RECORD: Luccock, John. 1820. Notes on Rio de Janeiro, and the southern parts of Brazil: taken during a residence of ten years in that country, from 1808 to 1818. London: S. Leigh.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.

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FROM 1808 TO 1818.





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Edward Baines, Printer, Leeds.

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THE Author of the following Notes resided in Brazil, with few interruptions, during the term of ten years, and enjoyed there as great advantages for varied observation, as any of his countrymen, in his own rank. Of the skill with which he used these advantages, and of the judgment and taste with which he has endeavoured to fit his descriptions of scenes and events for publication, he is no adequate judge. The praise of equity and impartiality he presumes to claim. His first object in writing Notes was confined to his own amusement; in selecting and publishing those which he presents to the Public, nobler views are indulged, he ventures to hope, that he may interest and instruct.

The order of time forms the great outline of his plan, and while he was moving from one place to another, has been generally observed; but a regular and lengthened Journal, would probably have been unacceptable. He thinks select descriptions most likely to afford general amusement, and to make the reader so acquainted with characters, scenes, events, and circumstances,

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as may most usefully engage his attention. It allows of throwing many things together, which would otherwise require repetition, and of making one fact and event illustrative of another, so that both may sometimes be rendered more clear and intelligible.

Perhaps in the very mode which he has adopted, it was not always possible to avoid repetition, but where the same subjects occur which have before claimed attention of the reader, they will, in general, be seen in a different light, and be better understood from additional circumstances.

It has been his aim to give a fair representation of the Country, of its natural advantages, and its defective Institutions and modes; not merely to gratify a reader, but with some small hope, that the former may in consequence be more wisely employed, and the latter improved. In the amelioration of Brazil, he contemplates the benefit of mankind, and more especially of the British Dominions.

But his chief purpose is to delineate the manners and character of the people; to this more than one part of the Work is professedly devoted; yet he has not scrupled with the same view to detail many accounts of events and circumstances in other places, whence a strict attention to connection and order might have excluded them. He is not aware that any former Work relative to Brazil enters very minutely into subjects of this kind, or treats them in a similar way. Readers who think with him, that the most correct as well as the most interesting views of character are given by anecdotes fairly detailed, will, he trusts,

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find the book not altogether unworthy of a place among the different accounts of a country to which recent events have strongly directed the thoughts of Britons.

He is sensible that many of his observations will be thought minute; some of them, it may be, trifling; but nothing is really insignificant which directly bears, even in a small degree, on a professed design. If the charge of over-minuteness be applied to his commercial and nautical details, he deems it sufficient to reply, that he and his associates often found themselves in situations where such minuteness would have been highly acceptable and useful to them.

Some will find his delineations on subjects of Natural History deficient; but he does not pretend to a capacity of representing such matters scientifically; the pursuits of business are not favourable to acquirements in Philosophical Knowledge, and books are about to appear, he believes, professedly treating on such topics.

The paragraph relating to the intrinsic value of Gold Bullion in page 467, seemed to be important in a general point of view, and was therefore, during the last winter, presented to the Right Hon. the Earl of Harewood, then Lord Lascelles, with a request that he would transmit it to the Bullion Committee of the House of Commons.

In an Appendix, some few things are thrown together which, though useful to be known, would have interrupted the narrative if placed in the body of the work. The Signals for entering the Port of Rio Grande do Sul are such as were in use when the Author had last an opportunity of ascertaining them,

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and he believes have not since been changed. The Glossary of Indian Words was thought to be desirable, because so many of them have been adopted by the Settlers in Brazil, as to form a Dialect of the Portuguese Language, very different from that which is spoken at Lisbon. Some of these words are mere names, and admit of no explanation; others are so corrupted by a mixture of syllables from different languages as to render it impossible to give their meaning without a tedious description; and the signification of many is unkown to the Author.

It was intended in other Chapters to have described the condition of Negro Slaves, and that of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of South America, but as the number of pages swelled beyond the appointed limits, it was found necessary to throw some of the leading facts relating to these topics into other parts of the work, and to be satisfied with marking the stations of the Indian tribes upon the Maps alone.

These Maps are constructed chiefly from materials collected in different parts of the country, and have been compared with what Cazal has written upon Brazilian Geography, and though not absolutely correct, they will be found to convey, it is hoped, some useful information to the British student: they at least possess the merit of being free from that strange mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, Tupi, English, and even Dutch and French names, with which most European Maps of South America abound.

The work has been prevented from appearing earlier by a circumstance which has contributed to render it more worthy of

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public attention. It has passed through the hands of the Rev. Joseph Bowden, who has partly remodelled it, and removed sentences and paragraphs to situations whence they have derived greater perspicuity and interest. If there be any merit in the arrangement it belongs to that Gentleman.— All the faults of composition and style are the Author's own, for he has refused to adopt many suggestions of improvement because they would have produced a slight shade of difference in the representation of facts. Truth has been invariably preferred to the harmony of a period and the chaste elegance of a metaphor.

At the commencement of his labours the Author intended to have dedicated the Volume to his Majesty the King of Brazil, as a testimony of gratitude for the protection and notice received from him while residing in his dominions; as a proof of sincere regard for his person and government; as a mean of promoting the prosperity of his Dominions;—but, on mentioning this intention to a Brazilian friend, it was thought almost impossible to write such a dedication without giving rise to a suspicion of interested motives, and it was therefore laid aside; although, in the writer's opinion, the freedom which he has used in the delineation of character might have been deemed a sufficient guarantee. The King, he is happy to repeat, is a good man, and a good sovereign, but it would not have been right to represent him as superior to human nature, entirely free from those weaknesses and failings of which all partake. He has been surrounded occasionally, it was thought, by men who did not merit his confidence, either for their talents or their integrity, and has been called to govern in a country where ignorance and vice prevailed in an unusual degree.

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The rapidity with which improvement proceeds in Brazil is wonderful, and it requires a steady hand to steer the vessel of the state. Would to God that the King may have judgment enough to avoid the rock upon which many nations have split— a love of useless conquest—and the no less dangerous whirlpool which threatens to draw the country into the vortex of Revolution.

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Land-Birds driven to Sea.—Agility of a Monkey.—Cold felt in Lat.29°.N.—Flores.—Madeira.—Teneriffe.—The Peak.—Coast of Africa.—Weedy Sea.—Course across the Line.—Trade Winds.—Fishes of the Ocean.—Luminous and Brown Appearances of the Sea.—Art of Fishing and Fishermen.—Sea-Birds.—Insects.—Form of the Southern Hemisphere.—Magellanic Clouds.—Depth of the Sea and Form of the Bottom.—Hint respecting Log-Books. Page 1.



Cape Frio.—Rich and beautiful Views.—Bay of Rio.—The City.—First Walk.—Streets.—Houses.—Jealousies.—Extent and Growth of Rio.—Population.—provisions.—Climate.—Health. Page 30.

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Cathedral. — Churches. — Baptismal and Funeral Ceremonies. — Chapel Royal. — Other Chapels. — Street Worship. — Hospicio. — Convents.—Nunneries. — Recolhimentos. —Misericordia.—Colleges.—Bishop's Palace.—Custom-House.—Public Wharfs and Warehouses. Fountains.—Aqueduct.—Military Affairs.—Troops of the Line.—Barracks.— Militia.—Necessaries of War.—Forts.—Military Hospital.—Navy.—Treasury.—Public Gardens.—Theatre.—Calabouca—Prisons. Page 53.



Vicereys.—The Queen.—Regent.—Royal Family.—Palace.—Equipage.—Conde'de Linhares—Courtiers.—Ecclesiastics.—Lawyers. — Merchants. — Shopkeepers. — Artizans.—Porters.—Itinerant Dealers.—Beggars.—Women.—Their Dress.—Persons.—Employments. — Children.— Domestic Arrangements. — Furniture.—Visits.—Dinner Party.—Evening.—Visit at Ilha Dos Frades.—Education.—Ignorance.—Filth.—Vices.—Administration of Justice. Page 92.



Preparations for Sailing.—Brazilian Seamen.—Uncommon Saltness of the Ocean.—Billows, Rio de la Plata.— Detention in the River.—Character of the Plata.—Fishes.—Newly acquired Brazilian Territory.—Etymology.—Province of Paraná.—Rivers.—Lakes.—Soil.—Produce.—Matté.—Towns.—Province of Uruguay.— Boundaries.—Castelhos.—Nature of the Country.—Santa Tereza.—Maldonado.—Adventures there.—Character of the People.—Monte Video.—Other Towns.—Herds.—Rivers. Page 138.

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Coast of Rio Grandé.—Bar of St.Pedro.—Appearance of the Country.—Landing.—Town of St.Pedro.—Church.—Fort.—Custom—House.—Ferry.—Governor.—Police.—Assassination.—State of Medicine.—Military Affairs.—Commerce,—Occupations and Amusements.— Domestic Circumstances. — Dreas. — Manners. — Ecclesiastical Philippic.—Tolerance. —Singular Bonovolenoe.— Intrudo. — Visit to a Farmer; his Character, Family, Farm, and Comforts.— Strangers at St.Pedro; their Appearance, Dealings, Manners, and Equipage.—Slaves and free Negroes. Page 170.



Preparations for travelling.—Journey Westward.—Spanish Refugee.—Baiting.—Sports.—Docility of Horses.—Charqued Beef.—Wild Dogs.—Civility of the People.—Farms.—Hospitality.—Journey to the South.—Old St. Pedro.—Lake Mirim.—Voyage to Cangasú.—The Island.—An Ox Chase.—Lagoa dot Patos.—Porte Alegra.—Indians.—Journey Northward.—Indian Remains.—Face of the country.—Generol Remarks on the Southern Provinces—Manners of Horses and Mules.—lagana—St. Cathorine's.— Sulphureous Springs. — Extraordinary Crystal.—Military Establishment.—singular Funeral Custom. page 204.



Improvement of the City.—Buildings.—Population —Court.—Conduct and Popularity of the Regent.—Theatre.—Ecclesiastical Matters.—Their influence upon Manners.—Army, and Military Affairs.—Internal Condition of the Country.—Foreign Relations.—Mar-

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riage of a Princess.—Commercial Improvements.—Domestic Comforts.—The Middle Harbour.—Hospital dos Enchados.—Rocks and Islands.—Party of Pleasure.—Lazaretto. Gambóa. — British Burial-Ground. — Desiccation.—Ponte Cajú.—Maricaná. — Nevas Islands.—St.Lorenzo.—Praia Grandé.—Island of Villegagnon. Page 244.



Castumbi.—Besign of the Holy Ghost.—Royal Palace.—Campinhos.—Swedish Miners.— Lamerón.—Santa Crus.—Sepetiva.—Plumed Suceoo.—Angra.—Indian Village.—Parahyba.—Taguahy.—Jesuits.—Attempt to cultivate Indigo.—Guarativa.—Jacaré-pua.— Beira da Lapa.—Bay of Bota Foga.—Its Neighbourhood.—Lagoa do Freitas.—Botanic Garden; Geological Conjecture.—Gavia.—Tejúca.—Pavúna.—Farm of an Englishman. Grants.—Moradores.—Other Tenants.—Laws respecting Tenants.—Farming.—Way of Living.—Animals; Reptiles; Insects.—Sacred Offices.—Effects of fine Scenery.—Pass of Boa-Vista.—Bootocudies. Page 264.



Caari—Tokai—Wretched State of Invalid.—Fishing.—Beautiful small Lake.—St. Gonsales.—Its Hospitalities—The Gua'xen'da—The Itapi'tiu.—Effect of a Setting Sun. America—Derivation of the Name givea to the New World.—Ponta Negra.—Bramilian Inconsistency.—Plantation on Sale Ipecacuanha.—Sequaréma.—Iruáma.— Engeitá.—A Stratagem.—Brazilian Honour.—Indians of St. Pedro.—Low State of Business.—Benedictine Negroes.—A Man in Office.—St. Joan.—Bay of St. Ann.—Porcupine.—Navigation of the St.Joan and Dourado.—Conical Mountain.—No real Volcanic Appearances.—Horses Swimming.—Macahé.—Parahyba.—St.Salvador.Benefits derived from Jesuits.—Tzoraé.—Tzoméos, now Tupinámba.—Restinga of Cape Frio Page 303.

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Preparation.—The Upper Bay.—A Storm.—Ilha do Governador.—Tarantula.—Palace of St.Bento.—Irasa.—Mud Bank.—The Ig'iazú.—Porto Dos Saveiros.—The Inhomerim. —Porto D'Estrella.—Broken Rocks.—Currents.—Serui.—St. Nicholas.—The Iriri.— Disappointment.— Majé.—Hospitality. — The lguapezú.—Villa Nova.—Prospect.— Macacú.—Pirasenúnga.—Estate on Sale.—Timber.—Sacred Auction.—Brazilian Tenderness.—Mica mistaken for Gold.—Rafts.—Simplicity.—A Visit to the Orendé.— Forest on Fire.—Preparation of Farinha.—Forest Scenery.—The Guaxendiba.—Cabasú. Rocks of Itaóca.—Paquetá—Perforated Stones.—Debasement of Merchandise.—Brassa-Forte.—Negro Superstition.—Ilha d'Agoa.—Fogs, Page 334.



Reasons for undertaking the Journey.—Preparation for it.—Soldiers at Porto D'Estrella.—Military System of Brazil.—Packing of Merchandise for the Interior.—Mode of conveying it.—Plains of Inhomerím.—Mandióca.—Serro dos Organos.—Heads of the Piabúna.—Itamareté—Ranchos.—Mode of Farming.—Manners of Travellers.—Character of my Companions.—Estates of Padres, Luiz, and Correio.—Water Mills.—Beating of Horse Shoes.—Scanty Supply of Luxuries.—Strangers from Matto Grosso.Snakes.—Sowing of Milho.— Large Trees.—Pegado.—Farm and Farmer there.—A Gamelleiro.—Cebolas.—Hunting Dogs.—Itinerant Blacksmiths.—Claying of Sugars.—Effect of Garúpa.—Power of Vegetation.—Parahýba.—Occurrences and Remarks there.—Ants' Nests.—Parahybúna.—Richness of the River,—Bars of Gold.—Their Certificates.—Modes of Searching for Gold Dust. Page 367.



Boundaries of the Province.—Ride to Vargerm.—Patrulha.—Exquisite Scenery.—Register of Mathæus Barboza.—Treatment there.—Post-Office.—Distorted' Mode of Thinking.—

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Taxes and Productions of the Province.—St. Vincenté.—Juis de Fora.—Gold Washing there.—Country to Antonio Moreira.—Agriculture of Minas Geraes.—Instance of Revenge.—Chapéo D'Ouvas.—New Companions.—Route to Curral Novo.—Tata Tree.—Culture of Barley.—Poisonous Milk.—Weaderful Account of England by a Portuguese.—Domestic Circumstances.—Man of the Woods.—Caamboeiros.—Pigmies.—Abý.—Saponaceous Stone.—Cruelty to Animals.—Campo.—Church there.—Extensive View.—Serro do Mantiqueira.—The Table Land of Brazil.—Corgos.—Herbage of the Downs.—Snakes.—Sheep.—Guide's House, Family, and Religion.—Extreme Thirst—Arrival at St.John D' El Rey. Page 416.



View of the Town.—Description of it.—Churches.—Government-House.—Jail.—Misericordia.—Character of the Governor.—People and Oocupations,—Mining and Mines.—Smelting-House.—Estimated Value of Gold.—Intrinsic Value.—Bullion Market.—Provincial Notes of Minas Garaes—Commence,—Means of Living.—Clothing.—Customs.—Manners and Character.—Military.—Country-Houses and Gardens.—Farms.—Markets—Climate.—Papas or Goitre.—Remedies.—Medical Men.—Geographical Remarks.Page 453.



Tamanduá.—Ride to Capitaon Joan Ribeiro's.—Mode of Enlarging an Estate.—Palmeiros. Farming.—Quelus.—Ornithology.—A dead Jararáca.—Mass of Iron Ore.—Ouro Branco.—Gold Searching there. Meyo Serro.—Alto do Morro.—Boa Vista.—Minerals.—Chapon.—Topaz and Gold Mines.—False Jewels.—Villa Rica.—First Impressions of the place.—Public Buildings.—Formation and Mode of Working its Mines.—Different Kinds of Gold.—Calx of Iron.—Commerce.—Manufactures.—Carriages.—Genius of a Workman.—System of Colonization.—A resident Englishman.—Character of the People.—Religious Ceremonies.—Neighbourhood.—Other Modes of Mining.—Marianna.—Indians.—State of Society.—Climate.—Birds. Page 481.

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Travellers from Pitanguí.—Contraband Gunpowder.—Blacksmiths.—Rodeiro.—Chapaom.—Congonha, or Caancunha.—Splendid Church there.—Miraculous Interposition of the Virgin.—Lepers.—Suá-suí.—Brazilian Admiration of the Taste and Manners of Foreigners.—Reflections on the Form of the Country.—St.Joze.—Barbazena,—Registro-Velho—Borda do Campo.—Juruocca.—The Rio Grandé.—Mantiqueira.—Pedro Alves. Singular Snakes.—St.Vincente.—Patrulha.—Rocinha do Negro.—Parahibúna.—Governo. Page 516.



Increase of Population.—Improvements in Rio and the Condition of the People.—Police.—Military.—War of Rio Grande' do Sul.—Revolt at Pernambuco.—Its Effects upon Riode Janeiro and neighbouring Provinces.—Talaverians and Pernambucanos.—Forts.—Internal Policy and Management.—Public Justice.—Regnal Honours bestowed upon Brazil.—Acclamation of the King.—Increase of Schools, Knowledge, and Taste.—Commerce.—Its former State.—Roads and Porta.—Present Internal Trade of Rio.—Bank of Brazil.—Treasury.—Coasting Trade South and North of Rio.—Colonial Trade to Africa and Portugal.—Foreign Trade in Portuguese or Brazilian Vessels, to the Plata, Asia, and Europe.—Commerce purely Foreign, British, North American, Spanish, belonging to Sweden and other States.—Political Relations and Prospects of Brazil. Page 546.


Signals by which Vessels approaching to enter the Port of Rio Grande do Sul, show to the Pilot Boat the Water which they draw. Page 604.

Tables of Commerce. Page 605.

A Glossary of Tupi Words. Page 629.

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Plan of the City to face Page 30

Map of the Southern Lowlands of Brazil to face Page 138

Do. of the Table Land to face Page 264


Page 481 for Armadillo read Ant-Eater.

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THE passage to South America affords to the reflecting traveller, many objects of attention; if he be a landsman, a novice at sea, and possess an inquisitive turn of mind, the water, the winds, the vessel and its management; the fishes, the birds, and the plants of the ocean; the coasts along which he sails; the islands which he approaches, or passes, or leaves behind in his daily progress, will furnish subjects for constant inquiry and amusement. If accustomed to such scenes, they will lead him to examine his former notes, to compare them with present observations, and increase his stock of knowledge.

The Atlantic has been so thoroughly examined and so correctly represented, as to leave little new for remark on this side the line. The course to Madeira is almost as well known as the road from London to Falmouth; and the island as minutely described as the county of Cornwall. A few land-birds, driven off by the winds from their natural abodes, attract attention and exercise our compassion. They are found far out at sea "weary and way-worn." Hunger, fatigue, and anxiety, the great instruments by which nature reduces the most fierce, and calms the most restless and volatile, have rendered them quiet and confident. It is almost impossible to imagine how forlorn these poor wanderers look.


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One of them, not yet exhausted, caused a monkey, which we had on board, to exhibit a striking instance of muscular activity. The animal was from Africa, and allowed to run freely about the ship. He saw the bird in the rigging, climbed with cautious cunning toward it unperceived, and seized without harming it. Returning to the quarter-deck, he seated himself quietly upon his haunches, holding the prey loosely in his left hand, while he examined and played with it. In an instant the bird escaped, was completely clear of his grasp and at some distance, with wings fully expanded. By a sudden spring he seized it again with his right hand, and calmly reseated himself. The whole transaction was so instantaneous as, in the opinion of those who stood by and were observing him, scarcely to allow time for volition, much less to produce its peculiar effects upon the muscles of the arm with such precision. He had evidently learned wisdom, for he proceeded to kill the bird by pressing his thumb upon the throat; dexterously stripped off the skin, and eat the body, after having sucked the blood, and devoured the entrails, with apparently superior relish.

In another voyage we passed between Madeira and the Western Islands, and about two hundred miles from any land; two wild ducks approached the vessel, and flew several times close round us, but were not sufficiently exhausted to be confident. The question which every one asked was, whence did they come? The nearest land, was Madeira, but neither that nor any island about it, that we knew of, was adapted for fresh water fowls. When they left us, they went westward, and must fly at least 200 miles farther, before they could find a solid resting place. Perhaps in extreme necessity, they might alight upon the water; but the sea affords no nutriment suited to their nature and habits.

In this neighbourhood too, i. e. in latitude 29° N. long. 88°W., I felt the greatest degree of cold which I ever experienced; or to express myself more correctly, I never knew a ship's company so susceptible of the change of temperature as there. It was the 3d of April, 1816. We had passed the equator on the preceding 20th of March. In our

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run to the northward, the wind had been easterly and the weather hot. The N. E. trades were undoubtedly blowing between us and the coast of Africa, and we were now approaching their northern verge.It was natural, therefore, to suppose that we had suddenly entered into that section of the stream of air which had recently passed over the mountains of Atlas, probably at that early period of the year still covered with snow. If this conjecture be right, it shows that the frosts of these African mountains produce a very perceptible degree of coldness at the distance of 1300 miles from them; that the scorched desert also has warmed the atmosphere to the same extraordinary distance from the coast, and that the two lines of the current have run parallel to, and almost without inter-mingling with each other.

It is wonderful how secluded some of the islands in the Atlantic are; and how slowly the inhabitants are affected by the prosperity or the disasters of Europe. In the voyage just mentioned, we touched at Flores, where the last political fact which the people were acquainted with, had occurred nearly two years before; the transmission of Napoleon Bonaparte to Elba. The Governor and all about him were extremely astonished, when we told them of his subsequent re-appearance in France, of his defeat at Waterloo, and final deportation to St. Helena. They appeared as if awakened from a state of insensibility, and envied the pleasures which others derived from the knowledge of events as they arise. They felt an irrefragable proof that they were a sort of exiles by nature from the society of men, and though perhaps reasoning upon false principles, they judged themselves less fortunate than the inhabitants of more widely spread districts.

Flores is a lively spot: it slopes to the East, and shows small inclosures, neatly walled and well managed; white cottages are every where scattered; the people are well made, ruddy, and healthy. They possess some of the social virtues; but even these lose their charms when accompanied by an unnatural simplicity and inanity of character. This and its sister island, Corvo, when seen from the N. E. about 25 miles distant, exhibit a singular appearance. The first resembles a large lizard

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lying upon the water; the latter a tortoise; and the outlines and proportions of both are agreeable to nature.

Soon after the French army had entered Lisbon, we passed Madeira, having a Portuguese Judge on board, bound for Brazil. He had just taken his final farewell of his last compatriot, and looking at the land, as it rapidly receded from our view, was heard to exclaim in an under tone of voice—" Ah! Portugal was." At the same moment a fellow-passenger, who for the first time had seen a Nautilus, and learned the name by which it is distinguished among sailors, cried out—"Oh! here is a Portuguese man-of-war!" The gentleman of the long robe heard him, and though there was not the slightest idea of reflecting upon his country or its navy, the expression was so totally at variance with the high-wrought tone of his feelings, that he sharply replied—" Sir, Portugal had men of war when England wanted a cock-boat." We admired the sensibility whence this sally flowed, but the comic position in which the parties suddenly found themselves, excited a smile in all, and exchanged between them the cheerful good humour of one, for a portion of sombre regrets from the other.

Upon the same spot, during a subsequent voyage, a very different scene occurred. Our vessel, the Queen Charlotte Packet, Captain Mudge, happened to be at Funchal, when the fleet, going out to attack Guadaloupe, was standing off and on. I had spent two days on shore with my fellow-passengers, among our friends and several military officers. It was evening when the packet left the Roads; and having blown hard during the afternoon, some of the vessels were driven further to leeward than could be convenient or pleasant, for those who had not yet got on board. While we were taking the azimuth, at sun-set, a country boat passed under our starboard bow, with some ladies and gentlemen, and sea-stores, going to one of the ships, and we remarked that it was deeply laden to be out in such a sea. A few minutes afterward, hearing some one call to the helm's-man—" take care of the boat under your lee," I went aft, and found it going round our stern, the ladies wringing their hands and begging to be taken on board. No danger was apprehended,

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and we endeavoured to sooth them; yet it seems the boat had shipped a quantity of water, and the moment the painter was made fast swamped completely. Oh! what a piercing shriek was there! but it appealed to the hearts of British seamen, and in them nature works promptly. In a moment all who could be useful were over the side, engaged in the pleasing work of saving. Very soon six persons were safe upon deck, but a lady and gentleman, who sat aft, remained in the water. On the first apprehension of danger, the main-sheet had been thrown over as a mean of assisting them; the gentleman had seized and put it between his teeth, in order to secure his hold, while he endeavoured to support the lady in his arms. Unfortúnately, in the almost insensible struggles of such a moment, he threw one arm round the lady, and the other beneath the thwart of the boat, securing his grasp with the most distressing pertinacity. The power of speech had been long gone in both; but the exertions to relieve them so frequently brought their heads above water, as to prolong the power and effects of respiration. It was only when this ceased, that the bodies could be separated from each other and the boat. When the lady was brought on board pulsation was quite gone; the gentleman's heart still had a feeble motion. In about an hour and a half, both were so far recovered as to be sensible. Two foreign passengers had beheld the scene with silent, but interested surprise, and afterwards expressed great astonishment at the instances of resuscitation which they witnessed. One of them, when he noticed the lady habited in such dress as could be furnished from the fragments of her own clothes and the wardrobe of sailors, with a poor hairy cap on her head, took his own and presented it with a grace almost inimitable. It touched every one present, and exhibited a fine specimen of what may be done by mere manner alone, when directed by a generous and benevolent heart. About midnight we delivered over the whole party, in a state which gave hopes of complete recovery, to the Africaine frigate, then cruising off the island.

Teneriffe presents to the curious passenger the most singular object, perhaps, in the northern hemisphere. The island appears, as he sails

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along the coast from north to south, to have been once a complete cinder; and presents to view a great deal of the brokenness and irregularity of a half consumed coke. This resemblance, however, contrary to expectation, becomes less perfect as we approach the Peak, the great chimney of the fiery cauldron boiling beneath. Oratava stands upon a gentle slope at the foot of the mountain, and is surrounded by fields of corn, gardens, and vineyards. The culture of the soil is promoted to a very extraordinary degree, particularly in some patches so elevated and so secluded as to appear inaccessible to the husbandman. But the plain is very forbidding; the beach is composed of naked, pointed, and cinerous rocks: the whole island is any thing but picturesque. I first saw the Peak from the north end of Palma, after a hot and calm day. The ship's company had been looking out, from the earliest dawn, for this giant of the ocean; this pillar of the firmament; but a billowy white cloud hung the whole day upon the eastern part of the horizon, and hid the island of Teneriffe from our view. Determined, if possible, to behold an object so interesting, which I might never have another opportunity of seeing, I ascended the mast; still the cloud intervened, and I was coming down in despair. Having reached the main shrouds, something about the top-mast excited attention, and looking up at it I saw the summit of the mountain at an unthought of elevation. It was clothed in the richest garment of snow, and glittered in the reflected glory of the evening sun. The cloud rested, indeed, upon the mountain, but it formed only the flounce of the mantle; it was the month of February, and winter stood finely contrasted with a deep blue æther.

The mountain is still an active volcano, whose only crater is said to be quite at the summit; an elevation incomparably above that of any other part of the island or neighbouring shores; and as every thing in the country indicates its heated origin, it is generally supposed to have been discharged from the bowels of the earth through this aperture. If then this conjecture be correct, there must have been a period when the liquid lava flowed over the edge of the crater, when the chimney which connects it with the cauldron, must have been full of it. That

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this internal furnace is not situated in the upper part of the mountain is evident from the quantity of matter which has been discharged; incomparably more massy than the mountain itself, perhaps than the whole island; for its shores exhibit, even to the water's edge, layers of lava, some of them decomposed indeed, which seem, when ejected, to have flowed far into the ocean, and now form its bed. That the cauldron is much below the base of the mountain and the level of the sea is probable, because the dome which covers it must be strong enough to support the whole weight of the mountain; and so far as I could learn, the fiery mass collected there produces no perceptible effect upon the waters of the ocean, nor upon the springs on shore. The length of the chimney, too, cannot be less than the height of the mountain, and if we estimate the weight of fluid lava at only three times that of water, it will yield us a pressure upon the dome, tending to break it up, and expose the furnace, of not less power than eighteen thousand pounds to every square inch; a pressure, however, which it must formerly have sustained, or the crater could not have been raised so high.

If allowed to guess at the magnitude of that mass of matter which has been discharged, I should say that it cannot be less than thirty cubic miles. Making every allowance, therefore, for the increase of bulk by the action of fire, and for the absorption of water, we still find a chasm, beneath the surface of the island, which almost confounds the imagination. We cannot, indeed, suppose, although the word "dome" has been used to describe its covering, that this chasm resembles a hollow sphere, containing in its lower section the mass of liquid fire which may still exist, while the upper one stretches above like a canopy; it probably consists of galleries, running between substantial buttresses, capable of sustaining securel y the whole weight of the mountain; which indeed appears to be one of the most solid among isolated volcanos. Is it unreasonable to suppose, that some of these galleries, in their ramifications, may unite with those belonging to the Pico of Fayal, or with that mass of fire which has manifested its existence near to St.Michael's? The question is interesting, and may attract attention.

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From the circumstance of there being few or no hot springs about the mountain, I should conceive that the volcano, though standing so near to it, has no communication with the sea. Such springs may be formed, not only by chemical processes, which are continually going on in the bowels of the earth, but also by the moisture which the mountain imbibes passing near to the chimney, and thereby becoming heated before it break out lower down in the form of fountains.

In 1816, I had the pleasure again of visiting several neighbouring islands, and was pleased to find that a larger quantity of corn had been sown than formerly, and that the cultivation of the vine had proportionably decreased. By those who admire a finished landscape this would be regretted, but I am one who bad rather smile with Ceres than laugh with Bacchus. Madeira, Teneriffe, and Palma, were the most improved; in Gomera and Ferro little alteration was observed.

The coast of Africa presents to contemplation the Zaara, perhaps the most extensive desert on the globe. It consists of inadhesive sands, driven about by the winds, chiefly the N. E. by which it is carried, in the form of red dust, to a most surprising distance. I once saw the sails and deck of a vessel covered with it, when four hundred miles from the coast, and have heard of the same phenomenon being remarked at a far greater distance. This moving expanse of sand was probably, at some anterior period, a large inland shallow sea, communicating with the Mediterranean by the Syrtes, and with the Indian Ocean by the Arabian Gulph. This conjecture may appear more reasonable, perhaps, when the coast about Rio Grande do Sul, and some other parts of the American continent, shall have been described.

Directly off this part of the African coast is found also a very singular part of the ocean; the Mar Saragossa, the green or weedy sea. It extends from eleven to thirty-five degrees of north latitude, and from thirty degrees of longitude to a distance westward which I am unacquainted with. The ocean here is covered by nodules of sea-weed, from three to eighteen inches diameter, somewhat resembling in form a cauliflower, when stripped of its leaves. They float lightly upon

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the water, in parallel lines at a few yards from each other, and have a yellow brown colour, like the long stringy fibre which is sometimes seen floating in the English channel, and which I suppose to be the natural colour of all marine plants growing deeply beneath the surface of the water. These nodules, or spheres, are composed of a vast number of small branches about half an inch long, which shoot from each other at an angle of about forty degrees: hence they multiply continually toward the superficies of the sphere; and each extreme point produces a round seed-vessel. This is little more than one tenth part of an inch in diameter, is hollow, and contains a small reddish brown seed scarcely occupying one fiftieth part of the husk. The leaf of the plant springs from the joints of the branches, is oblong, indented at the edges, and about an inch and a half long by a quarter of an inch broad.

When the nodule is dexterously taken up, all the branches may be traced to one principal stalk; and this invariably shows a fracture, the part by which it has been joined to some larger stem. This fracture is frequently quite fresh, and in large and vigorous plants shows distinctly a woody part and a cortex. On the edges of the latter the first symptoms of decay appear. They become brown, and separate themselves from the wood. This also then assumes a darker colour and exhibits the regular process of disorganization, just in the same manner as does a slip from a gooseberry or currant bush. In process of time the whole plant assumes a darker hue, and as it decays floats considerably lower than it did. When kept out of the water for a few hours it becomes harsh and brown; and acquires the peculiar smell of marine vegetables in a state of putrefaction.

Sailors say that this weed grows in the Gulph of Mexico, that it passes round Cape Florida with the stream, and, proceeding between Bermuda and the Western Islands, settles in the eddy of that vast current which encircles the Northern Atlantic. To me, however, this hypothesis appears to be inadmissible, not only because there is an evident absurdity in supposing that plants may move rapidly in a still water, which the word eddy here must signify, but because it is impos-


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sible for a floating body to move faster than the current does, and in a direction differing from the set of the water. By every observation and inquiry, which 1 have had an opportunity of making, no uniform current has been found to exist capable of carrying the nodules in the direction specified, and to parts of the ocean where they are found; and no one,I think, who has considered the subject, will contend that there can be one capable of conveying them through a course of four or five thousand miles, before the plants show symptoms of decay. In this case, too, the most vigorous plants must be found on the northern verge of this sea, and the most decayed ones toward its southern limits, which is, indeed, directly contrary to fact; for, in the latitude of eleven north, we meet with slips which bear evident marks of being recently torn from their parent stems, and the seed-vessels there are often unusually fresh and flourishing; while, on the northern borders, we sometimes find them perishing, and even decayed; neither of which cases could occur if the plants floated southward.

It is more reasonable to suppose that the plants grew nearly on the Spot over which they float; that those which appear on the surface of the water are only the heads or minor branches of others which flourish beneath; that they are broken off by the agitation of the ocean, or some other accidental circumstance, perhaps by the buoyancy of the seed vessels themselves, which, at a great depth, must be fully sufficient for the purpose, as it enables them to float lightly even on the surface. There the plant is exposed to the sun, the seed ripens, the pod bursts, and the contents descend again to form new plants, while the old ones decay and furnish manure, according to the established economy of nature among vegetables, both terrestrial and aquatic.

A great number of very minute Barnacles are found upon the leaves and stalks. The seed-pod is usually enveloped in a sort of honeycomb work, which may be taken from it, and, when examined by a lens resembles, in appearance, the net-work of a fly's eye. Its substance I conjecture to be corraline. Among other inhabitants of the plant is frequently a number of small crabs, perfectly formed, and evidently

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young, yet vigorous and active; and when a nodule, taken fresh from the water at night, is hung up in a small Cabin, it emits phosphorescent light enough to render objects visible.

The singular arrangement of the plants, in parallel lines, is evidently owing to the wind, whose direction they always observe. Each nodule places itself under the lee of its more windward neighbour, and thus observes the law of floating bodies when exposed to a current of air. Should the wind suddenly change, as it sometimes does a point or two in this part of the Atlantic, and blow strong, these lines become broken, and form what are commonly called fields of weed. These, however, are generally small, and seldom, I suspect, remain long so disarranged.

In the month of October I have run with a fine Schooner due north through the N.E.Trades, in the longitude of twenty-six degrees, and found no weed, being perhaps to the east of it. In the month of March, on board a different vessel, we formed a diagonal line, from twenty-six to forty-four west, across the parallels from eleven to forty-four degrees, and saw a great quantity of it. In May, of another year, along the same tract, there was much less observed; yet I dare not say that these dates are sufficient to point out the season of ripening, maturity, and decay of the plant; although I have never taken up a nodule which was not full of seed-pods, and never heard of a person who had noticed one destitute of them. It is said that Whales come down to the vicinity of Bermuda, at a particular season, and feed upon these plants; yet I do not recollect ever seeing an individual of that species in the weedy sea, but, on the contrary, have noticed a deficiency of fishes in general; and most, if not all of those which I have seen opened on board, appeared to live, not upon vegetable food, but their fellow inhabitants of the waters. It is probable, however, that none but such will take a bait or approach a vessel.

After passing the Cape Verd Islands the mariner, who is bound to the southward, feels anxious about crossing the line. Landsmen, not aware of the circumstance, will probably be surprised to hear that,

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broad as the ocean is between the coasts of Africa and Brazil, a difficulty exists in clearing Fernando de Neronha and Cape St.Augustine With a good Chronometer on board I should run boldly on to the American coast, being only careful to ayoid falling to leeward of Cape St. Roque, and into the heavy current which sets close round it. Without a Chronometer, or knowledge enough to use it with advantage, I should allow, from seventeen degrees north latitude, a westerly drift, begining with five miles for twenty-four hours, increasing the allowance until the latitude of five south be attained, when it should be at least twenty miles per day. From that parallel to thirteen degrees south the drift will decrease, and then again become variable. If nine degrees south can be obtained, without seeing the land, the navigator may generally proceed with confidence, even close in shore, particularly in the months from October to March; for the daily land wind will carry him sufficiently out, while it blows, to render his passage easy and safe when the sea breeze returns; and close to the land he will find fewer calms than at the distance of thirty to fifty miles from it. Upon the coast of Brazil it may be taken almost as a general rule, that the sea breeze blows at nearly right angles to the line of the shore, reckoning that line from Cape to Cape; within the Bights it frequently fails, and even strong South-westers do not always blow home. The period of the year which has been mentioned as most favourable for running down the coast of Brazil, differs, I am aware, very considerably, from the opinions which prevail at the British Post-Office; yet, when speaking of commercial affairs, I hope to prove that these months are best adapted for such a purpose. The allowances, too, for drift, which have been explained, it is obvious, ought to be influenced, in some measure, by accidental circumstances; the most Important are the place where, and the direction in which we cut the current. The advice given above is most applicable to cases where the Equator is crossed in about twenty-nine degrees of longitude, and the course steered directly upon St. Augustine. The cause of this mighty current, or marine river, is now well understood; but its strength, and in some measure its direction,

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which the navigator should carefully observe, depend upon the winds which have blown between either tropic and the line.

They are not so steady as has been sometimes represented, and seem to be very materially affected by the relative positions of the Sun and Moon. It is evident that both these luminaries produce a tide in the atmosphere; and sometimes counteract each other's influence. This occurs in the smallest degree when the new and full moons happen with the least difference in the declinations of the two bodies. In proportion as this increases, their operations on the air become disturbed, and every month, a vessel within the tropics must be placed, unavoidably, between the foci or points upon which their influence most immediately falls. In such a situation she will probably meet with calms. The winds will freshen continually in proportion as the moon approaches and passes over her, or recedes and leaves the influence of the sun more predominant. Hence it seems, that the irregularities of the Trade Winds, so frequently noticed, and especially of the south-eastern Trades, may be connected with the Cycle of the Moon, and return periodically. An attentive Officer observes such circumstances and endeavours to make use of them.

A perpetual source of entertainment and reflection is derived from the Fishes of the ocean; their presence frequently furnishes employment, their absence a subject of meditation. In some voyages, toward the Southern Ocean, vast shoals of them are seen, while in others scarcely an individual is met with. This circumstance would lead us to suppose that they exercise some caprice in the choice of their haunts; yet a better acquaintance with their instincts, habits, and modes of life, might convince us that the whole is regulated by the most perfect order. In 1810, when outward bound, the Packet was becalmed near the line, for fourteen days, during which we perceived few fishes about us; when we caught the south-eastern breeze, and began to move through the water, a shoal surrounded us consisting of more than two hundred individuals, Dolphins and Bonitos, which continued their course in the greatest harmony among themselves and with a speed regulated by our own, from five to seven

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knots an hour. On the first day, a Bonito, or as sailors would sometimes call it, an Albacore, was struck by the grains, a sort of small compound harpoon, but escaped with a wound in his side, which was very visible in the water, and enabled us to recognise the individual. Observing that it continued with us day after day, we were led to notice and distinguish other individuals, and ascertained that we were not sailing through a shoal, as had been supposed, but that precisely the same fishes continued with us, and regulated their course by ours. They easily kept up with the vessel, and even our wounded companion glided on with great apparent ease, and seemed to suffer little from his misfortune. His station was generally upon our starboard bow, while another, well known at night by a phosphorescent appearance about the tail, was constantly found under our larboard quarter. We often attempted to take this with the grains, but it swam so low as to escape from every effort, and refused every bait which we could offer. The whole shoal pursued no prey, so far as we could perceive, unless they did so when sometimes darting rapidly around in every direction, from whence they would soon return to the side of the vessel and their regular rate of swimming. We offered them baits of various kinds, but they would take none except a rough sort of fly made with feathers, and by this stratagem we obtained from among them several very excellent dinners. We thought that the circumstance which kept them near to us so long, and through a distance of seven hundred miles, was the brightness of the ship's copper; and that they left us suddenly, when near to the American coast, because they perceived the bottom of the ocean. A few hours after they were gone, we also conjectured that we could discern it, that it was naked and white; nevertheless we sailed two hundred miles afterwards, in a south-west course, before we saw the land a little north of Bahia; and then found that such was the colour and state of the shore.

There may be various tribes of fishes, inhabiting the deeper waters, with which we are wholly unacquainted; and the larger individuals of species already known, seldom, I think, approach the surface; and when they do so, perhaps no vessel is near to observe them. Those which

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abound in the shallow seas, and near the surface of deeper ones, have in general, been well described: a few of their habits however may be worth our attention.

Within the Tropics in fine weather, a great number of small pink bladders float upon the water, which contract themselves, when it is cloudy and the surface ripply, and disappear; yet when the sun shines with his full splendour they seem either to lose this power of contracting themselves suddenly, or are little apprehensive of danger; for they will suffer themselves to be tossed amidst the foam which the bows of the vessel creates, and even to be attacked by other fishes, without exhibiting any change in their appearance. Warmth is essential to their health and prosperity, if these be indicated by their size, brilliancy, and apparent vigour. In cold weather they are small and perfectly white, and in this state are found in winter, near to the Western Islands. Seamen call them Portuguese Men-of-War, and frequently describe them as Nautili, and the inhabitants of Santos, on the coast of Brazil, say that the shells of the real Nautilus, which are found in their harbour, are deposited there once a year, by these pink bladders of the ocean; never-theless I cannot accede to the opinion, because I never saw upon them, even in the neighbourhood of Santos, the slightest appearance of a shell, nor a tendency towards the formation of one, and the animal seems to me disqualified, by its long tentacula, from being the inhabitant of such an abode. These fibres, several yards in length, seem to be the instruments by which it takes its prey, and would be useless for that purpose if inclosed in a narrow shell; nor can the shell reasonably be supposed the production of such an animal in a single season.

Approaching once toward the coast of Guinea, accompanied by a number of Bonitos or Skip-Jacks, which delight to play about the bows of the vessel, and are therefore frequently called pilot-fishes, they attacked these bladders, the Holothuria Physalis, with great violence; not as it appeared as objects of prey, but from a natural and deep-rooted animosity. To accomplish their purpose, they frequently turned out of the direct course, darted at them with rapidity, and made a great flounder in the

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water, evidently with a view to break and sink them; being careful however, not to touch the long fibres with their mouth, being sensible, I suppose, that these contain a venom, and have the property of stinging severely. In the human limb which touches them, they excite pain and swelling in a high degree.

Skip-Jacks derive their name from a habit which they have, of vaulting out of the water, and making an arch in the air, of several yards in extent. This appears to be one mode in which they take their prey; and the flying-fish is frequently the unfortunate object at which they aim. We caught one of these voracious tyrants just after we had seen him seize a victim. On opening his stomach immediately, the flying-fish was found apparently dead, and without any visible marks of injury. It had gone head foremost down the throat, and we fancied that it had died from fright; for, on being placed in a bucket of salt water, it soon recovered, and we restored it in vigour to its native element. When swimming in the water, which it does very rapidly, the skip-jack appears of a brown colour, for then only its back is seen; when it leaps into the air its white sides and belly show themselves, and hence it has obtained the name of albacore; when caught and brought on board it is found to possess dimly, the beautiful marks of the mackerel, and on this account has been called the bonito. It is seldom found in a solitary state, but swims at least with one companion, and generally in a shoal of twenty or more together. They are frequently eaten at sea, and are said to have sometimes endangered the lives of a whole ship's company. The danger arises from worms which infest the body of the fish, and make their appearance first in small white specks on the inside of the chest. If the slightest symptom of this disease be observed, the fish should be immediately condemned as unwholesome and thrown overboard.

Between the tropics Flying-fishes abound; but are evidently larger on the southern than on the northern side of the line. Their progressive motion in the air is produced by a very rapid vibration of their tails, and not by their long fins, which serve as balances rather than as wings. They rise out of the water in large shoals, with their fins extended,

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but motionless; and sometimes fly to the distance of sixty or eighty yards.

The Dolphin of the Atlantic is improperly called so by British seamen; foreigners name it the Dorado or Dourada. It delights to swim in the shadow of the vessel; and seems fond of her figure, or motion, or brilliant bottom. It darts about with great rapidity and ease; is very voracious and easily taken with a hook. When secured, it is not boisterous, but easily held by a line which is incapable of supporting its weight, and quietly resigns itself. When dying, the colour changes, but the varying hues are by no means pleasant ones; and all its brilliancy disappears. The Guarapema, called so by the Brazillian Indians from its swiftness, abounds on their coast; and is distinguished from the common Dorado, chiefly, by its larger size, by the colour of the fins and tail, which is a bright yellow, and by the blue spots on its sides, which are round and beautiful.

Sharks abound in every part of the ocean, and are sly, jealous, and voracious monsters. Sailors have a rooted antipathy toward them, and the capture of one, particularly on board a Portuguese vessel, is always a subject of triumph. They seem to be the terror of all other fishes, and perhaps of their own species, for they are usually found singly, and create a sort of desert where they go. Fortunately for their prey, their motion is slow; for themselves, the powers of digestion are feeble. We caught one three days after having thrown overboard the entrails of a sheep, which he had seized, and found them still in his stomach, partly undigested. This membrane is a mere sack, fixed round the fauces, and of the same width as the enormous mouth. We once found at the bottom of this sack, and in the very skin of which it is composed, a round lump, more than three inches in diameter; it had a small hole in the side connected with the lower intestines, and was full of white worms: evidently one of the diseases to which this monster is subject.

The shark is very tenacious of life, and most easily destroyed by taking off the tail: an operation which opens the principal artery, and causes the creature to expire from loss of blood. On cutting through


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the pudendum of one, which had been some time dead, it was suddenly seized with strong convulsive motions. The heart, after it had been taken from its place twenty-four hours and laid upon the warm hand, contracted with almost its natural force; yet when this has been pierced with a musket-ball the fish died almost instantaneously. Hunger compels them to feed upon each other; and when nearly of equal size, their battles seem to be violent: one with an empty stomach, and several bleeding wounds, was taken immediately after we had seen his opponent escape. It is believed that sharks will not attack a man in the water so long as he keeps in motion; certainly some were observed under a raft upon which several seamen were exposed for four days, near the coast of Brazil, and no person was injured by them, though sitting almost up to the breast in water, and frequently one or other of them tumbling off by the uneasiness of the motion: yet I conceive that these were not hungry, and that this species of fishes ought never to be trusted. The suspicious caution with which they take their prey, sometimes, though not always, turning upon their backs to do so, gives to the Indians of South America an opportunity of attacking and overcoming them, even in their own element: for, aware that the eyes are so situated with respect to the mouth, that the animal cannot see his object, at the moment When he wishes to seize it, nor the enemy who intends to destroy him, they dive and dexterously pierce him from below.

The Remora, or Sacking-fish, attaches itself to the Shark by means of a striated membrane upon its throat, which enables it to create a Vacuum on the skin, and to bring into operation the external pressure of the atmosphere and the water. Its food consists of the scales and slimy substance of the Shark's back; and in dissecting the fish I have always found in its stomach a portion of them undigested. The provisions of nature, in the formation of this species, are wonderful; the upper jaw is longer than the lower, and the teeth are so placed as to cut horizontally, and thus enable the animal to feed upon a flat and 'smooth surface: the head is placed, with respect to the vertebrae, in an inverted position: the. eyes, the gullet, and the anus, are upwards, and

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nearly in the same line: the mouth and the back-bone are underneath. In general these fishes are small; but in 1818, on board H. M. Ship Tortoise, we caught one nearly twenty inches long and twelve round the thickest part of the body; and on another occasion I took seven of the smaller ones from a single Shark, and observed as many more drop from it when first lifted from the water.

Another of the Shark's occasional companions is a small, but beautiful, fish, which swims near the surface, and keeps its station a few feet before the nose of the monster: hence it has sometimes been called the Pilotfish. It is generally about nine inches long, and marked with alternate bands of dark brown and light blue. While preceding its enemy, it seems conscious of security from its own equal speed and nearness to the surface of the water; for the foe never darts upon his prey, nor does he ever voluntarily raise his nose above water. The Pilot-fish however can be observed in this situation only when it is near a vessel, and then it soon takes refuge close to the side of the rudder, and keeps its station there with astonishing pertinacity; hence it is frequently called also the Rudder-fish. It evidently delights in the dead water formed by the buttocks of the ship, and will never go so far forward, under the run, as the point where the water brushes against the sides of the vessel and strikes off from them. In this situation perhaps it finds rest from the fatigues of a long chase, and security from its ravenous pursuer; for the Shark, unless urged by hunger, will never approach the Counter of a ship, nor come beneath any thing which overhangs his eyes. What the Remora lives upon I know not, for it would never take a bait, and its activity secures it from being caught by any other means.

Porpoises abound in every part of the Atlantic, and possess the same habits as those which are found in narrower seas. I have often been desirous of securing a large one in the deeper waters, and to ascertain whether they find sand in those depths of the ocean which we cannot fathom. We once struck one which might have answered my purpose, but his weight and strength destroyed the harpoon before we could get a tackle ready to secure him. The wound, with which he escaped, was

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extremely large, and the water, as it rushed into it after his fall from the bows of the vessel, must have produced great pain, for he instantly threw himself upright in the air and uttered a heavy groan. It was evening, and on no consideration our duty to go in search of him, nor to delay our voyage a moment in order to settle speculative questions in Philosophy, however interesting. The largest fish of this class, which I ever saw, was about twenty miles from Cape Frio, in something more than thirty fathoms water. We had disturbed it, for the creature rose directly under the Bow-sprit; made one curve slowly, and then disappeared. That part of the back which became exposed to view, was several yards long; its skin was rough and appeared full of tubercles, or wrinkled; the colour was cinerous, or blackish grey; the shoulders filled up the whole apparent breadth, to a person standing on the quarter-deck, between the two Cat-heads of a brig of two hundred tons, and could not be less than from two to three yards across.

Some years ago, large shoals of the Bottle-nosed Porpoise had their haunts about the lat. 24°. 30. South, near to the coast of Brazil; but they have lately disappeared. Perhaps, like the Whale, they have been driven from those parts of the Ocean by the great increase of navigation.

Whales, though less common on the coast of Brazil than formerly, are still found there; and on a calm day, when the vessel hardly steered for want of wind, she approached so close to one asleep upon the water, that a passenger went over the side and pressed hard upon it with a boat-hook. It seemed perfectly insensible to the touch, and to try its sense of hearing, a carronade was fired; upon which he plunged instantly downwards.

In lat. 18°. S. ll in with a dead whale. Its enormous bulk upon the water, for it floated high above the surface, gave rise to many conjectures. When first seen, most on board thought it to be a vessel dismasted. It was drifting before the wind, and from the mast we could discern its wake, at least seven miles in length, bounded by two diverging lines, whose junction was at the carcase. Between these lines the sea

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appeared smooth and glossy; the ripple generally caused by the breeze was perfectly allayed, and the grease of the animal had been so spread upon the water as to permit the air to sweep smoothly over its surface; but the ground-swell, the body of the billow, was left unaltered. Here then we saw clearly demonstrated the fallacy of those plans which were propagated many years ago, for allaying, by means of oil, the turbulence of a tempest; and the ignorance of the projectors, who could never have witnessed the violence of water in a highly wrought state of commotion. As we approached the body to leeward, for we could not fetch it though braced sharply up, the smell became very offensive. The boat sent to examine it ascertained that it was a male, that the tail was forked, that the head had been severed from the body, perhaps by a natural process of decay, and that thousands of different species of fishes were feeding on the ruins, forgetful of their mutual hostility. Perhaps fishes are driven to prey upon each other, in ordinary cases, only by a sense of hunger, or a consciousness of power. Off the Abrolhos we saw two of these unwieldy creatures in a very sportive mood; they raised their enormous bulks, in an upright position, high above the water, and then fell sideways upon it with a weight which caused the waves to recoil, and discharge a spray to an astonishing extent around. We were glad to recede from such a neighbourhood, although pleased and surprised at the singularity and grandeur of the scene.

Turtles are by no means uncommon in the South American seas. They are generally of the Hawkes-bill kind, and sometimes grow to a very large size. We took one off the harbour of Rio de Janeiro, which measured five feet in length, three in breadth, and was nearly two feet thick. It seemed old, and was almost covered with Barnacles. When taken it appeared healthy, but, twenty-four hours afterwards, was attacked by a disease similar to a prolapsus ani. The protrusion was of a conical shape, twelve inches long, and as many round, with a stricture near to the body. It became green and putrid, and therefore, although the animal showed no symptoms of pain, we restored it to the ocean, in which it sunk immediately.

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The luminous appearance of the sea at night has often been the subject of wonder and reflection. This light, when excited by the ship rushing through the water, assumes the form of brilliant stars, or round masses of a greenish hue, frequently eighteen inches in diameter. They float by the vessel in every part of the water which her bottom has touched, as deep as the very lowest part of her keel, and form behind her a long and fiery train. At other times, when the breeze is strong and the billows break and foam, the light appears like fields of flashing fire. Twice I have beheld this latter sight in all its glowing splendour; the water was highly luminous, as far as the eye could reach, and the vessel seemed to be plunging her way over billows of liquid fire. In both instances the night was dark and louring; and the brilliancy of the water formed a grand but awful contrast with the black concave above us. When day-light returned all this heatless splendour was eclipsed, and the sea exhibited, to a superficial view, only a more dingy colour than usual; to a more close examination it presented myriads of hemispherical bodies of the Medusa tribe.

I am inclined to believe that the chief cause of this luminous appearance has here been incidentally mentioned, and that it arises from the presence of several kinds of animated beings, which have the power of emitting a phosphorescent light. This is evident from the multitude of them which may be taken out of the sea, and still appear lucid and active. Another great cause may probably be found in the disorganization and putrefaction of animal substances; this light abounding on all beaches where the refuse of large cities is discharged.Perhaps bodies of water may sometimes be collected in particular parts of the ocean, more than usually thronged with small animals possessing this quality of emitting light, or singularly fraught with putrescent particles. Friction, in most cases, seems to assist in the production, if it be not in all essential to the existence of this brilliancy. The slight agitation of the water, occasioned by the action of a steady breeze upon its surface, is often sufficient for the purpose; and, in cases where plants are taken up inhabited by minute animals, exposure to the passing air alone seems to be enough.

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That this luminous quality is not confined to the surface of the water, where, for the most part, it appears in the English Channel and the German Ocean, is evident to all who have passed the tropics, and may be clearly proved to those who have not; for the shark, when he has taken the bait at night, and finds himself hooked, generally plunges downward, if line enough be given, many fathoms below the bottom of the vessel, and is visible even there by the light which he creates around himself while floundering in the water. That the light in question does not proceed from his own body, but from the water which he agitates, or rather the matter which it contains, is manifest, because the larger living fishes, as they dart around and beneath us during the obscurity, leave behind them long lucid trains, just of the same kind and in the same manner as the vessel herself does.

In fine weather, near the coast of Brazil, the ship frequently falls into patches of water which exhibit a brown and dirty appearance, for several miles in extent. Strangers are apt to suppose that they are on the edge of a shoal; and more than once I have seen the helm put hastily down in order to avoid the supposed sand-bank. Yet the brownness of the water arises from the spawn of fishes; and when examined by a microscope, or powerful lens, is found to be mingled with vast numbers of the small fry, which have just broken into active existence. They seem to have been deposited by their parents during the winter months; for I have noticed them from June to November, but not in March, April, or May. They probably serve as food for those fishes which are more fully grown, or the ocean would soon be overstocked with inhabitants.

Our knowledge of these inhabitants must depend for its perfection upon the fisherman's art. In this respect British seamen do not generally excel. Their duty on board is more regular and constant, and they have less time to be lounged away in the sun, or to be trifled with in attending a line, than foreigners are allowed; and the circumstance of their sailors, in the merchant's service, furnishing their own provisions on board, renders the art of fishing, among them, important to almost

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every man who goes to sea. He who with us fishes for sustenance, commonly finds it near the shores; he who practices the art for the purposes of commerce seeks, and waits for, a particular kind of prey. Philosophy has not influence enough to encourage deep-sea fishing for her own views. Is there no kind of food which might be furnished as baits in the deepest waters?—nothing capable of attracting the sense of taste, of sight, or of smelling? In the small way of angling all this is done; might not the art be extended and improved?—might not living subjects be sunk with plummets below their natural regions, as baits for those species which cannot or do not raise themselves to the upper ones? By wealth and encouragement much might be done; for sailors, though not learned in Icthyology, are frequently fond of fishing and novelty; they have a pride also, and triumph, in lesser circumstances than those of war.

A Portuguese Gentleman from Bahia, a fellow-passenger on board an English ship, observed the sailors fishing, without success, when we were surrounded by Bonitos. Without saying a word, he went to a hen-coop, procured some feathers and a hook, made a rough sort of fly, and soon caught more fishes than could be useful to the company; others tried the same means, but without equal success. The most extraordinary instance of perseverance in this way, which I ever met with, was afforded by an Indian boy, about thirteen or fourteen years of age. Having begged a hook, he sat himself down, and from Junk patiently spun a line well adapted to the size of the hook, and strong beyond what could be expected from such materials. For a float he took the thigh-bone of a fowl, which had been picked at dinner, worked off the two ends, and formed a hollow tube, through which he passed the line, and plugged up the ends; thus the float was fastened at what he deemed the proper distance from the bait. He then tied the other end of the line round his left arm, so that he had both hands at liberty. In fine weather he threw the float and bait as far from the gangway of the vessel as he could, drawing it in again very quickly, hand over hand. If he caught nothing by one cast, he threw another, and continued doing

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so at every moment of leisure from duty. His patience and activity were inexhaustible; his employment proved useful to us all.

This boy spoke a little English and a little Portuguese; the account he gave of himself was this:—He was a native of Peru, and had been at Callao, but at that period never on board any thing larger than a canoa. He was one day out fishing, far from land, with his father, when an English vessel hove in sight, and came towards them; they endeavoured to escape, but could not; the white people took all the fish out of the canoe and himself, setting his father adrift. He said that he was very much frightened, on board, at first, particularly as he did not understand the language; that the people gave him clothes to wear, but that he had a great aversion to them, and whenever he had an opportunity took them off and frequently tore them. He told us he was beaten almost constantly on board that vessel, because he did not like to go up the mast; but added, with evident satisfaction, "I had plenty to eat." He had learned that the vessel was bound to London, and showed that the little he could understand about England had made a deep impression upon his imagination; for though he could never be persuaded to speak well of the people who took him, and always reminded us that they beat him very much, he earnestly and repeatedly solicited me to find for him a place on board a ship for London. That in which he had first sailed put into Rio de Janeiro, and left him there; I sailed with him to that port in 1809, from Rio Grandé. He mentioned to me the name of the British vessel, of the Captain and Mate; and I afterwards found that he was correct.

During a voyage a passenger will often find amusement from the sea-birds, which almost perpetually fly around him in quest of prey, particularly within a moderate distance of land. They have been generally so well described as to leave little room for remark in this place. In Lat. 49 N. and Long. 20 W. we caught a bird unknown to any person on board. It was about the size of a small blackbird. Its bill was long, rather arched, and slender; the tips of both mandibles were pink; the other parts of them black. The head, neck, upper


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part of the wing—feathers, and tail, were very dark brown; the under part of the wings and tail a lighter brown, the feathers darkest in the middle. The back, scapulæ, breast, and belly, had a reddish-buff colour, or light pink; the back had a tinge of yellow with it The legs were scaly and flesh-coloured; it had three toes forward and one behind, all slender and unconnected; the tail was moderately long, biforked with six rounded feathers, and rather drooped; the points of the wings rising considerably above it; in each wing were nine pennated feathers. The habits of the bird were familiar and confident; it lived for some time on boiled rice, but died shortly after eating a quantity raw. It seemed very sensible of cold in that latitude; and had probably come from a warmer one. We thought it a species of Procellaria, or Mother Cary's chicken, but in several points differing from the common one.

Reclining once upon a hen-coop, I observed a very small black spot in the atmosphere, at an immense height above me. After pointing it out to some of my companions, we procured glasses, and perceived that it was one of the large species of Man-of-war birds, and that he was standing toward the North-east. On referring to the Chart we found that the nearest land to him was the small rock of St. Paul, near to the line, and that there was no other land within the distance of seven hundred miles. From his flying so high, we judged that he was in search of a resting-place rather than of prey, and was actually pursuing his rout across the Atlantic. The practice of shooting at sea-birds, when within reach, for the mere purpose of hitting and leaving them wounded to perish in the water, by protracted hunger, adopted by some idle passengers as diversion, appears to me one of the most wanton acts of cruelty that a man can be guilty of. I have always thought that it indicated a bad disposition; and whenever I have had an opportunity afterwards of observing the man he has generally turned out a bad one.

In the latitude of 34° South, and fully two hundred miles from the land, we found the rigging covered, one morning, with a multitude of small insects; some of them very beautiful. We had no doubt of

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their being brought from the land by a North-west wind, which then began to blow fresh, but wondered at the distance to which they had been wafted. They were the precursors of one of the most durable gales which I ever experienced; it lasted ten days, with more or less violence, during which we drifted to 36½° South.

The form of the Southern Hemisphere certainly cannot be determined by merely sailing upon its oceans; nor am 1 at all qualified to enter upon the discussion of such a subject, and mention it only as a matter which has excited my curiosity. Yet there are several circumstances which seem to indicate that the Southern Seas are deeper than the Northern; and not only the excess of water and deficiency of land, differing greatly from each other in specific gravity, but also the superior quantity of ice, and the more moderate degree of temperature in the atmosphere, present some foundation for conjecture that the Southern semi-axis of the world is the longest.

Sailors, or at least persons fit to be entrusted with the care of a vessel, and to have the direction of her course, must necessarily look every day to the heavens; and may be allowed, without presumption, to extend their views even to distant spheres. I have been frequently surprised at the fact that nearly all such mistake the Magellanic Clouds; and instead of the Nebulæ, distinguished by that name among Astronomers, point to two black patches, which are much larger than the Nebulæ themselves. They are so black as to be distinctly visible by every one; and naturally prompt us to ask, how is it that these obscure spots exist?—how it is that in these parts of the heavens there should be such an obvious and well defined absence of light?—whence comes the luminous hue so generally diffused as to render these patches remarkable? They exhibit no stars to the naked eye, and very few are visible with a small telescope. Some of a similar kind, but of smaller extent, and various in their degree of blackness, exist in the Southern half of the Via Lactea itself; while nothing like them, that I have been able to notice, is found among the Northern Constellations. Surely they deserve a more accurate notice, and a deeper investigation, from the learned.

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No man who sails upon the ocean, and possesses the slightest degree of curiosity, can avoid wishing to know what is the nature of its bottom, and the depth at which it might be found. In general, however, he must be satisfied with conjectures, founded only upon slight indications of nature. To examine the British seas, the Adriatic, and even the Mediterranean, in order to learn something about the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is like measuring the attics alone to ascertain the size and proportions of a Palace. All small seas must be shallow; and near rocky shores the bottom must usually be irregular. Currents also, wherever they exist, will wear for themselves channels deep and broad, in proportion to their own violence, the time which they have been in existence, and the softness of the materials upon which they flow. But in the larger expanses of water, where it is little disturbed by local circumstances, the bottom is probably more uniform and level. Where the ocean is so deep as to maintain tranquillity in its lower waters amidst violent tempests, if there be any such places, the bottom cannot be worn; it will generally speaking, be a sandy plain, broken into small undulations, or interrupted by long ridges and detached masses of rock. The average depth of the Atlantic, I apprehend, is much less than has been commonly supposed; because we now and then, although very seldom, fall in with detached patches of discoloured water; and there, most undoubtedly, the ocean cannot be deep, nor its bottom hard; and in all places where animals of the Medusa tribe, or plants exist, unless when they are found in currents, and do not float over their native beds, I am inclined to consider them as indications that the bottom is not much beyond the reach of our common sounding lines.

Indeed the nodules floating in the Weedy-sea, which have been mentioned before, point out an excellent and easy method of ascertaining the greatest depth at which they could possibly grow. By knowing their buoyancy, and the strength of the stalk nearest to the part which has been separated from the parent-stem, we may discover the utmost pressure which they could bear in still water, i. e. the utmost possible depth of the spot on which they could flourish; for the pressure of the

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fluid at every given depth below its surface, is a constant quantity, and the instant that this, or in other words, the buoyancy of the plant, becomes greater than the strength or adhesion of the stem, the head and seed-vessels must break away and rise to the surface. This weed of which I speak, exists over nine hundred square degrees of the Atlantic; the fresh nodules are almost uniform in their specific gravity and in the strength of their stems, and therefore indicate that the bottom, through that broad space, cannot be very uneven.

Much indeed, would the general knowledge of the Ocean, or Marine Geography, be extended: much would the Mercantile and Shipping Interests be benefited, if under the sanction of Government, all the Log-Books of vessels arriving from abroad, were to be deposited at an office, established for the purpose, to be examined there, and compared with each other; if those who kept them well were applauded, and those who neglected to do so exposed. Every Master and every Mate would be careful as to what he inserted, if he knew that his register of circumstances and events was to be afterwards compared with those of other vessels, which, though unseen, may be sailing within a few miles of him. The Gentlemen at Lloyd's also, especially in time of war, would be subject to much less imposition than they are, and Masters of real merit would become known and distinguished.

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A. D. 1808.


The first land, which is generally seen on approaching the coast of Brazil from Europe, is Cape Frio; a lofty promontory, giving its name to the adjoining district, and about seventy miles from Rio de Janeiro. To the East of it lies the bay of Papagayos, which furnishes a tolerably fair specimen of Brazilian scenery. To the right of the entrance, which is about two miles over, is a rock crowned with tropical forest trees and plants. Its sides, where the spray of the sea washes, are quite bare, and large external coats, or thick laminae, are detached from this, as from most other islands on the coast, by the violence of the surf, and slide into the abyss; near the water's edge, therefore, the rock has a battered and broken appearance. Nearly two miles farther in, on the left, is a ledge of sharp-pointed stones, some of which raise their heads above water, and warn vessels of the larger description not to approach on that side. The bottom of the bay, which is four miles from its entrance, has a fine sandy beach, but, like the rest of this coast, exposed to a heavy surf, as there is little shelter from the weight of the ocean. From this beach the land rises in what, to an English eye, appear abrupt and lofty hills; but which must be placed among the third order of Brazilian heights. Inland the view is all woody, the foliage extremely rich, and of a dark colour, forming a fine contrast to the naked grey sides of the island on the left, the yellow beach in front, and the deep blue main to the right. The sky, at the time I was first there, was a tropical one,

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arid and blue, but dappled with clouds of the softest texture. In the woods a fire was kindled at our approach, and its pillar of slowly-rolling smoke not only added to the beauty of the scene, but gave us an assurance of civilized inhabitants; for it was evidently intended as a signal.

To weary passengers at sea, the sight of land, in fine weather, is always gratifying; but that alone leaves the mind in suspense. When first beheld from the ocean, it frequently presents the appearance of a grey-looking desert, sometimes broken into frowning abruptnesses; and should the view, as it is approached, become verdant and woody, varied and interesting, still there is a doubt respecting countries little known, whether the forest be inhabited by wild beasts or civilized men, by savages or friends. Such feelings applied, in some measure, to the season of my first visit to this part of Brazil, the 25th of June, 1808. The Prince Regent of Portugal had indeed preceded us, but we knew not how he had been received, nor what was the state and disposition of the country. Our vessel had cleared out for Rio de Janeiro, and as an ultimate port, in case of necessity, for St. Catharine's. We had spoken no foreign ship at sea, had passed a long tract of water, and arrived upon the coast as ignorant as we left England. The appearance of fire, and that fire manifestly a signal, joined to the sight of a pile of cleaved wood, which our glasses enabled us to distinguish, or think we saw, on the beach, a clothed man walking, and two or three square huts under the trees, were to us promises of comfort, and inspired us with immediate pleasure and hope, as we afterward steered along a varied, but generally hold and barren, shore.

A stranger, who has no vessel under his care to create anxiety, will enter the harbour of Rio most pleasantly, by running down from Ponte Negro close to the shore, until the Ilha Pay, Prophet's or Sorcerer's Isle, is brought on with the Sugar Loaf. This will give him an opportunity of seeing every inlet to the coast, some of which, bordered by lofty masses of naked granite, are very beautiful. It will place before him, almost in a line, the Corcovado, Gavia, Two Brothers, and other

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mountains of singular form, uncouth names, and stupendous altitude During the morning fogs, which hover about the shore, some of these raise their heads high above the mists, and serve as guides to the port. The Gavia is the most to the west, of the greatest height, and has a remarkable flat top, which seems an immense cube, or table of stone with perpendicular sides, placed upon a mountain. The Corcovado is a little more to the Eastward, a lofty point of rock, which appears to pierce the heavens. Steering for this, when far out at sea, brings a vessel near to the Sugar Loaf, a much lower and conical mountain, with its steepest side to the West. Close to the foot of this rock, lies the passage into the harbour;

While rounding the isle Pay, the entrance is not visible, but in proportion as the Sugar Loaf draws to the Northward of the ship, the gorge opens, and through it is beheld the calm expanse of what is generally deemed the finest bay in the world. The entrance is about a mile wide, and fenced on either side by solid masses of granite, one entire stone without a chink; that on the West is nearly six hundred feet high, commonly estimated at much more; its neighbour, on the other side, rears its head to a somewhat greater elevation, and is topped with a signal staff, from which the first notice is given to the city of approaching vessels. Both hills are very abrupt, and skirted with Forts, the advance to which is defended on both sides by strong double curtains. Immediately in front, and about a mile within the narrowest part of the entrance, is the battery of the Lagé, a square low Fort, situated upon a mass of naked rocks, against which the water breaks with violence, and in stormy weather sometimes overtops the battlements, reducing the garrison to great distress and some danger. The Fort of Santa Cruz, on the right hand, is very respectable; but the guns are placed too high, and the water is deep close to the rock, so that small vessels may render them perfectly useless.

At every step, if such a phrase may be used in reference to the motion of a ship, new beauties unfold themselves, as we proceed into, and up, the harbour. At the mouth, is frequently a very heavy, and sometimes dangerous swell; and formerly foreign ships were obliged to

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anchor there, in seventeen fathoms water, with a sharp, rocky, and irregular bottom. I once passed in that situation sixteen extremely unpleasant hours, six of them as tedious as most I have ever found at sea. Sir Sydney Smith was then at Rio; his fostering care of British interests prevented the necessity of foreign vessels to anchor there again.

Proceeding up the harbour, the waters expand on either side. On the left opens the bay of Bota-Foga, skirted by inaccessible and verdant mountains, guarded by the Sugar Loaf and the fort of St. John on one side, and a smooth mass of granite on the other. On the right is the Sacco, or, as the British call it, Five-Fathom-Bay, surrounded by gentle and fertile woody slopes, verdant grass-lands, and a yellow sandy beach; the whole enclosed by numerous peaks. Its fine expanse, not less than three miles in diameter, is broken and adorned by a singularly irregular mass of rock, the abode of sea-fowl. The gorge of this bay, on the Southern side, is flanked by a lofty cone of smooth granite rock; on the Northern, by the small island of Boa-Viage, about a hundred feet high, with perpendicular sides, composed in part of grey and brown stone, in part of red clay. The intermixture of these colours, all glowing in the sun, broken into patches by the rich verdure, which descends from the summit, and occupies every spot, where nature can fix a root, together with the small white church, which surmounts the whole like a crest, is one of the finest objects, which the most fertile imagination can conceive. Directly opposite, at two miles distance Westward, is the fort of the celebrated Villegagnon, the theatre of glorious exploits.

Above this fort, still farther Westward, is beheld the city of St.Sebastian, commonly, though improperly, called Rio de Janeiro, filling the low grounds at the foot of a projecting mountain, and running along the beach to other elevations. Churches and monasteries, forts and country-houses, glittering in whiteness, crown every hillock, and decorate the sides of its fanciful and symmetrical heights, backed by a screen of woods, which overshadow the whole. But it is vain attempting to describe; the pen cannot imitate the pencil, nor the pencil nature, in


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scenes like these. They are allowed, however, by competent judges, to compose a landscape of almost unequalled magnificence and beauty. Some of the smaller inlets of this capacious bay have been compared to Sydney Cove, in New Holland, and something like the whole, in the same style, but on a smaller scale, is said to exist in Asia Minor, near to Crete.

Doubtless much of the pleasure we feel, when entering such a harbour as this, may be traced to novelty, much to contrast; for the stranger, in a few hours, and almost minutes, exchanges the undulation and solitariness of the ocean, the grey distant prospect, and the nearer view, of an iron-bound coast, for a mirror-like surface, studded with boats and vessels of a larger size; near to him lies an extensive, populous, and noisy city, highly beautiful at a distance, wherein are assembled persons of every complexion, and from every quarter of the globe; around him is a landscape finished with nature's choicest pencil, clothed in a richness of attire, which none but a tropical climate can produce. In the last ten years, much, it is true, has been torn away from the skirts of these garments, and they now appear somewhat ragged. We should regret the change in these, till lately everlasting, woods, did we not recollect that they have contributed their portion to the wants of man; furnished to the city below them the valuable article of fuel, and still are employed in producing the necessaries, and many of the luxuries, of life. Enough of wood-land, also, is still left to please; and nature here can never disgust, though in scenes unaided by artificial ornament.

I have so often entered this delightful recess, have sailed about every part of it so repeatedly, looked at it so many thousand times, and from such a variety of stations, that upon me novelty can now have but little influence; I have allowed all that it is possible to allow for the effect of contrast; but still I love, nay am passionately fond of, the place; nor do I envy the feelings of the man, who can look upon nature's brightest smiles, and never smile again. The cold and phlegmatic Northern politician has seldom calculated the effect of fine scenery upon the human mind, or he would not have expected the Court of Portugal to leave its new abode.

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This is a silent but powerful agent; its operation is universal and perpetual, renewed by every rising sun, and aided by every refulgent moon. It has here often withstood the stimulus of interest, and destroyed the pithiness of argument; and is generally most effectual on minds the least aware of its influence. It has contributed to render the Court of Portugal almost ambitious to change its designation; and foreigners indulge the propensity, by speaking of the Court of Rio, and no longer of that of Lisbon.

My first landing at St. Sebastian's was at the Custom-house, on the stairs of which I met with a Gentleman, to whom I was known, and from whom I received the first marks of that ready and active kindness, in which an English Merchant, wherever he is found, seldom falls short. He had arrived a few days before me, and had already been initiated into the scenes of carelessness and dirt, mixed with tedious and beggarly parade, which occur daily at the place where we met. Gladly did I take refuge from them in his house and hospitality, after having gone through no small trial of my patience.

A vessel sailing for England early the next day, presented an opportunity of announcing to friends at home my arrival and welfare. Having performed this pleasing duty, I walked out, with two or three companions, to see the city.

It is situated chiefly on a low, flat piece of ground close to the beach, and extends backward about half a mile. The streets are straight and narrow, paved in the middle of the town with granite; the bolders and slabs are mostly grey, and among them are sometimes found specimens finely varied with quartz. There are no raised or separate foot-paths, and a channel for waste water generally runs in the middle. The widest and principal of these streets is parallel with the bay, terminating in a small square, a hundred and sixty yards long, by eighty broad; the West side of which is occupied by religious buildings, the South by the palace, the North by plain houses filled with the royal servants, the East is open to the water, and commands a view of the anchorage, and the opposite coasts. A considerable degree of uniformity

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is found in the buildings; they are generally of two stories, but the ranges are broken by some of three, and by others which have only a ground-floor, with the addition of a sort of attic in the roof The walls, as far as the covering of plaister and whitewash allowed us to judge, are well constructed of granite; the thresholds, door-posts, lintels, and window-frames, are of massy quartz or felt-spar, brought from Bahia in a state ready for use; the roofs are universally covered with semitubular tiles. The lower story is, in common, occupied by the shop and warehouse; the second and third, if there be one, by the family apartments, to which there are long and narrow passages taken from the ground-floor, and communicating with the street. In the outskirts of the town the streets are unpaved, the houses of one floor, low, small, and dirty; and the doors and windows are of lattice-work, opening outward to the annoyance of passengers.

Among the objects which most attracted the attention of a stranger, in the streets of Rio, were the projections from the upper windows, called Jealousies. At each window, and level with the floor of the room, was a sort of platform of stone, about two feet and a half broad, which served as the basis of a balcony, not breast-high only, as might be supposed, but rising to the top of the window. It was formed of latticework, generally of a fanciful pattern, and divided into pannels or compartments, some of which were fitted up with hinges at the top, so as to form a sort of flap, which, when opened a little way, allowed the persons in the balcony to look downward into the street, without being seen themselves. The interstices of the lattice served for a purpose of great use in this warm climate, the admission of air into the house. These jealousies gave to the fronts of the houses a heavy and suspicious appearance, rendered the streets dull, and indicated that the inhabitants had little sociability; such, at least, was the impression made upon a mind unaccustomed to them.

It may be observed that I have spoken of jealousies as they were. A few months after this note was put on record, an order was issued by the Regent to cut them down to modern balconies. They who loved

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the free circulation of air gladly obeyed; others, who wished to gratify the Court, followed without hesitation; the rest felt themselves obliged to submit. The effect was curious; for want of glass or blinds to the windows, the houses became suddenly exposed; most felt ashamed of their appearance, some strove to improve it, and some, as usual, imitated what seemed fashionable, if not, in their view, an improvement. In this respect, as well as others, a taste for the conveniences and modes of Europe commenced, and doubtless will increase,

To improve the appearance of the streets was the ostensible ground of this royal order; and it was suggested, "That as the city had" advanced in the scale of privileges and importance, it ought to make a "corresponding advance in external show." The real cause, it was reported, was an apprehension that, sooner or later, these jealousies might become ambuscades for assassins, who, unseen and unsuspected, might from thence discharge a fatal bullet. Be this as it may, the Regent, by a stroke of his pen, has done more to promote the health and comfort of Rio, than could have been effected by the suggestions of foreigners, backed with all the force of reason, in a whole century.

But persons circumstanced like myself were chiefly solicitous about the prospects of Commerce. In our walk we observed that the retail shops were confined to the heart of the city, and mostly to one street, the Rua Da-Qui-Tandi; while the wholesale warehouses were situated between this street and the water. The former were small, but tolerably well stocked with cotton and woollen goods, some of them of British fabric, which had apparently been long on hand. The shops of hardware and haberdashery were miserable concerns, kept evidently by people without property, or the means of acquiring it. The wholesale warehouses were, in general, long open stores, extending far backward from the street As far as we could observe, they contained few goods of any kind, calculated for the consumption of the country, while they were full of articles of produce intended for exportation; the state of Portugal, then in the hands of the French, rendering these stocks unusually large.

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As we passed along the streets, we observed at each shop door a long stool, which in the day time was covered with goods, and served as a sort of show-board; in the evening it became the seat of persons who were playing at backgammon, upon a flat and unwieldy board. The people, we were told, sometimes played high, and many of the spectators, who stood around, seemed to enter into the business with all the ardour of gamesters.

In these scenes of petty dissipation, there appeared nothing favourable to commercial enterprise; yet we finished our walk with more cheering prospects than those, with which we began it. We found the city full of inhabitants; so full, indeed, that I did not know where I should find accommodation for the night. All of these we calculated would become consumers, and with such expectations, establishments had already been formed for supplying their wants. There existed, we found, the distinction between the wholesale and retail dealers, which is of consequence to foreign traders; and we saw, in the abundant stocks of the former, a promise of reimbursement for our exertions.

In a short time we became better acquainted with the detail, the extent, and the progressive state of the city; as well as with the inhabitants, their occupations, and manners. When the Court first arrived at the metropolis of Brazil, the city was circumscribed within very narrow boundaries. It may not be amiss to trace them for the use of those, who are acquainted with its present extent, and who hereafter may wish to mark its growth. Commencing at the church of the Lapa, we went down the Rua dos Barbonos to that of Guarda Velha, passed the convent of St. Antonio, turned Westward to the Campo da Santa Anna, proceeded along the Eastern side of it to the Ruas do St. Joaquim and Vallonga, thence to the beach, and followed the water to the convent of St. Bento, and along the Eastern side of the city. All the ground within this narrow compass was not covered with buildings; there were some open patches of considerable size, the principal of which were the hill of St. Sebastian, the Largo dos Seganos, a large plot near the Campo, the rocks on which the bishop's palace is built, and the Môrro and gardens of St. Bento.

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Beyond these limits were a few scattered houses, but within a few hundred yards of them we were completely in the woods, or among marshes. From the Gloria to Bota-Foga was only a narrow mule-track, which by use became more open, and passable for carriages. The first time I rode along it with a companion or two, the woods thoroughly hid the sea from our view, and the road terminated upon a beach, where we had no expectation of finding one. Along the side of the aqueduct, above the convent of Santa Thereza, was an obscure foot-path, so overgrown with brushwood, that the wall of the Caraoca was not always visible. The roads through Mata-Cavallos and Caatumbi were well frequented mule-tracks; but beyond Mata-Porcos, when I first tried them, that to the left was impassable on horse-back, and that to the right embarrassed with the tide and swampy ground. There was then no road over the marsh from the Campo da Santa Anna, and a track of the most confined sort led, through lofty and pleasant woods, to the Saccos dos Alfares and Gambóa. The noise in these woods, during the day time, made by frogs, grasshoppers, crickets, and eigarras, was truly astonishing. It communicated to the mind an idea as different as possible from solitude, and taught the wanderer that, though at a distance from the hum of cities, he was surrounded with myriads of animated beings. At night every thicket and marsh was illuminated by an equally countless multitude of fire-flies, and the eye discerned another class of creatures as striking to us as those which the ear had indicated. There were certainly many others concealed from both the eye and the ear; the first wild monkey, which I ever saw, was on a spot near the Campo, where the barracks now stand.

In more extended rides, the country was found full of woods; from Mata-Porcos to St.Andrea were no houses, except one or two at Engenho Velho, where was also a small cleared space, and a new church begun; from thence to St. Christophe we were so enveloped in the forest as to make it necessary carefully to observe the direction which the road assumed at every turn, that we might not wander out of our way; and we rode hard to reach the city, or a more public place, before nightfall. At St. Christophe was a narrow bridge for the passage of cattle

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and mules singly, the abutments of which still remain to the South of the new one. The wooden bridges did not then exist, nor did the road between them; passengers waited until the tide was in part gone down, or went through it, sometimes at considerable risk. The Campo do St. Christophe, and the country round it, were so full of wood, that when shooting in it in July, 1808, having separated from our companions, two of us could think of no better means of rejoining them than ascending the hill, which overlooked the forest, in order that we might discover any trace of them, by their firing or otherwise. At this period only two boats, and about a dozen canoas, plied upon the water for hire. St. Domingos and Praia Grandé, on the opposite side, were small pleasant villages, consisting of a few scattered houses, embosomed in woods. All round the bay of Rio de Janeiro appeared one interminable forest, every hill was clothed with lofty trees, and every valley filled with fire-wood; little cultivated land was discernible in the wide extended landscape. It was found generally in small patches, near to the farm and country-houses; but these were hidden from the view, and frequently accessible only by water.

Circumscribed as this picture represents the young metropolis, I am persuaded that no one, who saw it at the period referred to, will say that the outline is incorrect. The advance of the city, on spots so recently covered with forests, surprised many of its new inhabitants, while those, who were accustomed to its former appearance, were still more astonished. By one of this latter description, the idea was simply expressed in my hearing; an old negress, whom I met near the church of St. Lorenzo, was coming down the declivity on which the church stands, spinning as she walked, and had just reached the turn, where the city and the shipping came full in view below, when this soliloquy burst from her lips,—"O what a great Rio de Janeiro this has become!" The object which produced this exclamation was not so much the number of new buildings, for then the increase was little more than commenced, as about fifty sail of merchant-vessels, of all descriptions, lying between the town and the Ilha das Cobras, and about ten sail of the line in the roads.

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When I first arrived in this country, Rio was said to contain eighty thousand inhabitants; but it appeared to me that the estimate was considerably too high. On counting the streets, and the number of houses in many of them, I thought that there might be about four thousand dwellings; the average number of persons in each was probably fifteen; making a population of sixty thousand, of whom one-third were white people, or white mulattoes. The number of inhabitants allowed to each house will appear to be large; but it must be remembered that, in some cases, more than one family dwelt under the same roof, and that many slaves were kept for domestic purposes, while others of this rank, whose usual labour called them out of the city, returned in the evening and slept there, requiring little more than shelter, and reposing on the floors or in the passages of the houses, rolled up in blankets or coverlets. The strangers, who are not included in this account, amounted to about sixteen thousand; ten thousand of whom were continually afloat, and the far greater part of the remaining six thousand never intended to continue in the country, and could not, with any propriety, be counted among the inhabitants of Rio. This mass of people was divided, probably with no great accuracy, into the following classes:—

1000 connected in various ways with the Court.
1000 in public offices.
1000 who commonly resided in the city, but drew their support chiefly from lands in the neighbourhood, and from ships.
700 resident priests.
500 lawyers.
200 medical men.
40 regular merchants.
2000 retailers of different descriptions.
4000 clerks, apprentices, and commercial servants.
1250 mechanics.
100 vintners, commonly called venda-keepers.
300 fishermen.
1000 soldiers of the line.
1000 sailors belonging to the port.
1000 free negroes.
12000 slaves.
4000 females at the head of families.


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To make up the sixty thousand, nearly twenty-nine thousand children are to be added. This, it may be observed, is a much smaller proportion than usual, even in large cities, where many die at an early age. But, in fact, few children comparatively are born in Rio; and, owing to constitutional weakness, fewer are preserved alive even in families, which surpass the generality in a skilful and tender care of their offspring. Many are carried off by improper modes of treatment, by neglect, and injurious indulgence, often mixed together in the same case. The early age at which young people cease to be numbered among children is also to be taken into account. The children of slaves, too, are placed in the list together with their parents, as belonging to the Same class. And it is painful to add, that means of the vilest nature are often employed to prevent the birth of children, and that infanticide is by no means uncommon.

Among the provisions with which the city was supplied, one of the most important was beef. Cattle abound in the interior of the country, though not near to the warmer coasts of Brazil, and in general are bred and reared with little attention. Many of them, when sent to Rio, perform a journey of three or four hundred miles; and during the time when a great influx of strangers created an extraordinary demand for fresh meat, it was said that some were driven from a distance of seven hundred; and, perhaps, in such circumstances, there was a sort of necessity that cattle should not only be collected in remoter districts, but that they should be driven more hastily across the country. Many, of course, died on the road of fatigue; and those which held out to the end arrived in a most miserable condition, at a public Slaughter-house, near the convent d'Ajuda; for there alone could they be butchered, the sale of beef being a monopoly, and under the superintendence of the police. Close to the house is a small yard, into which the animals are crowded, and where they frequently remain two or three days without food or water, until their turn come to stagger into the adjoining building, and to yield up their lives. The scenes which occur here are, some of them, highly distressing, and always of the filthiest description, no attempt being then made to give even a partial cleansing to the place.

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As soon as the skin is stripped off, the carcases are cut into quarters, thrown into clumsy carts, besmeared with fresh and coagulated blood, and in that state driven through the city to the several licensed shops, where beef is sold in such quantities as each purchaser may want. The general condition of the animals, and the process through which they passed rendered the meat so bad that nothing but dire necessity, or the perpetual sight of it in the same wretched condition, could induce a person of the least delicacy to taste it. Like other articles it gradually became somewhat better, when the demand was well ascertained and steady, and the market more regularly supplied.

Perhaps no situation, no attention and care, can render a slaughterhouse a pleasant scene; it must, under any management, be a task of difficulty to keep it perfectly clean. Such places ought, therefore, to be hidden from view; but the sole house destined to this purpose in Rio stands in a public road, and is rendered more offensive by the blood and filth issuing from it being allowed to mix with, to discolour and taint the water of the bay. Into that water the offal also is thrown, where it floats about, unless a sufficient number of black people, of the lowest order, be present to seize and wash the entrails as cases for polonies, or for other purposes of a domestic or medicinal nature.

The beef, thus brought to market, used to be employed almost entirely as a basis for soup. At a later period, it appeared at table in pieces, and in the form of steaks; in this state it was chiefly confined to the higher ranks. Others seldom tasted of it, except household slaves, who, in many families, had, with their regular allowance of feijam, a small quantity of boiled beef or bacon. The Carne-secca, which is beef killed at a distance from the city, cut into flitches, and dried in the sun, was in much more common use.

In the year 1808, a few scattered sheep, of various tribes, were found in the neighbourhood of Rio, and a few others were brought for sale from different quarters. As nothing but beef is affected by the impolitic contract above-mentioned, sheep may be slaughtered, and mutton sold, by any one. Some small advantage was taken of this

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liberty, so that in 1812 sheep had become more numerous, having been brought, one flock at least, from so great a distance as Rio Grandé Many of the British, wishing to have something more like the variety which appears on their tables at home, paid attention to the purchase, the rearing, and the slaughter of sheep; yet this was almost entirely for their own private use, and that of their countrymen. Mutton was, and still is, in small request among the people of Brazil, some of whom alledge, perhaps jestingly, that it is not proper food for Christians, because it was the Lamb of God which took away the sins of the world. Whether this prejudice operates still more strongly with respect to the young progeny of sheep, I know not; but lamb is never eaten by the natives of that country. They have, also, little or nothing like the veal of England; though an animal, of a year old, called a calf, is frequently slaughtered for the exclusive use of the inhabitants of the Palace, and its flesh is among them denominated veal.

On pork the people feed with avidity, as if delighting in every opportunity of showing, that they are neither Jews nor Mahometans. I doubt, however, whether this species of food, as it is produced in Brazil, be a desirable, or even a wholesome diet. The swine, kept in the country, approach near to the wild state, and greedily devour the numerous reptiles, with which every district abounds. Whether this be, or be not the cause, it is certain that their flesh is often brought to sale in a very diseased state.

The reasons just mentioned against the use of mutton, and in favour of pork, strange as they are, have more weight among the devout than could be conceived. It is not to be supposed, however, that the Brazilians, in general, were so weak as to produce or act upon them. Still, having been inculcated by the priesthood, and supported by interested individuals, they have acquired an habitual, though unperceived influence. A singular proof of this is evinced in their mode of eating fruit; no true catholic, in this country, ever cuts a banana transversely, because the centre then displays the figure of a cross; yet they have no objection to do so with the fruit proceeding from the passion-

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flower, and frequently expatiate upon the figure which that plant displays of the instruments of crucifixion. On circumstances so trivial as these do national opinions and customs-frequently depend.

There is a great variety of excellent fish in the waters of Rio, but, amidst this abundance, few species were in common use, and fewer still in any great estimation. Indeed, the people are generally prejudiced against such food, conceiving it to be unwholesome, and supposing that, where constantly used, it occasioned the leprosy; which is called by the Indians pyra-ay'ba, the fishy or scaly disease. But among such Catholics as those of Brazil, another, perhaps more powerful, reason may be found for their dislike of fish. It is, in effect, prescribed by their religion, for a third part of the days of the year; other kinds of animal food being then forbidden. Numerous fish-days are first appointed, as means of conciliating an offended Deity; then the persons, who appoint them, join with those, who stigmatize this food as unwholesome, and demand fees for a dispensation to use other viands; thus, at once, replenishing the treasury of the church, and displaying the value and necessity of their influence in the court of heaven.

Though people residing near the Sea naturally become fishermen, and many, who have placed their huts round the shores of the bay, gain their support by this employment, yet at this period, fresh fish was comparatively scarce, and the best sorts sold at high prices. By far the greatest part of that which the city consumed, was taken upon the neighbouring coasts of the ocean, dried and brought in at stated seasons; and in proportion as the fisheries of the bay have improved, those without the bay have declined.

Most kinds of European Poultry are offered for sale in the city. The common domestic fowls, geese, ducks, and Muscovy ducks in greater abundance than others, were often brought from remote distances; turkies and Guinea fowls, being too tender to bear long journies, were reared nearer at hand. The prices were, and still are, high; though now, in part, regulated by the police. There are no birds or animals, of the kind, which we call game; yet almost all Brazilian animals may be considered

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as advancing some claim to be put into this class. Every thing, which had life, except perhaps, a few reptiles, has been eaten in the interior parts of the country, and all creatures seemed alike welcome to the lower classes of the natives and black people. A few sorts are now taken out of the hands of the vulgar, and sold in the city, and eaten as luxuries.

Wheat does not grow in that part of Brazil, where Rio is situated, and in the distant provinces only a small quantity is produced. It is imported, partly in the grain, partly in the form of flour. The bread, though made with leaven, is good; but much too dear for any, except the more wealthy classes. No other grain, besides wheat, is here employed for bread. The universal substitute for what we account the staff of life, is a powder called Farinha, the produce of the Mandioca or Cassava-root. It is most commonly eaten without any preparation but that, through which it has passed in manufacturing. A plate of farinha, with orange-juice squeezed over it, forms a frequent dinner for the inferior traders and artisans; others eat it with gravy, and the negroes give it a slight boiling.

