RECORD: Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1795-6. Travels in Europe, Africa and Asia, performed between the years 1770 and 1779. London: W. Richardson and J. Egerton. Volume 2.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by AEL Data 01.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.

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1773, 1774, and 1775.



Knight of the Order of Vasa, Professor of Botany in the University of Upsal,
and Member of various Academies and learned Societies both in
Sweden and other Countries.





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I HAVE now the pleasure of presenting to the public this second volume of my Travels, in hopes that it may find as many candid and indulgent censors as the first.

It contains my residence during a winter at the Cape, two long journies to the eastward and northward of the southernmost point of Africa, a voyage to Java, and my residence at Batavia.

In the beginning of this present century, or in the year 1705, a thesis was published in quarto by M. SIMON MELANDER, under the inspection of professor HARALD WALLERIUS of Upsal, on the subject of the Caput Bonæ Spei, or Cape of Good Hope. This dissertation treats of the situation of the Cape of Good Hope, and, at the same time, gives a geographical description of it; it

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also gives some account of the external appearance of the natives, their dress, mode of living, religion, government and manners, as far at least as, in those times, the Europeans could arrive at the knowledge of these particulars; although it must be confessed that the annexed wooden print, representing the Cape mountains, cannot boast of any high degree of elegance. Since this period, much more light has been thrown on this part of the extensive continent of Africa, and a great variety of more certain and authentic details, concerning the country and its animal and vegetable productions, have been communicated to the curious and inquisitive inhabitants of Europe.

VALENTYN also, in the fifth part of his extensive work, has given an account of this southernmost point of Africa; but as he only took a slight, view of this place in passing by it, he necessarily derived the chief of his knowledge from the relations of others, upon which, as being of various degrees of credibility, different degrees of dependance were to be placed.

Mr. MASON, a skilful English gardener, who accompanied me in both my journies into the interior part of the almost unknown continent of Africa, has, it is true, on his arrival in England, given a short account of both these voyages, in a letter to Sir JOHN PRINGLE, then President of

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the Royal Society at London, which is inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. LXVI. for the year 1776, P. I. page 268, together with the relation of his first journey in company with M. OLDENBURG. But as that narrative is very short, and the transactions of the society could not admit a more full and ample detail, it is hoped that this part of my narrative will not be considered as superfluous.

In so wild and almost desert a country as this part of Africa may justly be called, I have attempted to depict nature as she really is, and as she has exhibited herself to me after an attentive survey. And I have taken particular care to point out the appearance of the mountains, their extent, height, strata, &c. the knowledge of which is frequently of as great utility to the natural philosopher, as that of the situation of harbours, of their external appearances and anchorage, with several other particulars, is to the wary and cautious navigator.

Besides the two warm baths, of which I make mention in the first volume, I have here given a short account of two other warm medical springs in the African mountains, which are equally remarkable, and which yet no one hitherto has ever seen either smoaking or in a state of eruption; neither can any one say with certainty,

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that this promontory was ever shaken by an earthquake.

I have also here taken the opportunity of presenting the reader with an account of the singular Salt-pans which this country contains, and which, perhaps, are not to be paralleled in the whole world.

I have frequently added remarks upon Animals, the manner of catching them, their uses and noxious qualities, at the same time that I have avoided tiring the reader with prolix descriptions of them, and the synonima and relations of other authors.

The distempers of the cattle, which are frequently different from those that are incident to the cattle in other countries, I have carefully observed and briefly described.

I have likewise in this volume, with a view to promote a knowledge of the human species, investigated, and delineated the mode of living, manners, ceremonies, marriages, funerals, amusements, music, musical instruments, arms, languages, &c. of the Hottentots and other Indian nations; to which I have added a short account of the foundation of the colony at the Cape, its progress and present state, as also of the various caravans, or expeditions, which have been at different times established by the government and colonists, for the sake of exploring the country.

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I have dedicated a few pages to the Hottentot and Malay languages, both of which are almost equally unknown at the great seats of learning in Europe. To many of my readers, these may possibly prove neither entertaining nor useful; but I flatter myself that by some philologists at least, they will be found neither disagreeable nor absolutely useless.

A description of the Island of Java has before been given by VALENTYN, in his large and extensive historical work on the East-Indies, Vol. IVth, as also by several other travellers; but, on making the comparison, the reader will find a very wide and important difference between us; as the chief aim of my researches has been to discover and examine what is beautiful and useful in nature, as also to investigate the manners and genius of foreign nations.

In order to give a better idea of the different utensils and weapons which are described in this second volume of my travels, I have likewise embellished it with a few plates. Books of travels generally abound with plates of castles, palaces, and other stately monuments of art; but there are frequently wanting in them the necessary delineations of habits, utensils, coins, weapons, and other particulars, on the subject of which it is not less important to be informed with respect to foreign nations. Of these I have given some engravings;

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although, on account of the want of good engravers at Upsal, they are not so complete as I could with; and have chosen such subjects withal as are not, to my knowledge at least, to be found in other authors.

The different sorts of coins, old and new, occurring in the various kingdoms of the East-Indies, of which few travellers have spoken, and which I have been at great pains and expence to collect, I have here either barely mentioned or briefly described, as I was willing to reserve the engravings of them for a separate and more circumstantial treatise.

Although my materials in this volume have frequently been of no very pleasing nature, yet I have endeavoured to make the detail of them as agreeable as possible. But that the truth might not suffer in consequence of this procedure, I have rather chosen to use a sober and serious, than a too lively stile; like physicians, that sometimes mix sugar with their most bitter medicines, but are careful, at the same time, not to destroy by too much sweetness all their salutary qualities.

As esculent and fit for food among the Hottentots, there occur in this volume the Cyanella Capensis, the roots of fennel, the Iris edulis, Stapelia incarnata and articulata, the gourd called Coloquintida, Haliotis, Zamia caffra, Karup,

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the Hottentots' Water-melon, the Hydnora; and, among the Indians, several delicious fruits, such as Ananas, Pisang, Gojavus, Carambola, Bilimbing, Mangoes, Mangostines, Arbuses, Cocoa-nuts, Jambo, the fruit of the Ratan Salac, Catappa, Papaija, Nanca, Annona, Boa Lansa, Nephelium, Solanum Melongena and Birds' nests.

As Sweat-meats and Spices, the Indians use Betel, Areek, Cayenne pepper, the root of Schoenanthus, Turmeric, the root of the Bamboo, Ginger, Cardamoms and Cloves.

For quenching thirst, likewise as cooling and refreshing, and for producing intoxication, some of the Hottentots use the Mesembryanthemum emarcidum, the Kameka Gli, and Water-melons.

As salutary and approved Remedies, are used the Viscum æthiopicum, Indigofera arborea, Boa ati, Dodonæa angustifolia, Jambolifera, Durio, Carambola, Bilimbing, Citrus decumanus; and, as a strong Poison, the Amaryllis disticha.

In rural and domestic Oeconomy, as well among the Hottentots as the Indians, several articles occur very useful and necessary; for instance:

For mats to sit on, for the roofs of houses, and for covering waggons, the Cyperus textilis and slender ratans.

For Lanthorns; Calabashes.

For Quivers; the Aloe dichotoma.

For Catching flies; the Fly-bush.

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For making charcoal; the Mimosa nilotica, and Protea grandiflora.

For Wood for bows; the Rhus.

For all sorts of Furniture and Joiner's-work, there are many kinds of wood in the African forests and groves; such as the Ilex crocea, Camassiehout, Roode Peer, Cunonia, Ekebergia, Curtisia, Stinkhout, Olea Europea and capensis, the Gardenia Thunbergia and Rothmannia, the White ash, the Royena villosa, Sophora capensis, Amandelhout, Mimosa nilotica, Leepelboom, Protea grandiflora and speciosa, with others.

For Dying, the Morinda citrifolia, the rind of Mangustines, the Indigofera nila, and the Hibiscus Rosa sinensis.

In treating of foreign countries it frequently happens, that such words and terms occur as are not universally intelligible. As a few of these are to be found in the following sheets, I thought I could no where better explain them than here.

A Valley is nothing more than a rivulet, which is sometimes over-grown with rushes, and is broad in some places, and narrow in others.

Brak-water, is water stagnating in vallies and low places; it contains a kind of brine, and tastes more or less saltish.

A Drift is that part of a river, where the

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water is shallowest, and, consequently, where it can be crossed in a carriage.

Hoek, added to the end of certain words, such as Mosterts-hoek, denotes a projecting angle, or point of a mountain.

Kloof signifies a valley, or such a cleft in the mountains as is either inhabited by the Colonists, or admit of a passage through it on horseback or with a carriage of any kind.

In this second volume I have finished the relation of my three years residence at the Cape, having displayed the advantages which that country possesses with respect to climate, and to the improvements it has received in consequence of culture; and, at the same time, given some account of the poor and much to be lamented natives, who pass their lives in the most simple and artless manner, scarcely differing from the wild beasts with which they are intermixed, without arts and sciences, or any useful institutions; without connexion with any other than their nearest neighbours, who are equally ignorant with themselves; without either commerce or war with their more remote neighbours; without the least knowledge, or even idea, of the magnitude of the earth, its external appearance and nature, or of the celestial bodies which give them light, and yet pass almost unnoticed over their stupid heads.

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The colony, which receives a daily increase from the Europeans, is even now very considerable, and it is in consequence of their attention and industry that several spots in it already resemble an earthly paradise, and that the country produces almost every thing that is necessary for the support of life. Nevertheless, many advantages of which Europe can boast, are here still wanting. This country has no lakes, no navigable rivers, no other fisheries than those that are near the shores of the ocean, or the mouths of rivers; no woods of any consequence or real utility, not even one pleasant grove; no verdant nor flowery meadows; no chalk hills; no metals worth the labour of extracting them from the ore; no looms nor manufactures; no universities nor schools; no post; no post-horses nor inns; nay, in so extensive a country as this, there are still, in many places, wanting both judge and courts of judicature, both clergy and churches, both rain from the heavens and springs in the earth, with many useful and indispensibly necessary institutions, which both now and hereafter may merit the consideration and care of a well-informed and prudent government.

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Explanation of the Plates

For the Second Volume.


Fig. 1. A Caffre's NECKLACE of shells, with a turtle shell depending from it.

2. A Javanese KRIS in its scabbard.

3. A Hottentot musical instrument called Korà.


Fig. 1. A WUDONG, or Javanese Knife, in its sheath.

2. The blade of a WUDONG drawn out of its sheath.

3. A Javanese strait KRIS drawn out of its scabbard and damasked.

4. A Javanese undulated KRIS drawn out of its scabbard.

5 & 6. A Javanese BADI, or Dagger, with its sheath.


Fig. 1. A Javanese SABRE in its scabbard.

2. The SCABBARD, when the sabre is drawn out of it.

3. A Hottentot STRING of differently coloured glass beads to wear about the neck.


Fig. 1. A Hottentot string of Beads to wear about the body, formed of cylindrical pieces of glass of various colours.

2. A Hottentot string of glass beads of various colours.

3. Pinang SCISSARS.

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WITH so slender an equipage as the before-mentioned, and in such a mountainous and desert country as Africa, I had resolved to make an expedition this summer into the country, to the North-east-ward, as far as the Snow mountains; and first directing my course to the northward, to pass afterwards through Camdebo, and other most uncultivated tracts, without taking the nearest and most beaten road.

This resolve was indeed rather extravagant; yet I would not leave it unsatisfied, particularly as it was a matter of indifference to me what parts of the country I visited, provided only they were such as I had not seen before,


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and where I might collect animals and plants hitherto unknown.

My fellow-travellers and I having set out from the Cape, on the 11th of September, 1773, we arrived first at one of the Company's posts, called JEAN BESIS Kraal, and then at Riet-valley, a farm where cows are kept, solely for the Governor's use, and for the purpose of furnishing his table once a week with fresh butter. For this reason, all that travel this road are forbidden to suffer their horses or oxen to graze in the neighbouring pastures; whereas otherwise all Africa resembles a common, in which any one is at liberty to turn his cattle out wherever he pleases.

On the right, as we passed along, lay the Tiger Mountains, and, on our left, the Blue Mountains; over one extremity of which we passed on horseback. These, just before they rise, have a few sand-hills scattered in the front of them, and contain no stones at all that are visible; so that they appear, for the greater part, to be merely huge sand-hills, formed by the drift-sand from the harbour.

The whole country was covered with sand and downs, and abounded in swamps (valley), which having been filled with water during the winter, now began to produce fine pasturage for the cattle. For this reason the farmers

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here graze only, and sow but a small quantity of wheat, but pay no attention to the vine. The water is for the most part brackish, and even this, for the greatest part of the year, is very scanty.

Turtles were seen here and there in the ponds; and sometimes they were kept in the houses in glass vessels full of water, for the purpose of being conveyed to other places. At the approach of rainy weather we were informed that the turtles always rose higher in the glasses.

Towards evening we arrived at Mrs. MULLER's farm.

Among the bushes in the sands we frequently saw land-tortoises crawling, and the young ladies in the house had ordered the slaves to bring several of them home of various sizes for our repast. The Testudo pusilla was the most common species here, and it was this which was now laid upon the fire for our eating. I slipped into the kitchen on purpose to see the mode of dressing it, and found that the girls were cruel enough to lay the poor animal wide open on the live coals, where, sprawling with its head and feet, it was broiled alive, till at length it burst to pieces with the heat. The eggs, which were in a great number, and consisted of yolk only, were the most luscious and desirable part of it.

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The roots of Fennel were roasted and eaten in the same manner as those of Anise.

The bulbs of the Iris edulis, a plant which grew here in abundance, and decorated the fields with a variety of white, yellow, and blue flowers, were brought in great quantities by the slaves. They were eaten either roasted, boiled, or stewed with milk, and appeared to me to be both palatable and nourishing.

On the 13th, we arrived at the Company's post in Groene kloof, having passed by Dassenberg, Burger's-post, and Groene kloof mountain. At Burger's-post, as well as on Koberg, there stands a cannon near a high flag-staff, for the purpose of summoning the colonists on this side of the country to the Cape on any sudden approach of danger.

The country here was a deep sand, and full of downs, which made the roads very heavy. The houses, for want of wood, were built of unbaked clay, formed into bricks, and dried a little in the air.

The cattle were infested with the stranguary. This disorder was remedied by thrusting a straw into the urinary passage, by means of which the clod of gum, Euphorbia, which had settled there, was removed. This operation, however, was not performed without loss of blood. It was told us for certain, that unless this obstruc-

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tion was removed, the bladder would burst, not from the acrimony of the gum, but from the great quantity and pressure of the urine.

Having rested a few days, we continued our journey on horseback by Gansekraal to the sea shore.

The inhabitants caught a Haliotis, a kind of cockle, which as well as muscles, they ate boiled.

Both the variegated, and the white Sand-mole, (Marmotta capensis and africana) frequented the sandy plains; and were also said to do great damage to the gardens. They are caught either in traps, or by digging; in the latter case, they dig a hole first before, and afterwards behind that made by the animal, or else, after stopping up the animal's hole behind, they dig another directly opposite to her.

Charcoal, though it is but seldom made in this country, which is bare of trees, so that the smiths must be supplied from Europe, I saw prepared in the following manner: the wood was placed on one end, as usual, but in such a manner that the smaller and larger pieces were mingled together. Round this pile were laid reeds, and the whole was covered with turf. In the middle, and also at the sides, was put some resinous wood, by means of which the pile was set on fire. This being done, the

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aperture at the top was covered up closely with turf. All around the bottom several air-holes were left, which, as soon as the fire began to blaze forth, were successively stopped up, and the sides were gradually pressed more and more closely together. In a few days when the operation was finished, the pile was opened, and what fire remained was thoroughly extinguished with water. The whole pile was no larger than a hay-stack.

The Bucku (Diosma) which was collected here by the Hottentots, was first dried in the shade, and afterwards over the fire, before it was pulverized.

I also visited the Salt-pan, which was situate at a short distance from the sea shore. It was at this time full of water. The name of Salt-pans is given, in this country, to large collections of salt water; which, when the winter rains have ceased, partly in consequence of the heat of the sun, and partly of the violence of the winds, gradually evaporate, and precipitate a salt, which the colonists collect for their own use. The crystallization is the most powerful in the months of November and December, and in the middle of the day, between the hours of ten and three. During that time, one may plainly see the salt, somewhat like the cream of milk, first crystallize on the surface, till, in conse-

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quence of its own weight, it sinks to the bottom. This saline incrustation is very fine, and yields a fine salt, which must be collected as fast as it crystallizes, and is driven by the south-east winds towards the north western side, Unless this be done the incrustation will fall to the bottom in several different strata, forming a thick bed of a coarse-grained salt, which is frequently of a grey colour, from the admixture of dirt, and is used for salting fish and meat. On the other hand, the fine salt, being cleaner and whiter, is used for the table only, and for salting fresh butter.

On the 19th of September we set off from Groene kloof, leaving to the right the chain of mountains called Burger's-post, and, to the left, Groene kloof mountain. Before us, a little to the right, we had the Reebokskop, and, in front of that, we descried the Konterberg, behind which we saw the Baboons Mountain.

Having passed these mountains, the level country presented to our view Ribeck Kasteel, Four and twenty Rivers Mountain, and Piquet Mountain, together with a great number of roebucks (Capra) hart beasts (Capra dorcas) steen-bocks (Capra grimmia) and diving bucks (Duykers capra) besides korrhaens and ostriches.

We passed by Papenkuyls fountain, and Uylekraal, to a farm belonging to JAN SLABBERT.

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On the 22d, we arrived at Saldahna Bay, which has many islands and dangerous shoals, some of which have only three fathom water. On Foundling Island, train oil is prepared from seals in earthen pans, in which it is first exposed to the heat of the sun to evaporate. After this, it is boiled in a kettle, at first with wood, and then with such remains of the blubber as will yield no more oil. There are several islands lying near this harbour, such as Fundling Eyland, Taxen Eyland, Jutland, remarkable for its large hills of stone, Meuven Eyland, Dassin Eyland, and Schaapen Eyland, all of which are very stony, and, on account of their rocks, difficult of access to the ships.

In Taxen Island, rabbits have greatly increased since they were carried thither, and are now to be found in great abundance.

Dassen Island, in particular, is an asylum for the penguins (Diomedeœ), a kind of sea fowl, which cannot fly at all, but dive the better on that account, and pass most of their time out at sea.

The ships but seldom enter this harbour, and then no other than such as come too close under the coast, so that they cannot make the road of the Cape. The harbour makes several windings, and various winds are requisite for ships to sail out of it.

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On the 28th, we pursued our journey to Witteklipp, an estate belonging to TOBIAS MOSTERT, which received its name from a little mountain, or large insulated rock, situated near it, and of a singular appearance, on account of its bare and white surface, formed, not by lime, as the inhabitants of the place imagined, but by a white moss (Byssas lactea). In front, on the side next to the house, this rock had a large excavation, in the form of a crescent, with a vaulted roof. It was no easy matter to come at this singular cavity, as the part of the rock that stood before it was not only very steep, but also convex, and at the same time very slippery, except a few channels that ran longitudinally downwards, and were formed by the rain water. I had, nevertheless a strong inclination to reconnoitre it, as I saw a few swallows that had their nests there flying into it, and, as I imagined, that some curious plants might be found there. I therefore took off my shoes and stockings, and made a shift to clamber up thither barefoot, but found more difficulty in getting down again; and, as no other descent was practicable, I slid down the rock upon my breech by the same way. This cavity, which probably seldom receives such visitors, had nothing remarkable in it, besides a dead swallow (Hirundo apus), the singularity of its form, and the difficulty of its access.

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It was about four fathoms from the foot of the rock, nearly in the middle of it, and a couple of fathoms wide and high.

Ostriches were very common in this tract. It was said that a male ostrich makes a nest with three or four females, which, together, lay 20 or 30 eggs, on which they sit by turns in a hole they have made with their by trampling in the sand.

A kind of wild dogs, which were here called jackalls, and are the same as Samson's foxes mentioned in scripture, frequented these plains in large troops. They caught a great number of the wild goats (or antilopes) that abound here, as well as of ostriches, in the hunting of which they set up a regular cry, surrounding the game first at a distance, and approaching nearer to it by degrees. They likewise committed great havock among the farmers' sheep, unless these were carefully guarded by shepherds furnished with fire arms.

It is only in the spring and in the beginning of summer, that these low sandy plains are adorned with flowers. After the south-east winds and the drought have set in, the seeds of these flowers are quickly scattered over the fields, often before they are quite ripe. For this reason I was obliged, when making collections for the botanical gardens of Europe,

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especially of the annual plants, to gather the seeds in an unripe state, and lay them up in paper to dry and ripen gradually.

On the 30th, we arrived at Honingklipp, a farm belonging to NICHOLAS KLEIN.

The crows (Corvus Hottentottus) here were seen sitting on the backs of the cows, and picking insects (Acari) out of them, by which at times they were much infested. These creatures also were accustomed to picking the wheat out of the fields immediately after it had been sown.

Here I saw a tame griesbok or greybuck (Capra) of the size of a middling lamb, that had been caught in the sandy fields. Both this species, and that called steenboks, were reported to hide their heads, in the idea that nobody can see them, for which reason also they seldom run out from among the bushes, till one is come quite close to them.

The thickets in the sandy plains consisted solely of tall and slender shrubs from four to six feet high. Their trunks and branches were frequently so small and slender as to be unfit for fuel, though they afforded sufficient retreats for various species of game. To me they were often very troublesome, in hiding from me a number of small birds, which I had shot down from their supple twigs.

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We continued our journey, passing Patrysberg, and came to a farm of PETER LOSPER's, called Rosendal.

On the 1st of October, we visited another estate of LOSPER's. This country, situated between the bays of Saldahna and St. Helena, near the sea shore, was low, abounding in sand-hills and pools of water, now swelled by the winter rains and by Mountain-river.

We intended to have arrived at Mountain-river on the second of this month, but could not attempt it by reason of the depth of water in the above mentioned pools, and thus we could not get to the estate of one MELK, for which purpose we otherwise might have crossed the river in a boat; we were therefore obliged to go on to BRANDT's house on the Salt-river, and from thence to an estate of his son's near Matje's fountain.

This Salt-river (Zout rivier) is different from that near the Cape, and which, from the same quality, derives the same name. It happens frequently, that islands and mountains, as also estates, in different places pass by the same names, a circumstance which causes a great confusion in the Geography of this country. As to the estates, the names of which are proposed by the farmers, and confirmed by government, this might easily be remedied, if the governor paid a little more

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attention to such a vast colony, the extent of which many times exceeds that of the Seven united provinces in Europe. But considering that the whole colony, as well as the town, though founded near 150 years ago, as yet pass by no other name than that of the Cape, which sufficiently shews great carelessness and a bad police; it is not surprising that the farms often obtain the most absurd names.

The Hottentots had such a quantity of leather thongs about their legs, as even to reach above their calves, insomuch that by them they were freed from the danger of being bitten by venomous serpents, for which purpose I suppose it probable they wore them.

The goldfinches (Lox a orix) were said first to devour the blossoms of the wheat (Autherœ triciti) and afterwards the corn itself. They are seen here in innumerable flocks, especially near such rivers as are overgrown with tall reeds, on which they build their nests, from whence their chirping, especially towards evening when they come to roost, is heard at a great distance. The hen is always of a grey colour; but, from the month of July till January, the blood-red feathers of the cock gradually make their appearance. This bird is somewhat smaller than the Loxia capensis, and has smaller eggs, which are perfectly green; whereas the Loxia capensis lay

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grey eggs with black spots, and somewhat larger. This bird is, like the whole genus of loxia, very stupid, and consequently the more difficult to frighten from the wheat fields, where the mischief it does to the husbandmen is often great. Though considerable numbers of them are shot, yet they immediately return, heedless of danger.

The korrhaens were observed to devour the buds of the Cotula turbinata, which was common in all the low and sandy plains.

On the 3d, we arrived at the estate of FLORIS FISHER. This tract from the Groene kloof (Green valley) and still farther, was called Zwartland, and had a church of its own. Ever since the death of the vicar, which at that time was three years, this had been vacant, no one being arrived from Holland to succeed him. Nevertheless, service was performed here once a month by a clergyman from the town: the farmers had a long way to church, some of them two days journey.

We penetrated, on the 5th, farther up into the country, along and beyond the Black Mountain to STOFFEL SMIDT's. The sand-hills vanished by degrees, and the country became both more lofty and of a firmer nature.

The Cyanella capensis (Raapuyntjes) a kind of onion, was roasted for the table of the farmers.

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The Viscum æthiopicum was used in diarrhœas, and also for tea.

On the 6th, we arrived at young STABBERT's, and had Picketberg behind us to the left.

When one is at the Cape, this part of the country rises to the view, like a ridge of contiguous mountains; but, on approaching them, I discovered, that the hills are divided, and form several distinct ridges. Ribeck Kasteel is a ridge of mountains, extending from east to west, till the Zwarte-berg, or (Black Mountains) close the ridge. These therefore do not run parallel with the long tract of mountains that lie higher up the country.

We proceeded farther to CORNELIS GOSEN's farm, who is a saddler, and where I was obliged to leave one of my oxen that proved lame in the loins, and was rendered unfit for the journey. The great mountain river (Berg rivier) to which we were now arrived, had, through the great quantity of rain that had fallen become impassable at the usual fording place near Vleermuys, so that we crossed it on the 7th, in the ferry near PIT JUBER's farm.

This man keeps the ferry in order and going, and thereby gets a snug sum of money yearly; for, farm situated on the opposite side contributes eight gilders per annum, and

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besides this, he has the advantage of casual passengers. It is to observed, that every farmer is obliged to pay his quota towards the keeping of this ferry, let him be rich or poor, and whether he uses it or not; for many of them do not, but repair to town with their goods in summer, when the water is low and fordable, easily by their waggons.

From hence we directed our course to JOHANNES LIEBENBERG's, where we began to see vineyards and gardens with lemon and orange trees. The road was now perfectly hard, consisting of reddish rocks, and the fields were tolerable well covered with grass.

On the 8th, we proceeded to CHRISTIAN LIEBENBERG's, farm, and, on the 9th, to GERT KEMP's, near Dossi Klipp, and afterwards passed by FREDRIK LEIBENBERG's, crossed the difficult passage of Kartous kloof to WILHELM BURGER's, where we rived in the evening wet and terrified, the rain having continued during the whole time of our passing the mountains, which were besides so steep as none but those who have travelled over them can well conceive. Kartous Kloof, which crosses the same ridge as Roode Zand Kloof, but lower down towards the northern end, is also considered by the husbandmen as one of the most difficult roads that go across the African mountains. It

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is not very high at the western part, but becomes the more terrifying on that account to the eastern side, being there very steep and the road very stony and narrow, with an abyss to the left. The driving a hand's breadth only out of the track may demolish waggon, oxen, and driver, and the passing was now made more difficult from the frequent stumbling of the cattle, owing to the slipperiness of the road, which was occasioned by incessant rains. The farm was situated just at the foot of the mountain where we arrived, to the great astonishment of the farmer and his wife.

This spot is like Roode Zand, a broad valley surrounded by mountains, watered by a rivulet, called Olyfant's (or Elephant's) rivier, and abounding in grass. It is entirely separated from Roode Zand by Winterhoek and other ridges of mountains. However it differs thus far from Roode Zand, that it lies much lower, and is likewise considerably narrower, being only a few musket shot broad.

On the 10th. Happy to find our vehicle in a tolerable condition, after so dangerous a journey, we set out to SKALK BURGER's, and crossed the Elephant's river, which we afterwards had to the left.

After taking a hearty breakfast, we let out for the warm bath, situated at a small distance from the farm.—The road thither was very low,


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swampy, and troublesome, till we approached the foot of the mountain. This Olyfant's warm bath is also called Engel Bath, after the attorney-general ENGELMAN, who caused it to be cleaned and dug, and erected a handsome stone building at the company's expence, for the accommodation of the bathers. The veins of this spring arise from the eastern side of this long tract of mountains somewhat above the foot of them, in a cleft which inclines to the southward, and there forms a cross cleft. Of these veins there are many, but three of them in particular carry the water into several small huts, for the colonists, slaves, and Hottentots, for each of these separate huts. All of them have three or four steps going down into the water for the bathers to sit on, and are also floored on one side for them to lie on, whilst they are sweating. This water is not boiling hot, but lukewarm, has no taste, leaves no sediment, but had only some green vegetable matter (Conferva) growing in its runnels. It lies on the same side of the same range of mountains, and is of the same nature with the warm bath already described at Brand Valley. With this water as well as with the former, linen may be washed without being stained, and victuals dressed without any disagreeable taste being imparted to them by it; the blue colour of sugar paper is not

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changed. The farms here have vineyards and orchards, and excellent fodder for cattle.

The mountains to the right divide Bocke-veld from this valley, and seem to form five considerable ridges separated by deep valleys, which, when we fired, gave reiterated echoes, like those that are heard after thunder. A high and flat mountain here, with two heads at each end, was called the little Table Mountain.

On the 11th, we rode past ANDREW LUBBE's to a farm belonging to PETER GAUS.

Lions and other beasts of prey are, at present, so effectually feared and routed out of these mountainous tracts, that the farms are seldom visited by them: nevertheless the farmer continues paying to the company the old tax, called Lion and Tyger Money. This tax is paid by each burgher, at the rate of four rix dollars for lion, and two gilders for tyger-money; out of which fund, at the time when the colony began to extend itself, and when the colonists were much infested by wild beasts, a certain premium was paid to every one who killed or caught any of these animals. At first, government paid sixteen rix dollars for a lion, and ten gilders for a tyger, after which the sum was diminished to ten rix dollars for a lion's, and six gilders for a tyger's skin; but, at present, these animals being

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so far extirpated that there are seldom any of them to be seen, the premium is discontinued, excepting in case they are brought alive to the Cape, which is hardly practicable. This tax, nevertheless, is not abolished, although its institution has had the desired effect, and the cause has ceased; but, in the same manner as in many other countries, has assumed the nature of taxes and funds.

Besides the annual tax which the farmer pays for his farm, he pays also for wax candles four rix dollars a year, for every horse, one stiver, and for every hundred sheep, one gilder. Each farmer, whether he be rich or poor, whether possessed of a large or small farm, pays for mending the roads and streets. The bridge and ferry money all pay alike, let their road lead them that way or not; but then they are exempt from all billettings, crown duties, tithes, clearing the roads, furnishing horses for travelling, day labour, &c.

I saw here a girl that had had the measles three years before, which had left behind them black and blue marks on her forehead, and under her eyes (Sugillationes) which were of a greenish cast. They generally remained two or three weeks, then went away, and afterwards returned. The parts above-mentioned were particularly affected by these spots, though they ap-

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peared also in other places, as for instance, in her hands and arms.

A farmer advanced in years, likewise had fallen into a decline after the measles; however, he was perfectly restored by what I ordered him.

On the following days we proceeded along the valley to BARENT LUBBE's farm, past Pickenier's kloof and MATTON's farm which lay to the left of us.

On the 14th, the country began to grow hilly, and we arrived at young BARENT LUBBE's, at the end of the cleft.

The root of the species of Stoebe, which grew here, smelt quite like Valerian (Valeriana phu) and might possibly have the same effect as this plant has in the epilepsy.

On the 15th, we proceeded on our journey, furnished with a few days provision, and meant to get over the mountains to KIS KOOPMAN's farm, from thence to SPANNENBERG's, over the river Dorn, and, finally, as far as CLAS LOSPER's farm, which is situated in the lowermost Bocke-veldt; but we had not got far up the mountain before a misfortune befel us, through the carelessness of the driver. Our cart overturned, and one of the shafts were broken; so that it was impossible for us to proceed any farther across these uninhabited

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mountains. We were therefore under the necessity of remedying the evil as well as we could, by tying the shaft up with cords, and returning to the farmer, to alter the plan of our journey.

After having still more completely repaired our fluttered vehicle, we resolved to let both the waggon and cart go slowly back, through Pickenier's kloof, and afterwards, up the country, through Roode Zand's kloof to Roode Zand, there to rest and wait for our arrival. In the mean time, I and my English travelling companion made a tour on horse-back farther back into the valley to GAUS' farm, and passed through the long vale, called Eland's Kloof across the mountains to BERNARD FORSTER's, in the Koude Bockeveld, as it is called, or Cold Goat's-field. Eland's kloof was very broad, and had a large river in it. This country, which is situated between the lowermost, or Warm Bockeveld, and between Olyfant's kloof and Carro-veld, lies very high, and is, in the winter, very cold, although not so cold as at Rogge-veld, which lies farther to the other side of the Carrow, and whose inhabitants, for several months in the year, that is, from April to September, are obliged, on account of the snow and cold, to remove down to the lower and warmer Carrow, which, at that time, is plentifully supplied with water by showers of rain, attended with

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thunder. Those that inhabited this Bocke-veld sometimes remove across the mountains with their cattle to Carrow, though this is strictly prohibited.

A serpent, called Boomslang, was said to get into the trees, and swallow the birds it found there; and the Roodbeckjes (Loxia astrild) made great havock in the gardens, where they devoured both blossoms and seeds.

The wild goats (Steenbocks), and particularly the diving goats (Duykers) damaged the gardens greatly, where they ate off the buds of the trees. The leaping goats (Springboks) also do a great deal of mischief in the wheat-fields, especially as they come in troops, and cannot be caught easily either by snares or spring-guns, but must be shot with rifle-barrelled guns in the com fields when they come there. This is done in the following manner; a man digs a hole in the field, where he can sit unseen, till the animal approaches near enough to be fired at with a rifle-barrelled gun.

The cold Bocke-veld is nearly as broad as Olyfant's kloof surrounded by high mountains on all sides, which close together to the northwestward, leaving only a narrow passage to a small plain, situate on the other fide of it. Snow sometimes falls here, and lies for a while undissolved.

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As cold as this country is, still it was formerly much more inhabited by the Hottentots than it is at present by the Europeans, who only occupy a few farms in it. All over the country the Hottentots live together, many in a community, sometimes to the amount of several hundreds in a village, feed on roots, and the flesh of wild beasts, and of their own herds (which have the whole country open to them for their pasturage) and at the same time are satisfied with a little. On the other hand, every colonist has a farm to himself, part of which must be laid out in wheat-fields and vineyards, besides which his herds of cattle must be large and numerous. Wild beasts are destroyed without mercy, consideration, or œconomy, in so much that some are killed for amusement, and others are destroyed on account of the damage they do, and for their skins or hides.

As for the rest, the Bocke-veld is tolerably smooth, without trees or bushes: except a few low rhinoceros bushes, which are seldom to be met with, it bears only grass, and in some places a kind of tall rushes. Near the mountains are sometimes seen a few low and scattered trees of the Protea grandiflora species (Waageboom).

The whole of this country has received its name from the Spring-bocks (Capra pygargus) which reside here in scattered herds, and, in cer-

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tain years, migrate hither from the more remote tracts of the continent in astonishing numbers.

The mountains which lie on each side are quite barren, like an old wall, and rise up boldly without any foot projecting from them, or any hillocks lying directly before them, as is usual with other mountains. They seem to be greatly worn and consumed by the operation of the air upon them, and will probably in time undergo considerable alterations in their external appearance. The air destroys the cohesion of some parts, and causes them to crumble away into small particles, which are afterwards carried off by the rain, not to mention larger fragments, which sometimes fall off from the main body and the cavities formed by the stagnation of the rain water on their surface.

The rocks, which had many sharp projecting points, were sometimes composed of quartzose stones, quartz-rubble, and sandstone cemented together. From moisture these crack, and, getting loose, fall out, and roll down in large pieces. Hence the mountains look, as though they were torn asunder, and themselves proclaim their own vast antiquity and decay. These mountains differ greatly in the hardness of their rocky parts; and consequently they must differ in their dissolution. In many parts of them pebble-stones were found inlaid in

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large clusters, sometimes to the amount of a hundred and more. Here were likewise to be seen large hills consisting of sand-stone, which at the bottom was as white as chalk, and friable, and at; the top yellow, with a mixture of yellow and red tints. In the valleys and near the rivulets was found the finest sand, which must doubtless have been brought down from the mountains and their adjacent hills by the rain water. In the Bocke-veld mountains to the eastward, the strata lie obliquely, as it one side of the mountain had sunk down; the broader strata also were lower to the north-west than to the south-east end.

These large and high chains of mountains therefore, which lie in several rows, divided by broader and smaller clefts and openings, are the Alps of the southern parts of Africa.

The Spring buck (Capra pygargus) does not reside in the mountains like the roe-buck, nor in the thickets like the steen bock, or duykers bock, (where the hounds would easily catch him, as he could not run very fast there) but in the open fields, where he makes the finest and most surprising leaps that can be imagined, frequently above six feet high.

Among the few shrubs that grew in the mountains, I found here that curious shrub the fly-bush (Roridula dentata) the leaves of which are covered with fine hairs, and a tough glutinous

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substance to which smaller infects adhere. It is placed in the houses for the purpose of catching flies.

On the 18th, we rode to ISAAC VISAGE's; the sheep here are counted morning and evening, viz. when they are turned out and brought home, and are marked in one or both ears, that they may be known again when they come to be mingled with others. This counting of the sheep was always the mistress' business, who had also given to each sheep a particular name. An excellent memory and daily practice had so sharpened her attention in this respect, that, if one amongst several hundred sheep were absent, the missed it immediately.

On the 19th, we passed NICHOLAS JANSEN's farm, in our way to CARL VAN DER MERWELL.

A Table mountain which stands single and alone in the middle of the country, is, to the north-west, flat at top, and steep on the side, but, to the south-east, it is convex, slopes off gradually, and is very high. The wheat here had not yet got into the ear, which however we saw it had already done on the other side of the mountain, and the pease were now sowing. Here they both sow and reap a couple of months later than they do nearer the Cape, and in the country which lies lower on the other side of it.

Although the husbandman, that inhabits these mountains, lives so high, yet he always (though

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very improperly) calls it travelling up to the Cape, where the country lies much lower.

The great wheel of the African plough has eight spokes, and is so made (at the same time that it is provided with an iron plate) that it cannot be taken off. The small wheel to the left, has only four spokes, and runs always on the grass ridge, and thus keeps the plough even.

On the 20th, we travelled on to WILLIAM PRETORIS's, whose farm stands in a very good situation; but the weather, in the months of June, July and August, is so severe, that much snow falls, sometimes for days together, and icicles are formed and adhere to the eaves of the roof. All the calves, lambs, and goats that are brought forth during the frost, the of cold and hunger in the stables in which they are kept shut up, without a possibility of their being turned out to grass.

We travelled afterwards, past two farms belonging to JAN RASMUS and VAN HEERE, to that of JACOB PINARD's, where was a small wood. The master and his wife were not at home, but only two slaves and some Hottentot children; we were therefore obliged to content ourselves with having a dry covering over our heads for the night, without any thing to eat or drink, although we had travelled without food all

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the day long, and had several miles to go to the next farm.

As no entertainment was to be had here, we set out early the next morning, being the 21st to SKALK VAN HEERE's, where we were kindly received, and entertained both with breakfast and a tolerable good glass of wine of the growth of the country.

Here commenced the warm Bocke-veld, which was screened from the cold by high mountains and hills, some of which were very steep, and which we had this day descended.

The warm Bocke-veld lies therefore much lower, and, in proportion to its situation, is much less cold. In the cold Bocke-veld, the vine can only be cultivated in two places, and then does not arrive at perfect maturity, but, in the warm, it thrives better and yields better wine. The warm Bocke-veld is a small tract of land, neither very broad nor very long, but rather of a round form, and encircled by mountains. The out-let from it is by a narrow opening near Mosterts-hoek and Hex-rivier. The land is level, all over covered with grass, and has but a very few spring bucks left, which have been for the most part hunted out of the country.

As two young farmers were this day to travel on horse back, the nearest way across the high mountains to Roode Zand, that lies on the other

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side of them, we determined to embrace the opportunity, and, accompany them thither; but my travelling companion, after we had got to a little distance up the mountain, finding he had forgot his saddle bag, was obliged to return for it, and our weary horses not being able to go very fast in that mountainous country, we were left in the lurch by our guides, and, losing the track, were obliged to return to the farm by the fame way as we came. From thence we rode through a great part of the Warm Bocke-veld, and before evening arrived, to a handsome farm abounding in cattle, milk, and butter, which belonged to PETER FUNERE.

From hence we had no other road to Roode Zand than by Mosterts-hoek, through a valley which v/as very narrow and low, between very high mountains projecting on each side. But this journey was hazardous at such time of the year when the large and wide rivulets which we had to ford in the dale were brim full.

In order to pass with safety over this dangerous spot, we hired a servant, who, being acquainted with the country, was to precede us on horseback, and point out to us the most shallow places.

On the 22d of October we set out on our journey.

On our entering of Mosterts-hoek, the road was very stony, mountainous, and steep, and

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we had afterwards several streams to ford and branches of rivers, such as Brug-drift, Stroom-drift, Else rivier, and Diep-drift, besides several smaller branches of brooks, which, uniting, form the great Breede-rivier. These places were the more dangerous to cross, as the water not only stood up to the horses sides, but the bottom was full of large round stones, that had rolled down from the mountains, so that the horses could scarcely get on; and frequently the rapidity of the stream was such that they could with great difficulty keep the tract.

Near these streams grew several shrubs, especially some of the Geranium kind, that sent forth a pleasant, strong, and refreshing odour.

At length we arrived safely at DE WETT's at Roode Zand, where our oxen had already rested themselves, and gathered strength and flesh for our intended journey.

On Winter-boek, a mountain which terminates Roode Zand to the northward, and divides it from Olyfant's kloof, there still lay a great deal of hail.

Gli is, in the Hottentot language, the name of an umbelliferous plant, the root of which, dried and reduced to powder, they mix with cold water and honey in a trough, and after letting it ferment for the space of one night, obtain a species of Mead, which they drink in order to throw

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themselves into a state of intoxication. A couple of glasses are said to be sufficient for the purpose, and no head-ach ensues. Of the pulverized root, two handfuls only are taken.

This year I examined the mountains at Winterhoek much more narrowly than I had done last year, and as high as to their very summits. The fly-bush grew here in abundance, and the scarce plant, called Protea nana, the flower of which resembles the dog rose, was found only in this place. On one side of the mountain was a fine cascade that fell down a perpendicular precipice, under which there was a hollow in the mountain filled with several bushes. My inclination called me thither, and I must have gone a very round-about way to it, had I not ventured to take a leap of about twenty or twenty-four yards in height, which I did without being hurt in the least, the bushes preventing me from making a hard fall. Among other rare plants also which I found here, was the Disa cœrulea.

In these mountains were found an elegant red slate, consisting of thin laminæ, and disposed in broad strata. The same substance was also to be seen in large pieces that had fallen down from the higher parts of the mountain, and disposed in strata with other stony matter, like a marble. It appeared strange to me, that I did

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not, either here, or in any other mountains, meet with any lime stone, or calcareous hill, nor with any marble nor flint, excepting a radiated Gypsum, which I found in the mountain near Hex-river. Here I saw a farmer's wife, who, through good living and indolence, was grown to such a size, and was so fat withal, that, excepting one more in another part of this country, I never saw her equal. On her way to the Cape, she had suffered herself to be weighed; and she then weighed 334lb. or 26 stone, horseman's weight.

