RECORD: Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1795-6. Travels in Europe, Africa and Asia, performed between the years 1770 and 1779. London: W. Richardson and J. Egerton. Volume 3.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by AEL Data 01.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.

[page iii]












IN THE YEARS 1775 AND 1776.


Knight of the Order of Vasa, Professor of Botany in the University of
Upsal, and Member of various Academies and learned Societies
both in Sweden and other Countries.




[page] iv

[page v]




THIS third volume of my Travels comprises an account of my adventures in Japan, together with the history of that country. It was intended to contain a greater number of sheets, and to close my journal; but several circumstances have rendered the execution of this impossible, and obliged me to reserve some part of my observations for a future period, and a fourth volume. This I am inclined to hope will not long be wanting; my countrymen's inclination to read this present volume, and the sale of the two former, will much accelerate its appearance.

The empire of Japan is in many respects a singular country, and with regard to customs and institutions totally different from Europe, or, I

A 4

[page] vi

had almost said, from any other part of the world. It has therefore ever been a subject of wonder to other nations, and has been alternately extolled and decried. Of all the nations that inhabit the three largest parts of the globe, the Japanese deserve to rank the first, and to be compared with the Europeans; and although in many points they must yield the palm to the latter, yet in various other respects they may with great justice be preserred to them. Here, indeed, as well as in other countries, are found both useful and pernicious establishments, both rational and absurd institutions; yet, still we must admire the steadiness which constitutes the national character; the immutability which reigns in the administration of their laws, and in the exercise of their public functions; the unwearied assiduity of this nation to do, and to promote what is useful, and a hundred other things of a similar nature. That so numerous a people as this, should love so ardently and so universally (without even a single exception to the contrary) their native country, their government, and each other; that the whole country should be, as it were, inclosed, so that no native can get out, nor foreigner enter in, without permission; that their laws should have remained unaltered for several thousand years, and that justice should be admi-

[page] vii

nistered without partiality or respect to persons; that the government can neither become despotic, nor evade the laws in order to grant pardons or do other acts of mercy; that the monarch and all his subjects should be clad alike in a particular national dress; that no fashions should be adopted from abroad, nor new ones invented at home; that no foreign war should have been waged for centuries past, and interior commotions should be for ever prevented; that a great variety of religious sects should live in peace and harmony together; that hunger and want should be almost unknown, or at least known but seldom, &c. All this must appear as improbable, and, to many, as impossible, as it is strictly true, and deserving of the utmost attention.

I have endeavoured to delineate this nation, such as it really is, without, on the one hand, too highly extolling its advantages, or, on the other, too severely censuring its defects. I put down daily upon paper whatever came to my knowledge; but several subjects, such as their internal æconomy, language, government, public worship, &c. I have since collected and drawn together from different parts of my journal, for the purpose of treating of them in one place, and in order to avoid speaking of them separately on different occasions.

[page] viii

No country in the world, perhaps, undergoes fewer changes than Japan, which has been both well and amply described by the learned Doctor KÆMPFER, in his history of this country. Some, nevertheless, I have found; and have committed to writing the few alterations which have occurred in matters of smaller moment at least, during the space of nearly a hundred years.

But as natural history has in a particular manner engaged my attention, I have not only endeavoured diligently to collect the minerals, animals, and plants of this country, but also to render them in some degree useful and advantageous to Europe, and the country that gave me birth. O! how great would be my joy, without the least tincture of arrogance, could I but in any measure arrive at this constant object of my most servent wishes!

In a separate treatise, under the title of Flora Japonica, I have described such plants as I have found on the Nipon islands, and at the same time indicated their uses. But in this account of my travels, I have made mention of such only as exhibit some remarkable use in rural and domestic œconomy, and in the art of healing.

Thus, for food are used, besides a great quantity of fishes, and other marine animals, the Polygonum fagopyrum, Dioscorea Japonica, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and

[page] ix

radiatus, several of the Ulvæ and Fuci, the Oryza sativa, Arum esculentum, Juglans nigra, Fagus Castanea, Mespilus Japonica, &c.

For dressing victuals several oils expressed from feeds are made use of, which oils also serve for burning in lamps; such as the oil procured from the Brassica orientalis, Dryandra Japonica, Melia azedarach, Sesamum, &c.

As spices, and by way of dessert at table, are used Onions, the roots of Bamboos, the Amomum Mioga, Conomon, and Menyanthes nymphoides.

Clothes are made of Cotton, the Morus papyrifera and silk, and cordage of different sorts of Nettles.

Into house-furniture and various implements are wrought up several useful sorts of wood: such as the Lindera, the Deutzia, Pinus Abies, Box, Cupressus, &c.

Materials for dying are taken from a species of Betula, and from the Gardenia florida.

Quick-hedges are formed of the Lycium Japonicum, Citrus trifoliata, the Gardenia, Viburnums, Thujas, Spiræas; and arbours are made of the Dolichos polystachyos.

By way of ornament, Skimmi is placed in the temples, and for a particular purpose in rural œconomy the Haliotis is used.

[page] x

Medicines are prepared of the Polygonum multiflorum, Convallaria Japonica, Chenopodium scoparia, Acorus calamus, Dracontium polyphyllum, Inula helenium, the Root of China, the Corchorus Japonicus, and the Lacerta Japonica.

[page xi]




THE merits of the Chevalier THUNBERG are too well and too universally known, to need any recommendation from the Translator of his Travels to the Reader. In fact, it is notorious that this illustrious naturalist, not content with having attained to the summits of natural history, has contributed greatly to the advancement of its boundaries, by investigating the natural products of a great variety of countries situated in three different quarters of the globe; insomuch that he may almost exclaim with the hero of Virgil,

"Quæ regio in terris nostri non plena laboris?"

[page] xii

And as the Author must be allowed to have seen much, he cannot be denied the praise of having related what he has seen, if not with the greatest elegance and precision, yet with the strictest regard to truth, and an exactness not often found in writers of travels. In delineating the manners of nations, indeed, the learned Professor must yield the palm to many of his concurrents; but in investigating the natural productions of the different countries he has passed through, he will, perhaps, be found to be equalled by very few, and excelled by none.

In the account he has given of his peregrinations through various parts of Europe, our Author, it must be confessed, has been frequently too circumstantial and particular: of this, in the original, a remarkable instance occurs in his enumeration of the different Professors in Paris, which, not only as it is absolutely uninteresting to far the greater part of his readers, but also as since the late revolution in France a total change has taken place in that department, is omitted in the translation.

If, however, this too scrupulous writer has been sometimes led by his excessive regard for truth, and an almost inordinate desire of accuracy, into tedious details and minute observations, the same charge cannot be brought against the relation of his travels in the southern extremity


[page] xiii

of Africa, which, as, exclusively of other excursions, he has gone over the same ground as Professor SPARRMAN, may be considered as a useful, and indeed, in many respects, a necessary supplement to his lively and well-informed countryman's entertaining description of that country.

But what most of all enhances the merits of the following sheets is, his description of Japan, for which this inquisitive traveller has had opportunities that none else has enjoyed since the expulsion of the Portuguese from that island; opportunities which, it is presumed, he has made use of, to the great emolument as well as the entertainment of his readers.

[page break]

[page 1]





A Bhorrence, Kajir, modor.

Abusive language, Sojo.

to Accuse, betray, Siras suru, son in suru

Actor, Sibaida.

to Admonish, Nagusamu.

Adopted son, Josi, jooisi, jassinaiko.

Affrighted, Oturuska, Osiru, okurasi, okanne.

to be Afraid, Tomagaru.

Agallochum, Sinko.

Agreeable, Jurosikku.

Against the stream, Suo no warika.

to Agree for, to bargain, Makuru.

Air, Sora.

All, Mei.

Alms, Fodokossu, segio.

Alum, Misban.

Alone, solitary, Bakari, tosin, sammisiku.

to Allow, to permit, Jerusi.

Allowed, Jurus gomen.

Amber, Kowakv.

Ambergrise, Kusera no fung, i. e. Whales excrements.

Amendment, Joiso.

Aniseed, Oikio.

Aniseed water, Uikjossi.

Anchor, Ikari.

to Anchor, to let go the anchor, Ikakaru.

Animal, Kedamono.

to be Angry, Fandatsuru, ikaru.

to make any one Angry, Faratate, sasuru.

to grow Angry, Warukatatsuru, farikatatsuru.


[page] 2

Anvil, Kanasiki.

Answer, Fento, ferisi, kotai.

to Answer, Fento suru, fensi suru, kotai suru.

Anguish, Aijoki.

Apothecary's shop, Surria.

to Appear, to look like, Midassu.

Apparition or ghost, Bakkemono, jurei.

Arm, Ude.

Armosyn silk, Kaiki.

Arms, coat of arms, Monogore.

Arrow, quiver, Ja, Jatsusu.

Arsenal, Bugu kura.

Artery, Miakosusi.

to be A shamed, Fassiru.

Ashes, Hac, fai, sinohai.

to Ask, request, Tannomu.

to Ask, to enquire, Tassunuru.

to Assay, Kokuru miru.

Ass, Loba.

Aslant, Jagamu, jongo.

Asthma, Ikinosemeku.

Astronomer, Fossimi.

to Attend, to wait upon, Neiruru.

Attendant, Sairio.

to Augment, to increase, Jassinau, sudatsuru.

Ax, Wara, tjono, stono.


Back, Senaka.

Bad, Faradate, faratats, farakaki, warikakuse, kuse no warika, isinowari.

to Bake, to bake bread, Jakv, pan jakv.

Ball, globe, Tippo no tamma.

Ball, to play with, Tema, tamma, mali.

Banished, Dusai.

Barber, perriwigmaker, Kami, jui.

Bare, naked, Bo, faguru, haguru.

Bare-footed, Swassi.

Barley, Omuggi.

Bastard, Tetenassigo.

Bath, warm bath, Isumi, unsing.

to Bathe in a tub, Furu.

Bat, or flittermouse, Komuri.

a Beam or balk, Hari, saimokv.

a Beam in building, Botsuje.

Bean, Mame.

to Bear, to bear children, Samu, samkessuku, sansuru.

a Bear, Je.

Bed, Nedokuri.

Bed curtain, Kaja katjo.

[page] 3

Bedstead, Toka.

to Begin, Hassinaru, fasjimaru.

Beginning, Fasjime.

to Beg, a beggar, Morau, fining, koski.

Bellows, Fujigo.

Belly, Stabara.

to Bend, Oru.

to Besmear, Fiku.

to Bespeak, Atsuraju.

Bespoken goods, Atsuraje mono, tamoni mono.

to Bewail, Kwiamaski.

to Bind books, Tjamintoseru.

Bird, Tori, tjo.

Bird cage, Tori no su.

Bird lime, Tori motji wanna.

Bird's bill, Tsubussa, kutjibassi.

Bird's nest, Tori no su, jens.

Birds, the singing of, Tori no sajoru.

Birth day, Tansjo nitji, Umaresi.

Bitter, Nigaka, Nigai.

Blind, Mekwura, memokf.

Blood, Tji, Kjets.

to Blow, to blow up the fire, Fuku, fiokv.

the wind Blows, Kose no fuku.

to Blow out, Fukv, kefs.

to Blow the nose, Fanna toru.

Blubber of whales, &c. Tokuru, abra no kawa.

Board, eating, Sukowots, kuimono, kusmos.

Boat (Dutch) Obatera.

Boat (Japanese) Temma.

Body, Gotai.

to Boil up, Fagiru.

Bone, Fone.

Book, Somots.

Borough, Ukesai, ukejau, kekejawu.

Borrowed, Finawa.

to Border upon, Sakkai furu.

Botanist, Tonsosi.

Boundary, Sakkai.

Boundary mark, Fosi.

Boon, or request, Tannomi.

Bow, to shoot with a bow, Jumi, iru.

a Bowl for playing at nine pins, Tamma.

Box, Fako.

Box, Iremono.

Brain, Itadakki, fiakkuje.

Branch of a tree, Jeda.

Brandy, and all sorts of spirituous liquors, Sotju.

Brass, Sintju.

Breadth, Jakohaba, firosa.

Breast, breast of a woman, Tjitji.

b 2

[page] 4

Breast, Mone.

Breath, Iki.

to Breathe, Ikitsukv.

to Break, Fikisakv, jaburu, jakv.

Breeches, Fakama, hakama.

Bride, Fannajomi.

Bridegroom, Fannamoko.

Bridge, Fas, bas.

Broad, Firosa, firoi, firoka.

Broom, Fufi.

Broom, Foki.

Brother, eldest brother, Kiodai, babo, ani.

Brother in law, Kossuto, kosucto.

Brothel, Jorussia, assubia, keseja, assubiso.

Bucket, Tsurubi, tango.

Buckwheat, Sobo.

Bud, flower bud, Tsubomi.

Buffalo, Suiji.

Bug, insect, Abramussi.

Bunch, Tamma.

Bundle, Makimome.

to Burst, to crack, Firakuru, Kokorobiru.

to Burn, Jaku, mojasu, mojuru.

Burgher, or citizen, Skassa.

Burgomaster, Fossi, jorisi.

to Bury, Sorin, suru, okuru.

Burying ground, Fakka, s'ka.

Button, button hole, Botan, Botangana.

to Buy, Kawu, kao, kota.

to Buy and sell, Baibai.


Cable, Tjansuna.

Calf, Usnoko, kous.

Calf of the leg, Stosone.

Calumback, Kiara.

to Call, Jobu.

to Call out, Nagakv, omekv.

Camphor, Sono.

Candle, Rosokv, from Ro wax, and Sokv, wick.

Candlestick, Rosoks tatti.

Cannon, Issibia.

Cap, Besi.

Capacious, roomy, Tsujoi.

Captive, prisonner, Sumebito.

Capital, stock, Ketta.

Cards, Semekv, niskaka.

Cart, Kuruma, guruma, gosogumma.

Carpenter, Daiku.

to Carry out, Saguridassu.

to Carry away, Mootsu, inawu moite.

Cash, ready money, Sodan.

to Cashier, Madossu, kajessu.

Cat, Mio, neko.

Catje, Ikkin.

Cause, reason, Wanjits.

[page] 5

to Celebrate or extol, Fomeru.

Chafing dish (large) Fibatsji.

Ditto (small) sjuro.

Chalk, Sirassumi.

Chamber, cabin, Bea fea.

to Change or alter, Tjigau, kawatu.

Chain, Kwusari.

Chapter, Ketta.

Charcoal, Sumi, sum.

to Chew, Asjiwau.

to Cheat, Damassu.

Cheek, Hogeta, fo, fogeta.

Chest, Hago, nagamotji.

Chief justice, Osussi.

Chicken, Fioko.

Child, Kodoma.

Chintz, Sarasa.

Chopping knife, Debahotjo, nommi.

Church, Tera.

Cinnamon, Nikke.

Circle, Maru.

Citadel or cassle, Siro, so.

Clay, Sirassumi.

Claw, Tommarige.

Clean, Kireina, sjomi.

Clear, Seteng.

to Climb, Nagoru.

to Clip, to clip off, Se.

to Clip with sciffars, Kiru, fasami kiru.

Cloak, Hawori.

Cloak to keep out the rain, Toi.

Clock, Suriganni, rei.

Cloth, So king.

Cloth, to wipe plates with, Fui king.

a suit of Clothes, Kimono.

to have a suit of Clothes on, Kimono kiru.

Cloves, Tjoosi.

pit Coal, Isusumi.

Cobweb, Kwumo no je, monoje.

Cock, Ondari, otori.

Cockscomb, Tori no kabito.

Coxcomb, Kaouto.

Coffin, Kwanoki.

Cold, Samka kang.

Cold, a disorder, Kusame suru.

to Catch cold, Kase fuku, fukasi.

Commodiously, with ease, Ssio, Ssiona.

to Compel, Muri.

Common, general, or universal, Onassiona.

Common, or ordinary, Ssune, tju.

Compass, to steer by, Fobari hobarri.

a Compress, Maki mome.

Commerce, to trade, Akirawu, Sobai.

to Compare, Anaskaranu.

b 3

[page] 6

Coarse, Arai, areka sinowaika.

Coat of mail, Kapto.

Colic, Senki.

Colour, to colour, Iro, irotskuru, somuru.

a pair of Compasses, Bumawassu.

to Complain, Todokuru, utajuru, mosaguru, todokekv.

to Come, Kuru.

Comb, to comb, Kwusi, Kwaskes uru.

Conversation, Katoba atsume.

to Consiscate, Kjsju.

to Conduct any one out to the door, Okuru, utjiokuru.

I shall Conduct him out, Wataks kusi utji okuri masso.

Conduit, Kakisi.

to Consider, Ansuru.

Confectionary, Sattojaki.

to Conquer, Katsu.

Cook, Riourinen.

to Cook, Takv, niassu.

Cool, Sususi.

to Cool, Sosu, suru.

Copy, Ususi.

Copyist, Utsusu, utusu.

Copper, Agaganni, akaganni.

Coquet, Iro mono.

Corner, Fanna.

Cordage, rope, Tsuno, ki no kawa.

tarred Cordage, Tjansuna.

Cork, Seng.

Corpse, Sining, sigajo, sigai.

to Cost, expences, Nedang, sapi, irio.

Cottage, Sato, mura.

Cotton, Kiwatta.

Court, Miaco.

Cough, Siwamoki.

to Count, to reckon, Kansju, sanjo suru.

Counting house, Sanjobea.

Courageous, Kimono fitoka, amaru.

Cover or lid, Fta.

to Cover, Tsutsumu, ou.

Coverlit for a bed, Ftong.

Covenant, Kubiru.

Cow, cow beef, Us, us no niku.

Cross, Sjumansi.

Cross road, Sjumonsi, mitji. jotskado.

Creature, animal, Juka, sjo.

Crooked, Magaru.

to Crush to pieces, Fisaguru.

to Creep, Fau.

Cray-fish, Ganne.

Creek or bay, Nada.

Crazy, Bakka, babo.

[page] 7

Cup, tea cup, Wang, tiawang.

the Cup of a pair of seales, Tenbin.

to Cut, i. e. to be sharp, Kuisakv, kuikiru.

to Cut asunder, Kiru.

Customs, custom-house, Koksing, koksing bansjo.

Cushion, pin-cushion, Farisass.


Dainty, delicious, Umaka.

Dark, Mime.

to Dawn as the day, Akibonu.

Dam, fish Dam, Ike.

Daughter, Musme, goge.

Danger, Abunaka.

Dangerous, Abunaikoto.

Damage, prejudice, Takkara, song.

Devout, Tsutinsunde.

Devotion, Kwanen.

Damask, Dons.

Devil, Oni.

Deep, Fukai, s'kaka.

Dear, costly, Takkaj tsusuku.

Dead body, Sinda sining.

Dear, my dear, Suku Suita, onego.

Desire, inclination, Fimma konomutsuk.

to Deduct, Kansjo aju, Sanjo aju.

Debt, Sukugin.

Debtor, Sakugin ota fito.

Deceit, fraud, Damaskoto.

Deformed, Tesong.

to Dig, Foli.

Disinclined, without desire for a thing, Konoman.

Dirtiness, uncleanliness, Akfta.

Dirty, unclean, Kisane, jogore.

Dissuade, Jamaru.

to Divine, soretell, Susi miru, uranau.

to Dismount, Oriru.

to Dismiss one from office, Itema.

Dismission, Itoma.

to Discharge or Dismiss, Itimagoi.

to Divide, Wakwuru.

Diarrhæa, Kuudas.

to Die, Sinmoru sinu.

Dish, Kooke.

to Disguise or mask, Iso furu.

a Ditch with water, Forie, Foka.

Dice, the playing with dice, Saii, bakutji utsu.

Divers, various, Iro iro.

Difference, distinction, Matjgai.

to Discover, Owamu.

to make a Difference, Matsigotoru.

Disciple, Keko.

to Dislocate a bone, Fanssu.

Dike or bank, Dote.

b 4

[page] 8

Double, Kasannaru.

Dove, Fato.

wild Dove, Jamma fato.

tame Dove, Jefato.

Door, To.

Door mat, Toma.

to Double, Kasannu, kasanoru.

Done, executed, Itas.

to Do, or make, Suru, itassu, Sukurru.

to Do one's best, Uke jai nikui.

Dog, Inu.

to doubt, Utagu.

Dragon, Firio.

to Draw the portrait of any one, Nagu, torru.

to Draw, Katamuru, mootsu, fikv.

to Draw out, Nugu.

Drawers, or under breeches, Feko, momofiki.

Dream, jume jumemiru.

to Dress one self, Kimono tjakv suru, sosusuru.

Dressed and painted Lady, Misimai.

Drum, Taiko.

Drunkard, Jeikfari.

Drink, Nomimono.

Drop, Tamma.

to be Drunk, Namoji jcisari.

to pretend to be Drunk, Jeik, farassuri.

It is break of day, Ju no aki, juaki.

to Drink, Nomu.

Duck, tame, Afiru, Wild, Kamo.

to Dwell, inhabit, Tsumu, Tatsuru tsukuru.

Dysentery, Okahara.

to Dry, dry in, Fossu, hossu.

to Dry up, wither, Karruru.

Dry, Kavaka, firu bossu sajoru.


to Earn, deserve, Sotomuru, Stomuru jakv.

Earthquake, Djisin.

Earth, the Earth, Tji dji.

Ear, Mimi.

Ear ach, Memi no itami.

East, Figasi.

to Ease one's self, evacuate, Josi fong, fung, fuso.

Ebb tide, Suwo no firu.

Echo, Fibiku.

Edge, border, Fas.

Edge of a mat, Tuttami no feri.

Egg, Egg shell, Tamago, Tamago no karra.

Eggs, to lay, Tamago motsu.

Eggs, to fit on, Fioko nokomuru.

Eel, Unagi.

Ell, Ikkin.

Elbow, Ude, fisi.

Elephant, So.

[page] 9

Elapsed, past, Sugita.

Empty, Aki.

to Empty, evacuate, Akwuru.

Envy, Nettamj.

Envious, Neramu.

Enemy, Kata ki.

Ensign staff, Hatofao, fato sawo.

Enigma, conjecture, Naso.

Entrails, Farawatta.

End, Oari, sime, simai.

Eternal, Iso.

Every day, Neisits.

Every night, Meibang.

Events, adventures, Fusina, hanassi.

Even, level, Firataka.

to Exchange, Kajuru.

to Exercise, Mannabu.

to Excel, Wataru.

Executioner, Sioki.

to Experience, Midassu, Miske dassu.

to Explain, Simau.

to Examine accompts, Fista Su.

Eye of a Needle, Farino mimiso.

to Eat, Eatables, Kwu, kui mono.


Falcon, Fakka.

Face, or countenance, Kawo, omotte, minmente, tsera.

to Fall, Otjiru, tawareta.

to Fall short, Tarang, susokv.

False, to adulterate, Nisi, nite; nisi monossu.

Famine, Katsujetosi, kiking.

Fan, Oge.

Round fan, Utjuwa.

Fan-maker, Ogitskuri.

Fan-duck, Ostori.

Farewell, Kingo, nigoserru.

to Fast, Sosimu.

Father, Tete, toto,

grand Father, Jino.

Father in law, Jitsoso.

Fathom, one fathom, Firo, fito firo.

Fat, it is fat, Kojuru, kojete oru.

Feather, Tori no fa.

to Fear, Osiruru.

to Feel, Obojuru.

Feeble, Jowaka, jowai.

Festival, Matsuri.

to Fetch, Tori ussuri.

Fever, Nets, nitsu.

Field, corn-field, Fataki.

Field, Nabekv.

Figure, Katats.

a File, to file, Jasuri, jasurifuru, jasuri kakuru.

Fin, a fin, jokofiri, fire.

[page] 10

Fine, Koma kanna, komaina, komaka, komai.

Finger, jubi.

Find, to hit upon, Midassu, midskuru, midkedassu.

Fire, Fi, finoko.

a Fire (incendium) Kwassi.

to Fire off a musquet, Utsu.

Fish, Iwo, sakkana.

to Fish, Iwo tsuru.

Fisherman, Riosi.

Fishing box, Binto.

Fishing net, Amt.

Fish fried in oil, Agi two.

First, Tekobus.

Flag, colours of a ship, Hato.

Flame, Fono, moi ibi.

a Flea, Nomi.

to Flea, Faguru.

Flint, Kado isi.

Flood, Siwo.

Floor, Juka.

Flour or meal, Mugike.

a Flower, Fanna.

to Flower or bloom, Fanna, sakv.

Flower pot, Fanna iki, fanna tsuba.

a Fly, Hai.

to Fly away, Toobu.

to Fly away, Fukitfirassu.

Frame, sliding frame, Sosonoko, Sosonofone.

Free, to free, Fiwa, momu.

Fresh, Atarassi.

to Freeze, Kogusuru.

Friend, Ftoobai.

good Friend, Naka a josi, naka no joka.

bad Friend, Naka no warka.

to Frighten, Odossu, osururu.

to Froth or cream, Awa tatsuru.

Fruit, fruit kernels, Mi, sanne.

Fog, foggy weather, Kiri, donteng.

Fold, wrinkle, Fidda.

to Follow, Tsusukv.

Foot, assi.

Force, strength, Sicaria.

Force-meat balls, Kammaboku.

Foreigner, Jamma midoss.

to Foul, make dirty, Jogoru.

Fountain spring, Mis no karakuri.

Four-footed, Jotsassi.

Fox, Kitsne.

Fuel, fire-wood, Takigi.

Full, Mits.

Full, satiated, Skai juru.

[page] 11


to Gain, Kata, Katsu.

Gain, profit, Di, disjung.

Gall, Ox gall, Tang, guwo.

Gallery, Linsi.

to Gape, the jaws, Akubu, akubi.

Garden, Hannabbataki.

Garret, Nikai.

to Gather together, Atsumaru, jaru, jorijai.

Gate, Mong.

Gentle, Sorona, sosikina, jawara a kana.

to Gild, gilded, Riukinfuru, kimfaku.

Ginger, Sjoga.

Girl, maiden, Komusme.

Girdle, Skimmawas, sansakagi.

to Give, Fureru, jaru.

to Give up, Watassu, fureru.

to Give up to, to deliver over to, Niwatassu.

to Give back in return, Modossu, kajossu.

Glad, merry, Iwau, omeste.

Glove, Te ne ki.

Glue, Simegi.

to Glue, Simegi fasamu.

to Go away, Modoru, kairu.

to Go into some body's house, Jorjukv, fito, no to kuro jukv.

to Go down, Ururu, iru.

to Go up, Aguru.

to Go out, Sitssugjo.

to Go to bed, Nin jiu.

he Goat, Jagi.

God, Sin, kami.

Gold, gold coin, Kin, kinsing.

Gonorrhæa, Rinsjo.

Good, it is good, Jukka, jukka.

Good man, Jukka sito.

Good natured, Naka no jukka.

to be good for nothing, Jonaka.

Goods, merchandize, Mouo.

Grapes, Budo.

Gnat, O, Sutosa.

Gnat, Ka.

to Grind, Usu, mawaru.

to Grind, grindstone, Togu, tojisi.

Ground, Pon, fon.

Guard, imperial guard, Bang oban suru.

to keep Guard, Ban suru.

to Guess Atsuru.

Gull, Kagume.

Gun, fowling piece, Teppo, tippo.

Gut, Obuwatte.

[page] 12


Hail, Arare.

Hair, Kami.

Hammer, Kanatsutji.

Hand, Te.

Hand, Koaka, kowai, kowarka.

Handle, Motsi.

Handle of a pot, Kwang.

Handy, Gaskoi.

Handkerchief, Te no goi.

Hare, U, usagi.

Harness, Kapto.

Hasty pudding, paste for books, starcl, Nori.

Haste, to make haste, Motja.

Hasty, Assegaro.

Hat, Kasa.

to Have, Aru, alu.

Haven, bason or bay, Minato, irie.

Hawk, Tobi.

Head, Kubi.

Head ach, Attamanna, itama, dut so.

to Heal, to cure, Jeta.

Health, Tassia nith.

Heart, Kokurro, sing singnoso.

to Hear, Kikf.

Hearth, smith's forge, Makuts.

Heavens, the sky, Ten.

Heaven, the mansion of the blessed, Gokurakv.

Heavy, Omoka, omotaka.

Heel, Kibis.

Help, to help, Kassei, torimotsu, kasse suru.

Hens, a Hen, Tori, mendori mctori.

Herb, Kwusa, Kusa.

Herring, or Pilchard, Konoseru.

Hereditary prince, Dainagon samma.

Heron, stork, Sagi, Kono toi.

to Hew, to cut, Kiru.

to Hide, Kaksu.

Hide, skin, Kawa.

Hideous, Otorussik.

High, Dakka.

to Hinder, Motomeru.

Hip, Momo.

a History book, concerning wars and martial deeds, Iksauno, hannasibo.

to Hit, Nerau.

to Hoard up, take care of, Nawassu, u.

Hoarse, Kojekari, kui no kakaru.

to Hoist up a chest, Fikiaguru.

to Hoist a fail, Hoaguru.

to Hoist fail, Hoagura, homaku.

Hog, wild boar, Sis, ino sis.

[page] 13

Hole, or cavity, Anna.

to Hold one's tongue, Damateoru.

Honour, Roko.

Honey, Fats miets.

Hook, Kakkiganne.

to Hook fast, Kakaru.

Horn, Tsunno, kakv.

Horse, Aki uma.

draught Horse, Mira, nimba.

saddle Horse, Jome sjome.

Hot, Atska.

House, Je.

House rent, Jenusi.

Hunger, Fimose.

to Hunt, Kari.

to Hurt, to do hurt, Wakuru.

Hysterics, in women, Skai.

———, in men, Sakki.


Jack screw, Manriki.

Ice, Koori.

Jealous, Dingsuru, neiamo.

Ill, Faradati, faratats, farakaki, warikakuse, kuse no warika isinowari.

to do Ill, Warukakotosuru.

to speak Ill of any one, Warika, koto ju.

Important, Taisits.

to Improve or meliorate, Joosuru,

Impolite, Bule, ofemono, burei.

Impudent, Caskasme.

Impossible, Sosa arme.

Incendiary, Fitsoki.

Inconvenient, Fusiuna.

Income, Mitsuki mono.

to Infect, Watsuru.

Infectious distemper, Utsuri jammi.

Ink, Sum, sumi.

Inkstand, Susumi hako.

Inn, Jedoja, funsing.

Insult, affront, Fias.

Interpreter, Tsusi.

Ditto upper, Ossusi.

Ditto under, Kosusi.

Instruct, Osiru, osijoru.

to Invite, Nilskuru.

Iron, Tets, furoganni.

to Iron clothes, Finosisuru.

Iron for smoothing clothes, Nori, finnosi finnoi.

Island, Dsima.

to Itch, Kaika.

Itch, an eruption on the skin, Kasa.

to Join together, Josuru, tsogu.

Journey, Tabi.

to take a Journey, Tabi suru.

Journey homewards, Kudari.

[page] 14

Journey upwards, Nabori.

Ditto downwards, Kudari.

Judge, Tadassu.

to Jump off, Tobu.

Ivory, Soge, sogi.


to Kill, Korossu.

Kiss, Umakutji, Kwutjisu.

to Kiss, Umakutji suru.

Kitchen, Kammado.

Kingdom, Kuni, kwuni.

Kettle, Jakwang.

—— copper, Tetjakwang.

—— iron, Tjisdag.

—— china, Dobine.

Key, key hole, Kagi, kagi ana.

Knife, table knife, Haka, faka, fotjo.

folding Knife, Orifaka.

pen Knife, Kogatanna.

Knee, Fisa, fisa no sarra.

to Kneel, Fisatatfuru.

Knot, Fimmo.

to Know (scire) Siru.

to Know (cognoscere) Misiru.

Known, Misteoika.

a Known herb, Konokusa, mistenrka.

to let one Know, Arawaruru.

Knap upon cloth, Klunu kwadas.


Lace, Sassasferi.

to Lacquer over, Makie saru.

Lacquered work, Makie mono, norimono.

Lacquered work, gilded, Nafis.

Ladder, Fassigo.

Lady, Okatsa, niobo.

Lamb, Fitsusinoki.

Lame, Tjukjfito.

Lameness, Nai juru.

Lamp, Fitomosi, fitobosi, andon.

Lamp oil, Tomosi abura.

Lamp black, Fegura sum, Sumi, kemuri.

Land, Kokf, kuni,

Landgrave or Lord of the District, Koks si, daimio.

Landlord, host, Tesu.

Lantern, Japanese, of paper, Tjotjin.

Ditto of glass, Toro.

Larboard, Torikafi.

Lasting, Hanni, honnakoto.

Laughable, Okaski.

Law, Sioki.

[page] 15

to Lay, Okv.

to Lay hold on, Torajoru, skamaijoru.

to Lay a wager, Kake, saru.

Lazy, lazy fellow, Itafuro, fionakaniono, fionassi.

Lead, Namari.

white Lead, Sirome.

black Lead pencil, Seksits.

a Leaf, Fa.

Leak, leaky, Moru.

Lean, to grow lean, Jassita, jassu.

to Learn, Narau, Kieku.

to Lecture, Stajumisuru.

to Lend, Karu.

to Lend out, Karidassu.

Length, Nagasan.

Lesson, Tjumi ju.

to Lessen, Skono furu.

to Let fly an arrow, Iru.

Letter of the alphabet, Moisi, tsi mousi.

a Letter, an epistle, Sjo, tegami.

to Lick, Neburu.

to Lie in wait, Snobimiru.

to Lie down to sleep, Nituru.

to Lift, Motjiagaru.

make Light, Kamku suru.

to Light, to kindle, Fitobusu, fitomusu.

to Light a candle, Rosoksmifis kuru.

Lightening, Inasuma, inabikai.

Lime, Sirobe, tsikui, Sirobai.

to burn Lime, Skui jaku.

to Limp, limping, Tijmba sikv, tjimba.

a Line or stripe, Mimi.

Ling, Hainoso.

Lint, Metja.

Lion, Sis.

Lip, Tsuba.

a Liquor prepared from rice, Sakki.

Liquorice, Spanish, Tankiri.

Liquorice root, Kanso.

to Live, Inotji.

Lively, Jois miskane.

Liver, Kimmo.

Living, Iktoru.

to Load, Manje tsumu, niavk suru.

to Load a horse, Noru.

to Load a ship, Niakv tsumu.

to take a Load in, Tsumi Komu.

Lock, So, Sjo, jootskuri.

Long, Nagai.

to Long for, Nago suru.

to Look out after, Miawassuru.

to Look at, Miru.

[page] 16

Looking-glass, Kagami.

Loose, Oros.

to Lose at play, Makuru.

to Loosen, Tokv.

Loss, Song.

to Lose, Song furu, makuru.

Louse, Sirami, subisirami.

Low, Fikui.

Lucky, fortunate, Jenotsuki, saiwai.

Lukewarm, Nama.

to Lye, to tell a lye, Suragoto, usso.


Mad, Ki sigai, afo, baka.

Mad, Kitjigai.

to have Made, Skurassuru.

Majesty, Gajo.

to Make larger or enlarge, Tooku suru.

Man, in the general signification, Momo.

Man (vir) Otoko.

Manner, method, Osiennomits.

Manure, Koje.

Map, Ssu.

Mare, Damo.

Mark, butt, Sirus.

Mark, sign, Surusu.

to Mark, to write down, Surusi suru, firosuru.

to Marry, Konresuru.

Marriage, Konrei.

Married man, Metoru, tassuru.

Marrow, Tsjio.

Mast, Hobasi.

Master of a ship, Sendo.

Mat, floor mat, Tattami.

a Match to light fires with, Skedakki, skegi.

Matter of a sore (Pus) Umi.

Meal, Sibundoki.

Mean, Ssune, tju.

Measles, Hassika.

to Measure, to take measure, Siav toru, siakfutsu.

Measure of capacity, Mome.

Measure, to measure length with, Siakf, monosasa.

Meat, flesh, Miku, mi.

a Medicine, Kwassuri, gosuri.

to Melt, Aguru, kiuru tokuru.

Merchant, Akibito, sonin.

Merry, glad, Omassiroi.

Message, Messenger, Skai, Kotskai.

Metal, Karaganne.

to Mew like a cat, Neko, nakv.

Microscope, Mosineganne.

Midwise, Toriagibaka, Toriagikaka.

Mild, Fatsnar mono.

Mile, a mile, Ri, itjiri.

Mile post, Itjiri sura.

Milk, Tji, tji, tji.

[page] 17

Milkwoman, Onago no titi.

Mill, Us, kuruma.

Milt or spleen, Heinoso.

to Mimic, Nisuru.

Miserable, Hassii.

Misfortune, Fusaiwai.

Mischance, miscarriage, Soisan, chomang.

Mistake, Matjigai.

Mistress, i. e. concubine, So tekaki.

Mis-use, Sojugu, chigau.

to Mix, Masuru.

Mode, custom, Okftabiri.

Modesty, bashfulness, Hasjassi, fatskassiku.

Moment, Metataki.

Monkey, ape, Saru, falu.

Money, Kane.

Monthly courses, Sawarri, Skinomon.

Moon, Tsuki.

new Moon, Mikatsuki.

full Moon, Mangets.

Moon light, Wassukv.

Moss, Koki.

Moth, Kosi.

Mother, Fasa, kasa.

Mother of pearl, Sinsu.

Mother in law, Jitsubo, jitnofafa.

Mould, mouldiness, Kabi, kabi suru.

Mountain, Jamma.

the Mounting of any thing Kanago.

Mouse, Konisumi.

Mouth, Kuts, kwutji.

Mud, Noro.

to Murder, Totokurosso.

Murderer, Stokorossi, messudo.

Musk, Siakc.

Mustard, Karas.


Nail (iron pin) auger, Kungi kiri.

Nail on the singer, Tjume, jassuru.

Naked, Hadaka.

Name, Na.

Nape of the neck, Gonkubo.

Napkin, handkerchief, Te no goi.

Narrow, straitened, Semaka.

Native country, Hungokf.

to Nauseate, Mone no warika.

Navel, Fosso, feso.

Navel string, Fara ohi.

to draw Near, to approach, Skaijuru, skaknuru.

Neat, Chodo.

Necessary, Irio.

Neck, Kwabi, nodor.

Needle, Fari.

Neglect, Tsitsing, okatari.

to Neglect, Wasuru.

Neighbour, Tonari fito.


[page] 18

Nest, Koja, kago.

a Net, Tsuribai, ami.

New, Atarassi, sjoguats.

New year's day, Guansits.

Niggardly, avaricious, Nigiri, swambo, simats.

Night, Josari, joru.

Night gown, Nimakv.

the Night watch, Jobang, jabang.

Nightingale, Ogu isu.

Nipple, Tjibusa.

Nobody, Naka, dare monai.

to Nod with the head, Gatting suru.

North, Kitta.

Nose, Fanna.

Nostrils, Fanna nosu.

Notary, Fissia.

Nutmeg, Nikusuk.


Oar, Ro.

Oath, Seisi.

to Offer, Okuru, aguru jasiaguru, nedoasluru.

Officer of police for a street, Ottona.

Office, employment, Sobe, jakunin, stomesito.

Oil, Abura.

Oil press, Abura simoru.

Old, Tassijori, furuje, furuke.

Old age, Rosin.

Open, Akuru.

to Open, Akeru.

to Order or command, Iersleritskuru.

Organ pipe, Kubuje.

Orphan, Minassigo.

Otter, Kawanso.

to Overturn, Tawaruru.

Own, one's own, Waga.

Owner, Tosigoro.

Ox, Kinkiri usi.

Oysters, Otjigaki.


Pace, step, Ajumi.

to Pack, Tsutsumu.

to Pack up, Nesuku suru mitskuru.

to Pack afresh, Sive nawassu.

a Packet, a parcel, Tsursumi.

Packthread, Ito fioma, its jama.

Pains (i. e. labour) Kitska.

Pain, Itami.

Painful, Itamose.

too Painful to be borne, Amaritame.

Paint of the face, to paint the face, Keso, oserui, keso suru.


[page] 19

to Paint, to imitate by painting, Jesuru, jedoru.

Pan, Nabe.

Paper, writing paper, Kami.

window Paper, Minogami, misokatjiganny.

imperial Paper, Otaka daisi.

painted Paper for hangings, Karakami.

gilt Paper, Kinkarakami.

nose Paper common, Fanaganni.

nose Paper large, Sitkusumi,

Paper for presents, Fasogami.

Parasol, Fisasi.

Parchment, Fiogu.

Pardon, Jiurussi.

Parents, Riosin.

Parrot, Omu.

Partial, Figi.

to Partition off with planks, Fedatsuru, skiru.

Pass-port, Sassigari.

to Paste, Fallu.

Pasting brush, Fake.

Pastry, confectionary, kwassi.

a Patch, to patch or mend, Kiri, fuse, fusi suru.

Patience, Takatsuru.

wooden Pattens, Getta, bokuri, figesuri.

to Pay, Farau, farai.

Peace, Seifits.

Peacock, Kusokv.

Peasant, farmer, Fjakso.

Pearl, Kainotamma.

to Peel, to peel off, Mukv.

Penis, Mara.

Pen, pencil, Fuda.

Pen knise, Kohatanna.

Pepper, Kotjo.

Per cent. Ire.

to Persuade, advise, Tasjimuru.

Pheasant, Kisi.

Physician, Isa.

Pike (an instrument of war) Jarri.

to Pile up, Tsumu.

Piles, hæmorrhoids, Dsi, sji.

a Pill, Guaijakv.

couch-Pillow, Bossi.

bed-Pillow, Kakuri makura.

a Japanese wooden Pillow, Makura.

Pin, Fisifari, tomebari, tenefari.

Pin case, Fari ire.

Pin cushion, Farisass.

to Pinch, Nesumu.

Pinchers, Kugi noki.

Pipe, tobacco pipe, Kiseru.

P—, to p—, Sobing, sobin suru.

Place-man or Person in office, Sonin, sobainin, sokunin.

c 2

[page] 20

to Place, to put, Oku.

Plank (board) Ita hei.

to Plant, Honu,

Plaster for a sore, Kosaku, katagosakv.

Plate (silver) Firatti, fira.

Plate, (or dish) Sara.

Play-house, Sibaia.

to Play at cards, Karta utsu, bakkutsu, bakkutjiutsu.

to Play with dice, Sugoroko utsu.

one that Plays at dice, Bakutsi utsi.

Pleasant, Omosiro ofito.

Pleasing, agreeable, Jurosikku.

Pleasure, amusement, Sio, assubi.

Pledge, Sits.

to Pledge, Sitji iruru.

Plough, Seri, seribetta, tsukv, tauts.

to Plough, Togajassu.

to Pluck, to pluck off, Chigiru.

Pock-marked, Mago.

to Point out, Miru, oibi.

Poison, Sumire doku.

to Poison, Douku.

Pole, stake, Fassura.

Polite, Kawatta, kuttona, mesirasi.

Poor, Fing.

Porcelain images, Jakima no ningio.

Portrait, Je.

Portrait painter, Jekakv.

Pot, earthen pot, Tsutsubo.

to Pound, to break by triture, Utsiwaro.

to Pour in, Tsugu.

Powder (gun) powder magazine, Jenso, jensoia.

Powder, medicine, San, ko.

small Pox, Foso.

to Pray or worship, Ogamu suru, faisuru.

Prayer, request, Tannomi.

—— to heaven, Kjojomi.

Pregnant, Mimotji, farami.

Preposterous, Matjigao.

to Press, Siburu.

Present (not absent) Konoguru.

Present, gift, Okuro, miage, simots.

to accept a Present, Uketoru.

Pretty, fine, Migotto, kikona.

Prickle, thorn, Ige.

Priest, Boos.

to Print, Fanku.

Prince, Waka gimi.

Princess, Waka gimigatta.

Prison, Roja.

Privy councellor, Daimio,

[page] 21

the Privy or necessary, Setsujin.

Profit, gain, Tokv.

Progress, advancement, Faijaka.

Prohibition, Fato.

to Prohibit, Fato suru.

to Promise, Jaksaku.

a Promise, Jaksoksta.

Prospect, a fine prospect, Ge, ke jui ke.

to Protect, Hajakv, fajai, hajai, fajakv.

Proverb, Tattoje gotoba.

to Provoke, Faratate sasaru.

to Pull away, to pluck off, Fiku.

Pulse (of the artery) Miakv.

to feel the Pulse, Miakv tollu.

Pump, to pump, Mitsuki, mitsuki suru.

Punihment, Nikwuni, sekka, sikka.

to Punish, Nikwumu.

Purge, Kudassu.

to Purge, Kudassu suru.

Purse, Kamefukuro.

to Push, Sukikakaru.


Quail, Usura.

to Quarrel, contend, Ijou.

to Quench, extinguish, Kiassu, kiasi.

Question, enquiry, Tsuru, tsukamma tsuru.

to Question, interrogate, Tassu muru.

Quick, Faijo, faijaki.


Rabbit, Usagi.

Rain, Ame.

to Rain, Ame no fiuru.

Rainy, Senkju.

Rainy season, Niubai.

Rainbow, Nisi.

Ram, Otoko fitstjusi.

Rat, Nisumi.

Ratan, a species of cane, Tsaje.

Raven, Karasu.

Raw, Atarassi, nama.

Ray, sun beam, Goko, Sitsugets no goko.

Razor, Sorri, jori, sori, kami.

to Read, Jomu.

Ready, prepared, Simai, smai.

Receipt, Okittori.

to Receive, Uke toru.

to Receive a present, Ukoru, ukitoru.

c 3

[page] 22

to Reckon up, Kajujuru.

Reeds, flags, Jos, as.

Refractory, Nigir.

Reins, Tasuna, tadsuna.

to Remove, Jautsuri suru.

Renown, Siman.

to Report, Kasu juru.

to Report, Tjusin, suru.

Rest, remainder, Nogori.

Rest, Jasune.

to Rest, to take rest, Jassude oru, jassumu.

Residence, Todomaru, torui.

Resin, Matsejari.

to be Revenged, Jssu.

Rib, Jokabara.

Rice, Kome.

early Rice, Wase.

threshed Rice, Skigome.

boiled Rice, Mes.

reddish Rice, Tobose.

white Rice, Matjigome.

fine Rice for Soups, Domense.

Rich, Buginsa.

to Ride on horseback, Noru.

Right side, Migi.

Ring, gold ring, Ibiganni.

to Ring a bell, Furu.

to Rince, Jussugu.

Ripe, Juksuri, um.