Many of our culinary Vegetables thrive in Brazil, and are produced there in great abundance; such as cabbages, carrots, parsnips, spinach, onions, lettuces, and endive; all of which are valued and much used, more especially in soups. A few other sorts, which are common with us, have probably, never had any fair trial given them, and some have been tried without success. This is the case with potatoes and turnips, to which the climate seems unsuitable; so that the few which are raised, are not good, and those who will have them, are obliged to resort to importation. The vegetables, there called Feijam, are almost as abundant, and in as common use, as potatoes with us; they are different species of kidney beans, of which the seed, suffered to grow to its full maturity, is eaten, and not the pod. As might be supposed, vegetation is extremely rapid; but frequently much injured by insects, and scorched by the sun. No general attention is paid to private gardens; and the cultivation of the articles in demand is left chiefly to little planters, who as they become fit for use, bring them into the city for sale.

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Fruits were produced and sold in much the same Way; of these Oranges and Bananas were the most wholesome and plentiful, and consequently the most in use. Pines and Melons were abundant, though not in an equal degree; as were different sorts of Pumpkins, especially that great comfort of warm countries, the Water-Melon. The Guava,is, in form, something like the Citron, but smaller; it is often eaten raw, and both the pulp and the fleshy rind make an excellent sweetmeat. The cultivation of Grapes was prohibited, that there might be no interference with the chief produce and trade of Portugal, and therefore these were scarce and dear. The Wines in common use were of the poorest sorts, which the vineyards of Portugal and Spain produce; the better ones of the mother country were seldom seen, even in the houses of those who were best able to pay for them.

From the accounts, which have been given of Cattle, it will be concluded that milk was scarce and poor. If maintained in a somewhat better state than that, in which it might have appeared if left to itself, by being placed under the police, as to its quality; it could not be expected that the quantity should thereby be increased. And with all the superintendence, which it received, few things were more common than its adulteration by the mixture of some thickening articles. Cheese was made in the district of Minas-Geraes, but against the rivalry of English Cheshire it stood no chance, except in the want of ability to afford the price of the latter. The Butter in use was generally Irish, and its state may be conjectured, without much danger of material error.

The way in which many of these articles were sold, has already been noticed. Besides the shops, there was in the whole city, only one wooden building, answering, in some measure, to our shambles. There were no market days, according to the sense in which we use the phrase. It is difficult, perhaps impossible, to speak of the price of provisions with any degree of accuracy; it depended so much on a fluctuating supply, and an almost equally uncertain demand. It depended still more on the relative value of money, which was more unsteady than the supplies themselves. When the city received a vast accession of inhabitants,

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provisions, of course, became dear; but were driven back towards their former standard, by large supplies from more distant parts.

The great heat of the climate of Rio, has repeatedly been alluded to; I have seen Farenheit's thermometer, when exposed to the sun, as high as 130°.; at the same time, it reached 96°. in the shade. The country round about is, in general, cooler than the city; in some of the mountainous parts, it is much cooler than its immediate neighbourhood.

If a new resident would make the most of the advantages and comforts of the climate of Brazil, he should rise early in the morning. The freshness of that season yields a peculiar gratification; and those, who use it for sea-bathing, speak in high terms of their pleasant sensations. To a native of the country, the air of dawning day and the first of the Land-breeze, seems chilly and irksome. Soon, however, the sun dissipates the fogs, diffuses an oppressive warmth as the breeze decays, and leads on a clear and brilliant day. He commonly pursues his course with undiminished lustre; and when clouds arise they are all of the light, fleecy kind, scarcely occasioning any change in the general deep-blue and arid appearance of the sky. We have from them no more expectation of a shower, than in England we should have of an earthquake. No plans need to be interrupted by the weather; no person need to go out and return with wet clothes, laying the foundation of fevers and catarrhs; none by taking spirits, under the pretence of correcting the dampness of the atmosphere, to destroy the tone of the stomach and produce complaints in the viscera. The uniformly serene, gay, and exhilarating prospect, seems to show, how happily man might have lived, under the the influence of nature's God. Even the turbulent ocean is appeased; and the expanse of water, smooth and clear as a mirror, reflects the mingled beauties of creation, the rich luxuriance of a Father's bounty.

One of the greatest comforts he has bestowed upon sun-burnt regions, is the daily wind which follows the sun, or blows from the ocean. This great restorer of the languid, and cheerer of the oppressed, affords his influence to Rio sometimes so early as eleven o'clock, and continues it

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until nearly sun-set. Then the Sea-breeze commonly ceases; a copious, but temporary dew falls, and the most oppressive hours of the twentyfour begin. Yet, when the moon is in her first or second quarter, the air is generally serene, and the softened scenery enchanting; Zephyrs and Fairies, and all the imaginary beings of Poets seem to play around us; the passions of men are hushed; we hear only their distant laugh and cheerful songs. The mind is soothed and awake; pleased with itself and all around is susceptible of those impressions alone, which convey to it an idea of Elysian pleasures. At this season, gentle exercise is usually taken in the open air, and continued until the hour renders it necessary to close the house, and retire to rest, in a stagnant atmosphere and oppressive rooms.

With the advancing year, the season becomes more intensely hot. About the middle of September, a few drops were first noticed, and not long after the settled weather broke up at night, with a heavy thunder storm, and a great fall of rain. I had previously slept with my window open, for the sake of air; but now received an effectual admonition of the imprudence of continuing such a practice. Soon the heat was sensibly diminished, and about noon every day the sky became overcast with clouds, highly charged with electric matter. They always formed themselves in the West, and daily assumed a more dense appearance; until, at length, the thunder was heard to roll at a distance; early in the afternoon the noise increased, the lightning became vivid and sudden, and the intervals between the flashes and their rattling report shorter, more silent and awful. The rain fell heavily, the lightning darted splendidly amidst its large drops, and every street became a river. By degrees, the turbulent crackling of the storm still advanced, until a crash so astounding was heard, as though the frame of heaven were rent into a thousand fragments. Such a burst Was seldom repeated, and seemed fully sufficient of itself to break the whole mass of cloud. The storm subsided by gradations similar to those, with which it had advanced, and by five o'clock the sky was again serene and bright.


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We were led by report, to expect a daily return of these sublime exhibitions, until November. We found, however, that they, ere long, constantly declined in violence, and settled into what is called the rainy season; while the heat became gentle and unoppressive, like that of a warm day in an English spring. The steady and more general rains, which came on about the end of October, proceeded from the North, and were probably much under the influence of the mountains, which, in that direction, were at least four thousand feet above the level of the sea. They condense the clouds, which, at that season, hang below their summits, and are driven in by the daily breeze, until the whole basin of the bay is filled with vapour. On the third of November, the midst of the rainy period, I find it noted, that the weather is generally cloudy, and that we have sometimes, what in our country is called a showery day, which is followed by a steadily wet evening; but we suffer little inconvenience from it. At the end of the same month, some of the days were extremely hot, some Very cold as well as wet.

Such changes were injurious to the health; they probably produced, certainly now excited, and now struck in, an eruption, called the pricklyheat. Sometimes it rises to such a height as to produce an almost universal sore; and when, in that state, a glass of cold water is drunk, its immediate effect is highly distressing; it is as though the body were scratched or pricked with ten thousand pins. The Brazilians, however, consider it as salutary; and congratulate themselves and one another, when it is perceived. They, who are unable to regard this complaint as a subject for congratulation, on account of its severity, generally come out of it with an entirely new skin.

From causes, which a stranger can hardly be expected correctly to ascertain, the Brazilian Constitution seems to be uncommonly feeble. It is not mended by the mismanagement to which it is usually subjected in infancy and youth; and as a man advances, filthiness and vice add their quota to its formation. The people are very subject to fevers, to bilious complaints, and what are called diseases of the liver, to dysentery, and elephantiasis, and to other disorders of a similar, and probably connected,

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kind, which are often violent and fatal. The small pox, too, when it makes its appearance, carries off multitudes; but lately its ravages have been checked by vaccination.

There are in Rio many blind people; a greater proportion, I think, than in most cities. How far this may be owing to the heat and glare of the climate, it is not easy to determine; but as these sensibly produce very severe irritation in the eyes, it is probable that their influence to destroy the sight is not small. In their manner, these unfortunates appeared to me different from what I had observed elsewhere. In Europe, most of the blind people had an open glaring eye, and walk erect, carrying the head backward, and looking up to the illuminated air, as though seeking for light. In Rio de Janeiro, those who have once enjoyed the benefit of sight, and have lost it, bend the head downward, and stoop, as if desirous of sheltering the countenance from oppressive splendour; the eyelids of almost all are much compressed. Eyes are found here, as in other countries, defective from conformation; the habits of persons thus circumstanced are much the same every where.

Our countrymen, who carry good looks to Brazil, seldom fail soon to lose them; but there is more change in appearance than in reality. Where they have been indisposed, their ailments were not, in general, to be ascribed to the climate, or to the sickliness of the country. If they arrived in health, they were at first, little affected by the heat, used more exertion, and required less indulgence, than the natives. They partook more of the common lassitude in the second or third year, and then appeared to need the repose of the afternoon, as much as those who had been accustomed to it from their birth. The more important effects of change of climate appeared to depend greatly on constitution, previous habits, and on the modes of living, which were adopted. With their utmost care, however, many of them fell into bilious complaints, which they might probably have escaped at home, and suffered from them more than the old inhabitants.

On the whole, the climate may, I think, be considered as a healthy one. The influence of extreme heat is greatly counteracted by a

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certain purity and elasticity in the air: except when the heat is combined with moisture, then the air becomes stagnant and suffocating. The rainy season, especially the warmer part of it, is the most productive of disease. The city is more healthy than the marshy spots, less so than the elevated parts of the country. A great change, for the better, has been produced by clearing the neighbourhood of many of the forests, with which it was overspread. The addition of the court and its followers, and of the multitudes, whom commercial views carried to Rio, had a bad effect on its general health, as bringing together a too crowded population; while the consequent extension of the city, the example of strangers, and the partial adoption of their manners, did much to restore the balance. Altogether, it is, without question, become more healthy than it was.

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A. D. 1808.


THE public buildings of the great cities of Europe have, in many instances, given to those of Rio de Janeiro a name and destination; they have communicated to them little beside; little of their splendour; if possible, less of their convenience. With the public institutions the case is much the same; they are, in general, wretchedly defective copies of the originals, which they pretend to imitate. Even after such hints as these, the detail which follows will probably come short of the reader's expectation.

The Cathedral, in point of rank the first religious edifice in Rio, is situated on a lofty and pleasant hill, South of the town. It occupies a spot celebrated in the history of Brazil, and is very properly dedicated to St. Sebastian. The church, which seems to have been erected at two different periods, is a low, plain, substantial building, of an oblong form, with two small turrets, but without windows. The entrance is from the East, and fronts the altar. Within, the walls are white washed, unornamented, and dirty. The altar, also, is as plain as the church;

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and the whole evinces that it has profited little by any predilection of the great or the wealthy. The orchestra is at the East end, and awkwardly crowded towards the ceiling. Around are traces of consi derable foundations, much overgrown with brushwood.

Hither the citizens resort, in the cool of the afternoon, to look at the ocean, and enjoy the pure sea-breeze; stone seats being formed for them all along the outside of the church. The view from this spot towards the South is a varied and interesting one, commanding a wide stretch of the ocean, the entrance to the harbour, several islands and forts, the outer roads, and the whole lower bay, the opposite shores and the surrounding mountains. But the best point of view is towards the North-West, where, about sun-set, we are attracted, not so much by the extensive plain, which lies between the mountains of Tengua and Tejuca, as by the gentle undulations, which succeed each other for many leagues, distinguished by denser shades as they recede, and finally terminate in the lofty serros of the country, gilded by the glowing rays of an unclouded sun, reflected by an azure sky. They excite, at once, our admiration and curiosity; we exclaim, how charming! but inquire, who dwells there?

Close by one corner of the cathedral stands a sort of pillar, of chiseled felt-spar, about four feet high above the ground, two broad, and one thick. On its Eastern side are carved the arms of Portugal, on the Western the insignia of the order of Christ. I suspect that it has been brought from Bahia, and is probably the identical stone by which possession of the country was taken for the crown of Portugal. It must have been placed in its present situation when the natives had been driven out, and the church of St. Sebastian erected.

There are four parish churches in the city, of which that of St. Jozé is the oldest, situated just at the back of the palace, in the street to which it gives namė. The building is massive, but low, dark, and damp; its principal entrance is from the West. The altar is neither well-proportioned nor splendid; the walls are painted with dark and heavy looking colours, notwithstanding red, blue, and gold, are mixed among them.

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Here is' a capacious baptismal font, the most used, perhaps, of any in the city. I was surprised to see infants, quite naked, plunged into its holy water. The priest receives the child, and grasping both ancles with his left hand, while the right supports the breast, dips it with the face downward. Afterward it is signed on the forehead with a cross, and thus secured from the gripe of the wicked one.

At the same place I saw, for the first time in Rio, the funeral of an adult person. The body was conveyed through the streets in a sort of open litter, or rather tray, covered with black velvet, ornamented with gold lace, and furnished, like European coffins, with eight handles. The tray or bier is about two feet and a half wide, six long, and from six to eight inches deep; so that the body, when laid upon the back, is fully exposed to view. As in this warm climate the muscles do not become rigid, and as funerals take place within a few hours of the last scene of life, the corpse, as it is carried along, either by the hand or on men's shoulders, has a considerable degree of motion, which greatly resembles what might be expected from a living subject in the lowest state of debility. It is conveyed, also, not with that slow and solemn pace, and orderly procession, which seem best to agree with deep-rooted sorrow, but in an indecent hurry, a sort of half run, attended with loud talking, and a coarse air of joy. The shattered remains of man are decked out in all the gaudy trappings of a gala-day; the face painted, the hair powdered, the head adorned with a wreath of flowers or a metallic crown; the finery being limited only by the ability of surviving friends to procure it. The defunct is thus fitted to appear before the key-bearer of heaven, and by him to be introduced to the Judge of souls, with whom, as the delegates on earth assure us, it will receive a favourable notice.

At the church-door the corpse was laid down, and continued for some time exposed to public view. It had not acquired that cadaverous appearance which dead bodies usually assume with us; for, indeed, disease is here so rapid in its operation, and interment so quickly follows death, as to prevent it. This exposure of the body, in a

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country where assassination is much too common, appeared to me an excellent custom; it gave the surrounding multitude an opportunity of ascertaining, whether the deceased came to his end by a natural process, or by violence; unless poison might have been so administered as to excite no suspicion, or a wound might be concealed under the gaudy array. At all events it renders the concealment of murder more difficult than it otherwise would be. In due time the priests receive the body, perform over it the rites of the church, and deliver it to those who are charged with the ultimate ceremonies. By these men 1 saw a body, the dress and ornaments of which were unusually rich, entirely stripped of them; and the Work was done so coolly as to demonstrate that the men either had a right to do so, or had been long accustomed to do ill. In general, the trappings are only cut or torn from the bier, to which they have been fastened in order to keep the corpse from rolling over; it is then tumbled into the grave, which for white people is always within some sacred building; a quantity of quick lime and the earth are thrown in, and the whole beaten down with huge wooden stampers. This last circumstance appeared to me more inhuman and shocking than any I had ever witnessed at an interment, and I even thought it not many degrees short of canibalism itself.

The poorer people, or at least the blacks, in these ultimate rites are treated with much less ceremony. Soon after death the body is sewed up in a coarse cloth, and intimation sent to one of the two burial-grounds appropriated to their use that a corpse is to be interred. Two men are then sent to the house, who place the body in a sort of hammock, suspend it upon a pole between them, and carry it through the streets in the same manner as they would walk with any common burden. If, in the line of their rout, another or two should be ready for the same dreary home, these are put into the same hammock with the first, and conveyed, at the same time, to the grave-yard. There a long trench is dug across it, six feet wide, and four or five deep; the bodies are thrown into it without ceremony of any kind, and laid straight across it in tiers, one above another, so that the head of one lies on the

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feet of that immediately below it, and in this manner the black unreflecting and insensible Sextons proceed, until the trench is nearly filled; earth is then thrown in, and raised above. It is almost needless to add, that at these Cemeteries the most disgusting scenes were sometimes beheld by those who chose to explore them, that the offensive smell was almost intolerable, and until a reform took place they seriously threatened the health of the city.

The inhumanity of some of these funeral customs may, perhaps, seem to be, in a small measure, redeemed by another, in which I was involuntarily made a party. While standing at the gate of one of the chapels, the corpse of what had been a lovely girl was brought by four persons on a bier, gaily dressed, and fully exposed as usual. As the first bearer on the left passed by me, he seized my right hand, and put into it the handle which he had held; the thing was done so suddenly that I found myself one of the supporters of the body, almost without knowing it. Being then ignorant of their ceremonies, and unwilling to give offence by not complying with them exactly, I gladly took advantage of some embarrassment, occasioned by the door-post, as we entered, to surrender the handle of the bier to a person withinside the chapel. Had I proceeded, however, it afterwards appeared, it would have been deemed a compliment to the deceased, and a gratification to her friends.

It may not be improper to add here that, in subsequent years, the common harshness of the proceedings at funerals was much softened. It is become customary, among genteel people, to use a lid upon the bier, which is loose, and may be taken off; the body is not publicly exposed in the streets, and if seen at all, it is by the priests only in the church. They receive the corpse on the day of death, conduct it to the grave, and consign it to interment; a day or two afterward a lofty altar is erected in the church, on which an empty coffin is placed, covered with a pall, embroidered with a cross; around it the requiem is sung, and the greater ceremonies performed.

To return to the parish of St. Jozé,—it is extensive, and includes


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within its boundaries the Royal Palace. I have heard that, in old times, under the Vicereys, when the Host was carried to any person within the limits of the parish, it was conveyed in the Governor's carriage. This custom is laid aside, much to the discontent of the priests, who love pomp, and of the parishioners, who would be distinguished in sickness and death; but they hope it will be revived, when the Royal Family becomes more settled. At present, the processions of the Host occur too often, on occasions too frivolous, and are attended by too many noisy boys, to be either respectable or impressive.

The church of Nossa Senhora do Rozario is a small mean looking building, with a low steeple, furnished with two bells, a rare circumstance in Rio. In the front, which faces the East, is a small inclosure, the wall of which is in a most dilapidated state. The interior of the church is dark and dismal; the altar, though rather spacious, is heavy and dirty, and upon it are two lamps always burning, the light of which is visible in the front a long way down the street. A considerable open space surrounds the church, but several buildings are encroaching upon it, and the passages all around are most offensively filthy.

Santa Rita has an edifice dedicated to her in the Rua dos Ourives. It is more modern than the former, more light and cheerful. Its front communicates with a small square, ornamented with a Cross. The architecture is a very favourable display of recent workmanship, the walls are not destitute of ornament, the altar rich and splendid.

The church of the Candelaria is a noble pile of building, the best specimen of taste and magnificence which Rio can boast. It is not yet finished, but, being situated near the centre of the city, will probably be more frequented than any other church. It has two steeples, and a richly ornamented front, and forms a fine object from the water.

Besides these there are several other churches, which do not pretend to parochial honours. In Rua Direita is that of the Cross, like the preceding, unfinished. It has a fine well proportioned front, adorned with the figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity. It has been entirely built by the military, and is appropriated to their use.

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Near to it is the church da Lapa dos Mascates, or Pedlar's Hole. It is a small square building, with a dome and cupola, covered with blue and white Dutch-tiles. Its proportions are by no means good, and it is situated in the midst of narrow lanes and alleys, otherwise the workmanship would render it an ornament to a city where the art of building is little understood.

In the Rua do Santo Pedro is a small church, dedicated to that Apostle. It also is covered with a dome and cupola, and has a raised platform before it. The exterior is remarkably plain; of the interior I cannot speak, having never seen it open.

Toward the upper part of the Rua d'Alfandaga is the sacred edifice of Nossa Senhora dos Homens, which, though unfinished, is open for public service. It is a fine building, and, like all the modern churches, has an ascent of two or three steps from the street. The architecture is solid and handsome; but it stands in a very confined situation. There is little ornament in the interior; the altar, however, is well proportioned, and, when lighted up, makes a splendid show.

One of the best buildings in Rio, next to the church of the Candelaria, is that dedicated to Santo Francisco do Paula, which occupies one side of the square of the same name. It is of brown sand-stone, has two ornamental steeples in front, and a noble flight of steps, surpassing every thing of the kind in the city. Its interior is singularly plain, but spacious and lofty. It forms a fine object at one end of the Rua do Fogo, as the fort of Concecam does at the other. Some of its subordinate buildings are converted, pro tempore, into offices of government. Within its precincts there is, also, a house of miracles, furnished with miserable pictures, written tablets, and models of limbs, placed there by the devout, the superstitious, and the grateful, who have been healed of divers diseases, or preserved from danger.

The church of Santa Luzia is a small and plain one, situated to the South of the city, in a delightful spot, under the brow of a lofty and steep hill, and close to the beach. The immediate front of the church is defended by large masses of stone, against which the surge beats

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heavily, but harmlessly. Such a precaution was not unnecessary, for the sea had fretted away much of the barrier on either hand, and a little to the South lie the ruins of a large house, which was once thought to be far out of the reach of the turbulent ocean.

Within view, about a mile distant, on the opposite side of a small bay, and on the declivity of a pleasant hill, overshadowed with wood, is the beautiful church of Nossa Senhora da Gloria, to which is attached a small convent, occupied by German Jesuits. Altogether this is one of the most picturesque objects in the neighbourhood of the city.

The church of Santa Anna stands at one corner of the Campo, or field, of the same name, West of the city. It is a small, neat building, and has a well proportioned steeple attached to it, but is uncomfortably situated among deep and loose sand. The interior is extremely well lighted, clean and neat. Once a year there is a festival held in this church, to which great numbers resort. It seems to resemble our old wakes or feasts, and to be calculated to maintain or revive, among the people of Rio, some neighbourly intercourse and sociability.

There are six other small and little noticed churches, in an unfinished state; some of them so much so as to be unfit for the reception of worshippers. This work goes slowly forward, notwithstanding the stimulus furnished by the Roman Catholic religion; not, indeed, more slowly than might be expected, considering that the only stated funds for the purpose arise from the contributions of the feithful, and that these are, in general, very small. Seldom are any but pieces of copper coin seen in the dish, and one of silver, occasionally appearing among them, excites great attention. Though these funds are sometimes aided by extraordinary gifts, in testimony of gratitude for general success, or the fortunate issue of particular undertakings; and by the produce of vows made for deliverance from perils by sea or land, through the interference of some Saint, who requires to be honoured, in return for his favours. It is really wonderful that so much is accomplished; it could not be done did not the priests, who superintend the work, use great care, and expend what is raised with fidelity.

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Besides these places of public worship, there are others of an inferior order; such as chapels, which seem to belong to all, the same as the churches; others, which are attached to convents; and not a few in the larger private establishments, chiefly in the environs of the city.

Among the public Chapels, the Royal one calls for our first attention; and, on account of its enjoying, under its humbler designation, many of the dignities and privileges of a cathedral, on account of its splendour, its princely attendants, and the multitudes of all ranks, who frequent it, ought not, perhaps, to have been represented as inferior to the churches.

It stands on the West side of the Largo do Paço, forming a handsome object from the water; and once belonged to the Convent do Carmo. The ascent to the East door, the height and proportions of which are good, and which forms the grand entrance, is by a few broad steps; from whence, up to the altar, the view is rich and striking. The interior forms one spacious, well-lighted room, though divided into a nave, a small transept, and a chancel, with a lofty painted ceiling. The walls exhibit some fine specimens of carving, particularly of angels and saints. Over the door is an orchestra, handsomely railed in front, containing a good organ. Beneath the orchestra the space is entirely open, and contains no furniture except two stone basins for holy water, and confessional chairs. Beyond this, a narrow space on each side of the chapel, extending to the upper part of the nave, is separated by substantial rails, and designed for the use of men during divine worship. The inner space is appropriated to females, who sit on the floor, with their feet and legs doubled under them, as each can find room, without distinction of rank, age, or colour. The floor of this part of the chapel is divided by frame work into Compartments of six feet by three; these are graves, or rather catacombs, from which the flooring may easily be removed, as occasion requires. On each side of the chancel, which is spacious, and covered with carpets, are ranged the inferior priests. The bishop's throne is near the middle, on the right of the altar; on the left, and high in the building, are the royal boxes, if such a term may be allowed. The high altar is superb; and

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there are several others, reared to the honour of different saints, on which lamps are continually burning. In the nave is the pulpit, projecting from the wall, and conveniently placed above the congregation. The whole is well adapted to make an impression on minds, more readily affected by show and ceremony, than by sober judgment and devout feeling.

The orchestra is well supplied, and the music admirable; but its effect is not a little counteracted by a circumstance, which has often excited the risible faculties of heretics. Directly in front, and below the railing of the orchestra, is a well-carved figure, much like what in England is called a Saracen's Head. The face expresses wonder, rage, and consternation, or rather a sort of suppressed ferocity. Its eyes are large and glaring, and fixed so directly upon the small Crucifix, which stands on the altar, that no one can mistake their object. The mouth is coarse and open, containing a concealed pipe, which communicates with the organ. In the more pathetic parts of the mass, and particularly at the elevation of the Host, the key of this pipe is touched, and the head utters a dismal groan, expressive of the horror, which infidels must feel on such an occasion. Whatever may be thought of the conceit, such mummery cannot be Christian worship.

The altar-piece also deserves reprehension. It is a servile display of flattery; but it would be hard for flattery to be carried to such a pitch of grossness, as to disgust a Brazilian. The painting represents no one of the great events recorded in the gospel, but the marriage of the present King and Queen, who appear kneeling on crimson cushions, with the ensigns of royalty scattered around, and angels assisting at the ceremony. It is not ill done, and the likenesses are very complete; but no refinement of taste is necessary, in order to feel its utter incongruity with the most solemn rites of the Catholic communion.

Englishmen are often supposed to cherish a peculiarity of thinking, and some of my notions may not tally very exactly with those which prevail among my countrymen. But there are few of them, I believe, who have not felt some disgust, when they have seen persons in livery

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with halberts in their hands, and soldiers with fixed bayonets, stationed in a place of religious worship. They are so in the chapel royal of Rio; but surely princes, who rule their people well, may render their homage to heaven free from danger, guarded by the grateful affection of those who share the advantages of their sway. I am confident that the sovereign of Brazil might do so, unmoved by any recollection of the fate of Thomas a Becket, or Lorenzo de Medici.

Close adjoining to the royal chapel is the Capella dos Terceiros, which is about the same size as its neighbour, but much less splendid. It is, however, respectable for its construction and ornament; the front is of brown stone, the doors remarkably handsome, and a sort of esplanade, with wooden railing, divides it from the street.

The Capella dos Terceiros do St. Antonio is near the convent named after the same saint; a good, substantial building, but in a dirty part of the town, and little frequented.

In the suburbs stands the chapel of St. Diogo, or James, finely placed on an eminence towards the West, and commanding a varied view of wood and water, of mountains and marshes.

Dedicated to St. Francisco is a very pretty chapel, near the Prainha. It is placed on a lofty and precipitous rock, has a plain front, and commands a noble prospect of the upper bay, and the surrounding country. But its advantages are, in a great measure, lost from its situation in an unfrequented part of the town, and from the difficulty of access to it.

Near to the Military Hospital, stands a chapel dedicated to St. Lorenzo, which contains an old picture of the saint's sufferings; sometimes considered as representing a very different subject, yet serving like the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome, to inflame the devotion of good and undiscerning catholics.

The chapels of Livramento, Saüde, Conceigam, and St. Sebastian, are, generally speaking, pleasantly situated, but they are small and obscure.

In the midst of the city, and close to the Largo do St. Francisco do

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Paula, are the exterior walls of what would, probably, have been a noble edifice. It was begun by the Jesuits for their church; the destruction of the order occasioned it to be left unfinished. Part of it is now covered, and converted into schools; some of those of St. Joachim being removed thither.

There are also, in several parts of the city, arches erected against the walls of the houses, and inclosed with large folding-doors. These contain a representation of the Saviour, a picture or image of a saint, or some of the insignia of religion. The doors are opened only on especial occasions, and are then surrounded by a superstitious, but noisy and indecorous crowd. At several corners of the streets, also, are placed images of the Virgin Mary, some of them standing in large glass cases; during the day curtains are drawn around them, but at the hour of vespers the curtains are withdrawn, some pious people place a few candles before each image, and oblige their slaves to appear there and sing the Ave Marias. This is done without the least shadow of devotion, and appeared to us Protestants to be pre-eminent among the indecent and offensive practices of its kind. We were less shocked when we saw persons of a religious cast falling upon their knees, in the public Streets, and paying their homage to a log so rotten as to indicate some apprehension that it might fall upon them. But it seemed as if they dared not omit such ceremonies, a superstitious dread having taken full possession of their minds. Certainly they need not those heralds of devotion, which are employed in other Christian countries; bells are few, and seldom used for this purpose, though religious ceremonies are announced and accompanied by rockets and other fire-works; a custom adopted, probably, when the churches were surrounded by native Indians, and calculated to produce a powerful effect upon their minds.

In the Rua do Rozario stands the Hospicio, with its chapel. This is the house to which Ecclesiastics resort, when travelling, who have no particular friends in the city, and are not of consequence enough to procure an invitation to one of the convents. Here they are accommodated, during their stay, with food and lodging suitable to their peculiar habits.

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The Convent of St. Bento is the principal one in Rio. It stands on a fine rocky elevation, and commands a noble view of the city, the bay, its coast and islands. The ascent to it is steep, but the road takes a curved direction, is broad, and leads up to an area paved with bricks, and defended with a wall as high as the breast. At the back part of this area is the front of the chapel, built above a hundred years ago, adorned with two turrets, and furnished with a clock and bells. The interior is, perhaps, the most splendid of any thing of the kind in Brazil. It contains a great deal of carved work, some well executed altars, and walls covered with gilding. The orchestra is a good one, yet the worship is thinly attended.

In the anti-room, at the entrance of the convent, is a curious painting. It represents the tree of life, round and expansive, with firm roots, a strong stem, and branches full of foliage. It is, at once, in flower and fruit; the former a sort of rose, not unlike the flower of the tree which produces the celebrated Brazil-wood, and probably intended to represent it; the fruit is of a most unusual description, a Benedictine Monk, in the full habit of the order, seated in the midst of the flower. The countenances and figures seem to be drawn from the life, and are Well done. A man, who has no reverence for Monks, may smile at the strange conceit; yet the picture is so designed and executed that it is almost impossible not to mix some feelings of admiration, at the sight of it, with those of contempt. It brings to mind the History of the Order, its wealth and ease, and its unrivalled influence over Brazilian affairs.

Passing on to a sort of inner anti-chamber, we find the entrance to several rooms; over the door of one, I think the library, is this motto, "Wisdom has builded herself a house." This is, without question, the most luxurious house which Wisdom, or more properly Cunning, has built in Rio. But when we reflect who are its inhabitants, and that it is exclusively theirs, though built at the expense of thousands, the sarcasm of the inscription appears too keen. Within the convent is an area surrounded by piazzas, whence passages lead to different suites of rooms. The refectory is commodious, and sometimes set out with great


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magnificence. The other apartments display little of convenience, and less of cleanliness: the kitchen is excessively filthy. There is nothing like a receptacle for dirt; and all round the house is one unvaried disgusting scene.

In an exterior passage of the convent, a religious maniac has taken up his abode; he is said to have committed some enormous crime, and, to appease angry heaven, never leaves the holy precincts. There he lives upon precarious, but unasked charity; and makes his bed on a heap of small stones and broken pots, which he has collected. A non-entity like this would not have been worth notice, but that many look upon him as an inspired saint; and nearly all consider the witless as favoured of heaven.

At the back of the house the rock is precipitous, and quite unguarded. There stands an old horizontal sun-dial, now rendered almost useless by the clock, which announces the hour to the whole city. The site of this dial commands a fine prospect of every part of the bay, and its gnomon serves now as a compass, to assist in taking the bearings of mountains, inlets, and islands.

Saint Francisco is the patron of another convent, which stands upon an equal eminence on the opposite side of the city. The ascent to it is by a long inclined plane, which conducts to a paved area, from which there is a fine view of the town, and a still finer of the Sugar-loaf. The Chapel is rich and well adorned; the interior of the house remarkable for its order and neatness. From this unusual praise the kitchen must be excepted; and certainly no Brazilian one should be seen by those who make the smallest pretensions to delicacy. The library is a large room, and contains many books. Here a volume of English sermons was handed to me, and I was requested to read a page; the subject was the Trinity. I next happened to take down a volume of a quarto bible, containing the Psalms; in one column the Vulgate, in the other a Portuguese translation. I hardly know whether there was any particular meaning in what followed, but on one of the Monks asking me if I understood the Latin, and on my replying that I did, he hastily snatched the book out of my hand, replaced it on the shelf, and hurried the party

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out of the room; nor could I afterward obtain admission into it. We had previously been introduced into the chapel, which is a handsome one; and there my ignorance of established ceremonies had made it too manifest, that I had no more reverence for the Crucifix standing on the altar than for the vestal lamp burning beside it.

Some of the senior Monks appeared to be men of simple, mild and cheerful manners. I felt attached to more than one inhabitant of the house, until convinced, beyond the possibility of doubt, that virtue did not predominate there.

The gardens are kept in such order that scarcely any in Rio equal them. Behind the convent is a considerable hill, which is a part of the demesne of the establishment; round its summit is an extensive walk, whence the city and its neighbourhood are seen to great advantage. As we passed along, our ecclesiastical companion entertained us with a story of a crocodile, which once dwelt there, and devoured two children. Had an alligator ascended this dry isolated hill, and taken up its abode there, it might have done such mischief, but the speckled lizard, which really dwells in such places, is much too diminutive to come under the opprobrium of devouring children.

It seems that there were two convents of Carmelites in Rio; for we find, besides that which is now attached to the Royal house, a small one in the Rua dos Barbonos, and the number of its inhabitants is proportionate to its extent. With more seeming modesty than some others possess, it does not obtrude its front into the street, nor has it, like them, chosen for its site one of the spots most favoured with fine. prospects and refreshing breezes. The little Chapel belonging to it is uncommonly neat. Nearly opposite, is an excellent private chapel, where the usual worshippers are numerous.

Not far distant is the Convent of Nossa Senhora d'Ajuda, designed for ladies. It is a large incomplete building, has a garden inclosed with a high wall, and an area, where the Nuns are allowed to see and converse with their friends, through large and well secured gratings. The Lady Abbess is a fine portly woman, about fifty-five years of age; her manner

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genteel and affable, far beyond that of any other lady whom I have seen in Brazil. She is said to be a native of France, and of noble birth. We wanted to purchase sweetmeats, for which the house is famed, and she took the order in person; thus it was that we enjoyed the pleasure of conversing with so superior a woman. The ladies are seventeen in number, mostly upwards of thirty years of age, and corpulent. They are highly respected, and the female part of the royal family, passing by the house in their daily rides, carefully return the salutations of the Nuns. The Chapel here is plain, but light and cheerful; the vocal music is excellent. In the garden-wall are many hewn stones, which have either been portions of some older building, or designed for the use of this, had the plan been completed. At one end of the house, and at a considerable distance from the apartments of the Nuns, is a suite of large, dirty, unfurnished rooms, set apart as a retreat for vagrants in bad weather. A poor man has the charge of these rooms, and is allowed to accommodate the casual occupiers with a fire.

Upon a delightful eminence above the public gardens, and South of the city, stands the Convent of Santa Thereza. The ascent to it is steep, but well paved, and rendered as easy as the nature of the ground will admit. It contains twenty-one Nuns, and is reckoned the next in rank to the Ajuda. The Chapel is small, but neat; behind it are the domestic apartments. The gardens are upon a declivity, hanging towards the West, enjoying the advantage of water from the public aqueduct, which runs through them. They seem not well adapted to recluses, as the neighbouring heights command a view of them. We marked the extraordinary care which had been taken to secure the windows of this house, occasioned, it is said, by an elopement through one of them, a few years ago.

Besides other Religious Houses for females, there are two to which they may resort, and receive all the security of a convent, without taking the vows, or subjecting themselves to perpetual confinement. The first, and most considerable in point of size, is the Recolhimento da Nossa Senhora do Parto, standing at the end of Rua dos Ourives.

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The lower apartments are the abodes of poor families, the upper stories are devoted to the purposes of the establishment. At the end of the building, in the Rua do St. Jozé, is the chapel, which is generally well attended, but imperfectly lighted and little adorned. The altar has no claim to distinction, except for its inferiority; and the place for the Recolhidas, or secluded females, behind the grating of which they join in divine worship, is low and heavy. This is also the situation where women of a certain class frequently say their vespers, and hear their masses, in order to cleanse themselves from former stains, and make arrangements for the contraction of new ones.

This chapel, at the time 1 arrived, was the scene of one most abominable custom. The dead child of poor parents was often wrapped in rags, and tucked into the gratings of one of the windows, where it remained until the charity of the pious deposited with it the established fee for burial. Then, but not before, the men, whose work ought to be charity, both to the living and the dead, took away the corpse, and pocketed the cash. The fee, I am told, for the funeral service was six hundred and forty reis, about two shillings and sixpence; while the daily wages of the poor were no more than eighty reis, or four-pence, and there are generally two holidays, at least, in every week. Thus the man of God absorbs the ten days labour of a poor one, to do—what shall I say? an act of humanity? no; but that, which, in my conscience I believe, he himself reckons of no importance whatsoever, and which ought to be performed by priests of every sect, as an act of duty, not of profit.

The other Recolhimento is near the Easternmost point of the city, and is connected with, or near to, the Misericordia, or Infirmary; together they constitute an extensive and noble pile of building. Between them is a large and gloomy chapel, yet not without showy pretensions, when lighted up. This retreat seems to be more respectable than the former, and to contain a greater number of young females. At worship, we can see their shades, and hear their voices, and thus judge, in some measure, of their numbers and ages. Many of their voices are melodious, and their chaunting is of a superior kind. Yet poor are the claims

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of the best of these establishments to numerous inmates or genuine respectability.

Cazal describes the inhabitants of the retreats as the orphan children of white people, born in wedlock, who leave them at marriage, and then receive a dowry. This is not a representation of the whole truth. Persons, who are quitting the city on business for a time, and having, it may be, no friends, with whom they can entrust their girls, often place them in these houses, with a wish that they may be kept in security and good order. Husbands, too, who suspect that they do not possess the whole hearts of their wives, send them hither during an occasional absence, and take them out again on their return. Some, of whose levity there can be little doubt, are placed here by their friends, either as a punishment for life, or for correction and restoration to virtue. Incongruous as it may appear, females of some rank in society, and of unquestioned character, sometimes choose a Recolhimento for their abode, while their husbands are from home. With what degree of intimacy they mix with their fellow lodgers I know not. But, on the most favourable supposition, these houses present a strange jumble of age, character, and purpose; young and old, the innocent and the corrupted, female schools and Magdalene Hospitals. A British parent would never select such a place for his daughter, nor such persons for her companions and instructors. A British husband would never believe that his wife could here be more secure from moral taint, than when left to her own sense of what is due to herself, to her friends and society. But the Brazilians have little delicacy of feeling; they know next to nothing of the strong and overbearing influence of moral causes.

The Misericordia, or house for the reception and cure of invalids, is an excellent structure, large and clean, endowed with considerable estates, to the income of which additions are made by voluntary contributions, and a small tax on the wages of seamen. The houses in the city, which belong to it, have on their fronts, just over the principal entrance, a small tablet expressive of the fect, and the number by which each is distinguished in the books of the hospital; an excellent method

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of preventing the lapse or abuse of charitable endowments. The number of patients is considerable, and no man is inadmissible, whatever be the nature of his disease. It is open alike to the rich and the poor; if any one desires to be admitted gratis, he must carry with him, from persons known and respectable, a certificate of poverty; if a man have no such testimony, he pays for the accommodation which he receives, at a fixed, but moderate, daily rate. Though there is a sort of tacit restriction operating against black people, I placed there, not without some murmuring on the part of the patients, a slave of my own; and he received from the governors and medical men all reasonable attention. At his discharge, it was necessary to go through some tedious and useless formalities, and to certify that he was cured. It would appear matter of regret that there is no ward in the hospital for females, nor nurses of that description allowed, if the vicious dispositions and habits of the people were not taken into due consideration.

Of the Colleges for education that of St. Jozé is the oldest and most renowned. It was probably founded soon after the church of St. Sebastian, and stands at the bottom of the hill, which bears that name, near to the Rua d' Ajuda. In front is a gate-way, which is more than substantial, degenerating into the heavy Brazilian style. Passing under this gate-way, visitors reach a large open space, covered with grass, at the bottom of which they find a single range of building, with latticed windows painted red. Its external appearance presented marks of palpable negligence, and further search confirmed the first impressions. The rooms were sufficiently numerous, but seemed to be very uncomfortable, some of them unoccupied. We observed a few of the collegians lounging about in purple gowns; some had received the tonsure, but most of them were very young. They exhibited no elasticity of mind, no inquisitive curiosity, no urbanity of manners, and but little cleanliness of person. They surveyed us with a stupid stare, and displayed, as we thought, the baneful influence of supercilious ignorance on the powers which it pretends to cultivate. As we came out, we were ready to say to each other,—no ray of science has penetrated here. The college is in a seemingly healthy, as

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well as pleasant, situation; but neglect and filth appear to be depriving it of these natural advantages.

Near to the Lapa is another College. This, too, is a good, substantial, extensive building; but, like the other, greatly neglected. It is dirty, the lattice windows want repairing, the fences are broken down, the gardens lie waste, all around are puddles retaining the dirty water of this part of the town, and the whole place has an air of desolation; nevertheless it is said to be wealthy.—Since this note was taken, I find that the college has been suppressed, and the Carmelite friars removed to it, when their convent was added to the Royal residence.

Another College, more respectable in its appearance and management than the former, stands in the narrow and dirty Rua do St. Joaquim, and bears the same name with the street. Here the learned profess to educate young people for employments in the state, and to teach such sciences, in particular, as may fit them for this destination. But though the Government lends its countenance to the institution, the number of scholars is small, and, indeed, the house is not capable of receiving many. They are distinguished by white woollen garments, but the state of the rooms ill agrees with the colour of the dress. Attached to this college is an excellent small chapel, which commands a view up a wide street to the church da Sta. Anna. It is observable, that no one of the colleges, besides this, has a place for divine worship connected with it.

The Bishop's palace, which seems a link, whereby ecclesiastical buildings are united with civil and domestic ones, stands upon a hill North of the city, over which it commands an admirable view. It is large, though the upper part only can be considered as the abode of the Bishop; the lower being partly piazzas, and partly offices. A wretched neighbourhood, at the foot of the hill, serves as a foil to its neatness. The ascending road, bad in itself, is incumbered with all sorts of filth. Behind it is a garden, and a back road, which communicates with one of the strongest forts in the city.

Few things can excite greater surprise in the mind of a British merchant than a first visit to the chief commercial and financial establish-

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ment in Brazil. My business called me early to the Custom-house, which was then divided into two parts by a street connecting the Praia dos Mineros with the Fish-market. The part nearest to the water was an open shed, forty yards long by twenty broad. In the front of it, towards the water, was a wooden crane of the most miserable construction, worked by slaves; by this the packages were landed from large barges of about forty tons burden, which brought them from the vessels, lying nearly five hundred yards from the wharf. There were only two of these barges allowed, and the proprietorship was a monopoly; so that no goods could be landed without their assistance, nor on any other part of the beach. All the storehouses, which the Government held for the reception of goods imported, consisted of rooms, which altogether were not more than a thousand square yards in extent, with walls about twenty feet high. The floor was laid close to the soil, which occasioned the boards to be rotten with damp, and thickly covered with dirt. Beades these, there was, indeed, another small room up stairs, appropriated to East India goods. It is evident that such warehouses as these must soon be filled; at the time of my arrival they were already crammed, and the surplus was exposed under the shed above-mentioned, on the open beach, and in the contiguous streets.

In Rio all packages of goods are opened by officers appointed for the purpose; and as this could be done only in one room, it was singularly ill-contrived that the destined apartment was above stairs. No crane being allowed, but at the water side, every package of dry goods, whatever its weight or contents, was thus obliged to be rolled up a flight of twenty or more steps, by the strength of slaves. The place into which the goods were conveyed, was about as large as a common-sized English ball-room; on one side of it was a long table, at which sate the inferior officers of the customs. It was the duty of one to unpack the goods, of another to take the measures and weights of the articles, of a third to value them and make out the account, of a fourth to check and to enter it. At the upper end of the room was another table, at which the judge of the customs, the chief officer of the establishment, presided; with his deputy


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on his right hand, on his left the treasurer; by one of them the account was re-examined and again entered, by the other the amount of duties was received. When this part of the business was completed, the goods were carried down a different flight of steps into a room below; where a piece of lead, about the size of a swan-shot, bearing the arms of Portugal, was affixed, by means of a loop of thread, to every piece of bale goods, to every parcel of hardware, however small, to every pair of stockings and gloves, to every piece of tape and ball of ootton. Destitute of this royal badge, not one of them could appear in the shops, without the risk of confiscation.

After ten reis, or about a half-penny, had been paid for every seal, the goods were allowed to pass a stage further, to a shed near the front door of the custom-house. Here, also, were two tables; at one of them, another account was taken of the pieces, yards, and weights, and compared with the former Dispatch,—as the previous account was technically called; at the other, the Dispatch was deposited. Every article was then counted out, and passed into the street; where the goods were laid down, one mingled mass of cassimeres, muslins, and lace, of butter, oil, and fish. Though the air of the torrid zone, and the heated pavement, were not taken into account, no one can doubt the confusion, injury, and loss, with which such scenes must be attended. A part of the actual mischief might, however, have been prevented, had not the whole active part of the business been performed by black men, into whom it is impossible to infuse discernment or carefulness, and whom, in many cases, it is equally impossible to controul.

It was not only with the tediousness and confusion of these proceedings that I felt highly disgusted, with the dirt to which the finest goods were exposed, and with the formal mode of acting in every department. Disgusting, too, as well as ridiculous, seemed to me, the appearance of the officers; in full gala dress, with powdered heads, cocked hats, large buckles, and small swords; all much the worse for wear. And to crown the whole, there was the stately port of an unwashed, uncombed centinel, in a borrowed jacket, and with borrowed

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arms;—for, at that period, military uniforms and accoutrements served for several different men. This fellow, in his long, coarse, cotton trowsers, and barefooted, stalked as a guard over the Important functionaries of her Majesty's customs; and to him every one was expected to uncover his head.

The insufficiency of this establishment, though generally appropriated to the imports of the country, has induced the Government to grant some privileges to the City-wharf; so that here also, permission being obtained from the judge of the custom-house, imported goods may now be landed and laid up, until they are dispatched, and the duties paid upon them; for which purpose they must be removed, under the inspection of guards, to the custom-house itself. This Trapiche da Cidade consists of a good range of warehouses and a wharf towards the water, with a single crane, worked, like all the rest in Rio, by a number of black men, hanging by their hands upon pegs placed round the circumference of a wheel. One-half of this building is now employed by the Government, the other by a British commercial house.

On the Western side of the Ilha das Cobras is a Warehouse more complete and useful than showy, chiefly used for Sugar and Hides, and well situated for shipping them. It has a sheltered quay with two cranes, under the arms of which small vessels may lie in safety to discharge. One part of this building is occupied as a storehouse for the British Fleet

The Trapiche do Sal is round the point of St. Bento, in a filthy part of the town. It consists of a line of warehouses, with a small square and sheltered quay in front of them. Salt is chiefly deposited there, whence its name; but it is used also for small parcels of sugars, and other kinds of produce, which come down the bay, and are generally intended for home consumption. Nearly adjoining to these warehouses are those, which the Oporto Company occupy for their wines.

At a small distance, further along the beach, is the Trapiche do Colheæ, well situated for shipping, but inconvenient and dirty. It receives principally sugar, fustic, and other dyeing woods, with some

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hides and tallow. Adjoining is the Trapiche do Ordem, an excellent storehouse and quay, close to which vessels of considerable burden may lie in safety. It is rather exposed to a surf from the North-East, but the wind seldom blows with violence, more especially from that quarter.

Half a mile farther, on a point facing the East, is the Trapiche da Saudé, or the healthy; not undeserving of its name. It is used chiefly for Hides and Sugar; but, besides its inconvenient distance from the city, it is much exposed to a heavy surf, and is kept in poor order.

The next of these accommodations for trade is situated about half a mile beyond the former, in the bay of Gambóa. It is large and internally commodious, affording room for a great quantity of Hides and Horns; but its increased distance from the usual anchoring place proportionably increases its inconvenience for business. The same may be said of another wharf, upon the Ilha dos Enchados, North of the city; which is thereby rendered of little use and consequence.

Though in proportion to the size and the wants of Rio, it has but a scanty supply of water, there are several Public Fountains. That in the Largo do Paco is a handsome building, conveniently situated, and highly useful. The water is ejected perpendicularly from three pipes, then falls upon a conch-like dome, and descends into a small trough round the bottom, from which it is conveyed by other pipes into vessels for domestic use. It is evident that a worse contrivance could hardly be adopted in such a situation, where the supply is small, and the heat promotes evaporation in the highest degree; but in Rio are neither Philosophers nor (Economists.

Near to the Quarteis do Segundo Regimento is another structure of a similar kind; but there the water is conveyed into large troughs, suitable for washing clothes, and employed for that purpose. The quantity of water is small, and, in consequence, it is little resorted to.

At the head of the Rua das Marrecas, is a fountain, which, in a city so little ornamented, may be called splendid. It consists of a

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semicircular recess, about twenty feet in diameter, the platform is six feet above the level of the street, and is reached by a flight of steps, on the right of which is a spacious trough for watering horses, on the other side a similar one for washing clothes. In the front, above these, is a handsome railing, and, where this joins the curve on each side, a circular station for centinels. On each side of the front is a square pilaster, about twenty feet high; one of them supports a figure of Diana, in the character of a huntress, the other a man, who, perhaps, may be the representative of Actæon; the figures are of bronze, but clumsily executed. Round the curve are stone seats, for the accommodation of those who are waiting their turn for a supply of water.

A fourth public fountain is in front of the Convent of St. Antonio, and is supplied by the aqueduct or Caraoca. The water issues from horizontal brass pipes, about eight feet higher than the street. Part of the water is delivered into a large cistern, designed as a washing place for all, who are disposed to make use of it. A curious scene is daily exhibited here; great numbers of men and women, generally black people, and more than half naked, some within the cistern and others around it, are busily employed in the occupation to which the place is devoted. In the process of their work they swing the wet clothes over their heads, and strike them with all their force upon the coping of the wall, which is lower within than on the outside, so that the greater part of the water, beaten out of the clothes, falls again into the cistern. The supply is copious and constant, at one end; the discharge at the other is much to be regretted, in a city where water is so scarce.

Without the city, beyond the Lapa, is a fountain, with one pipe, yielding an inconsiderable quantity of water; and beyond the Gloria, in the woods, is a large covered well, too distant to be of general utility. At Caatumbi is another, sunk about three feet into the ground; the descent to it is by steps from the high road, and within are seats round about it. The water is discharged from a mastiff's head, cut in stone; no very pleasant device, yet not unsuitable to a dirty and comfortless place.

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Far up the bay, and near to Mata Porcos, is an erection, where the merchant-shipping take in a supply of water, called, from its particular destination, the Bico dos Marinheiros. The water comes from the Rio Comprido, and is therefore plentiful. Formerly boats could lie near to it, but sand being gradually accumulated, and no one to clear it away, it has become necessary to construct a long wooden spout, extending over the bank to a depth of water sufficient for the boats.

The Aqueduct, which supplies most of the public fountains, is a noble work, executed about the year 1750. It consists of two walls, about six feet high, arched over, with sufficient space for workmen to enter it occasionally, and pass through its whole length. At suitable intervals, there are openings for the admission of light and air. Within is laid the canal, about eighteen inches wide, twenty-four deep, and three miles long. It commences at the bottom of the lofty conical peak of the Corcovado, where the waters, flowing from that mountain, are collected into a covered reservoir, and thence conveyed into the canal. Their course from the summit is through deep and shady woods, and the canal is defended from the sun-beams; and thus, until they reach the city, little of their freshness is lost.

There seems to have been a work of the kind prior to this, in nearly the same line as the present; for I have noticed, in several places, the remains of it. A line of coarse earthen-ware, something like our chimney-pots, made so as that the smaller end of one should fit into the larger end of another, appears to have been laid under ground, to preserve it from injury; but the contrivers could have known nothing of the pressure of fluids, or they never would have trusted to such fragile materials in many of the descents. The present aqueduct, too, is ill constructed, and must be perpetually liable to accidents; for the water is sometimes compelled to change its course in a right angular direction, and no provision is made for the harmless discharge of any superfluity which may occasionally come down.

From the place where the water enters the canal, to the several points of its discharge in the city, is a descent of about six hundred feet.

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It is first conducted along the Eastern edge of a precipice, the mountain rising to the left; it then crosses the ridge, which is here very narrow, and follows the Western side for a considerable distance, with a precipitous rock of solid granite above, and descending below the work. In this spot the canal is cut through the face of the rock, and the only pathway is upon its coping. In both these portions of its course the views are wonderfully fine. It next passes through a woodland scene, until it comes to another ridge, composed of clay, which is cut down, and the work is completely buried as far as to the spot where the prospect opens to the North and North-west. Hence it winds round the hill, accompanied by a broad road overgrown with brushwood, the scene entirely of the strictest forest kind, which continues to the very border of the city. At every break among the trees new views burst upon the passenger, first to the left and then to the right, as the wall which he follows crosses the projections of the over-shadowing mountain. Above the Convent of Santa Thereza, the aqueduct approaches the very point of a hill, and descends rapidly through the building to a suite of arches below; these convey it from the mountain, whose sides it has so long adorned, to the hill of St. Antonio, and to the city. To the inhabitants it affords a most agreeable promenade, on days when the ordinances of the Church require a cessation from business, and allow them to be made days of amusement.

Rio de Janeiro may properly be considered as a Garrison-town, though without walls. It is divided into military districts, the palace being the head quarters; guard-houses are placed in different parts, where officers are constantly in attendance; sentinels are stationed at all public offices, at the landing-places, and in every part of the city, where they can conveniently communicate with each other. Soldiers on duty are always walking about the streets, some in regimentals and others without them; acting in the civil, as well as the military department. In plainer words, the place is under martial law; but it is mildly administered by a council, which was established immediately upon the Queen's arrival.

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The troops of the line consist of three regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery. They are so far from being complete, that the whole force does not amount, I believe, to two thousand effective men. Their general appearance is such as might be expected from their miserable appointments, their more miserable discipline, and from the weight with which duty falls on so small a number of men, whose poor pay affords them only coarse and insufficient food. To improve their pittances, many obtain leave to do some work, and share their earnings with the officers, who grant them a temporary liberty. Hence it is, I suppose, that we find between the common soldier and his commander a familiarity destructive of all military discipline. Each regiment is obliged to muster once a month, on a certain day, and then every effective man must be present to receive his pay; thus it appears not essentially necessary that he should be on duty more than twelve days in the year, and though his attendance be somewhat more frequent than this, he becomes a much better boatman, or fisherman, or shoemaker, than soldier.

When actually employed, the men live in barracks, in different parts of the city. Those of the first regiment are situated in a narrow alley, but are well constructed, and have an enclosed court. Those of the second are in the Rua dos Quarteis, one side of which is entirely occupied by their apartments, while the street itself is their only paradeground. The third regiment is placed at the opposite, that is, the Eastern side of the town; the barracks there are somewhat better, and communicate with a large open space, near the beach. Not far from them is the building occupied by the artillery, a poor little place, but amply sufficient for the corps. The cavalry are lodged near the old Jesuits' Church, in buildings which manifest little regard to the accommodation of men or horses. Few as are the men of this regiment, the horses are still more deficient, and none of them are shod, except a small number belonging to officers.

The Militia consists of two regiments, raised in the city from the shopkeepers, their apprentices and servants, and officered by merchants.

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Their number may probably be fifteen hundred; but it is difficult to form an exact estimate, because they are not compelled to muster with punctuality. When they make their appearance, it is with very shabby appointments, and with hardly any thing like discipline. Most of the men, when not in line, are too lazy to carry their muskets, use umbrellas, and have slaves following them for the purpose. The colours, while rolled up, are borne by the same ignoble hands; as are even the drums, when their beat is not wanted. The heat of the climate furnishes an excuse, of which the indolence of all ranks is not slow to take advantage.

Besides these, three other regiments of militia are raised in the province. That of the districts of Rio and Cape Frio may be considered as tolerably effective; that of Ilha Grande, too, attracts some notice; but the districts of St. Joa Marcos and Goytacazes either fail to raise their quota, or are too distant to be much noticed at the seat of government. These Troops consist chiefly, if not entirely, of Cavalry, and are composed of persons selected from the Farms or Plantations. Every white man is obliged to become a member of the Corps of his district, and to mulattoes, even of a deep shade, is graciously conceded the honour of joining it. They are armed with swords, some of them with pistols also; but their discipline is slight, and their character low. If wanted to disperse a riotous assemblage of slaves, they might possibly be of use; in a serious insurrection they would be of little service, of less if called to withstand a disciplined invader. Indeed they would be incapable of acting in concert, if it be true, as I have heard, that they muster only in troops.

It is usual to avoid the militia duty by the most paltry subterfuges; many persons obtain an exemption by being placed upon the list of Volunteers, to serve in the Forts on occasions of danger. This, it is pretended, is the post of honour, where the first attacks of an enemy are to be withstood; but it is really the most secure retreat which can be found. Hence there are more officers than men belonging to some of the forts, for these pretexts are the most common and effectual among


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the upper ranks; and more men than are sufficient to garrison them.

On the whole it appears to me that, in case of emergency, about seven thousand men might be brought together in twenty-four hours; but it could not be done without great exertion. Nor would the most active pains be sufficient perfectly to accomplish their junction, within so short a period; for the force must be collected on the different sides of a piece of water two miles broad, without any adequate means of passing it. Nor is the ground about Rio well adapted to the manœuvres of cavalry, while an invading army could have no force of the kind, and would take advantage of positions.

There seems also an extreme want of the necessaries of war; a great deficiency of small arms is most manifest, and no pieces of light artillery, fit for the field, are to be seen. The heavy ones at the forts, where there is far from being a piece for every embrasure, are old and rusty, and some of them have not been scaled for years. Of those which show themselves as effective, many a one rests its muzzle upon the wall, while the breech is supported by two cross-sticks. There is no powder but what is collected from British vessels; no lead, consequently no musketballs, nor any surplus of iron-shot. When a gun is fired in terrorem, on any occasion, the ball is always made of clay. The men, miserably equipped for the drill and parade, as before observed, are worse furnished for service; they have no great coats, blankets, knapsacks, canteens, nor tents, nor even shoes, nor the common articles of linen. They are altogether without soldier-like appearance, or military habits. In the field they would become sickly, without being harrassed, and die without a conflict; while, shut up in the forts, they must starve, for the magazines are unfurnished.

The defences of Rio frown formidably in the eyes of a person unacquainted with their real state. A vessel, entering the harbour, first meets with the two curtains, or traverses, which have been mentioned before. They are constructed of stone, to the South of the harbour, and the East and West of its entrance; and are intended to defend a narrow

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neck of flat land, being drawn across it from one hill to another, which rise at each end with smooth and almost perpendicular faces. The Eastern plain conducts to the back of Santa Cruz, and communicates with the Sacco, or Five-fathom bay. From hence a path winds up the hill, and passing between two remarkable points, comes to a sort of square castle, rather than battery, to prevent the fort from being attacked in the rear; but the defence of this spot seems very inadequate to its importance. The other plain, towards the West, conducts to the hinder part of the Sugar Loaf, and communicates with the bay of Bota Fogo. Each curtain is about twenty feet high, and double. The approach to both Would be dangerous, because exposed to the fire of Santa Cruz, though neither of them has any guns mounted upon it.

The last named fort has been partly described already. It is built upon a projecting rock, which forms, on one side, the gorge of the harbour; and though backed by a lofty and steep, yet not inaccessible hill, is certainly the most formidable of the forts. It has three plain faces; on that to the South are mounted a few heavy pieces; to the West two tiers of embrasures present themselves, but very few guns are visible, and all, it is said, are seen, which are there; to the North are four or five embrasures, all empty.

Directly opposite to this, upon a projecting point of land, is another small fort, on which are mounted a few light guns, not calculated, apparently, to do much injury. It is properly an outwork, belonging to the fort of St. Joan, which is situated round the point, in a position where it can oppose a landing at the back of the Sugar Loaf, guard the entrance to the bay of Bota Fogo, and sweep its beach. Here the Portuguese fleet disembarked the troops which first invaded the country, here they remained two years, before they could advance a single step; and to guard them, a fort, probably the precursor of the present was erected, Thus much may be said in vindication of both its position and its form.

In front of the entrance is the fort of the Lagé, a square building, which, though small, is capable of doing great execution in still weather, provided it were well garrisoned and supplied. Its fire might continue

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much longer upon an approaching enemy than that of any other of the forts, and could not be silenced until a vessel flanked, or brought her broadside to bear upon it.

Having passed these three forts, which, with a stiff sea-breeze, might occupy half an hour, an invading fleet would find itself fairly in the harbour, and in a situation to be little molested by them, because almost their whole force is directed towards an approaching enemy. Before ships of war are brought up in the Roads, their anchoring place, they have to pass the fort of Villegagnon, well situated upon a long and narrow island, but in a very dilapidated, and even ruinous condition. It is supported, on the East, by the insignificant battery of St. Joan do Carai, and on the North by the fort of St. Diogo, now become almost useless.

Beyond the town is the Ilha das Cobras, covered with a small fortification, which seems to have been intended as a retreat in extreme distress, rather than an addition to the defences. It must, however, be untenable, should an enemy have possession of the commanding fortified heights. Among these the most important are the old fort of the Monté, near the Church of St. Sebastian, a platform a little below it, neither of which have any guns mounted, and the fort of Conceicam, which is in a better condition, and might be rendered of great use. A small battery is situated upon the height above the College of St. Jozé, and commands the beach of the Lapa. Some of these positions are become less valuable than they formerly were, the channel, which once led into the rear of the city, being now blocked up; and it is impossible fully to appreciate their ancient utility, without entering into some particulars of the history of the place.

Besides these, there are two Batteries of an inferior order, each about four miles from the town, intended to guard narrow passes. One, on the road to Copo Cabana, is advantageously placed on the projecting point of a high rock, and commands the beach in that quarter, but is very much neglected. The other is upon the road to the Lagoa do Freitas, and is of no value whatsoever at present, but may formerly have been useful against the inroads of Indian bands.

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The Military Hospital stands about two-thirds up the Eastern face of the-hill of St. Sebastian, adjoining the platform lately mentioned. It is above the effluvia of the city, enjoys the full freshness of the all-reviving sea-breeze, and cheers the spirits with the view which it presents, of the roadsted, the bay and its entrance, and the shipping in both. The house is large and substantial, but, like all the rest, betrays a gross inattention to cleanliness. Near to it is an important guard-house, placed on the most elevated look-out, which the city contains. At no great distance, is the house of Sir Sydney Smith, an officer, to whom the British in Rio are highly indebted, and whom the court and the people appear sincerely to regard. The spot is appropriate to its inhabitant; beneath lies the British fleet; and all the signal posts of the place, as well as the noble prospect just described, are in view.

The Navy of Portugal may, very properly, be considered as transferred to Brazil, for the principal part of it came over with the Royal Family. There are now here seven sail of different descriptions; some of the first rates are fine vessels, but three of them are old, and will probably never again leave the harbour, for there are here no means of repairing them, neither slips nor docks, no stores nor storehouses. There is no stock of timber, cordage, and canvass; neither are there any means of procuring them. The shipwrights are very few, and there is a great deficiency of sailors. Even merchant vessels cannot find supplies, when they are wanted; much less, a fleet of transports or men of war. The Arsenal is a small place under the hill of St. Bento, the front of which is much exposed, by being open to the water. It consists of a miserable workshop or two, and a line of sheds, under which a few boats are laid up, and where a mast may be repaired. Cordage is made here, in a small quantity, from strips of hide, which are spun in the manner of hemp. Workmen say that it answers well; masters of ships assure me that, though it may serve for running rigging, it is improper for shrouds, and for all ropes, which support a constant tension, for it is apt to stretch when moistened. The cables are called Bass ones, being made of the fibres of some vegetable, extremely like coarse horse hair. They are

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thick and light, but not strong, and can serve only for small vessels, and in mild waters. The demand for labourers on shore has also produced among sailors a spirit of desertion, from a service, into which most of them have been compelled to enter, and which they cordially dislike. Notwithstanding there is near the Custom-house a small place filled with jackets, and hammocks, and lanterns, there is not a sufficiency of these things to supply a frigate; nor can this little store be considered as any bar to the general conclusion, that it is hardly possible a Colony should be more destitute than this is, of every article, which is essential to the prosperity of shipping.

Over this paltry Storehouse, is an apartment called the Treasury, of which I am told that a more impoverished place of the kind never existed. My informants added, that it is indebted to public servants and private individuals, beyond what it can possibly discharge, and that neither the army nor navy has received its pay for several months.

By such a state of things the spirits of the people must, of necessity, be greatly affected; there is produced by it, beyond this, a sort of habitual imbecility. At the same time that they seem much disposed to pride themselves in the changes which have taken place in their circumstances and relations, and are filled with no small astonishment at their own magnificence, and the degree in which strangers minister to it; an alarm prevails among them at what they reckon the extravagance of the Court, supported by a comparison of the present demands upon the Treasury with what they formerly were. There even appeared a considerable degree of indecision, whether they should support the Sovereign, or demand their antiquated rights. Such a complicated state of the public mind may account, in some measure, for the panic, which prevailed, when, in November, 1808, a French flag appeared off the harbour, though there was only one vessel in sight, and she manifested no hostile disposition. It is true, the alarm did not extend to the naval or military department, much less to the Government; but the people were full of anxiety, and showed what might be expected from them, in case of a serious attack. The ship proved to be a cartel, with prisoners from the Isle of France.

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The Public Gardens, though small, perfectly level, laid out in a very formal style, and most negligently kept, claim the pre-eminence among the few places of amusement in Rio. The entrance to this favourite retreat is from the Rua das Marrecas, through a handsome gate, above which is a medallion of the Queen, and her late husband, Don Pedro. In front of this gate, the principal avenue extends to a terrace on the opposite side of the gardens, raised about ten feet above the natural ground. Before it is a mass of grotto work, covered with verdure, among which are entwined in each other's folds, two bronze alligators, about eight feet long. They discharge water from their mouths, and seem just about to plunge into a stone reservoir, in which it is received. From hence the water is conveyed into two other basins, level with the ground, one on each side of the avenue, behind which are long stone seats, overshadowed by very fine trees, and plants supported by lattice work, where, under the shelter of the Passion-flower, the sun-burnt Brazilian enjoys the luxury of fresh air. Just by, arise two slender pyramids of granite, of good proportions, well wrought, and bearing suitable inscriptions. At either end of the esplanade is a broad flight of steps; near the top of that on the left hand, is a small statue of a flying and laughing cupid, who holds by its foot a land tortoise, through the body of which, water is discharged into a granite bucket below, furnished with a ladle, and inviting the thirsty to drink. On a label, loosely twined round the right arm, is painted an allusive motto,—"Ainda brincando sou utile."—Though playing I am useful. The quaintness of the sentence, the countenance of the figure, and the refreshment derived from his proffered beverage, universally please, and often excite a smile.

The Terrace is nearly a hundred yards long, and proportionably broad, paved with a coarse chequer work of different coloured granites, and accommodated with seats. Toward the sea it has a parapet, on which are pots holding plants and flowers; toward the garden a well-wrought stone balustrade. At each end is a small square summer house, highly ornamented with painting and gilding. Their internal form is octagonal, with four glazed windows, and a pair of folding doors. The principal

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furniture is an old-fashioned gilded chair in each division, the one farthest from the door being raised on a low platform, affording formerly a sort of throne for power and distinction. The dome is an octagonal pyramid, on the sides of which, as well as in the upper part of the compartments below, are pictures. Those in one of the buildings represent the produce and manufactures of the country; plantations of indigo, cotton, and sugar, of mandioca and milho, the harvests of each, and the various modes and machines, by which they are brought to a marketable state. In the other are pictures of Rio scenery, and of some great events in the history of the city; of the entrance of the harbour, as it appears from that spot; of the manner of catching whales in the harbour, before they deserted it; of the land view; and of the state of the place, previous to the formation of the gardens. In this picture, the most remarkable objects are the convent of Sta. Thereza, the old white house, whence the inhabitants of the city are nick-named Caraocas, and the arches of the aqueduct, under which a considerable stream is flowing. An ox is represented as passing through the stream, and shows the channel to have been about knee-deep; such I have learned was the actual state of the place about the year 1750, then covered with water; now occupied by these gardens and several good streets. Another of the compartments represents a naval engagement as taking place in the bay, the scenery of which cannot be mistaken; it is certainly Rio de Janeiro, but the enemy's vessels carry Dutch colours, and I know of no fact in the history of the place, to which this circumstance can possibly apply. I suspect that, by a little tissue of falsehood and flattery, to which the Caraocas are by no means averse, they intended to appropriate to themselves the honours of Bahia. The last division of the dome represents the burning of a large Dutch vessel; boats are towing her off from the rest of the shipping, which are placed behind the Ilha das Cobras; she is coming round the Eastern part of that island, and must be near the Ilha dos Ratos. On the Western side of this latter rock lie, at this day, the keel, stem and stern-posts, and some of the futtocks of a ship, which are said to be the remains of the identical vessel. The wreck,

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covered with barnacles, may be approached in still weather without danger, though almost surrounded by rocks.

Among places of public amusement and recreation in a great city, the Theatre usually holds a principal place. So it may be with that of Rio, in the estimation of the inhabitants; but few, who have seen other houses of the kind, other scenic arrangements and performances, can unite with them in admiration of what is to be found here.

The Theatre is situated close to the Palace, and is a poor, small, dark house. Its form on the inside is an oval, at one end of which is the stage, and on the other the royal box, which occupies the whole Northern side of the building. Other boxes, cut off from all communication with the air, and hot, almost beyond endurance, extend round the sides of the house, and have an open, clumsy railing in front, most gaudily painted. The pit is divided into two parts; that before the royal box has forms, with a rail, against which the shoulders may be leaned; the division behind this, and beneath the seat of Royalty, is separated by a barrier, and the part of the audience, stationed there, must stand and listen. The house is lighted from tin sconces, fixed to the pillars, which support the boxes, and a chandelier of wood, with tin branches. With this elegant furniture, the scenery and other decorations thoroughly correspond. Sentinels, with fixed bayonets, are placed in every part of the house, and in all the avenues leading to it.

The Performances are worthy of the place and style in which they are brought out. The orchestra is small, inconvenient, and ill-supplied. Many of the dramatic pieces contain representations, which a small portion of good sense and taste would banish for ever from the stage. One of the last scenes which I witnessed, during my first stay at Rio, was the catastrophe of a tragedy. The heroine, dressed in white muslin, was supposed to be put to death, while the curtain was down, by severing her head from the body. Here, I think, would have been an end of her part, on any other than a Brazilian stage; but, after a little time, the curtain was drawn up again, for no other purpose


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than to shew the audience the headless body of the lady, seated upright in an arm-chair, with the blood bubbling from her neck, and flowing down her raiment.

As little needs to be said about the Performers, who, in general, were scarcely less contemptible and shocking than the pieces. The actresses are, one of them formal and ranting, another insufferably pert. Of the male performers, one alone displays any thing like the true spirit of comedy; while another stupid fellow seems as if he had no business on the stage, but to exhibit his teeth and his buckles; a third acts the villain well, especially in the garb of a priest. I was surprised at the boldness, with which rascally Ecclesiastics are brought forward, until it was observed to me, that all admitted the existence of such characters, while no individual applied the lesson to himself.

Certain moralists have discovered an intimate connexion between theatrical exhibitions and the only species of public buildings and institutions in Rio, which remains to be noticed at present. Without taking any farther advantage of their theory, I beg permission to introduce the Calabouça, or common Whipping-Post of the city, where many earnest attempts are made to correct moral disorders. It is now placed within the old fort of St. Iago, but was formerly near the palace, in the public street. The name, which is a corrupted words, signifying in Brazil "hold your tongue," is inscribed on the top of the post; in seeming mockery of the sufferings inflicted there, as well as of the ignorance of the sufferer, who very seldom can read. The punishments of poor rogues on this spot, are sometimes dreadfully severe; and such, as to be unfit for minute description, inflicted also on slaves alone.

The common Jail is in the neighbourhood of the Bishop's palace, a strong and heavy building, around which all is filthiness, all within is sickening. The first room is barricaded much like our dens for wild beasts, and the prisoners roam about it in much the same style, and with no better accommodations. There is, however, here, what our places of confinement sometimes want, a separation of minor offenders from those, who are charged with greater crimes. While the latter are in the den

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just mentioned, the former are in two spacious rooms above, one of which is furnished with a long table and forms. A few additional prison comforts may be obtained in the jailor's house, but the cost is heavy, and the prisoners are seldom able and willing to defray it. I am told that there is in no shape a jail delivery, and that some of the prisoners have remained in custody until the crimes, for which they were committed have been forgotten. No one, it is probable, would dare to set at liberty a culprit thus circumstanced; few, it may be, would presume to account him already punished beyond measure.—The fort of the Ilha das Cobras contains the State Prisons, and these also, are large, damp, and hopeless.

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A. D. 1808.



PREVIOUS to the arrival of the Royal Family in Brazil, the country was governed by Vicereys, sent from Portugal, who enjoyed almost absolute authority. Hence those, who depended upon the great man's opinion, or were any way connected with his Court, became disposed to pay him even servile attention; and indemnified themselves, as well as they could, for the humiliation which they underwent, by exacting a like deference from every one below them. In this way, servility pervaded all classes of society. When the representative of Royalty appeared in the streets, all, who saw the distant shadow of his equipage, not only uncovered their heads, but bent one knee to the ground. No one thought himself entitled to pass a common soldier on duty, or to read a public notice stuck against the wall, without performing some act of homage. It is, no doubt, proper to pay the external and visible marks of respect to important officers and high characters; but in Brazil this principle is extended to a positive degradation of the manly character.

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These modes of the country gave, however, to the Vicerey and his courtiers great facility in the distribution of graces and favours. A look, a smile, a bow,—for a well-bred Portuguese never uses the familiar nod,— but above all, a visit from him, were boons devoutly wished, and eagerly sought after. Such visits were bestowed with great condescension, and received with corresponding satisfaction. Among the higher classes, this led to frequent, extensive, and agreeable freedoms; for where the great man went, the lesser ones generally flocked, and the master of the house was as anxious to display the distinction with which he was honoured, as he was proud to receive it. He thus became habitually courteous and affable; the slightest acquaintance with the master was a sufficient introduction to the house, and gave authority to introduce also, the friend of a friend's friend, to the tenth remove. The person, who now presided, did not forget that the next evening he should become a guest, and that then he would have to seek the notice, which he now dispensed. A habit of ease and urbanity was, in this way introduced, which has been ill exchanged for more select parties and ceremonious behaviour.

None can more keenly feel, nor more sincerely lament, the change, than the middle classes of Brazilians. The poor also, partake of their regrets; for where the masters assembled, their dependants and slaves followed, and received and paid their humbler court with imitative ease and mimic politeness. Among their superiors, cards, music, and fruit filled up the evening; a fine climate, splendid moonlight or numerous lamps, good humour, and great gaiety of spirits, stole away the hours; and lateness alone dispersed the company.

But if the change of circumstances, occasioned by the emigration of the Royal Family and its followers, was thus painful to many of the Brazilians, they saw the new comers in much more serious distress.—None but those, who were allowed a frequent and near approach to the court, can conceive the straits, to which it was reduced.

The late Queen was advanced to an age, when changes make but slight impressions, provided the accustomed personal comforts be not

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lost; and her state of mind was such as prevented her from feeling the whole extent of her misfortune. Her person was in Rio, but her imagination, it was said, generally presented Lisbonian scenes.

Her son, the Prince Regent, has often been accused of apathy; to me he appeared to possess more feeling and energy of character than friends, as well as accusers, usually attributed to him. He was placed in new and singularly trying circumstances, and submitted to them with patience; when roused, he acted with vigour and promptness. Perhaps he was too often guided by the timid and insincere; he was certainly surrounded by such as are always dangerous to rulers, by cowardly sycophants and hypocritical priests; and it is no less certain that they possessed great influence over his mind. Yet the firmness with which he refused to stop at Bahia, in opposition to the wishes of some of his followers, ought not to be forgotten. Without pleading that he displayed any great degree of heroism and devotedness to his country, without denying that he congratulated himself on what has been called his escape, we are surely not obliged to coincide with those who charge him with insensibility and baseness; and it is well remembered, with respect to some who thus charged him, how lively and open their rejoicings were, that they also had placed the Atlantic between themselves and their invaders.

There was not, I am persuaded, a British subject in Brazil, who did not most sincerely feel for the distressing situation in which the Prince was placed, and who would not willingly have done all they could to assist and protect him. He was truly kind and attentive to all, and warm in his gratitude to the British nation. His tenderness towards his companions in banishment was unaffected and paternal.

Little circumstances often showed his regard for our countrymen. On one occasion a very young midshipman had drawn his dirk upon the royal guard, close to the palace, and was boyishly defying the whole of it. An elderly Portuguese, indignant at the sight, exclaimed to the soldiers, "why don't you cut him down?" "He is an Englishman," was the reply, "and we should disobey the Prince's orders were we to

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hurt him." At another time, passing by the church of the Carmo, the Prince observed a number of Englishmen standing about the door; they were waiting for the funeral of a Brazilian child, with whose family some of them had become acquainted. The Royal carriage was stopped, and a servant sent from it to inquire, whether any thing unpleasant had occurred among the British. The message was delivered in tender and anxious terms, apparently in the same as the Prince had used. Such instances of kind and respectful attention might be multiplied to a great extent, if any candid mind, witnessing or believing such facts, could possibly doubt the Regent's grateful regard for us and our government.

The Princess Regent,—so called, perhaps improperly, in Brazil,— appeared to have more of masculine feelings than was lovely either in the Princess, the wife, or the mother. She displayed great energy and active habits, bustled about, saw and determined for herself, and seemed bent upon governing, though she should rule only a house. What she could obtain, as an allowance for her private establishment, was a miserable pittance; she expended it with generosity, as well as economy, and pledged her faith for larger sums. There was a dignity in her manner of submitting to privations, yet this was tainted with great pride and imperiousness. In no instance would she yield her place, as the second subject of the realm; she insisted upon the distinctions due to royalty, and could never forgive the slightest disrespect. Her resentments were frequently carried to a disgusting extent, and at length were little regarded.

The widow of the Regent's elder brother is of mild, sedate, and even cold and uninteresting habits. She has long withdrawn, as much as possible, from public life; and seems to find that resource in religion of which no enemy can deprive her, nor any change of circumstances abate the value. This was much the same with the Queen's sister; when her personal wants were supplied, and her established modes of life unthwarted, she had no more to wish for; she continued to live, as she had lived in Lisbon, without ambition and regardless of influence.

Besides these Royal personages, the Regent's family consisted of

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seven children, and a relation from Spain, the Infante Don Carlos de Bourbon. All these, thirteen in number, with their attendants amounting to nearly three hundred, were crowded into a miserable abode for Royalty, though, of course, dignified with the name of a palace. They had, indeed, in addition, the range of small buildings before mentioned, on another side of the square; but still the accommodations must have fallen greatly short of their wants. The house stood upon a piece of ground measuring seventy yards by twenty-six; and from this contracted space must be deducted an open court in the centre. The lower story, or ground-floor, was wholly occupied by piazzas, guard-rooms, and other offices; above them were apartments for the elder branches of the family, and their immediate attendants; about half the house has another story, and in these attics the children, with their servants, were lodged. This building, before it became a Royal residence, contained within its walls the mint and a prison; from both of which the occupiers were soon ejected, and the house united, by a sort of covered way, with the Convent of the Carmelites. It was thus rendered much more spacious and commodious, though still very defective in these points; the lower part of the convent being converted into kitchens and offices, the upper into domestic apartments of a superior cast. The Carmelites were translated to the Lapa, where had been a school, previously suppressed.

If the residence of Royalty was humble, its equipage and attendants, when it appeared in public, were still more so. The best vehicle which the rich colony of Brazil could afford to its sovereign was a small chaise, brought out by the same vessel in which she arrived. It was drawn by two very ordinary mules, and driven by a servant in an old and discoloured, if not tattered livery. She was attended, in her rides, by a maid of honour, in the same carriage with herself, two soldiers in advance, and an officer and twelve others following, by a single trumpet and a private footman. The military were wretchedly mounted and appointed; their horses were unshod, and most of them lame, blind, galled, or otherwise disabled; the clothing of the men was, generally

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speaking, blue, but displaying all the shades of that various and varying colour. Their jackets were much worn and patched, they had no waistcoats, nor gloves, nor stockings; their boots old and torn, never blacked nor even brushed. The helmets and cartouch-boxes were such as must have been long out of use in Portugal, as well as every other part of Europe; the belts made of cotton-cloth, and as much unacquainted with a brush as were the boots. The swords of so small a party were not uniform, though every man had one; but several of them were without carbines, and supplied the want, some with one, some with two old ill-constructed pistols. Their faces and hands were perfectly guiltless of any consumption of so rare an article as soap, or of so common a one as water. The furniture of the horses was just of a piece with the dress and equipments of their riders; the bridles, in many cases, rendered useful by having their broken parts tied together by a strip of raw hide; which was then universally used in the colony instead of hempen string; the bits and stirrups, like the men's spurs, had not been scoured for years.

The Prince Regent appeared in public with much the same miserable state as his mother; indeed, his carriage was only a common Lisbonian one, something like our old single horse-chaise, with a head and curtains to it. It was exceedingly shabby, and bore on its pannels some of the ensigns of Royalty, though not the Royal arms. The Princess, his wife, when she did not accompany him in the carriage, sometimes went out on horseback, and, according to the custom of the country, rode astride, The children very seldom took the air, until a good strong family-chariot arrived, a present, it was said, from the King of Great Britain. About the same time each of these three parties had an officer appointed, something like what, at our Court, is called a Lord in waiting.

This representation, I am aware, may be regarded as a caricature, but it is not so; for its correctness an appeal may be made to every British subject who was in Rio, and who observed what was passing around him. The establishment, poor as it appears, required great exertions to support it. Grass, which was wanted in considerable quantities


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does not grow naturally in the neighbourhood of the city, nor under the trees of a forest Black people were sent out to cut the common Gramma of the country, a species of low growing flag, and the young Tacoará, a sort of cane, which flourishes in the woods. After every exertion was made, the supply of green food, for the horses and mules, was very scanty; until the two Capims, now so common, had been planted, and were fit to cut. There was, moreover, no stock of dry food in hand, and any thing answerable to hay-making is never practised in hot countries. There were then, also, neither stables attached to the palace, sufficient for the necessary beasts of draught, nor sheds for the carriages. Some idea of the low state of the colony,—low in the arts and conveniences of life,—may be formed from the fact, that on the anniversary of the Queen's birth-day, which occurred some months after my arrival, there were only six carriages mustered on the occasion, and these all open ones, with two wheels, each drawn by a miserable pair of mules, and driven by dirty negroes. Yet this was a gala-day, and the wealthy part of the community had done their utmost to make a show.

Poor as was the resource to which the Court of Portugal flew, when driven from its ancient station, the change could hardly have taken place under more favourable circumstances. Had the Queen possessed the full vigour of her mind, and the Regent a more acute sensibility, the removal and its many inconveniences must have been more distressing to both. He found, indeed, that Royalty is no protection against misfortune; he felt as a man, and manifested the feelings of a good one. A Prince of more uniform vigour might, probably, have been less teased; one of more penetration might have detected the selfish views of those about him. Yet there was one of these who appeared to have no such views, his first minister, Don Rodrigo,—afterward Condé de Linhares. He nobly supported his Prince, not only acting with energy himself, but compelling others, in every department of government, to do the same. He saw the true interests of the state, and pursued them with an ardent affection to his sovereign and his country. He succeeded in attaching to both the good and the useful of every nation, who had been drawn within

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the sphere of his administration. He detected, and endeavoured as much as possible to drive from the Palace wicked men; hence he was hated by them, and at length taken off by poison.

The Count de Linhares had few imitators. The people, among whom his lot was cast, are said to be singularly given to intrigue, and in Brazil this disposition had been greatly sharpened by the system of colonial policy, which had been acted upon from the first settlement of Portuguese subjects in the country. By the arrival of the Court a new field was opened for the exercise and display of this favourite passion. Few as were the honours and emoluments which the Prince had to bestow, all sought them with eagerness, all endeavoured to supplant each other in the good graces of persons in power. Hence jealousies arose, and, between the old Courtiers and the new, got to a high degree of virulence; hence frequent bickerings and open dissensions, until the parties gradually divided into Lisbonian and Brazilian.

The companions of the Prince, in his flight from Europe, had, of course, one considerable advantage over their rivals; they had been his friends or acquaintance at home, and were now his associates in banishment and its attendant evils; they pretended that they had sacrificed their all to loyalty, and he was not of a spirit to resist such claims. But here their influence ended. Royalty had reached the Transatlantic shores almost in a state of pauperism, "stripped of all but its honour;" and its followers were in no better case, their estates had been plundered, their places annihilated, the sources of their pensions had been dried, and many of them were literally without a home.

But the wealthy Brazilians had a home, and good things to spare; herein consisted their advantage. They were welcome visitors at Court, from a wish to conciliate them, and still more because they had it in their power to repay an empty honour with solid benefits. Indeed the government had not left it altogether at their option, whether to bestow or to withhold. One of the first public orders issued after the arrival of the Prince was, that no person should have in his occupation two houses; and some, who had little influence at Court, found it difficult to retain

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even one. The same order extended to warehouses and shops, directing that they should be given up, not to needy emigrants from the mother country alone, but to commercial adventurers from every region. The high and equitable spirit of our countrymen will hardly allow it to be mentioned, as a thing much to their honour, that they unanimously disdained to take advantage of this order, preferred paying liberal rents, and making it the interest of the proprietors to accommodate them. Many were glad to secure themselves, by means of such tenants, from the rapacity of the Portuguese.

There was little occasion for a Royal order to induce men of rank and ability, among the Colonists, liberally to assist the unfortunate Strangers. Either through policy, or a real feeling of the distress which they witnessed, they were forward with their services, freely lending their money, their houses, and almost every comfort. Ere long, however, they discovered their error in supposing that, by such services, they were laying the foundation of their own fortunes. They discerned, what a small measure of consideration might have taught them before, that it was impossible for the prince effectually to attend to all the various conflicting claims of ambition with which he was assailed, and equally impossible that they should now be gratified by such social freedoms with the head of government as had been their delight in the viceregal times. It was quite out of etiquette that Portuguese Royalty should be seen in the house of a subject; the Regent and his family, it was intimated, were always at home in the evening, and ready to receive the compliments of their vassals; and, under such a government, an intimation differed little from a command; a command, if disregarded, was little short of a sentence of confiscation. All that the greater part of the attendants at Court had to expect in return for their compliance with its wishes, for their sacrifices and their struggles, were a few gracious words and unmeaning compliments from the Prince. Many, therefore, who had parted with their houses, and friends, and servants, which had enabled them to stand foremost in the ranks of their countrymen, and were indignant at the sight of inferiors favoured and advanced above them,

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withdrew from the city to their farms, which hitherto had been left to the management of bailiffs. Others followed their example, because the expenses of living were so much increased by the influx of new inhabitants, and the manners of the times altered, as they thought, for the worse. A few, foreseeing that the display of wealth would render them, in one shape or other, objects of continued peculation, became prudently poor, and passed into voluntary seclusion.

Others, who remained in Rio, and continued to pay their court at the Palace, amidst disappointments, jealousies, and broils, seemed to have adopted a different set of feelings. Like the Brazilians in general, they were by nature violent, had been little accustomed to practical restraint, and were little disposed to endure it. They were ill educated, unused to political deduction, and therefore liable to misconstrue public measures. Notwithstanding the sort of government under which they lived, they, in fact, held the purse strings of the state, controuled the finances of the Royal house, and could, at an early period, arrange its daily dinner. They were conscious of their own importance, kept their ground, and continued to demand the distinctions to which they held themselves entitled. In so doing former valued associations were neglected, the ambitious being too busy to attend to them, and the politic finding it convenient, in many cases, to discard old and less fortunate acquaintance; good-will towards each other, and a mutual reliance, were lost, and none possessed an easy security. As to the members of the government, their spirit and behaviour, operating together with suspicions and alarms arising from different causes, occasioned many apprehensions for its safety. Accidental circumstances produced a considerable effect on minds little fitted for the influence of reason and reflection. In firing a salute from our vessels a heavy shot came over the city, and was distinctly heard by many; and, in exercising with Congreve's rockets, one of them came on shore among the crowd, and did some mischief. Probably the best safeguard, at this season, was a British fleet, then riding within a few cables' length of the shore.

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It has been mentioned that, among those who had the ear of the Regent, were several Priests; and it was natural that it should be so, with respect to the dignified or confidential Ecclesiasties, who accompanied him from Lisbon. The chief of the clergy in Rio seemed also called upon, by their station, to attend his levees, and to have a claim on his notice. Among them were, no doubt, truly pious men, faithfully devoted to their duty; but scarcely any pretensions were made to learning. It was in general, sufficient to be skilled in the Ceremonies of the Church, and able decently to perform its offices. Of their habits and character, the writer of these notes declines any formal and detailed estimate, and any thing beyond a brief notice of their place and bearing in the ranks of Brazilian society; because he would be compelled, in truth, so to represent them, as to some, might savour strongly of Protestant bigotry, or individual prejudice. He has not scrupled, however, nor will he scruple hereafter, to introduce such anecdotes of the priesthood as made a part of his own experience. Lamenting that he had so little to record to their advantage, and so much to vindicate the conclusion, that their general spirit and conduct were infamously bad. He only wishes it to be understood and remembered, that, whatever of this kind may be brought forward, he is incapable of venting sarcasms against Religion, or of consigning a whole body to shame and indignation, on account of the misconduct of many of its members.

My first home in Rio brought me to the near observation of a large and important class of the inhabitants. It was at the corner of Rua d' Ouvidor, where it joins the Rua da Qui Tandi; precisely on this spot, every unhallowed morning, the Attorneys, together with the under officers of the law, met to transact business. It was then, I believe, the only place, where professional or commercial men assembled for such a purpose; thus the meeting became an object of peculiar notice to a stranger. The generality of those, who composed it, were dressed in old, rusty, black coats, some of them well patched, and so ill adapted to the height and form of the wearers, as to excite a suspicion that they

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were not the first who owned them; their waistcoats were of gayer colours, with long embroidered bodies, large flaps and deep pockets; their breeches were black, so short as scarcely to reach either to the loins or the knees, where they were fastened with square buckles of mock brilliants; their stockings of homespun cotton, and their shoe-buckles enormously large. Their heads were covered with powdered wigs, surmounted by large, fantailed, greasy hats, in which was usually placed a black cockade. The left thigh bore a very old and shabby dirk. It was. amusing to observe, with what punctilious ceremony these gentlemen, and their subalterns, addressed each other; how exactly in order they bowed, and held their dirty hats; with what precise forms, and cool deliberation, they combined to pick the pockets of their clients.

There were in the crowd a few respectable-looking men, but they were, indeed, a small proportion; the leading characters of the profession did not find it necessary to attend these street meetings. In general, the meagre and sharpened features of the persons present, and their keenly piercing eyes, added to their sallow complexions, would have led a pretender in the science of Lavater, to determine the features of their minds with a glance, and to come to no very favourable conclusion. If there be among them those who promote litigation, the people of Rio must be peculiarly open to such influence; otherwise bread could not be found for five hundred legal practitioners, which is their computed number.

If strangers concluded that the city was litigious, from the multitude of lawyers, the number of medical men might lead them to think it unhealthy. To speak of the utmost knowledge of medicine, which could be acquired in Brazil, as an education for the highest rank of the profession, would be a disgrace to it; and I believe that there was not a single physician, before the arrival of the Court, who had been regularly brought up in the medical schools of Portugal. Neither were there any Surgeons, as a distinct branch of the profession; inferior operations were performed by barbers; the more important ones by men utterly ignorant of anatomy. The skill of Apothecaries in ascertaining and curing disease, was little superior to their acquaintance with the human frame. A detail

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of their absurd modes of treatment would excite incredulity, as well as wonder how patients escaped with life and limb.

The great proportion of Apothecaries' and Druggists' shops in Rio, was not the only thing relative to them which appeared observable to strangers. What the owners wanted in skill they seemed earnest in their endeavours to make up in show.

These shops were fitted up in a much gaudier style than others, and affected a superior taste. Instead of a counter, as usual, there was erected in the middle, a kind of altar, the front of which was adorned with painting and gilding; the subjects usually chosen for the pencil being a landscape, a shipwreck, or a simple wreath of flowers. Upon it were placed scales and weights, and two or three old books, no doubt, oracles, in the healing art. The upper part of the walls was decorated with long rows of Dutch gallipots, bearing learned inscriptions, indicating nothing, but to adepts in the modes of dragging from reluctant nature secrets, which might sooth the anguish, or gladden the hearts, of men.

The accommodations of the Merchants and Wholesale-dealers, for the arrangement of their goods and the reception of customers, were much more simple. Some of the warehouses were of considerable extent, but poorly stocked, except with articles for exportation, which the distracted state of the mother country had occasioned greatly to accumulate upon their hands.

