and sometimes whole huts are built with it. A roof made of it lasts 20 or 30 years, and would last much longer if the south-east wind did not blow a great deal of dirt between the thatch, in consequence of which it rots the sooner.

Near Muysenberg (or Mouse mountain) the wax-shrubs (Myrica quercifolia and cordifolia) grew in abundance along the shore. The berries of them are quite round, full of knobs, soft, and of the size of a pea. The berries themselves are quite black, but covered with a farina of a whitish-grey colour. They are gathered in their ripe state in the month of March, and boiled in water till all the white powder is melted off, and floats on the surface of the water like fat; this, when skimmed off and cooled, grows hard, almost like wax, and is of a greenish-grey or ash colour. The farmers use it for candles, when they get any quantity of it, and the Hottentots eat it like so much cheese.

In the sandy plains near the Cape, and chiefly near the larger farms, the goldfinch (Loxia orix) was seen now in the midst of summer, very beautiful, of a crimson colour, and in infinite numbers. Just when the corn grows ripe, he acquires his summer dress; his brownish grey feathers on the throat and back become gradually

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of a red colour, and leave only the wings and tail unchanged. The hen does not come in for her share of this beautiful attire, butre mains the whole year of a grey-brown hue.

The country people seldom made any cheese; and when they did, which was chiefly out of curiosity, the cheeses were small, thin, and of an indifferent taste; the cause of which probably is the milk, which, it must be confessed, is poor enough compared to the fine rich milk produced in Holland.

The cows, as well as the other cattle, go to field the whole year throughout, being driven home in the evening, and lie within fences in the open air. The grass which they feed on in those extensive plains, and which is the best and most copious in winter time, in consequence of the rain, and worst in summer on account of the heat and drying winds, is in general harsh and coarse. Hence the cows give little milk, and that but indifferent. For this reason the cattle degenerate to a certain degree in the course of a few years. The horned cattle, of which the peasants herds in this country consist, are of Dutch extraction, it is true, but are at present greatly degenerated. A Dutch cow that is brought hither, and has cost forty or fifty rix dollars, gives more milk than three others, but its offspring degenerates, and the third or

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fourth is exactly like the rest, which frequently give no more than a quart of milk a day.

Fresh butter, which in general is made from new milk, is sold in the town for eight, twelve, or sixteen stivers, and salt butter at two, four, or fix stivers per pound. The price, however, varies with the consumption.

Though the country is inhabited by colonists, still the farms are not all held in the same manner. That tract of country which is nearest to the town and harbour, or in the vicinity of them, has been sold by the Hottentots for tobacco, brandy, and other commodities. The other extensive tracts of land were afterwards taken possession of gradually by the colonists. Thus the farms which are situated nearest to the Cape, as far as Picquet-berg, and a little beyond it, are freeholds, or lands which are the unconditional property of the colonist, for which he pays no quit-rent, and which he is at liberty to dispose of. The other farms farther up the country, on the other side of the mountains, are called copyholds, which the colonists have occupied with the permission of the governor, and for each of which twenty-four rix dollars are paid yearly to the company in fine, which cannot be sold or transferred to any one else without the permission of the governor. The

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buildings upon the premises may be sold, it is true, but not the land.

Planks and boards, as well as beams for building, were extremely dear, as they were scarce, and brought a great way from the inland parts of the country, so that the greatest part of them must be imported from Europe or the East Indies. They are generally sold by measure, planks selling for two skellings a foot.

Sheep's dung was frequently used for manuring the vineyards, and horse dung for the gardens. Sheep's dung often lies in the sheep-folds to the depth of a yard and more.

Wheat-fields, vineyards, and gardens, are very numerous about the farms in the vicinity of the town and harbour, and there they have but few cattle. The vineyards in the neighbourhood of the Cape, the grapes of which being larger and riper, yield the best and most delicious wine, and consequently are more profitable, occasion the cultivation of wheat to be neglected in proportion, which is relinquished to the farmers that live farther up in the country. The wheatfields are often lest fallow for several years, as every husbandman has a great quantity of land, which he can afford to keep unemployed. Whenever either a new field or a field that has lain fallow for several years is to be put in order, which is a difficult piece of work, such


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ground is first ploughed in the month of August, and then again in May, after being previously sowed. The African ploughs have two wheels, one of which is smaller than the other.

When a youth is arrived at the age of fifteen, he must be enrolled, and every year he must resort to the place of rendezvous, in order to perform his exercise. On this occasion he must take the oath of allegiance. When a father has two sons in the militia, he himself is exempt from duty. These reviews, both of horse and foot, are held every year, in the town for the burghers, and at Stellenbosch and Zwellendam for the farmers belonging to the colony. If any one neglects to appear at these rendezvouses, he is fined.

The farmers sell their merchandizes at the Cape, either to the company or the burghers, but are not permitted to dispose of any thing to strangers.

Besides the regency which is resident in the town, the country is governed by two courts of judicature, at which a landroft presides.

Stellenbosch is a village consisting of thirty houses and upwards, with a church; here a landroft resides, under whose jurisdiction comes that part of the country which is situated to the north and north-west; the other part of the colony that lies to the eastward is under the

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sway of the landroft at Zwellendam. Stellenbosch, is situated in a narrow valley between high mountains, which are open to the south-west or towards False Bay. It has two streets with oak trees planted in them, and a river running through them.

Franschehock stands not far from Stellenbosch, below the mountains, and in the cleft of a mountain. It is remarkable for being the place, which immediately after the foundation of the town was inhabited by the French refugees, who between the years 1680 and 1690, removed hither from Holland, and first began to plant vineyards in this country.

Drakenstein also is a colony in the neighbourhood of the former, and situate under the same ridge of mountains. The mountains here extend from north to south, just as they do near the town; and this direction of them is the cause that the farms that are situated in valleys between two mountains have their day and night at different times. Those who live under the mountains on the western side, have daylight first, as the fun having reached the tops of the mountains, which are frequently covered with hail, and thence appear white, in an instant illuminates the whole western side; while, on the other hand, those who live on the eastern side of the valley, see the sun longer in

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the evenings, the other side at the same time appearing to them enveloped in darkness and a light-blue mist, while they themselves continue to enjoy the most delightful sunshine.

Next to the Cape, towards the north, and directly opposite to the town, are the Tygers Mountains, which are in the same direction with the Olyfant's Kop, and the Blauwe Berg, or Blue Mountains, all of which are separated from each other by valleys.

Neither burghers nor husbandmen have a right to marry till they have obtained the governor's consent. As soon as any person has obtained this, which is usually asked on Thursdays, the bridegroom receives an order, which in the prefence of the bride he delivers to the justiciary; who, after having carefully examined matters, and found that the parties are not too near related, gives also his consent to the match, and allows the banns to be published three Sundays following, in the usual manner, from the pulpit.

So that when the farmers take their annual journey up to town to sell their commodities, buy the necessary articles for their families, and pay their taxes, they must always take that opportunity of being united in the bands of wedlock, or of having their children baptized at their parish church.


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Should the governor refuse any one his permission to marry, still he cannot prevent the parties contracted from living together, who, in such cases, are frequently obliged to put off their nuptials till the arrival of another governor, whose consent they may obtain. Sometimes it happens that the bride has recourse to the justiciary, who may think proper to order the marriage to be consummated. In this cafe, if the bridegroom be at that time engaged in the company's service, he may have the misfortune to be sent away by the governor to some place in the East Indies. The fair sex here, in general, marry very young, and as the boundaries of the colony have been much extended of late, the increase of population has likewise been very great.

The country people have provisions in abundance, but are frequently in want of furniture. One frequently sees chairs and tables made by the farmer himself, which he covers with calf-skin, or makes of platted leathern straps. The floors in the houses are formed of earth, beaten down hard and smooth. In order to make them hard and firm, they are overlaid either with a mixture of water and cow-dung, or with bullock's blood, which renders them at the same time rather slippery.

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Various sorts of fruits, besides raisins, were dried for the use of the ships.

In winter, salt meat is sometimes eaten, though very rarely; but scarcely any is sold to the ships.

When a farm is sold in the country, the bargain is concluded, and the farm paid for in gilders, three of which are reckoned to a rixdollar.

The town as well as country-people, look upon this country, or their mother-land, as they term it, to be far superior to others, as it produces every necessary of life in abundance; tho' at the same time, they are conscious that Europe, their father-land, must furnish them with every thing else, even to the very plough-share, with which they till this their fertile country.

In the various excursions I made into the country, this as well as the preceding years, I have been more and more convinced, that the whole promontory, called the Cape, is nothing but a mountain; for all the ridges and chains of mountains, as well the greatest as the smallest, run between south-east and north-west, and thus take the same direction as the violent winds that prevail in this country. They also run parallel to, but at unequal distances from each other, so that some of the vales that are interposed between them, are broad, and frequently inhabited, while others again are very narrow. Towards the north-west, I have not had an opportunity


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of seeing their termination; they probably run that way as far as to the sea, without leaving any path for walking on the shore. Towards the south-east, all of them, except Hottentot Holland's mountain, terminate in a gentle declivity, before they reach the sea shore. It is singular, that when one goes from the town into the country, from south to north, and passes over a mountain, the country on the farther side is found to be more elevated; and if we traverse the mountains that we meet with farther on, the height of the country still increases, and so on for three or four day's journey. So that the country between these ridges is nothing but a vale, which is so broad as to have obtained the name of a province, and is adorned with several farms. On ascending the mountains surrounding such valleys, we see similar ridges and valleys in miniature, but much smaller, and rarely inhabited. The distances between some of the ridges may be six miles and more, between others only two or three, and on the tops of the mountains no more than a stone's throw. Such a tract of land, however, is not plain and level, like a meadow, but deeper in the middle, where the deepest rivers, formed by the conjunction of several branches in one, run parallel with the ridges of the mountains themselves, and it gradually rises higher on each side, in proportion as we approach the mountains.

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Near the Cape, which forms the southernmost angle of the triangle of Africa, the mountains have the least extent. The farther one advances up into the country, and the broader it grows, the longer are the ridges formed by the mountains. And the farther one proceeds among the mountains, and the higher the country is, the colder one always finds the climate. In winter there falls snow, or what is more frequently the case, hail, the depth of six inches or more, which lies several days, and on the tops of the mountains for weeks together, without melting. In the month of October I observed the hail still lying on the snow-white tops of the mountains, while the country below was clad in its richest summer attire. Likewise in proportion as the cold increases in consequence of the elevation of the country, all vegetables are later produced. The difference I found here and in some other places, to amount to as much as two months. Near the Cape, therefore, all plants and flowers make their appearance the soonest, the country there being lower, and the air milder. In like manner, the whole southern coast, where the mountains go off with a gradual declivity, is always the warmest, and is for this reason, the most populous, and best inhabited part of the whole colony.

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This description of the extent, appearance, and height of the mountains, together with the nature of the country, I hope may throw rather more light on the geography of this part of Africa, than we had before, at the same time that it discovers the reason why a country situated in so good and temperate a climate, is in some places extremely fertile and cultivated, and in others, absolutely bare, and in fact, almost desert and inaccessible.

The Dutch officers, both of the outward and homeward-bound ships, especially of the latter, dispose here of a great quantity of merchandize of different kinds: the former bring for sale, wines, beer, cured hams, cheese, tobacco pipes, and sometimes haberdashery and hardware; the latter, cottons, chintzes, rice, tea, &c. And if they cannot dispose of their merchandize to the dealers separately, they put them up at public auction. One likewise sees many of the Burghers, who have bought various articles by wholesale, sell them again by auction. Such sales by auction, are frequently held also in the spring and winter months, on the company's account; and government generally takes the precaution not to allow of the auctions of individuals, till the company has disposed of its merchandizes first.