That Roode Zand is nothing but a valley between high mountains, running nearly parallel to each other, I could clearly perceive, from this circumstance, that, in the hollows, where the torrents of water had swept away the earth, and dug out channels of one or two fathoms depth, the ground appeared to consist of the naked rock, with its strata, that stood up on their edge almost perpendicular, and only a little inclining to the south-east. These strata were much softened by the water, of a loose texture, and whitish, resembling an indurated clay; in their interstices, they harboured sand, which the water had carried down and discharged there.

The farms hereabouts are not very far asunder, and the colonists are in general in good circumstances. The vineyards were numerous;


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of wheat there was a great quantity sown, and orchards were planted every where, so that the country produced the most profitable articles, such as wine, wheat, oranges and lemons. The cold might nevertheless be very severe here at times; and, it was reported, that its intenseness the last year had done great damage to the vines, and, in some places, absolutely destroyed them.

As to cattle and sheep, more are kept here by the farmers than are wanted for their own consumption and use; and draught-oxen they sometimes buy from other places.

A small dove (perhaps the smallest of the dove kind) called Maquas Duyv (Columba capensis) frequented the gardens, and there sought its food, which consisted mostly of seeds.

The Ixia bulbifera, a bulbous plant with a red flower, grew here in the greatest abundance. When one approached the place where it grew, it seemed to be but thinly scattered over the field, but, at a distance, the ground appeared as if it were covered with scarlet cloth.

In like manner, here and here only, was found beside the brooks, a green variety of the Ixia maculata, another tall bulbous plant, which is as elegant as singular, with its long cluster of green flowers growing out like an ear of corn, and is so extremely scarce all over the world.

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On the 28th. Proceeding on our journey, we crossed Breede rivier; the branches of which went meandring on so far before us in our route that we were obliged to ford them several times before we could reach JAN SLABBERT's farm, where we took up our night's lodging.

On the 29th, we came to PHILIP PLAISIR's near Saffraan's kloof, a place where there is a foot-path across the mountains, along which one may go on horse-back.

Travelling still farther, we arrived at JAN DE TOI's. The country now began to grow broader and flatter. Toi's kloof again is the name of the foot-path here, leading over the mountains; which also may be travelled over on horse-back, and brings one to Drakenstein, directly opposite Paarl.

We now left Breede-rivier to the right; and the level flat country which here lies about the stream, and is at times inundated by it, is called Goudena.

Farther on lies Brand valley; opposite to which, on the other side of the mountain, stands Stellenbosch.

On the 30th, we rode past DE PLOI's farm, and, over Hex-rivier, to KEYSER's estate.

The field was here of the Carrow kind, and the sheep were said to feed on those succulent plants, the Mesembryanthemams (vygebosches),

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which were supposed to render the dung of these animals unfit for manure. Now likewise, the farther we advanced, the more hilly the country grew.

On the 31st, we arrived at ALOWEN SMIDT's farm, which lies opposite to Hottentot's Holland. The country here had many hills and ridges of mountains, which lay across our road.

November 2d. We rode over one of the ridges that lay before us to Mrs. BRUEL's farm, when we seemed to be in quite another valley.

The mountains to the left now took a somewhat different direction, and ran more to the E. S. E.

Proceeding farther, we came to PHILIP BOTA's, whose farm lay opposite to Tyger-hoek, which is situated behind the mountains that project out from Hottentot's Holland mountains.

The chain of mountains which had continued from Witsenberg, seemed here to turn off to the eastward, and, as it were, entirely to dwindle away; but, upon a closer examination, it was found to extend still farther on, and to be continued by the ridges of mountains which only lay somewhat farther inwards, in connexion with the same chain.

After this, we passed CLAS VOGT's rivier, so named from CLAS VOGT, a colonist, who had been trampled to death by an elephant, and that

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in so shocking a manner that scarcely the vestige of a bone was to be seen in his remains.

On the same day continuing our journey, we arrived at GERT NEL's farm near KOCKMAN's kloof and rivier.

Mat-ware (Matjesgoed) is the name given here to a kind of rush that grew in the river, and of which mats were made, that were used by the husbandmen for the tilts of waggons, and also to lie on. These mats were soft and pliable, and the rushes from which they were made, were a species of grass, which I called Cyperus textilis, of about four feet and more in height, almost as thick as a tobacco pipe, and hollow within.

On the 3d, we set out for DROSKI's farm. In this tract, as well as in the whole of the interior part of the country, it was said to rain with the wind at S.E. quit the contrary to which is the case at the Cape.

The farmers cultivated their farms here with their own slaves, and these slaves were not only chastized by their masters for misdemeanors and petty faults that merely affected the family, but also, in case of trespasses of a more serious nature, by the officers of police belonging to the landrost.

It sometimes happens, that on the husbandman finding himself under the necessity of complaining to the magistrate of his slave, either on account of flagrant crimes committed by him, or of incu-

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rable idleness, or excessive carelessness; in which case this latter takes a liking to the slave, howerver strange it may appear, the owner, nolens volens, is obliged to sell him.

November 4th, we arrived at the celebrated JACOBUS BOTA's, a man who was now eighty-one years of age, and, from twelve sons, had a progeny of one hundred and ninety persons, all alive. It is not this circumstance however, as singular as it otherwise may be, that has given him so much renown, in a country where they marry early, and where the population is very great, but a misfortune that befel him in one of his hunting expeditions. When he was forty years of age, he shot, in a narrow pass in a wood, a lion, which immediately fell, without his observing that there were two of them together. The other lion rushed immediately upon him, before he had time to load his piece, and not only wounded him with its sharp claws to such a degree that he fainted away, but also gnawed his left arm and side, and lacerated him in such a terrible manner, that he lay for dead on the ground. The lion, that in general is possessed of too noble a spirit to revenge itself on a dead man, if not impelled by hunger, left him in this situation, so that he was at length carried home by his servants. His wife, a stirring and active woman, immediately fetched several herbs, which the boiled in water,

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and, with the decoction, daily washed, fomented, and bound up his wounds, so that he was at last restored to perfect health. He was so much disabled however in this arm, that he could never afterwards handle a musquet. He had been the first sportsman in the colony, and, by killing elephants and felling their teeth, had acquired a tolerable fortune. This man informed me that, in its infancy, the colony had so small an extent, and the Hottentots in it were so numerous, that the christian settlers could not without danger venture as far as Zwellendam. At that time too the elephants abounded so much, even near the Cape, that in travelling to and from the Cape, one might kill a great many of them. Thus he had often shot four or five in a day, and sometimes twelve or thirteen. Twice in his life, when he was out in pursuit of these animals, he had destroyed with his gun, twenty-two elephants each day. A good sportsman always kills the elephant at one shot, but, should he hit any of the fore-legs, so as to break it, two shot must be fired: the hunter always takes his aim in such a manner as that the ball shall pass through the lungs. The ball is always mixed with one third of tin, and weighs a quarter of a pound; the piece is in proportion to this, and rather heavy. Each elephant's tooth weighs from thirty, to one hundred and thirty pounds. They are

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bought up by the Dutch company, at the rate of one gilder per pound.

The country here began to be very hilly, and abound with grass, and at the same time had a sufficient number of rivulets, and some wood in the clefts of the mountain.

These mountains which extended from Hottentot's Holland, now began to be (higher up the country) more and more low, and afterwards appeared like broken ridges, and at last totally vanished.

On the 5th, we went to JURGEN BOTA's, who is a son of the old man already mentioned, and passed BLANKENBERG's farm in our way to ROCK's, near Keureboom's rivier.

Here we saw a monkey from Hountniquas wood, something like the Simia sabæa. The legs were all black, and the tip of the tail brown; the testicles of the colour of blue stone, or vitriol of copper.

From hence we went to Zwellendam, and afterwards to the Company's post, near Buffel jagt rivier, where we rested a few days.

The colony of Zwellendam, which is subject to its own peculiar landrost, had been founded about thirty years before. It took its name from Mr. ZWELLINGREBEL, who was at that time vice-governor, or Secundu's (Tweede) at the Cape. The first landrost here wa RENIUS, the second

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ORACK, who was still alive but had resigned, and the third was the present landrost, whose name is MENTZ.

The Company's post had at first been established, for the sake of protecting those colonists who had settled on this spot, and father up in the country, in order to cultivate the land and rear cattle. It was therefore at first laid out as a fort, and provided with seven men and a corporal; but, after the country came to be more inhabited, and the Hottentots quitted it, all these fortifications were found to be quite unnecessary and superfluous. Instead of this, a grazing farm is now established here, and the soldiers are employed in the wood, called Groot vaders bosch, or (Grand-father's Wood) in felling, for the use of the Company, different sorts of timber for joiners work, &c. of which timber a waggon load is sent to the Cape every three months, besides what the people of the colony, in order to assist in maintaining them, are allowed to carry up and sell themselves.

For the service of this farm, those Hottentots are used that still remain here, the reliques of former numerous hordes. This year I contrived to procure some information concerning their mode of living, their manners, and their customs.

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On the first night of the new moon one may see the Hottentots run about, pull off their hats, and curtsey.

The ceremony is not quite laid aside of making youth, at a certain age, men; from which time they are separated from the women, and associate only with men. After the youth has been besprinkled, according to custom, with urine, some animal is killed, and its omentum, or cawl, is tied about his neck. The men never drink milk that has been drawn by the women. The women here have frequently a real husband, and a locum tenens, or substitute. The men likewise often take two wives. The marriage ceremony is frequently performed, by the bride and bridegroom, after obtaining the permission of the parents, sleeping together till late in the morning. The dead are interred in graves, over which are set a tortoise-shell filled with some odoriferous powder, and three twigs of some shrub or other: and, after this, the company that forms the procession makes merry. Of game that has been hunted and killed, no one is suffered to eat before he is invested with the dignity of man; nor must man and wife eat any part of this animal's heart, or pericardium.

The Hottentots, at present, eat their meat either roasted, or else boiled in a pot in the

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ordinary way; but not long ago, before they had got vessels of this kind from the Europeans, they used to put their meat into leathern bags, filled with water, and afterwards threw in the red-hot stones, which, by their heat, caused the water to boil.

The Hottentots use bows and arrows, not only for their defence against their enemies, but likewise for the purpose of killing wild beasts; but at present they have rarely need to employ them on either of these occasions. The bow is a round stick of about an inch thick, and something more than two feet long, and is bent by a sinew. The arrow is made by a kind of reed or cane, as thick as a goose-quill, and scarcely a foot long, to the end of which is fastened, with a fine string or sinew, an iron point, shaped like a lancet, which is besmeared with the poison of serpents. Several of these arrows are kept in a quiver, which is of the thickness of a man's arm, and about two feet in length, with a lid at the top, that turns upon hings of leather.

Rabekin is a musical instrument, something like a guitar, made of a calabash and a narrow board, with three or four strings, which may be stretched or relaxed at pleasure, by means of screws. On this instrument the Hottentots play with their fingers.

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Kora was a wind instrument, which however was seldom used.

A mountain called Potteberg, was seen directly opposite the farm, near the sea shore, which was said to be about twenty-four miles distant.

A curious grasshopper, of a reddish colour, of the class of Hemipteræ, was seen in great numbers seeking its food on the bushes. When taken, it pressed out from beneath a sheath that lay under its breast, a slimy, frothy fluid, like soap lather, which covered both the insect and the fingers of the captor. This was repeated as often as the liquid was wiped off with a linen rag. From the manner in which this animal endeavours to liberate itself, I called it Gryllus Spumans. The Larvas, or half-grown grasshopper, or the species called Pneumora, were seen in the greatest abundance both here and elsewhere on the bushes; but in the day time, neither I nor any of my companions could find one of them in a perfect state and winged, which astonished me much.

Ree-boks, Rietboks (Capra) and Bonteboks (Capra scripta) frequented much these hilly and verdant fields. In these antilopes both sexes are furnished with horns; and the young Bonteboks are at first of a reddish brown colour, but, in time, become spotted with white, though,

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on account of the openness of the country and the shyness of the animal, it is difficult to get within gun-shot of the Bontebok, yet we were lucky enough to shoot one. It is always dangerous to come near one of these creatures when shot, because, if he is not quite dead, he makes use of his horns, and may put the huntsman in danger of his life.

Here too I had an opportunity of observing a curious fact. It happens sometimes, that when a duck is shot in any of the rivulets, it either immediately disappears, and is seen no more, or it is found again with its feet eaten off. This is done by the water turtle that inhabit these waters, which prey, not only on the larger ducks, but also on their young, which they seize by the leg.

On the 10th, passing by PETER BOTA's farm, called Rietkuyl, we crossed Kerremelk's and Slange rivers to the widow FORE, near Duyvenboek's rivier.

In the whole tract of country through which we had passed all the way from Hex rivier, I observed that the banks of all the rivers were planted with the very prickly tree called Mimosa nilocita.

The mountains, which extended from a projecting point at Zwellendam, ran now in the direction of due east and west.

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On the 11th of November, having taken an early leave of our worthy hostess, we went down to Duyvenhoek's river, which was at a short distance from the farm. The late rains had filled this rivulet, so as to make it dangerous to cross. The rivulets of this country, however, have usually some shallow places, where, even in the greatest flood, one may cross them with waggon and oxen. To shew us one of these drifts (as they are called) our hostess had been so kind as to send a slave with us; but, as he neither understood nor spoke Dutch, he was obliged to communicate his instructions to us by signs, which, either from ignorance or malice, he entirely perverted, as he pointed out to us a circular track over the river to the right, which we ought to have taken to the left. I, who was the most courageous of any of the company, and, in the whole course of the journey, was constantly obliged to go on before and head them, now also, without a moment's consideration, rode plump into the river, till, in a moment, I sank with my horse into a large and deep sea-cow hole, up to my ears. This would undoubtedly have proved my grave, if my horse had not by good luck been able to swim; and I, who have always had the good fortune to possess myself in the greatest dangers, had not, with the greatest calmness and composure, guided the animal,

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(which floundered about violently in the water) and kept myself fast in the saddle, though continually listed up by the stream. After having passed over this hole, I was likewise successful in my attempts to get safe out of it, though the edges of these holes are in general very steep, in so much that they seldom afford one a sure footing. Holes of this kind which the Hippopotamus treads out for its resting place, occur in a great many rivers, though the animal itself perhaps is no longer to be found there, but has either been shot, or made to fly to some other more secure retreat. All this time my fellow trevellers stood frightened on the opposite bank and astonished, without daring to trust themselves to an element that appeared to them so full of danger. However, as soon as I had got off my horse and let the water drain off from me a little, I ordered my Hottentots to drive across the river, according to a better direction that I gave them, after which the others followed.

I had the greatest reason to be thankful to the divine goodness, which had preserved me in this imminent danger, and the more so, as it happened on the anniversary of the day on which I came into the world thirty years before.

After our waggons were brought over the water, I did not allow myself time to change my

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clothes, as I must have been at the pains of unpacking my trunks; but we continued our journey the whole day without the farther interruption, and passing by CHRISTOPHER LOMBART's farm, went to another belonging to DANIEL PLAISIR, where we arrived before evening, and were kindly received.

Here my first care was to examine my pocketbook, watch, and other things subject to be damaged by the water.

A kind of Corvus (or corw) called Spreuw was found both here and in several other places in great plenty. It was less than a black bird, and black with a white rump: this bird always accompanied the larger cattle and the sheep, especially in the mornings and evenings, before they are driven out to field, and after their return. Its occupation was to pick away the infects (Acari) which, dropping from the bushes upon the animals, and biting deep into their skins, stick very fast to them, and occasion them great pain.

This bird is very wild and shy, so that when it observes any body to approach it, it immediately flies away, and with many cries warns the others, which instantly take wing and endeavour to save themselves by flight. This bird is said to make its nest in the sides of the rivers and brooks, for which purpose it digs holes in their banks.

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These Acari which teazed the cattle, were not less troublesome to our horses. Frequently, while I was riding through the thickets, for the purpose of gathering flowers and seeds in these places, my horse, and particularly his head, was so thickly covered by these blood-suckers, that neither his ears nor any other part of him could be seen, and I was sometimes obliged to make my Hottentots free him from these troublesome guests, before they had time to enter too deeply into the skin.

On the 12th, we went to CLAS BRUYN's farm, and on the 13th, to PETER DE WETT's.

The whole of this tract produced aloe trees in abundance, which in some places entirely covered the hills and the sides of the mountains, where they appeared at a distance like a numerous army. The trees are of the height of a man, with their stems quite bare below, and a crown at the top of broad, thick, and fleshy leaves.

I observed every where the slaves busy in tapping and preparing gum aloe, the virtues of which, in medicine, are well known. DE WETT, the owner of the farm, was the first that prepared the gum in this country, for which reason he was said to have the exclusive privilege of delivering and selling it at a certain price to the Company.

Several farmers have since learned the art of preparing it, and at present frequently sell it at the Cape to strangers at less than half this price.


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The mode of preparing it is quite plain and simple. It consists, in usual phrase of the peasants, in the tapping or drawing off of the juice, and boiling it. The tapping may be perfoemed at all times in the year; but during, and immediately after, the rainy season, the leaves yield a more copious but thinner juice. Those days that are calm and clear, are cheifly selected for the opration of tapping, as windy weather shrinks the leaf, so that less juice is produced, and it hardens too soon. On this work, for the most part, either slaves of Hottentots are employed. A leaf is first cut off, and laid on the bare ground to serve for a channel, upon which several other cut leaves are afterwards placed on each side, with the large end inwards, and over these again others, to the amount of a dozen, or more, so that the juice drips from them into the hollow of the first leaf. The leaves which were cut off not too close to the trunk, were not cut into smaller pieces; as, according to what the farmers asserted, they would not yield the more juice on that account. In this manner several heaps of leaves are laid one after the other, as fast as they can be cut off. When the juice ceases running, the leaves are taken away, and the juice is poured into calabashes, which here, as well as in many other places, are used by the poor as bottles. The greatest quantity of juice that can be thus

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collected by a man in one day is a large calabash or small pailfull. The juice is afterwards boiled down at home in English iron pots, to such a consistence, that it will not run off a stick that is put into it. All impurities that swim on the top of the liquor are skimmed off in the boiling. The juice thus boiled down to one half, is then poured out into wooden boxes, in which it afterwards grows hard. The juice yields generally one third of solid gum, and each box weighs from three to five cwt. each pound of which is sold to foreign nations for three, or four, and sometimes two, stivers.

On the 15th, we proceeded on our journey to DANIEL PINARD's, across Goud's rivier. This river is one of the largest in this country. Its banks on the western side were extremely steep. The farm was situated on the other side on a tolerably high hill. This stream runs far up into the country, and consequently is supplied with water the mountains, which are at the distance of several days journey from hence, and which border upon particular tracts that, at certain times of the year, are deluged by heavy showers of rain, accompanied with thunder. From such a cause this river may be very suddenly filled, and rise to a great height, at the same time that at this place there shall be the finest weather imaginable. And for the same reason

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this river is extremely dangerous, so that the traveller ought not to take up his quarters too near its banks, nor in the lowlands adjacent to it. The water now came up to our horses saddles.

This day we proceeded as far as to DIDELOF's farm.

On the 16th, we rode past several estates, such as those of DIRK MARCUS, BERNARD the son, and the younger PLANT, and hastend on to Muselebay, to a delightfully situated farm belonging to old BERNARD.

The harbour here is very large, but no ships ever make it, except they are obliged so to do by stress of weather.

A Danish ship, called the Kron-prinsess, commanded by Capt. SWENFINGER, was stranded here and lost, and the remains of it were even at this time to be seen.

On the 18th, after having, in the course of the day that we rested there, visited the sea coast and its sandy hills, which in all probability was formerly occupied in great numbers by Damaquas Hottentots, we rode past CLASS MEYER's and JACOBUS TUNISSON BOTA's estates and returned to DIRK MARCUS near Hagelkraal, an old man and great elephant-hunter.

Thongs made of the hides of animals were every where used by the farmers instead of cords and ropes, both for the tackling of waggons and other

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purposes. Here we saw these thongs made pliable and fit for use, by greasing them, and rubbing them briskly against a tree.

On the 19th, we travelled up towards the mountains, and into Hartequas kloof, to a resting place called Groote paarde-kraal, where we, for the first time in the course of this journey, took our night's lodging in the open air.

On the 20th, we examined diligently the mountains that surrounded us on all sides, and in the afternoon, continued our route through Hartequas kloof to Zaffraan kraal, when we got into a more plain and level country, called Canna land, by some Canaan's land, and at the same time passed the heights of Canna, [Cannas hoogte].

Here what I had heard before was confirmed to me, viz. that several female osriches lay their eggs in one nest; and that, if any one touches their eggs, the birds, that discover this by the smell, never lay any more eggs in the same place; but, if the eggs should chance to be left behind, trample them to pieces under their feet.

On the 21st, we passed AKER HEIN's farm, and took up our quarters in the evening near Klipp-rivier. The land between the mountains was many times broader than Roode Zand, very dry like the Carrow, and much higher than Iloutniquas land, that lay on the other side of it.

That piece of land which lay on the other

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side of the mountains to the left, was called Kankou.

On the 22d, crossing Brack rivier and Matjes drift, and going through Matjes kloof, where Lange kloof begins, we rode past HELBECK's farm to VAN STADE's.

Here we observed on the plain high and long, distinct and separate, mountains, which had the same direction as the large chain of mountains before mentioned.

On the23d, we passed BUY's estate in our way to GERT VAN ROIJEN's, near Diep rivier.

The mountains which here formed Lange kloof, were, to the right, the long range of mountains spoken of above, and, to the left, a connected ridge, which began near Matjes kloof, and was lower than the long chain of mountains that lay by the side of it, and whose tops could plainly be discovered. The land which lay on the other side of the last-mentioned low ridge, and the higher ridge, is called Camenassie, a tract of land, which is likewise already peopled by the industrious colonists. The country behind that higher range of mountains is a poor, flat, and dry Carrow-field, which borders on the Eastern Olyfant's rivier.

The mountains in general stretched E.N.E.

On the 24th, we arrived at TUNIS BOTA's farm. Here the ridge of mountains, over which we passed to the left, divided and formed a vale,

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where nothing but ridges of mountains lay before us, and which was not more than about two musquet shot in breadth. The vale which we left to the right, goes to Houtniquas mountains, over which one may get on horseback to Houtniquas woods.

Proceeding on our journey we passed on to HANS OLOFSON's farm: here was a carriage road that led to Camenassie-land, and Olyfant's warm bath.

On the 25th we rode farther on in Lange kloof to MAT ZONDAG's.

The land in Lange kloof is bare, and without any shrubs or bushes, but abounds much in grass.

The cold in winter is very severe in this vale, and snow sometimes falls here which lies on the ground three or four days.

As the year before I had pretty narrowly examined this spot, and had gathered the few plants that grew upon it, I was now determined to climb up to the highest summits of the mountains, in order to observe the di ection in which they ran; but I could not possibly have had a better reward for my pains, than the glorious prospect that now lay before me, in which a tract of mountains of a great many leagues (as it appeared to me) in breadth divided into several ridges, with their intervening vales, was ex-

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tended, like a map, before my eyes, and shewed me plainly that the greatest part of the road I had travelled lay over various ridges of mountains, and along various dales, on a considerable breadth of hilly country, where many thousands of men, and millions of other animals find both food and shelter; while, on the other hand, the more plain and level land, in this southernmost part of Africa, for want of water, can seldom exhibit a single quadruped, or afford water to one solitary bird.

I also observed, that the ranges of mountains to the eastward, diverged more and more from each other, so that those that lay to the left, the farther they went into the country, the more easterly was their direction.

Want of house furniture, and a turn for œconomy, had induced the husbandmen here to make lanterns out of calabashes, which was done by cutting several holes in them.

On the 26th we set out for PETER FRERE's, a bold and daring sportsman, and one of the best elephant-hunters in the country; a man who spoke the Hottentot language fluently.

Opposite to this spot ended the Camenasie country, and a waggon road went from thence across the mountains.

In all this tract of country, no other business was carried on than that of grazing; and a great

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quantity of butter was sent from hence to town, where the farmer received no more than from three to six stivers per lb. although it stands the company in as much as two shillings.

The husbandman, on his journey to and from the Cape, rests in the day, and travels in the cool of the night; but we were obliged to do just the reverse of this, if we wished to collect any plants and other things which constituted the whole object of our expedition. We took care therefore to turn our oxen out to grass at night, at every place where it could be done with safety. Thus, one evening here, we had turned our oxen out to graze in the plain, but not far from the farm. The evening was darker than usual: the dogs made a terrible noise, and the whole herd of oxen thronged towards the house, without our being able, as the night was so dark, to go to their assistance with fire arms. In the morning, we found that the cattle had been pursued by a tyger-wolf (Hyæna maculata) and that one of our oxen had been bit in the groin, and a portion of the skin, six inches broad, had been torn away; but that the intestines did not hang out, nor were they otherwise hurt. The hyæna is a bold and ravenous animal, which frequently eats the saddle from under the traveller's head, and the thoes from off his feet, while he lies sleeping in the

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open air. When one of these creatures gets into a sheepfold, it not only commits great havock amongst the sheep, but terrifies them to such a degree, that they run all together in a heap, and squeeze each other to death.

On the 27th, having passed STEPHANUS FRERE's, we came to MATTHEW STREIDUNG's; and, on the 28th, to PETER NYCKERT's, and, afterwards, to ANDREW DE PRE's.

Eland-boks (Capra orcas) were sometimes to be met with and shot in the mountains. This goat is as large as a middle-sized horse, and its flesh has an agreeable taste. The tongue, however, which, when salted and dried, is frequently carried up to the Cape for sale, is reckoned still more delicious, and is not inferior to a rein deer's tongue. This goat was said not to butt with his horns, when wounded, as the Bonteboks and Gemse-boks (Capra oryx) do.

I saw the kid caught of a very small and extremely scarce goat, called Oreti (Capra monticola). It was of a brown colour, scarcely larger than a cat, and very handsome. This animal was said to inhabit the plains in Lange kloof; and, it was asserted, that neither sex have horns, though, it is highly probable, that the male has.

Kouka lay directly opposite on the left hand, and was a narrow piece of land between the mountains, which was already invaded by the

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colonists, although it was so small as to have only two farms on it.

I was every where told that this extensive country came more and more under the dominions of the Dutch colonists, to whom the Hottentots were constantly obliged to give way, and retire farther into the country. The Dutch always took possession at first of the best and most fertile parts of the land, in the wider valleys, leaving to the Hottentots, for a little while longer, the inferior tracts, between mountains, in the narrower vales, till, at length, the poor savages were driven even out of these, and obliged entirely to quit their native plains.

On the 29th we arrived, towards evening, at THOMAS FRERE's, after a very troublesome day's journey. The roads were very slippery and heavy, in consequence of the great rains that had fallen; and the rivulets that ran in the middle of the valley, and which we were several times obliged to cross, were of an unusual depth, so that the proper place for fording them could not always be found. This occasioned my driver, unfortunately for me, to miss the right path, and he drove so deep into the river, that the water rose up to the middle of the cart, and wetted my plants, both dried and fresh, my insects, clothes, &c. quite through; so that, when we arrived at the farm at night, I was

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obliged to look over, with incredible pains, and dry before the fire, a great multiplicity of articles, many of which, however, were quite spoiled. I also now travelled in the cart myself, as my horse had lost much flesh, and was so much wearied by the journey that I had been obliged to leave him behind at the last farm. The water not only came up to my middle in the cart, but the bottom of the river likewise was full of mud, which was stirred up by the wheels, and which was so thick and heavy that it was with the greatest difficulty that the oxen could drag the cart through.

On the day following, being the 30th, we proceeded to Essebosch, a pretty little neat wood which has acquired its name from the large trees Eessenboom, (or Ash trees, Ekebergia capensis) that grew here; the leaf of which greatly resembles that of the European ash (Fraxinus). Large fig-trees too (Ficus capensis) the fruit of which is eaten by the baboons, grew here in abundance. As there was no farm as yet laid out hereabouts, we took up our night's lodging in the open air, at the side of a few bushes, and our saddles served us for pillows.

On the 1st of December, we went down Krommie-rivier country, which takes its name from Kromme rivier (the crooked river) that runs meandring through it. This valley is nothing

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but a continuation of Lange kloof; but sinks lower by degrees, and is likewise narrower, being sometimes no more than a gun-shot in breadth. It has scarcely any level ground; but slopes off entirely from the mountains on each side to the middle, where the smaller streams that run down from these mountains are collected, and form a large river.

Lange kloof and Kromme rivier, in which there are at present but few of the ancient inhabitants remaining, were formerly, in all probability, inhabited by the Heykom Hottentots, in great numbers.

At the end of this valley, to the right, the heads of the mountains began to approach closer to each other, and to be lower, till, at length, they quite disappeared, without reaching to the seashore. The mountains too were bent out of their course in such a manner on each side, that they now chiefly stretched towards the south-east.

We rode past VERMAK's estate, where Lange kloofs and Kromme-rivier mountains came to an absolute termination on the left; and the country now appeared very broad between the seashore and that chain of mountains which extended still farther to the left, past Olyfant's warm bath: in this manner, that both the mountains to the right, and those to the left, which had hitherto extended from Bokke-veld, now came to a termination; and, to the left,

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were only seen the Olyfant mountains, stretching about E. N. E. within which there were a few ranges of mountains that ran mostly E. or N. E. but were of no great extent.

So that the Olyfant mountains were seen to continue their course; but of these several ridges were plainly discerned, which at last terminated gradually in single points. The nearest visible range to the left is called Zeeko riviers-berg, and comes to a termination near ISAAC MEYER's farm, where we afterwards arrived. Behind it was seen another ridge, called Meulen-riviers Mountain, which terminated near Koks's farm, where we staid and rested ourselves several days, as this farm was almost the farthermost of the colony on this side. Behind the last-mentioned ridge, another was seen to peep out farther on, which was called Kabeljaw-riviers-berg, and was terminated by the river of the same name.

Zeeko (or sea cow) river, which at a small distance from the farm runs into the sea, is, in the part near the sea, tolerably well supplied with fish. The fishes found in this and other rivers all come up from the sea; higher up fish are seldom to be met with in the rivers of this part of Africa; so that there is no fishing carried on at the mouths of the rivers, and then it is done with nets, and by those only whose farms lie near the shore. One day when my landlord's

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sons went down to the sea shore a fishing with a few Hottentots, I accompanied them thither for the purpose of botanizing. The river was very broad here, it is true, but so choaked up with sand banks that had been cast up from the sea, that when one went into it, the water did not come up higher than one's middle. I walked about for several hours quite naked, as well for the sake of bathing, as of collecting insects and shrubs that grew there on the banks, with nothing but a handkerchief about my waist, not suspecting that the sun beams would have any bad effect upon me. But, in a short time, I found that all that part of my body which was above the water, was red and inflamed. This disorder increased to such a degree that I was obliged to keep my bed for several days, and could not even bear a fine calico shirt on my body (especially over my shoulders, which were the parts most exposed to the sun's rays), till I had anointed myself with cream, in order to lubricate my parched skin.

The fields here abounded in grass, and consequently were proper for the rearing of horned cattle, which, with butter, were the only articles they could dispose of at the Cape.

They churned here almost every day, and the butter-milk, which was very seldom consumed by the cattle, formed rivulets, as it were, in the places where it had been thrown out.

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The Hottentots in this farmer's service were numerous; among these, the girls that were emloyed in churning were obliged to wash themselves, and keep themselves clean, at least their hands and arms.

A curious and handsome species of Bulfinch, (Lang staart Loxia macroura, the long-tailed gross-beak of LATHAM) was found all over these fields, especially in such places as were boggy, or overgrown with rushes. It resembles the goldfinch in its red velvet summer dress, in which the cock at this time of the year was splendidly attired; but differed much from that bird by its long tail, which was much longer than its body. In winter the cock is grey, as the hen, who has not a long tail, is all the year round. It was curious to see this bird fly, with its long dependent tail that seemed to weigh it down, insomuch that it could never fly straight forward, but always zigzag up and down. In windy weather its flight was much impeded by the length of its tail, so that it could not direct its course at will, but was frequently thrown out of its direction. Its slow flight (the heaviest I ever saw in the bird kind) made it easy to shoot, and when it rained, as well as in windy weather, one might almost catch it with one's hands.

The Hottentots that live hereabouts, and even those that are in the service of the Europeans, intermarry without any ceremony or regularity. A Woman too here has sometimes a husband and a

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substitute. If a married Hottentot at any time goes on a journey, his wife may in his absence marry another, a circumstance that happened to my driver, who, on his return home, with all that he had earned in his expedition, found himself a widower.

Last year I had seen at different places, that the Hottentots who have no horses, made use of draught-oxen for riding and carrying burthens; and I now had an opportunity to learn how these oxen were broke in. An ox that is designed for riding must be accustomed to bear its rider a few weeks after it is calved, for which purpose first a skin is tied over its back, with which it is turned into the field along with the cow. Afterwards little Hottentot boys are set upon its back, and when the animal is thus broke in a little, another calf quite a novice, is tied fast to its side, in order to tame it the better. This calf-riding, which was always done galloping, was entertaining enough, and the sport generally ended in the calf throwing its rider.

A small grey species of grasshopper (Mantis fausta) was found both here and at other places, which has obtained the name of the Hottentots God, and is supposed to be worshipped by them. I could not perceive any reason for this supposition, but it certainly was held in some degree of esteem; so that they did not willingly hurt it, and deemed


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that person or creature fortunate on which it settled, though without paying it any sort of adoration.

As water-turtle are found here, I caught one for the sake of the blood, with a view of trying its virtues against the poison of serpents, as likewise to keep by me for occasional use. A very small quantity of blood was procured from a turtle that was not larger than the palm of one's hand. After the head was cut off, and the blood had run out the serum was separated, and the red part that swam at top, was dried upon paper, when it scaled off and turned black.

As the species of palm called the bread-tree (Zamia caffra) was found in these parts, we looked for the fruit, which is very scarce, and gathered the seeds. Certain trees produce only male flowers, in a large cone without seeds, and other trees again yield a similar cone, as large as a man's head, with genuine seeds. To the under part of the scales of the male cone are fixed an infinite number of antheræ, which burst, and contain a white toughish pollen. On the female cone, seeds, as large as jordan almonds with the shells on, are contained between the scales, surrounded with a reddish pulp, which is good to eat. The fruit sprang out of the very top of the palm, frequently before there was time for the stem to be formed above the surface of the earth. The seed was supposed to come up best after being planted

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out, if it was covered with straw, which was to be set on fire, and burnt down close to the ground; or if the seed was previously steeped in warm water.

In the whole of the extensive tract of country which we had traversed, from Roode Zand to Camtous rivier, populous as it now is, not a church is to be found. The farmers indeed had requested to have one, and, although all the rest of the clergy, as well in the town as in the country, are paid by the Company, had offered to pay the clergyman themselves, provided the church were erected in the middle of the colony, in a place most convenient for them all; proposals likewise had been given in for this purpose, and even permission asked for them to build one at their own expence near Kafferkuyls rivier, by which place most of them must pass in their journey to the Cape: but this well-meant and pious undertaking had been now for several years without success, owing to the opposition of the landrost and a few of his neighbours, who wished to have the new church built near his residence of Zwellendam, although it lies at one end of an extensive colony.

Our landlord was an elderly man, and born in Europe: he was one of the keenest sportsmen in the country, and had made long journies at various times into the interior part of the coast of

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Caffraria, in order to shoot elephants, by the sale of whose teeth he had acquired a tolerable fortune, and had finally fixed his abode here in a pleasant and advantageous spot. He related to me upon his honour several circumstances to which he had been an eye witness, and which a traveller is so very seldom fortunate enough to have an opportunity of feeing himself. Once, for instance, when he was out a hunting, having observed a sea-cow (Hippopotamus amphibius) that had gone a little way up from a neighbouring river, in order to calve; he, with his suite, lay still and concealed in the bushes, till the calf made its appearance, when one of them fired, and shot the mother dead on the spot; the Hottentots, who imagined that after this they could catch the calf alive, immediately ran out of their hiding-place to lay hold of it, but, though there were several of them, the new-born calf, which was still wet and slippery, got away from them, and made the best of its way to the river, without having previously received any instructions from its mother, either relative to the way it should take, or to this most natural means of saving itself. He also told me that the female elephant always kneels in the act of copulation, and that therefore the male can never line her, excepting when she is hot. Concerning lions, the mode of hunting them, their nature and manners, he knew

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much from his experience; and I took the more pains to procure information relative to these matters, as I now had designed to wander for a long time through a country where the sky would be my only canopy, and an open plain, inhabited by wild beasts, my lodging; and as at the same time I was very sensible that it was of no little service to a traveller to be acquainted with the nature and disposition of the wild beasts, which he is carefully to avoid.

A lion may lie in a bush without moving when a man is passing by, so that the man seems only to take no notice of it. It may likewise perhaps start up, without doing any harm, if the man do but stand still, and not take to his legs. A hungry lion, however, is much more dangerous, and less merciful; yet it is not fond of attacking a man, at least it is very nice in the choice of its prey, so that it prefers a dog to an ox, and had much rather eat a Hottentot than a christian, perhaps because the Hottentot, being besmeared, always stinks, and because, as he never uses salt or spices, the juices of his body are not so acrid. It likewise rather attacks a Hottentot or slave than buffalo-beef that is hanging up; thus it happened to our landlord one night, that the lion passed through the bushes where beef of this kind was hung up in order to seize a sleeping Hottentot. In a wood, to climb up into a tree is a sure way of avoiding

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the lion, but not the tyger, which frequently, when warmly pursued by the hounds, runs up into a tree, and finds a safe asylum there. On meeting a lion, one ought never to run away, but stand still, pluck up courage, and look it stern in the face. If a lion lies still without wagging its tail, there is no danger, but if it makes any motion with its tail, then it is hungry, and you are in great danger. If you are so situated that there is a pit between the lion and yourself, you may then fire on it, as it will not venture across the pit, neither will it pursue any one up an height.

In proportion as the farmers have cleared the land, and laid out farms in the interior parts of the country, the lion and other fierce animals have necessarily been put to flight and destroyed. This our host knew not long since by woeful experience, but now lived in some degree of security with respect to his flocks and herds. The lion is possessed of such immense strength, that he will not only attack an ox of the largest size, but will very nimbly throw it over his, shoulders, and leap over a fence four feet high with it, although at the same time the ox's legs hang dangling on the ground. No animal however is easier to extirpate than the lion, notwithstanding its great strength, agility, and sagacity. After having a discovered by the track, how many lions there are in the troop, the same number of

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musquets are placed on the spot whither it is supposed that the lion will come; after this a piece of carrion is tied to a strong cord, which is fastened to the trigger of one of these guns; the infant that the lion touches the carrion, the gun goes off, which is so placed as to shoot the beast through the head. The other lions that are present are so far from being scared away by the report, that it may happen that one of them shall go towards the smoke, and fix its claws into the discharged gun, and all the rest, one after the other, fall before the other guns, insomuch that sometimes the whole troop is destroyed in one night. But should a lion chance to be only wounded, and not killed on one of these occasions, he will never more approach a spring-gun, and the lion thus wounded will attack a man without being impelled to it by hunger.

The hoof-distemper began now, as the heat of the summer increased, to appear amongst the horned cattle, and some of my English fellow-traveller's team were affected with it, insomuch that he was obliged to exchange them for others that appeared to be healthier.

My oxen had no other complaint than hunger, and they were so emaciated and worn out that it would seem as if no distemper could lay hold on their lean ribs and small shanks. In the mean time, after our cattle were rested, we set out to

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continue our route as far as the mountains called the Snow-mountains. And as the country through which we were to pass afterwards was either inhabited by Hottentots only, or quite uninhabited, we resolved to take with us fome Hottentots as interpreters, guides, and guards, and at the same time to lay in a small stock of provision.

Our worthy hostess, therefore, put up for us a parcel of wheat-biscuits, a few loaves of wheaten bread, and a small tub of butter, and likewise killed a large sheep, which was salted, and sewed up in its own skin.

The Hottentot language is not every where the fame, but has very different dialects; all of them, however, are commonly pronounced with a kind of smack, or clacking of the organs of speech. This clacking I observed to be made in three different ways, which renders it almost impossible for the Europeans to speak it properly, although their children, who have been brought up among those of the Hottentots, learn to speak it fluently. The first of these modes of clacking is the dental, in which the tip of the tongue is struck against the teeth. The second is the palatial, when the noise is made by the tongue striking against the palate. The third, or guttural, is the most difficult of all, and performed quite low down in the throat,

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with the very root ot the tongue. These clackings are the more difficult to perform, as they must be made at the very instant of uttering the word, and not before nor after. They occur not only in the beginning, but likewise in the middle of a word; and sometimes two clackings occur in a word of two or three syllables. When several Hottentots sit conversing together the sound is very like the clacking of so many geese. That the pronunciation of the language is troublesome to them, was very evident to me, from the gesticularions they made, and from the circumstance that they wearied their lips. They could talk, however, with a tobacco pipe in their mouths, but in very short sentences only. The language of the Caffres I observed was much easier, and was spoken with much less clacking, which was heard in some few words only.

So that the inhabitants of this southernmost promontory of Africa have a regular language; but, in other respects, are so rude and uncultivated as to have no letters, nor any method of writing or delineating them, either on paper, in wood, or on stone. It is in vain, therefore, to seek for any kind of learning, or any antique records, among them; and few nations in the world, perhaps, are less enlightened than they. Thus too the Hottentots

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could not name in their language several things in use among the colonists, such as bason, the bow of a yoke for draught oxen, a kettle, tobacco, &c.

As I was sometimes, for several weeks together, among the Hottentots, out of the bounds of the colony, I was obliged to learn something of their language; and, the better to recollect what I had learned, I formed a small vocabulary, and, with three different marks, distinguished the three usual clackings; of which the dental is marked with the letter a, the palatial with A, and the guttural with á.

KOLBE has a long list of words in the Hottentot language; and Professor SPARRMAN has even given us several dialects of it: and, as some part of what I have taken down, differs from theirs, I have here annexed it, for the use of those that are curious on the subject of languages.