At the early hour of seven, the merchants were accustomed to visit those who had brought out goods. Having examined the stores of the foreigners, and made their purchases, they returned home to breakfast; lounged away the morning, with a small mixture of commercial occupation; and after a confused and unceremonious repast at noon, retired to their siesta, as did all the rest of the Brazilian world. In sweet and luxurious oblivion they passed the hottest part of the day; and came forth in the evening to their visits or other amusements, with nerves new strung and recruited spirits. With employment, that hardly confined them for more than two or three hours in a day, they might have found ample leisure to have brought themselves nearer to a level with the

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superior order of tradesmen in other countries; but knowledge and refinement were unthought of, perhaps despised. It was often necessary to show them the application and use of articles, which we had to sell; even a common thumb-latch has been known to require time and pains to explain it. Merchants, as respectable in their line as most in the country, have excited our astonishment, by asking, in what part of London England was; which was largest, Great Britain or Madeira; which farthest from Rio. Their ignorance extended beyond Geography; few of them were acquainted with more than the first principles of Arithmetic; in reading, they spelled out the meaning, and to write a letter was a dreaded task.

It was not to be expected that the shop-keepers, of different descriptions, should surpass in attainments the first native traders in Brazil; for a man of business to come much short of them was hardly possible. In some, at least, of the particular lines, in which these inferior dealers are engaged, a considerable measure of attention and quickness must be indispensable; but few of them had concerns of such variety and extent as to rouse them to any near resemblance of the activity seen in our shops. Their Stocks were in general scanty and defective and the means of adding to them, or even of keeping them up, not less so. The shops usually occupy the whole extent of the front, except where passages are taken off, leading to the other apartments of the house. Many of them measure eighteen feet and have two doors, the only apertures by which light and air are admitted, and which are never closed but for a short period at dinner time, and at night. The anterior part of the shop forms a vacant space for customers; the counter always running from wall to wall, parallel with the street. A strong old table is placed behind the counter, on which goods are sometimes piled for sale; on other occasions, it is used as a depository for articles, which require to be arranged in their places, when the customers are served. The sides of the shop, to the height of three feet, are generally fitted up with drawers; and above these, with glass cases gaudily


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painted. This is one of the very few purposes, for which window glass is used in Brazil.

The precise numbers of the different descriptions of Mechanics could not be ascertained without difficulty; and the pains necessary for the purpose would, perhaps, have been ill repaid by the most successful result. Of Carpenters, Masons, and people employed in building, there were said to be about seven hundred; the Barbers were also very numerous; the Working Cutlers few; and the Smiths still fewer. This last class of artizans was chiefly employed in work connected with shipping; as the horses never wore shoes, except when employed in some extraordinary parade, shoeing smiths were little in request. Every respectable house was furnished with slaves, who had been taught some one or more of the common arts of life, and not only worked in their different lines, for the family, to which they belonged, but were hired out by their owners to persons not so well furnished as themselves. It was not in their power to earn much; in 1808, a workman was thought well paid by half a pataca, less than a shilling, per day. But the influx of strangers, and the multiplication of wants, soon raised the value of labour, and that in an extravagant degree. This gave rise to a new class in society, composed of persons, who purchased slaves for the. express purpose of having them instructed in some useful art or calling, and then selling them at an advanced price, or hiring out their talents and labour.

All the Arts were practised in the most formal and tedious way. Every workman deemed himself initiated into some mystery, which none but his own fraternity could comprehend. Carpenters have expressed astonishment, when they have seen an Englishman take up a saw, and use it with no less dexterity, and with greater speed, than themselves. There was as little difficulty in rivalling the skill of many workmen, as their execution. So ignorant and stupid were they, that it was frequently necessary to form for them a rough model of the article which they were required to make, and to go from shop to shop before one could be found willing to undertake it. I have even been told, that what I wanted could

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not be executed by human ingenuity, although it was, perhaps, one of the most common instruments in domestic use. To this, white men, who were mechanics, added another folly; every one of them thought himself too much a gentleman to work in public, and that he would be degraded, if seen carrying the smallest burden, even the implements of his calling, along the streets. The silly pride, and formal self-importance, which pervaded all ranks of Brazilian society, were, in this class of men, singularly absurd and ridiculous.—An instance or two will best illustrate this trait of character.

It was necessary to open a lock, of which I had lost the key; and the skill requisite to pick it was so rare, that the Master and Waiter of the Hotel, where I then lodged, were greatly perplexed with my inquiries, at what place it was to be found. At length they advised me to apply to an English carpenter, who had been settled in Rio about two years, and employed several men, one of whom he requested to go with me,—for then masters did not venture to command,—assuring me that the man would execute what I wanted. He detained me a long time, but to compensate for the delay, made his appearance at last in full dress, with a cocked hat, shoe and knee buckles, and other corresponding paraphernalia. At the door of the house he still loitered, wishing to hire some black man to carry his hammer, chisel, and another small instrument. I suggested that they were light, and proposed to carry a part, or the whole, of them myself; but this would have been as great a practical solecism as using his own hands. The gentleman waited patiently, until a negro appeared; then made his bargain, and proceeded in due state, followed by his temporary servant. The task was soon finished, by breaking the lock, instead of picking it; When the man of importance, making me a profound bow, stalked off with his follower.

Another anecdote of a similar spirit appears among my notes. I give it here, though its hero did not belong exactly to the class of mechanics.—I was on the eve of leaving Rio, and waiting with great anxiety for the Packet, being convinced that it must bring me informa-

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tion of the most interesting kind. When it arrived, I waited upon the superintendent of the Post-Office, and requested that the expected letter might be delivered to me; but the bag had not yet got thither, and appeared to have met with some unnecessary detention, I therefore posted away to the British Consul's office, and there learned that it had been sent from thence a considerable time before. Going down the stairs, I observed one of the Portuguese servants standing at the door, with a small parcel in his hand, of whom I inquired whether that was the mail from England; he replied that it was, and that he had been long waiting to hire some one to carry it after him to the Post-Office; which was about two hundred yards distant. I was in no humour at that time to bear with such pompous folly, and after uttering some hasty abuse, which had been better spared, snatched the parcel from his hand, and carried it off at a pace seldom witnessed in a Brazilian city, the man following and muttering all the way, "Os Inglezes sao diabos,"—the English are devils. I was readily admitted at the office, and favoured with the expected letter.

Among the lower order of people in Rio, men carrying burdens in the streets claimed the attention of strangers by their numbers and by some singularities in their modes. They are not properly Porters, for few of them are hired and paid for service on their own account; they are, in general, slaves sent into the streets, with empty baskets and long poles, to seek employment for their owner's benefit. Heavy goods were conveyed between two, by means of these poles laid upon their shoulders; then a pair of slings was attached, by which the load, raised a little above the ground, was carried to its place of destination. If the burden were too heavy for a couple of men, four, six, or even more united, and formed a gang, over which one of the number, and generally the most intelligent of the set, was chosen by them to be their captain, and to direct the labour. To promote regularity in their efforts, and particularly an uniformity of step, he always chaunted an African song to a short and simple air; at the close of which the whole body joined in a loud chorus. This song was continued as long as the labour

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lasted, and seemed to lighten the burden, and to cheer the heart. I sometimes thought that these people were not insensible to the pleasure arising from recollections, thus produced, of a home which they had lost, and were never to see again; of friends, to whom nothing but misfortune could reunite them. It is certain that their songs gave a cheeriness to the streets which they would otherwise have wanted, for the whole population seemed tongue-tied; there was no playfulness of boyhood, no sprightliness of youth, no obstreperous shouting of the more advanced in years. In this respect Rio differed from every other place which I had visited. The first general shout, uttered by the people in my hearing, was on the birth-day of the Queen, in 1810. It followed the feu-de-joie fired on that occasion, and was a suppressed huzza, not cold, but timid; it seemed to ask whether it might be repeated.

Another method by which heavy goods were conveyed, and some degree of life added to the streets, was by means of a clumsy truck, with four very low wheels, fixed upon two thick axle-trees, which turned round with them. To this wretchedly constructed carriage ten or twelve black men yoked themselves, and hauled it forward with their utmost might, singing their usual favourite airs. But the dull noise of the Carreta itself, whose wheels were continually dropping into the hollows of an irregular pavement, formed a harsh dissonance to the music.

The old Carro of Portugal, drawn by oxen, and rolling along upon clumsy slug wheels, fixed firmly on the ends of an axle, and forcing it also to turn, in spite of the great friction occasioned by a heavy load, commonly entered the city during the coolness of the night, and produced a sound still farther removed from musical than that of the Carreta. Perhaps the skill of man has seldom elicited so harsh and grating a noise. He who could continue to sleep near a street, through which these engines of discord passed, must have been favoured by Morpheus beyond the common lot of mortals.

Notwithstanding this and every other impediment, the lower order of the population of Rio probably enjoyed, from habit, sound repose in

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the night. Before ten o'clock in the morning, when the sun began to rise high, and the houses afforded little shade, white men became rare in the streets, and the slaves were seen lounging at their ease, or sitting on the ground at the doors, spinning or knitting, or platting a kind of flag, of which they made baskets and hats. Others, among whom were probably some free blacks, continued their labours as porters, ran about on errands, or carried on small trays, for sale, fruit or sweetmeats, articles of haberdashery, printed cottons, or a few other commodities. They were all negroes, both male and female; and a stranger, who happened to pass through the city in the middle of the day, might almost suppose himself transported into Africa.

The persons who live by the performance of little occasional services, and more especially by acting the part of porters, account themselves exclusively entitled to every job which occurs in their line, and greatly resent any interference with their employment and its profits. This was one of the first lessons which I learned in the country. When my baggage was removed from the ship, I chose to carry, in my own hand, a bayoneted blunderbuss, enveloped in a woollen case. I had not proceeded far, when a gentleman, to whom I Was entirely unknown, stopped me, and requested that I would deliver what I carried to one of the attendants, adding that it was wrong to deprive the blacks of their hire, and that, by doing so, I incurred a considerable risk. He afterwards explained himself, and assured me that, even for an imagined injury, the lower classes of people sometimes exacted a severe revenge. This incident led to a friendship between us, which afterwards proved a mutual advantage.

When beggars are mentioned, it will be supposed that we are approaching the close of this sketch of the Ranks and Employments of the male population in Rio. These formed a numerous body, and were very importunate in their demands. Scarcely any one was ashamed of begging; even wealthy men were often heard to ask for boons. This gradually declined, and an intimation that a certain thing would be acceptable was resorted to; this too was, after a time, softened into

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attempts to borrow for an unlimited time, or to purchase on an undefined credit Officers of the army, as living became expensive, humbled themselves into solicitors for charity; and it is to be regretted, but ought to be recorded, that more than one person, who wore a star, fell into deeper disgrace, stole, and were detected.

It would be absurd to affect an equally detailed account of the different orders of females, and of their various occupations. These must, of necessity, be chiefly of a private nature; and it must be remembered that women of the higher and middle classes, especially the younger part of them, are much more secluded than in our own country. The little intercourse with them, which custom allowed, soon displayed their want of education and knowledge. This, indeed, was a part of the avowed system; it was settled that their reading was not to extend beyond the prayer-books, because it would be useless to a woman, nor were they to write lest, as was sagely remarked, they should make a bad use of the art. The ignorance which prevailed among them, about the time when the Regent and his followers made their appearance, was extreme, was generally acknowledged, and by the new comers greatly lamented; in a few years after the matter might be somewhat mended, but the improvement was not material.

Of their dress and appearance we strangers were more competent judges than of their minds. The former is of the lightest sort; among their familiar friends they are seen with a shift only; bound about the waist by the strings of a petticoat, and the bosom of it often falling off from one shoulder; they wear no stockings, and seldom either slippers or the wooden clogs, with brown upper leathers, called tamancas. Their hair is long, and too commonly uncombed, bound with a riband close behind the head, the ends turned up to the crown, and there twisted about a sort of bodkin. Sometimes a wreath of artificial flowers is added, ingeniously made by themselves of silk, beads, coloured paper, tinsel, and the wings of some of the brilliant insects of the country; these are arranged and worn with taste. Their manners are a contrast to every thing graceful; coarse, boisterous, and pert. They talk fluently, but

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commonly in loud and harsh tones. Their general air is sly and coquetish; and they have no idea that their carriage can possibly excite disgust, or even that they can fail to be objects of admiration. They have few opportunities of conversing with the other sex, and what good fortune offers they use with eagerness.

Such manners may be attractive to their countrymen, but their influence can extend no farther. To a taste a little more refined, it is more material that the ornaments of these females have a pleasing effect, and set off the charms of a face, the features of which are round and regular, of a black, lively, inquisitive eye, a smooth and open forehead, a mouth expressive of simplicity and good temper, furnished with a white and even set of teeth; united with a moderately handsome figure, a sprightly laughing air, and a demeanour gay, frank, and unsuspicious. Such is the common appearance of a young lady, about thirteen or fourteen years of age; a period when she usually takes upon her the cares of a household, or rather, notwithstanding obvious disqualifications, assumes the character of a matron. Indeed, at eighteen, in a Brazilian woman, nature has attained to full maturity. A few years later she becomes corpulent, and even unwieldy; acquires a great stoop in her shoulders, and walks with an awkward waddling gait. She begins to decay, loses the good humour of her countenance, and assumes, in its place, a contracted and scowling brow; the eye and mouth both indicate that they have been accustomed to express the violent and vindictive passions, the cheeks are deprived of their plumpness and colour, and at twenty-five, or thirty at most, she becomes a perfectly wrinkled old woman.

Early corpulence appeared to me to arise from their secluded and indolent habits. They were seldom seen out of doors, except when going to mass, so early as four o'clock in the morning, on Dias Santos, or days of sacred obligation; and even then the whole form and face were so wrapped up in mantles, or enclosed within the curtains of a Cadeira, as to preclude the enjoyment of fresh air, and to conceal every feature, except perhaps a wickedly talkative eye. These Cadeiras answered, less

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commodiously, the same purpose as do the Palanquins of the East. They consist of an arm-chair, with a high back, to which is attached a long foot-board and a canopy. Around the latter are suspended curtains of blue cloth, edged with some gaudy colour, and kept closed, as the machine passes along the streets, in order to conceal the haughty or the constrained Donna from public view. The whole is attached to a long pole, passing over the lady's head, and is suspended between two black men, who support it on their shoulders. Such were the only Carriages used formerly in Rio, by people of fashion, and, like the modern Chaise, to which they have lately given place, they were sometimes very splendid, being decorated in such a manner as might best display the taste, the wealth, and the rank of the owner. On the foot-board, which is large enough for the purpose, is often seated a little Senhora, forming the same idle habits as her mother has done, and laying a foundation for future unwieldiness of a similar kind.

The exercise which these ladies take is almost wholly confined to the house; little exertion is necessary, and that little opposed by inclination; they are surrounded by slaves, and it is their privilege to be waited upon. I have seen this carried to an extent which would be ridiculous, were it not something worse; and am sorry to add, that such sights are not unusual. A lady was seated on a mat, (one morning when I called upon her,) surrounded by a number of slaves, with needle-work in their hands; a drinking vessel, full of water, being placed so as that she could conveniently reach it. She interrupted the conversation by suddenly calling aloud for another slave to come from a different part of the house. When the negress entered the room, the lady said to her, "give me that drinking-vessel." She did so, her mistress drank and returned it; the slave replaced it in its former situation, and retired without seeming to feel that the command was an extraordinary one, or that she had performed ought which she had not done a thousand times before. Ah! ladies, thought I, what wonder that you become corpulent, and ruin your constitution; these are the natural effects of inanity.


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Other causes of the change which has been noticed might be found, I have often thought, in an obstinate adherence to unsuitable customs. The shrunk and furrowed appearance of the brow seems to me to arise, in a great measure, from following European fashions under the burning sun of the torrid zone, "where the full tide of day is poured." Even the white and genteel females of Brazil wear no covering on the head, no shade for the eye; hence the brow and pupil contract themselves as much as possible, to shield the tender organ from the superabundance of light. The walls of the houses too, both within and without, are universally whitened, heightening, by reflection, the mid-day glare, and sometimes producing an almost intolerable uneasiness in the eyes of persons possessed of the strongest sight. Is it wonderful that the forehead and eyes of delicate females should gradually assume an habitual contraction, which overclouds many a fair face with appearances that sometimes misrepresent the real turn of the mind? Premature age is owing partly to climate, partly to a constitution enfeebled and ruined by inactivity, most of all to the unnatural and shamefully early age at which females are allowed to marry.

Their early good humour, or the show of it, soon wears away; they often become the very reverse of what they were, and exhibit the alteration too plainly. This change may be attributed principally to the childish ceremony, and more foolish flattery, with which every woman is treated who ranks above the condition of a slave. They seem to be regarded by the men as dolls, or as spoiled children, whose whims must be gratified, and even anticipated; and she who has the greatest number obtains the most attention. The generality of ladies, treated in this way, become, almost of course, fretful and peevish, and pour their spleen upon their slaves; and when these resist or neglect the orders given them, endeavour to subdue them by a noisy and boisterous behaviour, not always free from malignity, and by castigation, not the less severe for coming from a lady's hand. Here is exercise, and perhaps the most efficacious that they ever take, quickening the circulation, giving some tone to the muscles, and discharging

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peccant humours; but at the same time destroying the temper, implanting in the heart the principles of a vixen, and stamping on the countenance the plain indications of what passes within.

As to the Employments of females the most common is the spinning of cotton, chiefly performed by women of colour, but not quite laid aside by others, even in the city. The instrument used is the Rock and Spindle. The workwomen have, probably, never heard of Arkwright and his improvements; and if they have heard of the invention of St. Catherine, have not the wisdom to adopt it. Indeed the Rock alone, and that of a smaller size than what was formerly used for Wool and Flax, can suit the purpose of those who spin as they walk. But though so generally in their hands, the negresses are far from being so expert in the use of it as the better taught females of the North.

Many women, white as well as black, employ themselves in making lace. Their method is somewhat curious; they sit cross-legged upon a mat spread on the floor, with the pillow before them, which is a sort of flat cushion nailed on a wooden frame, with two legs or feet at the hind part. The bobbins are very heavy, and loaded with spangles. The material is Cotton-thread, very coarse, the pattern simple, and the work ill executed; the colour cannot be good where the workwoman perspires profusely. She has no knowledge of parchment, particularly of the kind used in lace-making in the counties of Northampton and Buckingham; instead of it she uses a piece of paper, which is not firm enough to maintain the regularity of the pattern, consequently the work is often very indifferent. Nevertheless the process is so tedious, and so much skill is requisite to produce a tolerable article, that the price is high, and a present of lace always acceptable. It is used, not on ladies' caps, for they wear none; but is sometimes quilled round the bosom of a chemise, or set as a flounce at the bottom of a petticoat; it is also employed as a footing down the shoulder, and about the arm. When this lace is exhibited on a black skin, it forms a not unpleasing contrast.

In every superior family plain sewing is done by the slaves, for this is an employment which fashion, here as elsewhere, has very absurdly

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marked as a degradation to a lady's fingers. In general the domestics are placed upon the floor, with their legs crossed, round an idle mistress, who finds something like occupation in overlooking their labour, and reproving its failures. They do not hold the work in their hands, in the way common with us, but place on their knees a small hard stuffed pillow, to which one end of the article is attached, while the sewing proceeds towards the other.

Among the occasional occupations of females of the higher ranks are tambouring and making artificial flowers. The fabric of the latter, and the produce of the skill employed upon it, have been already noticed. The ladies perform their tambour-work with a very small frame; their labours in this way are trifling, though the work is often devoted to particular favourites. In these employments they display little fancy, and appear quite satisfied with their powers of imitation.

Domestic cares and occupations seem to be, in a great measure, out of the question. Among the most affluent, I do not think that any great pains are taken with the family arrangements of the table, and they have commonly a superabundance of slaves to manage these matters, and to absolve the ladies from all concern in them. Yet few are so high as not to value and cultivate skill in the preparation of confectionary, and without such skill there appears no chance of being esteemed a good housewife. They pique themselves upon the excellence of their sweetmeats, and make with them very pretty presents, generally enveloped in fancifully cut paper, on which much time and pains have been expended. When guests are to be entertained, the interference of the mistress appears to be a little more immediate and active. I have observed ladies, to whose tables I have been admitted, manifesting great anxiety to excel in their puddings; nothing, which is deemed good, is spared in the composition of them; and as it seems a settled point, that each lady's pudding is to be peculiarly her own, the guests feel themselves strongly called upon to eat of it with avidity, and to praise it with ardour. No such praise of other articles is necessary; for this is almost the only dish, of which a Brazilian lady acknowledges the superintendence, and

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is, no doubt, in many cases, the only instance of her meddling with the kitchen.

What can be expected from women of this country transformed into mothers? Happily, in so warm a climate, no early demands are made upon a mother's care as to the dress of her children, for both boys and girls run about the house naked, until they are about five years old, and three or four years beyond that period they wear nothing but the under linen garment. In this state, it is true, they are seen only by the members of the family, or by intimate friends; when rare occasions call them to church or to a visit, they are dressed up in all the fashionable stiffness of a former age; there is no difference, except in dimensions, between the dress of a boy, who has recently assumed the manly garb, and his father's, between little miss and her matronly mother. As to early instruction, what can be communicated by persons who know nothing? What pains are likely to be taken in the cultivation of good morals by those, who lay no personal stress upon them? There was, at the period of my earlier acquaintance with the country, a necessity that the education, to which any pretended, should be entirely at home; for there were no schools, and if there had been, the young Senhor or Senhora then would have been too lofty or too delicate to attend them. Nothing remained, therefore, but that the children should be permitted to run wild, amidst a host of slaves and vagabonds of the worst description, where they witnessed, and learned to practise, all the villanies, of which their tender age was capable. The object of the little restraint, under which they were occasionally placed, was to make formal and ceremonious young people, without the slightest regard to the virtue of youth, or the steadiness of maturer age.

Children, in general, appeared to me of an affectionate cast of mind, particularly towards their mothers. It is hardly to be questioned that this was produced by the affection, with which they had been treated. There was great actual neglect, but, probably, no real extraordinary indifference with regard to the welfare of their children, to their life or death. Yet I have marked some curious facts occurring at the funerals

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of children; more complacency than sorrow among remoter relatives, and even in the mother, no deep anguish, nothing scarcely to distinguish her from the other attendants.

On one occasion of this sort, a mother was heard to express herself in this strain,—" Oh, how happy I am! Oh, how happy I am! for my last child is now dead; Oh, how happy I am! When I die, and go to the gate of Heaven, I shall not fail of admittance, for there will be five little children, all pressing toward me, pulling my skirts, and saying, Oh mother, do come in,—do come in. Oh, how happy I am!" she again exclaimed, and laughed immoderately. Were this a solitary instance of strange maternal feeling, it might have been considered as the effect of temporary mental aberration; but satisfaction in such events is too general, and too openly inculcated, to leave room for an excuse of this kind. I cannot think well of representations of a future state, which thus dissolve the strongest bonds of social beings in this world.

Domestic Arrangements in Rio will appear, if brought to our standard, extremely defective. Neither in the habitations, nor in their furniture, do we meet with many things, which we have accustomed ourselves to regard as essential comforts; they are not to be found in the most spacious and the best provided dwellings.

Many of the Houses, as was mentioned before, have only one story. In this case, the front is generally occupied by a good-sized room, floored with substantial boards, laid upon sleepers in the natural soil, which renders the room almost constantly damp. Behind this, are alcoves, containing beds, a kitchen, and a small inclosed yard; in which, if the master of the house be wealthy enough to keep a horse, there is a shed, to answer the purpose of a stable. As few such houses have the advantage of a back door or separate passage, the way to the stable is commonly through the principal apartment. In houses of two stories, occupied by the higher classes, there is an open space, the entrance to which is by a large folding door, for the admission of horsemen and carriages. A broad flight of steps leads from the court to the story above, where are the sitting and lodging rooms, some of which are rendered offensive to

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British delicacy, by the noise, the heat, and the strong smell, of the animals confined below; but these things appeared to produce no unpleasant effect on Brazilian nerves. Where the lower story of a house is occupied, the front by a shop, and the hinder part by a large room, serving as a warehouse or repository for all sorts of lumber; the upper apartments generally form the abode of other individuals or families.

The Shopkeeper and his Servants eat, drink, and sleep in the miserably close and damp rooms below. The master sometimes has a bed, the counter or the floor generally forms that of his dependants and slaves. The shop doors are closed, or nearly so, at noon; a cloth is spread upon the counter, which then serves as a dinner table. The meal, sent in ready drest, is hastily taken, and is the only regular one allowed during the day.

Persons connected with the higher departments of trade, and others of sufficient rank and means, occupying the upper stories, have the advantage of a separate entrance from the street, which by a long passage conducts to a stair-case, always placed at right angles to the line of the passage, and having at the top a gate to prevent any one from entering unexpectedly. On the one hand, a door conducts into the front room, called the Sala, or drawing room, which generally fills the whole breadth of the house, and is nearly square. Before it is the inclosed balcony, which is entered from the room by three doors, answering the purpose of windows, and admitting light and air. These doors are generally open day and night, a slight fastening to the balcony being thought a sufficient security against thieves and intruders. On the side of the room opposite to the front is a pair of folding doors, in which is sometimes seen the only window glass, which the house contains; these are thrown open at night, and lead to an alcove or recess, forming the principal bed room. On each side of this recess there is a paneled door, opening into passages, which lead to other smaller and closer alcoves, and terminate in an open Varanda, surrounding an area, from which the back part of the house, and the warehouse are enlightened. Beyond the area is the kitchen.

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The Sala has a curious mixture of gorgeous painting with plastered and white-washed walls. The cornice usually consists of fillets of brown, yellow, light blue, red, pink, and other colours, variously arranged; but in whatever order placed, show seems to be the chief object. The ceiling is divided into compartments, and painted in a similar manner. Round the bottom is a broad, brown, or deep red border, being a substitute for a washboard. The doors and door-posts are generally yellow, with red, or pink, or blue mouldings. The front of the alcove is sometimes gilded as well as painted, and gives an air of richness to the room, which could not be expected from other portions of its ornament.

Poor and scanty is the Furniture of the most fashionable apartments. There is generally seen in them a wooden sofa, at once clumsy and fantastical in its form, together with a few chairs of a similar pattern; most of them are painted red and white, and ornamented with groups and wreaths of flowers; some of them, it may be, made nearly a century ago. In rooms of lower pretensions, the sofa alone appears, or two or three chairs; instead of such seats, the females use mats, on which they usually sit with their legs folded under them. Sometimes to these is added a small table, holding some of the ensigns of religion, and instruments used in its ceremonies. In the alcove is a well-made, but far from modern, bedstead, furnished with mosquito curtains, a hard mattress, round pillows and bolster, excellent sheets, and a light coverlid. Blankets are never used, a quilt only in cold weather, and night caps very seldom. This small cabin is encumbered with trunks and boxes made of hide, and baskets of various descriptions; a chest of drawers is a rare article.

The family commonly occupy the Varanda at the back of the house; and here are almost as much secluded from the world as they could be in the depths of a forest. The females sit around in their usual posture, and sew or knit, weave lace, tambour, or the like; while the men loll on any thing they can find for the purpose, or saunter from room to room. Here also they take their meals; and use an old table set upon two tressels, a couple of wooden forms to suit it, and sometimes, if there

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are such things, a chair or two. The chief meal is a dinner at noon, at which the master, mistress, and children, occasionally sit round the table; more frequently it is taken on the floor, in which case the lady's mat is sacred, and none approach it to sit down but acknowledged favourites. The viands are generally soup, wherein there is abundance of vegetables, Carne Secca, and Feijam of different kinds. Instead of bread, Farinha, or the flour of the Cassava root, is used. The food, if moist, is served up in calabashes or tureens; if dry, in baskets; and is eaten from small Lisbonian plates. Knives are used only by the men; women and children employ their fingers. The female slaves eat at the same time, in different parts of the room; and sometimes are favoured with a mess from the hands of their mistress. If there be a dessert, it consists of oranges, bananas, and a few other different kinds of fruit.

Kitchens have generally a large open chimney, and an oven; the hearth is about ten feet long, five broad, and three high; the fire-place consists of a range of partitions on the hearth, formed of bricks. These partitions are about two feet long, and a fire can be placed in any one of them alone; over the top of those in use bricks or stones are laid, with spaces or holes to allow the heat to reach the cooking-vessel, which is commonly a pan of earthenware, manufactured in the country. Neither grates, fire-irons, nor fenders are used; such furniture would be thought a superfluity and an incumbrance. A sort of fan, made of the leaves of the Palm-tree, is used to quicken the fire, and well supplies the place of bellows. The dresser is a solid plank of wood, fixed at one end of the kitchen, and above it are a few shelves. On a stool, formed for the purpose, stand pots containing water, always ready for drinking or for other uses; and over them hangs a ladle, made of a Cocoa-nut shell, which serves to take the water from the pots as it is wanted, and as a drinking-vessel for the slaves.

When a gentleman-calls upon another, if he be not intimate at the house, he goes thither in full dress, with a cocked hat, with buckles in his shoes and at the knees, and with a sword or dirk by his side. Having


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reached the bottom of the stairs, he claps his hands as a signal to attract attention, and utters a sort of sibilant sound, between his teeth and the end of his tongue, as though he pronounced the syllables, choe eu. The servant, who attends the call, roughly inquires in a nasal tone, who is it? and being told, retires to inform the master of the house, what are the wishes of the visitor. If he be a friend, or one so well known as to be received without ceremony, the master quickly comes to him, and ushers him into the Sala, making loud protestations of the pleasure given him by the visit, mixing his complimentary speeches with a great number of bows. Before business is entered upon, if that be the object, repeated apologies are offered for the free mode, in which the visitor is received. And, indeed, there is often no little occasion for such apologies, for the gentleman very generally makes his appearance with a beard of many days growth, with his black hair in the roughest state, though besmeared with grease, and with no clothing over his cotton shirt. This garment is, indeed, well made, and ornamented with needle-work, especially about the bosom. But then it is commonly worn in the house so as to expose the breast, and the sleeves are tucked up to the elbows. Or if, by chance, it be secured at the neck and wrists by its globular gold buttons, the flaps appear on the outside, hanging half way down the thighs, over a waistband, which secures round the loins a short pair of trowsers; while the legs are quite bare, and the feet covered with tamancas. All this is not very delicate; more especially as the skins of the Brazilians abound with hair, and are much sun-burnt about the breast and legs.

Should the call be a ceremonious one, a servant is sent to conduct the visitor to the Sala, from which, as he enters, he often sees the persons who were in the room, escaping at the other door. Here he waits alone, it may be, half an hour, when the gentleman appears in a sort of half dress. They both bow profoundly, at a distance; after a sufficiency of skill in this science has been displayed, and thus time gained to ascertain each other's rank and pretensions, they approach; if unequal, with corresponding dignity and respect; if supposed to be nearly equals, with

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familiarity. The business is then entered upon, and dispatched at once. These bows between strangers, and this slow approach, I almost love; as they give men some opportunity to measure and appreciate one another, and prevent a thousand awkward blunders, and equally awkward apologies. With my countrymen, in general, I participate in an abhorrence of the Brazilian embrace.

On our first arrival, there was considerable intercourse between the British and the people of the country. The strangers did all they could to honour the taste and manners of the residents; yet, by degrees, visits being frequently paid and returned, our modes and conveniences crept into use. The hour of dinner was about mid-day; two or more tables, joined together, formed a long and narrow one, so high as to reach to a man's breast, when sitting at it; the seats were clumsy forms or stools. The table was covered with a clean, but coarse, cotton cloth, having in it some open work, and fringed at the ends. I have never dined in a Brazilian house, where part of the furniture of the table was not English, particularly the earthenware and glass. Before such luxuries were introduced, they had pewter plates, or a rough sort of Dutch pottery, with some small Portuguese tumblers, narrow at the bottoms and the mouths wide; calabashes and cocoas, instead of tureens and cups, were common, even at their entertainments. The spoons and forks were of silver, both small, and often of antique fashion. Every guest produced his own knife, usually broad, sharp-pointed, and mounted in silver. Occasionally, individuals made a profuse display of plate and jewels; many had wealth, who were thoroughly unacquainted with the modes of using it gracefully and with comfort

Before Dinner is brought in, every one of the party, if it consisted of gentlemen alone, followed his own inclination in lounging about, or reclining on stools, tables, beds, or mats on the floor. In another point, too, each appeared equally free and easy; throwing off his coat, his shoes, and other garments, which the heat rendered oppressive to him, and, in some cases, retaining only those parts of his dress, which decency required. If there were ladies present, there was a little more

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attention to decorum. In this case, the arrangement of the party at table seemed strange to us; either the ladies were on one side, and the men on the other; or the wife seated herself next to her husband, having on the other side of her a lady, and then the husband of the latter; so that two wives sit between their own husbands; a mode marking a jealous precaution, but not unwise amongst such a hot-headed race. It is a great proof of confidence, and of high respect for the party, if unmarried ladies be introduced; but this is a favour seldom conferred. The master of the house takes the head of the table, and serves out the provisions, which, on days unmarked in the calendar, are of various sorts; on sacred days, fish only is provided, dressed in different modes, generally with a sufficient quantity of oil, yet not unpalatable. The dishes are brought in one by one, and a portion of each is handed to every person in succession, none refusing, or beginning to eat before the last is served; then all begin together, and voraciously devour the contents of their plates.

They eat much, as well as greedily; and though intent upon their business, find time to be very noisy. The height of the table brings the plate near to the chin; every one spreads out his elbows, and bringing his wrist close to the edge of the plate, tosses the food into his mouth by a dexterous motion of the hand. On other accounts as well as this, there is not much delicacy or cleanliness in the meal; plates are never changed, and are delivered to the servants with the knife and fork held in the same hand; the fingers, too, are as often used as the fork. It is accounted a mark of strong attachment for a man to eat off his neighbour's plate; so that the hands of both are not unfrequently dipped into it at the same time. A weak sort of red wine is used, but, being drunk from tumblers, it sometimes operates powerfully; before the conclusion of the repast, the company become boisterous, their common gesticulation in talking is increased, and they throw their arms about, with their knives and forks, in such a way that a stranger feels no little surprize, how eyes, noses, and cheeks, escape from injury. When the knives and forks are at rest, one is grasped in either hand, and held

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upright on the table, resting on the end of its haft; and when they are no longer wanted the knife is deliberately wiped upon the cloth, and returned to its sheath, which is placed in the girdle behind the loins. There it rests until some similar occasion calls it forth, or it is produced to cut a switch in the woods, or, possibly, to obey the dictates of revenge.

The business of the table lasts about two hours. Brazilians do not sit at their wine; a sufficient quantity is taken with the food, and the compliments of the bottle are carried to a great extent. When a gentleman takes wine with another, the degree of their regard is expressed by the fulness of their tumblers, and both endeavour to carry them to their lips without spilling a drop; the wine is drunk off at a single draught, and as exactly as possible in the same time. If the master of a house propose a toast, it is generally the health of his own wife; and to honour the lady I have seen a whole bottle swallowed without a pause. But such compliments are, in a great measure, new among the people of Rio, and they have not yet taken a firm hold, or spread widely. They are, indeed, adopted chiefly out of regard to the British, of whom it has unfortunately been reported, that they are much devoted to the bottle. The Brazilians, unused to such modes of complimenting, often exhibit scenes of beastliness, for which friendly intention is no adequate excuse.

After dinner Coffee is brought in, and each person takes one cup only, as a sedative. A slave then appears with a basin and ewer, both in general of massy metal; she has a long towel thrown over her shoulder, and goes round to every guest, who holds his bands over the basin while she pours water upon them from the ewer. In this way he washes as much as he pleases, not his hands only, but his mouth; perhaps his face, and even his arms. Though these ablutions are not very decorously conducted, they exhibit one of the cleanliest and best customs of the country. Afterward every one retires to his Siesta, stretching his limbs wherever he can find some shade, and that degree of the sombre which may favour his repose. Some spread a mat in the open air, under the thick foliage of a tree, and there indulge in all the luxury of laziness; others resort to what they emphatically call their diversions.

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This description applies almost exclusively to the country. In the city persons retire, after dinner, to their own houses, to take their repose, and spend the evening as they please. Out of the city, particularly if the moon be nearly full, evening finds the remaining guests in full gaiety of spirits; sleep has dissipated the fumes of wine, if too much had been taken, the company is enlarged by an assemblage of the neighbourhood, the guitar strikes up, for every one can touch it; the song succeeds, generally in soft and plaintive notes, and the dance is not forgotten. In this way the hours of evening pass, or in the ever varying deals of manilla, in free remarks and smart replies, in feats of agility and harmless frolics. The reserved character, which seldom fails to make itself conspicuous in the earlier part of the day, wears off, and not unfrequently people run to the opposite extreme. The loose attire of the ladies is peculiarly favourable to the exertion of their limbs, and they engage with great hilarity in the rough, but innocent exercises of the other sex. Here and there a jealous old husband looks after his young and sprightly wife, and she deems it prudent to restrain her gaiety; but it makes little difference, and occasions no interruption of the general glee.

It was to escape from one of these parties in the country, where he thought that boisterous frolic was overstepping the boundaries of propriety, that one of the guests, in order to avoid his friendly pursuers, sprang into a boat, where were two British sailor-lads, and playfully pushed off from the beach, challenging them to follow him. They, of course, declined, and he stretched over to the Ilha dos Fradres, intending to visit an ecclesiastic, with whom he had formed an acquaintance in the city, and who had received permission to go, for fourteen days, to this place of recreation. The fugitive landed upon the island without difficulty, and proceeded to the Convent, where, to his utter astonishment, he found, in one end of the Varands, fourteen or fifteen fine young women. Never before had he been used to combine, even in thought, the inhabitants of a Monastery with a Coterie of females. Yet he possessed prudence enough to go forward, and inquire for his friend; in

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reply, he was told that there was not a Friar in the house, and that all of the fraternity, who had been there, had that morning returned to the city, by order of their Superior. The intruder, not a very young man, thought that he perceived in this company a cast of character which he had not, until that day, noticed in Brazil. He partook of the refreshment usually offered in such places, fruit and water. They were handed to him by a person who, though he appeared in the common habit of a labourer, had the peculiar air which is acquired only in a Convent, and an eye which seemed to speak to the ladies, who, in consequence, became more reserved. That he might not betray his suspicions, the visitor spent half an hour in this company, and then took his leave, evidently to the disembarrassment of all. The adventure utterly destroyed his confidence in the Friar, and, combined with circumstances of a more general nature, convinced him that this class of men, though it may be, not absolutely vicious, have a strong disposition for social enjoyments.

The different branches of refinement, it has often been observed, usually advance together. In Brazil, education and mental improvement have even come short, defective as they are, of domestic accommodation. It has been incidently mentioned that, formerly, there were no schools in the colony; this, strange as it may appear, is literally true; there were none of the ordinary establishments for the early education of children. By far the greater part grew up and entered life without the least acquaintance with the first rudiments of learning; what they knew was chiefly picked up from the father's clerks, in general young men from Portugal, who had emigrated to make the most of their talents.

A great number of persons of this description were thrown into Brazil when their country was occupied by the French. Some of these turned their adroitness to account by gambling, others employed themselves more honourably as schoolmasters. Their means of accommodation were small, and their modes of teaching imperfect; yet valuable effects were produced. The children were crowded into close and stifling rooms, where they all read aloud, at the same time, to the great annoy-

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ance of each other. In writing the process was better; when a number of boys, about the same standing, had finished their copies, they were turned into the street, and appealed to the judgment of any chance passenger, whom, by his appearance, they thought capable of deciding upon the merit of their respective productions. I have often admired the vivacity with which each sought for a favourable verdict, and the high gratification with which it was attained. It seemed as if there was yet a spring in the Brazilian mind, notwithstanding its common degradation, which, if rightly touched, might produce great effects. But though schools became more numerous, they remained almost entirely in the hands of the Portuguese; though scholars were comparatively multiplied, a great part of their time was wasted in chaunting Matinas and Ave Marias.

Education in the Colleges is almost entirely confined to the Priesthood and to lay-offices in the Church; and, even for these exclusive purposes, is at the lowest ebb. The teachers are not only altogether unversed themselves in general science and literature, but hold such things in contempt; this is the case even with respect to the learning which is usually accounted essential to the Clerical Profession, and the Church is, accordingly, most wretchedly and disgracefully supplied. A few of the young people educated in the Colleges are intended for secular employments; and of those whose early destination has been to the Church, but who have not taken the vows, a few turn to the world and its occupations. The College of St. Joaquim, as has been stated, together with its schools, which have been advantageously transferred to the intended Church of the Jesuits, departs the most from the common rule of such establishments, and professes to direct the attention of its students to such branches of knowledge as may qualify them for offices under the government, by which the College is said to be favoured and patronized.

From the scanty means of acquiring knowledge which the people of Brazil possess, and their prevailing indifference, to say the least, with respect to the acquisition of better, and even to the wise use of those

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which they have, it naturally follows that the Colony must be deeply sunk in ignorance. The detail of the different classes of its society has proved an almost invariable display of this fact, and it has already been strongly illustrated by examples taken from the higher ranks. Let one other instance of this sort suffice.

Walking with a friend in front of the Chapel of the Franciscan Convent, we were joined by two Military Officers, who appeared to be men of rank in their profession. They asked many questions about England, and some which were probably suggested by the scene immediately before us. They even inquired what was the Religion of our country, and were greatly surprised to hear that we knew any thing of Jesus Christ, and embraced his doctrines. "Have you any churches?" We mentioned the number in London alone. "Are they splendid edifices?" We gave them some description of St. Paul's, and compared its size and magnificence with those of the Franciscan Chapel. "Have you Sacraments?" "Two only," was the reply, "Baptism and the Lord's Supper." "What, then, are you baptized?" "Surely, we are." "What! baptized with water as we are; and have you priests authorised to administer this Sacrament?" Our answers to these inquiries seemed to stagger them; we supposed that they accounted our information utterly unworthy of credit, for they addressed a few words to each other, in a low tone of voice, and abruptly bade us adieu.

This anecdote, and the others of a similar nature, which have been before given, have not been descriptions of the low state of knowledge among a few individuals of the different classes. There may be, in all of them, a small number too prudent to expose themselves so egregiously; but the generality are not better informed, nor are they more shy of exhibiting their ignorance. If it be thus with the superior ranks of Brazilian society what must be the case with the common people? Every one may easily decide the point; and scarcely can it be decided in a way too unfavourably. It is hardly conceivable that any country, long partaking of civilization, should fall beneath the real state of the Colony in this respect.


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It is a common observation, that uncleanly habits are the usual attendants of ignorance; much has already been said to show that Brazil is far from offering an exception to this rule. Few words, indeed, have been used more frequently than dirt, filth, and other synonimous expressions, but so it must be if the real and universal state of the country and its inhabitants is to be exhibited. What remains to be said on the subject shall be touched lightly, if not passed with such haste as might be acceptable to an overstrained delicacy.

A few of the Brazilians learn to swim, some because their employments call them to be much on the water, some because their health requires the bath; but frequent ablutions are by no means in general request among the men. The feet are the most cleanly parts of their persons, for it is necessary to wash them occasionally, in order to keep them from the injury which the neglected bite of different insects frequently produces. The faces, hands, arms, bosoms, and legs, all of which are, in both sexes, much exposed, are rarely blessed with any cleansing; and hence, more than from a burning sun, acquire a considerable degree of brownness. The skin of young children is commonly fair, but being permitted to roll about continually in the dirt, and being seldom or carelessly washed, their hue soon becomes as dingy as that of their parents. No such instrument as a small tooth-comb, nor any substitute for it but the fingers, is known in this part of the American continent. Men and women, children, and servants, indulge publicly in one of the most disgusting of Portuguese customs; one reclines with his or her head in the lap of another, for a purpose unnameable; even monkeys are taught to fill the same office, and do it with dexterity and pleasure. All grease their hair, and pride themselves in its consequent glossiness; yet never seeking to preserve its lustre or smoothness by a night cap. The men seldom shave, unless business calls them to appear in public. Among people thus careless about decent personal appearances, it were unreasonable to look for much nicety in dress. A tawdry taste may be seen in the contrivance and wear of their clothes, but they continually show how thoroughly consistent this is with dirt.

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Occasionally some of the apartments are swept with a sort of besom, made of flags; but water is seldom put upon the floors, in the houses of merchants and shopkeepers, lest it should run through, and injure the goods below. To obviate this inconvenience, and, at the same time, secure the comfort of a well washed room, some of our countrymen had their floors caulked, like the deoks of a ship. They thus remedied, in some measure, one of the evils here attendant upon the common neglect of cleanliness; for the accumulated dust favours the multiplication of Fleas and Chigas, the former of which are very large and active, the latter burrow under the skin, and produce painful, and, if neglected, dangerous sores. Both appear to be perfectly at home, and are permitted to dwell in peace, though there grows, in the very skirts of the town, a species of Conyza which is fatal to them, but the people are too lazy to gather and apply it. Another insect, too common in some European bed-rooms, was said not to exist here, and it was even held that it could not endure the heat of the country; but this notion fact has shown to be erroneous, for some of them have unfortunately been naturalized, and seem to bear the climate well. The dampness of the lower floors, some of which are the uncovered soil, others of boards laid immediately upon it, is favourable to the breeding of Mosquitoes, which gaily spend their ephemeral life, buzzing through every apartment, and tormenting every inhabitant. The same circumstance is, probably, no less favourable to Baratas, which are as ugly as they are numerous; to Earwigs, of which there are but few; to Lizards, with their unpleasant forms and peculiar chilliness to the touch; to the white Ant, which is, beyond calculation, voracious and destructive; to the black ones, which exist by millions, and bite most unmercifully; to Scorpions and Centipedes, which, not content with the ground-floor, occasionally mount the stairs, and annoy the bed-rooms; and to the common Fly, which fills every place, multiplies like the Ant, and teases beyond all patient endurance.

If one kind of care and pains, to counteract these plagues, be utterly neglected, it is the same with others. The inner walls of the houses,

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originally plastered and whitewashed, seldom receive a second coat, and, for want of it, become yellow and green with mosses. The cabins, which contain the beds, are seldom thrown open to the purifying influence of the air; nor are the beds, though moist with perspiration, generally exposed to the sun. To render the rooms tolerably sweet, and to drive away the pests with which they are filled, odoriferous drugs are often burnt, just before the hour of retirement; lulled by their agreeable perfume, the lodger becomes, for a little time, insensible to pain, but frequently awakes disfigured, having been attacked, during his short repose, by thousands of invisible foes. Their bites produce inflammation and swelling, with a slight degree of fever, during the continuance of which the blood is said to undergo some change, which renders it unpalatable to the tormentors. The best remedy, therefore, is quiet submission; patience saves the sufferer, at least from the additional inflammation arising from rubbing the wounds; or he may defend himself by the application of lime juice to the parts exposed to the ravages of insects.

If we proceed from the bed-rooms to the kitchens, other nuisances are not wanting. Among the worst is a tub, destined to receive all the filth and refuse of the house; which is sometimes carried out and emptied every day, sometimes only once a week, according to the number of the slaves, or their comparative cleanliness and punctuality; but, whenever brought out, it is offensive beyond expression. If a hasty shower chances to fall these tubs are generally produced, their nauseous contents poured into the middle of the street, and left to flow down the common water-course. In houses where they are not in use all sorts of filth are thrown into the area, and form a more offensive mass than a cleanly imagination can picture. There it lies, assisting the breed of insects, and generating disease, for the heavy rains of a tropical climate to carry it off. The water which falls into the area, thus impregnated, is usually conveyed into the street, through channels under the floor of the house, or into a well dug so deep as to communicate with the bed of sand below high water-mark, in which it is swallowed up, or through which a part of it finds its way into the sea.

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Whatever vent it may find, or however it may be partially evaporated and dried up by the heat, the dunghill by the shore accumulates perpetually. Cloacina has no Altar erected to her in Rio, and a sort of Pot de Chambre is substituted for her Temple. The beach, open spaces, and back lanes, are thickly strewed with ever fresh abominations. There are no common sewers, no scavengers, no public characters, whose duty it might seem to be to prevent or cure them, few private persons, that appear to be sensible of their existence. One prevailing custom alone may, possibly, have been adopted, or may have attained its almost universal influence, as a precaution against the stench, which pervades the whole atmosphere of the city. The Brazilians, and the Portuguese also, take abundance of snuff; in cleanlier places there is no occasion to plug up the nose.

A part of the Nuisances, with which this city is infested, may arise from climate; it would be unfair not to make considerable allowances on this score. But after the most ample deductions, the great mass of what is most disgusting may be traced to confirmed habit, and the insensibility which it occasions. It is no wonder that strangers, on the irresistible evidence of different senses, should consider Rio as one of the dirtiest associations of human beings under Heaven. It is no wonder that they dread lest, by the increase of population, it should become one great pest-house. It would have been so long since, were not the climate, with all its burning heat, singularly pure; it will be so, unless some vigorous methods, which hitherto have not been thought necessary, nor even expedient, be employed to keep it wholesome. The yellow fever stands already at the door; if it enter, its ravages will be horribly desolating. Even now, men have blotched and blainy skins; females are subject, from unnatural confinement, as well as deleterious air, to different cutaneous disorders; and the flesh of children is flabby, their countenances pale, their bodies full of eruptions, and their whole system debilitated.

Some highly disgusting features of the Brazilian character have been noticed; worse remain to be brought forward. In the delineation of

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them, all possible brevity may seem, on some accounts, to be desirable; but no one can comprehend the extent of depravity, among this people, without a short detail. The Cities, for which Abraham interceded, Cyprus, Carthage, Crete, and Sparta, had joined, at the period when my acquaintance with the country began, to form the social order of Rio de Janeiro. The sacred precincts of truth, private property, and domestic virtue, were violated in the most licentious way. Few were to be believed on their most solemn asseveration; fewer still to be trusted, even after some trial of their fidelity. Imposition and pilfering, of every description, where they could be attempted with the hope of safety, were so common as to excite only transient and inoperative feelings of resentment. Occasional thefts were bold and daring; but, in general, though accomplished with adroitness, so as seldom to fail of their object, they were skulking and dastardly. Assassination sometimes followed in their train; and sometimes was coolly practised for purposes of less moment than to make sure a booty, or prevent a discovery. The life of an undistinguished individual was not worth two dollars; for a smaller sum, any Coward could hire a Bravo to take it away. When a body dropped in the street, though in broad day-light, the murderer walked on, and the people beheld him as if he had done nothing amiss, and even made way for his escape. Indeed, their own safety required such forbearance, for the Brazilians then wore, almost universally, wide wrapping cloaks, under which they not only concealed the produce of their thievish industry, but also carried their never-failing companion, a knife. This, when they apprehended a pursuit, was openly displayed, firmly grasped, and held ready to strike the first person, who should dare to interrupt their progress.

The British, finding that no one was safe, in his property or person, who had not the resolution to defend himself, not only employed all their watchfulness to baffle the attempts of those around them, but placed arms within reach, when they lay down on their beds, and carried them so as not to be observed, when they went abroad. It was not to be expected that foreigners should enjoy a measure of the public care,

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which was not exercised in behalf of the natives. There were, indeed, a few Police Soldiers, stationed in different places; and it was customary to call for their help, when any one apprehended danger, or was witness to an attack upon another. I was once near at hand, when such a call was made, and marked its consequences. The man of arms obeyed the summons, but took so much time to adjust his sword, his pistol, and his belts, and then to hear the case, as to give the culprit ample opportunity to escape; and having done so, he magisterially said,— "Now then, let us go."

That there were well-principled and honourable men among the inhabitants of Rio is readily allowed; and it would be uncharitable to question, whether the mixture of good with evil qualities, which abounds every where else, was to be found there also. But in many of these mixed characters there was an unusual preponderance of the evil; and a much larger proportion than common seemed to be altogether depraved. Depravity, too, was not there redeemed by any national qualities of a solid, nor even of a shewy, kind; it was not, in general, thought necessary to maintain that shadow of virtue, hypocrisy. Vices, which elsewhere men are the most careful to hide, were seen stalking abroad as publicly and unblushingly as the most abandoned could desire. Not negroes and the populace alone contemplated them with apathy; the moral taste and feeling of persons of a higher cast partook so much of the common taint that, when we mentioned with horror, the worst of crimes, which we were obliged to witness, they often advanced something by way of defence, and really appeared as much surprized at our mode of thinking as if we had broached a new religion, or foisted into the old one some scrupulous fancies.

About the time before mentioned, several writing desks were stolen from the abodes of British subjects; among them my own disappeared, containing several papers of importance. We despaired of recovering them by the common modes of tracing and apprehending a thief, and therefore took other measures, which I will describe, because there will be found connected with them, a characteristic illustration of the way of administering justice in Rio.

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A friend, who resided in the same house, joining his earnest endeavours to mine, we soon discovered the Culprit in the person of a Mulatto Carpenter, who had been employed on the premises, and obtained evidence against him, which appeared to us most satisfactory. We proceeded together to the office of the Minister of Police, which was then improperly situated at some distance from the city; and requesting an audience, were told that his excellency was taking his repose, and could not be disturbed before five o'clock. We were chagrined at this delay, because it gave the thief six hours effectually to conceal or destroy the property. In the evening we returned, and were admitted to the Minister, who treated us with great affability, and entered readily into the case, telling us, at last, that we had nothing more to do in it until that day se'nnight. We ventured to suggest the propriety, of something like a Search Warrant; and, in consequence, a Soldier was ordered to attend us to the man's house, which we searched, but with the effect naturally to be expected, when so much time had been lost after the man had received some intimation of our suspicions.

As we were coming away, a shabby-looking man met us, and said that we had no right to enter the house without his permission. As his appearance was far from indicating authority, and as we were conscious that we acted under the sanction of a Magistrate, accountable only to the Sovereign, we treated his interference with levity. He intimated that he had power to punish us, and, to support this intimation, announced himself as the Juiz do Povo, that is, the People's Advocate. We observed that our companion, the Soldier, paid him great respect; and afterwards learned that he actually held one of the most important offices of the Portuguese Constitution, and which had not fallen into entire disuse in Brazil; an office, which was once the best guardian of the people against the wanton exercise of arbitrary power, and might be described as their Tribunate.

On the day appointed, we again waited upon the Minister, were received with his former politeness, and informed that the man had been imprisoned from the evening of the robbery, and that he had been thumb-screwed, but had not confessed the theft; he added that he

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thought it proceeded from hardness, rather than innocence, and hinted at farther torture. Shocked at the idea, we begged that no such measure might be resorted to, and assured him that, if by his Excellency's good offices the papers could be recovered, we should be quite satisfied. He smiled at our tenderness, which he evidently thought misplaced, and requested us to call again the next week. At this third interview, he told us that the theft had been tacitly acknowledged, but that the papers were irrecoverable, as they had all been burned; a circumstance, which he regretted on the prisoner's account, as well as our's. We left the man, therefore, to be disposed of as the law might direct. What became of him, I know not, nor what means were employed to procure his confession; but hope that no torture was used. He continued under confinement; for some time afterward his wife called at our house, and implored us, by the love of God and of all the Saints, that we would interfere to obtain his release; which, all circumstances considered, we thought it proper to decline.

At that time, Several things occurred to point out the propriety of increasing the power, the vigilance, and the severity of the police. The laws were so imperfect, or so imperfectly executed, that white people seemed to have been gradually confirmed in the persuasion, that they were above their influence. Few of that class had, I believe, been recently apprehended for crimes, except those committed against the State; and Mulattoes enjoyed like exemptions, in proportion as their colour approached the dingy or the fair.


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With some Account of the Provinces of Paraná and Uruguay.

A. D. 1808——1813.


THE Market of Rio de Janeiro being greatly overstocked, British Merchants soon began to look out for a distant and more extensive sphere of operation. Together with others in similar circumstances, my views were turned towards the Southern Coast, and ultimately to the Plata; accordingly arrangements were made for proceeding to Santos, St.Catharine's, and Rio Grandé, and, should it prove necessary, to Monte Video, and Buenos Ayres.

The first Fleet from England having arrived in July, a duty of twenty-five per cent. ad valorem, was imposed upon goods imported, and no drawback was allowed on sending them to any other port, even to one without the Portuguese dominion. Our Consul, Sir James Gambier, supported by Admiral, Sir Sidney Smith, had remonstrated on the impolicy, as well as hardship, of the case, and proposed that British manufactures re-exported should pay only a transit duty of four per cent. and that they should be inspected, not unpacked. But the

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treasury was in a most needy condition, the duty attempted to be imposed promised to replenish it, and the Government obstinately refused to listen to reason. In this state of things, the second fleet appeared off the coast, when the Admiral declared to the Government, that not a ship should enter the harbour, unless the demands of the Consul were complied with. As necessity urged the Government, in the first instance, to withstand these demands, the same necessity now operated in a different direction; money must be had, four per cent, was better than nothing, and all we asked was conceded to us. Thus was the British Commerce between Brazil and other Foreign Ports first freed from arbitrary and exorbitant impositions, and the liberty obtained of trading to them upon payment of a transit duty.

We had other difficulties to struggle with, but they were insignificant compared with those arising from a needy Government. The Officers of the Customs at Rio had never been used to business on an extensive scale; and in the little which they accomplished, proceeded with the most tedious formality. The magnitude of British concerns confounded all their ideas, and our rapidity in business, seemed utterly to overwhelm them. The necessary documents were not obtained without repeated applications; and, when obtained, were seldom correct.

Thus it was with our papers, on the present occasion. By great and persevering exertion our vessel was got ready for sea, and endeavoured to sail on the 27th of November; when an officer came on board, with the usual ceremonies, to examine our Clearance and Passports; the latter of which were found to be defective. The owners of the Cargo returned to the city, and waited upon the Minister of Police, in whose department the error had occurred. It was a Dia Santo, yet he received us with politeness, called for a clerk, and ordered the Passports to be amended. On receiving them, we immediately returned on board. This is mentioned as an additional evidence of the great readiness of men in office to assist and oblige the British, for had such an application come from a Brazilian, he might probably have been made to wait several days.

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The Wind no longer served for that day, but the next morning it was fair, as, indeed, it always is about sunrise; taking advantage of it, we soon passed the Forts, and congratulated ourselves on being beyond the annoyance of blundering ignorance. Previously an officer had come on board, and re-examined the Passports, and finding them correct, was pleased to do for us another piece of service. Having expressed to us in the cabin his regret that we were proceeding to sea with a set of well-known and marked villains, having desired us to be continually on our guard, and to give the earliest information to the Minister of Police, should any thing unpleasant occur amongst them; he called the sailors about him on deck, told them that he was well acquainted with their characters, and that they would not fail to be severely punished for their misbehaviour, if a complaint were lodged against them in any port, where we might touch, as the Government felt peculiar anxiety for the safety and comfort of Englishmen. While we thought that there might be some reason for such representations as these, we considered the greater part of what he said as calculated for Stage-effect. This may appear uncandid; but strangers are generally ready to suspect the want of a simple generous principle, where men are very forward with their attentions; and such suspicions can hardly any where be more warrantable than among the people of Brazil.

Our vessel was under the Colours of Portugal; the Captain, with the greater part of the sailors, were subjects of that kingdom; yet, besides the proportion of Foreigners, who were allowed to be mustered among the ship's company, all of whom were Englishmen, we were three British owners of the cargo, and had contrived to add to our number three more of our countrymen, who were sailors, under the character of passengers. Two of these had been accustomed to the East India trade, and were qualified to take charge of a ship. Thus manned, we thought there was little reason to be apprehensive of the Brazilians, though they might fully answer to the representation which we had heard. The British, were formed into one watch, under the command of one of their own number. For two days, things went on well; but on the succeeding

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night, the Brazilians having the first watch upon deck, under the command of the Captain, those, who were in the cabin, were alarmed with an unusual noise, and, on inquiring the cause, were informed that the watch had perceived a small flash of lightning, and had let go the topsailhalyards, and run below. From hence no remonstrances of the Captain, who, on this occasion, behaved as he ought, could dislodge them; the other watch was called to take their place, and farther notice of their misconduct was deferred to the morning.

Not long after, several of the Brazilian sailors became so ill as to be incapable of duty. We had departed from the usual mode of victualling these people, who, in common, are paid a certain sum for the trip, and find their own provisions; thinking it better to lay in the ship's stores ourselves, and to serve them out in the same way as is done on board of British vessels. The men were liberally supplied; yet they found access to the stores, and plundered them. Amongst other things, they devoured so much cheese and raw rice, as produced serious illness; deprived us for a day or two of several useful hands, and, among the rest, of a man, named Sylva, the best of our Brazilian seamen; and even made us anxious for the lives of two or three of them.

They had scarcely recovered, when it was found expedient to prepare for bad weather, which seemed to be coming on. The men, however, while we were at dinner in the cabin, positively refused to go aloft; confusion immediately ensued, which brought every one upon deck, where we found the Captain, and one of our countrymen, whom we had made second officer, fighting with the sailors; and, being armed as usual, instantly presented ourselves on the side of those who wished to maintain discipline. Our weapons were not then wanted, for the Captain had seized a billet, and knocked down the man nearest to him, and our officer had overturned and disabled Sylva; the others submitted, and returned to their duty. Nevertheless, we thought it expedient, for the future, always to have an armed Englishman upon deck, in the character of a sentinel; for this occurrence was sulkily remembered, and the ill

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temper of the crew aggravated by the strict watchfulness and œconomy which their thievery obliged us to maintain.

The expected gale came on with violence, and we drifted before it, until, at the end of ten days, we were in 36° 30′ South, and, as we judged, by Lunar observations, two hundred and forty miles from shore. The Brazilian Captain, imagining that we were much nearer, and our wants being very pressing, it was determined to run for Monte Video. During the gale the conduct of the men had improved, and we began to feel some confidence in them. Our vessel, too, was really a fine sea-boat, and behaved uncommonly well; but, as in such cases is unavoidable, We shipped a great deal of water. As it evaporated, we noticed a much more considerable quantity of salt deposited by it than we had ever observed, under similar circumstances, in the Northern hemisphere. From this evidence of the water here holding in solution a larger proportion of salt than common, and from our knowledge that, on the nearest coast, it is found in singular abundance, we supposed that it might, probably, lie in strata beneath the water.

When the wind, still continuing violent, had settled into a hard and steady gale, the form and motion of the water became unspeakably majestic. The billows were broad and lofty, perfectly distinct from each other, and undulated with the freedom of a pendulum, It was evident that they struck no rock, and swept no bottom; and we were persuaded that, beneath them, there was a great body of fluid undisturbed. We amused ourselves with conjectures about their height, the breadth of the vallies between them, and the depth to which the influence of the wind extended. But we had no means of coming to any satisfactory conclusions on these points, and could only agree that the undulation of water, in vast masses and wide oceans, had never found its proper place among the speculations of philosophers. There is, probably, much to be learned, not only of it, but from it.

Having, two days before we saw the land, found soundings at the depth of sixty fathoms, and perceived the influence of the mighty stream

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of the Plats. we at length reached its mouth, and were proceeding upward, when we were boarded by a Spanish Guarda Costa, commanded by Don Luiz Liniers, who insisted that we should not go to Monte Video, but gave us permission to proceed to Buenos Ayres. The officer whom he sent for this purpose assigned, as the cause of the prohibition, some of the circumstances which afterwards produced the Revolution in that city, and cost General Liniers his life. He stated that Monte Video had lately admitted vessels, and received and retained the Duties payable by them, instead of transmitting the produce to Buenos Ayres, that the General was distressed for money, and to secure what was due to the government which he administered, bad ordered his son to cruize below Maldonado, where we unfortunately fell in with him.

To secure our compliance with his directions he sent on board us a party of marines, with the necessary provisions for them, assuring us, in answer to our remonstrances, that we should be at Buenos Ayres in two days, where our own wants might be supplied. The wind, however, proved contrary, and the Cruizer having left us, we ran into Maldonado, where we found two British men of war, the Monarch and the Agamemnon. It was not, indeed, matter of comfort to all of us, for the moment our boat's crew had landed, Sylva, who was one of them, was recognized by an officer of the Monarch as the man who had stolen a hat from his head in Rio, was seized, carried on board his Majesty's ship, and there punished by confinement, if not flogging. To our great mortification he was restored to us, when we were again under way.

On our waiting upon him, Captain Lee received us with urbanity and frankness. We were perfectly satisfied that he and Captain Jonas Rose, who soon joined the party, were ready to protect, to the utmost, the property and commerce of their fellow-subjects; yet they united to advise us, under existing circumstances, to comply with the orders which we had received, and proceed to Buenos Ayres. This advice they supported by explaining to us the state of things in the river, and by showing us, as much as they deemed proper, of their correspondence with General Liniers on commercial subjects. The Commodore

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presented us with an ample supply of provisions for that evening; and, the next morning but one having obtained a bullock from the shore, we weighed anchor, and steered upwards, in company with a vessel from Belfast.

We arrived in the outer-roads of Buenos Ayres on Christmas-day; here the wickedness of our ship's company involved us in new and severer misfortunes. The boat was sent on shore, with the Captain and a Supercargo, and having at hand no other ballast, some pigs of lead were thrown into her; this the men stole, and suffered the boat to drift away. They then proceeded to do us more serious injury, by deposing that we had clandestinely landed goods at Maldonado, that we had arms concealed on board, and had repeatedly threatened to take their lives. These charges were privately received, no opportunity was afforded us for repelling them, and it was known by the authorities of the city that the two Men of War had left the river; we were accordingly put under arrest, strictly confined on board, and detained for six weeks. Our accusers alone were permitted to go on shore, until they were detected in smuggling goods plundered from the ship. On Sylva were found fifteen pairs of silk stockings, when he was about, one day, to step into the boat. And, afterward, on examining the chests of others of the crew, in the presence of Spanish Officers, it was ascertained that thefts had been committed, to a great extent, by means of a passage, which the men had made through the bulk-head forward.

Such was the character of our ship's company, by many degrees the worst with which I had ever sailed. The fate of some of them, at least, was conformable to the specimen of their qualities, which they had presented to us. The Captain I afterward saw in prison at Rio Grandé do Sul, having been apprehended there, at the instance of a gentleman from St. Paul's, for robbery and breach of trust. And Sylva, I believe, was hanged in London, for the murder of a person in Wapping, having made a voyage to China, after the commission of the crime, and been seized at Macao. Less would have been said of them, and the rest of our crew, if the chief traits of character, here exhibited, had not been too generally applicable to Brazilian seamen. They are timid, insubordinate, dishonest, and malicious.

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Our detention at Buenos Ayres gave me an opportunity of witnessing the commencement of one of those grand political events, which occur only once in several ages, to change the structure of society, and improve the destiny of man. The first shots which ushered in the South American revolution were fired during this interval, and the yoke of Spain, which had so long and so severely galled the necks of the native inhabitants, was shattered by the stroke;—so shattered as never to be repaired, unless the land should become a desert, and man crawl on it like a reptile.

From the same untoward cause, I became better acquainted, than I otherwise should have been, with the capricious and wonderful river in which we were detained. The observations made during this season enable me to record, with greater advantage, a few singular circumstances, which occurred in subsequent voyages up and down the river.

In one trip we were obliged to pass Cape St. Mary five times, before we could make good our passage upward. Wanting confidence in the only seaman on board, who was qualified to direct, we timidly came to anchor every night, and by day were continually baffled by calms and currents, until a Pampero placed us in the utmost danger on a lee-shore; which we cleared only by carrying every stitch of canvas on the vessel which she could bear. The presages of the blast, which came on from the South-West, about five in the evening, and by ten blew a perfect hurricane, veering to the South-East, were very observable, but we did not understand them. A small black cloud appeared, about four o'clock, in the South-West, fifty degrees above the horizon, which looked like a patch of ink; the atmosphere was hazy, but not remarkably obscure; the air intolerably oppressive, and in me produced a violent head-ache, which went off as the wind increased. Had we tacked ship, when the wind first became scant, we should have escaped some loss, as well as great danger and anxiety.

At another time we were caught off the isle of Lobos, but, taught by experience, we laid the vessel to with her head to the South South-East, and suffered her to drift outward. In this state we continued


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thirty-six hours, and then supposed that we might be about twenty-eight miles South-east of the island. About noon we made sail again, and steering to the North-west, expected to see it long before night-fall; at sun-set, however, no land was visible from the mast-head, though the evening was clear. We continued the same course, going, on the average, four knots an hour; the soundings from twenty to twenty-four fathoms. At the end of eighty-eight hours, in a dark yet fine night, we distinctly heard the sound of a long heavy surf, and, in consequence, anchored, waiting the approach of day. It was now evident that we had fallen into a very rapid current, for when there was day-light enough to distinguish objects, we saw near us the Castellos, a hundred miles from the place where we expected to have been on the first evening. These currents are uncertain, yet this should not prevent a skilful Navigator from endeavouring to mark them as accurately as possible, and he will be always on his guard against their effects.

In a subsequent voyage, on board a fine vessel, formerly the Orestes, Venetian Brig of war, we had just passed the tail of the Ortiz Bank, steering for El Hombu; when the day being beautifully fine with billowy clouds, and a steady breeze, a thin grey haze hanging in the South-east, we observed an appearance to windward, which we took for a small water-spout, rapidly approaching. It was actually the surface of the water, lashed into spray by "the Demon of the coming blast." There was only time to order the steersman to mind his helm, ere the water dashed completely over us, and brought the bank a-head. The Captain, a brave man and excellent seaman, perceiving our imminent danger, sprang to the helm, put it down, threw the vessel into the wind, and ordered the anchor to be let go; it fortunately held. We were instantly on our beam-ends, the lee-guns, taffrail, and boom, in the water, and the sea making a thorough breach over the ship; the people having no other means of securing themselves than by clinging to the first firm thing which they could seize. We looked anxiously for the masts to give way, and relieve the vessel, but they stood fast. After a pause of a few moments the wind burst through the sails with the noise of thunder, and

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frittered them into small shreds, which fell to leeward like flakes of snow. In ten minutes the clouds and the weight of the blast had passed over us, the sun shone out clearly, and the wind became steady, though strong. The damage sustained was, our lee-bulwarks and fiddle gone, twenty-six sails destroyed, some of the rigging injured, and a few things washed overboard.

Such moments try the spirits, and rouse the energies of men. An Albanian burst into tears, and wept bitterly; yet he was no coward, he was the second man upon the yards, and placed himself in the post of danger. With regret I add, that this poor fellow perished a few months afterwards, together with the vessel. He and some companions had sustained themselves four hours on a floating piece of timber, until day-light, when, despairing of help, he put his hands together, said adieu, plunged downward and rose no more.

I know not how the mischief of these sudden storms could be avoided, but by a watchful attention to every appearance of change, and timely taking in sail. But this, besides its inconsistency with the spirit of seamanship, and more especially with that which prevails, and ought to be cherished in British sailors, would imply an unreasonable anxiety, and often prove an unnecessary labour. It is better to persevere in the usual course, with due caution, and, in urgent cases, to act as circumstances may dictate. A few lives and some property may thus be lost; but a restless timidity would, probably, fail in at least an equal degree, and the common prosperity of enterprizing men and nations would be materially retarded.

While, at different times, obliged by calms slowly to navigate the Plata, and more especially when so long confined in the river by the government at Buenos Ayres, a part of our tedious leisure was beguiled by fishing. Hereby we obtained some acquaintance with the inhabitants of the stream, while many welcome additions were made to our dinners. The loss of memoranda, relative to this subject, renders the following notices more imperfect than they might otherwise have been.

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Seals were abundant in the mouth of the river in the years 1808 and 1809, five years afterward their numbers were greatly diminished; a fact which may, perhaps, be allowed to furnish additional evidence of the propensity of some sorts of fishes to change their abode, when much disturbed by the frequent appearance of vessels. Small sharks, of the shovel-nose kind, continue to be very numerous.

A fish, here called the Bagre, and very common on every part of the coast, we thought the most palatable when taken off a sandy bottom. It is about twelve inches long, formed much like the Dog-fish, has a large head, the bones of which are uncommonly hard; two fins on the side and one on the back, all of them long in proportion to the size of the fish. The anterior ray of the fins is a strong serrated bone, sharply pointed, which it has the power of erecting, and fixing at right angles with the line of the body, so firmly, that, with the utmost force of both hands, I have been unable to change its position. This firmness depends, not on the strength of the muscles employed in its erection, but on the form and hardness of the joint, which is a sort of compound hook, working upon an upright pin, altogether unlike what I have noticed in any other fish. Nature appears to have intended this for a defence, and a more secure one it is difficult to conceive. The Bagre, when caught, utters a loud grunting noise, with other apparent signs of anger. It lives long out of the water, and is with difficulty killed by blows. I observed in the plate of the skull, between the eyes, a small aperture, covered with a thin whitish membrane, and imagined that, through this, it might be killed by touching the brain. We accordingly introduced a filament, taken from one of the bass cables, which produced an immediate paralysis, and the fish died without farther suffering. This aperture may, probably, be a distinguishing mark of the species, which, I believe, has not hitherto been described.

There is a fish, called by Wilcocke, in his History of Buenos Ayres, the Armado. I do not recollect seeing more than one specimen answering to his description, which we caught, I think, off Ensinado. It appeared to me to be of the same species with the Bagre; and

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the chief difference was, that it had a few cartilaginous substances, like plates, about its body.

The Palmeto, so called from its resemblance to a spatula, is a broad and flat fish, remarkable for very thorny fins. The wounds inflicted by them are said to be dangerous, and probably may be so when they strike a tendon, in a part of the world where the nervous system is peculiarly irritable. I was, however, once wounded by this fish, soon after it was taken, and experienced no ill consequences.

We once caught a Zurubi, the skin of which was smooth, of a reddish cast, and covered with irregular black spots, like a leopard. The head was formed much like that of a cod; but large as is the proportion of a cod's head to the body, that of the Zurubi is still larger. At the jole our specimen was nearly circular, and at least two feet round. The body decreased in such a way as might lead us to expect a length of five or six feet, but, at the distance of two, it suddenly terminated in a short and imperfect tail. So strange to us was its form, that we were almost disposed to imagine that the fish had, by some accident, lost a considerable portion of its body, and that a new tail, dissimilar, in some respects, to its natural one, had been produced. We even fancied that this conclusion was favoured by the position of the anus, which was unusually backward. But this, I have since learned, is the natural form of a large class of fishes, found in the Plata.

The Peixes Reyes, very common on these coasts, and well known from the measure in which they furnish an allowed provision for days of abstinence, frequently became our prey; and we readily concurred in the general estimation in which they are held. We met, also, with the Pacu, a fish of the same species, but far inferior in its quality, and disgusting in its appearance.

The Boca, as the Brazilian sailors call it, is in shape a broad oval, and weighs three or four pounds. It has a fleshy mouth of a bright rose colour, large scales, and remarkably broad blunt teeth. It is taken in abundance on all the coasts of this country, and is good eating, both when fresh and when cut in slices and dried in the sun, in which way it is

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prepared for sale in large quantities. Other fishes of the Plata, besides this, produce much oil; we laid in a stock from them, and found it to burn well.

Having passed a very anxious night in effecting our escape from confinement, Colonia, often called St. Sacramento, greeted us very pleasantly, at the hour when a bright sun was rising on the river. My pleasure in beholding it did not arise merely from its natural scenery, nor from the feeling of newly-recovered liberty; it presented itself as the theatre of many military exploits, the subject of diplomatic negotiations, and as likely to become a point of great importance in the new situation of Brazil. The Government of that country looks to it with an anxious eye, as commanding, in a great measure, some of the noblest rivers in the world; as the place, whence the revolutionary spirit of the other side of the Plata may be controuled; and as a point of essential concern in their designs on the Western territory, which they no longer hesitate to call the Capitania of Paraná. No pains have lately been spared by them to get possession of what the Spaniards call the Banda Oriental; for this purpose they have intrigued with the Patriots, and negotiated with the Court of Spain. The project was at length effected, by the cession of the territory, in exchange for Olivença, and the hand of a Princess; but as Monte Video, the key of the whole district, was in the power of the Insurgents, and as it was probable that Europe would not quietly behold the dismemberment of the country, both parties armed, and proceeded to seize what they reckoned their respective portions. The town of St. Philip surrendered to the Brazilian arms; while at Oliveça, Ferdinand met with effectual resistance, from the quarter the most likely to oppose his views, and thus obtained only a part of his equivalent, a wife. The feeble Monarch, having endeavoured, without much effect, to interest the Congress of Sovereigns in his cause, now sees himself the dupe of wiser heads, the despised ruler of nominal possessions.

The territory, which Brazil has recently acquired, cannot be less than seventy thousand square miles, possessing from nature all the

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wealth, comforts, and beauties, which a fine climate, fertile soil, and plenteous streams, can bestow. It comprehends nearly the whole of the district first civilized by the Jesuits, who, perhaps, have done more good and more harm than any other corporate body, which ever existed. It is rather a level than a mountainous country, although there are in it some considerable ridges, and almost every part of it is sufficiently undulated to be dry and healthy. There are, indeed, portions of swampy ground near the great rivers, but these, if ever stocked with inhabitants, will form meadows of the richest description. The Court of Brazil has also obtained, by this cession, the most suitable boundary of its Transatlantic dominions. But if the territory, previously under its sway, was much too large, as I am inclined to think,—there cannot be wisdom in this extension; more especially, if a long and expensive contest is to be maintained, in order to secure it, into which others, besides Spain, may be drawn, and in the midst of which it is not unlikely that some portions of Brazil itself may become discontented and refractory. However this may be, the die is cast; and these acquisitions are already divided into two Capitanias or Provinces, taking their names from the great rivers, by which they are bounded.

One of these rivers, the Paraná, rises in the heart of Brazil, flows through the country to receive the Paraguay, and becomes the Western boundary of the province to which it communicates its name. The latter river had been, previously, the limit of Brazil on that side, from its remotest source, and of the province of Paraná, from the lake of Xarays. Their united streams flow with a sea-like majesty, until they contribute to form the immense estuary, familiarly known as the Rio de la Plata.

Different persons, who have written of these rivers, have confounded the names of the principal and the tributary streams, in a way, which an acquaintance with the native language might have prevented. Para always describes a large body of water; na or nha signifies sufficiency; hence the term Paraná besides being technically given to one particular river, is applied, also, to the ocean, as well as any great expanse of fresh

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water. Guay describes a smaller portion of water, and signifies a bay, inlet, or creek. It follows that Paraná must be the name of that portion of the river, which has the largest expanse, and Paraguay of the smaller, tributary stream. With a view to accurate distinctions, it may be useful to observe, also, that yg or yk denotes fresh water, and is the term, which water carriers in Brazil make use of, when they cry their commodity about the streets for sale; though generally expressed in Portuguese and Spanish writings by y alone, or hy. In this state it forms the termination of several names of rivers, as Uruguay, Tacoarý, Acarahý. When placed at the beginning of a name, and connected with some other descriptive word, it is generally written yg or ig; as Iguasu, the great river, Iguapé, the navigable river, Iguapé-mirim, the little navigable stream.

The interior of the Capitania or Province of Paraná is little known, and the accounts of those, who have travelled through it, are very unsatisfactory. The Paraná before it touches this district, is become a mighty stream, having drained an immense tract of country. Arrived at the verge of the great table land, which forms the inner part of Brazil, it tumbles over a precipitous, rocky channel, at a place called Setequedas, or Seven-falls. Some have spoken of a continued rapid and broken advance of the river for several leagues; but Cazal, who is by far the best writer on Brazilian Geography, represents it as here narrowed from a league in breadth to a hundred yards, by six small rocky islands, between which the water rushes and falls. I suspect that the breadth which he mentions, is not that of the whole stream, but of each of the seven channels. About the same parallel of latitude, and formed by the same mountainous ridge, is a smaller cataract on the Paraguay, called the Estreito or Narrows, where the stream has worn itself a channel with lofty perpendicular sides, through which it flows "as through a narrow street."

Among the numerous minor streams of the country, is the Acarahý or river of Cranes, which joins the Paraná, nearly opposite to the South-West point of the province of St. Paul's. The Tibiquarý, also,

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contributes to the same river. The Tacoarý, or Hole of the Rock, the Galaguay, and the. Miranaý, fall into the Uruguay; the former of them is a considerable stream. The Jaguarý, or Water of Ounces, is placed by Cazal among the rivers of this province; I think, erroneously.

One of the most considerable Lakes of the country is called Ibéra, or Yby'ra, the lower place, and is formed by the water of the upper part of the Paraná. In the dry season, it covers an extent of about a hundred and fifty square leagues, and all around the land supplies abundance of food for cattle; but, about a month after the rains have commenced in the upper country, that is, in December, the Yby'ra swells to a vast extent, covering hardly less than two thousand square leagues. At this period, it is said to communicate with both the Paraguay and the Uruguay; a circumstance, which, if correctly stated, indicates that these streams once united there; and that the lower grounds have been formed by their concurrent operation, continued for ages. Higher up, on the same river, and in the midst of the woods, is another lake called the Jagapé, but little more is known of it than its name, and that chiefly from the report of people dwelling in its neighbourhood, who occasionally find their way to Rio de Janeiro. The former of these lakes seems to have been confounded by Cazal with that of Xarays, which is larger than the Yby'ra, and lies more to the Northward, is an expansion of the Paraguay, and is manifestly formed by the channel being too narrow to carry off the waters, as they come down.

The Paraná and Paraguay, rolling impetuously through a very extended course, bring down a great quantity of wreck, and soil of a reddish colour. When they have arrived at the more level grounds, and their currents are become comparatively slow, much of it is deposited; there it remains until the next wet season, when it is again Urged onward by a resistless torrent, which not only sweeps the bottom, but frets and tears the banks, which had before been raised. The Uruguay, an humbler stream, passes over a stony bed, but before its union with the Plata, has formed its own peculiar estuary. In the course of ages, these rivers have produced some of the most extensive alluvial plains, which now exist


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upon the face of the Globe. The more solid parts of the country yield limestone, gypsum, marble, granites, and their accompanying spars. In general, the soil is rich, though in some places sandy, in others moist and clayey. It is, in many parts covered with majestic woods, affording valuable timber; and produces rich gums, fruits of admirable flavour, and various medicinal and officinal herbs.

Among the latter is the Matté, an article peculiar to South America, and there in such general use, and so highly esteemed, as to demand a brief notice. In Brazil it is commonly called Cangunha, or Congonha; which is probably a corruption of Caancunha, the Woman's Leaf. It grows, not in the province of Paraná alone, but, more or less, over the whole Table-land. Its qualities and consequent estimation are various; the best is said to be found in the vast Serro of Maracajú. It is the produce of a low shrub, so much like the tea-plant of China, that two Gentlemen, who had been in the East, first led me particularly to notice it, as a species of wild tea. Being curious to discover, whether there was any other similarity, besides the appearance, they gathered some of the leaves, dried them on hot stones, and produced a beverage of an agreeable bitter taste, not unlike Bohea. In the common preparation of Matté, the collected leaves are laid in large heaps upon hides, and placed between two fires, so as to be thoroughly dried. They are then broken small, and though more yellow, form a substance much resembling what is called the dust of tea. When ready for sale, it is packed in hides, or in sacks made of a kind of reed or cane, opened and made flat. To prepare it for use, it is infused in water, generally in the half of a cocoa-nut shell, variously ornamented, and not poured into cups, but sucked through a pipe, which has a strainer at the lower end to prevent the herb from entering the tube. In taking it, the vessel is commonly passed round to a whole company; and whatever disgust may arise from the sight of some of the mouths, receiving the pipe in their turn, it would be deemed the height of ill-breeding to decline a share of the Matté.

I am not aware that the Brazilian Government has sent any Civil

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Officers into its newly-acquired possessions; nor, as it seems, would it answer any valuable purpose to do so, the whole country being in a state of insurrection under Artigas, who has a strong antipathy to Brazil and its rulers. They are, however, formed into municipal divisions, taking their names from the principal towns; and are not undeserving of some description.

Assumption, the largest place in the Province of Paraná, and a sort of metropolitan town, is more important on some other accounts than for its comparative size. It is not very well situated for trade, though on the borders of a large river, and surrounded by a fertile and populous country. It has lately been visited by British merchants, who have found that it affords little scope for enterprize, producing no commodities for export, but such as are of little esteem in European markets, or can be bought on better terms at Buenos Ayres, having little demand for our manufactures, and possessing no circulating medium. The exports consist chiefly of matté, a little tobacco, wood, both in billets and planks, and imbé, which, I think, is the thread made of the fibres of the Aloe, and sold in the shops of Brazil, under the name of Ticúm.

When this part of the American Continent was ceded to the Brazilian Crown, some sanguine people imagined that, should the Plata ever be shut against British shipping,—a circumstance not Very likely to occur.—commerce might be carried on to Assumption, through St. Catharine's or St. Paul's. But if the encouragements to trade thither should increase, it appears to me that establishments at Colonia would answer more effectually, for that place must command the commerce of the Paraná, and the rivers flowing into it, as soon as the country shall be quietly settled under its new masters.

Corrientes is a smaller place than Assumption; but, although its neighbourhood produces neither Wheat nor Matté, its superior situation will probably enable it to outstrip its rival, when the Paraná becomes better known to Europeans, and when ecclesiastical influence, the bane of old countries and the Curse of new ones, shall have given

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way before the energies of commerce, and the general spirit of improvement.

At Nhembucú, a small place on the Paraguay, a few leagues North of Corrientes, some vessels are constructed. I had opportunities of examining minutely the Maria Primeira, of four hundred tons, receiving her name from being the first vessel of her size built so high up the river; and if she may be taken as a specimen, and my judgment in such matters be not unworthy of notice, the place possesses excellent timber and skilful shipwrights. All the iron work, however, was obliged to be sent up ready formed, there being no artisans on the spot competent to perform it. She appeared to me, in every respect, a superior vessel, well modelled and well put together. The builders were extremely anxious that their vessel should not get a-ground, therefore when launched, she waited for the periodical floods, and was brought down in ballast; a delay, which, I am informed, was by no means necessary, as there is a sufficient depth of water even in the dry season, though the channel is intricate.

Most of the small vessels on the Paraná, which, from their shape and solidity, appear very singular to persons accustomed to modern forms, were, I believe, built here. Some of them are very old, and have done much service; yet the state in which they appear, shows the good quality of their materials. There can be little doubt, that, when the country is more known, and the population becomes sufficient to induce the inhabitants to cut and square their timber, and to bring it down at a moderate expense, it will become an important article of commerce. At present, there is such an abundance of the necessaries of life, the people have so few wants, and so little desire, or even knowledge, of superior accommodations, that labour must be expected to remain high in the provinces of Brazil, especially those bordering on the Plata.

Coruguatý and Villa Rica are the great marts for Matté Santa Luzia, and Little Santa Fé, or Paraná, export large quantities of Lime, Gypsum, and Plaster of Paris; hence, I believe, proceeds a considerable part of the materials with which the houses of Monte Video and Buenos Ayres are whitewashed. I never could discover that there is

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any chalk in the country. Arroio da China stands on the Uruguay, is inhabited chiefly by white people, and exports Cattle, Wheat, and Fruit. Corpus is the most Northerly, and perhaps the pleasantest civilized station in the province of Paraná.

The Capitania, or Province of Uruguay, or the Red River, comprises the other portion of the newly acquired territory. It is somewhat of a triangular form, bounded on the West by the river from which it takes its name, on the South by the Plata; Eastward its boundaries have long been a subject of keen contention between Portugal and Spain. It is allowed by both that the line of demarcation commences on the coast, a little North of the Plata, at those remarkable rocks known by the name of Castelhos Grandes. From thence it is said, by the Brazilians, to run along the ridge which divides the waters flowing Eastward into the lakes Mirim and Patos, from those which run Westward, and fall into the Uruguay. The Spaniards, who, in this case, seem to be the most correct, claim as their boundary a line running up the Western shore of the lake Mirim to its Northern bay, there joining the ridge before mentioned, and proceeding upward until it strike the heads of the Ibicuý, whose stream then becomes the limit until it enters the Uruguay. The contest is not likely to terminate but by the permanent annexation of the province to Brazil, according to the cession lately made.

The rocks, called the Great Castelhos, consist chiefly of three large masses of naked granite, about a hundred feet high from the water, with perpendicular sides and roundish tops. They appear close to the shore, and, at a distance, are thought to resemble castles built on the beach; but if there be such a resemblance, at any point of view, it vanishes on a nearer approach. They are backed by low woody hills, and the beach to the Northward of them, as far as the Castelhos Pequenos, is flat and sandy. There seems an expanse of water towards the West, which ought to be surveyed, as probably a harbour might be found, useful for small vessels, when the wind blows hard from the

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South-east. More than once I have known these rocks mistaken for Cape St. Mary; the cape, however, is very different, being a flat sandy point. The coast between them is low and naked, with inlets, some of which are said to afford good anchorage.

Near to the little Castelhos is the Fort of Santa Tereza, from whence the road to Maldonado is very delightful, passing through a country diversified with small hills, well wooded and watered, and abounding with deer. In the few habitations which occur nothing like splendour is to be expected, neither should the traveller look for many appearances of comfort. Their walls, constructed of wood, with the interstices filled up with mud, give them, however, some external resemblance of the cottages in Huntingdonshire, and they are pleasantly situated, with small pieces of cultivated land near them, and abundant pasture for their horses. Black cattle run wild, and are very numerous. All the inhabitants are so far happy as they have few wants, and these amply supplied; but to the happiness arising from personal character and neighbourly concord, they seem almost strangers. The greater part of the inhabitants are Spanish subjects, and strongly prejudiced against the Brazilians. The passions and prejudices of the fathers are communicated to their children without any diminution of their violence; fresh injuries are heaped on each other, confirming a resolution to avenge them on any occasion which may offer; while there is a total want of moral culture, and scarcely any check from examples of a better spirit. Yet the traveller, if admitted into their houses, receives the best treatment which they can afford him, provided he be willing to pay dearly for accommodations, and careful to intimate no dissatisfaction nor distrust; otherwise he will find them jealous, fierce, and revengeful.

Passing Westward from the great Castelhos, we first meet with marshes and sandy plains, which form a sort of margin to the country, nearly ten miles broad. Beyond this begins an elevation of about a hundred feet, which, though slightly varied with hill and dale, appears, from the sea, so nearly level, and its declivity so regular, as to convert the work of winds and waves into the resemblance of an artificial

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embankment. It terminates before we reach the rocky coast of Maldonado.

On the coast, immediately off Maldonado, lie two' islands; one of them, called Lobos, displays but little verdure; the other, Gorita, is lower, has a few buildings upon it, and under its lee is the harbour; the beach of which is exposed to a heavy surf, which renders landing sometimes dangerous, at others impossible. There are two entrances; that on the Eastern side of the island is very narrow; forced, on one occasion, to go through it, we used some extraordinary precaution, and succeeded happily. On the West, the coast is bold and stony, the entrance broad and deep, and to small vessels perfectly safe; but about midway is a rock, with twenty-four feet of water upon it, on which his Majesty's ship Bedford once touched, and laid a buoy. The anchoring ground is near the centre of the bay, where lies the wreck of a British ship—the Agamemnon.

The town of Maldonado, which, from the sea, has no very attractive appearance, is two miles from the shore; standing on the brow of a hill, gently ascending two hundred and fifty feet above the level of the water. The principal buildings form a quadrangle, on the North side of which is a considerable Estalagem, or Inn; on the South side a Church, which, when finished, will be, for such a place, magnificent; the common habitations, occupying the rest of the square, are built of brick, and covered with straw. The houses in the streets issuing from the square, or running parallel with its sides, are chiefly low, and constructed of earth. The whole number is about two hundred and fifty; that of the inhabitants from eight hundred to a thousand. It is manifest how much ecclesiastical interests prevail here over civil ones; though the seemingly incongruous splendour of the Church may, in part, be vindicated by the consideration, that it is a sort of Cathedral of an extensive district, called by the name of St. Carlos, to whom the church is dedicated. A village, bearing the same name, lies about nine miles from the town, towards the North-east, and appears to have been, formerly, the chief place in the district.

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The Governor resided in a small house at the back of the Cathedral. At the door his carriage was in waiting, which struck us as a singular specimen of antiquated taste and official finery. It had four small wheels, the front ones half the diameter of the hinder; all of them kept from falling in pieces by thongs of raw hide. A square framework, raised to the height of the hinder axle, held the body of the carriage, not much larger than an English sedan, suspended within it by leathers passing under the bottom; so that it hung about eighteen inches from the ground, and his Excellency had to step down from the frame into his seat. The painting and gilding, with which it was profusely covered, had suffered much from age and use. Altogether it looked as though it might have been the vehicle of Royalty two centuries ago; and, in the eyes of its common beholders, no doubt, continued to shed a bright ray of dignity over the person of a sequestered chief.

In one of my visits to Maldonado, I went on shore with two companions, determined to explore as much of the country as we could, in the short time which we had to spare. Having finished our business, we proceeded to the Square, wishing to hire horses for our expedition. A number of miserable unshod beasts were quickly produced by the boys, some of them with and some without bridles, all without saddles, which we did not, at that time, know it was necessary to hire separately. The price of a horse would not have been more than two dollars, and one was demanded for the use of him for a few hours; and having occasion, a few days afterward, to go farther into the country, I paid a dollar for the hire of my horse, two for the use of a saddle, and four for the first set of shoes which the animal ever wore.

One of my companions procured a horse at the inn, and galloped away as far as St. Carlos, observing little but the plain over which he rode, and the few mud huts which he met with in his path. To the other there happened a little adventure, which would hardly have occurred in a place farther advanced in the common manners of the

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world. In the streets of Maldonado he was accosted by an old man, who inquired what he was seeking. Having informed him, partly in bad Spanish, and partly by signs, he invited my friend into his house, presented him politely to his family, and requested that he would wait a little while. In ten minutes a female slave appeared, leading a fine black horse, with a Spanish Lumbillio, or saddle, and splendid trappings. The host inquired at what hour he would return; my friend, apprehensive that a longer absence might occasion some anxiety about the horse and his furniture, fixed upon two hours as the extent of his excursion. Returning about mid-day, he found his unknown benefactor preparing a dinner for him, which he lamented was not ready, as, by a natural mistake, the stranger was not expected until two o'clock.