River, Kawa.

Rivulet, river, Nagari, kawa.

Rheumatism, Kake.

Rhubarb, Daiwo.

to Roast, Iru, Jakv.

Rogue, Uje.

Roll, Maku, kurubakas.

Roof, Janne,

Root, Ne.

Rose water, Hanna no mis.

Rope, Tsuna no na.

to Rot, Kabiru.

Round, round about, Mami mawari.

to Row in a boat, Roosu.

Rumour, report, Uwassa.

to Run, Ajiubu.

to Run out, Moru, suguru.

Rust, rusty, Sabir, sabita.

to Rust, Sabirru.


Sabre, long, Katanna.

——short, Wagissassin.

Sack, Fukuro.

Saddle, Kwura.

Saddler, Kwurasukuri, bagusi.

Safe for meat, Sokomots hako.

Saffron, Kakwa.

Sail, to sail, Hoo, hassiru.

—— to hoist, Hoaguru, bomaku.

—— to strike, take in, Hogorussu.

[page] 23

Sailor, Suissi.

Salt-petre, Sirojinfo.

Salt, to salt, Siwo, Siwosuru.

Salt water, Siwo mis, usiwo.

to Salute, to compliment, Resuru, reigisuru.

Salve, Neriakv, jurogojakv.

Sample, specimen, Asjiwau.

Sand, reef of sand, Tsunna susakki.

Sanders wood, Biakdan.

Sappan wood, Sowa, sobok.

Sattin, Sjas.

Sauce, Sjur.

Saw, to saw off, Noko, wakv.

Saw dust, Nogokusu.

to Say, Ju.

Scabbard, Saja.

Scales, small, Hakari, timbe.

——— large, Tembin.

School, school-master, Fera, sisso.

Scissars, Fassami, fassaim.

to Scower, Migakf.

to Scrape, off, Kusagu, kesuru.

to Scratch, rub off, Kesuru.

Screen, Beooto.

Screw, Nesi.

Scum, Awa.

to Scum off, Awa datsu, awa toru.

Sea, ocean, Ume.

Sea-sick, Fumin jou.

Seal, Fang, hang, ingjo.

to Search at the customs, Aratamu.

Secretary, Joniro.

See, to see, vision, sight, Miru.

Seed, Tanna.

Seed (in general) Muggi.

to Seek, Tatsimuru, mitskuru.

to Select, Jerahuru, jeridassu.

to Sell, Uru.

Sense, understanding, Gateng.

to Separate, Saru.

Serpent, Kutjinawa, hebi.

Servant maid, Onago, jarite.

a Servant man or woman, Kerai.

to Serve, to deserve, Sotomuru, stomuro, jakv.

to Set or place out, Tsuru gu.

to Settle, to finish, Wakiru.

to Sew, No, noi.

Shadow, Kagi.

Shagreen, Same.

Shallow, Assai, assaka.

Shame, Hasi, fosi.

to Shave, Soru.

a Sheaf, or bundle of any thing, Kisamu.

c 4

[page] 24

Sheep, Fitusi, fitsusi.

a Sheet of paper, Itjimai.

Sheets (of a bed) Skimono.

Shell, univalve shell, Kai, korano kai.

to Shew, Fusi, uta.

I will Shew, Omini koki massi, misi massu.

Ship, an empty ship, Fune, kara f'ne.

Shoe, Kwutsu.

Shoe-maker, Kwuisutsukuri.

Shop, Mise.

to Shorten, Kogiru.

Shoulder blade, Katabone.

Shoulders, Kata.

Shriek, cry, Tamagatta.

Sick or ill, Itami mono, bioki mono, jamai mono.

Sickness, Jamai, itami, bioki.

Side, Waki.

to Sift, a sieve, Furu, sino, kusu.

Sigh, Tame iktsukv.

Sign, sign at a fair, Kambang.

to Signify, Wageru.

Silk, Kinno.

Silver, Gin.

Silver coin, Ginsing.

Silver-smith, gold-smith, Ginsakv.

to Silver over, silvered over, Ginnagassu, gimbekv.

Sinew, Fono no tsugai.

to Sing, Utau.

to Sing a song, Uta no fusi.

to Sink, Sisumu.

Sir, Samma, muss.

Sister, Musme.

——— eldest, Ane.

to Sit on mats, Idoru.

—— on stools, Koskakuru.

Slap in the face, box on the ear, Fogeta, uttokuri.

to Slaughter, Utskorossu.

Slave, Frobo, firombo, kurombo.

Sleep, to sleep, Nur, nuru.

to Sleep with one, Sabini muru.

Sleepy, Nemutaka, nemutai.

Slime, Mucus tang.

Slimy, Nebaru, nemaru.

Slipper, Kuts.

Slop bason, Domburi, otjawang.

Slow, Sisukamai, jojajora.

Small, Ko, komaka.

Smell, Nioi, niwoi.

to Smell, Kusamu.

to Smile, to laugh, Warau.

Smith, Kasia.

Smooth, slippery, Suberu.

Smoke, Honoo.

to Smoke, Kemoli.

[page] 25

Smith, Kasia.

to Smoke, smoke meat, Kemura suru.

to Smoke tobacco, Tabaco nomu.

Smoked, Kemota.

to Smuggle, Sukuru.

to Sneeze, Aksingu.

to Snore, Ibikikakv.

Snow, to snow, Juki, Juki no fiuru.

to take Snuff, Kagu.

Snuff, Fanna, tabak, kagi.

Snuff box, Hanna tabako ire.

to Snuff a candle, Sinkiru.

Snuffers, Sinkiri.

Sober, Harafoss.

Soldier, Bannin.

the Sole of a shoe, Ura.

Some, Ikubakv.

Son-in-law, Jitjusi,

to become Sore, Kisutsukuru.

Sorrow, Jumi.

Sorrowful, Kujamo, kinnodoko.

Sort, to assort, Rui, rui suru.

Soul, Omo, sirio.

Sound, Hibiki.

Soup, Suru.

Sour, Suika.

South, Minami.

to Sew, to embroider, No, noi.

Sewing box, Farisass.

to Sow, to sow corn, Tannemakv.

* Sowas, Sakdo.

Spanish green, Rokuseo.

to Speak to a person, Monoju, musmasu, ju, moosuru.

to Speak ill of any one, Warika koto ju.

Spectacles, Meganni, sanna meganni.

Spectacle case, Meganne no je.

Speech, Kotoba.

Spider, Kwumo.

to Spin, Fikv.

to Spin cotton, Momen fikv.

——— silk, Nibassimuru.

Spinning wheel, Momenkuruma.

Spittle, to spit, Subakki, subakki, hawk.

Spitting pot, Faisuki.

Spoon, Saisi.

to Spoil or damage, Itamu, saruru, sosuru, skusarumu.

a Spot, Asa, moja.

to Spread, Koffu.

the Spring, Faru, naats.

Spy, Jing.

Square, Sikakv

Square, a mechanical instrument, Magarikani.

* Sowas is a composition of gold and copper, (generally of a black colour) of which various trinkets and utenfils are made in Japan. [Note communicated to the Translator by the Author.]

[page] 26

to Squirt, Mistsukvsuru.

Stable boy, Mogo.

Stag, Kano sis.

Stairs, Fakko fassigo, fassigo.

Stallion, Kuma.

to Stand, Tsukv.

to Stand, Tatsu.

to Stand up, arise, Okiru.

Starving, Katsujetosi, kiking.

Star, Fosi.

Starboard, Omakasi.

Starch, powder blue, Awosumi suru, gunsjo.

Statue, Ningio.

to Stay over night, Jodassi.

to Steal, Nosumu.

Steel, Hagane. fagane.

Stem of a ship, Tomotti.

Stench, to stink, Kusai, kusaka.

Steep, Somodatsu.

to Step, trample, Ki, gi.

Stern-post of a ship, Tomotti.

Sticks, to eat with, Fas.

to Stick, to adhere like glue, Tsugu.

to Stick, or cleave to, Kakuru.

Stiff, Ojoru, skorru, kwuki.

to Stifle, Simuru.

to Stir, to put in motion, Jgokv.

Stirrup, Abumi.

Stock fish, Tara.

Stocking, Merias.

Stomach, Fii.

Stone, Isi, iwa.

Stone cutter, Isnomi.

Storehouse, warehouse, Kura, kwura.

Storm, Okasi.

Story of a house, Kikaai.

to Stop up, to stuff, Tsumaru.

Strainer, Konoseru.

Strand, Nagisa, iso.

Japanese Straw slipper, Sori, agarats.

Strawberries, Itsigo.

Street, Tjo, matji.

Stream, Nami siwo.

Streak, Susi.

to Strike, Wutsu, utsu, tatakv.

to Strike on the head, Kubikiru.

to Strike with the hand, Tatakv.

to Strike from behind, Kiru, fanuru.

Stripe, Mimi.

String, fiddle string, Ito, samsi no ito.

Strong, Saoka, kitska, sjioi.

to cause any one to be Struck, Tatake.

to Stumble, Ketsu masukv, tawaru, tarruru, tawaruru.

[page] 27

Stupid, Donna.

Such, Konojona.

to Suck, Neburu, siwabaru.

to Suck (the breast) Koorussu.

to Suffer, Tefikv.

Sugar candy, Korisatto.

soft Sugar, Sirosatto.

to Suit, fit, Au, ota.

Suite, troop of followers, Ikedor sukama juro.

Sulphur, Iwo.

Summer, Noats.

Sun, Fi, nitji.

the Sun sets, Fi no iri.

the Sun rises, Fino de, sino agaru.

Sun dial, Fitoke.

Sure, certain, Taskani.

Surgeon, Gekwa, guairo.

to Swallow, Nomikomu.

to Swathe, to swaddle, Maku.

Sweat, to sweat, Asi, asisuru.

Sweet, Amaka, amai.

to Swell, to swell up, Faruru.

to Swim, Ojugu.

Sword, Ken.

Sword belt, Jsjuobi.

a Syringe or squirt, Mistsuki.


Table-cloth, Skimmomen.

Table, Sukus, fandai.

Tail, Sirio, firiwoo, O.

to Take off a leg, Fanassu.

to Take a likeness, Jesu.

Tame, Sju, kemono nasuku.

to Tame, Nogai.

to Tap, Tsugu, Tsumuru.

Tar, pitch, Tjan.

Tar, to tar, Nuru, tjan nuru.

Taste, to taste, Asi asiwu.

Tavern, or Public-house, Kooja.

Tea, tea-canister, tea-cup, Tsjaa, tjaire, tjawang.

Telescope, To meganni.

Temple, Tera.

Testicles, Kintama, inno, itamma fugure.

Thanks, Kataskenai.

to Thank, Katasike no gosarimasu.

Thick, Atsusa, atsumi.

Thief, Nosto, nosobito.

Thigh, Momo, sotomomo.

Thing, Koto.

Thirst, Nodonokawaku.

Thin, Ussui.

Thread, Ito.

to Throw, Naguru.

to Throw down, Koboss, Koboruru, stamuru.

[page] 28

Threshold, Sekis.

Thumb, Ojajubi, ojubi.

Thunder, Kaminari.

to Tickle, Kusuguru.

Ticklish, Kussuwaika.

Tidings, Tjusing.

to Tie together, Kubiru, awasuru.

Tiger, Tora.

Tile, Kawara.

Time, pastime, Toki, kwurasu.

Tin, Susu.

Tinder, Fjutji.

Tinder-box, Fjutjibako.

Tobacco-box, Tabako ire.

Tongue, Sta, sita.

Tongs, fire-tongs, Febasi.

Tooth, gum, Ha, fagis.

Tooth-powder, Hamigaki.

Tooth-ach, Hanoitami.

Top, point, Toge.

Top of a mountain, Toge.

to Torment, Itanda, fimuru.

Tortoise, Kame, bekogame.

Tortoise-shell, Bekko.

to Touch, Kamau, kakaru, ateru.

to Tow, Fikv.

Tower, To.

a Towing vessel, Fikv fune.

Town, Matji, sotomatji.

to Translate, Tsuben suru.

Train oil, Kusura, no abra.

to Travel, Tabi suru.

to Tremble, Fururu.

to Tremble (for fear) Furou.

Treasure, Sakkara.

Trumpet, Tjammera fuki.

Trunk, Fio, tawara.

Truth, Makoto.

to Try, Aida.

to Turn, v. n. Fiki kurikajassu.

to Turn, v. a. Fikikurikagass maku.

to Turn out of the way, avoid, Wakaruru.

to Turn in a lathe, Nesiru.

to Turn about, Kajeru.

Tweezers, Ken no kin.

a Twining plant, Kadsura.

Twins, Futago.

to Twist, to wreathe, Siboru.


Ugly, Kisannai.

Umbrella, Fisasi.

to Understand, Konogotoku.

Unfortunate, Fusaiwai no fito.

Unjust, injustice, Muri.

Unmarried, Gataisen, naka, no warrika.

Unsure, Makota naranu.

Unthankful, Kataske no Karassu.

[page] 29

Unwholesome, Biosa.

Upright, sincere, Massafiku, Sinsjo.

Use, custom, Narruru.

to Use, Motji jura.


a Valley, Nerawa.

Variegated, Fam.

Vein, Susi.

Velvet, Birodo.

Venture, Kakura.

Vexation, Nagusammu.

it Vexes me, Nagusama Fito.

Vexed, mentally afflicted, Sitsnaki, sitsnaka, simaru.

View, a fine view, Ge, ke; jui ke.

Vinegar, Su.

Vinegar cruet, Suire.

Virgin, Imada, kimusme.

Virginity, Sara.

a Visit, Mimai.

Vote, Koje.

Voyage, Wataru.

Vulva, Bobo.


Wadd, callico wadd, Watta.

ditto silk, Mawatta, nebas.

Wager, Kudamono, Naimono.

Wages, salary, Jaknrio.

Waggon, cart, Kuruma.

to Wait, wait here, Matjiukuru, matte.

to Wake, Okiteoru.

to Waken, Okusu.

to Walk, Ita.

to Walk round about, Mawatu.

to Walk lengthways, Arukv.

Wall, Kabe.

War, Ikusa, fakaro.

to make War, Motomuru.

Warm, to warm, Nakka, atska, atsururu.

to Warn, to caution, Todokuru.

to Wash, Arau.

to Wash one's-self, Josi.

to Wash one's feet, Sinsok suru.

a Watch (time-keeper) Tokei.

Watch-maker, Tokeijessi.

Water, Mis.

Water-tub (large) Furo.

——— (small) Josi.

Waterfall, Taki.

Wave (of the sea) Arassu.

Way, guide, Mits, annesa.

to Wear out, worn out, Sakuru, Saruru, fageta.

to Weave, Fattaoru, oru.

Weather, good weather, Fiuri, jui fiuri.

——— foul, Warri fiuri.

Weather, boisterous, stormy, Kitsisiuri.

[page] 30

fine Weather, Jukka fiuri, jui teng.

Weapon, Bugu.

to Weep, Jogeru, naku.

Wedding, Nagaodo, nagadaki.

Wedding-day, Konreift.

Weight, Fundo.

a Well, Jgawa.

Welcome, Jokita, jo oidena naserrimasta.

West, Nis.

Wet, to wet, Naroru, Narassu.

Whale, Kusira.

Whalebone, Kusira no fige.

Whale's fat, blubber, Kusira no kawa.

Wheat, flour of wheat, Komuggi, mugi no ka.

Wheel, Kuruma.

Whetstone, Toisi.

Whip, Mootsi.

to White-wash, Muru, skui muru.

Whole, Djigokf.

Whore, Juso, jurosi.

Wick of a candle, Sukv, sakv.

Widow, Jammome.

Widower, Otokojammome, otokegoki.

Wide, large, Habanna firoka.

Wise, Niobo, jomego.

Wig, Katsura, skegami, isukiganni.

Wild, Inu.

to Will, to be willing, Konomu fuska.

Willing, Sio.

Wind, Kase.

Wind, contrary, Mokaokase.

to Wind up, Sutsumu.

Windlass or capstan, Makido.

Window, Mado, samma.

Wing, Toobu fanne.

to Wink, make a sign, Manaku.

Winter, Fuju.

to Wipe up, Nogou, hawaku.

Wife, prudent, Tjisa.

to Wither, Sibomu, kakuru.

Wonder, miracle, Kimeona, kurigi.

Wood (to burn, &c.) Tagi, taki gi.

Wood grove, Mori.

Wool, Kemono.

Wound, ulcer, Kega, surihago.

to Work, Sigito.

Worshipper, Ogamufura mono, faisuru mono.

Word, speech, Kotoba.

to Write, a writer, Kakv, fisa.

Writing desk, Fikidassi.

[page] 31


Yarn, Ito.

Yeast, Amasaki, sakki no ore, Orisakki.

Year, Fosi.

Young comrade, Gosa.

Young, younger, Wahai, wagaki mono.

Youth, Warabi.

[page break]

[page 1]





ON the 20th of June, 1775, I went on board of the Stavenise, one of the three-decked vessels bound from Batavia to Japan. For some time past the Dutch East India Company has sent two ships only to that empire, which ships are selected by the government in Batavia for this purpose, one of them, and generally both, being large three-deckers from the province of Zeeland; as the navigation of these waters is accounted the most dangerous in all the Indies.

I had engaged myself as principal surgeon on board of the ship during this voyage, and, on my safe arrival at Japan, was to remain there a year, and at the same time to accompany the Dutch ambassador on his journey to the imperial court at Jedo, the capital of the country, in


[page] 2

quality of physician to the embassy. This was my station in the Dutch East India company's service; but I had besides, at Amsterdam, undertaken to collect, for the Hortus Medicus there, and some gentlemen of distinction, as far as I could get liberty and opportunity in this distant country, seeds and growing plants, particularly of shrubs and trees, to be sent to Europe by the returning ships, for the purpose of transplanting. The ship was commanded by Captain VON ESS, and on board of her now embarked M. FEITH, in quality of consul, and likewise ambassador, for the fourth time, to the Imperial court, who brought with him as assistants in the commercial line, M. HARINGA, the supercargo, together with four writers.

The other ship which lay ready to accompany us was somewhat less, and was called the Bleijenberg. It had on board a supercargo and a writer.

All the officers on board, who were to remain a year at Japan, carried with them one or more slaves, as servants, during the voyage, and their stay at that place. This has been allowed by the Japanese for more than one hundred years back, though the slaves are not suffered to go out of the factory, or the adjacent town, Nagasaki.

[page] 3

On the 21st, about ten o'clock in the forenoon, we weighed anchor, saluted, and got underway in the road of Batavia; but came again to anchor, for the purpose of putting every thing in proper order previous to our intended voyage.

The chief allowed a free table for all the officers, both now and during the voyage, as also liquors, beer and wine, partly at his own, and partly at the company's expence.

On the 26th, in the morning, by the aid of a light breeze and the tide, we were in the straits of Banca, which are nearly as broad as the British channel. We saw the land of Sumatra to the left, the shores of which are even and low, and the land of Java to the right, both overgrown with wood.

On the 27th, we remained at anchor, and waited the arrival of the other ship, which being a dull sailer, lagged behind.

On the 28th, we weighed anchor and got underway.

On the 30th, we got safe through the sound into the open sea, and were saluted by the Bleijenberg, which compliment being returned, we wished each other a safe passage.

July 3d, crossed the Line.

On the 8th, saw the rock Pulo Sapato, which at a distance appears like a ship, and, on a

B 2

[page] 4

nearer view, like the hinder part of a shoe, cut in two across the instep. Its name signifies Shoe Island; Pulo, in the Malay tongue, signifying an island, and Sapato a shoe. This island has been so called, from its resembling the heel of a shoe.

On the 10th, saw the Chinese coast, which is a pleasing sight to every Japan trader, as it affords an evident proof that the vessel is pretty far advanced on its voyage.

On the 12th, a hard gale. In this latitude gales are very common. Our captain (who was a very careful and sagacious man) ordered immediately to shorten sail, lower the top-masts, and take down the yards. This precaution was afterwards observed during the whole voyage, when we were similarly circumstanced, and the event shewed that it was extremely judicious. The Bleijenberg, on the other hand, being a stern of us all this time, carried all her sails, till the topmasts went, and during the gale she lost her lower masts also. In fine, the ship, in consequence of its rolling, was so much shattered, and proved so leaky, that it was with the greatest difficulty that she was prevented from sinking, and carried into the port of Macao, from whence she was afterwards taken to Canton, in order to be repaired, being unable to proceed on her voyage to Japan. The cargo, which chiefly consisted of soft sugars, was almost entirely spoiled.

[page] 5

On the 17th, a most tremendous gale, accompanied by severe hurricanes, and a great deal of rain, which lasted for eight and forty hours, but no thunder.

On the 20th, the gale having abated, we saw a Chinese fishing-boat, with her keel upwards. The fishermen belonging to it were supposed to have been lost.

On the 22d, saw again the Chinese shore. Four fishing boats came to us, and brought with them several sorts of fish. Amongst others, there was the beautiful and transparent shell-fish called Ostrea pleuronectes, one of the shells of which is white, and the other red; and on this account it is called by the Dutch Maan-schulp, or Moon-muscle. There were likewise found among them several Sepiæ, some large Crabs, and the Cancer mantis. The whole of this we purchased, with some rice and arrack, with which the fishermen seemed highly pleased.

Since our leaving Batavia, the seamen had been very much troubled with intermitting severs, but as soon as the cold weather and winds increased, the malady abated. BONTIUS observes, that in his time agues were seldom heard of in the East Indies; but at present no species of fever is more common. The difference in the degrees of heat, however, was, in fine weather, not very remarkable. The thermo-

B 3

[page] 6

meter stood at Batavia between eighty and eighty-six degrees, and in the northern latitude, in which we now were, it was at seventy-eight or seventy-nine degrees, by Fahrenheit's scale.

The very heavy rains which accompanied the last gale, were not less troublesome than the hurricanes, as every thing we had was wet, and on laying them out to dry, some articles were found quite useless. The Crabs (Canceres) and Marine animals (Sepiæ) which I had collected for the purpose of drying and preserving, afforded me at night, as soon as it grew dark, a most delightful spectacle, the former of these in spots, and the latter with almost the whole surface of their bodies, illuminating my little cabin with a bluish phosphoric light. The light proceeding from the Crabs, in particular, was singular, as it appeared upon them in spots, and not covering any part entirely: a spot, perhaps, on the one side of the tail giving a light, when there was none perceptible on the other. The glimmering continued for the space of two days, and when the animal was brought upon deck and exposed to the open air in the day-time, it gave no light at all. With the naked eye I could neither discover marine insects, nor any thing else that might occasion this phenomenon; and when I scratched any of the shining spots with my

[page] 7

nail, the light neither disappeared, nor was it in the least diminished.

The Chinese fishing-boats are remarkably large and long, built of thin boards, and decked, and bluff both at the head and stern. Abast however, they are much wider; the deck is open, where the rudder traverses, and they have only one mast and sail. In these, generally four or five men to each boat, go far out into the sea, and there fish night and day. The officers of the ship, who had been several voyages, informed me, that sometimes in fine weather such numbers of them were seen, as to darken the horizon.

On the 23d, a great number of the fish called Pilots were this day seen.

On the 26th, passed the island called Med zyn Gatt, and made towards Formosa Sound.

On the 29th, saw the island of Formosa, which formerly belonged to the Dutch East India company.

This island is long, large, and very fruitful. Formerly all ships bound for Japan touched at this place, which made the voyage more commodious and less dangerous; as, in case of hard gales, they have now no port to run into.

The citadel, called Zeeland, was surrendered in the year 1662, after a siege of nine months, by the then governor, COIJET, to the Chinese rebel, COXINIA, who had been driven out of

B 4

[page] 8

China by the Tartars. The history of this transaction may be seen in Het verwaaloosde Formosa, by C. E. S. printed at Amsterdam, 1675. This island is at present in the hands of the Emperor of China, but no traffic is carried on there with the Europeans.

On the 30th, we had severe squalls with rain, but of no long continuance.

August the 4th, hard gales, with a high sea and some rain, which lasted till the seventh; the sea being in such agitation, that we could carry nothing but the main stay-sail. During the whole time I kept as much as possible on the deck.

On the 10th, for the fifth time on this short passage, a hard gale with rain, which lasted twenty-four hours. Hence it appears, how troublesome and dangerous the voyage to Japan is, and how boisterous and subject to gales the sea is on either side of Formosa, even in the proper season of the year, which is the only time when ships may ride for three or four months with safety in the havens of Japan.

Whoever wishes for a more explicit account of the gales to which these seas are subject, may peruse Dr. KÆMPFER'S History of Japan, the folio edition, pages 49 and 50.

The voyage to Japan is reckoned the most dangerous in all the Indies, and the Dutch


[page] 9

India company always considers one out of five of the ships that are sent thither, as lost. That this calculation exactly agrees with the experience of more than a hundred years, is evident from the following list of lost ships, with relation to some of which, it has never been known when, where, and how they were lost.

In 1642, were lost two ships in the narrows of Guinam, viz. the Buys and the Maria.

1651, De Koe.

1652, De Sparwer.

1653, Het Lam.

1658, De Zwarte Bal.

1659, De Harp.

1660, The Hector, which, however, blew up in an engagement with the Chinese.

1664, Het Roode Hart.

1668, The Achilles.

1669, Two, de Hoog Caspel and Vrydenburg.

1670, De Schermer.

1671, The Kuylenberg.

1697, The Spar.

1708, The Monster.

1714, The Arion.

1719, Three, viz. the Meeroog, Catherine, and het Slot van Capelle.

1722, The Valkenbos.

1724, The Apollonia.

1731, The Knapenhoff.

[page] 10

In 1748, Het Huys te Persyn.

1758, The Stadwyk.

1768, The Vreedenhoff.

1770, The Gansenhoff. The same year, the Burg was, in consequence of having sprung a leak, rendered unfit to proceed on her voyage, and obliged to go to China.

1772, The Burg, though she had been unsuccessful in the former voyage, was now sent again to Japan, and had the Chief on board; but became so disabled in a gale of wind, that she was abandoned by the crew; and drove on shore on the coast of Japan. On the 30th of July, in a hard gale from E. N. E. off Meaxima, which lasted two days, she lost her masts, bowsprit, head, quarter-galleries, &c.; and springing a leak, had a great quantity of water in the powder-room and hold. The chief, M. DANIEL ARMENAULT, and Captain EVEICH, saw, on the 1st of August, the other ship, viz. the Margaretta Maria, commanded by Captain STEENDEKKER. A council was held, in which it was resolved to quit the ship. On the day following they went on board the other ship, taking with them their money and

[page] 11

valuables, and, leaving the ship to the mercy of the wind and waves, arrived on the 6th in Nagasaki harbour. In the course of a few days the vessel, that had lately been quitted, was discovered driving towards the gulf of Japan by some fishermen, who towed her on shore, and found no other live animal on board of her than a boar-pig. It must have been in consequence of the greatest negligence that the ship was not towed to land, or, agreeably to the regulations previously made, set on fire.

1775, The Bleijenberg, in consequence of having sprung a leak, and sustained great damage, was obliged to go to China; where she was repaired, and asterwards returned to Batavia.

On the 13th, early in the morning, we saw the island of Meaxima, with its lofty and peaked mountains. In the afternoon, we saw the land of Japan, and at nine o'clock in the evening anchored in the entrance of Nagasaki harbour, where the high mountains formed a roundish internal harbour, in the shape of a half moon.

On the mountains, by order of the Japanese government, were placed several out-posts, which were provided with telescopes, that the guard might discover at a distance the arrival of ships, and immediately report the same to the governor of Nagasaki, These out-posts now lighted up several fires.

[page] 12

This day all the Prayer-Books and Bibles belonging to the sailors were collected, and put into a chest, which was nailed down. This chest was afterwards left under the care of the Japanese, till the time of our departure, when every one received his book again. This is done with a view to prevent the introduction of Christian or Roman Catholic books into the country.

A bedstead was now placed upon deck, with a canopy over it, but without curtains, for the Japanese superior officers to sit on, who were expected to come on board.

A muster roll of the ship's company, consisting of about one hundred and ten men, and thirty-four slaves, was made out, mentioning the age of every individual, which roll was given to the Japanese. The birth-place of each individual was not marked in this list, as they were all supposed to be Dutchmen, although many of them were Swedes, Danes, Germans, Portuguese, and Spaniards. According to this muster-roll, the whole ship's company is mustered immediately on the arrival of the Japanese, and afterwards every morning and evening of such days as the ship is either discharging or taking in her cargo, and when there is any intercourse between the ship and the factory. By these precautions the Japanese are assured that no one can either get

[page] 13

away without their knowledge, or remain in the factory without their leave.

On the 14th, it blew so very hard, that we could not get the anchor up; at eleven o'clock, therefore, we were obliged to cut the cable, and got under sail.

We now perceived a boat coming from shore to meet us. The captain therefore dressed himself in a blue silk coat, trimmed with silver lace, made very large and wide, and stussed, and furnished in front with a large cushion. This coat has for many years past been used for the purpose of smuggling prohibited wares into the country, as the chief and the captain of the ship were the only persons who were exempted from being searched. The captain generally made three trips in this coat every day from the ship to the factory, and was frequently so loaded with goods, that when he went ashore, he was obliged to be supported by two sailors, one under each arm. By these means the captain derived a considerable profit annually from the other officers, whose wares he carried in and out, together with his own, for ready money, which might amount to several thousand rixdollars.

The last-mentioned boat brought from the factory one supercargo and three writers, deputed from the chief to congratulate us on our

[page] 14

arrival, to enquire about the ship's cargo, and to know the news from Batavia, &c.

In the mean-time we displayed on board a number of different colours and pendants, in order to give a certain degree of splendour to our entry into the haven.

As soon as we approached the two imperial guards, which are placed on each side of the port, one of which is called the Emperor's, and the other the Empress's guard, we fired our cannon to salute them.

During the whole time of our sailing up this long and winding harbour, we had a most delightful prospect of the surrounding hills and mountains, which appeared cultivated, to their very summits; a view which is so very uncommon in other countries.

We at length came into good anchorage, and at noon let go the anchor, at the distance of a musket-shot from the town of Nagasaki, and the adjacent small island of Dezima, in which is situated the Dutch factory.

Soon after the above-mentioned gentlemen, who had been deputed from the factory, returned on shore, carrying with them the company's letters, and those of private persons, the chief, who had this year remained at Japan, came on board, and with him returned to the

[page] 15

factory the newly-arrived chief, the captain, supercargo, and writers.

The intelligence we received was by no means agreeable; as the strictest orders had come from the court for the prevention of any illicit commerce. First, That the captain and chief should in future be searched, as well as others, without regard to persons, which had never been the case before. Secondly, That the captain should for the future dress like others, and lay aside the large surtout, which had hitherto been used for the convenience of smuggling. Thirdly, That the captain should either remain constantly on board, or, if he should chuse to go ashore, he should be permitted to go on board twice only during the whole time of our stay there. This latter point was, nevertheless, in a great measure given up, and the captain had liberty, after a lapse of two days, to go on board, and moor the ship. The permission for this purpose was obtained from the governor of Nagasaki, partly by solicitation, and partly by threatening him, that if any accident besel the ship, the loss would be put to the emperor's account; and, if the emperor should treat the affair with neglect or indifference, the company would certainly, in that case, resent the affront.

These strict orders were issued from the court

[page] 16

in consequence of a discovery that was made in the year 1772, when the Burg, having been abandoned by her crew, had driven ashore on the coast of Japan, and, on discharging her cargo, was found to have on board a great quantity of prohibited goods, which principally belonged to the captain and the chief.

The Burg was, as before mentioned, in 1772, so leaky, in consequence of the severe gales sustained on her passage to this place, that, on a council being held upon her, she was abandoned; and it was considered as so certain that she would sink in a few hours, that she was not set on fire, agreeably to the company's orders in such cases. Notwithstanding this, the ship drove for several days towards the shore of Satsuma, where she was found by the inhabitants, and towed into Nagasaki harbour. The Japanese having thus the ship at their disposal, discovered all her corners and hiding places, as also a great number of chests belonging to the principal officers, which were full of the most prohibited goods, and marked with their names. They were particularly provoked on finding a chest, belonging to the chief, full of ginseng-root, which is by no means allowed to be imported into the country. The chest therefore, with its contents, was burnt before the gate of the factory.

[page] 17

Besides the disgrace accruing to the chief from being searched, the captain loses a considerable sum yearly that he gained by smuggling for the other officers, and the officers are deprived of the profit they made by their wares.

For many years past the captain was not only equipped with the wide surtout above described, but also wore large and capacious breeches, in which he carried contraband wares ashore. These, however, were suspected, and consequently laid aside; and the coat, the last resource, was now, to the owner's great regret, to be taken off. It was droll enough to see the astonishment which the sudden reduction in the size of our bulky captain excited in the major part of the ignorant Japanese, who before had always imagined that all our captains were actually as fat and lusty as they appeared to be.

As soon as we had come to an anchor, and had saluted the town of Nagasaki, there came immediately on board two Japanese superior officers (Banjoses) and some subaltern officers (under Banjoses), as also the interpreters and their attendants. The banjoses went and placed themselves on the bedstead prepared for their accommodation, upon which was laid a thick Japanese straw-mat, and over that a callico covering; and all this was sheltered by a canvas awning


[page] 18

from the rain, and a foot-stool being placed before it to facilitate the ascent. After taking off their shoes, they stept up, and sat down squat on their heels, with their legs placed under them, according to the custom of that country. Being used to sit in this posture, they could endure it a long while, but it was easily seen that it proved tiresome to them at length, by their rising up, and sitting for some time like the Europeans.

The business of these banjoses was, during the whole time of our ship's lying in the road, to take care that all the wares, and the people which went on shore, or came on board, were strictly searched; to receive orders from the governor of the town; to sign all passports and papers which accompanied the merchandize, people, &c.

The way in which they passed the time while they sat in this tiresome posture, was in smoking tobacco, now and then exchanging a few words with each other, drinking tea, and taking a sip of European brandy. For this purpose, the captain set before them a couple of decanters, filled with different liquors, and two glasses. Some sweet cakes, likewise, were set before them on a plate, for them to eat with their liquors, although they did not consume much of the liquors, which they only tasted.

[page] 19

The harbour is about three miles long, and four gun-shots broad, inclining a little at the end towards one of the shores. It extends north and south, has a muddy bottom, and is very deep, so that ships may lie within a gun-shot of the factory.

After having several times fired our cannon, viz. on passing the imperial guards; on the arrival on board, and departure of the committee; on the arrival of the chief, and on the officers leaving the ship; we were obliged to commit to the care of the Japanese the remainder of our powder, as also our ball, our weapons, and the above-mentioned chest full of books. For this purpose were delivered in a certain quantity of powder, six barrels full of ball, six muskets, and six bayonets, which we made them believe was all the ammunition we had remaining. All these articles are put into a store-house, till the ship leaves the road, when they are faithfully restored by the Japanese.

The Japanese have of late years had the sense to leave the rudders of our ships untouched, and the sails and cannon on board. They were likewise weary of the trouble with which the fetching of them back was attended, and which was by no means inconsiderable.

The Japanese having thus, as they suppose, entirely disarmed us, the next thing they take in

C 2

[page] 20

hand is to muster the men, which is done every day on board, both morning and evening, when the vessel is discharging or taking in her lading. They reckon always from one to ten, and then begin with one again; a method which is also observed in counting out wares and merchandize. Each time the number of the men that are gone ashore is fet down very accurately, as well as the number of the sick, and the number of those that remain on board.

On all those days, when any thing is carried on board or taken out of the ship, the upper banjos, the under banjos, the interpreters, clerks, and searchers, are on board till the evening, when they all go ashore together, and leave the Europeans on board to themselves. On such occasions the flag on board the ship is always hoisted, as well as that on the factory; and when two ships arrive here safe, business is transacted on board of one or the other of them by turns every day. The ship's long-boat and pinnace were also taken into the care of the Japanese, so that both the people and the merchandize are carried to and from the ship by Japanese seamen, and in Japanese boats.

To prevent the Dutch from coming from the ship, or the Japanese from going to it, and trafficking, especially under covert of the night, and when no Japanese officers are on board,


[page] 21

several large guard-ships are placed round the ship, and at some distance from it; and besides this, there are several small boats ordered to row every hour in the night round the ship, and very near it.

I observed that the tide in this harbour was very considerable, as also that the surrounding mountains were very steep, and the shore consequently very bold, and almost perpendicular.

On our arrival, we found in the harbour eleven Chinese vessels (or junks) lying so close to the shore, that when the tide was at ebb, they lay only in the mud. Some of these vessels were by degrees loaded, and sailed, but seven remained there all the winter. Each of these vessels generally carry with them a great number of people, frequently from seventy to eighty men. Hence it is, that there commonly remain here all the winter about six hundred men, on a small island, situated on one side of the Dutch factory, and directly before the town of Nagasaki.

On the 15th, we sent the beasts ashore, such as calves, oxen, hogs, goats, sheep, and deer, which are brought every year to this place from Batavia. The Europeans not being able to procure such animals here, are obliged to carry them with them, partly for fresh provi-

C 3

[page] 22

sions for the factory, and partly for stock on the homeward-bound voyage. They are kept constantly on the island in stalls, which in summer are open, and in winter are closed up. They are fed with grass and leaves, which are gathered and brought them twice a day by Japanese servants. In winter they are commonly fed on rice and branches of trees, as also on rice straw.

This fodder of the cattle I examined three times every day, and selected out of it the rare and uncommon plants it contained, for the purpose of drying them for the botanical collections of Europe; plants which I was not at liberty to gather in the adjacent plains, in a country where the inhabitants are so suspicious, that our pigeons, which yet roved much farther, were less suspected and watched, and less liable to be made captives than the Europeans, who, for the sake of lucre and commerce, had come thither through such manifold dangers, and so far from their own homes.

The Japanese have neither sheep nor hogs, and very few cows and oxen. The latter, which are extremely small, are only used, and that but seldom, for the purpose of agriculture. Their flesh is not eaten, nor is their milk made use of in any shape.

On the 16th and the following days, the clothes, furniture, stock of provisions, wine,

[page] 23

ale, &c. belonging to the officers, were sent on shore; which is always done by itself, and before any of the merchandize is suffered to be landed: this is commonly done on the three first days.

September 4, the ship was searched by the Japanese, after such private property, as was not to be sold, had been sent ashore. All the private property which had been entered for sale, was this day sent off, and if in the hurry of removal any article had been forgotten, it was not afterwards suffered to be landed or sold. The ship was thoroughly and closely searched, except in the part nearest its bottom, and in the powder-room.

The remaining part of this month was spent in discharging the merchandize belonging to the company.

A great number of labourers (Kulis) were ordered to attend to the discharging and loading of the boats, and bringing them to and from the ship, others being set as inspectors over them. The former used constantly to sing when they were employed in lifting a weight, or carrying a burden, as also when they were rowing; and that in a peculiar tone of voice, their songs being besides modulated to a certain tune and measure, and the words lively and cheering. The Dutch formerly took the liberty to punish and correct with blows these day-labourers, who were of the

C 4

[page] 24

lowest class of people, but at present this procedure is absolutely, and under the severest penalties, forbidden by the government, as bringing a disgrace upon the nation.

When an European goes to or from the ship, either with or without any baggage, an officer is always attending with a permit, on which his name is written, his watch marked down, &c.

As soon as one half of the ship's cargo was discharged, we began to take in wooden boxes filled with bars of copper. This year, as no more than one ship arrived, one loading and a half of copper, or 6700 boxes, was taken in, each of 120lb. weight, or one pickel.

On those days when there is nothing done towards discharging or loading the ship, no Japanese officers, nor any other Japanese, come on board, neither do any of the Dutch themselves go to or from the ship on such days. The gate of the island also, towards the waterside, is locked at this time. Should an urgent occasion require any of the officers to come on board of the ship, such as the captain or the surgeon, which is signified by the hoisting of a flag, in such case leave must be first obtained from the governor of the town; and should this be granted, still the gate towards the sea-shore is not opened, but the person to whom leave is

[page] 25

granted, is conducted by interpreters and officers through a small part of the town to a little bridge, from which he is taken on board in a boat, after having gone through the strict searches already mentioned. The banjoses and interpreters, who accompany him, do not however go on board of the ship, but wait in their boats till he has transacted his business on board, from whence he is conducted back to the factory, after having gone through the same ceremonies. In the town, while he is passing through it, a great concourse of people assemble together to look at the traveller, and a considerable number of children, who by their cries signify their astonishment at the large and round eyes of the Europeans (Hollanda O—me).

We were visited one day by some of the princes, and by the two governors of the town of Nagasaki. They came on board of us out of curiosity to see our first-rate ship, which was very large and handsome; nor had its equal been seen at Japan for many years. One of the interpreters assured me, that during the thirty years that he had served in the Dutch factory, he had not seen a Dutch ship of that size and state.

About this time we lost one of our sailors, who had been sent ashore amongst the other sick to the hospital on the island. After the governor

[page] 26

of Nagasaki was informed of his death, leave was granted for his burial. The corpse, after having been strictly examined by the Japanese appointed for that purpose, was put into a wooden coffin, and carried by the Japanese to the other side of the harbour, where it was interred. Some asserted, that it was afterwards taken up by the Japanese and burnt, but with respect to this matter, I could not arrive at any degree of certainty.

Custom-houses are not known either in the interior part of the country or on its coasts, and no customs are demanded either in imports or exports of goods, either from strangers or natives. A particular happiness and advantage, which few other countries possess! But that no prohibited goods may be smuggled into the country, so close a watch is kept, and all persons that arrive, as well as merchandizes, are so strictly searched, that the hundred eyes of Argus might be said to be employed on this occasion. When any European goes ashore, he is first searched on board, and afterwards as soon as he comes on shore. Both these searches are very strict; so that not only travellers pockets are turned inside out, and the officers hands passed over their clothes, along their bodies and thighs; but sometimes even the private parts are felt of people belonging to the lower class. As to

[page] 27

slaves, the hair on their heads is likewise examined. All the Japanese that go on board of ship are in like manner searched, excepting only the superior order of banjoses. All articles exported or imported undergo a similar search, i. e. first, on board the ship, and afterwards in the factory, except large chests, which are emptied in the factory, and are so narrowly examined, that they even sound the boards, suspecting them to be hollow. The beds are frequently ripped open, and the feathers turned over. Iron spikes are thrust into the butter-tubs, and jars of sweet-meats. In the cheeses a square hole is cut, in which part a thick-pointed wire is thrust into it towards every side. Nay, their suspicion went even so far, as to induce them to take an egg or two from among those we had brought with us from Batavia and break them. The same severe conduct is observed when any one goes from the factory to the ship, or into the town of Nagasaki, and from thence to the island of Dezima. Every one that passes must take his watch out of his pocket and shew it to the officers, who always mark it down whenever it is carried in or out. Sometimes too, strangers hats are searched. Neither money nor coin must by any means be brought in by private persons, but they are laid by and taken care of till the owner's departure. No letters to be sent to or from the

[page] 28

ship sealed, and if they are, they are opened, and sometimes, as well as other manuscripts, must be read by the interpreters. Religious books, especially if they are adorned with cuts, it is very dangerous to import; but the Europeans are otherwise suffered to carry in a great number of books for their own use, and the search was the less strict in this respect, as they looked into a few of them only. Latin, French, Swedish, and German books and manuscripts, pass the more easily, as the interpreters do not understand them. Arms, it is true, are not allowed to be carried into the country; nevertheless, we are as yet suffered to take our swords with us.

The Dutch themselves are the occasion of these over-rigorous searches, the strictness of which has been augmented on several different occasions, till it has arrived at its present height. The captain's wide breeches and coat, and a hundred more artifices, have been applied to the purpose of bringing goods into the factory by stealth, and the interpreters, who heretofore had never been searched, used to carry contraband goods by degrees, and in small parcels, to the town, where they were sold for ready money. This they have often endeavoured to do with so much art, as to hide smaller articles under their private parts, and in their hair. Some

[page] 29

years ago a parrot was found hid in the breeches of one of the petty officers of the ship, which, whilst they were searching the man, began to talk, and was thus discovered. This year were found upon one of the writers, several rixdollars and ducats, hid in the drawers that he wore under his breeches.

To all this may be added, the pride which some of the weaker-minded officers in the Dutch service very imprudently exhibit to the Japanese, by ill-timed contradiction, contemptuous behaviour, scornful looks, and laughter, which occasions the Japanese in their turn to hate and despise them; a hatred which is greatly increased upon observing in how unfriendly and unmannerly a stile they usually behave to each other, and the brutal treatment which the sailors under their command frequently experience from them, together with the oaths, curses, and blows, with which the poor fellows are assailed by them.

All these circumstances have induced the Japanese, from year to year, to curtail more and more the liberties of the Dutch merchants, and to search them more strictly than ever; so that now, with all their finesse and artifices, they are hardly able to throw dust in the eyes of so vigilant a nation as this.

Within the water-gate of Dezima, when any thing is to be exported or imported, are seated,

[page] 30

in like manner as on board of ship, head banjoses and under banjoses, head interpreters and under interpreters, before whose eyes the whole undergoes a strict search. And that the Europeans may not scrape an acquaintance with the searchers, they are changed so often, that no opportunity is given them.

This puts a stop to illicit commerce only, but not to private trade, as every body is at liberty to carry in whatever he can dispose of, or there is a demand for, and even such articles as are not allowed to be uttered for sale, so that it be not done secretly. The camphor of Sumatra, and tortoise-shell, private persons are not permitted to deal in, because the company has reserved that traffic to themselves.

The reason why private persons prefer the smuggling, of such articles as are forbidden to be disposed of by auction at the public sale, is, that when wares of any kind are sold by auction, they do not receive ready money for them, but are obliged to take other articles in payment. These articles, consisting of either porcelain or lacquered ware, are, in consequence of the yearly imports at so low a price at Batavia, that they sometimes get less for them than the purchase price. But when the commodities can be disposed of underhand, they get

[page] 31

gold coin, and are often paid twice as much as they would have had otherwise.

Some years ago, when smuggling was still in a flourishing state, the greatest part of the contraband wares was carried by the interpreters from the factory into the town, but sometimes they were thrown over the wall of the Dezima, and received by boats ordered out for that purpose. Several of the interpreters, and other Japanese, have been caught at various times in the fact, and generally punished with death.