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Of the foreign naval officers, the English and Danish carry on the greatest trade. The former chiefly sell large quantities of fine and coarse hardware, especially sailor's knives, scissars, and other similar articles. The latter, in going out, sell Danish ale and tar, and on their return, chintzes from Bengal. The Swedish officers traded for little or nothing; on their return, they only disposed of a few canisters of tea, some Nankin and Chinese silks, scarcely to a greater amount, than what they paid at their inn for the few days they were on shore. Otherwise, desirable articles from Sweden are coarse grey cloth, lumber, copper, iron, brass, spades, herrings, and more especially tar, charcoal and iron, all which sell to great advantage. The company charges eight rixdollars for 1 Cwt. of iron, though it is cold-shire, and inferior to the Swedish. For all wares and commodities sold by individuals at auctions, 5 per cent. must be paid to the fiscal. The money for goods and wares sold by auction, is not to be paid till six weeks afterwards.

Among all the different nations that frequented this place, none were such bold sailors as the English. They would often beat about in the roads with a strong south-east wind, while the Dutch ships either kept the open sea, or cast anchor under Robben Island, till they got a more

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favourable wind. The former have for the most part no other rule than their own judgment and experience, and their ships are better sailers; whereas the latter have heavier and more unwieldy ships, and are obliged to act according to the company's orders.

Foreign ships were said to pay for anchorage only 500 gilders; but all the provisions they want they must pay dear for, owing to the imposts established by the company on meat and wines. Strangers pay two stivers for a pound of meat, which the company has for three doits, or about a fifth part of the price.

In the baptism of children, the Cape clergy consider it as a circumstance of the first importance that the father should be known, and be present. If the child is a bastard, and its father does not discover himself, the infant remains unbaptized. If the mother is a Black or a Hottentot, but the father a Christian, who requires it to be baptized, it is baptized. Every christening must be performed in the church, for which reason such colonists as live far up in the country, must take their infants with them when they go to the Cape, though as is sometimes the case, it be but six months old.

The gardens both within and without the town, suffer great devastation from three or four different species of rats, which are generally

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termed moles. One of these, called the White Mole (Witte Moll, Marmota Africana), is of the size of a small cat, and white all over, with a short tail. The second, called the Blaze-fronted Mole (Bles Moll, Marmota Capensis), is smaller, and white with brown spots. The third species is less common, and very beautiful, being of a greenish colour with a shining fur. The last of these (Talpa Asiatica) or the Gold-green Mole (Blinde Moll), burrows in the gardens under the surface of the ground, throwing up the mould, by which means it ruins both the figured trees and hedges that are made of myrtle and box. The former species of moles also are found in the sand-downs near the town.

When the people of the town planted trees before their houses, they were very solicitous to get a dead dog to put in the hole, by which means they thought the growth of the tree would be much accelerated.

The Bay tree (Laurus nobilis) was in many places observed to form so close a hedge, that one could scarcely see through it. It bent likewise to the violence of the winds without breaking.

The Hottentots who had committed acts of violence against some colonists living a great way up the country, and had been brought hither some time before, were now punished.

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Some of them were only flogged, others were flogged and marked besides on the back with a red hot iron, and others had the tendon near the heel (Tendo Achillis) cut out besides. After this they were set free, and sent home again for a warning to others. They had not been taken without difficulty, as they had fortified themselves in the cavities and crevices of the mountains, where they were out of the reach of fire-arms. Besides this, they defended themselves by rolling stones down upon their enemies. The company had ordered not only the farmers out against them, but also a corporal from the citadel with five men to bombard them with hand grenades. At last they were taken by stratagem, by the Hottentot Captain KIES.

Accounts were now again received from Roggeveld, that the Boshies-men Hottentots had plundered and killed the farmers in that district.

In the month of March, when I passed a whole day on the top of Table Mountain, I was gratified in the evening with a singular and most beautiful prospect from this considerable eminence. Table Mountain, like all other mountains in this country, lies in a direction from north-west to south-east, thus leaving one of its long sides open to the north-east, and the other to the south-west. The sun, rising in the

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east, does not here proceed towards the south, as in Europe, but towards the north, and at last sinks into the ocean to the westward of the mountain. This makes an earlier morning, and exhibits the sun sooner on the north-east side, and a longer afternoon, and later sun on the south-west side. So that on the top of this mountain, about five o'clock in the afternoon, two different worlds, as it were, presented themselves to my view, of which the western still enjoyed the finest sun-shine and a clear horizon, while the eastern was already covered with darkness and a thick impending mist. This mist, which had exhaled from the heated plain, and was now condensed in the suddenly cooled air, was so thick that no part of the whole country was to be seen, but the whole region resembled a smooth unbroken cloud, and did not a little contribute to render the view on each side of the mountain remarkably different, though a moment before they were much the same.

In the month of May, between the 13th and 19th, in company with Major GORDON and an English gardener, lately arrived, of the name of MASON, I made an excursion on foot round the mountains situate between the Cape and False Bay. Having ascended the front of the valley as high as the summit of Table Mountain, we saw a valley to the right, which runs down to

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the sea-shore. To the left a fountain was seen bubbling up, and forming a narrow rivulet; but it was so much overgrown with bushes, that its source under a large rock could not be perceived. In all the flat dales of the mountain, both the large and small ones, there was mould, water, and moss, which formed a kind of bog. Towards the south-east it gradually subsides into valleys, just in the front of Hout Baay.

Through the vale called Babian's Kloof. (Baboon's Valley), which, proceeding from Table Mountain, parts the ridge of mountains that runs from Constantia to the farthest point in the south, we went to Hout Baay, where there was a farm; to the right we had the little Lion's Head, a peaked mountain, resembling the great Lion's Head near the Cape, and the Karfunkel (or Carbuncle) Mountain, which is oblong, and covered at the foot with a fine white quicksand reaching as far as to the sea-shore. This latter mountain forms a promontory, the uttermost point of which rising into a conical protuberance that hangs over the sea, is called the Hang-lip. This is separated, as well as the Lion's Head, from Table Mountain. Table Mountain has a considerable rivulet at its top, a branch of which empties itself into Hout Baay (or Wood Bay). The sea at low water formed, in Hout Baay, rivers, the

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banks of which were steep from the sand that had fallen down. At the mouth a river was formed in a cross direction, the banks of which were likewise extremely steep from the fallen sand. The whole bay was full of round sand-stones, like the shores of the lake Vetter. To the left was seen Steenberg, or Stone Mountain; at the foot of which, on the other side, are situated Great and Little Constantia, and which runs out into the sea in a promontory called Steenbergenhoek, where there is a farm belonging to the company, and known by the name of Muysenberg, or Mouse Mountain.

From Hout Bay we went over the mountains to North Hoek, where three farms are laid out near a large pool of water. The projecting point itself of the mountain over which we had passed, is called North Hook, and the opposite projection the Slange Kop (or Serpent's Head). The downs here consisted all of quicksand, raised into hills of various heights; those that had been lately formed being still bare, and those that were of a more ancient date, overgrown with bushes, especially the wax-shrub (Myrica cordifolia), which frequently grew on them low and creeping. A salt-pan that lay to the south-east, had banks of two or three yards in height; it was now partly filled with water, the surface of which was covered with Flamingoes (Phœnicop-

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terus ruber). Its bottom was sandy, or a mixture of sand and clay. In winter time it is filled with water for the space of several months. It has its water from rain, and not from the sea, from which it is at a considerable distance; consequently its water is not increased or diminished by the tide. Duyn-hout, or Zwart-hout, was the name given to a shrub that has fleshy leaves, and was without blossoms, Foliis compositis, foliolis cuneiformibus carnosis. It appeared to be an umbelliferous plant. Here we met with the celebrated farmer JAN BRUYNS, one of the best marksmen in the country, and who had made the unfortunate expedition with HEUPNAER to the Rio de la Goa, through the country of the Caffres, when seven of the company were massacred by the Caffres, and himself with only five others escaped.

The Slange bosch (Seriphium) which grew here, was said, when made into a decoction, to expel worms.

After pursuing our journey farther over the mountains to Wildschut's brand, where we found only one Hottentot hut, situated in a fine grass plot on the mountain; we went a little way back again over the same mountains and arrived at False bay.

The barren mountains, which run from False bay out into the sea, are called by the colonists, as well as by the sailors, Norweegen, or Norway.

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Bay Falso, False or Simon's bay, is a name given to the harbour on this side, where the ships only touch in winter, and where they are sheltered from the north-west storms, so dangerous in this season to the ships that lie in Table-bay. This harbour is larger than that of the Cape. The shore is not broad, and in several places, by reason of the mountains jetting out into the sea, there is none at all. The houses stand on the tops of the hills, and are sometimes very unfit for the accommodation of strangers. A large round rock in the harbour went by the name of the Ark, another was called the Romance-rock; and an island, situated farther out to the eastward, Malagas island. Besides a house belonging to the company, in which lives a resident, there are here an hospital, a warehouse, a slaughterhouse, and a few farm houses belonging to individuals. The company's garden lay at some distance.

From False bay we went over flat and low sands, passed Muysenberg and the company's fishing place, back to the Cape. In different parts of the sandy plains there were small lakes, as they might be called, of salt water, which had not yet been dried up by the summer's heat. These plains, abounding as they did in water, still harboured in different parts some Flamingoes, which, with their white and blood-red feathers,

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adorned these spots, and devoured the insects and worms in the water. We shot one of them, and broke the wing bone, which prevented the bird from flying; but we had still the greatest difficulty to catch it, as with its long legs it waded through the water, which was a foot deep, much faster than we were able to follow it.

On the 1st of June, being Whit-Monday, there arose a very high north-west wind, with violent hurricanes and showers of rain; at night, in this storm, the JONGE THOMAS, one of the four ships belonging to the company, that were still in the road, having lost all its anchors, one after the other, was driven on the sands near the shore, at Zout rivier, and, in consequence of its heavy lading, split into two pieces in the middle. The surge rose to an amazing height on the shores towards this side, and Zout rivier was so swollen, that it was almost impassable. It is true, from the middle of May to the middle of August, the company's ships are prohibited from lying in the road; yet it sometimes happens, that the governor permits it in order to avoid the inconveniences of victualling and lading the ships in False Bay. Independently of the loss sustained by the company, as well in ships as merchandize, there perished also unfortunately on this occasion, a number of the crew, who, for the want of assistance, were lost, and met with a deplorable death,

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very near the land. Only 63 men escaped, 149 being unhappily drowned.

The ship had scarcely struck, which happened just at day-break, when the most efficacious expedients were used to save as much as possible of the company's property that might chance to be thrown on shore, though I could not perceive that the least care was taken to deliver a single soul of the crew from their forlorn and miserable situation. Thirty men were instantly ordered out, with a stripling of a lieutenant, from the citadel, to the place where the ship lay, in order to keep a strict look-out, and prevent any of the company's effects from being stolen; and a gibbet was erected, and at the same time an edict issued, importing that whoever should come near that spot, should be hanged up immediately, without trial or sentence of judgment being passed upon him. This was the cause that the compassionate inhabitants, who had gone out on horseback to afford the wretched sufferers some assistance, were obliged to turn back without being able to do them the least service; but, on the contrary, were, together with me, ocular witnesses of the brutality and want of feeling shewn by certain persons on this occasion, who did not bestow a thought on affording their fellow-creatures, that sat on the wreck perishing with cold, hun-

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ger, and thirst, and were almost in the arms of death, the least assistance or relief.