1 Ko ISE
2 Ka MSE
4 GNa To I

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Bitch TUS
Flea a TTI
Milk BI, BIP
Bread BRè
Give bread BRè MARè
Butter BINGoI
Good day DABè, DABETè
Fire eI, eIP, NeIP
Make fire eI KOA KòI
Which is the way to the next village? DANNA HAA SE aKROI aDU
Where is? DEMMA
Cow GóS, GóOSA
Cow's milk GóSBIP
Good evening GoI MOTSKI
Dwelling place GeIHEP
Bad weather HoMA
Come hither HÆVA HA, KóNG
Come hither, my friend HAGATSCHI
Bring hither HANKA
Where is the horse? HAKVA DEMMA HA?
Bring the horse hither HAKVA SEO
Table HEID
Water KaMMA
Lyon KáMA
Mouth KAM
Nice, delicious K a NJI
Good morning KoA MOSTSCHI
Tobacco pipe KOP

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Man KuPP
Drink KA
Foot-path KUDU
House, farm KOMMA
It is good KaL HEM
Buffalo Kaw
Sea cow KOU
Hole KóU, TWAP
To beat KOA
Gun KAEú
Penis HOP
Glans penis KOUTERE
Brother Karup, TICAKWA
Fine weather TaM
Pot, drum SU
Caffre corn SEMI
To eat SINNO
Knife NóRAP
To sleep OM
To sow with a needle, to darn OM
House OMMA
Eye Mu
Give MARé
Money MARI
Eyes MUM
Hat, cap KABA, TABA

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Red glass beads KRAKWA (by the Caffres KITI KITI)
Elk antilope KeN
Female elk KeNs
Elks, a troop of KaNNA
Meat, flesh Kop
People KEUNA
Tooth KoM
Nose KoYP
Iron, copper KoRUP
Breast of a woman SAMMA
Where is the waggon? HAVA KROJIM?
Here is the waggon HÆVA KROJIM
Fox GlEP
Run away SU SE KóN
Ichneumon eP
Sheep GoNA
Chest GElP
Hart beast KAMMAP
A rock OiP
Have you seen? MUSKO
Drove of oxen MANQUA
If you please KUMSEA, HUNKOP
Turn about, drive back KARRA
A Hottentot dress NAMKVA
Euphorbía viminalis KUIJOP

The children, which among the Hottentots are numerous, at first wear rings about their legs made of rushes, instead of those that are formed

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of hides, till they become accustomed to them In like manner I observed, that the Caffre boys at first exercised themselves in throwing a pointed stick, till in process of time they were able to manage the javelin.

The Hottentots are much inclined to believe in witchcraft, and when any one falls sick, or dies, they consider him as bewitched.

The Hottentots universally wore a bag just before the parts of shame, which was made of the grey part of the back of the Cape fox, and was fastened round the body with a thong. The Caffres wore a bag similar indeed to this, but made of another kind of skin, and at the same time so small that it sometimes did not cover more than the foreskin.

At the entertainments which the Hottentots made, and particularly those made to divert us, I had an opportunity of seeing their card-playing, and a kind of an instrument called Korà. It resembled at first sight a fiddlestick, and was made of a wooden stick, over which was extended a string. At the end of this was fastened the tip of a quill, and upon this they played with their lips; blowing as if it were a wind instrument, so as to make it produce a jarring sound. What they called card-playing, was a particular sport, in playing at which they talked, snapped their fingers, and laughed.

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Having laid in a stock of provisions for our journey, and put our fire-arms in good order, on the 9th of December, we took the road to Cabeljaus rivier, where the last farm now laid out was looked after by a servant, and belonged to VAN RHENEN, a rich burgher at the Cape.

On the 10th we crossed Camtous rivier, which at this time formed the boundaries of the colony, and which was not suffered to extend farther. This was strictly prohibited in order that the colonists might not be induced to wage war with the courageous and intrepid Caffres, or the Company suffer any damage by that means. The country hereabouts was fine, and abounded in grass.

Proceeding farther we come to Looris rivier, where the country began to be hilly and mountainous, like that of Houtniquas, with fine woods both in the clefts of the mountains, and near the rivulets; here and there we saw large pits that had been dug, for the purpose of capturing elephants and buffaloes. In the middle of the pit stood a pole, which was very sharp at the top, and on which the animal is impaled alive, if it should chance to fall into the pit.

The Hottentot captain that resided in this neighbourhood, immediately on our arrival, paid us a visit in the evening, and encamped with part of his people not far from us. He was distin-

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guished from the rest by a cloak, made of a tyger's skin, and a staff that he carried in his hand.

On the 11th we passed Galgebosch in our way to VAN STADE's rivier, where we lighted our fires, and took up our night's lodging. The Gonaquas Hottentots that lived here, and were intermixed with Caffres, visited us in large bodies, and met with a hearty reception, and, what pleased them most, some good Dutch tobacco. Several of them wore the skins of tygers, which, they had themselves killed, and by this gallant action were entitled to wear them as trophies. Many carried in their hands a fox's tail, tied to a stick, with which they wiped off the sweat from their brows. As these people had a tolerable stock of cattle, we got milk from them in plenty, milked into baskets which were perfectly watertight, but for the most part so dirty that we were obliged to strain the milk through a linen cloth.

On the 12th, in the morning, we passed VAN STADE's rivier, and arrived at two large villages consisting of a great many round huts, disposed in a circular form. The people crowded forward in shoals to our waggon, and our tobacco seemed to have the same effect on them as the magnet has on iron. The number of grown persons, appeared to me to amount to at least two or three hundred. When the greatest part of them had received a little tobacco they

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retired well pleased, to a distance in the plain, or else returned home. The major part of them were dressed in calf-skins, and not in sheep-skins, like the Hottentot.

We had brought with us several things from town, with which we endeavoured either to gain their friendship, or reward their services, such as small knives, tinder-boxes, and small looking-glasses. To the chief of them we presented some looking-glasses, and were highly diverted at seeing the many pranks these simple people played with them: one or more looking at themselves in the glass at the same time, and then staring at each other, and laughing ready to burst their sides; but the most ridiculous part of the farce was, that they even looked at the back of the glass, to see whether the same figure presented itself as they saw in the glass.

These people, who were well made, and of a sprightly and undaunted appearance, adorned themselves with brushes made of the tails of animals, which they wore in their hair, on their legs, and round their waist. Some had thongs cut out of hides, and others strings of glass-beads, bound several times round their bodies. But upon no part of their dress did they set a greater value than upon small and bright metal plates of copper or brass, either round, oblong, or square. These they scowered with great care, and hung


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them with a string, either in their hair, on their foreheads, on their breasts, at the back of their neck, or before their posteriors; and sometimes, if they had many of them, all round their heads. My English fellow traveller bad brought with him one of those medallions struck in copper, and gilt, that had been sent by the two English ships, which were at this time sailing towards the south pole, to be distributed amongst the different nations in that quarter of the globe. This medal was given to one of the Caffres who was very familiar with us, and who was so well pleased with it, that he accompanied us on the whole of our journey and back again, with his medal hanging down glittering just before the middle of his forehead.

Some of these people had hanging before their breasts a conic purse made of the undressed skin of an animal, which was fastened about the neck by four leathern thongs, and served them for a tobacco pouch. Some of them wore about their necks a necklace made of small shells, called serpents skulls (Cyprœa moneta) strung upon a string, and to this hung a tortoise-shell, for keeping the bukku ointment in. Most of them were armed with as many javelins as they could well hold in one hand.

The huts were covered over with mats made

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of rushes, which, with their milk-baskets, were so close that no water can penetrate them.

The range of mountains which, during our whole journey, we had hitherto had to the left, now came to a termination; and, to the right of us, was seen the sea. A larger range of mountains, however, proceeded farther into the country to the left.

The country hereabouts was full of wild beasts of every kind, and therefore very dangerous to travel through. We were more particularly anxious concerning our cattle, which might easily be scared away by the lions, and lost to us for ever.

We were likewise too few in number, and not sufficiently armed, to protect ourselves against the inhabitants, whose language our Hottentots now no longer perfectly understood. We therefore came to a resolution to intice from this village another troop of Hottentots to go along With us, which we accordingly did, by promising them a reward of tobacco and other trifles that they were fond of, as also to kill for them a quantity of buffaloes sufficient for their support. This promise procured us a great many more than we wanted, and our troop consisted now of above an hundred men.

The 13th. The country in which we now were, was called Krakakamma, and abounded with

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grass and wood, as well as wild beasts of every kind, which were here still secure in some measure from the attacks of the colonists; these were chiefly buffaloes, elephants, two-horned rhinoceroses, striped horses and asses, (Zebra, Quagga) and several kinds of goats, particularly large herds of hartebeests, (Capra dorcas).

We travelled first to Krakakamma valley, and afterwards from hence farther downwards to the sea shore, where there was a great quantity of underwood, as well as wood of a larger growth, filled with numerous herds of buffaloes, that grazed in the adjacent plains.

In the afternoon, when the heat of the day abated, we went out with a few of our Hottentots a hunting, in hopes of killing something where-with to satisfy the craving stomachs of our numerous retinue. After we had got a little way into the wood, we spied an extremely large herd of wild buffaloes, (Bos caffer), which being in the act of grazing, held down their heads, and did not observe us till we came within three hundred paces of them. At this instant the whole herd, which appeared to consist of about five or six hundred large beasts, lifted up their heads, and viewed us with attention. So large an assemblage of animals, each of which taken singly is an extremely terrible object, would have made any one shudder at the sight, even one who had

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not, like me, the year before, had occasion to see their astonishing strength, and experience the rough manner in which they treat their opponents. Nevertheless, as we were now apprized of the nature of the animals, and their not readily attacking any one in the open plains, we did not dread either their strength or number, but, not to frighten them, stood still a little while, till they again stooped down to feed; when, with quick steps, we approached within forty paces of them. We were three Europeans, and as many Hottentots trained to shooting, who carried musquets, and the rest of the Hottentots were armed with their javelins. The whole herd now began to look up again, and faced us with a brisk and undaunted air; we then judged it was time to fire, and all at once let fly among them. No sooner had we fired, than the whole troop, intrepid as it otherwise was, surprised by the flash and report, turned about and made for the woods, and left us a spectacle not to be equalled in its kind. The wounded buffaloes separated from the rest of the herd, and either could not keep up with it, or else took another road.

Amongst these was an old bull buffalo, which came close to the side where we stood, and obliged us to take to our heels, and fly before him. It is true, it is impossible for a man, how fast soever he may run, to outrun these animals;

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nevertheless we were so far instructed for our preservation, as to know that a man may escape tolerably well from them, as long as he is in an open and level plain; as the buffalo, which has very small eyes in proportion to the size of its head, does not see much sideways, but only straight forward. When therefore it is come pretty near, a man has nothing more to do than to throw himself down on one side. The buffalo, which always gallops straight forward, does not observe the man that lies on the ground, neither does it miss its enemy, till he has had time enough to run out of the way. Our wounded bull came pretty near us, but passed on one side, making the best of his way to a copse, which however he did not quite reach before he fell. In the mean time, the rest of our Hottentots had followed a cow that was mortally wounded, and with their javelins killed a calf. We, for our parts, immediately went up to the fallen bull, and found that the ball had entered his chest, and penetrated through the greatest part of his body, notwithstanding which he had run at full speed several hundred paces before he fell. He was far from being young, of a dark grey colour, and almost without any hairs, which, on the younger fort, are black. The body of this animal was extremely thick, but his legs, on the other hand, short. When he lay on the ground,

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his body was so thick, that I could not get on him without taking a running jump. When our drivers had flayed him, at least in part, we chose out the most fleshy pieces, and pickled some, and at the same time made an excellent repast on the spot. Although I had taken it into my head that the flesh of an old bull like this would have been both coarse and tough, yet, to my great astonishment, I found that it was tender, and tasted like all other game. The remainder of the bull, together with the cow and the calf, were given to the Hottentots for their share, who were not at all behind hand, but immediately made a large fire on the spot, and boiled the pieces they had cut off without delay. What they preferred, and first of all laid on the fire, were the marrowbones, of which, when broiled, they eat the marrow with great eagerness. The guts, meat, and offals, they hung up on the branches of trees; so that, in a short time, the place looked like a, slaughter-house; about which the Hottentots encamped in order to broil their victuals, eat, and sleep.

On the approach of night, my fellow travellers and I thought it best to repair to our waggons, and give orders for making our cattle fast, before it grew quite dark. In our way we passed within a few hundred paces of five lions, which, on seeing us, walked off into the woods.

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Having tied our beasts to the wheels of out waggons, fired our pieces off two or three times in the air, and kindled several fires round about our encampment, all very necessary precautions for our security, as well with respect to the elephants as more particularly to the lions, we lay down to rest, each of us with a loaded musquet by his side, committing ourselves to the care of God's gracious providence. The like precautions we always observed in future, when obliged to encamp in such places where man indeed seemed to rule by day, but wild beasts bore the sway at night. These free denizens of the earth, for the most part, lie quiet and still, in the shade of woods and copses during the day, their time for feeding being in the cool of the evening and at night, at which time lions and other beasts of prey come out to seek their food, and devour the more innocent and defenceless animals. A lion cannot by dint of strength, indeed, seize a buffalo, but always has recourse to art, and lies in wait under some bush, and principally near rivulets, where the buffalo comes to drink. He then springs upon his back with the greatest agility, with his tremendous teeth biting the buffalo in the nape of his neck, and wounding him in the sides with his claws, till, quite wearied out, he sinks to the ground and dies.

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On the 15th in the morning, I went out to see whether the trees of the woods, of which this part of the country consisted, had yet any blossoms upon them; but found that the summer was not far enough advanced, and that the trees were so close to each other, and so full of prickles, that without cutting my way through them, I could not advance far into the wood, which, besides, was extremely dangerous, on account of the wild beasts. Here, and in other places, where it was woody, we observed near the watering places, the fresh tracts of buffaloes, as also the tracks and dung of elephants, two-horned rhinoceroses, and other animals.

In the plains there were striped horses and asses (Equus Zebra and Quagga), hartebeests (Capra dorcas), koedoes (Capra strepsiceros,) &c.

We therefore got ready and set out for Zwartkop's rivier, and the Salt-pan, not far distant from it, where we baited during the heat of the day. Near this Salt-pan, as it is called, we had the finest view in the world, which delighted us the more as it was very uncommon. This Salt-pan was now, to use the expression, in its best attire, and made a most beautiful appearance. It formed a valley of about three-quarters of a mile in diameter, and sloping off by degrees, so that the water in the middle was scarcely four feet deep. A few yards from the

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water's edge this valley was encircled by a mound several fathoms high, which was overgrown with brush wood. It was rather of an oval form, and took me up a good half-hour to walk round it. The soil nearest the valley was sandy; but, higher up, it appeared to consist, in many places, of a pale slate. The whole Salt-pan, the water of which was not deep, at the same time that the bottom was covered with a smooth and level bed of salt, at this juncture, being the middle of summer and in a hot climate, exactly resembled a frozen lake covered with ice, as clear and transparent as crystal. The water had a pure saline taste without any thing bitter in it. In the heat of the day, as fast as the water evaporared, a fine salt crystallizing on the surface first appeared there in the form of glittering scales, and afterwards settled at the bottom. It was frequently driven on one side by the wind; and, if collected at that time, proved to be a very fine and pure salt. The Salt-pan had begun to grow dry towards the north-east end, but to the south-westward, to which it inclined, it was fuller; to the westward it ran out into a long neck.

It appeared to us somewhat strange, to find, so far from the sea, and at a considerable height above it, such a large and saturated pool of saltwater. But the water which deposits this salt,

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does not come at all from the sea, but solely from the rains which fall in spring, and totally evaporate in summer. The whole of the soil of this country is entirely salt. The rain-water which dissolves this, runs down from the adjacent heights, and is collected in this bason, where it remains and gradually evaporates; and the longer it is evaporating the salter it is.

The colonists who live in Lange kloof, and in the whole country extending from thence towards this side, as also in Kamdebo, Kankou and other places, are obliged to fetch their salt from this spot.

It was said, that not far from this there were two more salt-pans, which however yielded no salt till they were quite dry.

Several insects were found drowned in the salt water, some of which were such as I could not meet with on the bushes alive, during the few hours that I staid here and walked about the copses, which my curiosity induced me to do, although it was a very dangerous spot, on account of the lions.

Our Hottentots, of whom we had now but a few in our suite, and whom we had left to take care of our oxen that were turned out to grass, we found fast asleep, overcome by the heat of the day. Towards evening, we drove a little farther on, and arrived at Kuka, where the brook

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was already a mere stagnant puddle, and had only a brackish water in it; nevertheless we took up our night's lodging here.

We were surprised to find here a poor farmer, who had encamped in this place, with his wife and children, by stealth, in order to feed and augment his small herd. And indeed these poor people were no less astonished, not to say terrified, at our arrival, in the idea, that we either had, or might, inform the government against them, fot residing out of the appointed boundaries. The farmer had only a small hut made of branches of trees for his family, and another adjacent to it, by way of kitchen. We visited them in their little mansion, and, at our request, were entertained by them with milk. But we had not been long seated before the whole bason of milk was covered with a swarm of flies, so as to be quite black with them; and the hut was so infested with flies, that we could not open our mouths to speak. Within so small a space I never beheld, before nor since, such an amazing number of these insects.

We therefore hastened to our carts; and having kindled our fires, and pitched our camp at a little distance from the hut, listened the whole night to the howling of wolves, and the dreadful, roaring of lions.

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On the morning following, being the 16th of December, we proceeded to great Sunday-river, the banks of which were very steep, and the adjacent fields arid and meagre.

The major part of our ample retinue of Hottentots had now left us, after having got, in the course of the journey, venison enough to feast on, and, as we were approaching nearer and nearer to a country which would soon be changed to a perfect desart, where no game nor venison was to be hoped for; and where it was expected that want of water would be in the highest degree experienced. And, indeed, we now not only found ourselves almost alone, but the oxen belonging to my English fellow-traveller were so afflicted with the hoof distemper, that several of them were lame, and some of them were hardly fit to be put any longer to the waggon.

In consequence of this we held a council with the drivers; and, after mature deliberation, resolved (though sore against our wills) to turn back, not finding it practicable to proceed, with emaciated and sick cattle like ours, through a barren and desart country, to the Dutch settlements near the Snow mountains and in Camdebo.

We did not, however, neglect previously to enquire of the Gonoquas Hottentots concerning the nature of the country, the watering places for cattle, the wild beasts there, &c. and

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and found that the plain was already very much dried up, and that long and forced marches (to use the expression) must have been made between the few brackish watering places that were to be met with in the way.

It is however not always very easy to get the truth out of the Hottentots. One must never attack them with questions to the point, when one wishes to know the truth of any thing; but it must be fished out of them by degrees, and as it were discoursing upon other subjects. The Hottentots are also extremely reserved, and wish before hand to know whether their visitors are good or bad people. Besides, as the Hottentots had now left us, we were deprived of the interpreters we should want, should we chance, in our road, to fall in with the Caffres or other nations. The Caffres, it is true, are not bad in themselves; but, as they are in great want of iron, they are sometimes so greedy after it, as to make no conscience of murdering a Christian for the sake of getting the iron from off the wheels of his waggon, which they forge and grind to make heads for their javelins. These Caffres, a few years before, had murdered HEUPNAER and some of his company, who, in order to barter for elephants' teeth, had travelled into the country of the Caffres and Tambukki.

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The Snow mountains (Sneeuwberg) whither we had intended to direct our course, is a tract of land which lies very high, and, as it Were, on a mountain, with other elevated traits lying near it. It has acquired its name from the cold which prevails there, and the snow that falls upon it. Sometimes the snow lies there from one year to the other; and then the colonists are obliged to remove from thence to the Lower-lands, as it is called. To the eastward of the Snow-mountains, and farther to the northward, above the country of the Caffres, lies that of the Tambukki; and, to this joins a people that are whiter than the Hottentots, with curling hair, and are called Little Chinese.

The Caffres, whose country properly begins near the Great Fish-river (Groote Visch-rivier), raise a kind of pease and beans, and a species of Holcus, and, at the same time, are in possession of large herds of cattle.

As soon as the afternoon began to feel cool, and we had, in some degree, investigated the plants which were to be found here, near Kukakamma, we set out on our journey homeward, not by the same way by which we had come, but by the upper road to VAN STADE's rivier, and from thence to Zeeko rivier, where we arrived safe on the 20th of December.

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In the environs of VAN STADE's river, were the finest woods I had seen in the whole country. Few of the trees, however, were as yet in bloom. The assagay tree (Curtisia saginea) of which the Hottentots and Caffres make the shafts of their javelins, grew here in abundance, and began now to develop its diminutive blossoms. A great number of butterflies (Papiliones) that are otherwise so very scarce in this part of Africa, flew round about the tops of the trees, without our being able to reach them.

On one side of our road, I observed a heap of boughs of trees, on which most of the Hottentots threw a few twigs as they passed, and, on enquiring the reason, was told that it was the grave of a dead Hottentot.

On our return, we passed a few days before Christmas with our old friend JACOB KOK, where we found sufficient employment in drying, and getting in order, the thick-leaved and succulent plants which we had gathered in our last expedition up the country, and where our oxen in some measure recruited their strength and flesh. The Calvinists do not keep Christmas, but every one goes about his business as usual: but New-year's day is thus far kept as a holiday, that on this day neighbours visit each other.

A small vineyard was planted here, as likewise at a few more farms near Kromme rivier; but the

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grapes did not ripen very well, on which account the wine was rather sour, and sometimes so sour that it could not be drank, but was only used for distilling brandy, from a process which, by some farmers, was carried on with profit.

In the Christmas holidays, we proceeded on our journey up towards Kromme rivier, and Lange-kloof, where, opposite to THOMAS FRERE's farm, is a waggon road across the mountains to Sitsikamma.

Instead of wheel-barrows, for which timber was wanting, the husbandmen used calf and sheep-skins made into bags, in which they carried their manure to their gardens.

On the 28th, we arrived at HANNES OLOFSON's farm, and from thence, turning to the right, rode over the mountains to ANDERS OLOFSON's near Riet-valley, in Camenassie land, a tract of country that lay before the mountains, was narrow, and exhibited several scattered mountains and eminences. It seemed to be as high as Lange kloof, and the soil was dry and poor.

The Hottentots called by the name of Nenta, a plant (Zygophyllum herbaceum repens), which was said to be poisonous to sheep, as also another, a shrub of the same genus, (Zygophyllum sessilifolium).

On the 29th, we rode from this spot to PETER JORDAN's estate, situated near Olyfant's warm-bath, and the river called (the Eastern) Elephant's-river.


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The broad tract over which we travelled, was Carrow field all over, exhibiting a few bushes, no grass, and very little water.

Kon, was a name given by the Hottentots to a shrub that grew here (Mesembryanthemum emarcidum) and was famous all over the country. The Hottentots come far and near to fetch this shrub with the root, leaves, and all, which they beat together, and afterwards twist them up like pig-tail tobacco; after which they let the mass ferment, and keep it by them for chewing, especially when they are thirsty. If it be chewed immediately after the fermentation, it intoxicates. The word kon, is said to signify a quid; the colonists call it Canna-root. It is found in the driest fields only, and is gathered chiefly by the Hottentots, who live near this spot. These afterwards hawk it about, frequently to a great distance, and exchange it for cattle and other commodities. No Hottentot or Caffre in the whole country has either money or any thing of a similar nature to trade with; but all their commerce consists in bartering either with cattle or other commodities.

On the 30th, we visited the warm-bath, which rises at the foot of the large ridge of mountains, and at a few fathoms distance from it. The stones at the foot of the mountain formed a very black iron ore, somewhat like the slag of iron, and the

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earth near it was brownish. The top of the mountain contains a great deal of white quartz. The water is very warm, but not boiling hot; so that one may sit in it at its source. It has indeed three sources; the largest bubbles up to the Eastward out of a great number of springs of different sizes, the cavity of it being above two yards across, and it is this that is most used. The second lies a few fathoms to the left, and boils up out of one single cavity. The third and least lies a few fathoms from the second. On the surface of the water, was seen a thin and fine blue pellicle, and on the twigs of trees and stones that were near it, was precipitated a saffron-coloured ochre. It had an inky taste, but hardly any smell; from an infusion of tea, the water became bluish, and the powder of bark made it blackish, which shewed that it contained iron. It was not fit for dressing victuals; but as it was said, might be used for washing, without staining the linen. The earth that lay near, and round about the veins of the spring, was of a very loose texture and a brownish colour, and at the same time contained a portion of salt, and minute shining particles of iron. The crystals of the salt were extremely minute and fine, and were found not only in the loose earth, but also on pieces of wood that lay in the earth. On several pieces of wood that lay in the water were found, besides the

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ochre above mentioned, thin and brittle scales, which glittered a little, and, by the farmers, were thought to be silver, but seemed to be nothing more than scales of iron. When one sits in the bath, the circulation of the blood is greatly increased, and one is in danger of swooning. The water, it is true, is chiefly used for bathing in; some people however drink it likewise. The water never receives any increase either from rain, or drought, though, as the farmers testified, it does from thunder. The time for using the water, is a little before or at sunrise, and late in the cool of the evening, as the water is too hot during the heat of the day. The invalids sit directly over the veins of the spring, and more or less deep in them.

In order to have a view of the country on the other side of the mountains, I climbed up to their highest summits, and saw, at no great distance, a ridge of mountains, which was lower than this that I stood on, and, between these, the country was as broad as Lange kloof, and consisted of hills and vallies. The tract of country that lay behind the lower ridge was flat and poor Carrow-land, and so long and broad, without any mountains, that the eye could not reach its boundaries. There were no farms nor houses on this extensive plain, over which the farmers travel from Camdebo across Hex-rivier, to the Cape. It was said however that farther on there

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were mountains, which probably extend from Roggeveld to the Sneeuw-berg.

Here therefore were the last ridges of that tremendous mass of mountains, which extend from Houtniquas land and Hartequas kloof, and again to the northward from Roode Zands and Kartous clefts, directly across the Carrow that lies on the other side of the Bokke-veld. And indeed it is not only along the foot of this range of mountains that the colonists have laid out their best and principal farms, but they have also got between the ridges of the mountains, and set themselves down in all the intermediate valleys.

That immensely dry Carrow-plain, which commences behind the last mentioned mass of mountains, and extends in length from the N. W. to the S. E. end of the southern-most point of Africa, and in breadth to Roggeveld, and the Snow-mountains, for want of water, cannot be inhabited; and scarcely any animals reside there, except for a short time, in or immediately after the rainy season, when a little salt water is found here and there in some of the hollow places. Those colonists therefore that have farms on the other side of this tract, either in Roggeveld, or the Snow-mountains, are obliged to wait for that time for crossing so desart a country, when they are under the necessity of pitching their camp near such places

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where a little water is to be had, between which spots, sometimes a journey of ten or twelve hours long, must be performed with all possible speed in the night. It is therefore necessary to know these watering places well; because, if one should meet with any Hottentots, they would not readily inform one, even if they knew of any watering place, but keep it secret to themselves, in order to be able to hide themselves, in case they should at any time wish to run away. Grass is hardly to be met with in this tract, so that it is with difficulty that horse can find fodder there, but the oxen put up both with brackish water and the salt leaves of the shrubs and bushes. In the day time, when the sun shines out hot, if one casts one's eye over a smooth and arid plain like this, the eye is affected by a tremulous motion in the air, just as though one were looking at a flame.

The Hottentots who traverse these dry Carrow fields, use several means, not only to assuage their hunger, but more particularly to quench their thirst. Besides the above mentioned plant called Kón or Gunna, they use two others, viz. one called Kamekà or Barup, which is said to be a large and watery root; and another called Ku, which is likewise, according to report, a large and succulent root.

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The plants as well herbs as bushes, stand very thin in the Carrow-veld; and, in such a burning hot climate, where not a drop of rain falls for the space of eight months at least, it is almost inconceivable how they can thrive at all. Their stems and branches likewise have the appearance of being brittle and quite dried up; but the leaves, on the other hand, are very thick and filled with a briny fluid, and remain green all the year through. These fresh and eververdant tops and leaves, however, may perhaps receive from the air, which at night is cool, some moisture for their preservation and nourishment. The ground appears quite burned up, is of a yellowish red colour, and consists of clay with ochres of iron and common salt.

1774. On the 1st of January, directing our course homewards, we arrived at JAN VAN STADE's farm, and afterwards passing an estate belonging to one GERT VAN ROYEN, and another belonging to a VAN FORS, came to the villa which GERT VAN ROYEN occupied himself.

We let our drivers and Hottentots go on with the carts through Hartequas kloof, with orders to wait for us at the Company's post at Rietvalley; and I, with my English fellow-traveller, determined to go on horseback over the dry Carrow, which lay to the right, and afterwards

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proceed through Platte kloof. But this expedition did not end very fortunately; for, as in this level plain, which is seldom visited by travellers, there were no tracks to follow, we missed our road, and the longer we travelled the farther we went astray, so that at last we could not even find our way back again. We rode on however, as fast as our horses could go, and the sun began to go down without our having perceived the least trace of a house or farm. At length the sun being set, and no hopes lest, we retired a little way back to a valley, where there was a small brook, with a few trees on its borders; and, in this brook, there was still some water.

Here we thought it adviseable to take up our lodging for the night. Accordingly we unsaddled our hoses, and tied them up, with the halter round one of their legs, that they should not run away; and then, by means of our guns, we made a large fire of Canna-bushes (Salfola aphylla). After this we lay down near the fire, with the saddles under our heads; but could not get a wink of sleep, on account of an intolerable sensation of cold, which, though not so very intense in itself, yet, by reason of the burning heat we had endured in the day-time, was severely felt by us, and forced us to rife several times in the course of an hour, in

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order to mend the fire, and warm ourselves all over. We had derived this advantage from our guns, that we could always make a fire; but we had no hopes of finding any thing in this plain to shoot, by which we might satisfy the cravings of our stomachs. I had therefore taken the precaution to put into my shooting-bag a few biscuits and pieces of sugar-candy, which were extremely welcome to us at this juncture.

As soon as it was morning, we looked abut us for our hoses, but found that they were vanished, which did not a little add to our concern, situated as we were in a desart, where our fate was uncertain. After having searched the valley all around, we went up upon the heights, and behind these we at last found our horses, which without doubt were upon the point of going farther, to look out for better fodder. Having saddled them, we directed our course obliquely towards the mountains, where we arrived towards evening, at the house of a farmer, who was so poor as scarcely to be master of any thing more than the roof over his head.

Here we took up our night's lodging, and afterwards made our way to Hartequas-kloof, where we met with our people and our carts.

Near Hartequas kloof, a new range or ridge of mountains commences, which joins the former, the cleft serving as a band of connexion between

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them. So that the Carrow-veld can be seen behind the first ridge, when one rides into the cleft through the next range of mountains near Groote Paardekraal.

It is not long since that this whole tract of land from Hartequas-kloof down to Camtous-rivier, which is now filled with settlements, was first peopled; and twenty-three years ago there was not a single farm, when, in the year seventeen hundred and fifty, Governor TULBAGH sent a caravan out to this coast, with a view to gain certain intelligence with respect to the country and its inhabitants. TULBAGH, who still lives in the grateful hearts of the inhabitants of the Cape, was a governor, who considered that he was raised to the elevated station he enjoyed under government, and appointed to be ruler over an extensive country, not merely to live in luxury, pamper his pride, and accumulate riches, but to unite with the company's lawful interests the happiness of the colony. This gentleman was also anxious to have the country by degrees farther explored; for which purpose, in the year seventeen hundred and fifty, he fitted out a caravan, consisting of one hundred and fifty soldiers from the castle, and two burghers, of which an officer of the name of BEUTELAAR was appointed the commander. With these were sent, at the Company's expence, eleven waggons, a great number

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of draught-oxen, and of others for killing, and a considerable quantity of ammunition and provision. The expedition was to be made into the country of the Caffres, and afterwards up towards that of the Tambukkis, and then back again, through the Snow-mountains and Camdebo; but, on account of the haughtiness and stupidity of the commander, little was done in the business, for which reason, on his return home, he was sent away out of the country; a punishment he richly deserved. He was a strict and rigorous commander, and punished with severity. He likewise beat the drum all the way, insomuch that all the game that was to have been shot scared away, particularly by the two farmers who went in suite; and his people at length grew extremely mutinous. When he encamped any where at night, the waggons were all placed in a ring, within which the cattle and other animals were put, and the tents also pitched. At last, when he arrived at the country of the Caffres, he gave the Caffre captain, Paloo, a grenadier's cap, and another to his brother, which is said to have excited a war amongst the Caffres. The only thing he did for the benefit of the Company was, that in the harbour near Zwartkops river he set up the Company's arms, cut in stone. This journey lasted eight months. At that time there was not a single farm on the other

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fide of Hartequas-kloof; but the roads were so unknown and unbeaten, that the waggons were often obliged to be dragged, by the people to whom they belonged, across the most difficult places.

Being come from Hartequas-kloof to Goudsrivier, we staid a day there in order to rest our cattle, which besides were so grievously afflicted with the hoof distemper, that my companion was obliged to leave one of his oxen behind here, which could get no farther. Here too the weather was amazingly warm, warmer indeed than I have ever felt it, either before or since, insomuch that the farmers shut both the doors and window-shutters, in order to keep the sun out, and their houses cool. The birds could scarcely fly, and the air was almost too hot to be breathed. The heat was without doubt several degrees above 100 by FAHRENHEIT's thermometer.

The following days, continuing our route, we arrived at Riet-valley, one of the Company's posts, where we remained a few days to rest ourselves, and particularly for the sake of paying another visit to Groote Vader's bosch, (or Grand-father's-wood) and seeing if the different kinds of trees there, were come into blossom, as we had already got pretty far into January, and consequently the summer was farther advanced than it had been at any time before, when we had visited this wood.

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On the 14th of January accordingly, we went thither, but were not more successful now than we had been before with respect to finding the trees in blossom, much less with fruit on them; some of them, however, were on the point of budding.

Here were, at this time, for the Company's account, two wood-men, who, after felling the trees, dragged them to such spots from whence they might be taken up and put into waggons. The trees were chiefly got out of the wood by oxen, by means of a cord fastened round the body of the tree; as no vehicle of any kind could possibly be used there.

As I had no hopes of ever visiting this place again, I made a point now of collecting and laying up to dry branches with leaves of every species of tree, and at the same time of becoming perfectly acquainted with the use they made in this country of each species.

The uses of the different sorts of trees that grew in and round about the wood, were as follows:

Black iron wood, (Zwarte Yzerhout, Gardenia Rothmannia) is hard and strong: it is used for axle-trees and the poles of waggons.

Yellow wood (Geelhout, Ilex crocea) is of a yellow colour, almost like box, of a close texture, and handsome. It is used for planks and beams in the construction of houses, for tables, doors, cupboards, window-frames, and butter-churns.

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Camassie wood (Camassie-hout), is merely a shrub, and consequently produces small pieces only, which serve for veneering, and to form borders on furniture, as likewise for making planes and other fine and delicate tools. This is one of the finest and heaviest kinds of wood.

The wood of the Red pear-tree (Roode peer) is used for making the bodies, under and upper axle-trees, and the lower parts of waggons.

The Bucku-tree Bucku-hout, (Olea Capensis) is the best wood for making wheels and waggons.

The Red alder (Roode Else, Cunonia capensis) is likewise very proper for making waggon-wheels, the naves of wheels and chairs.

The Ash (Essenhout, Essenboom, Houtniquas Essen, Ekebergia capensis) is a large tree, hard, and of a implements of various kinds.

Of the Stinkhout there are two forts, the white and the brown. The brown is very beautiful, being of a dark colour with bright streaks and dashes, much like walnut-tree. Of this are made clothes-presses, desks, chairs, tables, and other costly kinds of furniture. When it is first cut down it stinks, a circumstance from which it has obtained its present name; but, in process of time, when it has been exposed to the open air, the disagreeable odour vanishes.

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The wood of the Olive tree, (Olyve hout, Olea Europœa) is very heavy, and of a brown colour. I have often seen at the farmers' houses chairs made of this wood, which felt very heavy in the hand. This strong wood is also used in the construction of mills.

Wild Catjepiring (Gardenia Thunbergia) is a hard and strong kind of wood, and on this account used for clubs.

Witte Essen (or white ash) is used for planks, for waggon-racks, and for the boards in waggons, for boards for shoe-makers to cut leather on, and sometimes for cupboards.

Zwart-bast (Royena villosa) is used for the bodies of waggons, and to make yokes for draught-oxen.

Keurhout (Sophora capensis) is used for wheels and the bodies of waggons.

The Almond tree, (Amandelhout) is used for heels of shoes, and for shoe-maker's lasts.

The Assagay tree (Asagay boom, Curtisia faginea) is used for the poles of waggons, and as shafts for the Hottentots' javelins.

Dorn-hout (Mimosa nilotica) is used for Lockshoes, to put under waggon wheels, as likewise for the bows of yoke for draught oxen, and for making charcoal.

The Waageboom (Protea grandiflora) for fuel and making charcoal.

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The Kreupelboom (Protea speciosa). The bark is used by tanners for dressing and tanning leather.

The Leepelboom is made into spoons and wooden bowls.

The largest trees in the African woods, as well in this as in others, were the following: the Geelhout (Ilex crocea), the Bucku (Olea capensis), the Tarchonarithus camphoratus, and arboreus, the Roode-else (Cunonia capensis) and the Wite-else, the Stinkhout, the Assagayhout (Curtisia) the wild Chesnut (wilde Castanien, brabejum stellatum) the wild Fig tree (wilde Vygeboom, Ficus capensis) the Keureboom (Sophora capensis) the Mimosa nilotica adn the Esse-boom (Ekebergia capensis).

On the hills grew the Ornithogalum altissimum, which was now in full blossom, and decorated the plain with its long and crouded spikes of flowers. It was said to be very common every fourth year, and, in the intervening years, hardly to be seen.

On the 18th we pass through Zwellendam to STEINS farm.

On the 19th we crossed over at the ferry, where Breede-rivier and Zonder-end unite, and then went over Hessaquas kloof, and past GYLLENHUYSEN's estate to VOLLENHOVENS. At Breede-rivier, where the river Zonder-end unites with it, ends that mountains which stretches

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out from Roode Zand, and directly opposite this place the Zwellendam mountains form an angle.

On the 20th, proceeding on our route, we went past MELK's farm to the Company's post at Tigerhoek, where not only a great number of cows are kept for making butter on the Company's account, but likewise in the adjacent woods a quantity of timber is felled for making all kinds of implements for the Company's own use.

The workmen are at liberty to cut down and fell some wood and timber, by way of assisting to support them, but no husbandman is suffered to fell any here. In Houtniquas and other woods indeed, the husbandman is at liberty to cut timber, but in some places, not without the special permission of government, and paying a contribution of five rix-dollars.

In this tract resided the Blue goat, as it is called, (Blauwe bok, Iseiran, Capra leucophœa), which is one of the scarcest in the whole country: it is white, intermixed with black hairs. The blue goat is said to be very neglectful of her young, insomuch that they are often devoured by wild beasts; and this is the reason that is given for its being so scarce. Its flesh had a better taste than that of the other species of goats.


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Here were also a great many Zebras of striped horses (Equus Zebra). There is a penalty of fifty rix-dollars on shooting one of these animals; and if any one can be caught alive, it is to be sent to the governor. The old ones are hardly ever to be caught, and are never tamed. The young ones seldom live, and although seemingly tame, are by no means to be trusted.

After this passing by JURJIN LINDE's farm, we arrived at a post of the Company's, near Zoete-melks valley, where twenty-four men and a sergeant are kept for the sole purpose of selling timber in the adjecent woods. From this place the Company receives the greatest part of its ship and common timber, of which three large waggon-loads are sent every month up to the Cape. The labourers here also are permitted to cut a reasonable quantity, and sell it on their own account. The large pieces of timber, such as beams, &c. are dragged out of the wood by oxen, and it must be confessed, not without the greatest difficulty.

To the smaller pieces, such as wedges, handles for axes, gun-stocks, wheel-timber, axletrees, &c. the form is given before they are carried out of the wood. When a very large tree is felled, it is lest for some time to split of itself; then it is cloven and cut up.

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Here I had an opportunity of seeing how they prepared the wheat-straw used for thatching. The sheaves with the ears on were struck against a block, till the grain ran out and the ears dropped off. The business goes on much slower in this method of thrashing than when the corn is trodden out by horses; but the straw is preserved whole by it and even.

On the24th, we passed by the Ziekenhuys (or hospital) a small post of the Company's, which is subject to the former post near Zoete Melks valley, and in which there are only two men, and went forward to GROENEWAL's farm, and afterwards to GYLLENHUYSEN's near Zwart-rivier, (the Black-river). The Black-mountains which commenced near GROENEWAL's farm, came to a termination here. They were not very high.

On the 25th we travelled on to BADENHORST's and BEYER's estates, near Booter-rivier.

Here I shot a cat spoted with black (Viverra); the skin smelled so strong of musk, that when it was hung up in the cart to dry, I could not endure the stench of it. It is in consequence of this strong smell that the animal is not easily caught by the dogs.

The ridge of mountains which we had seen terminate near Hessaquas kloof, began at the side of Kleine Houthoek, behind Fransche-hoek. Within the mountains of Groote Hout-hoek,

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a ridge was also seen to shoot out along the seashore, which went almost as far as Muscle-bay. Within this last, another ridge projects, which comes to a termination between GYLLENHUYSEN's and GROENEWAL's farms, and, directly opposite to BADENHORST's farm, has a high peak, called the Tower of Babel. These two ridges are not united with the other mountains, but leave an open space, near Booter-rivier.

On the 26th, passing over Grootehout-hoek, Palmit's and Steenbrasemey rivers, we arrived at the Hottentot's Holland mountain, on which there are several farms.

Baboons, a sort of large and ill conditioned monkies, with tails no longer than their thighs, are found in these mountains. This animal is long a growing, and, when full grown, is almost as large as a blood-hound; at this period, it should not be kept tied up with a string only; for, without an iron chain, it bites every thing asunder. Several dogs together, indeed, may catch a baboon, but one or two seldom can; because if the baboon, which is surprisingly quick and nimble, gets hold of the dog by the hind feet, he swings it round, till the dog is quite giddy, and as it were drunk. With his large teeth he bites violently, and defends himself obstinately.

Finally, we went down the mountain, over its steep hills, and then over the level plain to the Cape.

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THE CAPE, 1774.

BEING arrived in town so late in the year, after a journey of five months, I was obliged to use dispatch, in order that I might be able to embrace the opportunity of sending, in the beginning of this year, 1774, to the Botanic gardens of Amsterdam, Leyden, and Leeuwarden, by the homeward-bound ships sailing for Europe, a considerable quantity of bulbous roots, herbs, seeds and growing plants; and also, to my other patrons, a great number of bulbous roots, seeds, infects, stuffed birds and other scarce animals.

The four first months in the year are the most busy at the Cape, when the Dutch ships, as well as those that belong to foreign nations, return from the East Indies, and others arrive from Europe; so that there are at this time about twenty or thirty ships in the road. The first Dutch homeward-bound fleet too now lay ready, and I had an opportunity of sending part of my collections by it, and the remainder afterwards, as fast as they were ready, by the ships that sailed later.