Smuggling has always been attended with severe punishments; and even the Dutch have been very largely fined, which fine has of late been augmented, so that if any European is taken in the fact, he is obliged to pay two hundred catjes of copper, and is banished the country for ever. Besides this, a deduction of ten thousand catjes of copper is made from the company's account; and, if the fraud is discovered after the ship has left the harbour, the chief and the captain are fined in two hundred catjes each.

The company's wares do not undergo any search at all, but are directly carried to the storehouse, on which the Japanese affix their seal. In these storehouses they are kept till they are all sold and fetched away.

[page] 32

The interpreters are all natives of Japan, and speak with more or less accuracy the Dutch language. The government permits no foreigners to learn their language, in order that by means of it they may not pick up any knowledge of the country, but allow from forty to fifty interpreters, who are to serve the Dutch in their factory with respect to their commerce, and on other occasions. These interpreters are commonly divided into three classes. The oldest, who speak the Dutch language best, are called head interpreters; those who are less perfect, under interpreters; and those who stand yet more in need of instruction, bear the denomination of apprentices, or learners. Formerly the Japanese apprentices were instructed by the Dutch themselves in their language, and this office fell more particularly to the doctor's lot; but now they are taught by the elder interpreters. The apprentices had also before this, liberty to come to the factory whenever they chose, but now they are only suffered to come when they are on actual service. The interpreters rise gradually and in rotation to preferments and emoluments, without being employed in any other department. Their duty and employment consist in being present, generally one, or sometimes two of each class, when any affairs are

[page] 33

transacted between the Japanese and the Dutch, whether commercial or otherwise. They interpret either, viva voce, or in writing, whenever any matter is to be laid before the governor, the officers or others, whether it be a complaint or request. They are obliged to be present at all searches, as well at those that are made on board of ship, as at those that take place in the factory, and likewise to attend in the journey to court.

Some of the oldest interpreters express themselves on ordinary subjects with tolerable clearness and precision in the Dutch language, but, as their own tongue differs so widely from the European languages, in its phrases and construction, one frequently hears from most of them very laughable expressions and strange idioms. Some of them never learn it well.—When they write Dutch, they use instead of a pen a particular kind of pencil, Indian ink, and their own peculiar paper; they write, however, from the left hand to the right, like the Europeans, and generally in very fine and elegant Italian characters.

The interpreters are extremely fond of European books, and procure one or more of them every year from the merchants that arrive in this country. They are not only in possession, but make diligent use of them, and retain


[page] 34

strongly in their memory what they learn from them. They are besides very careful to learn something from the Europeans, and question them without ceasing, and frequently so as to be irksome, upon all subjects, especially relating to physic, natural philosophy, and natural history.

They are obliged to apply themselves particularly to the study of physic, and are the only persons in the country who practise this art after the European manner, and with European remedies, which they can easily procure from the Dutch doctors. This gives them an opportunity both to make money, and to acquire rather more reputation than they otherwise would, and sometimes likewise to take apprentices for instruction.

Formerly the interpreters were allowed to go whenever they chose to the Dutchmen's apartments, but now this was prohibited, in order to prevent smuggling, excepting on certain occasions, when they were accompanied by an Ottoman or two.

The interpreters are always accompanied, as well to the ships as to their college in the island of Dezima, by several clerks, who take an account of every thing that is shipped or unloaded, write permits, and perform other offices of a similar nature.

[page] 35

My first care, as soon as I arrived ashore, was to get acquainted with the interpreters, and to insinuate myself as much as possible into the good graces of such of the officers as most frequented our little commercial island. As physician, I had a good many desirable opportunities of attaining this purpose; as, besides that my behaviour towards the Japanese was always in the highest degree friendly, and without the least deceit, I had frequent opportunities of serving them and their sick relations, friends, and dependents, by good advice and well-chosen medicines. Moreover, not being in the commercial line, I was less suspected than others; and my knowledge, particularly of the medical art, was often of the greatest utility to them, and proved still more beneficial afterwards, when I had gradually discovered many powerful remedies in the plants that grew wild in their own country. Both by means of the interpreters, and of the officers on the island, I tried to obtain permission to botanize in the plain that encircles the town of Nagasaki, and to seek plants that were to be found there, and to gather their seeds, a liberty which otherwise is not granted to any European. In this attempt I seemed in the beginning to be tolerably successful, and actually obtained the governor's permission for this purpose; which, however,

D 2

[page] 36

shortly after was revoked. The motive for this was ridiculous enough, and was as follows: the Japanese are in the highest degree suspicious of the Europeans, and the governor is at all times very fearful of granting them any thing without a precedent. Having requested leave to botanize, the Japanese journals were searched to see if any Dutchman ever had obtained such a privilege, and upon finding that a surgeon, a long time before, had had that liberty at a period when disorders prevailed, and that there began to be a scarcity of medicines, leave was granted me without hesitation, to wander about the town of Nagasaki in order to collect them. But on a closer examination, it was found that this surgeon had been only a surgeon's mate, and that consequently I, as principal surgeon, could not enjoy the same privilege. So trifling a circumstance is often of great moment in the eyes of the Japanese, who with so much zeal endeavour to fulfil their duties, and blindly obey the laws issued forth by government, without understanding or explaining them in their own way, or making new ones suited to their own liking and circumstances.

For my part, I did not consider this circumstance as trifling. Of all the calamities that had hitherto befallen me, I had found none bear so hard upon me as this, without despairing how-

[page] 37

ever of success in future, although it grieved me much to reflect that the autumn was all this while advancing with hasty strides. In the mean time I encouraged the interpreters, whom I daily instructed in medicine and surgery, to gather the leaves, flowers and seeds of all the plants they could find in the adjacent hills, and endeavoured to convince both them and the officers, that between a surgeon and a surgeon's mate there was little or no difference, that a surgeon is first a mate, and that in case of his death, the latter succeeds him in the appointment. This had so great an effect, that I again obtained the governor's permission; but so very late, that I could not make any use of it before the beginning of February.

During this time I endeavoured to acquire some knowledge of the language, notwithstanding that such a step is strictly prohibited, and that the difficulties attending it were at this time greater than they had ever been before. For this purpose I enquired of the interpreters if any dictionaries, vocabularies, or other books calculated to facilitate the learning of it, were to be had printed in their and the Dutch language. After having made several enquiries in vain, I at last found an old dictionary, in the Latin, Portuguese, and Japanese languages. Ambrose Capelin's dictionary

D 3

[page] 38

had been adopted by the Portuguese fathers as the foundation of their undertaking. There was no title-page to it; so that I could not find out in what year it was printed; but I learned from the preface that it was the fruit of the joint labours of the Societas fratrum Europæorum simul & Japonicorum at Japan. The book was in quarto, printed on Japan paper, and contained, exclusive of the title-page and the last leaf, which exhibited the errata, nine hundred and six pages. The book looked old, and one corner of it was a little burnt. It belonged to one of the elder interpreters, who possessed it as a legacy from his ancestors; and I have the more reason to believe it to be very scarce, as neither I nor the Chief could procure it in any way or at any price, either by purchase or barter.

Nagasaki harbour is the only one in which foreign ships are allowed to anchor; though the Dutch and Chinese are the only nations in the world who are permitted to land here and trade. Should any strange ship, by stress of weather or other misfortune, be driven on the coast of Japan, or run in any where for the sake of getting a supply, the circumstance is immediately reported to the court at Jedo, and the ship ordered to the harbour of Nagasaki. The town is one of the five towns called im-

[page] 39

perial; and, on account of its foreign commerce, is one of the greatest commercial towns in the empire. It belongs separately to the secular emperor; the revenues flow into his treasury, and a governor commands in his name. Formerly two governors resided in the town at one and the same time; and, indeed, at present two are always ordered, but one of these only rules at a time, and relieves the other every year in the month of October. The one that is free from his charge returns to Jedo, and remains with his family, which is always left behind as a hostage for his fidelity. A governor's yearly salary amounts to ten thousand rix-dollars, exclusive of extraordinary revenues, out of which, however, he cannot save much, by reason of the many presents which he is obliged to make at court, and the heavy expences there, and likewise on account of the great number of attendants, of different degrees of rank, which he is obliged to keep at his own expence. The governor bears sovereign sway in the town, and over the Dutch as well as the Chinese factories. The town is surrounded on the land-side with high mountains, that slope off gradually towards the harbour, and are of a considerable breadth and extent. In the harbour are a great number of Japanese vessels of different sizes, from fifty to one hundred and

D 4

[page] 40

more, besides a multitude of fishing-boats from the adjacent places. Their boats are not rowed, but always wriggled with one or two oars. The oar is large, and for that purpose obliquely writhed. This way of working with oars does not appear to be very fatiguing; but drives the vessel on with great speed.

The island of Dezima is let by the town of Nagasaki to the Dutch company, and is considered merely as a street belonging to the town. The town therefore builds all the dwelling-houses, and, when they stand in need of it, repairs and makes alterations in them. Every house-keeper, however, at his own expence, puts in window-frames, papers the rooms and cieling, white-washes, and makes other arrangements for his own convenience. The island is joined to the town and the main-land, and at low water is separated from it only by a ditch. At high water it becomes an island, which has a communication with the town by means of a bridge. The size of this island is inconsiderable, it being about six hundred feet in length, and one hundred and twenty in breadth. It is planked in on all sides, and has two gates, the one towards the town near the bridge, and the other towards the water-side. The latter gate is opened on such days only as the ship is discharging or taking in her cargo; the other is always guarded in the day-time by

[page] 41

the Japanese, and locked at night. Near it also is a guard-house, where those that go in and out of the town are searched Lengthways upon this island are built, in form of a small town, the company's several store-houses, their hospital, and separate houses for their servants two stories high, of which the upper stories are inhabited, and the lower used as store and lumber-rooms. Between these houses run two streets, which are intersected in the middle by another. Excepting the company's large and fire-proof storehouses, the houses are all built of wood and clay; and covered in with tiles, and, according to the custom of the country, have paper windows and floor-mats of straw. Some people have of late years brought with them from Batavia, either a few small windows, or else some panes of glass, in order to throw more light into the rooms, and to enjoy the view of external objects. By the sea-gate are found in readiness every kind of apparatus for the prevention of fire, and at the other end a pleasure and kitchen-garden, and a large summer-house two stories high. For the purpose of keeping a vigilant eye on the Dutch, several officers, interpreters, and guards are kept on the island. There are watch-houses built in three corners of it, in which watch is kept during the time that the ships lie in the harbour.


[page] 42

When they have sailed, only one is made use of. This watch patroles day and night, like ordinary watchmen, about the island.

The interpreters have a very large house on the island, called their college, in which, during the trafficking season, a great number of them assemble, but after the ships are gone, only one or two come there, who are regularly relieved once a day, generally at noon, in order that they may reach their respective homes before the evening.

There is also another house for the Ottonas, as they are called, or reporting magistrates, who during the trafficking season assemble to a considerable number, but afterwards only one or two keep watch, and are relieved in like manner as the interpreters. Their business is to take notice of every occurrence that takes place on the island, and to inform the governor of the town of it. Within this small compass the Dutch are obliged to spend their time, which, for those who stay here the whole year through, is a very disagreeable circumstance.

The Chief for the Dutch commerce is changed annually, so that one arrives every year from Batavia, and the other returns. Formerly, when the trade was in a flourishing state, and the profits large, the Chief seldom made more than two voyages hither; but at present he is ob-

[page] 43

liged to make three or more voyages without being able, however, to make as large a fortune as before. M. FEITH, who arrived this year, now made his fourth voyage hither, as chief, to succeed M. ARMENAULT. Besides the chief, at the departure of the ships, twelve or thirteen Europeans remain here (not to mention the slaves) and three of these make the tour to the imperial court at Jedo.

The Dutch and the Chinese are the only nations that are suffered to trade to Japan. The Dutch now send hither annually two ships only, which are fitted out at Batavia in the month of June, and return at the latter end of the year. The principal articles carried from hence are Japan copper, raw camphor, and lacquered wood-work; porcelain, silks, rice, Sakki, and soy, make a very inconsiderable part of the private trade. The copper, which contains more gold, and is finer than any other in the world, is cast into bars six inches long, and a finger thick, flat on one side, and convex on the other, and of a fine bright colour. These bars, amounting to 125lb. in weight, are put into wooden boxes, and each ship's load consists of six or seven thousand such chests. The articles which the Dutch company sent this year were a large quantity of soft sugars, elephants teeth,

[page] 44

sappan-wood for dying, also a large quantity of tin and lead, a small quantity of bar-iron, fine chintzes of various sorts, Dutch cloths of different colours and degrees of fineness, shalloons, silks, cloves, tortoise-shell, China root, and Costus Arabicus. The few articles which were brought in by private persons, consisted of saffron, Venice treacle, Spanish liquorice, ratans, spectacles, looking-glasses, watches, unicorns horns, and the like. For the company's account was imported a certain sum of money in silver ducatoons, but private persons were not suffered to carry in any coin, although the importation of it might have been attended with some profit.

The Portuguese, who made the first discoveries in the East Indies, found out by accident also the Japan islands, being driven upon these coasts by a storm about the year 1542. These were well received, and carried on a most profitable trade for near one hundred years. After the union of Portugal with Spain under one sovereign, the Spaniards participated in this lucrative commerce. The English also trafficked for some time with these distant islands, till the Dutch, by a written agreement made with the Emperor in the year 1601, monopolized this trade to themselves; a trade, which in the beginning was extremely beneficial to them, but

[page] 45

of late has become more and more confined, and is attended with very little profit.

In the beginning the Dutch enjoyed very extensive liberties; not only that of running with their ships into the harbour of Firandos, but also that of sending hither several, often five, and sometimes seven, ships; as likewise that of trading to an unlimited amount, and to carry out of the country large quantities of silver, gold, and other commodities, which have been since absolutely prohibited. At length in the year 1641, they were ordered to establish their factory on the island of Dezima, near the town of Nagasaki. A certain sum was fixed, above which their yearly commerce was not to go; only three, and at length, from the beginning of this present century, not more than two ships were suffered to come annually hither, and their privileges and the quantity of their wares were by degrees diminished; so that the quantity of goods in trade, which formerly amounted to several millions, was now reduced to two millions of gilders. On the arrival of a rich Dutch fleet in the harbour, in the year 1685, the strictest orders, on the part of his Imperial Majesty, were received from the court, that the Dutch, in consequence of the permission already granted them, should be at liberty to bring into the factory such goods or quantity as they should think proper, but that hereafter, no more were

[page] 46

to be sold annually than would amount to the sum of three hundred thousand thails or rix-dollars, and the remainder should be kept till the following year. Besides this severe stroke to the commerce of the Dutch, one of the governors, who was less partial to them than his predecessors, had fallen upon two other methods farther to lessen their profits, by which many of the people in office belonging to the town, and the townsmen themselves, reaped considerable advantage. One was, that before any Dutch goods were sold, a certain sum per cent. was laid on them, which was therefore to be paid by the purchaser; and as this duty was to be raised from the goods, the natural consequence was, that less was paid for them than before, and that foreigners suffered a considerable loss. The other was, that the value of the coin was raised to the Dutch in this manner, that a kobang, which passes current in the country for sixty mas, was reckoned to them at sixty-eight, so that eight mas on each kobang, which they lost, became a new and considerable income to the town of Nagasaki and its inhabitants, as also to some of the people in office there. Thus the Dutch company, having a right to dispose of merchandise to the amount of three hundred thousand thails, did not actually receive more than two hundred and sixty thousand thails worth

[page] 47

for exportation. The deficient forty thousand thails, therefore, were raised from such private persons as hitherto had been allowed to sell their wares in such quantities as they thought proper, and at such prices as they were able to get, so that this sum had been divided between the chiefs, merchants, captains of ships, writers, and others.

The traffic to Japan was formerly so very lucrative to individuals, that hardly any but favorites were sent out as chiefs, and when these had made two voyages, it was supposed that they were rich enough to be able to live on the interest of their fortunes, and that therefore they ought to make room for others. At present a chief is obliged to make many voyages. His success is now no more to be envied, and his profits are thought to be very inconsiderable.

After all the merchandize, as well that which belonged to the company as that of individuals, had been searched and carried into the store-houses, and notice of the same had been given to the merchants of the country, the sale commenced. Formerly the merchandize was sold by public auction. Samples were shown to the merchants, and the governors of Nagasaki, of all the different articles, that they might make their proposals with regard to the quantity they wanted, as well as to the price.

[page] 48

The merchants, or their deputies, afterwards went for several days to the store-houses on the island, for the purpose of examining the merchandize more accurately. After which certain commissioners made the Dutch their offers, without previously asking what they demanded for each sort. The first time they bid very low. If the owner cannot take it, the second time somewhat more is bid; and should he refuse this likewise, they bid a third time. If the owner is not then satisfied, he is asked how much he wishes to have. The vender then commonly asks a little more for his commodity than what he can sell it for, that he may be able to abate something. And if the Japanese are in great want of the article, the price is generally then made agreeable to both parties; but if they are not, the wares are kept till the next year's sale, or they are allowed to carry them back to Batavia. The Japanese always bid in mases, and not in catjies; for instance, for one mas of unicorn's horn, eight mas of silver, and so on. After the sale is concluded, the merchandize is weighed, and carried into the town, where the country merchants have the liberty to purchase it at a dearer rate. The Japanese pay much less now for Dutch goods than they did before, as 15 per cent. and more must at present be paid under the name of Fannagin (flower money) to

[page] 49

the town of Nagasaki, which is divided between the servants of government and the citizens. Amongst the articles which were imported by the officers for sale this year, were camphor, small ratans, tortoise-shells, spectacles, unicorns horns (unicornu verum) manufactured glass, watches of different sizes, chintzes, saffron, Venice treacle, Spanish liquorice, Ninsi-root, Nuremberg manufactures, such as looking-glasses, &c. Books on different sciences in the Dutch language were not fold at the sale, but were often exchanged with the interpreters, and that to considerable advantage.

Unicorns horn (unicornu of the Monodon monoceros) sold this year on Kambang very dear. It was often smuggled formerly, and sold at an enormous rate. The Japanese have an extravagant opinion of its medical virtues and powers to prolong life, fortify the animal spirits, assist the memory, and cure all complaints.—This branch of commerce has not been known to the Dutch till of late, when it was discovered by an accident. One of the Chiefs for commerce here, on his return home, had sent from Europe, amongst other rarities, to a friend of his, who was an interpreter, a large, handsome, twisted, Greenland unicorn's horn, by the sale of which this interpreter became extremely rich, and a man of consequence. From


[page] 50

that time the Dutch have written to Europe for as many horns as they could get, and made great profit on them in Japan. At first each catje was sold for one hundred kobangs or six hundred rixdollars, after which the price fell by degrees to seventy, fifty, and thirty kobangs. This year, as soon as the captain's wide coat had been laid aside and prohibited, and no smuggling could be carried on, all the unicorns horn was obliged to be sold on Kambang, when each catje or ¾lb. fetched one hundred and thirty-six rixdollars, at the rate of one mas of Japan silver for eight mas and five conderyns of horn. If any of it could be sold clandestinely on board of the ship, it fetched from fifteen to sixteen kobangs. The thirty-seven catjes four thails and six mas of horn, which I had brought with me, were therefore very well disposed of for five thousand and seventy-one thails and one mas; which enabled me to pay the debts I had contracted, and, at the same time, to expend one thousand two hundred rixdollars on my favorite study. Ninst-root, called by the Japanese Nisii, and by the Chinese Som, sells here at as high a price as unicorns horn. The Chinese are the only people who bring it genuine and unadulterated to this country. It grows in the northern part of China, and chiefly in Korea. A bastard kind is

[page] 51

often brought hither by the Dutch, who usually mix it with the genuine root, by way of adulterating it. The bastard kind was said by the French to be brought from America to China, and is perhaps the Ginseng root. The genuine ninsi sold this year for a hundred kobangs per catje, if it was large and the root old. The smaller sort sold at an inferior price. The bastard kind, of which such pieces as are forked and white are the best, and with which the genuine is used to be adulterated, is strictly prohibited here, insomuch, that it is not suffered to be imported at any price, but must be burned, in order to prevent any fraud being practised with it.

Several other things are prohibited for exportation, as well to the company as to individuals, such as Japanese coin, charts and maps, books, at least such as contain an account of the country and its government, all sorts of arms, but particularly their excellent scymetars, which in strength and goodness surpass the manufactories of every other country.

The copper which was brought hither from the interior and distant part of the country, was kept in a separate storehouse; and as soon as the ship was in part discharged, the loading of it with the copper commenced. This latter was weighed, and put into long wooden boxes,

E 2

[page] 52

a pickel weight in each, in presence of the Japanese officers and interpreters, and of the Dutch supercargoes and writers, and was afterwards carried by Japanese servants (kulis) to the bridge, in order to be put on board. On such occasions a few sailors always attended, to watch that the porters did not steal any of it by the way, a thing which would not be the least burden to their consciences, especially as they can sell the stolen copper to the Chinese, who pay them well for it.

The Japanese porcelain is packed up in straw, so well and so tight, that very seldom any of it is found broken. This porcelain is certainly neither handsome nor neat, but rather, on the contrary, clumsy, thick, and badly painted, and, therefore, in these respects much like the china which is brought from Canton. This has the advantage, that it is not easily affected by heat, even when set on glowing embers.

The weights at Japan are thus regulated: one Pickel makes one hundred and twenty-five pounds, one Catje sixteen Thails, one Thail ten Mas, and one Mas ten Conderyns.

The money current in trade is reckoned in the same manner; so that one Thail, which nearly answers to one Dutch rixdollar, is equal to ten Mas, and one Mas to ten Conderyns.

[page] 53

Kambang money, or the sums due for wares that are sold, is never paid in hard cash, as the carrying it out of the country is prohibited; but there is merely an assignment made on it, and bills are drawn for such a sum as will be requisite for the whole year's supply, as also for as much as will be wanted at the fair of the island. This Kambang money is, in the common phrase of the country, very light, and less in value than specie, so that with the money which is thus assigned over, one is obliged to pay nearly double for every thing. All these Kambang bills are paid at the Japanese new-year only. Every man's account is made out before the ships sail, and is presented and accepted at the college of the interpreters, after which the books are closed. All that is wanted after the new-year, is taken up upon credit for the whole year ensuing.

When the Dutch do not deal here for ready money, their commerce can hardly be considered in any other light than that of barter. With this view, a fair is kept on the island about a fortnight before the mustering of the ship, and its departure for Papenberg, when certain merchants, with the consent of the governor, and on paying a small duty, are allowed to carry their merchandize thither, and expose them to sale in booths erected for that purpose.

E 3

[page] 54

The commodities which were bought up this year by private persons, were chiefly large brown earthen jars, that would contain several pails full of liquor, for keeping water in, soy in wooden vessels, also some sakki, fans, Japanese silken night-gowns, lacquered works of several kinds, porcelain, both coarse and fine, or white and painted, narrow silks, and sowas-work, as also fine rice, put up in paper parcels of about a pound weight each.

Copper is the principal article which the company carries out from hence. This copper is better and finer than any other, and the major part of it is disposed of on the coast of Coromandel to great advantage. Each bar weighs about one-third of a pound.* Next to copper in point of quantity, raw camphor is carried out, packed up in wooden tubs. The rest consists of large silken night-gowns, quilted with silk wadding, a small quantity of porcelain, soy, sakki, preserved fruits, &c.

The Chinese have, almost from time immemorial, traded to Japan, and perhaps are the only people from Asia that have engaged in the trade. Indeed they are now the only nation, except the Dutch, who are allowed to go thither with their vessels and trade. Formerly they ran with their vessels into Osacca harbour, although it is very

* Vide p. 43, l. 19.

[page] 55

dangerous, on account of rocks and sand-banks. The Portuguese showed them the way to Nagasaki, where they are at present always obliged to go. At first the annual number of their trading vessels might amount to one or even two hundred, each manned with fifty men or more. The Chinese and Japanese, though they are near neighbours, differ, nevertheless, in many respects: the former wear frocks or wide jackets, and large trowsers; the latter always make use of night-gowns; the former wear boots made of linen, and shoes with upper leathers; the latter go bare-legged with socks and sandals; each of these nations has a distinct and separate language, and quite different religious tenets. On the other hand, they are alike in colour and look, write after the same manner, and have several religious sects and customs in common. A great many years ago emigrations were very frequent from China to Japan, especially to its southern islands, called Liquejo, which are subject to Japan, but make annual presents to the Emperor of China.

The liberty which the Chinese formerly enjoyed with regard to commerce, is at present greatly curtailed, since they have been suspected of favouring the Catholic missionaries at China, and since they were so imprudent as to introduce into Japan Catholic books printed in China.

E 4

[page] 56

At present they are as much suspected, and as hardly used here as the Dutch, and in some particulars more so. They are shut up in a small island, and strictly searched whenever they go in and out. They enjoy, however, the advantage over the Dutch, of having in the town and frequenting a temple dedicated to the worship of the Deity, and, at the same time, of having for their daily expences Japanese money, with which they themselves buy at the gate provisions and the other necessaries of life.

When a vessel is arrived from China, and has anchored in the harbour, all the people are brought ashore, and all charge of the vessel is taken from them, till such time as every thing is ready for their departure. Consequently the Japanese unload it entirely, and afterwards bring the vessel ashore, where, at low-ebb, it lies quite dry. The next year it is loaded with other goods.

The Chinese are not suffered to make a voyage to the imperial court, which saves them considerable sums, that the Dutch are obliged to expend, as well during the expedition, as in presents at court and to the grandees. The Japanese interpreters are as necessary for the traffic of the Chinese as for that of the Dutch, because these two neighbouring nations speak languages so different, as not to understand each other.

[page] 57

It is true, the Chinefe are allowed to trade for twice as large a sum as that granted to the Dutch; but as their voyages are neither so long nor so dangerous, they are obliged to contribute more largely to the prosperity of the town of Nagasaki, and therefore pay more per cent. as far even as to sixty, in (fannagin or) flower-money.

Their merchandize is sold at three different times in the year, and is brought hither in about seventy vessels. That is, the first fair takes place in the spring, for wares brought in twenty vessels; the second in the summer, for wares imported in thirty vessels; and the third in the autumn, for wares brought in twenty vessels. Should any more vessels arrive within the year, they are obliged to return, without even being allowed to unload the least article. The principal trade of the Chinese consists of raw-silk, various drugs, which are imported as medicines; such as ninsi-root, turpentine, myrrh, calumbac-wood, besides zink, and a few printed books, which must be read through, and approved by two learned men, before they are suffered to be sold.

Although their voyages are less expensive, and they are not under the necessity of keeping directors or other servants for their trade, yet on account of the greater value per cent. deducted from their merchandize, their profits are less than those of the Dutch; and as they are no

[page] 58

longer allowed to carry away any specie, they are obliged to buy Japanese commodities for exportation, such as lacquered-work, copper, &c.

When their vessels are loaded and ready for sailing, they are conducted by a number of Japanese guard ships, not only out of the harbour, but likewise a great way out to sea, in order to prevent their disposing to the smugglers of any of the unfold wares that they may have been obliged to carry back.

The Chinese vessels are slightly built, very high, and furnished with still higher galleries, very much turned up at the stem and stern, especially at the stem. The rudder and sails are very large, and aukward to handle.

October the 14th. The Dutch ship was conducted from the town of Nagasaki to the Papenberg, as it is called, there to remain at anchor, and take in the remainder of her cargo. It became my duty to follow her, and to stay on board of her till I could be relieved by my predecessor, who was to return in her to Batavia. A few days after, when the ship has anchored in the harbour, the governor points out the day when she is to sail, and this command must be obeyed so implicitly, that were the wind ever so contrary, or even if it blew a hard gale, the ship must depart without any excuse, or the least shadow of opposition. And indeed

[page] 59

the wind was so contrary, and blew so hard this day, that above a hundred boats, large and small, were employed in towing the ship. All this small craft placing themselves in several long rows, dragged with ropes this huge ship along, which had an uncommon, as well as curious, appearance, and was accompanied by the cheering song of several hundred Japanese rowers.

Before the ship leaves the harbour, the powder, arms, and the chests of books that were taken out of her, are returned. The sick from the hospital too are put on board. Whilst she is sailing out of the harbour, the guns are fired, to salute the town and the factory, and afterwards the two imperial guards.

The Chinese vessels also, after having taken in part of their cargo, anchor under this mountain till they can depart with a fair wind.

During the time that the ship staid here, we took in, every other day only, part of the copper and camphor, and all merchandize and other things belonging to individuals; when the officers and interpreters were obliged to come almost a league by water, in order to be present on board. Here is also taken in water and other articles of refreshments for the voyage. There are also guard-ships here, to have an eye to the Dutch, but they lie at a great distance.

[page] 60

As there are several islands of different sizes, and in the environs of this place, the Dutch, after they have got their boat again, may row to them for their pleasure, without any hindrance from the Japanese. Though, if they stay long on shore there, especially on any of the larger islands, that are inhabited, they are generally followed by one of the guard-ships, the officers on board of which, without preventing the Dutch from walking about, will merely accompany them. And if one should happen to arrive at any of the villages, which sometimes are very large, an incredible number of grown people and children will assemble to stare, with a clamorous noise, at a people so strange in their opinion as the Europeans. They are particularly delighted with our large and round eyes, and therefore always call out Hollanda O-me.

All these opportunities I diligently embraced during the time that I was obliged to be with the ship, and botanized on these islands and their mountains, and this autumn gathered different seeds of rare and uncommon herbs, shrubs, and trees, which I sent to Batavia in the home wardbound ship, to be forwarded to Amsterdam.

Papenberg is a small island, covered to the very brink of its shores with a peaked mountain, and which may be ascended by two of its sides, and that in about a quarter of an

[page] 61

hour's time. The two other sides are very steep. It is said to have acquired its name at the time that the Japanese persecuted and drove out the Christians and Portuguese, and threw down many of the Portuguese friars from these heights into the sea.

Vischers Eyland, or the Fisherman's Island, lies on one side of Papenberg, and has only one flat, and rather oblong, hillock, with which it is covered to the very strand, and is, like the former island, uninhabited.

In the months of September and October, the diarrhœa, attended with a tenesmus, prevailed on board of the ship, and particularly in the town of Nagasaki. Amongst the ship's crew this disorder was occasioned by the great heat in the day-time, and the coolness of the evenings. In the town another cause supervened, viz. the excessive eating of the fruit of the Kaki (Diospyros kaki) which was at this time ripe, and had an agreeable taste, not unlike that of yellow plumbs.

During my walks on Kosido, and the islands before-mentioned, I discovered several remarkable plants, amongst which the following were most beneficial and most in use:

China root (Smilax China) grows every where in great abundance, although the Japanese buy annually large quantities of it from the Chinese.

[page] 62

The root is used in decoction, as a purifier of the blood, and by the Japanese in many more maladies. The interpreters were highly pleased at the discovery they had made, by my means, of this useful root's growing in their own country, as it is come so much into common use, and they pay annually large sums of money for it to the Chinese.

Wild figs (Ficus pumila and erecta) were chiefly found amongst the rocks and near stone walls, where they insinuated themselves between the stones. The figs are sometimes eaten; but are small, like plumbs.

The Ipomœa triloba grew both wild and planted. The roots of it were either white or black. The latter were used as laxatives.

The Fagara piperita (or Pepper-bush) was common every where, and had now ripe berries. The leaves, as well as the berries, have a spicy taste, are heating, and at the same time rather disagreeable to the palate. The rind of the fruit, taken inwardly, expels wind, and is sometimes found serviceable in the cholic. Both the leaves and the rind of the fruit are very commonly used in soups instead of pepper; but the leaves by themselves, beaten up with riceflour to the consistence of a poultice, are applied to abscesses and limbs affected with the rheumatism, instead of the common blister-plaster.

[page] 63

The Rubia cordata is used here by the country people for dying, in like manner as madder (Rubia tinctorum) is in Sweden.

Cordage and lines, even of the thicker kind, which might serve on board of the vessels, are made, not of hemp, but of nettles, of which different sorts grow wild on the hills, and that frequently to a considerable size. Those species which were mostly used were the Urtica Japonica and nivea, the bark of which, when prepared, produced strong cordage, and some yielded threads so fine, that even linen was made of them. From the seeds of the Urtica nivea (the leaves of which on the under-side are as white as chalk) an oil was expressed.

In the beginning of November, and after staying several weeks on board, I was at last relieved by the doctor, who was now to return with the ship to Batavia, in order to make room for me, who intended to remain here a year at least. Not long after this the ship sailed, and left behind fourteen of us Europeans, among some slaves and Japanese, in solitude, and, it might in some sort be said, consinement, we being now shut up within the narrow circle of this little island of Dezima, and separated not only from Christendom, but, in fact, from the whole world besides. An European, that remains here, is in a manner dead and buried


[page] 64

in an obscure corner of the globe. He hears no news of any kind; nothing relative to war, or other misfortunes and evils that plague and infest mankind; and neither the rumours of inland or foreign concerns delight or molest his ear. The soul possesses here one faculty only, which is the judgement (if, indeed, it be at all times in possession of this faculty.) The will is totally debilitated, and even dead, because to an European there is no other will than that of the Japanese, by which he must exactly square his conduct.

The European way of living is in other respects the same as in other parts of India, luxurious and irregular. Here, just as at Batavia, we pay a visit every evening to the chief, after having walked several times up and down the two streets.

These evening visits generally last from six o'clock to ten, and sometimes eleven or twelve at night, and constitute a very disagreeable way of life, fit only for such as have no other way of spending their time than droning over a pipe of tobacco.

Not having much to do, I employed my time in collecting, examining, and preserving insects and herbs, and in conversing with the interpreters, whose curiosity and fondness for learning I perceived, and willingly instructed

[page] 65

them in different sciences, but particularly in botany and physic. Many of them had an extensive and profitable practice in the town under my direction; and some of them brought to me on the island various plants of this country's produce, which were not only beautiful and scarce, but likewise hitherto totally unknown. Some of these they had collected themselves, and others they had got by means of their friends from the interior parts of the country. At the same time I procured by degrees, some information concerning their government, religion, language, manners, domestic and rural œconomy, &c. I also received from them several books, and curiosities of various kinds, the greatest part of which I wished to be able to carry with me to Europe.

To wait about their own persons the Dutch make use of the slaves they have brought with them, but for all other purposes Japanese are appointed, such as compradors, or purveyors, of different sorts, who provide provisions, and every thing else that is necessary in house-keeping; cooks, who dress victuals in the Dutch manner; servants that, although they are natives of Japan and not interpreters, have learned to speak the Dutch language. Four such as these are left with the chief, one with the secretary, and one with the doctor, who together make the


[page] 66

trip to the court. Should any artizans be wanted from the town, they have a special permission from the governor to go to the island. The Dutch here, as well as at Batavia, consume a great quantity of rice; nevertheless, there is wheaten bread baked for their use in town, which is brought to the island new every day.

The cold began now to grow very troublesome at times, and was quite piercing, with an easterly or northerly wind. We began therefore to keep fires in the rooms, though neither the windows nor the doors were over and above close. Our fires were made with charcoal, which was brought from the town in a large copperkettle with a broad rim; and this kettle being placed in the middle of the floor, warmed the whole room for several hours together.

Of the Europeans that remain here, the officers, such as the secretary, doctor, and writers, have each two or three handsome rooms, besides the storehouse, which they occupy without paying for them, but ornament them themselves with carpets and other furniture. They dice and sup with the Chief gratis, at the company's table, so that their usual expences do not amount to much, except they squander away their money on the fair sex, or make expensive entertainments, and give suppers to each other.

[page] 67

An unexpected misfortune, which in the beginning seemed of no consequence, but was productive of great confusion and alarm, happened to me in this our silent retreat. As I had not, when at Batavia, money sufficient to purchase a slave that might accompany me to Japan, the supercargo had the goodness to lend me one of his till the next year, when he expected to return hither. This slave, who had a wife and children at Batavia, and who had flattered himself with the hopes of returning home in the course of the year to his connections, became, on account of this disappointment, very much discontented, and at length quite melancholy. At last he takes it in his head to hide himself, and disappears, without any one's knowing either where or wherefore he had hid himself. He was immediately sought for by the other slaves, but to no purpose. The day following the interpreters and some other Japanese on the island made a still stricter search for him. At length, on the third day, there arrived from the town, by order of the governor, a number of interpreters, head-banjoses, and under-banjoses, and a multitude of other attendants, to search for him, nor could they find his hiding place till towards the evening, when he was discovered lurking in an old storehouse. If he had not, to our great joy, been found, a stricter search would have been

F 2

[page] 68

made by order of the governor, all over the island, and even in the apartments of every individual; and if he had not even then been found, orders would have been issued throughout the kingdom to apprehend the deserter, and the case reported to the Court. About so trifling a matter are the Japanese capable of making a great rout, fearing lest any one should steal into the country, which however it is very difficult, and indeed almost impossible to do. The slave was afterwards punished for his misbehaviour, by being bastinaded and put in irons, after which all this ferment subsided.

Amongst other things which were brought to us on the island, and sold for food, I observed something like the roe of a fish, which had been salted, gently pressed together and dried. It had the appearance of a piece of cheese, and was eaten raw, like Caviare.

Matskasa, a kind of fish (Sciœna) each of the belly fins of which, consisted of a thick and bony prickle. The skin, which was very hard and of a bony nature, was flayed off. The fish was afterwards boiled and used for food. Its flesh was firm and palatable.

Kitama Kura, was an appellation very properly given by the Japanese to another fish (Tetraodon hispidus) which was so poisonous, that, when eaten, it proved frequently mortal, and therefore,

[page] 69

according to the signification of the Japanese name, made the north one's pillow; it being a custom with these people, to turn the heads of those that are dying, towards the north.

Kami Kiri Musi, was the name uf a large black Cerambyx (Cerambyx Rubus) with white stripes on its elytra.

Ote Gaki, which signifies a falling Oyster, because, like others of this genus, it does not adhere fast to the rocks, was a very large and oblong Oyster, much used as food by the inhabitants, and sometimes brought to the Dutch for sale. It was well tasted, but being of a great size, was generally boiled or stewed, and eaten with some kind of sauce.

A beautiful Perch (Perca, which by the Japanese is called Ara) adorned with seven white stripes, was also brought amongst other fish to our kitchen.

For washing linen they neither used soft nor hard soap, but in its stead the meal or flour of a species of Bean, which, when ground very fine, yields an extremely white powder.

The interpreters told me amongst other things, of a very singular worm, which in the summer was a crawling insect, but in winter a plant. It was brought hither by the Chinese amongst other medicines, and said to be possessed of cordial virtues. As soon as I was able to pro-

F 3

[page] 70

cure a drawing of it, and afterwards the drug itself, I plainly saw, that it was nothing else than a Caterpillar, which against its approaching change to a Chrysalis, had crept down into the ground, and there fastened itself to the root of some plant. It was called with much acuteness Totsu Kaso.

To light up their rooms in the winter evenings, the Japanese use candles and lamps. The former, however, are but little used; and the latter are most common throughout the whole country. The candles are small; being six inches in length and one inch thick at the upper end, and tapering as they go downwards; they are therefore quite the reverse in shape to those that are used in Europe. In the upper end is the wick, made of paper rolled together, and covered on the outside with another whiter and finer paper rolled over it in a spiral form. In the lower end is a hole so large, as to leave room to introduce a nail, fixed to what is termed a candlestick. These candles are made of oil procured by expression or decoction from the seed of the varnish tree (Rhus vernix and succedanea) which tree is called Fasi no ki, and grows in many districts of this country, producing a great quantity of seed. These candles when fresh, are of a whitish colour, inclining to yellow within, and covered externally with a white coat. The oil grows hard by exposure to the cold air, and acquires the consistence of


[page] 71

tallow. In time it turns rank, and is then of a yellowish colour. These candles burn well, but run like tallow candles. When these candles are sold, they are neatly put up in paper, which is folded at the lower end, and at the upper end twisted round the wick, and about two inches above that left open, so that it exactly resembles a long rocket.

The apartments are most commonly illuminated with lamps, to the number of one or two in each apartment: the oil burned in these lamps, is expressed from mustard seed.

They strike fire with a steel (which is very small) and a rough greenish quarze-stone. For tinder they use the woolly part of the leaves of Wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris) which is prepared so as to form a brownish coloured wool. This substance catches fire much quicker than Moxa. They use matches, which are short, of about a finger's length and a nail's breadth, truncated and covered with brimstone at the ends. These are tied together in bundles, and bent in a semi-circular form.

The Japanese have the bad custom of very frequently breaking wind upwards, and is by no means thought indecent as in Europe; in other matters they are as nice as other polished nations.

About the new year two merchant vessels or junks, arrived here from China, which brought with them several Japanese, who had been driven

F 4

[page] 72

in a gale of wind on the Chinese coast. These Japanese were immediately conducted to their native places, from whence they will not be easily suffered to depart.

Our chief in like manner had brought hither a Japanese, who some years ago, whilst he was fishing at sea, had been driven away from the land, and had for several years been absent from his country. At last he arrived at Batavia, dressed like a Malay, and spoke fluently the Malay language.

Agreeably to the Eastern custom, the Japanese neither visit each other nor the Dutch, without sending some present previous to their coming. These presents are made more for form sake, than for their value, which generally is very trifling. They frequently consist of a fresh fish or the like, but are always presented with some degree of pomp; for instance, on a small table made for the purpose, and covered with paper folded in some particular shape. When the grandees of the country, who are considered as princes, were on board to see our ship, each of them sent our captain a present, which consisted of a tub full of Sakki, and a few dried spotted Sepiæ, a kind of fish which is in great request with the Japanese and Chinese.

1776, Jan. 1, we kept new year's day. Many of the Japanese assisted us in celebrating it. The cold was now very severe and intense, al-

[page] 73

though the ground was quite bare. According to custom, this day about noon most of the Japanese that had any thing to do at the Dutch factory, such as the head and sub-banjoses, the Ottonas, the head and sub interpreters, the surveyors, and others, came to wish us a happy new year. Dressed in their holiday clothes, they paid their respects to the chief, who invited them to dine with him. The victuals were chiefly dressed after the European manner; consequently but few of the dishes were tasted by the Japanese; nevertheless, every thing was so contrived, that there were no baskets full of fragments gathered. Of the soup they all partook; but of the other dishes, such as roasted pigs, hams, sallad, cakes, tarts, and other pastries, they ate little or nothing; but in their stead was put on a plate a little of every dish, and when this plate was full, it was sent to the town with a paper on it, on which was written the owner's name, and this was repeated several times. Salt beef and the like, which the Japanese do not eat, was set by, and used as a medicine. The same may be said of the salt butter, of which I was frequently defired to cut a slice for some of the company; it is made into pills, and taken daily in consumptions and other disorders. After dinner, warm sakki was handed round, which was drank out of lacquered wooden cups.

[page] 74

On this festive and joyful occasion, the chief invited from the town several handsome girls, partly for the purpose of serving out the sakki, and partly to dance and bear the girls company who were already on the island. After dinner too, these girls treated the Japanese with several of their own country messes, placed on small square tables, which were decorated with an artificial fir-tree, the leaves of which were made of green silk, and in several places sprinkled over with white cotton, in imitation of the winter-snow. The girls never presented the sakki standing, but always, according to the custom of the country, fitting. In the evening they danced in their own country fashion; and about five o'clock the guests took their leave.

In most of the Japanese towns there are commonly, in some particular street, several houses dedicated to the worship of the Cyprian Goddess, for the amusement of travellers and others. The town of Nagasaki is no exception in this respect, but affords opportunities to the Dutch and Chinese of spending their money in no very reputable manner. If any one desires a companion in his retirement, he makes it known to a certain man, who goes to the island every day for this purpose. This fellow before the evening procures a girl, that is attended by a little servant-maid, generally known under the de-

[page] 75

nomination of a Kabro, who fetches daily from the town all her mistress's victuals and drink, dresses her victuals, makes tea, &c. keeps every thing clean and in order, and runs on errands. One of these female companions cannot be kept less than three days, but she may be kept as long as one pleases, a year, or even several years together. After a shorter or longer time too, one is at liberty to change, but in that case the lady must appear every day at the town gate, and inform the banjoses whether she means to continue on the island or not. For every day eight mas is paid to the lady's husband; and to herself, exclusive of her maintenance, presents are sometimes made of silk night-gowns, girdles, head ornaments, &c.

Without doubt, the Christians, who are enlightened by religion and morality, ought not to degrade themselves by a vicious intercourse with the unfortunate young women of this country. But the Japanese themselves, being Heathens, do not look upon lasciviousness as a vice, and least of all in such places as are protected by the laws and the government. Houses of this kind therefore are not considered as an infamous resort, or improper places of rendezvous. They are often frequented by the better sort of people, who wish to treat their friends with sakki. Nevertheless, the institution carries on its very

[page] 76

face that which is derogatory to human nature, and even to the least polished manners. Parents that are poor, and have more girls than they are able to maintain, sell them to one of these fellows at the age of four years and more. During their infancy they serve as maids to the house, and particularly to wait on the elder ladies, each of whom has her own girl to attend her. When one of these damsels arrives at the age of twelve, fifteen, or sixteen, she is then, with much festivity, and frequently at the expence of her on whom she has waited the preceding years, advanced to be one of those ladies that are exempt from waiting on others, or from any kind of employment.

It very seldom happens that one of these ladies proves pregnant by any of the Europeans; but if such a thing happens, it was supposed that the child, especially if it were a boy, would be murdered. Others again assured me, that such children were narrowly watched till the age of fifteen, and then were sent with the ships to Batavia; but I cannot believe the Japanese to be inhuman enough for the former procedure, nor is there any instance of the latter having taken place. During my stay in this country, I saw a girl of about six years of age, who very much resembled her father, an European, and re-

[page] 77

mained with him on our small island the whole year through.

The most curious circumstance in this affair is, that when these ladies, after having served a certain term of years in those houses to which they were sold from their infancy, regain their perfect liberty, they are by no means considered as being dishonoured, and often marry extremely well.

In other respects, modesty is a virtue to which these people are not much attached; and lasciviousness seems universally to prevail. The women seldom took any pains to cover their nudities when bathing in open places, (which they sometimes did) not even in such spots where they were exposed to the sight of the Dutch, or where these latter were to pass.

As no Japanese has more than one wife, and she is not locked up in the house as in China, but is suffered to keep men's company, and walk abroad when she pleases, it was therefore not difficult for me to get a sight of the fair sex of this country, in the streets as well as in the houses. The single women were always distinguished from the married, and some of them were even painted.