Another circumstance contributed to render this otherwise distressing scene still more afflicting. Among the few, who were lucky enough to be able to save their lives by swimming from the wreck, was the gunner, a man with whom I was acquainted, and met with several times afterwards in the town: he had stript himself quite naked, in order that he might swim the easier, and had the good luck to come alive to shore, which was not the case with every one that could swim; for many were either dashed to pieces against the rocks, or else by the violence of the surf carried back again to sea. When he arrived on shore, he found his chest landed before him; but just as he was going to open it, and take out his great coat, the lieutenant, who commanded the party, drove him away from it; and though he earnestly begged for leave to take out the clothes necessary for covering his naked and shivering body, and could also prove by the key, fastened, according to the sailors custom, to his girdle, as well as by his name cut out on the lid of the chest, that it was actually his property, he was, nevertheless, forced to retreat without effecting his purpose, by this unmerciful hero, who gave him several smart blows with a cane on his bare back. After he had passed the whole day naked and hungry,


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and exposed to the cold winds, and was going to be taken in the evening to town along with the others who had been saved from the wreck, he again asked leave to take a coat out of his chest to cover himself with; but this having been previously plundered, he found empty. On entering the town, where he arrived stark naked, he met with a burgher, who took compassion on him, and lent him his great coat. Afterwards he, as well as the other unfortunate wretches, was forced to run about the town for several days together, begging for victuals, clothes, and money, till at length they were supported at the company's expence, and taken back again into its service.

Another action that does great honour to humanity, deserves the more to be recorded here, as it shews that at all times, and in all places, there are both good and considerate people, as well as such as have nothing human but the shape. An old man, of the name of WOLTEMAD, by birth an European, who was at this time the keeper of the beasts in the menagerie near the garden, had a son in the citadel, who was a corporal, and among the first who had been ordered out to Paarden Island (Horse Island) where a guard was to be set for the preservation of the wrecked goods. This worthy veteran borrowed a horse, and rode out in the morning


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with a bottle of wine and a loaf of bread for his son's breakfast. This happened so early, that the gibbet had not yet been erected, nor the edict posted up, to point out to the traveller the nearest road to eternity. This hoary fire had no sooner delivered to his son the refreshments he had brought him, and heard the lamentations of the distressed crew from the wreck, than he resolved to ride his horse, which was a good swimmer, to the wreck, with a view of saving some of them. He repeated this dangerous trip six times more, bringing each time two men alive on shore, and thus saved in all fourteen persons. The horse was by this time so much fatigued, that he did not think it prudent to venture out again; but the cries and intreaties of the poor wretches on the wreck increasing, he ventured to take one trip more, which proved so unfortunate, that he lost his own life, as on this occasion too many from the wreck rushed upon him at once, some of them catching hold of the horse's tail, and others of the bridle, by which means the horse, both wearied out, and now too heavy laden, turned head over heels, and all were drowned together. This noble and heroic action of a superannuated old man, sufficiently shews that a great many lives might probably have been saved, if a strong rope had been fastened by one end to the wreck, and by the other to

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the shore. Along this rope either a basket or a large copper vessel might have been hawled to and from the ship, with a man in it each time. When the storm and waves had subsided, the ship was found to lie at a so small a distance from the land, that one might have almost leaped from it on shore.

The vigorous measures taken to preserve the company's effects and merchandize, were not, however, so efficacious, as to prevent certain persons in office from enriching themselves considerably on this occasion. For when whole horse-loads of iron from the wreck could be sold to the smiths in town, it is easy to conceive that their consciences would not stand greatly in their way, if they could lay their hands upon portable and valuable commodities. The soldiers also were so careful when on guard, that nothing should be pillaged from the wreck, that they themselves every night, when relieved, marched into town with their musket-barrels stuffed full of solid gold lace, which, though somewhat damaged by the salt water, answered very well when thrown into the melting pot.

Though the hardest hearts frequently are softened by the uncommonly severe misfortunes and distresses of their fellow-creatures, and though great and noble actions have at all times been able to excite the gratitude and benevolence of the fel-

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low-citizens of the perpetrator; yet (I am sorry to say it) I have it not in my power to conclude this melancholy picture with some delightful trait of generous compassion on the part of the governor towards the poor sufferers, and especially towards the drowned hero, or of some noble remuneration of his son. For when, shortly after, this young man solicited for the employment of his deceased father, which was a post of such small importance, that it could neither be considered as a recompense, nor could it be envied him by any one, it was refused him, and given to another.

This unfeeling bon vivant of a governor, rich in money, but poor in spirit, permitted him, nevertheless, afterwards to do what others consider as a punishment, viz. to go to Batavia, where he hoped to find kinder patrons and a wider field for making his fortune in. And here he would doubtless have attained his desires, had he lived longer; but in the very unwholesome climate whither he was now gone to see his only brother, a merchant, he died, before an order arrived from the directors of the company in Holland (which did as much credit to them, as it ought to have accumulated shame upon the officers at the Cape) viz. that the sons of WOLTEMAD, for the sake of their father, should be rewarded and promoted in every way that could possibly

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be done. On this and similar occasions, I have observed, how much an enlightened mind and a generous heart are to be prized above the gifts of fortune, above riches and honors; and how infinitely these latter are exalted by the former, if they are united with them, in which case they command every one's esteem.

I now also perceived the reason why the Europeans, both sailors and soldiers, are in many respects treated worse and with less compassion, than the very slaves themselves. With respect to the latter, the owner not only takes care that they are clothed and fed, but likewise, when they are sick, that they are well nursed and have proper medical attendance. The former go as they can, viz. naked, or dressed in tattered clothes, which, perhaps, after all, do not fit them; and when one of them dies, it is a common saying, that the company gets another for nine guilders.

The violent hurricanes from the north-west have more than once occasioned shipwreck in these roads. In 1692, three vessels, one English and two Dutch, were driven on shore and lost. From the same cause, thirty years ago, in the month of May, seven of the company's ships were said to have been wrecked and lost.

On the 31st of July a slave was executed, who had murdered his master. The delinquent being

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laid on a cross and tied fast to it, first his arms and legs were burned in eight different parts with jagged tongs, made red hot; afterwards his arms and legs were broken on the wheel, and lastly, his head was cut off and fixed on a pole. The judge that tries and condemns the criminal, is always present, and walks in procession to the place of execution, in order to give solemnity to the ceremony. The soldiers form a circle. The place of execution is between the town and the citadel, on a small eminence.

On the 8th of August, a slave was hanged for some great crime.

After malefactors have suffered at the place of execution, within the town, they are always brought out in the evening to the gallows without the town, where they are either hanged, and that generally in irons, in which manner the skeleton may be preserved for a long time, or else drawn and quartered. There are two gallows out of the town, one at the entrance to the harbour, under the Leeuwe-staart (Lion's tail) on which Europeans are hanged, and the other beyond the citadel, near Zout rivier, on which slaves and Hottentots are executed.

Zout-rivier (or Salt-river) is a river of considerable size, which derives its source from Table-mountain, and disembogues itself into the harbour.

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The water here is salt, from the admixture of sea water, and rises and falls with the tide.

The oak (Quercus robur) and apricot (Prunus Armeniaca) blossomed in August, the former, just after it had thrown out its leaves, and the latter, before it had any leaves. The alder also, (Betula alnus) as well as the almond and peach-tree, were now in blossom.

In the winter-months, when much rain fell, the water was in some places seen rushing like a torrent through the clefts of the mountains, down the highest, steep, and bare rocks.

Though the colony is inhabited to a great extent, and the Hottentots are almost extirpated, yet it sometimes happens that slaves run away and hide themselves, and that chiefly in the mountains. But it is very uncommon for a soldier or sailor to run into the country, as he would easily be discovered there. When an unconverted slave runs away and is taken, he is beaten by his master or the officers of the police; but if a Christian deserts from the company's service, he is hanged. The money laid out in the purchase of the former, saves him from death, but the established laws do not spare the latter.

For the use of the soldiers in the citadel, cooks are taken into it, who dress victuals, and sell them out in portions to the soldiers. Every

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soldier receives from the company three pounds of bread twice a week.

Every soldier pays out of his wages two stivers per month to the courier for boots, and is besides obliged to keep guard for him.

Those wretches that are guilty of bestiality, are not put to their trial, or imprisoned, but are immediately drowned, as being unworthy to appear before the judge, or to be visited by a clergyman. In this manner a slave was now executed.

The fiscal is independent in his office, not being subordinate to the governor, and accountable only to the directors in Holland. When disputes and contentions arise between burghers or others, he fines them. The fine here is not proportioned to the crime of the offenders, but, for the most part, suited to their circumstances. The fiscal therefore, to whom these fines furnish a considerable revenue, treats turbulent and offending persons as a physician does a plethoric patient, of whom he always draws blood in proportion as the strength of his habit will permit.

Constantia, consisting of two farms, called Great and Little Constantia, which are situated below the east-side of Table Mountain, is celebrated for its highly delicious wine, known by the name of Constantia or Cape wine, which is

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sold in Europe at so high a price. This wine is extremely sweet, agreeable, and luscious, and only fit for the dessert, as, on account of its sweetness, if drank in abundance, it lies heavy on the stomach. Of the red wine, about sixty pipes are made, and of the white about ninety; yet the vintage here, as in other places, is different in different years. These two farms were for a long time the only spots which, by reason of their situation, could produce this delicate wine; but lately some other farms in this district, and in a few other places, have been able to bring their wines to the same degree of excellence. But as the company has reserved to itself the exclusive sale of the Constantia wine, which consequently is considered as contraband, and is not to be bought or transported to Holland under that name by individuals, they have hit upon the expedient of giving their wine, which in point of goodness does not yield to Constantia, the name of Mag wine (or Stomach) which in general is sold to the naval officers of foreign nations cheaper than the Constantia wine itself.

It is remarkable, that the governor increases his revenue by every pipe of wine purchased on the account of the company. The company usually pays forty rixdollars for every pipe, and the feller gives a receipt for forty, but receives no more than twenty-seven rixdollars, three be-


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ing deducted for the clergyman's tythe. Ordinary wine is sometimes sold at the rate of ten rixdollars a pipe, as was the case one year that I was at the Cape. As a pipe contains about one hundred and twelve gallons, the wine is consequently very cheap. In like manner other persons in office make considerable profit on every thing that passes through their hands, which they are indeed often obliged to do, as their salaries cannot support them in a country where most of the necessaries of life are many times dearer than they are in Europe. Thus, while the governor makes ten rixdollars of every pipe of wine that is sold, other officers find their advantage in giving leave of absence to people who receive pay from the company without doing any service for it. Some make their fortunes by false weights, others by damaged goods. A shipwreck fills the pockets of many. In consequence of the rapacity of the captains and their mates, the sailors seldom get their due. The soldiers must yield something to their officers. The sick must starve for the support of many that are in health, and the defunct must leave part of their effects to the first comer.

The governor this year caused a hot-house to be built in the company's garden for pine-apples. This fruit, so delicate at Batavia, could not arrive here at the maturity and high flavour that

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it does in the East Indies; in like manner the Pisang (Musa Paradisiaca, or Bananas) would seldom blossom in the few gardens where it was cultivated, and never yielded any fruit that was perfectly ripe and high flavoured.

The American Aloe (Agave Americana) imported from the botanic gardens of Europe, was now common on the hills near the town, and blossomed finely every year, without attracting such a great concourse of spectators as it does at Amsterdam.

The Porcupine, or Yzer-varken (Hystrix) whose usual food is the root of that beautiful plant, the Calia Æthiopica, will frequently deign to put up with cabbages and other vegetables, by which means he sometimes commits great depredations in the gardens.

By the Swedish ships that were newly arrived, and brought several of my friends, I not only had the pleasure of receiving letters, but also the joyful tidings of the happy change of government made last year in my native country, by which a great and good king, without bloodshed, and in a manner as noble as his conduct was wise, had been able to put an end to the discord which for many years had divided his subjects, to the great detriment of the kingdom.

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In my various excursions to Table Mountain, I observed in its crevices both Dasses and Baboons. The former I perceived generally near the top of the mountain, just at sun-rising, when they used to come out to bask in the sun. Whoever wished to shoot them, must cautiously approach them, and with a quick gun take his aim in such a manner, as to lay them dead on the spot. If the gun was not quick, they would make off, as soon as ever the prime flashed in the pan; and, if the animal was not instantly killed, it would withdraw into a crevice, so that it could not possibly be got out. The flesh is sometimes eaten, and is tolerably well tasted.