As to myself, disappointed of a ride, I strolled about unmolested, and without observing any symptoms of that wonder which a lounging stranger usually excites. The scene of my walks was exceedingly dull; in the streets were few passengers, in the fields fewer traces of human industry. I met only one person on horseback, and he enables me to introduce a new character—a Gouger, or country farmer. He rode a fine stallion, about sixteen hands high, light, and well made; and, one of my companions having then joined me, we united in opinion that, in England, the horse would sell for eighty guineas. We asked what his value might be there; "I do not wish to sell him," was the reply, "if I did, he would produce me, I think, two dollars." This man may serve as a pattern of the farmers in the province of Uruguay, and perhaps in some parts beyond it. He was a tall, erect, athletic man, rather spare, with well proportioned and sinewy limbs. He wore a Spanish Poncha over a waistcoat of calf-skin; close to his body a coarse cotton shirt, open at the breast and sleeves; short cotton trowsers; on his head an old, slouched, high-crowned hat; and on his heels spurs, furnished with thick prongs, instead of rowels. On his feet he had neither shoe, tamanca, nor sandal. But the most remarkable part of his dress was his boots, or rather stockings. Each of them was made, as he informed us, of the skin of an embryo-calf;


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the body having been forced through an aperture, made by cutting round below the head. The limb is thrust into the skin while quite moist, and serves as a model, on which the stocking is formed, by rubbing it well with the hands, until it adjusts itself exactly to the leg and foot, while the leather becomes thickened, and assumes the colour of a bladder. To the Lumbillio, on which the farmer sate, was fastened his Lasso; behind him, across it, lay his missile balls; and at his right knee, in a sheath secured by his garter, was a knife.

On the way from the sea to Maldonado we found a sandy soil, the ground unenclosed and uncultivated, producing little besides a coarse grass. The immediate vicinity of the town showed us a few Craals, or Corals, as they are here called,—that is, pens for cattle; and a few patches of ground inclosed for gardens. We noticed also a plot of bearded wheat, about two hundred yards square; it flourished luxuriantly, the ear and the straw equally fine; yet, as far as we could observe, it stood a solitary example of what the land might be made to produce. In other parts of the neighbourhood the widely extended open plain was rich, though dry and sandy, in many places covered with a short, and seemingly sweet grass. Here and there were trees, whose stunted growth seemed to indicate that the winds of the ocean were too rough for them. In the bottoms were shallow pools, but no brooks; and the cattle grazing around looked meagre and hungry. Those on which more care was bestowed seemed to repay the owner's pains. In a Coral, to which we went to purchase an ox for the ship's use, we found nearly two hundred, and selected a fine young one, as large and well shaped as Smithfield usually affords. The flesh was delivered on the beach, in quarters, for a dollar; the man who slaughtered it retaining the hide and tallow.

Returning to dinner at the inn, our hostess favoured us with a dish of beef-steaks, of which she had learned the name, and which she supposed to be the favourite food of Englishmen. As in these houses there is no respect of persons, and as in this part of the world there is no notion of the comfort of a party eating by themselves, we had a great

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deal of company during dinner. The conversation was lively, and turned on a most unexpected subject. A few days before I left Rio the Spanish frigate Zwoa had touched there, in her way from Plymouth to the Plate. In England the crew had been furnished, by the British and Foreign Bible Society, with copies of the New Testament, in Spanish, two of which I had bought in the streets for six hundred and forty Reis, that is, three shillings and sixpence each; intending to improve my knowledge of the language during the voyage. In this object I was disappointed, the translation proving to be an impure dialect of the Spanish, which none of our crew well understood. The people belonging to the Frigate had sold other copies at Maldonado, before we arrived there, one of which appeared in the inn. Several persons were poring over it, and endeavouring to turn a narrative, on which they had lighted, in one of the Evangelists, into intelligible Spanish. The matter was evidently new to them, and excited a very lively interest. On this subject the conversation turned, and led by their inquiries, we were induced to become lecturers in Christianity Divinity, while we ate our dinner; the office devolving chiefly on one of our party, who spake the language of the listeners with fluency. The scene appeared to us most extraordinary at the time, occurring as it did among subjects of the most bigotted of Catholic powers in Christendom; nor can I, at this distant period, cease to contemplate it in something of the same light.

Business afterwards called us to the habitation of one of the principal people of the town, where we were freely introduced to the family, although the master was from home. We entered by a low broad gateway, and on our right hand, beneath it, found the door of the Sala or Drawing-room. This apartment was nearly square, furnished with one large window, placed very high for the purpose of admitting light without exposing the room to public view from the street, and had wooden forms placed all round, close to the whitewashed walls. The Lady of the house was lively and polite: she paid me a compliment in the true Spanish style by supposing me a native of Old Castile, although she must have perceived my extreme ignorance of the language. I

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should gladly-have returned her civility if I could have done so with truth, by ranking her, in point of beauty, among the handsomest of my own countrywomen. She, however, was pretty, very frank, and accomplished; her children had been educated with care, for, having ordered a little girl, who was playing, with her sister near the door of the room, to procure for us some milk, the child presented a tumbler full of it, on a common plate, with a degree of politeness, freedom, and grace, which I have seldom seen surpassed, and would have adorned a more conspicuous situation.

The inhabitants of this part of the country, generally speaking, appear contented and civil, though poor. Some of their good qualities, I believe, have been fostered by their recent intercourse with British troops. Certain it is that our soldiers have left behind them pleasant impressions, though one occurrence threatened a very different result. In December, 1808, we found several houses in Maldonado in ruins, and were told that, when our military embarked, some of them, in the wantonness of intoxication, thrust firebrands into the thatch. The people not only excused them on account of the state in which they were, and the irritation they had suffered from the conduct of their General, but warmly praised the humane exertions of the officers to check it. Some, doubtless, respected our countrymen, on account of the profit derived from them, and some because they hoped for and anticipated a change in their political relations; but most, I think, from a conviction that the British character is of a superior cast. I have often found such a persuasion strongly rooted among the native inhabitants of South America; while the emigrants from Spain and Portugal, and even temporary residents from these countries, too generally dislike us. The former love the French, tolerate the Portuguese, suspect the Spaniards, and stand in a respectful awe of the British; and withal, incongruous as it may appear, entertain a mixture of contempt for the people of every nation.

In the track from Maldonado to Monte Video, we soon pass over the only lofty ground in the neighbourhood, which is part of a ridge,

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running nearly North and South for the distance of four hundred miles, rising gradually as it proceeds, and constituting one of the great abutments of the South American table-land. The Southern extremity, towards the Sea, forms the bold shore of Ponte Negro, which rises, almost perpendicularly, three hundred feet above the water, and terminates in three distinct summits, clearly distinguishing it from every other point in the river. I have seen this ridge chiefly from the East, on which side it displays its jagged heights as far off as fifty miles. Its substance is Granite or Gneise, covered with a good soil, producing little wood except in the more sheltered situations, but furnishing pasture for innumerable herds. To the East and West it sends out many spurs, which divide the numerous streams originating in its elevated parts. These are not so lofty as the ridge itself, still less are they to be classed with mountains; but they are said to advance in fertility, and to be more clothed with wood, as they recede from the sea.

Having descended from this height, the traveller towards Monte Video enters upon a plain, intersected by short inconstant streams, which, though destitute of trees, is not unpleasant. He then winds rounds the bay of Santa Rosa, a dangerous bight for vessels, when the wind blows fiercely from the South-east, and pours into it the whole weight of the Southern Ocean. As he approaches the city he is gratified with more interesting views, the country being chequered with the rural abodes of the citizens, and enlivened by agricultural occupations. The mountain, which gives name to the place, and is constantly in view, becomes a more prominent and curious object. It stands close to the water, unsupported by buttresses, unattached to any ridge; it is of a blackish green hue, of a formal conical shape, and its towering head is crowned with a small building and a signal-staff. It presents itself as the firm guardian of the mighty Plata, and deserves to be accounted one of the finest of military stations, if the water, said to spring upon it, be sufficiently abundant. Possibly it may become,—what it seems fitted to be,—one of the pivots on which the commerce of the world shall here-

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after turn. Its importance is well understood by Brazilian Statesmen, and nothing short of overwhelming force will avail to wrench it out of their hands.

Foiled in the only attempt which I ever made to enter Monte Video, personal observation enables me to say little more than that it hangs prettily towards the bay, which forms its harbour. The scene around is sandy and naked; even the best of the country-houses greatly need the ornament of trees, and might be improved by plaster and whitewash.

While the place was besieged by the troops of Buenos Ayres, the country was infested, in every direction, by a lawless rabble, who respected no safe-conduct, by whomsoever granted, or for whatever purpose. The commanders, on both sides, had no confidence in each other, in their governments, their troops, nor even in themselves. The war was conducted without skill or vigour, and quickly became a mere trial of patience; the besiegers depended upon famine for their success, and the people of the town trusted for deliverance only on holding out. Had not a fleet been employed, and its efforts better directed, no result of importance would have followed.

The road from Monte Video to Colonia, or Santo Sacramento, passes near the coast, through an undulated country, cut by a few unimportant streams. No place of any note intervenes, except Santa Luzia, where there is a Port for small craft. The town of Colonia contains about fifty inconsiderable houses, pleasantly situated, and neat in their appearance, inhabited chiefly by Spanish families. The port is a valuable one, but remained unimproved in consequence of the jealousy with which it is regarded by Buenos Ayres. Besides several roads into the interior, which commence here, there is a passage-boat to and from the last mentioned city, which goes one way or the other almost every day. In the year 1762, the British auxiliaries were defeated at this place, and one of our ships was burned. Penrose, the poet, was in the action, and, just before it began, addressed a beautiful sonnet to his mistress, which, I believe, was never published.

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In the Interior detached habitations frequently occur, but few villages. The employments of the people are chiefly pastoral; they carry to Monte Video, for exportation, Wheat, Hides, and Tallow. Their business is managed in the most languid way; hardly do they seem awake, unless when on horseback, in which situation they manifest great energy and address.

To speak of the Parishes into which the country is divided, and the corresponding size of the Farms, will appear to some like an approach to the borders of romance. The large estates of British Nobility, measured by acres, dwindle into insignificant patches when compared with farms, measured not by miles, but by leagues. The former, however, cannot be accounted insignificant, when their high state of improvement is considered; nor the latter truly great, because they are unproductive. The whole land here is an untilled pasture; the range of horned cattle and horses, of unknown numbers, and many of them useless to the proprietors. Once a year they are usually driven together into pens, on different parts of the farms, where they are counted, their marks ascertained, the young ones branded, and such other operations performed as nature or the wishes of the owners may dictate. This is made a season of festivity.

During the war the conflicting armies had twice passed over the estate of a gentleman well known to many of our countrymen, and prevented this annual work and festival. His cattle had been slaughtered and his horses seized without reserve; and many of them, timid and wild, had fled from their accustomed pastures. When tranquillity returned, and the days of muster came, the proprietor anticipated a considerable diminution of their numbers; but this was so far from being the case that his people had to set his mark on more than eighty-three thousand which had not before been branded. The numbers just mentioned will stagger the faith of English graziers; but they would not have found a record here had they not been received from authority which strangers only can question. In some measure to dispel any doubts of the accuracy of the statement, which may still remain, let me

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call to the reader's recollection the extent of the farms, the riches of the soil, the luxuriance of the herbage, and the auspicious nature of the climate; to which may be added, that there is no winter to check the growth of vegetation, nor any land employed to furnish food in seasons of comparative deficiency.

The ridge already described, and which divides the province of Uruguay from that of Rio Grandé do Sul, gives rise to most of the rivers of the country, the principal of which take a Westward direction. The first, the smallest and the most Southerly of the rivers of this province is the Santa Luzia, which flows about one hundred and twenty miles. When rain has fallen in the interior, a great quantity of water comes down. this channel, and is rapid in its course; in common it is forded without difficulty. The Santo Jozé, which runs not more than sixty miles, joins it from the North; it then takes a Southerly direction, and falls into the Plata about twelve miles West of Monte Video. It is navigable for small craft alone, and that for no great distance from its mouth.

Proceeding North-west, the next stream of consequence is the Rio Negro, whose estimated course is about three hundred miles, in a South-west direction, over an irregular rocky bed. It receives, on its Southern side, the Hy or Yk, and finally joins the Uruguay. The breadth of the Negro is so various, that from four hundred yards it is sometimes reduced to a very narrow strait; yet the obstacles to its navigation are overcome, and, affording an useful communication with the adjacent country, it was much used by the Portuguese when they were driven from Colonia, and is still frequented by smugglers. By British vessels it has been confounded with another river of the same name, which falls into the Ocean below Cape Saint Antonio, in Lat. 41°. At the point of confluence of the Negro and the Uruguay stands the town of Saint Domingos Suriano; a small place, but important as a port. It exports Wheat, Pulse, Hides, Tallow, Fire-wood, Lime, and Stone for building.

Still farther Northward is the Ybicuý, a large navigable river, too

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distant from the coast to be as yet much known. The principal branch, which forms a part of the boundaries of the Province, rises in a level country, though in the midst of mountains. Its name, Iapoguazu, a compound word meaning the great lake, seems to intimate that it occasionally overflows the plains. In running North-west, about a hundred miles, it receives many streams, the chief of which are the Caziguay from the Eastward, and the Toropý from the North-east; the latter a considerable stream, and bringing with it the waters of the Ybicuý-mirim. From this junction, called the Forks, the Ibicuý stretches away to the Westward, receives the Jaguarý, a winding, placid river, with much wood on its banks, and far below discharges itself into the Uruguay.

This great receptacle of minor streams rises near the coast, opposite to the island of St. Catherine's, runs Westward under the name of Pellotas, draining a vast extent of country; then changing its course to the South-west and South, it changes also its name, and becomes the Uruguay or Red River. From the spot where it joins the Plata it is navigable for launches two hundred miles, and for canoas two hundred more; but its bed is generally rocky, and its current swift. The Pellotas and the upper part of the Uruguay have many falls.


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A. D. 1809.


ON approaching the coast of Rio Grandé do Sul, We first made land in the neighbourhood of Estreito, about nine leagues North-East of the Bar of the River whence the province takes its name. Little round hillocks of sand, without the slightest degree of vegetation, seemed to rise out of the water, to which a splendid sun communicated a dazzling whiteness. Soon it appeared that these were only inequalities of a sandy shore, from the midst of which arose the Church of Estreito, a small building in the usual style of such edifices in the villages of Brazil. A few trees and a scanty portion of verdure about it, now becoming visible, served to increase the forbidding appearance of the surrounding desert. Long before we saw any marks, by which to guide our course, we were in shoal water and encompassed with sand banks.

The Captain having stationed himself at the mast-head saw these shoals, and the channels between them, more clearly than they could be

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discerned from the deck, and gave us directions how to steer. At length, a boat came out to meet us, with a pilot on board, and, by appropriate signals, did us the same service. These signals not only point out the course, which a vessel is to take, but sometimes direct her to anchor where she is, or even to proceed again to sea, when there is not water enough on the bar to carry her safely over. The first of these directions is given by holding from the boat a small flag in the direction which the vessel ought to take; the two latter by lowering it altogether. The signals which the vessel ought to make in order to show her depth of water will be given in an Appendix. When we had reached the boat she did not put the pilot on board, but proceeded a little a-head, sounding with a long pole, which was dexterously turned over from end to end, as we proceeded across a broad and shallow bar, situated in a deep and dangerous bight. We entered the river between a bluff head to our left and a long, low, sandy point to the East, through a passage about half a mile wide, guarded by a few miserable erections called Forts and Batteries. Just within the passage lie the vessels, which have received their lading and are ready to proceed on their voyages, waiting for a sufficient depth of water on the bar. Round the point resides the Piloto-Mor, who has the superintendence of the place, and to whom I am greatly obliged ror many kind and gentlemanly attentions.

The decline of day, and the tediousness of our progress, rendered me impatient and induced me to ascend the mast, hoping to look beyond the flat, dreary, desolate, and almost houseless waste, immediately before our eyes. From thence nothing was to be discovered on the East, but loose and barren sand; Westward appeared a tract of swamps, partially covered with brush-wood; beyond, a broad line of water, the Bay of Mangueira; and still farther, the small, white, pretty-looking town of St. Pedro do Sul, more commonly called Rio Grandé. The Church, which the people dignify with the name of Cathedral, rose in the centre of the buildings and formed the chief feature of the view. Before us lay several vessels at anchor, and among them a fine schooner with the British flag flying; indications of commerce which cheered our

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spirits, and gave us a more pleasant evening than we had enjoyed for a long time.

Custom-house Officers were put on board at the Batteries, and the next morning the vessel was brought up, in a masterly style to her anchorage, close to the village of St. Pedro do Norté, and three miles from the principal town; the. sand banks not permitting a nearer approach. From the entrance of the river to the anchorage, through a course of nine miles, the same obstructions prevail, leaving a narrow intricate channel, with barely water sufficient for a deep-laden Brig. About six miles up, on the left hand, is a large bay, still called the Bay of Mangueira, though little of that plant remains on the neighbouring swamps. In the bay, fishes of various sorts so abound, that afterwards crossing it at a late hour, great numbers threw themselves over our Canoa, in every direction, and some fell into it. A little higher up is another broad inlet, navigable for Yatches of fifty tons, within which is the fertile island of Marinheiros, containing some of the highest land, and the best cultivated spots, in the neighbourhood. The soil is a red clay, which shows that it was once attached to the Continent, and is of older formation than the bay. It is celebrated for the production of Onions, and of an article of higher value; from hence, or from the island of Sta. Maria, the town is supplied with almost the only drinkable water used within it. Beyond these islands, the water expands to a breadth of more than ten miles, but is so very shallow that the practicable channel, which runs near the Eastern Shore, is, in one part, not more than a hundred yards wide. Other islands, besides those which have been mentioned, are scattered about this expanse of water, and communicate to it some little ornament The distance from the bar to the entrance of the Lagoa dos Patos is about thirty miles; the whole of which is, with some impropriety, called the Rio Grandé, and considered as the harbour of St. Pedro. Through this long course, the channel is hardly any where more than twelve feet deep, the water often declining on the sides of it to three feet, and in some places, to six inches; so that three feet may perhaps be nearly the average depth of the river.

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The country, as we advanced towards St. Pedro, and even in the environs of that town, was not much better than the portion of it already described. When settled, my favourite morning walk was to a Fort upon the summit of the loftiest hillock near the place; from which, small as the elevation really is, there is a spacious view of the river, and of a region wild and desolate in almost every quarter. To the North lies the fine island of Marinheiros; to the South a marshy tract, partially covered with vegetation, the ground rising and becoming drier as it approaches the ocean; to the East, beyond the water, are loose sand hills, their height from a hundred and twenty to a hundred and forty feet; their tops are usually round; towards the West, the country is also sandy, gently undulated, and destitute of every thing green. When the wind blows strongly from the South-East, as it often does, it brings with it so much sand, which whirls from the tops of the hills like smoke from a volcano, that the eyes must hardly venture to take that direction. Turning the back to the wind for relief, the sand is seen travelling onward like a vast fall of snow; a portion of which, impeded by the town, is piled against the houses, and sometimes mounts and crushes the roofs. The extent of this desert, however, is not great; it forms a slip along the edge of the ocean, not more than fifteen miles broad at a medium, though it is three hundred miles long; and here and there, are scattered rich Oases, the sites of pleasant farms. The sand evidently comes from the ocean, being first cast upon the coast and then driven farther inland.

On my landing at St. Pedro, a centinel conducted me to the Governor, Don Diogo da Souza, by whom I was politely received. Having examined my passport, and learned that I was a stranger, he dispatched a soldier for Colonel D'Elbeux, a Gentleman who had served in our Navy, and requested that he would introduce me to my countrymen, and others, whose acquaintance might be pleasant.

The business which related to the vessel was soon adjusted, she was consigned to an English house already established; and when arrangements had been made for temporary lodgings, I strolled with a companion,

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who was also a stranger, to see the place, glad to find that we were not attended, as had been expected, by a soldier, to watch over our conduct under pretence of guarding us from insult. This circumstance convinced us that the people had no violent prepossessions against our nation; and rendered us much more circumspect in our behaviour than the strictest surveillance could have done.

Previous to the year 1773, this town appears to have been the capital of the Province; it is now dependant on Porto Alegro, where are established all the principal offices of the state, ecclesiastical, civil, and military. The vicinity of the ocean, however, secures to it a permanent consequence. Here all vessels are required to deliver their papers, and the larger sort seldom proceed any higher. Here, too, the principal merchants reside, or have established agents; so that it may be considered as the great mart of Southern Brazil.

The town, situated in a level plain not many inches above high water mark, contains about five hundred dwellings; and the whole number of stationary inhabitants may perhaps be two thousand, two-thirds of which are supposed to be white, or very slightly tinged. But some of the houses, belonging to persons who reside on their estates, are seldom occupied except at religious festivals. The principal row of houses runs East and West, enjoying from their latticed windows the prospect of an extensive flat and bare island, across a water which is about six hundred yards over. Behind this row, whieh is really neat and pretty, is a street of small, low huts, constructed of mud, and covered with thatch, the habitations of the lower ranks. Here those accumulations of sand, which have already been mentioned, frequently take place; and during my continuance in St. Pedro several of the houses were nearly overwhelmed by them, and greatly injured. Were it not for this barrier, the better ones would be exposed to the same fate.

The Public Buildings in St. Pedro, and the abodes of the most conspicuous characters of the community, would, of themselves, be hardly worthy of notice; but a few particulars relative to them may serve to illustrate the state of the place.

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At their head stands the Cathedral, the plainness of which, both within and without, does not prevent it from being a handsome edifice. At each end of the front rises a square tower finished with a small turret. The entrance is by folding doors, and over it is the orchestra, lighted by a large round window, giving some little ornament to the front. The chancel and altar face the doors; on each side a portion of the area is railed off for male worshippers, and in the centre is the station of females. From the ground to the ridge of this church is about fifty feet, and before it the sand has accumulated to the same height; but the wind, striking against the building, has caused it to recoil from the walls, and formed a sort of deep and gloomy dell, leading to the door.

A short new street, at the Eastern side of the town, conducts to the only defence of the place, by courtesy called the Fort; far better calculated to suppress an insurrection than to keep out an enemy. It is an artificial mount of sand, its sides covered with sods, and on the top a platform surrounded with a breastwork of earth, with embrasures for six guns. Here is also a signal post, which announces the appearance of vessels off the Bar, and the number, which may have entered the Port during the night. The guns of the Fort are brass long eighteen pounders, excellent workmanship, and ornamented with the arms of Spain; they are mounted on carriages, which would be demolished by a first discharge, and are placed in a circle, so far distant from the channel as little to annoy an approaching enemy. The magazine is a poor mud hut at the foot of the hill, with a few balls lying about it; but if there were powder, it would be impossible to keep it in order in such a situation.

Pitiful as is the chief Custom House of Brazil, that of St. Pedro falls as much below it as the town is inferior to the capital. It is a stone building, with walls about ten feet high, and covered with a deep roof, giving it the appearance of an old English barn. Within, two square portions are railed off, each of which is furnished with a table and forms, for the transaction of business; the insignificant remainder of space, enclosed within its walls, is the only place where goods can be deposited

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under the Government key. In front of it, close to the water, is a small tiled shed, raised upon posts over a planked floor, and furnished with a crane, which is the only public wharf, and the place where all merchandise must be landed.

At no great distance is the Jail, a miserable dungeon, enlightened only through an open railing in front, which, at the same time exposes the prisoners, and displays such wretchedness as may, possibly, have more effect on some minds than a sense of moral rectitude.

The Governor's House is at the West end of what has been described as the principal row of buildings; of one story only, like the generality of its neighbours, but distinguished from almost every other habitation in the place by an ascent to it of a few steps, and by its glazed windows. Before it are the ruins of a wooden erection, which was once the Theatre of St. Pedro.

In the same row is what few of my countrymen would hesitate to call the comfortless abode of the Vicar, the chief Clergyman of the Parish. It consists of two stories; the lower open or appropriated to offices, the upper, entered from without by a step-ladder, contains the family apartments. The walls are whitened, the windows much like those of our hay-lofts, with shutters painted red.

The Ferry House, the only place where a boat is allowed to be hired, is commodiously situated near the public quay. For his exclusive privilege, the proprietor pays a rent to the Crown, and is obliged to furnish, and keep in order, a Catraia or Launch, which, when the weather permits, must cross the water every two hours. The fare is about six-pence; and should a man wish to cross at any time but the usual ones, he may command a boat for a double fee though he should be the only passenger.

When the Farmer of this Ferry heard that the Royal Family had arrived in Brazil, he owed to the Crown eight hundred thousand Reis, he therefore mounted a horse, and with the greatest secresy set off without passports for the Capital, where he arrived at the end of three weeks, having travelled nearly eight hundred miles, by an unusual route, for the

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sake of avoiding pursuit and detention. He threw himself at the Prince Regent's feet, confessed the debt and his utter inability to discharge it. His Royal Highness was so much pleased with this mark of confidence, as generously to remit the sum and reinstate the man in his post.

The appearance of the Governor in the streets was announced by drums, at the sound of which, the people repaired to the fronts of their houses, to pay their compliments. He was a tall, thin, handsome man, about fifty years of age, wore a General's uniform, and appeared to have seen some service. He entered into conversation with some, noticed others, and seemed pleased with all. We could not expect a visit from a person of such consideration; but he stopped at our door, talked familiarly, inquired how we liked the place, and whether we were accommodated to our satisfaction, and renewed his professions of a readiness to serve us. We were not only gratified by his notice, but felt it an addition to our security and comfort, by giving us some consequence in the eyes of the people, and more especially by raising us above the insolence of the soldiery.

There were here marks of vigour, precaution, and discipline, such as I had not before seen in this part of the country. On the Northern side of the Plata, not a single sentinel made his appearance, and the few soldiers were ill clothed and worse accoutred. But at Rio Grandé, men under arms, properly furnished for their duty, were stationed at the Government house, on the quay, and at all public offices. Their military compliments were duly paid, and as exactly returned by Colonel D'Elbeux and others. He civilly intimated to me that it was customary for every one, not belonging to the service, to take off his hat when he passed a sentinel on duty, because the man was considered, at that time, as a representative of the Sovereign. I am aware, he added, that this deference to the military is ungrateful to Englishmen, yet it is best to comply with the harmless customs of every place which you enter as strangers. This lecture was not lost upon me; I apprehended, indeed, that more was meant than met the ear, and became prepared


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to find the police of the place strict and suspicious. So it proved; and the consequent promptness of its measures was extraordinary.

At one time, I lighted upon a friend just at the moment when he had been foully assaulted, in the street, by a drunken sailor, calling himself an Englishman! Some altercation ensued, and after a great deal of abusive and threatening language, we left him quite ashamed of our countryman. In less than a quarter of an hour we learned that he was in prison; and on the following morning, waiting on the Governor to thank him for his interference, we found that the man was really a Swede, and one of the many vagabonds who had deserted from the British subsequent to their attack upon Buenos Ayres. The country was full of such characters, who indulged a rooted hatred of the people whom they had abandoned, and a double portion of rancour towards any by whom they seemed likely to be pointed out, and given up to justice. The Governor expressed his earnest wish that it was in his power to send every one of them out of his district; but he felt himself em barrassed by the gross misbehaviour of these men on the one hand; and, on the other, by the orders of his Court to treat British subjects with lenity.

At a subsequent period, during my stay in Rio Grandé, the Captain of a British vessel went by land to Monte Video, with the hope of obtaining a licence to enter his Cargo at that port. The Mate, having in his absence embezzled a sum of money, absconded with a comrade, when he learned that the Captain had returned. It was concluded that, in such a country, they would never more be heard of. No time, however, was lost in making application to the Governor, who expressed his confident persuasion that the culprits would be apprehended before ten o'clock that night, if they had not gotten beyond the limits of his jurisdiction; before that time, he said, they would be anticipated in every direction to the distance of fifty miles. Intelligence soon arrived, that the officers of justice had certainly outrun the fugitives, and at the end of nine days they were brought back; affording another proof that, under a vigilant and active Police, a desert, though of wide extent, afforded less security to criminals

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than a crowded city. The mate was confined, and sent to the Admiral at Rio de Janeiro; there existing in St. Pedro no authority to try a British subject, for a theft committed on board a vessel of his own nation.

Notwithstanding all this vigour, the country is so wide and open, and the population so thin, as to favour the perpetration of the worst of crimes, by the hope of escape. Assassination is common, and, with a fleet horse and a knowledge of his route, a murderer soon passes the frontier; where he remains, until his friends have arranged the affair, which is generally, no difficult matter; then he returns with confidence, and his reception in society exhibits no remembrance of his hands being stained with blood.

A German Physician, established in the town, who spoke our language remarkably well, was occasionally of the English Dinner Parties. It being observed one day, in his presence, that there had been few assassinations during the last month, he replied, that "eleven cases only had come to his knowledge, and that the attempt had not fully succeeded in any of them." The. number, I hope, was magnified; yet the remark seems to prove, that several attempts of the kind usually occurred within so limited a period. Probably, indeed, the stabbing which is too common in every part of Brazil, is not always intended to be fatal, yet the wounds are often serious. Determined malice makes a home thrust, or dispatcher its victim by poison.

The state of Medicine in Rio Grandé do Sul can hardly be better illustrated than by some detail of the character and fortune of this man. He was born in Hanover, and having for some time practised irregularly in Germany, he travelled to Constantinople, and made a short residence there. Afterwards he went to France, became the surgeon of a Frigate, and in that capacity came out to South America; but left his ship at St. Catharine's, and figured there as French Consul. St. Pedro seeming to open to him a prospect of extensive medical practice, he repaired thither, where he now enjoyed much celebrity in his profession, and had the

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undisputed range of thirty miles round. I have seen patients at his house from that distance, who had the reputation of being rich, and appeared to be respectable. This renowned Doctor practised surgery as well as medicine, and his instruments once fell under my observation. They were in the worst possible order, and utterly unfit for the most common operation. Taking up a rusty saw, I inquired whether he would venture to amputate a limb with that instrument? "Why not?" he replied; "it is the best I have, and no other person here can perform such an operation."

Great must be the sufferings of the diseased in this country, as they seldom think of obtaining medical advice until nature is almost exhausted; then they are, many of them, trailed in a clumsy Carro, over a pathless wild, for many a wearisome league, exposed to rain, wind, or sun, perhaps, to each of them alternately. Strange would it be, if death were not often to cut short the journey, or quickly to render it unavailing. Yet the hardships of approach to the Doctor, and his want of skill, are not all, which the patient has to struggle with. By the colonial laws of Portugal, at that time in full agency, the Apothecary was obliged to have upon his counter, two old books of recipes, and to follow them without wavering. His duty was to ascertain the disease; the learned men of Lisbon had, two centuries before, invariably settled the mode of cure. Nor is this barbarous practice, connected with a dignified stupidity, and a senseless jargon, entirely laid aside in every part of Brazil to this day. Not medical science alone, but science in general, is there a foreign plant.

That the people discern the preposterous nature of such regulations, is evident from the eagerness with which they seek for a restoration of health at the hands of every Briton. My landlord, who was asthmatic, supposing that I shared in the common skill of my Countrymen, applied to me to cure him. I know nothing of physic, but ventured to give him some trifling preparation, which, I hoped, might sooth his mind as well as his cough. He thought himself better, and spread abroad my fame, so that I was pestered with patients labouring under all kinds of diseases,

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some of which might have puzzled Esculapius himself. In cases, where no harm could be done, I sometimes felt myself obliged to prescribe; in others, decisively to refuse. On this, my reputation took a different turn, and I was reported to be a churl, when I was only timid, through a consciousness of ignorance. The different reports, of which I was the subject, followed me farther than might have been expected. On my subsequent return to Rio de Janeiro, one of the ship's crew happened to be ill, and intreated me to use in his favour, the skill, which he had no doubt that I possessed; pressing his suit by the observation, that there was no danger of my being teased by the sick, as I had been in Rio Grandé. Disease and simplicity united to recommend the man to my attention, and I gave him a few grains of Calomel; after whieh,—I cannot say, in consequence of which,—he soon became better.

From what has been already said, it will be concluded that Military Affairs were respectably managed in St. Pedro. The town is properly a Garrison, and the Governor is Commander-in-chief. He has under his orders two regiments of the line; one belonging to Rio Grandé, the other, and the better appointed, to St. Paul's; also a body of cavalry raised from the farms, and a regiment of militia. Every free man of the country is enrolled in one or the other of these corps, and a considerable force might, on an emergency, be Collected in a short time. The yeomanry and militia were deficient in every thing but numbers; they appeared in the field with Lassos or nooses, and could certainly catch their enemies with more skill than they could exhibit in the use of a musket. There were, also, in the place some light and useful pieces of artillery.

The regiment of Rio Graridé was about four hundred strong, that of St. Paul's about three hundred; when brought together, they were stationed in different barracks, and did the duty of the town alternately. A feud of long standing prevailed among them, arising, as it should seem, from national antipathies, when this province was under the Spanish Crown, and fostered by mutual wrongs and revengeful retaliations. One

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dark night, during the time of their present meeting, a severe fray took place, and lives were lost on both sides. It became necessary to separate the antagonists, and the Paulistas were sent to encamp on the frontiers.

At this period the Commerce of Rio Grandé was undergoing a considerable change, of the nature and extent of which the inhabitants were not aware. Their imports had before consisted of Woollens from Portugal, of Brazil coarse Cottons, and a variety of Hardware, Earthenware, Salt, Tobacco, Sugar, Rum, and Slaves. Several of these articles were beginning to be superseded by. British Manufactures, furnished at a cheaper rate, and better adapted to an increasing taste for show, the consequence of wealth flowing in through different channels. Upon this part of Brazil many towns along the coast mainly depended for a supply of food; while an increase of inhabitants, from the advance of trade, and from the preference which Portuguese Emigrants gave to this part of the country, as better suited to their constitutions than the warmer parts of the colony, increased the consumption and the cost of provisions. The demand for Hides and Tallow had found its chief supply here and at Buenos Ayres, and the admission of British shipping into the latter place had produced a great and immediate effect on these articles. Monte Video, its rival, was in distress, and Spain could no longer supply the wants nor take the produce of the country. Hence the inland trade, beyond the frontiers, the most profitable which St. Pedro enjoyed, was increasing.

The neighbourhood of the town afforded a sphere for the consumption of some of its imports; more of them proceeded up the Lagoa dos Patos to Porto Alegro, and the rivers which fall into it; up the Lake Mirim, and through the Ygaroon to the fine country lying at the back of Monte Video and Maldonado. From these extensive waters the exports are collected, consisting chiefly of Hides, Tallow, Wheat, Onions, Cheese, and charqued or jerked Beef; all these articles are sent to Rio de Janeiro, only that Bahia shares with it the last mentioned. The vessels sailing from Rio Grandé, in 1808, amounted to one hundred and fifty,

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half of them to Rio de Janeiro; they were, in general, brigs from one to two hundred tons burden, and completed their voyages in four or five months. The country produce is brought down in yatchs, from twenty to seventy tons burden. A few of the brigs load at Porto Alegro; the greater part at St. Pedro, whence all are obliged to take their clearance. The value of this trade to Brazil is incalculable; notwithstanding the injury which it receives from the Government draining the country of its cash, and furnishing nothing in return.

Before the goods which we brought hither could be disposed of, it was necessary to have a Survey of the vessel, and as the Risk was really British, we were compelled to observe our own forms as nearly as possible, but coming under the Portuguese flag it was held to be proper that the regulations of the port should be maintained. It was determined, in the end, to follow both modes. The survey by British Captains and Merchants was soon accomplished; not so that of the other party. First, the damage was to be reported at the Custom-house; then a messenger must be dispatched to Porto Alegro, two hundred miles, to ask leave to hold the survey. Permission being obtained, and notice given to about ten persons to attend the next day at an appointed hour, the group, made up of every rank of men in office, from the Deputy-judge down to a tide-waiter, accompanied by two merchants of the town, assembled near the Custom-house. All were in full dress; the chief alone wearing his hat, until he deigned to intimate that the rest of the party might be covered. The airs of importance, the formal bustle and compliments, were not a little diverting. The ship's boat had been ordered to attend; but we found that another, more commodious, had been impressed on the government service. At length we began to enter the boat; at first with due attention to precedence, the Captain giving his hand to the principal officer, and afterwards to two or three of inferior rank. In the same orderly way we might have proceeded to the end, had not others hurried in and taken their seats; some unwilling, it may be, to make their superiors wait; some, probably, aware of the ridiculous figure which a man exhibits when standing in expectation of undue and unwonted honours.

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The business on board was greatly facilitated by the care which we had taken to cover the table with English cheese and porter; two articles for which the Brazilians have a strong predilection. The good cheer did not, however, seem to operate very kindly, for, on our return, having ventured to ask what their determination might be, I was told, with more than the former stateliness and reserve, that such questions were improper. On a hint given by one of the fiscal train, that certain fees, on such occasions, were always proper and acceptable, the hint was attended to; and, in consequence, leave was formally given, the following day, to dispose of what part of the cargo, and in what way we pleased.

Our cargo was one of the greatest variety which can well be imagined as being on board a small vessel; yet it soon became manifest that most of the goods were brought to a wrong market, or absolutely overstocked it. No one, used to the world, and unversed in the modes of this particular part of it, can conceive how few are the. wants which the people appear to have, and how general is their indifference to luxuries. It is true, as stated before, that some taste and demand for the productions of our country were beginning to show themselves; but they had made little progress, and had been met by preceding supplies. Notwithstanding some favourable change with respect to a circulating medium, there was still a great deficiency of Cash, and Bills of exchange were unknown; even retailers bartered for produce, and advanced goods before it was ready for deliverance. The Government, aware of our disappointment, and unable to conjecture how so much money as our duties amounted to could possibly be raised, became alarmed. The people, astonished at the extent of our stock, and confirming each other in the persuasion that it must be disposed of at any rate, foretold our ruin. Their prognostics might have been fulfilled had we not possessed resources unknown to their rulers and to them.

Many of our goods it was necessary to land; by far the greater part we determined to re-export, paying only the transit-duty required in such a case. As to the former portion, every mode of disposing of them,

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which our ingenuity could devise was tried; we opened a Store so large and variously furnished as St. Pedro had never seen before; we filled several of the retail-shope, employing their owners to sell on our account; we sent Hawkers through the neighbourhood and to a distance, and accepted articles in barter. All would not do, and we resolved, at length, to try a public auction, to be held in the Custom-house, and under the superintendence of the officers of government. The quantity of goods thus offered to sale would have been thought insignificant in any considerable European town; here it created a great sensation, and occasioned much talk. It was rumoured that there was enough to stock the country for three years, and as the whole must, of necessity, be sold, the attendants at the sale might purchase at their own prices. Such representations were sufficiently mortifying, so were the proceedings at the sale; but it afforded as much of the ludicrous as the gloomy. The second officer of the Customs presided, and he appointed the clerk and the auctioneer. To the latter, a black man, the President, with all becoming gravity, delivered a bit of straw, when the lot was too bulky for him to carry round the room; directing him to present it to the company as representative of a certain Lot of goods, containing so many pieces, or yards, or dozens, pints, and distinguished by its peculiar number. With this straw, lifted above our heads, he danced about like a Merry-Andrew, loudly vociferating the words of the President, and calling upon the people to buy. Having, by his boisterous and absurd gestures, produced more merriment than serious attention to business, and gotten to the highest bidding, he returned the straw in form, announcing the price of the lot, and the name of the purchaser. Aware of the prevailing opinion, we had provided a person, on whom we could rely, to run up the lots to a certain amount; in consequence the first fell back into our hands, and the second and third followed without awakening suspicion. At length a conviction of the truth excited among the bidders much laughter at their own simplicity, and the superior address of the strangers. No change, however, was produced in their disposition to buy, and not a single lot was disposed of.

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There was a curious practice attending the commerce of Brazil, by which I have been deceived in this and other towns; but which now prevails less extensively than in years past. A genteel looking man, with an air of importance, enters a Store, and after taking pains to ascertain the lowest prices, if he affect to be a purchaser, or to get the highest if he appear as a seller, sometimes concludes very considerable bargains. But it often turns out that this showy merchant had not the least thought of fulfilling his engagement, and there are no means of compelling him to do so; he has obtained his end, which is either to gratify his vanity, or to obtain information of the value of goods, which he elsewhere turns to account.

If, instead of business, amusing occupation and pleasant society had been our object, we should have had little reason to complain of St. Pedro. Its neighbourhood afforded ample scope for riding, walking, and field-sports. The people, in general, seemed to be disposed to gaiety, were harmonious among themselves, and friendly to strangers. At the house of the Vicar was always found within that which made us forget its comfortless exterior. He was a man of some zeal, and more goodness of heart; regarded as the father, though not revered as the saint of his district. Under his roof there was a constant evening lounge for the Heretics as well as the Catholics, in which lively conversation was occasionally varied by cards and dancing. Some of the inferior Clergy, whom we met with, appeared to be respectable men; but if their services were really enforced by their example, they were insufficient to prevent a great laxity of morals.

The British, as is perhaps too common with them wherever they meet out of their own country, sought and found their chief pleasure in each other's society. There was only one established house of our country in St. Pedro, and the occasional British residents were not numerous. Several persons, giving themselves out to be our countrymen, passed through the town, under the pretence of seeking for lands. But that they were not what they pretended to be, and had other objects than those which they avowed, is evident from their hiding themselves from

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us. One of these adventurers was discovered, by his commission and uniform, both of which fell into hands for which they were not designed, to be a Major in the French service. What was wanting in our numbers we endeavoured to make up in sociability; and circumstances, in other respects unpleasant, were favourable to such a purpose. Those of us who were most occupied had not business enough to fill up half dun time, and some appeared to have nothing to do. As there was neither inn nor coffee-house in the place, and as the public billiard, tables were places of crowded resort, and too frequently the scenes of noisy broils, we established a sort of English mess-room, and lived much together.

Domestic life is here little cheered by what we account commodious and well furnished apartments. I hired a house, equal to most in the place; it consisted of a ground floor only, had a Sala, or sitting-room towards the street, enlightened by one window, without glass or lattice, and which, when the shutters were open, completely exposed the room and all that passed within it. Behind was an alcove for sleeping, and an unfloored kitchen in a penthouse. For this mansion I paid a rent of twelve Patacas, about twenty shillings per month.

My agreement obliged me to allow room for a large iron-bound chest, with two locks, belonging to the proprietor of the house, an officer absent on duty. The chest was soon removed from the Sala, and converted into a bedstead for my servant. A few days after, the person of whom I hired the house looking in, and not seeing it in its usual place, inquired what was become of it. On being led to its new station, he anxiously asked how it had been removed; and when he learned that it had been by dragging, of which the boarded floor bore evident marks, he lifted up his hands in consternation, and departed without uttering another word, leaving me in no small wonder what the mysterious coffer, might contain. My suspense did not last long; he quickly returned with the keys, opened the chest, and, to his manifest relief, found the treasure uninjured. This consisted of a tureen and ladle of yellow earthenware, some dishes, plates, cups and saucers, and, I believe, a tea-pot of the same material. I could not restrain a laugh, but he treated the affair

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most seriously, dilating on the vast value of the pottery. Never did the richest service of Porcelain elicit from a fine lady more regard than these English platters drew from the old gentleman. And he was as much in the right as the lady could have been, our ideas of wealth and splendour depending almost entirely on circumstances. Here was, probably, the only dinner and tea equipage of the kind in the country; and I had, not long before, seen a yellow pint basin sold for a dollar, and a small yellow tea-pot for two.

For the temporary use to which my house was destined I had little occasion to go beyond the common custom of the country in the article of furniture. In the sitting-room were a few chairs, with seats and backs of embossed leather, which folded up into a small compass, and were convenient for carriage, and an useful table of dark coloured wood, supported by four curved legs, each pair being joined together in the middle of the curve. I had not the small ordinary looking-glass, which, in most of the houses, adorns one side of the room, nor the Oratory, supported by two candles, which is usually placed on the other. In the furniture of the Alcove I was more of a conformist; this sleeping apartment, if so it may be called, generally containing a bedstead, sometimes richly carved, having laths instead of sacking, and contrived, like the chairs, for occupying little room, in case of removal. The bed is a bag of coarse cotton-cloth, filled with wool or flocks; the bolster and pillows the same, stuffed so hard as to give them the form and something like the consistency of a garden-roller. The sheets are of cotton, beautifully bleached, and,—at least, in the opinion of the contrivers,—handsomely flounced; the pillow-cases made to fit dose, and drawn at each end with a blue or pink ribbon. I do not know that there is either fire-place or chimney in any of the kitchens of St. Pedro, which, in common, answers exactly to the account given of my own. In one of the corners there is a sort of divan, made of plank, and raised about six inches above the earthen floor, which forms the bed-place of the domestics, both male and female, each wrapping him or herself in a couple of yards of blue baize, to keep off the mosquitoes. For the same purpose wood fires are

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burned by night, in the kitchen, and sweet scented herbs in the alcoves.

Gentlemen wore cotton-shirts, neatly made with open work and lace at the breast, and the collar sprucely tied with a black ribbon. Their coats resembled our surtouts, in some cases adorned with loops and tassels, in others with large silver buttons; the waistooats were made of calico, generally printed in a large running pattern; the trowsers of white cotton-cloth. In the house, when perfectly at ease, the coat was often exchanged for a calico jacket, and the feet thrust into slippers. Elderly men, when dressed, wore large buckles; the younger, departing from the state of their fathers, used shoe-strings. On few occasions, and by few people, even of the highest rank, were stockings of any kind worn; and no one went out, on occasions of ceremony, without a cocked hat and a dirk. If about to travel, they put on pantaloons of white cotton-doth, and drew over them long boots, fastened below the knee with a strap and buckle. In the country, and passing from one place to another, they wore broad-brimmed hats, made of plaited straw, or the leaf of the Palm, and a woollen or cotton Poncho, a garment made of one large piece, with a hole in the middle, through which the head is thrust, and falling loosely before, behind, and over the arms. The Poncho, if made of cloth, is frequently trimmed all round with velveteen, and lined with baize of some gay colour; if of cotton; it is ornamented with a border of various colours, woven with the piece, and is of South American manufacture. Ordinary working-people, such as sailors, boatmen, guides; and the lower order of farmers and peasantry, wear woollen jackets, with quarter dollars for buttons, in such number and order as means may allow or fancy dictate. I never saw here the poorest white peasant, who, besides these ornaments of the jacket, did not carry about him a silver fork and spoon. This practice makes them more cleanly in their habits of eating than their Northern brethren; and one good habit usually introduces others.

Ladies appear in public in the Mantilha, a square piece of silk, bordered with broad lace, which is fastened on the head, and falls over

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the back and shoulders; they wear stockings and showy coloured shoes; their head-dress is Portuguese, adorned with flowers, and sometimes, in the evening, with fire-flies. Females of the second class wear, out of their houses, a sort of great coat, called a Capota, made of cassimere, and gaudily trimmed with plush. Female slaves have only the Baéta, a square cloth or baize, often decorated with a hair-list; their hair bound with a piece of red binding, or a Bandana handkerchief; their feet invariably bare.

In this part of the continent there is more than the common proportion of pretty young women and girls; the elder are frank and chatty; none of them go much abroad, though less restrained than in the capital and its neighbourhood, more regarded as companions and friends, and more freely admitted into society. There appeared among them affectionate sisters and wives, and in their houses a much higher degree of domestic and social happiness than I had before witnessed in the country.

Marriages were rare at St. Pedro, compared with the population, though the town and province enjoyed, in this respect, some privileges not common to the colony. In other parts, if not here also, when Brazil was decisively considered as a Portuguese dependency, it was necessary to obtain from Lisbon a licence for the solemnization of marriage. If the swain made any pretences to wealth or distinction, it was not unusual for him to go thither to seek it, with voluminous testimonials of his birth, baptism, residence, and means. In the gay circles of the capital he not unfrequently found another charmer, or perhaps, on his return, had to lament a new instance of human instability, his fair one having forsaken him. So did state policy unite with other causes to impair social virtue and domestic comfort.

Indeed here, as in Rio de Janeiro, moral principles seemed to have little influence; there was the same want of fidelity, honour, and confidence. Religion frightened some into uprightness, and a strict police restrained and compelled greater numbers. The country, too, was pastoral, and uninfected with the mania of mining. Yet if it possessed a

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few moral advantages, the great influx of strangers, and the frequent changes in society, were peculiarly hostile to its feeble virtue. All the vigour of the Governor was insufficient to prevent the mischief occasioned in this way; though, by the interposition of his authority, he sometimes undered the abode of unprincipled adventurers in the town, as uncomfortable to themselves, as it was irksome to the well-disposed.

Believing that the character and government of this Gentleman were generally held in that estimation, which we Englishmen thought their due, I was surprised to find him the object of one of those furious Philippics, which the Catholic Clergy frequently pronounce from the pulpit, during Lent. On the preceding Sunday, which was very hot, a number of young men quenched their thirst in the Church, out of a marenga, an earthen vessel like a tea-kettle. Being myself thirsty, and accustomed to receive civilities from some of them, I sent a boy to request a draught of the water, which was refused me. The Preacher of the following Sunday had ascertained that the vessel contained, not water, but spirits; his anger was justly roused against the delinquents, and he chastised them with much animation and eloquence. All appeared to feel the propriety of his censures, until towards the close of his address, he turned to the Chief Magistrate, and in direct terms accused him of giving countenance to gross immorality, of treachery to God, through a Want of zeal to defend his holy services, and to punish those who dared to profane them. So sacred is the pulpit in the eyes of many of the Clergy, that they esteem themselves licensed to utter in it whatever their bigotry, caprice, or disappointment may prompt, even in the hearing of Kings, whose conduct may have excited their displeasure.

In this brief delineation of Manners and Character, an example of holy zeal may, not inappropriately, be followed by one of singular tolerance. I used occasionally to enter this Church by a small side door, near the altar, and to hold myself so far back as to be only a spectator of the religious rites. On the evening of Good Friday, I had entered the

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same way, but, attracted by the ardour of the Preacher, or the singularity of the ceremonies, had insensibly gone into the Church farther than usual. I quickly perceived myself an object of notice, and saw a smile on the countenances of some of my acquaintance; when, looking round, I was shocked to observe just behind me, the half-concealed representation of the body of Jesus Christ, lying in an open coffin. My position would, in many places, have been construed into contempt for the rites then performing, and exposed me to great danger; here it was considered as the pardonable mistake of a heretic, arising from such ignorance as rendered him an object of pity. When the funeral obsequies were performed, half a dozen Priests carried the body, in its receptacle, through the streets, followed by all the principal people of the town, a whole regiment of soldiers, with their arms reversed, and military music. In England, the procession might have passed for the funeral of an officer of rank; except for the exhibition of a picture, and the presence of a few boys with wings stuck on their shoulders, in the character of angels.

Another anecdote will be allowed to mark great benevolence, though, according to our conceptions, not well directed. It was mentioned, on another occasion, that the Mate of a British vessel was apprehended and confined for some time, at St. Pedro, previous to his being transmitted for trial to the Admiral's station at Rio de Janeiro. Here he became an object of general commiseration, because the property was almost all recovered; and the people, never thinking of the nature of a crime, but merely of the extent of a loss, regarded the offence as a slight one, and its punishment as severe. They even supposed that, were the whole sum restored, no farther notice should be taken of the affair. Under such impressions, a Gentleman of the town privately offered double the deficiency, if the culprit might be set at liberty. The officers too, under whose custody he was placed, entered into a subscription, to bribe the prosecutor to what they accounted mercy; and it became afterward known, that failing in this purpose, they were much inclined to suffer him to escape, and were restrained only by the recol-

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lection, that they would themselves want bread when their commissions were forfeited. This was not an affected display of wealth in one case, nor of kind-heartedness in the other. All seemed truly to regret that an Englishman should be so disgraced; and their disappointment can hardly be conceived, when they received thanks for their good-will towards our country, with an assurance that our laws did not admit of a prisoner's liberation without a trial. On his entrance into Rio, however, he was permitted to escape.

A community, it is often observed, is no less exhibited in its Sports than its serious modes of thinking and acting. Soon after our arrival Lent was announced; the three first days of this season are always devoted to frolic, among the Brazilians. At the Intrudo,—for so these days are called,—they cast hollow balls of various coloured wax, about the size and shape of an orange, fill them with water, and pelt each other, until the combatants are generally well wetted. It has been surmised, that this was originally one of the singular modes by which the Priests communicated the water of baptism to persons indisposed to receive it, and thus entrapped them into the Kingdom of Heaven. However this might be, another practical witticism, greatly in request at the same season, could hardly have any religious origin. Flour is wrapped up in cones made of paper, and in a moment, when the poor Negro is off his guard, he is whitened all over. So fond are the people of these and similar diversions, that they freely say—"At the Intrudo we become simpletons."

On the first day of these sports, the British were proceeding together on horseback to the house of a Spaniard, about five miles from the town, and took a back way in hopes of avoiding the wetting, to which all were alike exposed. We had not, however, made much progress, when we were assailed with a shower of balls, which dispersed us in every direction. Being better mounted than some of my companions, I pushed forward, and looking back, saw one of our number unhorsed, and very roughly handled; deserving his fate, I must confess, by suffering his anger to kindle, and returning for the watery balls very improper missiles.

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When our party was again collected, I once more proceeded a little in advance, and thereby escaped many single shots; but had no sooner reached the Church than I was attacked from behind its corner, with several well-aimed balls, one of which almost disabled my bridle hand. I made off with all speed, mounted the sand-hill, and from thence contemplated the conflict between my friends and the fair Amazons, who had lain in wait; for the Governor's daughters had planted themselves in a well-supplied ambush, in expectation of our passing. The contest, while it wetted, imparted to us a share of the good humour with which it was maintained by our opponents; and even our unfortunate companion escaped from the sullen cloud, which had spread over his mind.

The party at the Farm consisted of the master of the house, his wife, two sons, and two daughters, five or six English visitors, the German Doctor, and his pretty, wicked wife, who ere long destroyed him by poison. The host had no small resemblance in figure, to our Henry the Eighth: his face was covered with carbuncles, his features proportioned to his frame, his eyes large and fierce, and his brow wonderfully compressed, and capable of an extraordinary expansion. Hence the movements of his mind were singularly discernible, and from these appearances, as well as his deep and harsh tones, and his boisterous action, we judged him to be ferocious and cruel; though he could smile, and in his cheerful moments, had a playfulness of manner, which illaccorded with his other qualities. We were not surprised to find that he had filled a higher rank in society; and of him I could believe the story often repeated of singular characters, or of men in singularly obscure circumstances, that he had been obliged by the commission of murder to fly to some distant hiding place. Yet was this tiger held in a soft bondage; his wife, a careful manager of the family, appeared to receive and return his warmest affection and confidence. She told us that he had once been addicted to gambling, at which period they were always poor; but that now he was reformed, had purchased the farm on

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which they lived, and was never without money in the drawer. Returning into the house with one or two of the guests from an attendance on the horses, he caught her last words, opened his repository with great self-complacency, and displayed a considerable quantity of doubloons, proclaiming himself a fool, for having formerly squandered so many away. The children were all grown up, and with seemingly more of their mother's temperament than of his, heard his noise without alarm, and were little terrified by his fury. Some young men, who had come in the afternoon, to enjoy the Intrudo with his family, incautiously offended him, and he seized an axe, with which he seemed on the point of dashing out the brains of one of them; yet this occasioned no interruption of their gambols, but only made them careful to keep out of the reach of his arm.

However the peculiarities of this man may render him unfit to be produced as a specimen of the Peasants in the neighbourhood of St. Pedro, a description of his house may serve as a picture of the habitations of. the lower order of Farmers, not in this Province alone, but in the whole space from the Paraná to the Ocean. It was constructed of a frame-work of wood, to which upright studs were fastened by pegs, or twigs of a plant here called Sipo, which grows in abundance over the whole country, bears twisting, well, and firmly binds together the constituent parts of a building. Between these studs other twigs are interwoven, and the spaces filled up with well-tempered clay, dashed in and pressed and smoothed by the hand alone. The walls are rough; but in general, made somewhat more seemly by whitewashing. The thatch is of a coarse flaggy grass, the floors of earth, and the apartments without chimneys, In Brazil, the door made of plank forms the legal distinction between a house and a resting place,—a permanent and a temporary abode; the latter sometimes having a door made of straw twisted round sticks, or of a hide stretched over a slight piece of frame work. Such doors are common in the newly-acquired Provinces, but not in Rio Grandé. The lodging-rooms of the house in question were on the ground floor, divided from the other apartments by the same kind of wall as is described before, but of a slighter texture. The

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kitchen, of an inferior order to the rest of the building, here adjoined the house; sometimes it is placed at a small distance.

In houses of this description, the chief furniture of the principal apartment is the never-failing, long, clumsy table and forms, made of wood so hard, as to serve for generations. There are also chests and boxes of wood or hide, and occasionally of flag. Above them hang the rude trappings of horses and oxen, made from slips of undressed hide; and in a corner stand some of the implements of husbandry. On the chest of drawers in the house of our host, was a cupboard with folding doors, containing a crucifix, decorated with silver and artificial flowers, and beheld through a pane of glass. When we entered the room, the Penates were exposed to view; but soon afterward, the master of the house, probably observing that the exhibition attracted little notice, made a respectful bow to the image, and closed its doors. The women, with their knees crowded up to their chin, sate in, rather than upon, stools of a singular form, about eighteen inches long, twelve broad, and six high at the sides, sunk in the middle so as to come within an inch of the ground, and forming some resemblance of a trough. In the other parts of the house, there was a greater scarcity of the humblest accommodations. The apparatus for cookery was a wood fire, surrounded with three stones, to support the earthen utensils. In the lodging rooms, the bedsteads were nothing more than four stakes set upright in the ground, to which rods were attached, with a hide stretched over the top.

The Farm contained four or five hundred acres of rich meadow land, part of it well inclosed with fences formed of the mimosa. The Cattle were numerous and thriving, and some Horses made their appearance. Its contiguity to the town secured a ready sale for its excellent Butter and Cheese. The Pigs appeared to live luxuriously; their sty was a stoccado, raised under the shelter of a large tree; their food, at the time of our visit, chiefly peaches of good flavour, was thrown over the inclosure, and they literally rolled in abundance. Upon the Farm are no outbuildings, for the climate renders them unnecessary; but our horses

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fared well, though unsheltered, being tied to the trees, and the ground about them liberally strewed with grass. The Carros or Waggons, resembled those originally derived from Portugal, with equally little iron in their structure or harness; here they were drawn by six or eight oxen, instead of four.

In such a place there could be no want of provisions for the table; we had a plentiful repast of beef, bacon, and good poultry, together with different vegetables, European as well as native, in high perfection. The guests had previously sent wine, and Rosca, a kind of bread, had been provided from the town. This, I am told, is kneaded with milk, and, being baked very hard, continues good for a long time.

Although such abodes, their supplies and accommodations, may be thought in England greatly deficient, the Brazilians certainly enjoy in them a considerable share of comfort, which depends less on circumstances than on habits. He, whose attachment to the things and modes of a long established country is inflexible, can never be pleased with a new one; yet the latter may, abstractedly considered, be the happier region of the two. In Brazil, the warmth of the climate converts much clothing by day, or covering by night, into a redundancy; and a fire, except for culinary purposes, would, in general, be a burden. The common appetite, too, demands nothing beyond the simplest productions of skill in cookery. The ground is dry, the floor may easily be kept clean, and, though used as a couch, is never dangerous. For my own part, after being a little habituated to it, I have found a hard bed pleasanter than a soft one, and a stretched raw hide sweeter than some of the mattresses of London.

It is probable that the class which I am next to bring forward was well content in a situation still more bare of superfluities,—the persons who occasionally appeared in Rio Grandé, as the purchasers of goods, from a considerable distance in the interior. They were, in general, short and robust; with some mixture of Indian blood, manifested by a thin beard, lank hair, and an unsettled eye. The men of genuine Spanish and Portuguese origin have thick and strong beards, the hair

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wavy, the countenance and limbs longer than those of the preceding class. The complexion of all is a deep brown, and the hair and irides black.

These Strangers were clothed chiefly in coarse and strong cotton, of domestic manufacture, fashioned into a shirt with open sleeves, and trowsers which reached a little below the knee, and were fastened round the loins with a girdle. This girdle, like the rest, a fabric of their own country, was also made of cotton dyed blue or red, sometimes of both colours, and alternated with white, and fringed at the ends; it was long and narrow, wrapped three or four times round the body, and within its folds were deposited their money, and whatever else they accounted most valuable. Over their shoulders was slung a small pouch of skin, containing a flint, a steel, and a spongeous substance, answering the purpose of tinder, and sometimes a small quantity of tobacco. It hence appeared that their customs were derived from the Spaniards, and their abode was beyond the Portuguese frontiers. They all wore a high conical crowned hat, of felt, straw, or palm-leaf; a sharp knife, stuck in the girdle; and, though without shoe or stocking, a spur fixed to the heel by a strip of raw hide. A few among them, who, it may be, dwelt near some place of consequence, appeared in jackets or long blue coats, waistcoats of slink skin, and boots buckled round the knees. A still Smaller number wore neck-handkerchiefs and hangers, and had their attendants following them. Though the number of these people, particularly of the inferior class, was considerable, they seemed always unable to put off their jealousy of the Brazilians, and withdrew, at sunset, to their quarters in the plain, four or five miles from the town.

When they were about to make their purchases, they usually came in small parties, alighted at a store without speaking or taking notice of any one, turned the reins from their horses' necks, and suffered them to trail on the ground, in which state the horses would stand and sleep, without stirring from the spot. Entering the store, they looked round, until some one, seeing an article which he wanted, pointed to it, uttered a few words respecting the price, generally purchased, and immediately

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paid for it. Resuming his upright position he again looked round, pointed, purchased, and paid. There seemed to be no sense of difference of qualities or varieties of price, no idea of abatement. Thus the party proceeded, until they had spent their dollars, if they saw in the place all that they wanted. If they did not, some one would occasionally ask for an unseen article; and if it was not to be had, their trading was finished, they asked for nothing more, and could not be induced to look any farther, but gathered up their purchases and retired. If a seller ventured to recommend his goods, their common suspicions of craft seemed to be immediately confirmed; and I have seen them, in such a case, leave a store without speaking another word.

The articles which these people purchased were numerous, the quantities small. I have been astonished at the accuracy with which they recollected the price of every thing which they had bought Apparently to aid such recollection, all the articles were laid in a row, in the exact order of purchase; all were repeatedly touched with a finger, perhaps compared with some catalogue of wants previously committed to memory, and the separate price of each recounted. It was, probably, when disappointment interrupted the settled order of recollection, that they could not be brought to continue their purchases. They appeared to me to have no notion of writing, and small skill in combination, more especially when there occurred fractional parts of a current coin. If two parties arrived at a store together, they seldom appeared to have any communication with each other, and the prevailing feeling among them seemed to be an anxiety lest both should want the same things, and there should not be a sufficient supply.

For the smaller articles they had cotton bags, which, when replenished with goods, were tied to their saddles; printed calicoes were generally wrapped round their bodies; woollen-cloth, folded into a square form, was placed on the horses' backs, under the saddles. Thus, in many instances, all the pains and expense employed by the manufacturer, to give a gloss or other showy appearance to his goods, were rendered vain by the steaming carcase of a horse, or of a less cleanly animal.

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The equipments of the horses, belonging to these men, were little different from those in common use on this part of the American Continent. Their bridle-bits are crooked iron curbs, with cheek-plates; the mouth-piece also is crooked, and through the upper part of the curve an iron ring is passed, about five inches in diameter, into which, when the bridle is put on, the horse's chin, or lower jaw, is thrust; so that the whole forms a most powerful curb. There is only a single rein to the bridle, the two ends of which proceed from the points of the curb, and meet upon the horse's withers, in a ring about an inch in diameter, from which proceeds a lash four feet long; the whip being thus attached to the bridle, the horseman's right hand is left at liberty. The leather is formed from a hide neatly cut into long shreds, which are soaked in oil or melted tallow, until they are completely pliable; they are then plaited with equal neatness, and form a round thong as thick as the little finger. The headstall is formed of the same materials; and the bridle, altogether, is not only recommended by its appearance, but by its power to restrain the most headstrong animal. There is still more singularity in the stirrups; which are, in common, made from the transverse section of an ox's horn, brought nearly to a triangular shape; or of brass, bearing some resemblance to the vertical section of a bell. In both cases they are so small as to admit only the tip of the boot, if the rider have any, or a few of the naked toes. They are attached to the saddle by straps, which cannot be lengthened or shortened.

Though a Saddle has been repeatedly mentioned as part of the horse-furniture of the strangers, it would have been more correct to speak of the Lumbillio, which is universally used among them, and, indeed, all ranks of horsemen in Rio Grandé. Perhaps a more fit place than this will not be found for some description of it. The Lumbillio, borrowed from the Spanish colonists, and by them from their mother-country, is a sort of thin pannel, about two feet long, of exactly the same form in its front and back, and covered with embossed leather. It is fastened to the horse by a bandage made of ten or a dozen thongs, all the ends of which terminate in two iron rings. When this is thrown

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over it, and passed round the horse's body, the two rings are drawn together by a thong rove through them so forcibly that the Lumbillio cannot possibly move. A dried sheep's skin is usually the upper covering, and, if the rider be a person of consequence, a skin is selected with long and orderly disposed wool, and dyed with indigo. In this case, too, the covering is kept in its place by a circingle of white cotton, six inches broad, with figures of animals and birds interwoven in colours, most commonly in various shades of blue and red.

So considerable a part of the population of the South American colonies consisting of slaves, every new district seems to call for some notice of their numbers, occupations, and treatment. It is pleasant to be able to record any favourable modifications, however small, of a condition intrinsically lamentable. It was usual to transport to St. Pedro, from other parts of Brazil, slaves that were incorrigible; and certainly I met here with bad slaves as well as bad masters. But I saw nothing which seemed to show any peculiar depravity in the black people of this place; on the contrary, as they were less numerous than in other parts of the colony, so they appeared to me better and happier. The price paid for slaves was high, and there was great difficulty in procuring them; this may account, in part, for their lenient treatment; but I apprehend that a more efficient cause is the moderate temperature of the climate, which enables their white masters to take a share in their labours. In the town I really thought their situations quite as comfortable as their minds and habits would allow.

Where many belong to one master, it is usual here, as in Rio de Janeiro, to have one of them instructed in the part of a carpenter, another taught to make and mend shoes, and the rest qualified for some distinct useful occupation; and by hiring them out to those who may need their services, to make them advantageously repay the cost bestowed upon them. As there is a great scarcity of free artizans, not more, I believe, than one smith, one shoemaker, and a carpenter or two, with not a single farrier, or turner, or professed worker in tin or brass;—and

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as, in consequence, a stranger often finds it difficult to supply his humblest wants, they are not only much called for, but so valued for their acquirements as to be guarded from excessive toil or ill usage.

Many of them are statedly occupied, on a certain day or days at least, with an essential though not very laborious employment, that of washing clothes. For this purpose every considerable family has a place on the plain Southward of the town. There a tub, with holes, is sunk into the ground, into which the water from the Bay distils through the sand, and is thus deprived of its salt. To this simple apparatus the slave resorts, with a board having two legs at one end, while the other, resting on the ground, forms an inclined plane; on this board the clothes, after having been saturated with soap, of domestic manufacture, and water, are struck with all the strength of the operator, or beaten with a wooden instrument. The heedless rambler, by the way, is in imminent danger, when it is dark, of being entrapped by these tubs, and serious injuries have been received from them.

The blacks may, possibly, and doubtless do, think a little labour excessive. Yet such persons can earn, in an hour, two vintems, about four-pence, which is sufficient to provide them food for a day. When one of them is seen lounging about, and asked to undertake any job, the common reply is,—"I have already earned." It may be said, indeed, that there is hardly a poor person in the town, nature having placed the necessaries of life within the easy reach of all; and wanting but little, they enjoy that little in a degree which might excite the envy of the ambitious and restless.

Yet does it, almost every where, seem sufficient that a man have the hue of a negro, to mark him out as an object on which tyranny may exercise itself. Having occasion to pass, with two friends, at a late hour, over the sloughy ground bordering on the bay of Mangueira, we had recourse to an expedient, common here, but which necessity only can justify. At the ferry we met with a couple of black men, whom we compelled, by showing our arms, and convincing them that resistance would be unavailing, to be our guides, and to carry us over the boggy

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places. Fortunately the men proved tractable, and gave us no occasion or pretence for rougher measures. When on safe ground, and near the town, we dismissed them with a liberal payment and an exhortation to be always civil to our countrymen. Had they been encountered and employed in the same way by a party of Brazilians, they would have been sent back unpaid. Such is the lot of slavery; and, wanting his services, a despot will not take the trouble to inquire whether a black man be bond or free.

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A. D. 1809—1813.


FINDING in St. Pedro and its neighbourhood no sufficient vent for that portion of our goods which we had resolved, if possible, immediately to dispose of, we took several journeys into the interior of the province. Of each of them it would be tedious to give a distinct account; the notes, therefore, which were taken on the same, or nearly the same track, are thrown together.

The first concern in each journey was to procure horses and a guide; for the latter a soldier is usually employed, but we preferred a person not belonging to the army, making it a point to have a white man. A bag of Farinha was commonly provided, and a Calabash for a

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drinking-vessel. Each of the principals of the party took his pistols, sometimes a fowling-piece or a hanger; the guide failed not to equip himself with his knife, lasso, and balls.

Though the form and use of the Lasso are very generally known, it may not be amiss briefly to describe it. It is made of narrow thongs, plaited in the same way as the bridles mentioned on another occasion, and is about seven or eight yards long. One end of it is firmly fixed to the hinder part of the saddle, generally on the right side; at the other end is an iron ring, about two inches in diameter. The horseman, about to use the Lasso, forms a sort of running noose, by passing a portion of it through the ring; this is taken in the right hand, so as that the ring may be at the opposite part of the circle; the noose is then swung with care over the head, until the extreme part of it, including the ring, acquires a considerable momentum. The instrument thus prepared, as the man advances towards his selected victim, is in due time discharged, carries off the remainder of the string, which before hung loosely in coils on the fingers of the left hand, and seldom fails to entangle the beast. A well trained horse, though at full speed when the Lasso is thrown, instantly stops, and, turning round, pulls against the animal, which is now attached to him.

The balls are three in number, round, and nearly three inches in diameter. The external part of each is a sort of purse, made of hide, rendered pliable by soaking; the purse is filled with sand, and the aperture drawn close; in drying the leather contracts, arid the whole becomes as hard as a stone. To each ball a string is attached, three or four feet long, made of plaited thongs, like the lasso; and the three strings united by a knot, at two feet distance from the balls. This may be called the handle of the instrument, for the person using it takes the knot in his right hand, and having given it the necessary velocity, by swinging it over his head with all his might, throws it at the legs of the horse or ox which he wishes to secure. In their progress the balls spread to the utmost distance which the strings will allow, and, reaching the leg, generally pass, round it; and though, perhaps, only slightly entangling the animal, sufficiently impede its flight.

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In travelling Westward, we generally kept along the edge of the bay, thereby avoiding the loose sand, and finding a hard track for the horses. Here we met with a multitude of birds, continually seeking their prey, by thrusting their long bills into the sand; they are of the Heron tribe, and the most common of them are about the size of a Woodcock, with brown plumage, a short tail, and red legs. The natives call them Gansos or Geese, but they are not web-footed and never swim. After proceeding about ten miles, at no time far from the water, we reached some fine level plains, cut by a few streamlets, and covered with rich grass. Advancing four or five miles over these meadows, and passing a poor village, we arrived at higher ground, a small part of which is cultivated, and produces Abobaras and Milho,—the former a species of Pumpkin, the latter what is elsewhere called Maize, or Indian Corn. The general under stratum of the soil seems to be solid, for we observed many small pools of water, especially near the towh; and here, too, appeared some attempts to confine the progress of the sand by hedges of Mimosa.

Before we reached the village of Povo Novo, the setting sun, shining upon its white church and houses, sheltered by a few trees, gave it a pleasant appearance. To this spot, it is said, the people have been drawn by the erection of the church, and by some ecclesiastical establishment connected with it. Cazal adds, that they are natives of the Azores, and labourers. On what their labour is bestowed I know not; there are certainly no marks of it in the culture of the soil. Our Lady of Necessity is their patroness, and liberally has she distributed her favours among them.

On entering the village we sought the abode of a person whom we had employed as a salesman; and when found, were constrained to take possession of it without leave, for the master was absent, and there was no one in the house but a female slave. Here we were permitted, and even expected to put up our own horses, and secure the trappings and baggage; our guide turning out to be a young man, too diffident to be at ease himself, or to be active in promoting our comfort. We took the liberty to search the house, and finding little to supply our wants, sent

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out the slave to purchase a supper for ourselves and the horses. Our host returned while the supper was getting ready, and having welcomed us in a noisy way, took, without scruple, a share of our provisions. About midnight we spread our saddle-cloths on the earthen-floor, took our saddles for pillows, and attempted to sleep, in which, with all the rudeness of our accommodations, we might have succeeded, had not the rats, which here are large, as well as numerous, fixed upon the saddle-cloths as their lawful prey; and had we not continually annoyed each other by our endeavours to drive off the assailants. In the morning the master of the house was not to be found, and we were much disposed to suspect something unfriendly on his part; but the suspicion was, I believe, unfounded, except in the circumstance of his absence; the Brazilians being seldom deficient in the duties of hospitality, though they may have nothing to communicate but shelter. A few Peaches, gathered fresh from the tree, proved a welcome addition to a breakfast made up of some scanty savings from the evening's meal.

A few miles from Povo Novo the country greatly improved, exhibiting not only some fine pastures and stately trees, but also a few well built farm-houses. I saw with especial interest droves of horses grazing at large, and my own steed having become stiff or stubborn, consulted with the guide whether we might not venture to exchange him for a better. He entered at once into the plan, loosed his balls, and advancing towards a drove, as it slowly passed before him, singled out his object, and riding round a cluster, so as to place the individual in its rear, he dashed at him, and threw the balls with unerring aim; but one of them, instead of wrapping round the horse's fore leg, struck him violently below the knee, and made him halt. At this moment a man, who proved to be the owner of the horses, galloped up to us full of anger, and vehement in his threats. Had we seen him sooner we certainly should have asked his consent to the exchange; though, if our guide had been a soldier, no such civility would have been thought necessary; on the contrary, the angry gentleman might, probably, have been made to dismount, and surrender the horse on which he rode to my

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use. Having no Firman from the Grande Senhor, we were constrained to use supplications instead of violence; but the offence which we had given rendered the man deaf to our entreaties. Though resolute in his determination not to accommodate us himself, he so far relented as to point out where we might probably fare better. In conformity to his directions we made several attempts which proved fruitless; and we were fortunate, at length in lighting upon a young man at a Coral who, seeing the urgency of the case, advised us to make application at a hut which stood at a small distance.

It was situated on a pleasant knoll, and though constructed of mud, and unadorned with whitewash, had an air of rustic neatness. Near it were a few hides of wheat, over which was thrown a temporary roof of thatch. Having announced our approach as usual, by three quick beats on the palm of the hand, saying, at the same time, "with permission," there appeared at the door a most venerable and interesting old man, whose countenance seemed a pledge of the success of our application. With appearances, not of civility alone, but of accomplished manners, he invited us into his house; and having learned our wants, sent a child to call another person, who proved to be the young man whom we had seen before, and who received the orders of, probably, his father in a respectful and graceful way. When he was withdrawn, the old Gentleman called for, and presented to us, milk in a large beaker; observing with an air of gaiety, that it was all which his hut could furnish. His tone and manner seemed to intimate, that he recollected another house and superior accommodations; yet the recollection did not interrupt his flow of spirits, nor his attention to his guests. In a short time the arrival of the horses was announced; when he arose, took my hand, and led me to a very noble animal, the best of the three which the young man had brought. The eye of the animal indicated more fire than I had been used to, and he seemed almost unbroken; so that some symptoms of a want of confidence, which I had probably displayed in mounting, induced him to assure me that the creature was perfectly gentle. I found him, though only four years old, well deserving of his master's praises.

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As we journeyed onward, the conversation naturally turned on our new friend. All that our guide knew of him was, that he had not lived long in this spot, and that report, which commonly tells a similar tale of all strangers of a superior cast, and often no doubt too truly, said of him, that he was a Spaniard of high birth, and having had the misfortune, when young, to kill a noble antagonist, was still pursued for the purposes of vengeance.

The Plain of St. Gonzales, which we traversed shortly after, is a level and rich tract of meadow land, upwards of twenty miles long and seven broad; generally incommoded with a hot, hazy, oppressive atmosphere. The river, which gives name to these plains, forms the communication between the Lakes Mirim and Patos, and discharges itself into the harbour of Rio Grandé. It is nearly as broad as the Thames at London; and at the Pass of the Negroes, has an appearance, which supports the common opinion, that it is not less than twenty-four fathoms deep. The low part of this country is a sandy soil, with little vegetation besides a rank, sedgy grass; in some places swampy, with pools of water and extensive coppices; and near the river are some fine trees, singularly loaded with parasitic plants.

Though we found the uplands in general dry and unpromising; we noticed a few specimens of decent farming; but on a small scale and in unconnected patches. The Melancia or Water Melon, appeared in one place growing with Milho, the only instance of double cropping which came in our way. On reaching a field of the former, should the sun be oppressively hot, or the horses tired, the umbrella, with which travellers are generally furnished, is expanded, and the stick and a point or two of the circumference resting on the ground, a shady halting place is obtained. If two or three sticks can be found, a still more complete and useful shelter is sometimes formed by fixing them in the ground, and spreading over them a Capota or Poncho. The fields of Water Melons are then pillaged, and a most refreshing repast procured for horses as well as men. The hollow sound which the ripe fruit emits, when struck with the handle of a knife, is an evidence of its fitness for food.

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The first Coppice which we passed sent out such a swarm of Mosquitos that our black coats appeared like a dappled brown. None of them lighted on our guide, hereby giving some colour to his assertion, that he is never annoyed by them. Our horses were tormented by another insect, the Meruabuna, a species of Gad-fly. It is indeed, improperly that this Indian compound is applied to the gad-fly, for it denotes such winged insects only as collect in swarms, such as the bee, the wasp, or hornet. By a similar combination, a convent of Jesuits is called Oca-abuna, the house of the black swarm or family; and an individual of the community, Payé-abuna, a priest of the black family.

At no great distance, an Emu started up, to which we gave chase, putting our horses to their utmost speed; the bird quickly left us far behind, then closed its wings and stalked on in careless security. Though the neighbouring sands are the natural haunt of these birds, they were now numerous on the plains, having been driven hither, I suppose, by dry weather; we had, in consequence, several chases of the same kind, all of them equally fruitless. On turning the corner of a wood, we suddenly came within thirty yards of an Emu, followed by about sixty young ones, which were probably several collected broods. She marched off with a stately step, carrying her head in a sort of semicircle, and looking at us first with one eye, then with the other. We again followed at full gallop; but as the pursuit continued the distance sensibly increased. The young birds clustered together, fluttered much, and advanced with evident haste; the pace of the old one was dignified and steady. She showed no marks of weakness, fear, or stupidity; on the contrary, while concerned for the safety of her charge, she seemed, desirous to save them from unnecessary fatigue. Our guide entertained the common opinion of the country, that it is the male bird, which in this way guides and protects the young; but, as more agreeable to the order of nature, I have not hesitated to speak of the leader as a female.

I kept one of these birds for some time, within a spacious Stockado, until it became familiar, and occasionally impertinent. He allowed me to stride over his back, and could just support my weight;

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mounted by a boy of twelve years of age, he could run, and was easily guided by turning his head to the direction in which the rider wished him to proceed.

Soon after this chace of the Emus, we were in pursuit of game of a different description. Our guide, whose perceptions were perhaps quickened by the hope of profit, discovered the haunt of a herd of wild hogs, and having stationed us so as to cut off their retreat into the wood, he roused the prey, rode into the midst of them with his Lasso, and secured five females. He then cut three gashes in the right ear of each, and set them at liberty, saying that they were now his, that, so marked, no one would meddle with them, and that he would return at the time when each might be expected to be followed by a litter of pigs, and take them away, or set his mark on the young ones.

The great docility which the horses manifest in these sports, is doubtless owing to the power of the curb; but this operates disadvantageously another way, preventing them from leaping over a bush or a bog. It is true they wheel round the one, and flounder through the other, with spirit and perseverance; but this occasions delay, and the game is thereby frequently lost. In galloping too, they seem afraid of feeling the bit, and dare not stretch themselves out; but advance by bounds like a stag, which occasions them soon, to tire, and to fall into a kind of pacing. Yet is their docility remarkable, and that not only when they are in action, but when they are at rest. Their riders having dismounted, and contrived some shade, in which they may repose, sometimes for two or three hours, the horses never stray, but stand sleeping themselves. Indeed, in Brazil, these animals are seldom allowed to lie down, even in stables; nor do they change their modes in this respect when left at their own pleasure. It may be also, in some instinctive Sense of superior safety that they choose to sleep standing; for they are thus better prepared for the attacks of the Ounce, or of Snakes; and when alarmed can immediately fly from danger. If in opposition to this feeling a horse stretch himself upon the ground, it is that, from experience of a particular situation, he is become free from apprehension,

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or that he is lame, or so extremely fatigued, as to be careless about his safety.

Across the Plains there is no perceptible track; not so in the Woods, where travellers, following each other, form a path, and generally render it bad; nor is it mended in the few places where it is roughly paved. Close to the river Gonzales the road, such as it is, terminates in a strong pen, where the cattle about to be taken over are secured, and from which a rude double fence, forming a sort of lane, conducts so far into the river as to take them off their legs. They are then guided by canoas to the opposite bank, received into a similar inclosure, and the toll is paid for them. Wherever there are wide and deep rivers, the Government has established Ferries, at which persons attend at all hours, to conduct passengers over; this is properly a military regulation, but not the less valuable for civil purposes. With like wisdom, bridges are built on all public roads, where they are necessary, and where the architects of the country are equal to the construction of them.

Having crossed the Gonzales, we find towards the North, between the Passo dos Negros and the Lagoa dos Patos, a broad patch of swampy land, the accumulated sediment of ages. In these fens are many houses, and some considerable establishments; amongst which the Farm of Pellotas is said to occupy ten square leagues. The owner passes for a wealthy and powerful man; his house is large, standing on elevated ground behind the swamps, facing the East, and commanding an extensive view of the country and of the Rio Grandé. It is whitened, and being backed by rich woods, forms a noble object from the water. The river Pellotas runs below it, and is navigable for yatchs about twenty miles; but they seldom, I believe, proceed higher than the house just mentioned, which is not seven miles from the river's mouth.

Our course was more Westerly, through a country essentially different from that on the Eastern side of the Gonzales. Instead of sands, partly consolidated, and in the course of time, forming broad alluvial meadows, we found a country of a gently varied surface and a

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rich loamy soil, producing in abundance the broad-leaved species of grass, called in Brazil Gramma. A great extent of land is here comprehended under the name of Charqueados, and is famous for a luxuriant produce, and for its numerous and fine cattle. Houses are scattered over it, many of them spacious, and some not without pretensions to splendour; chapels are attached to several of them, and round a few is seen such a collection of smaller dwellings as may deserve to be called a village.

The name of Charqueados is derived from the Charqued Beef, which the district prepares and exports. When the cattle are killed and skinned, the flesh is taken off from the sides in one broad piece, something like a flitch of bacon; it is then slightly sprinkled with salt, and dried in the sun. In that state it is the common food of the peasantry in the hotter parts of Brazil, is in itself by no means to be despised; and as it will keep long forms an excellent sea stock, and would bear carriage to distant parts of the world. Some idea of the immense quantity of beef thus prepared may be formed from the fact that, in one year, an individual, Jozé Antonio dos Anjos, slaughtered fifty-four thousand head of cattle, and charqued the flesh. The piles of bones which lay in his premises, far surpassed my utmost conceptions, and there were thousands of Urubus, the Vulture of South America, flying round, and feeding on the offal.

During the slaughtering season, it is not uncommon for large packs of dogs to make their appearance, and assist the vultures in picking the bones; and it is said that the ounce will do the same. The bones thus picked, are generally reduced to lime. It is certain that, not in this part of the country only, but in almost every part of Brazil, there are considerable numbers of wild dogs; and that the different species of these animals have acquired distinguishing Indian names. Yet I cannot think that they were aboriginal natives of South America, but believe them to have been introduced, in a domesticated state, by the first European settlers, and to have quickly gone wild.

The Piratinim, the little fish river, runs about a hundred miles, chiefly

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in an Easterly direction, and is said to fall into the Gonzales, near the lake Mirim. The country, through which it passes, is in general an exceedingly fine one, and well variegated with hills. An evidence of the depth of its soil is afforded by the streams which unite to form the river; many of them having cut their way through channels from twelve to twenty-four feet deep. Notwithstanding this advantage, the country looks bare for want of trees, and the people inhabiting it are driven to miserable shifts for fuel.

Riding through a small hamlet on the border of this river, we found the inhabitants sitting at their doors, and gaily enjoying the evening sports. Having civilly replied to a few trifling questions which we asked, they advised us to cross the river to a house, which they pointed out, the owner of which, they said, would not only receive us gladly, but be disappointed if we did not visit him. On the first intimation of our purpose to comply with this advice, two of them set off to announce our approach. The river had a deep and stony bed, with banks almost precipitous, and is evidently at some seasons, a large impetuous torrent. The water was then low, showing the holes, which are common in the beds of such streams, and convincing us, that in some places, the passage must be really dangerous. As we were descending the steep bank, a young man sprang upon the back of a horse, which happened to be at hand, rode before us, and went both above and below the course, which he wished us to take; while the old men, women, and children, advanced to the bank vociferating many additional directions. The clamour, though not necessary, was a demonstration of every one's good-will.

In almost every case the Brazilian friends of a stranger are so anxious for his safety, that they are apt to imagine danger where there is none, and to magnify where it exists. A traveller ought to be aware of this fact, or he will often be harrassed with groundless apprehensions. At the same time let him never be off his guard; for there are villains who would not only hasten to take advantage of an accident, but would lead him into danger for the sake of pillage. Such wretches almost universally pursue their vocation singly; the plunderer and assassin, in Brazil,

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seems to have a more than common dread of an accomplice, keeps his secret in his own bosom, and trusts to his own arm alone.

The gentleman, to whom the advice of our casual friends introduced us, proved not unworthy of their praise and of our confidence. We found him intelligent and inquisitive, furnished with authority in his district, and using it so as to attract respect and affection. Though his house little surpassed what we had before seen, in point of furniture and accommodations, he set before us some luxuries, particularly some good red wine. We left him gratified by his kindness, and regretting that our plans allowed us only a short enjoyment of his society.

South of the Piratinim the country continues much the same as on the other side, only that the eminences are somewhat more lofty. Through it runs the river Ygaroon, in Rio Grandé generally pronounced and written Jigaroon. Its sources are near to those of the Rio Negro, and between them is one of the most important passes of this part of the Continent. The territory was held, at this time, by the Spaniards, but claimed by the Portuguese, to whom the facilities which it enjoys for the wide distribution of imported goods render the settled possession of it a matter of great moment. Whenever the question of yielding it up was started afresh, there was never any want of difficulties to impede the determination. Both parties had the wisdom, in the mean time, to carry on a considerable commercial intercourse with the Rio Grandé; and though occasionally a Portuguese vessel was seized, it was as lightly restored as detained. From the last mentioned river yatchs, of from fifty to seventy tons burthen, pass by the Gonzales to Lake Mirim; from thence up the Ygaroon, the entrance of which is the great rendezvous of vessels from every part of the Lake, and hence goods are distributed through the fertile territory on the West of it up the Saboyatý, the water of rats, to Maldonado, and across the mountains even to the Uruguay. The upward cargoes consist of bale-goods, tobacco, spirits, salt, groceries, and gunpowder. The returns are chiefly carne-secca, or charqued beef, hides and tallow, which are exported from Rio Grandé

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The reader has regarded with wonder, perhaps with incredulity, the account before given of the size of the farm of Pellotas; and, indeed, the reported extent of farms in this part of the American Continent can scarcely be mentioned with boldness, by one who has himself little doubt of the truth of the accounts. The smallest are stated at four square leagues, or more than twenty thousand acres; the largest are said to reach to a hundred square leagues, or near six hundred thousand aores. To each three square leagues are allotted four or five thousand head of cattle, six men, and a hundred horses; though, according to circumstances, such as the distance from navigable waters, or from church, there must be a variety in the number of oxen kept for the business of a farm. The proportion of horses will appear a very large one; but it is to be remembered that they cost nothing in keeping, as they are turned out on the plains; that no one about the farm, not even a slave, ever goes the shortest distance on foot; and that each manager will change his horse two or three times in a day. About a hundred cows are allowed for the supply of milk, butter, cheese, and veal, to a farm of the average size. Hogs are usually found near the houses, but little care is taken of them; they wander about, root up the earth, devour reptiles, and make a good part of their subsistence on the waste parts of the cattle slaughtered. There are few Sheep, and they are remarkably light and ill made, with a short ordinary wool; which, however, might easily be improved. This wool is, at present, used partly unstripped from the skins, as saddle-covers and the like, partly for the stuffing of beds and mattresses. The country is so thinly peopled, its inhabitants have so little liking to mutton, and the wild dogs and other beasts and birds of prey are so numerous, that there can be little inducement to increase the flocks.

In every Farm there is at least one enclosed place, called the Rodeio, generally on the highest spot; here the. cattle are occasionally collected, examined, marked, and treated as circumstances may require. So accustomed are they, particularly the horses, to this practice, that when the servants of the farm ride along, swinging their Lassos or their Hats, and loudly pronouncing the word Rodeio, they all walk slowly to the

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spot. In a country so little enlivened by variety, this assemblage forms one of its most rural and pleasant scenes.

The traveller in this country may generally find something to eat at the small Vendas, or hucksters' houses, which are found near the most frequented chapels. But he must not depend upon them, as they are miserable hovels, thinly scattered, and frequently shut up. His chief dependence must be on the hospitality of the inhabitants; and it will be concluded, from what has already appeared, that this dependence is well founded. To avail himself of this resource he will, however, find it necessary to use a little management. He is expected to take breakfast where he passes the night; coffee and milk are early prepared; to suffer a guest to depart without it would be considered as a want of hospitality on the part of the host, to decline partaking of it would be construed into incivility on that of the guests. He must then contrive to reach the next friendly abode at or before mid-day; for, however welcome a stranger may be, the master of a house seldom thinks of ordering a table to be set out at any but the usual hours; nevertheless at these every one present, if a white man, is welcomed, and partakes with the family.

In travelling here two of us halted, about ten o'clock in the forenoon, at the house of a person who professed himself, and doubtless was our very sincere friend. A change of horses, which we had requested, was readily granted; and, while the fresh ones were in a state of preparation, he invited us to seat ourselves by him in the shade, near to an out-house; he never dreamed of asking whether we wished for refreshment, and it was quite by accident that we were introduced into his dwelling. There his wife and daughter, who had seated themselves beside and pleased us by this unusual mark of confidence, soon discovered that, having left home very early, a lunch would not be unacceptable. It consisted of a Melancia, brought in upon a large silver dish, followed by another of the same metal, bearing cups of milk. We partook freely of both, although, to English appetites, the food appeared neither sufficiently solid nor very palatable. It served us, how-

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ever, until the evening meal, for when the horses were ready we proceeded, and made a long afternoon.

In the abodes of respectable Farmers, or rather Graziers, there is usually a lodging-room reserved for strangers; to this room their saddles, bridles, and all their baggage, are carefully conveyed. The horses being stripped and led away by slaves, are considered as under the exclusive care of the master of the house, or his servants; and it would be regarded as a want of confidence if an individual were to show any concern about his beast. By way of marking peculiar attention, a guest is sometimes asked how he would wish the fowls to be dressed. While the supper is preparing conversation is maintained with spirit, more especially if there be travellers present from different quarters. At supper, which is often graced with a large exhibition of silver plate, the host places himself at the head of the table, where he stands and helps every one plentifully; using his knife, fork, and fingers, indiscriminately. Wine, if produced, is taken as a part of the meal; never after it. The attendants are frequently numerous; seldom, as may be supposed, expert. About eleven o'clock a slave appears, with water and a towel, for the hands and face; and is soon followed by another, with warm and cold water, to wash the feet,—a most grateful custom in a hot and dusty country. The bed-room being prepared, according to the number of the guests, the master conducts them thither, and points out to each where he is to repose himself. The Brazilians do not always undress; where there is nothing to disgust them, Europeans commonly follow their own more refreshing mode. In the morning all put on their uncleaned boots, and, with unshaven chins, meet the host at breakfast, whose beard is, probably, still longer than their's. Immediately after breakfast the horses make their appearance, and are saddled at the door. A thousand compliments, thanks and good wishes, are exchanged between the friendly entertainer and his guests, who finally bow from the saddle and depart. Should they return by the same route, to omit to call at the houses where they had been kindly received, would be accounted unpardonable.

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So established are these generous and hospitable modes among the people of this country, according to the full measure of their means, that a single exception became memorable. At the house of the great and wealthy butcher of Charqueados, before mentioned, we were repulsed with churlishness. But it matters not what he is thought of in England, it is scarcely possible to add to the contempt with which such conduct is regarded in his own country.

My progress to the Southern part of the province of Rio Grandé was more confined, and the record of its events and circumstances is, of consequence, more scanty.

When travelling in this direction it is usual to leave St. Pedro at its Eastern end, in order the sooner to reach the grassy plain, which borders the Bay of Mangueira. After proceeding about three miles, we come to the scite of the old town, which stood near the head of the bay, on a bank about twenty feet high, and was surrounded with a parapet of sods as a barrier against the encroaching sand. Yet by a slow, but sure progress, it appears to have so gained ground as to have almost overwhelmed the town, and to have occasioned the removal of the inhabitants about the year 1750. Notwithstanding the buried state of the few ruins which remain, its form and extent may be made out. It was small, and the buildings slightly constructed; and its want of importance may be concluded from the probability that it had no church, as not the smallest traces of such an edifice are to be discovered.