The colour with which they paint themselves is called Bing, and is kept in little round porcelain bowls. With this they paint, not

[page] 78

their cheeks, as the Europeans do, but their lips, and lay the colour on according to their own fancy. If the paint is very thin, the lips appear red; but if it be laid on thick, they become of a violet hue, which is here considered as the greater beauty. On a closer examination I found that this paint is made from the Carthamus tinctorius or bastard saffron.

That which chiefly distinguished the married women from the single were their black teeth, which in their opinion were extremely beautiful, but in most other countries would be sufficient to make a man take French leave of his wife. To me, at least, a wide mouth with black shining teeth, had an ugly and disagreeable appearance.

The black which is used for this purpose is called Ohaguro or Canni, and is prepared from urine, filings of iron, and sakki: it is fœtid and corrosive. It eats so deeply into the teeth, that it takes several days and much trouble to scrape and wash it away. It is so corrosive, that the gums and lips must be well covered while it is laid on, or it will turn them quite blue. Some begin to make use of this ornament as soon as they are courted or betrothed.

January 20. This day the monies were paid on account of the Dutch, and all their assignments settled, which is done only once a year. For this purpose there assembled at the treasury

[page] 79

in the town, interpreters, servants, merchants, purveyors, and all others who had any demands. Every one who had money to receive was obliged to be there in person, or he could not be paid.

February the 7th. Having been fortunate enough to receive from the governor a second time, his permission to botanize, I, for the first time, took a walk about the town of Nagasaki. I was accompanied by several head and sub-interpreters, head and sub-banjoses, purveyors, and a number of servants. This numerous train, did not, it is true, impede me in my quick progression up mountains and hills, but yet it made my diurnal expeditions rather expensive, as it became incumbent upon me towards evening to regale my wearied companions at some inn or other, which amounted each time to sixteen or eighteen rix-dollars. As often as the weather permitted, I made use of the liberty thus accorded to me, at least once or twice a week, till such time as I accompanied the ambassador to the imperial court.

Hard by the cottages and farms in the vicinity of the town, but chiefly on rising grounds and by the road-side, I saw a great number of tomb-stones erected, of various forms. It was said, that for every one that died, a stone of this kind was erected, and before it I frequently found

[page] 80

placed one or two thick bamboo canes, filled with water and either leaves or flowers. The stones were sometimes rough and in their natural state, but more frequently hewn with art, with or without letters engraved on them, and these either gilt or not gilt. These burying-places are frequently seen from afar, on account of the great number of stones erected.

I found also here and there, by the side of the roads, large holes dug, in which the farmers collected urine and manure that had been dropped and scattered about, which they very carefully accumulated, and used for the improvement of the land, but which gave out a disagreeable, and often intolerable, stench to the traveller.

The town of Nagasaki is in its situation very much exposed; it has neither citadel, walls, nor fossé, but it has crooked streets, and a few canals dug for the purpose of carrying off the water from the surrounding mountains, which reach quite to the harbour. Before the time of the Portugueze it was only a village; but has since, by the emigrations that have been made thither on account of commerce, been extended to its present size. There are a great number of temples, and the prettiest spots imaginable on the heights surrounding the town. At each end of

[page] 81

the streets there is a wooden gate, which can be locked, and by this means all communication with other streets cut off. At night they are always locked. In each street, which is seldom more than thirty or forty fathoms in length, and contains about the same number of houses, there is always an officer appointed to superintend and inspect it; and in like manner in each street there is a house, in which an apparatus is kept for the prevention of fire. The houses are scarcely ever two stories high, and when they are, the upper story is generally low. The town is governed by four burgomasters, who have under them a sufficient number of (Ottonas), attendants of different ranks and degrees, by which means good order and security is procured, and maintained in the best and most ample manner.

In the gardens, as well in as out of the town, I observed several European culinary vegetables cultivated, and of these I had already seen some carried on board of the Dutch ship and to the factory. Of this kind, were Red Beet (Betavulgaris), the root of which was of a deeper red than any I had ever seen at any other place out of Europe; Carrots (Daucus Carota), Fennel (Anethum fæniculum), and Dill (Anethum graveolens), Anise (Pimpinella Anisum), Parsly (Apium petroselinum), Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); several bulbous plants, such as Leeks,


[page] 82

Onions, and others (Alium fistulosum, Cepa); Turnips (Brasica rapa), Black Radishes (Raphanus), Lettice (Lactuca sativa), Succory and Endive (Cichorium Intybus & Endivia), besides many more.

On the hills out of the town I observed, that near every village large ranges of sloping grounds at the foot of the mountains were planted with Batatas roots (Convolvulus edulis), which were mealy, and agreeable to the taste. The plants with their stalks and leaves lay close to the ground, and had not a single flower on them. They are much more agreeable to the taste, and easier of digestion, than potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), which they have tried to cultivate here, but with very indifferent success.

The Juniper tree (Juniperus communis), which is generally indigenous to the north of Europe, I found also here scattered up and down in different parts, chiefly near some temple, but very scarce.

I likewise found the Calamus aromaticus (Acorus calamus), growing wild here in moist places. It was considered by the Japanese, on account of its strong aromatic taste, as a medicine of great powers, but they did not know its true and proper use.

A kind of Ginger (Amomum mioga), grew wild in some few spots out of the town, though

[page] 83

in very small quantities. The root is tolerably hot and acrid, and nearly as good as common ginger, and was said to be sometimes used in its stead.

Ivy (Hedera), grew up in several places green and handsome. At first, I thought it unlike the ordinary European Ivy, on account of its having, for the most part, entire and undivided leaves; but in process of time I perceived a great alteration both in the form and size of the leaf.

The Box-tree (Buxus virens), was not uncommon: it was found both in a wild and cultivated state. Of its fine and close wood, combs were made, which, when covered with red varnish, were used by the women to stick in their hair by way of ornament.

The Bamboo (Arundo bambos), which is the only kind of grass that grows to the size of a tree, grew in many places, and differed much both in height and thickness. The root of it is made use of here, as well as on the India islands, for (Atjar), pickling with vinegar. The thicker stems were used for carrying burthens, and the finer branches as shafts for pencils, and when slit up, for fan-sticks, and for many other purposes.

Near some farms, and particularly near the temples, I found a very curious shrub of six or

G 2

[page] 84

eight feet in height, and of the Celastrus kind (Celastrus Alatus), which had projecting, blunt, and compressed borders all along its branches, and was now full of ripening fruit. I was told that the branches of this shrub were used by lovers, to fasten to the outside of the door of the house in which the object of their desires resided.

The Chenopodium Scoparia was said to be used by some people in this country as a medicine.

The Alcea rosea and the Malva Mauritiana were frequently found cultivated in small gardens in the town, for the sake of their large and elegant flowers.

The Mentha piperita, which grew wild in many places about Nagasaki, and the Ocymum crispum, which still adorned the hills, were used as a tea or insusion in colds. This latter herb, when boiled, yieldsa red d ecoction, with which the Japanese frequently gave a red colour to black radishes and turnips.

Several kinds of sweet potatoes (Dioscoreæ), grew wild in the environs of Nagasaki, but I did not observe that any of them were used as food, except the Dioscorea Japonica, the roots of which being cut into flices and boiled, had a very agreeable taste.

Common Hemp (Cannabis Sativa), grew in many places, both in a wild and cultivated state.

[page] 85

I found here two sorts of Spanish (or Cayenne) pepper, chiefly in a cultivated state. The most common was the Capsicum Annuum, which the Japanese seldom use themselves, but sell it for the most part to the slaves in the Dutch factory. The other was the Capsicum grossum, which was kept in jars, and confined so as to grow small and distorted, properties which the Japanese particularly fancy in many plants, a fancy peculiar to themselves, and in which they differ from all other nations.

Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum), grew also in some places, but so sparingly, that no large plantations of it were to be observed. This herb, so agreeable, and now become so indispensibly necessary to many millions of men, was first brought hither by the Portuguese, and is almost the only relique left behind them in this country. The Japanese have no name for it in their language, but call it Tobacco, and smoke it, cut as fine as the hair of the head, in small metal pipes.

I found a Convallaria Japonica at this time in fruit. The knobs at the roots of this plant were preserved in sugar, and were highly commended by the Japanese and Chinese as good in different disorders.

Buck-wheat (Polygonum fagopyrum and Multiflorum), was not uncommon near the farms and on the hills, the former in a cultivated, and the

G 3

[page] 86

latter in a wild state. From the former, flour was prepared, of which small cakes were made, which were boiled; these were commonly coloured, and sold to the lower class of people. The root of the latter was said to be a cordial, and was used for that purpose quite raw. I was told it tasted best when roasted in the embers.

Windsor beans (Vicia faba), and Peas (Pisum Sativum), as also some species of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris & radiatus), were common among the farmers; and the latter sort was very much cultivated in the gardens, from whence they were carried for sale both into the town and to the factories.

February the 11th. The time drawing near for our journey to the court, we began to prepare for it by degrees.

Although the ambassador himself goes by land, yet a great part of the luggage is sent by sea to Simonoseki, Fiogo, and other places. This day were put on board of a tolerable large vessel, several chests with different sorts of wine in bottles, liquors, ale in bottles, kitchen furniture, and some empty chests, for carrying merchandize in on our return. This vessel was to sail for Simonoseki, and on our arrival there, to carry us on to Fiogo.

This and the following days, the presents which we were to carry with us were prepared, consisting of cloths of different colours and qua-

[page] 87

lities, chintzes and silks, with other articles. These presents were intended for the reigning secular emperor, the hereditary prince, the privy counsellors, and other persons of distinction at the court, and were packed up in large chests, which, that they might not be left to the mercy of the winds and waves, were carried the whole way for the space of 320 miles.*

The 18th of February was, with the Japanese, the last day of the year. On this day, therefore, and yesterday, all accounts between private persons were to be closed; and these, as well as all other debts to be paid. Fresh credit is afterwards given till the month of June, when there must be settlement again. Among the Japanese, as well as in China, in case of loans, very high interest is frequently paid, viz. from 18 to 20 per cent. I was informed, that if a man did not take care to be paid before new year's day, he had afterwards no right to demand payment on the new year. Happy the people, who at the beginning of every new year, can reckon themselves free from debt, and owe no man any thing.

The 19th was the new year's day of the Japanese and Chinese, when every one dressed in his holiday clothes, wishes his neighbour joy, goes about visiting with his family, and diverts himself almost the whole of the first month.

* In speaking of Japan, the Author computes by Japanese miles, which nearly correspond with the French leagues.

G 4

[page] 88

The year is divided according to the course of the moon, so that some years have twelve and others thirteen months; and the new year makes its entry in February or March. They have no weeks consisting of seven days, or of six working days, and day of rest; but the first or fifteenth day in each month, is, in fact, a sabbath, or a day of rest. On these days no mechanic works, and even the prostitutes buy their freedom for that day, considering it as the greatest shame to be obliged to receive the caresses of men. On new year's day, as we said before, they go about in their holiday dress, which is composed of fine blue and white check. The night and day taken together, is divided into twelve hours only; and the whole year through, they regulate themselves by the sun's rising and setting. The hour of six they reckon at sun-rise, and the same at sun-set: mid-day and mid-night are always at nine.

Time is not measured by watches or hourglasses, but by burning matches, which are twisted like ropes, and divided by knots: when one of these, after being lighted up, has burned down to a knot, which denotes the elapse of a certain portion of time, it is made known in the day time, by certain strokes on bells near their churches, and in the night by striking two pieces of wood against each other, which is done by

[page] 89

the patroling watch. Children are always deemed to be a year old, at the end of the year in which they are born, whether this be at the beginning or latter end of it: so that if a child is born in the last month, it is reckoned a year old on the new year's day ensuing. Their year commences with Nin—o, or 660 years before the birth of Christ.

A few days after the Japanese new year's day, the horrid ceremony was performed of trampling on such images as represent the cross, and the Virgin Mary with the child. These images, which are made of cast copper, are said to be about twelve inches in length. This ceremony is performed for the purpose of imprinting on every one, an abhorrence and hatred of the Christian doctrine, and of the Portuguese, who attempted to propagate that doctrine, and at the same time to discover, whether any remains of it be yet left in any Japanese. The trampling is performed in such places, as were formerly most frequented by the Christians. In the town of Nagasaki, it continues for the space of four days; after which period, the images are carried to the adjacent places, and at last are laid by till the following year. Every one, except the governor and his train, even the smallest child, is obliged to be present at this ceremony; but that the Dutch, as some have been pleased to in-


[page] 90

sinuate, are obliged to trample on these images, is not true. At every place, overseers are present, who assemble the people by rotation in certain houses, calling over every one by his name in due order, and seeing that every thing is duly performed. Adults walk over the images from one side to the other, and children in arms are put with their feet on them.

The signs of the Zodiac are here, as elsewhere, twelve; but they have different names from those of the Europeans; e. g. 1. Ne, the Rat. 2. Us, the Ox. 3. Torra, the Tiger. 4. Ow, the Hare. 5. Tats, the Dragon. 6. Mi, the Serpent. 7. Uma, the Horse. 8. Tsitsuse, the Sheep. 9. Sar, the Ape. 10. Torri, the Cock. 11. In, the Dog. 12. T, the Bear.

Certain years derive from these signs also their names: thus the year 1774 was the Horse-year of the Japanese, and 1776 their Ape-year.

The months, which in consequence of the unequal course of the moon, never perfectly correspond with our's, have their respective names according to numerical order; and as, during our stay here, we were obliged to regulate ourselves by the Dutch, as well as by the Japanese almanacks, we formed every year an almanack common to both, which shewed the relation of these two different modes of reckoning time. Of this I here present the reader with a brief abstract


[page] 91

only, from which the names of their months, at the same time, may be found.

1776, or Ape-year, has 355 days.

SJOGUATS, corresponds with FEBRUARY.

1 February, 19

11 — — 29

12 March, — 1

30 — — 19


1 March, 20

12 — — 31

13 April, — 1

29 — — 17


1 April, — 18

13 — — 30

14 May, — 1

30 — — 17


1 May, — 18

14 — — 31

15 June, — 1

29 — — 15


1 June, — 16

15 — — 30

16 July, — 1

30 — — 15


1 July, — 16

16 — — 31

17 August, — 1

29 — — 13


1 August, — 14

18 — — 31

19 September, 1

30 — — 12


1 September, 13

18 — — 30

19 October, 1

29 — — 11


1 October, 12

20 — — 31

21 November, 1

30 — — 10


1 November, 11

20 — — 30

[page] 92

21 December, 1

30 — — 10


1 December, 11

21 — — 31


22 January, 1

30 — — 9


1 January, 10

22 — — 31

23 February, 1

29 — — 7

In this manner, the months are reckoned by the name of the 1st, 2d, 3d, and so on to the 12th; and the years contain an unequal number of days. Every second or third year is leap-year, of which there are seven in the space of 19 years.

There are several grand festivals in the year, which are kept one or more days together: but the celebration of the seventh day, as a Sabbath, is unknown here; and consequently, the months and year are not divided into weeks of seven days each.

The most remarkable holidays in the year 1776, during the time of my residence here, were the following: In Goguats, the 5th day, or the 20th of June, the Pelang festival; in Sitsguats, the 7th day, or the 20th of August, the Star-festival; and the 13th, 14th, and 15th of the same month, or the 26th, 27th, and 28th of August, the Grand Lantern festival; in Kuguats, the 7th, 8th, and 9th, or the 18th, 19th, and 20th of October, Matsuri was celebrated for three

[page] 93

days together. There were besides the following remarkable days, viz. In Sjoguats the 4th, and following days, when the images of the Virgin Mary and the cross were trampled under foot by the Japanese. The 15th of the same month, or the 4th of March, when the Dutch ambassador set out on his journey to Jedo. Fatsguats the 1st, or the 13th of September, when the Japanese fair (fassak) was kept; in Kuguats the 15th, or the 26th of October, when the Dutch fair (fassak) commenced; and in Kuguats the 19th and 20th, or the 30th and 31st of October, when first one and afterwards the other ship, were obliged to set sail on the days appointed from Nagasaki for Papenberg.

On the 22d of February, and the following days, was performed in Nagasaki, and the adjacent places, the ceremony already described of trampling on the copper images, concerning which, I endeavoured to gain every possible information. Of the officers that were at this time on the island, there was but one, who prosessed having once had an opportunity of seeing it in his way, when sent by the chief to the governor of the town, about some matters respecting the preparation for the intended journey to the court.

On December the 25th, the chief, accompanied by several supercargoes, writers and interpreters,

[page] 94

went to the town, to take leave of the governor, previous to their setting out.

March 2d. Mine, and my fellow travellers' chests, with clothes, together with the medicine chest, were examined on the island, then sealed, and immediately sent to the storehouse; where they were kept, till the day that we set out on our journey. The medicine chest is large, and is furnished with medicines from the dispensary, which is under the doctor's care, and is situated near his apartment.

The Japanese use no sealing-wax for sealing; but twist and tie a paper about such things as they wish to secure, in such a manner, that they can easily perceive if it has been touched. In this way, they seal up the locks of the storehouse itself, placing less dependence on their locks, than on their curious paper knots.


ON the 4th of March, 1776, the ambassador set out from Dezima, on his journey to Jedo. The 15th or 16th of the first month of the Japanese year, is always fixed for commencing this journey. There were only three Dutchmen, or rather Europeans, who took this journey, viz. Mr. FEITH, the ambassador, as chief in the

[page] 95

commercial department; myself as physician to the embassy, and the secretary Mr. KOEHLER. The rest of our retinue, which consisted of about 200 men, were merely Japanese place-men, interpreters, servants, and valets. In passing the guard on the bridges, which join the town to the factory, we were closely searched; but our chests and other baggage, which had already been searched and sealed, went through free: we were also attended through Nagasaki, by the Dutch belonging to the factory, as likewise by a multitude of such Japanese, as have any office in, or business with the factory. The latter accompanied us to a temple out of town, where we baited a short time, and treated our jovial company with sakki. On our leaving this place, all these Japanese who were now to part with us, had placed themselves in groups, according to their different ranks and conditions of life, for above half a mile in length, on both sides of the road, along which we were travelling, which not only made a very fine appearance, but likewise did us great honour. These Japanese consisted of the Ottonas of the town and island, the head and sub-interpreters, with the learners, head and sub-purveyors, head and sub-banjoses, culi-masters, and several others who in any shape were connected with the Dutch.

[page] 96

A banjos was, by the governor of Nagasaki, appointed leader of the whole caravan, and ordered every thing both in going and returning. He was carried in a large Norimon, and a pike was borne before him, to denote his authority and high command. To execute his orders, several inferior Banjoses were appointed. The chief interpreter, who is generally a man advanced in years, is carried in a Cango, has the care of the cash, and the management of every thing during the journey, paying all expences for the Dutch Company's account, and that generally with such care and parsimony, that he is sometimes a considerable gainer by it, so that this journey is always supposed to be very profitable. Two Japanese cooks accompany them from the factory, for the purpose of dressing the victuals, that are to be served up at the ambassador's table; also six Japanese servants, who understand and speak Dutch, to serve as waiters, besides those servants that are sent by the governor of Nagasaki, to attend on the Dutch, and who do not understand nor speak their language. The cooks were sent before during the whole journey, in order to get the victuals ready by the time we should arrive at the inn, where we dine. With them were sent the necessary provisions, a camp table, three camp chairs, table linen, and table furniture, which

[page] 97

were always ready and in order, on our arrival at dinner or supper. Some clerks attended the cooks, to order what was requisite at the inns for the whole retinue, and to keep an account of the expences.

The ambassador, as well as his physician and secretary, travelled in large handsome and lacquered Norimons. In KÆMPFER's time, the two latter gentlemen were obliged to perform the journey on horseback, exposed to cold, rain, and all the inclemency of the weather. These Norimons or Sedan-chairs, are made of thin boards and bamboo canes, in the form of an oblong square, with windows before, and on each side. The side-windows are fastened to the doors, through which one may get in and out of the carriage on both sides. Over the roof runs a long edged pole, by which the vehicle is carried on the bearers' shoulders. It is so large that one may sit in it with ease, and even lie down in it, though not without, in some measure, drawing up one's legs. It is not only adorned on the inside, but likewise covered on the outside in the most elegant manner, with the most costly silks and velvets. At the bottom lies a matrass covered with cut velvet, and it has a slight covering over it, either of the same materials or of some costly silk; and behind the back, and on each side, hang oblong cushions, also co-


[page] 98

vered with velvet; in the place where the seat should be, a round cushion is laid with a hole in the middle. In front, there is a shelf or two, for putting an ink-stand, books, or other small articles on. The windows at the sides may be let down, when fresh air is wanted, and they may be closed both by silk curtains, and by rolling curtains made of bamboos, when the person in the carriage wishes not to be seen. The travelling in this chamber is very commodious; sitting long in it seldom proves tiresome. The porters that bear this light vehicle on their shoulders, are in number according to the rank of the person they carry, from six to twelve and more; and when there are more, some of them walk leisurely by the sides, for the purpose of relieving each other during the journey. While they are bearing the norimon, they sing some air together, which makes them keep up a brisk and even pace.

Besides those articles which have been sent from Nagasaki by water, were carried partly on horseback and partly by porters on foot, our small chests of clothes, lanterns to use in the dark, a stock of wine, ale, and other liquors, for our daily consumption, and a Japanese apparatus for tea, in which we could boil water while we were on the road. The Europeans, however, very seldom used this great relaxer of the stomach, but

[page] 99

preferred a glass of red wine or Dutch ale; we therefore provided ourselves with a bottle of each of these, which were put into the fore part of the norimons, at our feet; as also a small oblong lacquered box, with a doubled slice of bread and butter, of the same form. Every one that travels in this country, always carries his bed with him. We were therefore obliged to do the same during the whole of the journey, both coming and going. And as it was necessary to make a great show in every respect, in order to support the dignity of the Dutch company, the bedding, of course, consisted of coverlits, pillows, and matrasses, covered over with the richest open-worked velvets and silks.

On the other hand, the Japanese, who either went on foot or on horseback, were provided with a hat in the form of a cone, and tied under the chin; a fan, which at the same time served as a guide, an umbrella, and sometimes a very wide coat made of oiled paper to keep out the rain, which is as light as a feather. Those that travelled on foot, such as servants, hostlers, and the inferior order of servants, were likewise provided with thin spatterdashes, several pair of straw-shoes, and wore their night-gowns tucked up.

The whole of this numerous caravan, composed of such different people, and travelling in such different ways, formed a delightful spectacle for an eye not used to similar sights, and

H 2

[page] 100

was to us Europeans the more pleasing, as we were received every where with the same honours and respect as the princes of the land, and were besides so well guarded, that no harm could befal us, and at the same time so well attended, that we had no more care upon our minds than a sucking-child: the whole of our business consisting in eating and drinking, or in reading or writing for our own amusement, in sleeping, dressing ourselves, and being carried about in our norimons.

On the first day, passing by Fimi, two leagues from Nagasaki, we proceeded to Jagami, one league farther on, and from thence to Isafaia, yet four leagues farther, where we took up our first night's lodging.

At Jagami, where we dined, we were received by the host in a more polite and obsequious manner than I ever experienced since in any other part of the world. It is the custom of this country for the landlord to go to meet the traveller part of the way, and with every token of the utmost submission and respect bid them welcome; he then hurries home, in order to receive his guests at his house in the same humble and respectful manner, after which some trifling present is produced on a small and low square table; and then tea and the apparatus for smoking, which, however, we did not use. Being shewn into the rooms prepared for us, we found the

[page] 101

table-cloth laid: when after taking a dram* to whet our appetites, we dined, drank coffee, and then prepared for setting out, after those gentlemen that were fond of smoking had lighted their pipes.

Here we received for the commissaries account fifty Japanese thails, amounting to about the same number of Dutch rixdollars, for defraying the trifling expences which we might be obliged to make individually in the course of the journey, and which were so exactly calculated, as not to leave any overplus. These were the first Japanese coins which fell into our hands, and which came under my inspection. The first disbursement we made was in new-year's gifts to our servants and valets at Dezima, as also to the bearers of our norimons, which, for my share, amounted to somewhat more than ten rixdollars.

On the following morning, being the 5th of March, we proceeded on our journey, taking the road for Omura, where we dined, at the distance of three leagues, and then went on to Sinongi, where we slept, situated five leagues from thence. In the year 1691, when KÆMPFER went on the journey to the court, the ambassador took another route to Sinongi, viz. across the bay near Omura, to avoid which we took a round-about way to Isafaia, but without

* A very prevalent custom in Sweden, and some other countries in the north of Europe. In the original Appetits sup, or Appetite dram. [T.]

H 3

[page] 102

sailing across the large bay by Simabara, which is the road that KÆMPFER took, when, in the year 1692, he went, for the second time, the same journey to the Imperial Court.

On the sixth, in the morning, after travelling three leagues, we arrived at Orissino, where is a sulphureous warm bath. After having viewed the bath, we travelled three leagues and a half, before we got to dinner at Takkiwo. After dinner we passed by Swota to Oda, three leagues and a half; and then went two leagues and a half farther on to Otsinsu, where we slept.

The warm bath, which was absolutely boiling hot, was walled in, and had a handsome house near it, for the accommodation of the invalids that used it. The hot water was distributed by means of conduits, to several places, where the sick could sit down, and, by means of two different cocks, draw off, accordingly as it suited them best, either hot or cold water; which latter was conveyed hither by art. Besides this, there were several accommodations for the patients to rest and refresh themselves after bathing, as also for walking, all which were very neat and clean. The Japanese use this and other similar baths, with which the country abounds, in venereal complaints, the palsy, itch, rheumatism, and many more disorders.

Swota is remarkable on account of the large jars (the largest, indeed, in the world) which

[page] 103

are made here: they are composed of a brown clay, well burned, and of such an enormous size, as to hold several pails full of liquor. The Dutch buy annually a great many of them, and carry them to Batavia, where, as well as in other parts of the East-Indies, they are used for holding water, and sell to advantage. In these, the water that is used for their daily drink, is kept cool, at the same time that the sediment settles at the bottom, so that the water, by this means, becomes more pure and wholesome.

The road which we had travelled the preceding days, was very rugged and tiresome; but, after we got into the province of Fisen, the country appeared more fertile, finer, more thickly inhabited, and more populous. The villages here were nearer to each other, were much extended in length, and were sometimes two together, each of them half a league long, and only distinguished from each other by means of a rivulet, a bridge, or by the difference of name.

The country was cultivated all over; exhibiting the finest fields, loaded with rice and other grain.

The province of Fisen is, besides, well known on account of its beautiful and valuable porcelain: I had, before this, seen some of it, in the Dutch factory at the fair, and had now an op-

H 4

[page] 104

portunity of informing myself farther concerning it. It is made of a perfectly white clay, which in itself is very fine, nevertheless is wrought with the greatest diligence and pains, and inexpressibly well; so that the vessels and ornaments which are made of it, become transparent and extremely beautiful, and at the same time are as white as snow.

The day following, being the 7th, we had a league to go to a tolerably large river, called Kassagawa, over which we were to pass, and another league to the town of Sanga, which is a league and a half long. From thence, we proceeded three leagues to another smaller town called Kansaki, passing by Fiosabara, which was situated about half-way to it. Here we dined; and, going farther on, passed Nakabara, at the distance of two leagues, and Todoriki, somewhat above a league, till we came to Taysero, one league farther, where we slept.

Sanga, which is the capital of the province, has a castle, which is surrounded by fosses and walls, and has guards at its gates. This, like most of the towns in this country, is regularly built, with straight and wide streets. There are also several canals, by which water is conveyed through it.

The towns, in general, in this country, differ chiefly from the villages, which are also very long,

[page] 105

in having one street, while the towns have more: besides, the towns are furnished with gates, and surrounded by fosses and walls, and, sometimes, a citadel.

The people, and especially the women, are of a smaller size in this province than in the former; and the married women, although, in other respects, they are handsome and well-shaped, disfigure themselves by pulling out all the hairs of their eye-brows, which, with them, serves to denote the marriage-state, in like manner as black teeth do at Nagasaki.

We lay at Taysero that night; although KÆMPFER, in his History of Japan, mentions that this was considered in his time, as portending misfortune, and was therefore prohibited. The reason for this was, that, in the course of one of these journies, a banjos and one of the head-interpreters had quarrelled, and the former, after having killed the latter, had likewise made away with himself.

March the 2th, we travelled nearly ten leagues to Itska town; passing, in our way, by several villages, large and small, and over many very high mountains. We arrived first at Farda, two leagues off, and afterwards at Jamayo, one league more, where we dined. The road from thence went over a high mountain, and conducted us a league and a half down to Fiamitz, a pleasing spot, where we baited some time,

[page] 106

regaled ourselves and officers with fakki, and made the landlady a small present in money, to the amount of seven maas and five conderyns, which is customary at this place. After this, we went a league and a half farther on, to Utsini, where we also gave our bearers a little rest.

This day, in passing through the province of Tsikudsen, we were conducted by an officer, who had been sent by the governor of the province to welcome and conduct us through his territories.

How much soever the Europeans are despised in their factory, and in however contemptible a light the Japanese are used to consider all foreigners, yet it is not more surprising than true, that, in the course of our journey to and from the court, we were every where received not only with the greatest politeness and attention, but with the same respect and esteem as is shewn to the Princes of the country, when they make their journies to the imperial court. When we arrived at the borders of a province, we were always met by an officer, sent by the Lord of it, who not only offered us, in the name of his employer, every assistance that might be required with respect to people, horses, vessels, &c. but also accompanied us to the next frontiers, where he took his leave of us, and was relieved by another. The lower class of people, also, showed us the same tokens of veneration and respect, as to

[page] 107

Princes; bowing with their foreheads down to the ground, and even at times turning their backs to us, to signify, that they consider us in so high a light, that, in their extreme insignificance, they are unworthy of beholding us.

The roads in this country are broad, and furnished with two ditches, to carry off the water, and in good order all the year round; but especially at this season, when the Princes of the country, as also the Dutch, take their annual journey to the capital. The roads are, at this time, not only strewed with sand, but, before the arrival of travellers, they are swept with brooms; all horse-dung, and dirt of every kind, removed, and, in hot, dusty weather, they are watered. Their care for good order, and the convenience of travellers, has even gone so far, that those who travel up the country always keep to the left, and those that come from the capital, to the right; a regulation which would be of the greatest utility in Europe, enlightened as it is, where they frequently travel upon the roads with less discretion and decorum. The roads here are in the better order, and last the longer, as no wheel carriages are used, which do so much damage to the roads. To make the roads still more agreeable, the sides of them are frequently planted with hedges, and on this and


[page] 108

the preceding days, I observed them formed of the tea-shrub.

Mile-posts are set up every where, which not only indicate the distance, but also, by means of an inscription, point out the road. Similar posts are also found on the cross-roads, so that the traveller in this country cannot, easily, lose his way.

Attending to all these circumstances, I saw, with astonishment, a people, which we consider, if not in a state of barbarism, at least as unpolished, exhibit, in every instance, vestiges of perfect order and rational circumspect reflection; while we, in our more enlightened quarter of the globe, are every where deficient in efficacious, and, in some places, in almost every regulation tending to the convenience and ease of travellers. Here I found every thing tend to a good end, without boast and unnecessary parade; and no where did I observe on the mile-posts the name of the Governor who had erected them, a circumstance which, in fact, so little concerns the traveller.

All the miles are measured from one point only of the kingdom, viz. from Niponbas, or the bridge in the capital of the country, Jedo.

No post-coaches, or other kinds of wheel-carriages, are to be found in this country for the service of travellers; therefore, all those that are poor, travel on foot, and such as are able to

[page] 109

pay, either ride on horse-back, or are carried in Kangos or Norimons. Instead of their long night-gowns, they often wear trowsers, or linen breeches, which reach down to the calves; and travelling soldiers tie these half-way up their thighs. Such as ride make, for the most part, a strange figure; as, frequently, several persons are mounted on one horse, sometimes a whole family. In this case, the man is seated on the saddle, with his legs laid forward over the horse's neck; the wife occupies a basket made fast to one side of the saddle, and one or more children are placed in another basket on the other side: a person always walks before to lead the horse by the bridle. People of property are carried in a kind of sedan chairs, that differ from each other in point of size and ornament, according to the different rank of the owners, and, consequently, in point of expence. The worst sort are small, insomuch that one is obliged to sit in them with one's feet under the seat; they are open on all sides, covered with a small roof, and are carried by two men. The Kangoes, more commonly called Kagoes, are covered in, and closed on the sides; but they are almost square, and far from being elegant. The largest and handsomest are called Norimons, are used by persons in the higher departments of office, and are borne by several men. At the inns in every town and village, there is a

[page] 110

number of men who offer their services to the traveller.

These Norimons and Kango-bearers can carry very heavy burthens to a great distance, and not only travellers but goods, which they carry tied to each end of a pole or bamboo across their shoulder; they generally go a Japanese mile (or league) in an hour, and from ten to twelve of these miles in a day.

On the 9th of March, proceeding on our journey, we arrived at Nogata river, at the distance of three leagues and a half from the place we had set out from, which river we crossed, and travelling a league and a half farther, dined at Koijanossa. From thence we proceeded to Kurosacky, at the distance of three leagues, and going three leagues farther still, came to a large and rich commercial town, called Kokura.

Kokura is esteemed one of the largest towns in the country, and carries on extensive trade; but at present, the harbour is so filled up, that only small vessels and boats can get up to the town. This town is a Japanese mile (or league) in length, forming an oblong square, and has a river which runs through its streets down to the sea. The gates are guarded by officers and soldiers. At one end of the town, and along-side of the river, stands the Prince's citadel, which makes a very handsome appearance, is well fortified in the fashion of this country, surrounded by

[page] 111

fosses and walls, and receives additional strength from a high tower. In this the Prince of Kokura resides, and keeps his court.

Before we entered into Kokura, we were met in the name of the Prince, received, and conducted through the town to the inn, by two noblemen from the castle. Here we were exceedingly well lodged, and remained till the next day in the afternoon.

According to ancient custom, the servant which was sent with us by the governor of Nagasaki, to wait on us during the journey, received here a small present of one thail and five maas, equal in value to about a rixdollar and a half.

Here, as well as at all the other inns, we were lodged in the back part of the house, which is not only the most convenient, but the pleasantest part, having always an out-let and view into a back-yard, larger or smaller, which is embellished with various trees, shrubs, plants, and flower-pots. At one side of this spot, there is also a small bath for strangers to bathe in, if they chuse. Amongst other things that were common in several places, such as the Pinus Sylvestris, Azalea Indica, Chrysanthemum Indicum, &c. I also found here a tree, which is called Aukuba, and another called Nandina, both which were supposed to bring good fortune to the house.

[page] 112

The front part of the house is generally either a shop for the sale of goods, or a workshop; and just behind this, is the kitchen and the apartments occupied by the family, so that strangers occupy the most commodious part of the house, and are the farthest removed from the noise of the streets.

The houses are very roomy and commodious, and never more than two stories high, of which the lower story is inhabited, and the upper serves for lofts and garrets, and is seldom occupied.

The mode of building in this country is curious, and peculiar to the inhabitants. Every house occupies a great extent of ground, is built in the stile of frame-work, of wood, split bamboos, and clay, so as to have the appearance of a stone house on the outside, and covered in with tiles of considerable weight and thickness. The whole house makes but one room, which can be divided, according as it may be found necessary, or thought proper, into many smaller rooms. This is done by moving slight partitions, consisting of wooden frames, pasted over with thick transparent paper, which slide with great ease in grooves made in the beams of the floor and roof, for that purpose. Such rooms were frequently partitioned off for us and our retinue, during our journey; and when a larger apartment was wanted for a dining-room, or any other

[page] 113

purpose, the partitions were in an instant taken away. One could not see, indeed, what was done in the next room, but one frequently overheard the conversation that passed there.

As the Japanese never have any furniture in their houses, and consequently no bedsteads, our matrasses and beds were laid on the floor, which was covered with thick straw mats. The Japanese, who accompanied us, lay in the same manner, but had no pillows; instead of which, they used oblong lacquered pieces of wood. With the above apparatus for sleeping, the Japanese's bed-chamber is put in order, and he himself up and dressed, in the twinkling of an eye; as, in fact, a longer time is scarcely requisite for him to throw the night-gown over him, that has served him for bed-clothes, and to gird it round his waist. And as they have neither chairs nor tables, they sit on the straw mats, with which the floor is covered, with their legs under them: and at dinner, likewise, every one of the dishes is served up separately, to each of the guests, in lacquered wooden cups with covers, on a small square wooden salver.

During our stay here, we were not allowed to walk about the town, and acquire a more accurate knowledge of it.

On the 11th of March, in the evening, we crossed in a yacht over the bay, to Simonoseki, a


[page] 114

trip, which was reckoned to be about three leagues. Here we took up our night's lodgings at an inn.

Between Kokura and Simonoseki, a low oblong rock was visible, which at low water appeared a little above the surface, but was quite covered at the tide of flood. A ship was said to have struck on this rock, that was carrying over the Emperor TAYKO, and to have been lost: The Emperor was saved; but the Captain of the vessel, in order to wreak vengeance on himself, according to the custom of the Japanese, ripped up his own belly. In memory of this disaster, a square hewn stone, about twenty-four inches high, has been erected on this rock.

Simonoseki is not the seat of a Prince, nor, indeed, one of the largest towns in the country; but its situation renders it a place of note, and it has a very good and much-frequented harbour, where frequently from 200 to 300 vessels are seen riding at anchor. Generally speaking, all such vessels run in here as are bound from the Western to the Eastern coast, or vice versa, either for the purpose of discharging some of their wares here, or of making a good port in case of a storm.

On account of the great number of people who flock to this place from all parts of the kingdom, the trade here is very brisk. As

[page] 115

wares and commodities are brought to this port from other parts, a great number of articles are to be had here that are not to be procured elsewhere. In a place where so many people are assembled together, from all parts of the country, public stews were undoubtedly, according to the ideas of the Japanese, highly necessary; and houses of this kind have, therefore, been established, for the accommodation of travellers. These the Dutch were not even suffered to see; but when we had liberty to walk about the town, the gates of that street where they stood, were carefully locked.

This town is situated at one end of Nipon, which is the largest of all the islands, and contains the two capitals of the kingdom, in which also there is a road to Jedo; this however we did not take, it being very bad, and mountainous.

A species of Ulva (or sea weed) was gathered on the sea beach here, which was called Awa Nori, and which, when dried and roasted over the coals, and afterwards rubbed down to a very fine powder, was eaten with boiled rice, and sometimes put into Miso-soup.

For a cold in the head, which one easily gets in this country, at the change of weather from warm to cold, the Japanese made use of a very fine kind of snuff, like Spanish. This snuff is

I 2

[page] 116

brought them by the Chinese, in small opake bottles of green glass.

Laxa, is the denomination given to a kind of thread or string, about four yards long, which is sold rolled up almost all over the country. It is made of wheat or buck-wheat-flour, and is sold by weight. That which was made from Buck-wheat, was in a more peculiar manner called Sabakira, by the Japanese. This string is cut into small pieces, and mixed with soup, to which it gives a very agreeable, and somewhat glutinous taste, without dissolving in the liquor, and is very nourishing. When put into soup, with leeks and force-meat balls made of fish, this dish is called Niomen; but, if it be mixed with Cayenne pepper or soy, it is called Somen.

We now bespoke, against our return home, either for our own consumption or for sale, two commodities in particular, which were rice, of which they have here the very best fort; and charcoal, which we wanted for the purpose of dressing our victuals, and warming our rooms in winter.

Here they do not reckon by thayls, but by maases, so that for one thayl they count ten maases; and for ten thayls one hundred maases: and in order to make their payments agreeably to this mode of reckoning, they have several

[page] 117

sorts of coins, large and small, made of gold, silver, copper, and iron. There is no representative or paper money in this country; but it is all in specie, coined and stamped by the government: though the silver coin is not always of the same size, for which reason the merchants never sail to weigh it before they take it.

On the 12th of March we embarked on board a large Japanese vessel of ninety feet in length, which is hired annually upon the Dutch company's account, at the rate of four hundred and eighty rixdollars, for the purpose of conveying the ambassador to Fiogo. This voyage is about one hundred leagues in length, and with a good wind is sometimes performed in eight days. Another similar vessel accompanied us, which carried our baggage and retinue.

We took up our quarters in the cabin. Our banjos had his room partitioned off to himself on one side, and the Dutch had the greatest part on the other. This side was divided into two rooms, a very small bed-chamber for the ambassador, and a larger apartment for me and the secretary, which was also used as a dining-room. The rest was occupied by the interpreters and other officers.

A vessel of this kind ranks amongst the largest that are built in this country, being

I 3

[page] 118

about twenty-five feet broad, and very square at the stern, with a wide and large opening there for the rudder, which can easily be unhinged. Agreeably to the strictest orders, all vessels must be in this form, with a view to prevent the subjects from going to sea in them, and quitting the country: they are frequently built of fir or cedar, but are not nearly so strong as the European vessels. The keel has a turn upwards fore and aft. They have only one mast, and in a calm they are rowed. When we arrived in any of the harbours, our mast was put down, and rested on poles fixed for that purpose; after which, in case it rained or was very cold, the sail was spread out by way of awning, so as to cover the whole vessel, and completely shelter the people in it from the weather. It had indeed, properly speaking, only one deck; but the cabin with its poop formed, in a manner, a second, on which we could walk, and across which the mast lay. The cabin therefore, on board of these, as well as all the pleasure-boats in Japan, is very large and roomy, and is capable of holding a great number of people. This, in the same manner as other rooms in their hooses, can be divided into small compartments, all handsomely papered, and the floor covered with mats made of rice-straw. The most surprizing circumstance is, that the cabin projects on each side


[page] 119

over the vessel's sides, and is therefore broader than the vessel itself, which has not a peculiarly elegant appearance. Along its sides there are several windows.

From Simonoseki we sailed to Kamiro, which is thirty-six leagues, and after having left this place, and proceeded seven leagues farther, we met with contrary winds, and were obliged to anchor off Nakassima. But the wind continuing contrary, and the storm increasing, we were obliged to weigh anchor, and sail fourteen leagues back to Kaminoseki, in order to get into a better and safer harbour. Here we were under the disagreeable necessity of staying almost three weeks, before we got a good and prosperous wind to carry us on our voyage.

All this time we lay constantly on board, but had several times, nevertheless, an opportunity to go ashore and amuse ourselves in the inns and temples.

Whilst the storm lasted, the air was very cold; so that we were forced to keep fires in the rooms; notwithstanding which we were tormented with colds and catarrhs.

The country all over this coast was mountainous, but, nevertheless, in the highest degree cultivated, insomuch, that the mountains in several places resembled beautiful gardens.

I 4

[page] 120

Here, as well as at Simonoseki, there were certain young men, whom the burghers ceded to the burgomaster to wait upon him, for a shorter or longer time. These youths, who were known by the name of Kodom, were the burghers own sons; they were well dressed, wore long trowsers, like people in office, and after a short time were relieved by others.

The women here wore a strange kind of cap, which covering the fore-part of the head, projected at the sides, and was tied under the chin. It was made of white Chenille, and by means of paste rendered quite smooth and sleek. These caps were said to be used only in winter; though, for my part, I could not conceive that they were capable of imparting any warmth.

Not only the ladies of pleasure, but ladies of reputation likewise, are in the habit of painting; and the married women had every where pulled the hairs out of their eye-brows, which amazingly disguised even the most beautiful countenances.

I saw several kinds of fruit, the produce of this country, either dried or preserved in yeast, in a mode which is, I fancy, only practised at Japan or China. The fruit that was only dried, such as plumbs and the like, was called Mebos; but such as was preserved either whole, or else, if it was very large, cut

[page] 121

into slices, was termed Menaratski. For this purpose the yeast of sakki is used, a liquor prepared from rice. The acid of the yeast penetrates into the fruit, gives it in some measure a taste, and preserves it the whole year through, or longer. Me signifies fruit; Nara the place in Japan where the fruit is thus preserved in sakki yeast, and suki signifies to preserve. Konomon is a kind of large cucumber, which is for the most part preserved in this manner, is transported in firkins to other places, and eaten with roast meat, or other dishes. It tastes much like pickled cucumbers.

The long time that we were obliged to lay at Kaminoseki, on account of contrary winds, the Japanese passed away with games and sports of various kinds. With respect to such of them as were my friends, I filled up their time by giving them lectures on the art of healing; and sometimes by questions about their country, its government, and regulations in point of rural œconomy, but particularly with respect to their language, which furnished me with the means of entirely completing the Vocabulary I had previous to this period already begun.

Siobuts was a kind of game which by the interpreters was called, in Dutch, the game of the goose (Ganse-speel). In playing this game they made use of a thick checkered paper, with dif-

[page] 122

ferent figures delineated upon each square. A die was thrown, and each player had a wooden slice, or something of the kind, with which he marked up his throw on the figures.

Cards are by no means a favourite diversion with the Japanese; besides, they are very strictly prohibited. I saw them played on board of the vessel sometimes, but never on shore. The cards are made of thick and stiff paper, two inches long, and one inch or more broad: they are fifty in number, black on the under side, and dissimilarly marked on the upper. The cards were laid in different heaps, and on each heap the money; after which they were turned up, in order to see who had won. So that this game very much resembled that which with us is called Sala hybika.

During our stay here I made myself acquainted with the Japanese compass. This instrument is divided into twelve points: that is, first, into the cardinal points, E. N. S. and W.; and afterwards, each of these into three more. The points bear the name of certain animals, such as for the NORTH, which is in their language called Kitta; 1. the Rat, in the Japanese language, Ne; 2. the Cow or Ox, Us; and 3. the Tiger, Tora; for the EAST or Figast; 4. the Hare U; 5. the Dragon, Tats; 6. the Serpent, Mi; for the SOUTH or Mirrani; 7. the Horse,

[page] 123

Uma; 8. the Sheep, Fitusi; 9. the Ape, Saru; for the WEST or Nis; 10. the Hen, Ton; 11. the Dog, Inu; and 12. the Wild Boar, I.

Some peculiarities occurred in their language, which to me appeared to be worth attending to. Iquang signifies with them a thousand, but is not used on any other occasion than in counting out money; one hundred thayls or a thousand manas, therefore, is always denoted by Iquang me. Mono signifies both a human being and goods; but these two different significations are denoted by different letters when the word is written. Ssugi signifies Cedar wood (Cupressus and Juniperus) and the particle over; both are sounded alike, but written differently. In like manner, Kang signifies warm as well as cold. Fas has a threefold signification; that is, first, the small and round lacquered sticks with which they eat, instead of a fork; secondly, a bridge, and lastly (margo) the edge of a table, or of any thing else. Yesterday, or the preceding day, they express three different ways: viz. Kinno, Senjits, and Sakkusits.