The baboons were pretty numerous, and indeed dangerous to travellers; for fitting undismayed on the tops of the rocks, where they were frequently out of the reach of shot, they would roll, and even throw down, stones of all sorts and sizes. The use of the gun, however, was on these occasions indispensably necessary, as by means of it they might at least be driven to such a distance, that the stones they threw could not do so much mischief. It is curious to observe them in their flight. With their cubs on their backs they will often make astonishing leaps up a perpendicular rock; and it is but seldom that they can be shot; and even

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if any one of them is shot, it is not easily killed.

In the town, tame baboons are sometimes kept, made fast to a pole. Their agility in climbing, leaping, and dodging any one that offers to strike them, is almost incredible. Though one of these baboons was tied up, still it was impossible at the distance of a few yards to hit him with a stone. He would either catch the stone, like a ball, in his hand, or else avoid it in the most surprizing and nimble manner.

The baboons of Table Mountain, besides paying frequent visits to, and plundering the gardens of the Europeans, feed also upon the pulpous bulbs of several plants, which after digging up, they peel and eat. Heaps of these parings were frequently seen left after them, particularly near the stones, where they reside. The Gladiolus plicatus appears to be the most favorite plant with those that live near the Cape, for which reason also this plant is known by the name of the Baboon. The root of this table is sometimes boiled and eaten by the colonists.

In the sandy plains near the Cape, the great white African mole (Marmota Africana) is more particularly to be found, and that in abundance. It makes large holes in the ground, over which it lays little heaps of mould; these holes are

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very inconvenient to people in walking, who step down into them unawares, and are frequently in danger of falling. The size of it is nearly equal to that of a cat; it is of a fierce nature, and, when caught, defends itself with its teeth. It feeds on several sorts of bulbous roots that grow in these sandy plains in abundance, especially Gladioluses, Ixias, Antholyzas, and Irises. As I have not found this animal delineated by any author, I have given a figure of it here. PENNANT mentions it at p. 472, under the name of the African Rat.

Those that are but in a small degree acquainted with botany need not be told, that by the opening and closing of flowers, one may frequently know with certainty, as from a watch, what hour of the day it is, as well as if the weather will be fine or rainy. Plants of this kind are common on the African hills.

The Morœa undulata never opens before nine o'clock in the morning, and before sun-set, at four in the afternoon, it closes again.

The Ixia cinnamomea (Avondbloem, Canelbloem) opens every evening at four, and exhales its agreeable odours through the whole night.

The approach of rain is announced by the flowers of various bulbous plants, such as the Ixias, Morœas, Irises, and Galaxias, the tender flowers of which do not open in the morning, if


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rain is to be expected soon; and if a shower is to fall in the afternoon, they close some time before.

Several of these likewise diffuse an agreeable fragrance, particularly at evening or night, somewhat like the odour of pinks, but fainter; such are the Gladiolus tristis and recurvus, the Ixia pilosa, falcata, and cinnamomea.

The Earth-rose (Aard-roos) was the name by which the inhabitants both of the town and country distinguished the Hyobanche Sanguinea, a plant with a low deep-red flower, which is scarcely of a finger's length, and has neither branches nor leaves. It grows in winter and spring in the low sandy plains, both near the town and elsewhere towards the sea-shore, pushing only its cluster of blood-red flowers above the ground. The Antholyza ringens, with its gaping flower, and the ever-varying Gladiolus plicatus, which decorate these sandy plains in abundance, have their pulpous bulbs deep down in the sand, and do not raise their flowers much higher than the Hyobanche above the surface of the ground.

During the winter months, three beautiful species of Gardenia were blowing in the company's garden. The Gardenia florida was probably brought hither from the Indies; at least in my travels in this southermost angle of Africa, I

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never perceived it growing wild any where, but always planted in the gardens, and that even among the colonists far up in the country. Here it always produced double flowers, and consequently no fruit, which the Chinese use for dying yellow. The Gardenia Rothmannia, which has less conspicuous flowers than the former, and of which both the flowers and fruit, on being dried, always turn black. The Gardenia Thunbergia, with respect to its bloom, is one of the finest trees in the world. This little tree had been brought a few years before from the forests of the country, where it is scarce, and grows very slowly, the wood being at the same time so hard, that on this account it is used for clubs. This tree, after it has once begun to blossom, continues to blow for several months, producing fresh blossoms every day, as fast as the old ones by degrees fade and droop, and at length fall off. The blossom is almost six inches long, white and thick, like the most beautiful wash-leather, of an agreeable odour, and does not lose its white colour.

If the cold in this country were severe, and it were absolutely necessary for the inhabitants to keep fires in their ordinary apartments, it would be a wretched country indeed, on account of the great want of fuel it labours under. The wood that is used for dressing their victuals in the kitchen is nothing but

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brushwood, being got with no less pains than expence from the smaller trees and bushes. On making some enquiry concerning this matter, I found that the following were the most commonly employed for this purpose; viz. the stems and roots of the Protea grandiflora, conocarpa, speciosa, birta, mellifera, and argentea, a few species of Erica, and some sorts of Brunia.

In a country like this, where it is for the most part impossible to have recourse to an apothecary, and the medicines sent from Europe extremely dear, the inhabitants had prudently thought of trying the indigenous plants of Africa; and among these they had discovered various useful remedies in different diseases. As a botanist and physician, I was eager to be acquainted with them, and never lost an opportunity of adding to the slender stock of my knowledge, which often proved serviceable both to myself, and the benevolent and obliging colonists. For when any of these could impart to me, in their plain and artless way, a slight notion only of some useful plant, I was able afterwards to give them a more accurate idea of its true use in curing diseases.

Many Gerania, with their red and pulpous roots, grew in the sandy plains near the town; and as these roots are of an astringent nature,


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the country people used them in the diarrhœa and dysentery.

The root of the Bryonia Africana was employed both as an emetic and a purge.

The roots of the Asclepias undulata (Bitter-wortel) and Crispa, as well as the whole of the herb Eriocephalus, were used for the purpose of expelling urine in the dropsy.

For the same purpose also they frequently made use of the root of the Hæmanthus coccineus, instead of squills, or the Scilla maritima. This plant is very common on the hills below the mountains, and hence has obtained the name of the Mountain-squill. Its root is large, white, mucilaginous, fibrous, and somewhat acrid. After being cut into slices, it is steeped in vinegar, and from this is made a kind of weak Oxymel scilliticum, which is used in dropsies and asthmas.

The Polygonum barbatum, which grows in ditches, and is of an acrid nature, is, like its kindred species, used for dropsical and swelled legs.

A decoction of the leaves of the Crotolaria perfoliata was esteemed a powerful diuretic, and, in consequence of this property, to cure dropsies.

The Piper Capense was in some places used as a stomachic, instead of common pepper; and


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the Fagara Capensis (wilde Cardamom) was of great service to many people in the flatulent cholic, and the palsy.

The juice of the Mesembryanthemum edule was used both as an internal and external remedy: internally for the dysentery and the thrush (aphthœ) in children, and externally for burns.

They were very loud here in the praises of the Osmites camphorina, to which they were pleased to give the name of Bellis (or daisy). This plant has certainly great merit on account of its camphorated principle, and its strong poignant smell and taste, both of which evince it to be of a highly resolving nature. The plant itself is sometimes used externally, applied in bags to inflammations, and on the stomach in cholics. But the spirit distilled from it, called Spiritus bellidis, was highly esteemed in coughs and hoarseness. In these cases, however, it appeared to me to be too heating; but I used it more than once with advantage in the palsy and apoplexy. The genuine species, or the Osmites camphorina, which is the very best, I found growing on the top of Table-mountain only; and as it was obtainable only by a few, the Osmites asteriscoides, which has a fainter smell and weaker virtues, was used in its stead. As an astringent in the diarrhœa, the rough and austere bark of the Protea grandiflora was frequently used. In the en-

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virons of the town grew likewise various plants, which the inhabitants had learnt to convert to their own benefit when afflicted with disorders; as, e. g.

The Adonis Capensis and Atragene vessicatoria (Brandblad) used instead of Cantharides: these plants grew on the sides of the mountains and hills; and were exhibited in the sciatica and rheumatism.

The Adianthum Æthiopicum (Vrouwehaar), a species of maidenhair, grew chiefly on the sides of the Devil's mountain, and was drank at tea, in colds and other affections of the breast.

The Protea mellifera (Tulp-boom and Zuyker-boom) contains in its calyx a sweet juice, which, when inspissated, was used in disorders of the breast.

The Salicornia fruticosa (Zee koral, or sea coral) grew on the sea-shore, and notwithstanding its brackish taste, was eaten by the soldiers and some few others as a sallad, dressed with oil and vinegar.

Besides the company's dispensary which was at the hospital, another was founded this year in the town, by which means the country people may now have a better opportunity of procuring medicines than they had before, when they were obliged to purchase them of the surgeons at a very high price.


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From the Oxalis cernua (wilde Syring) which grew to the greatest size and in the greatest abundance of all the species appertaining to this genus, was prepared a good and serviceable Sal acetosellæ (or salt of wood-sorrel).

Hard looper (or Fast-runner) was a name given, on account of the swistness with which it ran, to the Carabus 10-guttatus; an insect that frequented several places, and often the highways themselves. This animal has the same property as our Swedish gunner (Carabus crepitans), viz. that when it is pursued or caught, it blows out with violence from behind a liquid, which has the appearance of a thin fine smoke, diffusing itself all around, and if it gets into the eyes, making them smart just as if brandy were squirted into them. By these means it blinds its pursuers, and gets an opportunity of escaping, while the pain lasts, which is about a minute or two.

Fiscal and Canary-byter were the appellations given to a black and white bird (Lanius collaris) which was common in the town, and was to be found in every garden there. As it was a bird of prey, though very small, it sought its food among the insects, such as beetles and grasshoppers, which it not only caught with great dexterity, but likewise, when it could not consume them all, it would stick them up on the pales of farm-yards till it had occasion for them,

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so that one would have supposed them to have been empaled in this manner by human beings. It also caught sparrows and canary-birds, but did not devour any more of them than the brains.

A beautiful green thrush (Turdus ceilonicus) frequented the gardens of the town, and delighted the ears of the attentive burgher with his sweet song.

The winter rains having moistened the dry hills in the environs of the Cape, various beautiful and elegant flowers of bulbous plants began to spring in the month of August. The plants that were more particularly common were the Ixia bulbocodium, which varied much in the size and colour of its flowers; the Moræa collina and spathacea, the dependent leaves of which twined round the feet of the perambulator, and frequently threw him down: and the Moræa undulata, the flower of which has the appearance of a large spider, and attracts the flies called blue bottles by its fetid smell. The elegant family of the irises, however, especially the papilionacea, excelled all others in the superb grandeur of their flowers, which was greater than can be expressed.

Caffre-corn (Holcus caffrorum) was cultivated by some few people in their gardens as a rarity, and grew to the height of a man, bearing large clusters of flowers; consequently it is a very

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profitable kind of corn, but requires a great deal of heat.

The Mirabilis dischotoma (Vieruurs bloem, or four o'clock flower) was planted in a few gardens, both for the beauty of its flowers, and its singular quality of closing them every evening at four o'clock.

Among the various sorts of fish that appeared on the tables at the Cape, were the Chimæra callorynchus (Dodskop or Joseph) the flesh of which is white and well-tasted; and the Raja miraletus (or Rock). The Raja torpedo too (called here Trill visch) was sometimes caught in the harbour, but not brought to table.

Pelicans with their large claws, called here Kropgans (Pelecanus onocrotalus), which are not scarce on the coast, were also kept in a tame state, and lived on fish, and food of a similar nature, by the water-side.