Beyond this point the country is sandy and trackless; on the few firmer parts are scattered miserable huts, the lazy occupiers of which obtain an easy subsistence by planting a small quantity of Abobaras, robbing the nests of the Emu, and carrying off cattle from the plains. The nearer we approach the Lake Mirim the land becomes more solid and verdant, and even presents some respectable farms. Farther on, in addition: to increased breadth and solidity, some hilly and woody spots make their appearance: and though sand still predominates in the soil, it seems by no means unproductive. Grazing appears to be the

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general occcupation of the country, though, if thereby, together with the abundance of deer which it possesses, it support itself; it certainly proceeds no farther, and exports nothing. It is flanked by the long and narrow Lake of Mangueira, not the one mentioned before, but another of the same name, which extends eighty or ninety miles in a line nearly parallel to the coast, and between which and the Lake Mirim the road passes.

The Lake Mirim is more than a hundred miles long, and, in general, from twenty to thirty broad. It is very shallow, and, in the rainy season, widely extends its borders, pouring its surplus water through the river or strait of Gonzales, into the harbour of Rio Grandé, flooding the plains, and destroying multitudes of cattle. At such times it also forms a communication with other lakes, which lie near its Northern end. The largest of these is the Cajúba, a kind of fruit-tree, and the most Southerly point, where I have noticed the the Cajú tree. About a day's ride beyond the lake stands the small fort of Santa Tereza.

On a subsequent trip from St. Pedro to the island of Cangazú, the great head, lying at the entrance of the Lagoa dos Patos; I was accompanied by a friend, in a Plymouth built boat, with four good hands, and a young man who resided near the island, and professed to be well acquainted with the intricate navigation of the river. Neither of the two channels, towards the East, has more than five feet of water. One of them lies along shore, until we reach the extreme point of land; then runs Southerly a little way, to round a sand-bank, and falls into the course which vessels usually pursue in their way to the harbour. The other stretches from the town, and coasts the opposite island to the South Eastern point, where it becomes very narrow, but lies generally in a line, connecting the church on one side of the water with a round hill on the opposite side. From the place where the vessels lie at anchor, the principal channel Northward is about half a mile wide, and frets away the Eastern shore, until the land closes very considerably. It

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then bears over towards the mouth of the Gonzales, where the water deepens, and forms a sort of turbulent whirlpool. The depth and agitation of this hole are owing to the stream flowing from the Lake Mirim, which is here compelled, by the more weighty waters of the Lake Dos Patos, to form nearly a right angle; high banks are thrown up all around, and a deep curve worn into the opposite shore. At this spot it seems manifest that the waters were formerly poured into the ocean; but it is now twenty miles above the bar. Beyond this pool the channel becomes not more than a hundred yards wide, runs nearly North, and winds round Eastward to the point of Cangazú, where it enters the large upper lake, here called the Mediterranean.

Through the whole of the course the channel is marked by strong stakes, but our pilot knew so little about them that we were frequently aground; once with attendant circumstances of a ludicrous cast. At a distance of two miles he had pointed out the mark for which we were to steer, and we were surprised that, in endeavouring to advance towards it, we were quickly in water so shallow as to be scarcely sufficient for the boat. Ere long, while keeping our attention fixed upon it, though getting no nearer, we had the mortification to see it stretch out a long pair of wings and fly away. It was one of the large Herons, which abound in the unfrequented marshes of the country, which had been fishing on an extended sand-bank, and having decoyed us there, left us to get off from it as we could. The bottom fortunately proved hard, and our people turned out to explore the way, as well as to lighten the boat; but it was old and clinker-built, and had now so often struck that it made a great deal of water, and when once more in the turbulent hole, off the Gonzales, was with difficulty kept afloat.

Towards evening we saw a long line of dark coloured Birds, flying across the lake, probably in the way to their nightly quarters. They were, in general, three, four, or five abreast, and continued passing for more than an hour; though the darkness prevented us from discerning the last of them, we reckoned that the line which we had seen was fully ten miles in length. We fancied that they were Urubus, which are known

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to assemble, at the close of day, in large flocks; but our pilot said that they were Patos, a sort of diver, large, brown, and exceedingly numerous on the coast. From these, it seems, came the Portuguese name of the lake; the Brazilian one is lost.

A little after midnight we landed on a fine beach, skirted with thick brushwood; when, having agreed upon the necessary signals, we separated in search of a habitation, which, we believed, lay at no great distance. An hour brought us together again at the desired point; it was a mere hovel, where hides and tallow were stored, in which, to drive away musquitoes, a fire had been kept burning on the ground. The smoke proving offensive, the people civilly extinguished this light, and fabricated another with a lump of tallow, placed on a flat dish, in which they stuck the husk of Indian corn for a wick; a contrivance whose simplicity pleased me, and which answered its purpose well. We saw no furniture, except a cup or two made from the shell of Gourds, but slept soundly on hides spread upon the earthen-floor.

The view which presented itself, when we turned out, at a late hour in the morning, was pleasant. We were on the extreme Eastern point of Cangazú; before us was a round island, over which the opposite coast of the Bay showed itself; a flat country, much intersected with water, stretched away to the West and South, as far as the eye could discern; and towards the North and North-West an expanse of water like the ocean. Very near lay a Smack of a hundred and fifty tons burthen, bound to Rio de Janeiro, taking in two bullocks as sea-store. The channel ran close to this point of the island, and she was riding in seven fathoms water.

While taking our breakfast, which, though served in the simplest way, consisted of milk drawn from the udder of a cow, standing with her calf close beside us, together with coffee and hard baked bread; the owner of the island arrived, whose approach had been announced by a servant. He was a Major in the Militia, a stout handsome man, dressed in a cotton jacket and waistcoat, dimity trowsers, Hessian boots, and a large straw hat of home manufacture, with a hanger suspended at his

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side by a black belt. He had ridden that morning nine leagues on his own estate, which consisted of two other islands besides Cangazu, on the largest of which, towards the North-west, stood his house. In this place he had established a soap-manufactory, that he might be able to work up his own tallow, using for the purpose the ashes of three different kinds of wood which grew on the spot. At no great distance from the hut he had commenced building a good house, because as trade was increasing, and vessels were obliged to pass close by the island, he thought the situation a favourable one.

It soon appeared, when we began to talk of business, that, however wealthy, he could command no cash, and had only a small stock of exportable articles; but he offered, in payment for goods, the island on which we were, its buildings and cattle, warranting the latter to exceed four thousand head, and the land to be amply sufficient for their support; and estimating the whole at eight thousand cruzadoes,—about nine hundred pounds sterling. Though I did not see the whole of the island, I rode over a considerable part of it, and had reason to suppose that it comprehended eighteen or twenty square miles. The wood and fisheries, in such bargains, are not thought worthy to be taken into account. We did not bargain for the estate, which to me would have been an incumbrance; but I offered him the same sum for the hides of the cattle alone, provided he would deliver them at St. Pedro, within a month, in good order, and fit for shipping. This he declined, alledging that he could not find hands to slaughter the cattle, and cure the hides, and that, if they were to be found, the work and wages would put him to more expense than the price offered. Hence it became evident how low was the value of land and stock, and how deplorably thin of inhabitants a part of the country possessing a rich and fertile soil.

We passed our time here out of doors, and in field-sports, as much as civility to the Major would allow; he, like his countrymen in general, having no taste for such occupations. He allotted for my use a powerful and well trained horse, mounted on which I made one of a party of eight, who went out, under the direction of a young man, about

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eighteen years of age, to catch an ox for the supply of the family. We had no dogs nor fire-arms; the leader had his balls carelessly thrown over his Lumbillio, and one other, as well as himself, had a Lasso.

I was riding near the young man, when a Partridge rose a few yards to our left. In an instant his spurs were applied to his horse's side, the balls swinging in his right hand, and he leaning forward in full speed. When the horse had made about twenty springs he discharged the balls, and struck the bird. I marked its fall, and rode up to him, persuaded that he was seeking it a few yards short of the spot. He was obstinate as we imagined, in his opinion, but he was right; for, after much searching, the bird was found in the midst of some rushes, trodden into the ground by the horse. We strangers could not help expressing our astonishment at the proof which he had given of an accurate eye and a dexterous hand. He received our compliments with great indifference, seeming to think that he had done nothing extraordinary; and his companions were evidently of the same opinion. Half civilized men commonly excel in the ruder arts, and almost as commonly despise the more cultivated for their want of adroitness.

After a ride of three or four miles, on a large open plain, we found about four hundred head of cattle, rode gently round to bring them into a more compact body, and made the animal which was to be chased distinctly known to every individual of the party. Our settled object was to drive him to the house; and to render the sport as complete as possible, the Lasso was not to be used until there appeared a probability that he would otherwise escape. Some of the people then dashed into the midst of the herd, attentively observing the selected animal. One half of the oxen were thus driven, at once, from the spot, and others, which chose to do so, were permitted to follow without molestation; but wherever the victim turned, a horseman met him and stopt his career. The work was easy until the remaining group was reduced to about twenty, which then made violent attempts to rejoin their comrades, and fiercely attacked the huntsmen who intercepted them. In a short time four of them, being hard pressed, plunged into some watery

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ground, about two miles from the house; and among them was the object of the chase. When driven from the water, this small number were more harassed than before and perceiving their danger, exerted themselves with redoubled violence. Sometimes we were obliged to ride hard, and great coolness and address were necessary to prevent their escape behind us and into a wood, which we were now approaching. In this last respect our efforts were vain; they gained this refuge, and we could no longer act in concert. The wood was full of thick bushes of myrtle, and many trees spread their arms horizontally seven or eight feet from the ground. It was matter of high gratification as well as wonder, to observe how our huntsmen rounded the bushes and bent under the branches, so as sometimes to hang on the sides of their horses. Though unable to follow, I soon encountered our chief, who had made an unsuccessful cast with his lasso, and was disentangling it from the branch of a tree. I shall never forget the ardour and rapidity with which he afterwards darted and wheeled among the trees, nor lose the conviction fixed upon'my mind, what execution such men, so trained, must be capable of, in a country like this. My musings were soon interrupted by my reaching the beach, and seeing at a distance our young hero, with the ox securely attached to his horse by the lasso, and leading the captive towards the house. The instrument had gone round his horns and was fixed close to the crown of his head.

The animal thus entangled, advanced with the most malicious vexation, and made many ferocious efforts to gore the horse, which had before pursued, and now led him; but the wary creature, which had before been often yoked to an unnatural and violent mate, kept his eye upon the ox, and pulled at the lasso, so as to keep it always on the stretch, and himself two springs in advance. In his precautions he was greatly assisted by his rider, who with equal care, watched the maddening spirit of the beast, and gave signals to the horse. Convinced at length, that his attempts to gore his leader were vain, the ox became sullen, and was partly dragged onward. While he was in this mood, the horse passed to the right of a detached bush, and the ox, by a sudden spring,

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got nearly abreast with him on the left; thus the lasso Was brought over his back, and he was enabled to employ his utmost might to draw the horse round the bush; the horse also, used all his power to counteract this manoeuvre, and thus the great strength of the lasso was proved. By this time, the whole party was again collected, and another lasso applied to assist in conducting the captive, which seemingly conscious that he was completely subdued, walked along quietly. A boat had just reached the beach, and the people were still on board, when the treacherous animal, as soon as he came near enough, made an Unexpected attack, and caused them to tumble one over another into the water, to the great amusement of the spectators.

Returning to the hut, after a chase of three hours, milk and fruit were served to us in abundance; while the beast was taken from his former bondage and tied to a post, where I found him bellowing with madness, and still furiously striving to release himself. A man now came forward with an instrument, called a facam, somewhat resembling both a large carving knife and a short sword; and warning every one to be on his guard, passed near the heels of the ox, and endeavoured by a backhanded stroke to hough him. The attempt was clumsily made, and the beast, though wounded, was not disabled. Another took the instrument and used it with greater effect; when the ox gave a desperate kick at the operator, and snapping the tendon, fell on his haunches. A third then drew a sharp knife across his throat, blood copiously followed, and with a deep bellow, expressive of rage and agony, he yielded up his life.

Immediately the people set about skinning the beast, and preparing a part of him for dinner. The former operation was performed in a workmanlike manner, and the skin as it was taken off, being carefully stretched upon the ground, preserved the flesh from blood and dirt. During this process, fires had been kindled and burned down to clear embers; slices of flesh were then cut off from the ribs, as the choicest part, for the master and his guests, and roasted at a fire apart; afterwards the attendants helped themselves as they pleased, and cooked their portion after their own modes.

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The fire soon drove us from this scene to the beach, where a clean hide spread under a shady tree, served us for a table cloth and a carpet, on which the Major, myself and companion, sat down together. The presence of the master had unlocked some hidden stores, for two yellow plates and a cup made their appearance. After dinner, the hide became our couch, and we reposed upon it, until the sun was so far declined as to awaken the sympathies of the woods, and revive the spirits of man.

Horses are trained for the exercises of the field by fastening a dry hide to the back part of the saddle, and allowing it to trail on the ground. As the horse moves, the hide rattles, and the noise alarms him; he attempts to fly, when it beats against his heels, and he kicks at it violently; but soon convinced that all his alarm and rage are fruitless, he learns to be patient and quiet. In this state a person mounts and compels him to move forward; at first gently, afterwards at an increased pace. He begins with trampling upon the hide, but this incommodes him, perhaps almost throws him down backwards; he then sets down his feet more carefully and safely. The contrivance induces him also to keep an eye turned on the object behind; while the rider takes him over rough or boggy ground, obliging him at the same time, to look forward and mark where he is going. Thus he forms a habit of quickly discerning danger and avoiding it, from whatever quarter it may come. So much are the Brazilian horses in general, fenced against alarms, that I hardly ever met with one of the description which we call skittish.

The Lagoa dos Patos spreads into a wider expanse above Cangazú; its Western shore is bold, not rugged, and is cut by several rivers, whose mouths furnish places of resort for yatchs employed in bringing down produce to St. Pedro. The most important of these streams are the Camapuám, round breasts, and the Jacuý, or water of Jacus.—The sources of the former are on the verge of the Province, whence it proceeds with a rapid and disturbed current, for a hundred miles; receiving in its course, as is reported, fourteen streams from the South and fifteen from the North. It fells into the Lake about the middle of its Western side, by five different channels, and on that account is often called the Five Fingers. Light

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vessels proceed fifteen miles up from its mouth, and from its bold shores bring down great quantities of wheat.—The Jacuý, often called the Rio Pardo, is a river of greater value, rising in the Province of St. Paul, at the Eastern border of the great Table-Land, collecting near its rise several other streams, bringing them down the Southern declivity, and then turning Eastward; afterwards joined by a number of smaller rivers, many of which are navigable for a short course; and entering the Lake near its Northern extremity. It is a fine, broad, and deep river, with lofty and diversified banks, and full of little islands. I was told by a Gentleman, with whom I once sailed on the Lake, that he had advanced up the Rio Pardo several hundred miles. Its various tributary streams retain, in general, their significant Indian appellations.

The extent of the Lake is estimated at a hundred and thirty miles in length, from Cangazú, and about forty or forty-five in breadth, from the mouth of the Camapuám. It is every where shallow; and its water continues fresh as far as the Island dos Marinheiros, near the port of St. Pedro. From a manuscript chart which I once saw, it appears to be much encumbered with sand banks; but though subject to violent gusts of wind, may be navigated without anxiety. I never heard of more than one vessel being lost upon it.

On the Northern bank of the Jacuý, and twenty-five miles from its mouth, stands the pleasant town of Porto Alegro. It is situated on a declivity, and commands a fine view of the river and the surrounding country. The houses are well built, whitened on the outside, and formed into streets, most of them broad and paved. Since 1773, it has been the Capital of the Province; the Government House and Public Offices are on the summit of the hill. Here reside the Governor of the Province, a Vicar General, an Ouvidor or Sheriff, a Judge, and a sort of Deputy Chancellor, who is the Guardian of Orphans. It has a dock yard, which is plentifully supplied with timber, growing on the banks of those streams, which convey it to its destination. As a Capital; its influence is wide; as a Seat of Commerce, it commands a large tract of country, and many navigable rivers. Several Englishmen have long been settled around this

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favoured spot; but the country is not yet sufficiently advanced in the common arts of civilized life, to render it a desirable residence. One of them has endeavoured to improve its agriculture, by introducing the plough, on the banks of the Tacoarý, about ninety miles above Porto Alegro; I fear without much effect. This part of the Province is however daily and rapidly improving; though the people still want education, and are yet more destitute of moral and religious culture. This last want will hardly be matter of surprise, when it is considered that a district, extending over nearly six degrees of latitude, and four of longitude, comprising more than forty thousand square miles, is divided into five parishes, each containing five millions of acres; and all of them under the spiritual care of the Bishop of Rio de Janeiro, whose residence is not within five hundred miles of the nearest part of this his charge.

One great bar to improvement is, that much of the interior is still in the hands of the native Indians, whose animosity to white people is of the bitterest sort, and their purposes of vengeance for injuries received, so long bequeathed from father to son, as to be rooted in their hearts, as firmly as the colour is attached to their skin. Under the influence of this passion, they destroy every thing belonging to Europeans or their descendants, which falls in their way; even the cow and the dog are not spared. For such outrages they pay dearly; small forts, or military stations being placed around the colonized parts of the district, from whence a War of plunder and extermination is carried on against them. In this warfare not only are fire-arms made use of, but the lasso, dogs, and all the stratagems which are usually employed against beasts of prey—This account I received chiefly from a fellow passenger to Rio de Janeiro, who had been forty years engaged against the Indians, and was proceeding to ask of the Sovereign some honorary distinction, as a reward for his services. He would ask it I am persuaded in vain; the King has no feelings which would accord with his.

Business requiring me to proceed from St. Pedro to the Brazilian Capital with the utmost speed; I determined to go by Laguna, and if no

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more eligible conveyance could be found there, to advance over the mountains to St. Catharine's. This would give me an opportunity of seeing also a little of the Northern Part of Rio Grandé.

I agreed, as is usual in such cases, with a man who was to provide twenty horses for the journey, with a saddle and bridle for my own use, to act as a guide, and conduct me without delay, by a frequented route, in which the necessary supplies and accommodations might the most easily be found. The horses which are not mounted, are commonly driven before the travellers; a mare being selected for a leader, which being used to the task, will proceed steadily at the rate of seven or eight miles an hour, and from whom the drove will seldom stray. When the ridden or loaded horses are fatigued, the guide turns them loose and supplies their place with others; and travellers who can bear such exertion will sometimes tire four or five horses in a day. In this mode, it is said, the journey from St. Pedro to St. Catharine's has been performed in four days, a distance of as many hundred miles. The Governor was pleased to express much concern for my safety and comfort, and having repeatedly gone over this ground himself, rendered me essential service by his directions.

The horses were to be ready at the village of St. Pedro do Norte, on the other side of the harbour, between which and the town ferry boats are continually plying. These boats are good ones, yet the passage is not always safe; for there are no regular tides, and when the wind blows from the South-East, the water is heaped against the beach of the ocean in such a manner that a strong current sets up the harbour. When there has been much rain in the interior, considerable floods come downward, and the agitation produced in these different ways, changes the position of sand-banks. I was once upset in the surf; but the people on shore aware of the danger into which we were running, soon rendered us effectual assistance. A short time before I first saw this spot, a part of the shore, on the Eastern side, had been torn away in the night, several houses were thrown down, and their inhabitants perished. Where the houses had stood, there was the next morning thirty feet water.

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St. Pedro do Norte consists of about a hundred miserable huts, placed irregularly among loose and lofty bills of sand; even in what are called the streets, the passengers are up to the ancles. Yet here is shipped the greater part of the produce of the country, from hence all outward-bound vessels must take their clearances, and here are the warehouses for the King's Fifths, a tax levied on all hides exported. Here too is an independent Civil Jurisdiction, a Governor, and subordinate Officers; but the Military are under the direction of the Governor on the Southern side of the harbour.

Having heard that there were some Indian Sepulchres to the North of the village, I set out to explore them, but could not discover the least trace of any thing of the kind; if they ever existed, they are probably overwhelmed by the sand. Some heaps of muscle shells, near Mustardos, are also pointed out as marks of the abode of the ancient inhabitants, near the spot. But I have so often been deceived by collections of marine remains in unnatural situations, as immediately to suspect the deductions drawn from them. In this instance, the muscle heaps are I believe, nothing more than the residue of shells collected by the early Portuguese Settlers, which they were accustomed to convert into lime, wherewith to whiten their churches and larger buildings.

To the East of the village appears an uniform, dreary desert of sand, blown up into hills, some of them two hundred feet high. They have generally rounded summits, are steepest on the windward side, and to the leeward throw out spurs, connected by a lower and curved ridge, exhibiting in miniature the contour of our micaceous sand-stone mountains.

The road proceeds Northward, along the Peninsula lying between the Lagoa dos Patos and the Ocean, one of which is almost constahtly in sight. Having proceeded about twelve miles, the land narrows to a single league, and hence is called the Estreito. Near at hand is a village, the first, it is said, which the Portuguese built in this part of the country. It was the Capital until 1750, and seems to have been established a

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century earlier; at which time it probably enjoyed the advantage of a port. As the neck of land afterwards widens, it becomes more solid, flat, and verdant, rich in herbage, and supporting large herds of cattle. Lakes are scattered in every direction; and in the wet season, the whole plain is covered with water, so that the cattle perish for want of sustenance, of which the numerous skeletons lying around are a melancholy evidence. On digging through the sandy soil, excellent clay is found in patches, which seems to indicate that the spot was once the bed of a Lake, which has been partially filled up by sand blown into it from the coast. On the sea shore still exists a long line of pools which will probably share the same fate.

The people of this district have few accommodations, yet what they have they willingly communicate to a stranger. Their beef is good, and were it less to be commended, would seldom prove unwelcome after a hard day's ride. To each farm house, however small, an extensive portion of land is attached; but the great size of their farms, and the profusion of nature do little to mitigate the prevailing poverty, if he indeed can be called poor who has plenty to eat and no fear of future want.

Mustardos, one of the chief places in this route, is small, yet pleasantly situated. Near it an Englishman made a large purchase of land, hoping to sell it in smaller portions to his countrymen; but the speculation failed like most of the kind. About Palmeres the country becomes agreeably diversified. The road, after crossing the broad and deep river. Capivarý, leads round the head of the lake to Porto Alegro; that to Laguna approaches the coast, through a swampy region, where there is nothing to amuse, and much to annoy, until we reach the large and often dangerous river, Tramendahý, where a ferry is established, kept like all the rest in this route, in a most wretched state. The name of the river, which according to the Tupi pronunciation, ought to be written Tamandua, is derived from the Armadillo, probably in allusion to its hard covering; of these animals there are many, not in this part alone, but through the whole Peninsula.

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Quitting at this spot the most Southerly Provinces of Brazil, a few general notices relative to them, collected at different times, can hardly find a more suitable place.

The three Provinces of Paraná, Uruguaý, and Rio Grande, may properly be called the Lowlands of Southern Brazil. The declivity of the table towards the East, is very abrupt, for the rivery Uruguaý rises within fifty miles of the Atlantic shore, and its sources are nearly six thousand feet above the level of the sea, nevertheless it runs Westward nearly a thousand miles, and falls into the great drains of the central waters. The Southern declivity which forms a considerable part of these three provinces, is much more gentle; along the sea-shore is a broad tract of comparatively level country; while the Northern and central parts, a great buttress of the table, are broken and stony. All the more elevated and rougher portions of this district are yet in the hands of the natives, who probably will long retain them. They are now called Itapés, from a serro of that name; formerly they were denominated Caarijos, from the nature of the country, then, as well as now, destitute of forest trees, except on the borders of rivers. The eye of the traveller is wearied with the view of downs, which seem interminable, and he is perpetually reminded how solitary and defenceless he is.

But these Downs were admirably fitted for the support and increase of neat cattle and horses; the first European settlers saw it, became breeders and graziers, and stocked the country with innumerable herds. Such was the abundance of provisions, that, as is reported, no part of the ox was sometimes eaten, but the tongue only of the calf. Lately there has been no such waste; Brazil and the neighbouring countries requiring a large supply, flesh is exported cured in different modes, as are hides, tallow, cheese, and butter, some horses, and a few sheep. Beef alone would not answer for the food of the inhabitants; they have accordingly cultivated with great success, though little care, Various species of the Pumpkin, Mandioca, Milho, Mandubi a small eatable root, Wheat, and a little Barley; and of some of these have had enough to spare for distant sale. They raise also a variety of fruits, both native and foreign; which

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when preserved, especially peaches and pears, are well received in more refined places. The viands found in the more considerable towns are thus abundant and various; nor does the country go without its share, though it may be a small one, of its own produce. Even the lower classes are not ill fed on beef, pulse, pumpkins, a preparation of a harmless species of Mandioca, and Milho boiled then dried, pounded, made into a paste with milk, and finally baked, thus forming no despicable substitute for bread. The peach-tree is so common as to furnish in some places, the chief material for fuel; but it does not flourish North of Porto Alegro.

The hope of the Farmer is often rendered, in a great measure, vain by Ants; and a species of Locust, abounding chiefly in the neighbourhood of Corrientes, is to be found throughout the country. The Ounce, here called the Jaguár, and others of the feline tribe, infest the whole district, and sometimes enter the towns. Cotias and Agoutis abound in the woods, Antas are found near the upper streams, and in the lower grounds are Deer, Pacas, Rabbits. Hares of an uncommon sort and a large size, Armadillos, and Wild Dogs. Around the marshes are thousands of water birds; among them some whose skins are covered with a fine down, collected on that account, and exported under the name of Swanskins. The Heron too, frequents such spots, from the diminutive bird which picks up the worm in a shallow pool, to the giant which overlooks an ox, and whose expanded wings when rising from the ground seem to hide a meadow. Here is also the Swan with a black neck, and a brown diving bird, much like a Puffin. Young Emus are sometimes kept in the house, for the purpose of catching flies and other msects, and follow their vocation with the most persevering and successful earnestness.

In the low grounds there is little Stone of any kind; in the upper, grey granite and gneise abound. A stone of the latter sort, brought from Rio Pardo, was full of small green crystals, looking like emeralds, but of no value, unless as a matter of curiosity. Chalk and Lime-stone are said to exist here, though none fell under my observation. Gold

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and Silver also, are reported to have been found, but I saw no indications of them. Native Sulphur was shown to me, where it was produced I endeavoured in vain to discover.

This country is blessed with a fine Climate, more especially in those parts of the interior where there are few marshes. The Winter begins in May and ends in October; at this season the prevailing winds are from the East and South-East, frequently blowing with violenee, and producing frost and snow. In summer the air, particularly in the immediate neighbourhood of lakes and watery ground, is sometimes intensely hot and distressing, owing to the great quantity of vapour and the want of ventilation; dense black clouds appear in the evenings, producing thunder storms with rain and hail.

Nature has here produced one of her slow, but irresistible operations. On a careful examination of the coast, it will convincingly appear, I think, that it has formerly proceeded from the Castilhos Grandes, by the West of the Lake Mirim, the River Gonzales, and the Lagoa dos Patos, to the Maro of Sta. Maria, near Laguna, and if so, all to the East of this line is made ground, formed by sand driven up from the ocean.

The two lakes which form the chief features of this part of the country, have probably been created by the rivers which flow into them, repelling the sand accumulated at their mouths, by the occasional impetuosity of their currents, until the bar was formed in the dead water produced by the stream and the ocean. There the bank would gradually rise above the high water mark, and compel the river to bend its course; and by constant acquisition, would grow broader and longer, and at length, form an estuary within it. Thus the Saboytý, the Ygaroon, and the Piratinín, were forced to join before they reached the ocean, and their united surplus waters to pass off Northward, forming in process of time the river Gonzales. In like manner, the Jacuý, the Camapuám, and other rivers, were compelled by accumulation of sand under the lee of Sta. Maria, to take a Southern course, and produced the larger lake; but this discharging the greater quantity of water, the stream has

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carried with it that of the lesser lake, and formed the Rio Grandé, whose bar is still proceeding Southward.

At first the Estuary must consist of a number of pools, sometimes dry, and sometimes formed into one by an increase of water. Some of them would, by degrees, collect in their bottoms a quantity of mud, which, itself accumulating, and aided by the flying sand, would, at length, fill them up. Remnants of such lakes exist along both the peninsulas, and the frequent existence of clay beneath the sand is, to me, an evidence that they were once numerous. Had marine or fresh water vegetables been growing there, they would have been buried, but not destroyed, and, perhaps, in the course of ages, have been converted into different kinds of coal.

The manner in which the sand is urged forward by violent South-Easterly winds, has been already stated; and, indeed, if there be any wind at all, the smaller particles may always be observed in progress. More clearly to ascertain the effects produced in this way, I frequently laid down pieces of wood or lumps of clay, stuck up a dry bush, and dug holes in the sand; and, in a few hours, a line has been formed under the shelter of such substances, and the holes filled up. If the wind was gentle, the ridges were formed on one side only; if strong, a mass was accumulated all around. I have been astonished to see how soon a hillock was formed which buried the impeding article, and all traces of a considerable hole obliterated. The continual advancement of the hills once formed, is illustrated by that mass of sand which has been mentioned as existing near the church of St. Pedro. It has been fifty years in accumulating, as old people tell us, and its elevation is such as to indicate that it must have risen about a foot every year.

My observations on this particular hillock will serve, also, to throw some light on the adhesion of the loose materials of which the neighbouring deserts are composed. Its encroachment on the street occasioned many men to be employed in clearing it away; and it was matter of no small surprise to me that, as they worked at the bottom, the heap did not slide downward, but the face of it remained nearly perpendicular.

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On closer inspection I found that the whole mass was composed of Laminæ, which had acquired so much adhesion, that pieces might be taken out nearly as large as our half-crowns. I endeavoured next to find how and in what number these Laminæ were formed. By ascertaining how many of them were contained in an inch, I concluded that the mass must be, at least, equal to the number of days in fifty years, and that the accumulated sand of each day was consolidated by the calmness and the dews of the succeeding night; a variety of tints being observable in them, as in sand-stone in general, probably according to the measure of moisture employed in their formation. The appearance corresponded exactly with that of the micaceous laminated sand-stone of England; so that it seems that sand, gathered by wind alone, would produce this kind of stone, and in fifty years might acquire consistency enough to enable the mass to support a face of ninety degrees.

Dried branches of shrubs are frequently found upon the sandy wastes, which once enjoyed moisture enough to enable them to vegetate. These disappearing, as did the wood, clay, and twigs, with which my experiments were made, would continue to retain their form, if the congregated sand ever hardened into stone; this may account for the appearance of such substances embedded in rocks. On like principles the marks of foot-steps in the sand-stone of England may be accounted for. My horse's feet, in passing, frequently broke the strata to the depth of six inches; and should the surrounding part ever be consolidated, the impression of his foot would remain, to whatever depth it might afterward be buried. After rain, I observed the same kind of depressions, on the surface of these deserts, as are found in much of the Yorkshire sand-stone; these are overwhelmed as the sand dries, and begins again to move, but they are not obliterated, and remain to excite the curiosity of ages to come.

These resemblances between the phenomena of sand-hills, which are known to have been raised by the wind alone, and those which appear in the consolidated ridges of Europe, might be traced, I think, in the deserts of Africa and Asia. Perhaps enough has been said to stimulate

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farther inquiry into the subject. He, who here marks his wish to promote such investigation, is ignorant of the systems of Geology, and professes no more than to see with his own eyes, and from what he sees to form his own deductions.

The journey from St. Pedro to Rio de Janeiro was broken off at the Tramendahý, which river, or rather the Mambiúba, the father of the line, is the boundary between Rio Grandé and the province of St. Catherine. Here the passports and luggage are examined, and the former endorsed, provided the officer on duty be able to write his name.

Laguna has a secure port for small vessels, but the bar renders its entrance difficult. It is a small town, prettily situated on the Eastern side of a bay, yielding abundance of fish, some of which is exported. It has some commerce with Rio de Janeiro, and attempts have been made to transfer to it that of Porto Alegro. But though the circuitous route of the Lagoa dos Patos and the Rio Grandé would thus be avoided, there is, on the other side, the serious obstacle of a land-carriage not to be completed in less than five days. At a small distance inward is the Morro of Santa Maria, called, in some English charts, the Morro of St. Martha, the last abutment of the mountains, at their Southern limit, which extends to the sea. A little beyond it is the great Eastern Serro skirting the ocean.

The distance hence to St. Catherine's is ninety miles, along a mountainous and woody road, through a country abounding in wild beasts, and occupied by Indians hardly less savage. In these journeys through the province of Rio Grandé travellers are usually well armed; the guide seldom carrying any weapon besides his knife or a kind of short sword. When meeting people unknown to us in the trackless plains, we contrive to pass at a distance, with mutual looks of suspicious scrutiny. When the parties are slightly acquainted, they advance slowly, and salute in a formal way; but when acknowledged friends are distinguished, they gallop eagerly towards each other, and are loud and extravagant in their compliments. What is doing, where going, and the general views of

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each party are communicated; and it is much if a foreigner does not think the interview long. If parties join, who are going in the same direction, particularly if they consist of young men, a scene of frolic ensues. They act all the parts of mimic war of attack and defence, of flight and pursuit; commencing with the thongs attached to their bridles, they soon take out their knives, and flourish them so earnestly as apparently to threaten serious mischief, though none is done. Their safety arises, no doubt, principally from their dexterous horsemanship, and their imperturbable good-temper. The greater sedateness of elderly people renders them more desirable companions over such dreary wastes. The guides in general approve themselves trust-worthy men. A gentle man of my establishment, bringing from Porto Alegra a quantity of gold, entrusted a wedge, worth about seven hundred pounds, to his guide, to whom it seemed neither a temptation nor a burdensome charge, for it was carelessly thrown about in his wallett, and delivered in safety.

The horses in this country are light and active, with a good portion of blood; but, ridden without shoes, their hoofs become broad and flat. Many are kept on every farm for breeding and labour; the latter are generally allowed, when young, to pasture with a trained mare, often attended by her sucking foal, and sometimes by progeny of different ages. When they have continued long with their female companion, they do not willingly leave her; this attachment renders them peculiarly useful in travelling. Some are reared for sale, whose value is commonly about three pounds twelve shillings. I was offered one of them in Rio Grandé, with his bridle and saddle for a hundred dollars; the stirrups were of silver, the head-stall covered with plates, and the crupper ornamented with stars of the same metal; the trappings must have been worth more than ten times as much as the horse.

Mules are by no means common, nor are they proper to pasture among mares, on account of a singular quality often observed in them. The female mule has a strange attachment to a foal, she caresses it, and becomes so jealous that she will not suffer the mother to approach;

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hence the young creature soon dies of hunger, a sacrifice to distorted nature.

Though I have described the route from Laguna to St. Catharine's by land, I proceeded at this time by sea, in a light brig. We had a fine breeze, and kept close along the shore, passing a little to the Eastward of the island of Arvorédos. This appeared to be a rock of a roundish form, with a bold lofty shore; but night prevented us from seeing much of it, or of the neighbouring coast. The island, which gives name to the province, is also high land.

This Province, the smallest in Brazil, extends from the Mambitúba to the St. Francisco, and from the coast to the summit of the Serro. It is divided into three parishes, and contains seven wretched villages, made up of mud huts, irregularly placed, and thirty thousand inhabitants. It enjoys a very agreeable climate, and is accounted a cheap place of residence. On this account an English family, with straitened finances, settled here; but, though attaining their first object, they were, on the whole, miserably disappointed. There are none of the most common accommodations, the habits of the people are disgustingly dirty, and their morals depraved. The opportunities and means of commerce were, also, at that period, few, but have since become more abundant.

St. Catherine's appears to have been the station of many of the earliest colonists; its native inhabitants having often been observed to differ considerably from the true bred Portuguese, in stature, figure, and manners. This difference may arise partly from the great variety of masters who have ruled the country, and partly from the multitude of strangers, who, for a long period, have visited it.

To early colonization, as well as to a favourable climate, may probably be traced the superiority which the island of St. Catherine has obtained in its productions over many other parts of Brazil. Both Wheat and Milho are grown here, Pulse is cultivated in every part, Onions are abundant, and have credit for singular excellence; Mandioca flourishes in the sandy soil, near the coast, and there are plantations of Sugar and Coffee. The Oranges are chiefly of the small red kind, called

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Tangerinas, and though beyond this point to the South they do not flourish, are well flavoured. The hills are clothed with timber, in the continental part of the province, as well as on the island; and the people boast of some sorts well adapted for furniture.

Whatever foundation there may be for this boast, none of the timber is, I believe, exported; though other produce, and among the rest lime, is carried to Rio de Janeiro, Some of the merchants have displayed great spirit in their speculations, and made considerable profit, more especially in the fisheries. I had myself among them friends and customers, who traded briskly with several parts of the continent, and up the rivers to the Northward; and proved themselves to be honest as well as enterprising men. Had the report, which once greatly prevailed, been well founded, that the island was to be ceded to the Crown of Great Britain, and made a free port, the most essential advantages might have accrued both to this country and to Brazil. Many of the Brazilians are such warm admirers of our Constitution, particularly of the representative part, though, at the same time, knowing very little of the object of their praise, that they were prepared, had the cession been made, to abandon their places of abode and become citizens of St. Catherine's,

The St. Francisco is the only considerable and important river in the province; the country about it, though rich, is swampy and unhealthy. Numerous small and rapid streams descend from the mountains, all along the coast, bringing with them much of the soil, which, being deposited at the foot of the Serro, forms, together with the sand thrown in from the sea, a flat country abounding with lakes and marshes, especially towards the Northern extremity of the province. The principal island has, near its Northern and Southern ends, several smaller ones, covered with wood of little value.

Nearly opposite to the principal village, on the banks of the Cubatam, some sulphureous springs have been discovered, said to resemble the waters of Harrogate, with the addition of considerable warmth,

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Swamps render the road to the spot very bad, and the absolute want of every convenience for invalids prevents their receiving any advantage from this salutary provision of nature.

On the bank of the St. Francisco was recently found, beneath the surface of the water, a very extraordinary crystal, formed round the root of a tree, and upwards of twenty-four inches long. Next to the wood was a coating, about half an inch thick, white at the surface, and gradually changing toward the wood into the common appearance of flint, but at the bottom somewhat darker. On it stood, in regular order, white and transparent pyramids, half an inch high, each made up of four equilateral triangles, of which pyramids there were about fifteen in every circle. The root was much decayed, and dropped out, leaving a long tube, whose bore was three inches in diameter, and whose internal surface displayed the impression of the knots and marks of the wood, retaining also fragments of the bark attached to it. This crystal was found by four men, who, disagreeing about its value, broke it into as many parts, and each took one. William Harrison, Esq. of Rio de Janeiro, became possessed of one of these pieces, and sent it, I believe, to his friends in Liverpool. There were apparent indications of the manner in which this Fossil advanced to its full size, by Laminæ successively laid on the pyramids, and the base thickening in consequence. Not only, as it seemed to me, do such Fossils grow, but I apprehend that, where the situation and circumstances are favourable, they are produced in a comparatively short period. But how formed, and from what materials, I presume not to say.

The Military Establishment is trifling; a few troops of the line are stationed in redoubts, in the continental parts of the province, at the distance of from seven miles, to twenty from the coast. Their only object is to keep in check the native Indians, who are in complete possession of the mountains.

The death of an old Governor gave an opportunity of witnessing a curious Funereal Ceremony. The corpse was dressed in the same

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full military uniform which the General wore when commanding in a battle remembered with honour in the neighbourhood. An armchair supported the body, and the people went to pay it their respects, much the same as to a Iiving governor. This custom is not peculiar to St. Catherine's; through the whole of Brazil a ceremonious visit is usually paid to the dead.

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A. D. 1813.


DURING the period from the Queen's arrival a favourable alteration in the Brazilian capital, now more commonly called by its proper name, St. Sebastian, made considerable advances. New streets were added to the city, and new markets established; old ones were greatly improved in cleanliness. The houses were more generally and symmetrically whitened and painted, the ugly looking jealousies were removed, and some of the balconies, which remained, ornamented with plants and flowers. Many small villas and gardens adorned the neighbourhood, and patches of ground were carefully cultivated for grass, for vegetables, and for flowers. The roads were widened in various directions, and kept more clear of brushwood and other similar impediments; and a new one was in progress across the marshes West of the city, to the village of St. Christophe, whither the Royal Family frequently retired.

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The unsettled state of Portugal occasioned a large influx of inhabitants; many came thither from other disturbed parts of Europe; some also from the different provinces of Brazil, and other foreign possessions of the Crown. Some were attracted by the prospect of commercial advantages; more, perhaps, by the desire of witnessing the growing splendour of their country, of forming new connexions, learning new modes, and sharing the admiration with which wealth and influence are usually attended. Not a few came to seek for favour at the hands of the new rulers, to appeal to them for redress in cases of injustice and oppression, or, by the tender of their services, to obtain a share in the good things which were distributed.

At Court there began to appear some resemblance of European magnificence. The great and wealthy met there a welcome reception, not only on account of the degree in which they could render themselves intrinsically useful, but for the additional lustre which they communicated to Royalty and its satellites. The old Court dress was required; the private gentry became more attentive to propriety and taste in their modes of dress; and state liveries were introduced similar to those of Lisbon. Houses and their furniture made a proportionate advance in convenience and show; carriages were becoming numerous, some of them splendid, and, when proceeding to Court, were drawn by horses instead of mules, and attended by white servants instead of slaves. The Levees of the Prince were frequent and respectable; and, on high days, the ceremony of kissing hands was exhibited almost in public, for he invariably placed himself, in order to enjoy fresh air, at a balcony, where he could be seen by the crowd of people assembled in front of the palace. This not only gratified their curiosity, but, in many cases, seemed to awaken an anxiety for distinction, and to give strength to political principle. Few are disposed to be disloyal, who are allowed to witness the ceremonies of a Court, who know that they also may present themselves to the sovereign, complying only with established forms, on appointed evenings of the week, and find the road to honours equally open to merit wherever it appears.

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On different occasions the Regent had presented himself with confidence in the midst of his people. He had opened, with his own hand, a new public Fountain, which brought, from a distance of four or five miles, the first of blessings in a climate like that of Rio. He had attended carefully to the management of the Police, appointed some excellent officers, and promoted many Brazilians to places of honour and of trust. He had gratified the troops by treating them with freedom, and by attending reviews. To the people he had given consideration, and brought them to feel their importance as a state. In consequence he was hailed as the benefactor of the country, the founder of a new empire, and distinguished by the title, as he was in fact, the only civilized "Monarch of the South."

Theatrical amusements kept pace in improvement with matters of more immediate importance. Not only did the Regent indulge what seemed a strong personal taste, by his frequent attendance upon them, but he appeared in the Theatre accompanied by his family. Hence it became fashionable for all, who wished to be thought persons of consequence, to show themselves there; and the spell which bound the Brazilian ladies to home and seclusion was broken. The multitude followed; some to wonder at the play, some to gaze at the fair. In the pieces represented, the manners, vices, dialect, and other peculiarities of the colony, were ridiculed; and the public taste, in consequence, amended. The people had even advanced so far as diffidently venturing to applaud, when they were pleased; but had not sufficient confidence to express their disapprobation.

Great alteration was also taking place in Ecclesiastical Affairs.A Nuncio had arrived from the Pepe; rather to keep up the connexion of the Holy Father with the country than to issue and enforce the Papal mandates. A Bishop had been appointed to the widely extended See of St. Sebastian, who, Without being a bigot, dared to do his duty, and managed with dexterity the multitude of ignorant and superstitious, He travelled to some parts of his diocese, and looked carefully into their religious state. He encouraged marriages, solemnized them in person, dispensed frequently with the edicts of Rome, and set aside the

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authority of his Lisbonian superiors, when it interfered with the welfare of his charge. He published some admirable pastoral addresses, in which he invited the people to religious observances, granted dispensations to those whose circumstances rendered a compliance inconvenient, especially to the clerks and domestics of Protestants, but enjoined them, at the same time, not to mingle fish and flesh in their meals on days of sacred obligation, nor to dispute with heretics on the points of Catholic faith. The Priests of the Chapel Royal had been set on a footing, in point of rank, with the Monsenhors of Lisbon, and the same dress was assigned to them. The number of effective Clergy was increased, and their miserable pittances augmented. The sacred edifices were attended to, new ones built, the old cleansed and adorned, bells introduced, and cemeteries allotted, out of the city, to British subjects and to negroes. Convents were strictly inspected, the devotion of children to a monastic life was discountenanced, the loose discipline of those already professed was exposed and amended, and the intrusion of men of notoriously bad character, into the most sacred offices, in a great measure prevented. Priests, of all descriptions, were necessitated to maintain a regard to propriety of conduct in public; and the show of amendment no doubt sometimes led to the reality.

The articles, which may, without great impropriety, be called the materials of religion, were supplied with a liberal hand. Churches and altars were decorated, images were procured and banners embroidered. In every department of religious service, both within doors and without, gold, silver, precious stones, silk, and laurels appeared in abundance. The ear as well as the eye and the sense of smelling were gratified; and Brazilians hardly knew which to admire most, the vestments of the altar, the modulation of the orchestra, or the odours of the censer. Divine service was performed more frequently, and the hours were rendered more reasonable. Processions of the Host were less common, and conducted in a much more respectable manner; the images made their occasional appearance in the streets with greater decorum, and excited higher veneration. Brotherhoods, that most important branch of Catholic

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discipline, were established or filled up; every man was taught that it was his duty to connect himself with some one of them, and even negroes were allowed to put on the habit of an order, to carry a silver wand, and to appear in processions with Princes and Priests, the nobility of earth and of heaven.

On the day of Corpus Christi, the chief festival of the Catholic system, it was determined to have an exhibition which should make a general and deep impression. The people beheld the infant Saviour conducted to Egypt with the utmost pomp, escorted by Princes and Dignitaries, both lay and ecclesiastic, together with the whole body of Military for his guard, and all the insignia which might represent him as the King of Kings, the Universal Sovereign. They saw their own Chief Priest following, and folding in his bosom that which they deem the very essence of Godhead; and their own Sovereign, whom they esteem the greatest of Monarchs, submissively bearing a candle at his side. The eye, thus assailed, aroused the imagination, and overawed the mind; every knee was bent, every head uncovered, and every tongue dumb; the whole assembled crowd, for a time at least, became religious, without the power of accounting for the change.

Religious festivals and ceremonies produced another and a more permanent effect. Females, except those of the superior class, were excluded from the palace; and at the theatre no woman is admitted into the pit. The Church is open to all, and its appointments were allowed to be equally interesting to both sexes; husbands and fathers therefore were compelled, under the new order of things, to relax their domestic discipline, and open the doors of their harems. Some degree of liberty being allowed to the prisoners, it became impossible any longer to confine them. Certain shrines must be visited, the boons which ladies desired must be sought at the altar, and vows must be paid to their patron saints, on days and at places more especially devoted to such a purpose. Mixtures of religion and pleasure, not unlike our village wakes, at their earlier periods, were revived and multiplied. The fine climate of Brazil and the brilliant full moon lent their aid to enliven such meetings, and

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prolong their enjoyments. Here was gratified the desire of being seen and admired; here were cultivated the love of dress and show, and that attention to neatness which is of infinitely higher value. Here the female character was prepared to assume its proper station in society, its natural and right influence over the hearts of men, those lords of the creation. From so fertile a source of moral culture arose various new modes of thinking, and of course a new set of manners.

Among the minor circumstances influencing public manners, may be reckoned a song which obtained a large circulation, satirizing one of the prevailing vices, and into the chorus of which was happily introduced the name of an individual foremost in the ranks of the infamous. It was set to a simple air, which was daily played through the streets, as the military marched from the barracks to the palace. The music accorded with the public taste, the negroes and boys were perpetually singing in merry ridicule, and the song became familiar to all. In consequence the man particularly pointed at, either left the city or hid himself in it, or was hidden in the grave, for he was seen no more, and his abettors were glad to pass unnoticed. In no other instance did I ever see ridicule so well, so immediately and effectually applied.

Notwithstanding the general lenient nature of the alterations introduced into religious affairs, some severe measures were at this period employed against persons who ridiculed the ceremonies of the Church. Two or three Englishmen were imprisoned, not justly, I am inclined to hope, for it was at a time when a rancorous spirit had been infused into the military, who act as the inferior officers of Police, and were much disposed to abuse their authority, and to molest our countrymen.

It is not to be denied that while the practical, as well as the ceremonious parts of Roman Catholicism, were in many instances greatly improved, its very foundations were shaken. So deeply were these laid in ignorance and absurdity, that to reform was, of necessity, to weaken and endanger. The bigotted and the profligate, though characteristically opposed to each other, united to hold in abhorrence the innovations which had been made in old modes, and to cherish the bitterest resentment

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towards the man to whom they were principally attributed. They closed his career by poison, and published a song of triumph when he fell. Though they gained not the point which they had in view, and could not overthrow what had, been effected, nor altogether hinder the progress of improvement, they fancied themselves possessed of the vantage ground, and proposed the establishment of the Inquisition; they ventured even to nominate the members of the Holy Court, and to fabricate some of its insignia. These and similar proceedings occasioned great confusion, and made way for an extended system of espionage, both in civil, in political, and religious matters. Better spirits however ruled the storm; yet many were alarmed at the dangers of the State, and their anxiety was increased by the general progress of revolutionary principles, by the condition of the Spanish Provinces, where the Priesthood had lost nearly the whole of its influence, by the vacillation of the Royal Family, whose return to Portugal was expected, by the rancorous freedom with which the black part of: the population expressed itself, and by the deplorable consequences which must ensue, if either the abandoned or the superstitious should obtain an exclusive influence in public affairs.

An increase in the Police Guard took place during this period, it was invested with more power and exercised greater vigilance. This body, though composed of soldiers, performs all the duties of our Constables, Overseers, and Justices of Peace. The troops of the line, and the militia corps of the different provinces, were placed on a better footing; and the latter description of force belonging to the City was obliged, at least once a month, to do the duty of the town. A stock of arms and ammunition of every description had been provided, and the manufacture, the sale, and the possession of gunpowder, placed exclusively in the hands of Government. Colleges and Schools had been opened, Professors appointed in various branches of science, and a Botanical Garden laid out, where many exotic plants were collected, and seemed to thrive. The Misericordia was enlarged and much improved, and Infantioide in a great measure prevented, by the establishment of a Foundling Hospital, The proceedings of Justice were in many points

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altered for the better; and it was no longer necessary to appeal from the Courts of Brazil to those of Lisbon. The Post-Office had extended its connexions to every part of the Portuguese dominion; in Brazil, more especially, the most distant provinces and towns communicated with each other, with ease and confidence. Insurance-Offices had been opened in the city; three Booksellers had established themselves; and a Gazette was published there twice in the week.

Many of these changes, though more immediately affecting the capital, had a considerable influence over the whole country. Other improvements belonged more to the provinees than to the eity, yet contributed largely to its welfare. Officers had been sent into the interior by different routes; Forts built on the frontiers, and detachments stationed wherever it was thought they would be Serviceable; Telegraphs had also been erected along the coast. The Finances of the eountty were rendered more productive; several of the duties were farmed to advantage. Skilful men were sent into the Provinces as Governors, and a strict charge given them to proceed upon the principles adopted in the capital for the improvement of the country. Hamlets had been transformed into villages, and villages raised to the rank of towns, and furnished With suitable functionaries. Many old Roads were cleared of encumbrances from the city, even to the extent of a thousand or fifteen hundred miles. One of the most important joined the mouth of the Rio Docé with the interior of Minas Geraes; and another connected Pará and Maranham with Rio de Janeiro, St. Paul's, Rio Grandé, and Monte Video. Attempts were made to civilize the Indians; a sort of Conservator was placed over them, who seemed to gain their confidence, and a few of their young people were brought to Rio for instruction, particularly in the art of husbandry. Regulations were published relative to the Slave Trade, which contributed much to the health and comfort of the unfortunate subjects of this commerce, while on their passage.

The opponents of these measures were not wrong in attributing them chiefly to the truly patriotic and indefatigable Minister, Don Rodrigues Condé de Linhares; nor were they altogether mistaken, as

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to the prosecution of their own views, when they laid him in the grave. His successors in office possessed neither the head nor the heart, to resume and carry forward his plans. The best among them was undoubtedly the Condé de Barcos, a sickly and short-lived man. The worst was Don Joan d' Almeida, whose moral and political character sunk below the range of any common scale of humanity. Fortunately, he had it not long in his power to interdict improvement, though in his short ministry and life he did the country indescribable mischief.

The foreign political relations of Brazil had become more settled and firm. The Court of St. Sebastian's had received Ambassadors from Great Britain, from Spain, and the United States of America. Consuls too were sent by each of these powers, and Brazil had established in their countries officers of the same class, to facilitate her commerce. She had also entered into a friendly communication with the Independents of Buenos Ayres; and though the treaty concluded by her Envoy had not been ratified, she was set at ease with regard to the safety of her most important Province, that of Rio Grandé do Sul. The Government had so far recovered its proper tone as to send a few ships of war to sea, to cruise with the British Fleet; and had laid down the keels of several new ones. Its Arsenals were enlarged and furnished; an Admiralty and War-Office were established, and a Nautical Almanack published. The British Packets, in which Brazil has a share, maintained for us a regular correspondence with the European States, and kept up our knowledge of general politics. The Packets of Bahia communicated with all the Northern parts of Brazil, and gave us some commercial facilities. It was a great object with the Government to connect the disjointed members of the kingdom, to strengthen its power at home, and to render it respectable abroad. Under the supposition that the decree of the French Tyrant,—"The Bourbons have ceased to reign,"—would be carried into effect, the Princess Regent had demanded that the Spanish Provinces should submit to her as their lawful Sovereign, and began to fancy that her wish was about to be accomplished. When this haughty woman felt herself checked in her progress, and was driven to other measures, some

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of the Brazilians, without much reason, regarded the marriage of her eldest daughter with Don Carlos of Spain, in 1810, as another act of the same comedy, all the parts of which were intended to promote an unity of interests throughout the whole Continent of South America, and ultimately to bring it under the influence of one crown.

That this Royal Marriage might be celebrated with suitable splendour, an attempt was made to get up some of those spectacles which the Portuguese love and reckon manly. A place was erected for the exhibition of bull fights, and men skilful in such exercises were collected. There was also something in humble imitation of the ancient tournaments, in which images were introduced, and gained great applause, whose centre of gravity was so placed as to cause them to recover their position when overturned. The genius of Brazil made his appearance, represented by an Indian on horseback, whose courser spouted vapour. The long-past glory of Portugal was shown by the models of some forts in the East Indies, taken by her victorious troops almost three hundred years before. And the present power of the Sovereign was displayed by an assemblage of every class of human beings, who live under his sway; of Europeans in their full dress, Asiatics in their regular costume, South American Indians in their gaudy plumage, and Africans dressed like baboons, with moss instead of hair, affecting to exhibit the evolutions, and resemble in manner, as they did in intellect, their irrational prototypes. Every country brought forward its peculiar diversions, and all joined to render homage to their Prince. The games were not ill adapted to circumstances; they might have served any where for the amusement of boyhood; and created here such an interest in men emerging from semibarbarism, and the profundity of ignorance, that they wondered how it was possible for us not to share their admiration. Happily for the future character of Brazil, it was found that from nature or climate, the bulls could not be enraged; and the frivolities and absurdities which succeeded the best, were so pointed out and ridiculed that the shows were never repeated.

Among commercial improvements may be noticed the enlargement

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of the buildings connected with the Custom House, the regulation of the Public Wharfs, and the permission to deposit goods under certain restrictions, at the private ones. The modes of entering and clearing out of vessels were also altered for the better, and Fiadors and Assignantes accepted instead of the immediate payment of duties. Greater dispatch and more regular order were introduced into business, and men were more rarely seen, who, under the pretence of seeking for contraband goods, picked the pockets of retail dealers. The barge and other monopolies were abolished. Stocks were better adapted to the demand, while the inland, the coasting, and the foreign trades were greatly extended. A manufactory of cordage and sailcloth had been set on foot, under the sanction of Government, for the supply of the fleet; the fabrication of woollen and cotton cloth had been attempted and met with encouragement; more decided success attended new projects in the different lines of wood, iron, copper, tin, and leather. Considerable tracks of land were brought into cultivation, and better modes of culture adopted. The changes in the face of the country, while they advanced its produce, served greatly to ameliorate its climate.

An increase of domestic comfort had arisen from the establishment of a Market for cattle without the City, and of several Markets for Vegetables and Fruit within it; from a more abundant and regular supply of Fish, and the more free use of Mutton; from greater care with respect to the quality of meat and the cleanliness of the places where it was slaughtered and exposed to sale. Craftsmen of different descriptions had made their appearance; among them so many smiths, that it was no longer difficult to get a horse shod. Mills for grinding corn had been much improved, and bread was come more into use. Charcoal was manufactured, and for cooking introduced into the houses. Nuisances were more readily removed, and even scavengers were now and then seen in the streets.

The Harbour of Rio de Janeiro is naturally divided into three sections. The lower one, bounded by a line crossing from the hill of

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St. Bento to the point of Armazem, has been already slightly described. The middle section, extending to the Ilha do Governador, comprehends a large expanse of water, studded with many charming islands. Ilha dos' Enchados, a rock covered with a thin and poor soil, presents a pleasing object to the city and various parts of the bay. On it stands one of the public wharfs, and a large neat building, formerly appropriated to persons afflicted with the Elephantiasis, a disease which once greatly prevailed in this country. Lately this edifice has been assigned to the use of the British fleet for an hospital, and nothing certainly could be better adapted to the purpose.

Here I saw an instance of that singular malady, the Guinea-worm. The patient was a negro-boy, about fourteen years of age, among whose countrymen the disease chiefly prevails, The animal, if so it may be called, appeared coiled up beneath the skin; after some time, what was said to be the head protruded itself, this was seized with a small forceps, and the worm drawn out to the length of two inches; the extracted part was then wound about a small stick, to prevent its return. In a few hours after another portion was drawn out, and secured in the same way; by a similar process, the greatest care being always used not to break it, the whole was extracted, and then appeared like a thin dry thread of catgut, and was several feet in length. The boy had these worms in every part of his body, had been treated for them in his own country, and was deemed incurable, and, on that account, had been sold by his parents for two yards of checked linen. He remained in the hospital about three weeks, was placed, I believe, in a state of complete salivation, and then discharged cured. For five years afterward, during almost every day of which I saw him, he remained free from the complaint, and proved an excellent servant, often expressing his gratitude to his master in warm and simple terms. "My father in Africa," he would say, "sold me; you are my father, I love you best." I have pleasure in adding, that I met with the lad in Paris, in October, 1819, and that he continued perfectly well. I believe he is now, June 21st, 1820, at Buxton.

A cluster of bold rocks appears about a mile farther Westward,

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adding much to the interest of the picture. On the largest of them is a strong building used as a powder-magazine, and a residence for a few soldiers who guard it. On the East of the rock the water is nearly a hundred feet deep, and is the resort of many popoises; on the West it is shallow, and forms the beautiful bay of St. Christophe. In the midst of this expanse, which is about two miles broad, is a small island, so singularly picturesque, that no one can behold it from the surrounding heights without admiration, and few, I believe, ever saw a picture of the bay, from such a station, without supposing that the artist had indulged a happy fancy, instead of copying the scene as it lay before him. Of late the effect has been partly spoiled by the erection of a large warehouse upon it; the reflection that beauty has been sacrificed to utility, hardly consoles the observer.

Near the Southern shore are two islands remarkable for their symmetry, and still rich, even though partly stripped of their verdure. On the larger of them I enjoyed, together with a few Brazilian families, what bore some resemblance to their former common parties of pleasure. A short account of the fete may serve as a specimen of social manners at this period of my residence.

Joining the party on the beach, I was introduced to the servants, by an acquaintance, who said to them,—" this is my friend, if he steal any thing I am accountable for it." To an English ear such an introduction sounded grating; but to a Brazilian, instead of intimating that the person in question is in the least addicted to pilfering, it is equivalent to declaring, that his character for rectitude and propriety of conduct is so established, that no one will believe another who attempts to slander him. This is the sense in which the negroes universally understand the phrase; and such distorted modes of expression are so common here, with persons of all ranks, as to form a very observable feature in a portrait of the country.

The party left the city by water about four o'clock in the morning of a Dia santo, carrying provisions and the most essential articles of table furniture. Having landed the servants and baggage, my friends

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proceeded to a neighbouring chapel and heard mass. Breakfast was taken on their return, and proved a scene of noisy mirth and good humour. Afterward every one exerted himself to promote his own diversion and that of his companions. Both sexes contended in feats of speed, agility, or strength, with unbounded gaiety and frolic, and gave full play to the buoyancy of their spirits. All this, it is allowed, was not very conformable to our measured deportment in society, and by many will be denounced as indecorous. To me the scene presented the playfulness of nature, untrammelled by forms, remote from prudery and suspicion, from the consciousness of evil committed or intended. And why not be active and airy while nature allows us? Why resolve that all who are so, let their previous customs and habits be what they may, must necessarily be vicious or vulgar?

When the sun rose too high to admit of continued exertion, conversation, cards, and music, filled up the interval before dinner. The servants, as it was a fish-day, had been employed in drawing the Seine, and had procured an ample supply for those of the company who were unprovided with a dispensation. A Priest, however, who joined our party, kindly offered his utmost influence with the Creator of all good things, to prevent his being displeased with those who might on such an occasion dine on flesh; yet, agreeable to the established rule, he would not hear of any one mixing flesh with fish in his meal. With a small part of the company I spent an hour in going, in a canoa, to the neighbouring rocks, to draw up from the deep some of those singular animals with which the harbour of Rio abounds, and which, I think, would fully repay the Icthyologist's minute investigation.

Our dinner, like its prelude, had too little form to be, in general, pleasing to an English taste, and its modes would hardly chime with our usual conceptions of comfort; but, as is commonly the case here, it proved a hearty meal, and fitted most of us for repose. Few could have the accommodation of a bed; many preferred a siesta out of doors, and for them mats were spread under the trees. About four the party re-assembled, seated themelves on the grass, talked, sang, and enjoyed

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some frolic of a gentler kind, until the hour of Ave Marias. We then entered canoas, attended divine service at the Lazaretto, and retired to our respective homes.

The Hospital for Lepers, where we attended evening worship, was once a house of recreation belonging to the Jesuits. It stands on an elevation, close to the water, and rears its turrets amidst a rich shrubbery, in part the effect of cultivation. The charity is an excellent one, supported by voluntary contributions; but I fear shamefully misadministered. Nothing, however, can be more useless than remonstrance on such points; as no accounts of any state, or charitable expenses, except those of the Misericordia, are ever rendered to the public in Rio; and it would be accounted impertinent in any individual to call for them. Every public officer is accountable to his Superior alone, so that peculation, in which both are thoroughly agreed, goes on unexposed, and, in many cases, without a consciousness of criminality. Between the Hospital and the Northern extremity of this Bay of St. Christophe the shore becomes comparatively tame; yet under a greater disadvantage than this, that of receiving part of the filth of the city, it exhibits a pleasant row of small houses.

The Sacco, or little recess of Gambóa, a portion of the more richly diversified Southern shore, is also skirted by a line of dwellings, backed by a verdant mountain. Here is a large building, in which the newly arrived negroes perform a sort of quarantine. A little farther, on the slope of the hill, is the British burying-ground, where the first funeral service was performed in April, 1811, which was too soon followed by others. They seemed to have a great effect on the minds of the Brazilians who witnessed them. The situation, ill fitted for a cemetery, would have been a fine one for a residence.

Just at hand is one of the public Wharfs, where vessels of a hundred tons burden may conveniently discharge their lading; and round a well wooded point is the Sacco dos Alfares. This communicates with the marsh at the back of the city, and formerly joined the sea through the Campo da Santa Anna, and the spot where are now the public gardens.

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The channel was filled up by the accumulation of sand from the Sacco da Gloria. In 1650, the Largo da Lapa was under water; in 1700, a stream passed Eastward from Mata Cavallos to the harbour; half a century later the Campo da Santa Anna was marshy, and covered with Mangue; in 1808, the limits of the morass had been greatly circumscribed, yet the water continued so broad and deep, that I was surprised at the grounding of a boat on the spot where the bridge of Mata Cavallos and some large warehouses now stand. The desiccation, assisted by art, afterwards proceeded more rapidly, and it is now proposed to carry a road from the Palace of Boa Vista directly across the sand-banks and the islands, to the point of Gambóa. The water there is now three or four feet deep, and furnishes a great quantity of shells, which are collected by people wading, and reduced by burning to lime.

Ponte Cajú is a fine elevated tongue of land, separating the bay of St. Christophe from that of Maricaná. It enjoys a clean beach, pure air, one of the best views of the harbour, especially of the roadstead, where the vessels of war anchor, and the utmost facility for communication with them by signals. On this account it has been selected as a place of residence for the British Admiral. Formerly this part of the coast was an island, and there are still traces of the last narrow channel, through which the water flowed from one bay to the other. Though the agricultural improvement of the neighbouring estates has produced a wish that the channel should be re-opened, the same process is going on, and a few years will unite the island of Ferreiro with the main land, and render the passage round the point still more difficult.

The Bay of Maricaná borrows the name of a river flowing into its farther extremity, and both are indebted for their appellation to the Indian Penates. It is two miles deep and one broad, surrounded with low and swampy shores, is rapidly diminishing in size from the great quantity of sand flowing into it, and is, altogether, one of the least pleasing recesses of the singular harbour of Rio. The Mangue, taking root from its drooping branches, and thickly covering its banks, is the hiding place of various birds of the Suceoo or Heron tribe, some of

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which are not common in other parts of the country. On its Northern side are several fine islands, between which run shallow streams of remarkably clear water. The Ilha dos Fradres is distinguished by a Convent, which furnishes a striking object from many distant parts of the harbour. Here, dug horizontally into the face of a hill, is a well, which furnishes excellent water, and many tales for credulous and superstitious gossips. In its retired situation, it is more than possible that strange appearances and noises may have been noticed, and some violence may occasionally have been committed. To prevent its recurrence an enclosure has been thrown round the well, and its water appropriated to the Convent. Its mysterious popular character does not prevent the resort of boats, which find shelter in its neighbourhood during the prevalence of violent South-Westerly winds. The other islands are not only naturally pleasant, but display the comfort arising from industrious cultivation; this, the property and residence of Priests, is neglected, barren, and desolate. On the opposite shore of the bay there is often left, by the tide, a large quantity of a colourless jelly-like substance, in hemispherical masses; and sometimes there appear among them some which contain a purple fluid, and are, in consequence, of a dark hue. Perhaps these are only more matured specimens of the same matter. However this may be, the colouring liquor gave them a different appearance, in the eye of an uninitiated man, from common substances of a like kind, and, on this account, they were made the subject of a note.

The line which forms the Northern limit of this middle section of the harbour is about nine miles in extent, and, at its Eastern extremity, lie the Nevas Islands, displaying that luxuriant vegetation which usually arises from a rich soil, in such a climate as this; they possess much of nature's most brilliant scenery. Having been the residence of families which once were great, their abodes, and the Chapels connected with them, are become ornamental parts of different views. In the process of time several of them have changed masters, more modern houses have supplanted the ancient mansions, and, while population has advanced, the riches of the soil have been rendered more abundantly

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useful. The islands are stripped, it is true, of a large portion of their forest honours, a rage for cutting down every thing like a tree still prevails, and they are deformed by smoking lime-kilns. Yet, in spite of these disparagements, they retain so much of their exquisite pristine beauty as to render navigation in the midst of them highly delightful. Though gradually losing the ornaments which now excite our admiration; though the brown projecting rock, which glows in the sun, and enlivens the broad display of foliage, may be so bared as to become an object of disgust; many of these scenes still surpass the creations of a lively fancy, and can be but poorly imitated by the pencil. No robbery can render them tame and uninteresting, while their visitors carry with them any portion of taste. The shores of the neighbourhood, too, are composed of a hard white sand, are broad, level, and clean; while the country inland is bold and verdant, and, in almost every part, affords something agreeable, on which the eye may rest.

On a boldly projecting knoll, at about a third part of the elevation of one of the hills, which here present themselves, stand the village and church of St. Lorenzo, famous in Brazilian history for the gallant defence made by an Indian chief against a French brig of war, which attacked the place in 1568. He had only one gun, and probably no other balls than hard rounded stones; yet he had learned so much of the art of using them with effect, as to beat off the assailant with great slaughter. Such balls were not uncommon in this country formerly, and in turning up the soil, near my own house, which was built on the foundation of an old fort, several of them were found, and I have a fragment of one now in my possession. The battle is described in a minute and spirited way by Vasconcellos. From his description may be gathered the progress of desiccation in the Bay of Santa Anna. Where the brig anchored, and became aground by the falling of the tide, there is not now sufficient water for a boat; and it seems that, when she was afloat, she retreated Southward over a space which now forms the isthmus between the Bay of Santa Anna and that of Praia Grandé.

Native Indians still inhabit the spot, and are employed in making

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earthen vessels for cookery, for which the city furnishes a market. Like their ancestors, who excelled in the same art three centuries ago, they use no machinery in moulding the clay, but bring it into shape by twirling their thumbs. The women attend the ovens and bake the pans with care and skill; no glazing is used, yet they bear the fire well. These people are mild, and, though thus occupied, indolent; with considerable powers of imitation, they seem to have none for invention or improvement. They are expert in the use of the bow, frequently substituting round balls of clay in the place of arrows. In rowing and managing the canoa, they are not less dexterous. They have lost their own language and manners, and adopted those of their conquerors.

About a mile nearer to the point of Armazem, lies the estate presented by the Regent to Sir Sydney Smith. The house on it is small, and the situation oppresively hot; the land rocky and of little value. At the point itself are some large warehouses, originally constructed for the extraction of oil from the whale, when that fish rolled his enormous bulk in the harbour of Rio. Just at their back is one of the finest stations on the Eastern side, for viewing the whole extent of this beautiful bay.

The Bay of Praia Grandé is one of the least recesses which we here met with but by no means the least in pleasantness. The beach is broad and lined with small houses; the interior rich, though sandy; the country populous, and perhaps no part of the vicinity of the city has undergone more advantageous changes. The Port established here communicates with all the Eastern parts of the Province, and with the roads leading to Esperito Santo and Porto Seguro. Here are embarked all the different kinds of produce, which the interior abundantly furnishes. Hence there are boats continually plying for the city; the distance is about three miles, and on the passage the sea-breeze is enjoyed in all the fulness of its comfort. Near the centre of this bay is observed, at the time of the morning or evening gun, or when a salute is fired, one of those fine echoes with which the harbour abounds. It is occasioned by reverberation from the neighbouring mountains, and sometimes rolls and bursts with amazing grandeur.

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On the neck of land, which separates this recess from the Sacco of St. Xavier, is situated the small pleasant village of St. Domingos; and on the point West of the village stands the unimportant battery of St. Joan. Passing across the water, we approach the island of Villegagnon, the scene of so many contests as to be highly interesting to a traveller in any measure versed in the history of the country. Its surface has undergone great alterations; the natural defences employed by its ancient occupiers have been destroyed, or rendered subservient to modern fortifications, which now almost cover the island. Even the rocks, which three centuries ago surrounded it like so many sentinels, are nearly buried beneath the waves. Exposed to the whole weight of the ocean, and unable to resist the constant attrition of the tempestuous surges, they become undermined and slide from their place. A large mass disappeared during a gale, in the winter of 1817, and on the beach to leeward of them, particularly on the Praia do Flamingo, is often found a substance thrown up by the surf, which may be pertinently described as the rotten stone of Gneise. That substance has by some means become black and friable, and indicates that great changes must have taken place in the rocks near the entrance to the bay.

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A. D. 1813.


CALLED at different times to traverse the country to the West of Rio, I proceeded by various routes, often crossing a track, which I had pursued before, and encountering afresh objects which had previously been noted. The observations made on these journies, are here given in one condensed narration.

Travelling Westward, the first place which occurs is Caatumbí, the Chiga of the Woods, formerly a small detached village on the edge of the marsh, now united to the city. A little farther appears another village of much the same size, called Mata Porcos, furnished with a Chapel, and exhibiting an Ensign of the Holy Ghost. This consists of a tall mast, painted like our barbers' poles, supporting a board, on which appears a Dove, surrounded with a Glory. If such representations were ever of any use, they have out-lasted their purpose. They are commonly

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placed before buildings appropriated to the boys, who in the character of the Magi, visit the Infant Saviour of the world. With a discrepance from Scripture, not unusual in the sacred comedies of the Catholic Church, these boys are made to ape the state of Sovereigns, are complimented by the multitude, instead of bowing with humility and reverence; and receive tribute, instead of offering frankincense and myrrh.

At Mata Porcos, the road to Santa Cruz, branching off to the right, leads in front of some large and pleasant houses, across the Rio Comprido. This is commonly a small and tranquil stream; but collecting others which descend from the mountains of Andrea, it occasionally in wet seasons pours through its channel a turbulent and destructive torrent.

Beyond, is the Quintal of Boavista, a residence of the Sovereign of Brazil. The house stands a little out of the road on a gentle eminence; it is small and formal, ill-contrived, and wretchedly furnished. It possesses however, one great comfort, having on three sides of it varandas or colonnades filled with glass windows, which can be closed or laid open at pleasure; thus it is rendered warm as well as light and airy. A private Merchant was building it, when the former Sovereign arived almost destitute of an abode, and most handsomely and acceptably presented it to the Regent. In front of it is placed a gateway sent to his Royal Highness by the Duke of Northumberland; an exact copy of that leading to Sion House, and here exhibiting a singular specimen of incongruity. This Royal Residence commands a fine though distant view of the bay, the city, the Northern mountains, and those of Gambóa; and, in the immediate foreground, the charming plain of Mata Porcos, nearly seven square miles in extent. The gardens occupy almost a third part of the plain, where flourish in abundance and beauty the Orange and Coffee Tree, the Banana, the Mimosa, and a great variety of flowers. Nothing is to be said for the good taste of these gardens; but it should be recollected that a few years ago their site was a morass or a forest. Noble as are the views from the palace, they are surpassed by those which may be enjoyed from a small hill, about half a mile from it; where are seen


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perhaps, some of the finest displays of varied scenery which were ever presented to the human eye.

This highly cultivated spot exhibits a striking contrast to what a few years ago was the state of the country on which we immediately enter. Passing over the plain near Pedregulho, I then found the road embarrassed with stumps of trees, or rather there was no road at all, but various mule tracks, along which every passenger made his way in the best manner he could. Now the forest is extirpated, the land divided and fenced with luxuriant hedge-rows, many houses are erected, and the haunts of wild beasts converted into prosperous settlements of men. It is somewhat curious to recollect, that in 1796, one of the passengers by the Duff, riding to this small distance from the city, found himself beyond the limits of civilization, and even of military protection. He was attacked by persons who attempted to catch him with the lasso, and was obliged to gallop for his life. What a rapid change in the state of society! Who can contemplate such improvement without pleasure! who without astonishment can recollect that it extends nearly round the whole coast of South America.

The first strangers who travelled in this country, appear to have considered the water as a sort of guarantee of their safety, and therefore kept near it as much and as long as they could. Following their usual course, we crossed the Maricaná, or Rio Faria, a stream which, issuing from the mountains, sometimes bears down all opposition. Many have perished, who trusted too much to their knowledge of the ford, or the strength of their horses, and a bridge thrown across the torrent a few years ago, was quickly hurled away. From this spot a gently waving, rich, and pleasant country presents itself, well adapted for Sugar Cane or Mandioca; but the vicinity of the Capital converts it to a different purpose.

At Venda Grandé, seven miles from the city, the road divides; the branch to the right leads to Minas Geraes, and the North-Western parts of the Continent; the other, which we follow, conducts to St. Paul's and the South-West, It winds at the base of small, woody hills, until it

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reaches other plains, four miles in extent, which, from their aspect, as well as their name, Campinhos, appear never to have been covered with a forest. The soil is evidently a washed sand, formed by the decomposition of granite, such as frequently occurs near the sea. There are evidences, as it seems to me, that the ocean once flowed over it to the harbour of Rio, or left only a small intervening tract of land near the village of Jacarepuá,—so called from Jacaré, an alligator, and pua or pu, long. As we quit the bay and get farther inland, the country advances in pleasantness, the rocks are bolder, the forests richer, and the enclosed valleys more thickly covered with gramma.

At Pedreiros, a lone house in this neighbourhood, I once met with a party of Swedes, who were on their way to St. Paul's, to work an iron mine. It had been given out that the ore of this mine would yield nearly ninety-five per Cent. yet the project failed, owing, it was said, to the ignorance of the director. Whether he was deficient in the necessary qualifications or not, I felt no surprise at the result, for this interview left on my mind an unfavourable opinion of the artists and their undertaking. Yet both the quantity and the quality of iron ore in Brazil are truly astonishing; there are considerable mountains of almost pure metal. By a natural though selfish stroke of policy, the people were not allowed to work it, before the emigration of the Court from Portugal.

Proceeding a few miles farther, we come to the Church of St. Antonio de Lamerón, situated on the ridge of a gentle hill. The soil round about it is strong and productive, but the spot seems beyond the influence of the city, and unbenefited by a steady demand from any other quarter. Advancing towards Santa Cruz, and in the general neighbourhood of that place, more considerable mountainous ridges make their appearance, and the low lands are in some parts encumbered with water. Here the road is made of poles, laid parallel and close to each other, so that there is a sort of solid track in the midst of it, while the sides are swampy and wet. But notwithstanding some natural disadvantages, and a great deficiency of pains to counteract them, the

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herbage appears luxuriant, and the face of the ground in general as green as any in England; while every hill is so covered and crowned with trees, and these so rich in their foliage, as British scenery can seldom display. Houses are every where scattered around, and at short distances there are dusters of huts. The cattle are of the small dun sort, very different from those of Rio Grandó; few horses were observed, but many mules. Ant hills, not unlike those formed by the Termites in Africa, are frequent; Birds of exquisite plumage occasionally presented themselves, and we saw one Coral Snake.

The Estate of Santa Cruz, which is seven miles from one end to the other, has a finely varied surface, and is watered by the rivers Guandú, the Great Bay, and Taguiah, the Yellow Water. It formerly belonged to the Society of Jesus, and was their principal establishment in these parts; it is now the property and the occasional residence of the King. The house, standing near the Western edge of the estate, is small but well built, and being designed for a convent, makes only a poor palace. A good chapel adds to its appearance; miserable mud huts, the filthy abodes of negroes, detract from it. The land seems to have been cultivated with the usual energy of its former possessors, and is said to have been rendered highly productive. There are still traces of drains, and of a navigable canal. Yet amidst these, the general appearance at present is more like that of an unregarded common, than the demesne of a powerful Monarch; horses, mules, and oxen roam about it without restraint.

The neglected state in which this Royal Park was permitted too long to remain, proved a source of inconvenience and misery to every planter and settler in the neighbourhood, who had not interest enough at Court to make himself and his property respected there. While I was at breakfast at a sort of small inn, a man rode to the door, with the title and uniform of Captain, who put in requisition whatever the house afforded, ordered a quantity of grass to be provided and delivered at the palace, and went away without even speaking of payment. When he was completely out of hearing, the poor fellow

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who kept the house, poured many hearty curses on his head; assuring me that he had already furnished to this harpy of power, so many articles as nearly to ruin himself, and that he was utterly hopeless of any recompense. He added, that the whole neighbourhood was infested with this kind of plunder to such a degree, that he and others must be obliged to place themselves further from the seat of Royalty. The King cannot authorise such practices, yet are they notoriously common, and practised under the sanction of his name. In vain would the sufferers under such oppression remonstrate; power, in all its ramifications, is absolute; there is no accountability, no appealing to the public, nothing by which the mischief can be counteracted, but superior influence or bribery.

My object being to examine the country, its productions, capabilities and manners, rather than to see palaoes,—though this last Royal House has presented an occasion to note a strong trait of national character,—I took up my abode for a short time, together with a few companions, at Sepetíva, a small place about seven miles from Santa Cruz, and close to the sea.

The man at whose house we lodged, like others of his rank, was rough, active, and shrewd. Some Englishmen, having landed at this spot, had procured from him horses to convey them to the city. The sight of people and manners new to him, seemed to have inspired. a wish to know more about them. Accordingly he encouraged our countrymen to visit Sepetíva; and as he had no objection to a recompense for the accommodations which he afforded, though too independent to make a charge, his visitors felt themselves at liberty to pursue their own objects. The house was a low thatched building, with a varanda in front, and two small rooms, which were appropriated to strangers. As we depended, in a great measure, on our guns for daily provision, we often and early explored the neighbouring marshes, which abound with wild Geese, Ducks, Snipes, Spoonbills, and Herons, Some of the latter are as large-as those of Rio Grandé, and as shy. All the game which we procured was dry and insipid. For traversing the

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marshes, where it must be sought, we were furnished with horses, accustomed to the ground, which failed not to give us notice, when the softness of the bottom was such as to threaten danger.

As this district derives much of its support from the produce of the water, canoas are abundant, and the people skilful in the management of them. We had a large one, and four good hands to attend us, and frequently employed them, both for fishing and exploring the different parts of a bay which seemed deserving of our researches. It is bounded on one side by the main land, on the other by a Restinga, or sand-bank, which the sea has formed as a barrier to itself. This bank consists of white sand, is twenty feet above the level of the sea, four hundred yards broad, on an average, and twenty miles long. In most parts, especially near the middle, it is quite bare; in others it is covered with various creeping plants, which keep the soil together; it exhibits on its summit a little brushwood, and, at its Northern extremity, some Mangue. Towards the sea it is steep, and the surf breaks against with violence; toward the bay it is level and smooth. This latter portion of it abounds with shell-fish and sand larks; the herbage shelters many armadillos; and deer, with other animals of chace, occasionally present themselves to the sportsman.

Marambaya is at the Western end of this sandy tract, a single bold mountain, about seven hundred feet high, and ten miles in circumference at its base. It contains a church and some good springs. The inhabitants subsist by fishing, and the produce of the few fields which they cultivate, without having much to spare. We coasted the Southeastern side of the bay, until we reached its Northern point, and found the water gradually declining in depth as we proceeded. There it is nearly filled up with soft mud, which hereafter will probably become solid ground, and join the Restinga to the continent; while the streams, which here flow into the bay, are compelled to pass under the rocks of Guaratíba, the place of birds, and to keep open there a passage to the sea. In crossing from one side to the other, in front of a broad wood of Mangue, we had nearly met with a fatal accident; a sudden gust of

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wind laid the canoa on her side, with her sail in the water; she righted, however, and we pursued our course along the Western shore, enjoying the picturesque beauties of the scene, and the seeming comfort of the inhabitants.

On another occasion we proceeded to the West, and coasted along the fine wood of Mangue, which, growing far within high water-mark, demands the notice of those who are accustomed to the naked and dreary appearance of Northern shores. When the tide is out, this marine wood displays myriads of oysters; at high water, it affords a secure retreat to a great multitude of birds. The banks are no sooner sufficiently solid than they begin to afford a situation for lofty trees, on which is frequently seen the plumed Succoo. This shy, but interesting bird, is nearly as large as the common Stork, white, with a yellow bill and legs. It is distinguished by a tuft of feathers, which grows from a membrane between the scapulars, and reaches the whole length of the back, resembling the tail of the Bird of Paradise. We secured one of these Herons, and showing it to our host, when we returned, his son suddenly seized it, and tore off the plume. No persuasions could induce him to restore his prey, for he intended it, as he alledged, for his Colonel's hat; and we were not forward to use force on such an occasion, out of respect to his father. His conduct showed, however, the esteem in which he thought his present would be held, and, in fact, such plumes have since very generally adorned the caps of military officers.

On this expedition we ascended a river, which conducted us to the plains of Santa Cruz; and I was informed that, shortly afterwards, the London, a British ship of ninety guns, went up to the same point. About two miles farther Westward, coasting the same forest of Mangue, we came to the mouth of the Taguahy, which, rising in the mountains of Tenguá, issues from them a small rivulet, skirts the Western side of the plains, washes the foot of the vast Serro, which divides the province of Rio de Janeiro from St. Paul's, and, at length, becomes the most Considerable of the streams which fall into this bay. These two rivers run parallel to each other for several miles, and appear to have formerly

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united their waters at a place much above the present embochure. When their banks were the property of the Jesuits, they were connected together by a good and useful canal. In the time of the regency an attempt was made, by government, to construct a town between them; but the project withered under the paralyzing touch of men in whom self-interest mounts far above all considerations of public advantage.

The real line of division between the two mentioned provinces runs, I believe, from near the point of Joatínga, along the heights, to the head of the Jacuý, and down that river until it join the Parahyba. Within the province of Rio ought to be included the small stream of Mambucába, all the islands which are scattered in the Western part of the bay of Angra, or Guandú, and even the village of Paratý, upon the main land. In British maps this boundary is frequently laid down more to the Eastward.

Soon after passing the mouth of the Taguahý, the shore becomes exceedingly bold; lofty piles of Granite raise their conical heads to the clouds, while between their bases numerous streams pour into the ocean, whose beds are too rugged, or too shallow, to admit any vessel larger than a canoa to ascend them with safety. Numbers of islets are scattered irregularly over the glassy plain, as various in their form and appearance as in their position; some of them being naked rocks; others beautifully verdant, a few crowned with forests, planted with the sugar cane and coffee trees, and adorned with white-washed buildings. Altogether they present many points of view pleasing, not in themselves alone, but in their singular variety.

The interior of this country is as mountainous and broken as any part of Brazil; yet much of the land is rich, and its crops of coffee are abundant. It is thinly inhabited by a hardy and industrious race, who only want roads to convey their produce to the coast, or to a market; a want not likely to be soon supplied. Paratý, situated on the coast, enjoys a considerable commerce with the capital; its rum, particularly, is in great request. To the North-east, twenty-five miles distant, is the village of Angra, once the chief town of the province, now fallen into

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decay. It is the property of Ecclesiastics resident in the city, whose slaves are permitted to act with a licentiousness not much short of that of banditti. This establishment is celebrated for its grapes and figs; the former were allowed to be cultivated at Angra, when the vine was universally interdicted to laics; and the figs furnish evidence of a happy climate or superior skill. The elevation of the place, which is four thousand feet above the sea, is favourable to both.

Many civilized Indians reside in this district. Passing through one of their villages, we found the people sitting under alcoves, placed in front of their huts, dressed in all the finery which the cheapness of British goods had introduced among them. They are commonly addicted to ceremonious civility; yet we received from them, at our first appearance, none of the honours usually paid to strangers. Determined to discover, if possible, the cause of such neglect, I pushed forward a little before my companions, and passing a hut, in front of which were seated an old man and several young people, took off my hat. All of them immediately rose, bowed respectfully, and the example was followed through the whole remaining line of habitations.

I have no high regard for such a ceremony, but fancy that it is capable of expressing the sentiments of the individual by whom it is performed. Among the peasantry of Brazil, I have usually found it something as different from the obtrusive sycophancy of the South of England, as from the rudeness of the North. It expresses here a degree of kindness towards strangers and a sort of welcome to the spot. Nor can a person rightly appreciate human manners, I think, who remains unmoved when a child pays his respects with the sweet smile of innocence, and, extending his hand, pronounces the words "Abencoa me." In thus asking a blessing,—whether it arise from the euphony of the words or the manner of the young petitioner in uttering them, I know not,—there is something which awakens the best feelings of the heart.

To the North-west of Paratý lies the great Serro of Bocainá, or Bucainá, which formerly communicated the name of Buccaneers to a certain description of men, and was itself derived from a practice of the

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inhabitants, who roasted their meat on wooden trivets or stages, whence the oily part dropped into and fed the fire beneath. Near the Southern point of the Serro is the celebrated elevation, sometimes called the Tropical-Hill, more frequently the Friar's Hood, from its supposed resemblance to the cowl of a Franciscan Monk. In its neighbourhood rise several of the springs which form the river Parahýba, the father of waters from the desert. Like the Nile of Ethiopia, it makes a long circuit before it bends its course towards the ocean; flowing South-west about a hundred and fifty miles, it collects the waters of a very mountainous district; then turning into a contrary direction, and running Northeast about two hundred miles, without receiving any fresh contribution, until it is joined by the Piratý. Their united waters, rolling on a hundred miles further, absorb those of the Parahybúna and the Piabúna, two streams coming from the North-West and the South-West. Fifty miles more to the Eastward, the Parahýba is joined by the Pomba; and about thirty before it reaches the sea, falls into the plains which it has contributed to form. Its whole descent is about six thousand feet; its bed, through the whole course, is rocky, and occasionally deep; forming an almost continued succession of Rapids, though there are on it few remarkable Cataracts. The banks are generally bold and abrupt; hence it is subject to floods, which sometimes roll along in wondrous magnitude and with frightful impetuosity.

Returning to Sepetíva, by the great road leading from St. Paul's to Rio de Janeiro, we passed through St. Joan Marcos, a considerable village in the centre of a coffee district, and reached the Taguahý. Here we left our horses, and descended the stream. It was evening when we reached the sea; the sun had set, leaving that brilliant glow upon the water which is almost peculiar to such a climate as this. Our rowers, five in number, stood upright in the canoa with their faces towards the prow, and using their paddles in unison, commenced a cheerful and sweetly soothing African song, the pilot beating time by slightly touching the side of the vessel, at every stroke, with his paddle. The evening continued unusually serene, the water was gently ruffled,

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we were weary, and lulled by the smoothness of the motion and the soft melody of music into a sort of extatic enjoyment. At ten o'clock we reached the dwelling of our host, and received from him a cordial welcome.

Near to the Taguahý we presented our Passports at one of the Registers, which are established on the boundaries of each province, generally in a double line and a few miles distance from each other. In each of them a guard of soldiers is stationed, to whose commanding officer passengers are required to present themselves and their licence for travelling. Our Passports were not quite regular, having been obtained from the Commandant of the district whence we set out, and not from the Police-Office of the Capital, to which we ought to have gone for them. This circumstance occasioned some delay, and might have put us to great inconvenience, if the officer on guard had not been civil. When the gratification of curiosity is the only object of travelling, and especially when it is undetermined how far an excursion is to extend, public forms are too frequently neglected; in Brazil, however, travellers will find their interest in complying with them exactly.

Going to Sepetíva, at a subsequent period, we arrived at Lamerón early in the morning of a Dia Santo, and found the people of the venda gone to church. While sitting on the steps, waiting their return, we speculated on the moral advantages of a frequent attendance on religious ceremonies, and concluded that a mild superstition was greatly preferable to utter ignorance and unrestrained licentiousness. The conduct of our host threw some new light on the case, for he had assumed a new character, sullenly refused us any thing but fish for our breakfast, and did not spare his sarcasms on Englishmen and Heretics. We had seen him before a civilized and well behaved Heathen; now he appeared a bigotted and furious Catholic. With difficulty we secured the horses, which had been turned loose; for he would neither give us any assistance himself, nor suffer his people to do so.

Hungry and offended, we proceeded on our way; when seeing on the left hand a track, which led into the woods, we determined to find

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Sepetíva by a new route. After riding four miles we met with a new built hut, which had the appearance of a house of entertainment; where, making known our want of a breakfast, the host proved less scrupulously Catholic, and set before us some salted pork and eggs. Former disappointment and present success would dispose us, of course, to think well of every thing; but the hut is really well situated, enjoying a fine view of the village of Camborím, or Camorím, and of the plain in which it stands. The sun was our only guide through the remainder of the wood, and, not properly attentive to his directions, we were separated from each other for two hours. After passing the woods, over a soil sometimes sandy, sometimes wet, we entered on an open rising Down, where, from the peculiar hue of the atmosphere before us, we concluded that it hung over the sea, and determined to make our way to the coast, in order to discover upon what part of it we had stumbled; from the summit of the hill we observed the Restinga, and, a little to our left, the village of Pedras. The heat of the day was excessive, and to shelter ourselves from the burning beams of the sun, we entered a very narrow venda, where we found such company, and heard such language, as made us careful for our personal safety. Six or seven desperate fellows, all armed in some way or other, and most of them inflamed by liquor, occupied the principal part of the building, while we two Englishmen were confined at the farther end. We were well armed, however, and had the advantage of communicating our thoughts in a language which none of them understood. The result of our conference was a resolution to withdraw without discovering our suspicions; and it seems that we acted well, for on relating the occurrence to our host at Sepetíva he shook his head, stamped, and uttered an exclamation which satisfied us that the parties were not unknown to him, nor our suspicions groundless.

Near the venda is the ruin, or rather the unfinished skeleton, of a Church founded by the Jesuits. In the midst of it grew the largest Mammon tree, which we had ever seen; we gathered and enjoyed a part of its fruit. Our road now led us over a sandy plain, formed by the action of the sea, of a sufficient age to produce much good timber,

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and afford a site for some considerable farming establishments. Many extensive patches formerly produced indigo, and on them the neglected plant still grows most luxuriantly.

Numerous are the evidences which the Jesuits have left, in this part of the country, of the power and splendour of their Order, and of its admirable political management. Speaking generally and dispassionately, it may be said, that whatever was well contrived and executed was done by them, and that the common prosperity and happiness have declined since their dispersion. Yet it must be acknowledged, that they were little scrupulous in the use of indirect means to attain their ends. Two circumstances, illustrative of this fact, are related in the neighbourhood.

The Society asked, and easily obtained from Lisbon, the privilege of a tax on Espregos, which word, in Portugal, describes small nails, and the Government was well aware that such articles were here little used. In Brazil it means a fastener, and is applied particularly to Sipó, the pliant twig, which is universally employed to bind together the frame-work of buildings. So established was a thing once brought into general use, that, long after the dissolution of the Order, the tax, diverted to a different quarter, is still a subject of complaint.