The people in office at this place, who wore two sabres, were called Samrai; and such as were entitled to wear but one, were called Tjonen.

At last, after waiting a long time, we weighed with a more favourable and prosperous wind,

[page] 124

and sailed to Dsino Kameru, where we again let fall our anchor. All around us, as before, we observed islands of various sizes, betwixt which we sailed; these waters being filled with them.

At every place where we anchored, the Japanese were very anxious to go on shore, in order to bathe. Cleanliness is the constant object of these people, and not a day passes in which they do not wash themselves, whether they are at home or out upon a journey. In all towns and villages, inns and private houses, therefore, there are baths. The poorer sort of people pay a trifle only for bathing; but as many of them are apt to use the same water without changing, it frequently happens that they catch the itch and other contagious distempers.

Of children there were here, as well as in the villages in other parts, great numbers, and it was these only that called out after us, when at any time we landed. I observed every where that the chastisement of children was very moderate. I very seldom heard them rebuked or scolded, and hardly ever saw them flogged or beaten, either in private families or on board of the vessels; while in more civilized and enlightened nations, these compliments abound. In the schools one might hear the children read all at once, and so loud, as almost to deafen one.

[page] 125

Our coasting voyage was again continued to Miterai, between a number of small islands, and in a narrower channel between two large provinces. The harbour here is large and safe; on which account this place is always sought as an anchorage by a great number of vessels.

In all the sea ports great care has been taken to establish a brothel (and for the most part several) even in the smallest villages. They were commonly the handsomest houses in the place, and sometimes were even situated near their idol's temples. In so small a place as Dsino Kamera there were said to be no less than fifty women; in Kaminoseki there were two houses, both which together contained eighty ladies, and in Miterai there were no less than four of these reputable houses.

Amazed at such a vicious institution amongst a people, in other respects so sensible and judicious, I was at some pains to find out from the interpreters when, and on what occasion, this institution had originated, and afterwards been diffused all over the country. In answer to my enquiries I was informed, that this dissolute establishment had not subsisted here in ancient times; but had first taken rise during the civil war which was carried on, when the secular emperor, as generalissimo of the army, dispossessed the Dairi of the imperial power, except

[page] 126

that which he still holds in ecclesiastical matters. At that time the Dairi was obliged, being as yet very young, to flee, with his foster-mother and his court, to Simonoseki. The Dairi's domestics consisted then, as they do at present, of none but the fair sex, and he is even now considered as so holy, that no male may approach him. In this flight over sea, being pursued by the enemy, his foster-mother leaped with him into the sea, where they both perished. His female servants who arrived at Simonoseki, and had nothing left to subsist on, were under the necessity of adopting a rather dishonourable mode of gaining their livelihood. This, as several people assured me, gave the first rise to houses of this kind; the number of which has since, during the civil war and disturbances of many years continuance, gradually increased.

The interpreters told me likewise, that these women are not called by the same name every where, or alike regarded. In Simonoseki they are still more peculiarly called Jorussi, and this name was before, and still is borne by the Dairi's concubines, who, besides his real wife, are twelve in number. All others out of Simonoseki are usually called Keise or Kese. The name signifies a castle that is turned upside down, and therefore is perfectly well adapted to these women, who have made the transition from chastity

[page] 127

to dishonour. The Faifats are a lower sort, who are at any man's service, viz. for eight konderyns. Fai Gin was a coin formerly in circulation, of very bad silver, and of the value of a konderyn. Eight of these Fai gins, therefore, have given them their present name. The Ofiakv were described as being of the lowest class, who ran about the streets begging. These were said to have received their denomination from a woman of that name, who was a lunatic, and also an idle good for nothing hussey. The thinking part of the Japanese however could not but allow, that these institutions were indecent, and a scandal to the nation.

Sigaki are a kind of oysters which are caught at Miterai, and are well tasted.

Here and at several other places I saw in what manner the Japanese preserved their craft against the ravages of that destructive worm, the Teredo Navalis. After having dragged the vessel up on the strand, they burned both sides of it as high as the water usually reaches, till the vessel was well covered with a coat of charcoal. This may perhaps contribute to preserve them likewise from rotting.

Proceeding on our voyage, we again set sail with a more favourable wind for Fiogo, where we arrived after a disagreeable and dangerous passage of twenty-six days. As often as the

[page] 128

Japanese went on shore, they always took care to kill geese, ducks, and fowls, which were dressed for our table; but when they are out at sea, they are so superstitious, as not to kill any living creature. Therefore, that we might not for several days together be without roasted birds, I was obliged to take upon myself the office (which was not very troublesome indeed) of killing them.

In fine weather several sorts of ducks, and particularly the Anas Galericulata (or Chinese Teal) were assembled in these waters (where they are never scared away by the gun) in such numbers, that at a distance they appeared like large islands, and were not in the least afraid of us as we passed them, not even of me, who was their daily butcher.

Fiogo is situated about ten leagues (or thirteen sea-leagues) from Osaka, directly opposite to it in the same Bay. It has a large bason, which however is open to the south, and was therefore formerly considered as uncertain and dangerous towards that side. This disagreeable circumstance has nevertheless been removed by the Emperor FEKI, at an incredible expence, and with great labour and difficulty, in undertaking which great numbers of people are said to have perished. This emperor caused a dam to be made to the southward of the harbour, in

[page] 129

order to prevent the sea from breaking into it. The dam round which we sailed appeared at first sight like a sand-bank, and was not much below the surface of the water. Several hundred vessels, besides ours, had taken shelter here; on which account this harbour is of the more consequence, as the water as far as Osaka is but shallow, and does not admit of large vessels getting up thither. The town, like Nagasaki, is built along the shore of the harbour, and then on the rising ground that shopes off gradually from the mountains. The concourse of people here is very great, and the town tolerably extensive and handsome.

KÆMPFER makes mention, that he went in small boats from Fiogo to Osaka; but although we were here obliged to quit our larger vessel, we travelled from hence by land to Kansaki, from which place we were carried over in vessels three leagues to Osaka.

On the 8th of April, in the morning, we set out for Isinomia, in order to dine there; after this we went to Amagasaki, a fortified town on the sea coast, where, after a journey of two leagues, we rested a little, and then went a league farther on to the village of Kansaki, near a large river. From this place we ordered ourselves to be set over in boats to the mouth of that large stream which runs through the town of Osaka


[page] 130

down into the bay, and which is about the distance of three leagues.

Our new host was the first who came in a boat to meet us on the river, and then conducted us up the same through the suburbs, which had been built all along its banks, and which were covered by several hundreds of vessels, that bore witness to the great and extensive traffic of this town. After we had passed several bridges, the gates, and the guard-houses that stood on each side of these latter, we perceived that we were come into the town itself.

Here we were extremely well lodged and treated. Shortly after our arrival, our host entered, dressed in his best clothes, and, with a joyful countenance and the most respectful demeanor, congratulated us, through the interpreter, on our safe arrival after such a long and tedious voyage, and brought with him one of his servants, who produced, as usual, a small square table with a present, which was likewise decorated in the most superb manner. This present consisted of several oranges of the common size, but with a thick rind, a few Micans, or smaller oranges with a thinner rind, and a few dried figs. On the top of this present was laid a folded paper, tied over with red and gilded paper-thread, at the end of which was pasted a strip of Sea-weed (Fucus). Round about it also were

[page] 131

laid several square pieces of the same sea-weed. All this is according to the etiquette; and is a demonstration of the highest respect for the travelling stranger.

Among other things, we had for supper a kind of fish called Abrame, which was extremely well tasted.

The first thing we had now to do, was to testify our gratitude to the Captain who had brought us safe in the large vessel to Fiogo, and, together with some of the crew, had borne us company hither, and taken care of our baggage. For my part, I had to pay him six thails, and to the sailors seven maas, five konderyns. In like manner, we were each of us obliged to pay three thails to those who had guarded and taken care of our norimons, and to the servant sent with us by the Governor, six thails, amounting altogether to about sixteen rixdollars.

In Osaka, we staid that day and night only; and, in the mean time, were visited by several merchants, from whom we bespoke several articles, corresponding with the samples which they shewed us, and which were to be ready at our return. Such were, in particular, insects of copper, and artificial trees varnished, fans of various kinds, writing paper, paper for hangings, and some other rarities.

K 2

[page] 132

Osaka is one of the five imperial towns which belong to the secular emperor: it is governed in his name, and, in like manner as Nagasaki, by two governors, one of whom goes to the court every other year, and in the intermediate year exercises the functions of government. This is, at the same time, one of the greatest commercial towns in the empire, on account of its situation near the coast, and almost in the center of the country. In consequence of the incredibly great supply of every article from all parts of the country, provisions are here very cheap, and the most wealthy artists and merchants have established themselves here. The river Jedogawa, up which we sailed to the town, runs through the streets, and is divided by means of canals into several branches. The citadel, which stands on one side of the town, is almost one league square, and, in the style of this country, well fortified. Across the river, which runs through the town, not only expensive bridges of cedar are built, but they are also numerous, and some of them very long, from 300 to 360 feet. In almost every house the front of the ground floor is either a workshop or a large sale-shop, where the goods are hung out to the view, to entice purchasers. Many rich people retire to this place, to spend their fortunes, as this town is the most pleasant in all Japan; so

[page] 133

that it is in Japan, what Paris is in Europe, a place where an incessant round of amusements is to be had. The governor of the town possesses no authority over the citadel; but it is under the care of two other governors or commandants alternately, who relieve each other every third year, and who have no command in the town. One of them resides always at court, and when he goes down to relieve his predecessor, the exchange is attended with this particular circumstance, that these two are not to speak to each other; and when one enters, the other must go out, and immediately proceed to the court, to give an account of his administration.

As it was thirteen miles from Osaka to Miaco, we were obliged to set out early in the morning on the 9th of April. We were awakened, therefore, before it was day-light; and after having drank a dish of coffee, and got ready our bread and butter for breakfast, proceeded on our journey; the Japanese, who went before with a great number of torches to light us on our way, almost continually cheering us with their enlivening songs. After travelling two miles, and arriving at a large village called Morikuts, we and our bearers reposed for a while. After this, we proceeded three leagues to a larger village, viz. Firakatta, where we again rested and took some

K 3

[page] 134

refreshment. After which, we went on to another resting place, viz. Jodo, one league farther, and dined rather late at Fusimi, to which it was more than a league. Jodo is a small, but handsome town, and has plenty of water. Its bridge, called Jodo bas, is one of the largest in that kingdom, being 400 paces in length. The town is defended by a citadel, situated on one side of it, in which a prince keeps court. Fusimi is, in fact, nothing more than a village; but then it is three leagues long, and reaches quite to the imperial capital, Miaco, of which it may be considered as the suburbs.

Excepting in Holland, I never made so pleasant a journey as this; with regard to the beauty and delightful appearance of the country. Its population too, and cultivation, exceed all expression. The whole country on both sides of us, as far as we could see, was nothing but a fertile field, and the whole of our long day's journey extended through villages, of which one begun where the other ended, and which were built along the road.

This day, I saw several carts driving along the road, which were the first I had seen, and indeed, were the only wheel-carriages used in and about the town of Miaco, there being otherwise none in the country. These carts were long and narrow, with three wheels, viz. the two

[page] 135

usual wheels, and one before. The wheels were made of an entire piece of wood sawed off a log. Round the felly was put a cord, or some such thing, to prevent the wheel from wearing away by friction. Nearer the town, and in it, these carts were larger and clumsier, sometimes with two wheels only, and drawn by an ox. Some of these carts too were like those of Europe, with naves and spokes, but not mounted with iron, and very liable to be broken. None were allowed to drive these carts, excepting on one side of the road, which, on that account, seemed much broke up. For this purpose, too, a regulation was made, that the carts should set out in the forenoon, and return in the afternoon, in order that they might not meet each other.

Small cakes made of boiled flower of rice, sometimes coloured green and sometimes white, were to be purchased at all the inns, and likewise in the villages, these were bought by travellers, and particularly by the norimon carriers, who ate them with their tea, which was every where kept in readiness for the convenience of travellers.

Near the river Miacos, dwelt a great number of Pelicans, who had made their nests in pine-trees all along the road, as had also ducks and other wild-fowl; notwithstanding that, even the banks of the river were not left free for

K 4

[page] 136

them to dwell on, but were every where inhabited and cultivated.

I had imagined, that during so long a journey, in a country to which Europeans have seldom any access, I should have been able to collect a great number of scarce and unknown plants; but I was never in my life so much disappointed. In most of the fields which were now sowed, I could not discover the least trace of weeds, not even throughout whole provinces. A traveller would be apt to imagine, that no weeds grew in Japan: But the industrious farmers pull them diligently up, so that the most sharp-sighted botanist can hardly discover any uncommon plant in their well-cultivated fields. Weeds and fences were equally uncommon in this country; a country, surely, in this respect, inexpressibly fortunate. The seed is sown on small beds of about the breadth of a foot, and separated by a furrow above a foot broad. On these small beds, wheat or barley is sown, either crossways in rows, at a small distance from each other, or else lengthways in two rows. After the corn is grown up to the height of about twelve inches, earth is taken out of the furrow, which is thus converted into a ditch, and this earth is carefully laid about the borders, which, by this means, receive fresh nourishment and manure.

[page] 137

In consequence of so laborious an operation, the corn fields bear the exact appearance of cabbage-beds, which makes the view of the heights in particular enchanting, these being bordered at the foot with a stone wall, so that they have all the appearance of being surrounded by ramparts. If these heights are sown, which is not seldom the case, with rice, then the water which is collected on their tops from the clouds and the rain, is conducted from them to the lower-most parts, so that they are laid under water by means of a wall raised at the bottom, of an equal height, through which the water may be let out at pleasure.

In the beginning of April, the farmers began to turn over the ground that was intended for rice. This, by means of its raised borders, lay now almost entirely under water. The ground was turned up with a hoe, that was somewhat crooked, with a handle to it, and was a foot in length, and of a hand's breadth. Such rice fields as lay low, and quite under the water, were ploughed with an ox or cow, for which work these animals only are used in this country.

The other fields, which were sown with East-Indian kale (Brassica Orientalis) appeared now, in the month of April, gilded all over with yellow flowers, and glistened even at a great distance. The seeds of this kind of kale, called Natanni,

[page] 138

are commonly pressed; and the oil expressed from them (Natanni abra) is used all over the country for burning in lamps. The seed is ripe in May, and the root is not used.

In several places I saw a kind of Mustard (Sinapis cernua) cultivated. The Japanese seldom use the seed of it to their victuals; but it was that kind which was sold to us now during our journey, and to the factory, for common mustard.

The husbandmen who were occupied in digging, were always followed by several beautiful whitish herons (Ardeæ), which cleared the fields of worms, and were very tame. On account of the service these birds are of, they are considered here as privileged, and are not scared away, nor molested by any one.

In the town of Miaco we were lodged in the upper story, which is not customary in other places, and we remained here four days. Our great chests were also opened, that we might take out a change of linen and other clothes, and necessary provision for the remainder of the voyage.

During this time we had an audience of the chief justice and the two governors of the town, who had all presents made them from the Dutch company. We were carried in our norimons to their palaces, and treated with green tea, tobacco, and sweetmeats. The chief justice (groot rechter) is almost the only male at the Dairi's or


[page] 139

ecclesiastical emperor's court. He is, as it were, his vicegerent or court marshal, who, in the name of his great master, regulates and orders every thing about the court, and more especially in ecclesiastical matters out of the court. He grants passes to all those who travel higher up the country, or to the secular emperor's court. This much-respected man is, nevertheless, not appointed by the Dairi, but by Kubo, and is generally an elderly man, and one whose understanding is ripened by age and experience. Some trusty old man, who at the same time is possessed of a tolerable portion of wealth, was said to be chosen for this office by the secular emperor; and as the income of this place is trifling and insufficient, he generally grows very poor in time with his high appointment.

The Dairi's court and palace is within the town, and, as it were, in a separate quarter of it, forming of itself a large town, surrounded by fosses, and a stone wall. We had not the good fortune to get a sight of it, otherwise than from a considerable distance. Within it lives the Dairi, with his concubines, a great number of his attendants, and priests. Within this palace all his pleasure lies, and here he passes his whole life, without once going out of it. When the Dairi at any time leaves his apartments in order to walk in the gardens, it is made known by signs, to

[page] 140

the end that no one may approach to see this country's quondam ruler, now merely its pope, vested with power in ecclesiastical matters only, but who is considered as being so holy, that no man must behold him. During the few days we staid here, his holiness was pleased once to inhale the pure air out of doors, when a signal was given from the wall of the castle.

Although Kubo, the temporal emperor, as generalissimo of the army, had wrested to himself the chief power, still, however, the greatest honours were left to the Dairi. For some time after the revolution, Kubo made also annually a journey to Miaco, in order to pay his respects to the Dairi. But of late years these visits have been now and then neglected, and are now said to be entirely laid aside.

Miaco is not only the oldest capital, but also the largest commercial town in the empire, an advantage, for which it is indebted to its central situation. It stands on a level plain of about four leagues in length, and half a league in breadth. Here are established the greatest number, and, at the same time, the best of workmen, manufacturers, and artists, as also the most capital merchants, so that almost every thing that one can wish or desire is to be purchased here: velvets and silks wove with gold and silver, wrought metals and manufactures in gold, silver, and cop-

[page] 141

per; likewise, sowas, clothes, and the best of weapons. The celebrated Japanese copper, after being roasted and smelted at the smelting-house, is refined and manufactured here. All the coin too is struck here and stamped. And as at the Dairi's court all kinds of literature are encouraged and supported, as at a royal academy, therefore all books that are published, are printed here.

Here the superior interpreter delivered to us a sum of money in new kobangs, for us to lay out during our journey in rarities and merchandize, or in what manner soever we might chuse. The secretary and I received each of us three hundred rixdollars, but which we were afterwards obliged to refund from our kambang stock in Nagasaki.

After bespeaking from those merchants who were permitted to visit us several articles, such as sowas-work, fans, and lacquered ware in particular, to be ready by our return.

On the 14th of April we set out on our journey. Before we had travelled one league we arrived at Keagi, where we made a short halt. We had not much farther to go from hence to Jaco Chaja, where we again rested a little. To Fasiri it was somewhat more than a mile, and about the same distance from thence to Isiba or Oits, where we dined. Oits is situated near a lake of the same

[page] 142

name, which, in proportion to its length of forty Japanese miles, is very narrow. Ancient histories relate, that this lake was formed in one night only by an earthquake, in which this whole tract of country gave way and disappeared. This lake is very convenient for the conveyance of goods and merchandize by water to the adjacent places, and is likewise remarkable from the circumstance, that, though it is only a fresh-water lake, it contains salmon; a species of fish which is otherwise so very scarce, and, indeed, hardly ever to be seen in the East Indies. Some salmon were brought to us to buy for our table, which were very delicious. The largest that I had an opportunity of seeing weighed about ten pounds. Finding in the course of our journey that we often had this species of fish brought to us, we ordered some to be smoked against our return: however they were not to be compared to our European salmon, either in fatness, size, or the mode of curing them.

In the afternoon we continued our journey one league to Tsetta, one league to Skinova, and somewhat more than a league to Kusats, where we took up our night's lodging. This village has at least five hundred ground-plots. At Tsetta we crossed the river over a very long bridge. The bridge rested on a small island, which was

[page] 143

situated nearer to the town than to the opposite shore. It was about three hundred and fifty paces in length; built, according to the usual mode of this country, in a magnificent stile, and furnished with balustrades.

The next morning, being the 15th of April, we had above eleven leagues to travel to several villages and towns, which stood quite close to each other, in a large, rich, and fertile district, called Omi. Among the most remarkable of these were Menoki, Issibe, Nasumi, Isami, Minacuts, Ono, Matsu, Fitzjoma, Ino fana sawa, and Sakanosta. We dined at Minakuts, which is a large inland town. Here, as well as at the other places, were sick people, who had come from the adjacent parts for advice from the Dutch physicians, in their chronical complaints. These complaints were frequently either large indurated glands in the neck, and cancerous ulcers, or else venereal symptoms, which had generally taken too deep root.

Towards evening we were come into the district of Issi, where we passed through several villages, and at last arrived at the town of Seki, where we took up our night's lodging.

On the 16th of April our journey was not less agreeable than it had been the day before, and, indeed, hitherto in general; by reason that

[page] 144

the country of Isi was very closely inhabited, fertile, and populous, insomuch that we passed through very long villages, which lay upon the road, and at very short distances from each other. We were, nevertheless, whenever we passed through any village, subject to an inconvenience which embittered all our pleasures, and obliged us to keep the windows of our norimons shut. A privy, which is necessary for every house, is always built in the Japanese villages towards the street, and at the side of the mansion-house; it is open downwards, so that the passengers may discharge their water from the outside into a large jar, which is sunk on the inside into the earth. The stench arising from the urine and the ordure, as also from the offals of the kitchen, all which were very carefully collected together for the lands, was frequently, in hot weather, so strong and insupportable, that no plug introduced into the nose could dispute the passage with it, and no perfumes were sufficient entirely to disperse it. Useful and beneficial as, in other respects, I every where found this branch of the over-strained œconomy of the Japanese, it was equally hurtful to the eyes. For by the exhalations of this intolerable vapour, to which the people had gradually accustomed themselves, the eyes became so much affected, that a great many, and par-

[page] 145

ticularly old people, were afflicted with very red, sore, and running eyes.

This day we travelled about ten Japanese miles; and dined at Tsiakusi, after having passed through Nosin, Kamirujammi, Moirinosta, and Sono, and in the evening arrived at a famous large town near the bay, called Kwana, after having passed through Sutski, Ojiwaki, Jokaits, a large town, Tomida and Matsdera.

At Jokaits we were come again to the sea shore, which we followed almost all the way to the capital, Jedo; and in our way had many large and dangerous streams to ford, over which no bridges could be thrown, on account of the great increase of the waters in the rainy seasons.

On our way from Jokaits, we were favoured with the company of three mendicant nuns, one of which followed each of our norimons, in expectation of obtaining some money from the Dutch. They accompanied us with an even pace for several hours, constantly begging, although at the very beginning they had received a handsome piece of silver from us. Their dress was neat and clean, but their incessant begging extremely troublesome. We therefore changed a piece of gold into pieces of small copper coin, which were strung on a ribbon by means of a square hole made in the middle. One or two of these copper coins, called Seni, we dis-


[page] 146

tributed now and then, so that the expence became more supportable to us. The girls were of different ages, from 16 to 18 years, decent in their behaviour, except the circumstance of their begging with such pertinacity, and were said to be the daughters of priests of the mountains, a sort of monks in this country, called Jammabos. The interpreters told us also, that their chief support was begging, that out of their alms they were obliged to pay a certain tribute to the temple of Isi, and that they were not quite so well behaved and chaste, as, from what we saw, we might suppose them to be. They were called Komano Bikuni.

Kwana is a large and strongly fortified town, in the province of Owari, which is rich, and of great consequence amongst the princely provinces of this empire. Here we took up our night's lodging, in a handsome and commodious inn. The town has two forts, and is surrounded by fosses and walls. The citadels have high towers, which afford a pleasing sight, and in every part of them, and of the walls, small oblong openings are visible, through which the besieged may discharge their arrows, under cover of the walls, against the enemies shot.

On the 17th of April, in the morning, we set out from Kwana in a vessel, and crossed the bay to Mia, which was reckoned seven sea leagues.


[page] 147

But this voyage was one of the most extraordinary that ever was made. We embarked with our retinue and baggage on board of large vessels at Kwana; but when we approached near the harbour of Mia town, the harbour grew so shallow, that we were obliged to make use of small boats in order to disembark; nevertheless we could not get up to the town otherwise than by being pushed over the mud by the hands of two men fording it in very little water. So that we might rather be said to go by land than by water, and that a good way up to the town.

Mia therefore, though situated near the bay, is a very indifferent harbour, and unfit for larger, and even for smaller kinds of vessels; notwithstanding which, a considerable number of them lay here at anchor. The town has neither walls nor forts, but is extremely populous, and has great traffic. There is besides an extraordinary circumstance with respect to Mia, that the middle street projects full two leagues out of the town, all along the large river, up to the town of Nagaja, which is fortified, and is the capital of the province of Owari.

After having dined in Mia, we set out again on our journey, and passing through Kassadera, Marumi, Singo, and Imo Kawa, to Tjiriu, where we put up at night, making in all four leagues.

On the morning following, being the 18th of

L 2

[page] 148

April we proceeded through Usida, Ofama and Jafagi to Okasaki, a fortified town in the province of Mikawa. Here we dined, after having viewed and passed over the remarkable bridge which is laid across the river near the town, and is considered as the longest bridge in the whole empire, being 158 fathoms long. It is built of wood, and is said to have cost 30,000 kobangs, or 300,000 rix-dollars. The Prince of the province resides in the fort, which is well fortified, and adorned with a high tower and walls.

In the afternoon, passing through Kaginoies, Fusikawa, Motosiku, Akasaki, Goju, Diokasen, and Jootsia, we travelled somewhat above seven leagues farther on to Joots Sida or Josida, where we staid all night.

The country appeared this day more mountainous than it had for some time before, but was interspersed with level plains and vallies which were well cultivated. In this month the rice was transplanted. It is first sown very thick on separate beds, like cabbage or other rooted plants, and, when grown to about a hand's breadth in height, taken up, in order to be transplanted out in the fields. For this purpose several roots are taken together, and with the hand put down firm into the ground, which is about six inches under water. Each bundle is set a hand's breadth or more asunder. This transplantation is gene-

[page] 149

rally the women's business, who on this occasion are used to wade half a leg deep in water and mud. After this, the rice ripens, and is cut down in the month of November.

The rice, the grain of which is surrounded with a husk, is afterwards cleaned in various ways, till the grain is totally deprived of all extraneous matter. In the course of my travels I saw several of these different methods. Sometimes it was beaten with blocks which had a conical hole in them. These blocks were placed in two rows, generally four on each side, and raised by water, in the same manner as the wheel of a mill. In their fall they beat the rice so that the grain separated from the chaff. Sometimes, when there was no opportunity for erecting similar water-works, a machine of this kind was worked by a man's foot; who, at the same time also stirred the rice with a bamboo. In private families I sometimes saw rice pounded in small quantities, and for daily use, in the same manner as on board of the ships, and at other places in the East Indies; that is, in a hollowed block with a wooden pestle.

Fucus Saccharinus (Komb or Kohu) was thrown up on the sea-shore in these provinces. I found it of a considerable breadth as well as length. Otherwise it was said to come from the great island called Matsinai, which lies to the northward of

L 3

[page] 150

Japan. This Fucus, when dried and cleansed from sand, salt, and other impurities, is used by the Japanese, on several occasions. As tough as it may appear to be, yet it is eaten occasionally, and particularly when they meet together to make merry, and drink Sakki. In these circumstances it is cut into pieces and boiled, upon which it grows much thicker than before, and is mixed with other food. It is sometimes eaten raw, after being scraped till it is white, and in such case is generally cut into slips of a nail's breadth, and two inches in length, then folded up in the form of a square, and tied over with a finer slip of the breadth of a line, and three inches in length, cut out of the same fucus. These folded squares are eaten with or without Sansjo (Fagara piperita.) When presents are made, about half a score or even a score of these squares are strewed about on the small table. When any presents are made, which is customary here on many occasions, and is deemed necessary, it makes part of the ceremonial to accompany the present with a complimentary paper, as it is called, which is folded in a singular manner and tied. To each end of this paper, a slip is always pasted of this fucus, an inch broad and a quarter of an inch long. This fucus is by some called Nosi.

In several of the villages we passed through, I saw the manner in which the oil of the Dryandra

[page] 151

Cordata (Abrasin) was expressed for the purpose of burning in lamps. The press lies down on the ground, and consists of two blocks, between which the seed is put and crushed, and the oil expressed. One of the blocks is fixed and immoveable, and against this the other is forced by means of graduated wooden wedges, which increasing in size at the foremost end, are driven in with a very long wooden club. At the side is an opening to let out the oil, which is received in a vessel placed underneath.

Screens, eight feet high, are contrived so commodious, that they may be put up together in several folds, and are used every where to set before the beds when several persons sleep in one chamber, or when the occupier wishes to conceal any thing in his own room. They serve also to divide the apartments; to set before the windows by way of keeping off a draught of air; to put before the fire-pot in the winter, so as to make the room warmer within the space thus intercepted, and on many other occasions. These screens are of different sizes; they are often handsomely painted, and covered over with thick painted paper; for the most part, they are composed of six different frames, each about two feet broad.

There is nothing which travellers wear out so fast as shoes. They are made of rice straw, and platted, and by no means strong. The value of

L 4

[page] 152

them too is trifling, insomuch, that they are bought for a few copper coins (Seni). There is nothing therefore more commonly exposed to sale in all the towns and villages, even in the smallest, through which the traveller generally passes. The shoes, or rather the straw slippers, which are in the most general use, are without strings; but such as are used on journeys, are furnished with a couple of strings made of twisted straw, so that they may be tied fast about the foot, and do not easily fall off. And that these strings may not chafe the instep, a linen rag is sometimes laid over it. On the roads it is not unusual to see travellers who carry with them one or more pair of shoes, to put on when those that are in use fall to pieces. When it rains, or the road is very dirty, these shoes are soaked through, so that the traveller is obliged to walk wetshod. Old worn-out shoes are found lying every where by the side of the roads, especially near rivulets, where travellers, on changing their shoes, have an opportunity at the same time of washing their feet.

Small shoes, or slippers of straw, are used for the horses all over this country, instead of iron shoes. These are tied above the hoof with straw strings, to prevent their feet from being hurt by stones; and when the roads are slippery, keep the horses from stumbling. They are not very strong, cost but little, and are to be had every where.

[page] 153

I saw a curious and peculiar method practised here of conveying the water in times of great drought to the subjacent corn-fields. The rivulets, it is true, are both large, and swell much in rainy weather; but, at the same time, they run off very quickly into the sea, and are then greatly diminished. In order to reap the benefit of these, the farmers throw up banks of several yards in breadth, and of an immense length, over which they carry the water to a great distance, and draw it off as fast as it is wanted from the sides on to the fields that lie below. Several of the rivulets rise in the rainy season so high, and with such rapidity, that no bridge can resist the force of the current. These streams, therefore, must either be passed in boats, if that be feasible, or else forded. The bearers, who are used to this business, and sure-footed, carry the travellers either on their shoulders, or sitting in their norimons; both which ways, to me, frequently bore the appearance of being very dangerous. Some of these rivulets afterwards dry up, so that they may be passed dry-shod in the summer.

In the villages were planted in a great many places Almond and Peach trees (Amygdalus communis and Persica) and Apricot trees (Prunus Armeniaca), which all blossomed this month on the bare branches before the leaves had time to

[page] 154

burst forth from the bud. They furnished a most pleasing sight to the eye, on account of the number of blossoms which covered the whole tree, and even at a distance made a glorious appearance with their snow-white petals. These, as well as the Plumb trees (Prunus Domestica), Cherry trees (Prunus Cerasus), Apple and Pear trees (Pyrus Malus and Cydonia) bore at this time both single and double flowers. On the latter, as well as on other deformities of this kind, the Japanese set a great value.

On the 19th of April, at noon, we arrived at a small and open town, called Arraij, and situated on the borders of a large bay which runs in at that place from the sea. If its bottom answers its appearance and situation, it should seem to be the safest and best harbour in the world; and, if fortified in the European manner, would be impregnable. We had about five leagues journey hither, passing Imuri, Ftagawa, Jet suri jama mura, Siraska, and Moto Siraska. This place is very remarkable, on account that here the merchandize and baggage of every traveller are searched, especially the baggage belonging to the princes who travel upwards to the court. This search is made by persons appointed by the emperor, and invested with full powers for the purpose, whose duty it is to see that no women nor arms are introduced, by which

[page] 155

the tranquillity of the country might be interrupted. After we had dined, and our baggage had been searched, though by no means strictly, we went to pay our respects to the imperial commissioners, and then proceeded on our journey, one league across the bay, in flat-bottomed vessels, to a town situated on the other side of it, called Majsakki, from whence we proceeded in the afternoon by the way of Sinowara, Nimbutsdo, Tammamats, a large and considerable town, Tinsjenmats, across Tindingawa river in boats, and farther on past Ikeda and Daisoin to Mitske, in all about seven leagues.

On the following morning, being the 30th of April, we went on past Mikano, Fukuroj, Nakurj, and Firagawa, to a large and fortified town called Kakagawa. Before noon we had travelled four leagues, and here we dined. After this we continued our route, passing Jamma fano, Nissaka, Kikugawa, and Kanaja, to the river Oygawa, in all four leagues. The river Ojingawa is one of the largest and most dangerous in the whole country. It does not only rise high, like others, in rainy weather, but its course towards the sea is inconceivably rapid, and the bottom of it is at this time frequently covered with large stones, which the violence of the stream has carried with it from the mountains. At all these large rivers, where no bridges can

[page] 156

be built, the government has taken care that the traveller shall be attended, so as to be enabled to pass them without danger, either in boats or carried by other people. At this dangerous place, where neither bridge nor boat can be used, the care has been redoubled. Here, therefore, is ordered a great number of such men as not only know the bottom well and accurately, but are also used to carry travellers across, and are paid by them according to the height of the water, and consequently according to the danger. These fellows are likewise answerable with their lives in case of any sinister accident happening. The position in which we were carried over, sitting in our chairs, was exceedingly alarming, although the water was not remarkably high, and did not reach much above the bearers knees. Several men on each side bore our norimons, and others went along-side of these to support them, and prevent their being carried away by the force of the stream. In a similar manner the horses were taken over, with several men on each side of them, as was also all the rest of our baggage. By way of payment for taking over our norimon bearers, we here distributed to each of them a couple of pinches of strung copper coin. Being arrived safe over, we had not much more than half a league to our quarters for the night in Simada, a village about one-fourth of a league

[page] 157

in length. Having rested here two days and nights, we set out again on the 23d of April, passing by several villages, such as Cetto, Fusida, Avumi, Okabe, and Utsnoja, till we came to Mariko. After dining here, we passed the river Abikawa, and then through Futsjo and Guribara to our destined night-quarters in Jeseri, after having travelled in the course of the day above ten leagues.

On the 24th of April we were obliged to set out early in the morning, as this day we had thirteen leagues to go. After having travelled four leagues, and passed Jeseri noakits, Okits no, Frasawa, and Jui, we dined at Kambara. During a journey of five leagues, in the afternoon, we passed in vessels a large river, called Fusikawa, and then thro' Moto Itsiban, or Siro Sakki Josiwaro, Kasiwabara, Ipon mats, Farra, Numatso, and Kisigawa, to Misima.

Hitherto we had followed the sea coast; but at Ferra again a tract of land appeared, which was very mountainous, and over which we were to travel. The country here too abounded more in pines and other sorts of wood. Fusikawa River is very dangerous, and is said not to be passable any where but just at the spot where we crossed it. It is rather deep, and uncommonly broad, and rapid in its course, so that our rowers, though they pulled with all their might, could not take us straight over.

[page] 158

At Josiwara we were nearer than any where else, in the course of our journey we possibly could be, to the mountain of Fusi, the top of which we had already descried several days before, it being the highest mountain in that country, and almost the whole year round covered with snow, with which its white summit glistens far above the clouds. The Japanese reckon the height of it, in the ascent from the foot to the top, to be six leagues. In shape it greatly resembles the one-horned rhinoceros, or a sugar-loaf, being very thick and spreading at the foot, and pointed at the top. When the Japanese at any time visit this mountain, where they believe that the god of the winds (Æolus) has his residence, they generally take three days to ascend it. In the descent they are not so slow, as it is said to be sometimes performed in a few hours, when they make use of small sledges, constructed for that purpose, of straw or halm, and tied before their bodies.

In this neighbourhood I saw several boys turn round on their hands and feet like a wheel, all along the sandy road, in order to get a little money from us; for this purpose we had before-hand provided ourselves with some small copper coin, which we threw out amongst them.

After this we arrived at our night-quarters, but not till late in the evening, and, it being very dark, by the light of lanterns and torches.

[page] 159

On the following day a very fatiguing and troublesome route lay before us over the Fakonie mountains. The whole forenoon was employed in getting up to the top of them, where we rested ourselves, and afterwards spent the whole afternoon in getting down on the other side to the foot.

This day I was seldom in my norimon; but, as often as I possibly could, walked up the hills, which were pretty thickly covered with bushes and wild trees, and were the only hills that, except those which lie near the town and harbour of Nagasaki, I have been allowed to wander upon and to examine. But in the same degree as I eased my bearers of their burthen, I rendered the journey troublesome to the interpreters, and more particularly to the inferior officers, who by rotation were to follow my steps. I was not allowed indeed to go far out of the road; but having been previously used to run up rocks in the African mountains, I frequently got to a considerable distance before my anxious and panting followers, and thereby gained time to gather a great many of the most curious and scarcest plants, which had just begun to flower, and which I put up in my handkerchief.

After we had arrived to the top of the mountain, we descended again for about a quarter of

[page] 160

a league, and afterwards continued our route to Fakonie village, where we dined, bespoke against our return several pieces of lacquered wooden ware and other merchandise, and viewed this beautiful spot, situated so extremely high as it is, and on a very extensive mountain. Here was also a lake of a tolerable size, with an island in the middle. The water of it was sweet, and amongst other forts of fish it contained salmon, which was set upon our table.

Although the road went up hill continually all the forenoon, nevertheless the country was cultivated and inhabited in several different places. From Misina we travelled through Skawaro, Jamma Nakka, and Kapto Jes.

One of the handsomest and largest trees that I saw here, was the superb and incomparable Thuja dolabrata, which was planted every where by the road side. I consider this tree as the handsomest of all the fir-leaved trees, on account of its height, its straight trunk, and its leaves, which are constantly green on the upper, and of a silver-white hue on the under part. As I did not find it in flower here, nor any of its cones with ripe seed in them, I therefore used my endeavours to procure, through the interpreters and others of my friends, a few seeds and growing plants of it, which I afterwards sent over to Holland by the first conveyance.

[page] 161

A shrub grew here to which I gave the name of Lindera; its wood is white and soft, and the Japanese make tooth brushes of it, with which they brush and clean their teeth, without injuring either the gums or teeth in any shape whatever. These are sold as common as matches in Europe.

The Barberry bush (Berberis vulgaris) both the Swedish and that from Crete (B. Cretica) grew here, and were now in blossom.

The Osyris Japonica, that was found here, is a curious shrub, which had several flowers on the middle of its leaves, a most rare circumstance in nature.

Amongst the bushes grew a great number of the Deutzia Scabra, a shrub, of which the leaves were so rough, that the joiners used them universally, in the same manner as we do the shave-grass for polishing wood.

The northern and mountainous part of Japan being very cold, I found here several genera of trees and shrubs, which are otherwise inhabitants in Europe, although, for the most part, they were a new species. Thus I found here two or three kinds of Oak, some Vaccinia, a few Viburna, and trees of the Maple kind, (Aceres) together with a wild sort of Japanese Pear (Pyrus Japonica).

Near the farms, as well here as at various places, several other plants were cultivated, some


[page] 162

for hedges, some on account of their beautiful flowers, and some with a view to both these intentions. These were,

Several new species of Viburnum, with both single and double flowers (flores radiati) so that some exactly resembled the Gueldres rose (Viburnum opulus.)

Of the Spirea kind I very frequently saw the Chamœdrifolia, and the Cronata, used for hedges, which, with their snow-white flowers, made an elegant appearance.

The Citrus trifoliata with its hard and stiff thorns, of the length of one's finger, was not so generally used for hedges. Its bare branches were now in full bloom, and the leaves had hardly begun to shew themselves. The fruit was said to be of a laxative nature.

For beauty nothing could excel the Maples indigenous to this country (Acer dissectum, Japonicum, palmatum, septemlobum, pictum, and trifidum) which here and at other places were found cultivated. They had but just then begun to put forth their blossoms; and, as I could no where get any of the ripe seed, I was obliged to bespeak some small plants in pots, which, with a great deal of trouble and expence, were forwarded to Nagasaki.

That beautiful plant, the Gardenia florida, which I saw here both with double and single flowers,

[page] 163

and which is so seldom to be had in other places, was also a bush used for making hedges, altho' by the principal people of the country only, and near their dwellings. The seed vessels of it were sold in the shops, and used for dying yellow.

A long and slender Lizard (Lacerta Japonica) which the interpreters considered as a Scincus marinus, and which was called by the Japanese, in their language, Sans jo no iwo, was very commonly seen running in the tracts of the Faconie mountains. I afterwards saw the same animal hanging out for sale and dried, in almost every shop in this part of the island; several of them were spitted together on a wooden skewer, that was run thro' their heads. It was used in powder as a strengthening remedy; it was also exhibited in consumptions; and to children that were infested with worms. The Arum dracontium and dracunculus, and the Dracontium polyphyllum, with its large flowers, that diffused around a cadaverous odour, were seen dispersed up and down in different spots, as also the Arum esculentum, which was cultivated in several places. The roots of all these plants are very acrid. The root of the Dracontium polyphyllum is used by dissolute women, for the purpose of procuring abortion; but the root of the Arum esculentum, when divested of its acrimony, and cut into pieces, is a good and nutritious food.

The village of Fakonie lies on the borders of

M 2

[page] 164

lake Fakonie above mentioned, which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. This village consists of at least one hundred and fifty houses, altho' it lies so high up the mountains as hardly to admit of cultivation. The lake is said to be one league long, and three quarters of a league broad. In some places it appeared to me to be of the breadth of two musket shots at most. Stroemings, a species of Herring so common in the Baltic, and which, according to Kæmpfer, is to be found here, I had not an opportunity of seeing; but some salmon was now ordered to be smoked against our return. This lake was said to have been produced by an earthquake, which in this country, and especially in the northern parts of it, is no uncommon phænomenon. This is the more probable, as from the bottom of the lake the divers still bring up large cedar trees, which had formerly sunk down thither with the land itself.

Cedars (Cupressus Japonica) grew in great plenty hereabouts, as well as in most of the other provinces; but no where, perhaps, can they be found finer, or in greater numbers. These are indeed the straightest and tallest of all the fir-leaved trees. Their trunks run up as straight as a candle, and the wood lasts long without being subject to decay. It is not only made use of for the construction of bridges, ships,

[page] 165

boats, and other sorts of wood-work to be kept under water, but of it is made also joiners work of all kinds and dimensions, which, when lacquered, shews all its veins through the varnish. This wood, when it has lain for some time underground, and is soaked through by the water, acquires a bluish colour, and, when covered with a transparent lacquer, is extremely handsome, and much of it is sold from this place.

We now left this beautiful spot, and proceeded on our journey down the mountain, during which time I did not neglect diligently to search for and collect the flowers and seeds of the plants and bushes that grew by the road-side. In our way we saw a great many pretty artificial cascades and aqueducts from the lake, made by the inhabitants, for the benefit and convenience of their estates. But before we reached the foot of the mountain, we came to an imperial guard, by whom we were narrowly searched, in presence of the sitting imperial commissioners.

This is the second guard which travellers, coming from the western district, must pass, when they intend to go to Jedo. The situation of the country hereabouts is such, that every one must travel over mount Fakonie, and pass this narrow place, which is guarded and shut up with gates. The duty of the commissioners is, particularly, to take great care that no

M 3

[page] 166

weapons are carried this way up the country, nor women downwards, especially such as are constantly kept in Jedo as hostages for the fidelity of their husbands in the exercise of their offices, and for their loyalty to the emperor. This place is therefore like a frontier to the northern part of the country, and for the security of the capital. It is here that travellers shew their passports, and in default of such are detained.

Fatta, Kawa batta, Jomota, and Kasamats, were the villages which we passed through before we arrived at Odowara, where we staid all night, after more than five hours journey. In Jomoto the interpreters told me, that not far from thence there was a warm bath.

On the 26th of April, we arrived early in the morning at a large and rapid river, called Sakkawa, which we crossed in flat-bottomed boats, with thin bottoms. After this we followed the coast to the river and town of Fusisawa.

We went through Misawa, Kosinksikf to Koiso, four leagues from Odowara. Here we dined, and then travelled on for the space of about seven leagues to the town of Totska (where our quarters were bespoke for that night) passed Firaska, over the river Banningawa, and then passed Nango, Kwada, Fusisawa town, and Fokanosikos.

[page] 167

Banningawa is one of the larger, rapid, and dangerous rivers of this country, over which no bridge can be built. We crossed it therefore in flat-bottomed boats constructed for the purpose. Here ended the mountainous tracts, and a level plain lay open to us, as far as we could see.

The town of Totska was situated in the interior part of a country, which projects in a very mountainous angle towards the sea; but we soon got to the sea coast again, and followed its shores quite up to the capital.

We set out on our last day's journey on the 27th of April, and had about ten leagues to go to Jedo. On this, as on the preceding day, we travelled through an extremely well inhabited and cultivated country, where one town or village almost joined another, and where travellers, in large troops, near the capital, as it were, jostled each other. We arrived first at Sinamo, and then at Odogaia, Kanagawa, Surumi, and Kawasakki, where we dined. Afterwards we came to the river Rokogawa, to Omuri, Obotoki, Okido, and Sinagawa.

On the coast, which in different parts was well supplied with oysters, and was covered with a great many shells of different sorts, of which I had no opportunity to get any in the course of

M 4

[page] 168

this day. I observed how both (Fuci and Ulvæ) green and brownish Sea-weed were collected to serve these industrious people for food. After these weeds, which were naturally not a litttle tough, had been well washed and freed from salt, sand; and other impurities, they were cut into small pieces, which were again washed and squeezed, till they were fit to be made into small cakes and eaten.

Sinagawa and Takanava are two suburbs to the imperial residence town of Jedo, the former commencing about two leagues from thence, and being continued along the sea-shore. We rested a full hour in Sinagawa, took some refreshments, and enjoyed the delightful view afforded us by the largest town in the empire, and probably on the whole face of the earth, as well as that of its beautiful harbour. This latter, however, it must be confessed, is excessively shallow and muddy. The largest vessels frequently lie at anchor at the distance of five leagues from the town, others less than two leagues, and the small craft and boats in several rows within each other, to the amount of some hundreds, according to their different size and burthen. The town is by these means well secured from the attacks of an enemy by sea; besides that, insurmountable obstacles lie in the way in cafe

[page] 169

of the transportation of merchandize from other places.