Of the Restio dichotomus (Beesem-riet) brooms were made to sweep the floors with.

The singular name of King of Candia was given by the inhabitants to the Hæmanthus coccineus and puniceus, one of the largest and most beautiful flowers that made their appearance towards winter on the hills of the Cape, exhibiting instately pomp its blood-red clusters of flowers that grew close to the ground, and bare of leaves, which, previously to the blowing of the plant, had

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withered and disappeared. After the flowers, comes the fruit; and this is succeeded by the leaves alone, which are but two in number, and lie down flat on the ground, like those of the Amaryllis ciliaris: which latter plant, with its leaves fringed with black hairs, grew all over this district, though it was never once seen to blossom.

Besides the chameleon, which changes its colour, there were two lizards, very common on the hills near the town; the Lacerta stellio and orbicularis, sitting every where on the stones, and basking in the sun. Both of them made a hideous appearance with their protuberant points, and when any body approached them, ran quickly down under the stones to hide themselves.

The Hottentots generally elect a chief, whom they call captain; and as they pretend to be in alliance with the Dutch East-India company, the captain whom they have elected, is to be confirmed by the governor at the Cape. One of these captains was now come to town, attended by a few Hottentots, to be confirmed in his new dignity, and, agreeably to ancient custom, receive some presents. As a token of his authority, he is presented with a stick, mounted with a large brass head, on which are engraved the company's arms. The captain heads the troops when they take the field, either against their

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enemies, or for the purpose of hunting wild beasts, on which occasion he also throws the first spear. In other respects, very little more regard is shewn to him than to the rest; and the chief difference between them seems to be, that he commonly wears either a calf's or a tiger's skin, while the rest are clad in sheep-skins.

In winter, when the north-west wind blows stormy into Table-bay, whales are sometimes driven in. One of these fish had lately been cast on shore dead. It was above two fathoms long. From its back, which lay above the water, they cut out large pieces, in order to extract train-oil from the blubber.

In like manner, during this season, there arrived at the numerous islands that lie round about the Cape, a great number of seals, which in this part of the world, are commonly called sea-dogs, because while they are bounding up and down in the water, they bear some resemblance to a dog. There they breed at this time, and bring up their young ones, and are caught in abundance for the company, for the purpose of making train-oil. It is singular that the sea-dog, which is, in fact, a marine animal, cannot swim by nature, as soon as it comes into the world. It is the same case with this as with some kinds of birds, which cannot fly till they are taught by the mother. Thus it is that the sea-dog learns

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of its mother to swim. When the young seal is arrived at a certain age, his mother catches him by the neck and throws him into the water, where he plashes about, till at length he begins to sink: the mother then catches him up again, and thus makes him try several times, till at last he can swim and go out to sea.

The farming out of wine and victuals produces to the company a considerable revenue. The former was now, according to annual custom, sold by auction on the last day of August. And he who bids highest becomes the farmer-general of the wine-contract, having the exclusive right of selling wine, not only to strangers and to the officers of the Dutch ships, but also to the inns and taverns. The owners of vineyards, it is true, may dispose of their wine to the burghers at the Cape for their own consumption; but neither they nor any one else are suffered, under a heavy penalty, to sell a single drop of it to any other person. By this means the wine comes very high to foreign nations, and at the taverns a bottle costs several times as much, as it does to private people at their own houses. The farmer of the wines has alone the power of retailing out wine himself, or of permitting others, who keep inns, for a certain consideration to do the same. The revenue from the wine contract amounts yearly to between 30 and 40,000 gilders.

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The victualling contract is conducted in a different manner. He that bids the lowest at the auction is appointed the farmer general of this monopoly; viz. he that offers to furnish the company with fresh meat for its ships and its other exigencies at the lowest price. From this contract, it is true, the company receives no pecuniary advantage; but then it gets all its meat at a much lower price, than it otherwise could possibly be obtained. It is in consequence of this contract also, that the burghers as well as strangers, are obliged to pay an extravagant price for butchers meat. Thus whilst the company get butchers meat for two doits per pound, the burghers must pay at the rate of four or more, and strangers two stivers: and while a bullock, fit for slaughter, is commonly sold for five Dutch rixdollars, strangers must pay at the rate of ten or more. This contract is farmed out for one, two, three, five, or seven years; and certain spots near Groene-kloof are ceded to the contractor for pasture-grounds without any separate charge.

On this account, as well as on that of the language, which strangers do not always understand, every nation whose ships anchor here, is obliged to have a commissary or broker, who manages their concerns, and also contributes, as far

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as in him lies, to raise the price of every article to them.

Wheat, when it is wanted by foreign nations for exportation, is only to be had of the company. The French ships frequently exported it in the course of this and the last year to the Isle of France.

Many people, and particularly the sailors, instead of butter, used to purchase the fat that had been melted down from the large tails of the African sheep. One of these tails, weighing twenty pounds, consists of nothing but fat, which is the highest luxury of the Hottentos. This fat is laid down in tubs with some salt and pepper, and used at sea with bread in lieu of butter.

Ostriches eggs were mostly purchased by the naval officers. They are in general the perquisites of slaves, who, in tending their cattle, frequently find places in the sands where the ostriches have laid their eggs. During the time of incubation, a dozen, and sometimes even a score, of these eggs (though for the most part fewer) are to be found in one place. The slaves always use the precaution not to take away the eggs with their hands (in which case the birds, who perceive it by the scent, are apt to quit the nest); but by means of a long stick they rake them out of the nest as fast as the birds lay

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them. These eggs sold in general for a skelling a piece, or about sixpence English. They are fittest, and most used for cakes and œufs perdus; and they are particularly good, when eaten with a large quantity of butter. One single egg is sufficient for several people. And whereas hens eggs will seldom keep for any length of time on board of ship, and require great pains to be taken with them in order to turn them every day, ostriches eggs are easily preserved at sea, on account of their size, and of their thick and strong shell.

The Camphor tree (Laurus camphora) brought from the East Indies, and planted here, throve very well, though no great pains were taken to increase the number of them, or collect any camphor from them.

In like manner Turmeric (Curcuma longa) was cultivated on a small bed in the company's garden; the root was scarcely ever used here, though it is so much in request in Europe for the purpose of dying, and in the East Indies enters into almost all their dishes.

During the whole time that I staid at the Cape (almost a year and a half) I never observed that any public fair was kept here. In fact, fairs are not usual in this country. In their stead, public auctions are the more frequently made for all sorts of foreign merchandize, especially such as is brought here from the

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various factories belonging to the company in the different parts of the East Indies.

The burghers in the town generally make an agreement with some of the surgeons in the hospital to attend them and their families, and furnish them with medicines. This is the more necessary, as they have always a number of slaves, and sometimes dangerous epidemic distempers prevail among them. This circumstance is the cause that the physicians and surgeons, who come as strangers to this place, and stay some time at it, are scarcely ever called in, unless they can work miracles. My medical practice in the town consequently was not very extensive; neither, indeed, did I strive to enlarge it, for fear of being impeded in my botanical pursuits. On the other hand, I had the greater opportunities of assisting the country people in my medical capacity, who were both in greater want of my aid, and more grateful to me for it. Almost always, and every where, I observed that my medicines acted with the greatest efficacy as well as certainty upon the slaves, whose constitutions were not so much impaired by improper diet, and were, besides, less accustomed to the use of remedies.

Though slaves are not usually instructed in the doctrines of Christianity, nor their children baptized, the Dutch East-India company takes

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care that the children born in the lodges of their own female slaves are baptized, and in some measure instructed in the Christian religion. The reason for this, perhaps, may be, that most of these children have European fathers, to whom they frequently bear the most striking resemblance.

The children thus issued from Europeans, I had frequent opportunities of seeing married to Black women. Their progeny, however, were not always like each other. I once saw issued from such a couple, one son, who was black, with large eyes, and resembled his mother; another, who was rather of a white complexion, but varied with black spots scattered up and down, and, upon the whole, bore a greater resemblance to the father; and a girl, that was half black.

When the Negroes are wounded in any part of their bodies, and these wounds heal again, the scars at first are white, but the skin afterwards grows black by degrees.

I saw an old Hottentot here, who was very much afflicted with an erysipelas in his leg. The erysipelas discovered itself by its usual bluish-red colour; and on the black ground it had a very frightful appearance. Otherwise it was very rare to find any of these people with blemishes on any part of their bodies, and much more so to see any among them crippled. As

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they not only live sparingly, but also on unseasoned and unsalted food, they are in general subject to few diseases. The changes of the climate are almost the only causes of the rheumatisms and fevers which sometimes prevail among them; yet, still these distempers are much more scarce among the Hottentots that enjoy their liberty, than among those who have entered into the service of the Dutch colonists.

As far as I had an opportunity of travelling last summer, both to the northward and eastward, in this extensive country, I met with but small remains of the once more or less numerous Hottentot nations, which, as late as the beginning of this century, still inhabited these vast plains. It is true, as fast as the colonists spread over the country in gradual succession, the Hottentots have been obliged to retire, and make room for the dwellings and cattle of the Europeans; but it is an undoubted fact also, that the small-pox, a new and to them unknown distemper, has, like a pestilence, exterminated the greater part of them. Now there are only a few scattered villages (kraals) or societies of them to be found, in which state they either live by themselves, or are taken into service at the company's posts and grazing-farms, or else by the colonists themselves. For the most part, these societies, especially in the vicinity of the

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Cape, are far from being numerous; but farther in the country they are both more populous and more wealthy. The few remains of them that still exist, have, in some instances, retained the names of their tribes; but more frequently those names are retained which formerly distinguished each nation separately, and are applied to the district itself, and to the larger rivers which ran through the country, or form the limits of it. The better the country was provided with water, the more populous were the inhabitants, and the more cattle they possessed; still, however, the whole nation did not amount to more than a few thousand men, and each of their districts formed a smaller or larger province.

The Gunjemans Hottentots were those that lived nearest the Cape, and on the very point itself; they extended as far as False Bay, the Hottentots Holand Mountain, and from thence to the left as far as Stellenbosch. This country is extensive, but consists in a great measure of a sandy unfruitful soil. These were the first, who, in barter for certain merchandizes, ceded to the Dutch East India company a tract of their country; and of these there are but a few, and I had almost said none, now remaining.

The Kokoquas nation inhabited the country that bordered upon the Cape on the northern


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side, in the environs of Groene kloof. In my first expedition, which was directed towards that side, I met with several of this nation still in being, and even received from the company's posts two of them to attend me on the journey. Their country, like that of the preceding tribe, is low, level, and sandy, is much in want of water, and was formerly not very populous, neither have the colonists been able to cultivate every part of it. It extends as far as the shore of the ocean; and has a few small hillocks dispersed over its surface.

In continuing my journey to the northward, and to Saldabna Bay, I visited the Sussaquas Hottentots, some of whom were still remaining. As the country is every where low, sandy, and in want of fresh water, this nation was always very considerable, and subsisted by grazing.

The Hottentots that live still farther to the northward, and are descended from tribes that were once numerous, I had not the opportunity of visiting in this excursion, but proceeded more towards the mountains in the east, and the tracts of land that lay beyond them. However, from the inhabitants in these parts I got particular information concerning the neighbouring nations, which I was in hopes of visiting at some future period. From these I learned,


[page] 307

that all along the sea-coast, and round about St. Helena's Bay, in a low, steril, and sandy tract, the Odiquas nation borders on the Sussaquas. The next neighbours to these are the Chirigriquas, a more populous and wealthy nation, which inhabits a fine grazing country, watered by the great Elephant's River: and these again have for their neighbours two great and famous nations, the Little Namaquas, who live on the sea-coast, and the Great Namaquas, who reside farther from it.