The other instance occurred about the time when the Society became suspected at Court. By a petition it stated, that there was a piece of water, belonging to the Crown, which would be useful to the house at Santa Cruz as a duck-pond, and prayed for a grant of it. It was not thought expedient to comply without examination, and on inquiry it turned out that the pond was no other than the bay of Angra, containing four hundred square miles of water, and several valuable fisheries. The idea of a duck-pond was probably suggested by the multitude of brown divers, here called Patos, which then appeared in the bay, and are still occasionally seen on flat and unfrequented shores.

Opposite to the house where we resided is an island, containing only a few acres of land, planted with indigo. This we purchased with a view of making experiments on the growth and preparation of that

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valuable dye; supposing that the discredit into which Brazilian indigo had fallen in England, was owing only to mismanagement. The manufacturers, in extracting the fæcula, instead of using pure lime-water, were accustomed to throw into the vat so large a quantity of lime, in substance, that the fluid could not absorb the whole, and the surplus sunk with the indigo to the bottom, where it hardened, and became a sort of blue lime-stone. In this debased state it was exported; and as it weighed much more than the unadulterated indigo would, it produced a larger immediate profit to the manufacturer, but ruined the credit of the article.

About two months after the purchase was made, and when the crop was nearly fit for cutting, we received notice from a man high in office that our project must be abandoned, as the Regent would not allow foreigners to occupy any island on the coast. It was added that, if we wanted land, his Royal Highness would allot to us any unoccupied tract, on the other side of the mountains, which we might select for our purpose. Together with the thanks due to the Prince we stated our particular object, and the persuasion which we entertained that, under proper management, Brazilian indigo might be produced to rival that of the Spanish provinces and the East Indies. We added that, if any benefit arose from the experiment, it would attach to the country, as the island and the crop on it had cost us less than ten pounds, and therefore could be no matter of great personal consideration. Notwithstanding such representations, the great man insisted upon it that the bargain must be annulled; telling us, however, that we had not gone to work in the proper mode, that application should have been made to him, and he could have found a way to overcome the scruples of the Prince, as the spot in question was not at all times an island, but connected with the main land by a ridge of sand, dry at low water. He went on broadly to intimate, that a douceur to himself might still secure the accomplishment of our wishes. We received his offers of service with such contempt and ridicule that he called in a Major of the Guards to witness the insulting behaviour of the foreigners.

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Had the Courtier been capable of feeling disgrace, the presence of the Major would have proved to him an unfortunate circumstance; for my companion was provoked to put him in mind of a dirty transaction which had occurred before. He had been employed by this personage, who was a Purveyor to the Royal household, to purchase some articles for him of British merchants, and had sent in the goods with a specification of their exact cost, and an additional charge for commission. This commission had been deducted from the account, had been repeatedly demanded in vain, and was now again charged on the great man as a debt. He listened, put on an air of importance, and coolly replied,— "I have been a merchant myself, and when employed as an agent, as has frequently been the case, I always charged for the articles from ten to twelve per cent. more than I paid; if you have not done the same you are a fool; I never will pay any commission." Such a bare-faced avowal of a gross abuse of the Royal confidence gave a finishing touch to the scene; affording a fresh evidence, that Jesuits have not been the only plunderers of the country, nor have cottages alone been subject to pillage.

It cannot be said that in the ease of the indigo, just mentioned, deception was originally intended; ignorance may possibly have been the foundation of the evil. But it seems that the profit, arising from the mixture of lime, threw in the way of the manufacturers a temptation which they knew not how to resist. Thus it has proved with other commercial men in the country, and in other lines of business. Frauds have prevailed to such a degree, that it has become necessary to establish in almost every port Inspectors, whose duty it is to examine the produce of the country, intended for exportation, to detect adulteration, and thus prevent the loss which would otherwise be eventually sustained. The Cotton and Sugar, especially, are examined, marked, and registered; and should deception be discovered, even after it is gotten into a foreign market, redress may be obtained by returning the packages with proper certificates.

Such instances of meanness, arrogance, and fraud, would not have

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found a record in these pages, had they been considered as isolated, or even as rare facts. Such things will occur in the most virtuous communities; but in Brazil they are, too truly, illustrative of the general character. In publicly stating them I consider myself as doing a real service to the Planters and Traders of the country; and every honest man among them will allow that I am entitled to his thanks.

Returning once more to head-quarters, we determined to find and proceed by a track nearer to the coast than any which we had hitherto followed. Mentioning this project to our host, he at first said there was none, and seemed astonished at our folly: his neighbours added their dissuasions to his own. At length relenting, and more shrewd than the rest, he said to his son, whom he had often called to mark how the strangers acted;—"there must be another way, for the people from Maranbáya, in going to the city, do not pass through our village, they go along the Restinga; these Englishmen are right, they know more about the country than we do; until they came we kept our eyes shut, and are only now awaking."

When the British first came to Brazil in considerable numbers, the same sentiment was expressed in a variety of ways. Not only was their real superior intelligence freely acknowledged, but, with the simplicity of childhood, the people seemed sometimes to attribute to them more than human attainments. It was natural to expect that such feelings should abate; more especially in the capital and its neighbourhood. As the Brazilians learned from the new comers, they wondered less, and, as their views expanded, easily retreated into their characteristic self-complacency.

When the hour of departure arrived, the old man unexpectedly made his appearance in the attire of a traveller, alledging that, since we took such strange resolutions, he was determined to maintain the character of his house by not suffering us to leave it without his guidance and protection; we repeatedly assured him that both were unnecessary, but nothing could move him from his purpose.

We rode briskly about twenty miles, chiefly over a rich clayey

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country, to the neighbourhood of Guaratíya, a considerable place, pleasantly situated on rising ground. The parish is said to contain thirty square leagues, and upwards of four thousand inhabitants. The ridge, on our left, at the foot of which we had long proceeded, now appeared to stretch across, and to bar up our way. Here our host once more endeavoured to persuade us to abandon the enterprize, but we thought that we could trace a passage up the Serro before us, and determined to proceed. At this moment a stranger made his appearance, on whom old Joan opened with great volubility, and was assured by him that he had himself passed that way in the morning, and was now returning to his home on the other side of the hill. In consequence we were formally turned over to a new guide, with a thousand charges to take care of us, backed by highly exaggerated accounts of the importance of our characters, and the extent of our power. We laughed heartily at our sudden advancement in the world, which, however, seemed to make no pleasant impression on the mind of our fellow-traveller, perhaps contributed to make him regard us as an encumbrance.

Entering upon a steep and rugged water-course, we were obliged to dismount, for our horses could barely carry themselves up it. When we reached the summit it was dark, and the wood thickened around us. The road was equally rough in the descent; and one of the horses became completely jaded. Our guide, too, manifested symptoms of impatience; but, resolved that he should not give us the slip, we placed him in the midst of us, and soon convinced him that, by behaving properly, he was pursuing his own interest no less than his duty. He led us several miles in the dark, over a narrow but seemingly decent road; and, at length, pointed to a light at a distance, which, he said, proceeded from his own house, with another a little farther off, which came from a Benedictine Convent, where we might find accommodations for the night.

We were heartily welcomed at the Convent, and supplied with a plentiful supper of fish and good beds; though we saw only one Brother, who was now, in his turn, superintending the affairs of the establishment,

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both temporal and spiritual. It seems to be a considerable one, and under excellent regulations. We admired the economy and order of the place, and the good will with which the manager seemed to go through his duties. In the morning we were summoned to early Mass, where we saw many well behaved attendants, had breakfast served in our own apartment, and, when we wished to depart, the Brother appeared, and blessed us. The House looks over the adjacent country, consisting of a small plain, bounded by the ocean in front, and on the sides by well wooded mountains. The bottoms, we were told, contain much good land, several small lakes, stocked with fish, and some dangerous swamps, covered with water at high tides, and when the waves are heaped upon the coast by violent gales.

The plains of Jacarépuá, on which we shortly afterward entered, are surrounded by lofty Serros, except towards the sea. These are seven or eight miles over, and strongly marked by a naked rock of Granite at their Northern end. Its shape is hemispherical, or rather resembles that of half an egg, cut in the plane of its longest axis. Its base is nearly two miles round, its height six hundred and fifty feet, and its sides steep. On its summit are some religious buildings, the ascent to which is by steps cut in the rock. Such detached stones are not uncommon along this coast; when observed in front they generally appear like cones; in profile their outline presents the section of an elipse, and they often prove the projecting spurs or buttresses of loftier ground. That they are not always what they seem, one solid mass, is evident from the springs which not unfrequently burst from them, and sometimes form a sort of reservoir on their summits.

Our road now proceeded by the small village of Jacarépuá, to join the main or Royal road at Campinhos, about four miles distant; but, keeping to our plan, we turned to the right, entered a narrow dell, and came to the estate of Senhor Tedin. Here we remarked a large and excellent water-wheel, fed by the stream, without any artificial means of securing a supply. Our horses again becoming fatigued by the steep and difficult road, we were driven to seek refreshment for them at a small

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house, where we were well received, and induced to change, in part at least, the notion which common report had given us, of farmers' wives in Brazil. The mistress of this house showed, not only great good temper, but much knowledge of domestic and rural affairs. From the summit of a hill, which we reached soon afterwards, we beheld a landscape which amply repaid the fatigue we had undergone. I have since frequently visited the spot, for no other purpose than to look about me, and inhale the pure breeze of morning, at which period the scene is beheld in its utmost beauty. The road was, however, turned into a different direction, before I left the country; the new one, much more confined, passes over one of the roughest ridges in this part of the continent. At the top of the hill, on the old one, we met a boy, whom we engaged to conduct us through the wood to its Eastern side; where we beheld the hills near Rio de Janeiro, and quickly entered upon the plain of Engenha Nova. This fine estate belonged to the Jesuits; the late owner resolved to sell it in small portions, hence many genteel houses have been erected in desirable situations, the woods have been cut down, the land enclosed, thriving fences planted; and culture has proceeded with such rapidity as to rejoice the well-wisher to the safety, peace, and comfort of human society.

Amidst the rougher parts of these scenes, while the forests were every where falling beneath the axe, I frequently remarked, with surprise, the wonderful contrivances of nature to repair her losses; particularly the avidity with which vegetables seek their proper nutriment. Many fallen pieces of rock had lain so long as to collect on their tops a quantity of earth, which had become the seat of plants, and even of trees. The roots of some of these, extending beyond the limits of the stones, went down their sides, and entered the ground at their base. Instances here occurred in which such roots enclosed, as in a sort of net-work, stones upwards of twelve feet high, and as many broad and long. The parts exposed had, in some measure, put off the appearance of roots, and were covered with a dry scaly bark something like that of the stem. The effects which hard substances produce on the roots of trees cannot be unknown;

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but it never fell to my lot to observe them on so large a scale as upon the mountains which separate the plains of Jacarépuá and Engenha Nova.

A pleasing excursion may be made from the city Westward, by passing over the Beira da Lapa, a sort of terrace raised about sixty years ago in front of a rock, which, when it jutted farther into the water, constituted one of the chief defences of the native Indians against their invaders. At present this terrace joins the city to the Gloria, and is skirted by a row of small uniform houses, delightfully situated in point of prospect, but abandoned to the poorer order, on account of the inconvenience of the road passing close in front of them. In the middle of the row is a small fountain, which has ceased to receive and communicate the supply once drawn from it. At the end of the terrace is the Church of the Gloria, charmingly placed on a lofty verdant hill, at the foot of which was a mule-track only when we first arrived, swampy, unhealthful, and encumbered with overhanging wood, with two or three houses; now there are as many hundreds, and some of them the abodes of the chief nobility. Passing the bridge at Cathéte, the road reaches the beach which forms the Northern side of the Bay of Bota Foga. It is the resort of sea-bathers, and was selected for the horse-races, instituted in imitation of the English ones. The bay is a circular basin, about a mile and a half in diameter, with one opening only, and that towards the East, between high Granitic rocks.

In this bay I have frequently observed a phenomenon which is, I believe, a miniature example of what occasionally occurs at sea. When the tide sets in from the Eastward, and there is a breeze from the South-West, each produces its distinct little wave or ripple. If one be heavier than the other it prevails over the smaller, and produces a bubble, or such a state of the water as the sailors coarsely call Moll Dab's pond. If the two waves be of nearly equal size and weight, the Northern end of one meeting the Western end of the other, neither of them is destroyed; both move on, crossing each other, and at the point of intersection there rises a sort of cone of double the height of

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each wave. Here this cone is from six to nine inches high. Off Flamborough Head, many years ago, I beheld what I suppose to be a similar production, of astonishing magnitude, which moved with great rapidity, passed a-head of our vessel, obliquely to her course, and attracted the wondering attention of every person on deck; all were sensible that, if it had struck, it must have overwhelmed us. From descriptions which I have read of some instances of damage done to shipping, at Halifax in Nova Scotia, at the. Cape of Good Hope, and on the coast of Brazil, I strongly suspect that it has arisen from something of this kind.

Of the different roads, which branch off from the Western end of the beach of Bota Foga,—not one of which is barren of amusement to a lover of nature,—the most Southerly leads to the rear of the outermost of those lines which guard the entrance into the harbour. To this defence the government seems to attach little importance, for, though the wall is sixteen feet high, well built and strong, no guns are mounted upon it, and it is commanded by the heights, which are themselves without protection. In this neighbourhood is the house where the British Society has, for many years, held its monthly meetings, availing itself, like many similar associations at home, of the aid of a full moon, and borrowing from them the appellation of Lunátics.

A branch of the same road proceeds over a small plain, abounding with "the seats of retirement and ease," for days of leisure. In its progress it passes the foot of the Telegraph-hill, between pinnacles of great sublimity; where the objects immediately at hand are not the only impressive and delightful ones, but there are also presented, at a distance, the common noble prospects of the bay and the Northern mountains, of the ocean and various islands. A man not averse to labour, and fond of diversified scenery, will find himself well repaid for climbing up to the Telegraph. In the pass just mentioned, on a projecting rock, stands a small fort, strong in its position, but wretchedly out of repair, and without a single useful gun, though mounting a corporal's guard. This neglect may, indeed, be forgiven, as it is too far off to command the beach, where the heavy surf rolling upon it is a defence of the surest

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kind, except at the two extreme points of the bay. The Southern one is ornamented with the round chapel of Copo Cabano, almost in ruins. Here, it is said, smugglers have found an useful station, the passes into the country being narrow and intricate. From hence a loose beach leads to the Lagoa do Freitas, separated from the sea only by a bank of sand, three hundred yards long, and at low water, broad and lofty. Against this bank the waves break furiously in tempestuous weather, and so dash over it as to render a gallop along it, during the recoil of the billow, a rough and not unmanly exercise.

By another of these roads we are conducted to a small swampy plain surrounded by mountains, where Mem de Sa performed perhaps one of the most bloody of his feats. On a military excursion from Villa Velha, he accidentally learned that the Indians were holding one of their great festivals in the neighbouring woods; and, though his detachment was small, determined to attack them. He concealed himself until the evening, when his party approached, unperceived, to the very fires of the Indians, and with the sword in one hand and a fire-brand, which every soldier had been ordered to seize, in the other, so effectually performed the work of slaughter and devastation, that it is said, not a soul escaped, nor a hut was left unconsumed. This event no less plainly marks the remissness with which the war had been carried on, than its abominable cruelty. Villa Velha, which had then been a year in the hands of the Portuguese, is only two miles from this spot, and the beach, where they must often have landed, not more than half a mile; yet it seems that they were altogether uninformed of this Indian Settlement.

Here is also the site of one of the oldest and most retired of the establishments belonging to the Jesuits. The house and chapel, of which enough remains to show their magnitude, strength, and splendour, now look from their elevation upon the harbour, which appears to have been once hidden from them by a mass of native forest. In this place were confined the French prisoners taken in the attack made upon Rio in 1710, by Du Clerc; and hither they were conducted so

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secretly, as to give some colour to the prevailing report of their massacre, which gave rise to the invasion the year after, under Dugue Trouin.

In a somewhat different direction from Bota Foga, we pass under the precipitous Peak of the Corcovado, along a romantic valley, sprinkled with country houses and gardens, to a gorge of the mountains, near the Northern end of the Lagoa do Freitas. Four small pieces of cannon may possibly have once been useful for the defence of this pass, against an insurrection of the natives; but now have not the shadow of utility. Here are stationed the waggons which convey gunpowder across the Isthmus from the Lake to the Bay of Bota Foga, where it is again embarked, for the Magazine North of the City. The mills are at no great distance at which powder is made for the Government only, and that in small quantities, and of a wretched quality. Nevertheless, it is good enough for a country which expends ten times as much in salutes as in war; and whose circumstances imperiously require that it be used only in pastime, ceremony, or defence.

The Lagoa do Freitas and its borders exhibit scenery of the most delicate cast; it is the Grassmere of Brazil; and in one point surpasses that beautiful little lake, as a view of the ocean towards the South-East, and of several islands, is comprehended in the picture. This piece of water is about two miles over in every direction, deep, generally fresh, and remarkably clear; its bed is in some parts rocky, and it abounds with muscles and other small shell fish. It sometimes experiences violent gusts of wind, and when the sea occasionally breaks over its barrier, many of the fresh water fishes perish.

About three miles farther, at a small place dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is the Botanical Garden, in which, amongst many tropical plants, native and exotic, is found the tea-tree. When first introduced here, several persons were brought from China to superintend its growth and management; and it was even supposed, that at no great distance of time, the whole European market might be supplied from hence. There can be little question about the care taken of it, and every observer

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must see that it flourishes luxuriantly; yet the projectors of the scheme seem to have calculated ill, are become dissatisfied with their own plan, and consequently neglect it. The rate of wages is too high to admit of the production of tea at moderate prices; while the Chinese, though diligent, are too precise and slow in their modes of culture.

With several of these people, and particularly their Chief, a native of Nanquin, I had much intercourse. They were extremely ignorant, but gave me very favourable conceptions of their principles and dispositions. Some of them showed a rapidity of comprehension, which surpassed whatever I have observed of the kind in any other race. Like the modern Greeks, their spirits are broken, and their characters debased, by the dominion of Barbarians. Auspicious to the human race, and welcome to themselves, would be the day of their deliverance; another great portion of the globe would open to science, and millions be raised to the dignity of men.

From the Garden the road leads through a pleasing, narrow dell, to another elevated pass between two mountains. No one, I think, can look round him from that on the right, without being sensibly affected with the mysterious grandeur of nature's works. To me it appears that the various islands and peaks of stone, in view from hence, have been portions of a more elevated scene, and that the crust of the earth between them has been broken and buried beneath the waters of the ocean. How or when such an event occurred, are questions which may possibly never be resolved. Men skilled in geological science, who have examined Brazil, have declared, that the facts developed have overthrown all theories constructed on the phenomena observed in Europe and countries whose elevation is comparatively so small.

Descending the other side of the hill, and passing a small, heated, yet verdant plain, to the foot of the Gavia, a mountain presents itself, the face of which bears a rough resemblance to the front of a vast Cathedral, with a tower at each extremity. Turning to the left, we get into an old track, cut in the side of the mountain, and paved with large stones, now broken up by the torrents, and covered with slimy plants.

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It is not unlike the pass over Penmaen-Mawr, in Wales; and if such a simile may be allowed, conducts us over the instep of this giant of the Brazilian coast, against whose toes the weighty Southern Ocean thunders with all its force. The scene is awfully grand. Through the deep green forests, which cover the impending mountain, numerous torrents pour their noisy waters; the place was formerly the known abode of savages and beasts of prey; the path narrow, winding, overhung with brushwood, and often intercepted, so that the passenger sees only a few yards before him; on his left the sea tosses its foam to an amazing height; he feels the difficulty of retreat, the absolute impossibility of escape on either hand. When I first passed through this scene, the effect was heightened by an utter ignorance of what was before me; and after acquaintance had rendered it familiar, I could not but consider it as providing food for a mind of the firmest construction.

At the termination of this gloomy solitude, we came to a Lake known by different names, most commonly by that of Tejúca, i. e. clay or mud, formed like the rest, in a recess of the mountains, by a bar of sand, which the sea has thrown up in front. It is about seven miles long, and three quarters of a mile broad. On its bank it is usual to strip the horses, and oblige them to swim by the side of the canoa. A circuitous route is necessary, but at length we find footing on a spacious plain, thickly planted with coffee trees. A ride of two miles farther brought us to the celebrated Fall of Tejúca, where a mountain torrent rattles down the broad face of a rock, worn into irregular channels and caldrons by the attrition of ages. The most singular feature perhaps, in the majestic scene, is a natural temple under the rock, where, during the French Invasion in 1711, the people offered their devotions to the God of Armies. Two altars then used, are still standing, and convey to most minds additional impressions of solemnity. It is hardly possible to conceive of a more secure retreat. As there is only one house near it, which then belonged to the Jesuits, and no traces of other erections, it seems as if the people must have lodged under the shelter of the vast masses of stone. The cataract and its picturesque scenery now attract

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the citizens on days of relaxation, and for their accommodation paths have been formed amidst and over the rocks.

A steep and narrow road leads by the borders of a stream, singularly rough, through a pass capable of being defended by a handful of men, to the Vale or Glen of Andrea, not long since an unbroken sylvan scene, now stripped of its honours. The increasing population of the city has occasioned the conversion of most of the wood into charcoal, and the employment of its soil in the production of esculent vegetables, which thrive here most luxuriantly. Near the bottom of this glen are the Water-Mills, which supply Rio with wheaten flour, not only ill managed, but fundamentally defective in their mechanical arrangement. The water, however, is not wasted, but proceeds to supply some of the newly-erected fountains in the city.

In other excursions to the Westward of the Capital, we turned to the right at the Rio Faria, and keeping along the edge of the bay, with well-clothed mountains on the left, passed by the villages of Nossa Senhora da Penha and lrajá to Pavúna. This, though a pleasant track, and leading through a thickly inhabited district, is not usually taken by travellers in this direction. Their common course is on the other side of the mountain, by the route which branches off from Venda Grandé, which has been already mentioned, and through a rich plain, which forms a part of the Campinhos. Among the woods on its borders there is much game, particularly the Páca, (the Wakeful, a sort of Hare) and near the numerous pools are Snipes, Moorhens, and Galinhas d'Agua.

The small village of Pavúna has in its centre a green where three roads meet. While refreshing at one of the small houses, where provisions and liquor are sold, a black servant announced the approach of his master and a companion. A mat was quickly placed for their reception in the Varanda, together with a table and two chairs; the latter, at this period, uncommon articles of luxury, The great man on his arrival was assisted to dismount from his mule, threw himself into a chair, and showed off some lordly airs. He called for oranges and farinha, took with his friend

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a glass of Brazilian rum, and gave his mules a small quantity of milho. After sitting about half an hour, he threw down two vintems, not quite three-pence, and departed. "There, Gentlemen," said the host, when he was gone, "you see the manners of my countrymen; these two vintems cannot pay for the liquor and the milho, much less compensate for the risk of having my chairs destroyed; but I dare not complain, he is a Colonel, and a man of great consequence in the neighbourhood." He added some compliments to the English, of which we no doubt thought them very deserving.

From Pavúna we descend into a low plain and cross the Miritý, the Little Water, which, in its common state, has scarcely any current, and is very shallow, even at its mouth; from hence, probably, it takes its name; yet there are seasons when it swells and becomes dangerous. The soil is, as might be expected from its situation, exceedingly rich, and where sufficiently dry, produces plentiful crops of sugar, Milho, and Mandióca. The country abounds with the Pombo, a large species of Brown Dove, the Pombo-rolho, a smaller kind, with a sort of crested Woodpecker, and the Pitangúi, or Scarlet Bird, which I suspect loses its brilliant hue during a part of the year, from whence some have supposed that it migrates. Our path proceeded over gentle hills, and amidst newly-established farms, to the village of St. Antonio de Joatinga, pleasantly situated on rising ground, and on the edge of still expansive forests, though daily becoming thinner. These woods nourish a variety of game, and the Deer are become so familiar, amidst the advance of population, as sometimes to approach the houses.

For some time we imagined that we had here met with an uncommon instance of brutal behaviour. Having lost our way in the forest, through which there was no regular road, we found ourselves at midnight near a hut where three small tracks met. After shouting and knocking at the doors and window-shutters for some time, a man deigned to answer us, but could not be prevailed upon to show himself, or to give any other direction than the unintelligible one,—"Go to the left." Complaining of this behaviour in the neighbourhood some weeks after, it was

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justified on the principle of necessary caution; for these poor foresters were often pillaged, more especially by soldiers who left their quarters, and prowled about in the night. A more strict discipline, and the appointment of patrols, now kept them in better order.

Gradually turning from St. Antonio, more to the East, the country becomes sublimely grand. Before us rise the massy pile of Tengua, the cone of Boa-Vista, and the singular pinnacles usually denominated the Organ-Pipes. The road winds round the foot of the hills to the plain watered by the Iguasú, the Great Bay, a stream which falls into the harbour of Rio. The soil of this plain is in general sandy; but being occasionally overflowed in many parts, a black sediment is left, which fits it for the growth of rice. The surface is broken by numerous abrupt round hills, called from their shape half oranges. There were many such in a farm which frequently became my temporary home.

When my countryman and friend purchased this farm several years ago, it was almost covered with forest trees. It contained nearly two thousand acres, and the original cost, together with the expenses, which were unusually high, was about seven hundred pounds. There were upon it two houses, each surrounded with a small quantity of pasture ground, with some coffee and fruit trees. After the necessary purchase of slaves, the first object was to clear a part of the ground for planting, and at the same time, procure timber for fences and for building huts and offices. Mandióca was introduced on the sandy soils, Milho on the loamy ones, Coffee Trees were multiplied on the clays, and the swamps prepared for rice. The European modes of culture were, in many cases, mixed with those of the country. A bed of clay was converted into bricks and tiles, articles which at that time were in great demand. Different coloured clays and earths were selected and used as pigments; and one kind seemed of such a superior quality, that there were hopes of advancing, under proper management, from the fabrication of common earthenware to something which might rival the porcelain of China. The surplus wood was cut into billets, which were made up in bundles, and sold in the city for fuel, at the rate of about three-halfpence for thirty pounds. In

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subsequent years, as the farm became improved, and conveniences were multiplied, the sugar cane was introduced and throve admirably. A mill and distillery were erected, the walls of which were of Taipé, the Paysan of Southern Europe, before unknown in this part of Brazil, though long used in St. Paul's. The still was formed on the principles most approved in Great Britain. After all, it proved impossible to overcome the prejudices of the people; and irreparable mischief was ere long done to the apparatus, in the absence of the proprietor.

Lands are obtained by grant as well as purchase; and being distributed by the map, instead of survey and measurement, it cannot be wonderful that confusion and contests should arise with respect to their boundaries. To ascertain and establish their claims, many landholders fix around their borders a number of small tenants, called Moradores, who pay a trifling rent, procure their subsistence chiefly by the cultivation of vegetables, and answer the important purpose of watchmen, preventing the encroachments of neighbouring proprietors and the robbery of the woods. They are generally white people who have families, sometimes a slave or two, and add much to the population of the country; but they love and affect independence, and seldom continue after the limits of an estate are well ascertained, and its remoter parts brought into cultivation,

The ignorance and listlessness of these people are astonishing. Living almost constantly in the woods, their minds are uncultivated, and become hardly capable of more than one kind of excitement. Accustomed to exercise the violent passions without controul, and to slaughter every animal which comes in their way, their fury knows no bounds, and they are ever ready for all that it urges to. Their eyes, incessantly on the watch, become large, distorted, and piercing, even to a frightful degree; and the muscles of their faces assume a concomitant form. Having nothing to lose, easily finding a supply for their wants, and unattached to any particular spot, they leave their abodes without regret, and fix again without any seeming concern but that of avoiding the rivalry and annoyance of a neighbourhood.

They are frequently succeeded by a more valuable class of tenants

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who possess a small capital, which they invest in slaves, cultivate a larger portion of land, and pay their rent sometimes in money or by labour, more commonly in produce. If the article raised be Sugar-cane, the most profitable culture in Brazil, half the produce usually goes to the landlord, for which he not only furnishes the soil, but crushes the tenant's share of the cane, distils the syrup, or converts it into sugar, according to the wish of the individual. Such a bargain is considered as advantageous to a man, who possesses land without much capital, because he is hereby enabled to construct Sugar-works adapted to his whole estate, and to keep them more fully employed. The tenants are bound also to plant a certain quantity of Cane on additional pieces of ground, and to crush the produce at the Mill belonging to the estate; and these minor Farms fall successively into the owner's hand, and add to the value of his property. At the same time many of the tenants improve their own condition, become advanced in the scale of cultivators, and ultimately proprietors of land.

These two classes comprehend by far the greater part of those agriculturists of the country who live on the property of others. Almost every land-owner is himself a planter, and, for the most part, occupies his own estate. Some, indeed, own lands, and let them entire; but their number is small, and confined to the immediate neighbourhood of the city.

The laws respecting Landlord and Tenant are very much in favour of the latter. If he have built a house, planted fruit-trees, or in any other way benefited an estate, beyond the terms of his contract, he does not on removal lose what he has laid out; appraisers are appointed to ascertain the value of the improvements, and the landlord must pay for them, whether useful to him or not. Indeed they can hardly be considered, in any case, as useless; for, when an estate is sold, these Bemfeitorias, as they are called, are always valued separately, and paid for in addition to the sum agreed upon for the purchase of the land and the woods. The operation of these laws is as beneficial to the public as to individuals, not only saving them from oppression, but gradually spreading them over the country, when they begin to acquire property. And

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such a dispersion is by no means uncommon, for landlords are here averse to wealthy tenants.

The object and mode of farming depend upon the distance from the city, and the facility with which produce may be conveyed to market. In its immediate neighbourhood land is appropriated to vegetables, fruit, and grass. The different kinds of the two former, here raised in abundance, have been already mentioned; the last may require a little farther detail. Two sorts of grass are carefully cultivated; the most common, called Capim d'Angola, resembles our wheat straw, when green, and grows thickly; the other, the Capim de Colonia, grows in tufts, and requires greater attention than the other, though not so profitable. Good land yields, of the first kind, what is here called a bundle, about a hundred weight, from three square yards, and it may be cut, when in a flourishing state, every six weeks. It is usual to keep the crop in patches, which regularly succeed each other in favourable seasons; but in dry weather, and more especially when a tender crop is exposed to a fervid sun, the growth is checked, and the order disturbed. When old, both these grasses lose their succulence, and in that state are unfit for the food of cattle,

These different articles of produce are conveyed to market in canoas and boats, and on the heads of negroes. Many of these people go out early in the morning, and cut the grass, paying for a bundle of that grown on the cultivated lands four vintems, or eighty reis, about sixpence; sometimes obtaining a burden from waste lands without any charge. Each carries from one to two hundred weight, according to his strength and activity, having bound it about a long pole to keep it from bending. In the city he divides his load, if it be of the largest description, into two bundles, and generally sells each of them for three hundred and twenty reis. This profit is hardly earned, for it is very severe labour to carry such a load on the head, three or four miles, in such a climate as this. Some respect is paid to its severity by Royalty itself; for the men are not now obliged, as they once were, to lay down their burdens, when meeting any of the Sovereign's family, and to seek

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any casual assistance for replacing them, but only to make a halt. Within a few years too, mules and carts have, in some measure, superseded this excessive drudgery.

Between the distance of four and twelve miles, a large proportion of the land is appropriated to the pasturing of cows. Their milk is conveyed to the city in large tin cans, on the heads of negroes, who run along with it cheering their labour by a song. It is subject to the examination of the Police-Officers, who, if they find it adulterated, pour it down in the street, and send the vender to prison. The price of milk varies from sixpence to a shilling per pint, and, through an unfavourable state of the exchange, has occasionally been double that price. In this same district much sugar-cane is planted, a considerable part of which goes to the city as food for cattle. Negroes, too, are fond of it when young and soft; in their hands it is perhaps hardly to be accounted food so much as a gratification.

At a greater distance than twelve miles the influence of the capital is not so directly felt. There a portion of every farm is left under its natural wood, for supplying the city with fuel and charcoal. The cleared parts are planted with Coffee, Sugar, Rice, Mandióca, or Milho, according to the quality of the soil, and the prevailing taste of the district. Mandioca is usually converted into Farinha on the spot; Rice, Coffee, and Milho, are there prepared for the market; Cane is generally connected with some Mill and Distillery. The banks of the streams are chiefly selected for habitations and culture. Recently persons of a new description have arisen in these parts, who convey the produce from the farms to the city; those who proceed by land, with their clumsy Carros, and Mules, are mostly very poor, but some respectable men have established boats for the purpose, and make a good subsistence.

There is great simplicity in the usual management of a farm. The master and his family commonly reside upon it, and, except a Feitor or Bailiff, who sometimes has a family also, are the only white people. On the Farm of Maranbaya my friend would willingly have employed free

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white labourers, instead of negro slaves as usual, and given any reasonable encouragement to some of the many British and North American subjects, who were wandering about in a destitute condition; but he could not succeed with men who loved a vagabond life, and preferred the gains of fraud to those of labour. In turning up the soil no other instrument is used than the hoe; and I have often been surprised how speedily and how well the work is done with it. Many unavailing attempts have been made to introduce the English plough; I have held it myself, and learned from my own brief experience, how utterly impossible it is to teach a black man to manage it; and the Brazilians are almost as dull, and fully as much prejudiced. Should Providence again open to me an opportunity of superintending rural affairs in this country, I would certainly commence with boys. Instruments of agricultural importance amongst us, as the scythe and sickle, are almost unknown here. The latter has, indeed, been recently and rarely used in cutting grass on the cultivated lands, instead of the knife, or a blade, or even a piece of old iron brought to an edge and attached to a long stick. In cutting sugar cane, a sort of large knife is employed; in gathering rice, a small one; in both cases, each stem is cut separately. The roots of mandioca are turned up by the hand.

The farms below the mountains seldom exceed two or three thousand acres, and there I believe, all the land has been disposed of by grants. On the summits estates are found ten, twenty, and even thirty miles long, by three broad. It is scarcely necessary to add, that their value is not to be estimated by their extent. There is also generally attendant upon them a deficiency of capital, population, roads, and markets.— The cultivated part of them bears a small proportion to the whole, and its crops not unfrequently rot upon the ground.

In the country the modes of living differ materially from the city. The common articles of subsistence are Carne Secca or charqued beef, imported from Rio Grandé, the prepared flour of Mandioca, and Feijam or pulse; fowls, eggs, and soups, are the luxuries. Water is almost the sole beverage; a little Brazilian rum sometimes makes its appearance; but

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no wine, except in houses of the first class. Wild animals are occasionally served up at the master's table, the armadillo, paca, deer, and others; the large spotted lizard furnishes a favourite dish, no kind of monkey is refused, and I have seen the gamba, or Brazilian skunk eaten without disgust.

Ferocious animals exist on some of the lands which are cultivated. A party being at dinner at my friend's house, with the doors open on each side of the room, a favourite horse rushed through it in great alarm, overturning in his progress a table, which served as a sideboard. A native of the country who was present, immediately cried out,—"an Ounce," and seized a gun, while the rest armed themselves as well as they could, and all went in pursuit of the ravager; but they were too late; disappointed of his prey, by the singular refuge which the horse had taken, he was seen deliberately retreating towards the woods.

The Jacaré or Alligator is still seen on the same estate. A few years ago, two children disappeared from the house, and were supposed to be devoured by these animals. In 1817, a black boy, ten years old, carelessly sleeping on the ground, was roused by an Alligator seizing his fingers, two of which were broken and obliged to be amputated. The little fellow stoutly maintained afterwards, that he knew the creature, and was determined to seek and kill him;—a threat which I have no doubt he would attempt to execute, if not prevented.

No stranger can possibly conceive the number of frogs found on the swampy grounds, nor the noise which they make. It was a common diversion when they issued from their lurking places at night, to procure a forked stick with sharp points, and to strike it on the ground, without any very particular selection of place, until the forked part was full of them; these were stripped off, and the operation recommenced; thus many hundreds were killed in a very short time.—Ants of several species also are a most serious pest. Every house and almost every yard of dry ground is infested with them, and the wounds which they inflict are painful and irritating; arising, I suspect, not from the mere bite, but from some venomous fluid left by them beneath the skin. The wandering Indians who

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cannot escape them, cultivate in their warriors not only a contempt of such molestations, but a general spirit of stern endurance, by placing them in a nest of these insects. In this country these insects present no lesson of useful labour; they are restless and active, but as it seems to me, to no purpose. I have observed them carrying a heap of sand through a hole in a wall, dropping it on the opposite side, and when the whole is cleared away, carrying it back again with the same air of important occupation.—In the list of country torments must also be placed many various kinds of snakes, mosquitoes, flies, wasps, fleas, and carapátos, whose annoyance is unceasing.

I had here an opportunity of observing the indecent manner in which the last offices of religion are sometimes administered by country Priests. Two negroes being extremely ill, a Clergyman was sent for, who on his arrival found one of them gone beyond the reach of his art, if not beyond his influence, and the other, having crawled off his bed, was lying on the floor of the cabin. As we entered the Priest was jesting and laughing in the most volatile form, then filled both his hands with water and dropped it on the poor creature's head, pronouncing the form of baptism. The dying man, probably experienced some little relief from the effusion, for he exclaimed,—"Good, very good." "Oh," said the Priest, it is very good, is it? then there is more for you;" dashing upon him what remained in the basin. Without delay he resumed his jokes, and in the midst of them the man expired, No one can have less faith in the efficacy of baptism or extreme unction, administered at the last gasp of life; but I cannot endure the sight of a Minister of religion, whether Papal or Protestant, trifling with the rites which he declares to be of prime importance, and trust that conduct so base and abandoned will never fail to excite my strongest reprobation. Among my countrymen, I cannot in this point, be singular.

Familiar visits in the country are frequent, noisy, and sometimes protracted to a late hour; yet among the neighbours there exists a great deal of jealousy and rancour, and their conversation is often as full of pretence as can well be conceived. This is not wanting in more ceremo-

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nious visits; but they are, of course, conducted with greater decorum. One afternoon a black boy arrived at the house, announcing the approach of a party of ladies and gentlemen. They rode slowly, and were received by the family in the front of the house, where the ladies seated themselves on the grass under a shady tree, and the men reclined at their side. Fruit and water were handed, and, after an insignificant conversation of half an hour, the visitors retired. The features of the party were, in general, coarse, and their sallow hue indicated the bilious and aguish complaints, to which their part of the country is subject. Their persons and clothes were clean; the latter thin, showy, and loosely made; but little distinguished from the modes already described. In every point they appeared to belong to the most respectable class of the neighbourhood.

The owner of this estate, wishing to provide himself a better house, consulted a few of his friends as to the choice of a spot for the purpose. On our pointing out the summit of a small woody hill, as a place where, we thought, he might enjoy pure air and pleasant scenery, a score of slaves were ordered to cut a narrow road through the wood, by which we might ascend and examine the spot more accurately. They immediately went to work, but so far misunderstood their master's order as to leave all the wood standing on the crown of the hill, by which we were as effectually precluded from looking around us as if we had been enclosed with a lofty wall. Almost three hours more were spent in cutting down tree after tree, each of which, falling against its neighbour, remained, for the most part, in an upright position. At length one large and hard wooded tree giving way towards the South, the rest, which had been upheld by it, followed. The effect was like drawing aside a curtain. In an instant there lay before us a complete view of the city of St. Sebastian, its bay, islands, shores, and surrounding mountains, together with a wide expanse of ocean. The very slaves were struck dumb with astonishment, feeling the effect of beauty beyond description bursting unexpectedly upon them. The silence and the clamour which succeeded were both expressive; in various languages, used by natives of three different quarters of the globe, the same sentiment was heard;— "surely this is a goodly world which we inhabit."

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Afterwards we proceeded, by the great road which runs through this estate, to the rich plains of Oitú, formed of soil washed by a noisy rivulet from the Serro of Boa Vista. We crossed the stream, and immediately began to ascend by a zigzag path, making fourteen turns, yet so steep that, from the highest point of the ladder, I threw a stone with ease over all the stages. Many cattle, in their way to the city, descend this pass, the elevation of which is about four thousand feet, and sometimes severe accidents happen among them from the slipperiness of the path; when an ox, in the hinder part of a drove, loses his footing and falls, he generally carries with him several others down the precipice, at the bottom of which they perish. On the right of this pass stands a great naked cone, rising nearly two thousand feet higher. The difficulties of the descent have led travellers to seek another route to the left, and government has been employed for several years in rendering it passable for carriages.

From this spot the road advances, nearly sixty miles, to the Parahyba, running through a broken and thinly inhabited country. The principal places lying upon it are Pao Grandé and Uvá. Near the latter a circumstance occurred, which shows the Indian character, and the risk attending a settlement on new lands. Two gentlemen having obtained a grant, sent a person, accustomed to the country, to settle upon it. Probably by some means he offended the Indians remaining in the neighbouring woods; for one day a shot fired at him struck the powderhorn in his waistcoat-pocket, and wounded him in the wrist. Being on horse-back he instantly pursued his assailants, and saw two Indians, who escaped from him in their usual mode. In such cases the fugitive endeavours to reach the brow of a hill little encumbered with wood, where, dropping on his breech, he puts his head between his knees, and his arms round his ankles; in this state, being nearly as round as a ball, he precipitates himself from the brow, and rolls speedily to the bottom. From this circumstance, I apprehend, the Indians take their modern name of Booticudies, or Butucudies; a barbarous word, half Tupi, half Portuguese, signifying fallers by the breech. The man who had been

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wounded was obliged to come down to Rio for surgical assistance. On his return he was seriously cautioned against exposing himself to similar attacks. About fourteen days after, as he was riding along the road, followed at some distance by a slave, a shot, fired again by an invisible hand, threw him forward on the saddle, and a second brought him to the ground. Two Indians then came out of the wood, one of whom walked deliberately to the negro, and ordered him to halt, while the other went to their victim, broke his legs, and beat out his brains. Afterwards they shot the horse and decamped. Every search was made for them, but these people are too well acquainted with the forests to want secure lurking places, and defy, if they have any knowledge of the arm of justice. The establishment was broken up, and remains neglected, until the natives are so harassed as to induce them to quit the neighbourhood,

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A. D. 1813.


IMMEDIATELY behind the village of Praia Grandé, towards the East, rises a mountainous district, which was called by the natives Caaraé, that is, the little woods, and now bears the name of St. John do Caraé. Its extent is about twelve miles each way; the prevailing basis is granite, but on the surface are found clays, schistus, loam, and sand, and, in some parts, quartz and mica in abundance. On its borders are many pleasant dells.

Of the three Roads which cross this district the most Southerly was, not long since, a very difficult one, passing over lofty rocks, and through thick woods, yet commanding views which might compensate for its difficulties. As cultivation has advanced it has been laid more open, and made to descend more gently to the plains of Tokai, where it unites

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with another road, which, at its beginning, passes to the North of Praia Grandé, and then turns to the right, to the Fazendo of Barraca. Here are a good house and chapel, fine plantations, and many appearances of wealth; yet, contrary to the usual spirit of the country, I was refused refreshment here when I called at the house with a tired horse, and bade, by the invalid or splenetic owner of the place, to ride on to the next farm,—an order which I did not hesitate to follow. Hence we rise to high and waving ground, and, passing some minor establishments, proceed down a steep, winding, romantic road, to the great establishment of Tokai. The elevation of these mountains is about seven or eight hundred feet, and in the forests with which they are clothed the Ounce is sometimes seen. At their foot, toward the coast, are several fresh water lakes; one of them, called Taipú, abounding with fish.

The Farm of Tokai is situated on a fine plain, not much raised above the level of the sea. A small stream, which waters it, falls into the ocean a little East of the Maricú Islands, better known by the easily understood name of Contrabandistas. The residence of the proprietor stands on a verdant level, in an extremely hot situation, yet seemingly healthy beyond what might have been expected. In a wide expanse of swampy land the mountains are detached from each other, and look as if they had once been rocky islands; the intervals are filled with seasand, and water lodges in them. Leaving this Cambridgeshire of Rio, and approaching nearer to the sea, we meet with some broad meadows, and within them a range of shallow lakes, which afford subsistence to great numbers of Water-fowls. There are few sportsmen in the country, or this would be a scene of great attraction to them.

In the midst of these meadows, on one of the hottest days of the year, I met a small kind of waggon, on low wheels, with a tilt of hide. It was drawn by two negroes, and contained a man in the last stage of disease, whom they had already dragged seven miles, and had tp convey as much farther in search of a doctor. So forlorn is the condition of the sick and dying, so destitute the country, that aid must be sought at such desperate risk. Medical men, of science and character, are generally the latest settlers in a country which is comparatively new.

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About nine miles from Tokai, and upwards of twenty from the city, is a spot which is said to have been formerly the entrance of a harbour, but now blocked up. At this passage the waters of the large lake of Americá, when swollen by rain, occasionally open themselves a vent; and sometimes, by order of government, a communication is formed with the sea, for the sake of its fisheries. I once arrived at the bar, as it is called, near the time of low water, and when the tide was running out with great fury. A canoa was waiting to assist passengers in crossing, but its master refused to go over with us and our horses until the tide had turned. This gave us an opportunity of watching the current; it was then about seventy yards wide, and had cut down the bank of sand to the depth of fifteen feet; the sides of the channel were almost perpendicular, but every instant crumbling away through the force and corrosion of the water at their bottom.

While delayed in this situation, our attention was attracted by a number of brown half-clad country people, who were fishing on the beach. Their long lines, spun, as is common in Brazil, from the fibres of the Aloe, the thread of which is called Ticoom, appeared in some respects, though not in colour, like our whipcord, and were equally strong. Two smaller cords, above a yard long, were attached to the end, each of which had a hook; and above them a piece of lead, weighing nearly two pounds, was fixed as a sinker; the other end of the line was fastened round the naked foot of the fisherman. When about to use it, he begins with coiling his line on the sand, turns it up so as that it may run out easily, twists it above the sinker round the thumb of his right hand, and, having swung it above his head, until the sinker has acquired as much momentum as he can manage, discharges it towards the sea, to an astonishing distance, generally beyond the surf. When a fish seizes the bait, the sinker pins him to the bottom, and prevents him from entangling other lines, as well as from running among the rocks, or into places whence he might not be easily drawn. While we continued with these people they seldom failed, on hauling their lines, to find one or two prisoners; and we carried to our temporary home a plentiful and excellent supper. I have

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often thought that the modes which we here witnessed might sometimes be employed for the relief of distressed seamen. If any thing like so simple an invention has already been employed for this purpose, I should rejoice if these slight notices contributed to its improvement and efficacy.

On our approach, the next morning, to make another attempt to cross the bar, the man in the ferry had reason to chide our delay, as the tide was again running out. Eight horses were now in the midstream, which had extended its breadth to two hundred yards; the crews of two canoas were endeavouring to make them stem it, yet were carried downward with rapidity, and the spectators considered them as lost; they caught footing, however, before they reached the boiling occasioned by the junction of the stream with the ocean. Our boatman took a lesson from what he saw, made a long circuit, and landed us after our horses had, without difficulty, swum nearly a mile.

In this instance, as in others, I remarked that mules swim more quickly than horses, are not so soon exhausted, and keep the riders drier if there be occasion to continue on their backs; on this account I would recommend them to persons who have broad waters to pass. The recommendation would prove superfluous to many Brazilians, who, in such cases, prefer swimming themselves, having hold of the tails of the animals.

When, on the rain ceasing, the waters of the Lake return to their usual level, the tide again shuts up the aperture, and, in a short time, forms a dry and secure road across the bar; but it never rises to the height of the natural and long formed ridge with which it is connected at both ends. Beyond this spot succeed the plains lying between the Lake of Americá and the elevated Band, or Restinga, which bars the sea, even from the mountains of Caaraf to the lofty point of Ponta Negra. Half way along the ridge, in the midst of a small singular wood, is a circular lake, about a hundred yards in diameter. Often have I turned aside to visit the charming scene, and enjoyed its shade with double relish, after being exposed, for several hours, to the fervent sun. The surrounding soil here seems to rest upon granite, on the lee of which,

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as on a nucleus, the whole Restinga has been formed. Here I repeatedly observed a wild Fig-tree, much larger than that which produces the common fig, and more like the English walnut; at one of my visits so loaded with fruit as almost to exclude the appearance of leaves. Near at hand, on a plant of the Opuntia, I found the Cochineal Insect, and thought its colour excellent. It used, indeed, to be sought in this neighbourhood when labour was less valuable than it now is; more useful pursuits have caused it to be negleeted.

From Praia Grandé a different route conducts along the beach, and then stretches inward to the village of St. Gonzales. This track is well cultivated, and pleasantly sprinkled with small Farm-houses. A little incident occurred here, which led me to doubt whether the song of birds is always an indication of pleasurable feelings. We shot a purple bird, called a Sabiár, whose note is remarkably full and melodious. Though badly wounded it struck up a song, and continued it to almost its latest moment. I was, perhaps, weakly moved by the circumstance, when my companion, a young Portuguese, who picked it up, exclaimed laughing;—"Ah, you sing as you die; well, every one to his taste"; and forbore to shorten its sufferings.

St, Gonzales is well situated, on rising ground, close to the Northern verge of the mountains of Caaraí. An old and miserable Church, standing in the middle of the street, will soon be superseded by a new one, already so far advanced as to reflect credit on the architect. There are about two hundred houses, the greater part of them belonging to people from the Azores, or their descendants, who, though generally residing on their farms, resort hither on religious festivals. They are remarkably civilized and orderly, so as to render this one of the pleasantest abodes in the country.

Arriving there late one evening, with no other recommendation than a slight knowledge of a gentleman of Rio, who possessed an estate in the neighbourhood, and whose name I casually mentioned, my abode for the night seemed fixed at a miserable venda, and my companion was

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endeavouring to make the most of the few comforts within our reach, when a plain man introduced himself, saying that we must go to his master's house, who would be much displeased if an Englishman wanted accommodations in St. Gonzales, while his house was not full. We wanted little persuasion to change our lodgings; our horses and supper were quickly removed; the former were provided for in the Varanda, and well supplied with the stems of the Mandioca plant; we wanted little besides shelter. Food was offered to us, such as is usually provided for the Bailiff and slaves on a farm; but we were permitted, as is always usual, to indulge ourselves with something better at our own expense.

Early the next morning, to gratify our friend, the Feitor, as he is here called, though with some inconvenience to ourselves, we rode over the farm, and found it in excellent order, with good crops of Mandioca, Milho, Abobaras, Water-melons, and Pulse. The fruit-trees, though still small, were under good management; all of them had been grafted or budded with judgment, and many experiments were in process, in which the stems of one kind of fruit were employed, and the branches or buds of another.

Passing through St. Gonzales, with a friend, in a subsequent journey, we stopped at a door, which we saw open, to beg a draught of water,—a refreshment which always can be legally claimed by a stranger from them who have it. A civil invitation immediately followed to alight and avail ourselves of the shade for a time, which we thankfully accepted. An hour was beguiled with cheerful conversation, when the season of dinner approached, and we were pressed with so much courtesy and earnestness to partake of the meal as to leave little room for a refusal. About ten persons were at table, all of the class of substantial planters or small landholders. In such society the greatest stranger is usually placed at the head of the table, the master sometimes taking a station near him, and the wife standing behind her husband's seat, to direct the servants in their duty. Each dish, as it is brought in, is handed to the stranger, who helps himself, and frequently the rest of the party; none of them, however, begins to eat, until he sets them the

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example. If he refuse to taste of any dish, it generally goes away untouched. This is the mode when the guests are not familiar, and ceremony is thought to be proper; when friends meet, the scene is more like that which formerly appeared in an English farm-house at a country wake.

Some of our countrymen arriving at this village, and wishing to find a house where they might spread their mattresses, and pass the night, one was immediately given up to them. They received, also, an invitation to dinner, which they declined because they thought their party too numerous; yet, at the usual hour, a variety of dishes were sent in, with such requisites for the comfortable enjoyment of them as the place afforded. At supper-time another meal was sent in the same style, and after it baskets of clean linen and other things, in sufficient abundance to make up a bed for each individual. In the morning, horses appeared to convey them to the place where they had ordered their boat to be in waiting, and slaves to carry their luggage. Hospitality is a common Brazilian virtue; but among the superior class of Ilheos, as the people from the Western Islands are called, it is exercised in modes and to an extent which are peculiarly amiable.

In consequence of a circumstance which had occurred before the commencement of my first journey through this place, we here prepared for the remaining part of it with extraordinary, perhaps unnecessary caution. At my application for a passport, the Minister of Police honoured me with an audience, and expressing an earnest desire to serve me, requested to know the particulars of my route and business. As I gave him credit for his motives, and had no occasion for concealment, I informed him that I wished to see an estate on the other side of the river St. Joan, and as I promised myself much pleasure in the journey, I might cross the Parahyba, proceed as I found things agreeable, and return by Macacú and Majé. He informed me that it was a difficult undertaking, that a part of my intended route lay through unappropriated lands, and that from St. Joan to Macacú there was no beaten track. He advised me, if determined to pursue my plan, to be continually on my

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guard against every kind of surprise, and offered me the protection of a soldier. I thankfully declined his Excellency's proposal, and assured him that I should attempt no wild adventures, should have a stout and active companion, that we should be well armed, and return so soon as we experienced any thing unpleasant. When, in consequence of the Minister's admonitions, we examined our pistols and fowling pieces at St. Gonzales, I observed a smile on the countenance of our host; yet he too advised us not to venture beyond the Parahyba.

After leaving St. Gonzales, the country becomes varied in its surface, and gently declines to the plains of the Guáxendíba, for whose abundant produce the growing capital furnishes a constant and advantageous market. This latter river, draining the mountains of Caaraí, pours a pellucid stream through a narrow rocky channel. Near the ford, where it is crossed, are scattered the ruins of a lofty bridge of hewn stone, which afford a striking proof how deficient Brazil is of mathematical and mechanical knowledge. A well-cleared, populous, and fertile region presents itself for several succeeding miles, gradually exchanging tillage for a large extent of pasture, and afterwards for woods, which seem nearly untouched. Among them we met with many monkies, parrots, and arapongas, birds which make a harsh noise, like that produced by a blacksmith's hammer, when falling on the anvil, rebounding and striking again. The note commonly proceeds from the higher lands and resounds through the forests. The swampy plains which succeed these woods, afford nothing worth notice, but that the road across them is formed of the branches of trees, laid transversely over logs placed longitudinally. Such roads are good, while the timber continues sound, and when partly decayed, the cattle of the country traverse them with safety; but become dangerous to horses and mules unused to them.

A midst these plains arise many vast detached masses of granite, similar to those noticed before, and of the same singular form. We passed close to one, which though several miles in length, and rising to the height of five or six hundred feet, seemed to be an entire stone, without a fracture, or even a fragment lying at its foot.

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Having again entered on fine pastures, we perceived a man galloping towards us. He seemed a respectable planter, was well mounted, and courteously invited us to his house. Though we declined his invitation, he stuck to us, wishing, as it appeared, to gratify the curiosity which is here universally felt, with regard to the plans and views of strangers. We soon reached the banks of the Itapitiú, where, the ferry-boat being on other service, our volunteer guide gave directions concerning the passage, and plunged in first. We reached the other side without difficulty, where he led us to a venda, into which we could not obtain admittance, because it was occupied by the attendants on a wedding, among whom were females. Had we known less of the prejudices of the country, this would have appeared to us a singular reason; but it is by no means unwise in this country; for persons of different sexes, unacquainted with each other, can seldom mix without exciting great and sometimes fatal jealousies.

About a hundred neatly-whitened houses made up this village, and others were in progress. Among the timbers prepared for them, I observed the valuable Brazil wood; and, inquiring how it came to be so employed, was told, that it was a great annoyance to an estate, as the owner was not allowed to sell it openly, nor even to cut it down, but for his own private use. On inquiry about barks, which might be used in dyeing, some was showed me from this tree, and the people were well aware that several other materials for this purpose might be drawn from the forests; but the want of purchasers rendered them useless. I have long imagined that the essences of dyeing woods, if speculation in such articles were encouraged, might be brought from spots whose remoteness or difficulty of access effectually preclude the conveyance of the wood itself.

The setting sun of this evening was so singularly beautiful, that a short notice of its appearance and effects may be acceptable. We viewed it from a rising ground, which commanded a forest scene, situated in a curve between two hills, not unlike the vale of Clwyd, when seen from Ruthin. Some rain had fallen, and as the sun went down in

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full splendour, its slanting beams were refracted as from thousands of prisms, arranged with the utmost variety on the topmost branches of the trees. The admixture of colours may be described as producing something like the effect of an immense kaleidoscope.

Americá was formerly the principal place in these parts, and probably the residence of some of the native Chiefs. It derives its name from Maricá, a common word in the Tupí language, signifying any hollow thing. Though a generic term, it is most frequently applied to the dried shell of the Gourd, or of the fruit of the Passion Flower, which has not been broken, and in which the seeds rattle. These the people preserved and honoured, as a sort of household Gods. As they became acquainted with the Europeans, who appeared on their coasts, hew objects struck their attention, and demanded names; thus a barrel and a decked vessel, as well as other hollow things, had the name of Maricá or Ameriá transferred to them. Europeans were also obliged to bestow some appellation on a newly-discovered country. Did they not adopt for this purpose, a word which they heard frequently uttered? And are not the different names given to the new world, now nearly merged by common consent into that which appears most natural? Is it certain that Vespucius brought hither with him the name of Americus, and that he did not adopt it as an honourable and appropriate distinction, as Scipio received the addition of Africanus? There is no ground for the slightest suspicion, that the village called Americá, and especially the Deities of the country, have obtained their name in modern times; the South Americans would never borrow it from their conquerors, none of whose manners they will adopt, and whose refinements they despise.

After leaving the village, we crossed a considerable stream, and entered a narrow road cut in the face of the hills, which rose two or three hundred feet above us. Through the trees we gained some occasional glimpses on the right, of the lake below and the plains beyond it.— The soil of these hills is the common red clay of Brazil, which, when the wood is cleared away, will afford good land for sugar and maize. Such a change was in progress; a track about a yard wide, was cut, as is usual

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in such cases, from the bottom to the top; the timber felled on the summit being cleared of its boughs, was then brought to the slips and thrown down. A trunk frequently stops by the way, others are then sent after it, until the accumulating weight overcomes the impediment, and the whole descends thundering together. More than once we were in danger from such falls, as the closeness of the underwood prevents a traveller from seeing what is near him. Yet the horses, when in good condition, keeping their eyes and ears always employed, seldom fail to communicate to their riders useful warning.

About four miles from Americá, we passed over the lake of the same name, at a part which is not more than five or six hundred yards wide, and three or four feet deep. It is nearly eight miles long, and in some places two in breadth. The bottom is a hard sand, yet from the abundance of aquatic plants, it probably contains large patches of mud. Like the other lakes, it has on it multitudes of Divers Galinhas d'agua, Gulls, and Urubús. The Fishery is claimed by Government, and is let to the highest bidder, for a term of three years. Its Tupi name, Cururupína, the stinging toad, is manifestly derived from one of the most disgusting inhabitants of the water, which resembles a toad in its figure, with long flexible rays instead of legs, the spines of which it throws out at pleasure, and inflicts with them painful punctures. Here we joined the road which has been already described.

Ponta Negra, a bluff, bold point towards the sea, is the abutment of a primitive Serro, on each side of which is a sandy plain. The distance from one to the other is about four miles, over a strongly undulated tract of granite and red clay. Before entering upon it we meet with that wonderful convenience, a spacious and well regulated Venda, whose accommodations however cannot be classed higher than those of a British Pot-house., While at one time partaking of them, I had determined to have such a supper as might be obtained, observed a Negro bringing vegetables for sale, and saw the means of securing a feast. The master of the house bought them all for less than two-pence, and as much rum as would make the man heartily drunk. Soon afterwards my

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host expressed his persuasion that these articles had been stolen, and all my reasoning and raillery utterly failed to excite in him any feeling of the impropriety of his purchase; yet was he, by no means, a bad man. I had strong evidence of his integrity and honour in a case which deeply concerned myself; and heard from him, without surprise, that a vessel being wrecked in the neighbourhood, and the crew having deserted her, he had saved many things from the wreck, which he showed to me, and was preserving them for their proper owner, if such a person should ever appear. So inconsistent is the Brazilian, perhaps I might say, the human character.

A sense of the obligation to restore what is found, prevails much more strongly among Catholics and some Negroes than with Protestants. Walking one day upon a beach not far from some mud huts, I found a few yellow plates and a bundle of female clothing, and called to a black woman to secure them for herself, who instantly replied, they are not mine, Sir, and refused to take them out of the reach of the tide.

At Ponta Negra we encountered also a neighbouring Planter, who appeared to possess more cunning than honesty; yet as he was going the same way, offered to take our pace, and seemed likely to amuse, if not instruct us, we accepted his proffered company. Having showed us as we passed along, the inconvenient spot under the cliff, where he shipped his produce, he led us a little aside from the public road, to his habitation, seated as usual upon a knoll. Hence we saw the whole extent of his farm, running nine miles along the coast, by a mile and a half broad, comprehending the lake for the same distance in length, and extending behind it to the first of a double ridge of mountains, covered with excellent timber. We examined the place afterwards more minutely as the owner proposed to sell it, and found that one-fourth part was unprofitable sand, another fourth water, and the remaining half rich land. The price demanded was about three hundred and sixty pounds sterling. It was said that the place was subject to aguish complaints; if it were so, the evil was easily remedied soon afterwards, by opening a communication with the sea, and thus preventing the waters of the lake from becoming stagnant.

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Among the productions of this farm, the owner enumerated Ipecácuánha; but on attempting to show us the plant, found, as he alledged, that the sheep had eaten all the leaves. Doubting the fact, we questioned him closely; yet he persisted in maintaining that the sheep ate it with avidity, and that it did them no harm. There were certainly many of the roots in the ground, for we easily drew out some of them with a knife. I have since found reason to believe that this was the white Ipecacuanha, which is the mildest species.

While we were taking some refreshment, the two sons of our host returned from the woods, the elder having shot a large monkey, which was to be skinned and cooked for dinner. He exhibited a high degree of that boobyhood which is common to the overgrown youths of Brazil; while his brother appeared sharp and active. Both complained bitterly of the restraint in which they were held by the Government, which had forbidden the sale of gunpowder, and seized some parcels of it.—The father contrived to give us his younger son as our guide to Saquaréma, and entreated us not to think of proceeding farther without a guide.

Sequaréma, hanging on the Northern slope of a hill, which terminates the Restinga or long tongue of land, commencing at Ponta Negra, consists of a church, about fifty houses arranged in a broad street, and as many scattered huts. From the church is a fine view of the ocean and neighbouring lake, though the country in general is not striking, and towards the East is flat and naked. On the summit of the hill, is one of the Telegraphs communicating with the Capital; and round its Eastern base a rough, shallow channel, by which the waters of the lake are discharged into the sea. In the lake we noticed some large herons fishing, and many gansos. Among the singularities of the place is a charnel house, fully exposed to the public view.

We lodged at the house of a Spaniard, who, by his attentive and pleasing manners, showed himself to be a man of a superior cast. He had, indeed, no better substitute for beds than boards and mats; but he set out a table for us in an inner room, after the European mode, and

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stood at the head to do its honours. His daughter, apparently near twenty, but with the manners of a laughing girl, had evidently never before seen such a deviation from established customs, and brought in two or three of her companions to wonder at the foreigners. Her fancy was so tickled at the scene while we dined, that she was obliged to leave the room; nevertheless she and her father appeared to be the most civilized beings in the place.

For several miles along the road we had observed with regret, that all travellers carried either a sword or a facam, an instrument much like the coulter of a plough, brought to a sharpened edge, and if alone, every one seemed anxious to join company. The weapon which they carry is made in the Capitania of Esperito Santo, and is there very useful against the native Indians. We engaged as an attendant, a very dark Mulatto, a man of good repute, who agreed to accompany us, in the future part of our journey, on foot.

Having entered the lake at the Eastern end of the village, and ridden through it for half a mile, the water being three feet deep, and the bottom a hard sand, our guide struck into a flat sedgy country, which we supposed to have been once covered with water. Though now nearly filled with vegetable matter, the soil was still soft, and cattle wandering upon it sunk in it to their knees. The road passed along a narrow elevated bank, which looked as if it had formerly been a Restinga, but now overgrown with herbage. There was within this another bank, which bore marks of the same formation; and on the side nearer the sea, a third broader and higher than the two within it, but still naked; and beyond this, nature seems to be forming a fourth.

After travelling several miles through an uninteresting country, the fine expanse of Iruáma opened to our view, and proved itself entitled to its name. The stench arises from an accumulation of mud and putrid shell fish. This water is improperly called a lake, because it communicates with the sea to the Northward of Cape Frio. Its extent is nearly twenty miles from East to West, and eight or nine across. The Northern shore is skirted by hills, which, though low and gentle, may claim to be

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characterised as picturesque. The Restinga, which forms the Southern limit, seen from these heights, appears like a wonderfully fine pier, similar to what it might be supposed the Breakwater at Plymouth would be, were it extended to twenty miles in length. There are upon it two or three huts, where formerly dwelt men who had the charge of guns, by which vessels were warned of danger, and intelligence communicated to the city, of ships appearing off Cape Frio. For the latter purpose telegraphs are now employed; for the former, I believe fires are lighted, for such were seen, when, in the year 1816 I was kept near the shore, by the want of wind, for five successive nights. The Western side of this water is shallow, and gradually filling up with the wreck which the wind and tide constantly drive before them. The shore, like all muddy ones in this country, abounds with land crabs, particularly of that species which has only one claw.

We coasted the Northern side of the lake, and crossed the Rio Matarúna, or, as it is sometimes called, the Rio do Ponte, which is deep, and forms an useful harbour for the small vessels, by which the trade from one part of this country to another is carried on. Passing a little village called Nazareth, we proceeded to Engeitado, where our horses were turned loose upon the beach, and we were ourselves constrained to lie down on the counter of a venda for rest, after spending a noisy and irksome evening.

I once passed between Saquaréma and this place by a route farther inland, over hilly ground, with fine woods and a good soil. A beginning was made to improve the natural advantages of the spot by the establishment of a capital farm.

At Engeitado I practised a stratagem which appears to me an useful one in half barbarous regions. It was my uniform custom when travelling, to carry concealed about my person a brace of bayoneted pistols, and never to be a moment unarmed. Besides these, I have had other pistols fixed on my saddle. On arriving at a station, my first business was to form some notion of the character of the people, while a servant was stripping the horses. If the opinion proved unfavourable, I have delivered my

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holsters to the master of the house, desiring him to take good care of them, as the pistols were loaded; and in consequence of such seeming confidence, have seen an immediate change in the most villainous-looking features, and converted a rascal, as I imagined, into a zealous guardian. The man who meditates ill is always jealous of his own safety and suspicious of strangers, especially when he sees them armed. By giving up your weapons, he unexpectedly becomes possessed of the fullest proof of your confidence and good-will towards him. The favourable impression upon his mind will last longer than a single night, unless some powerful cause operate upon his passions; and no traveller in his senses would first take pains to sooth a wild animal, and then rouse him in sport or heedlessness. Well knowing that there are some among the keepers of houses of public entertainment in this country, who are anxious for the safety of their guests, and would defend them at any risk, I would by no means mislead any one into the belief, that the whole class is savage and villainous. But there are many such characters, and among them a stranger is destined to spend some of his most unguarded hours.

Soon after my arrival in Brazil, I was shooting in the woods alone, when I encountered three most suspicious-looking men, whom I in vain strove to leave. They made many attempts to induce me to discharge my my gun, which I determined to avoid, if possible, while in their company; indeed, I thought the gun was the principal object of their wishes. Coming to a small run of water, I laid my hat on the bank, and requested one of them to hold the gun, while I quenched my thirst. They seemed astonished at my confidence, spoke with each other in a low tone of voice, and when I had drank, the man returned my gun with much natural politeness, and bade me farewell. Had I laid down the piece, together with my hat, I have little doubt that they would have made off with both. But whatsoever is committed in trust to a Brazilian peasant is sacred; and bad men are not unfrequently the most superstitious.

Our horses appeared to be as little satisfied with their accommodations at Engeitado, as we were with our own. In the morning, we found them

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standing pensively at the door of the cabin, and endeavoured to find them something a little better than what was to be gathered on the beach. In return they conveyed us along the coast of the notorious water of Iruáma, the abominable smell of which was heightened by the still air and dense fogs of the morning.

After proceeding two miles the road deviated from the beach, and led us, in a North-eastern direction, through some well cleared and well fenced pastures, stocked with cows. I had then seen no farm in Brazil which appeared equal to this; the house, too, stood on a commanding and pleasant elevation, and was really magnificent, though, as usual, wanting in comforts. The country round about was thinly inhabited, and exhibited marks of capital and tenantry inadequate to its cultivation. Once more we approached the water, at a part where its curving shores are peculiarly beautiful, displaying a happy mixture of rocks, woods, pasture-lands, and praias, with a mountainous back-ground, terminated by the bold and double headed summit of Cape Frio.

As we passed through the woods our guide showed himself well acquainted with the Forest-trees, and with the variety of fruits and drugs which they yielded. He gathered and presented to us the apple of a species of Indian Fig-tree, here called Jamaicá, informing us that it was used as a febrifuge, and we really found it full of a grateful subacid juice. His intelligence, and his mode of communicating what he knew, engaged our confidence; and, in return, I won his heart by allowing him to carry my gun. To check his vivacity on this occasion, without impairing his usefulness, seemed necessary; therefore as we rode onward I discharged a pistol at a hawk, and struck the tree on which he sat.

We here met with several deserted indigo works; the people having found it more profitable to cultivate the common productions, or to employ themselves in cutting timber, fire-wood, or fustic, with which every spot abounded. These articles are conveyed away in small vessels, chiefly to Rio de Janeiro. A black fenny tract, covered with water, three miles broad, and extending, on either hand, beyond the reach of the eye, now presented itself, and proved to be the place where we had been told that we should

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most want a conductor. Ours entered it with confidence, and led us through it safely, contriving, in general, to find for us a hard bottom, about eighteen inches beneath the surface, and pointing out the parts where the sand was loose, and the feet of the horses would have sunk into the subjacent peat or mud. It was clearly the bed of a stream, in drier seasons reduced to a narrow brook. The water, through the whole of this tract, and especially near Iruáma, is unwholesome, producing disorders in the bowels, which sometimes prove fatal. This is probably owing to the vegetable matter with which it is strongly impregnated; if so, the evil will be remedied by the various processes which are going forward for the improvement of the country.

We halted early about a mile from St. Pedro, a village raised by the Jesuits, and inhabited by civilized Indians. Having wandered to their abode, we found it delightfully situated, more especially the church and other ecclesiastical buildings. The people were enjoying the cool of the afternoon, in all the luxury of indolence. We proceeded among them quite at our ease, received their civilities, and observed that they manifested no surprise at the presence of strangers.

The closing day was annoyed by a great influx of visitors; some bringing vegetables, eggs, fowls, and even wild animals, for sale, and showing, by their eagerness, how little demand they found for their superfluities; others proffering more material bargains in timber, fustic, and fire-wood. We had been teased with proposals of this sort at Engeitado, and there had learned how to treat these dealers. It is altogether beyond their comprehension how any man, of a sound understanding, can encounter the fatigue of travelling for the sake of pleasure; we therefore became objects of suspicion, from the immediate and resolute way in which we declined their offers. Here we affected to enter into their views, and proposed plans of business which they could not possibly execute; and thus learned from them much of the state of the country, its inhabitants, and occupations. Notwithstanding our previous knowledge, that the means of the most opulent among them were extremely slender, we were surprised to find that even such could

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not treat of any bargain beyond the value of a few pounds. They were rich in lands alone; possessing few slaves, and the white people being too much on an equality to serve each other. They displayed their impatience of the alight restraint under which they were held, and their eager desire to engage in smuggling transactions, more especially in the line of dyeing woods.

Our accommodations for the night were singularly good. The hut at which we halted belonged to a great landholder, who sent us supplies from his own house, and rode a couple of miles to witness our enjoyment of them. In return we had to gratify his curiosity, nor did he leave us until he had gone through the whole usual routine of questions, and fancied himself completely informed as to who we were, whence we came, what was our object, and what all others, supposed to be within our range, were doing. When he was gone, we sate down to a well cooked supper, served on a table. We also found bedsteads with wooden bottoms and clean mats; and though our bed-room was encumbered with chests and harness, there was space enough to lie down and enjoy a secure and pleasant repose. Our very beasts had their luxuries, were placed beneath a shed, had cribs to hold their allowance, and those filled with good grass. Who, in such a situation, could wish for more? We hoped, indeed, to carry our enjoyment beyond the period of our halt; but in vain. Aware that the next day's journey would be longer than usual, and through uninhabited woods, we wished to provide a cold fowl to eat on the way; but a thing so monstrous was never heard of in the land, and we were obliged to take up with some hard boiled eggs and farinha.

We advanced nearly Northward, soon entered the woods, and found the soil, in the more elevated parts, a reddish yellow clay, and between the hills, many small plains, which were formerly lakes, but now overgrown with a sedgy vegetation. A few huts appeared in secluded situations, which were said to be the dwellings of a low race of people, who hid themselves from notice in order to escape taxes and the military service; cultivated a little corn for their own use, and cut dyeing wood

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sufficient to procure them tobacco and a few other trifling luxuries. Afterwards, in passing a thicket, we started an animal, called here a Gato do Mato, which I suspect to be no other than a young Ounce, though generally said to belong to a different species.

Looking round from an elevation, we observed to the North a line of rough and pointed mountains, rising from four to six thousand feet in height, and presenting a broken, perpendicular, naked face. The plains which we were approaching seemed to be covered with one continued forest; but there were really many intervening spots, of a dark coloured soil, thickly clothed with gramma, where the sun and air could reach to nourish it. In one of these open spaces was an irregular square of mud huts, with a chapel of somewhat more respectable materials. A great number of black children were rolling about in a state of complete nudity, filthy, meagre, and seemingly unhealthy. Never did I see slaves, on any great estate, so neglected and forlorn. On inquiry we learned that they and the land belonged to the Convent of St. Bento, in Rio. It was natural to compare the condition of this spot with that of Camorím, and impossible to suppress the disgust arising from the reflection that a body so wealthy, enjoying so much ease, and so peculiarly bound to be careful of the prosperity of the country, and the moral state of its inhabitants, should suffer one of their most considerable estates to be so wretchedly administered.

The Forest, on which we immediately entered, was composed of tall thin trees, with less underwood than usual, yet sufficient to prevent us from deserting the narrow track, and from seeing many yards around. We here met with several Jacús and other game, but the nature of the country, and the great quantity of shot which they carried off, rendered the pursuit of them uninteresting; and our guns had already provided us with a few Plovers, of much the same appearance and habits as those of Europe. In many places we observed tracks by which Fustic had been carried off, and the sound of the axe occasionally taught us that the work of collecting it was going forward. We stopped in one of the open spaees thus formed to dine, and more easily provided for our own

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wants than those of the horses. The native gramma does not grow under trees, and, in the cleared spots, it spreads itself so flat on the ground as to require more time to crop it than can, in general, be conveniently spared. In this spot we sought in vain for the Tacoára, of the young branches of which horses are commonly fond, and could not prevail upon them to accept of any substitute besides the sprouts of the fan-leaved Palm, and of this they ate reluctantly and sparingly.

During our progress through this solitude, though the wind was high, we suspected that the noise which we heard was not occasioned solely by its action on the trees, but by the distant roaring of a surf. This opinion was confirmed when, on approaching the great river St. Joan, we found it covered with foam. The excessive heat, and the fatigued state of the horses, induced us to take up with the shelter afforded by a shed erected for the convenience of passengers, and to defer an attempt to cross the river,here a mile and a half broad. We sent our guide over to the town, prettily situated on the opposite bank, for provisions; but he effected his passage with difficulty, and, on his landing, was seized, for presuming to cross without a passport. A man, who chanced to know the poor fellow, interfered successfully for his release, and sent us over the necessary supplies. On the passage becoming somewhat easier we crossed, not in the most placid humour, as we expected to meet with some of the insolence of office. Of this, however, we had less than we looked for; though we were conducted to the only licensed landing-place, and huddled, with our baggage, into a filthy apartment, under guard of some ill looking and equally dirty soldiers. Here we were detained, because the Superintendent was asleep, and no one could presume to disturb him. We remonstrated, however, so freely and loudly, that our complaint, either directly or indirectly, reached his Excellency's ears, and the surrounding multitude was astonished that he condescended to come so soon to our release. His approach, though he came in state, preceded by his subalterns, overcame my respect for high stations, and those who fill them, and produced a most indecorous fit of laughter; for I immediately recognized an old

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acquaintance, a ci-devant clerk at a wharf in the city, a fellow ready for any man's dirty work. He examined our passports with becoming gravity, endorsed them, and inquired after my health and intentions,. Having placed our baggage in the house of a person who kept a small shop, we spent the evening in wandering about, securing some comforts for ourselves, and providing pasture for our beasts, to which we purposed giving a little rest.

The village of St. Joan de Macahé is situated on a point of land, between the Northern bank of the river and the sea-beach, It contains about a hundred and fifty houses, neatly painted and whitewashed, for the most part small ones, and of a single story, with a few of superior size and pretensions on a rising ground near the mouth of the river, where also, near the summit, stand the church and flag-staff. This elevation must formerly have been an island in the midst of the harbour's mouth; it is now joined to the beach by a bank of sand twelve or four. teen feet high, over which the sea occasionally breaks. The mouth of the harbour is now not more than seventy yards broad, and unfit for the entrance of vessels whose burden is more than two hundred tons. If the flag be hoisted it is a signal that the entrance is safe; in going in a vessel must steer close to the South side of the rock, and, when she comes abreast of it, should let go her anchor, with about fifteen fathom cable. If she overshoot this birth, she must put the helm hard a starboard, and run behind the Southern point, where there is a channel eight feet deep and two miles long, with remarkably clear water. A little South of the mouth of the harbour, and close to the shore, lies a ledge of rocks, which must be carefully avoided; every other part is, I believe, free from danger.

The bay of St. Ann, lying North of St. Joan, is deep and spacious; in rough weather the surf is violent, and the broken water runs up a long inclined plane; when the sea is serene, and the ripple comparatively light, it eats away the sand, and forms a flatter beach, with a perpendicular boundary, wherein the laminated appearance of the sand is remarkable. To the Southward the shore is covered with shingles, and

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when it meets the high rocks beyond the river Una becomes bold, stretches to the Eastward, and forms the point of Buzios, called in the English Charts Cowries Point. Near the mouth of the U'na lies the small secure bay of Armazem, affording a refuge to vessels baffled in their attempts to double the Cape, and when the wind blows hard from the East. The entrance is between two small rocky islands, called, from their different appearance, the beautiful and the ugly. The anchorage lies to the Eastward of the entrance.

On a broad sandy plain, North of St. John, which is covered with coarse herbage, and lies between the beach and the mountains, we met with a Brazilian Porcupine, and attempted to drive it before us. The animal is naturally slow, and to urge it to greater speed, and prevent its escape among the shrubs, I made use of my hat, a Leghorn one, lined with leather at the back part of the brim. Being released from the office of driver by some boys, who willingly undertook it, and about to put on my hat, I was surprised to find several of the animal's quills sticking in it, which had penetrated the leather as well as the straw. This circumstance induced me to think that they are discharged with considerable force; and this opinion was confirmed by my hearing one of the boys cry out that he was wounded in the leg; a misfortune to which his companions evidently thought themselves liable, and which rendered them cautious. It is probable that the hat might be very near, if not actually touching, the Porcupine, when the quills struck the brim, and that, at a greater distance, they might have fallen to the ground. Yet the wound which the boy received showed that they could take effect at the distance of several, if not of many inches. The quills were nearly an inch long, had a hard, sharp, brown point; the other end hollow, of a pale straw, inclining to flesh colour, and the intermediate space had alternate rings of bright yellow and brown. These points appeared perfectly smooth and polished; but their effect on dogs, which seize the animal in hunting, indicates that they are really barbed, for they work into the tongues and gums of the poor howling creatures, and cannot be extracted without violence. The little wounded boy crying and

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complaining bitterly, I hastened onward with him, and on my return found that the other urchins had beaten the animal to pieces, and thus avenged their companion and robbed us of a part of our supper; for in eating we had acquired some conformity to the habits of the country. Besides Porcupines, there are here many Land-Crabs, and Dogs of a small species, which devour them. We saw also the skin of a Boa Constrictor, about twelve feet long and nine inches broad; in the inhabited parts of Brazil these formidable reptiles are generally discovered and destroyed before they attain a larger size.

In pursuit of our principal object to ascend the River St. Joan, we hired a canoa. It was about thirty feet long, only two broad and two deep; its appearance did not please us, but we found it safe and commodious. The sources of this river are in the mountains of Canudos, at the foot of which the waters are said to spread into a beautiful lake, seven miles long and three broad; from the Eastern side of which it issues a large and navigable stream. It is reported to run forty miles, but it is very tortuous, and its origin cannot, I think, be more than twenty from the sea. We turned into another stream after having sailed on it nearly twenty-eight miles; at which spot it is about four hundred yards wide, with low, muddy banks, and, according to our reckoning, not more than fifteen miles; in a right line, from the place of embarkation. It is sufficiently deep, through its whole course, for vessels of seventy tons burden, and in a distant age, when the bar shall be cleared, and the country improved, will become a commercial medium of great consequence.

The river into which we passed, is called the Rio Dourado, a name here given to different streams; in most of the cases indicative of vain expectations, rather than realities. It might easily be made navigable for seven miles from its junction with the St. Joan, but we advanced only four, and here our men were constrained to lay by their paddles, and by great labour, taking hold of the long weeds with their hands, to force a passage through them. The stream was in this place about forty yards wide, and eighteen feet deep, the water much discoloured, and its banks soft and thickly wooded.

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It was to see an estate on sale, that we undertook this voyage. We found it lying on the Western side of the Dourado, and butting upon the river St. Joan, after it had made a considerable curve, above the mouth of its tributary stream. The land was very good, though moist; the mountains towards the North, rough and imposing; three of them, called the Three Kings, peculiarly grand. It appeared decidedly unsuitable to our purpose, on account of the difficulties in the navigation, and its moisture toward the larger river.

On the way down the St. Joan, I paid some attention to a remarkable mountain, from which, in our upward voyage, we were glad to make a hasty retreat, because it was enveloped in a cloud, and the rain fell in remarkably large drops. It is close to the river, of a conical form, and rises steeply to the height of six or seven hundred feet; the soil seems rich, and the wood upon it is luxuriant; it is said also to abound in chrysolites. Both of our conductors had ascended it, and according to their own account had examined it carefully. They reported that there was a round basin of water at the top, but had observed no other appearances which favoured the notion of this having been the crater of a volcano; nor was there any thing like lava or tufa to be seen at the base. Near the village we had picked up some scoria, which led to inquiries for similar substances; and the result confirmed me in the belief, that it was not in this instance a volcanic production. Neither in any other part of the country could I ever find or hear of indubitable traces of subterraneous fire; though the peaks appearing along the lower ridge of mountains which line its shores, might naturally excite the expectation of meeting with volcanic substances among them. I have heard indeed, of what were called earthquakes, occurring at Goyáz, at Jurúoca, and Ilha Grandé; and sulphur certainly exists in the earth near St. Catharine's.

A circumstance will by some be accounted worthy of remark, which was noted in passing the St. Joan on a different occasion. Of two horses which swam by the side of the canoa, one, seemingly well made for exertion in the water, rolled about in a singular manner, sometimes

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turned on his side, and excited fear that he might not be able to reach the bank. This was attributed partly to the roundness of his body; but I am persuaded was more owing to his want of shoes, which act as ballast, and afford much assistance to a horse in maintaining his equipoise. Where horses have to swim for a considerable distance, or amidst peculiar difficulties, a practice which I adopted with a favourite animal appears to me worthy to be recommended. While sitting in the boat, I used to assist him in keeping up his head, by placing his chin in the palm of my hand. In this way, the mouth, naturally ill adapted to the exclusion of the water, was kept shut, and he was enabled to breath through the sides of his lips as well as his nostrils. My horse came in process of time regularly to expect this sort of aid, and manifestly felt confident when it was afforded him.

The rough ground Northward of St. Joan, skirted on the left by lofty and singularly broken mountains, and on the right by the sea, extends to the river Macahé. The entrance of this river is difficult, and fit only for vessels of the smallest sort; nevertheless it is said, that, through a very winding channel, it is navigable for thirty miles. On doubling one of the inner sandy points which stretch almost across it, a small village presents itself to advantage, and near it a considerable expanse of water, on which appear a few Saveiros, proper for conveying the produce of the country down the stream, and for short fishing excursions. The neighbourhood seems to be thinly peopled, and the inhabitants to be low in the scale of civilization. Off the mouth of this river lie the three islands which give name to the surrounding portion of the ocean. They are of an attractive appearance, and when the wind blows hard from the East, afford shelter to vessels of any burden, either between them or in a small bay on the West of the outermost island in that direction. Under the impression that it is always proper, not only to point out where refuge may be found in danger, but also the best mode of turning it to account, I add, that in making this bay, the island appears like two round knolls joined together by a saddle-shaped ridge, and that the safest anchorage is opposite to the lowest part. In coming into it round the

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Northern point, care should be taken to avoid a short reef, which lies there.

The information given us by the Minister of Police, now appeared to be correct, and we were satisfied of the extreme difficulty of proceeding inland from this part of the coast. The mountainous region through which we wished to have penetrated, was covered with thick forests, and it would have been necessary to travel with instruments, wherewith to open a narrow track, and to have advanced in Indian file for thirty miles together. I returned therefore towards the South; but my companion went on to the Parahýba and St. Salvador, and afterwards communicated to me some of his observations on that part of the country.

He found the scene beyond the Macahé uninteresting, except from the singular roughness of the hills on his left, and the great number of lakes which he passed. Into one of them a stream from the Serro of Bengualas discharges itself, and during the rainy period, probably opens to it a communication with the sea. The largest of them lies to the North, and from its appearance is named Lagoa Fea, the Ugly Lake. From its borders the mountains trend Westward and leave a passage to St. Salvador, a village situated on the Parahýba, containing nearly a hundred and fifty houses and upwards of eleven hundred inhabitants. To the right of this route the country is level and fertile, overflowed in the wet seasons, in the dry ones reduced to an arid sand. According to Cazal, it contained, in 1801, two hundred and eighty sugar mills, chiefly placed on the higher grounds. It is the Delta of the river, which, in several points, resembles the Nile, as Lagoa Fea does Lake Mareotis. The climate is excessively hot and unhealthy; even brutes find it intolerably oppressive. My informant not only brought away disease, but declared that he never was so near perishing with hunger as on the boasted plains of Campos.

The inhabitants of this district, with a high-sounding extent of estates, sacrifice the whole to a passion for making sugar and rum, of which the lower classes drink in abundance. Reared in habits of extreme indolence, and at the same time, of great hardihood, they seem to think

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what are generally accounted comforts, not worth the trouble of procuring. They are violent in their passions, little restrained either by law or custom, and full of those suspicions, which usually attend want of principle and licentious conduct.

From St. Salvador to the mouth of the river is about thirty miles by water, by land only fifteen. Its narrow, intricate channel, presents a hope of access to no other vessels but the strong flat ones of the country; and its bar is so destitute of water, that even these are sometimes obliged to wait a month before they can venture to pass it. The best landmark is the Fradre, a remarkably high, rough, naked mountain. The whole adjacent territory is said to have been divided between the Jesuits, the Benedictines, and the Bishop of Rio de Janeiro.

An observation made throughout the whole of this journey, bears another testimony to the good and useful conduct of the Jesuits in Brazil. When the aboriginal inhabitants were driven by the oppressive measures of Selema, the Portuguese Governor of Rio, about the year 1580, to desert their lands, and retire beyond the mountains, this religious body took possession of the territory South of the Parahýba, on behalf of the Indians. They obtained for those who should return, some special privileges; one of the most important was a right to choose their own village Magistrates, who were to possess equal authority, and act jointly, with those appointed by the Viceroys. A Conservatorial Court was established, to watch over the interests of the people, and their lands were apportioned to those who wished to occupy them, but never sold; the fixed rent was forty reis a braco en testado, or about two-pence for every six feet in front. The rent was appropriated to the use of the Indians, and properly administered, I believe, as long as the Order of Jesuits existed. Forms then established, though gradually falling into disuse, are not yet quite obsolete. All estates now sold, which once made a part of this district, must be furnished with what is called an Indian Title, the sale must be ratified by the Conservatorial Court, and the lands remain charged with a sort of quit rent. One set of these titles, which I have seen, goes

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as far back as the year 1623. There are still several villages, which are acknowledged to retain the privilege of electing a native Magistrate, as a sort of co-adjutor to their foreign Governor; and one or two of them exercise this right.

These people were once the friends and faithful allies of the French, who traded to Cape Frio, and penetrated, by the waters of Iruáma and Cururupína, as far as their chief settlement at Americá.— Long before this time, they had been the most civilized of all the native tribes, and owed their superiority to Paye Tomé, on Tzomé, who came from the country of the Guarani, i. e. the Easterlings, found the coast near St. Vincent's, and thence travelled along the shore, instructing the people as he advanced. He is represented as an elderly man, who wore white clothing, and bore only a staff; and on both accounts, must have appeared an extraordinary character to a naked and armed population. Where received with contempt and insult, he seems to have passed on quietly; where encouraged to remain for a time, he taught the people to clothe themselves, to live in houses, and what was still more material, to cultivate Mandioca; a root, which requires from twelve to eighteen months to arrive at perfection, and which therefore tended to correct their wandering habits, while it furnished them with provision. He converted them, in a great measure, from hunters to planters, and diffused among them various arts of civilized life. They acquired ideas of a country and a home, and European invaders afterwards found to their cost how dearly they loved it.

Tzomé after residing at Cape Frio, and in its neighbourhood, for a considerable time, received some insult, which induced him to change his abode. He went towards the North, and was heard of no more. The deluded rabble quickly repented of what they had done, recollected their benefactor with gratitude, and in honour of him, called their Tribe Tzoméos. In this state the French found them, and according to the Orthography of the day, wrote their name Tomoyos. The Jesuits introduced another transformation, and called

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the Reformer Thomé, and finding that he came from the Guarani, gave it out that he could be no other than St. Thomas, the Apostle, from the East Indies. This name, Guarani, denotes the people, who live Eastward from Peru, and is descriptive of that circumstance.—The word appears to me to be half Tupi, and half Peruvian; the syllable gue, in the latter language, answering to the que, which is often written by the Spaniards and Portuguese for the co of the Tupi. Coaracý denotes both the Sun and the East, and Coarani, or Guarani, the people of the East. In exact conformity to this, the most Easterly land of South America is called by the natives, as it is by Europeans, Guiana; and the Easternmost island at the mouth of the river Amazon, Coarací.

The period when Tzomé resided at Cape Frio, could not be later, I think, than the year 1300. When the Jesuits received from the people the first accounts of him, they were unable to enumerate the moons, which had elapsed since he left them, but they said that it was before the days of their grandfathers, and one person was then living about a hundred and thirty years old.

After the removal of the Jesuits, this people lost the name Tzoméos, and adopted that of Tupinamba, or the Family of Tupi. The plural termination, which is usually given to the names of bodies of men, is altogether European; in the native dialects of this country, the singular and the plural are the same. It has been made a matter of wonder, how the name was lost, and a very different one substituted in its place; but that which was adopted appears to me perfectly natural.

The small village of Cape Frio stands on the Southern side of the Strait which unites the water of Iruáma with the Ocean. It was one of the first assemblages of houses on this part of the coast, and has been the scene of great and interesting exploits. The country behind it is hilly, and there are said to be found in it both limestone and barilla, two productions of singular value, because uncommon in Brazil. There

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also commences the Restinga, which runs between the lake and the sea, about twenty miles. According to the account which the Jesuits professed to have received from the natives, this elevated causeway was raised by the Deity for the escape of St. Thomé, when he fled from the rude, ungrateful people. Most certainly it has been called in the native language Mairapé, the Road of the White Man, and probably might be the path by which Tzomé withdrew. If this part of the tale have any foundation in truth, it may intimate that the Restinga began to exist within the reach of Indian tradition.

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A. D. 1816.


Having visited different parts of the country to the Northward of the Capital, by means of the rivers which empty themselves into the Upper Bay, the present seems not an unfit place for a few observations relative to that portion of the waters, which, together with the middle and lower divisions already noticed, form the spacious and noble harbour of Rio de Janeiro.

For this aquatic excursion a launch was fitted out with the same care and as great a variety of conveniences, as if she had been going to sea— for we had determined as generally as possible, to make it our home during the whole time that we might be absent. The Captain was an

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experienced sailor, a native of Oporto, and the crew consisted of four stout negroes. I had for my companion a gentleman who amused himself by taking sketches of scenery, with a Camera Obscura; and a negro servant, who officiated as our cook. The launch had a toldo, or fixed covering, and oil-cloth curtains, which drew around it.

The day before Christmas, 1816, we left the city, and stood with a fine breeze up the Western side of the middle bay, and passing Ponta Cajú, and the islands of Pinheiro and Frades, ran close to the rock of Pedrahuma; which seems to have been fatal to navigators, as there is on it a substantial cross, serving at once as a beacon, and a memento to pray for the souls which had gone from this spot to purgatory. About a mile farther we landed on a small island, set up our Camera Obscura, and began to boil our kettle, but were quickly admonished by our Captain, that heavy weather was coming on, and that it was adviseable to seek a more sheltered station for the boat. I was the only one who had not been able to take advantage of this warning, when the storm burst, and drove the boat to leeward, I made signals that she should go round the point, and there take me in; but on endeavouring to do so, she was thrown on a sand bank, and remained immoveable. On a naked beach, without shelter or company, I was compelled therefore to "abide the pelting of the pitiless storm;" the rain fell in torrents, the lightning was forked and vivid, the thunder rattled with tremendous grandeur, the sea roared and the wind howled in concert; seldom, even in the torrid zone, have I witnessed a scene more gratifying, as well as awful—When the sea subsided and the tide ebbed, the bank was left dry, and we passed the night in comfort.