A ship from Holland, the Bekvliet, arrived

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here, after a long and unfortunate voyage. Through the captain's neglect and ignorance, the ship had got so much under the African coast as to lose its proper winds, and to be obliged to make Angola, after first making Waalvisch bay, with only nine men in health on board. During this long voyage the scurvy had raged among the crew, which was said to have been very generally as well as plentifully bled, so that the greatest part of it had died. Complaint was made both against the surgeon and the captain for not having understood their business. The former died on the passage, and the latter received the punishment he richly deserved. The sick had not only been supplied with improper medicines, but also, in other respects been treated with great negligence. One morning four men were reported as dead; one of whom, just as they were going to sew him up in his hammock, was found alive by the sail-maker, although he soon after breathed his last. Another morning five men had been reported dead, all of them had been sewed up in their hammocks, and two had already been thrown overboard, when the third, the instant he was put on the plank, called out, Master Boatswain, I am alive still! to which the Boatswain, with unseasonable jocularity, replied,—'You alive, indeed! what, do you pretend to know better than the surgeon?'

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For every sick man sent to the hospital the captain pays two skellings, and he keeps back, in return, the man's allowance on board.

The building of the new hospital was not very far advanced this summer, neither indeed could the work go on very fast. Of ninety men who were allotted for this purpose, few were at work, and a great part of them were on furlough, or were set upon other work on the hospital's account.

Besides a handsome house, built in the Company's garden in town, the governor has also one at Rondebosch, and another at Nieuwland, both out of town, to which he may retire at pleasure, and unbend his mind when oppressed with the cares of state. Another such house was now to be built likewise for his accommodation at Baay-fals.

The Company has very fine gardens both at Rondebosch and Nieuwland, from whence the ships and the hospital are supplied with vegetables.

Since the Governor VAN DER STELL, in the beginning of this century, had appropriated to himself a considerable portion, and that the best, of the land; and the same had been done by several of the Company's servants, to the great prejudice of the burghers and colonists, they lie under a strict prohibition against holding any farms. In lieu thereof, after being obliged to

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dispose of their farms, several perquisites have been allowed them; such as, the dispencier or purveyor, five per cent, upon imported, and the same on exported, wares; as likewise upon grain, butter, &c. The collector has two and a half per cent. on the monies, the store-keeper four, the commissary of the hospital five, the inspector of the auctions five per cent. on all goods and merchandize fold by auction; and all this, besides their usual monthly salary. So that it is only some few of the higher people in office that have a small villa for their pleasure near the Cape, but, from whence, no commodities must be carried out and disposed of.

The ships that arrived here, brought the news that Baron VAN PLETTENBERG had been nominated Governor of the Cape and the Colony, and had been shortly after installed in his office.

The governor, together with seven counsellors of police, has the supreme direction and command, as well with respect to the Company's traffic here, as also to the whole œconomy of the colony, without being subject to the government of Batavia, which have otherwise the supreme command over all the factories in India.

All criminal causes come under the cognizance and jurisdiction of the grand court of justice. In this the commandant of the garrison presides, and the governor has nothing to

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do with it, excepting merely to sign his name to death-warrants.

Finally, there are two other courts of judicature in the colony. One of these is at Stellenbosch, to which four parishes are subject, with their churches, viz. Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Zwartland, and Roode Zand; the other is at Zwellendam, and comprehends one very large and extensive parish, which, however, has not yet been provided either with a church or minister.

The Cape of Good Hope, although it was first discovered by the Portuguese above three hundred years ago, was frequented by them for the space of one hundred years and upwards, and, afterwards, by the Dutch East India Company's ships for more than half a century, before possession was taken of any part of the country, or any cultivation was bestowed upon it, so that the colony is not above a hundred and twenty years old; for, in the year 1650, when the Dutch ships, on their return from the Indies, touched here and took in refreshments, for which they bartered with the Hottentots, the country was, for the first time, surveyed with any degree of attention, by a surgeon of the name of JAN VAN RIEBEEK, who belonged to the fleet, and had some knowledge of botany; and as he found both the climate and

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the soil adapted to the cultivation of culinary vegetables and fruit trees, on his return home he proposed to the directors to establish a colony here.

On mature deliberation the proposal was agreed to, and JAN VAN RIEBEEK was sent out as admiral and commander in chief, with four ships, which were stored with materials for building, carpenters, and seeds of all kinds. On his arrival at the Cape, he treated with the Hottentots for the purchase of a piece of ground, on which was erected a fortress, storehouse, and hospital; and, at the same time, the first foundations were laid of this great and flourishing colony, which does more honour to mankind than all the victories of ALEXANDER the Great, and much more than all the important conquests the Dutch arms have been able to make in every other part of the world.

The sum for which the first piece of land was purchased, is very differently reported, as well as the quantity of the land itself. The first purchase sum is said to have amounted to 50,000 gilders in wares, and by another purchase to have been augmented with 30,000 gilders more; which, although it may actually be so great in the Company's books, yet it seems to be absolutely incredible, that the Hottentots should ever have received the major

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part of it. The last purchase is said to have extended as far as Mosselbaay, but this is the less true, or even probable, as during the time that VAN RIEBEEK was governor of the Cape, as he afterwards was, his farthest discoveries reached only to that mountain, which is called after him, Riebeek's casteel, and stands at a good distance within the long range of mountains. In my opinion, the land purchased at first was no more than that tract of country which lies between Table-mountain and Zout-rivier, from whence the colony has since been continually more and more extended in the same manner as it is now daily enlarged and augmented. The citadel was at first built of wood and earth; and it was not till the year 1664, that, together with its fortifications, it was built of stone. Near Zout-rivier, (Salt-rivier) a small fort, called (Keer de koe) Turn the cow, was also erected for the purpose of protecting the Company's cattle that grazed in the field, which it commanded, and to hinder them either from going across the river to the Hottentot's lands, or from being stolen by the natives of the place. With this view, therefore, near the fort a stable was built for fifty horses, with which the Hottentots, who were very swift of foot, and disappeared in an instant, might be pursued with all possible speed. This, together with a farm near Constantia, laid out by VAN RIEBEEK, was without doubt the first and incon-

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siderable commencement of this settlement. This infant establishment was probably not meant to extend so far as it has done since, but was intended only for the cultivation of such articles as were necessary for supplying the shipping that arrived there with refreshments. But, on a closer examination of the climate, the fertility of the soil, and the weakness of the natives, it was resolved to extend the settlement, and several Europeans were persuaded to emigrate and settle here, and to cultivate a considerable tract of land, which was granted to them and their heirs for ever. Shortly after this marriageable girls were sent out from the orphan-houses, for the purpose of still more increasing the colony; the inhabitants of which got at first, on trust, implements that were necessary for the cultivation of the land, and spread themselves out to Stellenbosch and Drakenstein, (where the French Protestant refugees in particular strengthened the settlement) and afterwards on the other side of the mountains to Roode Zand. The whole of Zwartland was afterwards peopled, through a sandy and more meagre soil. In fine, within these last 30 years the colony has increased to such a degree, and with such rapidity, that not only the country from Roode Zand and Hottentot's Holland mountains, has been occupied and inhabited as far as Zwellendam, but also as far as Mosselbaay,

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Houtniquas, Lange-kloof, Kromme-river, and all the way to Camtous-rivier, the Bokke-and Rogge-velds, Camdebo, and the Snow-mountains.

The colony of the Cape takes in the town with its parish and church, Paarl with its parish and church, the Tyger-mountains, &c. and extends as far as Mosselbanks-rivier and Baay-fals.

The colony of Stellenbosch was founded by the governor SIMON VANDER STEEL, in 1670, like a cottage, and provided with a court-house and church, at the distance of eight miles from the Cape. It extends from the Tyger-mountains to Hottentot's Holland, and nearly to Baay-falls, and, at the northern end, to Paarl and Mosselbank.

Drakenstein was founded in 1670, with a very small church, and stands so close to Stellenbosch, that it might with great propriety be subject to it. And indeed this was considered as a separate colony, more out of compliment than necessity.

The Company paid only four skellings for a live sheep, and the burghers in the town paid one skelling (rather more than six-pence English) for twelve pounds of mutton.

A great many officers belonging to the ships lodged in the same house with me. A mate paid less per diem than a captain, as his pay was less, although he was equally well lodged, and equally

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free from restraint, and had the same table and attendance; and this regulation appeared to me in many respects as equitable as it was handsome and delicate.

Charcoal is a very dear article at the Cape, and is generally carried thither from Europe. For a chaldron of charcoal, which ought to contain thirty-six schepels, (or bushels) of which, however, only thirty-two are delivered out to the purchaser, the blacksmiths pay eighteen rix-dollars, and eight rix-dollars for one hundred weight of iron.

Bulbous plants, in all probability, repose at times, or they are not seen every year in equal quantities. In some places one sees them in one year in great abundance, and another year scarcely any.

When a slave plays any knavish trick, or does mischief to any of the neighbours, the farmer who owns him is generally obliged to make good the damage, and frequently to pay one half of the value of the slave, though at the same time the slave likewise may chance to undergo corporal punishment for it.

When an inferior servant of the Company trespasses, he usually undergoes corporal punishment; but a burgher is fined. The former contributes to the reformation of manners, and the latter to lining the Fiscal's pockets.

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The laws respecting marriage at the Cape differ in many respects from those that are in force at other places; and divorces frequently happen here, attended with singular circumstances. The wife of one SARDYN, who had been a soldier seventeen years, and at this time kept a public house and a dancing house for the reception of the common people, was proved in court, by the evidence of two witnesses, to have had a criminal connexion with a drummer. The prosecutor was allowed, it is true, to part with his wife, but then she was exempted from all farther punishment; while he, on the contrary, was flogged and sent to Batavia, without being suffered to receive the least benefit from his property.

A certain hatter in the town, who was a bachelor, had got two of his slaves with child. For the child he had by one of them, he, in quality of its father, demanded baptism, and accordingly this was baptized, and consequently free; while the other girl's child remained unbaptized and a slave.

The winter of this year, in the months of June, July, and August, was very cold, with a great deal of rain; and on the 6th of July particularly, both the Devil's-mountain and Table-mountain were covered with snow and hail. In several places, the vines, as well as many ve-

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getables in the kitchen gardens, had been killed or greatly damaged by the frost.

In the Company's garden there was a very beautiful covered walk, formed of chesnut-trees, which were now very thick and large. It was this year cut down root and branch by order of the governor, for the purpose of making different kinds of furniture of its elegant wood; and in its stead were planted oaks, which, however, are as little likely to restore the beauty of the garden, as those curious animals are to return thither, which the highly respectable Governor TULBAGH had taken paints to collect together there, from the interior parts of Africa; but which, after his death, were turned out by his successor to become a prey to ravenous beasts.

The fruit of a species of Mesembryanthemum was sometimes brought to the town as a rarity, and was called Rosa de Jericho. When it is put into water, it gradually opens all its seed-vessels, and exactly resembles a sun; and when it becomes dry again, it contracts itself and closes by degrees. This is no less a necessary than singular property, which points out the admirable institution of an all-wise Creator; in as much as this plant, which is found in the most and plains, keeps its seeds fast locked up in time of drought; but when the rainy season comes, and the seeds

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can grow, it opens its receptacles, and lets fall the seeds, in order that they may be dispersed abroad. The water in which this fruit has lain is sometimes given to women that are near their time, and is thought to procure them an easy delivery.

Ordinary public houses are much more rarely to be met with here than they are in Europe, and taverns still more so, as every body has a quantity of wine in his own house, sufficient for himself and his friends. Some there are however for the lower class of people, though very different from those which abound so much in our more refined quarter of the globe; being designed not so much for drinking and tippling, of which drunkenness, noise, and riotous disorder are the frequent concomitants, as for mere diversion and recreation. The inferior kinds of public houses therefore are at the same time dancing houses, where every evening musicians are to be found, and the guests, by paying for their wine only (but at a very dear rate) have an opportunity of dancing. No card playing is suffered, and the dancing is over at a certain hour in the night, when every one goes quietly home, without making a noise or affrighting others, which would not be easily tolerated by the night-watch, nor go unpunished by the government.


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At my leisure hours I never neglected to visit the hills, mountains, and fields, near the town. For the purpose of carrying a book and other things necessary for putting up my seeds and plants, I usually took with me a hired slave. This year, through the kindness of the surgeon, I got a man out of the hospital to carry my apparatus, who had been brought by a singular destiny to this southernmost point of Africa. He was born in Germany, and, for the sake of trafficking, had travelled much, and had lived for some time in Holland, France, and England, where he resided last, and carried on a small trade in certain drugs, and some chemical preparations. In the course of this business, having embarked for France, the ship was driven by a storm towards the coast of Holland, where it was wrecked, and he lost all his little property. On getting a-shore, he sold his knee-buckles, and, with the trifling viaticum produced by them, set out for Amsterdam, where he met with an old acquaintance, who offered him his assistance; and under the pretext of procuring him a lodging, took him to a kidnapper's. Here his friend called for brandy, victuals, and wine, of which they both partook. At length, when he and his friend parted, he observed that the landlord gave the latter two ducats. Immediately upon this he himself was prevented from

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going out; he then found, to his cost, that he was kidnapped; and, being no stranger to the Dutch language, threatened the kidnapper to lodge a complaint against him, if he did not instantly set him at liberty. The kidnapper then began to make some inquiries about his residence, means of support, &c. and, as he could not pay his reckoning, absolutely refused to let him go. When mustered on board of ship, whither he had been carried, without having been previously taken to the East-India house and received there, he complained to the director; but, as the poor fellow could not possibly pay for what the kidnapper had received of the Company to fit him out, he was obliged, nolens volens, to sail for the Cape, where he arrived sick, and was taken to the hospital. This poor man accompanied me twice in my excursions; but soon regained his liberty by running away, and getting on board one of the English ships that lay in the road.

Pomegranates grew in several of the gardens, but were not exposed to sale, nor much eaten in the town. But chesnuts (Æsculus pavia) were sold here in plenty, and eaten by way of desert, roasted, with a little butter.

By the ships that arrived from Europe, I had not only the pleasure to receive letters from my patrons in Amsterdam, intimating their satis-

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faction at what I had sent them, but also received a considerable sum in ducats, for the purpose of paying off part of the debt I had contracted during the two last years.

There had arrived from England, in order to proceed to Bengal, Lady Ann MONSON, who had undertaken this long and tedious voyage, not only for the purpose of accompanying her husband, who went out as colonel of the regiment in the East Indies; but also with a view to indulge her passion for natural history. This learned lady, during the time she staid here, made several very fine collections, and particularly in the animal kingdom. And, as I had frequently had the pleasure, together with Mr. MASON, of accompanying her to the adjacent farms, and, at the same time, of contributing greatly to the enlargement of her collections, she had the goodness, before her departure, to make me a present of a valuable ring, in remembrance of her, and of the friendship with which she had honoured me. She was a lady about sixty years of age, who, amongst other languages, had also some knowledge of the Latin, and had, at her own expence, brought with her a draughtsman, in order to assist her in collecting and delineating scarce specimens of natural history.

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The government at the Cape had resolved to send this year a vessel called a Hoeker, to Madagascar, to barter for slaves; and the Governor Baron VAN PLETTENBERG had the kindness to offer to send me out as surgeon to the ship. But although I had much wished to visit so large and remarkable an island, still my inclination to see the northern part of Africa was much more prevalent. I therefore begged to be excused from making this voyage; and recommended a friend and countryman of mine, Mr. OLDENBURG, who had been practising botany for the space of two years that he had accompanied me in my excursions, to go as surgeon's mate. My recommendation was taken; and Mr. OLDENBURG even made several collections of plants; but did not live to return from so unwholesome and scorching a climate.

This winter Alderman BERG shewed me a very curions Fungus (Hydnora) which had been sent to him, as a great rarity, by a farmer, from the interior part of the country. This fungus, which was called Jackhal's kost (or Jackall's food) being, on examination, found to be, with respect to the parts of fructification, the most extraordinary plant of any hitherto known, confirmed my resolution of visiting the northern parts of the Cape: and excited in me a

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wish to examine this fungus, with several other plants, in their native soil, however arid and barren.

I fitted myself out as in the preceding year, in the month of September, and again had Mr. MASON, the English gardener, for my fellow-traveller, although he was not much inclined to make any long excursion this year.


ON the 29th of September, 1774, I set out with my fellow-traveller, on my third journey to the interior part of Africa. After crossing Zout rivier and Mosselbank's rivier, we arrived at Vischershoek, a corn-farm of the Company's, occupied by the Governor. This year eighty barrels of seed had been sown.

The stranguary raged amongst the cattle here, and was occasioned by the Euphorbia genistiodes. As a sovereign remedy for this

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distemper, the farmers gave the cattle a tea-cup full of powdered ostrich egg shells mixed with vinegar. The resinous clot of Euphorbia, which stuck fast in the urethra, was sometimes extracted, when it appeared quite white, and about half a finger in length.

On the 30th, we rode past ENGELAAR's farm to MATH. GREEF's, near Mosselbank's river. In these low sandy plains, and in the dwarf-bushes upon them, there were hares in abundance, insomuch that one might shoot as many as one chose; but no body set any value upon this kind of game, the flesh of which had so dry a taste.

Here I heard much talk of a Hottentot Watermelon, which is said to be large and succulent root, called Kou, by the Hottentots, who grind it down to meal, and bake it like bread.

On the 2d of October, we crossed Mosselbank's river to JURGEN KUTSE's, and from thence proceeded to ABRAHAM BOSMAN's, near Paarls-berg.

Paarl Mountain is neither very high nor of great extent in length; but it abounds in water, so as amply to supply the farms that lie on each side, and a large mill situated at the foot of it.

The church stands on the east side of the mountain.

The farmers here chiefly cultivated vines, the stocks of which are often of fifty year's

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growth, and produce a delicious and full-bodied wine. Wheat was not much cultivated here, and the quantity of culinary vegetables was but small, as was also the number of the cattle.

Here we staid a couple of days in order to investigate the mountains with due care and accuracy. Having arrived at the top from the eastern side, we observed a place called the Company's Cellar (Kelder). This consisted of a somewhat concave and large rock, which had fallen over another rock inclining towards it. These two rocks together formed an arched cellar, as it were, open at both ends, and possessing an agreeable coolness.

The Paarl diamonds were two very large, bare, steep, and almost conic, mountains, the foot of which was so wide at bottom, that it required an hour to walk round it.

On the 5th, we proceeded to HANNES VAN AARDE's, near Paardeberg, which is a little higher than Paarl mountain; this stands separate, and has taken its name from the wild Cape Horses (or Zebras) which formerly were to be seen here in great numbers. At this time there was only a dozen of these beautiful animals, and these were protected by government, and were far from being shy.

On the 7th, we passed on to LOSPER's estate, and

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On the 8th, passing by PETER LOSPER's and JOHANNES WALTHER's farm, we came to DREYER's estate, near Riebeek castle, a large mountain, so named after VAN RIEBEEK, the founder and first governor of this colony. The mountain was very high, and its sides were steep.

My fellow traveller and I, one day, climbed up to the high tops of this mountain, whilst our oxen, which we had ordered to be taken off from the waggons, kept grazing at the side of it. We were obliged to make almost the whole circle of the mountain before we could get to the peak we wished to ascend. When arrived upon this summit, we perceived our waggons standing at the foot of the mountain; but saw, at the same time, that we were separated from them by such steep precipices on this side, that it appeared to us impossible to reach them, without returning by the same way that we had come, which was nearly three miles about. However, whilst we were searching here after some curious plants, and laying them up in our books, I stumbled upon a very near, but, at the same time, dangerous way, to get to the other side of the mountain's perpendicular flanks. This was a chink of a few fathoms length, and so narrow as to be capable of admitting a middle-sized man only. Through this I ventured to

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crawl on my hands and feet, and was fortunate enough to get safe over to the other side, from whence it was only the distance of a musquet-shot to our waggons. My fellow-traveller, together with his dog, stood astonished at my adventurous exploit, the one howling, and the other almost crying; and, at the same time, vexed to think that he should be obliged to go alone a long way round about, without once daring to take the direct path. My courage was rewarded with a small plant which I got in the chink, and which I afterwards sought in vain in other places.

On the 11th, we came to Vliermuys drift and farry, after having passed LOMBART's and OWERHOLSEN's estates, and Honingbergy, which is a low mountain, and of a small extent.

On the 12th, we arrived at WILHELM BURGER's grazing farm, near Matje's drift and rivier, where our waggon and cart were conveyed over by boats, and the oxen swam across.

On the 13th, I observed a rainbow, which was extremely pale, with the dullest colours imaginable, being formed merely out of a rising fog.

On the 14th, we arrived at HANEKAMP's farm, near Picquet-berg, which here stretched and N. and S. but on the eastern side, to the northward, had several bendings, the ridges of which

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ran S. E. and N. W. Towards the northern end, the mountain goes up almost to the long chain of mountains, from whence a point projects, forming a new range of mountains, the ridges of which run on to the sea-shore. From this it should seem, as if Picquet-mountain had a different direction from all other mountains; but it is only on the eastern side that such a ridge runs, and, at the northern end, the mountain is continued farther, and runs a great way out to the S. E. and N. W. This mountain is higher than Riebeek Castle, and, in the east and north, has a great many steep and inaccessible rocks, with flat and level surfaces at top.

Here grew a shrub called Zand-olvye (Dodonœa angustifolia), the wood of which was of a hard nature. This was dried, and a decoction of it was drank in fevers, by way of a purgative.

Tygers infested the bushes in these sandy plains; and I saw several persons that had been bitten by them, though nobody had been killed. I was assured by many people, that a tyger preferred a wild goat to a sheep. The tyger is supposed to be more treacherous, and less magnanimous, than the lion. He seldom fails to rush upon a man who passes the thicket where he lies concealed; and it is impossible for him to hear the cry of sa, sa, without at-

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tacking the person that utters the sound. I was told of a slave in Madagascar, who having stepped behind a thicket to ease nature, was attacked by a tyger, and wounded so severely that he fainted away through loss of blood; but, seizing the tyger at the same time by the throat, quite stifled him, so that the tyger was found dead, and the slave near him in a swoon. The Cape tyger is small, and about the size of a dog.

Elephants were formerly very numerous in these parts; but, at present, they are quite extirpated. The best method to escape from these large beasts, whose height sometimes reaches to eighteen feet, is either to fly to the water, or to get into some fissure of a rock.

Near Picquet-mountain we, for the first time, discovered and shot a dove (Roode Turtelduyv, Columba Senegalensis). This bird is generally found farther up the country, and is said not to have been seen so high up towards the Cape till within the last seven years.

The Stapelia incarnata, a very branchy plant without leaves, was found in the vicinity of the mountains, though it was rather scarce; the Hottentots ate it, after peeling off the edges and prickles.

Vogel-valley was a kind of swamp, which lay at the foot of the mountain opposite Paarl, and was frequented by sea-fowls and snipes.

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All the roads here were sandy and heavy, like those about Saldahna-bay.

Near Picquet-berg to the northward, stood Captain Kloof's mountain, and within this, farther to the northward, Drie Fonteins-berg, and then Balians-berg, or the Baboons mountain, which, with its several different heads, stretched on to the sea-shore.

Travelling farther on we came to CARRELSPECK's farm, situated under Picquet Mountain; from thence to GERDT SMIDT's, and afterwards to DIRK KUTSE's, where Verlooren-valley has its origin, and springs from a mountain belonging to the long chain of mountains; and, finally, to AND. GREEF's.

The estates in this tract are embellished with vineyards, corn-fields, and beautiful gardens.

Here I met with a lemon, which contained another within it, furnished with a red rind. Neither of these two lemons had any seed, and the rind of the inner lemon was said to have even a sour taste.

Here I also saw a goose's egg, which contained another egg inclosed within it. The external egg had a yolk, but the inner none.

Ostriches abound in all these parts. They frequently do great damage to the farmers, by coming in flocks into their fields, and destroying the ears of wheat, so that nothing but the

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bare straw itself is left behind. The body of this bird is not higher than the corn, and when it devours the ears, it bends down its long neck, so that it cannot be seen at a distance; but, on the least noise, it rears its head and long neck, and can thus foresee its danger in time, and make its escape, before the farmer gets within gun-shot of it.

When this bird runs it has a proud and haughty look, and seems not to make much haste, although it be in great distress, especially if the wind is with it; and when the wind blows a little it flaps with its wings, which greatly assists it in its flight. It is then impossible to over-take it with the swiftest horse, except when the weather is exceedingly warm and at the same time calm, or when its wings have been shot off.

One morning, as I rode past a place where a hen ostrich sat on her nest, the bird sprang up and pursued me, with a view to prevent my noticing her young ones, or her eggs. Every time I turned my horse towards her, she retreated ten or twelve paces; but as soon as I rode on she pursued me again.

The farmers here likewise informed me, that a stone or two is sometimes found in the ostrich's eggs, which is hard, white, rather flat and smooth, and about the size of a bean. These stones are cut

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and made into buttons, but I never had the good fortune to see any of them.

Partridges (Tetrao) abound here and in many other parts of the country. They did not immediately take wing when we rode full trot after them, but they ran so swift along the road that we could hardly keep pace with them; at length they took flight side-ways, with loud and violent screams.

Ferlooren-valley is the name given to a rivulet that derives its source from the above-mentioned range of mountains, and empties itself into the sea. Its banks are in many places over-grown with reeds and rushes (Carex, Arundo), which sometimes shoot up to the height of several yards, insomuch that the rivulet, in such places, cannot be seen. In these impenetrable recesses an innumerable multitude of birds have their haunts and places of refuge, such as different sorts of herons (Ardea major and Cœrulea), Ducks (Anates), and Coots (Fulicæ). In some places it was narrow, and in others broad; but in particular it grew wider and wider the nearer it approached to the sea. In some places there were large holes and deep reservoirs. It runs into the ocean to the northward, and, when it is low, the mouth appears dry, and the current there intirely choaked up with the sand, and stagnating. The nearer it approaches the sea, the deeper it grows

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in the middle, and the freer it is from reeds. It has many windings, and, in its course, runs, between two tolerably high mountains. The water is sweet and good; but near the sea, from the intermixture of the salt water, and especially in the dry season, it grows saltish. We encamped several days along its banks in the open air, till we came to its mouth, in a sandy and barren field, where no colonists dwelt, and where there were only a few places for grazing cattle, which were mostly committed to the care of the Hottentots.

At the beginning of Verlooren-valley, opposite the end of Picquet mountain, projects a ridge of mountains, which runs all the way down to the Strand, where Verlooren-valley ends, and forms the heights on one side of this rivulet.

From Picquet-berg some ridges of mountains also project, which terminate on the other side of Verlooren-valley.

The large and long range of mountains which extends from Cape Falso, near Hottentot's Holland, across the whole country, terminates here in scattered and broken hills and eminences, so that it was not necessary to cross the above-mentioned range at this northern end, as at Roode Zand and Pickenier's kloofs.

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Near a farm where Hottentots only tended the cattle, we experienced the inconveniency of being infested with vermin. We encamped, it is true, at a considerable distance from their habitations; but before our arrival, they had spread their skin-coverings, which swarmed with vermin, upon the adjacent fields, and our pillows, on which we used to sit in the shade of our waggons, were presently filled with them, so that after several days painful labour we could hardly get rid of our hungry and troublesome guests.

Serpents abounded greatly in these sandy and bushy plains. Not a day passed that we did not catch several, and put them into the brandy-kegs. Whilst we were sitting on the ground to eat our homely meals, they ran across my legs and thighs as well as those of my fellow travellers, without once biting any of us. A serpent once twisted round my left leg, and, without biting me suffered itself to be gently shaken off. Another came creeping out from under my body, whilst I lay on the ground, and afterwards crawled, as cold as ice, over the bare leg of one of the company that sat near me, without doing the least hurt to any one of us. From this it may plainly be inferred, that serpents do not attempt to bite, unless in self defence, when trampled upon, or otherwise hurt. Many times did


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serpents run across the road, and not unfrequently between the horses' feet, without doing the horses any injury.

The sand-moles, of which here were vast numbers, had made so many holes in the ground that it was with great difficulty and danger the treveller could get on, as his horse sometimes fell deep into them, and very frequently stumbled.

From Verlooren valley we travelled on to Lange valley, which is a river similar to the former, but much less; and from hence we had a very long and dry carrow-field to traverse before we got near the mountains again, and to a place called the Gentlemen's hotel (Heeren logement.)

The heights were very sandy, the country dry, and the grazing farms scarce, at which the farmers themselves likewise did not live, but only kept some hired Hottentots to tend their cattle, which is here the only thing they attended to; as the drought and the barrenness of the soil prevent them from growing corn or planting orchards.

On the 25th, before we reached the Gentlemen's hotel, we passed several small vales in our way of a very trifling depth, which, from the heat of the weather, were already and singular appearance, as the clay which, during the rainy season, had been

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dissolved had agitated in water, was now deposited in various strata, or laminæ of different degrees of thickness, which had split in consequence of the heat, and were seen very distinctly. The lowermost layer was the coarsest, and contained a great quantity of extraneous particles, which, in consequence of their weight, had settled there first. The uppermost layer was both purer and finer, and so dry as to stick to the lips and tongue like a new tobacco pipe. This, as well as other African minerals, I collected, and have presented them to the royal academy at Upsal for their collection of minerals.

In my way to the Gentlemen's hotel, I found a scarce and long-sought for plant, viz. the Codon Royeni, but did not see more than one shrub of it, which however I think I never shall forget. It was one of the hottest days in summer, and the heat was so intolerable, that we were afraid that our beasts would grow faint and drop down quite exhausted. By this insufferable and tormenting heat our bodies were swelled up, as it were, and the pores opened in the highest degree. The bushes we met with, were covered all over with white, brittle, and transparent prickles, which, when my fellow traveller and I suddenly fell upon them, and strove which should pluck the most flowers with our naked hands, scratched them in such a terrible manner, that for

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several days we experienced great pain an inconvenience.

At length we arrived quite exhausted to the Gentlemen's hotel, which was a vale between the mountains, with a pretty high hill. Up this hill we had to drive before we could get into another tract of country, which however was not very fertile.

This place, which is pleasent, being ornamented with a small wood and a rivulet of fresh water, is called the Gentleman's hotel, because on one side of the mountain there is a large cavern to the westward, like a hall, formed by two rocks, which were hollowed out by the hand of time. I climbed up to it, and found the names of several travellers written on the sides. Near this was another hollow vault, but somewhat less.

In the former of these caves there was a small fissure, in which a tree, probably the Sideroxylon, had taken root, and stood in a very flourishing condition, being above eight feet in height; although it had no more water for its nourishment and support than the trifling quantity that was retained by the fissure in the rainy season.

Upon the whole, the mountains hereabouts were dry, barren, and of a brittle texture, appearing as if they had been burned, and containing a great number of large, bare, and loose stones.

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Whilst we refreshed ourselves here and our wearied cattle, a farmer arrived on horseback from Olyfant's rivier, who informed us that a lion inhabited the spot by which we were to pass, and that it had lately been seen upon the road, and had pursued a Hottentot there.

However, as we had no other way than this dangerous one to chuse, we set out on the following day, viz. the 26th, and, the better to be on our guard, we rode the whole day with our guns, laid across our arms, cocked and loaded with ball; and late in the evening, when it was quite dark, arrived at PETER VAN SEELE's, near Olyfant's river, where we staid a few days, as the situation was comfortable and the people obliging and hospitable.

The road was almost every where sandy, and the heights we rode over presented nothing but bare rocks, with a red sand stone, interspersed with pebbles, that appeared to have been inclosed in the sand-stone before it had hardened into a rock, in like manner as their surface seemed to have been polished, before their inclosure, to the degree of smoothness they now exhibited, by the violent motion of the waves.

Here was several mountains flat at top, like the Table mountain, which terminated behind Olyfant's river, before they reached the sea-

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shore, between which had and the mountains it is said to be a day's journey over a broad and level plain.

The Bokke-veld mountain also ended near the sea-shore, on the other side of Olyfant's river; they are of a considerable height, and do not go off with a gradual slope.

Kamerup was the name given here to the Hottentot's Water-melon, a large succulent root.

Karup again signified the root of a species of Lobelia, which was eaten by the Hottentots.

Moor-wortel is an umbelliferous plant, from the root of which and honey the Hottentots make, by fermentation, an intoxicating liquor.

A wild goose (Anas œgyptiaca) took up its residence in great Olyfant's river immediately below the farm, and did great damage to the farmer's wheat-fields. It had been fired on before, and wounded with small shot, but escaped alive. This made it so shy and cautious, that on the slightest view of the people of the house it would fly to the other side of the river, sot that no body could come within gunshot of it. I being a stranger, it seemed to be less fearful of me, a circumstance which, one day, as it came on the side of the river next the house, gave me an opportunity of shooting it, to the great satisfaction of my host.

As we now had to travel through a dry and barren desart, we took care to lay in proper pro-

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vision here for the journey, viz. biscuits, bread, butter, and fresh meat, with which our worthy hostess very obligingly furnished us. We sent all our baggage over Olyfant's and afterwards made the oxen swim across with the waggons. The river was deep in several places, and a beautiful wood, consisting of trees of various kinds, especially the Mimosa nilotica, adorned its banks.

After this, on the 30th, we rode down by the foot of the mountains, the first and largest projecting point of which was called Windhoek, and the other Maskamma. We arrived at a grazing farm, which belonged to one Ras, and was called Trutru. Here, on some of the lesser hills, I found the Hottentots water-melon, which I had been long in search of, and desirous of knowing. The root was almost as round as a ball, above six inches in diameter, of a yellowish colour, and about as hard as an ordinary turnep. The taste of it was agreeable and refreshing. It is much eaten by the Hottentots. Its blossom was not quite full blown; but it seemed to me to belong to the order of the Contortœ, and I thought it might be referred more especially to the Ceropegia, or the Periploca genus.

The field was always dry; in the clefts indeed, and sometimes at the foot of the mountains, there

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was water; but the land was so poor, that no farms could be laid our there.

We saw the Bokke-veld mountains lying before us, which extended far towards the sea-side, and that with several projecting points, just like so many ranges of mountains.

On the 31st, we proceeded through the desart; in which the farther we advanced, the drier it grew. Our journey through the desart lasted three days at least: and in the whole of this tract we found only three places which at this time afforded a little salt-water. But these were the more difficult to find, as they did not lie near the road, but at a good distance from it. A stranger easily passes by them, and thus endangers his own life and that of his cattle. Very happily for us, we fell in with a farmer from the Cape that was trevelling the same road; but with our weak cattle we could not keep pace with him. We therefore requested, that he would set up a stick with a linen rag on it at the places where we ought to bait, and in the neighbourhood of which we might look for so extraordinary a phenomenon as salt-water is in these thirsty plains. The first night we luckily hit upon the watering place called Single Dornboom's rivier, but not the second, so that our cattle were nearly exhausted by heat and thirst, before we reached,

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which we did not do till the third evening, the Bokke-land mountains, where we baited all night near a small rivulet of fresh water, called Dorn-rivier, after having passed a place called (Leeuwedans, or Leeuwejagt) Loins-dance.

In the winter, when it is set in for rain, the farmers remove for some time with their cattle to this part, which is at this time the most proper for breeding of sheep, but not always for other cattle. And indeed the sheep in these barren fields grow sometimes so fat, that their flesh cannot be eaten. The leanest are therefore always selected for slaughter. When a butcher has purchased a flock of sheep, and driven them 130 or 150 miles to the Cape, they are generally reckoned fat enough to be killed.

All the mountains here stretched N. N. E. towards the sea, and, S. S. W. into the country, where they grew very flat; towards the summits they were quite level, as if their heads had been lopped off.

To the left a ridge of mountains was seen to commence, which ran along the sea-shore, and was not very high.

In this Carrow-land grew the most singular Mesembryanthemums, and those in the greatest quantity; on the other hand but very few Crassulas, Euphorbias and Cotyledons.

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On the 2d of November, we rode up the Bokke-land mountains with two pair of oxen, with which the farmer, who had passed us, kindly assisted us, ours being quite fatigued and disabled, and the mountains so steep that several Hottentots were obliged to hold the waggons fast with cords, to prevent them oversetting. This mountain was not only very steep, but likewise very hilly, and abounded with slate; above there was a steep ridge, and the sides of the crown itself were almost perpendicular. At the top of all the mountain was level, the air colder, and the plain abounded in grass.

Bokkeveld lies between the 30th and 31st deg. South of the Equator.

In ascending this mountain, we discovered a species of Aloe (Aloe dichotoma) the stem of which, when of a proper thickness, is hollowed out, and used by the Hottentots as a quiver for their arrows.

Weary, but not a little pleased, we afterwards arrived at CLAS LOSPER's farm, whither we intended indeed to have gone the preceding year, but were prevented by an accident. In this honest farmer, during the few days stay we made with him, we found as generous a host as we had before found in him a faithful guide and kind assistant. He was the richest grazier in the

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whole country; and was at this time in possession of at least 12,000 sheep, and above 600 full-grown horned cattle, besides about 200 calves.

We now left a tract of land to the left, nearer to the sea, which is occupied and inhabited by two rich and powerful nations, the little and great Namaquas. These are occupied in grazing; and their cattle appeared to me be of quite a different kind from those of the Caffres and colonists, being for the most part long legged, large, and without a bunch on the back.

Bokke-land of Goet-land, which we had now reached, is nothing else than a tolerably high mountain, which is level at the top, and towards the edges of its summit forms a variety of projecting angles, pointing to the sea side. It consists of different strata; the uppermost of which is sand-stone, in many places interlarded with polished round pebbles. The sand-stone is for the most part laminate like slate, and moulders away into pieces by rain.

This country being all over exceedingly barren, and consequently not much frequented by the colonists, there were several small societies of Hottentots, scattered up and down very inconsiderable herds of cattle; and a great many of them were employed as servants by the few farmers that lived here, who repaid their services with cattle and other trifling gratuities.

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With these as well as other Hottentots who live farther up the country near Roggeveld, and who were once more numerous and rich than they are at present, the Dutch Company formerly carried on a bartering trade; but, on account of the injustice and violence which the factors that were sent to them were guilty of, and which the governors frequently connived at, not deeming it their duty to contend for the right of nature and humanity, when neither the Company's nor their own private interest was concerned, it has now almost entirely ceased. When a corporal was sent out by the governor with a few men to barter with the Hottentots for their oxen, against arrack, glass beads, iron and tobacco, he not only got their oxen for slaughter, but their calves, cows, and sheep. And this exchange was not always with the Hottentots' good will and consent, but by compulsion, and frequently by force. Besides this, they were base enough to dilute the arrack with water, and thus to adulterate it. This mode of bartering occasioned by degrees such a disgust, that some of the Hottentots neglected to augment their stock, and others entirely left the places of their residence, and ran away; after which they sometimes stole cattle from the farmers, who by degrees seized upon their land. Not long ago, corporal FELDMAN procured by barter 500 oxen, with

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the greatest part of which he enriched himself, returning only fifty into the Company's slaughter-house. This bartering traffic, which was not very advantageous to the Company, but unjust and cruel towards the Hottentots, has now quite ceased as well in this North Western, as in the South Eastern part of Africa, especially since the land is well peopled, and the farmers, who abound in cattle, are now capable of delivering as many soever as may be wanted. Should such traffic ever take place again, it ought to be with the Caffres and Namaquas, who are possessed of a great quantity of cattle, and whose lands have not hitherto suffered in the least by the encroachments from the colonists.

From Bokkeland we saw the Roggeveld mountains to the eastward, and, nearer hand, the Hantums mountains to the northward, and still farther to the northward, a range of mountains, behind which lay, according to report, an immense long plain without mountains, but furnished with several salt-pans, and inhabited by Boshiesman-Hottentots. All the above-mentioned mountains lay high, and at the top as it were of the Bokkeland mountains.

The Boshiesman Hottentots inhabit the most indifferent, poor, bare, and cold part of this southernmost point of Africa, towards the N. and E. from Namaquas-land, across Roggeveld, and

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as far as the Snow-mountains. And indeed this nation is the poorest and most destitute of all. They have seldom or ever any cattle, and frequently no fixed abode, but wander about the country, and support themselves by plunder and theft. They often live without either clothes or huts; and I was informed by some farmers worthy of credit, that these people sometimes creep down at night into caverns and holes in the earth, many together till the cave is full, when the uppermost covers himself with the skin of a Dassi (Cavia capensis) to keep out the cold and bad weather. They are of a yellowish brown colour, and something less than the Hottentots, with very small and delicate limbs. The belly, which projects extremely, constitutes almost the whole of the man.

These Boshiesmen had, for the space of several years, molested the colonists here, as likewise in Roggeveld and near the Snow-mountains, stolen their cattle, murdered many of the colonists themselves, and set fire to their farms. At different times parties had been sent out to disperse them, and last year in particular, three large parties had been sent into three different quarters.

A party consisting of a hundred men, of which thirty-two were christians, and the rest Hottentots in their service, had been sent out against some Namaquas Boshiesmen, and now met us on

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their return. In this expedition they had killed about a hundred, and made prisoners of twenty, chiefly small children, some of whom they at this present juncture had with them. It was said that in a similar expedition in 1765, 186 had been killed. None of the christians that went on this expedition were either killed or wounded.

The Hottentots are considered as allies, and not suffered to be made slaves of; but such Hottentots as are taken prisoners in war, especially if young, are for some time the property of the captor, and obliged to serve without wages, but are not to be disposed of to others. If any of the colonists take an Hottentot orphan to bring up, it must serve, it is true, without wages, till it is twenty-five years old; but, on arriving at that age, it is at liberty to go where it pleases, or to continue in service at a stated salary.

Although this Bokkeland, which also has the name of the Lower Bokkeveld, lies very high, yet it is said that snow very seldom falls here.

For the protection of the property of the colonists against the ravages of the Hottentots, the Company had, to the eastward, established several posts one after another; but to the westward, on the other side of the mountain, not one was established, although it is there that such posts are most necessary and important. The farmers towards this coast must therefore themselves be

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the arrows of others with the greatest nimbleness and dexterity, just as baboons do when stones are thrown at them; and if they could but see the musquet-balls of the Europeans, they would think themselves able to escape them likewise. To running the Boshiesmen Hottentots are so inured, as not to be excelled in it by any others; but can almost hold out longer than a horse. On the level plains they are easily overtaken by a man on horseback; but very seldom if the road be stony, and never in mountainous places.

They can endure hunger a longer time; but when they have a plentiful supply, will eat so immoderately as to distend their bellies to an amazing size. When oppressed by hunger, they tie a belt round their bodies, which they gradually draw tighter, till the naval is brought close to the back-bone.

When a Boshiesman has caught a serpent, and killed it, he does not, according to report, cut off its head, but bites it off, and then cutting out the vesicle containing the poison, dries it in the sun till it becomes viscid and tough, and then mixes it with the juice of a poisonous tree, (frequently the Cestrum venenatum) which makes the poison adhere the faster to the arrow.

The Hottentots and Boshiesmen are said to fortify themselves against poisoned darts and the

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bite of venomous animals, by suffering themselves to be gradually bitten by serpents, scorpions, and other venomous creatures, till they become accustomed to it; but these trials sometimes cost them their lives. The urine of an Hottentot thus prepared is esteemed an excellent antidote or counterpoison, and is therefore drunk by such as have been bitten by serpents.

When it thunders, the Boshiesmen are very angry and curse bitterly, thinking, that the storm is occasioned by some evil being.