In the excursion I made the preceding summer, I visited, in going, and returning, almost all the nations that once inhabited the eastern tract or the coast of Caffraria. After passing the mountain called the Hottentots Holland Mountain, I came to a hilly and mountainous tract of land, which was inhabited as far as the hot-bath by the Koopman's nation; next to these, on the sea-coast, were the Sonquas Hottentots, whom on my return homewards I had to my left. The country of these latter is rather barren, and not much subject to the incroachments of the Europeans.

Next to the Koopmans is the Hessaquas nation; of this but few remain. And more towards the east, near the great and deep river Zonder end, is the country once inhabited by the Dunquas Hottentots.

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Gauriquas land extends more to the north-eastward: this is a very fine country, and abounds in grass; it is watered by a considerably large river, called Goud's Rivier, and was formerly very populous.

Travelling further on, and following the shores of the ocean, one comes to the Houtniquas Hottentots, who in their hilly and woody country have remained the longest sheltered from the Europeans; and had hitherto suffered so little from their encroachments, that of all the Hottentots I had as yet seen, no nation was more considerable in point of numbers, till I came to Kamtous River.

Farther to the northward, and near the large valley, through which one must pass in order to go to Lange-kloof and the adjacent country, occurs the district of the Ataquas Hottentots, which is mountainous and abounds in grass.

Still farther to the eastward, following the coast, one finds first the Kamtours nation, then the Heykoms, and lastly the Caffres. All these nations are in possession of hilly and extremely rich meadows, intersected by many, and those frequently considerable rivers, abounding in fish. And as these people have not hitherto been subject to the encroachments of the colonists, though a few grazing farms have already been laid out

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here, they are not only numerous, but also rich and abound greatly in cattle.

All these Hottentots, whom I visited in their own country, agreed in this particular, that they were mostly short, thin, and slender, with prominent cheek bones, flat noses, protuberant mouths, peaked chins, crooked backs, and pot-bellies. The colour of their skins was yellowish, but more or less dark from grease and dirt. Their hair is of a singular nature, curling like wool, and on most of them as short as the knaps of frize cloth, but sometimes, though seldom, of a finger's length, when it looks like twisted yarn; but few of them have any vestiges of a beard; and when they have, it is curling like their hair. The other sex always have their breasts hanging down to a considerable length. All of them are mad after brandy and tobacco, and find a peculiar pleasure in filth and stench. They besmear themselves with grease, and powder themselves all over with the fetid substance called Bucku, or the powdered leaves of the Diosma. A sheep's skin thrown over their shoulders, and another over their loins, with a small bag for the male, and a square bit of skin for the female sex, constitute almost the whole of their apparel. Besides this, they also wear on their heads a skin-cap, and, by way of ornament, rings of iron

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or copper round their arms, strings of beads round their wrists, and rings of leather round their legs. The huts, in which they live, are low and small, and convex like a hay-stack. They always sit squat on their hams; are nimble and active, but, in general, extremely lazy. Their furniture is scanty and mean. Their dishes are tortoise-shells. The water they have occasion for they keep in the guts of animals, and milk in baskets and goat-skins. Their wants, it is true, are not great; nevertheless their poverty displays itself in every particular.

The Galenia Africana was known under the appellation of Kraal-bosch, and in some places was used for sences about the inclosures for their cattle, when no other bushes fit for the purpose were to be had.

Almonds were sold here, not by the weight, but by the hundred and thousand. They were bought up in great quantities by officers who went to Batavia, where they could sell them to advantage.

Strawberries (Fragaria vesca) had been brought from Holland, and planted out in beds in the gardens round the town. They were transplanted every third year. They sold at a high price, and to great advantage, and were well tasted, though they had not so delicious a flavour as those that grow in Europe.

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Mulberry-trees (Morus nigra) were found at several of the farms near the town, and produced ripe and fine fruit, which however was seldom seen in the markets.

In the beginning of September the slaves used to weed the corn-fields, both the barley, which is ripe and reaped in November, and the wheat, which is reaped in December.

An unfortunate accident happened about this time. A huntsman who had accompanied Major Baron VON PREHM, the commander of the garrison here, in a short excursion into the country, lost one of his hands in consequence of the bursting of his gun, and was brought into the citadel. He had taken aim at a Koor-haen, and probably loaded his piece too high. Accidents of this nature are not uncommon in this country, where sound and good guns are extremely scarce. Many other people had lost a hand in the same manner; and the late Governor TULBAGH, who from the condition of a private soldier had risen to the highest post of honour, had lost one of his eyes by the bursting of a gun. The same misfortune had like to have befallen me also this winter, as I was shooting in the harbour at some of the pelicans, which fly over it every evening in large flocks. On the firing of the gun, the whole stock was broken into a thousand splinters,

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several of which wounded my face and hands. To prevent such an accident from happening to me again, the celebrated Captain EKEBERG, who commanded a Swedish ship that anchored this year in the road, presented me with a handsome and sound Swedish gun, which ever after, during my residence and travels in Africa and the island of Java, was a safe and constant defence to me.

The Loxia Astrild, on account of its red beak, was called Rood-beckje, or Red-beak, and was found in great numbers in the farmers gardens. They usually flew in large flocks; and lighted in the grass, so close to the ground that they could not be seen, though on account of their multitudes, one was sure to kill a great many of them at one shot, notwithstanding that it is a bird of the smallest size.

Turtle-doves (Columba risoria) were common in this country, particularly in places where there was much under-wood. They were seldom eaten by the country people. It is remarkable, that this bird cannot remove from one place to another without laughing afterwards. This laughing noise, as well as its cooing, always betrays its place of abode. The flesh of it tasted rather dry.

Green Mountain swallows (Merops apiaster) were also to be seen near some of the farms,

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and that frequently in the greatest numbers. These birds are extremely beautiful in their yellow and sea-green attire. In the day time they seek their food, which consists of insects, in the fields; but in the evenings they return in flocks, chirping in such a manner as perfectly to deafen one. They then assemble together by degrees in the gardens, and at length go to roost in the branches of orange and other trees before it grows quite dark.

The month of September was already begun, and the beautiful and flowery spring making its appearance, put me in mind of preparing for along journey up the country. But here more obstacles and disagreeable circumstances threw themselves in my way than I could ever have imagined. The trifling viaticum I had brought with me from Europe, I had long ago consumed, and in the seventeen months which I had passed here, I had received no supplies from Holland. At Amsterdam, indeed, I had great and powerful patrons in the Burgomasters RYK TEMMINK and VAN DER POLL, together with the Privy counsellors VAN DER DEUTZ and TEN HOVEN, by the persuasions and at the expence of whom I had undertaken this long voyage; but to my great misfortune, both of the governors, TULBAGH and RHEEDE VAN OUDSHOORN, to whom I was strongly recommended, and from

[page] 314

whom I had reason to expect every support, had departed this life, the one dying previously to my arrival at the Cape, and the other in the voyage thither. I was therefore a stranger, in an unknown place, and left to myself and to my sate till my friends at Amsterdam could be informed of my situation, and endeavour to better it. Misfortunes seldom come single; and I had now my double portion of affliction. For when I intended to take up my salary from the company, it appeared, that the ship in which I had arrived, was come without its muster-roll. This was therefore first to be brought from Europe, before any one could receive his pay. When the ship failed from the Texel, the visitation officers in their hurry had forgot to deliver in the muster-roll, and the captain to demand it. The consequence of this was, that none of all those that were engaged on board the ship, could, during the space of two or three years, either obtain their pay or leave to go home. The visitation officers (kruyd leesers) are two of the company's servants of the lowest rank, who are stationed in each ship during the time that the ship lies at anchor in the Texel: these people have the inspection over every thing that is brought on board, and the care of providing the ships with what they want every day, till they go out to

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sea. These, who in order to keep account of the officers and crew, had the muster-roll in their possession, were interested scoundrels, and more intent upon being treated and bribed, and selling and bartering their cheese and butter, than they were sober and vigilant in the performance of their duty.

The preceding year I had been obliged to contract debts to a considerable amount, and had now no other resource left than to increase them, especially if I were to be enabled to undertake another expensive journey into the country, and not to remain an idle spectator at the Cape. I therefore again had recourse to M. BERGH, the secretary of the police, who had not only hitherto kindly assisted me with his purse, but also generously opened it to me on this occasion, and thereby enabled me to make another excursion into the interior part of the southernmost point of Africa.

My equipage was in most respects the same as that of the foregoing year, with this difference, that instead of the old broken cart, I had a new one, which was tilted with sail-cloth. I was also now the sole possessor of it, and avoided being incumbered with the serjeant and gardener, who the year before greatly contributed to render a small cart still more insufficient for my wants. Besides boxes, paper, amuni-

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[page] 317

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[page 319]



AARD-root, 287

Aard varken, 137

Aapies rivier, 199

Accumulation of sand in harbours, 2, 5

Adianthum Æthiopium, 292

Adonis Capensis, 292

Æsenlus hippocastanum, 3

African rat, 286

Agave Americana, 25, 283

Air in Holland, 26

Albuca major, 146

Alder, 279

Almonds, 310

Almond tree, 279

Aloe (gum) 171

——— perfoliata, 171

——— succotrina, 213

——— tree, 171

——— American, 25, 283

Amaryllis ciliaris, 296

Amsterdam, 9, 13, 25, 64

Animals, domestic, 135

Anise, the root of, 149

Ant-eater, 137

Antholyza ringens, 287

Anthyllis, 176

Antelopes, 145, 146, 156

——— horn, 206

Anys wortel, 149

Ao rivier, 183

Aphthæ, 291

Apples, 103

Aponogeton diastychon, 156

Apothecary's shop, 52

Apricots, 279

Arbours, 164

Arctopus echinatus, 128, 234

Arduina bispinosa, 163, 164, 190

Ark, 269

Arnheim, 152

Ascites (in sheep) 164

Asclepias, 167, 290

Asparagus Capensis, 244

Assagay, 181, 205

——— wood, 181

Asterias caput Medusæ, 240

Asthma, 291

Atragene vesicatoria, 174, 292


[page 320]

Attaquas-kloof Hottentcts, 172, 175

Auctions, 48, 97, 240, 260

AUGE, 105, 183, 184

Avond bloem, 286


Baboons, 284

Babians kloof, 266

BADENHORST'S farm, 216

BÆCK, 218

Bags, leathern, 178

Ballistes, 89

Bamboos, 116

Baptism, 140, 262

Barley, 129

Baskets, 204

Bath (warm) 160, 215

Batteries, 121

Bay Falso, 269

Bay tree, 263

BEAUMONT, Director, 69, 71

Beams, 252

Beans, 207

Bed at Paris, 46

Beer, 130

Beesem-riet, 116, 294

Beetle, 149

Beds of mountains, 223, 224, 235

Berg rivier, 152

Beastiality, 280

Betula Alnus, 279

Besantjes, 97

Bellis, 291

BERCH, 315

BERGIUS, 105, 219

Bicetre, 43

Bills, 239

—— transferable, 74, 110

Bitumen, 166

Bitter wortel, 290

Blaar-ziekte, 159

Blauwe Jean, 64

Bles Moll, Blinde Moll, 263

Bloedziekte, 151

Blood, decoction to purify, 128

Bloody sickness, 151

Boards, 252

Bois de Boulogne, 51

Boomslang, 156

Booter rivier, 217

Borbonia, 128, 243

Boshiesmen, 264

BOTA, 166, 176, 189, 197

Bottles, 204

Botanic garden, 18, 34

Brabeium stellatum, 129, 215

Brack fontein, 143

Brack rivier, 176

Brand blad, 292

Brand steeg, 159

Brand-ziekte, 168

Breede rivier, 159, 213

Bread tree, 201

Bread, 182, 201, 280

Breast, Hottentots, 182

Broker, 299

[page 321]

Brunia, 289


Bruyntjes rivier, 167

Bryonia Africana, 128, 290

Bucku, 170

Buffeljagts rivier, 168

Buffalo's flesh, 192, 195

Buffalo bull, 184, 187

Buffaloes, wild, 195, 205

Bulbous plants, 4, 14

Bupleurum giganteum, 158, 159

BURMANNUS, 15, 16, 24, 25, 64, 105

Burghers, 139, 140, 302

Burns, 291

Burial, 95, 135, 139

Butchers meat, contract for, 299

Butter, 122, 191, 251


Cabeljauws rivier, 203

Cabinet of Natural History, 37

Caffres, 204, 206, 208, 308

Caffre corn, 294

CAILLE, M. de la, 101, 222

Calla Æthiopica, 128, 283

Calodendron, 213

Calvary mount, 51

Camassie hout, 169

Camels for ships, 9

Camenassie land, 211

Camphor, Camphor tree, 301

Camtous rivier, 203, 308

——— Hottentots, ib.