Next morning we got into deep water, near the Eastern end of the Ilha do Governador. At this point is a small, handsome house, belonging to the Baron of Rio Secco; the first of the kind erected in Brazil, and a place which the Regent visited with pleasure, when he had no house of his own in the country half so good. The Baron is a man of intrigue, and has risen from a low station in the Palace of Lisbon, to enjoy the confidence of the Sovereign, and to dictate in the public councils. The island has

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been converted into a Royal Chase, and the Baron, though no Sportsman, is appointed its Ranger.

We also visited St. Bento, one of the Royal Palaces, and were kindly received by the resident Priests. The house was lately built by the Order, presented to the King, and is now a favourite retreat. Its situation renders it worthy of this distinction; for it commands a view of the middle and lower bays, of the mouth of the harbour, of the city, and all the signal staffs; and enjoys the full enlivening influence of the sea breeze. The house has fourteen rooms all on one floor. The apartments immediately devoted to the Sovereign's use, are a small sitting room, furnished with a table, a writing desk, and two or three chairs; a dining room, somewhat larger, with a set of mahogany tables, a dozen painted chairs, and two ordinary vases of imitative cut glass, to contain candles; and communicating with these by a narrow passage, a very close bed room, in which is a canopied bed with plain hangings, of light blue silk. On the same scale are the rooms for the two Princes; each containing a small tent bed, furnished with Musquito curtains, and each a marquesa for an attendant. Adjoining to these apartments, is a broad varanda, at the end opposite to its entrance a chapel, and behind it a well-sized room, finished and adorned in a superior style. It was painted by a slave belonging the estate, who, according to his own account, ran away, got on board a ship bound to London, was there employed by a manufacturer of painted chairs, worked with him about six months, became tired of England and freedom, and contrived to get back to Brazil and to slavery. At his return, this house was building, and his newly-acquired talent being observed, he was ordered to exercise it on this room. On a broad border, above the surbase, he has represented many of the fine flowers which the island produces, and we are constrained to bear witness to the correctness of his imitations, though sensible of the defects of his style. Whatever may be amiss in the productions of his pencil, it is almost superfluous to add, that the man certainly possesses genius; and being now a faithful slave, as well as a great artist, he is treated with much kindness. The attendants of royalty

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sleep in long narrow rooms, at the West end of the building, each of which contains four, or six, or eight couches for single persons. The beds, whenever the King visits Santa Cruz or St. Bento, are brought from the city, and carried back on his return; otherwise, so little order is there in the royal houses, they might be occupied by some of the filthiest of human beings.

The interior of Governador has, in general a sandy soil, some little swampy, and some wooded land. Its Botany appears to me worthy of attention, more especially on account of some curious species of parasitic plants comprehended in it. I found here the largest Tarantula, which I ever saw; with its extended legs, covering a space of five inches in diameter.

The small village of Mariangú stands in a low sandy spot, full of pools, and apparently unhealthy. About two miles behind it, rises a perpendicular rock of granite, more than three hundred feet high, on the top of which is the church of Nossa Senhora da Penha, forming a beautiful object from many parts of the harbour, and once every year the scene of great festivity. Four miles distant, along the same flat shore, at the mouth of a shallow but broad river of the same name, is the village of Irasá. The few poor huts of which it is composed belong, I believe, to the hamlet of Iraja, are placed on a rocky knoll, and enjoy a commanding view of the straits and the bay. A rocky coast and shoal water must here create many difficulties, even for canoas; hence, probably, the name which answers nearly to our vulgar exclamation,—Ah! Lackaday! Just off this spot is the small island of Saqueté, forming a pretty feature in the landscape, and furnished, like many other of the islands, with a Quay and a Venda, at which the boatmen stop in their daily course to and from the market in the city. Not far distant is the broad Estuary of the Meritý, whence the shore rises pleasantly to the fine river Serapuí, the borders of which are well cultivated.

In steering hence to the mouth of the Iguazú, we experienced some difficulty from an extensive bed of mud, stretching out from a low and swampy shore. Though soft, it has sufficient tenacity to impede the

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progress of boats, and at one time we were completely aground, three or four hundred yards from a larger vessel. We were striving to make the people hear, in order to learn from them the best way into deeper water, when we saw two men throw themselves overboard, who, partly by swimming and partly by wading, made their way to us, and strenuously assisted to push us off the bank. One of them was a Negro, the other a Mestizo, the offspring of a Portuguese and an Indian, the strongest-built man that I ever beheld. Both appeared perfectly at ease in the water, swam in their trowsers, and carried in the waistband a pointed knife. The varas or sprits, used in pushing the boat forward, sunk about twelve feet in black mud, before they bore the necessary pressure, evidently marking the depth to which it continued unconsolidated, and without any great admixture of sand.

The Iguazú is a fine, broad, and deep river, flowing in a very crooked channel. In the common state of the atmosphere, the current is strong; in the rainy season it flows with impetuosity, and widely breaks its bounds. On both sides its banks are covered with tall aquatic plants, whose juices serve further to discolour a stream, which has been dingy from its sources. When floods prevail, these fields of vegetables are torn from their roots by the turbulent waters, carried downwards by the current, and thrown on shore near the mouth of the river, serve to extend such marshes as those on which they grew; in more tranquil seasons they stand erect, and form a sort of lane of tall reeds with curious bulbular heads, and serve as a retreat to a great variety of water fowls, About five miles above its mouth, this river is joined by the Pilar, from the North East; which has already passed near to a few small houses, and one spacious building, forming a village of the same name. Two miles farther up, we gain the first firm footing on the banks of the Iguazú, where, on the left hand, stands a small Benedictine Convent, pleasantly situated under the shade of a considerable hill, but with its estate so grossly neglected, that the chief object seems to be the maintenance of a venda, and an extensive brick-work; perhaps it is enough that both of these are profitable.

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After rowing six hours longer, we reached the Porto dos Saveiros, so named from the vessels, from ten to forty tons burden, which ascend thus far, to take in the cargoes brought hither in canoas. It lies at the foot of considerable hills, one of which I climbed, and from its summit overlooked plains twelve miles long, and six or seven broad, and a river which we had ascended thus far, writhing among them like a snake. Here we followed the common custom, and exchanged our launch for a canoa, in which we reached the bridge of Maranbáya, after a toilsome progress of other six hours. At this place the river is about twenty feet wide; while at the Convent and at Porto dos Saveiros, it is thrice that width, and at its mouth full two hundred yards. The course of this stream might be greatly relieved by making only very short canals, at places where its curves approach each other; but it is alledged, probably with reason, that, if it flowed in a right line, no vessel would be able to stem the current, and its upper part would become so shallow as not to admit even a canoa to float. Embankments and locks, the natural remedies of such defective navigations, are not yet known in the country, and ages must elapse before they can be introduced. In this prolific climate, so much is done every year in the conversion of marshes into solid ground, that it will be long ere a scarcity of land puts the inhabitants upon any scientific contrivances, to improve its rivers.

Having descended the stream again, we approached the Ilha do Governador, and landed at the point of Tupiacánga, a place where the water is beautifully clear over a sandy bottom, but so shallow as to be fit only for vessels of a very small draught. To the East beyond the point lies the spacious Bay of Soledo, where the water is certainly deeper, but the coast is so destitute of inhabitants as to render such an advantage useless. Indeed all this part of the island is composed of sand, producing little but stunted brush-wood of the hardier kinds; and so dry that we found it difficult even to replenish our barrel. Stretching across to the mouth of the lnhomerím, we fell in again with the bank of mud, and were compelled to grope our way over it as well as we could; not

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understanding the marks set up for themselves by persons who are in the habit of traversing these shoals.

The Inhomerím is a fine river, running in a deep bed, and with a sluggish current, among high rugged lands, and bold rocky masses, in many cases separated from each other by broad swamps. Notwithstanding the unfavourable appearance of its shores, and those of its tributary streams, of which there are several, they are well cultivated. At its mouth it is two hundred yards wide; having ascended it about three leagues and a half, we found it not more than seventy. At this point stands the village of Porto D'Estrella, interesting from its busy occupation, Though it has not many houses, some of them are uncommonly good ones. The church stands on a round precipitous hill, about two hundred feet above the level of the water, and has an advantage in situation, which it wants in point of size, commanding extensive views of rich plains towards the South and West, and of mountains covered with forests to the North. It is more material, that there are here two quays and suitable warehouses, from which is embarked for the capital, most of the produce of the interior. As the principal roads of the country begin or terminate at this spot, here also are landed and loaded on the backs of mules, all the goods which are destined for the Northern part of the Capitania of Rio de Janeiro, for Minas Geraes, Mato-Grosso, and Goyaz, for places, some of which are fifteen hundred or two thousand miles distant. The village is, in consequence, full of mules, their drivers, and people collected from almost every part of the central provinces; the sides of the river are crowded with Saveiros; new lands are enclosed and cultivated, new societies formed, and the people advance in know ledge and civilization.

The first time I visited this spot, since which several years are elapsed, we found the inhabitants so rude, that we thought it prudent to haul off from the village, to sleep on our arms aboard, and to appoint a centinel for the night. We were also plagued with musquitoes beyond all reasonable endurance. Since that period I haye received here all the attentions which a stranger is entitled to expect, and enjoyed a variety

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of comforts, which the growing wealth of the place has enabled it to collect. It has imbibed the spirit of a thoroughfare in more respects than one, having become not only civil, but independent, frank, and haughty, in a measure by no means common in Brazil.

At the entrance of the Inhomerím, on the right, lies a pile of broken rocks, which look as though they had been tossed from a considerable distance, and had fallen on each other. Some of the rounded masses seem to have been broken by their mutual concussion, and the severed fragments lie by the side of each other; and where a broad flat stone has been undermost, it has, in some instances, been split in a raylike fracture, and partly sunk into the soil by the stroke of a heavier round one which still lies upon it. Such appearances are common in the country surrounding the Upper Bay, and unite to show that many parts, now detached from each other, once formed large solid masses, and that, they were removed from their native situations when in that state. Report attributes this separation of their parts to crystals formed in the heart of the stones, which, on expansion, burst the rocks in which they are enclosed; but I never met with a person who had seen such a crystal, nor in the divided faces could I ever perceive the smallest trace of its existence. I am, therefore, strongly inclined to think, that the effect is produced by different causes, among which lightning may, perhaps, be not the least operative. Were a spirit of philosophic investigation awakened in Brazil, I would recommend to its notice these rocks and their phenomena.

Leaving the mouth of this river, we attempted to run along the shore, but found ourselves embarrassed by rocks and shoal water. We were therefore driven to cross the expanse of mud once more, and skirt its Southern edge at a distance of nearly four miles from land. The coast rose as we proceeded, and the water deepened; the scenes on shore became more attractive, that comprehending Nossa Senhora da Guia particularly so.

The channel conducting to this place is just at the edge of the mud-bank, among the rocks; and the current which runs through them

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will serve to illustrate the principal appearances in the tides of this singular bay. It sets in with violence through the gorge of the Sugar Loaf; the main branch of its stream, proceeding up the Eastern side of the bay, passes between Paquetá and Governador, and butts upon the coast to the East of Nossa Senhora da Guia. Hence the bottom there is without mud, and in that part of the shore there is no swampy land; all is clean and rocky; the wreck brought down by the rivers, and what is urged on by the current, being thrown into different quarters, to the right and the left. A smaller branch of the current strikes off, near its commencement, and passing between the Square Island and the Fort of St. Joan, proceeds to the bay of Bota Foga. Another divides from the main stream near the Ilha das Cobras, passes by the Magazine and the Ilha dos Frades, and becomes a strong current at the West end of Governador. This marine river, through its whole extent, maintains a deep channel, but casts up to the West a great quantity of sand, producing the shoal water about St. Christophe and Maricaná. Having passed the straits of Governador, and being turned from its direct course by the rocks of Irasá, it washes the North-western shore of the island, and in the eddy which it forms with the recoil of the Eastern current has produced the point of Tupiacánga.

From the entrance of the Rio da Guia we steered for the bluff point of Coroa, ran close to it, soon entered upon shoal water to the Eastward, with a sandy bottom, and with difficulty discovered the channel leading to the Surui, (the quick flowing water). Entering the mouth of that river, which is about sixty yards wide, we found its bed shallow, and sometimes bordered by marshes, though in general the land is bold and lofty, and we were delighted with the variety of views which our course presented. At the port where the larger Saveiros take in their lading, some appearances of violence led us to think ill of the people; but the impressions made by the country were still singularly agreeable. While dinner was preparing we ascended a gentle eminence, in order to obtain a more complete view of the recess of the mountains into which we had advanced. The prospect was found to be in the best

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style of Brazil; the mountains were even sublime, and most luxuriantly clothed; the valley not flat, but abounding with small round hills, possessing considerable attraction, when viewed separately; and when forming a whole, in combination with other points, presenting one of the finest landscapes which the eye ever beheld. Its extent is about ten miles, and in the midst of it stands the Church of St. Nicholas.

The pleasure which we found in the contemplation of this scene determined us to ascend the river as far as our vessel could proceed; but, during three hours of hard labour, we advanced only two miles, for the natural strength of the current had been increased by a violent thunderstorm. About the same hour every afternoon we had noticed the formation, progress, and discharge, of a similar cloud, among the mountains in our front, but had not, until this day, been overtaken by it. On our return to the city we learned that the weather, during these same periods, had been perfectly serene; and having previously settled it in our opinions, that these storms occurred from the same causes which formerly operated to produce similar phenomena at Rio de Janeiro, we were confirmed in the conjecture that the improvement which has taken place in the climate of the lower bay is chiefly owing to laying open the forests and clearing the land;—an advancement in agriculture, which has not yet, in any considerable degree, reached these mountains.

Of ten decent houses, below the church of St. Nicholas, four are vendas, sufficiently filled with the crews of Saveiros; a circumstance which shows that the population and commerce of the neighbourhood must be considerable. Here the river is about forty yards wide, and is joined by a stream nearly half as large; down both of them are brought for exportation vegetables, fruit, milho, and fire-wood. Hence also are procured those long stems of the Tacoára, of which the ladders are made used by builders in the city. Cazal says, moreover, that the valley receives, on account of Bananas alone, for the culture of which it is celebrated, the sum of seventy thousand Cruzados, about eight thousand pounds sterling, yearly. I suspect that some gross mistake has crept into his calculation, for that sum would nearly purchase the whole

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district; such gains do not consist with the manifest condition of the people, and in a few years would diffuse among them a measure of wealth destructive of all social order.

Off the mouth of the stream are two pretty round islands, or rather rocks, covered with trees. They are called the Guayána, and are inhabited by numerous sea-fowl, from one species of which they borrow their name. Near them are also several extensive weirs, formed by stakes driven into the sand-banks, which form the shoals of the bay. Hence the coast, toward the East, is composed of pleasant hills, with no less pleasant plains in the intervals.

The next river in our course is the Irirí, (a word signifying shells,) a hundred yards broad at the mouth, and more than commonly abundant in fishes. Its right bank is, for some distance, low, flat, and muddy, forming a soil for the growth of Mangue. About a mile within it we found many Saveiros taking in shells, which are carried away to be converted into lime. Over the bed in which they lie is a stratum of stiff but unconsolidated clay, nearly four feet thick. The bed itself is not more than six or eight inches in depth, and the shells appear as though they had not been long buried, without any marks of decay or petrefaction; among them is no mixture of clay or sand. Immediately beyond this spot, is some bold ground; but a little farther onward, the stream makes its way through pestiferous marshes, covered with mangue, and seems occasionally to flow with violence. Where it meets the tide there is a broader expanse of water, with a bank in the midst of it, and the conflux, it is probable, sometimes forms a dangerous whirlpool. At one of the angles of the river, into which we were hurried by the current, we sounded, and found nearly fifty feet of water. Having ascended about eight miles, we got into a sort of gutter, not twice the width of our boat, with marshy ground on each side of it to a great extent. From the roof of our boat we could discern, over the Mangue, the broad sail of a Saveiro, and the tiles of a hut, about four hundred yards distant. We shouted, and fired several shots as signals, for a canoa to come to our relief, for the boat could proceed no farther, and

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the marsh was too soft to walk upon. At and beyond the spot where the hut stood, it was no doubt, more solid. Round about it is a wild screen of mountains, and, among them, the Organ Pipes rose before us, in all their rugged grandeur.

The seeming impossibility of reaching the house, and of procuring assistance from it, the approach of evening, the ebbing of the tide, and the annoyance of myriads of insects, compelled us to return with our chief object unattained. It was mentioned before, that a fall of water is seen at Rio, descending the face of the Serro, near the Organ mountains. The hill of St. Sebastian is the best station for seeing it, from which its sources must be nearly forty miles distant. Here, to the naked eye, the stream appears like a line of snow, and is frequently mistaken for one. From the height of four thousand feet above the sea, it tumbles down a precipitous bed in a right line, runs apparently four or five miles over a gentle descent, and then falls down a second precipice, in such a manner that from the lower parts of the bay, both appear to constitute one continued fall. It is an object of great curiosity, but I was not fortunate enough to meet with any one who had approached it very nearly and examined it with care. I was disappointed too, in the hope of clearly ascertaining whether the waters of this cataract fall, as we supposed they did, into the marshes on the banks of the Iriri. The small quantity found in the spot where our inquiries prematurely ended, seems to indicate, that this is not their receptacle. Unable to come to any more desirable conclusion, we had to extricate ourselves, as well as we could, from the vile situation in which we were placed. This was no easy task, for we were obliged to turn all hands out of the boat, and use our utmost exertions to lift, as well as push, it into deeper water.

Afterwards we coasted along the Morro of Piedade, a bold point backed by the heights of the Serro, which here trends considerably to the North, leaving toward the East a large open space of low land. Immediately behind the point is a small, snug harbour, the comparatively easy access to which, from the unusual depth of the channel, among the sand banks, renders it of importance. It may be passed too at low water.

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This is the Northern extremity of the bay, and the little town situated on it is the port of a thickly inhabited and well cultivated region, a place of great resort.

To the river of Magé, the low coast is covered with flags and mangue; the stream is broad, though not navigable but at high water. The town is well situated on the verge of the solid ground, four miles from the bay. It has several streets regularly arranged, many houses of a superior cast, a good fish market, and an excellent church; altogether it is one of the most considerable places in the neighbourhood of the Capital. We attended vespers, and heard the service performed in a very slovenly manner. Commercial affairs seem to be differently managed, the exports are large, and the scene at the hour of business, highly interesting. Among other more important productions, the black, or best sort of Ipecacuánha is procured here. The name of this drug is evidently of Tupí origin, and partly derived, I believe, from Aipé, a word denoting a large class of plants, whose roots, after suitable preparation, are eaten, though certainly in their natural state poisonous.

While often recording the common hospitality of the country, it would be ungrateful to pass unnoticed the peculiar civility experienced at this place. At my first visit to the town, I was in company with an English Professor of Medicine and Chemistry. We ordered a fowl for dinner at the venda, and while it was preparing, strolled into the town, intending to sail for the city with the evening tide. As we returned, we were accosted by a man of pleasant appearance and genteel manners, who informed us that he had ordered our dinner to be set out in his apartments, and that it was quite ready. We ascended to a good suite of rooms, in the upper part of the venda, where we found a family of ten or a dozen people, some of whom were recently arrived from Oporto. The dinner, consisting of upwards of twenty dishes, was divided into courses, and men and women sate mixed at table. As strangers, we were placed at the head of it, the host seating himself at our left, and an elderly lady doing me the honour to sit on my right. The meal was a hearty and cheerful one, much less ceremonious than we expected, and

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the bottle circulated in the English mode, with a regulated freedom. We spent the cool part of the afternoon in the most social way, in some spacious gardens, and at dusk took our leave.

But our obligations to the hospitality of Magé were not to terminate at this point. The tide serving at an inconvenient hour, and no boat going out for Rio, we were compelled to pass the night in the town. As soon as this was known, we received from the same quarter an invitation to supper, and were assured that one of our friendly entertainer's boats would be up by the next flood, and ready for our accommodation. After supper, which passed no less agreeably than the preceding meal, we were conducted to an apartment, where a couch was prepared for each of us, with every necessary comfort. More, indeed, than what comes under this description was attended to; for on the table stood, together with a candle, a looking glass, and a decanter of water, a bottle containing about two quarts of French brandy. This, we supposed, was placed there under the prevailing persuasion, that every Briton was inordinately attached to liquor, though too polite to incommode the ladies by an immoderate indulgence of his propensities.

In our voyage in 1816, we steered South from the Magé, keeping as close to the shore as circumstances would allow; but generally constrained, by the shoal water, to be from two to four miles distant from it. Across these sands are several channels, which conduct to inlets among the mangue; one of them is said to be the mouth of the Iguapemirim, which we did not enter, but proceeded to the Iguapezú, or greater river of the name.

In point of size, extent, and quantity of water, this is, without question, the first of the streams falling into the bay of Rio. The Inhomerím has more traffic upon it, and on that account is certainly the most important. The mouth of the Iguapezú is nearly six hundred yards broad; before it lies a bar, which, amidst its common difficulties, has several channels, through which vessels of thirty tons burden may pass, when light, at half tide; if coming down laden, it sometimes obliges them to wait three or four days for a sufficient depth of water;

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and the people have not only to endure the irksomeness of delay, but the torment arising from the various and unceasing hostilities of insects. About a mile within the bar, is a small venda, which, with a probable reference to such sufferings, is called Patiencia. A little Eastward is Villa Nova, once an abode of native Indians, and regulated by the laws made in their favour; now belonging principally to a wealthy nobleman. On his fine estate he has a singularity in this country, a Steam-Engine for crushing sugar cane. Another, brought out by a vessel which was wrecked near Cape St. Roque, was recovered from the water, intended for the use of the Treasury and the purpose of coining, but has never been erected. It is said that the Prince Regent once visited Villa Nova, to see the Engine at work, and that the owner, in order not to lower the Brazilian character in its respect for Royalty, chose to lose a great part of his crop of cane rather than to offend the ears of his visitor by the rattling of machinery.

The river long continues broad and deep. About six miles from its mouth, and twenty-seven from the city, it is joined by the Kysarebú, from the Eastward, commonly called the Casarebú. Three miles higher, we meet with the first solid ground, where is a fine plantation, on the left bank of the river, belonging to the Commandant of the district. Here the stream is much less deep, and narrowed to about a hundred yards; soon after we drop into shoal water, yet with a strong current. On the right is a round hillock, from the summit of which is an extensive and varied prospect of the country: in the immediate vicinity is a rich fenny tract, generally dry, but liable to be flooded; to the North, the mountains, though distant, are in full view, and their face appears a fine though rough inclined-plane; to the East and South are unbounded plains, broken by the abrupt and grey Serros of Tokái, Americá, and Saquaréma; the channels of the Guaxendiba, the Casarebú, and Macacú may also be distinctly traced.

This latter stream joins the Iguapezú from the North East, and frequently usurps its name, though it is much smaller and shorter in its course. On its banks, about two miles above the junction, in the midst

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of extensive marshes, stands the town of Macacú, the seat of the authorities of the district. It contains a thousand inhabitants, with a large proportion of Priests and Lawyers, and report speaks in consequence, more naturally than creditably, of its singular propensity to legal squabbles. Its size and situation united to remind me of Littleport, in the Isle of Ely, About seven miles higher, and at the computed distance of fifty, from the capital, travelling by the rivers, we reached Pirasenúnga, and there took up our temporary abode. The plains which we passed abound with Cranes, Galinhas d'Agoa, and Jacús of great beauty, the river with Capibarys, and other game, and its banks, where dry, with the Herva da St. Maria, one of the most useful of medicines.

Here again we enter upon the Piedmont of the Province, and find all the usual beauties of such situations. Towards the North is a row of detached hills, about two hundred feet high, which rise backward to six or seven hundred; immediately behind them is another elevation, which hardly comes short of two thousand; and this is backed by the ridge of the serro, whose pinnacles are of various heights, some of them full six thousand feet. In the first rising ground are many large roundish stones, imbedded in clay, which must have been conveyed to their station by some powerful agent; a Lecturer on Mineralogy said they were Hæmatites.

On the ground between the rivers Pirasenúnga and Iguapezú, and immediately above their junction, is an estate, which circumstances induced me to examine with care. Of about eighteen hundred acres, one-third was meadow land, generally a rich loam, though in some parts sandy; the rest consisted of rounded hills, composed of granite covered with red, and seemingly fertile clay, mingled with mica. The spot was well watered, there were extensive woods for fuel, a ready article of sale in the city, a suitable quantity of pasture, a mandioca plantation, sufficient to supply with that article fourteen slaves, ten thousand young and flourishing coffee trees, and a large, well situated house, overlooking half the estate. The neighbourhood was pleasant, the roads good, and the title undeniable, the place having belonged to the Jesuits, and

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writings being in existence, which went back to the year 1650. Yet the whole was offered to sale for two thousand milreis, and the payment of the royal decima; at present the whole sum is less than £500 Sterling. Essentially different as the spot appeared at this period, we met with a man ninety years of age, who represented it as a complete forest in his youth.

This part of the country is stocked with an industrious and well-behaved race, who cultivate their own small farms, yet wanting capital for the purchase of slaves, find it difficult to procure a maintenance. They add to their slender means of support and enjoyment by cutting timber in the forests, squaring it there, or sawing it into planks, Thence it is conveyed to the water's side on a small triangular truck or sledge, on which one end of the baulk is fastened, while the other drags upon the ground; at the port or junction of the rivers, a piece from forty to sixty feet long, and from fourteen to eighteen inches square, sells for about five shillings.

One of the chief blessings bestowed on the people of this district, by the arrival of the Royal Family, and those who followed them,—in which, indeed, they participated with the country in general,—was the introduction of the British axe and saw. They had before instruments called by the same names; but they were small, clumsy, or ill adapted to the laborious work which was to be performed with them. In addition to these, an ignorant North-American mechanic made an attempt to introduce the saw mill; and his failure, as might be imagined, produced a general prejudice against it. Another project succeeded better; at this place, an establishment was formed for cutting trunnels for the use of the British Dock-Yards, and thus employed, some of the neighbouring slaves became expert sawyers. When these improvements have answered their purpose, and the woods are cleared away, it is to be hoped that the axe and the saw will be succeeded by the plough, the harrow, and the roller.

It was matter of regret to me, that I could not enjoy the proffered honour of dining with the Clergy, whom Easter brought together at Pirasenúnga. The approach of evening set me at liberty, and I attended

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Divine Service at a Chapel belonging to a private house, the owner of which is obliged to keep it open to the public, especially at this season, when the free will offerings are made. The altar stood at the end of a long varanda, and around it sate a great number of females in ranks on the floor, with their legs crossed under them. The men not quite so compactly arranged, stood behind them, and others sate on benches down the sides of the varanda. At the end, opposite to the altar, were two tables, with the proper officers to receive and register the offerings. Some of these met with great respect and gratitude, others were received with a marked coldness, which seemed intended to be admonitory. As each offering was registered, it was delivered for sale to a sort of auctioneer, who marched with it up and down the place, vociferating the last bidden sum, and exhibiting all the wit he was master of, to induce a higher offer.

The British strangers, four in number, had been introduced into a large apartment of the house, which commanded a view of all that passed in this motley scene. Though they conversed gaily with the family and other visitors, it was in an under tone, out of respect to the religious ceremony which was going on; yet the joke, the smile, and giggling laughter, which were seen and heard all around them, plainly showed that nothing was farther from the hearts of the assembly, than thoughts of serious and devout worship. Indeed, the Ecclesiastics themselves, are in general so guilty of like indecorum, in their holy places and employments, as to make it manifest that they consider themselves only as actors, having each his part assigned in the drama of the day. They seem to expect on common occasions, no other attention from a congregation than a care to bend the knee, bow the head, cross themselves, and smite their bosoms, at proper points of the service, and to make their responses in unison.

The Sacred Sale passed heavily; few appeared willing to pay more for a cock, consecrated by its haying been devoted to the service of Heaven, than for one equally fine from an unholy brood. To infuse a little life into the scene, the heretics after being assured that they might

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do so without offence, began to raise the prices, and bought a few trifles at an exorbitant rate, or enjoyed the mortification of an opponent, when they chose that a contested article should fall into his hands. The first lot which fell to my own share, was two dozen of eggs, which cost nearly a penny each; the next was a cake, made no doubt, in the best style of the donor. This I begged permission, if not absolutely contrary to all rule, to divide among the ladies who were with us; and being allowed to eat, it was presumed that drinking would not be improper, and the mistress of the house produced wine. We had thus, what may perhaps be as worthily called a Love-feast, as some other things which go by a similar name. The auctioneer, elevated, as it might seem, by the high prices which he had obtained, quitted his beaten ground, stepped into the ranks of the females, and strode over their shoulders. Incommoded by his freedoms, they at first repaid him with jokes, and afterwards with pinches on his naked legs and feet, and at last with hearty slaps on the buttocks, which a short jacket left unskirted. In this manner they beat him off the field, and the feat was applauded as excellent sport. The officiating Priest seemed to participate in our feelings, on the conversion of a religious ceremony into a scene so ludicrous; for he commenced the more serious part of the service, which imperatively demanded silence, and vindicated its claim to attention.

At this season, similar offerings are made all over the country, and generally disposed of in the same way. In these sales, the common character may not often make so unreserved a display of itself, as in the present instance; yet a man wishing to become acquainted with Brazilian manners, will be well repaid for the time which he may spend in an attendance upon them.

On another festival of a religious kind, among the crowd collected at the door of one of the churches in the city, I accidentally encountered a person whom I had seen two years before in Rio Grandé. Though I had not then made the least acquaintance with him, he now addressed me, and with great earnestness entreated that I would wait for a few

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moments where I was. He left me, re-entered the church, and quickly returned with a small consecrated image of the Holy Ghost, which he kissed devoutly, and presenting it to me, begged that I would preserve it with care. As, without doubt, he considered the Dove to be a sacred Palladium against danger, and if properly used, as a source of invaluable benefits, for time and for ever. I could not but accept his present with lively feelings of gratitude. On other occasions, some of them very distressing ones, I have met with affecting instances of like good-will; and gladly record my sincere conviction that the unsophisticated Brazilians are by no means wanting in tenderness and generosity.

Short excursions to different parts of the country, pleasantly occupied me, during my short stay at Pirasenúnga. In one of them, the Iguapezú became an object of a little farther attention. It rises in the mountains upwards of twenty miles above this spot, falls rapidly for the first half of its progress, and then enters a more smooth and level bed, making a considerable display of water, but difficult to ascend on account of its shallowness, and the force of the current. It is subject to great floods, and at such seasons often changes its bed. Its sands are mixed with an unusual quantity of mica, which is frequently mistaken for gold-dust, and gives rise to many exaggerated accounts of the riches of Brazil, and to many vain expectations of meeting with golden lakes. A good and cheerful road accompanies the stream as far as the foot of the serro; another, lately made, then turning Eastward toward the serro of Canudos, approaches the heads of the Rio St. Joan, and proceeds to the town of that name on the coast of St. Ann's Bay. The summit of the adjacent mountains, said to contain fine pastures, is occupied by a mixed race of people, who subsist by keeping cattle, and are under little controul.— Through their country are several little-known routes to the Pyrahýba, which is reported to be a three days' journey distant.

We found on this river many Balsas, which are a sort of rafts, composed either of logs of timber or of boards, held together by thick bands, made from the fibres of the cocoa tree or the aloe, and sometimes

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from dried leaves, of considerable length, twisted together as a rope. If the timber be specifically lighter than water, these rafts float down the stream, and require only a little care in the direction of their course.— When the wood is of the heavier kind, a canoa or even two, is introduced into the centre of the Balsa, and assists in the support of the logs arranged alongside. Rafts thus constructed, sometimes come down to the city; but are more frequently taken to pieces in the lower part of the rivers.

The Iguapezú abounds also with fishes, which on many occasions, are hurried away by the stream, or swim against it with difficulty. In such cases, a hemispherical wicker basket is laid with its mouth towards the current, by which means they are easily intercepted.—This mode is borrowed from the Indians, and the basket still bears its primitive name.

The application of one of these baskets to a very different purpose, by an Englishman resident here, will afford an illustration of the extreme simplicity of the people. Having occasion to build an oven, he took a basket for his model, and turned an arch of brick work over it, so that it covered the whole internal surface, and left the oven without a mouth. The observers of the process, struck with what they thought his folly, eagerly enquired how and when the basket was to be extracted, and being told with some little mystery, that it was to be withdrawn through the small aperture left in the brick work, assembled in crowds to witness the performance of the feat. The builder still appearing serious and reserved, deliberately cut away that portion of the basket, which appeared at the door of the oven, put in fire, and reduced the remainder to ashes. On this solution of the difficulty, the people retired amused with their own simplicity, and generously applauding, according to their custom, the superior wisdom of the British, though in this instance, not very wonderfully displayed.

The Brazilians were no strangers to the modern construction of ovens; but it is questionable whether the art of cookery has really been improved by it. The South American Indians retain to this day, the modes of their fathers; cutting a hole in the perpendicular face of a dry

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bank, heating it by the introduction of fuel, and covering its mouth with a stone; or else, like others in their degree of civilization, digging a pit in the ground, carefully spreading leaves over its bottom and sides, placing the meat on them, and drawing the leaves over it, applying fire above the whole, thus keeping in the heat, and stewing the flesh in its own gravey.

The Gougers near the River Plate adopt a method somewhat similar to this, which consists in wrapping the meat to be roasted in a piece of raw hide, and when thus cooked, I can vouch that its savour is excellent, though I do not recollect ever tasting any dressed after the Indian mode.

The river Orendé, a narrow mountain torrent, ceasing to flow with the cessation of rain, runs about nine miles before it falls into the Iguapezú. I rode nearly to its sources, to visit an elderly gentleman, who forty years ago, obtained a grant of three square leagues of land. It was then a perfect wilderness, but is now a rich and profitable estate. His mill for crushing sugar cane, is set in motion by a: breast water wheel, about thirty feet in diameter; it is made of cedar, and is the best constructed thing of its kind which I saw in Brazil; few, I believe, are superior to it in Europe.

My friend had dined when I arrived; but another dinner was immediately ordered, served up with remarkable speed, and rendered more agreeable by the manners of the host. It was intimated to me afterwards, that he noticed my omission of a grace before I began to eat, which, in his estimation, "placed me on a level with the generality of my countrymen, when he hoped to have found me a legitimate Christian." The unpleasant impression however, did not appear in any abatement of his good humour. He was earnest in his inquiries about England and English farming, and particularly anxious to learn how cattle were supported when the ground was covered with snow. I explained to him our process of hay-making, and other modes of providing winter food; mentioning also, the distress to which we were sometimes reduced, when the season proved uncommonly long and severe. At the close of this description, he said "Thank God, I have always a seed time and always a

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harvest; I have, Sir, several hundred head of working cattle, I can turn them every evening into pastures, where they gather their own food, and are ready for my use again in the morning."

When the Siesta was soon afterwards proposed, I should have declined it, not being accustomed to such an indulgence, but acquiesced, in the remembrance that I should otherwise deprive my host of one of the best, and to people of his age, one of the most necessary of Brazilian enjoyments. A small retiring room, gorgeously painted with native earths, was pointed out to me, in which was an elegant couch, with coverings and pillows of fine cotton, ornamented with needle work, and bordered with Brussels lace. This finery did not tempt me to seek repose; as soon as the house appeared perfectly still, I took my gun, and descended to the neighbouring plains, where I found many birds of exquisite plumage, and pre-eminent among them, the light blue Sabiar. The wood, I was told, was full of deer, which often showed themselves in an evening, when they came to the stream to drink.

The behaviour of the slaves on this farm was marked with singular propriety; it was respectful, without ceremony or obsequiousness, and exhibited evidences of good management in their occupations, and kind treatment in the house. This and other appearances inclined me to believe, what I had been told, that my friend belonged to a small sect, called Sebastianistas, with a few of whom I have occasionally had some intercourse. They are truly devout in their worship of God, and ardent in their love of a Redeemer, but follow the forms of the church from education, rather than conviction; holding, in many respects, a like station among Brazilian Catholics to that formerly filled by the Puritans among British Protestants.

On a distant part of his farm, the owner has established his only son, who had been educated for the church, and officiated as a Priest on the demesne. His father sent to request that he would spend the evening with us, and collect the dogs against the following morning, to treat us with a chase, in the common style of the country. The sportsmen make their way through the woods, always taking a direction towards the

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water, knowing by experience, that the deer never run up the mountains, if they can avoid it. When they find a small open space, with tracks leading through it, they sit down and listen to the dogs, which are turned into the upper ground and always give mouth when they find the game. As the herd approaches the place of waiting, the interest becomes great and some activity is required; for if a single stag makes his appearance among the bushes, he must be instantly shot or he escapes and is seen no more. If many happen to present themselves, there is some temporary bustle in the scene; but I am not sufficiently disciplined to sit patiently, it may be a whole day, listening to the distant barking of dogs, with the probability too, that some accident will deprive us of the game, or that the Indians, or some countrymen scarcely more civilized, may track it when wounded, and finally carry it off.

Returning from this visit to the Orendé, I was gratified with a comparatively diminutive exhibition of a scene, which not unfrequently occurs on a grander scale, and of which I had often wished to be a spectator. Fire had seized upon an adjoining forest, and devoured about half a league square of it. Being to windward, and not incommoded by the smoke, I approached as near as the heat would allow me, or the embers suffer a well-broken horse to advance. It is not in my power, however, to communicate more than a very faint idea of the sublime picture. I was in the midst of several hundred stems, as large as the middle-sized British oak, all black and smoking, from whose smouldering remnants continually fell half-consumed branches, and smaller pieces of charred wood, which, broken and breaking others in their fall, formed a shower of sparks, rendered vivid by their passage through the air. The ground was covered with these charred arms, with embers, and with ashes, whence arose small spiracles of grey smoke, as if escaping through crevices from an immense furnace, hidden and burning beneath. At some little distance in front, the fire raged in all its fury; from the burning underwood the flames rushed upwards in large sheets, which expired in the air, or seizing the dried leaves of those monarchs of the forest, which had defied all former storms;

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instantly set the whole head in a blaze, and the crackling twigs formed a harsh counter to the surf-like roar of the flame below. While the fire spread itself eating the forest all around, and became more active by every breeze, the remaining stumps in its immediate rear, stood like piles of living coal, and seemed to writhe as under the influence of a liquid poison, creeping through their veins. The wintry appearance of those naked branches, which preserved their station, and of the ground thickly strewed with ruins and black ashes, while flames surrounded me, and the heat of the atmosphere was almost intolerably oppressive, formed a contrast which cannot be described, an incongruous scene of desolation, which no art can represent.

Such accidents arise sometimes from the carelessness of travellers, sometimes from lightning, occasionally, it is said, from the natural spontaneous generation of fire. To this latter cause a conflagration was attributed, which occurred in 1796, on the summit of the Tenguá, burned for nine months, and induced many to imagine, that a volcano had burst forth there. The succeeding rains quenched it, but the spot is still distinguished by the diminutive size of the trees, and the colour of the foliage. How the conflagration commenced which I had witnessed, no one thought it worth while to inquire. Greatly as it impressed my mind, it seemed to pass almost unnoticed in the neighbourhood; because it not only had not touched, but had not even endangered any farm or plantation. When I pointed out to some peasants the ashes which were falling at several miles distance, they coolly replied,—"ah! some part of the forest has taken fire, but we shall soon have rain."

Attending while at Pirasenúnga to the preparation of Farinha, the present seems a suitable place for introducing a brief account of the process, by which so important a part of the food of the country is made ready for use. It has been mentioned, more than once, that it is made of the Cassava Root, called in Brazil Mandióca, and by the Indians Mandij. The external part of the root being scraped off, the remainder ground to a pulp, is put into a Tipitý, a sort of basket made of the Tacoára, in the shape of those which bring currants from the Mediterra-

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nean. This is subjected to the press, and the liquid, generally known to be highly poisonous, oozes through it. So very deleterious is this fluid, that I have seen the domestic fowl killed by it almost instantly. But I do not remember any instance of its proving injurious to animals or birds in a wild state; they are probably, aware of their danger; or if they ever take it, retire into the woods and die there. When this poisonous liquid ceases to be discharged from the press, the pulp is generally placed in small quantities over a strong fire in a shallow copper pan, in order to drive off any remaining moisture. In proportion as it is completely dry, the quality of the flour is good, and will remain for a longer time in the state of wholesome food. Unfortunately, Farinha is sold by weight, and the worst is the heaviest, hence there arises a double temptation to leave in it as much of the deleterious liquid as the constitution will bear, without immediate symptoms of disease. For particular purposes, a part of the pulp is made into a sort of cake dried very completely, and becomes very white, in this state it is called beiju, and in texture resembles the Yorkshire oat cake.

We found the apparatus for preparing Farinha defective in many points, and endeavoured to introduce some small improvements, particularly by applying to it a hopper, which it had not before, and substituting the stang press instead of the lever one, with the common screw. Yet afterwards I was not a little surprised to learn from the book entitled, Mœurs des Sauvages, which contains some excellent descriptions of Indian manners, that it had long been in use among them, and that they employed sippo for ropes, an article by which it was fancied, that we had amended the press.

The ignorance or negligence of the Brazilians, in several branches of Mechanics, has been noticed before. It seems now, that in Agricultural Machinery, they might with advantage have taken another lesson, as they have done many, from their savage predecessors in the country. But they are slow to learn; and in points of this sort, the Government is as remiss as the commonalty, Both are alike astonished when they

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hear of the great effects produced by our mechanical contrivances for assisting or superseding manual labour.

Nature here does much to cheer a country, little improved by human skill. The number of small birds, like the linnet and canary, is very great. This, indeed, is probably owing to one species of improvement; for I have uniformly observed, that in proportion as any tract is cleared of wood, birds of prey become less numerous, while the smaller kinds increase and multiply, amply repaying their little pillage by their melody of song. Naturalists have often accused them of silence or complained of their harshness of voice; as well might such Philosophers have expected music from the crow, the kite, and the owl, as from the Anou, the Parrot, and Tesoura. Birds of prey, and of the water, scream, but I think they no where sing. The various tints also, of a Brazilian forest added greatly to our pleasure, for they extend from a light yellow green, to one bordering on blue, and these are mingled again with red, brown, and a gradation of deeper shades, down almost to black. That which here goes by the name of the silver tree, is of a brilliant white, the head of the mangoa is brown; and many produce very splendid flowers. The Brazil wood, for instance, puts forth large ones of a purple hue, and I have seen the whole vast mountain of Tenguá clothed in yellow, from the multitude of its Liburnums. The broad-spreading arms of the larger trees are sometimes so covered with parasitic plants, chiefly, I think, of the smaller kinds of aloe, as, in the flowering season, to form gay parterres in the air.

On leaving Pirasenúnga, and proceeding four or five miles by the banks of a river bearing its name, gradually diminishing into a very narrow stream, we found the country full of attractions, and of people who had been drawn thither by qualities superior to natural beauty.— Crossing to the West, about four miles farther, we fell in with the Iguapemirím, navigable in dry weather for canoas alone, but in freshes bearing down balsas and logs of timber. It runs to the South-East to meet the Iguapezú, yet bears a portion of its waters to the bay, and

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discharges them there by a separate mouth. The whole of the way to Magé is about twelve miles, through a plain, rich, well-cultivated country.

Having rejoined our boat, we advanced from the Iguapezú, along a flat coast covered with Mangue, to the broad, shallow mouth of the Guaxendiba. About four miles up, on its left bank, is the village of St. Gonzales; and on the opposite side, a road which conducts by the edge of marshy ground, over plains profitably improved, to St. Joan da Tapacorá, a small Indian village, and the nearest place to the Capital, where the native language is still in use, though in a corrupted state.

From this road we turned off to the left, to visit the large estate of a gentleman, holding the rank of Colonel of the District. He has had the honour of receiving the King as a guest, and the more substantial one of commanding the first provincial troops who did the duty of the city, while the soldiers of the line were employed in suppressing the mad insurrection of Pernambuco. His house is very spacious, having in front of a very long varanda, a square, raised platform, paved with bricks, and surrounded with a parapet and seats, commodious for passing the cool hours of the day. It commands a quadrangle, three sides of which are composed of huts for the negroes, so that the whole establishment is under the master's eye. The Colonel received us very politely, and took the pains to show us his place and its management. While he indulged in the common expressions of surprise, that we should feel so much curiosity, and take such pains to satisfy it, he seemed to contemplate with respect a turn of mind so different from that to which he had been accustomed.

We passed the night at the house of the Colonel's brother, on the bank of the Casarebú, a stream already noticed. Here again, we were treated with great hospitality, and enjoyed a more uncommon gratification in the sight of a variety of Brazilian fruits, collected from the neighbouring woods, which bear the expressive name of Cabazú, the forest of great trees. Here too, we were witnesses of the strict regard to justice, which is shown in the division of a large estate among different

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claimants. Sworn Commissioners, appointed by Government, examine the qualities of the lands, and apportion them much in the same way as is practised in England in the case of inclosures. While looking after game, and attracted by some rare kinds, which seemed to us to claim the attention of Naturalists, we fell in with a horse in the last agonies. I wished to shorten his sufferings with my gun, but our host prevented me by observing, that though it would be an act of charity, it might involve him in much trouble and some loss. The horse, it seemed, had been left on the estate by a traveller, in a worn-out condition; and though the owner of the place was not obliged to maintain it, nor to prevent its wandering into another property, he could not destroy nor injure it without finding the traveller another; "and no one can say," he added, "what would satisfy him."

Returning to the mouth of the Guaxendíba, we found the land to the South of it bold and lofty, bearing the appropriate name of Morro Grandé. We landed at Itaóca, and noticed the appearance of the rocks lying close to the shore. They consist of large masses of granite, rising abruptly out of the water; some of them in the shape of parallelepipedons, with sides and angles naturally smooth, as if well-wrought with the chisel, but most have a roundish face, and in the fracture appear as though, when crystalizing, there had been a tendency towards the shape of a globe;—a circumstance common in the rocks of Brazil, and not very unusual, I apprehend, in granitic rocks in general. Here we examined, also, a natural trap for fishes, which the Indians are said to have made use of many ages ago. I suspect that to the narrow passage between the rocks, where the stream runs strongly, and doubtless carries along many of the finny tribe, contrary to their wish, they applied a weir, and thus easily secured their captives.

Hence we passed to Paquetá, the island, which of the whole number contained in the bay, is accounted the most picturesque. Its form is like the figure of 8; being narrow and low in the middle, at the ends broad and elevated. Almost the whole of it is studded with pleasant houses, particularly along the coast of its two bays; one of which, facing

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the East, is secure; the other, opening broadly towards the West, very unsafe in bad weather. The island, though excessively hot, is fertile, and produces excellent grapes and other fruit. It is visited with what seems to me an unnecessary caution, because, in 1810, a foreigner was wantonly murdered there, and the assassin has never fallen into the hands of justice; escaping to the main land, he left a stain upon the character of the police and the people. We experienced nothing but civility, though our Camera Obscura excited great surprise, mixed, as in other places, with suspicion. At the beginning of my residence in Rio I was often cautioned against taking sketches of the country; but the practice is since become very common, and those who amuse themselves in this way, do so with little apprehension. A person, however, who was employed by myself and some friends to make drawings of the interior of the city, was compelled, by the police, to desist.

Coasting round the Northern end of the island, a surprising scene bursts at once upon the stranger. For the space of several square miles immense masses of naked rock, chiefly if not wholly of gneiss, break abruptly through the water, irregular in their shape and position, and rising to a great height. Many of them are perforated horizontally; the largest of these singular holes being about three feet in diameter, while others are much smaller, and some incomplete. They are occasioned by the action of the wind and rain upon the softer parts of the stone, where a decomposition, once begun, proceeds gradually and surely. Probably, by attentive observation, some knowledge might be obtained, of the time required for the process. The channels between these rocks are deep, and the current ran so rapidly as to induce us to drop anchor at the island of Bocéjo, and to wait until the force of the wind and tide had abated. It was our intention to reach the islands of Jurubába, and to pass the night in a small harbour not unknown to us; but we were obliged to yield to circumstances, and to put in at the South-west side of Paquetá, under a high bluff point of soft sand-stone, where we were much exposed to a thunder-storm, which long appeared

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to be approaching from the North-west, and which came, according to our expectation, in the night.

Hither the people whom we had seen in the Irirí had conveyed their cargoes of shells, and were employed in completing their conversion into lime. We had before amused ourselves with noticing the stratification of the beds; now we examined the shells, with such attention as our defective acquaintance with the subject admitted. They were chiefly of the spiral kind, though there were among them many of the beautiful bivalva, which abounds in other parts of the bay, and a few which I had observed no where else. To convert them into lime a kiln is never used, but a circular layer of wood is placed on the ground, and upon it a layer of shells, thus proceeding alternately until a cone is raised, made up of fuel and the material. The wood here employed was altogether Mangue, procured from the marshes on the Eastern side of the bay. Fire being applied to the cone, the produce is an imperfect lime, containing a large proportion of vegetable ashes, mixed with the calcareous matter.

This entirely agrees with other Brazilian preparations; we not only find ashes in the lime of this country, but lime-stone in its indigo, sand in its sugar, particles of feldspar amongst its rice, seeds in its cotton, and moisture in its coffee. As far as this is the effect of ignorance it punishes itself, perhaps sufficiently; but, as before intimated, it is in part the contrivance of chicanery, and therefore ought to be severely chastised by the magistrate, as a crime against the state.

Early the next morning we steered for Braco-forte, and, in our way, examined the rocks, which here stand high out of the water. They form an interesting broken mass; some of them have evidently been split, and the parts which heretofore formed one stone now lean from each other, in much the same way as do the sides of the divided tower at Caerphilly in South Wales. The island itself is about a mile round, composed of large masses of granite, scattered in a confused manner, partly covered with earth and forest wood. Its mode of form-

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ation has occasioned many natural caverns, which were formerly made use of to secrete contraband goods. On this account it was confiscated, and now, remaining in the crown, is a scene of strange desolation. It possesses, however, what is very uncommon among these islands, two or three springs of good water, and has a small harbour on the Northern side, where art has been called in to the assistance of nature. This is often made a refuge in bad weather, but ought to be approached with caution, for it is surrounded with rocks, among which the current runs violently, and a conical one lies under water, just in front of the harbour's mouth.

Within the pier, about two months before, I had seen a dead porpoise, then in a very offensive state. The skeleton being now dry and clean, I took up the skull and threw it into the boat, intending to examine it at leisure. When, after a short dispersion, we met to re-enter the boat, it appeared that the skull was an object of superstitious dread to our negroes, who thought it a human one, and imagined that it had belonged to a person of their own colour;—the resemblance certainly gave some ground for the suspicion. It was in vain that the fact was represented to them; they persisted in their entreaties that the bone might be thrown overboard. Instead of complying with their wish, the Captain tossed it into the lap of one of them, which so alarmed as to disqualify him for his work, and so offended the rest as to redouble their unintelligible clamours, which were carried on in their native dialect. We had now only one alternative, either to compel them to proceed by severity, or to give up the obnoxious skull. The latter was decided on, and the men seemed so gratified by having obtained the rites of sepulture for a brother, that they behaved admirably during the remainder of the day. An African born negro, once roused to obstinacy, may be subdued; but, I believe, never was convinced; his opinions and resolutions, particularly those of revenge, are unalterable;—always nourished but seldom executed, because he wants courage to give them effect.

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Steering hence through the channels of the Cherúbas, probably a corruption of some Tupi name, we stretched away to the North-east point of the Ilha do Governador, and ran down its Eastern shore. This line of coast is certainly one of the most beautiful and tempting spots which the bay contains. It has so much the air of seclusion without loneliness, of symmetry without form, of delicate beauty unmixed with frowning grandeur, and of comfort without dependance, that I almost wished to make it my abode for the remainder of my days.

Landing on the Ilha d'Agoa, which belongs to my next door neighbour in the city, we considered ourselves as at home, and acted accordingly. It well deserves its name, having upon it springs of excellent water; it is bold, fertile, and improved in some proportion to its worth. Hence as it lightened awfully towards the North, we ran across the Bay in haste, to the Ilha do Flamengo; and being unspeakably disgusted, while supping at Porto Velho, by the profligate behaviour of some females, took refuge on board our launch, and about midnight re-entered the middle bay.

The whole bay of Rio de Janeiro is sometimes molested with fogs of extraordinary density. Sailing upon it, I once found myself in shoal water, without being in the least aware that we were near the shore, and distinctly heard people talking in their usual tones, while no object was visible to us beyond the boat. We inquired of them what course we ought to steer, and received their directions without even seeing what sailors call the loom of their persons. Boats, after having passed Ponta Cajú, frequently steer between the islands in the bay of St. Christophe, without discerning an atom of land until they touch the beach. And one of my own family, attempting, with several other persons, to cross the bay in a fog, was carried away by the current quite out of the harbour, into the open sea, having passed unconsciously through the gorge. These fogs, not usually with this extreme degree of density, come on soon after sun-rise, are dispersed about nine o'clock in the morning, and usher in a clear warm day.

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A.D, 1817.


AS my engagement to reside in Brazil would close in 1818, the previous year necessarily became a leisure one, and I wished to visit some gentlemen, with whom I had long traded, in the Province of Minas Geraes; partly with a view of strengthening old acquaintance, or laying a foundation for new connections; partly to take my leave of some whom I should probably see no more; and also to become better, acquainted with a country, in whose fate and improvement I had been interested for the last ten years. So soon as my purpose was known, several friends in the city interested themselves, and made anxious preparation for my comfort on the road; and their good offices availed me greatly. It was arranged that I should travel in the slowest of all

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modes, with a Tropeiro, or carrier, whom they recommended to me not only as a good man, but possessing all the important qualifications of an agreeable companion. He was to find me a riding mule, and one to carry my baggage; my servant rode one of my own mules, and led, for my accommodation, a long tried favourite stallion.

I took with me, besides wearing apparel, a bed and bed-stocks, which are constructed for the convenience of travellers, folded up in a small compass, and constitute what is called a Cama da Venta. I was furnished also with a small writing-desk, implements for drawing, a thermometer, and an excellent small telescope. I carried also the little luxuries of biscuit, Jamaica rum, wine, porter, tobacco, tea, and sugar; a knife, fork, and spoon; candles and candlestick. I adopted partly the dress of the country, and my servant carried an extra japanned hat, to serve in wet weather. It will be evident, from this sort of preparation, that we expected the route to afford us none of the luxuries of life, nor always the indulgences which may be derived from the abundant produce of the country through which we were to pass. It may excite some degree of surprise, among those accustomed to European travelling, to learn that, in Brazil, the common articles of pepper and salt, as well as those of more importance, are often placed beyond the reach of wealth itself to purchase.

We left the city amidst the good wishes of many friends, and coasted along the Eastern side of the Ilha do Governador, passed the Island of Antonio da Sylva, stood away, without impediment from shoals, to the mouth of the Inhomerím, and, in the evening, reached Porto D'Estrella, a distance of seven leagues. The town was very full of soldiers, for the militia of the country, both cavalry and infantry, had been assembled there for the purpose of training, a circumstance which takes place every three months. Their term had expired that evening; those who resided in the neighbourhood had already gone to their homes, but some of them came from places more than an hundred miles distant, so extensive is the district to which this corps belongs. In almost every other country such a military system, comprehending so

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wide a space, and compelling the attendance of every white man, would be deemed an intolerable grievance; and Brazil itself will most undoubtedly find an amendment of it, in these points, necessary. The evening was spent with officers in the exercise of such great good humour and gaiety, as in some sedater parts of the world would be thought extravagant.

At the venda where we lodged, are several large sheds, under which the goods in transit are deposited, and where the persons who have the charge of them sleep. Those intended for the interior are made up, before they leave the city, into packages about four feet long, three broad, and two deep, and inclosed in a covering of waxed cloth, to preserve them against injuries from the weather. The whole are so adjusted, by the due admixture of bulky and of heavy articles, as to weigh about seventy pounds each. Hats and other goods which do not admit of close package, as well as those which are liable to be broken or spoiled by pressure, are put into cases and covered by a similar kind of oil case.

These loads, or as they are generally denominated cargoes, are to be conveyed through the country on the backs of mules; and on this account, as well as its singularity, the pannel or saddle to which they are adapted, will require a short description. It is composed of two pieces of wood, formed almost like the letter Y inverted; these are placed parallel to each other, and the two forks are joined together by laths in such a manner that the angular or curved part will stretch across the back of the mule. It is rendered easy to the animal by a stuffing of dried Sapé, a species of coarse grass or rushes, which is laid longitudinally within side the wood, and fastened to it either by withs, or cords nicely platted from vegetable fibres. When the pannel is laid on the back of the mule, the two knobs are in an upright position, about two feet asunder, one above the withers the other over the loins of the beast. A broad belt of dry untanned hide passes from it round the buttocks, to prevent the load from slipping forward, and another round the shoulders, and under the neck, to keep it from sliding backward. The mule has also about its head a long halter made from the same material.

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At the Port, the first business is to put round each package two girders, with loops attached to them, at such a distance from each other as the knobs of the pannel or pack-saddle may require. These are also made of raw hide, but soaked in water, that they may admit of greater tension, and bind the more closely; they are indeed the cords of the package; in loading, the loops are put over the knobs of the pack-saddle, so that one bale is suspended on each side of the mule, and made to balance its companion; other smaller packages, or articles useful for the cattle or their drivers, are placed between the bales over the saddle, and the weight of the whole is adjusted to the strength of the beast. Over all is thrown a dried bide, doubled and bound on with a wanty, to keep the load dry. The average weight of each load is estimated at two hundred and fifty-six pounds; but among the packages consigned to our troop was one of tea-boards, which weighed six arrobas and a half, and this must be balanced on the saddle by an equal weight, so that one poor beast carried four hundred and sixteen pounds.

It is owing to this mode of conveying goods, that small packages are so much esteemed in the South American trade. Those which exceed in weight half the burden of a mule, must undergo some change at the Port, and on that account are frequently saleable only there, or to people who can dispose of large quantities of goods. Hence for large packages the number of customers is diminished, and the price proportionally lower; hence also pigs of lead, bars of iron, barrels of nails, and a variety of other articles, which are conveyed with ease in European waggons, must undergo an expensive process in Brazil, in order to adapt them to the backs of mules. Bars of iron, v g must not only be reduced to a proper weight, but be doubled into a proper form, about two feet in length; and a pig of lead, which weighed half a ton, was an absolute incumbrance, when I first went to Brazil, for the people had not the skill, nor the means, necessary for dividing it into smaller portions; besides, an article of this kind, when cut, is imperfect, and may be cut again, and is therefore subject to a kind of plunder which cannot be detected.

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On Sunday morning, the day after our arrival at Porto d'Estrella, the people went very early to mass, and then proceeded, as is usual, to their labour. The scene was a very busy one, for at the Venda where I lodged, beside the common business of packing salt, which is put into small bags of raw hide, there were at least five hundred mules to be loaded, and most of their burdens to be arranged and adjusted. Every troop is divided into sections of seven beasts and one driver, who is generally a slave; ours consisted of seven of these sections, or forty-nine beasts of burden, beside those we rode upon, and was superintended by the owner and one assistant on horseback.

The business of distributing and loading the packages occupied us until nearly twelve o'clock; when the first division of our troop set off. Soon afterward I mounted the mule destined for my riding, a fine tall female, very safe and tractable, and rode nine miles over a sandy plain, so little raised above the level of the water, as to be frequently, if not generally, overflowed. The road passed between thick hedges, and conducted us to Inhomerím, a small plain, somewhat drier than the surrounding country, where the Parish Church of the district stands pleasantly amidst some of those round hills, which are common at the foot of the mountains.

The appearance of those before us became very imposing, the range is fully in view, consisting of lofty pinnacles, large projections, immeasurable precipices, and deep recesses; the whole, except in those perpendicular faces where only lichens can grow, covered with a vast sheet of foliage, differing in its tints, its texture, and its altitude; decorated with the glowing splendour of the mid-day sun, with patches and larger masses of shade. As we proceed, the passage over the Serro becomes distinctly visible, and its white road forms no unpleasing feature in the Landscape.

Our appointed rendezvous was at a place called O Pe do Serro, situated, as its name indicates, at the foot of the mountains, and close to a wooden bridge crossing one of those clear, harmless, rippling streams, so common in mountainous countries, which, when swelled by rain, rolls

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a noisy, turbulent, and overwhelming torrent. Having arrived before any of my companions, I applied for such accommodations as a place so miserable might afford, and was absolutely denied them. Determined however, if possible, to procure a dinner, I went on to a better looking house, which stood about a quarter of a mile further, and on rapping at the half-open door, was pleased to hear the well-remembered voice of Mr. Langsdorff, the Representative of his Imperial Majesty of Russia at the Court of Brazil; a gentleman already known to the public by his remarks during a voyage and journey round the Globe, by way of California, Japan, Kamptschatca, and Siberia. He had purchased here a very fine estate, and was improving it upon principles little known in Brazil, and deserving of her grateful attention. He showed me a plant which he had discovered in his grounds, having, as he said, the singular property of producing, not only its root and stem, but also its flowers and seed vessels entirely under the surface of the earth. He possessed here also a very fine specimen of the Anta, and for several years has been engaged in forming a complete Cabinet of Brazilian Insects. After dinner, we took a hasty and short walk into his grounds, for this active—I had almost said restless Minister, was obliged to return to the city that evening, in order to attend a Levee at Court the next day.

The first part of my ride to-day, was over soil formed by the action of the waves, the latter part over clayey ground with a sandy bottom, formed most probably by the alluvial matter from the mountains. The country, as far as could be discerned on either hand, was flat, in some measure swampy, and exposed to floods. At Mandióca, the land was a few feet higher, and we found the red clay which is common in every part of Brazil,

Immediately by the house, begins a new road up the face of the Serro. It is cut out of the side of the mountain, takes the line of a narrow and irregular defile, and is paved with large stones; the ascent in some places is very steep, but the angles are formed with judgment. There is only one other work of the kind, I believe, in Brazil, which communicates between Santos and St. Paul's. Both of them do great

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credit to such an infant state, both of them in some places are dilapidated, and, like all works undertaken by this Government, are well executed at first, but neglected afterwards, and suffered to go out of repair.— Funds, it is true, are provided for the support of this, yet, being collected at the Register of the Parahybúna, a hundred miles further on, they derive no aid from those, who, living on this side the river, are most benefited by the work, and who, seldom passing the Register, contribute little to the toll. In this respect they exhibit at least a fair specimen of Brazilian management.

As we ascended, the defile presented some admirable specimens of mountain and woodland scenery. On the left, the brook brawled deeply below; on the right, appeared crags and pinnacles in the wildest confusion: here the declivities retreated and exhibited a feature peculiar perhaps, to this ridge of mountains, where other smaller valleys transversly intersect the general slope, and show their respective lines higher and beyond; while at other points, the masses rose in abrupt rocks and almost overhung the road. The height of one of these was roughly measured in the following manner, on the 16th of September, at ten o'clock in the morning, in Lat. 22°. S. the sun had not risen on a point of the road a thousand feet above the level of the sea, his rays being intercepted by the summit of a peak, whence a perpendicular would meet the plane of the horizon at one mile distant from the observer; data which show that the mountain rose about a mile above us.

At the highest part of the road, after an ascent of four miles and a half, we are about four thousand feet above the level of the sea, and the cones on each side of us rise two thousand more; thence we look down upon the flat land, near the foot of the Serro, upon the bay of Rio de Janeiro, and the country round it, as upon a map; the Sugar Loaf, Corcovado, and Gavia, are directly before us, and we can trace the coast, beyond which lies a vast expanse of ocean, from Cape Frio to the Point Joatinga, a distance of nearly a hundred and fifty miles. The defile presents many fine stations for military defensive works, which most certainly ought to be made impregnable, should the city ever be attacked

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by an enemy. On the summit of the pass, the heat is said to be generally excessive, but at noon we found it moderated by a strong breeze from the North-East, a circumstance which led me to think that the stratum of the sea-breeze does not always extend to this elevation; nor does the current refreshing us agree with the theory which maintains that the sea-breeze is produced by cold air rushing in to supply the place of that, which being heated by the land, ascends above it to the upper regions of the atmosphere. Such phenomena deserve investigation, and probably may be accounted for by local circumstances, when these shall be better known than they are at present.

The soil, as we ascended the hill, consisted chiefly of decomposed granite; at the summit, which is nearly level, and beyond the end of the paved road, which terminates here, it is composed of red clay, exhibiting a thousand proofs of being very soft and miry, when the weather is wet. To obviate the difficulties which would arise from this circumstance, a road of logs is made over it, and continued, at intervals, through the whole province. Among the minerals near to, and upon the summit, we met with iron stone, the quantity of which decreased as we descended on the Northern side; and the core of the mountain appeared to be composed of gneiss.

Having descended at intervals about three hundred feet, we reached Corgo Seco, a miserable Venda, where the people were civil, young, ignorant, and ingenious. We stopped here to collect the mules, which had become fatigued and dispersed in climbing the hill, and appeared to have joined an incipient stream, running through a narrow and depressed bed toward the North. The mountains on either hand were very bold, covered with untouched woods, and rose a thousand feet higher. As we proceeded through a narrow and picturesque valley, the country opened to the right and showed some of the Eastern Peaks, large, smooth, and naked, forming together a rugged and desolate scene. As we still descended, yet passing over ground with considerable undulations, to a place where a small stream flowed to join the principal one on our left, the valley became narrower and close, until the road was only a mule track

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cut out of the side of a rock. At Itamareté, a lone house pleasantly situated upon the Eastern side of the stream, which has here become considerable by the junction of a brook from the West, and is now joined by a larger one from the South-east, we took up our abode for the night.

This is one of those resting places which abound through the whole central part of Brazil, at least where there are frequented roads. The owner of a large estate builds what is called a Rancho, which, in general, is nothing more than a long and broad roof covered with tiles, and raised upon rough and unhewn posts, about twenty feet high; intended to afford shelter from the sun and rain, but it has generally no walls whatever, and very frequently the ground upon which it stands is not even rendered smooth and level. In these respects, therefore, they are inferior to the common hovels of English farms, under which cattle are usually housed. Beneath these sheds, those who travel with a troop, for the most part, take up their residence for the night, and have no communication whatever with the house or the owner of it. Just by he establishes a venda, that he may be able to dispose of milho, a chief article which the farm produces, and too bulky and heavy to be conveyed over mountainous roads, to a distant market, where also the price obtained would hardly defray the expences of carriage. At a small distance also, upon the farm, is a pasture, into which the cattle belonging to the troop are turned at night. This is generally in some secluded valley, where the mules require neither inclosures nor keeper, for they seldom stray from the spot, separate from each other, or mingle with the individuals of another troop. For pasturage a small sum is paid to the owner of the land, and he derives the additional advantage of keeping his estate in some measure free from brushwood, and in a condition suitable for furnishing his own cattle with grass.

At Itamareté the Rancho was an hundred and fifty feet long by thirty broad; as the mules arrived and were unloaded, the larger packages were carried within it, and arranged in such a manner as to inclose an area of about ten feet square, at one corner of which was left an entrance

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into this singular apartment. In another corner were placed such small and light things as were most liable to be either lost or stolen. On the outside of our temporary walls, at a little distance from them, the pack-saddles were placed upon each other in the most exact order; the wanties were hung together upon one of the beams which form the roof, the halters and the hides were duly arranged; in short, every thing was so disposed as to be immediately found when wanted; beyond the range of pack-saddles a fire was kindled upon the ground for cooking, and our temporary kitchen established there.

When dinner was ready, which consisted only of Carne-secca and Farinha, a table was formed, within the area, by two square packages, laid one upon the other; our cloth was spread over them, and the plates arranged upon it in the neatest order, accompanied by knives and forks, with other things requisite for a comfortable meal; another package, or a barrel, served each of us for a seat. Without being delicate in my appetite, or scrupulous in my choice of food, I sat down to this meal with some degree of disappointment, for it had been reported to me that, along the principal road in Brazil, poultry or pigs, at least, could be purchased at every station.

From the ceremonies used before meat, I discovered that my Guide was a religious and devout man. So also was his assistant, the chief Muleteer, whom, by inquiring whether they did not usually dine together, and begging that my presence might make no difference in their ordinary modes, I introduced to our dinner party. The circumstance gave pleasure to each, and to me afforded a new opportunity for the observation of character. The countenance of this attendant strongly expressed a want of cultivated intellect, a great degree of pertinacity, and a small portion of mind. He was almost as ignorant as a human being, not absolutely an idiot, could possibly be; and was superstitious in the extreme. He was afflicted with a violent liver complaint, and to effect his cure, carried in his hand a small white flag, on which was painted a figure of the Holy Ghost. Of this treasure he was exceedingly careful, and as he passed along was frequently requested by strangers

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to unroll it, that they might have the satisfaction of bowing reverently, crossing themselves, and kissing it. On one occasion I noticed that he left the sacred emblem behind him forgotten, became inwardly distressed, and the object of a sarcastic smile from the slaves; as the bauble gave him pleasure, I was glad when he recovered it.

A troop or caravan, like our's, carries with it every thing which can be anticipated as necessary or useful, except milho, and the afternoon is spent in busy employment; some of the party act as farriers, blacksmiths, or saddlers; others as attendant labourers; all are so much occupied as to form a highly interesting scene. The pannels which were worn or become hard, or otherwise uneasy to the mules, were newly stuffed; a small anvil was fixed in the ground, and horse-shoes and nails prepared and pointed against the time when they might be wanted. The advantages derived from iron, even in this lowly respect, were evident, and frankly acknowledged by those who could compare the period, when it was a scarce article in Brazil, with the present; and when beasts of burden were obliged to travel over hard roads, with heavy loads, without shoes. While we were at dinner the mules had been suffered to roll about in the sand, to stray to the waters, and to cool and refresh themselves as they were able; afterwards they were collected, tied to sticks placed upright in holes of the earth, formed to receive the lower ends of them; every back was examined, and the general health and condition of the animal noticed; proper remedies were applied to those which were sickly, or galled, and the latter, I observed, were chiefly of the caustic kind; to those which wanted shoes this valuable defence was supplied. Every driver was expected to know and take care of the seven mules, which formed his particular section of the troop; to keep them in good order, and to feed them, by placing their noses in a small bag, containing a certain quantity of milho. When this was consumed, the whole troop was conducted to pasture for the night.

At the Rancho we had been joined by two brothers who were Tropeiros, the elder of them, an intelligent and gentlemanly man,

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seemed, in some respects, to be unfit for so hard and harrassing a life. They were going to Sabará, and it gave me pleasure to find that our route, for several days, would lie in the same direction, and that we should not differ greatly in our rate of travelling. I determined, therefore, as much as possible, to make him my companion. Before the party of chiefs assembled, which, though contrary to their usual custom, I had contrived, by the help of a few Havannah segars and a bottle of Port wine, to bring together for the evening, I enjoyed the luxury of bathing in one of the most charmingly sequestered spots which was ever beheld; and by this refreshment was qualified to participate in the pleasures of the cool and shady evening with peculiar satisfaction. We sate until a late hour, and parted mutually pleased with our companions. During this scene my bed, and that of my guide, had been set up within the inclosure of packages; the mates found a station just without the walls, and around us lay the slaves; they had kindled fires to drive away musquitoes, and placed dogs to protect us from strangers.

The river, on whose bank we reposed, has assumed the name of Payabúna, the black family of priests, or Piabúna, the trees with black bark. It is about fifty feet broad, has assumed a less tortuous course than it had higher up the mountain, and flows only about forty feet below the general level of the road; circumstances which seemed to indicate that we were about to enter upon a broader and more level part of the valley. As we came up the Serro it was remarked that, to the height of two thousand five hundred feet, the plants were generally such as grow upon the lower grounds about Rio de Janeiro. Above this elevation we found some curious lichens; and as we began to descend toward the North the Brazilian pine, called Táta, became abundant. The bank of the river, which, in one place, had been deeply cut by floods, displayed layers of sand mixed with mica and feldspar, affording some probability to the opinion expressed by my companions, that the stream has yielded, and still contains, some gold. The bed is full of rounded masses of gneiss and granite. In the morning some very large Pombas, or doves, settled near us, but the foggy night had

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rendered the powder damp and my gun useless. At six o'clock in the morning the thermometer stood at 61°; at noon, the preceding day, it was 96°; and the great change of temperature produced an uncomfortable sensation of coldness. This place, probably the same which Mawe calls Belmonte, and some others name Sumidouro, is stated to be in the near neighbourhood of native and untamed Indians, and the woods, it is said, abound in Ounces and other game; perhaps it may convey some distinct idea of the scenery to remark, that it bears a partial resemblance to the vale of Matlock, and to Dinas Emerys in Wales; the forest being much richer, and the rocks, where naked, more conical. We supposed ourselves seven hundred feet below the house at Corgo-Seco.

Collecting, feeding, and loading the mules, together with our own breakfast, occupied us until eight o'clock, which, probably, owing to the short twilight of this part of the world, is the earliest hour at which a troop can be expected to set off in the morning. We descended again by the bank of the river, which soon leaves its stoney bed, and receives a large accession of water from the South-west under the name of the Piabúna Mirim. Here the valley begins to open very considerably, the land is stripped of its timber, and shows a soil greatly exhausted and not naturally good, being formed chiefly of decomposed granite and spar; even the narrow meadows are encumbered with refuse brought down by the stream. Padre Luiz, to whom the estate belongs, and who occupies a pleasant house upon it, has adopted the mode of farming too common in this country, which consists in gathering from the land all it can possibly yield without expense, or aid from manure. He is said to grow rich very rapidly, to lay all his money out in the purchase of new slaves, and to treat them harshly. Here we found some excellent out-offices, and among them that most important, yet till now, rare establishment, a blacksmith's shop. Here, too, was a mill, such as is common in the interior of Brazil, but peculiar, perhaps, to the country. It is composed of an horizontal wheel, whose diameter is about four or five feet; round the circumference are placed, in the plane of the wheel, a number of ladles, which resemble half a cocoa-nut shell cut longitu-

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dinally. The water is brought down to the wheel through a trough, in such a manner as shall enable it to strike the ladles with force, and give motion to the wheel. The axis passes through the floor of a small building, where it turns a single pair of mill stones. Such a machine has very little power, but is recommended in a mountainous country by its applicability to almost every situation, by the simplicity of its structure and the little cost at which it may be erected.

At the distance of half a league is a large establishment of Padre Correio, whose buildings form three sides of an area, with a fine wild fig-tree in the centre. The mansion-house stands at the South-Eastern angle, one side of the square is occupied by offices belonging to the farm, another by two houses designed for the accommodation of those travellers who may wish for comforts not to be found in the common Rancho. Here also are workshops, where blacksmiths are constantly employed in finishing horse shoes, which have been roughly made, either in Rio or in England. Their labour consists in beating the exterior edge, while the iron is quite cold, until a sort of rim is raised all round the shoe, sufficient to inclose the extremity of the hoof, and preserve it from injury, by this cold beating, the iron is rendered harder and more durable. The Piabúna washes the other side of the area, and has just received a considerable tribute of dark waters from the Eastward, through a narrow valley, which seems to be about fifteen miles long, and is flanked on each side by naked cones of grey granite, from fifteen hundred to two thousand feet high, forming a view as rough as the imagination can easily conceive. We were one day surprised at the quantity of water which came down this channel, at its superior blackness, at the rapidity and rolling form of the current, and concluded that there must have been rain far up the valley, though not the slightest appearance of it had been observed with us; a circumstance which seemed to confirm our opinion respecting the length of the stream.

Behind the houses destined for strangers, is a large kitchen garden, well stocked with vegetables, and kept in good order; at the back of the dwelling-house is an extensive piece of ground appropriated to flowers;

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in the valley is a large plantation of peach trees, in blossom at the time of our visit, but without promising appearances of fruit. On the stream, from the Eastward, is a mill with a broad breast water wheel, evidently copied from similar erections in the Old World, but without skill to adjust and proportion its parts; on the low grounds was an attempt at irrigation, capable, as it may be supposed, of considerable improvement.

The Padre is represented as an ambitious man, particularly desirous of obtaining a visit from Royalty, and straining every nerve to further his own views. For this purpose he makes presents of produce and fruits from his estate, and is said to be very poor and deeply in debt; nevertheless, his slaves are in good order, and appear to be comfortable. At this place I once joined a botanizing party of my countrymen, and then we consisted of five persons, with a servant attached to each. On the third day of our visit, we were surprised to find, notwithstanding the splendour and magnitude of the establishment, that we had exhausted all its fresh provisions; that not a fowl, duck, nor pig could be found about the place; so scanty are the means of comfort among Brazilians, or rather so different are their ideas of luxury from ours.

Our shooting here, which yielded plenty of game, produced us also a bird very common in this part of Brazil, called from the figure of its tail and its custom of opening and shutting it while flying, the Tesoura or Shears. It is a bird of prey, about the size of a kite, has a hooked bill and talons, the head and belly are white, the back wings and tail black, the wings long and powerful, the tail is also long and remarkably forked, the plumage is generally ample, and contains a great proportion of down near the skin.

As we proceeded along the valley, it became narrower, increased its beauty, and essentially changed its character, becoming a narrow dell, where it was necessary to cut a road on the side of the mountain, which conducted sometimes to the brink of the river, and at others over considerable elevations, until it terminated in a flat clayey level, covered with brushwood. Here, while alone, I met with two young men well

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mounted, of genteel appearance, and even dignified manners. They travelled in the character of military officers, and wore a brown uniform of the Hussar kind, were well armed, but without a servant. They said their home was in the farther part of Matto Grosso, and certainly furnished a fine specimen of the people, should we even rank them with the superior class, who inhabit a region so remote, so little known, and so excluded from European influence. One of them retained, in a degree, the habit of his country, for over his uniform he wore one of those Splendid Ponchos, which are commonly obtained from Tucuman or Lima, originally of Indian manufacture, but which, I have since learned, has been successfully imitated by the white inhabitants of their country. He carried also a clothes bag of the same shewy texture. The other had complied, in some measure, with our manners, and carried behind him a small English Portmanteau, which he had purchased at Villa Rica, and was highly delighted with its convenience. They were going to Rio to see Lisbonian splendours, and foreign manners; the reports of which, they said, had greatly excited their curiosity. I was the only foreigner they had ever seen—the first individual of a people whom they had heard of, and were disposed to place, in the scale of character and respectability, as second only to the Portuguese. My appearance excited their surprise, and the rencontre evidently gave pleasure to us all. Their minds seemed to be in that state, which an inquisitive boy experiences, when he first approaches the Metropolis of his Nation. Nor is this to be wondered at, when we consider how much of novelty they must have witnessed on their route, and how much was still before them. Two of their neighbours, Merchants from Cuyabá, were dining at my table, soon after the Royal Family had emigrated, and after inquiring much about the state and the wars of Portugal, about the British, and about the French, they said,—Well! no nosso canto do mundo,—in our corner of the world we have never heard till now, of European wars; we did not even suppose, until lately, that there were any people on the face of the earth but Portuguese and Spaniards, besides Gentio, a name which they contemptuously give to South American

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Indians. We met also, the same day, several other persons, travelling with troops, who came from the remote parts of Brazil, and seemed to be Mestizos, a cast between the Portuguese and Indian blood; all of them carried a rough sort of sword.

At the end of the plain we crossed a stream from the Westward, which bears strong marks of occasional violence, and, a little beyond the bridge, saw some Orioles in their pendent nests upon lofty trees. Just as I had stepped into the low brushwood with which the ground was covered, and put the gun to my shoulder, to bring down a bird, my attention was suddenly drawn downwards; there I saw a large snake passing within a few inches of my toe. To start backward was involuntary, I lowered the piece and wounded him, but he dragged his length across the road and escaped among the bushes, for I thought him an enemy too formidable to be incautiously roused. He appeared to be six or seven feet long, five or six inches round, had a dark brown back and yellowish belly, dashed with black oval spots, which were particularly large on his sides. His eye was exceedingly brilliant, as is the case, I believe, with most of these reptiles, seeming to reflect, as well as to bear, the full splendour of the sun. I have seldom found myself able to look steadily upon them. He moved, as do all Brazilian snakes with which I am acquainted, in horizontal curves, though sometimes represented, in British prints, with vertical ones. When we met at the next station, our people complained of having been molested to-day with an unusual number of these reptiles, and supposed that they had been driven from the mountains by the dry weather, and were in search of water.

Having travelled in a North-North-west direction, and descended, according to our computation, two hundred and fifty feet, we arrived early at the miserable Rancho of Olaria. The road had been excellent, and by the side of it were several plants not common about Rio de Janeiro. The houses we had seen were good but not grand, one of them, at least, appeared to be the abode of insolence. The slaves, as we passed along, appeared generally well clothed and fed. Places adapted

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to mill seats were numerous and excellent, and though the country is almost destitute of civilized inhabitants, we are told that there is no land unappropriated on this side the Parahýba, meaning, I presume, along the line which the road takes, for the interior is entirely unsubdued. The immediate neighbourhood of this place is rather flat, roads branch off in several directions, one, which I followed for a considerable distance, led me round the end of a low mountain, and conducted to a most delightful dell. Above the general ridges, to the South, appear distant grey peaks. One to the East, and another to the South-west, are particularly remarkable; probably the sources of streams.

At this place the people were preparing their land for a crop of milho, which is to be sown at the beginning of October. For this purpose they cut down the wood, only leaving the large trees standing, and burn it on the ground; the ashes serving for manure. Holes are then dibbled, without any ploughing or other mode of turning up the soil, about eighteen inches asunder, and three corns put into each, which are covered up and left to the influence of the rain and sun: the crop is generally expected to yield, for the seed sown, four hundred fold. In February, the heads of the plants, being then fully ripe, are cut off and carried home in baskets, where they are laid up in their exterior coat. When corn is wanted they are stripped, and the seeds detached from the cone by rubbing them with the hand. The farm is always so arranged in sections that the same land shall come under culture once in seven years, i. e. it lies fallow six. What a waste of nature's bounty! What a field for industry! and yet it seems that the mode of farming has improved, not by the establishment of new settlers, as it was natural to suppose, but by working the land in a better manner than formerly.

Burning the brushwood had exposed the trunks of two trees, which seemed to have laid on the ground during more than two septenary periods, for their heads and arms had been quite consumed, the trunks themselves very much charred, and each end had smouldered away for the length of several feet. The measure of the smaller was fifty-one feet; the girth, at the larger end, eight feet, at the smallest six; the

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larger trunk was seventy-four feet long, near the root five feet round, and at the other end four; both were without bark, seemed to have lost, by comparing them with their respective roots, about half their circumference, and would have yielded timber to a greater length; they were perfectly straight, and of that kind of forest-wood which throws out no buttresses at the root. It is astonishing that such trees stand so firmly as they do, for the head is generally very close, loaded with plants, and exposed above the forest to the full power of the wind, acting upon a long lever.

While measuring these trunks, I was stung by an insect, whose nest was a cone, with the apex attached to a thorn. It contained thirteen cells, whose mouths were downwards, the larvæ being suspended within them: these were vigorous, but not sufficiently advanced, I presume, to show, to a more skilful inquirer than myself, what class they belonged to. I caught also a moth, which I should be glad to describe scientifically, for it seemed remarkable both for its size and beauty. It was an inch and a quarter long, its colour a silvery white, with regular and finely formed patches of a light delicate drab or dove colour; the form of the insect was extremely pleasing, and its attire peculiarly rich.—This morning, before we set off, the thermometer was 54°, at noon 84°, and at seven in the evening 75°.

Early the next morning we proceeded along the same valley, and soon found it close considerably; at about two miles distance the volume of water in the river was greatly increased, probably by the reception of a current from the Eastward, while it was out of our sight, making a short detour round a hill to our right; yet the stream still flowed in a rather even bed. A little farther on the Dell became deeper and narrower, and the river tumbled down steep declivities among masses of stone; the road was merely a narrow mule-track, cut out of the side of a mountain, and was frequently three, and sometimes five hundred feet above the level of the stream; once it descended to the water's edge. The few rills which crossed the road were so small and short as to convince us that we were travelling along the western edge of the basin

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which the Piabúna empties. To-day I was joined by a man whose countenance did not please me, and found from him trouble under the mask of civility. He was one of those people who, wishing to be civil, unfortunately mistake the means of rendering themselves agreeable; or, intending to deceive, adopt the appearance of friendship as a cloak to their purpose. With such companions safety lies in suspicion, and the slightest incongruity, between the professed intention and the observed conduct, generally warrants distrust. Some days afterwards this man again obtruded his civilities, and, though extremely unpleasant to receive attentions with coldness and suspicion, his countenance and conduct seemed perpetually to say—beware.

He pointed out to me a large bird, in size and form resembling a Guinea fowl; the general colour was brown, the larger feathers in the wing white, and it had some redness about the head; my unwelcome companion said it was a Capoeiro, that this species commonly remained in the recesses of the wood, and that probably the dryness of the season had brought this straggler down to the river. It was returning to the mountains with a heavy and fluttering flight, and kept too distant from us for the gun to reach it. In places by the road side, where there was flat space enough to receive them, we passed several mud huts, which seemed to be inhabited by a lazy race of beings. Yesterday we met only two hundred mules, to-day full twice as many have been counted, laden with raw cotton and cotton-cloth, with cheese and a small quantity of leather, the produce of the Interior. The people who attended some of them carried, beside the Machado, or hoe, with which every troop is furnished, a large axe also. The use of the former is to clear away the earth, which sometimes slips down in the manner of an Avalanche, and stops the road, or to cut a new passage in the side of a hill, when the old one is impeded or carried away by any accident; the latter is useful to cut asunder and clear away the trees which fall across the path.

This day's journey terminated at Pegado, a distance of eight miles, where I arrived alone about ten o'clock in the forenoon. The establishment contains many excellent buildings; I expected, therefore, a good

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dinner, a luxury which I had not enjoyed for several days, and accordingly began to forage in order that it might be ready when the troop came up. With a great deal of knocking at the doors and windows of the house, and by the display of more impudence than good manners, I induced a little negro girl to speak to me, and endeavoured to procure a duck, fowl, turkey, pig, or any other small animal, but was assured there was no such thing about the premises; indeed I had examined previously every out-house, and could meet with neither quadruped nor biped, but this poor harmless girl, who, at last confessed that there was in the house a fowl, which had been purchased from a troop the day before, and that it was kept to make broth for her master, who was ill. I endeavoured to gain access to him, whose character had previously been described to me, by representing that I knew something of medicine, yet even then did not succeed. As therefore the fowl could not be purchased, the girl bribed, nor the churl cajoled, we were obliged to dine as hardly as usual, and to promise ourselves better fare to-morrow, for the gun had furnished only a few small doves and sparrows.

The common Rancho has been already described, that in which we now lodge may serve as a specimen of the better kind. It has a mud wall at the back, and at one end; the front and the other end are open, but railed with horizontal bars to the height of five feet, and there are two good gates for entrance. The building is sixty yards long, fifteen broad, and exceedingly well constructed; the pillars, both in the centre and sides, are of brick; the rafters, spars, and rails, are of different sized trunks of the Cocoa-tree, admirably well selected; those of the roof being three inches diameter, of the front about four; and the whole building is put together, according to the custom of the country, without the use of a nail or iron in any shape, or even of a peg, or sipo for binding together the principal parts; they are supplied by the use of notches and tenons; the floor is the common earth, not even levelled.

In the evening several people, who seemed to belong to the establishment, appeared about the place, and represented the owner as a man about seventy years of age, as a priest, superstitious, morose, indolent, and

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hypochondriac. They did not scruple to manifest towards him the most undisguised rancour, and therefore lowered themselves, in my opinion, rather than the object of their spleen.

It was generally allowed that this estate measured a league in front, and as much in depth, containing, at least, twenty English square miles of land. Some of the people maintained that its extent was twice, or even thrice as much; probably it reached to territories still possessed by Indians, and if so, had, on that side, no actual limits whatever. Let this be as it may, the place afforded an instance of what is very common in Brazil, where a tract of land, naturally capable of supporting a large population, leaves its single owner destitute of comforts, and of even the common necessaries of life. There it may be considered as generally true, that the owner of a large estate is poor in every other respect. In this case the evil was increased by the possessor's own indolence, or illness, or age, or incapacity of adapting his manners to the new circumstances of the times.

During the afternoon a canoa, which I found upon the river, furnished means for trying the current. The stream proceeds at the rate of about six miles per hour, in places were it is most broad and quiet. The bed in general is rough, and exhibits strong proofs of frequent flushes of water, during which the canoa is useful for crossing from one bank to the other. At the distance of twenty-five miles the stream is discharged into the Parahýba, after having tumbled over a long succession of rapids. Agreeable to the rule established for the whole of this journey, of throwing together, at the close of every day, those remarks which appear heterogeneous and isolated, I shall here state that we noticed in the forests several large trees producing red flowers, in full bloom while the branches were entirely destitute of leaves. The people here are so incurious that, when we inquired into the reason of this, they could give us no account, and seemed not to have remarked the circumstance, or even seen it. The thermometer to-day, at half past two p. m. was at 82°, at seven o'clock nearly 74°, at six the next morning 59°. As we passed along, many granitic stones were observed, imbeded

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in the clays of the hills, of that class which have a tendency to a globular shape in their formation.

Leaving the banks of the Piabuna, and ascending a steep road to the height of seventeen hundred feet above the level of Pegado, we crossed the summit of the Serro, and saw, almost as much below us, a broad and fertile valley, which opens far to the Westward. On this summit we are evidently at the head of new streams, which, collecting from the East round by the South and West, join together near a large farm named Secretario, and flow toward the Piabúna. Nevertheless I do not conceive that to be the only, nor even the principal drain of the vale, for, beyond another small elevation, is a still larger body of water, flowing rapidly from the Westward over a rocky bed, and making its escape, on our right, through a scene which is remarkably broken; so justly may this part of our route be said to pass through a land of brooks.

While travelling by the side of one continued stream, in such a country as this, the prospects must unavoidably be confined; but as this day we crossed the dells, and passed over the ridges which separate the streams, we have been able to look more about us. From an elevation of two thousand feet above the water which has just been mentioned, we look back upon the great rugged declivity which the Piabúna descends, can distinctly trace the line which it marks, and the basin which it empties, from the ridge of the Serro dos Organos almost down to the Parahýba. The breadth of the valley is, generally speaking, about fifteen miles, although peaks, grey and naked, rise to the East as far off as twenty-five or thirty. The centre of the Serro, which we passed several days ago, is directly South; the cones about Padre Correios stand South-South-East from us, and the limit of the basin, toward the West, is less distinctly marked than had been expected. On turning ourselves round, we look down upon a scene less grand but more lovely, A small vale, resembling one of the finest in Devonshire, dressed in Brazilian ornaments, presents itself, and rivets attention. Pampulia, with its white houses, brown roads, round hills, lofty and variegated forests, affords, to the lover of landscape, one of the richest treats he

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can desire. I stopped and enjoyed it long. As the hill was descended, another spectacle yielded a different kind of pleasure, and I hope no smaller degree of satisfaction, it was the recently built hut of a Cutler, who was at work upon small instruments connected with his art, such as penknives, lancets, and fleams; an establishment of this kind, however small, must be an acquisition to the country, and the more valuable for being unprecedented. We wished him success and proceeded to the village.

Through the whole of this day's ride, the roads were much wider and better than we have lately found them. We passed one good establishment, beside that of Secretario, and several huts, whose inhabitants seemed to gain a scanty living by planting a little Milho. The soil was generally rich and deep; in the valley was some black loam, in other places a red clay mingled with sand. The forests, probably owing to the extremely dry weather, exhibit a singular appearance of winter. The Tacoára and Aloes seem to be quite dried up. Our station is estimated at nearly the same level as that of yesterday. The Thermometer at 1, p. m. was at 78°. at 4 o'clock, at 85°. this difference was imputed to its having been packed up when low, and not exposed during the morning either to the sun or the atmosphere. We had met only about forty mules, which were loaded with the same productions as those of yesterday, and observed that the hills had their easiest declivities toward the North.

Pampulia contains only six or seven houses, and all of them are Vendas. I retain this word because our term Inn, or even public-house, in any of its acceptations, does not convey an accurate idea of those places of accommodation for travellers. Notwithstanding its destination, the village has a great air of rural comfort in its appearance, and is the most populous place which we have met with from Porto d'Estrella. I was received, on mentioning my guide's name, with frankness and even candour; nor had I to forage, for behind the house there was an excellent fowl yard, and a large kitchen garden, both of them well stocked. The rooms were too dirty and full of lumber, to induce me to select one as

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an apartment; and though the host offered to accommodate me in the Varanda, the artificial apartment of packages was preferred.

I wandered a great deal about this place, charmed with its lovely dells and well cut roads, with the planting of milho, which is conducted upon a larger scale than usual, and managed with industry. The number of small birds, which we observed, seemed to indicate an unusual quantity of cleared ground; among them the Moorhen was common, and so tame as to show itself freely, in the small pools with which the place abounds, and the Tesoura hovered above seemingly conscious of their security.

Having described myself as an English Merchant, my host took a bunch of keys, opened a small store at the other end of his premises, and invited me to remove to it as a more agreeable place than the Varanda, where we were sitting. He was manifestly vain of his goods, and wished to show that he also was a merchant; and he was right in feeling as much pride, and consciousness of importance, as the first retail dealer out of London does, for his stock consisted not only of the articles commonly found at a Venda, such as a barrel or two of poor wine, a few bottles of sour British porter, some garlic, cheese, and rosca, which is brought baked from the city, a little bacon, a few beijus and boxes of marmalade, with some rum and tobacco, but comprised also articles of linen and woollen drapery. He had a few coarse hats, a few yards of woollen and cotton cloth, half a dozen pieces of muslin, three or four pairs of cotton stockings, a piece or two of tape, and a little thread, the whole set off by a dozen of indecent French snuff boxes. All these articles were kept locked up in a sort of cupboard, with a pair of folding doors, which he set wide open, and placed seats directly in front of them. The goods might probably have cost him from fifteen to twenty pounds sterling, and yet scanty as this may appear, I have no doubt that it was the largest collection on sale, out of the immediate neighbourhood of Rio, within a hundred and fifty miles of the place.