With the same curiosity as we beheld the town, harbour, and adjacent country, the Japanese beheld us, and making up to us in shoals, if I may use the expression, formed around us, shut up, as it were, in our norimons, a kind of encampment. Amongst the rest were several ladies of distinction, who had been carried to the spot in their norimons, and seemed displeased when we at any time let down the curtains. These norimons, when set down on the ground around us, seemed to form a little village, whose, small moveable mansions a short time afterwards disappeared.

Having passed through the suburbs of Sinagawa and Takanava, composed of only one street, I perceived by the guard, the increased number of people, the silence of our bearers, and their steadier gait, that we were in the capital. Not long after we passed over Niponbas, a bridge of forty and odd fathoms in length, and from which all the roads in the kingdom are measured. After having passed the guard-houses at the entrance of the town, we were carried a full hour along a large and broad street before we arrived at our usual inn, where we were carried through the back gate, and through a narrow passage to

[page] 170

the other end of the house. The first entrance into this lodging did not seem to promise us any thing very great or elegant; but being shewn up one pair of stairs, we found our apartments tolerably neat, though not such as I expected for an embassy from so distant a part of the world. A large room formed our anti-chamber, drawing-room, and dining-room; a separate room for the ambassador, and another that could be partitioned off for the doctor and the secretary, together with a small room for bathing, made the whole of our private conveniencies, with which we were obliged to put up during our stay here. The view was towards a smaller street, which was seldom free from boys, who constantly called out and made an uproar, as soon as they caught the least glimpse of us, nay, and sometimes climbed up the walls of the opposite houses in order to see us.

Thus we had with health and pleasure finished our long journey; and without any one being indisposed (except the secretary, who, when at sea, suffered an attack from the gout) were safe arrived at the capital of this country, situated in the remotest corner of the east.

The road by which we were conducted, was at some few places altered from that which the ambassador took in KÆMPFER's time, and a few other inns, different from those which we called

[page] 171

at, were used for resting and dining at. The voyage, which lasted almost a whole month, rendered this journey to court uncommonly tedious to us, and made our arrival at Jedo later than, perhaps, had ever happened before. This circumstance, however, was quite in my favour, as by this means the spring passed away the faster, and the summer approached the nearer, so that more trees and plants had time to blossom, than I should otherwise have seen and collected, if the journey had been a month shorter, and we consequently had returned a month sooner to the factory at Nagafaki.

In our way, we had an opportunity of seeing how several of the princes of the country, as well the greater and more opulent as those that were less considerable, made their annual journey to the imperial court, with a retinue proportioned to their rank and income. Few of them met us in their return. Most of them passed us on their way thither. For such as were of great consequence, we were obliged to stop while they passed us, unless we could get on to some inn before them; and when their retinue was very large, we frequently suffered the inconvenience, especially when we met them in places where there were nothing but small villages, of being obliged to put up at very indifferent inns. It even happened to us once, that we were com-

[page] 172

pelled to leave the inn we had already engaged in the town, and go to one of the temples situated out of it, where we staid two days, before we could get proper bearers, horses, and other necessaries for the continuation of our journey.

Several hundred men, sometimes even to the amount of one or two thousand, frequently constituted the train of one of these princes, who travelled with great state, order, and magnificence. A considerable quantity of their baggage was carried by them, or else on horses backs. Their coats of arms and insignia were always borne at a greater or less distance from their norimons. A beautiful led horse or two generally went before, and some had one or more falcons, trained up to the sport, which were carried on the arm, with a chain fastened round one of their legs. Besides this, large and small chests, bedding, the equipage of the tea table, and even an umbrella, fan, hat, and slippers, were carried by different servants, in order to have every thing ready at hand. Wherever they passed a profound silence was observed; the people on the road fell prostrate on the ground, in order to shew their respect. The norimon-bearers wore their masters livery, and every thing else was marked with the owners coat of arms. When they passed us, the curtain was generally down; some of them however had the

[page] 173

politeness to draw it up, and even to bow to us, and some sent their attendants to compliment us. If at any time we arrived before them at a town, or village, we had an opportunity of seeing, from some house which had been already bespoke for us in the main street, the whole suite pass by, when the curtain of the carriage was generally drawn up, and we had a sight of the prince sitting in his norimon, in appearance and complexion exactly like the common people, dressed in the same manner, and, except in the great state he exhibited, in no wife differing from other men.

On the frontiers of every province through which we passed, we had always been well received indeed, and complimented, but were not allowed to pay the princes a visit, although we passed thro' the very town in which they resided; nor were we once visited by them. The former of these could not be done, because it would have cost us considerable presents, which, after the manner of the country, are always sent previously to the visit being made. Neither is the latter suffered for certain reasons; for besides that this is prohibited, in order that the Dutch may not form any acquaintance with the princes of the country, which in one respect or another might prove prejudicial to it, the very dignity and greatness of the princes do not allow it, who, if this was

[page] 174

done, must appear in all their state. One evening, nevertheless, we happened to have the honour, as unexpected as it was unusual, of being visited at our inn by a great personage, who came to us incognito, accompanied only by two of his gentlemen, and staid till late at night, discoursing with us on different subjects. He seemed to be as curious and inquisitive as he was friendly and engaging. He examined our furniture, and every thing belonging to us that was at hand, with great attention, and the conversation turned not only on the affairs of Japan, but also on those of Europe. Sometimes, it is true, we had rain, but not too often, and the cold was supportable, altho' in some few places we were obliged to moderate it in our apartments by means of a fire. The Japanese themselves bore cold better than rain, which did not altogether agree with their bare feet and heads. If it rained hard, they did not willingly go out and expose themselves to it; otherwise, when on a journey, they covered themselves with an umbrella, hat, and cloak. Their umbrellas are made of oiled paper, such as are usually brought from China; their hats are round, and deep in the crown, and made of fine grass, platted; they are very thin and light, and are tied under the chin with a string. Their cloaks being made of oiled paper, keep


[page] 175

the rain out, and are inconceivably light, and at the same time do not grow heavier by the rain, as the clothes of the Europeans do. The poorer sort of people, who could not afford a cloak of the kind, hung a piece of straw-mat on their backs, which was generally smooth, but sometimes rough on the outside, from the projecting and depending ends of the straw.

In our journey hither we had passed through fourteen provinces, viz. Omura, Fisen, Tsikungo, Tsikudsen, Budsen Jammasiuo, Omi, Isi, Owari, Mikawa, Tootomi, Surunga, Sagami, and Musasi; besides passing by eight more on the coast in our voyage, viz. Nagatto, Suwo, Aki, Bingo, Bitsju, Bidsen, Farima, and Sidsju.


IMMEDIATELY on our arrival at Jedo, we were visited by great numbers of the Japanese, altho' we were not suffered to go out before the day of audience. However, no one had liberty to pay us a visit, except such as had received express permission from the government. At first we were visited by the learned and the great men of the country; afterwards even merchants and others were numbered among our visitors.

[page] 176

Five physicians and two astronomers were the very first, who after obtaining leave from the council of the empire, in a very ceremonious manner came to see us, and testify their satisfaction at our arrival. The ambassador in person, as also the secretary and myself, received them in our saloon, and had several hours conversation with them; although I, as being more travelled in the extensive fields of science, was, after the first general compliments had passed, almost solely engaged with their questions, to which they requested satisfactory answers and illustrations. The astronomers were SAKAKI BONSIN and SUBOKAWA SULO, both elderly and sedate men. The questions chiefly regarded eclipses, which I found that the Japanese could by no means calculate to minutes, and frequently not even to hours. As all questions and answers were obliged to be made through the interpreters, it often happened that we did not clearly understand each other; besides, I was not so well versed in the science that treats of the celestial bodies, as I could have wished, and neither they nor I had any book at hand, that could be of the least assistance to us in this point. With the physicians, it was much easier to converse, as two of them understood Dutch a little; likewise the interpreters were not totally ignorant of the art of healing. The physicians were as follows: OKADA JEOSIN, a

[page] 177

man above 70 years of age; he generally took the lead in the conversation, and amongst other things particularly requested me to give him some information concerning the cancer, broken limbs, bleeding at the nose, boils, phimosis, ulcerated throat, tooth-ach, and the piles. KURISUKI DOFA, was a young physician, who accompanied the former. AMANO REOSJUN and FOKUSMOTO DOSIN were the names of two others, who in general were only hearers. All these did not often repeat their visits, which afterwards indeed were not made with any parade, particularly to me. But two of the doctors not only visited me daily, but sometimes staid till late in the night, in order to be taught and instructed by me in various sciences, for which they had great predilection, such as natural philosophy, rural œconomy, and more particularly botany, surgery, and physic. One of these gentlemen, KATSRAGAWA FOSJU, was the emperor's body physician; he was very young, good natured, acute and lively. He wore the imperial arms on his clothes, and was accompanied by his friend NAKAGAWA SUNNAN, who was somewhat older, and was body physician to one of the first princes of the country. These two, and particularly the latter, spoke Dutch tolerably well, and had some knowledge of natural history, mineralogy, zoology, and botany, collected partly from Chinese and


[page] 178

Dutch books, and partly from the Dutch physicians, who had before visited these regions. Both of them were inexpressibly insinuating, and fond of learning, and were the more desirous of engaging me in conversation, as in me they found that knowledge which had been sought for in vain in others, and as the interpreters had long before our arrival spread the report, that this year a Dutch doctor would arrive much more learned than those who usually came thither, and who frequently were very little better than farriers. The fine set of instruments that I had brought with me from Paris and Amsterdam, served to confirm them still more in the good opinion they had already conceived of me. Although I was often wearied out by their questions, yet still I cannot deny, that I have spent many an hour in their company, with equal satisfaction and advantage. They frequently brought to me at the inn, either as presents or else for my inspection, small collections of drugs, minerals, and various fresh plants, both with and without flowers. Of the latter, which I put up in paper, dried and laid by, they gave me the indigenous names, together with their different uses; and I communicated to them in return, the Latin and Dutch names, and the more rational uses which the Europeans make of them. Their principal books in botany were, JOHNSTON's Historia Naturalis, and DODONÆUS's Herbal;

[page] 179

and in physic, WOYT's Treasury (Gazophylacium) which books they had purchased from the Dutch. In surgery, they had HEISTER translated into Dutch, and I sold to them at this time amongst other books, a very fine edition of MUNTINGIUS's Phytographia.

The doctors were distinguished from others, by the circumstance that they sometimes shaved their heads all over, and sometimes kept their hair on, without taking, like others, part of it off.

In all the Japanese towns, the utmost care is taken to prevent fires or other casualties. A trusty, vigilant, and sufficiently numerous watch, is therefore appointed at all places, and is set early in the evening, as soon as it is dark. The first night it excited my attention, and ever afterwards took care to be very distinctly heard. This watch was double in Jedo; that is, one of them only gave intelligence with respect to the hour, which was done by striking two pieces of wood against each other. These strokes were given very frequent, and almost at every house, by the watch, as they went their rounds. The two last strokes followed very quick upon each other, for a token that no more were to be expected. Such a watch was kept for the most part in every street. The other watch is particularly appointed for the prevention of fires, and is known by the circum-

N 2

[page] 180

stance of his dragging along the streets a cleft bamboo, or an iron bar, in the upper part of which there is an iron ring, that produces a singular and disagreeable sound. At the end of every street, where it can be shut with gates, there is always a high ladder, on which the watch can mount, to see if there be any where an appearance of fire. At the top of every house, there is a square place surrounded with railing, where a vat with water always stands ready at hand in case of fire. In a great many places are erected, near the houses, store-houses of stone that are fire proof, in which merchandize and furniture may be saved. On the sides of these, I observed several large iron hooks fixed in the wall, which served to hang wet mats on, and by that means to moderate the force of fire.

For the rest, the houses in Jedo are, as in other towns, covered with tiles, and two stories high, the uppermost of which is seldom occupied.

As the houses are very liable to take fire, conflagrations very often happen in Jedo, that lay waste whole rows of houses and entire streets. During our stay here, fires broke out several times, but were very soon extinguished. Our ambassador gave us the history of a terrible fire which happened during his stay here in the month of April, 1772. The fire broke out at

[page] 181

twelve o'clock at noon, and lasted till eight in the evening of the following day, insomuch that the devastation made by it extended six leagues in length, and three in breadth. On this occasion the inn occupied by the Dutch, was burnt down, and they were removed three times that night from the vicinity of the fire, and last of all to a temple.

Earthquakes were felt several times during our residence in the capital, although they were not very severe, and more were said to have taken place, though we were not able to perceive them.

We now distributed gratuities to those who had brought us hither. The man that waited on us had four rixdollars; the norimon bearers three; those that walked by the side of us also three; and two other servants three rixdollars, seven maas, and five konderins.

Exclusively of the usual current specie which I had seen during my journey, I was at some pains to collect, by means of the interpreters and physicians, every sort of ancient and scarce coin. The most common current coins were as follow: The New Kobangs, which are oblong, rounded at the ends, and flat, about two inches long and a little more than two broad, and scarcely thicker than a farthing, are of a pale yellow colour; the die on one side consists of several cross lines stamped, and at both ends there is a

N 3

[page] 182

parallelogrammical figure, with raised letters on it, and, besides, a moon-like figure, with a flower on it in relief. On the other side is a circular stamp, with raised letters on it; and within the margin, towards one end, two smaller sunk stamps with raised letters, which are different on each kobang. The value of it is sixty maas or six rix-dollars. Itjib is called by the Dutch Golden beans (Boontje) and is made of pale gold, of a parallelogrammical figure and flat, a little thicker than a farthing, with many raised letters on one side, and two figures of flowers in relief on the other. The value of this is five maas or one-fourth of a kobang. Nandio gin, is a parallelogrammical flat silver coin, of twice the thickness of a halfpenny, one inch long and half an inch broad, and formed of fine silver. The edge is stamped with stars, and within the edges are raised dots. One side is marked all over with raised letters, and the other on its lower and larger moiety, is filled with raised letters, and at the same time exhibits a double moon-like figure. This I found passed current on the island of Nipon only, and especially in the capital towns of the empire; its value was seven maas and five konderins.

Itaganne, and Kodama, were denominations by which various lumps of silver, without form or fashion, were known, which were neither of the same size, shape, or value. The former of these, how-

[page] 183

ever, were oblong and the latter roundish, for the most part thick, but sometimes though seldom flat. These pass common in trade; but are always weighed in passing from one individual to another, and have a leaden cast. They differ with respect to the letters inscribed on them; and those that have the figure of the God of riches on them, are called Daikokv ganne. A more particular description of these, and the rest of the Japanese coins, illustrated by figures, is to be found in the Speech I made before the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, in the year 1779.

Seni is a denomination applied to pieces of copper, brass, and iron coin, which bear a near resemblance to farthings. They differ in size, value, and external appearance; but are always cast, and have a square hole in the middle, by means of which they may be strung together; and likewise have always broad edges. Of these are current, Sjumon Seni, which, however, at present is scarce, and passes for ten common seni, or half a maas. Simoni Seni, of the value of four common feni, is made of brass, and is almost as broad as a halfpenny, but thin. I found it current in the island of Nipon only. It is easily known by its yellow colour, and by its raised arches on the under side. The common Seni are of the size of a farthing, and made of red copper; 60 of them make a maas. Doosa Seni, is a cast iron coin, in appearance like the last, and

N 4

[page] 184

of the same size and value, but so brittle, that it is easily broken by the hand, or breaks in pieces when let fall on the ground. This was cast in a mint near the town of Nagasaki.

The coins formerly current, and at present scarce, which my friends procured for me here, were as follow: Old Kobang; this is made of fine Gold, is of an orange yellow colour, and somewhat broader than a New Kobang, otherwise it bears the same impression. It is always worth 10 rixdollars or thails.

Old Itjib is somewhat longer, broader, and thicker than the common Itjib; it is made of pale gold, and in value 22 maas and five konderins. One similar to this, but less, was said to be very scarce, it was much shorter, narrower and thinner, and of a deeper colour, and was valued at eleven maas, two konderins, and two Catjes.

Kosju kin, Kosjubang or Kosju Itjib, Nisin and Sjunak, were small gold coins, different in size, form, and value. They were said to have been formerly coined in the province of Kosju, and from that circumstance to have obtained their name. They are made of pale gold, and flat, with stamps on each side, two on the one side and four on the other. Of these I obtained four of the round and one of the square sort, differing in size, but all agreeing in having the upper-most stamp on one side always similar, and the

[page] 185

other two to the right, on the other side, also similar. The lower stamp on one side, and the two to the left on the other, are variable in several of these coins. The round ones were marked within the edges with raised dots, but the square ones not. The value of them is from two to twelve maas.

Gemome Gin, a flat silver coin, is almost two inches long, and half as broad, with truncated angles, as thick as a halfpenny, and made of indifferent silver. On the edges are several stars, and within them, on each side, there is an elevation, as if a Nandiogin had been laid in there, on which there is a large stamp with raised letters. The other lesser moiety is on one side smooth, and on the other decorated with two rows of dots, two straight cross bars, and between them a wavy ribband, all raised. This was valued at five maas, and said formerly to have been current in the capitals of the empire.

Amongst such Japanese books as were shewn me, was one which had been printed during the time of the Portuguese being here. It was a long quarto, printed on Japan paper, and entirely with Japanese characters, except the title page. At the top of this stood Racvyoxv, which the interpreter could not translate into Dutch. In the middle was an oblong Portuguese coat of arms, and below it — In Collegio Japonico Societatis


[page] 186

Jesu, cum facultate superiorum. A. D. MDXCVIII. The interpreters said that it was a vocabulary, but without any Portuguese in it. It was an inch in thickness.

My attentive and ingenious pupil, Mr. Sunnan, made me a present of a Japanese herbal, which he called Chimenso, consisting of twenty volumes in octavo, with descriptions and very indifferent figures. Each volume was one or at most two lines broad.

Besides this I had likewise an opportunity of purchasing some other printed botanical books, consisting of different numbers of volumes; and containing figures of different degrees of excellence, such as Sooqua Jenso, a herbal consisting of three volumes, and containing, besides descriptions, indifferent figures of Japanese plants only. Morokusi Kemoosi, another herbal, which treated at the same time of quadrupeds, fishes, birds, manufactures, and rural œconomy. This was said to have been first printed in China, and consists of several volumes, and small miserable figures. The same work, printed in Japan, but in a somewhat handsomer manner, was called Kimosi. It consists of thirteen volumes in quarto.

Foko no jamma Kusu was a beautiful herbal, consisting of only one octavo volume, with elegant and distinct figures of Japanese plants; and another (title unknown) in seven volumes quarto.

[page] 187

I also bought a large printed book, in large quarto, and in two parts, with coloured figures of Japanese fishes. This is one of the most elegant publications ever exhibited in this country, and the figures are engraved and coloured in such a manner, as would obtain singular commendation even in Europe.

At this time, and during the 26 days that I resided at Jedo, the weather was often damp, and almost every day cloudy; with sometimes drizzling, and sometimes heavy rain, either in the fore or afternoon.

The Japanese kept here to their usual mealtimes. They eat three times a day, and very frequently their fare was miso-soup boiled with fish and onions.

A kind of a thick paper, which was of a brownish colour, with several single darkish streaks printed on it, was sold as a rarity. Several pieces, of more than a foot square, were pasted very neatly together, and were said to be used as night-gowns. These night-gowns, as I was informed, were worn by very old people only, and that in the cold season of the year, when they do not perspire, and over one or two other night gowns. It was said, that young people were absolutely forbidden to wear them. As this dress was neither durable, or indeed necessary for want of better clothing, it rather denoted the great age of those that were permitted to wear it.

[page] 188

Another sort of stuff was made me a present of, as a still greater rarity. It was woven, was as white as snow, and resembled callico; but it was prepared, spun, and woven, from the same kind of bark and its filaments of which their paper is commonly made. This was used instead of linen, not through necessity, but as a rarity, and was not very strong. It was said that it would bear washing, but that this operation was to be performed with great care.

The candles used in this country are made of an oil pressed out of the seeds of the Rhus succedanea. This oil becomes, when concrete, of the consistence of tallow, and is not so hard as wax. The province of Jetsigo, more particularly, produces this tree, and consequently supplies the greatest quantity of this oil. Amongst the presents which the prince from this province brings to the imperial court, are one hundred candles of a foot in length, and as thick as a man's arm, with a wick in proportion. These gala candles are burned only twice a year at court; that is, on the first of Sjoguats, and at the festival of the first of Sjuguats. Although it is a difficult matter to procure any of these candles, I had nevertheless the good fortune to get one, which had burnt on the above-mentioned occasion. The oil in these seemed both whiter and harder than in the small ones that are commonly exposed to sale, which soon grow rancid and brown.

[page] 189

The 18th of May was appointed for the day of audience. This day was not fixed on before we arrived at Jedo, and always depends upon the speed or tardiness of our journey thither. The day being now arrived, we were ready in our best apparel, after having previously made a good breakfast, to be conveyed in our norimons to the imperial palace. We were dressed in the European fashion, but in costly silks, which were either interwoven with silver or laced with gold. And on account of the festivity of the day, as well as of the occasion, it was requisite for us to wear our swords, and a very large black silk cloak. The presents had been sent before, as well to the emperor as to the hereditary prince, the privy counsellors, and other officers of state, and arranged in order at the side of the room, where we were to have our audience.

We were carried for a considerable time through the town before we arrived at that part which constitutes the emperor's residence. This is surrounded by fosses and stone walls, and separated by draw-bridges. It forms a considerable town of itself, and is said to be five leagues in circumference. This comprises the emperor's private palace, as also that of the hereditary prince, each of which were kept separate by wide fosses, stone walls, gates, and other bulwarks. In the outermost citadel, which was the largest of all, were large and handsome covered

[page] 190

streets, and great houses, which belonged to the princes of the country, the privy counsellors, and other officers of state. Their numerous families, who were obliged likewise to remain at the court the whole year throughout, were also lodged here. At the first gate, it is true, there was a strong guard, but that at the second gate was said to consist of one thousand men every day. As soon as we had passed through this gate, having previously quitted our norimons, we were conducted to an apartment where we waited a full hour, before we were suffered to advance any farther into the imperial palace. At last we obtained leave to approach it. We passed thro a long lane of warriors, who were posted on both sides, quite up to the door of the palace, all armed and well clothed.

The emperor's private palace was situated on an eminence, and, although it consisted of one story only, still it was much higher than any other house, and covered a large tract of ground. We were immediately conducted into an anti-chamber, where we again waited, at least an hour. Our officers sat down in the Japanese manner on one side, and the Dutchmen, together with the interpreters, on the other. It proved extremely fatiguing to us to sit in their manner; and as we could not hold it out long thus, we put our legs out on one side, and covered them with our long cloaks, which in this respect were

[page] 191

of great service to us. The time that we waited here did not appear long to us, as great numbers of people passed in and out, both in order to look at us, and talk with us. We were visited by several princes of the country, but constantly incog.; though we could always perceive when they were coming, from the murmuring noise which was at first heard, and the silence that ensued upon that in the inner rooms. Their curiosity was carried to a great length in every thing; but the chief employment they found for us was, to let them see our mode of writing. Thus we were induced to write something, either on paper or on their fans. Some of them also shewed us fans on which the Dutch had formerly written, and which they had carefully treasured up as great rarities.

At last the instant arrived, when the ambassador was to have audience, at which the ceremony was totally different from that which was used in KÆMPFER's time, a hundred years ago. The ambassador was introduced into the presence of the Emperor, and we remained all in the apartment into which we had been ushered, till in a short time he returned.

After the return of the ambassador, we were again obliged to stay a long while in the anti-chamber, in order to receive the visits, and answer the questions of several of the courtiers,

[page] 192

during whose entrance a deep silence several times prevailed. Amongst these, it was said that his imperial majesty had likewise come incognito, in order to have a nearer view of the Dutch and their dress. The interpreters and officers had spared no pains to find out, through the medium of their friends, every thing that could tend to our information in this respect. The emperor was of a middle size, hale constitution, and about forty and odd years of age.

At length, after all the visits were ended, we obtained leave to see several rooms in the palace, and also that in which the ambassador had had audience. The ambassador was conducted by the outside of the drawing room, and along a boarded passage, to the audience-room, which opened by a sliding door. The inner room consisted in a manner of three rooms, one a step higher than the other, and according to the measure I took of them by my eye, of about ten paces each in length; so that the distance between the emperor and the ambassador might be about thirty paces. The emperor, as I was informed, stood during the audience, in the most interior part of the room, as did the hereditary prince likewise at his right hand. To the right of this room was a large saloon; the floor of which is covered by one hundred mats, and hence is called the hundred mat saloon. It is six hundred feet long, three hundred broad, and

[page] 193

is occupied by the most dignified men of the empire, privy counsellors and princes, who all, on similar occasions, take their seats according to their different ranks and dignity. To the left, in the audience room, lay the presents piled up in heaps.

The whole of the audience consists merely in this, that as soon as the ambassador enters the room, he falls on his knees, lays his hand on the mat, and bows his head down to the mat, in the same manner as the Japanese themselves are used to testify their subjection and respect. After this the ambassador rises, and is conducted back to the drawing-room the same way as he went.

The rest of the rooms which we viewed, had no furniture in them. The floors were covered with large and very white straw mats; the cornices and doors were handsomely lacquered, and the locks, hinges, &c. well gilt.

After having thus looked about us, we were conducted to the hereditary prince's palace, which stood close by, and was separated only by a bridge. Here we were received, and complimented in the name of the hereditary prince, who was not at home; after which we were conducted back to our norimons.

Although the day was already far advanced, and we had had sufficient time to digest our early breakfast, we were, nevertheless, obliged to pay


[page] 194

visits to all the privy counsellors, as well to the six ordinary, as to the six extraordinary, at each of their respective houses. And as these gentlemen were not yet returned from court, we were received in the most polite manner by their deputies, and exhibited to the view of their ladies and children. Each visit lasted half an hour; and we were, for the most part, so placed in a large room, that we could be viewed on all sides through thin curtains, without having the good fortune to get a sight of these court beauties, excepting at one place, where they made so free, as not only to take away the curtain, but also desired us to advance nearer. In general we were received by two gentlemen in office, and at every place treated with green tea, the apparatus for smoking, and pastry, which was set before each of us separately on small tables. We drank sometimes a cup of the boiled tea, but did not touch the tobacco, and the pastry was taken home through the prudent care of our interpreters.

On this occasion I shall never forget the delightful prospect we had during these visits, from an eminence that commanded a view of the whole of this large and extensive town, which the Japanese affirm to be twenty-one leagues, or as many hours walk, in circumference.

So that the evening drew near by the time


[page] 195

that we returned, wearied and worn out, to our inn.

On the following day, viz. the 19th of May, we paid our respects to the temple lords, as they are called, the two governors of the town, and the two commissaries of strangers.

A few days elapsed after this before we received our audience of leave from the emperor and the hereditary prince. This was given in a very summary manner, and only before the lords in council appointed for this purpose, on the 23d following. In the mean time, these and the following days were employed in receiving presents, and preparing for our departure. At the audience of leave, the night-gowns, that are intended as presents to the Dutch company, are then delivered; but the other presents, destined for the gentlemen themselves, were carried to our inn. Every ordinary privy counsellor, the day after the audience of leave, gives ten night-gowns, every extraordinary privy counsellor fix, every temple lord five, every governor five, and every commissary and the governor of Nagasaki two. These are made of the finest Japanese silk, very wide, and reaching down to the feet, with large wide sleeves, in the Japanese fashion, and quilted either with silk-wadd or cotton. Of these our banjos received two, the secretary and myself two a piece, and the ambassador kept four to

O 2

[page] 196

himself. Of the stuffs, some are black, and others flowered in different ways.

The rest are packed up for the company's own account, and divided into different packets, one for each of the East India company's ware-houses in Europe, in order that they might be sent home in this manner from Batavia.

Amongst other curiosities that were shewn us at Jedo, was a young wolf, which had been caught farther to the northward, and, as a scarce animal, had been brought hither to be shewn. The Japanese were not acquainted with this animal, and gave so strange an account of it, that we could not but long to see it. Being brought to the place where the wolf, which was scarcely half grown, was kept, we observed how carefully they had tied it about the body and legs, though, in fact, it seemed more frightened than dangerous. The Japanese appeared rather astonished when I told them, that in my native country these animals went in large troops, and sometimes did a great deal of mischief.

A small cabinet, such as is used for the Japanese toilets, with several drawers in it, a foot long, and little more than six inches high, varnished with old lacquer (vieux lac), was offered to the ambassador for sale. Such pieces of furniture now-a-days are seldom to be seen, and still seldomer exposed to sale. But, in order to pur-

[page] 197

chase it, one must have weighed it against gold. For this seventy kobangs were asked, or four hundred rixdollars. It was without doubt better lacquered than what is done at present, and the flowers upon it elegantly raised. But yet the difference in the price seemed to me extravagant, and by far too great.

Maps of the country and towns are strictly prohibited from being exported, or sold to strangers. Nevertheless I had an opportunity to purchase several, exactly like those that KÆMPFER brought away with him (though with less trouble indeed) in his time. These were a general map of Japan, and of the town of Nagasaki, Miaco, and Jedo.

A woman who had been turned out of doors by her husband, was permitted to visit the ambassador, in order to beg something towards her support. She had had her head shaved all over, and walked about with it bare, making a very strange figure. This was said to be customary, when any female, for some reason or another, was parted from her husband.

Koto was the name of a musical instrument, which in sound much resembled a guitar or David's harp. It was six feet long, and one foot broad, with thirteen strings, and moveable pieces of wood for the better arranging the strings.

O 3

[page] 198

The two physicians at court, my much beloved pupils, who visited me almost every day, had, through my assiduous pains, and their own unwearied endeavours, made considerable advances in the science which treats of the diagnosis of disorders, and had even begun, under my direction, to restore to health several patients by means of the same medicines as are used in Europe, divers of which they had procured, in order to use them as occasion might require. At this time it happened, that, as I for the most part prescribed the medicines that were to be used, my advice was asked with regard to some patient of great distinction at the imperial court. But when I desired to be informed of the patient's sex, age, &c. which is very often highly necessary for a physician to know, they affected great secrecy, which prevented me from being able to prescribe at all. The people of distinction in this country seldom suffer themselves to be seen by the inhabitants themselves, much less by strangers; and at court, the personages composing the imperial family are for the most part so little known, that there are very few people in the whole empire that know the reigning emperor's name before he dies. So that, in fact, it might have been absolutely impossible for me to discover who my illustrious patient was. At first I used great importunity to be allowed to speak

[page] 199

with the sick person, and to put such questions as would serve to give me information concerning the disorder. And this might have actually happened, on account of the dangerous situation in which the patient was; but on this occasion such precautions were to be used, as would prevent me from either seeing the sick person, or laying my singer on the pulse. In short, my visit was to be made in the adjacent room, with the curtain down. As by such means I could not obtain the necessary information with respect to the state of the patient, I adopted the method of investigating and finding out the circumstances I ought necessarily to be acquainted with through the medium of the interpreters, and of such of my medical pupils as had made the greatest advances in their studies. After which the remedy was soon prepared; and my illustrious patient, who without doubt was one of the imperial princesses, quickly restored to health.

I had brought with me from Holland a quantity of corrosive sublimate, and during my residence here plainly perceived that this remedy was much wanted, on account of the great number of people that laboured under the venereal disease. Notwithstanding which, I could not sell any of it to the physicians of this country, who were totally ignorant of the use and application

O 4

[page] 200

of this sure, but, at the same time, dangerous medicine. They had some idea, indeed, of salivation, but thought it too difficult and dangerous. With the other methods of using mercury they were not acquainted. I therefore thought I could not do better than present the practitioners, as well the physicians of the country as the interpreters, with small parcels of the sublimate, and at the same time gave them directions how to use it, by dissolving it in water with the addition of some kind of syrup. This solution was afterwards exhibited by them to a great many miserable creatures, after the due preparations, and with the utmost caution, but never without daily reports being made to me (and consequently under my direction) till such time as at length they could venture to take the management of it entirely to themselves. The cures they performed with it seemed at first to surpass their conception; they were rather inclined to consider them as miracles, and bestowed on me more thanks and blessings than I could ever have expected for a piece of information, which I myself considered as trifling; but which was of great importance to them, and may hereafter prove of inestimable utility to a whole nation.

The Japanese have not the least knowledge of anatomy; neither have they the most distant

[page] 201

idea of the circulation of the blood. When, therefore, they feel the pulse of their patients, they do it first on one and afterwards on the other arm, not knowing that the beatings of the pulse are every where exactly alike, and that the same heart propels the blood to both places. This feeling of the pulse, in their manner, is a tedious operation, and lasts full a quarter of an hour. Bleeding, indeed, has sometimes been performed in the arm by a few physicians and interpreters; but it was but seldom that they had recourse to this operation, and then always with a great deal of apprehension and fear. On this head I gave them not only the best and most certain instructions, but also encouraged them to practise, on certain occasions, this simple but often useful operation; and for that purpose I was obliged to make a present to my beloved pupils at Jedo of my silver spring-lancet, and other chirurgical instruments which might be of use to them.

Amongst the plants which were brought to me in Jedo, and which I did not observe else-where, were the following, viz. (Juglans Nigra) Walnuts, (Fagus Castanea) Chesnuts, which, however, I afterwards saw in Miaco; (Inula helenium) Elecampane, the aromatic root of which was used as a strengthener of the stomach;

[page] 202

and our common Pine (Pinus abies), several of which I saw at the time that they were carrying us up to the imperial court.

At the same time too, I had the pleasure of seeing a man of distinction carried in his norimon to court in the most pompous manner, a manner which is used in the towns, and on days of festivity only. On this occasion the norimon is not carried, as usual, on men's shoulders, but on their hands, and as high as the bearers possibly can, who at the same time run with it as fast as they are able. The other hand is carried horizontally, and in running they throw their heels up into the air. This norimon passed us at some distance, like an arrow shot across a field.

My friends made me a present of a large chalk-stone, which was said to be found in the stomachs of horses. The Dutch called it Paardesteen. It was only said to be found in the vicinity of Jedo, in such horses as are kept in the stable, without my informer being able to throw any farther light on the subject, or to say whence this concretion derives its origin, and receives its growth. Some smaller stones which I had given me afterwards, were slatter, and had no nucleus in them. This stone consisted of lamellæ, was very close-grained, and as large

[page] 203

as a child's head. I am apt to imagine, that the water which the horses drink is impregnated with lime, and that their standing still contributes much to the growth of this substance.

The minerals, as well as other natural curiosities which the Japanese brought to me at Jedo, were of various kinds, of which I shall here enumerate only the most curious: Gold ore from Simar, was called Kin nab. Asbestus, an immature species, called Isiwatta. Cupreous Pyrites, from Simotske and Asjo jamma, or from Asjo mountain. A copper ore, brought hither from China, was called Simoo Seki: it contained a great quantity of sulphur, and was said, when burned and reduced to powder, to be used in coughs. A white and fixed porcelain clay, of a farinaceous consistence, was called Fak Sekisi. This, together with a great variety of other minerals from the Cape, as also Bezoar and precious stones, I presented to my much-esteemed preceptor, the Chevalier BERGMAN, and may be seen in the collection of fossils belonging to the royal academy at Upsal; also a white Asbestus with soft and fine fibres, called Sekima, which is spun and woven, and made into cloth. Also a red Arsenic, called Owoo or Kyquan Seki; and yellow Shell-sand, termed Awa Sna (i.e. coarsegrained sand). A Lapis Steatites, was called Sakusekis, and Isuwatta: this was of a flesh colour,

[page] 204

and very beautiful. Pumice-stone was known under the denomination of Karuisi, and a spathiform stalactite under that of Tsurara Isi. Cinnabar, in powder, was called Sju; a round quartzose-stone was named from Tsugara, the place from whence it had been brought, Tsugaro Isi, and also Takara Isi; white marble, Nikko Isi and Nikkorosik; Galena with Cupreous Pyrites, Soi noi Megin; a fine rock oil, from Sinano, Kesoso no Abra; Saltpetre, Siro Jinso; Sal fontanum, boiled out of the earth near some warm-baths, Boosu; Phytolithus lithophyllum, from the Fakonie mountains, Konofa Isi; Tubipora Musica, Luukuv Sangodu; Sponge, Uniwatta; a Gorgonia ramosa, Umetats; red corals from Kamaku, Sangodin; and the same from Sangami, were called Sangosju; a thick red Millepora, from the island Sjosusima, in the province of Sannoki, Djukuts; Anomia plicatella, Seki Jen; Argonauta argo, from Jotsigo, Tako fune; Cypræa mauritanica, Kino Kui; Cicindela Japonica, from Osi, Hammoa; Julus terrestris, Jasude; Oniscus asellus, Saori Kosi, which signifies a house-insect; Oniscus oceanicus, Funa Musi, which signifies a ship-insect; Syngnathus hippocampus, Kaij ba; Sepia octopodia (the Cuttle-fish) which is much fished for, and is dried and eaten all over the country, Ika; Jamamo was the name given to a fish with red fins, from the rivulets

[page] 205

of the Fakonie mountains; this, reduced to powder, was said to be good for the ladies in pectoral complaints; Anas querquedula, was called Kamo. Karasumo was a name given to the roe of some large fish, which, salted, pressed flat, and dried, could be eaten like any other dry food with rice. Kali, Makotje, Niga Kotje, and Isaka Gotje, were appellations borne by different kinds of flounders (Pleuronectes).

The interpreters also shewed me a root, probably of some Fern or other (Filix), which they called Jabcki, and which, when cut across, exhibited the figure of a star, that was considered by them as something extraordinary.

As the town of Jedo is very large and extensive, it is likewise very populous, on account of the infinite number of strangers who stock to it from all parts of the country. Every family, it is true, has its own house, and the houses are only one, or at most two, stories high; but, yet, many individuals live crowded together in one and the same house. Towards the street there are always either work-shops, or ordinary sale-shops. These are for the most part covered with a cloth, hanging down before them, at least in part, so that no one can easily see from the street what the people are at work upon. But in the sale-shops are seen patterns of almost every thing. The streets, especially the principal ones, through

[page] 206

which we passed, were very long and broad, frequently from eighty to a hundred feet in breadth. The town, like that of Nagasaki, is alternately governed by two governors, burgomasters, and commissaries (Ottonas) over each street.

I was informed that the princes of the country had not only their usual palaces for themselves and their families within the first citadel, but also several houses in different quarters of the town, to flee to in case of fire.

Before my departure my pupils requested from me a certificate with respect to the instructions I had given them, and the progress they had made. I therefore gave them one written in Dutch, which made them so immensely happy and proud, that neither I nor any young doctor could possibly have ever plumed ourselves more on our doctor's hat and diploma. I had the good fortune to gain their love and friendship to such a degree, that they did not only set a high value on my knowledge, and on my kindness in communicating that knowledge to them, but they loved me from the bottom of their hearts, so as greatly to regret my departure*.

* Since this, during a period of several years, I have not only kept up an intercourse by letters with them, and others of my friends among the interpreters, but likewise sent them some small, but acceptable, presents, and received in return both seeds for the botanical garden at Upsal, and some additions to the academy's collection of natural history.

[page] 207

Our departure from Jedo was fixed for the 25th of May, and was to take place inevitably, as the 13th of Siguats, or the 30th of May, was appointed by KUBO, the reigning secular emperor, for his setting out on a journey to the temple of Niko, which is very large, stands thirty-six leagues to the east of Jedo, and was the place where a great festival was to be kept. This journey had been in agitation three years, and a great many preparations made for it, although it had been continually put off from year to year.

As both the monarch himself, and all the princes of the country are clothed, and their hair dressed, in the same manner as the rest of the inhabitants, and consequently, being destitute of thrones, jewels, and the rest of their paraphernalia, cannot be distinguished from others, they have adopted the expedient of exhibiting themselves on journies and festive occasions, according to their condition in life, and the dignity of their respective offices, with a great number of people, officers, and attendants hovering about them. It was therefore necessary, that extraordinary preparations should be made for the supreme ruler of the country. On the roads, new houses were to be built to bait at, as well at night as in the day-time. Every convenience that could be thought of was to be

[page] 208

in abundance, and previously in proper order at each place. All the domestics, both before and during the journey, were to be in the highest degree vigilant, every one in his station. During KUBO'S absence, the imperial citadel was to be in charge with the prince of the province of Mito, and the government with some of the privy counsellors. Orders had already been issued out that a careful watch should be kept every where, to prevent fires, popular commotions, and other untoward accidents. The money ordered to defray the expences of the journey amounted to 280,000 kobangs, or 1,680,000 rixdollars. Of this money distributions were made to the privy counsellors, princes of the country, and others who were to be in the emperor's suite. The journey was to be performed to the temple of Niko in three days, and the day after their arrival was to be a day of rest. On the 17th of Siguats, or the third of July, the festival was to be celebrated, and the day following they were to set out on their return home. At our departure on the 25th of May from Jedo, we already saw several large companies, which were to go before; but three days before the emperor set out, such companies as these began to follow very close upon each other. On the day before the emperor's departure, towards the evening, they

[page] 209

crowded so close on each other, that there was only an interval of half an hour between the appearance of each company; and this continued till five o'clock in the morning, when the emperor himself set out with the hereditary prince. In the train of this innumerable multitude followed, as the interpreters informed us, several very old men, beggars, executioners, and even coffins, that nothing might be wanting to complete the procession.

Before I quitted Jedo, I felt myself excited by my pride, not only to know the name of the emperor, at whose court I had had the singular fortune to reside, but also to learn the names of all the rulers, as well ecclesiastical as secular, who have reigned over this happy people and land since KÆMFER'S time, which is almost a hundred years ago. I well knew the difficulty of this, and foresaw the impossibility of arriving at any knowledge of it at any other place than here, which might be done by the assistance of the friends whom I had obliged. It was not without a great deal of trouble, though, in fact, fortunate enough, and very flattering to me, that, a few days before my departure, I received an historical sketch relative to this subject, which otherwise could not have been procured for any sum of money.


[page] 210

The name of the reigning secular emperor, or Kubo, was MINAMOTO no JE FARU Koo; he had also received from the Dairi, whose province it is to grant titles, the following sirnan e: Sjo ji tsi naij daijsin Sakonje no taij sio zeij ji taij Siogun. His age likewise was given into me, and was forty-three years. MINAMOTA was said to be the family name; JE FARU, his own name, and Koo answers to sir, although this title, like that of seigneur in France, is only given to people of distinction.

The name of the hereditary prince was MINAMOTO no JE MOTO Koo, together with the Dairi's title: Su nieji daijnagon. He was said to be about twelve years old.


ON the 25th of May, in the morning, we set out from the capital for Nagasaki. Our journey homeward was made nearly in the same manner, and along the same road as the journey upward. We likewise, for the most part, put up at the same inns, either to dine or fleep, and very seldom made any change. We dined this day in Kawasakki, and took up our first night's lodging in Totska. On the 26th of May, before

[page] 211

we left this place, we made a purchase of several elegant, but small, boxes of shells, which were laid up very neatly and curiously on carded cotton. These are generally bought by the Dutch, either to sell again, or to send to Europe to their friends and relations, as rarities from so distant a country. Although the shells were all fastened to the cotton with glue made of boiled rice, in order that they might not fall off, I picked out as many as were not before known in Europe, or at least very scarce, and which are now kept amongst other collections of the academy at Upsal.

We dined afterwards in Koijso, and slept at Odowara. In our road we observed a Pine-tree (Pinus Sylvestris) the branches of which were spread horizontally, and formed a vegetating cover over a summer-house, under which one might walk to and fro. I had seen several of these pines before at different places, but none by far so extensive as this. Its branches were twenty paces in length, and supported by several poles that were placed under them.

On the 27th of May we crossed the high Fakonie mountains, where we met with the same adventures as on our journey upwards. We dined at the village of Fakonie, received and paid for the things we had bespoke, and put up at night on the other side of these mountains at Misima.

P 2

[page] 212

The Epidendrum monile, a parasitical plant, that does not fasten its roots in the ground, was seen here, tied up in bundles, and hung out before the house. So that this plant could live several years without water, or any kind of nourishment whatever, and yet grow and flower all the while.

Several places also they had, Aerostichum hastatum, planted in pots for pleasure, although it is with great difficulty that this species of plant is raised in Europe.

On the 29th of May, we travelled on till noon to Josiwaro, where we dined, and in the evening to Kambara. In passing by, we investigated still more accurately the lofty mountain of Fusi. The foot of it seemed, on the one side in particular, to go off with a very long slope. Its snow-white top appeared now very high above the clouds.

Here, as in various other places, the ordure left by travelling horses was very carefully gathered from off the roads by old men and children. This was done very readily, and without stooping, with a shell (Haliotis tuberculata) which resembled a spoon, and was fastened to a stick. The gatherings were put into a basket, and carried on the left arm.

Neither could I see without admiration, the industry of the farmers in manuring the lands, a work, in which they were already pretty far ad-

[page] 213

vanced. This collection of manure of every kind, urine and offals, which they had prepared at home, quite thin and fluid, they now carried in two pails on their shoulders to their lands, and there with a scoop poured it out near the roots of the green corn, the blades of which were six inches long. This I was told was done twice each time they sowed.

Trapa natans was a very common plant in the rice grounds; and its black roots were much used for food when boiled in soups; although I thought them rough and disagreeable.

On the 29th, 30th, and 31st of May, we proceeded on our journey as far as Nissaka, where, on account of the great number of people, who met the travelling princes, we were obliged to stay three whole days. On the first of these days we did not travel more than seven miles, to Sutjo; on the second day to Smada, on the third we did not get farther than to Nissaka, scarcely more than two leagues.

The catkins of the alder (Betula Alnus) were seen in several places, hung out in the shops for sale. On enquiry, I found they were used for dying black.

The Lycium Japonicum, a small handsome shrub, was every where planted for hedges; and the Azalea Indica stood in almost every yard and plot, near the houses, in its best attire, ineffably resplendent with flowers of different colours.

P 3

[page] 214

The Chamærops excelsa, a palm-tree, higher than a man, was seen in different places. From the net-like bark that surrounds the stem, were made brooms, which were every where used for sweeping, and were exposed to sale.

The fruit of the Mespilus Japonica now began to ripen. Like other medlars it tasted tolerably well, and melted in the mouth. In the heat of the day I thought it very refreshing.