Canals, 12

Cancer, a disease, 211

Cancer squilla, 63

——— arctos, 240

Canelbloem, 286

Canarie byter, 293

Candles, 167

Cannons, 127

Canna bush, 991

Cannabis sativa, 188

Cap, Hottentot's, 177, 178

Capsicum, 234

Capra, 145, 197, 206

Captain, 296

Cape of Good Hope, 99, 100, 118, 119

Cape town, 121, 138, 228

Carabus 10-guttatus, 293

Cardamom, wilde, 291

Carnival, 50

Carrow field, 163, 211, 212

Castration, 147, 163

Castor-oil, 145

Castanien wilde, 12

Cattle, 123, 205

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Cattle, disorders of, 151, 618, 209

Cat-silver, 166

Cauliflower, 234

Cavia Capensis, 165, 166

Chameleon, 296

Charanton, 51

Charité, Hôpital de, 43

Cherry trees, 104

Chesnuts, wild, 129, 215

Cheese, 250

Chimæra callorynchus, 95

Chinese, 99

Chirigriquas Hottentots, 307

Chimnies, 111

Chiming clocks, 5, 12

Church, 110, 118

Chrysomela, 210, 214

Churn, churning, 122, 145, 198

Citadel, 106, 121

Clouds, 135

Clothes, 96

Cliffortia, 243

CLUTE, 212

Company's post, 168

Constantia, 134, 280

COOK, Captain, 316

Colutea vesicatoria, 160

Coaches, 12

Coccus, 211

Coffee, 7, 27, 129

Cohabitation, 137

Coins, 230

Collections of Natural History, 3, 15, 18, 19, 34, 37, 44, 52, 59, 64

Colic, 167

College, naval, 38

Coluber, 156

Columba risoria, 312

Cold, 112, 122, 187

Commodities, sale of, 115

Commissary, 299

Contract for wine, &c. 298

Cooperage, 111

Cooks, 311

Copenhagen, 3

Cough, 292

Courier, 280

Cows, 192, 250

Crassula tetragona, 202

Crisis in fevers, 92

Crooked river, 200, 201

Crotalaria perfoliata, 290

Crows, 149

Cucumbers, 156.

Currant tree, 104

Curcuma, 301

Curtisia, 181

Customs, officers of, 31, 33, 101

Cuttle fish, 146

Cyder, 32

Cyperus textilis, 192

Cyprœa moneta, 177

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Dances, 204

Dasses, 165, 284

Dasses p—. 168

Deaths, accidental at Paris, 48

Deaths on board of ship, 98, 99


Devil's mountain, 222, 223

DIAZ, Bartholomew, 100

Diep rivier, 188, 199, 201, 211

Diet of the sick, 94

Diarrhœa, 202, 228, 290, 291

Diosma, 170

Dispensary, 292

Disorders, prevention of, 93

——— on board of ship, 91

Disa, 220

Divers, 145

Dodskop, 295

Dogs, 246

Dolphins, 91

Domestics, 102

Dorn rivier, 211

Draught oxen, 181, 189

Drakenstein, 254

Dropsy, 129

——— in sheep, 164

DROSKIS farm, 166

Drum, 193

DU BUT, 39

DU MAS, 38, 39

Dubbeltie, 148

Ducks, 144

Dunquas Hottentots, 307

Duynhout, 268

Duyvenhoek's rivier, 169

Dysentery, 290, 291


Earth rose, 287

Ear-rings, 204

Ebb and flood, 8, 61, 62

Ecole de Medicine, 40

——— Royale veterinaire, 51

——— pratique, 41

Eland, 197

Elands fontein, 197

ELECBERG, captain, 312

Elephants warm bath, 214

Elk's fountain, 143, 197

Elsineur, 5

EMANUEL, King, 100

Emetics, 128, 290

Emollient remedies, 128

Enamelled eyes, 55

Enemy, provision against, 127

Engine at Marli, 60

Equipage for travelling, 144, 315

Eriocephalus, 136

Erica, 289

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Erysipelas, 303

Essabosch, 200

Euclea undulata, 202

Euphorbia, 145, 152

Examination, medical, 41, 51

Exercise, military, 253

Execution of malefactors, 14, 263, 278, 280

Exocoetus, 90

Eyes, diseases of, 100

Ezelsjagt, 211


Fagara Capensis, 167, 291

Fair at Amsterdam, 64, 301

Falco secretarius, 148

False bay, 269

Farms, farm houses, 122, 251, 257

Farmers, 126, 253, 255, 256, 257


Fences, 165, 234

Fête dieu, 54

Finches nests, 150

Fire wood, 233, 289

Fire pitchers, 47

Firing of land, 179

Fiscal, 280, 293

Fish, 27, 295

Flag, hoisting of, 127, 236

Flamingoes, 144, 267, 269

Flint, 62

Flies, 214

Flying fish, 90

Fodder for horses, 129

Fog, 26, 265

Folds for sheep and cattle, 164

FORSTER, Dr. 316

Fountains, 5, 33

Four and twenty river, 152

Fowls, 171

Fractures, 166

Fragaria vesca, 310

Franche hoek, 254

Frere's farm, 199, 200

Fruits, 103, 257

Furlow, 108, 252

Furniture, 256

Fucus buccinalis, 91, 98, 218


Galaxia, 286

Galena Africana, 310

Gallows, 278

Garden, pleasure, 16, 21, 22, 45, 103, 114, 262

Garden, botanic, 3, 18, 25, 34, 44, 52, 59

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Garden, physic, 25, 54, 64

Gardenia, 287, 288

Gatagay-root, 149

Gauriquas Hottentots, 308

Ganse-kraal, 211

Geelhout, 169


Geranium, 128, 289

GERT'S house, 166

Gethyllis, 116

Gift-borm, 156

Gladiolus, 285, 287

Goats (capræ) 145

Gobelins, 55

Goldfinch, 249

Gonorrhœa, 128

Goort Vaders boseh, 169, 213

Goose's kraal, 211

Gooseberry tree, 104

GORDON, Major, 265

Gouds rivier, 172

Gout, 129

Grandfather's wood, 169


Groene kloof, 299


Groote valley, 172

Groote Dorn rivier, 211

GRUB, 105

Guards, French, 53

Guarri bush, 202

Guaiacum, Afrum, 207

Gunner, Swedish, 293

Gunjemans Hottentots, 305

Gypsum, crystals of, 167


Haantje, 144

Haartebeest, 145

Haartebeest rivier, 159

Hæmanthus coccineus, 290

Hair, 131

Hell, 169

Helsingborg, 1

Harbours, 32, 146, 189

Hard-looper, 293

Hare's blood, 202

Harpuys, 211

The Hague, 121

Hanglip point, 266

Havre de Grace, 30

HAZEN'S garden, 20

Hazel, 104

Hedges, 31, 35, 45, 114, 160, 213


Hemp, 188

Hessaquas Hottentots, 307

Hex rivier, 159

Heykoms, 308

Hides, Buffaloes, 195

Hill, 51

Hippopotamus, 207

Hogs, Chinese, 216

Holathuria physalis, 97

Holcus Caffrorum, 294

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Honingklipp, 172

Honingberg, 172

Honfleurs, 63

Hoof distemper, 209

Horses, 142

Hortus Siccus, 18

Hospitality, 138

Hospitals, 25, 42, 43, 52, 118, 225, 248

Hotel Dieu, 43

Hottentots, 130, 131, 170, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 187, 189, 192, 196, 198, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207, 263, 264, 296, 297, 303, 310.

Hottentots Hollands kloof, 217

Hottentots figs, 163

Hothouse, 282

Hout baay, 266

Hout hoek, 217

Houtniquas, 175, 196, 197, 308

Houses, 10, 19, 21, 32, 46, 102, 123, 124, 180, 183, 192, 194


Hunting, 247

Hunter, 311

Huts of the Hottentots, 180, 183, 192

Hyobanche, 287


Hystrix, 28


Ilex crocea, 169

Inns, 35

Intestines of animals, 207

Invalids, hospital of, 43

Iris, 286

Iron, 135

——— rings, 203

Ivory rings, 203

Ixia, 286, 287, 294

Jackall's kraal, 19

JAGER'S farm, 197

Jassi, 65

Javanese, 132

Javanese prince, 134

Javelins, 181


Joseph, 295

Journal, Surgeon's, 95

Journies to the Cape, 142, 143

Justice, courts of, 253


Kafunkel-berg, 266

Kapock-bird, 136

Keerom rivier, 176

Kidnappers, 73, 107

KIES, captain, 131

Kraijebosch, 149

Krakous rivier, 171

——— hoogt, 171

Kromme rivier, 200, 201

KRUGERS farm, 200

Kruyd-lesers, 314


[page 327]

Keureboom's rivier, 167, 197, 211

King of Candia, 295

Klaw Ziekte, 209

Klein fontein, 176


Klipp-drift, 199

Knoflook, wilde, 156, 244


Kokoquas Hottentots, 305

Koopmans Hottentots, 307

Korrhaan, 144, 148

Koree rivier, 163, 165

Kraal, 164

Kraal-bosch, 310

Krakeel rivier, 199

Kropgans, 295

Kukumakranka, 116


Lacerta, 296

Lambs, 123, 163

Lame distemper, 151

Lam-ziekte, 151

Lanius collaris, 293

Land, quality of, 122

——— birds, 98

Landrost, 167

Lange kloof, 198, 200, 210

Lanterns, 48

Laurus camphora, 301

Laurus nobilis, 114, 263

Leading string, 14

Learning, incitements to, 41

Leathern sacks, 194, 197

Lectures, 38 & seq.