Poisonous bulbous plants, (Giftbolles, Amaryllis disticha) grow in several places common, with their beautiful clusters of flowers. The root, which is poisonous, is almost as big as one's fist. The Hottentots use it chiefly for poisoning the arrows with which they shoot the smaller kind of game, such as Spring bucks (Capra pygargus) and the like. Those bulbs that grow in the shade are thought to possess a stronger poison than those which are exposed to the sun.

On the following days we rode along Bokkeland to Hantum. The country inclined gently and gradually towards it. The Hantum country began with scattered ridges of mountains; farther up the country stood a high mountain, which was more particularly called Hantummountain, and had a cut, or open cleft, through which we rode. The mountain was smooth and level at

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the top, and in height appeared equal to Roggeveld.

After we had got to the end of Bokke-land, the country grew, the farther we travelled, a drier Carrow, with considerable rivers, which had still brackish water in them, but in summer are quite dried up.

In Hantum we passed VAN RHEN's grazing farm, near Riet-fontein, and afterwards rode by HENDRIK LAU's grazing farm, to ABRAHAM VAN WYK's farm. This VAN WYK was a lusty, fat man; as soon as the dogs, by their barking, announced the arrival of strangers, he stood at the door to bid us welcome. My fellow traveller and I were not a little surprised, in a country so extremely barren, and through which we had travelled several days without seeing a single living creature, now to find so lusty and corpulent a man, and one that did so much credit to his keeper.

In this tract we found the Fungus we had so long sought and wished to see, (Hydnora Africana) which without doubt is one of the most extraordinary plants that have been discovered of late years. It always grows under the branches of the shrub, Euphorbia tirucalli, and upon its roots. The lower part of it, which is the fruit, is eaten by the Hottentots, Viverræ, Foxes and other animals.

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On the 13th we proceeded to CHRISTIAN BOCK's, and

On the 14th to Rhonnoster-rivier, where we were obliged to unyoke our cattle and stay all night; although a lion had two days before killed a zebra near this spot, which it had not yet had time to devour.

The lions have their haunts in every part of these mountains; and are, on account of the farmers' herds of cattle, as disagreeable neighbours as the Boshiesmen. And indeed there were several people here who had been in danger from these dreadful beasts of prey. Amongst others was mentioned a farmer of the name of KORF, who lived not far off.

A lion had stationed itself amongst the rushes of a rivulet that ran near the farm, so as to deter the servants from going to fetch water, or tend the cattle. The farmer himself therefore, accompanied by a few terrified Hottentots, resolved to attack it, and endeavour to drive it away. But as it lay concealed in the thick rushes, he could not see to take aim, but was obliged to fire several shot at random into the rushes. The lion, enraged at this, rushed out upon the farmer, who, having fired off his piece, was now quite defenceless, and at the same time deserted by his sugitive Hottentots. As soon as the lion had laid hold of him, he plucked up cou-

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rage, and thrust one of his hands down the lion's throat, which saved him from being torn to pieces, till at length he fainted away from loss of blood. After this the lion left him, and retreated into the rushes again for a few days. When the farmer at last recovered, he found that he was not only terribly wounded in his sides by the lion's talons, but one of his hands was so much torn and lacerated by the animal's teeth, that there were no hopes of its being healed. On entering the house and being a little revived, he took an ax in his hand, laid the wounded hand on a block, put the ax on it, and ordered one of his servants to strike the ax with a club. Having thus cut off his own hand, he dressed it with cow-dung, and tied a bladder over it, and at length healed the wounds with the usual salve, made of a decoction of odoriferous herbs, lard, and a little wax.

I heard another anecdote of an old farmer, who, together with his son, had gone out in order to drive away a lion from his farm. The lion had suddenly leaped upon the old man's back, and in that situation, before it had had time to kill him, was shot dead by the son.

Another instance was related to me of the widow of one WAGENAAR, near the Snow-mountains, who had gone out to scare a lion away from her cattle; when the beast seizing on her,

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first ate off one of her arms, and at length, when she fainted, devoured her head. After this it had likewise devoured a Hottentot maid servant, who had ran to her mistress's assistance. The children who had seen this shocking sight through the crevices of the door, dug themselves out through the earth under the back wall of the house, and from thence ran away to the nearest farm.

From this dangerous place we went to Daunis, where the settlement had been destroyed by the Boshiesmen by fire, and the owner with his people forced to run away.

The country here was level, with several mountains running N. E. and S. W. Directly before us lay the Roggeveld mountains.

Moorwotel, (an umbelliferous plant) was also spoken of here as a root, from which, with water and honey, the Hottentots prepare an intoxicating liquor. This root is said to be taken up principally in the months of November and December.

On the 15th we rode along. Drooge-rivier, where we were informed by two farmers who overtook us, that a lion had followed our track the day before, but, on seeing some sheep, had turned about in pursuit of them.

On the 16th we travelled along the foot of the Roggeveld mountains, and then, through a valley

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formed by them, called Port, and at last went up the mountain to WILHELM STENKAMP's farm.

Here the country was called the Lowermost Roggeveld, not because it lies lower than the other Roggevelds, (Ryefields) but because it lies farthest from the Cape. These as well as the others have been so named from a kind of rye which grows wild here in abundance near the bushes.

The winter is very cold, with frost and snow, for which reason no cattle can be kept here, instead of which they are driven down to Carrow. The settlers in the lowermost Roggeveld, who are in possession of good houses, sometimes pass the winter there; but those who live in the middle Roggeveld, always remove from thence.

The whole country is destitute of wood, and has only a few small shrubs and bushes of the Mesembryanthemum, Pteronia, Stoebe kinds, and a few others, such as Othonnas, &c. The country produces good fodder for sheep and horses only, of which there are great numbers, but very little horned-cattle, on most of the farms.

The uppermost stratum of this mountain is sand-stone, which is hard and breaks in large pieces, and very fit for building of houses. The middle stratum is slate, which may be dis-

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cerned in the clefts, and this bed is wider than the former. The lowermost stratum is red sand and clay, interspersed with round stones of different sizes.

Roggeveld is a mountain which has been inhabited by the colonists for these thirty years past. It consists of eminences and vallies, and has no ridges of any remarkable height, so that it cannot be called level, but hilly.

The farms are not situated far up the country, but near the edges of the summit of the mountain and all along it, so that the part inhabited is yet very small.

The soil in the lowermost Roggeveld is a dark brown mould, intermixed with a small quantity of loose and brittle clay. It does not rain either at Roggeveld or at Camdebo in winter, but only in spring and summer; and the rain is then always accompanied with thunder storms.

On the 18th we proceeded to JACOB LAUE's, and,

On the 20th, to ADRIAN LAUE's farm. From the edge of the summit of the mountain here we saw the Carrow lying underneath us, as also Windhoek, Maskamma, the Table-mountains near Olyfant's rivier, the cold Bokkevelds, and Roode-Zands Winterhoek, all in a row.

The Roode Zand and Bokkeveld mountains were lower than Roggeveld. Carrow lay be-

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tween these, higher than that Carrowfield which we had passed through between Olyfant's rivier and Bokkeland, and almost as high as Maskamma and the Bokkeland mountains.

On the 21st we came to GERT VAN WYK's.

The above-mentioned farms were always situated in vallies between the heights.

Although the summer drew near, it was very cold and froze at nights. The afternoon's breeze also was always cold.

On the 23d we arrived at THOMAS NEL's farm; and afterwards to ADRIAN VAN WYK's, near the edge of the top of the mountain, where a tremenduously deep valley extends down to Carrow; from hence a road leads to Carrow and Mostert's hoek.

Here I saw a Hottentot female servant that was born with the left arm imperfect, and ending near the elbow. The mother was for murdering this child at the birth, according to the custom of the Hottentots, (it being a cripple) but was prevented by a humane colonist.

I was surprised to find that the Hottentots, who were in the service of the farmers, and were mostly naked, could endure the cold here so well. They had no other covering than a sheep-skin about their backs; the woolly side being worn next to the skin in the winter, and the smooth side in the summer. It was but seldom

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that they had shoes to their feet. It sometimes happens, however, that they are frozen to death.

It is a custom with the Hottentots in these parts to bury their dead in the clefts of the mountains; and such as fell into a swoon, had the hard fate to be buried immediately. Wild cucumbers is the name given to the Coloquintida (Cucumis colocynthis). They were said to be eaten by the Hottentots, and even by the colonists, after being pickled with vinegar, although they taste very bitter. The sheep feed eagerly on them. The Stapelia articulata repens, a thick plant without leaves, is eaten by the Hottentots, as also by the colonists, after being pickled in the same manner as cucumbers.

Karré-hout (Rhus) is a kind of wood which the Hottentots in this part of the country used for making bows.

The road all over Roggeveld was rough, and full of round and sharp loose stones.

The spring-bok comes hither sometimes from the interior parts, and goes as far as the Bokkevelds, or somewhat farther. At the expiration of a certain number of years they emigrate in the same manner as the Lemmings in Swedish Lapland, arriving in troops of millions, and going in a long field one after the other, eating away all the herbage wherever they pass, and suffering nothing to obstruct them in their march. If any

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of them bring forth on the road, they leave their young behind. If any of the farmers fire amongst them, they continue their route nevertheless without interruption, and are not even intimidated by lions and other beasts of prey, who follow the herd, and make great havock amongst them. After they have passed through any farmer's grounds, hardly any thing is left for his cattle to eat, nor any water to drink. The corn-fields must be watched night and day, otherwise they would entirely destroy the corn, and the farmers would be reduced to want.

On the 24th, we came to a spring in the open field, where we encamped all night, and,

On the 25th, we crossed the mountain to PAUL KERSTE's near Kreutsfontein. In the afternoon, when we were ready to set out from hence, and our horses were saddled, my horse had the misfortune to be bitten in the breast by a serpent, as they were watering him at the brook just below the farm. In consequence of this his whole foot grew stiff and swelled as I rode on, and the swelling increased to such a degree, that, before I had got a stone's-throw from the farm, he could proceed no farther, and I was obliged to leave him on the spot. A small serpent not quite six inches long, which was said to be very venomous, and was found here in abundance, was supposed to be the perpetrator of this mischief.

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Here began the Middle Roggeveld, which was only divided from the former by means of a few mountainous ridges.

On the 26th we arrived at CORNELIUS KUTSE's.

His son had a short time before been bitten in the hand by a venomous serpent. His hand had been scarified immediately, and a cupping-glass applied, in order to extract the poison from it. After this it was steeped in a solution of vitriol, which was said to have been rendered quite black by it. An onion was next applied, and afterwards turtle-blood. This latter, when laid on the wound in a dry state, was said to dissolve and turn to a fluid blood, that exhibited signs of effervescence: as the poison of serpents has a stronger attraction for turtle-blood than for human blood, so as to attract the poison to itself.

Every farmer travelling from Roggeveld to the Cape through Mosterts-hoek, pays annually a certain sum towards repairing the roads. The farmers who live far up the country, have generally the misfortune to be poorer, and to be subject to greater expence than others.

We fell in here with another party, that had been in pursuit of the Boshiesmen quite up into Roggeveld. This party consisted of about ninety odd persons, of whom forty-seven were christians. They had killed and taken prisoners

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nearly 230 Boshiesmen. One of the colonists had been shot in the knee with an arrow, which had cost him his life. The third detachment, which had been sent to the Snow-mountains, had killed 400 Boshiesmen; of this party seven had been wounded by arrows, but none died.

It sometimes happens, that the Boshiesmen take away at once the farmer's whole herd whilst grazing, and frequently even kill the herdsmen. They afterwards drive their booty higher up into the country, night and day, as fast as they can, till they arrive at a place where they think themselves perfectly secure. What they cannot take with them they kill with their javelins; and, in their flight, place spies on the heights of the mountains, to look out carefully, and see whether they are pursued by the colonists. These spies are relieved by others, and give intelligence if the party is pursued; in which case they all hide themselves if possible, in the mountains. In their flight they kill, roast, and eat by turns. When they have stolen a considerable number of cattle, and are arrived at some place where they think themselves tolerably secure, they encamp there with their cattle, and make huts (Kraals) of Mesembryanthemum bushes or of mats, in which they live together as long as their food lasts. The detachment had seen one of these Kraals, or encampments formed of huts in two

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rows, like a village, in which they had counted on one side upwards of fifty huts, from which all the Boshiesmen have removed.

In Roggeveld alone the Boshiesmen had, in the last two years, stolen more than 10,000 sheep, besides oxen, and murdered many of the colonists, their slaves, and Hottentots.

When the Boshiesmen are pursued by the colonists on horseback, they retreat to the mountains, where, like baboons, they post themselves on the edges of the summits and in the inaccessible places, and are always afraid of the plains. They sometimes creep into the clefts, and from these bulwarks let fly their arrows.

The weapons with which they defend themselves against their enemies, are bows and poisoned arrows. By way of defence against these, the colonists cause a skin to be held before them, in which the arrows stick fast, that frequently come like a shower of rain. The Boshiesmen, when they perceive that their arrows do not penetrate, do not fire a second volley. A Boshiesman who is mortally wounded by a ball, is never found either crying or lamenting in any shape whatever.

These people first chew Canna (Mesembryanthemum), and afterwards smoke it. They besmear themselves with greasy substances, and over that with red chalk; in times of scarcity they feed on

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serpents, lizards, the flesh of zebras, lions, and baboons, upon bulbous roots, ants' eggs, &c.

On the 29th we rode along Visch-rivier past OLIVIER's farm, to JACOBUS THERON's. A misfortune, which I least expected on a smooth and plain road, attended me however this day. Thro' the carelessness of my Hottentots, who drove against a stone that lay in the road, my cart overturned, the tilt over it was torn asunder, and many of my boxes and packets of herbs were lost.

I here saw necklaces and ornaments for the waist, which the Hottentots had made of the shells of ostriches' eggs, ground in the form of small round rings, and which made a very fine appearance.

The cold in this Roggeveld is very intense in winter, and snow falls with frost. The farmers, therefore, live here only a few months in the year, viz. from October to May; build here their houses and sow their wheat, which they are obliged to leave to the mercy of the Boshiesmen, during the time that they remove down to the Carrow-field below, where it rains certain months in the year, so that they can remain there with their cattle till the approaching dry season obliges them to remove up the mountain to Roggeveld again.

On the 1st of December, we travelled farther on to ESTERHUYSEN's farm, where we were

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obliged to stay a couple of days, on account of the stormy, inclement weather, which continued with frost, rain, hail, and snow, for the space of twenty-four hours, and not only confined us to our room, but obliged us to put on our great-coats, as a defence against such an unexpected and unusual degree of cold, which was partly occasioned by the height of the mountain, and partly by the violence of the north and northwest winds.

The mountain, compared to the Carrow-field below, was at least as high as Table mountain is at the Cape, and a high road for carriages runs from hence to Carrow.

On the 3d, in the morning, we set out from this cold place to go down the mountain, and could not, as we had wished, continue our journey farther up Roggeveld, as our beasts were too poor and too tender footed, to continue longer on this sharp and rugged mountain.

In the morning when we set out, the ice still lay on the summit of the mountain, as far as to its very edges, of the thickness of a rix dollar.

The road down the mountain lay over several steep heights and abrupt declivities like very high and broad steps, for which reason not only the two hind wheels were obliged to be locked, but the waggon itself to be held fast by the Hottentots, by means of ropes, in order to prevent it from over-


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setting and falling down upon the oxen. The uppermost declivity was the steepest, and called (Uytkyk) Look-out, on account of the extensive view it commanded; the other was called Maurice's heights.

While we were on the heights of the mountain, it was intensely cold; but, the lower we descended, the calmer and warmer the air became, till in about three hours time we got down to Carrow, when the heat began to grow intolerable.

We had now before us a very large and extensive field in the dry and barren Carrow to traverse, before we could reach an inhabited place. We had therefore supplied ourselves at the last farm, with as much provision as was necessary for a few days, and with this set out on our journey through a scorching desart, so destitute of water that even a sparrow could not subsist in it, and so devoid of every living creature, that only a few rats were to be seen here and there in holes in the earth, which probably find, in the succulent leaves of the shrubs in these parts, somewhat that serves both to appease their hunger and quench their thirst.

Sun-rise called forth every morning these earth-rats, whose nests always ran slanting downwards, with their entrance facing the east. We tried to shoot some of them as they popped their heads out, but found them, to our great surprise

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as well as disappointment, inexpressibly quick in with-drawing into their holes as soon as they saw the flash of the pan. I tried several times with an excellent gun to hit one of them, but found it impracticable, till I fell upon the method of putting a piece of paper before the pan, which prevented them from seeing the flash of the prime.

On the 4th, setting out from MEYBURG's farm which lay at the foot of the mountain, we came to Goudbloom's kloof, and, on the 5th, through smaller vallies to the river of Misfortune (Ongelucks rivier), so called on account of a farmer having been quite eaten up here by a lion. Here we rested two days, waiting for the arrival of a farmer, who was going to the Cape, and who had promised to assist us with his oxen across the dryest of all the Carrows which lay before us. But as he did not arrive according to his promise, and this baiting place was such that both man and beast ran the risk not only of starving for want of food, but likewise of dying of thirst, we were obliged to use all our efforts, and, on the 7th, from eleven o 'clock at night to the next morning, make a long journey to a little rivulet that ran before a mountain called Paardeberg, which was small and solitary.

The tract of country which we had left behind us, was full of small mountains and ridges of

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mountains, some detached, others connected together, and running W. N. W. towards Roggeveld and the Bokkeveld mountains. The small quantity of water which was here to be found in a very few places and in small cavities, was not only salt, but likewise so thick and turbid with clay and other impurities, that we were obliged to lay a handkerchief over it, in order to suck a little of it into our mouths.

There is another road indeed farther down, which is less mountainous and smoother, but at the same time also affords less water.

On the 8th we passed the above-mentioned Paardeberg in our way to Doan-rivier. Hitherto the Carrow had with few exceptions led down with a gradual descent all over its surface, inclining from the Roggeveld to the Bokkeveld mountains, and was almost every where free from bushes.

On the 9th, we left Dorn rivier, and taking the road through the valley formed by the mountains between Carrow and Bokkeveld, arrived at last at a settlement and farm belonging to VANDER MERVEL's widow.

This good house-wife used a curious method of separating lentils from the wheat with which they were mixed. She threw it all to her fowls, who carefully picked up every grain of wheat, and left the lentils behind untouched.

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The leaves of the Indigofera arborca were boiled, and the decoction was said to be a good remedy against the gravel and stone.

The strata in the mountains, as they were seen in the vallies, inclined very much here, and were even singularly crooked. The ridge of mountains also inclined here considerably to the eastward.

On the 11th we departed from hence, having first bought a large ram, which we salted in its own skin. Our route continued till we arrived at a place called Verkeerde valley, which is one of the pleasantiest spots I have seen in the whole country. It is situated between two rows of mountains with great plenty of grass, and a fen abounding in water, almost like a small lake. As we wanted leisure to inspect and look after our collections, and our cattle stood in greater need of rest and refreshment, we agreed to reman in this pleasant though uninhabited spot for a few days, and eat our salted mutton in solitude.

On the 14th we passed through a valley in the mountains, called (Straat) Street to DE VOS's estate near Hex-rivier.

We were now returned, as I may say, to Christendom, or to those tracts in which the settlements lay closer to each other; after having for the space of several weeks, for the most part wandered in desarts, often encamped in the open

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air, and in the most dangerous places, and several times been in want of the necessaries of life.

Near this farm a branch of Hex-rivier takes its rise in the mountains, which branch unites within the vale with the larger branch that runs here, and likewise springs out of the mountains.

On the 16th we rode past JORDAN's farm to VAN DE MERVEL's estate, and,

On the 17th, through Hex rivier's kloof to Roode Zand.

Hex rivier's kloof has no heights, is quite level and smooth, and we were obliged to cross the stream several times. On the tops of the mountains which stood on each side, there still lay a great deal of snow or hail.

Roode Katt is the name here given to a kind of red lynx, with long locks of hair at the extremities of its ears, and the tip of its tail black. PENNANT calls it a Persian cat, and BUFFON Caracal. Hist. Nat. de Quadr. Tom. ix. Tab. 24. The skin of it was said by the farmers to be very efficacious, as a discutient when applied to parts affected with cold, or rheumatism.

In the mountains, between the clefts of the naked rock, resides a kind of jumping rat (Jerboa capensis) which the farmers considered as a species of hare, and called it Berghaas or Springhaas. This animal is of a curious make; its fore feet being extremely short, but the hind feet nearly

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as long as the whole body, which enables the creature to leap to a surprising distance.

The strata of the mountains were sometimes wreathed, and sometimes very much inclined.

The ridge of mountains therefore which we had to pass through, was, all the way from Carrow-field hither to the outlet of Her rivier near Roode Zand, very broad, intersected with narrower vallies both length-ways and across.

From Roode Zand we took the usual way through it's kloof, which has a considerable eminence that must be crossed; but the rest of the road runs along the side of the mountain.

Roode Zand is, as it were, the key to the whole country behind the chain of mountains, which runs across the whole point. Most of the farmers therefore, who travel annually to the Cape, pass this way, except those who take the road across Hottentots Holland. On this occasion a surgeon had established himself at Roode Zand, and set up a small apothecary's shop, which brought him in a handsome income. The medicines were all well paid for, insomuch that a purging powder did not cost less than half a rix dollar. Sometimes they brought the sick hither, as well colonists as slaves, and left them under the surgeon's care till their return. Several in the abundance of their friendship endeavoured to persuade me to establsh myself here. But the

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love I bore to botany and my native country prevented me from accepting the offer.

Riebeck casteel was now observed to extend with a long tail much lower than the mountain itself, towards the south east.

We took our route afterwards past Paardeberg through Koopman's rivier, a rivulet, which is a branch of Berg-rivier, and farther through Burger's drift across Berg-rivier, and past Elsis Kraal to the Cape, where I arrived safe and sound on the 29th of December, with a heart filled with the deepest adoration of that divine Being, which, during my three years travels in this country, had not only preserved my life and health, but also permitted me to make several useful discoveries in it, to his glory and the future benefit of mankind.

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THE CAPE. 1775.

HOTTENTOTS is the common denomination of all those nations which inhabit the southern angle of Africa, and are extended on each side of the Cape of Good Hope. How far the country of these people extends is not yet accurately known; but though they are divided into a multitude of tribes, which differ from one another in many respects, yet it is clearly to be perceived that they all originate from one and the same stock; and that they differ widely from the negroes and moors who inhabit the other coasts of Africa.

The Hottentots in general are short, especially the women, although some among them are found that are five or six feet high. Their colour is neither black nor white, but yellowish; and

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their exterior black appearance is owing to the filth which adheres to their bodies in consequence of their besmearing themselves.

The form and lineaments of the face characterize this as well as other nations. Their cheekbones are very prominent, which makes them always appear meagre and lean; the nose is flattened towards the root, and thick and blunt at the tip, but not very short; their lips are rather thick, their hair jet black like spun wool, and seldom thick, more frequently thin, resembling the nap upon cloth. They have very little hair upon their chin and privy parts. The spine in particular is very much bent, so that I never saw any one so hollow-backed as the Hottentots. I have seen some of them whose backs were bent in, and their buttocks projected to such a degree, that two people might sit on them. And although the Hottentots are very lean, yet the constant practice of besmearing themselves distends their skin, and especially the womens' breasts, to an inconceivable degree, so that, in this particular, they can challenge all other nations. The Boshiesmen have more prominent bellies than the rest.

The patriarchal form of government has from time immemorial existed amongst them, and still obtains with many; and this has been the origin of the many larger and smaller tribes and fami-

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lies, into which they formerly were, and their survivors still are, divided. Such tribes formerly were the Gunjemans, Kokoquas, Sussaquas, Odiquas, Chirigriquas, Koopmans, Hessaquas, Sonquas, Dunquas, Damaquas, Gauris, Attaquas, Heykoms, Houteniquas, and Camtours Hottentots, of which few exist at present; and such at this time are the little and great Namaquas, Gonaquas, Caffres, Boshiesmen, &c. Of these probably some may in former times have been subdivided into still smaller tribes.

The Hottentots love filth in the highest degree; they besmear their bodies with fat and greasy substances, over which they rub cow-dung, fat, and similar substances. By this means the pores are stopped up and the skin covered with a surface, which defends them in summer against the scorching heat of the sun, and from the cold in winter. Amongst their ointments they mix the powder of a strong smelling herb, which they called Bucku, (a species of Diosma, frequently the Pulehella), and which gives them so disagreeable, so fetid, and at the same time so rank an odour, that I sometimes could not bear the smell of the Hottentots that drove my waggon.

Their dress is very simple, most of them wear a sheep's skin thrown across their shoulders, and another over their loins, the hairy side being worn next the body in winter, and the other side

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in summer. These sheep-skins prepared, cover the body behind, but leave it almost entirely naked before. The women, by way of covering, use a short, square, and sometimes a double piece of skin, that reaches half way down their thighs, and the men a case of fox's skin, like a purse, tied with a thong about their bodies. The Gonaquas Hottentots and Caffres use such a dress of calf-skin, and their chiefs of tyger skin.

Their legs are bare, and their feet for the most part without shoes; but round rings made of the hides of animals adorn their legs, especially those of the women, from the instep to the calf of the leg, and prevent them from being bitten by serpents. In time of need they likewise serve them for food, when they broil these rings and eat them.

Their heads are frequently without any covering at all; but sometimes they wear a conical skin-cap, and the women in some places make use of a broad wreath of Buffalo's skin, ornamented with small shells.

Their necks and waists are ornamented with different coloured glass beads, which they procure by barter from the Europeans. To the necklace they sometimes fasten a turtle-shell, in which they keep Bucku. The Caffres put Porcupine's quills into their ears (Hystrix), and some of the women that live farthest to the eastward, use ear-rings of copper, to set off their brown beauty.

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The Caffres wear ivory rings, and frequently several of them on the left arm; and some, in default of these, wear rings of brass, or iron. All the Hottentots, but more especially the Caffres, set a great value upon shining plates of copper, brass, or iron, which they hang in their hair, or on other parts of the body.

They are all graziers, except the Boshiesmen, and are sometimes in possession of numerous herds of cattle, especially the Caffres and Namaquas people, upon whose domains the Europeans have not yet been able to make any encroachments. These subsist on their flocks and herds, and hunt different wild beasts, especially Buffaloes and wild goats of various sorts, (sometimes very large ones), with Sea-cows and Elephants. They live besides on the roots of several plants, such as Irises, Ixias, Moreas, Gladioluses, and others, the beans of the Guajacum afrum, &c. The men use likewise cow's milk, which they milk themselves, and the women sheep's milk. To quench their thirst, they mostly drink water, milk and water, and, when urged by necessity, chew Mesembryanthemums, Albucas, and other succulent herbs. The men's business is to go to war, hunt, milk, kill the cattle, and fabricate arms; the womens', to look after the children, fetch wood, dig up bulbous roots, and dress the victuals. The meat

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is eaten both roasted and boiled, but for the most part half raw, without salt, spices, or bread. They make a fire by rubbing two pieces of hard wood quickly against each other.

The Caffres are the only people in this part of Africa that apply themselves in the least to agriculture. They cultivate Caffre-corn (Holcus) beans, hemp, &c. The rest do not till the earth at all, except some few who now and then sow a handful of hemp.

Their huts are built with sprays of trees, which are fixed in the ground, and bent in arches, so as to make the hut round at top, and about four feet high. These are afterwards covered with mats made of rushes, and on one side an opening about two feet high is left at bottom, which serves the double purpose of a door and chimney, the fire-place being near the opening. Such huts as these, built in a circle of a greater or smaller extent according to circumstances, form a village, within which the cattle, at least the sheep, are kept in the night, and secured from beasts of prey. As long as the grass lasts on the spot they live there without removing; but as soon as it fails or any one dies, the whole village removes to another place: so that the Hottentots, like the Laplanders and Arabians, are Nomades, or wandering shepherds. A few of them live together in one of these huts, and lie coiled up with

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their knees drawn up to their heads, dispersed around the internal walls of it.

The language, which frequently is almost the only thing that distinguishes the indolent Hottentots from the brute creation, is poor, unlike any other in the world, is pronounced with a clack of the tongue, and is never written.

With respect to houshold furniture, they have little or none. The same dress that covers a part of their body by day, serves them also for bedding at night. Their victuals are boiled in leathern sacks and water, with stones made red hot, but sometimes in earthen pots. Milk is kept in leathern sacks, bladders of animals, and baskets made of platted rushes, perfectly water-tight. These, a tobacco-pouch of skin, a tobacco-pipe of stone or wood, and their weapons, constitute the whole catalogue of their effects. Their defensive weapons against their enemies and wild beasts consist of darting-sticks (Kirris) javelins (Assagay) and bows with poisoned arrows.

To the use of intoxicating substances they are much addicted. From a decoction of certain indigenous roots and honey, they prepare an inebriating kind of mead. They are very fond of arrack and brandy, and take delight in smoaking tobacco, either pure, or mixed with hemp, and, when they cannot procure these, wild Dakka (Phlolmis) or the dung of the two-horned Rhino-

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noceros, or of Elephants. The inhabitants of the southern part of Africa contract marriage early, and with little ceremony. When the suitor has made his intentions known, and obtained the girl's and her parents' consent, a day is fixed for the wedding, which is solemnized by the priest belonging to the village, who besprinkles the bride and bridegroom with his urine. After that an ox or sheep is killed, according to the circumstances of the parties, and the company entertained; the men and women sitting in separate circles, according to their custom, and always squat on their heels, as they have neither chairs nor sofas. One circumstance however attending their weddings is highly laudable, which is, that though at other times they are much given to drunkenness, they never drink on this occasion; neither do they dance and play upon musical instruments.

To their new-born children they give a name, which is generally that of some wild or domestic animal.

A youth is not suffered to marry till he is made a man, which is at the age of eighteen; when the village master of the ceremonies besprinkles him with urine, and separates him from that time forward from his mother and other women.

Formerly the Hottentots, according to KOLBE, used castration. This operation was

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generally performed, the left testicle being cut out, that they might not beget twins, and that they might be enabled to run with greater ease.

A Hottentot sometimes takes two wives, and it frequently happens that a woman marries two husbands, although adultery under certain circumstances is punished with death. A widow who marries a second time, must have the top joint of a finger cut off, and looses another joint for the third, and so on for each time that she enters into wedlock.

Idleness is so predominant amongst the greatest part of the Hottentots that few of the brutes surpass them in that vice. Some sleep out all their time and are only awakened by the urgent calls of hunger, that forces them at length to rise and seek for food. When they have killed any wild animal, they lay themselves round a fire in common, to broil their meat, eat, and sleep by turns, as long as there is any thing left to eat, and till hunger drives them from it again.

In consequence of this extreme supineness they have little or no religion. It should seem indeed that they were not intirely ignorant of the existence of a powerful supreme Being, and they appear also to acknowledge the immortality of the soul after its separation from the body; but they have no temples, pay no kind of worship to any divinity, and give themselves no thought about rewards or punishments after death. They


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have much clearer notions of an evil spirit, whom they fear, believing him to be the occasion of sickness, death, thunder, and every calamity that befalls them.

At the new and full moon they dance and make merry; but it does not appear very probable that their rejoicing thus is any kind of religious ceremony, or that they worship the moon.

A small insect, an inconsiderable Grass-hopper, (Mantis fausta) is by many considered as an animal of a fortunate omen; but I never found that any worship was paid to it, nor could I learn it with a certainty from others.

Circumcision is a ceremony used by many, and may probably be of high antiquity, although not commonly practised at present.

Several barbarous usages and customs are still to be found amongst those who live in their native state of wildness, and without intercourse with the Christians. Old and superannuated persons are buried alive, or else carried away to some cleft in the mountains with provision for a few days, where they are either starved to death, or fall a prey to some wild beast.

In like manner children are exposed and left to their fate on various occasions; as for instance, when a woman dies, either during her lying-in, or immediately after it, the child in such cases is buried along with the mother, as no one can

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bring up amongst people who have no notion of nurses. If a woman brings forth twins, and thinks herself not able to rear them both, one of them is exposed. If they are both boys, the strongest and most healthy is kept: if one of them is a girl, it is her lot to be exposed; as is likewise the fate of any one that comes a cripple into the world.

Such as live near the European colonists, bury their dead in the ground, while others lay them in the clefts of mountains or in caves. The corpse being taken out of the hut through a hole in the side, and not through the door, is wrapped up in the sheep-skin dress the defunct wore while living, and is carried away in hand by three or four bearers. A procession of men and women in two separate bodies follows with loud cries; after which if the deceased was a person of any property, some animal is killed and eaten.

They are very superstitious, and put great faith in witch-craft. If any one falls sick, they think that he has been bewitched; and consequently shriek and pommel him with their fists, in order to keep life in him, or make him well. If he dies, their cries increase, the corpse is buried in a few hours, and the whole village removes to some other place.

The eldest son is sole heir to his father's property.

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In arts and sciences they are as rude and uncultivated as they are in every other respect. The Caffres are the only tribe among them that till the ground at all. The major part of them have herds of cattle. Some have neither house nor home, nor indeed any fixed abode whatever. The Namaquas Hottentots, who, in their country, have mountains that produce copper and iron ore, know how to extract these metals in the most simple manner, which they afterwards forge for use. Their traffic is not extensive: indeed it consists only in bartering certain commodities against others. They have therefore no money nor coin of any sort, neither do they stand in need of any.

To guard their herds, they employ very ugly, but bold and spirited dogs.

Greasy substances constitute the greatest dainties of the Hottentots. They drink the blubber of Sea-cows like water, and the tail of a sheep, which consists intirely of fat, they prefer to any other part.

They hunt both single and in parties. Every one hunts and shoots what he can for his own use; but general hunts are undertaken by whole villages, either against large troops of wild animals, or when they are annoyed by beasts of prey that commit ravages among their herds, on

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which occasion every man quits his hut, and goes out armed, as against a common enemy.

Their grand festivals are generally accompanied with singing, and different sorts of instrumental music, as also with dances, that are extremely singular, and indeed peculiar to themselves. They have likewise a droll uncommon ceremony of driving whole herds of sheep through the smoke, right across the fire, to secure them from the attacks of wild dogs.

In a people so deeply plunged in sloth, and so overwhelmed with filth, as the Hottentots actually are, one would not expect to find the least trace of pride. It is however to be found even among these, the most wretched of the human race; for they not only adorn their bodies with all manner of finery, as they conceive it to be; but when they are visited by strangers, paint their faces with various figures of brown and black paint.

Of the new year, a period which most nations and even the heathens themselves almost all over the face of the earth, observe and celebrate with more or less_rejoicing and festivity, the Hottentots do not seem to have any knowledge, neither do they take the least account of the course of nature. The only thing they remark is, that every year they see the bulbous plants push out of the ground, blossom and decay, and, according to this almanack, they reckon their own ages, which

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nevertheless they themselves seldom or never know with any certainty. It is therefore in vain to try to ascertain their age, or to search for antique relicks and monuments, in order to discover the antiquity of the country, how long it has been peopled, whence its first inhabitants came, and what changes and revolutions it has undergone. The country has no ancient ruins, either of subverted palaces, demolished castles, or devastated cities. The people neither know the origin nor reason of the ceremonies and customs in use amongst them, and few of them can give an account of any thing that has happened before their father's time. Since the Europeans have begun to inhabit this angle of the southern part of Africa, the country has undergone many changes. The natives have by degrees, in part become extinct, in consequence of the ravages made by various epidemic diseases, and in part retreated farther up the country, and a colony of the children and progeny of Japhet has propagated and multiplied to a great extent in their place. In a country where, 150 years ago, among a vast number of other wild animals, the most savage beasts of prey reigned sovereign and triumphant, one may now for the most part travel safely without fear or dread; and where formerly herds only grazed, one now sees several Indian and most of our European seeds cultivated,

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vineyards and orchards laid out, and culinary vegetables planted. A multitude of tame animals has been imported hither from Europe, such as horses, cows, hogs and several kinds of fowls; in like manner as many useful products of the vegetable kingdom, have been naturalized under the industrious hand of the colonists and a kind climate. The pease and beans here are very good. Asparagus, peaches, apricots, have a tolerable flavour, as have also apples (and especially rennets) plums, pears, oranges and straw-berries. The grapes as well as the raisins, and the wine that is made of them, are of different degrees of goodness, and sometimes excellent. Melons, water-melons, Gojavus, pomgranates, are also tolerably good; but goose-berries, currants, cherries and nuts do not thrive. Mulberries, almonds, figs, walnuts, chesnuts and lemons, do not yield in point of goodness to the European. Esculent roots and culinary vegetables thrive in general well in this country, and often grow up superior to the European, from whence the seed of the greatest part of them is brought every year. Turneps, turnep-rooted cabbages, potatoes, alliaceous plants of every kind, sallads, cabbages, and especially cauliflowers, are cultivated therefore in great quantities, as also wheat, not only for the use of the inhabitants, but for the supply of the many ships that touch here in their way to and

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from India, since the Christians first made a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. Several shorter and longer journies have been made, from time to time, into the interior parts, both by individuals and on the Company's account, with a view to gain authentic intelligence of the country and its inhabitants. These journies have been undertaken by different parties, some larger and some smaller, some to the northern and others to the south-east side of this angle of Africa. Those that have come to my knowledge are the following: in 1699, a journey was made to Saldahna bay, which was then for the first time taken possession of by the Dutch Company. In 1670, two serjeants, KRUYDHOF and CRUSE, were sent out to Mossel baay and Helena baay, which were at the same time taken possession of. In 1683, Ensign OLOF BERG made a journey to the country of the Namaquas, and in 1685 the governor SIMON VAN DER STEEL, with fifty-six Europeans' two Macassars, three slaves, and six burghers, equipped with two pieces of artillery, eight carts, seven waggons, (besides those belonging to the burghers, one boat and a great quantity of draught-oxen, horses, provision, powder, muskets and commodities for bartering, made a long voyage into the country of the Namaquas, as far as the tropics. This expedition had chiefly the copper mountains for its object, to examine whether

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the ore there was worth working, and whether there was sufficient wood and water for that purpose, or any harbour near at hand, from which the ore might have been brought in vessels. This journey lasted fifteen weeks.

During the time that the bartering traffic with the Hottentots was allowed the settlers, long journeys were frequently made into the interior parts of the country: as for instance, in the year 1702, by forty-five burghers with four waggons into the country of the Caffres; in 1704, into that of the Namaquas, and in 1705, by thirty or forty farmers, each accompanied by his Hottentot, farther up into the same tract of country.

In 1705, the landrost STARRENBURG, made a journey by order of government, into the country of the Namaquas, particularly for the purpose of bartering for a large quantity of cattle for the use of the Company. He was accompanied by a corporal, and HARTOG a gardener, besides slaves and a great many Hottentots.

In the year 1761, governor TULBAGH sent to the northern side of the country, which I was now exploring, a caravan, consisting of seventeen christians, sixty-eight Hottentots, and fifteen waggons, which had been given in charge to a burgher of the name of HOP. On this same expedition were sent out, at the expence of the Company, BRINK a land surveyor, AUGE a gar-

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dener, and RYKVOELS a surgeon, with three waggons, a large boat, powder, shot, iron, tobacco, &c. This caravan was sent out in consequence of a farmer who had travelled far into the country on this side, having given intelligence to the governor, that he had been told by a Hottentot of a people who lived farther up the country, and who wore linen clothes, were of a yellow colour, and went in and out of the mountains there, near a large river. Hence it was concluded that some Portugueze settlement was established on the coast, which government ought to find out. Part of the company set out from the Cape on the 16th of July, and the rest joined them near Olyfant's rivier in thirty-one deg. forty min. lat. and thirty-eight deg, eighteen min. long. They proceeded on their journey till the 6th of December, 120½ miles due north from the Cape, to twenty-six deg. eighteen min. lat. and thirty-seven deg. thirty-seven min. long. from whence they returned and arrived at the Cape on the 27th of April, 1762, without having discovered the yellow nation they had been told of. This is the longest journey ever attempted by Europeans towards this side, where the country is very dry, deficient in water, and mountainous, and the roads sometimes very stony. On this journey the governor had not sent any of the military, who before, very little to his satisfaction, had made an

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expensive journey to the eastward; but only burghers and farmers. This journey, however, did not terminate so well as might have been expected, the private interest of individuals having laid many obstacles in the way. Want of water and stony roads without doubt made the voyage both difficult and troublesome; as the feet of the draught-oxen were greatly hurt, and many of them died in consequence of this circumstance; but the permission which the farmers had from government to barter with the Hottentots, during the journey, for fresh beasts, without any expence to them, and of which they made a very imprudent use, may have contributed to render this journey abortive.

In fact, the farmers, through motives of covetousness, and a wish to lighten the waggons of the heavy load of iron they had brought with them for the purpose of barter, began to traffic extensively at their first setting out, instead of reserving this advantageous trade for their return. In consequence of this procedure the caravan was overstocked with a drove of oxen, numbers of which were obliged to be left behind on account of the heaviness of the roads, while the rest served greatly to diminish the scanty supply of water for the oxen that were necessary for drawing the waggons along. It is true, the vice-governor KLOPPENBORG had also a few years ago, in company with a land-surveyor, a merchant, and

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a surgeon, made a journey to the northward of the Cape; but, as this expedition did not extend beyond the bounds of the colony, it was of no consequence, nor in any other way remarkable.

Beautiful as the country is to the eastward, fertile, abounding in grass, and well peopled, it is equally dry, barren, uncultivated, and uninhabited to the northward of the Cape, and the farther you proceed, the more barren and desert-like it grows.

After passing three or four ridges of mountains to the northward, you arrive at a country something higher than the Cape shore, but lower than the vallies which lie between the ridges of mountains you have just left behind. This land is called Carrow, or Carrow-field. It seems to go like a broad belt over the whole of this angle of Africa, from the sea-side at the north-western end, to the ocean on the south-eastern side. I do not suppose the breadth to be alike all over; but in some places it requires six whole days (or rather long nights) journies. The sun is quite scorching here in the day-time, and the nights are rather cold. The great want of water here for the space of eight months, during which time not a drop of rain falls, together with the aridity of the soil, is the cause that this desart produces nothing but a few herbs and bushes with thick fleshy leaves, such as Crassulas, Mesembryanthemum, Cotelydons, Cacalias, Stapelias; and that neither man

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nor beast can live there in summer, as also that no grass can grow, nor any useful grain be cultivated. The soil consists of clay impregnated with iron ochre and a great quantity of sea-salt.

During the time I spent in travelling through different parts of this desart, I did not see a single sparrow, much less any quadruped there, excepting rats in holes in the earth, which probably can subsist a long time without water, and quench their thirst with the succulent and saltish leaves produced by the bushes.

After crossing this extensive and dry desart, which to the eye appears very nearly level, or at most rising a little and slowly to the northward, you encounter a very high mountain, the top of which it would take almost a whole day's journey to reach. This Roggeveld mountain has very little on earth on it, exhibiting in most places the smooth and naked rock; neither does it slope off like other mountains, but it is for the most part level, and extends in this manner so far to the northward, that the end of it is not known to the colonists. The climate at this height, although several degrees nearer than the Cape to the sun and the Equator, is not only cold, but the cold is so intense that the ground in winter is for a long time covered with snow, hail, and ice.