In Futju, we bought several baskets of different sizes, and cabinets with drawers, all which were made of slips of rattan, woven on the spot in the neatest and most elegant manner.

During our journey down, and in this rainy season, we were molested by gnats (Culex irritans) which particularly disturbed us in the night, and sometimes prevented us from sleeping. We were therefore under the necesiity of purchasing a kind of porous green stuff, for curtains, such as is used every where in this part of the world, for a defence against these blood-sucking insects. These curtains are very wide, and are tied over the tester, and spread below over the whole bed, without having any other opening than just at bottom. They are very light and portable, and wove so open, as not to prevent the air from passing through them.

The Dolichos polystachyos, a plant of the pea kind, which ran up winding like scarlet beans,

[page] 215

was planted in many places, and formed into arbours. It was not only serviceable for this purpose, but also extremely ornamental on account of its flowers, which hung down in long stalks, and made their appearance in gradual succession.

The Sesamum orientale was cultivated in many places; and from the seed, although very small, a fine oil was expressed, which was in general use here, as well as in other places in India, for dressing of victuals, and other purposes.

After having sufficiently rested ourselves, we set out again on our journey, on the 4th of June, although we did not get farther this day than to Kakigawa, which is only two leagues.

On the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th of June, we kept on our regular route, in the same manner as on our journey upwards, and dined in Mitske, Array, Okassakki, Isjakusi, Minakuts and Isiba, and slept in Fammamats, Josida, Chiriu, Kwana, Seki, Kusats and Miaco.

In different parts of the road, between Jedo and Miaco, beggars were seen, that were cripples for the most part in their feet. This appeared to me so much the more strange, as otherwise cripples are seldom to be met with in this country.

Red and inflamed eyes also were very common in these provinces, especially among the poorer sort

P 4

[page] 216

of people, as well among such as were advanced in years, as among young children. This malady has its principal source in two things, viz. in the smoke from the charcoal within the houses, and the stench proceeding from the jars of urine, which are in all the villages near every house.

Double flowers of the Corchorus Japonicus (Jamma Buki) grew wild here, and made a pleasing appearance. Dried and pulverized, they were used in hæmorrhages; and, in cases of bleeding at the nose, were blown up the nostrils by means of a quill.

In the beginning of June, which is the third or fourth Japanese month, the first gathering was made of the leaves of the tea plant, which at this time are quite young, and yield the finer kinds of tea. In some places, I observed, they had carelessly spread tea-leaves on mats, to dry before their houses.

I had also an opportunity of seeing at several places in the villages, how corn, wheat, and mustard seed, were thrashed on mats before the houses in the open air. This operation was sometimes performed with flails, which had three sticks; sometimes the sheaf and ears were beaten against a barrel, so that the grain fell out, which was afterwards separated from the chaff.

The wood of the Myrica Nagi, was called Nagi. This wood is very fine and white, and is used for combs and other similar articles.

[page] 217

Fjun no ki was the name given by the Japanese to a kind of wood, which was also used for making of combs.

On the 12th of June, we were introduced to the grand marshal, or the imperial supreme judge, as also to the two governors of the town, by whom we were received in like manner as by the others in Jedo. The supreme judge (Groot Rechter) gave in return for the presents he received, five large night-gowns, but the governors of the town, instead of these, gave the ambassador a sum of money only, to the amount of 21 rixdollars. These were put up in paper, in the manner usual in this country. When such presents as these are made in silver, they are wrapped up in a long piece of Japan paper, which is afterwards pasted together and written upon, on one or both sides. Sums so inclosed, whether larger or smaller, come frequently from the master of the mint, and pass through many hands. And the master of the mint, who has written the value on the outside, becomes answerable for the contents, when one of these parcels is opened.

In the afternoon I had a private visit from the Dairis, or the ecclesiastical emperor's body physician. He is about the middle age, and his name is OGINO Saffioge je no Sakon. OGINO is his family name; je no Sakon, his prænomen; and Saffioge is a

[page] 218

title of honor given him by the Dairi. He brought me several herbs, the most of them just gathered, the use of which he was very defirous of knowing, as well as of gaining some intelligence with regard to the cure of certain disorders. Our conversation was carried on through an interpreter; but he was not a little surprized, when once, in order to fix the name of a plant in his memory with the greater certainty, I wrote it down before his face in Japanese characters— Tamma.

Tamma Musi was the appellation given by the interpreters to the Buprestis Ignita, which they had got here and brought to me.

On our return from the court we are always more at liberty than in going to it. Consequently we were allowed, previous to our departure from Miaco, which was on the 13th of June, to see several of the largest, most elegant, and best situated temples in that place. These stand, as in this country is usually the case, on the declivity of a mountain, and command the most delightful prospects. Here were also artificial ponds, in which the monks had several live black turtles (Testudo Japonica) for their amusement. Amongst these temples, that of Daibud is not only the largest, but the most remarkable. The temple stands on 96 pillars, and has several entries, which are very lofty, but at the same time


[page] 219

very narrow. The body of the temple consists, as it were, of two stories, which run into each other, and consequently have a double roof, the uppermost of which was supported by several painted pillars, above two yards in diameter. The floor was laid with square pieces of marble, which I had not seen any where else. The only thing here wanting was, a sufficient light for so large and magnificent a pile of building, which doubtless proceeded from the architect's not having been grounded in the true principles of his art. The image of the idol Daibud, which stood almost in the middle of the temple, was enough to strike the beholder with terror and awe: terror, on account of its size, which scarcely has its equal; and awe, in consequence of the reflections it must naturally suggest. The image was in a sitting posture, and raised about two yards from the ground, with its legs laid across before it in the Indian manner, and gilded. The ears were long, the hair short and curling, the shoulders naked, the body covered with a wrapper, the right-hand raised, and the left laid edge-ways against the belly. To any one who had not seen this image, the size of it must appear almost incredible. The interpreters assured me, that six men might sit on the palm of the hand in the Japanese manner, with their heels

[page] 220

under them. The figure seemed to me to be well-proportioned, although it was so very broad, that its shoulders reached from one pillar to the other, notwithstanding that, these, when measured by the eye, appeared to be about thirty or thirty-two feet asunder. This idol, as well as the sect that worships it, derives its origin from India, and their acquaintance with it must, in all probability, have came from Siam, China, or some other place, at the time when strangers were at liberty to trade with greater freedom in this country, and they themselves carried on commerce with foreign nations in their own bottoms.

My astonshment at this enormous statue had not yet ceased, when we were carried to another temple, which was nearly as majestic, and as worthy of admiration. The height of it was not very extraordinary, nor its breadth, but, on the other hand, its length was considerable. This was sacred to Qvanwon, and his image, together with all his Dii minores, were, to a considerable number, set up in this edifice. In the middle fat Qvanwon himself, furnished with thirty-six hands; near him were placed sixteen heroes larger than men are in common, but much less than the idol, and these occupied a separate room, and partitioned off, as it were, to themselves. On both sides next to these stood two rows of gilt idols, each with twenty hands. Afterwards were put up, in

[page] 221

rows on each side, idols of the size of a man, quite close to each other, the number of which I could not reckon. Those that were nearest to us, or forwards, were the smallest, and those that stood behind, gradually larger; so that all the twelve rows could be seen very distinctly. On the hands the heads of all these smaller idols were placed, and the whole number was said to amount to thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three.

We then proceeded to Fusimi, where we supped; after which, a little before sun-set, we got into our small boats, and went down the river to Osaka, where, after an agreeable night's trip, we arrived the following morning.

We staid at Osaka two whole days, and had more pleasure and amusements at this place than during the whole of our journey besides; as here we had several times an opportunity to take a view of the town in our norimons, be present at plays, see their dances, and enjoy various other uncommon sights, which are to be met with here in great abundance. Those that I, for my part, most valued, were a collection of Japanese plants, in a well-ordered garden, a collection of birds indigenous to this country, and the casting of their copper into bars. Their plays are full of glee; but so very singular at the same time, that, to me, they rather appeared absurd. The in-

[page] 222

terpreters were obliged to explain them to us. The subject of them was generally either some love adventure, or heroic deed. In their way, the performers seemed to act well, but the theatre was very small and narrow. The dancing was chiefly performed by children of both sexes, two or more together. They somewhat resembled our country-dances, and the subject of them was nearly the same as that of their plays. The body was bent a hundred different ways, and then fell back again into its natural position, according to the music or singing by which the dances are accompanied.

The most curious part of the spectacle, was to see the girls dressed in the most magnificent manner, and in the highest style, like ladies of the first distinction, and with an almost infinite number of night-gowns, the one over the other, all of the finest and thinnest silk. This great number of night-gowns, which was not perceptible, as they were extremely thin and light, sometimes amounts to thirty or more, and the girls growing warm while they are dancing, partly to cool themselves, and partly to make a shew of their finery, pulled them off by degrees, one after the other, so that a whole dozen of them together hung down from the girdle, with which they were tied about their bodies, without hindering them in the least in their evolutions.

[page] 223

I saw in the street called Bird-street, a number of birds that had been brought hither from all parts, some to be shewn for money, and others for sale. There was also a botanic garden tolerably well laid out in this town (though with out an orangery) in which were reared and cultivated, and at the same time kept for sale, all sorts of plants, trees, and shrubs, which were brought hither from other provinces. I did not neglect to lay out as much money here as I could spare, in the purchase of the scarcest shrubs and plants, planted in pots, amongst which were the most beautiful species of this country's elegant laples, and two specimens of the Cycas revc , a Palm-tree, as scarce, as the exportation of it is strictly prohibited, and upon which, on account of its very nutritious Sago-like pith, the Japanese set so high, and, indeed, extravagant a value, not knowing that it likewise grows in China. These were afterwards all planted out into a large wooden box, at the top of which were laid boughs of trees interlaced with packthread, so that nothing might injure them. This box was afterwards sent off by water to Nagasaki, from whence is was sent along with another box of the same kind, packed at the factory, to Batavia, to be forwarded to the Hortus Medicus, in Amsterdam.

[page] 224

We also viewed the temples here, and had an interview with the two governors of the town.

The operation of smelting of copper was one day performed particularly for us, and merely on purpose that we might see it, in consequence of the importunate intreaties both of our chief and our conductors. This was done with much greater simplicity than I had imagined. The smelting hut was from twenty to twenty-four feet wide, and a wall like a niche was built up, with a chimney on one side of it. At the bottom of this, and level with the floor, was a hearth, in which the ore, by the assistance of hand-bellows, had been smelted before our arriv. Directly opposite, on the ground, which not floored, was dug a hole of an oblong fo, and about twelve inches deep. Across this were laid ten square iron bars, barely the breadth of a finger asunder, and all of them with one of their edges upwards. Over these was expanded a piece of sail-cloth, which was pressed down between the bars. Upon this was afterwards poured cold water, which stood about two inches above the cloth. The smelted ore was then taken up out of the hearth, with iron ladles, and poured into the above described mould, so that ten or eleven bars, six inches long, were cast each time. As soon as these were taken out, the fusion was continued, and the water now and then changed.

[page] 225

That the copper was thus cast in water, was not known before in Europe, nor that the Japanese copper hence acquires its high colour and splendor. At the same time, I had the good fortune to receive, through the influence of my friends the interpreters, a present of a box, in which was packed up, not only pure copper cast in the above-mentioned manner, but also specimens taken from every process that it had gone through, such as the crude pyrites with its matrix, the produce of the roasting, and of the first and second smelting.

This box, which may be seen in the cabinet of minerals belonging to the academy at Upsal, was not less gratifying to my late respectable and beloved tutor, Professor BERGMAN, than the information I gave him on my return home with respect to the casting of the copper in water.

After this we saw a quantity of cast copper, not only in the above-mentioned form of bars, as it is sold to the Dutch and Chinese, but also cast in larger and smaller, round and square, thicker and thinner pieces, for other purposes, according as they may be wanted for the fabrication of kettles, pans, and other utensils.

Here was a difference made between the servants that waited on us at the inns. Young boys were usually called kodom; but servants, that had arrived at the age of manhood, bore the appellation of todokos.


[page] 226

There cannot well be a stranger spectacle than that which presents itself to the view, when a great multitude of people are assembled together, which is not unfrequently the case; every man's clothes, as well as the rest of his paraphernalia, being marked with the owner's mark or his arms. This is a common custom with the Japanese, so that every one knows his own property again, and thieves can make no advantage of stolen goods.

I purchased here a quantity of Moxa of different degrees of fineness, and of different qualities. The finest sort of all is white, and is used in common all over the country as a caustic, both for the cure and the prevention of disorders. The coarser kind is brown, and is used as tinder. Both these sorts are prepared from the common wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris) that is to say, from the wool that covers its leaves. The leaves are gathered in this month, and afterwards dried and set by for farther preparation. They are then beaten and rubbed, till the fibrous part is separated from the woolly, and the latter is obtained pure. There are particular surgeons who apply themselves closely to the administration of this caustic, and who carefully study, when, how, to what part of the body, and in what disorders it is to be used. It takes fire very readily, and consumes

[page] 227

slowly. When a small ball of this is laid on any part of the body, and set fire to, it burns down into the skin, forming ulcers of different depths, which some time after act as drains for carrying off the humours that have flowed to them from different parts. The back is the chief place for the application of this universal remedy, and although there are but few maladies in which it is not used, yet it has the best effect in rheumatisms and colds. Neither sex, age, nor situation in life, exempts any one from the necessity of its use.

The Menyanthes nymphoides, with the leaves and flowers, was kept here steeped in brine, and was used for sallad, in the same manner as pickled cucumbers.

Of the Box tree, which was common in this country, combs were made, which were lacquered, and worn by the ladies in their hair by way of ornament.

The Nymphea nelumbo, in several places grew in the water, and was considered, on account of its beautiful appearance, as a sacred plant, and pleasing to the gods. The images of idols were often seen sitting on its large leaves.

The Skimmi (Illicium Anisatum) was every where considered as a poisonous tree, and the Japanese would not believe that the same tree produced the real (Anisum Stellatum) Starry

Q 2

[page] 228

Anise, which they annually buy of the Chinese. The Capsules did not ripen well in this country, nor had they such a strong and agreeable aromatic taste as those that are kept in our drug-gift's shops. Otherwise, the tree itself was in high estimation, was frequently to be met with planted, and particularly near the temples, and, as their idols were supposed to delight in it, branches of it were always put amongst other flowers in their temples in pots full of water.

For the mensuration of time, the Japanese use the powder of the bark of this tree in a singular manner. A box twelve inches long, being filled with ashes, small furrows are made in these ashes, from one end of the box to the other, and so on backwards and forwards, to a considerable number. In these furrows is strewed some fine powder of Skimmi-bark, and divisions are made for the hours. The lid of the box is then closed, but a small hole is left open in order to supply the fire with air. After this the powder is set on fire, which consumes very slowly, and the hours are proclaimed by striking the bells of the temples.

The fruit of the Melia azedar ach was used, like the seeds of the Rhus Succedanea, for making an expressed oil, which oil grew hard like tallow, and was used for candles.

[page] 229

On the 15th of June we set out for Fiogo, where we made preparations for the long voyage we had to take, and embarked on board of the large vessel, which usually carried the ambassador over to Simonoseki. The passage this time was both quick and prosperous, so that in the space of a few days we arrived safe in port.

From Fiogo we went to Kokura, and on midsummer-day, in the morning, from thence to Nagasaki, We dined and slept at the same places where we had put up on our journey upwards to Jedo.

There cannot be a finer spectacle in all nature than that of the Lampyris Japonica in a summer's evening. This is a fly, which near its tail has two small bladders, that, like the glowworms in Europe, diffuse a bluish phosphoric light. But the glow-worm has no wings, and lies quiet in the juniper bushes; whereas, this is winged, and flies about free and unconfined. Thousands of these now filled the air, some soaring high, and others flying lower and near the ground; so that the whole horizon seemed to be a sky illuminated by thousands of glittering stars.

In Fiogo we gave our norimon-men five rix-dollars and five maas for their trouble, and to the hostess in Fiamits Toge, according to the esta-

Q 3

[page] 230

blished custom, seven maas and five konderyns; after having baited there, and regaled ourselves with sakki.

Before we got quite to Nagasaki town, our chests were sealed, in order that they might pass on to the warehouse without being searched. Our norimons and the rest of the baggage, as also we ourselves, were strictly searched. It is true, I had no contraband articles to hide; but as to the scarce coins and maps, which I with great pains and difficulty had procured, I was unwilling either to lose them, or, by their means, bring any man into difficulties. Therefore, after having put the maps amongst other papers, and covered the thick coins over with plaster, and hid the thinner pieces in my shoes, I arrived, with the rest of our company, safe in the factory on the 30th of June, where we gave each of our servants one thail and five maas, and were received by our friends with satisfaction and joy; which were so much greater and livelier, as this journey had been protracted to a much greater length than usual, and consequently they had long been in expectation of our return.

[page] 231


JAPAN is situated beyond the farthermost end of Asia to the east, entirely separated from this part of the globe, and consists of three large, and many small islands. It extends from the 30th to the 41ft degree of north latitude, and from the 143d to the 161ft degree of east longitude, reckoning from the meredian of Teneriffe. Therefore it lies several degrees east of the capital of Sweden, so that at Japan they have sunrise and noon eight hours earlier; consequently, when it is noon at Jedo, it is only four o'clock in the morning at Stockholm, which makes a difference of eight hours.

Most of the European nations call this empire Japan, or Japon; the inhabitants themselves call it Nipon, or Nifon; and the Chinese, Sippon and Jepuen.

The Japanese islands were not totally unknown in former ages. Japan is supposed to be the country which Marco Paolo, of Venice, heard the Chinese mention by the name of Zipangri. Of the European nations, the Portuguese were the first who discovered it, and landed there, viz. when ANTOINE DE MOTA, FRANÇOIS ZEIMOTO,

Q 4

[page] 232

and ANTOINE PEIXOTA, were thrown by a storm, with a large Chinese junk, on this coast, on their voyage from Siam to China. After their arrival at China, and in consequence of the report they made, other Portuguese, and even missionaries, were sent thither. In what year the first Portuguese made this discovery is by no means certain; some say in the year 1535, others in 1542, others in 1548, and others still later.

The whole country consists of scarcely any thing else than mountains, hills, and vallies; and a large plain is seldom seen here. The coast is surrounded by mountains and rocks, and a very turbulent stormy sea. The greatest part of its harbours are entirely unknown to the Europeans; and those few that are known, are either full of rocks, or have large sands or shoals, so that all sailing and entrance into them is extremely dangerous. Formerly Portuguese and Dutch vessels arrived in the harbour of Firandos; but at present this, as well as all the others, are shut up, and Nagasaki is the only port in which foreign vessels are allowed to anchor. The harbour of Jedo has such shallow ground, that even small boats cannot approach the strand; the larger Japanese vessels keep far out to sea, and an European ship would be obliged to anchor at five leagues distance.

[page] 233

The mountains are of various heights, more or less scattered or connected, and some of them also are volcanoes. One of the highest in the country is mount Fusi; its top reaching above the clouds, and being discernible at the distance of many leagues.

Many of the mountains are overgrown with wood; and some of these again, which are not too steep, are cultivated and made to rise in very high perpendicular declivities, like steps, one above the other, and that not unfrequently up to the very top. In the vallies and on the plains the soil differs in different places; but most commonly it consists of clay or sand, or of both together, intermixed with a small portion of mould.

In general it may be asserted, with the greatest truth, that the soil of Japan is in itself barren; but in consequence of the labour and manure bestowed upon it, together with heat and a sufficient quantity of rain, it is brought to a considerable degree of fertility.

The heat in summer is very violent, and would be insupportable, if the air was not cooled by winds from the sea.

In like manner the cold in winter is extremely severe, when the wind blows from the north and north-east. It is always felt to be more intense than it really is, as indicated by the thermometer;


[page] 234

as from the violence with which the wind blows, it pierces the body like arrows of ice.

The weather is very changeable the whole year throughout, and the ground receives rain in abundance. It rains almost the whole year round; but particularly in the Satsaki or rainy months, as they are called, which commence at midsummer. This abundance of rain is the cause of the fertility of Japan, and, of what is the consequence of this, its high degree of population.

Thunder is by no means unfrequent; but tempests and hurricanes are very common, as also earthquakes.

The thermometrical observations which I made during my stay in Japan, and which are probably extremely uncommon in their kind, will shew in a more accurate manner the nature of this climate; and as none such, to my knowledge, have been hitherto made known, I have thought proper to be very circumstantial in the communication. They were chiefly made in the southern parts of Japan, that is, near Nagasaki, on the island of Dezima, but part of them were likewise made during my journey to the court, and in Jedo, the capital.

The thermometer I made use of was Fahrenheit's, divided into 112 degrees, with a double glass, and silled with quicksilver, and was af-

[page] 235

fected by the slightest change of weather. I always kept it hanging on the outside of my chamber window, by the side of a wall, against a wooden post in a northern aspect, and in the open air.

The greatest degree of heat in Nagasaki was 98 degrees, in the month of August; and the severest cold 35 degrees, in January, in the morning. The cold weather was universally allowed to set in this year later than other years; and was of shorter duration, insomuch, that we began to make fires in our rooms later than usual.

As to a barometer, I had none; and therefore could make no barometrical observations, in the strict sense of the word; in general, however, I took notice,

1. That the east and north, and north-east winds, which here blow from the land, are very cold. The south and west, and south-west, which blow from the sea, are always much warmer; and when it rains, the weather immediately grows milder.

2. In the summer time, the wind blows at Nagasaki almost every afternoon from the south, which is a refreshing wind; in the nights and mornings it blows from the east.

3. When a fog rises in the evening, and the clouds gather, it generally rains on that night;

[page] 236

but if there be a fog in the morning, it generally proves fair.

4. When the sky in the winter is clouded over in the east and south, rain, with blowing weather, and storms, generally succeed; but as soon as it clears up in the west or north, the weather turns out fair.

5. In the months of December and January, I twice observed fine flakes of snow in the air, which, however, at Dezima, melted before it could reach the ground. I was told, that in other years a great deal of snow had fallen, which had lain for some time.

6. Lightening, thunder, and thunder-showers, occur sometimes in June and July, but chiefly in August and September, as well in the evening, as all night long.

[page] 237

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 74 85 87 84
2 76 85 85 86
3 86 88 90 88 Cloudy.
4 86 89 89 87
5 83 81 81 80 Mizzling rain.
6 76 82 84 81
7 75 83 87 85
8 75 81 82 78 Cloudy.
9 73 80 81 80
10 71 81 83 81
11 75 75 76 76 Rain. Sunshine towards evening.
12 74 79 82 79
13 67 79 80 80
14 72 79 80 79
15 76 81 81 79
16 72 80 80 77
17 72 82 82 80
18 73 79 83 79
19 70 80 81 80
20 72 81 81 79
21 72 79 80 80
22 72 81 82 80
23 75 82 82 79
24 70 81 82 79
25 70 78 81 76
26 69 77 77 77
27 69 77 79 78
28 71 77 78 77
29 71 79 80 78
30 68 78 82 81

[page] 238

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 71 79 84 82
2 69 80 83 81
3 74 81 82 81
4 72 81 82 80
5 72 81 84 82
6 72 82 83 82
7 72 81 84 84
8 77 84 88 84
9 74 84 86 85
10 76 84 86 85
11 78 84 85 84
12 77 79 80 77
13 68 77 79 78
14 67 76 76 78
15 70 75 80 80
16 70 76 73 76
17 70 72 75 74 Cloudy with rain.
18 70 73 74 72
19 70 72 73 73
20 70 73 75 73
21 71 73 75 72
22 71 72 73 72 Rain.
23 70 71 73 72
24 66 68 68 65
25 63 65 66 69 Rain towards Even.
26 66 70 71 70
27 63 64 65 64 Cloudy.
28 60 66 67 64
29 64 68 70 70 Cloudy, with mizzling rain.
30 63 68 69 68
31 60 68 70 68

[page] 239

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 64 72 73 75 Wind south.
2 77 73 71 70
3 60 68 70 68
4 59 66 66 64
5 64 68 70 71 Cl. with miz. rain.
6 70 76 78 78 Rain in the forenoon.
7 76 74 76 72
8 67 67 67 62 Delightful sunshine.
9 58 63 64 62
10 56 63 63 63 The breath visible in the morning.
11 60 61 64 64
12 59 63 66 65
13 60 61 63 61
14 60 60 60 60 Wind north.
15 60 62 63 61
16 52 66 68 62
17 52 68 71 64
18 53 67 68 60
19 55 64 64 63 The breath visible when the thermometer was between 55 and 60.
20 57 64 65 64
21 52 64 66 63
22 56 61 62 56
23 48 60 61 56
24 52 60 60 57
25 55 56 59 53
26 53 58 59 55 Rain.
27 50 58 60 55
28 45 60 61 58
29 53 64 67 65
30 60 67 68 66 Rain the whole night.

[page] 240

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 58 68 68 54
2 56 68 68 68
3 66 68 70 70 Thunder showers.
4 59 67 67 59
5 48 48 48 44
6 39 52 53 51
7 41 55 57 52
8 40 56 59 56
9 45 59 60 56
10 46 60 60 56
11 51 59 59 59
12 56 64 64 60 Small rain.
13 51 64 66 60 Rain.
14 48 62 63 60
15 52 59 59 56 The breath visible, rain.
16 44 55 56 52
17 51 54 54 55 Rain.
18 48 55 56 55
19 47 57 56 55
20 50 60 61 57
21 56 63 60 56 Rain.
22 47 50 47 47 Wind N. Hail.
23 42 52 52 48 Hoar frost, rain in the evening.
24 38 55 55 54
25 50 54 52 56 Rain.
26 45 58 61 56
27 56 63 64 66 Rain.
28 57 62 63 57
29 54 59 54 54 Hard rain.
30 56 57 59 55
31 48 53 57 54

[page] 241

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 52 58 60 54
2 50 55 54 50
3 42 51 54 48
4 38 54 56 54
5 52 60 64 58 Rain even. & night. East.
6 66 68 68 70 Rain.
7 57 60 58 56 Rain, afterwards sunshine.
8 54 52 52 46 Rain. Wind N.
9 40 46 44 46
10 43 52 54 48
11 44 52 52 54 Cloudy. Rain.
12 59 60 60 55 Rain.
13 44 52 50 50
14 42 50 52 48
15 38 50 52 50 Frost.
16 47 54 54 52 Rain.
17 44 52 52 50
18 48 50 48 46 Cloudy. Wind N.
19 38 42 42 40 Wind N. very cold. Snow.
20 35 48 50 46 Thick ice on the water.
21 36 50 50 50 Cloudy. Rain.
22 47 52 54 50 Wind N. Rain.
23 44 52 50 43 Rain & hail. Wind N. W.
24 40 48 44 44 Wind N. Rain.
25 44 48 48 46
26 36 55 56 55 Hoar frost. Ice.
27 48 62 62 58
28 44 54 50 50
29 36 55 56 50
30 48 58 58 61 Rain. Wind N.W.
31 60 56 56 52 Rain. Wind N.W.


[page] 242

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 42 48 48 48 Rain. Snow. Wind S. W.
2 43 51 50 50
3 40 52 56 52
4 46 56 58 56
5 50 60 60 58 Wind W. Sunshine.
6 60 64 66 62
7 47 54 54 51
8 48 51 51 52
9 46 48 48 48 Rain.
10 48 54 58 56
11 48 52 52 50
12 48 52 52 50
13 42 44 50 48 Rain. Snow.
14 44 48 48 46
15 42 50 50 46
16 42 52 55 52
17 44 52 52 50
18 42 54 54 50
19 44 54 56 52
20 44 56 58 52
21 52 58 58 56 Small rain.
22 60 62 63 60 Mizzling rain.
23 52 54 54 50
24 44 54 58 52
25 48 56 58 54 Mizzling rain.
26 56 50 50 48 Rain.
27 40 50 52 48
28 44 55 52 51
29 46 55 56 51

[page] 243

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 46 54 56 52
2 44 56 60 50
3 44 56 56 56
4 56 60 62 58 On the journey to the court.
5 55 61 62 58
6 50 62 63 55
7 58 54 54 52 Rain.
8 47 59 56 52
9 44 58 56 52
10 44 56 56 52 Rain.
11 51 56 56 56
12 54 58 58 58 Thunder showers.
13 60 62 62 62 Rain.
14 62 60 62 60 Rain in the morning.
15 58 55 55 56 Rain.
16 60 62 60 56
17 54 66 70 66
18 56 60 60 52 Rain.
19 60 66 62 62
20 56 68 68 56
21 58 72 72 70 Mizzling rain.
22 68 68 68 62 Rain in the morning.
23 58 60 70 68
24 64 68 66 64 Mizzling rain.
25 64 68 70 58
26 58 64 64 60
27 56 58 56 55
28 60 60 60 56 Rain in the morning.
29 52 56 58 56
30 58 55 64 56
31 54 58 54 55

R 2

[page] 244

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 56 58 58 56
2 60 68 68 60
3 62 60 60 58
4 60 66 64 62
5 60 66 66 60
6 60 77 77 70
7 60 68 72 70
8 62 72 74 70 In Osaka.
9 60 72 74 70
10 60 60 60 58
11 58 60 60 60 In Miaco.
12 62 60 64 62 Rain.
13 56 58 56 50 Rain.
14 48 58 60 58
15 56 56 56 56 Rain.
16 58 58 58 62 Rain.
17 62 70 70 70
18 62 66 68 66
19 64 66 66 66 Rain.
20 64 66 66 64
21 60 60 60 60 Rain.
22 56 56 58 58
23 50 56 60 54
24 48 66 70 66
25 60 70 68 64 Rain and thunder.
26 52 70 72 58
27 58 70 76 68
28 62 65 66 72
29 62 68 68 68 Mizzling rain.
30 62 68 70 66

[page] 245

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 54 72 74 68 In Jedo.
2 72 72 72 68 Mizzling rain.
3 64 64 64 64
4 60 70 72 68
5 66 70 72 68
6 56 70 70 68 Rain in the evening.
7 58 64 64 64 Hard rain.
8 62 70 76 72 Thunder showers.
9 66 72 74 68
10 64 66 66 62 Thunder showers.
11 56 64 68 64
12 58 70 72 68
13 58 70 72 70
14 68 74 76 72
15 68 74 76 72
16 70 76 78 74 Rain.
17 70 78 76 72
18 60 70 72 70
19 64 74 76 74
20 70 72 76 76
21 66 70 74 68
22 62 72 76 74
23 68 74 76 76 Mizzling rain.
24 68 80 82 78
25 74 80 76 76
26 76 74 80 70 Left Jedo.
27 64 76 78 72
28 66 74 74 72
29 68 70 72 74 Mizzling rain.
30 72 72 72 66 Rain.
31 66 78 78 68

R 3

[page] 246

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 68 72 72 70
2 66 76 78 72 Rain in the morning.
3 68 76 84 78
4 64 76 76 74
5 72 76 78 80 Thunder showers.
6 64 66 66 64
7 64 66 68 64 In Miaco.
8 64 66 66 68 Rain.
9 65 70 70 70
10 64 80 74 70
11 68 80 82 76 In Osaka.
12 68 76 78 76
13 72 72 72 76 Rain.
14 76 76 76 72 Rain.
15 70 72 74 76
16 72 78 84 80
17 74 78 78 76
18 76 78 78 74 Rain.
19 74 74 74 72
20 74 76 76 72
21 75 76 66 76
22 76 76 76 76
23 80 76 76 76 In Kokora.
24 76 84 84 80
25 76 80 84 82
26 76 82 78 74 Heavy rain at noon.
27 76 82 80 76 Rain.
28 76 84 84 84 Rain.
29 78 82 84 82 On Dezima island.
30 80 82 84 82

[page] 247

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 80 84 88 82 Rain in the morning.
2 80 84 84 80 Ditto.
3 80 84 86 80
4 78 88 88 84
5 82 90 90 84
6 84 90 90 84
7 82 89 89 82
8 80 84 85 80 Cloudy.
9 78 76 78 76 Heavy thunder-shrs.
10 78 80 80 76 Rain.
11 76 80 80 76 Showers.
12 72 80 80 78
13 80 86 84 80
14 76 80 86 80
15 84 88 90 78
16 78 80 85 82 Heavy rain.
17 80 84 84 80
18 80 86 86 80
19 82 84 84 82
20 80 88 92 84
21 80 91 92 86
22 82 88 88 86
23 84 88 88 84
24 84 88 88 85
25 82 84 84 83 Showers.
26 82 90 91 84
27 82 88 88 84
28 84 86 88 84 Showers.
29 84 78 78 79 Heavy thunder-shrs.
30 82 85 85 82
31 82 88 88 86

R 4

[page] 248

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 86 93 96 98 Thunder showers.
2 84 88 88 82 Hard rain.
3 79 80 82 80
4 80 92 95 84
5 84 95 98 84
6 80 96 98 88
7 82 96 98 92
8 80 92 96 88
9 84 96 98 86
10 86 88 86 86 Rain.
11 78 86 86 82
12 80 90 92 88
13 88 90 93 88
14 86 96 96 90
15 84 86 86 82 Heavy rain.
16 80 86 86 84 Small rain.
17 78 90 92 86
18 78 90 92 84
19 76 88 90 84
20 86 88 90 84 Rain in the evening.
21 82 92 94 86
22 82 86 86 82 Rain.
23 80 88 88 82 Rain.
24 82 90 90 84
25 80 90 92 86
26 80 92 94 84
27 82 92 92 86
28 82 88 88 86
29 82 90 90 84
30 82 89 90 86
31 80 90 90 84 Rain in the morning.

[page] 249

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 80 88 90 84 Rain in the morning.
2 80 84 84 78 Thunder showers.
3 72 84 86 78
4 70 88 90 80
5 76 90 94 86
6 77 90 90 88 Rain in the evening.
7 80 94 94 80 Heavy thunder showers.
8 80 94 94 88
9 82 94 96 88
10 80 92 94 86
11 80 90 90 82 Thunder showers.
12 80 86 96 84
13 78 88 90 86
14 82 82 82 80 Heavy thunder showers for three days together.
15 80 78 78 78
16 78 80 80 80
17 76 82 80 76
18 74 82 82 76
19 66 80 82 75
20 68 84 84 76
21 68 82 82 76
22 72 78 78 76
23 68 78 78 76
24 65 80 82 78
25 70 82 80 72
26 64 80 82 72
27 60 78 82 74
28 60 80 80 76
29 60 82 82 76
30 60 82 82 74

[page] 250

D.M. Morn. Noon. Aftn. Even. State of the Weather.
1 62 86 86 78
2 72 86 86 80
3 76 82 82 76
4 66 84 84 78
5 70 82 84 78
6 64 82 82 78
7 66 82 84 78
8 62 82 84 78
9 64 84 86 78
10 68 84 86 80
11 74 80 80 80 Thunder showers.
12 72 76 76 78
13 66 74 82 74
14 72 80 80 80 Rain. Wind S.
15 70 74 74 68
16 64 64 64 64 Cloudy. Wind N.
17 60 66 64 62 Mizzling rain.
18 62 66 66 64 Ditto.
19 62 68 68 68
20 66 66 66 62 Rain.
21 62 66 66 66 Ditto.
22 64 68 68 66
23 58 70 70 66
24 58 74 74 70
25 60 76 76 74
26 64 80 82 76
27 72 76 76 70
28 70 80 80 76 Thunder showers.
29 68 70 72 68
30 58 74 74 66
31 64 74 74 66

[page] 251


THE people of this nation are well made, active, free and easy in their motions, with stout limbs, although their strength is not to be compared to that of the northern inhabitants of Europe. The men are of the middling size, and in general not very corpulent; yet I have seen some that were sufficiently fat. They are of a yellowish colour all over, sometimes bordering on brown, and sometimes on white. The lower class of people, who in summer, when at work, lay bare the upper part of their bodies, are sun-burnt, and consequently brown. Ladies of distinction, who seldom go out in the open air without being covered, are perfectly white. It is by their eyes that, like the Chinese, these people are distinguishable. These organs have not that rotundity which those of other nations exhibit, but are oblong, small, and are sunk deeper in the head, in consequence of which these people have almost the appearance of being pink-eyed. In other respects their eyes are dark-brown, or rather black, and the eye-lids form in the great angle of the eye a deep furrow, which makes the Japanese look as if they were sharp-sighted, and discriminates them from other

[page] 252

nations. The eye-brows are also placed somewhat higher. Their heads are in general large, and their necks short, their hair black, thick, and shining, from the use they make of oils. Their noses, although not flat, are yet rather thick and short.


THE Japanese are in general intelligent and provident, free and unconstrained, obedient and courteous, curious and inquisitive, industrious and ingenious, frugal and sober, cleanly, good-natured and friendly, upright and just, trusty and honest, mistrustful, superstitious, proud, and haughty, unforgiving, brave, and invincible.

The Japanese nation shews Sense and steadiness in all its undertakings, so far as the light of science, by whose brighter rays it has not as yet had the good fortune to be illumined, can ever guide it. This nation is so far from deserving to be ranked with such as are called savage, that it rather merits a place amongst the most civilized. Their present mode of government, regulations for foreign commerce, their manufactures, the vast abundance, even to superfluity, of all the necessaries of life, &c. give con-

[page] 253

vincing proofs of their sagacity, steadiness, and undaunted spirit. That idle vanity, so common amongst other Asiatic as well as many African nations, who adorn themselves with shells, beads, and glittering pieces of metal, is never to be observed here; nor are these unnecessary European trappings of gold and silver lace, jewels, and the like, which serve merely to catch the eye, here prized at all; but they endeavour to furnish themselves from their own manufactures with decent clothing, palatable food, and excellent weapons.

Liberty is the soul of the Japanese; not that which degenerates into licentiousness and riotous excess, but a liberty under strict subjection to the laws. It has been supposed, indeed, that the common people of Japan were merely slaves under a despotic government, as the laws are extremely severe. But a servant who hires himself to a master for a year, is not therefore a slave; neither is a soldier, who has inlisted for a certain number of years, and over whom a much stricter hand is kept, a slave, although he is obliged implicitly to obey his superiors commands. The Japanese hate and detest the inhuman traffic in slaves carried on by the Dutch, and the cruelty with which these poor creatures are treated.

[page] 254

The rights and liberties of the higher and lower class of people are equally protected by the laws; and the uncommon severity of these laws, joined to the inevitable execution of them, serves to keep every one within proper bounds. With regard to foreigners, no nation in the whole extensive tract of the Indies is more vigilantly attentive to their liberties than this; and none more free from the encroachments, fraudulent attempts, or open attacks of others.

The regulations they have adopted in this particular are not to be paralleled in the whole world. The inhabitants have been forbidden to leave the empire on pain of death, and no foreigners are suffered to come into the country, except a few Dutchmen and some Chinese, who during the whole time of their stay, are watched like state prisoners. The people of distinction and those that are rich, have a great number of attendants; and every one, in general, has some attendant in his house, to wait upon him, and when he goes abroad, to carry his cloak, shoes, umbrella, lantern, and other things that he may want of a similar nature.

With respect to Courtesy and submission to their superiors, few can be compared to the Japanese. Subordination to government and obedience to their parents, are inculcated into children in their early infancy, and in every


[page] 255

situation of life they are in this respect instructed by the good example of their elders, which has this effect, that the children are seldom reprimanded, scolded, or chastised. The inferior class of people shew their respect to those of a higher rank and to their superiors by bowing very low, and in the most reverential manner, and at the same time pay implicit obedience to them cheerfully, and without the least hesitation. Their equals they always salute with great politeness, both at meeting and parting. In general they bend their backs with their heads downward, and lay their hands either on their knees, or else on their legs below their knees, and sometimes bring them down to their feet, accordingly as a greater or less degree of respect is to be shewn; and the greater the veneration, the nearer do their heads approach the ground. If any one speaks to them, or they are to present any thing to another, they bow in the same manner. If a person of inferior rank meets his superior in the street, he remains in the posture above mentioned till the latter has passed him. If they are equals, they both make the same obeisance, standing still, and then go on with their backs bent for a short time after they have passed each other. On entering any house, they fall on their knees, and bow their heads more or less low; and before

[page] 256

they rise to go away, perform the same obeisance.

This nation, as well as many others, carry their Curiosity to a great length. They examine narrowly every thing that is carried thither by the Europeans, and every thing that belongs to them. They are continually asking for information upon every subject, and frequently tire the Dutch out with their questions. Among the merchants who arrive here, it is chiefly the physician of the embassy that is considered by the Japanese as learned; and consequently, on the little island set apart for the factory, and particularly in the journey to court, as also during the residence of the Dutch in the metropolis, they look up to him as an oracle, whom they suppose capable of giving them information upon every subject, particularly on those of mathematics, geography, natural philosophy, pharmacy, zoology, botany, and physic.

During the audience we had of the emperor, the privy counsellors, and others of the highest officers of state, we were surveyed from head to foot, as also our hats, swords, clothes, buttons, lace, watches, canes, rings, &c.; nay, we were even obliged to write in their presence, in order to shew them our manner of writing and our characters.

[page] 257

In mechanical ingenuity and invention, this nation keeps chiefly to that which is necessary and useful; but in industry it excels most others.

Their works in copper and other metals are fine, and in wood both neat and lafting; but their well-tempered sabres, and their beautiful lacquered ware, exceed every thing of the kind that has hitherto been produced elsewhere. The diligence with which the husbandman cultivates the foil, and the pains they bestow on it, are so great as to seem incredible.

Frugality has its principal seat in Japan. It is a virtue as highly esteemed in the imperial palace, as in the poorest cottage. It is in consequence of this that the middling clafs of people are contented with their little pittance; and that accumulated stores of the rich are not dissipated in wantonness and luxury. It is in consequence of this, that dearth and famine are strangers to this country; and that in the whole extent of this populous empire, scarcely a needy person or beggar is to be found. The people in general are neither parsimonious nor avaricious; and have a fixed dislike to gluttony and drunkenness. As the foil is not wasted upon the cultivation of tobacco, or of any other usefuls plant, neither is the grain employed in the dif-


[page] 258

tillation of spirits, or other idle, not to say pernicious, purposes.

Cleanliness and neatness are attended to as well with regard to their bodies, as to their cloathing, houses, food, vessels, &c.; and they use the warm-bath daily.

Of their friendly disposition and good nature, I have frequently with astonishment seen manisest proofs; even at a time when, as now, they have every reason in the world to hate and despise the Europeans who traffic there, for their bad conduct and fraudulent dealings. This nation is lofty, it is true, but good natured and friendly withal; with gentleness and kindness it may be soothed and brought to hear reason; but is not to be moved in the least by threats, or any thing like defiance.

Justice is held sacred all over the country. The monarch never injures any of his neighbours; and no instance is to be found in history, ancient or modern, of his having shewn an ambition to extend his territories by conquest. The history of Japan affords numberless instances of the heroism of these people in the defence of their country against foreign invasions, or internal insurrections; but not one of their encroachments upon the lands or properties of others, The Japanese have never given way to the weakness of conquering other kingdoms, or suf-

[page] 259

fering any part of their own to be taken from them. They have ever followed, and still continue to follow, the usages and customs of their forefathers, and never adopt the manners of other nations. Justice constantly presides at their tribunals, where causes are adjudged without delay, and without intrigues or partiality. The guilty finds no where an asylum; no respect is paid to persons, nor can any one prefume to flatter himself with hopes of pardon or favour. Justice is held sacred even with respect to engagements with the Europeans, insomuch, that treaties once concluded are neither broken, nor even a single letter of them altered, unless the Europeans themselves give occasion to such procedures.

Honesty prevails throughout the whole country; and perhaps there are few parts of the world where so few thefts are committed as here. Highway robberies are totally unknown. Thefts are seldom heard of; and in their journey to the court the Europeans are so secure, that they pay very little attention to their baggage; although in the factory the common people think it no fin to pilfer a few trifles, particularly sugar and teacups, from the Dutch, while these articles are carrying to or from the quay.

It is highly probable that these people have not been always so suspicious as they are at pre-

S 2

[page] 260

sent; possibly their former internal commotions and civil wars, but still more the frauds of the Europeans, have called forth and increased their mistrust, which now, at least in their commerce with the Dutch and the Chinese, is without bounds.

Superstition is more common with them, and rises to a higher degree than in any other nation; which is owing to the little knowledge they have of most sciences, and the absurd principles inculcated into them by their priests, together with their idolatrous doctrines. This superstitious disposition is displayed at their feasts, their public worship, in the making of solemn promises, in the use of particular remedies, the chusing of lucky or unlucky days, &c.

Pride is one of the principal defects of this nation. They believe that they are honoured with that sacred origin from gods, from heaven, the sun and moon, which many Asiatic nations as arrogantly as absurdly lay claim to. They consequently think themselves to be somewhat more than other people, and, in particular, consider the Europeans in a very indifferent light. Whatever injury a Japanese might be inclined to put up with, he can never bear to have his pride touched. It was pride that expelled the Portuguese from the country, and this alone may intime ruin the present flourshing traffic carried on by the Dutch.

[page] 261

Besides the circumstance of this nation having never (not even in the remotest ages) been conquered or subjected to any foreign power, we read in the annals of its history such accounts of its valour and unconquerable spirit, as might rather be taken for fables, and the produce of a fertile imagination, than the sober dictates of truth, did not latter years furnish us with convincing proofs of their reality. In the year 799, the Tartars having, for the first time, over-run part of Japan with an innumerable army, and their fleet having been lost in one night in a hard gale of wind; the Japanese commander in chief, on the day following, raised the camp, attacked the enemy, routed and put them all to the sword, so that not a man was lest alive to return with the tidings of so unparalleled a defeat, and so complete a victory. In like manner, when in the year 1281, they were again attacked by the Tartars, to the amount of 240,000 men, the victory was equally great and glorious. The expulsion of the Portuguese, and the extirpation, at the same time, of the Christian religion in the seventeeth century, was so complete, that scarcely any traces are now to be found of their former existence in the country. The war and devastation continued for the space of 40 years: several millions were victims to its fury; and at the last siege 37,000 men fell. These victories are not the only proofs of the courage and intrepidity of the

S 3

[page] 262

Japanese. I shall here adduce another instance still more to the purpose. The affair happened in the year 1630. A small Japanese vessel arrived for the purpose of trading at the island of Formosa, which at that time belonged to the Dutch East India company. One PETER NUYTZ, who was at that time governor, treated the Japanese merchants ill, who arrived there in this vessel, and who, on their return home, complained to their prince of the ill-treatment they had received. As the prince took fire at this insult, and the more so, as it came from foreigners whom he despised, and at the same time he did not find himself in a condition to revenge himself, his guards addressed him in the following manner: "We do not consider ourselves worthy any longer to have the care of your highness's person, unless you permit us to retrieve your honour. Nothing can efface this stain but the blood of the offender. You have only to command, and we will cut off his head, or bring him hither alive, to be treated as you shall think proper, and according to his deserts. Seven of us will be sufficient for the purpose. Neither the danger of the voyage, the strength of the castle, nor the number of his guards, shall screen him from our vengeance." Accordingly, having received the prince's permission, and consulted upon the measures proper to be taken, they arrived at Formofa. They were no sooner introduced to the governor, in order to

[page] 263

have an audience, than they all drew their fabres, made him prisoner, and carried him on board of the vessel that had brought them. This happened in broad day-light, in the fight of his guards and domestics, and without any one offering to stir in defence of their master, or to rescue him from his bold conductors, who, with their swords drawn, threatened to cleave his head in two the moment the least opposition should be made. This anecdote may be seen in KAEMPFER'S Description of Japan, Appendix, p. 56.