Leyden, 17

Leprosy, 65

Lent, 50

Leuwebosch rivier, 201

Leeuwe rivier, 167

Lichten, 110

Light upon the water, 30, 89

Lime tree, 104

LINNÆUS, 105, 218

Lions, 201

Lions mountain, 222, 235, 265

Lizard, 296

Lobster, Cape, 240

Looris rivier, 203

Loxiæ, 150, 219, 312

Lumbrici, 135

Lutheran worship, 237

Lutherans at the Cape, 237

Luxembourg, 49

Lycoperdon carcinomale, 211

Lycium Afrum, 171


MASON, Mr. 265

Mag-wine, 281

[page 328]

Maalstroms, 165

Malagass island, 269

——— kraal, 197

Malmucks, 91

Man of war bird, 97

Maquas Hottentots, 198

Marmota Africana, 263, 285

——— Capensis, 263

Marriage, 140, 255

Matjes kloof, 159

——— valley, 159

Maurice's heights, 163

Measles, 119

Meal hours, 138

Medicine chest, 77

Medicinal plants, 128

Medusa's head, 240

Melkhout kraal, 188

Meloë Cichorei, 200, 211

MENTZ, 167

Merops apiaster, 312

Mesembryanthemum, 163, 211, 291

Mica argentea, 166

Mile stones, 35

Milk, 197

Mimosa nilotica, 165, 211

Minister, 159

Mirabilis dichotoma, 295

Misgunst, 199

Moles, 263

MONTIN, Dr. 219

Montinia, 128

Morus nigra, 311

Moræa undulata, 286, 294

Mosterts hoek and farm, 143, 153

Mountains, 60, 61, 119, 122, 145, 152, 154, 159, 160, 163, 168, 171, 175, 190, 198, 202, 213, 217, 219, 225, 235, 236, 254, 255, 257, 258, 264, 267, 269

Mountain rat, 166

——— river, 152

——— swallows, 312

——— squill, 290

Muffs, 47

Mugge kruyd, 148

Mulberry tree, 311


Murmuring noise from the sea, 29

Musa Paradisiaca, 283

Muscles, 29

Music, 204

Muster, 68

Muster roll, 314

Muysenberg, 249, 267

Muysen kraal, 213

Myrmecophaga, 137

Myrica, 166, 249, 267

Myrtle tree, 104

Mytilus edulis, 29

[page 329]


Namaquas Hottentots, 307

Neisena, 183

Nerita histrio, 177

New year, Javanese, 132

NICKERT'S farm, 200

Nightingale, 150


North hoek, 267

North west wind, 226, 227, 228

Norway, 6, 268

Norweegen, 268


Oaks, 104, 154, 279

Oats, 149

Odiquas Hottentots, 307

Officers, naval, 113, 115, 260


Olea Europæa, 232

——— Capensis, 172

Oleum Ricini, 145

Olive tree, 172, 232


Olyfant's warm bath, 214

Onverwagt, 200

Opblaazers, 150

Oranje fontein, 145

Orchis, 220

Ornithogalum, 153

Osmites, 291

Ostriches, 145

——— eggs, 178, 300

OUDSHORN, vide Rheede

Otis, 144

Oxalis cernua, 293

Oxen, 141, 142

Oxymel scilliticum, 290

Oysters, 29


Palais des Marchands, 49

Palmit rivier, 171

Palsy, 291

Pancakes of white lead, 79

Parade 32

Paradise, 134

Paris, 35

Passover eggs, 53

Patellæ, 241

Peaches, 104

Pears, 103

Pepper, 170

Pelicans, 295

Phædicopterus, 144, 267

Pharnaceum mollugo, 148

Phoca, 98, 147

Picketberg, 152

Pilot, 63

PINARD, Daniel, 34, 172

Pine apples, 282

Pine tree, 134

Pinn-wortel, 214

[page 330]

Pinus sylvestris, 134

Piper capense, 170, 323

Pipes made of sheep's bones, 205

Pisang, 283

Pisang rivier, 189

Pits for animals, 181

Placemen, 282

PLANT'S farm, 188

Plants, 252

Platte kloof, 213



Plough, 253

Pneumora, 150

Poisoned arrows, 203


Polygala, 244

Polygonum barbatum, 290

Populus alba, 104

Porcupines, 128, 204, 283

Post-boat, 59

Post-coach, 34

Pots of the Hottentots, 207

Potteslaan, 193

Poultry-house, 172

Prayers, 110

Preservatives on board of ship, 78


Priest, 159

Processus mamillaris, 207

Procession in the Hotel Dieu, 36

Professors, introductory, 66

Protea, 116, 143, 289, 291, 292

Psoralea pinnata, 214

Purge, 128

Puspas rivier, 167

——— valley, 167

Pyrus cydonia, 160


Quaiman's drift and rivier, 180

Quarantain, 8, 16, 31

Quartz, 224

Quercus robur, 104, 279

Quinces, 160


Rabies canina & vulpina, 172

Raja miraletus, torpedo, 295

Rain, 179, 180, 200

Rat, African, 285

Ration or allowance, 95

Regulations on board of ship, 71

Restio, 116, 248, 295


[page 331]

Rheumatism, 175

Rhinoceros's horns, 246

——— bladders, 204

Rhus, 171

Ribeek casteel, 152

Ricinus, 145

Riet fontein, 166

Riet kraal, 169

Rings, 203

Ringhals, 208

Rivers, 122, 149, 152, 159, 160, 166, 169, 171, 172, 176, 180, 183, 188, 189, 197, 199, 203, 211, 212, 213, 217, 278

Roads, 2, 22, 122, 176

Robbe berg, 191

Robben Eyland, 237

Rock, 172, 269

Rock-crystal, 169

——— fish, 295

Romance rock, 269

Rondebosch, 134


Rood beckie, 312

Rood zand, 152, 159

Ropes, 176

Rosemary, wild, 136

Rouen, 32

ROUX, the Enameller, 55

LE ROUX, 166

VAN ROYEN, 18, 105

Rumex spinosus, 148

Runaway slaves, 279

Rye, 232


Sack milk, 197

Sailors, 110

Sal acetosellæ, 293


Saldahna bay, 145

Salicornia fruticosa, 292

Salsola aphylla, 199

Salt meat, 257

Salt pans, 269

Sand heaths, 136

Sand river, 165

Sand vliet, 176

Sand ridge, 241

Scars in black people, 299


Schistus, 163

Sciatica, 292

Scolopax Capensis, 144

DU SCU, 43

Sea-horse, 207

Sea-cow, 207

Sea coral, 292

Seals, 98, 147, 297

Secretaries vogel, 148

Secretary bird, 148, 214

Seed at the Cape, 136

Seed-vessels of the Euphorbia, 145

—————— Rumex, 148

—————— Protea argentea, 116

[page 332]

SEELE, Frederic, 180

Sepia, 146

Serapias, 220

Seriphium, 268

Serpents, 127, 156, 214

——— bite of, 127, 155, 208

——— poison of, 156, 203

——— stone, 155

Sheep, 123, 128, 163, 171, 211

Sheep's dung, 156

——— stomach, 202

——— tails, 300

Shells, 241

——— mixt with earth, 116

Shin bones of sheep, 124

Ships, 2, 7, 9, 67, 228, 238, 283

Ship's diet, 6

——— officers, 113, 115, 260, 261

Shipwreck, 63, 270, 277

Shoes, 195

——— (field-) 195

Shoe-blacks, 47

Shops, 33

Shrimps, 63

Sick, visits to the, 93

Sick, on board of ship, 72, 101

——— attendants upon, 92

Sickles, 211

Sideroxylon toxiferum, 156

Simons bay, 269

Slange rivier, 212

Slange steen, 155

Slange kop, 160

Slange bosch, 268

Slate, 163

Slaves, 99, 102, 114, 115, 140, 233, 234, 302

Slave-house, 112

Small pox, 119, 199

SMIDT'S farm, 213

Snipes, 144

Snow, 154, 259

Soap, 199

Soil at the Cape, 129

Solanum nigrum, 157

Soldier, 101, 106, 111, 138, 279, 280

Soldier's pay, 109

Solen siliqua, 201

SONNERAT, 219—221

Sonchus oleraceus, 146, 157

Sophora Capensis, 167

Sound, 255

South-east wind, 134, 135, 225, 226, 227

Sow-thistle, 146

Spar, calcareous, 166

SPARRMAN, Professor, 99, 316

Spiritus bellidis, 291

Spitting box, 26

[page 333]

Spons ziekte, 151

Staart pepper, 170

Stadthouse at Amsterdam, 14

Steenboks, 145

Steenbergs hoek, 267

Stellenbosch, 253

St. Jago, 88

Stinkhout, 169

Stomach wine, 281


Stoves, 33, 112

Strand dubbeltje, 241

Strangury, 151, 152

Strata of mountains, 223, 224, 235

Straw for thatching, 248

Strawberries, 310

Streets, 3, 11, 46


Strelitsia, 191

Suet of mutton, 199

SUEUR, Dr. le, 121

Su-koa, 193

Sulphur, clay impregnated with, 145

Surgeons, 302

Sussaquas Hottentots, 306

Summers at the Cape, 232

Swallows, 157


Syrentie, 243

Syring, wilde, 291


Table mountain, 219—224, 264, 265

Tail pepper, 170

Talpa Asiatica, 263

Tamarinds, 233

Tantalus, 200

Tea, 7, 27, 128

Testudo, 182, 243

Texel, 7, 9, 28, 70


Thé fontein, 145

Theft, 77

Threshing of wheat, 116

Thrush, 294

Thrush, green, 294

Thrush in children, 291

Thirst, 211

Tide, 8, 61, 62

Tiger, 147, 212

Tiger berg, Tiger mountain, 255

Tiger hoek, 213

Tilia Europæa, 104

Tinder, 159

Tintirintjes, 153

Tobacco, 34, 131, 188, 196, 206

Tobacco pipe, 206

Toll gates, 101

Tongueless woman, 53

Tortoises blood, 127, 203

Tortoise shell, 182, 194


[page 334]

Train oil, 147, 29

Travellers, fellow, 189, 190, 316

Treckschuyt, 17

Trees, planting of trees, 34, 104, 116, 126, 130, 134, 136, 145, 149, 156, 160, 163, 167, 169, 171, 172, 179, 181, 190, 199, 201, 202, 207, 211, 213, 215, 232, 233, 243, 248, 249, 252, 254, 263, 267, 268, 279, 283, 288

Trianon, 59

Trichius laticollis, 149

Trill-visch, 295

Trumpet-grass, 91, 98, 218

Turdus Ceilonicus, 294

Turf, 21

TULBAGH, 105, 199

Tulbaghia alliacea, 156, 244

Tulp-boom, 292

Tung ziekte, 209

Turkey, wild, 200

Turmeric, 301

Turtle doves, 312


Vals rivier, 171


Vauxhall, 49

Vermin among poultry, 172

Vett rivier, 171

Viscum Capense, 166

Vines, planting of, 126

——— wild, 134

Vinegar, 202

Vineyards, 130, 252

Vitis vitiginea, 134


Umbilicus veneris, 241

University, 19, 39, 40, 51, 66

VOGTS rivier, 166

Vomiting, 202

Vrouwe-haar, 292

Uyle kraal, 145

Vygen, Hottentots, 163


Waageboom's rivier, 200

Wafersland, 152

Waggon, 142

Wakteen betje, 244

Warm bath, 159, 160, 214, 215

Water, 28, 46, 90, 125, 210, 279

——— spout, 89

——— conduits, 210

Water uynties, 156

Watervall, 213

Wax shrub, 166

Weeds in corn-fields, 311

[page 335]

Wel te vrede, 171

Welgevunden, 213

DE WETT, 153

Whales, 97, 98

Wheat, 137, 172, 216, 231, 300

——— fields, 252

Whips, 142, 153

Whirlpools, 165

White lead in pancakes, 79

Wildschuts brand, 268

Will, or testament, 95

Winds, 117, 225, 226, 227

Wine contract, 298

Wine, Cape, 280

Wine, the making of, 244

Winter, 112, 115

Winterhoek, 153

Witsenberg, 154

Witte Moll, 163

Wittels rivier, 176

Wolfekraal, 211


Wolves, 124

Woods, 169, 177, 183, 196

Wool, 123, 164

Worms, 135


Yaws, 65

Yzer klippen, 135, 234

Yzer-varken, 128, 283


Zamia Caffra, 201

Zuyker-boom, 292

Zeelverkoopers, 73, 107

Zeeko rivier, 201

Zeeko valley, 248

Zieke-Troost, 234

Zoetemelk's rivier, 171

Zoetemelk's valley, 214

ZONDAG, Matthias, 198, 211

Zonder end rivier, 213

Zout fontein, 176

Zout rivier, 278

Zudwyk, 20

Zuyder zee, 8

Zwart hout, 268

Zwarte berg, 215, 216

Zwarte valley, 171

Zwellendam, 167

Zygophyllum morgsana, 164


[page 336]


Place the Frontispiece to face the Title of Vol. I. and the Marmota Africana (or African Rat) and the large Plate of the Arms and Implements of the Hottentots, immediately after the Index to the same Volume.

The four other Plates to follow their Explanation in the first Sheet of Vol. II.

[page 337]

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 15 March, 2014