According to my usual practice the preceding years, as soon as I arrived in town, I made it my

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first care to send to Europe, by the returning ships, the collections I had made during my last tour.

The vessel too which had been sent the preceding year to Madagascar, in order to purchase slaves for the Company's service, was now arrived. Amongst other articles which some of the crew brought with them, were in particular a large quantity of the Cypræa tigris, a handsome shell, which is used for making snuff-boxes, another of the Buccinum rufum, and of the creatures known by the name of Madagascar cats, Lemur catta. With respect to the latter, I was curious to see whether the eyes were such as the late Professor LINNÆUS has described them, viz. with one pupil oblong and the other round. In this both the pupils were round and very small in the day time, like those of other animals. This species of Lemur somewhat resembles a cat, with its long tail, diversified with black and white ringlets; it is very nimble, and when tied to an upright pole, up and down on which it runs on all fours with the greatest celerity imaginable, affords a very amusing spectacle.

M. MELK, a rich and wealthy farmer, had, some years before, built a house of stone, below the town near the beach, lower down than the lion's-tail, under pretext of using it for a storehouse; but when it was finished, he made a present of it to the Lutheran congregation here for

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a Church, after having furnished it with suitable windows. Happy would it be if the congregation, which is numerous, could likewise have a Lutheran clergyman of its own, and hear the word of God preached in its original purity, and at the same time enjoy the benefit of the sacraments.

I never knew disorders in the throat more common or refractory than they are at the Cape, and especially in the town. They are occasioned by the sudden changes of weather from heat to cold. The glands of the throat swell with such violence, that the patient is in danger of being suffocated, and they almost always come to suppuration. Some are infested with this malady several times in a year, and neither sex is exempted from it.

The sides of the streets in the town were planted with great numbers of European oaks (Quercus Robur.) which served both to adorn and shade the houses.

The smoking of tobacco in the streets was now severely prohibited, as in consequence of it fires had broke out here, as has been the case in other places.

The sky of the southern hemisphere wore an aspect in a great measure strange to me. Some of the known constellations had a different situation from what they have north of the Equator, and some were absolutely missing. Charles's-wain,

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which in winter so truly and faithfully points out to the farmer how far the night is advanced, was here sunk below the horizon, and the Cape clouds, as two dark spots in the firmament are called, seemed to be a similar token to the inhabitants here. I was extremely sorry, however, that I had not taken more pains to learn so noble a science, and would with pleasure have exchanged for one single constellation all those definitions with which I had formerly burthened my memory, together with a great number of words in the dead languages, the learning of which had taken up the best part of my younger days, that might have been better employed in studying this divine science.

I now received from Amsterdam not only a sum of money, but also letters of recommendation to the Governor-general VANDER PARRA at Batavia, in consequence of which I had to prepare for a voyage to the East Indies, and as far as the empire of Japan. In the three years I had passed in the southern parts of Africa, I had travelled over as much both of the desart and inhabited part of the country as the nature of my equipment, which was below mediocrity, would admit. I had also, during the same time, received many favors from the governor and other gentlemen in the administration, as likewise much friendship both from my own countrymen and

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the other inhabitants of the place, and could, therefore, not without the greatest gratitude and heart-felt acknowledgment, recollect the many kindnesses they had shewn me, which, as long as I live, I shall never forget.

But, previous to my departure, I had the good fortune to get acquainted with M. HOLMBERG, a worthy countryman of mine, and one of the council, who was on his voyage homeward from Surat, where for several years he had been in the service of the Dutch East India Company, to the great satisfaction of his superiors, and had acquired such a knowledge of commerce as few possess, or know how to value. This gentleman honoured me with his particular friendship, and also furnished me with letters of recommendation to M. RADERMACHER, one of the council at Batavia, which proved of much greater utility to me than I had reason to expect.


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ON the 2d of March, 1775, I left the Cape that was so dear to me, and (not without the most tender regret at taking leave of so many friends) embarked for Batavia on board the Loo, commanded by Captain BERG, in the capacity of surgeon-extraordinary.

On board the same ship sailed also a young man, who gave himself out for a Prince of the imperial family, and Count of LEUWENSTEIN, who unfortunately had been kidnapped and sent off to the Cape, and was now obliged to accompany us to Java; the government at the Cape not daring, (for reasons to me unknown) to send him back to Holland. According to his own account, he had arrived with his servant at Nimeguen, and where he lodged at a kidnapper's, who

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had robbed him of his property that was contained in a large trunk, and had locked him up for three days, after which he had sent him to a kidnapper in Amsterdam. At this latter place he with his servant were locked up fast, as prisoners, for the space of three weeks, and at length sent to the Texel, without having previously been at the India-house, or passed any kind of muster. His servant had, during the voyage, suffered much by sickness, and he himself had inlisted for a soldier; all that was left of his property being only a suit of red and a valuable ring. He had been laid up sick during the whole voyage, and in this condition was put into the hospital at the Cape, where he happened to be known and recognized by some of his countrymen. The government at the Cape, however, after having examined into his case, gave orders that he should make the voyage to Batavia as a passenger, and dine at the officers' table.

We continued our voyage to the southward with a fair wind to lat. forty deg. after which we steered to the eastward, when our watches lost above a quarter of an hour in the four and twenty, in proportion as the wind increased and as we sailed quick.

On the 5th of April, in the afternoon, saw St. Paul. The night following we passed between

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that island and the isle of Amsterdam, which latter we had still in sight on the 6th.

The Dutch ale, which the company sends out for the use of the officers, was now divided between them, after the second mate's proposal had been rejected of selling it and dividing the money. Wine and ale, and other articles, which the Company sends out for the use of the officers' table, are seldom used at meals, as they ought to be, but are either totally embezzled by the captain and chief mate; or, if they are given out, it is either after they are damaged, or else exchanged for worse articles of the same kind. This circumstance renders it necessary for every one to supply himself with several articles, concerning which on board of other ships he need not give himself any trouble.

On the 2d of May we saw Mone island, and on the 3d, discovered land from the top-mast-head, which, on the day following, we could likewise see from the deck.

The nearer we approached to a warmer climate, the more did the number of our sick increase. The major part were afflicted with the scurvy, and several had got rheumatisms, from the change of climate.

At length we came in sight of the island of Java, and were highly pleased to arrive at a country which was the main object of the wishes of

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many, but which was also destined to be the grave of the major part of them.

The mountains of Java, as well as those of the surrounding islands, were all cloathed with verdure and overgrown with wood, presenting to the eye a pleasing and lively prospect. Those mountains which lay farther up the country were here, as in other places, always higher, and the land itself rose gradually higher from the water-side.

On the 9th we passed Klapper island.

The streights of Sunda we entered between Java and Prince island. Here we had a calm, which greatly retarded us. On every side we saw scattered islands of different sizes; the water was often very shallow, and in the night we let go the anchor.

On the 12th, the supercargo was fetched away by a yatch, together with the Company's letters and other papers, in order to be dispatched to Batavia. In consequence of such procedure, the government is always informed of every thing before the vessel gets into the road.

On the 14th, several Javanese came in their small boats, or Praws, to the ship. These praws had a deck or floor of loose planks, and under it a great many partitions were made, in which they carried with them for sale, bread, eggs, pine-apples, cocoa-nuts, pisang, gojavus, sallad, radishes, and other fruits and culinary vegetables.

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Some of them staid in the boats, in order to throw up the articles they sold, whilst others came on board to receive what was thrown up, together with the money for it. It was no unpleasing sight to see how dexterous they were at their business, and how nimbly they caught the eggs without letting any of them fall. These Javanese were very circumspect with respect to the money which they received, and endeavoured to get new coin that had not lost its gloss by wear.

The ship's crew was cautioned not to eat too much fruit, or too many greens, and was more particularly desired to refrain from that delicious but unwholesome fruit the pine-apple, as this fruit would be very apt to produce a diarrhœa or dysentery, in habits like theirs infested with the scurvy, and in stomachs not accustomed to much diet.

During our voyage through the Streights, we very often let go the anchor and hove it up again; we were obliged to let it fall for want of wind, that the ship might not be driven aftern by the stream.

We sailed past Bantam, which lay on our right. This is the residence of a king of that country, who solely and intirely depends on the Dutch East India Company. The town is fortified, and has a citadel with a garrison of 300 Dutch soldiers, who are kept there at the Company's ex-

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pence, under pretext of being the king's lifeguards, but are set in fact to keep a watchful eye over him, that he may not undertake any thing against the Company's interest, or sell any pepper to other nations.

The island of Java is about 140 leagues in length from E. to W. and from 20 to 25 leagues in breadth. It lies in six deg. south latitude from N. to S. and about 124 deg. E. longitude.

On the 18th we arrived safe in Batavia road, and to our great joy let go the anchor there; the road is extensive, with a muddy bottom. The ships lie not very far from the town, up to which you sail in boats along the river. The road is not very deep, and this, as well as the water near the shore, is rendered shallower every year.

The day following I went on shore with the captain, and put up at the Heeren Logement (as it is called, or Gentlemen's hotel) which is a very large house for the accommodation of strangers.

On one side of the river, and near its mouth stands an edifice called a Water castle, intended to command the road; this was at that time very much out of repair, so that large pieces of it fell daily into the river, and were carried away by the stream.

The town is strongly fortified, intirely surrounded with walls, and furnished with several gates, near which a number of soldiers lie on guard, and which are locked at night. The

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walls, however, are not particularly strong, nor very thick. The citadel is situated at one end of the town, and near the sea side, is tolerably large, and contains the town-hall, a dwelling-house, a warehouse, and several other necessary buildings.

Without as well as within the town there are canals, the sides of which are lined with brick. Through these boats pass, both large and small, and convey pot-herbs, fruit, and other articles for sale, to different parts of the town, as also fresh grass for horses. The canals are seldom above four feet in depth, and empty their water into the road.

The town is remarkably large and well built; the houses are mostly of stone, and are elegant, with spacious rooms, which are open to the free air, in order that they may be refreshing and cool in this burning climate. The streets are not paved; as the stones being heated by the scorching rays of the sun, would hurt the feet of the slaves, who go bare-footed, as also of the horses, which here are not shod. A row of flat stones, however, is frequently laid for the accommodation of the Europeans.

Here, just as in Amsterdam, is to be found a mixture of all nations and languages. Here are some of almost every nation in India, who carry on a profitable traffic in this capital of the East Indies.

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Exclusive of the Javanese, who are the original inhabitants of the island, the Chinese constitute the major part of its inhabitants, and live not only in the town and its suburbs, but also in the country. These people carry on, like the Jews in Holland, a very extensive trade, and cultivate most of the arts and handicraft professions. They dress for the most part here in the same manner as in China, in frocks, with their heads shaved, and only a round spot left at the crown, the hair of which is platted into a long queue.

It is true, Dutch is the current language of the Europeans here; but the slaves and other Indian nations chiefly use the Malay tongue, which is so common all over the eastern and some of the western part of the East Indies, that a man can make his way with it every where, as is the case with the French language in Europe.

I had already sent off from the ship the letters of recommendation which I brought with me, viz. to the governor-general VAN DER PARRA, from the burgomaster TEMMINK in Amsterdam, to M. RADERMACHER, one of the council, from M. HOLMBERG, and to Dr. HOFFMAN, from Dr. LE SUEUR at the Cape. My first business now was to wait upon them all, and they seemed to vie with each other in shewing me every possible attention, friendship, and favor, which will ever endear their names to me.

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As the governor-general gives audience, receives reports from all persons in office, and issues orders every day between seven and eight o'clock in the morning, before the heat becomes insupportable, and as I did not get on shore before noon, I could not have the honor to wait upon him till four o'clock in the afternoon, when he received me in the most friendly manner, and assured me of his protection and assistance in every thing I should want for my intended voyage to Japan. The governor lived now at his country house at a small distance from the town, where the air is fresher and wholesomer.

The same evening I waited on Dr. HOFFMAN, but did not find him at home. The next morning, before I went out, he called on me at my inn, gave me an invitation to live with him and make use of his table, and carried me in his coach to the Company's dispensary, where he lived and which he had under his care. Besides the letter of recommendation from Dr. LE SUEUR at the Cape, I had borrowed a sum of money from that gentleman to pay the debts I had contracted there, which sum I had engaged to pay to Dr. HOFFMAN out of my salary which I was to receive at Batavia. From this circumstance the gentleman saw clearly that I was not one of those travellers who had amassed Indian riches, and that during my three years stay at the Cape I had

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been more successful in accumulating plants and natural curiosities than gold. This he also mentioned to M. RADERMACHER, whose physician he was, and this gentleman immediately gave him fifty ducats for me, before I had had time to wait on him, and even before he was become personally acquainted with the man, for the narrowness of whose circumstances he felt so nobly.

The many, and I might almost say daily, visits I paid this gentleman, whose table I was obliged to use at least twice a week, gave me an opportunity of observing, with pleasure and satisfaction, his elevated mind, and his great zeal for the arts and sciences, which he not only cherished and admired in others, but also himself cultivated and possessed, in a country where otherwise Mammon is the sole idol and object of their worship.

As the ships destined for Japan were not to set sail till after the expiration of three months, I seized the opportunity of getting information as well concerning the country, and more especially its natural history, as with respect to the profitable trade of the Company; Batavia being the capital and centre of their commerce between Holland and their numberless factories, offices, and settlements in India.

In the mean time I was, on the first meeting of the council, appointed surgeon to the largest of the ships destined for Japan, called the Admiral

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ship, and the chief commissioner of commerce who was to go this year to the same place, received orders to retain me there, and to allow me to accompany him as physician of the embassy on his journey to the imperial court, whither he was to go in quality of ambassador during his stay in that country.

Through the kind attention of M. RADERMACHER, I had, for a companion and guide in my botanical excursions, a well behaved sensible Javanese, who was pretty well acquainted with the Malay names of trees and herbs, and the medicinal virtues and uses, among his countrymen, which he always communicated to me, and which I noted down in my pocket book.

All the streets in the town were planted on each side with large, trees; which, in the heat of the day, afforded a cool and refreshing shade, These trees were generally the Inophyllum calophyllom and calaba, Canarium commune, and some others still scarcer. In the yards I saw very high and thick trees of the Guettarda speciosa. The largest tree I ever saw was a Casuarina equisetifolia, which stood near the rivulet, and extended its spreading branches to a vast distance.

Although the heat, as appears from Fahrenheit's thermometer, which generally stands between eighty and eighty-six degrees, is not so very in-

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tense, it is nevertheless exceedingly troublesome and disagreeable; first, from the situation of the town which lies low near the water-side, and then, in consequence of the exhalations from the sea and bogs stagnating the air, and from there being little or no wind to disperse these vapours and purify the atmosphere. Towards the evening indeed a light breeze springs up from the land, but of little or no signification. Hence one has but a weary life of it here; as it is impossible to be out or at least to walk between nine and four o'clock in the day, without being quite overcome with heat and dissolved in sweat, though one's dress be ever so light and airy.

The clothes worn by the Europeans are made exactly in the European fashion; but the waistcoat and breeches are generally of white cotton, or of black sattin, and the frocks of thin Indian silk. Though the whole dress sometimes does not weigh above a pound or two, yet one's coat is a heavy burthen in this hot climate, and the violent perspiration renders it necessary for one to change one's shirt and drawers once or twice a day, although they be made of fine cotton, which absorbs the perspirable matter.

All the people in office, after they have been at the governor-general's levee, whither they go at a very early hour, transact their business, it is true, between nine and twelve o'clock; but then

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it is within doors, where it is in some degree cool. And, if they are obliged to be out during that time, they use coaches. These coaches are small and light, furnished with thin silk curtains instead of windows, which keep out the rays of the sun and admit the air. The horses used here are for the most part small. Some content themselves with one horse chaises.

As in every other thing, so likewise in their equipages, great attention is paid to etiquette, and none, except such as are of certain rank, are allowed gilt carriages; others that are inferior to these use painted, or even plain, coaches. The gentlemen of the coucil have running footmen.

Many of the Europeans here, it is true, wear wigs, but most of them wear their own hair, and that in general quite plain and without any frissure; and a powdered head is seldom seen in this country.

The ladies here wear neither caps nor hats; but tie up their hair, which is only anointed with oil and has no powder in it, in a large knot on the crown of their heads; and adorn it with jewels and wreaths of odoriferous flowers.

In the evenings when the ladies pay visits to each other, they are decorated in a particular manner about the head with a wreath of flowers of the Nyctanthes sambac, run up on a thread. These flowers are brought every day fresh to

[page] 223

town for sale. The smell of them is inconceivably delightful, like that of orange and lemon flowers; the whole house is filled with the fragrant scent, enhancing, if possible, the charms of the ladies company and of the society of the fair sex.

In so scorching a climate as this we cannot wonder, that a general custom prevails amongst the Europeans, of taking a nap for a couple of hours in the afternoon during the hottest part of the day. At this time a slave generally stands before the sofa, who, with a large fan, keeps off the gnats, and procures his master agreeable and cool repose.

The days and nights are nearly of an equal length the whole year round, and the sun passing almost vertically over head, rises and sets about six o'clock morning and evening. And as the sun sets perpendicular, here is no pleasing appearance of twilight after sun set, as there is in the northern countries. As soon as the sun is below the horizon it grows immediately dark, and the air is cooler throughout the whole night.

The great pleasure which the coolness of the evenings would otherwise afford, is indeed here almost totally destroyed by the uneasiness and trouble which the musquitoes generally occasion. These infects not only disturb one's repose by a continual buzzing in one's ears, but their sting is venomous and occasions large tumors, in consequence of which the face and

[page] 224

hands are totally disfigured, and sometimes a temporary blindness ensues. This circumstance is attended with another inconvenience, which is, that the doors and windows of the bed-chambers are obliged to be kept shut, or if they are left open, the musquitoes must be driven out in the evening. It is remarkable, that strangers are more than others liable to be pestered by these musquitoes, and suffer more from their sting; but after a few weeks stay in the country, they are less persecuted by them. The musquitoes either must find their scorbutic fluids more relishing, or else their saline and foul humours must occasion a greater swelling.

The bed-clothes consist generally of a matrass, some few pillows, a sheet, and a counterpane of fine cotton.

In the evenings, from six to nine, parties are formed among the Europeans throughout the whole town, who then banish their cares by conversation, incessant smoaking, and a good glass of European wine, generally red. Every one calls on his friend without invitation; and, as soon as the clock strikes nine, each retires to his respective home, unless he is asked to stay supper. When a gentleman goes to pay a visit he generally has a coat, wig, hat, and sword on, a stick in his hand, and is attended by a slave who carries a large umbrella. As soon as the usual

[page] 225

compliments are passed he takes off his wig, and puts on his shorn head a thin white cotton nightcap; after which he takes off his coat, and gives his sword, hat, and stick, to his slave, who carries them home again. The evening is then spent on an elevated platform within the steps and on the outside of the house. The first reception is generally a glass of Dutch ale, after which the health of every person in company is drank round, till each has emptied his bottle, or fourteen glasses, and sometimes more, but seldom less. If a stranger should happen to come in at such times, he is always welcome. Sometimes a card party is formed. When it strikes nine, one or more slaves arrive, if it be dark, with torches, to light their master home.

Hospitality is in great esteem here. The better sort of people keep open table once or twice a week, to which both the invited and not invited are welcome. A stranger, who is to stay a short time, needs only hire a small house, and buy a slave to attend him. And, after having formed one or more acquaintances, he needs not take much care about food, because, besides having free access to his patron's table, he will always be asked to dinner if he pays a visit to any body between eleven and twelve o'clock. At this time the place-men return home from their offices, when they take a whet either of arrack,


[page] 226

geneva, or white French wine, or else Japanese sacki.

Although I lived at Dr. HOFFMAN'S house, and had free access to his table, I was obliged twice a week to dine with M. RADERMACHER, at whose table there was a select company of most of the gentlemen in office, who had acquired in Europe any remarkable degree of knowledge in some useful science.

The water is not very wholesome nor good to drink, being impregnated with saline particles, which generally occasion diarrhœas, and sometimes even the bloody flux, in strangers who are newly arrived and afflicted with the scurvy. The inhabitants of the town, therefore, let it stand to settle for some time in large Japanese earthern jars, after which they plunge red-hot iron bars in it, when it may be drank without any bad consequences, and is for the most part used for making tea or coffee, or drunk mixed with red wine.

The suburbs, which lie to the land side, are very large and handsome, and are inhabited by Europeans, as well as Chinese and other Indian nations.

Somewhat farther up the country stands a great number of pleasure-houses, with the finest gardens to them, where the most respectable and wealthy part of the inhabitants pass their leisure

[page] 227

hours, the air being here more pure and wholesome than in the town. At several of these houses I saw large earthen vessels filled with water, in which several beautiful gold fish, displaying their resplendent forms, glide sportively along under that singular herb the Pistia stratiotes, which had been planted there in order to afford the fishes shade. This herb, the roots of which do not take first hold in the ground, I saw in great plenty floating in all the pools and ditches.

The Europeans are commonly waited on by slaves from several Indian islands, of whom they keep great numbers in their houses, as the heat of climate will not permit two slaves to do as much as one at the Cape. The ladies especially are, attended by a great number of female slaves, and seldom pay a visit without a whole retinue of these attendants.

The Javanese, the original inhabitants of the country, are pretty tall, of a yellow complexion, and their lineaments not disagreeable. They are not suffered to be made slaves of, but are a free people, governed by their own emperor, kings, and governors. They speak a language different from the Malay, and for the most part profess the doctrine of Mahomet, which is kept up among them by their own national priests, of whom some have visited Mecca, and others not.

Besides Dutch, the language in current use here

Q 2

[page] 228

is the Malay, which is a dialect of the Arabic, and is written with Arabic characters. Into this language the bible is translated, various vocabularies and grammars have been drawn up, and prayer books and other books of a religious nature written in it. The language is easy to learn and to speak; quite simple arid artless, and pleasing to the ear. The Company has built a church, and keeps priests in the town, for the different nations who understand this language and profess the Christian religion. The Company likewise keeps in its service a translator both of the Malay and the Javanese language. A kind of broken Portugueze is also spoken here, as well as in most of the Indian settlements, where the Portugueze used formerly to trade, and whither they had diffused their language; on which account there is still a Portugueze church and congregation in the town, besides one supported at the Company's expence, to which a number of black Christians resort, who have several doctrinal books printed in that language.

The Malay books that I could procure, were the following:

Malaica Collectanea Vocabularia, or Malay Dictionary, Pars I. Batavia, 1707, 4to.

Dictionarium Malaico-Latinum & Latino-Malaicum opera & Studio Davidis Hex, Bataviæ, 1707, 4to. A Malay and Latin, and Latin and Malay Dictionary.

[page] 229

Dictionarium of te Woord ende Spraak Boek in de Duytsche en de Maleysche Tale, F. de H. Batavia, 1707, 4to. a Dutch and Malay Dictionary.

Tweede Deel van de Collectanea Malaica Vocabularia, Batavia, 1708, 4to. Contains two Malay Dictionaries printed together.

Maleische Spraak-Kunst; or A Malay Grammar, by GEORGE HENDRIC WERNDLY. Amsterdam, 1726, 8vo.

Elkitâab, ítu, Segala Surat, Perdjandjían lama dan baharuw, Amsterdam, 1733, 4to. Or the Holy Bible translated into the Malay language. The New Testament follows, bound up with it in the same volume, printed in 1731.

Sj J R Segala Masmur p Dâûd, or David's Psalms. Amsterdam, 1735, 4to.

Ta Limu-l Dini'l Mese H H i ji, ijâ itu, Pang 'adjaran 'agama. Amsterdam, 1735, 4to.

Nieuwe Woordenschat in Neder duitsch, Maleidsch en Portugeesch, Batavia, 1780, 8vo. A Dutch, Malay, and Portugueze Dictionary.

The Portugueze books which came to my hands, were the following:

Do Vehlo Testamento, o Primeiro Tomo, Batavia, 1748, 8vo.

Do Vehlo Testamento, o Segundo Tomo, Batavia, 1753, 8vo.

O Novo Testamento, Batavia, 1773, 8vo.

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[page] 230

Catechismo. Colombo, 1778, 8vo.

Os CL. Psalmos David, or The Portugueze Psalm book set to Music, used in India, printed at Colombo, 8vo. The latest edition is that of 1778, and was sent to me from Batavia after my return home. All these printed books in the Malay and Portugueze tongue, I presented to the Royal Academy at Upsal, in whose library they are kept, as also several other scarce and valuable books, printed in the Cingalese, Malay, and Tamullish languages.

The Malay language being absolutely necessary to such as intend to stay for any length of time in India, and especially to those who are to travel through several places in that country, it is indispensible for every stranger to make it his study, as he cannot even have a slave to attend upon him, before he has learned the most common words of it. My first care, therefore, at Batavia was to learn this language, and, for the better assisting of my memory, to form a small vocabulary of such words as I supposed would most commonly occur. This small dictionary is not very extensive, but may perhaps be of use to such as in their voyage to China touch at Java, or other places; and I have thought proper to insert it here, in hopes either to give pleasure, or render service to those who have some knowledge of other oriential languages.

[page] 231


ABOVE Diatas
Afraid Takkot
Again Kombali
—— to get back again Dappat kombali
to Agree with Jadi samaratta
Alone Sandiri
Also Ratta
Altogether, every one Samonja
Angry Jahat
Animal Binatang
to Answer Menjaut
Arm, coat sleeve Pundak
Ashes Aba
to Ask, to question Tanja
—— to desire Minta
to Attend upon Jaga
Aunt Bibi
Avaricious Kikir
Awry Mara guscar

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[page] 232


Bank of a river Pingir
to Baptize Kria sarani
Bason, slop-bason Mankock
Battle Prang
to Be, he is Ada, dia, ada
to Bear, to carry Pikol
Beast Binatang
Beard Jingot
to Become Tinjal
Bed, bedstead Tampat tidor
Behind Diblakkan
to Bend Menjumba
Beneath Dibauwa
to Begin Mulai
to Believe Pertjaja
Better Lebi bai
Big Besar
to Bind Ikat
Bird, bird's nest Burong, ruma burong
to Bite Pigit
Bitter Pait
Black Ittam
Bladder Tjop
to Bleed, let blood Kular darat
Blind Buta
Blood Dara
Blue Biru

[page] 233

Bone Tulang
Body Badang
Bosom Panko
Brain Ottaknia
Brass Tambaga Koning
Bread Rotti
to Break Pitja
to Break upon the wheel Pukkul bissi
Breath Napas
Breeches Tjelana
to Brew Jambatan
Bride Panganting
Bridegroom Tunangan
Bridge Somor
to Bring, to bring hither Bauwa
to Bring, or breed up Piara
Bristle Dada
Broad Lebar
Broom Sapapo
Brother Sudana laki
Buffalo Banting
to Bury Tanam
to Burn Angus
to Build a house Kria ruma
Butter Mantega
Button Kantjing
to Buy Bili
By degrees Abisitu nanti

[page] 234


to Call Pargil
Camel Onta
Candle Liling
Candlestick Tampat liling
Cannon Marian
Capacious Lebar
Capon Ajam Kabiri
Cards Pendek
to take Care of Simpang
Carpenter Tukan kajo
Carry, bring hither Bauwa
to Carry, to bear Pikol
to Cast Saling
to Cast out Lempar, buang
Castle Benteng
Cat Kotjing
Cavern, Hole Lobang
Cause, Occasion Jangdern pandanja
to Cease, end Suda
Century Salamanja
Chair Karossi
Chalk Kapor hollanda
to Change Tukkar
Cheese Kas
Cheap Mura
Chest Petti
to Chew Mama

[page] 235

Child Beranak
Child-bed Tampat tidor beranak
to Choose Pili
Church Mesigit
Cinnamon Kajomanis
to Cleave, to Split Beladua
to Climb, climb up Najik
to Clothe Pakki
Clothes Pakkian
Cloves Tjinke
Coarse Kassar
Coach Padate
Cock Ajam lakj lakj
Colour Dinta
Comb Sisir
to Come Dattang
to Command Suru
Company Sobat Sobat
Comrade Tanan
to Concern Faduli
to Confide Pertjaja
Cook Tukan-massak
to Cook, or dress victuals Massak
Cool Arang
Copper Tambaga
Corner Ujong
Courage Tiappe
Countenance Mukka
to Count, to reckon Bilang
to Cover Selimo
Corpse Banke

[page] 236

Cow Sampi
Crippled Pintjang
Crocodile Buaja
Crooked Blako
to Cry Manangi
to Curtsey Menjumba
to Cut Pottong


to Dance Mingibing
Dark Glap
Dark (thick) weather Hari glap
to Darn Tissi
Daughter Anak prompuang
Day Hari
Dead Maut
Deaf Tuli
Dear, not cheap Mahal
Deep Dalam
Deformed (maimed) Pintjang
a Desart Utan
to Desire, request Minta
to Die Matti
to Dig Korek tanna
Diligent Radjing
Dirty, dirt Kotor tai
Disorder, not in order Banjier

[page] 237

Ditch Kuntji
to Divide Bagi
Dog Anjing
to Do one's needs Barrak
Door Pinto
Double, twice Dua kali
Dough Tupong
Dove Burung dara
to Drag, to carry Pikol
to Dream Minimpi
a Dream Jari besar
to Dress Pakki
Drink Minum
to be Drowned Mattj di aijer
Drunk Makkak
to Dry Kring
Dumb Bado


Ear Koping
Early, too early Siang, talalu siang
Earthquake Gojang tanna
to Eat Makkan
Egg Tellor
to Embrace Polok
Emperor Susutunang
Empty Cossong
to Endeavour Mentjoba
to Endure Tan

[page] 238

Enough Sampe
Entrails Ussus
Even Keper
Evening, afternoon Sore
Every where Dimanna manna
Excuse Ampon
Eye Matta


Face, countenance Mukka
to Fall Jatu
Father Bappa
Favour, kindness Ampon
to Feel, be sensible of Kanal rasa
to Fetch Ambel
Fever Demam
Figs Bualo
Fine, not coarse Allus
to Find, to get Dappat
Finger Jare
Fish Ikkan
Fire Api
Fire-place Kras
Felsh Dagin
Flour, meal Tupor
to Fly Terbang
Fool Gila
Foot Kakki
to Forbid Larang

[page] 239

to Force one, compel Baksa
Fork Tussuk
Fortune, luck Ontong
Frolicksome Sukante
Fruit Boa, buabua
Full Punu


to Gape Bukka mulut
Garden Kobon
to Get Dappat
a Ghost Matatingi
to Give, give back Kassi, kassi kombali
Glad Suka atj
to Go out Kaloar
He Goat Kambin, prompuang
God Alla
Gold, gold-smith Mas, tukan mas
Good Baj
Gnat Jamok
Great Bezar
Green Iso
Ground Tanna
to Grow Minjadi timbul
Gums Dagin gigi
Guts Prutnja

[page] 240


Hair Rambut
Half Saparo
Hand Tangan
Handsome, beautiful Bagus
to Hang Gantong
Hangman Allegootji
Hard Daper
Hat Toppi tjappeo
Hatred Bijtji
to Have Ada
He Dia
Head Kappalla
to Heal Brobat
to Hear Dengar
Heart Ati
Heaven Saorga
Heavy Brat
Hell Duraka
to Help Fulong
Hen Ajamp rompuang
Hereabouts Disini
to Hew, (to cut) Pottong
Hide, bark of a tree Kulit
High Tingi
Hire Serva
to Hoist up Parreknaik
to lay Hold on Pegan

[page] 241

Hole Lobang
Hot Pannis
Hot in temper Bengis
House, to build a house Ruma, Kria ruma
Hanger Lappar


I Betta, kitta
Jewels Intan
Jeweller Tukan Intan
Immediately Sabantar, betul
Impudent Jang ter taw malu
Indigo Nila
In Didalam
to Include, or inclose Mendangan
Inheritance, to inherit Pusakan, dappatpusakan
Ink Tinta
Ink-stand Tampat tinta
Intestines Prutnja
to Invite Tauwa
Iron Biffi
Island Pulo
to Itch Gatal
Judgment Ingatang
Ivory Gaiding
Just Butul


[page] 242


Kernel Bidji
Key Kuntji
to Kill Buno
King Radja
Kitchen Dappor
Knee Lutok
Knife Pissuk
to Knock Pukkul
to Know Kanal, rasa
to Know (scire) Taw


Lady Bini Nonje
Land Tanna
Ladder Tanga
Language Baassa
Languid Tikkar
Late Lama
Latest, last Diblakkan kali
to Lay Bareeng
too Late Talalu lama
to Laugh Tatauwa
Lazy Pamalas

[page] 243

Lead Tima
Leak (in a ship) Botjor
Lean, meagre Kurus
to Learn Mengadji
Lemon Jeurok
to Lend Pinjang
Less Lebi kurang
Letter Surat
to Let, permit Biar
to Lick Gilat
Lie, a falsity Penjuita
to Lie, tell a lie Panjusta
to Lie in wait Menguinte
Life Kahidopan
Light, easy Trang eteng
to be Like Turut
Limb, member Panton
Lime Kapor
to Limp Prentjang
Linen Kajin
Lion Singa
Lips Bibir
Little, a little Kitjil-sediki
too Little Talalu sedekit
to Live, living Idop
to Load Muet
Long Panjan
to Look, to see Leat
to Look about one Balek tengok
Loose Talappas
to Loose Ilang
Louse Kutu

R 2

[page] 244

to Love Tjinta
Low Dibauwa


Man (homo) Orang
Man (vir) Laki laki
to Make, or do Kria
Married Jaug suda kawin
to Marry, marriage Kawin
a Mark Tanda
to Mark Tarrotanda
Mason Tukan batu
to Measure Ukur
Me Kitta, betta, saja
a Medicine Obat
Medicine chest, apothecary's shop Tampat obat
to Meet Katombu
Merchant Dagang
Merchandize Bedagangan
Merry Suka ati
Milk Susu
Misfortune Tjilaka
Miscarriage, ill fortune Gugur annak
Money, coin Wang
Monkey, ape Monjet
Month Sa bulang
Moon Bulang

[page] 245

Moor, blackamoor Kadja
More Lagi lebi
Morning Bezok
Morning early, the dawn Pags ari
Mother Maa
Mother's brother, uncle Sanak
Mountain Gunong
Mouth Mulut
Much Banjer
too Much Talu banjer
Mud Lumpur
Murder Bunu


Nail (on the finger) Kuku
Nail (iron pin) Pakel
Naked, bare Talanjang
Nape of the neck Meimang
Narrow Kurang leba
Near Dikkat
Nearer Lebi dikkat
Neatly fitting Kabetullan
Neck Ler
Needle Jarong manjei
Negro Kadja
Nest Rumanja
New Baru
Nice, well tasted Ennak

R 3

[page] 246

Night Malam
No Trada, tida
Noon Satenga ari
Nose Idom
Not Bulong


Oath Sumpain
Obedient Ormat
Oil Minjak
Old Tua
One-eyed Satu Matta
Onion Bawang
Open, to open Tabukka, bukka
Out, without Luar, diluar
to Overturn Kria jatu
Own, one's own Kandiri, jang ponja
Owl Kukublu
Ox Sampi


Part Bagian
Passionate Bengis
Pay Bajar
Pearls Mutjara

[page] 247

Pepper Lada
Physician, surgeon Guru
to Pickle with brine Tarro azin
Pillow Tjium
Pimple Bisul
to Pinch Jipit
Plate Piring
to Play Main
to Please Mauw
to Pluck Pingan
Poison Jang suda kawin
Poor, in want Miskin
Poverty Kasiakan
Powder Obat
Powder, gunpowder Obat passan
to Pour Saling
to Pray Menjumba
Priest Pandita
to Print Tindis
to Promise Janji
Prophet Nabei
Proud Kabessaram
to Provoke Parreknaik
to Pull Pingan
to Push down - Kria jatu


to Quake for fear Semetar
to Quarrel Geger

R 4

[page] 248

to Quench, to quench one's thirst Banuhaus
Quick Lakas


to Rain Ujang
Rat Tikkus
to Read Batja
Ready Trangt
to Rear Piara
to Receive, to get Dappat
Red Mera
Rhenish wine (sour wine) Angor assam
Rice Bras
Rich Kaja
to Rise (from bed) Bangong
to make rise, to awaken Kria bangong
River, rivulet Kali
to Roast Goring
Rock Batu karang
Roe (of a fish) Tellor ikkan
Roof Genting
Rope Tali
Round Rundar
to Run Belumpat
to Run, to run away Larri, pigi

[page] 249


to Sail Balajar
to Salute, salutation Kassi tabe
Salt Garang assin
Sand Passir
Sash Tajam
Scissars Gunting
to Scratch Garok
Sea, sea-shore Laut, pingir laut
Seal, signet Tjap
Season Mussin
to See Leat
to Seek out Pili
to Sell Djuval
to Send Kirim
Sensible (understanding) Bisa
Serpent Ular
to Set, place Tarro
to Sew Manjei
Shallows, soundings Tjeper
Shameful, shame Mula
Shameless Jangter taw malu
to Shave Tjukkur
to Shew Unjuk
Ship Kapal
Shoe, shoemaker Sapato, tuka sapato
to Shriek Geger
to Shut Mendangan

[page] 250

to Shut in Tuto
Sick Sakkit
Sign Tanda
Single, alone Sakali
Silk Sutra
Silver Perak
Silversmith Tukan perak
to Sing Manjanji
Sister Sudara prompuang
to Sit Duduk
Skin, bark of a tree Kulit
Sleepy Mengantok
to Sleep Tidor
Slow, tedious Palan
Small-pox Tjatjar
Smith Tukan bissi
to Smoke Tjum
Snuffers Gunting liling
Sometimes Barankali
Soft Lembek
Son Annak lakki
Sorrowful Susa ati
Sour Assam
Spacious Lebar
Spawn of fish Tellor ikkan
to Speak Katta
Speech, language Baassa
Spices Bumbu
Spider Lawa
to Spit, spitting bason Luda tampat luda
Spoiled (damaged) Rusak
Spoon Sundek

[page] 251

Sportsman Tukan pessam
Square Ampat ujong
Stand Bediri
Stake Ambara
Star Bintan
to Steal Mantjuri
to Stick, to cleave Melenket
to Stick, to stab Tussuk
Sticky, adhesive Litjin
Stomach Prut
Stone Batu
Strength, force Kuat
to Strike Pukkul
Strong Kras
to Stuff, to darn Tissi
Sugar Gula
Sulphur Tjollak
Sun (the eye of the day) Matta ari
Sweet Manis
to Sweep Sapu
to Swim Bernang
Sword Pedang


Table Meja
to Taste, tasteful Ennak
to Take medicines Minom obat
to Tear to pieces Subek

[page] 252

That Itu
to Thank, thanks Tramma kassi
There Disitu
There below Disitu bauwa
There above Disitu atas
Therefore Dari itu
Therefore not Dari itu tida
They Dia orang
Thick Kassar
Thin Tippis
Thing Karon
to Think Ingat
Thunder Geontor
Tiger Matjan
Time Waktu
Too much Talalu banjer
Tooth Gigi
Tongue Lida
Town Kotta
to Treasure up Simpang
Tree, wood Pohon, Caju
to Try Tjoba
to Turn Balek


Ugly Rupa bussuk
Uncle (by the mother's side) Sanal
Under Dibauwa
to Understand Mananti

[page] 253

Unknown Hada kanalan
Unmarried Bujang
Un-used Trada biasa
Upper edge, t' other side Sabran
Us Kitta orang


Vexatious Sajang
Vein Urat
Victuals Makkanang
Vinegar Tjuka
Virginity Prawang


Waggon, cart Padati
the Waist Miawak
to Wait on, to attend Jaga
to Wait for Nanti
to Wake one Kria bangong
to Walk Jalang
to take a Walk Kuliling
Wall Tembot
it is Wanting Kurang
War Prang
Warm Pannas
to Wash Tjutji
Water Aijer
Way, road Jallang

[page] 254

Weak Enting
Weed in the fields, &c. Rompat
Weight Timbangan
to Weigh Timbang
Welcome Slammat
Wet Basa
What Appa
When Kappan
Whence Derimanna
Which Sappa
to Whistle Tjop
White Putti
Whole Interu
a Whore Sundal
to debauch, make a Whore Besundal
Why Manappa
Why not Manappa tida
Wild, woody Utan
Wilderness Utan
to Will, be willing Maw
Wind Angin
Window Jenella
Wine Angor
Within Didalam
With Dengan
to Wonder Erran
Wood Kaju
World Dunia
to Work Kria
to Write, writer Tulis, jurre turlis
Wrong, injury Sala

[page] 255


Yarn Benang
Year Taun
Yeast Panko
Yellow Koning
Yesterday Kalamari ari
You Lu
Young Muda

In counting, the following words are used.

1 Sato

2 Dua

3 Dika

4 Ampat

5 Lemma

6 Anam

7 Tujo

8 Telappan

9 Sambilan

10 Sapulo

11 Saplas

12 Duablas

20 Duapulo

21 Duapulo sato

30 Dika pulo

40 Ampat pulo

50 Lemma pulo

100 Sarattos

1000 Serrives

[page] 256

There are several words that do not occur in the Malay language: these have been taken with the things they signify, from the Dutch and Portuguese, as

Table cloth Doek
Glass Glas
Telescope Kyker
Kettle Ketel
Lanthorn Lantarn
Cap Karpoes
Tobacco-pipe Pipa
Beer Bier
Stockings Kous
Seltzer water Aijer hollanda
Soup Soep
to Iron (linen) Strika
Lady, madam Nonje
Sir or master Sinjor
Rix-dollar Real
Paper Kartas

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The Malay language is written with Arabic letters, which the Malays adopted at the time when they carried on an extensive traffic in the neighbourhood of the coasts of India. With respect to declensions, conjugations, and other grammatical affections, this language is one of the most simple and least artificial: nevertheless both Indians and Europeans are able perfectly to understand each other. In order to give an idea of the genius and construction of it, I have thought proper to annex the following short dialogues, which may possibly be of use to some future traveller, and may be easily looked over, or else entirely omitted, by the rest of my readers.

What is it o'clock? Pukkul brappa?
It has already struck eight. Sudabis pukkul telappan.
If it be so late, why have not you set the house in order yet? Kalu bigitu lama, manappa lu orang bulong sapu ruma?
We are but just now risen. Baro betta orang suda bangon.
It does not become a slave to sleep so late. Trada patut samma badak jang tidor bigitu lama.
I cannot rise earlier, when I go to bed so late. Kalu betta bigitu lama pigi tidor, kitta trabuli bangon lebi siang.
Hold! I will teach you how to behave another time. Lain kali nanti betta ajar itu samma lu.
For this time I beg your pardon, madam. Ini sa kali kitta minta ampon samma, Nonje.