Any one that, from what has been said above, has formed to himself a notion of the pride, justice, and courage of the Japanese, will not be much astonished, when he is told, that this people, when injured, are quite implacable. As they are haughty and intrepid, so they are resentful and unforgiving; they do not shew their hatred, however, with violence or warmth of temper, but frequently conceal it under the mask of an inconceivable fang froid, and wait with patience for the proper time to revenge themselves. Never did I see a people less subject to sudden emotions and affections of the mind. Abuse them, despise them, or touch their honour as much as you please, they will never answer you a single syllable, but merely with a long Eb! Eb! testify, as it were, their surprise, and conceive in filence the greateft hatred for their opponent, which no justification,

S 4

[page] 264

nor length of time, nor change of circumstances can afterwards efface. Thus they are not used to treat their enemies uncivilly either in word or behaviour, but deceive them, as well as others, with diffembled friendship, till, sooner or later, an opportunity offers of doing them some material injury.


Is, on account of its differing in many respects from the European languages, very difficult to learn. It is written, indeed, like the Chinese, in strait lines upwards and downwards, but the letters are quite different, and the languages, upon the whole, so dissimilar, that these two neighbouring nations cannot understand each other without an interpreter. The Chinese language, however, is much read and written at Japan, and is considered as their learned language, which, together with various sciences, they have adopted from China.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, I was at great pains, as well during the last autumn and winter months as since that time, to learn, from my best friends among the interpreters, both to understand and speak it a little, as also to write it; though, as well for their safety as my own, I was obliged to do this with the greatest privacy. And the better to obtain this end, whence I flattered myself that at a future period (and par-


[page] 265

ticularly in my journey to court) I might derive considerable advantage, I wrote down the words by degrees, as I learned them, and, by the assistance of the Japanese dictionary already mentioned, formed a vocabulary of a language, which of all others is the least known in Europe. At first I imagined I should profit much in this respect by my Dutch friends, and the more, as many of them seemed to be able to call for any thing they wanted in the Japanese tongue; but not one of them had ever thought of forming a vocabulary by way of assisting his memory, or otherwise endeavoured to elucidate the nature of the language. A Japanese and Dutch vocabulary might, it is true, in the space of two centuries, have been thought of, and completed for the use and service of such as are to remain for some time in this country, had not incapacity in some, and idlenefs in others, laid infurmountable obstacles in the way. Some stay here for a short time only, others are merely in search of a fortune, and, for the major part of them, the tobacco-pipe has too great charms for them to devote to any thing better, more useful, and more agreeable, their precious time, which, however, here they frequently complain of as tedious. Of this vocabulary I have given an extract, at the end of this volume, in hopes that somebody, sooner or later, may reap some benefit from it.

[page] 266


OF each family and individual is used in Japan in a very different manner from what it is in Europe. The family name of the Japanese remains unchanged, but is never used in daily conversation, or in the ordinary course of life, but only when they sign any writings, and that chiefly when they set their seals to them. There is likewise this singularity in the affair, that the family name is not put after, but always before the adfcititious name, in like manner as in botany, where the generic name of a plant always precedes the specific. So that the adfcititious or adopted name is that by which they are addressed, and this is changed several times in the course of their lives. As soon as a child is born, it receives from the parents a certain name, which, is a son, he keeps till he arrives at years of maturity. At that period it is changed. If afterwards he obtains an office, he again changes his name; and if, in process of time, he is advanced to other offices, the same change always takes place, and some, but especially emperors and princes, have a new name given them after their death. The names of the women are less subject to change, and are frequently taken from certain beautiful

[page] 267

flowers. Titles are given to place-men of a superior order, on entering to their employments; and to the chief of them various names of honour are added by the spiritual emperor.


AT Japan deserves, more than any where else in the world, the name of national; as it not only differs from that of every other nation, but at the same time is uniform from the monarch down to the most inferior subject, similar in both sexes, and (which almost surpasses all belief) has been unchanged for the space of two thousand five hundred years.

It consists every where of long and wide night-gowns, one or more of which are worn by people of every age and condition in life. The rich have them of the finest silk, and the poor of cotton. The women wear them reaching down to their feet, and the women of quality frequently with a train. Those of the men come down to their heels; but travellers, together with solders and labouring people, either tuck them up, or wear them so short, that they only reach to their knees. The men generally have

[page] 268

them made of a plain silk of one colour, but the silken stuffs worn by the women are flowered, and sometimes interwoven with gold flowers. In the summer, they are either without any lining at all, or else with a thin lining only; in winter, by way of defence against the cold weather, they are quilted with cotton or silk wadd. The men seldom wear many of them, but the women often from thirty to fifty, or more, and all so thin, that together they hardly weigh more than four or five pounds. The undermost of them serves for a shirt, and is therefore either white or bluish, and for the most part thin and transparent. All these night-gowns are fastened about the waist by a belt, which for the men is about the breadth of a hand, and for the women of about twelve inches, and of such a length as to go twice round the body, with a large knot and rose. The knot worn by the fair sex, which is larger than that worn by the men, shews immediately whether the woman is married or not; as the married women wear the knot before, and the single behind. The men fasten to this belt their sabre, fan, tobacco-pipe and pouch, and medicine-box. The gowns are rounded off about the neck, without a cape, open before, and shew the bare bosom, which is never covered either with a handkerchief, or any thing else. The sleeves are always ill-shaped, and much wider than they ought to be, and sewed together

[page] 269

half way down in front, so as to form a bag at bottom, into which they put their hands in cold weather, or use it as a pocket to hold their papers and other things. Young girls, in particular, have the sleeves of their gowns so long, as frequently to reach quite down to the ground.

On account of the great width of their garments, they are soon dressed and undressed, as they have nothing more to do than to untie their girdle, and draw in their arms, when the whole of their dress instantly falls off of itself. So that long and wide night-gowns universally form the dress of the Japanese nation, though in this point some small variation takes place with regard to sex, age, condition, and way of life. Thus one frequently sees the common people, such as labourers, fishermen, and sailors, either undressed, when they are at their work, with their night-gowns taken off from the upper part of their bodies, and hanging down loose from their girdles; or else quite naked, having round their body a girdle only, which wrapping round and covering the parts that decency requires to be concealed, is carried backwards between the thighs, to be fastened to the back.

Men of a higher rank in life, have besides these long night-gowns, a short half-gown, which is worn over the other, and is made of some thin kind of stuff, such as gauze. It is like the

[page] 270

former at the sleeves and neck, but reaches only to the wafte, and is not fastened with a girdle, but is tied before and at the top with string. This half-gown is sometimes of a green, but most frequently of a black colour. When they come home to their houses or to their respective offices, where there are none superior to them, they take off this outer garment, and, folding it carefully up, lay it by.

The breeches are of a peculiar kind of stuff, which is thin indeed, but at the same time very close and compact; and made neither of silk nor of cotton, but of a species of hemp. They are more like a petticoat than breeches; being sewed between the legs, and left open at the sides to about two-thirds of their length. They reach down to the ancles, and are fastened about the waist with a band, which is carried round the body from before and from behind. At the back part of these breeches is a thin triangular piece of board, scarcely fix inches long, which is covered with the same stuff as the breeches, and stands up against the back just above the band. The breeches are either striped with brown or green, or else uniformly black. I have sometimes seen them made of Succotas, a stuff from Bengal. Drawers are seldom used but on journies, and by foldiers, who wear short and tucked-

[page] 271

up night-gowns, that they may walk or run with the greater speed.

The complimentary dress, as a sort of holiday dress is called in Japan, is used only on solemn occasions, and when people of an inferior rank pay homage to their superiors, or by such as are going to court. Such a dress is worn on the outside of all, over the gowns, that form the whole of this people's usual dress. It consists of two pieces, made of one and the same kind of stuff. The undermost piece, is the above-described breeches, which are generally made of a blue stuff, printed with white flowers. The uppermost piece, which particularly distinguishes this dress, is a frock, not unlike the half-night-gown already spoken of, but is carried on each side back over the shoulders, by which means the Japanese have the appearance of being very broad shouldered.

All their clothes are made either of silk, cotton, or of a kind of linen manufactured from certain species of nettles. The better sort of people wear the finest silks, which in fineness and tenuity far exceed every thing produced either in India or Europe; but as these silks are not above twelve inches broad, they are not carried to Europe for sale. The common people wear cotton, which is found here in great abundance. Sometimes, but merely as a matter of curiosity,

[page] 272

the Japanese make of the bark of the Morus papyrisera, a kind of cloth, which is either manufactured like paper, or else spun and woven. The latter fort, which is quite white and fine, and resembles cotton, is sometimes used by the women. The former, printed with flowers, is used for the long night-gowns by elderly people only, and is worn by them at no other time than in the winter, when they perspire but little, and then with a gown or two besides.

As the night-gowns reach down to the feet, and consequently keep the thighs and legs warm, stockings are neither wanted nor used throughout the whole country. One sees the common people, however, when travelling, and soldiers who have not such long night-gowns, wear spatterdashes made of cotton stuff. I observed that some people near Nagasaki wore also hempen Socks, with the soles of cotton stuff, which they used in the feverst winter months, to preserve the feet from cold. They are tied fast about the ancle, and have a separate place made for the great toe to enter, and adapted to the form of the shoe.

The Shoes, or, to speak more properly, Slippers of the Japanese, are the most shabby and indifferent part of their dress, and yet in equal use with the high and the low, the rich and the poor. They are made of rice-straw woven, but sometimes for people of distinction of fine slips of

[page] 273

ratan. The shoe consists of a sole, without upper leather or hind-piece: forwards it is crossed by a strap, of the thickness of one's finger, which is lined with linen; from the tip of the shoe to this strap a cylindrical string is carried, which passes between the great and second toe, and keeps the shoe fast on the foot. As these shoes have no hind-piece, they make a noise, when people walk in them, like slippers. When the Japanese travel, their shoes are furnished with three strings made of twisted straw, with which they are tied to the legs and feet, to prevent them from falling off. Some people carry one or more pair of shoes with them on their journies, in order to put on new, when the old ones are worn out. When it rains, or the roads are very dirty, these shoes are soon wetted through, and one continually fees a great number of worn-out shoes lying on the roads, especially near the brooks, where travellers have changed their shoes after washing their feet. Instead of these, in rainy or dirty weather, they wear high wooden clogs, which underneath are hallowed out in the middle, and at top have a band across like stirrup, and a string for the great toe; so that they can walk without soiling their feet. Some of them have their straw shoes fastened to these wooden clogs. The Japanese never enter their houses with their shoes on; but leave them in the entry, or place them on a


[page] 274

bench near the door, and thus are always barefooted in their houses, so as not to dirty their neat mats. During the time that the Dutch live at Japan, when they are sometimes under an obligation of paying visits at the houses of the Japanese, their own rooms at the factory being likewise covered with mats of this kind, they wear, instead of the usual shoes, red, green, or black slippers, which, on entering the house, they pull off; however, they have stockings on, and shoes made of cotton stuff, with buckles in them, which shoes are made at Japan, and can be washed whenever they are dirty. Some have them of black sattin, in order to avoid washing them.

This people's mode of dressing their hair is as peculiar to them, and at the same time as general amongst them, as their use of the night-gowns. The men shave the whole of their head from the forehead down to the nape of the neck, and what is left near the temples and in the neck is well greased, turned up, and tied at the top of the head with several rounds of white string, made of paper. The end of the hair that remains above the tie is cut off to about the length of one's finger, and, after being well stiffened with oil, bent in such a manner, that the tip is brought to stand against the crown of the head, in which situation it is kept merely by the string above mentioned. This coeffure is

[page] 275

strictly attended to, and the head shaved every day, that the stumps of the growing hair may not disfigure their bald pates. Priessts and physicians, and young men that have not yet attained to the age of maturity, are the only persons who are exempted in this respect. The priests and physicians shave their heads all over, and are thus discriminated from all others. Boys again keep all their hair on till such time as the beard begins to make its appearance.

Of the fair sex, none have their hair cut off, except women that are parted from their husbands. I had an opportunity of seeing such a one, while I was at Jedo, who traversed the country much, and made, with her bald pate, a droll and singular appearance. Otherwise the hair, well besmeared, and made smooth with oil and mucilaginous sustances, is put up close to the head on all sides, and this either quite in a neat and simple manner, or else standing out at the sides in the form of wings. After this the ends are fastened together round a knob at the crown of the head. Single women and servant maids are frequently distinguished from the married by these wings. Just before this knot a broad comb is stuck, which the poorer fort of people wear of lacquered wood, and those that are in better circumstances of tortoise-shell. Besides these, the rich wear several long ornaments made of tortoise-

T 2

[page] 276

shell stuck through this knot, as also a few flowers, which serve instead of pearls and diamonds, and constitute the whole of their decorations. Vanity has not yet taken root among them to that degree, as to induce them to wear rings or other ornaments in their ears.

These people never cover their heads either with hats or caps, to defend them against the cold or the scorching heat of the fun, except on journies, when they wear a conical hat, made of a species of grafs, and tied with string. I observed such as these also were worn by fishermen. Some few travelling women wore caps in the form of a terrene, which were interwoven with gold. Otherwise, the parasol is what they use to shelter them against the rain or the rays of the fun.

Besides the above-mentioned drawers, spatter-dashes, and hat, which none but travellers wear, they are generally provided on journies with a cloke, especially such as travel on foot or on horseback. These clokes are wide and short, and of the same shape as the night-gowns. They are made of thick oiled paper, and are worn by the superior attendants in the suit of princes, and of other travellers; and my fellow-travellers and myself, during our journey to court, were obliged to make a present to our attendants of some of these clokes, when we passed by the place where they were manufactured.

[page] 277

The Japanese always have their coat of arms put on their clokes, particularly on their long and short night-gowns, and that either on their arms or between their shoulders, with a view to prevent their being stolen, which in a country where people's clothes are so much alike in point of materials, form, and size, might easily happen.

Instead of a handkerchief, I always saw them use thin and soft writing paper, which they constantly carried about them for this purpose, and which they also used for wiping their mouths and fingers, as likewise for wiping off the sweat from their bodies under the arm-pits.


THE houses in general are of wood and plaster, and white-washed on the outside, so as to look exactly like stone. The beams all lie horizontal, or stand perpendicular (no slanting ones, as are otherwise used in frame-work buildings). Between these beams, which are square, and far from thick, bamboos are interwoven, and the spaces filled up with clay, sand, and lime. In consequence of this, the walls are not very thick, but when white-washed make a tolerably

T 3

[page] 278

good appearance. There are partition-walls in their houses, which are merely supported by posts or upright beams, between which again at the cieling and floor other beams run across, with grooves in them, for partitioning off the apartments. Thus, the whole house at first forms only one room, which, however, may be partitioned off with frames that slide in the grooves made in these cross-beams, and may be put up, taken away, or slid behind each other at pleasure. These frames are made of lacquered wood, and covered with thick painted paper. The cieling is tolerably neat, and formed of boards closely joined; but the floor, which is always raised from the ground, is laid with planks at a distance from each other. The roofs are covered with tiles, which are of a singular make, and very thick and heavy: the more ordinary houses are covered with chips, on which are frequently laid heavy stones to secure them. In the villages, and the meaner towns, I sometimes saw the sides of the houses, especially behind, covered with the bark of trees, which was secured by laths nailed on it, to prevent the rain from damaging the wall. The houses are generally two stories high, but the upper story is seldom inhabited, is for the most part lower than the other, and is used for a loft, or to lay up lumber in. The houses of people of distinction are larger indeed, and

[page] 279

handsomer than others, but not more than two stories, or, at the most, twenty feet high. In each room there are two or more windows, which reach from the cieling to within two feet of the floor. They consist of light frames, which may be taken out, put in, and slid behind each other at pleasure, in two grooves, made for this purpose, in the beams above and below them. They are divided by slender rods into panes of a parallelogramic form, sometimes to the number of forty, and pasted over on the outside with fine white paper, which is seldom or ever oiled, and admits a great deal of light, but prevents any one from seeing through it. The roof always projects a great way beyond the house, and sometimes has an additional roof, which covers a small projecting gallery, that stands before the window; from this little roof go slanting inwards and downwards, several quadrangular frames, within which hang blinds made of rushes, which may be drawn up and let down, and serve not only to hinder people that pass by from looking into the house, but chiefly when it rains, to prevent the paper-windows from being damaged. There are no glass windows here; nor have I observed mother-of-pearl or Moscovy talk used for this purpose.

The floors are always covered with mats made of a fine species of grass (Juncus) interwoven

T 4

[page] 280

with rice-straw, from three to four inches thick, and of the same size throughout the whole country, viz. two yards long, and one broad, with a narrow blue or black border. It was only at Jedo, in the imperial palace, that I saw mats larger than these. In the houses of the lower order of people, a great part of the room on the outside is not covered with mats, and serves for a hall, where the company may leave their shoes: within is a raised floor, which, covered with mats, constitutes the sitting-room, and, by means of sliding screens, may be divided into several compartments.

The insides of the houses, both cieling and walls, are covered with a handsome thick paper, ornamented with various flowers; these hangings are either green, yellow, or white, and sometimes embellished with silver and gold. A thin gruel made of boiled rice forms the paste used for this purpose; and as the paper is greatly damaged by the smoke in winter, it is renewed every third or fifth year.

Tradesmen and mechanics frequently use the front part of the house, that looks into the street, as a workshop, sale-shop, or kitchen, and inhabit the part that looks into the yard.

The room which serves as a kitchen has no other fire-place than a square hole, which is frequently in the middle of the room, and is

[page] 281

lined with a few stones, which are laid level with the surface of the mats. The smoke makes the house black and dirty, as there is no chimney, but only a hole in the roof; and the floor-mats, being so near the fire-place, frequently occasion fires.

Every house has its privy; in the floor of which there is an oblong aperture, and it is over this aperture that the Japanese sit. At the side of the wall is a kind of a box, inclining obliquely outwards, into which they discharge their urine. Near it there is always a China vessel with water in it, with which, on these occasions, they never fail to wash their hands.

Every house likewise has a small yard, which is decorated with a little mount, a few trees, shrubs, and flower-pots. The plants that were most commonly seen here were, the Pinus Sylvestris, Azalea Indica, Aukuba, Nandina, &c.

At some places, such as in Jedo and other towns, adjacent to each house there is a store-house that is fire-proof, for the purpose of saving the owner's property.

One seldom finds a house in which there is not a room set apart for the purpose of bathing, with a bathing-tub in it. This generally looks towards the yard.

So that the Japanese buildings, in town as well as in the country, have neither that elegant appear-


[page] 282

ance, nor the convenience and comfort of our houses in Europe. The rooms are not so cheerful and pleasant, nor so warm in the winter, neither are they so safe in case of fire, nor so durable. Their semi-transparent paper windows, in particular, spoil the look of the houses, as well in the rooms as out towards the street.

The public buildings, such as temples and palaces, are larger, it is true, and more conspicuous, but in the same stile of architecture, and the roofs, which are decorated with several towers of a singular appearance, are their greatest ornament.

The towns are sometimes of a considerable size, always secured with gates, and frequently surrounded with walls and fosses, and adorned with towers, especially if a prince keeps his court there. The town of Jedo is said to be twenty-one hours walk in circumference, or about twenty-one French leagues. From a height I had an opportunity to take a view of the whole of this spacious town, which for size may vie with Peking. The streets are strait and wide, and at certain distances divided by gates, and at each gate there is a very high ladder, from the top of which any fire that breaks out may be discovered, an accident, that not unfrequently happens here several times in the week.


[page] 283

The villages differ from the towns, by being open, and having only one street. Their length frequently surpasses all belief: most of them are three quarters of a mile in length, and some of them so long, that it requires several hours to walk through them. Some also stand so close together, that they are discriminated from each other only by a bridge or rivulet, and their name.

Neither chimnies nor stoves are known throughout the whole country; although the cold is very intense, and they are obliged to make fires in their apartments from October to March. The fires are made in copper kettles of various sizes, with broad projecting edges. The hollow part of these is filled with clay or athes, and well-burned charcoal is put at the top, and lighted. A pot or kettle of this kind is placed in the middle of the room, or at one side, and, on account of the apartments being too pervious to the air, the fire is made several times a day, or else a constant fire is kept up for the Japanese to sit round it. This mode of firing, however, is liable to the inconvenience, that the charcoal sometimes smokes, in consequence of which the apartment becomes dirty and black, and the eyes of the company suffer exceedingly.

The furniture in this country is as simple as the stile of building. Here neither cupboards,

[page] 284

bureaus, sophas, beds, tables, chairs, watches, looking-glasses, or any thing else of the kind are to be found in the apartments. To the greatest part of these the Japanese are utter strangers. Their soft floor-mats serve them for chairs and beds. A small table, about 12 inches square, and four in height, is set down before each person in company at every meal. Here it may be proper to observe, that whereas most of the other nations in India sit with their legs laid across before them, the Chinese and Japanese lay their feet under their bodies, and make a chair of their heels. A soft mattrass, stuffed with cotton, is spread out on the mats when the hour of rest approaches. Cupboards, chests, boxes, and other similar articles, are kept in the storehouses, or else in separate rooms.

Fans are used throughout the whole country, and every body carries one always about him. It is always stuck in the girdle on the left hand, behind the sabre, with the handle downwards. On these they frequently have their route marked out, when they go on a journey.

Mirrors do not decorate the walls, although they are in general use at the toilet. Of glass there are none made in the country: but both the smaller and larger sort are made of cast metal, which is a composition of copper and

[page] 285

zink, and highly polished. One of these mirrors is fixed on a stand, made for that purpose, of wood, and in an oblique position, so that the fair sex may view their lovely persons in it, as well as in the best looking-glass.


[page break]

[page i]



ABIKAWA river, 157.

Abrame, 131.

Abrasin, 151.

Aceres, 161.

Acorus, 82.

Acrostichum, 212.

Akasaki, 148.

Alcea rosea, 84.

Alder, catkins of, 213.

Allium, 82.

Almanack, 91, 92.

Almond tree, 153.

Amagasaki, 129.


Ammunition, 19.

Amomum mioga, 82.

Amygdalus, 153.

Anas, 128, 205.

Anethum, 81.

Anise, 81.

Anisum stellatum, 227.

Anomia, 204.



Apium petroselinum, 81.

Apple trees, 154.

Apricot trees, 153.

Aqueducts, 153.

Ara, 69.

Arbours, 215.

Ardea, 138.

Argonauta, 204.


Arms, coat of, 226, 227.

Arraij, 154, 215.

Arsenic, red, 203.

Artemisia, 71, 226.

Arum, 163.

Arundo bambos, 83.

Asbestus, 203.

Asparagus, 81.

Astronomers, 176.

Asjo, 203.

Asjo jamma, 203.

Atjar, 83.

Attendants, 65, 95, 96, 230.

Audience, ambassador's, 189. 195, 217.

Aukuba, 111.

Awa nori, 115.

[page] ii

Awa sna, 204.

Awumi, 157.

Azalea, 111, 213.


Bamboos, 83.

Banca, straits of, 3.

Banjoses, 17, 18, 20, 30, 96.

Baningawa river, 166.

Barberry bush, 161.

Barometer, 235.

Bastard saffron, 78.

Batatas, 82.

Batavia, 1, 3.

Baths, bathing rooms, 102, 111, 125, 166, 204, 281.

Beans, Windsor, 86.

Beasts for slaughter, 21, 22.

Bedstead, 12, 17.

Beet, red, 81.

Beggars, 158, 215.

Belt, 258.

Berberis, 161.

BERGMAN, Professor, 203, 225.

Beta, 81.

Betula, 213.

Bing, 77.

Birds, 221.

Black paint, 78.

Bleijenberg, the ship, 2, 3, 11.

Books, 28, 33, 178—179, 185—187.

Boosu, 204.

Botanizing, 79, 159, 165.

Box tree, 83, 227.

Boys, 158.

Brandy, 18.

Brassica, 81, 137.

Breeches, 270.

Bridges, 142—143, 148, 169.

Brooms, 214.

Brothels, vide Stews.

Buckwheat, 85, 116.

Building, stile of, 112—113, 277—283.

Buildings, public, 282.

Buprestis, 218.

the Burg, 10, 11, 16.

Burial, 26.

Butter, salt, 73.

Buxus, 83.

Beet, 81.


Cabinet, 196, 197.

Calamus aromaticus, 82.

Candles, 70, 71, 188, 228.

Cannabis, 84.

Canni, 78.

Caps, 276.

Capsicum, 85.

Captain, 13, 15, 17.

Cards, card-playing, 122.

Carrots, 81.

[page] iii

Carthamus, 78.

Carts, 134—135.

Caustic, 226.

Cayenne pepper, 85.

Cedars, 164—165.

Celastrus, 84.

Cerambyx, 69.

Certificate, 206.

Cetto, 157.

Chalk stone in horses, 202—203.

Chamærops, 214.

Charcoal, 116.

Chesnuts, 201.

Cherry trees, 154.

Chenopodium scoparia, 84.

Chief, commercial, 42, 43.

Children, 125.

Chimantso, 186.

Chimnies, 283.

China root, 61.

Chinese, 54—58.

Chinese coast, 4, 5.

Chinese language, 264.

Chiriu, 215.

Chrysanthemum Indicum, 111.

Cichorium, 82.

Cicindela, 204.

Cieling, 280.

Cinnabar, 204.

Citadel, 146, 148, 189.

Citrus, 162.

Clay, 203.


Cleanliness, 258.

Cloudy sky, 236.

Clogs, wooden, 273.

Coat for smuggling, 13, 15.

Coins, money, 27, 101, 116—117, 181—185, 230.

COJET, governor, 7.

Cold, 66, 72, 233, 235.

Colds, 84, 115—116, 227.

Colours, colouring substances, 77, 84, 163, 213.

Combs, 217, 227.

Compass, 122.

Consumption, 163.

Convolvulus, 82.

Convallaria, 85.

Copper, 24, 51, 54, 140, 225.

——— ore, 203.

——— smelting of, 224—225.

Coral, 204.

Corchorus, 216.

Cordage, 63.

Coughs, 203.

Court, journey to, 86, 94—175.

Courtesy, 254.


Crabs, 5, 6.

Cripples, 215.

Culex, 214.

Cupreous pyrites, 203.

Cupressus, 164.



[page] iv

Curiosity, 256.

Curtains, 214.

Custom houses, 26.

Cycas, 217.

Cypræa, 204.


Daibud, 219—220.

Daikokus ganne, 183.

Dairi, 139—140.

Daisoin, 155.

Dances, 221.

Daucus carota, 81.

Deutzia, 161.

Dezima, 14, 40.

Diarrhæa, 61.

Dictionaries, 37, 38.

Dili, 81.

Dioscorea, 84.

Djokasen, 148.

Dju kuts, 204.

Doctors, 177, 179.

Dolichos polystachyos, 214—215.

Doosa seni, 183—184.

Dracontium, 163.

Dress, complimentary, 271.

Dryandra, 150.

Dsino kameru, 126.

Ducks, 128.


Earthquake, 142, 181.

Elecampane, 201—202.

English, 44.

Endive, 82.

Epidendrum, 212.



Eyes, red, 145, 215—216, 251.


Fagara, 62, 150.

Fagus castanea, 201.

Fahrenheit's thermometer, 234.

Fai gin, 127.

Faifats, 127.

Fair, 53, 93.

Fak sekisi, 203.

Fakonie, 159, 160, 164, 211.

Fan, 99, 284.

Farda, 105.

Farra, 157.

Fasira, 141.

Fassak, 93.

Fatta, 166.

FEITH, M. 2, 43, 94.

FEKI, the emperor, 128.

Fennel, 81.

Fern, 205.

Festivals, 92, 93.

Fevers, intermitting, 5.

Fiamits, 105, 229.

Ficus, 62, 130.

[page] v

Fields, 136—137.

Figs, 62, 130.

Filix, 205.

Fimi, 100.

Fiogo, 127, 128, 229.

Fiosabara, 104.

Firakatta, 133.

Firagawa, 155.

Firaska, 166.

Firandos harbour, 232.

Fire, 71.

Fires, accidental. Firewatch, 179—181.

Fisen, 103.

Fishes, &c. book of, 186.

Fishermen, fishing boats, 5, 7.

Fitsjoma, 143.

Fjun no ki, 217.

Flies, luminous, 229.

Floors, 281.

Flounders, 205.

Fog, 235—236.

Fokanosikos, 166.

FOKO no jamma kusa, 186.


Formosa, 7.


Friendly disposition, 258.

Frugality, 257.

Fruit, 120—121.

Ftagawa, 154.

Fucus, 130, 149, 150, 168.

Fukoroj, 155.

Funa musi, 204.

Furniture, 113, 284—285.

Fusi mountain, 158, 212, 233.

Fusida, 157.

Fusikawa, 148, 157.

Fusimi, 134, 221.

Fusisawa, 166.

Futju, 214.

Futsjo, 157.


Galæna, 204.

Game of the goose, 121.

Ganse-speel, 121.

Gardens, 81, 223.

Gardenia, 162—163.

Genius and disposition of the Japanese, 252—264.

Ginger, a kind of, 82.

Ginseng root, 16.

Girls, 74—77, 145—146, 122.

Gnats, 214.

Goju, 148.

Gold ore, 203.

Gomome gin, 185.

Gorgonia ramosa, 204.

Governors, 25, 36, 37, 39, 195.

Groot rechter, 138.

Guard, 41, 165.

Guards, imperial, 14.

Guribara, 157.

U 2

[page] vi


Handkerchief, 277.

Hair, mode of dressing, 274—276.

Haliotis, 212.

Hangings, 280.

Hat, 199, 276.

Hæmorrhages, 216.


Harbours, 19, 38, 114, 128, 147, 169, 132.

Heat, 233, 235.

Hedera, 83.

Hedges, 107, 162, 163, 213.

Herbals, 186.

Herons, 138.

Hemp, 84.

Holidays, 92—93.

Honesty, 259.

Horses, 203.

Horsemen, 109.

Houses, stile of building, 112—113, 180, 205.

Host, 130.

Hours, 88.

Hurricanes, 234.


Jaboki, 205.

Jaco tjaja, 141.

Jafagi, 148.

Jafude, 204.

Jagami, 100.

Jamma fano, 155.

Jamma nakka, 160.

Jamma buki, 216.

Jamaijo, 105.

Jamamo, 204, 205.

Japanese, aspect of, 251.

Japanese nation, 251—264,

——— language, 264, 265.

Jars, 102, 103.

Idols, 219—221, 227.

Jedo, 175, 205, 231, 232.

Jedogawa river, 132.

Jepuen, 231.

Jeseri, 157.

Jeseri-noakits, 157.

Jetsigo, 188.

Jetsuri jamma umra, 154.

Ika, 204.

Ikeda, 155.

Illicium, 227.

Images, trampling upon, 89, 93.

Imokawa, 147.

Implacability, 263.

Imuri, 154.

Ingenuity, mechanical, 257.

Inns, 111, 138, 169, 170.

Ino fana sawa, 143.

Interpreters, 20, 31, 32—35, 42, 96.

Inula helenium, 201, 202.

Jodo, 134.

[page] vii

Jokaits, 145.

Jomoto, 166.

Jootsia, 148.

Joots sida or Josida, 148.

Josida, 215.

Josiwaro, 157, 158, 212.

Jorussi, 126.

Journey to court, 86, 94—175.

Ipomæa, 62.

Iponmats, 157.

Isafaja, 100.

Isaka gotjo, 205.

Isami, 143—144.

Isi, 143, 144.

Isiba, 141, 215.

Isibe, 143.

Isinomia, 129.

Isjakufi, 215.

Isiwatta, 203.

Isuwatta, 203.

Itaganne, 182.

Itjib, 182.

Itska, 105.

Jui, 157.

Julus terrestris, 204.

Juniper tree, 82.

Justice, 258—259.

Justice, chief, 138—139.

Juglans nigra, 201.

Ivy, 83.


Kabro, 75.

Kaginoies, 148.

Kakegawa, kakigawa, 155, 215.

Kaki, 61, 130.

Kale, 137.

Kali, 205.

Kamaka, 204.

Kambara, 157, 212.

Kami kiri, 69.

Kaminoseki, 119.

Kamiro, 119.

Kamiru jamma, 145.

Kamo, 205.

KÆMPFER, 97, 101, 105, 129, 170, 191, 197, 209, 263.

Kanaga, 155.

Kanagawa, 167.

Kangoes, kagoes, 109.

Kansaki, 104, 129.

Kapto Jes, 160.

Karasumo, 205.

Karuisi, 204.

Kasamats, 166.

Kasiwabara, 157.

Kassadera, 147.

Kassagawa, 104.


Kawa batta, 166.

Kawasakki, 167, 210.

Kay ba, 204.

Keagi, 141.

U 3

[page] viii

Keise, kese, 126.

Kesoso no abra, 204.

Kikugawa, 155.

Killing of animals, 128.


Kin nab, 203.

Kino kui, 204.

Kisigawa, 157.

Kitchen, 280—281.

Kitama kura, 68.

Kobang, 181, 182, 184.


Kodama, 182.

Kodom, 120, 225.

Koijanossa, 110.

Koijso, 211.

Koiso, 166.

Kokura, 111, 229.

Komb, kobu, 149, 150.

Konofa isi, 204.

Konomon, 121.

Kosinsikf, 166.

Kosju, province of, 184.

Kosjubang, kin, itjib, 184.

Koto, 197.

Kubo, 139, 149, 207, 208, 210.


Kurosakky, 110.

Kusats, 142, 215.

Kwada, 166.

Kwana, 145, 146, 215.

Kyquan seki, 203.


Labourers, 23.

Ladies, 120, 169.

Ladies of pleasure, 74—77.

Lamps, 70, 74, 75, 138, 151.

Lampyris Japonica, 229.

Lacerta, 163.

Lakes, 141, 142, 160, 164.

Language, 38, 123, 264, 265.

Lantern festival, 92.

Lapis steatites, 203.

Laxa, 116.

Leeks, 81.

Lettuce, 82.

Liberty, 253.

Lightning, 236.

Lindera, 161.

Lizard, 163.

Lovers, 84.

Luukuv sangodu, 204.

Lycium, 213.


Maas, 116.

Majsakki, 155.

Makotje, 205.

Malva mauritanica, 84.

Manure, 80, 212, 213.

Maples, 161, 162, 223.

Maps, 197, 230.

Marble, 204.

[page] ix

MARCO PAOLO of Venice, 235.

Mariko, 157.

Married women, 78, 120, 268.

Marumi, 147.

Matskasa, a fish, 68.

Matches, 88.

Mats, 279, 280.

Matsdera, 145.

Matsmai island, 149.

Matsu, 143.

Matsuri, 92.

Meaxima, 10, 11.

Mebos, 120.

Medicines, 73, 198, 199.

Melia azedarach, 228.

Menaratski, 120.

Mendicant nuns, 145, 146.

Menoki, 143.

Mentha piperita, 84.

Menyanthes, 227.

Mespilus Japonica, 214.

Mia, 146, 147.

Miaco, 133, 138, 140, 215,

Miacos river, 135.

Mican, 130.

Mikano, 105.

Mikawa, 148.

Mile posts, Miles, 108.

Millepora, 204.

Minakuts, 143, 215.


Minerals, 203—204.

Mint, master of the, 217.

Mirrors, 284, 285.

Misawa, 166.

Misfortune, 67.

Misima, 157, 211.

Miterai, 126.

Mito, 226.

Mitska, 155, 215.

Moirinosta, 145.

Money, 52, 141, 217.

Months, 88, 90, 91, 92.

Moricuts, 133.


Morus papyrifera, 272.

Moto itsiban, 157.

Motosiku, 148.

Motosiraska, 154.

Mountains, 158—160, 164, 165, 232, 233.

Moxa, 226.

Musical instrument, 197.

Mustard, 138.

Muster roll, 12.

Mustering, 20.

Myrica nagi, 216.


Nagaja, 147.

Nagasaki, 15, 17, 38, 40, 74, 79—81, 89, 96, 230.

Nagi, 216.

Nakabara, 104.


U 4

[page] x

Nakassima, 119.

Nakuri, 155.

Name, adscititious, 266.

Name, family, 266.

Names, 209, 210.

Nandina, 111.

Nandio gin, 182.

Nango, 166.

Nassumi, 143.

Natanni, natanni abra, 137, 138.

Nature of the country, 231—250.

Neatness, 258.

New year's day, 72, 87.

Nicotiana, 85.

Night gowns, 187, 195, 222, 267—268.

Night-gowns, half, 269—270.

Niga kotje, 205.

Nikko isi, 204.

Nikkorosik, 204.

Niko, temple of, 207.

Nimbutsdo, 155.

Niomen, 116.

Nipon, 231.

Niponbas, 169.

Nisin, 184.

Nissaka, 155.

Nogata river, 110.

Norimons, 97—98, 109, 202.

Nosi, 150.

Nosin, 145.

Numatso, 157.

Nuns, 145—146.


Nymphæ nelumbo,


Oak, 161.

Obotoki, 167.

Ocymum, 84.

Oda, 102.

Odogaia, 167.

Odowara, 166, 211.

Ofama, 147.

Ogino, 217.

Ohaguro, 78.

Oil, 150, 215, 228.

Oisters, 5, 69, 127.

Oits, 141.

Ojingaw a river, 105.

Ojiwaki, 145.

Okabe, 157.

OKADA JEOSIN, 176—177.

Okasaki, 148, 215.

Okido, 167.

Okits no fressawa, 157.

Old people's dress, 272.

Omi, 143.

Omura, 101.

Omuri, 167.

Onions, 81.

Oniseus, 204.

[page] xi

Ono, 143.

Oranges, 130.

Orisino, 102.

Osaka, 129, 131, 132.

Osiakv, 127.

Ostrea pleuronectes, 5.

Osyris, 161, 221—225.

Oti gaki, 69.

Ottonas, 42, 81.

Outposts, 11.

Owari, province of, 146.

Owoo, 203.


Paardesteen, 202.

Paint, 77, 78.

Palace, hereditary prince's, 193.

Palace, the emperor's, 189, 192, 193.

Papenberg, 58, 60.

Parsley, 81.

Payments, 78, 87.

Peach tree, 153.

Pear trees, 154, 161.

Peas, 86.

Pectoral complaints, 205.

Pelang festival, 92.

Pelicans, 135.

Pepper bush, 62.

——— Spanish, 85.

Perca, 69.

Perch, 69.

Persica, 153.

Phaseolus, 86.

Physic, 34.

Physicians, 176, 217.

Phytolithus, 204.

Pilot fish, 7.

Pine, 157, 202.

Pinus, 111, 202, 211.

Pisum, 86.

Plays, 221.

Pleuronectes, 205.

Plumb tree, 154.

Polygonum barbatum, 85.

Porcelain, 52, 103, 104.

Portuguese, 44, 231, 261.

Post coaches, 108.

Potatoes, 82, 84.

Presents, 72, 86, 87, 106, 111, 130, 150, 217.

Princes, 171—174.

Pride, 260.

Privy, 281.

Provinces, 174.

Prunus, 153—154.

Pulo sapato, 3.

Pulse, feeling, 201.

Pumice stone, 204.

Pyrus, 154, 161.


Quanwon, 220—221.

Quartz, 204.

[page] xii


Radishes, black, 8.

Rain, 6, 8, 174, 187, 234, 236.

Rain-cloak, 99, 174, 175, 276.

Rakvyoxv, 185.

Ratans, 214.

Rheumatism, 227.

Rhus, 188.

Rice, 116, 135, 148.

Rivers, 110, 132, 135, 155, 157, 166, 167.

Roads, 103, 107.

Rock, 114.

Rock-oil, 294.

Roe of fish, 68.

Rokogawa, 167.

Rooms, 66.

Ropes, 63.

Rubia, 63.

Rulers, 209.


Sabakiri, 116.

Sabbath, 92.

Saddle horses, 109.


Sakanosta, 143.

Sakkawa, 166.

Sakki, 73.

Sakusekis, 233.

Sal fontanum, 204.

Sale shops, 280.

Salmon, 142, 160.

Saltpetre, 204.

Salutation, 255.

Samrai, 123.

Sanga, 104.

Sangami, 204.

Sangodin, 204.

Sangosju, 204.

Sannoki, 204.

Sansjo no iwo, 163.

Saori kosi, 204.

Sciæna, 68.

Sea-weed, 113.

Sea-ports, 126.

Sealing of chests, 94.

Searching for smuggled goods, 13, 23, 26—30, 31, 94, 95, 230.

Seki, 143, 215.

Seki jen, 204.

Sekima, 203.

Seni, 183, 184.

Sense of the Japanese, 252.

Sepiæ, 72, 204.

Servants, 225.

Sesamum, 215.

Shells, 211.

Shell-sand, 203.

Ships, 9.

Shoes, 151—152, 272—274.

Sigaki, 127.

Simabara, 102.

[page] xiii

Simada, 156.

Simar, 203.

Simoni seni, 183.

Simonoseki, 113, 229.

Simoo seki, 203.

Simotske, 203.

Sinagawa, 168, 169.

Sinamo, 167.

Sinapi, 138.

Singo, 147.

Sinongi, 101.

Sinowara, 155.

Siobuts, 121.

Sippon, 231.

Siro jinso, 204.

Siro sakki, 157.

Sitting, manner of, 113.

Sick, 143, 198, 199.

Siraska, 154.

Siwano, 204.

Sjosusima, 204.

Sju, 204.

Sjumon seni, 183.

Sjunak, 184.

Skawaro, 160.

Skimmi, 227, 228.

Skinnova, 142.

Skreens, 151.

Slaves, 3, 65, 67.

Sleeping, apparatus for, 113.

Slippers, 272—274.

Smada, 213.

Smilax China 61.

Smugglers, smuggling, 15, 26, 27, 28, 30.

Snow, 236.

Snuff, 115, 116.

Socks, 272.

Soi no megin, 204.

Solanum, 82.

Somen, 116.

Sono, 145.

Sooqua jenso, 186.

Spatterdashes, 272.

Spaniards, 44.

Spirææ, 162.

Spirit, unconquerable, 261.

Sponge, 204.

Stalactite, 204.

Star-festival, 92.

Stavenise, the ship, 1.

STEENDEKKER, captain, 10.

Stews, public, 74—76, 115, 126, 127.

Stincus marinus, 163.

Stockings, 272.

Storehouse, 281.

Storms, 4, 5, 8, 234.

Stroemings, 164.

Sublimate, corrosive, 199, 200.


Succory, 82.

Superstition, 260.

Surumi, 167.

Surgeons, 226.

[page] xiv

Swoto, 102.

Syngnathus hippocampus, 204.


Takanawa, 168, 169.

Takara isi, 204.

Takkiwo, 102.

Tako fune, 204.

Tammamats, 155.

Tamma musi, 218.

Tartars, 261.

Taysero, 104, 105.

Tea, tea tree, 108, 216.

Teeth, 78.

Temple, 80, 207, 218—220.

——— lords, 21, 195.

Teredo navalis, 127.

Testudo, 218.

Tetraodon, 68.

Thayls, 116.

Thermometrical observations, 6, 234—251.

Threshing, 216.

Thuja, 160.

Thunder, 234, 236.

Tide, 21.

Tjiriu or chiriu, 147, 215.

Time, measuring of, 88, 228.

——— how past at Batavia, 64, 65.

Tinder, 71.

Tindingawa river, 155.

Tinsjenmats, 155.

Tjonen, 123.

Titles, 267.

Tobacco, 85.

Todokos, 225.

Todoriki, 104.

Tomb-stones, 79.

Tomida, 145.

Tooth brushes, 161.

Totska, 167, 210.

Towns, 104, 105, 110, 143, 146, 154, 155, 166, 168, 179, 205, 283.

Trade, merchandize, 43, 44, 45—51, 53, 115.

Trapa, 213.

Travelling, 108, 109, 172, 173, 175, 207—209, 210.

Tsetta, 142.

Tsjakusi, 145.

Tsi kudsen, 106.

Tsugara, 204.

Tsugaro isi, 204.

Tsurara isi, 204.

Tubipora musica, 204.

TUIKO, the emperor, 114.

Turneps, 82.

Turtles, black, 218.


Vaccinia, 161.

Valour, 261—263.

[page] xv

Vessels, sailing, 21, 58, 71, 117—119, 146, 147, 155, 232.

Viburna, 161.

Vicia faba, 86.

Vieux lac, 196.

Villages, 103, 283.

Vischers Eyland, 61.

Visits, 173—174, 217.

Vocabulary, Japanese, at the beginning of the Vol. and 186.


Umbrella, 99, 174.

Umemats, 204.

Uniwatta, 204.

Unicorn's horn, 49.

Urtica, 63.

Usida, 47.

Utsnoja, 157.

Utsini, 106.

Ulva, 115, 168.


Walnuts, 201.

Wax, 188.

Weather, register of the, 233—251.

Weeds, 136.

Weights, 52.

Winds, 235.

Windows, 279.

Wives, 77, 197.

Wolf, 196.

Women, 105, 120.

Workshops, 280.

Worm or caterpillar, 69, 70.

Worms in children, 163.

Wormwood, 79, 226.


Year, division of, 88.

Yard, 281.


Zipangri, 231.

ZEIMOTO, François, 231.

Zodiac, signs of, 90.

This document has been accessed 1270 times

Return to homepage

Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 15 March, 2014