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Is not the water boiled yet? Ájer bulong suda massak?
Not yet, but it will boil immediately. Bulong, tappe sabantar nanti mediri.
Who is to blame, that I have no coffee yet? Sappa punje sala, jang betta bulong dappat koffi?
The cook is to blame. Tukkan massak punje sala itu.
How so? Manappa?
Because he let the kettle with the water overset. Darri dia suda kria jatu itu ketel dengan ajer.
How did that happen? Bigimanna itu suda jadi?
I did not see it. Kitta trada leat.
How do you know it then? Bigimanna lutan itu?
I only heard it from himself. Kitta tjomma suda dengar itu darri dia kandiri.
Where is he? Dimanna dia ada?
I believe he is in the kitchen. Betta kira, jang dia ada di dappor.
Let him come to me himself, then. Bear dia kandiri dattang dissini samma betta.
I will call him. Nanti betta pangil samma dia.
Why is water wanting, when I am to drink coffee? Manappa ada korang ajer, kappan betta mau minom koffi?
The water was already boiled at six o'clock this morning. Ajer suda ada massak pagi ari pukkul anam.
Where is it now then? Dimanna ada Sakirin?
Overset, by which means scalded my foot. I Suda jatu, darri itu kitta lagi suda bakkar betta punje kakki.
It is your own fault. Itu ada lu punje sala kandiri.
I feel it yet. Sampe sakarin kitta ada rasa itu.

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Be wiser another time. Lain kali lu muste ada lebi bisa.
Very well, madam. Baij, nonje.
You are this day to dress a great deal of victuals. Ini ari lu muste kria banjak makanna.
More than usual (daily)? Lebi darri sari sari?
Certainly, because here will be many people (to eat) to entertain. Sungo, darri banjak orang dattang makkan dissini.
What do you order me to dress, madam? Appa nonje suru, jang kitta muste massak?
Soup, a piece of salt meat, fish, and fowl-curry. Sup, sa pottong dagin azin, ikkan, dengan kerri assam punje.
What shall I roast? Appa betta muste goring?
Two capons and a piece of mutton. Dua ajam kabiri dengan sa pottong dagin kambing punje.
Is that enough? Sampe itu?
Yes, it is enough; but you must go into the garden, and fetch fruits of varíous kinds (to eat) for this entertainment. Sampe juga; tappe lu muste pigi di kobong, ambel banjak rupa bua bua pur makkan dibblakan kali.
At what time will you eat, madam? Pukkul brappa Nonje mau madam?
Precisely at twelve o'clock. Betul pukkul dua blas.
What are you doing, girl? Appa lu, budak prompuang, ada kria?
I am sewing my master's shirt. Kitta ada Manjei Sinjor ponje kameja.
And what are you doing else? Lu lagi apa kria?
I am darning stockings. Betta ada tissi kous.
Whom do they belong to? Sappa punje?

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They belong to my mistress. Nonje ponje.
When did you take them to darn? Kappan lu suda ambel in puer tissi?
Last night. Kalamari pagi.
Are they not ready yet? Bulong abis?
Not yet. Bulong.
You are too lazy. Lu ada talalu mallas.
No, madam; but I have got many holes to darn. Trada nonje; tappe kitta suda dappat banjak lobang puer tissi.
You have always something to say. Lu sari sari ada satu appa puer katta.
I also yesterday ironed (the thing) the linen. Kitta kalamari lagi suda strika itu barang.
What (things) linen? Barang appa?
Those which the washerman brought (to the house) home the day before yesterday. Jang manatu kalamari daulo suda bauwa di ruma.
Have you first counted the things? Suda bilang itu barang lebi daulo?
Yes, I have counted them, and found them right. Suda bilang, ada lagi betul.
I do not believe you; count them myself. I will Betta trada pertjaja samma lu, kandiri betta mauw bilang.
Very well, madam, here are the (things) linen, and the (letter) inventory of it. Bai Nonje, dissini ada itu barang dengan dia junje surat.
Look; how you have counted! Leat; bigimanna lu suda bilang
Is there any thing wanting? Ada korang barang?
Certainly; one first, two pair of drawers, and two pillow-cases. Sungo; satu kameja, dua tjillana dibaua punje, dengan dua sarong bantal.

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Madam, shall I call the washerman? Nonje Maw, jang kitta pigi pangil samma menatu?
Run, and call him. Larri juga, pangil samma dia.
If he will not come, what shall I tell him? Kalu di tra mau dattang, appa kitta nanti bilang samma dia
Tell him, that if I do not get back what is wanting, he must pay for it. Bilang juga, jang kalu betta trada dappat ita barang, jang ada korang, dia muste bajar itu.
And if he will not do that, what am I then to do with him? Kalu dia tra mau itu, appa kitta nauti bekin samma dia?
If so, you will tell him that he shall never more wash my (things) linen. Kalu bigitu, lu muste bilang samma dia jang dia jangan kira puer tjutje betta punje barang lagi.
What more? Appa lagi?
That I shall keep back the money which I owe him for this month. Jang betta nantj pegan itu vang, jang kitta ada ulag samma dia puer ini bulang.
How much is he to pay for the linen? Brappa dia muste bajar puer itu barang?
For the fine shirt four rix-dollars. Itu kameja allus ampat real.
For the other things? Puer itu lain?
For the two pillow-cases, which were coarse, one rix-dollar and five skellings. Itu dua sarong bantal, jang suda ada kassar, satu real dengam lima satali.
What more? Lagi?
For the two pair of breeches, two rix-dollars and a half. Itu dua tjillana dua real satenga.
Have you any more commands, madam? Nonje ada lagi satu appa puer suro?

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No, get you gone; but return soon. Trada, pigi; tappe dattang lakas kombali.
I go. Kitta ada pigi.

On the merchandize which the officers of the ship had brought with them from Holland and the Cape on their own account, they gained, for the most part, a considerable profit. The price of goods is here, as well as in other Indian places of trade, subject to many changes, because when several ships arrive from one place, a large quantity of certain articles are brought, the price of which then falls. And again, if the ships stay away late, certain articles are much called for, in great request, and well paid. Insomuch that thirty-six Dutch rix-dollars have sometimes been paid in Batavia for a ham. In general, however, the profits are computed to be from thirty to fifty, and even a hundred per cent.

There are certain commodities from Holland for which there is always a great call, and which are bought up by the Europeans resident here, such as smoaked hams, Dutch cheese, Dutch beer, and several sorts of wine, especially red, and Seltzer water. The wines are brought hither in bottles well corked; but the beer is carried on board in barrels, and sold here by the barrel, and bottled off after it is brought a-shore,

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and has stood quiet a day or two in order to settle. It not only keeps during the voyage, but also after it is bottled. Several other articles are also sold to great advantage, such as jewellery, stuffs and shags for lining coaches, sailors' knives, and other kinds of hard ware, &c.

From the Cape of Good Hope not many articles were brought for sale, but almonds and raisins, which were bought up for the use of the hospital, were sold with some little profit. But iron seemed to me to be the most lucrative branch of commerce. Some of the subaltern officers had bought from the smiths at the Cape a parcel of iron, the greater part of which was considered by the latter as being unsit for use, such as bits of iron of different sizes, which had been cut off in forging. These bits of iron, which had been bought at the Cape at two stivers a ponnd, were here sold to the Chinese at the rate of five stivers.

So that all over the East Indies every kind of commerce is more precarious than in Europe. The principal commercial speculations, therefore, turn upon knowing what wares are most in request, or have not for some time been brought to any particular part.

Custom-houses and tolls.—Institutions which, in countries where commerce is expected to flourish, are not suffered to lay any obstacles in

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the way of either buyer or seller, are not known either here or in other commercial places in the Indies; but a certain duty is to be paid to government on all commodities that are sent from the ship and sold on shore. And this duty was now farmed out to a company of Chinese, who, in a decent and becoming manner, searched the larger chests, but let trunks and chests with clothes pass untouched.

The current coins at Batavia were either Indian or European. Dutch ducats were rather scarce; but ducatoons and piastres, as also skellings, especially ship's skellings, and doits coined by the company, were very common. The latter, with the Company's arms on the one side, as well half doits as whole ones, served as change to buy fruits and greens with, and were more current up the country among the Indians. Gold and silver rupees, but particularly the latter, and half, and still more, whole rupees coined in different places, were the most current coin. A golden rupee was worth ten rix-dollars, and a silver one half a rix-dollar. It was said, that at the instigation of the Company both a whole and a half rupee in gold, and a whole one in silver, had been coined here in the prince of Madura's name. This was known by the year marked on it agreeable to the Christian æra, and the golden coin was very

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pale, in consequence of the silver that was mixed with it. New, and particularly old Spanish dollars, were frequently to be met with, and were much liked by the Indians. Angular and cut piastres, coined in America, and brought hither from the Manilla islands, were also often to be met with, in whole, half, and smaller pieces, consisting of very fine silver. Sometimes also I saw some imperial silver dollars, rather less than a piaster, and these were chiefly bought up by such as returned to Europe, as there was hardly any thing lost on them. Ducatoons, especially the striped, went here at the rate of eighty stivers.

The inhabitants have, as well as their neighbours in Sumatra and Borneo, a coin peculiar to themselves, made of lead, roundish, and less than a farthing, with a few letters on one side, and a round hole in the middle, through which a string may be run upon occasion. It is thinner than a sarthing, of very little value, and current in the interior part of the country only.

Near the canals, within the town, are small forts built of stone, and furnished with cannon, for the purpose of bombarding the fosses and streets in case of an insurrection. And at the same time proper measures are taken, that, on such occasions, cannons may be brought out at the shortest notice, and placed at certain distances in the streets, in order to compel the Indians

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and slaves to keep within their houses. These preparations for defence, absolutely necessary for a people that are very far from being numerous, and reside in an invaded country, make the town not very agreeable, and excite, in the thinking mind of the philosopher, rather unpleasant ideas respecting the mode in which those manifold delicacies and luxuries, those costly garments, and elegant articles of furniture, are, with so much voluptuousness and sensuality, procured from those distant places.

The Chinese are reckoned the most numerous of all the strangers. They retain their national character, customs, and manners, are the most industrious people in the whole country, and indefatigable in every thing they undertake. Some of them travel to and from China for the sake of commerce, but most of them live constantly here. Stout and tall, and of a yellow colour, they are particularly distinguished from other people, by their small and oblong eyes. Some few wear their beards; the greatest part of them are shaved, and the hair, which is lest growing on the crown of their heads, is plaited in one or three long plaits, either hanging down their backs, or coiled up round their heads. Their cloathing is thin and wide, consisting of a jacket, which is buttoned on one side, and long trowsers. They have shoes with thick soles, and without buckles in them;

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and they wear no stockings. A handkerchief generally hangs down the thigh on the right side, and on the same side they carry a silver box, to put small money in, or else a purse. Their heads are covered with a hat in the form of a cone, or with an umbrella, and they have commonly in their hand a fan.

The gardens about the town are chiefly taken care of by the Chinese, who carry about fruit and culinary vegetables, for the use of the inhabitants and the shipping, and vend them at a low price. They likewise farm the arrack distilleries, are skilled in almost every handicraft business, carry on an extensive commerce, cultivate the sugar-cane, coffee, and indigo, and, in short, are indispensibly necessary.

As no women are allowed to be brought out of China, the Chinese are under the necessity of intermarrying with the Javanese women.

Besides the Chinese who carry wares and merchandize about the streets, one is sometimes visited by those that offer their service in cleansing the ears, an operation to which the chirurgical art in Europe is an utter stranger. By means of some fine instruments which they use, they have the art of cleansing the ears of wax, and other impurities that may have accumulated there, without causing any disagreeable irritation.

The Indians chew betel in common, and

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consider it as impolite to address any body without having a quid of it in their mouths. The betel leaves, called Siri (Piper betel), are therefore brought in fresh every day for sale, and are sometimes used by European ladies, especially such as are born in the country. Into one of these pepper leaves a piece of the Areek-nut, (Areka cathecu), being put, and sometimes a little lime, the leaf is folded together, and kept for some time in the mouth, till all the strength is drawn out of it. When lime is added, the saliva, lips, and teeth grow red, and at last of a dark colour. A person who is accustomed to betel, and first begins to use it, grows giddy and drunk as it were, and in time, from the force of habit, cannot do without this spice, which produces a painful sensation in the mouth, ulcerates the tongue, and affects its nerves in such a manner as almost to deprive him of all taste. It is said to cure bad breath, clean the teeth, and strengthen the gums.

Among the many species which the Indies produce, none is more commonly used than Cayenne pepper, (Capsicum), with which almost every dish is seasoned. Rice mixed with the powder of this spice, is frequently eaten without any other addition; sometimes cocoa-nut is added, when it makes a complete meal. To fish, flesh, and all kinds of sauces, this hot spice is always added; and in the soup called Karri or

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Currie, Cayenne pepper is the chief ingredient. This currie soup, a dish much used in the Indies, is a common meat-soup, to which are added several sorts of spices, such as Schoenanthus, (or Limon grass), turmeric, and in particular Cayenne pepper. This elegant soup, dyed yellow by the turmeric, is rendered so hot and fiery by the Spanish pepper, that a person that is not used to it, imagines his mouth and throat to be on fire. In time this dolorous sensation becomes less perceptible, and the soup not only acceptable, but even highly desirable. It irritates the nerves of the Indian tongues, rendered torpid by the use of betel, strengthens the tone of the stomach, and assists digestion. However, in order to diminish the heating qualities of the currie soup, it is mixed up with boiled rice, according to every one's palate or fancy.

The usual European grains neither thriving, nor indeed being cultivated in India, the Indians have neither wheat nor rye bread. The bread, of which the Europeans in the town eat very sparingly, and particularly to their meat, is made from the wheat which is brought hither from the Cape of Good Hope. Instead of this the Javanese use rice, which is cultivated on the low and inundated lands in abundance, and with great advantage. It is used to all dishes instead of bread, for which purpose it is simply boiled;

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and, after it is strained off, served up on large pisang-leaves: the way of eating it is to take some of it up with the three first fingers and put into the mouth.

The flesh of the buffalo-oxen of this island is called Karbou. It was sometimes used as food for the slaves and sailors; but considered, at least by the farmer, as coarse food, unfit for this hot climate. Otherwise the greatest part of the meat consumed here was of the feathered kind, such as hens, ducks, and geese, and particularly a great quantity of fish of different kinds, which is easier digested, and makes the body less inclined to putrefaction and putrid fevers.

Of European fruits, roots, and culinary vegetables, one finds few cultivated here, such as cabbages, turnips, Jerusalem, artichokes, and Windsor beans. But, on the other hand, the country abounds with other fruits, roots, bulbous plants, different species of beans, and other vegetables, which are daily served up at table.

The cocoa-nut (Cocos nucifera) is daily eaten by the Indians. It is brought down more or less ripe from the crown of the palm-tree, and, after it is opened with a knife, the liquor contained in it is first drunk, which tastes sweetish, and quenches thirst. The white almond-like kernel is afterwards eaten either alone or with rice. The Europeans grate the kernel, and make a

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kind of almond emulsion, from which they prepare currie soup and other palatable dishes.

Pisang is the appellation given by every one to the fruit of the tree of paradise, (Musa paradisiaca), of which there are several sorts, different in size and quality. The fruit is generally gathered unripe and green, it is then hung up to ripen, and grows yellow. The lesser kind is called Pisang radja, and may justly be considered as one of the most delicious and wholesome fruits in the world. The thin coat which covers the fruit is easily peeled off, and the inner and pulpy part, which is sweetish, almost melts in one's mouth. Though one eats much of it, one is hardly ever satiated with it. It is somewhat of a mealy nature, and one of the principal articles of the Indians' food. It is eaten raw both by the Indians and Europeans; but the latter dress it besides in various different ways, either by roasting or stewing it. Sometimes it is stewed in red wine, like pears, or it is peeled and boiled in a decoction of a red species of amaranthus, by which it is turned quite red, in the same manner as if claret had been added to it. Fried in oil, it grows rather hard, and has a very agreeable taste. In both these processes it is previously peeled and cut into long slices. These slices are sometimes dipped in batter, and fried like apple-fritters, and these I frequently saw the Europeans

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eat at their afternoon collations, when tea was drunk at the usual hour. One single tree produces a large quantity of fruit, but never blossoms more than once; after which it dies, and propagates by new shoots springing out from the root. This tree, though it grows wild in the country, is yet very generally cultivated, almost indeed in every garden. It attains to the height of a man, and has no branches. The leaves of this tree are the largest in the world, of such as are undivided and do not lie in folds.

The pine-apple, or fruit of the Bromelia ananas, has been considered by many as the most delicious of all fruits. The odour of it is agreeable, and fills the whole room. The taste of it likewise deserves the highest commendations; it has a mixture of sweet and sour in it, which is extremely agreeable. But it contains also something acrid, something which is noxious, so that it ought to be eaten by way of a desert only, and not as food; it is as big as a man's head. When the outer coat is taken off, the fruit is cut into slices crosswise, which are taken into the mouth and chewed a little, when the liquid part only is swallowed, and not the fibrous. Its agreeable taste seems to penetrate the tongues itself. The Europeans eat it either with salt, sugar, or red wine, in order to prevent any bad consequences that may arise from it, and seldom

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more than one or two slices are eaten at a time. Slices of this fruit cut into shreds are sometimes put into syrup, and eat, like sweat-meats, with tea. I have likewise seen these slices stewed in red wine and soft sugar. When it is not quite ripe, it is acrid and poisonous. If eaten in great quantities it causes the diarrhœa and dysentery, especially among the sailors and soldiers, who are afflicted with the scurvy on their first arrival.

Gojavus (Psidium) is eaten, when ripe, both raw, and stewed in red wine and sugar.

Jambo (Jambolifera indica) is also eaten raw, and, when cut into slices and the seeds taken out, stewed in red wine. Of this fruit there are different kinds: the common Jambo fruit is small, and not larger than a small plum; Jambobol is as large as a pear; Jambo ayer Mauer both smells and tastes like rose-water. All these have something dry in their taste, but are not in the least astringent. The juice of it is sometimes used with Tjampaka (Michelia) water and rose-water, for inflammations of the throat and mouth, and also in the thrush.

Mango (Mangifera indica) is an egg-like fruit, of the size of a goose's egg, flat, of a green or yellowish colour, and is frequently eaten without any other preparation than the taking off the rind with a knife or the finger. The inner pulp, which surrounds the kernel, is the part


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which is eaten. This fruit is very common at the tables of the Europeans, and I often eat it with sugar, cut into slices and dipped in its own liquor. Preserved in sugar, it is not unfrequently served up at the tea-table. When unripe it is very sour, and in this state, boiled with sugar, butter, and eggs, it yields an acrid sauce that tastes like boiled apples or goose-berries. The Javanese boil the unripe fruits in brine, which taste, and are used, like olives; others boil them, and steep them in vinegar and pepper, to eat with meat like cucumbers.

The Catappa (Terminalia catappa) is a tree which sheds its leaves like the Bombax. The fruit of it is oblong and rather flat. The outermost shell is green, and grows yellow as it ripens. Within it lies one or two kernels, as sweet as almonds, which are eaten both raw and made into tarts, and are very nourishing.

The fruit of the Papaya (Carica papaya) is at first green, but afterwards grows yellow, like a pear, and is as large as a small melon. Within the exterior shell there is a yellow pulp, which is eaten, and has nearly the same taste as a melon. This fruit is boiled, when green and unripe, and is in general stewed with some dish or other of meat.

Among the fruits which may be more properly said to serve the Indians for food, is that

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called the Bread fruit, Boa Nanca, (Radermachia), and that fetid fruit, the Durio. This latter is extraordinary on account of its nauseating and intolerable corpse-like smell, which is perceived at a great distance, when the fruit is brought into the town for sale. Nevertheless it is reckoned delicious, and is eaten eagerly, even by the Europeans. Each of these fruits is as large as a child's head, and larger, and covered with a thick skin, which is prickly, like that of a hedge-hog, and is thrown away; of both the inner part only is eaten, and that either raw or stewed. The Durio is considered as diuretic and sudorific, and as serviceable in expelling wind.

Salac is a singular kind of fruit on account of its small imbricated scales, which lie like shingles one on the other. It is sold in every market and street, but is seldom eaten by the Europeans. It is like a pear, and of the same size; within it has a kernel, which is white, and divided into several pieces, and is the part which is eaten. It is nutritious and well tasted.

The Annona is one of those fruits which I often saw exposed to sale in the markets, but seldom on gentlemen's tables. The pulp, which is inclosed within a thin shell, and surrounds the seeds, is to be sucked out with the lips. It is sweet, of a mealy nature, and an agreeable taste. Two sorts

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of it mostly occurred, as large as apples, viz. the Annona squamosa, and reticulata.

Among the various sorts of fruits which were served up at the tables of the Europeans, were the Carambola and Bilimbing (Averrhoa). The former of these is an egg-like yellowish fruit, with five corners, and sharp projecting edges, and is of the size of a pear, or a hen's egg. It has an agreeable tartness, and is eaten raw as well as stewed. Some of the trees bear fruits that have a more acid and somewhat rough taste. The latter fruit is oblong, of the thickness of one's finger, and so sour that it cannot be eaten alone. It is therefore cut into pieces, and put into soups, or preserved in sugar. Of the juice of this and sugar is prepared a syrup, which is a cooling and refreshing remedy in fevers.

Boa lansay is the Malay name for the fruit of a tree, from which I could not procure a blossom, and which as yet is unknown to the botanists. The fruit hung down in long clusters; they were round and small, like goose-berries, yellowish and hairy. Within their thin shells they include a thin juice, which is white and tartish, and which is sucked out with the mouth. The fruit begins to ripen in March, when it has a sweetish acid taste, and is in no great estimation among the better sort of people.

The fruit of the Ratan (Calamus rotang) I saw

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once or twice exposed to sale, and I observed it was bought up by the Indians. When ripe, roundish, as large as hazel-nuts, and like salac chip, they are covered with small shining scales, laid, like shingles, one upon the other, and always disposed in large clusters. The Indians generally suck out the pulp (which is subacid, and surrounds the kernel) by way of quenching their thirst, and sometimes it is pickled with salt, and eaten at tea-time.

The Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) grows in large clusters, and is very generally eaten. The external rind is thrown away; the white and viscid juice contained within is sucked out with the lips, has a tart subacid taste, and quenches thirst. Each fruit is somewhat oblong or roundish, red, and hairy all over, and less than a plum. The rind is easily taken off, and is white on the inside. The pulp is white, loose, and almost transparent, tough, and difficult to tear asunder with the teeth. It has a sweetish acid taste, like that of lemon juice and sugar, and is tolerably pleasent; the kernel, which is within, is not eaten.

Rambutang ati is to the full half as big again, with thicker and longer hairs, and its rind separates more easily from the pulp. This is eaten, like the former, but is scarcer and dearer.

The Mangustine, (Mangostanos, Garcinia mangostana), is brought to Batavia from Bantam, and is only to be had at a certain time of the year,

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which is in January and the months following. The rind is of a purple colour on the outside, and pale within, soft, of an astringent nature. It is used by the Chinese for dying black. The fruit is quite round, like a ball, and divided within into five compartments. When it is eaten the rind is generally pared off all round, and the pulp on the inside, which surrounds the seeds, and is white, soft, sweet, and inexpressibly delicious, is put whole into the mouth, in which it melts like whipped cream. It has a most pleasing mixture of acid, with a small degree of sweetness in it, which does not incommode the stomach, neither is one easily satiated with it. It is, in my opinion, the most delicious and wholesome fruit in all the East Indies.

At their tables they frequently had, by way of desert, water-melons, and sometimes shaddocks. Of both these there is a white and red sort, and both will keep on board of ship for weeks together, to the great benefit of navigators. The shaddock (Citrus decumanus) is a large lemon of the size of a child's head, with a moderately acid and refreshing juice. The peel is thick, but is easily taken off, and the fruit is afterwards easily separated into several pieces, and, at the same time, is sufficient for several people. The juice quenches thirst, and is cooling, antiseptic, and antiscorbutic.

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Water Melons, or Arbuses, grow every where in India. The red are considered as the best. The juice is very watery, thin, cooling, and refreshing, melts in the mouth like sugar, and is eaten after meals, either by itself or with sugar, or else with a little salt.

A kind of fresh beer, which is called (Klein Bier, or) small beer, was sometimes prepared by the Dutch, in order to drink in the evenings. It was used while in a state of fermentation, and made a loud report every time the Calabash or vessel containing it was opened; it frothed briskly in the glass, distended the bowels, and kept the body open. It tasted agreeably; but as there were no hops in it, it would not keep above twenty-four hours.

In the Indies, where the inhabitants live on fruits and greens, and drink nothing but water, I must confess I did not expect to find any body afflicted with the Stone. However a slave belonging to my host had the misfortune to harbour a very large one in his bladder, which at length cost him his life. After his death, my host opened the body in my presence, and the stone was found to weigh two ounces and a quarter.

My host, Dr. HOFFMAN, had the Company's dispensary under his care, from which all the medicines were fetched for the sick in the hospital; but, for the ships which go to Europe and to the Indian settlements, medicines are delivered

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out pursuant to a certain arrangement and to the length of the voyage from out of another storehouse, (Winkel), to which there are two overseers, who have a considerable annual income.

There are two hospitals; one within the town (Binnen hospital), into which all the sick from the town and from the ships are received. Three physicians and two surgeons have the care of the sick here. The other stands out of the town, (Buyten hospital), to which the sick are brought from the former as soon as they begin to recover, in order to have wholesome air there, and more exercise.

Besides these two hospitals appropriated to the Company, there are two more in the town, one of which belongs to the Moors, and the other to the Chinese.

The heat which constantly prevails here, and the heavy fogs that hang in the air, without soon dispersing, contribute to make the country, and in particular the town, very unwholesome, and the mortality so great, that the town has been called the European grave. The stench which arises from substances of different kinds, that are imprudently suffered to be thrown into the rivulet, and the irregular diet of the Europeans, do not a little contribute to the devastation which annually are apt to take place amongst them. The poorer sort of people commit excesses in eating fruit, and in the improper use

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of arrack; and the rich indulge more than they ought in so hot a climate, both with respect to strong food and heating liquors; the latter are, for the most part, hastily carried off by putrid fevers, often within the space of three days, and sometimes even in twenty four hours. Dysenteries and putrid fevers destroy the former; and most of those who are able to get over these disorders have a large and distended stomach, with an obstruction in some of the interior parts, (Placenta febrilis), which seldom disperses or disappears, if the patient be not sent to some other settlement, where the air is more wholesome and cooler. Those who appear to be the healthiest and most vigorous, the the soonest; while such as are weakly, as also women, hold out longest and best; although those who come from Europe with rosy cheeks, lose this species of beauty in a short time, and are afterwards as pale as a corpse.

The winds that prevail here the whole year throughout, are naturally either sea or land-winds, change according to the season. In the west, mousson or rainy season, which is also here considered as the winter, and commencing in November, or the beginning of December, lasts till the month of March, the land-winds blow from S.W. and the W. after which, about noon, a sea breeze springs up from the N.W. In the good season, or Mousson, as it is called, the land-winds

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shift S. E.—E. afterwards to N. E. and at last to N.

Near the ditches before the town I found the Costus Arabicus grow, the aromatic root of which is carried to different parts of India, and there sold to advantage.

In the very same manner I found ginger (Amomum Zingiber, and Zerumbet) growing wild farther up the country, in the dry sandy fields, and sometimes near the roads; both these are, perhaps, one and the same species; (at least there is very little difference between them) as the floral spike, which at first is round, grows out by degrees, and becomes longer. The Chinese, however, apply themselves to the cultivation of ginger; and the root, cleansed from the adhering earth, is boiled up with sugar, and sold in the Indies as well as Europe. In India it is frequently used with tea, to strengthen the stomach, and in Europe mostly in hoarseness, coughs, and other disorders of the breast.

I also saw a kind of cardamom (Amomum compactum), with roundish feed-vessels, reared in a garden. The seeds of this was like the Cardamoms which are usually brought to Europe, and are perhaps collected from several plants: the clusters of flowers grew very low down near the root, and the leaves resembled those of the common flag, but had a point like a fine thread at the end.

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Arrack, which in India is used instead of brandy, which here, as well as in every other part of the world, is reckoned the best ingredient for making punch, and which has a peculiar taste and smell, very different from those of any other distilled liquor, is best made at Java. For the distilling of this several considerable distilleries have been erected out of the town of Batavia, which, together with the privilege of preparing arrack, are farmed by the Chinese only. Rice is the chiefest ingredient from which this spirit is distilled, of three different degrees of strength, in large pans, after a previous fermentation with water, treacle from the sugar-houses, and the juice of the cocoa-trees. The weaker sort of arrack is drank warm by the Chinese, our of cups, at their merry meetings. The white arrack, which is called Kneip, and is immediately bottled off, is stronger, and is used chiefly in India. The arrack, after it is put into wooden vessels to be sent to other places, acquires a colour from the wood, and is the brown arrack that is commonly sold in Europe.

Cotton and silk are the chief materials throughout all the East Indies, from which the Indians make their clothes, and of which they sell annually an immense quantity to the Europeans. Silk indeed is not manufactured in the island of Java; but of cotton two different kinds occur in the country. One grows on a very high tree, with a

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large spreading and handsome top, and is called Bombax pentandrum, or silk-cotton tree. The cotton which encloses the seed in the capsule, is called Kapock, and is not used for spinning, but for making mattrasses, bolsters, and pillows. The other is the produce of a shrub, which, in the space of half a year, grows to the height of a man, and afterwards dies within the year (Gossypium herbaceum). This produces, from its seed-vessels, a much better and finer cotton (Kapas), which is spun and woven into an infinite number of cotton and calicoe pieces, of various degrees of fineness. I saw the cotton cleansed from the seed, by being laid on extended cloths, and beaten with sticks, till all the seed was perfectly separated from it.

Neither coffee-houses nor taverns are to be met with in this large and populous town, but all strangers, as well those who arrive by the Dutch ships, as those who come by vessels belonging to other nations, are obliged to put up at the Gentlemen's Hotel, which is a very large and handsome house, with a great number of apartments. Here they have not only attendance, a room, and bed and board, for a ducatoon, or a rix-dollar and a half, a day, but also coffee, wine and ale, by paying extraordinary for them. There is besides in this house a very large hall for the boarders to meet in and converse together, long galleries open on one side for them to walk or sit

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in under the shade, and a billiard-table for their amusement. No burgher, nor person that has a post under the Company, is suffered to lodge or board strangers for payment; but, if they choose to harbour a friend gratis, there is no prohibition to the contrary.

The rice (Oryza) which is cultivated on the low lands of the island of Java, is remarkably white, and ranks next to the Japanese in point ot goodness. Some rice is also cultivated on the higher parts of this island, and needs not be under, water, which this sort of grain otherwise usually requires. Before rice was brought hither, and became common in the country, the Javanese lived on (Geerst, as it is here called) the seed of a plant with a blackish bloom, of the Panicum or millet kind, which was cultivated by them, but was neither so good nor so profitable.

Besides rice, I saw cultivated here in different places Turkish wheat (Zea mais), and the Holcus sorghum.

The burning heat of the air, and excessive perspiration, make bathing very necessary: and indeed a day seldom passes without one's seeing the Indians splashing about in the water. For this purpose they choose such places, either in the rivulets or creeks, where they are secure from the crocodile. By these means their bodies are cleansed, and their pores opened; besides this the cold water strengthens their bodies,

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so that they afterwards perspire less, and grow more light and lively.

The spice trade, it cannot be denied, brings the Dutch Company the greatest profits of any; no private person therefore, whether he be an officer on the civil lift, a burgher or a naval officer, is suffered to have any thing to do with it; but the Company has engrossed the whole to itself. If any one is caught smuggling in this article, it always costs him his life, or at least he is branded with a red hot iron, and imprisoned for life.

Opium, which is commonly called Amphion, is considered as being contraband in the highest degree; the commerce in it likewise is entirely reserved to the Company alone, and the punishment in case of trespass, extremely severe. This commodity is chiefly brought from Bengal, and brings the Company an immense profit. A great consumptium of opium is made in Java, and the adjacent islands. The Indians use it very much, but not so commonly for chewing as the Turks, but, in its stead, make it into an electuary, with which they besmear the top of their tobacco, after they have put it into their pipes. This, when they have smoaked a few whiffs of it, makes them delirious, and, as it were, drunk; and if they imprudently use too much of it, they are quite beside themselves, and raving, so as even to be ready to murder every one they meet. When a

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man, thus rendered furious by opium, comes into the street, they call out Amok, Amok, and every one has a right to kill him, as he is to all intents and purposes an outlaw. The privilege to fell opium is usually farmed out to some people, (for the most part men high in office), who are the farmers general, and who pay very large sums for it. These again retail out their privilege to others, or, to speak more properly, they fell opium by wholesale at a very high price, to such as dispose of it in small quantities to the Indians. And as some of the first people here have an interest and fellow-feeling in the trade, a particular strict watch is kept, to prevent it from being smuggled into the country; and the offender is sure to be punished according to the utmost rigour of the law. Birds' nests, which I had also seen at the Cape before, were here more used in soups, as nourishing and delicious. They are composed of glutinous fibres, and dissolve into a transparent jelly, when put into warm water. They were said to be found in abundance in the Javanese mountains, and to be a profitable article of commerce, especially in China. This trade is also monopolized by the Company, and is generally farmed out to the highest bidder. These nests have hardly any taste, but are nourishing, and easy of digestion.

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Subattes was the name given by the inhabitants to several species of a curious kind of grasshopper (Mantis, especially the precatoria and religiosa), whose thorax was as long as the rest of its body, and which always lifted up its fore-legs, like the Indians, when they salute, or are requesting any thing. As this animal is extremely indolent, and seldom stirs, and the thorax perfectly resembles the stalk upon a leaf, and the wings, with their dark veins, look exactly like a leaf. Another species of it (the Mantis gongylodes), was therefore called the walking or living leaf. The Indians consider them as holy, or at least, as animals that brought good luck.

The buffaloes in Java were much unlike those that I had seen in the African woods. These were grey, smaller, and wallowed themselves in pools of muddy water. Although they always retained more or less of their native wildness, they nevertheless suffered themselves to be tamed; and I frequently saw them used for drawing large carts.

I observed that the chests, as well in the dwelling-houses as in the warehouses, were generally set upon bottles. The stagnation and unfrequent renovation of the air, and the consequent mouldering and speedy decay of most substances, rendered this precaution necessary; as otherwise, not only the bottoms of the chests, but the goods

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also contained in them, would in a short time be spoiled and intirely rotten.

In the road of Batavia there are a great many islands which not only make it secure in storms, but are also of great utility to the Dutch company. On these islands the Company has wharfs, store-houses for goods, and many other conveniences.

The Javanese were seen rowing to and fro' in the harbour in amazingly narrow but long boats, the gun-wale of which for the most part lay as steady and as level as a looking-glass. These boats are hollowed out of a tree, of a breadth merely sufficient for one man to sit in them, but several yards long, and without sails.

Slender ratans (Calamus rotang) are in very common use among the Javanese as cordage, and with these, either whole or cut into thin slips, they had the art of tying up any thing whatever with great dexterity. I likewise saw both strong and neat baskets made with them, as also broad mats for sitting on, which were very pretty.

The Bamboo tree is one of the most useful trees to the Indians in this part of the country. Of this they make almost evey thing they want with the greatest expedition. With it I saw houses built, chairs, tables, bedsteads, ladders, poles for carrying goods on, as also vessels and


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house utensils made, which were neat, strong, and light.

In the gardens of the Europeans situated out of the town, several shrubs and plants made a most elegant appearance; some with their variegated leaves, and others with their large and beautiful flowers. Amongst the former were the Nyctanthes picta, and the Erythrina corallodendrum; and amongst the latter the Hibiscus Rosa sinensis, the Muraya exotica, &c. The Hibiscus rosa sinensis was called Kambang Sapato (the Shoe flower); and, in fact, the bloom of it yields a very black pigment. On this account it is said to be used for blacking the scabbards of their hangers, (Kris), as also for blacking shoes.

The Morinda citrifolia, is called Bengado; and the juice of its root is used by the Javanese for dying red.

Indigo (Indigofera nila) grew wild every where, and was in some small degree cultivated by the Chinese.

Of crocodiles there is a very great abundance near the mouths of the rivers, and in the streams of this island. This creature grows to a considerable length. In my botanical excursions I frequently saw them lying on the beach, basking and sleeping in the sun. Sometimes they are taken by the Javanese with a hook, a circumstance which seems almost incredible.

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The mouth of this animal is very wide, and the teeth in both his jaws as sharp as chissels; so that with the greatest ease he can bite asunder the strongest rope. In order to catch him, the Javanese use a very loosely twisted cord of cotton, at the end of which a hook is fastened with some carrion or fresh meat on it. When the crocodile, after having swallowed the hook, endeavours to bite the cord asunder, his teeth get fast between its loose fibres, so that he is not able to bite it in two. The hook that he has swallowed likewise prevents him from tearing the cord to pieces. The hook, as I was told, is made of wood; and as soon as the crocodile is observed to have fastened, people come to assist his antagonists, and kill him with other instruments. So that it is possible indeed to catch a Leviathan with a hook; it must not however be done by dint of strength, but by artifice and stratagem.

The kernel of the fruit of Boa ati has a very bitter taste. It is used, pounded, in the colic, both by the Malays and Javanese.

The Javanese must not be made slaves of; but I was informed that it sometimes happens that they pawn each other: though I must confess that I could not get sufficient intelligence on this subject.

The kernel of the pinang (Nux aracœ) which is so commonly and almost daily used with Siri, in chewing betel, was cut to pieces with a pe-

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culiar pair of scissars made for the purpose, which I frequently had an opportunity of seeing, particularly when in company with the European ladies. The kernel was generally divided into six parts, and one of these parts was taken each time as a quid.

The sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum) is planted in great abundance at Java; and soft sugar is exported from hence to most other parts of India. All the sugar used in the East-Indies, is either sugar-candy or soft sugar. The refining it to loaf-sugar is not suffered here, but must be done in Holland. The chief trade to Japan is in this commodity. The sugar-candy is used with tea and coffee; and the soft sugar for dressing victuals, and preserving fruits of all sorts and berries, such as cloves and half-grown nutmegs, which are eaten by some people with their tea, in order to strengthen their weak and relaxed stomachs.

Nellika, or Boa Malacca, is preserved in the same manner, as is also a fruit called Cherimelle. In this state the former tastes quite soft and tender, and is as large as a hen's egg. The pulp has a subacid taste.

Cherimelle is less; it is pricked all over with a needle, and laid in water, and at length boiled up with sugar, and kept with syrup in glass bottles. These fruits are often eaten with tea. They are sometimes eaten unripe with a little salt, and may likewise, when in that state,

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be preserved in salt. Sometimes they are eaten ripe, and have then a subacid taste.

Fokke Fokkes was the name by which the fruit of the Solanum Melongena was distinguished, which grew here both in a wild and cultivated state. It is of an oblong form, something like a pear, of various sizes, of a quite smooth and shining exterior, and of a purple blue colour. The fruit has an agreeable taste when boiled in soup, or else boiled up with wine and pepper. It is diuretic, and expels gravel, and is in general use among the Europeans as well as the Indians.

Various roots, fruits, culinary vegetables, and other eatables, such as fish, &c. are preserved in vinegar. Thus preserved these articles are commonly called Attjar, and are used with roast meat and other dishes, for the purpose of creating an appetite, and strengthening the stomach. The vinegar is rendered more acrid and stronger by the addition of cayenne pepper, so that these pickles are rendered very hot and fiery. In this manner are preserved cucumbers, the rind of melons, and the aromatic roots of the bamboo tree, which latter are even carried from China to Europe.

Within the town of Batavia stand six churches, two Calvinistical, one Lutheran, one church belonging to the hospital, and one in the citadel, as also a Portugueze church out of the

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town, which have their clergymen from Holland, who are much respected here and well paid.

The Moors, who live at Batavia, are, as they are else where, chiefly merchants, and distinguishable by their peculiar and handsome mode of dress. They are frequently stout and tall men, with long black hair, which they fold up in a white cloth, like a turban, and wear whiskers. Some of them wear a cap, or round hat, on their head. Their dress is a large and wide gown or shirt, for the most part of white cotton, which is tied with a string or broad ribbon under the breast, and is wide at bottom, at the same time reaching down to the feet. Their shoes are wide, and terminate in a long slender point, which is turned up, and, by the richer fort, they were frequently embroidered with gold.

The Javanese always sit cross-legged on a straw mat laid on the floor or on the ground itself. On the road, or in the street, they sit on their heels. They compliment each other and salute in the same manner as most other Indian nations do, viz. by clapping their hands together, and lifting them up against the forehead. They take hold of their victuals with their fingers, without using either knife or fork. Their dress consists of a handkerchief, which they twist about their head; a waistcoat with many small buttons on it; and a garment (Kajin), which they fasten about their

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waist. The waistcoats of the better sort of people are frequently very handsome, and elegantly worked. They wear slippers, but go barelegged. Their slippers are quite square at the toes and turn up. Some wear a cylindrical cap cut off square, as it were at top, and made of very white cotton, and so much loaded with rice starch, as to be stiff and quite transparent. The women wear a garment, which, after covering their bodies, reaches down to their feet, and is folded together about their waists; and over this they wear a half shirt. The hair is wreathed up in a coil upon the crown, and fastened with a pin. People of quality wear slippers also, which are often very richly embroidered.

The children of these people, like those of many other Indian nations, are educated in a very simple inartificial way. They are seldom heard to cry. I saw them frequently left by their mothers on a mat spread on the earth, to amuse themselves, and crawling about on all fours till they could walk. They are never laced nor swaddled, and I did not see one deformed child or cripple among them.

The principal people among the Javanese live in great splendor, and are attended by several domestics, one of which carries a pinang box, the second a tobacco pipe, and the third tobacco, the fourth a spitting bason, the fifth an umbrella, &c.

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nay, the ladies are even carried in chairs mounted with silver, and the chieftains have sometimes silver or gold scabbards to their side arms.

The Javanese are of a yellow colour, with black and rather prominent eyes, the nose very slightly turned up, but yet short and blunt; the hair long and black, the mouth by no means large, but the upper lip of a moon-like figure, turned up, thick and rather pouting. They are mostly of the middle size, or rather tall than otherwise.

The Indians set a great value upon their hair, which is black; and so long as to reach down to their loins. Not a day passes without their anointing it, and combing it, and putting it up in the manner of their country.

It may indeed with justice be alledged, that the inhabitants of the warmer climates have a dull torpid brain, and are less keen and sharp than the Europeans. They have the power of thinking, but not profoundly; and consequently conversation among them is rather trifling. They are in general idle, sleepy, heavy, and lascivious. To these qualities the heat of the climate itself inclines them. And, without insulting the greater part of the dark-brown inhabitants of the East-Indies, one may truly say, that there is a greater difference between them and the Europeans, than between the monkies and them.

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The heat of the climate has that influence likewise on the Europeans who arrive here, that in time they become heavy, inactive, and less lively than they are in the colder climates; so that the most industrious man, against his inclination, frequently sinks into a state of inactivity and idleness.

Surnames are never used by the Javanese; and the prænomen is often changed by them according to circumstances. As soon as a father has a son, he changes his own name, and instead of the son being called after his father, as in Europe, the father is here called after his son; for example, if the son is called Choso, then the father's name is changed to Bappa Choso (or Choso's father). If he afterwards has more sons, he constantly takes his name after the youngest.

The weapons used by the Javanese are of various kinds. The Kris is a kind of Coteau de Chasse, which is usually worn by all ranks and on every occasion. The blade is about a foot long, and is either strait or wavy like a serpent, two fingers in breadth, sharp pointed and two-edged. It is frequently of the colour of lead, with lighter stripes in it. Sometimes it is inlaid with flowers, and in general poisoned. It is kept in a wooden scabbard, which sometimes is painted, and sometimes, when the owner is a man of property, is covered with a thin plate of silver or gold, which

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is loose, and can easily be taken off. The hilt is of wood, and is of a peculiar shape. This Kris is worn in a belt, which is tied about the body, on the right side near the back, and frequently quite at the back, especially among the lower class of people.

Another kind of sabre I frequently saw sold in the markets: it was thick in the back, heavy, and above two feet in length, with a horn or wooden hilt.

Badi was the name of a small Couteau de Chasse, or rather dagger. It was about six inches long, with a crooked handle, and was sometimes worn, like the former, in a belt.

Wudong is another weapon, which I saw worn by the lowest class of people only, and chiefly by men servants. It was said to denote obedience and attachment. The blade was short and broad, and resembles a chopping-knife, with a convex edge, and a thick back. The scabbard in which it was kept was made of wood, with a horn spring on one side, by means of which it was held fast in the girdle round the body, where it was stuck in near the back. It was six inches long and three broad. This instrument served also to cut with, and to clear the roads in the thick woods of Java.

Among the Javanese both sexes can be ennobled; so that if a nobleman marries a com-

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moner, the lady becomes ennobled, and vice versa.

Java is not governed by one sole monarch, but by several, although the island is not so very large as to be divided into different kingdoms. At Bantam there is a king, at Madura a regent, or prince; at Surikarta an emperor, and at Djokjakarta a sultan.

Cock-roaches (Blattœ), and ants are as common as they are troublesome in India. The former, however, are more destructive on board of ship, and the latter there and every where else, especially the small red ants, which devour or destroy every thing. These are so diminutive as hardly to be perceived, and penetrate into the smallest crevices. If an insect is caught, and put into a box, it is immediately eaten up by these small animals, so that the wings only remain. The ants are particularly fond of sugar, and assemble in such numbers as intirely to cover the vessel in which it is kept. I found the best means of expelling cock-roaches out of chests of clothes, was to lay camphor among the clothes; and, for keeping out the small red ants, the Oleum Cajeput and Kulit Lavang were the most powerful remedies. They cannot endure the smell of these oils, but the very speedily. With the Cajeput oil, which is more volatile, I made several trials, in order to see in how far

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I should be able, by means of it, to preserve my collections of insects from the ravages of India's all-devouring ants. Having made a ring on the table with cajeput oil, and put a few ants within it, I perceived that the ants did not venture to pass it, but soon grew giddy from the vapor of it, staggered about, and at length died. When any of my insect-boxes was anointed with the oil, and some ants were put into it, in a few seconds they were scarcely able to crawl, and soon afterwards died. In like manner, sooner or later, it killed other insects; so that I plainly perceived that this oil was as dangerous and fatal to insects in general, as it was an efficacious remedy in several disorders.

Formerly, and at the first establishment of the Company's commerce, few people of any respectability sailed for these parts, which were considered as dangerous as the voyage itself. The major part of the crew, in all probability, consisted of such as, having committed some crime in Europe, had been obliged to leave their native country; or else, in consequence of a series of misfortunes, and with nothing but the most disagreeable prospects before them, had been necessitated to go to sea. These in the mean time made their fortunes, arrived by degrees at the highest employments, and some of them returned home, from time to time, in affluent circumstances, and

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laden with the spoils of India. These again encouraged others to try their fortunes, and such an alteration gradually took place in the face of affairs, that, at present, men of birth and education go thither, and sometimes noblemen, who generally go out as writers, in order to wait for an opportunity of getting into a profitble employment. Although such men of family are sent out every year with many recommendations and great expectations, yet I doubt very much that by this (to all appearance) so useful an alteration, the Company's interest is more promoted; as it is not birth and rank that are required here, but abilities and assiduity. For although one would be apt to suppose that, in consequence of having received a better education than ordinary, they had acquired some degree of knowledge, which however is frequently little enough, yet it is not so much the Company's interest as their own that they have at heart, and to obtain such posts as they may make their fortunes in with speed, as likewise to be enabled to return with their booty as soon as possible to Europe, there to live on the interest of their fortunes in a style suitable to their high rank and dignity. With such views arrived, in the ship that brought me from the Cape, the young baron S** de L**; and a count B, proudly paraded the streets of Batavia, whilst he waited with impatience for some

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vacancy which might satisfy his ambition as well as his other wants.

Within the citadel are the Company's store-houses for the keeping of grain, rice, spirits, and wines, and other necessaries, not only for this town, but for almost all their factories in India; as also spices and other merchandizes for Europe and other markets.

Here are also the Company's accounting offices, treasury, arsenal, laboratories, &c.

In the chemical laboratory I saw tolerably good oil distilled from damaged cloves, although they did not yield a great quantity of it.

A printing-office is also established here for the Company's use, together with Archives, and a handsome library, the catalogue of which was printed as early as in the year 1752.

The governor-general makes a very great and princely figure when he goes abroad in his large gilt coach of state. He has his master of the horse, master of the ceremonies, and a life-guard consisting of twelve horse-men, also two trumpeters, and a coach-man, all dressed in an appropriate dress. The guard rides, for the most part, before the coach, with drawn swords, and before them two trumpeters, a European and four black running foot-men, and an officer at the side of the coach. Sometimes fifty or sixty armed horse-men attend the carriage, led by a cornet

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or serjeant. All ranks of men, except the gentlemen of the council, are obliged to pay obeisance to the governor wherever he passes; those that are on foot stand still, and those that are in carriages alight. In the council, which generally meets every Tuesday and Friday, are, besides him, a director-general, and five counsellors in ordinary, who have the power both to advise and determine. There are besides several counsellors extraordinary, who are competent only to advise, but have no voice. Nobody is suffered to enter the council with his sword on, which is always left in the anti-chamber, to the care of the guard. The governor-general has an absolute regal authority and power: whatever he thinks proper to do, is generally agreed to by the rest; and, should they be against him, he can nevertheless carry the matter into execution; but in that case becomes alone responsible for the issue. He has also power to enter into treaties with the Indian princes, to make war or peace, and sometimes, when the Company's interest requires it, he assumes that of dethroning kings and princes, and of putting others in their place. The director-general has the chief management of the Company's trade, goods, and store-houses. Each gentleman belonging to the council has the separate inspection over some of the other Indian factories, and is at the same time fre-

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quently president of some of the colleges in the town. When a gentleman belonging to the council passes any body in his carriage, who has two running footmen before his coach, he must stop whilst they salute. When the Governor-general's lady goes out, two yeomen of the guard ride before the coach, and sometimes twelve horsemen behind it.

In the town there were several coach-jobbers, or burghers, who kept horses and carriages for the use of strangers and others who could not afford to keep any of their own. Such coaches might be hired by the week, month, or day, or for a certain time, but the terms are very high; the owners generally grew rich in a short time.

I viewed the astronomical observatory, which the famous preacher MOOR had built out of the town for the advancement of the sciences; after his death, however, it was no longer used, but stood as a testimonial of the zeal and assiduity of its respectable founder.

Amongst other exotic plants that were cultivated here, I saw likewise the Cajeput-tree (Melaleuca leucadendra), from the leaves of which that famous and excellent oil, called Cajeput oil, is distilled; as also the Cacao-tree (Theobroma cacao), the flowers of which grow on the stem and larger branches, and whose fruits contain the kernels, from which chocolate is manufactured.

[page] 305

Dragons (Draco volans) flew about in the environs of the town in great numbers during the heat of the day, like bats in a summer's evening in Europe, without injuring me, who sometimes caught them in their flight, or any one else.

In the road, which is large and wide, but, at the same time, shallow and muddy, lies an old guard-ship, on board of which watch is kept for four nights successively, in turns, by all the surgeons that arrive here in the ships; and to this guard-ship are brought all such as are taken ill in the night, or meet with any accident during the time that the town-gates are shut. A man, however, may get excused from keeping this watch by paying a couple of ducatoons, which are given to some other surgeon that does the duty in his stead.

As at Batavia, as well on board of the ships as also in the hospitals and with the regiments, there is a great number of surgeons in the Company's service, a surgeon-general is appointed, who, with the concurrence of the governor-general and council, orders each of them to such places, either on board the ship or on shore, as he is most wanted in.

Amongst the many articles with which the ships were supplied here for their intended voyage, were pickled fish, fowls, ducks, geese, and eggs, also water-melons, shaddocks, and


[page] 306

cocoa-nuts, and these not only in great abundance, but also at a very low price, as likewise arrack and rice.

Milk also was daily brought to town for sale, and used in the houses.

Sheep were some of the most scarce animals on this island; their woolly coat made the climate insupportable to them. When a live sheep, therefore, arrived from the Cape, it was for the most part sent immediately farther up the country to the Blue Mountains, where the country is higher and the air much colder.

The fig-tree, of which this island has several different sorts, I often saw growing out of the very cracks in the walls; and those so dry that I was amazed to find that the trees could be kept alive by the trifling quantity of moisture that might be left in such places by the rain.

The military consists partly of Europeans and partly of Indians, who are taken into regular service and exercised, besides the burghers and Chinese, who likewise, in case of a war breaking out, must do duty. The officers here, and all over India, are considered as servants, whom the Company has engaged, in consideration of a certain stipulated pay, for the defence and service of the country. They have, therefore, no share either in the administration of government, or in the carrying on of commerce, nor do they rank

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above the gentlemen in the higher departments of office, who, on account of the most advantageous trade that is carried on by their means, are considered as being of greater utility. The soldiers, the number of whom, on account of the ravages committed by diseases and the arrival of the ships, differs greatly in the course of the year, are frequently treated very ill and with great injustice. Such as are sent out by the kidnappers, have no pay for a long time, and when they get their pay, they receive no more than thirteen stivers in the gilder, of which the greatest part is deducted for cloathing. After recovery from illness, they wander about as pale as a whitened wall, and are frequently so lean that one may almost see through them.

I had several opportunities of seeing the Javanese dances, and, at the same time, of hearing their music.

These dances are performed with various motions of the body, and particularly of the arms and feet. The Malays call these dances Tantak, and the Javanese Rongé. On these occasions there is always some well-dressed and decorated female, who begins the dance with one of the company, and afterwards continues, one at a time, with such of the others as find a pleasure in dancing; and these her partners always put a piece of money into her hand before the dance

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is over. A female dancer of this kind is called Rougin, and the money given is divided between her and the musicians.

The music consists of several different instruments, which, when well played on, have not a bad effect at a small distance. The instruments mostly in use are a kind of violin with only two strings, a drum which is beat at both ends with the singers, a kind of an organ, consisting of pieces of wood of different lengths (according to the different tone to be produced) and laid on a hollow block: these are beaten with a wooden hammer; a copper kettle, which is beaten as it is suspended in the air, and two copper bowls, which are held in the hand and struck against each other.

The titles of the reigning princes in Java differ according to their different dignity. Those that I could arrive at the knowledge of, with any degree of certainty, were as follows.

The Emperor in Surikarta is called,

Sufu bunang, i. e. Sovereign prince.
Pako buna, The world's (nail) support.
Senapati ingalaga, Lann, or field-colonel.
Abdul rakman, Holy priest.
Sajidin panatagama, Defender of the throne.

The Sultan in Djokjakarta is called,

Sulthan, i. e. Prince or king.

[page] 309

Haming kubana, Regent of the world.
Halisa tolab, God's stadtholder;
and Sennapatti ingalaga, Abdul rakman and Saydin panagatagama.

The Regent in the island of Madura is stiled Panembaham Adipatti, a free prince or regent.

A prince is called Pangerang. A hereditary prince Pangerang adepatti; a queen Ratu; and a princess Radin Aju.

Patti is the denomination given to an intendant of a province, or any large tract of land, among the Javanese. Of these there were several in the territories subject to the Dutch company. These are appointed it is true, by the governors, but must be confirmed by the government of Batavia, in like manner as are the kind of regents called captains, who are set over the Chinese in that country.

Tommegomme, is the appellation given to the overseer or head-man of some small district or large village; and if one of these governors marries a princess, he is stiled Radin tommegom.

There is a very scarce coin amongst the Javanese, which I had a great deal of difficulty in procuring, though I paid a silver ducatoon for it. It was made of brass, and was about as broad as a Swedish rix-dollar, but was not of above twice the thickness of a halfpenny. There is a square hole in the middle, which serves for

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stringing them together. It is called Pettis kantang, and was said to be found at present on the eastern extremity of the island only, e. g. at Suribaija and Banjermassing. A broad raised border surrounds the edge. In the middle stands a tree with spreading branches, and on each side of this a mis-shapen human figure like a skeleton. This figure, like all others which they draw or carve in wood, is disfigured, as the Mahometan religion prohibits them from making any true likeness. For the rest, the coin is cast.

At Batavia there is likewise a coin struck in copper, by governor ZWARDEKROON (though it was said to be more current at Coromandel than here) which is of the size of a Swedish stiver, or an English half-penny, and of the thickness of a farthing. On one side is a double margin, on which is stamped Batavia, with the date of the year, and in the middle of a sword. On the other are represented the Company's arms, and over these is stamped half a stiver.

I also met with a Javanese doit as large as a farthing, and of the same thickness. It was made of copper, stamped on one side with Javanese characters in three rows, within a dotted circle, and exhibiting on the other side a wreath of flowers, within which were the words Duyt Javas, 1783, likewise in three rows.

The Chinese Petjes, cast in brass with a square

[page] 311

hole in the middle, were current here also, and that even amongst the Europeans. This coin is strung to a certain number on a string, is as large and thick as a common farthing, and is brought hither from China by the Chinese merchants.

Garing is a name given to a large Cicada, which, sitting on the trees in the Javanese woods, is heard to make a noise as shrill and piercing as if it proceeded from a trumpet. This animal is not easily seen nor caught. It sits on the trunks of the trees and the larger naked branches, and is with difficulty perceived by the eye. On a closer approach it becomes silent by degrees, and at last suddenly flies away. It is best caught with an insect-net, which is set before it, or, by the Indians, with bird-lime at the end of a long rod, which was brought gently to the back of the wings, and made them stick together.

I observed two sorts of peas eaten by the Javanese, by which their breath was rendered extremely offensive. They were therefore called by the Dutch stink beans, and by the Javanese the small leaved sort Petté, and the other Chenkol.

The name of Dranguli is given to the fruit both of the Cassia Javanica and fistulosa, the pods of which are cylindrical, black on the outside, and contain a black laxative pulp within, and hang down from the tree like long sticks.

Daun kitji was the name of a herb which I

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never could see in blossom, but it seemed to me to belong to the order of Asperifoliæ, and was, by some, considered as a Saxifrage. They endeavoured to persuade me, that it was not only able to dissolve the stone in the human body, but also that if small pieces of porcelain were put into it, it would make them brittle. And indeed when little bits of porcelain were wrapped up in it, it was easy to bite them asunder with the teeth; but the same might be done by wrapping them up in linen, or any thing else that would counteract their slipperiness, and prevent them from hurting the teeth.

Wild boars were to be found in the woods in abundance, and enjoyed amongst the Javanese, who are followers of the Mahometan doctrine, the most perfect freedom and security, although they made great havock in the rice grounds and sugar plantations. In fact, they are neither killed nor eaten by the natives.

Sometimes, though very seldom, I saw fences erected for defending the cultivated lands against the wild boars, and these were, for the most part, weak, and made of bamboos. On the outside of these fences near the sugar plantations, twigs a foot high were frequently placed with a cotton rag at the end of them. These rags the Javanese watered with their urine, which was said to have this good effect, that the wild boars who smell

[page] 313

the scent, and cannot bear the odour of human urine, do not break into this feeble fence.

The court of judicature at Batavia, which is composed of a few members who have their appointment from Holland, are, as well as the Fiscal, independent of the great Indian court; but these members of the council are poorly paid, so that it has not fallen to their lot to accumulate riches here. From the acquaintance I had occasion to form with some of them, as well as from other circumstances, it appeared to me, that justice was not here an object of commerce.

Besides this court which judges the Company's servants of every degree, even in matters of life and death, smuggling and other criminal cases, the town has its own court of judicature, or Stadthouse, at which one of the members of the grand Indian court presides, and several of the burghers sit as aldermen (Scheepen) to judge in such cases as come before them, and even those that regard the lives and properties of the Indians. These places in the council are in the gift of the governor general, and are frequently well paid for by such as thirst after honours, and cannot acquire rank by any other means.

The Sabandar, M. BOERS, who frequently visited at M. RADERMACHER's house, and was his friend, shewed me much friendship and kindness. He held an employment which was very

[page] 314

lucrative and brought him in a large income, as every stranger who arrived here with the ships was obliged to wait upon him, and take from him every thing they wanted, as well with respect to provisions as other necessaries. Amongst other kindnesses shewn me by this gentleman, he lent me above 1000 rix-dollars on Bottomry, with winch I purchased unicorns horns, (Unicornu verum), which it was thought would sell well at Japan.

The interest of money borrowed on Bottomry is very high, but differs in proportion to the length of the voyage, and the dangers of the seas to which the ship is bound. The navigation to Japan in considered as the most dangerous of all the Indies. The interest therefore amounts to twenty, or twenty-five, per cent, which is paid on the return of the person to Batavia, should the voyage prove successful; but should the vessel be stranded or lost, all claims are null and void, and the debtor is for ever exempted from any demands respecting the loan, which, in consideration of a high interest, is made at all hazards.

The commissary appointed over the inhabitants, has perhaps one of the most profitable places that can be well imagined; as he alone has any concern with the inhabitants on the island, and furnishes all the merchandize, coffee, sugar, birds nests, &c. which are the natural products of

[page] 315

Java. By these articles, which the natives are obliged to sell to him at the lowest prices, as well as by advancing them money at the highest and most unreasonable interest, he makes an astonishing income.

On the 24th of May, the cannon round the town were discharged, in commemoration of the taking of Jaccatras, which happened on the 13th of May, 1619, according to th old stile, or 156 years ago.

Jaccatra, which is now only a sortress, or outpost, was formerly one of the capitals of the island, before it was conquered by the Dutch, and the present flourishing city of Batavia founded nearer to the sea-side.

On the 1st, 2d, and 3d of June, the Chinese celebrated one of their festivals by a rowing match on the river, which runs through the town down to the harbour. This was performed by two boats that rode against the stream. The first that arrived obtained the prize, which was set up on a green pole, and chiefly consisted of handkerchiefs, fans, silver coins, or a silver box. This contest was repeated several times, with music, accompanied by a kettle-drum, and beating of brass cymbals.

The time now approached when the ships were to sail for Japan, And, although M. RADERMACHER, who had conceived a high degree of friend-

[page] 316

ship for me, tried to persuade me to remain at Batavia, and to accept the appointment of physician, which was vacant, the income of which was computed to amount to 6 or 7000 rix-dollars yearly, yet, on account of the promises I had made in Holland, I preferred my duty to my interest, and the rather, as I had had sufficient opportunities of observing, during my short stay in the place, that no great advantages are to be reaped here honestly. I therefore heartily thanked my kind benefactor, and, by way of preparing for my intended voyage to Japan, bespoke several necessary articles relative to my apparel, some of silk and others of cloth, with lace and other decorations of dress, in order that I might exhibit myself with propriety among the Japanese, who view the Europeans with greater attention than any natural philosopher can possibly examine the most rare and uncommon animal.


[page 317]



VAN AARDE, p. 136

Acari, 11, 48, 49

Air, 288

Alder tree, 110

Ale, 212

Almond tree, 111

Aloe, Aloe tree, Gum aloe, 49, 154

Alps, 26

Amandel hout, 111

Amaryllis disticha, 163

Amomum, 282

Amphion, vide opium

Amsterdam island, 212

Anas, 143, 150

Annona, the fruit of, 275

Ants, 299, 300

AUGE, 201

Arbuses, 279

Ardea, 143

Areca cathecu, Areek, 268, 291

Arrack, 282, 283

Arundo, 143

Æsculus pavia, 131

Assagay tree, 96, 111

Asses striped, 84, 89

Atjar, 293

Averrhoa, 276


Babel, tower of, 116

Baboons, 116

—— mountain, 7, 141

Babiansberg, 141

BADENHORST's farm, 115

Badi, 298

Bamboo tree, 289, 312

Bantam, 214

Barup, 102

Batavia, 215, 216, 220, 226

Bartering trade, 156–157

[page 318]

Bath, bathing, 17, 97, 98

Beads, string of, 81

Beckvliet, 117

Bead clothes, 224

Bengado, 290

BERG, 200

Berghaas, 182

Berge rivier, 184

Besmearing, 161

Betel, 268

Beer small, kleine bier, 279

BERNARD's farm, 52

BEYER's farm, 115


Bilimbing, 276

Birds nests, 287

Black and blue spots, 20

Black river, 115

BLANKENBERG's farm, 40

Blattœ, 299

Blue-mountains, 2

Boa ati, 291

Boa lansa, 276

Boa Malacca, 292

Boa Nanca, 275

Boats, 289

BOERS, 313

Bokkeveld, 29, 154–155, 180

Bokkeland mountains, 22, 23, 24, 163

Bombax, 274, 284

Bonteboks, 44, 58

Boomslang, 23

Booter rivier, 115

Bos Caffer, 84–88


Boshiesmen, 157–163, 167, 173, 175

BOTA's farm, 36, 38, 40, 45, 52, 54

Bottomry, 314

Bows, 161, 175

Bow-wood, 171

Brack rivier, 54

Brand valley, 35

BRANDT's house, 12

Bread, 269

Bread fruit, 275

Bread tree, 66

Breede rivier, 31, 35, 112

BRINK, 201

Bromelia ananas, 272

BRUEL's farm, Mrs. 36

Brug drift, 31


Bucku, 6, 187

—— tree, Buckuhout, 110

Buccinum, 206


Buffaloes, 84–88, 270, 288

Buffeljagts rivier, 40

Bulfinch, 64

Bulbous plants, 126, 163

BURGER, 16, 17, 138

Burghers post, 4

Burying, 121, 194, 195

Butterflies, 96

[page 319]

Butter, 2, 57, 117

Butter-milk, 63

BUYS farm, 54

Byssus lactea, 9


Cabeljauws rivier, 79

Cacao tree, 304

Catappa, 374

Caffres, 94

Caffres, the country of, 95, 107

Cajeput tree and oil, 299, 300, 304

Calcareous hills, 33

Calamus rotang, 276, 289

Camassie hout and wood, 110

Camenassie land, 54, 55, 56, 97

Camtous rivier, 79

Canarium, 220

Canna shrub, 104

Cannaland, Canna's heights, or Canaan's land, 53

Canna root, 90, 175

Cannon, 4, 315

Cape 117, 120–125

Capra, 7, 12, 24, 26, 41, 58, 84, 89, 113, 163

Captain Kloof's mountain, 141

Carex, 143

Caravan, 106, 201–203

Caracal, 182

Carambola, 276

Card playing, 78

Cardamoms, 282

Carica papaya, 274, 152, 158

Carrow, 54, 98, 100–106


Cassia, 311

Castration, 192

Casuarina, 220

Cat, 182

Catjepiring, 111

Cavia, 158

Cestrum, 162

Charcoal, 5, 126

Chenkol, 311

Cherimelle, 292, 293

Chesnuts, 131

Chinese, 95, 217, 266–267, 315

Christmas, 96

Churches, 14, 67, 121, 207, 228, 293

Cicada, 311

Circumcision, 194

Citrus decumanus, 278

Citadel, 216, 302

Clay, 146

Clothes, 221

Cloves, 292

[page 320]

Coaches, 222

—— hired, 304

Cocos nucifera, 270

Cocoa-nut, 270

Cock roaches, 299

Cockle shell, 5

Codon, 147

Coins, 264–265, 344–346

Colic, 291

Cold Bokkeveld, 23, 29

Cold, 28, 34, 55, 104, 127, 168, 176, 177, 182, 207

Colony, Colonists, 24, 199

Columba, 34, 140

Coloquintida, 171

Commissary, 314

Company, 224

Conferva, 18

Coots, 143

Corpulence, 33

Covered walk, 128

Corvus, 11, 48

Costus arabicus, 282

Cotton, 284

Cotula turbinata, 14

Council, gentlemen of, 303–304, 314

Crocodiles, 220, 291

Crows, 11

CRUSE, 200

Cucumis, 171

Cucumbers, wild, 171

Cunonia, 110

Custom houses and tolls, 263

Currie, 268–269

Curtisia, 96, 112

Cyprea, 206

Cyanella capenfis, 14


Damaquas Hottentots, 52

Dances, 307

Daun kitje, 311–312

Daunis, 167

Dassenberg, 4

Dassen eyland, 8

Dassi, 158

Dassi klipp, 16

Decline, Consumption, 21

Dialogues in the Malay tongue, 257–262

Diarrhœa, 15

Dictionaries, 228, 229, 231–255


Diep drift, 31

Diep rivier, 54

Diomedia, 8

Diosma, 6, 187

Disa, 32

Dispensary, 279

Diving goats, 7, 23

Dodonea, 139

Dogs, wild, 10

Doit, Javanese, 310

Dorn hout, 111

[page 321]

Dorn rivier, 21, 180

Dorn boom rivier, fingle, 152

Doves, 34, 140

Draco, Dragons, 305

Dranguli, 311

Drakenstein, 125

Draught oxen, 65

Drie fonteins berg, 141


DROSKIS farm, 37

Drooge rivier, 167

Duykers, 7

Ducks, 45, 143

Duyven hoeks rivier, 46

Durio, a fruit, 275

Dyes, 290–291

Dysentery, 281


Ekebergia, 60, 110

Eland boks, 58

Eland's kloof, 22

Elephants, 39, 68, 84, 89, 140

—— river, 97

Else rivier, 31

Elsis kraal, 184

Emperor's titles, 308

Engel bath, 18



Engines, 296

Ennobling, 298

Epilepsy, 21

Essebosch, 60

Essenboom, 60, 111, 112

ESTERHUYSEN's farm, 176

Erythrina, 290

Expeditions, 106, 201–203


Farming of duties, 264, 287

Farms, 33

FELDMAN, corporal, 156

Fennel root, 4

Fences, 312

Ferry, 16

Fevers, putrid, 281

Ficus capensis, fig tree, 60, 306

Fire, mode of producing, 160

FISCHER's farm, 14

Fishing, 62

Fish river, 95

Flies, 92

Fly-bush, 26, 32

Fokke fokkes, 293


FORE, 45

Fortress, 315

FORSTER, Bernard, 22

Four and twenty rivers mountain, 7

Foxes, 10, 78

FRERE, 56, 58, 59, 97

Fruit, 214, 270, 279

Fulica, 143

Fundling island, 8


[page 322]

FUNERE, Peter, 30


Galgebosch, 80

Ganse-kraal, 5

Gardens, 226, 267, 290

Gardenia, 109, 111

Garing, 311

Garcinia mangostana, 277–278

GAUS's farm, 19, 22

Geelhout, 109

Geerst, 285

Gemseboks, 58

Gentlemen's hotel, 146, 148, 284

Geraniums, 31

Giftbolles, 163

Ginger, 282

Gli, 31

Goats, vid. Capra

Gold fish, 227

Gold finches, 13

Gonaquas Hottentots, 80, 83

Goose, Goose's egg, 141, 150

GOSEN's farm, 15

Gossypium herbaceum, 254

Government, 299, 302, 304

Governor general, 208, 302

Goud bloems kloof, 179

Goudena, 35

Goud's rivier, 108

Grand-father's wood, 41

Grass-hopper, 44, 65

Grazing, 56

GREEF's farm, 135, 141

Grey buck, 11

Griesbok, 11

Groene kloof, 4

Groene kloofs mountain, 4

GROENEWALL's farm, 115

Groote paarde kraal, 53

Groot vaders bosch, 44, 108

Gryllus spumans, 44

Guard ship, 305

Guettarda, 220

Gunna, 102

GYLLENHUYSEN's farm, 112, 115

Gypsum, radiated, 33


Hagelkraal, 52

Hair, 222

Hail, 31

Haliotis, 5

HANNEKAMP's farm, 138

Hantum, Hantumsberg, 157

Hares, 135

Hartebeest, 7, 84, 89

Hartequas kloof, 53, 103, 105

HARTOG, the gardener, 20

Heat, 108, 280, 296




[page 323]

Helena bay, 12

Herons, 143

Hessaquas kloof, 112, 297

Hex rivier, 35, 181, 182

Heykoms Hottentots, 60

Hibiscus, rosa sinensis, 290

Hippopotamus, 68

Hirundo apus, 9

HOFFMAN, Dr. 217, 218, 226, 279

Holcus, 285

HOLMBERG, 209, 217

Honinbsrg, 138

—— klipp, 11

Hoof distemper, 71, 93

Hospitality, 225

HOP, 201

Horses, striped, 84, 89, 114

Hospital, 119

Hottentots, 13, 24, 41, 43, 61, 64, 65, 72, 78, 80, 82, 93, 95, 98, 103, 144, 155, 162, 163, 170, 185, 198

Hottentots God, 65

Hottentots Hollands berg, 116

Hottentot captain, 79

Hottentot language, 72–77

Houses, 4

Hout hoek, 116

Houtniquas essen, 110

Hunting, 196

Hereen logement, 146, 148

Hyæna maculata, 57

Hydnora, 133, 164


Jaccatra, 315

Jackalls, 10

JANSEN's farm, 27

Japan, Japanese, 315–316

Java, 212, 213, 315

Javanese, 213, 214, 220, 227–228, 291, 294–299

Jean Besis kraal, 2

Jerbao capensis, 182

Ilex, 109

Indigo, Indigofera, 181, 290

Inophyllum, 220

Infects, 91

Intoxicating liquor, 150, 167

Interest of money, 314

JORDAN's farm, 97, 182

Iris edulis, 4

Iron, 23

Iron tree black, 109

Islands, 8, 212, 213, 289

JUBA's farm, 115

Judicature, court of, 314

Jutland, 8

Jumping rat, 182

Jurisdiction, 120

Ixia, 34


Kreupelboom, 112

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Kameka, 102

Kamerup, 150

Kamkou, 54

Kambang sapato, 290

Kapàs, Kapok, 284

Karbou, 270

Karrie soup, 268, 269

Kartous kloof, 16

Karup, 150

Karre hout, 171

Keer de Koe, 123

KEISER's farm, 35

KEMP's farm, 16

KERSTE's farm, 172

Kerremelks rivier, 45

Keurebooms rivier, 40

Keurhout, 111

Kidnapper, 130, 131

Klapper island, 213


Klipp rivier, 53

Kloppenberg, 203

Koberg, 4

Koedoes, 89

KOK, 62, 67, 96

Kokmans kloof and rivier, 37

Kòn, 98, 102

Konterberg, 7

KOOPMAN's farm, 21

—— rivier, 184

Kora, 44, 78

Kreuts fontein, 172

Korrhaans, 7, 14

Kou, 135

Kouka, 58

Krakekamma, 83, 84

Kris, 297

Kromme rivier, 61, 97


Kuka, 91

Koka kamma, 95

KUTSE, 135, 141, 173


Ladies, 222, 223

Lange valley, 146

Lange kloof, 54, 55, 97

Language, 191

Lanthorns, 56

Langstaart, 64

Lentils, 180

LAU's grazing farm 164, 169

Leathern thongs, 13

Leeuwedans, Leeuwejagt, 153

Leepelboom, 112

Lemons, 141

Lemur, 206

LEUWESTEIN, count, 210

Library, 302


Limestone, 33

LINDE's farm, 114


Lions, 19, 38, 69–71, 88, 149, 165–167, 179

Lions dance, 153

[page 325]

Lobelia, 150

LOMBART's farm, 48, 138

Look-out, 178

Looris rivier, 79

LOSPER's farm, 12, 21, 109, 111, 136

Loxia, 14, 23, 64

LUBBE's farm, 19, 21


Madagascar, island, 133

Madagascar cats, 206

Malay books, 228–230

—— language, 217, 227–228, 232, 262

Mantis, 65, 194, 288

Mangustines, 277

Maquas duyv, 34

Marmota, 5, 146

Marriage, 127, 192

Maskammu, 151

MATJE's drift, 54, 138

Marius dirk, 52

Matjes fontein, 13

—— kloof, 54

Matjes goed, 37


Mats, 37

Maurice's heights, 178

Mead, 31

Measles, 20, 21

Melaleuca, 304

MELK, 206

MELK's farm, 12, 113



VAN DER MERVEL's widow, 180

Merchandize, 262–263, 305, 314–315

Mesembryanthemum, 35, 98, 128, 175

Meulen riviersberg, 62

Meuwen Eyland, 8

MEYER's farm, 52, 62


Military, 306–307

Milk, 306

Mimosa, 45, 111, 151

Misfortune, River of, 179

Moles, 146

Monkey, 40

Mone island, 212

MoNSON, Lady Ann, 132

MOOR, 304

Moors, 294,

Moorwortel, 150, 167

Monstrous birth, 170

Morinda, 790

Mosselbanks rivier, 134

MOSTERT's farm, 9

—— hoek, 30, 173

Mossel baay, 52

Mountains, 2, 4, 7, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36, 40, 44, 45, 53, 54–56, 61, 62, 83, 100, 101, 105, 115, 116, 135, 138, 141, 144

[page 326]

Mountain river, 12, 15

Murraya exotica, 290

Musa paradisiacca, 271

Music, 308

Musquitoes, 223, 224


Namaquas, 155

Names, 12, 192, 297

Necklace, 176, 188

Nellika, 292

NELK's farm, 37, 170

Nenta, 97

New year's day, 96, 197

Niewland, 119

NYCKERT's farm, 58

Nyctanthes picta, 206


Oaks, 207

Observatory, 304


Olea, 111

Olive tree, 111

OLOFSON's farm, 55, 97

OLIVIER's farm, 176

Olyfant's mountains, 62

—— rivier, 17, 54, 149, 150, 151

—— warm bath, 55, 61, 97, 98

Olyve hout, 111

Ongeluck's rivier, 179

Opium, 286, 287


Orebi, 58

Ornithagalum, 112

Ostriches, 7, 10, 53

—— eggs 135, 141, 142, 176

OWERHLSNE's farm, 138


Paardeberg, 136, 179, 180, 184

Paarl-berg, Paarl diamonds, 135, 136

PALOO, captain, 107

Panicum, 285

Papenkuyls fontein, 7

Papiliones, 96

VANDER PARRA, governor, 208, 217, 218

Partlidges, 143

Party military, 158, 173

Patrys berg, 12

Patti, 309

St. Paul's island, 211

Pear tree, red, 110

Pebble stones, 25


Penguins, 8

Pepper cayenne, 268

Petjes, Chinese, 310 311

Persian cat, 182

Pettis kantang, 310

Petté, 312

Physician, appointment of, 316

[page 327]

Pickeniers kloof, 21

Picket berg, or mountain, 7, 15, 138

Pine apple, 272

Pinang, 291

PINARD's farm, 151

Piper betel, 268

Pisang, 271–272

Pistia, 227

Pits for animals, 79

Placenta febrilis, 281

PLAISIR's farm, 35, 48

PLANT's farm, 52


Pleasure-houses, 226


Plough, 28

Pneumora, 44

Police-counsellors, 120

Pomegranates, 131

Port, 168

Portuguese language, 228

—— books, 229, 230

Post, 168

Potteberg, 44

DE PRE, 58

Pretoris's farm, 28

Printing office, 302

Princes, titles of, 309

Prince's island, 213

Provisions, 305

Protea, 24, 32, 112

Public houses, 129

Purgatives, 139


Quagga, 84, 88

Quartz, 215

Quercus, 207

Quiver, 154


Raapuntjes, 14

Rabekin, 43

Rabbits, 8

Radermachia, 275

RADERMACHER, 209, 217, 219, 226, 313, 315, 316

Rain, 37

Rambutan, 277

RAS's farm, 151

RASMUS's farm, 28

Ratans, 276

Rats, 178, 179, 182

Reebokskop, 7

Reeboks 44

Reeds and rushes, 143

Regent of Madura's title, 309


VAN RHENEN, 79, 164

Rheumatisms, 182, 212

Rhinoceros bushes, 24

Rhinoceros, two horned, 84, 89

Rhonoster rivier, 165

Rhus, 171

Rice, 269, 285

Rietbok, 44

[page 328]

Riebeek casteel, 7, 15, 137, 139, 184


Riet-kuyl, 45

—— Valley, 2, 97, 103, 108

—— fontein, 164

Rivers, 12, 15, 17, 21, 31, 35, 36, 37, 40, 45, 53–54, 60–62, 79, 80, 89, 93, 95, 96, 97, 108, 112, 115, 116, 134, 138, 140, 143–144, 149, 151, 152, 165, 167, 176, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184

Roads, repairing of, 173

—— in harbours, 289

Rock's farm, 40

Roebucks, 7, 44

Rondebosch, 119

Rongé, rongin, 307–308

Roodbeckjes, 23

Roode Peer, 110

Roode katt, 182

Roode-zand, 30, 33, 182, 183

Roggeveld, 22, 157, 167–169, 173, 175, 176–179, 205

Roridula, 26

Rosendal, 12

Rowing match, 315

VAN ROYEN, 54, 103

Royena, 111

RYKVOET, surgeon, 202

Rye, 168


Sabandar, 313

Sabre, 298

Saffraan kloof, 35

—— kraal, 53

Salac, 275

Saldahna bay, 8

Salsola, 104

Salt, 6, 7

Salt pans, 6, 89, 90

Sand-stone, 25

Sand-olyve, 139

Sand moles, 5, 146


Saxifrage, 312

Scheepen eyland, 8

Scurvy, 212

Scheepen, 313

Sea cow, 68

—— hole, 46

Seals, 8

VAN SEELE's farm, 149

Serpents, poison of serpents, 23, 145, 162, 173

Shaddocks, 278

Sheep, 27, 35, 125, 153, 154, 197, 306

Sheep's dung, 36

Ships officers, 125

Sideroxylon, 148

Silk cotton tree, 284

[page 329]

Simia, 40

Siri, 268

Sitficamma, 97

Sky, 207

SLABBERT's farm, 7, 15, 35,

Slange rivier, 45

Slate, 32, vide Strata

Slaves, 37, 127, 133, 206, 227, 279, 291

Sleep, 223

SMIDT's farm, 14, 35, 141

Sneew-berg, 95

Snow mountains, 95

Snow, 23, 28, 95

Solanum 293

Soldiers, 307

Sophora, 112

Sowing time, 27


Spice trade, 268, 286

Spring-boks, 23, 24, 26, 171–172

Spring-haas, 182

Spring guns, 71

Stadthouse, 313

Stapelia, 140, 171

VAN STADE's farm, 54, 103

——— rivier, 80, 96

STARRENBERG, landroft, 201

Steen-boks, 7, 23

Steen brasems rivier, 116

Stellenbosch, 125

VAN DER STELL, governor, 119, 125, 200

STENKAMP's farm, 168

Stink-beans, 311

STEIN's farm, 112

Stinkhout, 110

Stone (a disease), 181, 279

Straat: Straits of Sunda, 181, 212

Strata, 25, 32, 145, 155, 163, 169, 181, 183

Straw, 115

Strangury, 4, 134

STREIDUNG's farm, 58

Stroom-drift, 31

Subattis, 288

LE SUEUR, Dr. 217, 218

Sugar, 292

Sugar cane, 292

Sugillationes, 20

Suitors, 192

Sultan's titles, 308–309

Sun, 223

Sunday river, 193

Surgeon, 183

Surgeon general, 305

SWENFINGER, Captain, 52


Table mountain, 19, 27

Tam bukki, 95, 107

Tantak, 307

Taverns, 129

Tax, 19, 20


[page 330]

TEMMINK, Burgomaster, 217

Terminalia catappa, 274

Testudo pusilla, 3

Tetrao, 143

Texel island, 8

Theobroma, 304

THERON's farm, 176

Thongs of hides, 52

Throat, disorders of, 207

Tigerberg, 2

Tiger hoek, 112

Tiger wolf, 57

Tobacco, 80, 207

DE TOI, 35

Tois kloof, 35

Tommegomme, 309

Tortoise land, 3, 66

Torrents, 33

Train oil, 8

Translator, 228

Trees, 60, 96, 104, 109, 112, 128

Trutru, 151

Tseiran, 113

Turn the cow, 123

Turtle's blood, 66, 13

TULBAGH, governor, 106, 201

Turtle uyv, rood, 140

Tyger, 139, 140


VERMAK's farm, 61

Vermin, 145

Verkeerde valley, 131

Vischers hoek, 134

Visch rivier, 95, 176

Viscum æthiopicum, 15

VISAGE, Isaac, 27

Viverra, 115

Vliermuys drift, 15, 138

Vocabulary, 74, 77

Vogel valley, 140

Vogts rivier, 36

VOGT, 36

VOLLENHOVER's farm, 112

De Vos' farm, 181

Verlooren valley, 143, 144

Vygebosches, 35


Umbelliferous plants, 31, 150, 167

Unicorn, 314

Uyle kraal, 7

Uytkyk, 178


Waageboom, 24, 111

Walther's farm, 137

Warm bath, 18, 97, 98

Warm bokkeveld, 29, 30

Water, 180, 226

Water turtle, 3, 45, 66

Water melon, 135, 150, 151, 278, 279

[page 331]

Weapons, 297, 298

De WETT's farm, 31, 49

Wheat, Turkim, 285

Wild boars, 312

Wind hoek, 130

Winds, 281, 282

Wine, vineyards, 96, 97, 135, 136

Winter hoek, 31, 32,

Witchcraft, 78

Witte klipp, 9

Woods or groves, 28, 88, 89, 96

Wudong, 298

VAN WYK's farm, 160, 164, 170


Yellow wood, 109


Zamia caffra, 65

Zea mays, 285

Zebra, 84, 89, 114, 136

Zeeko rivier, 62, 95

Zeekorivur's berg, 62

Ziekenhuys, 115

Zoete melks valley, 114

Zout rivier, 12

ZONDAG, Matthew, 55

Zwardekroon, 310

Zwart bast, 111

Zwarte berg, 15, 115

Zwart yzer hout, 109

Zwartkops rivier, 89

Zwartkops salt pan, 89

Zwartland, 14

Zwart rivier, 115

Zwellendam, 40, 112


Zygophyllum, 97

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 15 March, 2014