In his person this man was very broad and heavy, loaded with fat, and moved with listlessness, he was in every respect a true bred country

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Brazilian, and his countenance possessed the peculiar features of that class of people. Their most obvious peculiarity is in the eyes, which are large, prominent, and distorted; the iris being exceedingly dark, while the cornea possesses a dazzling brightness and displays itself between eyelids unnaturally expanded. The man seems to look over both shoulders at once, seldom, when unroused, places his eyes directly upon any thing, nor keeps them long in one position. Such countenances, it is obvious, to a stranger unfamiliarized with them, express the extreme of savage ferocity. This distortion has been acquired at first, I think, by the constant alarm in which the early settlers lived, and by the usual processes of nature has been communicated from father to son, when the circumstances which produced it have ceased to exist. This unamiable figure however wished to be civil, assumed the whole duty of a host, and did the awkward and noisy honours of the table in a style which might have been expected from him. Afterwards I began to think him a forester of a superior kind, for in the evening, he produced a number of German Portraits of Officers, who had served in the Hungarian Army of 1743, and seemed peculiarly delighted with them. Evidently with a view to surprise, perhaps to overwhelm me with astonishment, he sent into another room for an old lense and mirror, such as are used for viewing coloured engravings. He placed beneath the instrument a view of Madrid and one or two other Capitals of Europe, and at last one without a name, which, from several objects, such as the Bridge with houses upon it, the Monument and the Dome of St. Paul's, I pronounced to be London, about a hundred years ago. Ah! he exclaimed, I have been told so before, but would never believe it, till now; and seemed so enraptured with his treasure, that I believe he would not then have exchanged it for one of David's finest productions.

As we sat chatting after supper, this mass of ignorance and inconsistency did indeed surprise me, for he said that my servant had behaved ill during the day, and hinted that he ought to be dismissed, offering himself at the same time, as my attendant to any part of the world. Supposing that the man was only feigning a case, in order to create some diversion, as is very

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commonly done among this class of people, I appeared to treat the matter seriously, in order to carry on the joke; when, to my astonishment, I found him perfectly in earnest, and was obliged positively to refuse his services. This part of his conduct arose perhaps from another trait in the character of Brazilian country people, a disposition for wandering, and a facility of entering into thoughtless engagements, which they will rue and abandon at the first appearance of any thing irksome or laborious. Indeed what assistance could be expected from a being, who, though surrounded by the most pleasing scenes in nature, is too idle to exert himself, and spends two-thirds of his dronish existence upon a couch.

When inquiring at this place about the more distant parts of the country, I was informed that from hence to Pao Grandé, a place mentioned in the Western road from Rio to the Parahýba, was twenty-three miles, and that half way another road turned off to Uva, which was nearly the same distance. To the Eastward, the country might be passed, but beyond the district of Pampulia, the roads were bad, infested with Indians, and contained no established resting places.

Immediately on leaving this place, we again ascended to a great height by a zig zag road, pleased with the change which we observed in the hues of the forest, whose foliage had become more varied, and displayed a lighter shade than usual. At the summit we entered upon another valley, equal to the last in beauty, and found that it had been lately refreshed by rain. It fell probably from clouds which had been arrested there, by the trumpet-like shape of the country opening toward the North-East, the very point whence the wind had blown ever since we passed the Serro dos Organos, while they passed without distilling showers over those vales, which, lying East and West, cross the settled current of the air. Near the foot of the opposite elevation is a house, distinguished by the name of Leandro, a large establishment, with much enclosed and cultivated ground. In front of it stands one of those vegetable productions, whose size astonishes the English Traveller. It is here called a Gamelleiro, because from its trunk are turned those


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large bowls which are used as baths. The smallest part of its stem was eight feet above the ground, and there the circumference measured fourteen feet. Immediately below this line, the roots begin to project in the manner of buttresses, and produce that kind of timber which is particularly esteemed in forming the knees of large ships. These terminate in the roots, which run along the surface of the ground, and appear above it in a circle of seventy-six paces, each of which was intended to measure a yard. One of these roots, at the distance of sixteen feet from the body of the tree, rose wholly above the soil, its girth measured there four feet. The branches, which begin to expand immediately above the line where the trunk was measured, extend on each side thirty-five feet, so that the whole head forms a well clothed hemisphere of more than two hundred feet in circumference.

From hence, we ascend nearly a thousand feet; are then only four miles from Pampulia; and look down upon the singularly beautiful vale of Cebolas, with its highly ornamental lake. I paused to admire, and compare it with other scenes of a similar kind, thought of other lakes in Brazil and of those in Westmoreland, but this is different from, and excelled them all. I should call it the Studley of this country unadorned by art. When returning, I paused and looked again, and took my leave of a spot, where nature has been lavish of beauty, with regret that I should probably behold it no more. At the bottom is a large establishment, whose owner has contrived to make the lake a reservoir to his mill; the water, when it has done the work which genius has compelled it to perform, escapes through a narrow dell toward the North-East.

The road now becomes exceedingly indirect, and winding from West to North and North-West, passes over gentle elevations of about three hundred feet; a little further on, the scene was enlivened by a party going out to hunt; the dogs were strong, healthy, and spirited, and to my great surprise possessed their scent in perfection; whereas the finest European breeds in Rio become listless and scabbed, their spirit and acuteness of scent decays; on first coming to the country, they need training afresh, for they will pursue, with equal avidity, the finest game and the sorriest vermin.

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The soil to-day, as far as Riberam, has been of the richest description, and the land frequently enclosed, sometimes with live fences of Mimosa; but we now change the scene, and enter upon a sort of Yorkshire-looking Moor, where we find a dry bare sand, generally brown, but in two or three instances white, and sometimes consolidated into stone. At the summit, which is about six or seven hundred feet above the stream, reside a number of Blacksmiths, who gain their living by making horse-shoes; for the Government very unwisely imposes a heavy duty upon all unwrought iron, which passes the Register farther on. Among these artists is a division of labour, which I never saw in any other part of Brazil; for the people, who forge the shoes, do not make the nails. We laid in a stock of both, and paid for them in unwrought iron, a quantity of which my guide had brought on his own account.

Shortly afterwards we passed the village of Pedro Moreiro, consisting of six or seven comfortless huts, situated on the declivity of a hill, where the country opens extensively to the North, and shows that we are entering upon some broad vale, probably that of the Pyrahýba. This view is gained from a considerable elevation, whence, far below, we reach Governo, a place pleasantly situated at the junction of three small dells, down each of which flows a stream, ploughing the ground more deeply than any I have yet noticed in the granitic part of Brazil. The soil has again become almost equally rich with that which we passed in the early part of the day, and I understand that we have reached the neighbourhood of some very large sugar plantations.

Upon several of those estates which we have passed, I have observed that a blacksmith was at work, and began to think that such a mechanic was connected with every large establishment; to-day however, I have been undeceived, for, while resting here, an itinerant one arrived, driving before him a small half-starved mule, loaded with a pair of small blacksmith's bellows on one side, and a box of tools on the other; a bargain was soon made with the keeper of the venda, and a little old building was opened, which contained a fogge of brick-work; the man soon

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mounted his bellows, and established himself for the specified term of fourteen days, or longer if he could find employment. His first business is to cut wood off the estate, and burn it into charcoal; while this is doing, the news becomes spread about the country that such an important artist has arrived in the neighbourhood. If a Sunday, or other religious festival, intervene, it promotes his views, for, in these thinly-inhabited districts, the Chapel answers the purposes of an Exchange. Indeed we have not observed a Church since we left Inhomerím, nor have we yet passed the limits of that parish.

There can be no great danger of losing the road, for there is seldom more than one track, yet when inquiring for the right one, as I was obliged to do to-day, the people of the country tell the traveller to go on a certain distance, and then turn to the rising or setting. With these two points, the East and West, they are accurately acquainted, but seem to consider the North and the South as indefinitely broad spaces between both. Our course has been very uncertain during the last stage, but, by taking the bearing of different heights, I conclude that it has been about N. W. by N. or N. N. W. We saw as we passed along, some beautiful birds and fine game in the woods, but the difficulty of reaching, and of finding it when killed, has been extreme.

Full three hundred and fifty mules passed us, going toward the city laden with the products already mentioned, and in addition to them with Saltpetre. This substance is found near Sabará in great abundance, and is collected, and conveyed to the city, on the account of Government; but it seems that the labour and the carriage render it more costly than the expenses of import would do from Europe or from India; but this Government, like many wiser ones, levies protecting duties; in other words, expends human labour disadvantageously.

Next morning at sun rising the thermometer was at 68°, the highest point noted the day before was 75°. Our guide left the common road to show me a fine Sugar Estate. It contained a square league of land; the house belonging to it is a good one, well white-washed and therefore neat; the mill has a Water-wheel of extraordinary power, but ill-pro-

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portioned both to the quantity of water, and the work it has to perform. We observed nothing new in the process of making sugar, except that it was clayed in truncated pyramids of wood inverted, instead of hollow cones of earthenware in the same position; and the new mode was declared to be greatly preferable to the old one. The produce of the estate, for this season, was estimated at four thousand arrobas of sugar, two hundred pipes of rum, or Brazilian Agoardente, a quantity of cotton, coffee, milho, and fruit, all of which are sent to the city for sale. The slaves were numerous, and appeared to enjoy all the comfort of which persons, with their minds and habits, were capable. We noticed a great deficiency of wood and water; indeed I scarcely ever saw land so completely cleared of its forests, and no where so sensibly felt that these are the principal ornament of Brazilian scenery. When stripped, these lower hills, naturally round, are so much alike, and so generally brown, as to produce the idea of dull uniformity and barrenness.

Perhaps a better place cannot be found for mentioning the almost miraculous effects which are ascribed to Garúpa, or the cold juice as it is pressed from the sugar cane, in the cure of scalds. A friend of mine had occasion to put it to the test, for in stepping over a spout, along which boiling sugar was flowing, some of it was accidentally sprinkled upon his leg, in the agony which it produced, he was going to tear off the stocking, but was prevented by a negro, who forcibly plunged the limb into a bucket full of cold Garúpa; the pain was immediately soothed, and the stocking afterwards taken off without bringing with it even the skin of the wound. Does this point, it may be asked, to sugar dissolved in cold water, as a remedy for recent burns?

Near to the mill, we observed an instance of the extraordinary power of vegetation in this country. The trough, which conveyed water from the dam to the wheel, was supported by tall pieces of squared timber, set in the ground; one of them, it is clear, had not been thoroughly dry when placed there, for the core had vegetated, taken root, and produced a head; the dry outside of the post had split through the whole length of each face, and the pieces hung upon the renewed tree as a sort of bark.

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It is common to plant trees, and even fences, by cutting pieces from an old stock, and putting one end in the ground; in the rainy season, this is sufficient for almost any kind of wood. I once put into the ground, during the dry season, a row of stakes in this manner, watered them for a few evenings, and when I left Brazil, they stood one of the finest fences in the neighbourhood of Rio. On another occasion, I planted some roots of reeds, which had been dug up and lain exposed to a Christmas sun, for a whole month, and they flourished entirely to my satisfaction.

About three miles from the Parahýba, the country opened before us and presented a charming vale, which reminded me of that through which the Tees flows, near Barnard-Castle. Lower down, we noticed that the torrents had cut through the deep clayey soil, and exposed, imbeded in it, a large quantity of rounded quartz. Still nearer the bottom, and within a mile of the river, the rock itself appeared, and consisted of gneiss with thick laminæ, of various colours, grey, light brown, and dark brown, inclining to red; here and there intermingled with strata of white feld-spar. All these strata lay parallel to the bed of the river, and perpendicular to the plane of the horizon. The same conformation of rocks was traced across the channel of the river, and nearly a mile and a half on the other side of it. The water is about two hundred yards broad, its course perfectly straight, where we cross it, and lies between bold shores; but at this time the bed was far from being full. Upwards the view is exquisitely fine, for the bosom of the stream is broken by numerous rocks, and adorned by two small islands, while the distant landscape rises hill behind hill, forming points which tend toward the river. Downwards the view is intercepted by a considerable eminence, which turns the stream to the Southward, over the broad strata of the rock, and through which it has worn and broken many a rough and turbulent passage; from the summit of this rising ground is obtained a fine view of the lower-bed, and of the country through which the river runs. The distance to the mouth of the Piabúna is reported to be fifteen miles, and to St. Salvador, in the plains of Campos, almost sixty; the country, as far as the Falls of St. Fidelis, being composed of steep mountains and narrow dells.

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As we moved toward the ferry, where the whole troop was to assemble before any one crossed, my guide requested that I would treat the Intendente, or Governor, with all due ceremony, and particularly that I would discharge my pistols and fowling-piece out of hearing of the Register, as it would appear disrespectful to a military station to carry arms loaded, whilst under its protection. This advice he enforced by expressing a doubt whether my passport would be admitted, for he had never seen one like it, and was afraid, if rejected, that I should be sent back to Rio under a military escort.

The boat used at this ferry is admirably constructed for its purpose. It brought over twenty-five loaded mules, and the mode of stepping into, and out of it, is rendered easy to them by two inclined planes of wood, one laid within the boat, the other on the beach. I crossed with the first opportunity, and being determined not to remain in unnecessary suspense, went straight to the Register, and presented my passport to an officer, who carried it to the great man, stationed in an inner room. He quickly returned, gave up my important document, politely welcomed me to the banks of the Parahýba, and said that I was at perfect liberty to go where I pleased. My guide, whose business had detained him on the other side, was astonished to see me wandering about heedless, as he thought, of his good advice, and came over purposely to renew his intreaties that I would show no disrespect to the Governor; with great difficulty he was led to believe that I had already presented myself, and been dismissed with civility.

The place contains, besides the Register and Rancho, a few mud huts, among which I was, as usual, seeking a dinner, for though capable of living hardly as most men, I was not then averse to a comfortable meal if I could find one, and intended, if possible, to surprise my kind and attentive guide, With a petty festival. For this purpose I engaged with a man, whose sharp features, smooth forehead, and sprightly eye, announced a superior degree of intelligence, and who seemed, from his easy and polished manners, to have witnessed better days, that he should provide for us the best dinner he could, and set it out in a small

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room which he showed me. When announced as ready, my friend positively refused to enter the man's house, good naturedly chided my extravagance, and said that he had ordered dinner to be cooked and served, in the usual manner, out of doors, leaving me at a loss to conjecture what were his motives. I therefore ordered what had been provided to be brought to the enclosure of packages, where it was neatly set out with clean cloths and napkins, silver spoons and forks, and other suitable appendages. As an article of extraordinary luxury, a dish of green peas was introduced, and instead of fruit, which I believe was scarce, a dessert of sweetmeats.

After this refreshment I solicited and obtained a favour, which is very seldom granted, permission to return across the water, to take a sketch of the Register, and, besides my principal purpose, found leisure to examine the bed of the river. It is about two hundred yards wide, with a beach of fifty yards on one side and twenty on the other; the stream divides itself into three connected parts; about forty yards adjoining to each bank it is shallow, the intermediate space becomes at once; and without any gradual declension, very deep; so that it flows in a sort of trough, with perpendicular sides, to the formation of which the laminæ of the rock have contributed. In this stony canal the water is singularly clear, though the current boils and whirls in wild commotion, showing that the under current is the quickest, and that it is pressed for room. Hence it is also that the two shallow sides of the river are filled by an eddy water, and that, in crossing, the boat is hauled up the stream as far as the rocks will admit, it is then pulled into the main bed by oars, where it is hurried down by the current, and, having crossed this part, is again set upwards, and arrives at the landing-place. That the river is subject to heavy floods is evident from the marks which they have left, full ten feet above its present level; and the people speak of one, which covered every building except the Register, and prevented travellers from passing for three successive days. Now I had an opportunity of traversing the rocks, and found the sands, lying between them and the huts, to be composed of feldspar, frittered into very small particles, and mica.

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There are no loose stones upon the beach, and hence. I judge that a degree of rottenness exists among the component parts of the rock, such as appears in many stones thrown upon the coast of Rio, which retain the gneisseous form, but, being pressed with the hand, crumble into dust. From this and other circumstances it appears to me, that sea water slowly destroys the texture of gneiss, and, in a less degree, that of granite itself; while fresh water acts upon it chiefly, if not merely, by friction.

I thought it possible to launch timber into this river, and let it float down with the floods to St. Salvador, supposing that it would be borne by them over every rapid, and probably over the Falls of St. Fidelis; but the people tell me that they have no timber naturally buoyant in water, and are prevented from assisting it down with canoas by the impossibility of returning against the current, and, by the existence of savages, Anthropophagi, on the banks of the river, through whose country they cannot pass. At some future period, when these obstacles shall have been overcome, this fine stream will doubtless be rendered one of the most useful in Southern Brazil.

This Register, though one of the first importance to the Province and the State, is a contemptible building; the rooms appropriated for the Intendant and his Officers are of the meanest sort; there is not a stable, a field, nor a garden, not any thing in the shape of an inclosure, or out-house attached to it, except a fowl-yard, a temporary erection of reeds. Though a military station, no soldiers appear, no sentinel mounts guard, no uniforms are seen, no discipline produces order. It affords a genuine specimen of the miserable provision made by the Brazilian Government for its Officers, and points to the true reason why they acquire contracted modes of thinking, and habits of such mean and dirty practices as present them to the finger of scorn. Inferior functionaries can never support their own dignity, unless themselves supported by their superiors.

In the evening it was announced, that the chief person of the place was about to pay me a visit; he was preceded by three or four young men. I received him at the verge of our shed, and introduced him into

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the area of packages, while his attendants arranged themselves behind it. He was a tall athletic man, about seventy years of age, his limbs well proportioned, and his features large and coarse, he wore a wig similar to a brown George, but much the worse for service; his linen was exceedingly good and well made, he had on a cotton jacket and waistcoat, nankeen small-clothes, and Brazilian boots buckled below the knee. Soon afterwards my new friend, who had furnished the dinner, came forward; I suspected that his prime object was cash and not compliment, and therefore set him at ease on that point, although his demand was somewhat exorbitant; having made his proper bow to the Governor, and, being invited to seat himself, he seemed quite happy; yet, after a little time, made another charge, saying that his slave, in bringing the dinner from his house to the Shed, had broken a plate, Which he requested the to pay for. It seemed unreasonable, however, that I should be liable for the faults of a person over whom I had no controul, and I resisted the claim, appealing to my first visitor as to the justice of the case: it was amicably settled, and he was prevented from making other exactions; nevertheless as the evening proceeded he so far forgot himself, or rather fell again so much into his natural character, as to hint that a silver spoon had not been sent home; every body, however, seemed to understand his character, and his insinuations were scouted. It was afterwards proved, by the testimony of his slave, whom I insisted upon permission to question publicly, that the master had himself counted and locked every one of them up. The Governor was a very blunt and apparently honest man, but I greatly question whether I should have got over those charges so easily, had he not partaken liberally of my snuff, wine, and segars, for in Brazil strangers are fair game, neighbours must support each other, and, in such cases, the arm of power is not always ready at the call of justice.

This extortionate rascal was soon disposed of, but his appearance and character deserve some further notice. He was a little man, dressed in cotton stockings and tænancas, nankeen breeches, and knee buckles of mock brilliants, a waistcoat which had once been white, but now had lost, by washing and wear, both its colour and texture; the coat had

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been cut from a beautiful piece of light blue, mixture, French cloth, and made, some fifty years ago, in the very acme of fashion; altogether his figure and manners furnished a fine contrast to those of my superior visitor. The one may be described as corresponding to the ancient Petit Maitre of France, the other as formed upon the model of a Boat-swain in the British Navy. As the character of this villain developed itself, I felt no doubt of having discovered the true reason why my guide would not enter his house, yet afterwards it appeared that there was another and more powerful motive behind. The little man had the honour of being deemed the Conjuror, or Cunning-man of the country, and certainly few men's appearance, or manners, or dress, could be better adapted to such a profession. After he was gone, the evening passed away pleasantly, and the great man sat until he quite forgot his dignity, and fell fast asleep in public.

We ascertained that the number of mules which had passed the ferry to-day was about two hundred, loaded with cotton, cloth, and leather. When we left Pampulia, at eight o'clock in the morning, the thermometer was at 68°. It was 70º at noon, on the Parahýba, and indicated no lower temperature at ten o'clock at night. It seems, therefore, that the atmosphere of this place is warm; we estimated the level about eleven hundred and fifty feet above the sea; upon a fine knoll, a hundred feet higher, stands a small Chapel, which, I think, is still in the parish of Inhomerím. We set out early in the morning, and passed nearly two miles along a sandy plain between mountains, of moderate elevation, and arrived at a steep and lofty Serro. At its foot runs a narrow mountain torrent, which we cross by a wooden bridge; from beneath the timbers sprang a bird, which I understood to be peculiar to the upper parts of the country, and called there a Gaviam-Pomba, or Hawk-Pigeon. It startled the animal I rode, so much as to secure its own escape. We ascended by a narrow spur of the mountain, with a dell on each side of it, and so steep that the mule laboured up it with difficulty; steeper, sometimes, than I could easily keep myself upon the saddle without dinging to the mane. In this manner we ascended,

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as circuitously as possible, to the height of thirteen hundred feet, having passed in our way two or three torrents, which rattled through ravines of various declivities and depths. The road is kept in excellent repair, or it would be impassable; the forest is excessively grand and untouched, the soil a rich, red clay, mingled with an uncommon quantity of mica. As we went on the views opened grandly behind us, toward the South-East, and the most distant Serro appeared to us about fifty miles off; we looked towards it over mountains of different elevations, which form a scene uniting grandeur, expansion, and beauty. Now and then, through the thick foliage which skirts the road, we catch a view of the valleys to the right and left of us, and, looking below our level, see the sky. The sides of the mountain are almost precipitous, and bear many tokens of mules having slipped with their loads, and tumbled down, until impeded by the trees, into a frightful depth below.

In this region some of the trees lose their verdure, and, at present, though budding, are not fully clothed with leaves; perhaps this circumstance might affect the imagination, and make me think the air more cool and refreshing than it really was, for though the thermometer, this morning, pointed to a temperature of only 68°, at noon, in the dell of Farinha, where we halted, at an elevation only of five hundred feet below the highest point of the road, it showed a temperature of 82°.

It is scarcely possible to conceive of a greater plague, than that which is produced by ants. In the forests below, they form their nests beneath the surface of the ground, or pile cones of sand, eight or ten feet high, generally round the root or stem of a tree; but on these heights their nests stand by the road side, in the form of rough pillars, made of earth and leaves, more than eight feet high and three in diameter. They resemble bee-hives in shape, and, at first, I thought them the production and abode of bees, for some of them have been opened with a machado, for the purpose, as I was told, of procuring honey. Examining them, I found the inside hollow and very black, the walls were from six inches to a foot thick, and full of innumerable passages, communicating with each other, but with the external air only at the base, which is a little

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contracted, and thus sheltered from rain. The upper part frequently appears patched, as though an addition had been made to the cells, or a breach repaired. Whether the bees drive out the ants or only take possession of a deserted hive, I know not; but I found they were of a small brown species, such as I had never noticed below. Within the hollow they deposit their round balls of wax and honey, and are deprived of it by travellers.

We have proceeded to-day only eight miles, not more than five perhaps in a right line, toward the N. W. and are lodged in an open shed, with a great deal of company; just below our lodgement three dells unite, down two of them flow small streams, which pass off by the third, toward the South-East.

Next morning it was found that the Mules had strayed, a circumstance from which I learned that a traveller should see the troop off before he leaves his resting place, otherwise, in a country like this, he may leave behind him his baggage andall his comforts. Having discovered the wanderers, we advanced, and found the road still difficult and tortuous. In the distance of nine miles, we ascended six different times as much as eight hundred feet and descended as frequently, finding, contrary to our former experience, that the hills on their Northern side were the steepest.

Owing to the broken and abrupt nature of the country, the views opened first to the West, then to the East, afterward towards the South-East, and at a league before we reached the Parahybúna, to the North. Here we look upon an inclined plane, on the other side of the river, full twenty miles broad, decorated with strong undulations, and clothed with an undivided garment of the richest forests.

Where we first gain a view of the river, it appears like a round lake, encompassed with white buildings, surrounded by a lofty and verdant circle of mountains, but descending to its brink, we find above and below the ferry a broad bed of black and ugly-looking rocks, through which the water has worn deep and irregular channels, combining to form one of the most disgusting streams I ever beheld. As I approached the passage, a drove of oxen were swimming across it

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destined to the market of Rio de Janeiro. It was the first of the kind we had met, because, beyond the Parahýba, they pursue to the city the route of Uvá and Maranbáya. Close to the water's edge stood one good house, a small church, and a poor venda. I crossed by the canoa, which had attended the oxen over, and at the Register, on the other side, though obliged to wait until the officers were at liberty, was received with civility.

They were employed in weighing gold dust, which they received from a number of country people, who had brought in the produce of their washings. These men, some of them negroes, appeared to be very poor, who having collected a few oitaves of metal, carry it to the Register, where it is examined, weighed, and a small sum advanced upon it.— These circumstances are entered in a book, the dust wrapped in a small packet is deposited in an iron chest, and the man departs to search for more. When he has collected as much as he thinks will make a Bar, a certificate is given to him of the gross weight, and probable value, the metal itself is sent to the Smelting-House, where it lies for several months. In the mean time this written certificate is negotiated by the Searcher, and circulates until the bar which it represents be inquired for. One of these documents fell into my hands in the city, which had been issued at Sabará, two years before. On presenting this writing at the Smelting-House, the bar is produced, and with it a certificate of the gross weight of the dust, the waste it suffered in smelting, of the quantity deducted as the Royal Fifth, of the present weight, assay and value of the bar. These Bars bearing the Royal Arms, the name of the place where they were issued, the weight and the quality of the gold, accompanied by their certificates, circulate as coin, in the province of Minas Geraes, and some others, but now, when they find their way to that of Rio de Janeiro, they must be carried to the Treasury, where they are coined into pieces of 6,400 Reis or 4,000 Reis each. The former of these certificates, it is evident, becomes actually a paper currency, and on a small scale produces in commerce, some of the same effects; the latter also, though in the present mode, it rather encumbers the circulation, might be made a

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very convenient kind of Bank Note, payable on demand, by the bar which it represents, or exchangeable for Treasury Paper after date.

On presenting my Passport at this place, some objection were made to it, and at length the Superintendent told me it was such an one as he had never seen before. I endeavoured to explain to him that it was precisely such an one as every British subject ought to travel with, that, as he might perceive, it was granted to me by the Minister of Police, upon the faith of his Britannic Majesty's Representative at Court, that I had always obtained such an one, and had been permitted to enter, and to travel, in other parts of Brazil, without difficulty; that having been signed by his Excellency, who held the chief place in the department of the Interior, it ought not to be objected to by any inferior officer, without some strong and urgent reason, which I presumed could not exist in my own case. His Worship, after having listened patiently to my expostulation, and consulted in a low tone of voice, with some of his associates, counter-signed the document and dismissed me.

At the place where we pass this stream the water is about a hundred yards broad, and fifteen feet deep, with a smooth and sandy bottom; higher up it contracts itself to thirty yards, where the rapidity of the current, between the rocks, produces a fall like that of London Bridge. I am inclined to think, that the water sometimes covers the whole expanse of the river, which is about two hundred yards, for in the space of half an hour I observed that it rose nearly six inches, and within the next half hour declined as much. Doubtless rain had fallen higher up the stream, and the fresh, which it produced, had thus passed by us, but in more general floods, the rocks must be considered as the bottom of the river, and must be constantly worn by the water, while their lower and softer parts, being frittered away, form channels for the Stream in its lowest state. The rocks consist of gneiss, and dip deeply to the South-West, on both sides the river and in its bed. It may probably be from the colour of these stones that the river derives its name, if it be written Parabúna, or if Parahybúna be the, proper mode, from the deep tinge of the water.

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To-day the soil has varied, from a fine, rich, red clay, mingled with mica, to a white, glittering, micaceous sand, held together by a soft, saponaceous substance. Our road winds round the sides of hills, and across deep ravines, for ten miles, in a direction of N.N.W. We passed by the village of Paiol, which contains six or seven huts, and being two hundred feet higher, than as our last resting place, found the thermometer 60°. at six o'clock in the morning, with fine weather, at 80° in the afternoon, with a cloudy sky, and 74°. at ten at night.

Upon the heights I shot a Toucán, a species of Bird which we begin frequently to meet with, whose plumage was exceedingly beautiful. The upper mandible had a streak of black along the top of it, the sides were a brownish white, the lower one entirely black. The head and neck were dark purple, the back, between the wings, dark green, at the root of the tail, and on its upper side, was a large patch of vivid red, a broad bar of the same colour stretched across its breast from wing to wing; the colour of these was dark green, with seventeen pennated feathers in each; the tail had four long and as many short feathers, the upper side of which was green; the breast and belly were yellow. Though the plumage of these birds is not only very beautiful, but perhaps the most various of any species of birds that exists in Brazil, the green and purple colours were of that kind which appear so only when beheld in a certain direction relative to the light, in every other position they appear a dark and dirty brown. The flight of Toucáns is heavy, and their appearance in the air singular, for they carry their bill, head, neck, and body in a right line, so that they seem to be overweighted forward.

In the afternoon several Gold Searchers came to us, and exhibited specimens of what their labour produced. The sale of it in the state of dust is prohibited, nor would any Foreigner, who has property at stake in the country, purchase it without extreme caution. Yet it is as impossible to convince these people that a stranger, who appears among them, has any other object in view, as it is to make the cutters of Fustic and Brazil-wood sensible that he has not a vessel hovering on the coast;

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and it must be allowed that twenty-five per cent. upon such an article as Gold-Dust, so easily concealed, and so capable of being conveyed away, even without suspicion, is a very handsome profit. Governments which lay such an impolitic tax upon labour must expect to be deceived; The quality of the samples produced here, was stated to be twenty-three carats fine, some of them were very black, and the scaly appearance of others led me to suspect that they contained a considerable quantity of worthless mica. Searching for Gold upon the lower Parahybúna is interdicted by the Government, under the ridiculous pretence that the quantity which the river contains is so great, that, if extracted ad libitum, the value of the metal, in the market, would be greatly reduced. Yet I have reason to believe that a very considerable quantity is procured from it, for, as an old Searcher shrewdly remarked to me, you know, Sir, "the night has no eyes." The greatest quantities must undoubtedly exist in the Caldeiraos, i. e. those hollows which the stream has worn in the rocky bottom; and in such situations must be nearly free from mixture, for there, the water, dashing with violence into the basin, washes the sand, which it brings down, out again, leaving the heavier and grosser particles at the bottom. For the same reason, the upper stratum of the sand, in the stiller parts of the river, must contain comparatively little of the precious metal; while the lower ones are probably increasing in richness, by every circumstance which disturbs the stream. Yet these people are so ignorant of the general laws of nature, and the effects produced by the motion of fluids upon substances, which differ in their respective specific gravities, lying in their beds, as to skim the surface of sands, and the refuse of caldeiraos in the most superficial way.

From inquiries made upon the spot, at different times, and from various persons unconnected with each other, it seems that a cone of wet sand three feet high, which requires, from one man, a day's labour to raise, and two days more to wash it, is expected, in this part of the country, to produce as much gold as is worth from twenty to twenty-five shillings. Having heard of the time spent in procuring the sand, while a boat lay upon the river close to us, I exclaimed, a whole day!—I could fill

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that boat in three hours. The expression had no sooner escaped the "hedge of my teeth," than I was sensible of its imprudence; for the Brazilians who were present heard it in profound silence, and I knew enough of their general character to be aware that, when this is the case, malice or treachery is generally intended. Toward evening, I was waited upon by the Superintendent and his Officers; the visit was considered on both sides as a complimentary one, but it had not continued long before his Lordship began upon the unfortunate expression. This attack was by no means unexpected, and I found it expedient to be explicit, and to assume a little of character. I laughed at his ignorance of mechanical powers, endeavoured to describe to him our mode of heaving ballast in the Thames, and took some pains to make him comprehend it. His office I treated with the utmost respect, but behaved in a manner which should convince him that, as as a man, I thought myself perfectly his equal, and felt quite indifferent as to the opinion he might form of me. A little display of vanity, on such occasions, among this people, is useful, and the traveller will Sometimes find it necessary. It is respected as current coin by the world in general, and among ignorant people a compliment is estimated by their opinion of his rank who pays it. I could not be otherwise, therefore, than upon good terms with this mighty dispenser of fate; civilities, contending for superiority, passed between us, and he at length invited me to sleep at his house, an honour which I declined, by saying that I had been so much accustomed to sleep in the open air, that even by the side of a river, I feared neither catarrhs nor agues, and that while in his neighbourhood, I could have no other cause of alarm. Thus I gained his countenance, by a box of excellent snuff that of his subordinates, by a portion of small coin that of the people.

As it became dark a number of beacons appeared along the banks of the river, and I learned that the lights were signals from military stations, which are placed there as a check upon the native Indians, a measure indicating at once suspicion and precaution. Again

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examining the river, I was led to suspect that its level above the Parahýba is higher than I have stated, for the current is not only very strong, as far as I could trace it, but in little more than half a mile, has a descent of forty feet, and the distance to its junction with the Parahýba is about fourteen leagues; its general course is from N. W. to S. E. On its banks are some fine points of view, and we met with some very civil people, but their general aspect is not good. One man was very troublesome during the whole of our stay, he was a noisy impertinent fellow, half idiot, half drunkard, and I suspect much more of a villain than either. He presented me with a small dark brown otter's skin, to cover the lock of my fowling piece, and remarked that there were many animals of that kind about Goyaz, a place by the bye, nearly a thousand miles from us.

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A. D. 1817.


AT a short distance from the Register we entered upon the Capitania of Minas Geraes, one of the most important Provinces of Brazil. It is divided into four Comarcas, or Counties, which, as is usual in South America, have for their boundaries the Agoas Vertentes; or that line which, running between the heads of streams, naturally separates the waters flowing into one large river from those which descend to a different bed. The Comarca of St. John D' El Rey extends, therefore, over the whole basin of the Rio Grandé and its tributary waters, that of Sabará to the utmost springs of the St. Francisco, that of Villa Rica to the heads of the Rio Doce, and that of Serro Frio to those of the

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Arasuahý. The small district which is washed by the Parahybúna and the Parahýba, and bounded by the Serro of Mantequeira naturally, belongs to the Province of Rio de Janeiro.

We travelled through a fine country, but upon roads badly laid out, for they led us, three or four times, over elevations of seven or eight hundred feet, which might easily be avoided. Nevertheless this unnecessary labour was recompensed by the pleasure it afforded us, while looking widely around on landscapes of peculiar richness and delicacy. In different points, some lovely cones lift their heads clothed with deep green forests, whose names are unknown to the Portuguese, because, standing out of the road, they are inhabited only by Gentio. The ascents in our track, though frequent, are not difficult, and the woods almost clear of those Sippos, or strong species of wood-bind, which form so singular a feature in the forests near to the coast. We now had advanced into a pastoral country, and observed cattle grazing around; among them the cows were small, but finely bred; and we met a large drove of oxen, travelling to the slaughter-house of the capital. We noticed also about a hundred mules, conveying to the same emporium almost as many loads of bacon and cheese. The gun, besides some common birds of the country, brought down a Parrot which was unknown to any person of our troop. It was larger than any species of Paroquet or Terrivel, with which we were acquainted, and smaller than the Brazilian Papagaio; its general colour was, as usual among birds of this tribe, green; the head a dark brown, which gradually became lighter toward the neck; round the eye was a narrow grey circle; the throat was yellowish green, the neck and upper part of the breast blue, lower down green, and the belly a bright red; the wing joints were marked with a spot of vivid scarlet, and the feathers of the wing were blue; near the root of the tail, both above and below, was a patch of deeper red, or ochery colour, the tail itself a yellowish green like the throat.

We have again increased our elevation full six hundred feet; and found the Thermometer, at one in the afternoon, only 76°; at ten at night it was 63°; at six the next morning 54°. The nights and mornings

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appear to me unpleasantly cold, and although the air is finely bracing, and must be salutary to those constitutions which have been debilitated by the heats of the coast, their low temperature renders me unusually susceptible of change, and from twelve to three o'clock I find the sun more oppressive than in situations where the energy of his rays is greater, and their effects more uniform and steady.

At a league from the Parahybúna we pass the small village of Rosinha do Negro, a name which indicates its humble origin. It is situated, like all those in this part of the country which are connected with a large plantation, at the bottom of a deep hollow, and by the side of a stream. For the remainder of the day we took up our residence at Vargem, a small fertile plain surrounded with hills, the owner of which has given us cause, by his civilities, to remember him. He is now an elderly man, and appears to have possessed formerly great spirit and activity, which now and then show themselves still, but, for the most part, they have sunk beneath a load of jealousy and superstition. On seeing me arrive alone at our appointed resting-place, and busily employed in taking off my saddle, and providing comforts for the beast I rode, he, contrary to the usual custom, came across the plain, and invited me to dine with him in the house; this, however, I declined, partly because I was unwilling to disturb his usual domestic arrangements, and partly from a wish of being at perfect liberty myself, showing him, at the same time, that the gun had furnished me with abundant provision; nevertheless, pleased with his conversation and manners, I spent with him the greater part of the morning. Scarcely had we sat down to dinner, in our usual style, ere his slaves brought several well-dressed dishes, with a request that I would partake of them, and his son-in-law followed to see that the whole was properly delivered. This Brazilian Planter must have displayed many other instances of private goodness, for he possessed, what is very uncommon in his country, the favourable report of his neighbours; and even the slaves spoke well of him. Through his own estate, a distance of four miles, he had improved the roads with great care, thus setting a good example, which, in this instance, at least, had been followed by his neighbours.

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Early the next morning I was aroused by a degree of bustle not well understood, but soon learned that we were in the near neighbourhood of the Patrole, a division of cavalry which keeps moving along the road from the Parahýba to the Register, in order to prevent smuggling. This body is furnished with almost unlimited power over all travellers, which it sometimes exercises in the most arbitrary and wanton manner. My guide had also another point to attend to, for he had brought with him a considerable quantity of heavy goods, particularly iron, which he must dispose of now, or pay duties upon it by weight a few miles further on. When this business was arranged, we mounted, and rode together to the place where the Patrole was lodged. So soon as the chief Officer arose I presented my passport, and telling him that my baggage was with the troop, he permitted me to pass on without molestation.

The road conducted us up an easy and long ascent, having, on the right hand, a fine expansive valley, on the left a lofty bluff hill. In its general outline the country resembled what that between Bradford and Halifax would be were it formed of a red, rich, clayey soil, adorned with Brazilian verdure, beneath a tropical climate. At the summit a passage was cut through the brow of the hill, and turned a sharp angle, which prevented us from seeing many yards forwards; looking behind us, the view was exceedingly fine, for the vale opened into two; one of them toward the South, the other to the South-west, and each vieing with the other for the palm of modest beauty. Here was nothing romantic and rough, no grey and naked peaks, no abrupt precipices and projections, but one expansive picture of elegant symmetry. Yet, having proceeded a few yards over the brow, a still more delightful scene burst at once to view. We looked down upon an ocean of mist, through whose surface broke, for many miles round, the tops of innumerable mountains, ranged like islands upon the bosom of the deep; all formed by the most delicate hand, painted by the richest pencil, and enlightened by the full splendour of a newly risen sun; even my Negro Boy, who might have vied with any one, in human shape, for want of sensibility and taste, gazed in silence for a time, and then cried aloud

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—"He muito bonito,"—It is very fine! Could I have passed such a spot without admiration, I should have thought myself destitute of one capacity for joy,—if without feelings of devotion and gratitude,— incapable of praising that Being who, having formed, looked upon creation and pronounced it good.

As we descended by a winding road, cut out of the side of a hill, we noticed iron ore, which seemed to be rich. At the bottom we heard, through the mist, the. stroke of a small church-bell, and its sound was peculiarly grateful, not only because it was the first time such tones had met our ears since we left the city, it harmonized exactly with my feelings, and though of little signification in itself, served to gratify a mind already disposed to be pleased. The name of the village whence the sound proceeded is, we were told, Simon Pre.

Going on a few miles further, over gentle hills rendered black with preparation for tillage, we reached the Register of Mathæus Barboza. It is formed by mud walls enclosing a large area, through which the public road passes. Having announced my arrival to an officer on duty at the entrance, and left my animals and gun under a long shed on the left hand, I proceeded to the upper end, to pay my respects to the Superintendent, whom I found a person of gentlemanly manners, well acquainted with the natural and civil history of the Province, through every part of which he had travelled, and ready not only to converse upon these topics, but to give to strangers such information as he was aware they would require. Passing through the farther gateway, and wandering at perfect liberty, I took a short walk, looked at the country, the building, and the river. On my return to the shed, where my Negro had been left with the mules, he presented to me a large plate of oranges and sweetmeats, telling me they had come from the house which was opposite to us, with compliments and good wishes. He had seen no one but the black man who brought them, and was not aware that either of us had been observed. This present, so unexpected, was very acceptable, for the day being hot rendered me thirsty, and, in such cases, it is safer to eat fruit than to drink water.

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The scene soon became a busy one; loaded mules arrived at both gateways. Those which were travelling towards the city were slightly examined, counted, and permitted to pass; while those which came upwards were unloaded, every thing which they carried, except their trappings, divided into classes, probably according to the number of persons to whom the goods were ultimately consigned; and then weighed, in order to ascertain the amount of duty, for a tax of twelve hundred and eighty Reis is paid upon each arroba. At the weighing of our cargo there were present the Superintendent, his Secretary, and two other officers, all of whom went through the routine of their respective departments in business with Brazilian formality. Supposing myself to have no concern in such employment, I had wandered away, but was quickly sought for, and asked rather sternly, by my guide, whether it were true that I had omitted to present my passport. It was evident that I had now offended against rule and propriety, but his Lordship good naturedly observed, that I was a foreigner, and could not be expected to understand their customs. The document was again found to be incorrect, because it did not state that my black servant was to return to Rio, and if he did not a heavy duty was payable upon his entering into the Province of Minas Geraes. This, however, was arranged, by my guide entering into a bond that, within a limited time, the poor fellow should be presented there on his return.

Business being dispatched, our cloth was laid for dinner, and we had scarcely sat down to it, ere several slaves entered the shed, with dishes dressed in the style of the country. They presented the food with their master's compliments, and hoped that I should find it agreeable to my taste. Besides a fowl, carne-secca, and pulse, there were two dishes more peculiarly national, Angú and Cangíca; the first consists of herbs cooked in the mode of Spinach, the latter of Indian corn, blanched, and boiled with sugar. With feelings of gratitude to my unknown benefactor, for this second instance of kindness, I could not avoid mingling sentiments of regret at the recollection that he might have travelled from one end of my own country to the

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other, without meeting with a similar instance of friendly attention; but we have Inns, and therefore, among us, less virtue of this kind may suffice. When the slaves came again for the empty dishes, I sent back suitable expressions of obligation; and supposing that the Superintendent might have had some concern in the business, requested him to convey a repetition of them.

While we were at dinner the Mail arrived from Rio de Janeiro. It was contained in a cotton-bag, and carried on the back of a black man, who travelled on foot; which had been found the speediest mode of conveying it. He was without weapons of any kind, and though distinguished by a large cocked hat and a blue jacket with a red collar, he travelled with confidence, and seemed to have no idea of robbery. Having arranged for one letter, at least, to meet me here, I applied at the office, and was surprised to find that the bag would not be opened until ten o'clock at night, or perhaps not until the next morning. I urged the absurdity of such delay, and stated that, before evening, I should have left the place; remonstrance, however, was vain; established customs could not be infringed, and one person sagely observed,— "If you are not here the letter will not be lost, you will find it on your return, or else at the city when you arrive there, for it will be carefully sent back again," To argue with such a man was to me impossible; I left the letter where it was, for the most common of all Portuguese reasons, per força, or, in plain English, because I could not help myself.

The Post-Office at Rio communicates with every part of the Portuguese dominions, but the conveyance of letters is tardy, and the delivery uncertain. To obviate this inconvenience, the party writing is allowed to value his letter, and to ensure its safety by paying a premium upon it, but even this is rendered useless by the dullness or contracted spirit of the people, and their scrupulous adherence to forms. I once adopted this mode with some important Documents which it was necessary to send down to an agent at Rio Grandé do Sul. His next letter convincing me that the papers had not been received, I inquired at the

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Post-Office whether the vessel had arrived, and, if she had, the reason why the packet had not been duly delivered. I was told, in reply, that "all was as it should be," and that no claim could be made upon the supposition of any mischance, until three or four months had elapsed, and that, ere then, I should doubtless find that the letter was perfectly safe. A week or two afterwards a messenger desired that I would go to the Post-Office, where the packet in question was delivered to me in all due form, with a declaration upon it, signed by the Past-master of Rio Grandé, stating that the Gentleman to whom it was addressed was out of town, and that, for this reason, the letter was returned by the first conveyance. Now, to illustrate the case, it must be remarked, that my friend, at that very time, was a lodger with the Postmaster himself, who was acquainted with all the circumstances of his absence, and knew that it would terminate in a few days. Yet as a person in office, according to Brazilian ideas, this punctilious man had exactly complied with his duty, and done right in returning the documents. Dissatisfaction on my part was useless, for the person to whom it was addressed either could not, or would not, understand that there was any cause for complaint, when I received the letter back again in the same secure state in which it had been sent.

When the Mail arrives at the place of its destination, the letters are numbered, and a list of their addresses made out, and stuck up in some conspicuous place, under the care of a sentinel. The letters themselves are delivered to any one who, after reading the list, pronounces the number at the Office and will pay the postage. Hence arises another abuse, obliging a merchant, who has an extensive correspondence, to hire one of the Clerks of the Office to secure and to deliver all letters addressed to his house. This might easily be amended, if it were not a rule here never to alter, so long as possible to avoid it, any practice which brings in fees to a servant of the crown, or suits the caprice of a great man. Under the influence of such maxims, foreigners ought to live quietly, and be content to pay highest for that which is avowedly the most marketable commodity in the place, the support of a man in office.

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This distortion of ideas and conduct is by no means peculiar to the. Post-office and its managers, but common to all truly bred Brazilians. They think, they reason, and they act differently from what Europeans would do in similar circumstances. They are not naturally more dull than ourselves, but their minds have been exercised upon different objects, have been subjected to different impressions, and have assumed a different cast. In all affairs relating to travelling through the forests, or obtaining a subsistence in them; to the detection of danger there from wild animals and reptiles which attack them; to escaping from peril; and to entrapping and destroying their enemy; they are greatly our superiors; and treat with as much contempt our want of active adroitness, as we do their deficiency of reasoning and skill. This also it is, which sometimes makes Savages appear like Heroes; they attack their own objects in their own way; and act with vigour for a moment, in circumstances where braver men would hesitate; but they cannot be brought to face danger coolly and for a length of time, nor can they subdue their dread of fire-arms.

The Register of Mathæus Barboza, is the great Toll-House of the Province of Minas Geraes. Every three months it is required to remit the sum collected for duties to Villa Rica, the Capital and seat of Government. For the quarter which immediately preceded the date of my visit, it had received thirty Contos of Reis; and its annual remittance amounts to about a hundred Contos, which at an exchange of sixty pence per Mil-Reis, makes twenty-five thousand pounds Sterling. This tax is the subject of bitter complaint, but as it is spent in supporting the civil and military establishments of the province, and in promoting the welfare of its five hundred thousand inhabitants, it should be regarded not only as light, but as a public benefit.

It is usual for a traveller to exchange, at this place, all his metallic money, and to receive for it the paper of the Province, which, except a little copper and bars of gold, is the only currency allowed there. On quitting the Province he may again exchange at any of the Registers, these Bilhetes or Notes, for those of the district upon which he is entering. Having

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arranged for a credit in the principal towns, I had no business of this kind to transact, and would advise future travellers to do the same. Gold, being the produce of almost every part of the country, is seen in great abundance, both in the shape of Dust and in Bars; but to prevent confusion respecting the royal claims, none is allowed to circulate as Coin, and the Smelting-Houses employ persons to collect the dust and give paper in lieu of it; by this means they secure a large quantity which otherwise would be lost or smuggled off. This, however, is not the only valuable production of Minas Geraes, it has lately been discovered that the Province yields native Quick-silver and Cinnabar. Platina, copper, tin, lead, cobalt, and bismuth have been long known to exist there.

We lodged at St. Vincenté, a small place situated upon a dry bank in a part of the country which consists of a brownish clay shale, cut into deep gullys. This change in the Soil was the more observable, as in the early part of the day we had ridden through a country where the common micaceous clay prevailed. It was cultivated in a style which would have pleased even an English farmer, and the country, not only on this account is richer and more pleasant than we have found it before, but the inhabitants are more numerous and seem in a higher degree associated to each other. Although the river, which is sensibly diminished, and rolls rapidly over a rocky bed, yield no auriferous sands, the district bears the appearance of wealth and comfort. Many roads branch off to the right and left of our route, and exhibit the impression of wheels. The number of mules which we have this day met going to the city, laden chiefly with raw and manufactured cotton, amounts to more than two hundred.

Near to the Register we noticed an unusual number of Parrots, which filled the air with their noisy screams, and remarked that although the country was so well cultivated, there were in it no Anús, a bird which had hitherto been considered as the companion of tillage; instead of them Toucans had become common. The people as they came along caught a large Armadillo, on which they dined, although the animal appeared very old. His armour had become too small for him, or to

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speak more correctly, had not grown in proportion to his body, and was rendered soft by his fat. He was caught while asleep, and with great difficulty could be kept awake. Our companions for the night are a rough class of people from a distant part of the country, whose manners are such as to forbid any familiar intercourse with them; and to add to our discomforts, my guide is ill from a plethoric complaint, brought on perhaps by living better than he is accustomed to do on his journeys, while I can account for a slight indisposition, which has hung upon me for several days, on no other principle than having lived lower than usual.

As early as possible we left this miserable place, and descended into a fine valley, crossed its Southern end, and wound up its Western side, to the height of more than seven hundred feet, whence we looked down upon a broad and extensive plot of Sugar-cane, which surrounded a large house and offices. Having missed my way at the head of the vale, when returning from the Mines, I met at this Fazenda with another instance of the abundant civility with which I was treated in this delightful country. From the summit just mentioned, we enter upon a very different scene, where a poor hungry soil is surrounded by rough-headed rocks, and covered with a thin and stunted forest. A few miles further on, the land resumes its wonted richness, and contained, besides a whitish sort of clay, some patches of Fuller's-earth. During this part of our ride, the scenery has been chiefly English, resembling the woody country near to Sheffield, but without its blackness, forges, and smoke. Two kinds of Heath, first noticed yesterday, flourish here in abundance; one of them has a leaf somewhat like that of the Jasmine, the other a rounder one, both thickly set upon the stalk. Among the trees we found the Tata, or Pine, extending its horizontal branches in great luxuriance; and the common box, growing to the height of more than twelve feet. We met with great numbers of Toucans and Paroquets, the former always flying singly, the latter in flocks; and nearly a hundred mules have passed toward the city loaded with bacon. We noted the thermometer in the morning 60°, at noon 65°, and in the evening ten

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degrees lower, and have increased our elevation about five hundred and fifty-feet, travelling in a direction North-west by North. Two or three streams of note have fallen, during our route, into the principal river from the North-east.

Juiz de Fora contains a small chapel and a few poor houses. The river Parahybúna, which runs close by, and receives an accession to its waters, has dwindled greatly from its magnitude lower down, and flows with a rapid but unruffled current over a sandy bed, subject, it is manifest, to considerable freshes. Near its brink lay several vessels, which are commonly used in collecting Gold-dust from the sands of the stream. They are cut out of a solid piece of wood, and formed externally like a Butcher's tray; their inward figure is that of a three-sided Prism, one of the edges forming the line of the bottom; at one end of this line is a hole, generally stopped with a peg, at the other a small recess to receive the metal. The peg being fixed in its place, the labourer fills the trough with sand from the stream, puts a quantity of water to it, and stirs the whole about until he supposes that all the metal has subsided into the small hollow intended to receive and secure it. The peg is then withdrawn, and the water and sand are permitted to drain off through the unstopped hole. It is no wonder that, by this process, very little gold is obtained in proportion to the quantity of sand which is washed; for it is evident that the metal is not in its natural bed, but brought down from thence by the stream; and the people do not take sufficient pains to seek it in the river's rocky bottom. On the other hand, they cease from washing in dry weather and when the water is low, waiting for another flood to bring down a fresh quantity of auriferous sand, which they skim and exhaust as before.

We proceeded hence, nearly North-west, over a country of abrupt hills and fine valleys; through some of the latter, streams flow Westward to join the Parahybúna, whose course is now too distant, or its bed too insignificant, to be traced, by the eye, among the hills. On our left hand likewise is a broad valley, where the prospect opens and enables us to look round on the horizon from North to the South-west, where the

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whole arch is skirted by high and distant Serros. Those which were farthest off were estimated, according to our best modes of calculation, to be from fifty to seventy miles distant; the nearest from thirty to fifty; the whole appeared naked and bold. The vegetation, which immediately surrounds us, indicates that the climate has become colder; the trees are comparatively small, and flourish best in sheltered places; the heaths and ferns are larger and more vigorous; the aloes, which were in flower last season, have been destroyed by the winter, or, according to the phrase of the country, "have been burnt by the frost," and lie broken down with their heads towards the North-East, a circumstance which indicates that the South-west wind is the strongest or most prevalent.

My gun to-day brought down, from its pendant nest, an Oriole, a bird whose general hue is black, but which has, near the root of the tail, a dash of lively flame colour. Its bill is yellow, and proceeds from a greenish cere. I obtained also a Water-hen, with a blue plumage, inclining to green; its legs were red, but there was no portion of white in the wings, nor a white tuft upon its head, as in those which are found in the Iguapezú. The people thought themselves fortunate in killing a very large and fat Cotiá, and made from it an excellent meal.

As we advanced the soil has changed to a clayey Shale on the tops of the hills, and lower down to a good brown mould. In some places we observed masses of feldspar, and in the streams a bed of granite. The Thermometer, in the morning, was as low as 441°, with cold and foggy weather; at three in the afternoon it had risen to 80°; at ten in the evening it was only 64°; and before sun rising, the next morning, had declined to 48°. The sky has been beautifully clear and blue throughout the whole day, with fleecy clouds riding as lightly and as high above us as they do in Rio or in England, although we must now be above the level of their lower strata in either place; they seem to depend, therefore, for their buoyancy, upon something else than the mere atmospheric pressure. Our increased elevation is about eight hundred and fifty feet.

The place of our rest this day, Antonio Moreira, was full of travellers going to Rio. They were very civil and inquisitive, and because

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it was a Dia santo allowed me, with difficulty, to obtain from one of them a fowl for dinner, by paying at least twice the value for it. He who sold it appeared to be poor, and was tempted by the price; and for his transgression was mildly, but very seriously, reproved by an elderly man of most respectable appearance. The act was justified by placing the matter in a different light. The poor fellow urged that the fowl might die, as doubtless several others would, before it reached the city, and he thought that Providence had wonderfully interfered by furnishing him with a customer so early, and at a price so good. These people invited me to dine with them in the Venda, but my guide objected to it because I should find at their table only rice and feijam, a hint by which I understood that the dead fowl, on such a day, might not be tolerated there, although my heresy out of doors had excited no symptom of either bigotry or ill behaviour.

These people furnished me with several particulars respecting the state and condition of Minas Geraes. In those parts, they said, which are the most populous, the estates are generally a league broad, and as much in depth, or contain sixteen English square miles. On so wide a space there commonly reside no more than about twelve persons, whom alone it supplies with subsistence. Twenty bushels of milho is as much as such families want, and unless the estate lie by the road side, or be near any of the larger towns, they have no means of selling the surplus, if they produce any. They allowed that estates of half a square league, or one-fourth of the former size, are more productive in proportion to their extent, because capital is wanting among the Planters to manage more ground, and said that on such estates cattle are kept in larger numbers; but, they added, "with so little land what can we do with our children when they grow up? we shall have no land to spare for them."

Close by our Rancho are the ruins of a large establishment, the owner of which, having the misfortune to offend a revengeful neighbour, was charged by him with carrying on illicit practices respecting Golddust, and, in consequence, found his house, in the dead of night, suddenly surrounded by a party of horse-soldiers. He was apprehended

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by the detachment, and conveyed to prison, where he died of a broken heart; his property was confiscated, and his family turned adrift. All his neighbours represented him as an industrious man who was growing wealthy, and agreed in asserting their belief, that he was perfectly innocent of the offence laid to his charge, and that his adversary was a person of great influence. The ruined walls, and many scattered fragments of agricultural instruments, remain a monument of the lamentable lot of those whom power and spite can thus effectually crush. There are laws in the country, it is true, but what do they avail if not uprightly and impartially administered?

During the next stage we rode through a country resembling that which we had lately passed to Chapeo D'Ouvas, a village containing a Church and a few good dwellings, delightfully situated in a pleasant bottom, and enriched by a fine spring. As we came along there were some whitewashed houses, and one was distinguished by window shutters, painted green; a species and an instance of luxury which has not been paralleled since we left the coast; one which showed to us the growing comfort, and what, in a state of incipient civilization, is of more importance, the growing taste of the district. We observed also sheep and cattle grazing; the flocks were small, seldom consisting of more than half a dozen individuals, whose carcases were light, and their wool a middle quality of the short kind; the cows were tolerable animals, but the oxen were too lank and thin to be profitable; they have a large coarse fore quarter, and a light hind one.

We have twice, during this stage, descended to the banks of the river, whose crystaline waters flow with a strong, but steady current, upon a sandy bed. At a distance from its borders are whole forests of Aloes, whose dead stems now gave a dreariness to the scene, but in the season of their vigour and bloom they must communicate to it a richness which cannot be described. There are also many dead trees, which my guide tells me were killed about four years ago, by the severity of frost, but I suspect that they have perished because their roots touch the granitic rock. The woods abound in Jacús and other game, which

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stalk along before the sportsman, and when pressed turn into the coppice and disappear. Still the ground before us is rising, and our elevation has increased to-day about three hundred feet. We found the Thermometer as high as 82°.

In the evening we were joined at the Rancho by three people, in the habit and with the manners of Mineiros, as the inhabitants of Minas Geraes are usually ealled. They had lately left the City, with each a slave and a sumpter mule, travelled to the Parahýba by the Western road, and brought with them a Rio Gazette of the latest date. By this I learned, even in the depth of the wilderness, that the British Packet had arrived, and with her some agreeable domestic news, which became more interesting, probably, from the casual and unexpected manner in which it had been conveyed to me. The strangers appear to be respectable men, who have filled different stations in the ranks of society, and whose minds have not only been cast in different moulds, but also subjected to very different impressions. The chief of the party was concluded to be a man of simple unaffected manners, possessing a good temper, and with whom a pleasing acquaintance might be formed; the second appeared to be much inferior to him, both in intellect and disposition, a person who to ignorance added positivity, if not obstinacy; about the last were evident symptoms; of cunning and mean self-interestedness, he talked much, and, to all appearance, perpetually calculated in his own mind the effect of what he said. I would not willingly do injustice to these people, or judge them severely, but it became necessary for me to form some opinion of them quickly, for in the course of the evening it was arranged that I should quit the troop, and travel with them to St. John D' El Rey.

Early in the morning the whole company, except myself, attended Mass, and afterwards, at breakfast, it appeared that the plan of separating was given up, that the strangers, who were acquainted only with an old and circuitous route by Barbacena, should continue with the troop, which the owner proposed to conduct by a new and nearer road, with the utmost speed which the animals could endure. Our talkative friend

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took advantage of the leisure which this new arrangement afforded, to pay a visit to one of the houses, entered into a tedious tale of a full hour in length, and tired my patience completely; every one else waited for him with the most unperturbed good manners, though fully aware that the delay would render the day's ride unpleasant, from the increased fervour of the sun. In the meantime a furious stallion broke into the troop, and produced a battle among the horses, in which several severe wounds were inflicted. The noise and fury of the animals were to me no less surprising than the resolution and dexterity with which the people seized and secured them. The effects of the fray fell most severely upon the horse belonging to our absentee; its tumult interrupted his tale, and induced him to mount.

After advancing a league, by the direct road, we turned off it to the left, at a Rancho, near which is a remarkably fine spring of water, and gladly took refuge from the scorching rays of the sun, tarrying some time to refresh both ourselves and the horses. We then ascended a narrow lane, up a steep and difficult hill, full a thousand feet in perpendicular height, where the beasts suffered exceedingly, both from the closeness of the atmosphere and the labour which the road required. On the summit we caught a distant view of mountains toward the South-east, which appeared to stand at the head of a spacious valley, and, as we thought, gave birth to the Western branch of the Rio Pomba. For some time we travelled upon a ridge which divides incipient waters, and again descending, crossed the Parahybúna, now become nothing more than a considerable brook, and re-entered the Province of Rio de Janeiro. A league further we returned to that of Minas Geraes, and entered a narrow dell, whose steep side on the left hand, was prepared for milho upon a large scale.

At a great distance before us we caught a glimpse of some moving figures which occasionally disappeared, and again came in view nearer to us, as the hills projected or retired. As the distance diminished, we discerned a party dressed in all the gay fashion of the country, in red, white, and blue, with umbrellas of hues as various, or more so than their

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attire. They gave to the scene an uncommonly lively air, and both parties met without suspicion; although strangers seemed pleased with the rencontre, and thus strongly indicated, as I thought, the good moral culture and advantageous condition of the district. In paying to each other the usual compliment of taking off the hat at the same moment, and bringing it down behind the knee, a mule, which one of the strangers rode, took fright, and had nearly plunged with him down the precipice, but the sure-footed animal recovered her step from the very brink, and the rider having kept his seat with wonderful presence of mind, restored the cheerfulness which had been for a moment interrupted. There were several ladies in his company quite free from the sallowness of the coast, and one whose features and complexion were uncommonly beautiful, evincing that the place where they resided is a healthy one. They were returning from a small Church, situated in a singularly broken spot, near the summit of the hill.

In this part of our ride, we passed a Tatá Tree, whose trunk measured twelve feet round, and with this unusual thickness its height corresponded. It is mentioned here less on account of its bulk than as displaying the inadvertence and negligence of the people. Though these trees are abundant, and though when cut, either by accident or design, they yield an extraordinary abundance of turpentine, so rich as to bear the heat of a vertical sun, the Government allows deals, and rosin, and turpentine to be imported from the United States or from Sweden, while much of the latter, more than Brazil can want, runs to waste upon its own soil. We passed also a crop of Barley, the first I had seen in this part of the world, for although some years before pains had been taken to introduce this species of corn into Rio Grandé do Sul, there had been no crop from it when I left that part of the Continent. At present it is produced there in sufficient abundance. Part of this crop also had been cut, but the ear was small and the corn ill-conditioned, probably owing to its having been shorn while green, a practice for which the people assigned no other reason than this general, and perhaps sufficient one, the heat renders it necessary.

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As the day advanced, it became so exceedingly hot, that our conductor determined to halt, under a Cart-shed by the road side, in order to cool and refresh his beasts. Being thirsty, I took a small quantity of Rum, and gave some to one of my companions. Shortly afterwards our Guide returned from a neighbouring farm-house, followed by two slaves, one of whom carried a large pewter dish filled with fruit, the other bearing a pot of milk; both the vessels were neatly covered with clean well-made cotton napkins. Glad at the sight of such luxuries, under a noon-tide sun only a few days from our zenith, I filled a horn with milk and was about to drink it off, when the good-natured stranger stepped forward, seized my arm, and begged me to desist, saying, "if you drink you will die on the spot, for I just now saw you take spirits." Supposing that he was playing upon my credulity, 1 treated his admonition lightly, observing, "you forget that I am an Englishman, and can drink what I please without danger." Nevertheless, he appeared so thoroughly in earnest, and was so warmly seconded by his companions, that I took the "poisonous milk," as they called it, with caution, and found no inconvenience from it. The person who had taken the rum with me, greatly regretted that be had done so, and positively refused the milk until he had seen me survive what was deemed my appointed time, full half an hour; he then also drank, and lived. This little incident served to confirm my good opinion of the strangers, rendered their society more interesting, gave rise to numberless civilities towards me, and led to a conversation upon the deleterious effects of milk, when taken into the stomach upon spirits. On the whole it appeared, that this beverage is really hurtful when mingled with bile, and will then produce the effects they ascribed to it; but the people had failed to distinguish between that substance and pure Jamaica rum.

After this refreshment, we proceeded along good roads, where we noticed, notwithstanding the unevenness of the country, recent marks of wheels. The Carros which make them are strong and clumsy machines, generally drawn by eight or ten oxen up the hills, all of which except two, are placed behind, when they reach the summit, and

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compelled to lower the load with caution. In this manner they pass over declivities of extraordinary difficulty. The Forests on both sides the road were distinguished from any found near the coast, by the diversity of their foliage, and the paler and bluer cast of the verdure; their aspect was more open and rural, and with the abated temperature of the day induced us to ride more quickly than the usual travelling pace of a troop, and thus to leave all our baggage and slaves behind us.

At a farming establishment, concerning the name of which there was some disagreement, where had been appointed our next rendezvous, we were dissatisfied with our accommodations, for there was no Rancho, and the people were evidently unused to the appearance of strangers. As one who spoke a different language, and gave to their own a different accent, I soon became the object of curiosity, and many people collected about the small hut which had become our temporary residence.

Among those who came to wonder, was a poor fellow, who, when flying from the French, had spent a few months in London, where he worked as a harness maker, until sent to South America by the Portuguese Consul. Here he had given such extraordinary accounts of what he had seen in England, as to excite the incredulity, and lose the confidence of his neighbours. He endeavoured now to regain it, by collecting the most sceptical of them and appealing to me in their presence as to the truth of his representations. Among other incredible things, he had said that all the houses, even those of the poor, in England had glass windows, and that the whole country was like one continued town, except that the buildings stood more thickly in some places than in others. "How," it was asked, by those who had never seen a glazed window, "can those people be poor, who cover their windows with glass, a substance which with us is almost as valuable as gold, and more valuable, weight for weight, than silver is? and how can people find water whose houses are scattered over all the country? We have only four or five towns in as many hundred miles, and yet Brazil has too many inhabitants, for some of us are obliged to go into the

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Sertoens or depths of the forests to find new land." The poor fellow was highly delighted with the representations I gave, and frequently bid his neighbours remark them, adding, every now and then, with emphasis, it is true, it is true. I wish the dialogue may have restored his credit, for he spoke with great feeling of his reception at Plymouth; and both I and my servant, a native of Interior Africa, fared the better to-night, for the kindness which this man had experienced several years before in my own country. So wide, in its influence and effects, is the interchange of good offices in society.

Our company here consisted of seventeen persons, the greater part of whom made their beds on the bare ground, yet all sought a place which was sheltered, for the night was very cold. My bed was prepared in a small interior room, where my guide, as a guardian, took his station also.

As our baggage did not arrive until very late, two bags had been filled with the dry husks of Indian corn, and were brought for us from a large Farm-house at a little distance. Each of them was placed in a small crib, made of sticks as they had been cut from the woods, and bound together with Sipo; the sheets were of good, though coarse, cotton cloth, and beautifully white. At dinner, or rather supper, for it was served at nine in the evening, we fared somewhat more sumptuously; it was set out with silver forks and spoons, and slaves afterwards appeared with warm and cold water, that we might perform our ablutions comfortably.

In the morning I thought it right to show my sense of these civilities, by waiting upon the family. The males belonging to it were all gone into the woods, yet there were nearly thirty persons at home, of all shades, from a jet black to the white complexion of the mistress, who, at sixty years of age, had not lost all claim to be numbered among the fair. She was surrounded by a group of chubby and healthy children of various ages, rolling upon the floor, naked as nature had formed them. The full grown females wore, as usual, the chemise and short petticoat. The abode of this numerous family consisted of one very large room,

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just like an English barn. It had mud walls, a thatched roof, and an earth floor, without any division, or ceiling, or plaster, or white-washing whatever. In the middle was the mark of recent fire, surrounded with stones to support the cooking utensils. Around the sides were some matts, on which the people slept, laid upon boards. These, with two or three chests, in which the small moveables were kept, an old table, and a few stones, and blocks of wood, which served as seats, constituted all the furniture. On a superficial view, this family seemed to be one of the happiest which I had ever met with; yet, with all its wants amply supplied, with high health, and a fine flow of spirits, on a nearer inspection, the countenances of the adults indicated the rule of violent passions, and their manners displayed almost an utter absence of civilized enjoyment and moral sentiment; the unrivalled happiness of calm and cultivated minds.

It had been reported early in the morning, that a creature called a Man-of-the-Woods, was seen the evening before, in a distant plantation belonging to the estate, breaking off the heads of Milho; and carrying them away on his shoulder, in considerable quantities at once. He was represented as having a black face, being about five feet high, covered with hair, without a tail, and walking erect; and as belonging to a class of beings which are numerous in the neighbouring forests. I am not aware that any species of Baboon exists in Brazil, and therefore expressed my persuasion that it was either some wretched vagabond of the European stock, driven to stealing, or a native Indian, or else what is called a Caambolo, one of the lowest class of Africans who, escaping as soon as possible from slavery, resume their native habits, run into the woods, and seek there a hard, and probably a precarious subsistence. My explications however, with all their variety, availed nothing; all agreed that it was a mere brute beast, and as that day would be employed in taking him, upon his return to the growing corn, they invited me to be of the party, and convince myself that he was merely a Macaco, or Monkey: or if I chose to wait where I was, until evening, they hoped to show him to me in captivity or dead.

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The term Caambolo or Calambolo is derived from the manner in which negroes pronounce the Tupi word Caamboeiro. It signifies a person who is accustomed to wander in the woods, and denotes one of those beings who exhibit human nature in its lowest state of degradation. He sometimes avoids all intercourse even with his own species, lives upon fruit, roots, or any animal, which casually falls into his hands, and eats them all in their crude state, he makes no use of fire, habitation, or clothing; in these respects he does not differ from the brutes, and is timid in the extreme. I once purchased a new slave who proved to be of this class; he left the house, or rather farm, where he was stationed, and returned to the woods. I took great pains to reclaim him; by gentle means gave him confidence in me, and at last succeeded so far as to render him a very attentive, though not very active, nor intelligent slave; he served me afterwards for several years, and I never had occasion to chastise him. The other class of Caambolos form societies, clothe themselves, and cook their food, but build no habitations, and never plant; they sometimes descend to the plains to steal, are in all respects a lawless rabble, and on this account their haunts are perpetually sought after, and frequently broken up, by persons called Capitaons do Mato, who are appointed by Government to scour the forests.

Here also, as in many other woody parts of Brazil, the people believe in the existence of a pigmy race of men, which are said to be often seen, toward evening, gambolling, or basking themselves, in open spaces and near the edges of the woods. They are described as about three feet high, well formed, of the colour of Europeans, and without hair on their bodies; as generally going on all fours, though frequently standing erect. Upon this subject I have spoken to a great many people, and find that their accounts generally agree; yet none ever pretended that he had secured one of them, none would guide me to their haunts; all excused themselves by saying, that it was an extremely difficult task to take them, on account of their activity and shyness; and that we might possibly wait four or five days, and even then be disappointed in our hope of seeing one. As there is little reason to doubt that there must

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be some ground for such reports, so confidently and generally propagated and believed, I am inclined to think, these creatures are the children of Indians, who in their playfulness expose themselves at the skirts of the woods, while their parents lie concealed because they know that they are in the neighbourhood of "bearded men."

An Hydraulic Machine, which is very common in the thinly-inhabited parts of Brazil, pleasantly beguiled the time while we waited for the recovery of some lost mules. It is used for the beating of Mandioca Roots to a pulp, for taking the husk off Milho and Coffee, and for several other purposes of a similar kind. It consists of a long beam unequally balanced upon a fulcrum, its longer and heavier end is furnished with a strong pestle-like foot, which descends into an Indoá, or Indian mortar. At the other end is a cavity, capable of holding from one to ten gallons of water; when this bowl is full it descends and raises the pestle; at the lowest point the water runs out, and the other arm descends with force. The most ingenious part of the contrivance consists in placing the lever at right angles to the stream, and bringing the water to the cavity through a narrow spout, by which means the stream, forming a parabolic curve, shoots over the bowl and does not impede it in rising; the bowl likewise is so formed as to spill no water until it reach the lowest point, and then discharges it at once. This is effected by the most simple means possible; the end of the bowl farthest from the fulcrum makes an exterior angle with the bottom produced equal to that which the beam forms with the horizon when the pestle is raised. The Machine is of Indian construction, and does great credit to the genius of some unknown rude Mechanic. Europeans have called it the Sloth, because the Indian name Ahý, which signifies the thing of water, sounds, when pronounced without the h, something like Aig, the Tupi name of that animal.

From this Engine the water flows to a small mill with a horizontal wheel, which is employed in giving motion to a lathe used in turning cooking vessels from pieces of solid stone. This material consists of a sort of saponaceous gneiss, soft to the chissel and smooth to the touch,

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which is found not only in this neighbourhood, but in some other parts of the Province, where whole ridges of it are said to exist. It appears to be composed of the Mica, or unchangeable part of Granite, cemented by the basis of Spar, in an uncrystalized state. In some of its veins the Mica is friable and porous, from a deficiency of the cementing matter; in others the stone is soft from an excess of moisture in its component parts. The vessels formed from this substance bear the fire exceedingly well, and are said to communicate to whatever is cooked in them an agreeable flavour; on this account they are sometimes found in the kitchens of large towns. The country over which we have ridden to-day, through twenty-six miles, in a W. N. W. direction, exhibits an unusual quantity of Spar, and it seems to increase as we proceed. The land is still rising, and we are now probably nine hundred and fifty feet above our station of yesterday.

Owing to the length of our last day's journey, the troop did not arrive at the halting place before it was late in the evening. One of the mules belonging to the strangers, either from the heat of the day, or fatigue, had died on the road, and his load was laid upon another, which had previously become so lame as to be unable to touch the ground with one of its fore feet. In this miserable condition the creature was compelled to carry his burden, and we had a distance of nearly seventy miles to proceed before he would be finally relieved from it. This case, connected with innumerable others, which I have noticed, tended to convince me that the Portuguese, and their descendants in Brazil, are extremely deficient in sympathy towards the inferior animals. Such an instance, I am willing to think, could not have occurred on any public road in Britain, without a warm interference on the part of the public.

The next day also, those of us, who had no care of the loaded mules, left our troop and proceeded through a country which I deemed unhealthy, not because the forest flourished with extraordinary luxuriance, but by the side of the road were many symptoms of stagnant water. In Rio I had heard so much of the district named the Campo, which I learned we should this day enter upon, that I became almost impatient

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with the thick forests, narrow and swampy roads, which we travelled for about two leagues, when our guide, the only one of the party to whom the place was familiar, made a short turn to the right, and suddenly the Downs lay before us. We were at the foot of a short and steep hill, the morning was advanced and sultry, and among the woods not a breath of air was stirring. At once we were saluted by a fine bracing breeze in our faces, and hailed it with a burst of joy; we dismounted, and in the shade, at the very verge of the forest, refreshed ourselves and the horses. This was indeed a luxurious hour, I breathed ambrosial gales, and felt my nerves new strung. I had often heard of invalids who left the city in the last stages of debility, and on arriving at these salubrious regions, were so much recovered, that, according to their own phrase, "they could buffet with, and subdue a sturdy mule;" and though healthy, experienced myself a wonderful renovation, both of power and spirits. From the Summit of the hill we looked backward over the tops of the trees, and before us upon an open country quite destitute of wood, to an almost unbounded horizon.

After riding about six miles over these open and level Downs, we arrived at a small neat-looking Church, surrounded by a low wall and joined to a parsonage house. Its appearance at a distance was extremely interesting, for the day was a holy one, and though not a single habitation had been seen, at least three hundred people had assembled to hear Mass. Service was already closed, and the females dressed in white and showy colours, were seated in parties on the grass, with green and blue, red and purple umbrellas held over them, as a shelter from the sun. Their thin features and sallow complexions distinctly marked them for country Brazilians, while the black woollen hats and baetas, which they wore, gave them some resemblance to a congregation of Welsh Women in Summer. The older men were engaged at a little distance among the horses, and gave to their group the appearance of a fair; the young ones were occupied in sprightly sports, and enlivened the scene by their clamour and vivacity; the slaves were mingled with their Senhoras, or guarding the cattle which they rode.

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This was the Church of Curral Novo, the disallowed name of the farm where we slept the last night. At a little distance from the sacred edifice, a narrow rill, whose very excellent waters ripple over a bed of quartz in small pieces, supplies the house with a cool and wholesome beverage; while, at a greater distance, the surrounding downs are varied by slight and easy undulations, in whose bottoms are fine pools, or moist and verdant meadows, where game was seen in abundance. On leaving this spot we were joined by a plain looking farmer, whose countenance did not please me: I therefore rode on before my companions, and, understanding that we were to dine at his house, went to it, and was just putting my horse under a shed, when the owner arrived, and angrily told me, "you cannot stop here, your companions are half a league behind." When on the point of replying, my servant, who had been dispatched after me, arrived, and probably prevented an unpleasant altercation. This, I think, was the only positive incivility which I met with in Minas Geraes.

All the other travellers were found reclining under a large tree, by the side of a clear stream which flowed toward the North; their object seemed to be repose rather than any other kind of refreshment, and shelter from the scorching heat. In about half an hour a basket of oranges was brought, by two children, from the house which has just been mentioned, and being all it could afford us, we made a hearty if not a substantial meal. As we were about to mount again, when the sun had somewhat declined, a messenger arrived on horseback, with a written invitation to spend the night, or at least to take our dinner, at a house which he pointed out to us nearly two miles off, on the slope of another hill. After some delay and debate, it was determined to decline the proffered hospitality, and, as we had neither pen nor ink at hand, to dispatch one of our new companions, to express our sense of the gentleman's civility, and to inform him that the troop was too much scattered at that time to admit of a change in the appointed rendezvous.

A few miles farther brought us to the highest point of the road between Rio de Janeiro and St. John D' El Rey, two thousand six

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hundred feet, as we supposed, above the place which we left in the morning. A most extensive view here opened on every side, but the distant horizon did not, as is usual in such cases, melt away into air; it consisted of a strongly undulated outline, with the intermediate space filled up by bold masses of detached mountains, on one side struck by the full glow of an afternoon tropical sun, while the other was involved in deep blue shade. Toward the North the lofty Serros about Villa Rica, a hundred miles distant in a right line, were pointed out; toward the South-east appeared the cones near Padre Correio's, from which we had travelled at least a hundred and sixty miles, and had not a slight haze rested in that quarter, we should have beheld the Organ mountains, not far from the Capital; to the West were clearly seen the Serros of St. Joze and Lenheiro, a ridge of mountains above St. John D' El Rey; in the North-east the nameless bluff heads of the Mantequeira rose one beyond another in distinguishable shades; yet the longest line of all was toward the South-west, where the remotest visible mountains were thought to be near the frontiers of St. Paul's. We here stood on the Southern verge of the vast basin of the Rio Grandé, one of the principal branches of the mighty Paraná, and, looking over the brink, beheld the Northern slope of the long Parahýba, or rather stretched our view across the country which it drains.

This inclined plane, or Northern half of the vale, the strong support of the Mantequerian Serro, extends about sixty miles, in a straight line, and the angle of its ascent is nearly one degree fifteen minutes. The lower region of it is a broken country, where the naked cones stand thickly, and rise nearly to the height of our present station. On the upper part of the buttress is a covering of red clay, mingled with mica and quartz; and the core of the extended plains, toward the North, appears to be composed in the same manner of granitic rocks, in a conical shape, which seem, from their occasional appearance on the surface of the plain, to be as thickly strewed, and as sharply pointed, as those below us. The spaces between them are filled up with various substances of later formation, but by far the greater proportion consists of red clay, mingled with mica.

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If asked why the same proportion of clay is not found below, I should reply, it has probably been washed away by the superior moisture and rains of the coast, and by the corrosion of streams, whose ravages are proportioned to the length and angle of their fall. I have no system of Geology to support; I do not understand any; but relate facts as they appeared, and the impressions they made upon my mind, convinced that nature operates here upon a scale scarcely reducible to the circumscribed phenomena observed in Great Britain and the Continent of Europe.

The Campo, or table land of Brazil, resting on this granitic core, is composed of great masses of mountain, which appear to be detached from each other, having between them broad basins, where the ground is cut into deep ravines, and formed into strong undulations of three to six hundred feet in height; the sides of these ravines are exceedingly steep, and their bottoms contain beds of torrents, so broken and generally so difficult as to require bridges; but the country has not yet advanced far enough for the construction of many artificial roads. Hence the course of travellers lies along the heads of ravines, the ridge of the hill between them, even though it deviate to every point of the compass; here people meet with solid ground, and an uninterrupted course, though the ridge is sometimes almost as narrow as the road which passes along it, and the descent on either hand is rapid though not precipitous.

As to the general soil of the country it is little different from that which has been already said to fill up the intervals between the granitic cones, but in many places it has upon its surface a stratum of yellowish brown clay, mixed with sand; this covering lies in patches of various dimensions, from nine to fifteen inches thick, and its edges are so worn as plainly to indicate, that it was once much more extensive, perhaps formed a superstratum to the whole present surface, that it is in a course of wasting from rains, and will shortly disappear. Hence it is that in some bottoms, and at the sides of gentle declivities, are sometimes found spots of yellow sand almost as barren as the sea-beach, collected there by the waters, while the other component part of the superstratum, being

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more intimately miscible, has been separated and carried by the stream to a lower station. These sandy spots sometimes contained rounded pebbles, but were more commonly seen without them, and, in one instance, where the stream had cut deeply into the earth, confused strata of vegetable soil, clay, sand of different kinds and colours, and even of peat, were exposed to view.

In our progress to-day we passed and examined, in a cursory way, one of the largest of those chasms which, in Brazil, are known by the name of Corgo. Something like them occasionally occurs, on a small scale, in some of the chalky and peaty districts of. our own country. They are excavations in the side of a hill, a sort of pit, open at one end, with very rough unformed sides, destitute of verdure, and having their longest line nearly at right angles to the ridge of the hill on whose side they appear. They are formed at first by the junction of very little streamlets, which acquire momentum enough to tear away the soil. In subsequent rains the water shoots, with accumulated force, over the brink, falls upon the ruin already produced, and enlarges it; a similar process goes on until the chasm becomes frequently many hundred feet in length, sometimes two or three in breadth, and often more than one hundred deep. In this state the sides are continually crumbling in; rain washes them down, and the wreck is borne away by the solvent power and the force of the accumulated waters, until, in process of time, the sides acquire a regular slope, the bottom is covered with the feldspar and other heavy materials which existed in the clay, and thus a steep dell and at length a valley is formed, and lastly grass grows upon its sides.

I have observed many instances where these Corgos have owed their origin to what may be called, perhaps, a less natural process. During the dry season Ants and Armadillos, both of which may be numbered among the pests of the country, burrow into the sides of the hills. In the rainy season water descends into these holes, and, uniting with the clay, becomes a puddle; if the pressure of the mass be sufficient to burst its way through the soil, a Corgo is begun, the growth of which will be determined by the form of the upper ground, the solidity of the materials,

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and the depth of the neighbouring valley, which, perhaps, has been antecedently produced in the same way. It should be noticed, however, that the word Corgo, in some parts of Brazil, denotes the dry and steep ridge between two ravines, and not the dells themselves.

The first part of the Downs which we passed exhibited no signs of culture whatever, but, after leaving the Church of Corral Novo, we saw many farm-houses, with small enclosures around them, and noticed there, besides the common articles of culture, some barley, and wheat, and turnips. When compared with the general neglected condition of the country, these appeared something like islands in the ocean, or oases in a desert. Ditches, about six feet wide and as many deep, dug in straight lines with the earth thrown up on the interior bank, divided one estate from another, and formed a boundary between them from one to three leagues in length, and being traced by the eye over successive hills, formed curious intersections of the country. It was painful to contemplate the waste of labour which they exhibited, and to think how much less would have produced hedge-rows of far greater utility. In the more open downs cows and oxen were feeding, almost hidden in a tall wiry kind of grass or rush; and seemed to thrive, though, from the want of rain, the herbage had lost almost all its succulence. The plants do not grow like our grass, but stand nearly two inches asunder; the water, in wet seasons, trickling round the roots, and washing away the soil, leaves the place covered with small pieces of brown quartz, which prevents the growth of a closer kind of herbage. This coating of quartz is common over the whole country, except in the yellow clays and lands improved by turning up the soil. It is thickest on the Western sides of the hills, showing, as does also the more frequent appearance of the rock in the same quarter, that the rain falls most abundantly, and heavily, from that part of the heavens.

This long grass conceals a multitude of reptiles, some of them destructive to man and beast. By the Rattle-snake my guide had, in this neighbourhood, lost his eldest son, who, being bitten in the thumb, and sensible of his danger, ran towards the house, from which he was a

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mile distant, got near enough to be perceived by some of the people, then dropped, and, twenty-four hours afterwards, expired in agonies. No one near him had the least idea of preventing the baneful effects of the poison by excision or bandage, or by severing the lacteals; and when told of these resources, the people evidently mixed much incredulity, with their thankfulness for the information. Happily there is a bird in the open parts of the country, about the size of a Bustard, which seizes the snake with impunity, mounts aloft, suffers his prey to drop, and plunging, retakes before it reaches the ground, again mounts, and repeats the process until its victim is deprived of life

The mode of burning the grass in this Province, in order to prepare the land for culture, must doubtless destroy or drive away a vast number of troublesome insects and pernicious reptiles. It is said that the latter do not return to the spot so long as it retains the smell of fire, or ashes remain upon the land. But, notwithstanding such a desirable effect, this burning is here carried much too far; fire is put to the woods and coppices, as well as to the grass, and that often without a thought of the increasing scarcity of timber and fuel. This system, however, is an old and established one, therefore it must be the best; and such impressions will retain their influence, until the wants of society imperiously demand a change.

Having been eight hours on horseback, and ridden thirty miles toward the West by North, upon a road which had diminished our elevation seven hundred feet, evening advanced. I was aware that we were approaching the home of our guide, but had yet to learn his rank in society. Instead of following the hard and anxious life of a Tropeiro from necessity, it now appeared, long before we reached the house, that we were travelling over his own estate. He saw every thing with a master's eye, and remarked upon every circumstance with a master's strictness. This estate measured a square league, and was completely his own. He possessed another of the same extent, only half of which was paid for, and on a third, near to Barbacena, he had settled a son, upon his marriage with a young woman of inferior birth.

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His own house was singularly situated upon the slope of a hill, having in front a stockade, enclosing nearly half an acre of ground; behind it was a cow yard, with sheds, calf pens, and other offices, to a considerable extent, beyond, was a well stocked garden; the whole skirted by a large enclosed field, and watered by a fine perennial stream.

The owner was affectionately welcomed by an active domestic-like woman, surrounded by a fine healthy young family. Joy was diffused through the house, and seemed to throb in every bosom as strongly as in more polished circles. Yet here it was naturally, perhaps rudely expressed, while there every one must speak, and act, and even feel in form. God of the families of men, shed but thy blessings on my abode, and I care not whether it be a cabin in Brazilian deserts, or a palace in the world's chief city!

Soon after our arrival, the best flock of sheep which I had seen in this part of the world was driven into the upper yard, to secure them, as the people said, from wild dogs, which abound in the country, lurking by day in the woods or coppices, and prowling at night for prey. The sheep were of the horned kind, light, lank, and meagre; their wool short, hollow, and fuzzy, grown with a deficiency of yolk, whose nutritious qualities, in warm climates, are converted into a watery corrosive perspiration; the best of the fleece might be considered as a good English Downright, and is sold in the neighbourhood at the rate of two hundred and forty Reis, about one shilling per pound, for manufacturing into cloth; the inferior sort is generally used in the house for stuffing beds, or for coarse home-spun clothing, but if sold to the neighbouring farmers, for the same purposes, the price is invariably one hundred and sixty Reis per pound. The shepherds, like several which we had seen in the course of the day, were not those of Virgil and Theocritus, nor were the scenes Arcadian. Though in Europe we frequently notice black sheep under the care of white men, we feel no sense of incongruity in the case; but to behold flocks of white sheep, managed and protected by black shepherds, opposed all my ideas of nature and nature's laws. Nothing ever more forcibly told me that the world I was now in was different and far from the land of my fathers.

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Returning from a short ramble, in the cool of the evening, I found the family at vespers. The service here was extremely different from the noisy clamour which was so disgustingly exhibited at the corners of the streets in Rio; it was calm, serious, and devout—an act of homage to the Family's Protector and the Traveller's Guide, and as such doubtless rose with acceptance to heaven. The doors of the Oratory remained open, and the Crucifix exposed, until supper was just about to be served in the same room. The master then approached the sacred insignia, with great seriousness, made a profound bow to the image, and closed the doors. There was something in the action so expressive of modest veneration, that I could not but admire it at the moment, and still think that his mind must be very ill formed who can behold a fellow-creature worship his God in sincerity, be it what it may, and can sneer at his conduct. I have no faith whatever in images, no attachment to dogmas and to forms, yet I loved my Guide the better because he evinced the sincerity of his faith, though differing from my own almost as widely as possible. He was a sincere but not an obtrusive Religionist, and more than once, in the stillness of night, was I awaked by the low murmurs of the people whom, as he thought and yet thinks, he had called unobserved to prayers. I believe him to be a less violent but more conscientious Sebastianista than some others whom I intimately knew. They form a sect among the Portuguese Catholics, who as devoutly expect the return of the Royal St. Sebastian, as the Jews expect their Messiah, or the Christians the re-appearance of their Lord.

Desert as the country around us appeared, and mean as the fastidious would have thought the habitation of my host, Joze Coreio Pinto proved that there was no want of comfort there. At supper the table was abundantly spread with solid provisions, and furnished with several luxuries, which had acquired there superior value from the difficulty of procuring and transporting them so far. Besides a good display of silver plate and British earthenware, we had Rosca from the City, bottled London Porter, and good Port Wine, served in cut glass decanters. Through the whole journey my guide had behaved toward me in

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the most attentive and handsome manner, and now crowned his conduct with cheerful hospitality.

The Strangers who had joined us intended to start for St. John D' El Rey, at an hour so early as to reach that town before the sun again became hot, and I declared my purpose of accompanying them. The plan, however, gave rise to some debate, brought forward some slight degree of apparent mystery, and was finally over-ruled. Upon this I wished my friends a pleasant journey, and retired to rest. My room, like the other apartments of the house, was formed by walls of watling, roughly overspread with clay, of course unplastered and unwhitened. It was open to the roof, and had no window; the tiles are so formed and so laid on as to admit light between the chinks, and for the same purpose a small space is left unclosed along the top of the outer wall. My bedstead was one of the plainest sort, without tester or curtains, the bed a large bag, filled with the husks of milho. Such are the rooms, and such the accommodations in the rural parts of Minas Geraes; no traveller should expect better, and if he should find more splendour he will seldom increase his comforts. On the bed, one of the softest of its kind, I laid myself down satisfied and thankful, and enjoyed luxurious repose, for I heard not the noise made by a wild dog, which entered the adjoining yard and killed a sheep, before the people were sufficiently roused to prevent his depredations.

In the morning, which to me seemed very cold, the Thermometer stood at 55°. A number of cows had been brought into the yard to suckle their calves; milk for breakfast was ordered to be taken from the best of them. In doing this a little contrivance was exercised, to impose upon the mother; the calf was allowed to suck for a little time, and then taken off, and tethered by a cord round its neck to the fore leg of the cow, so that it could just reach but not draw the teat, while she was purloined of the milk. Of this I made a hearty breakfast, but suffered from it severely; the heat to which I had been exposed the preceding day had produced a superabundance of bile, which, combining ill with the milk, converted it to curd, and produced great pain, attended fortunately with sickness.

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My guide and friend haying extracted from me a promise that I would not attempt, in St. John D' El Rey, to go to an Estalagem, but ride directly to the house of a gentleman, to whom, according to his own account, he was under engagement to deliver me, and who, he added, must, ere that time, expect me, I set out early in the forenoon, with three servants of the people who had left us that morning. We proceeded Westward over a broad expanse of uninteresting country, where the eye surveys few traces of animated life, and is cheered by no rising steeples, no seats of opulence, no waving crops, no useful hedge-rows, no ornamental planting, and few natural coppices; all is one wearisome waste. The hills we saw yesterday have the same outline to-day, with their apparent dimensions somewhat enlarged, and a bluer and deeper tint, but still grey in distance.

Passing some Farm-houses and a Church prettily situated in a bottom, we attempted in vain to procure some liquid or fruit to allay a burning thirst. The uneasy sensation was occasioned chiefly by the dry and harsh state of the wind, which continuing to blow from the N.E. and being no longer softened by the influence of the ocean or the forest, but sweeping over vast tracts of woodless and parched land, like the Harmattan of Guinea, dried up every particle of moisture from the skin, and absolutely excoriated the lips and the fauces. The season had been an uncommonly dry one, and to this the people attributed the cause of our suffering, assuring me that they had never before experienced the effect in so high a degree, and that it would cease on the first appearance of rain. Probably in my own case, the distressing sensation might be increased by the low temperature of the atmosphere, which was such as I had not been accustomed to for several years before, and entirely checked the process of perspiration,

After meeting on the summit of one of the Morros, with an agreeable French Gentleman, Mr. Montalban, we rode on together as far as Esteva, an extensive establishment, where by the good offices of my late guide and the friends who had preceded me and made themselves a sort of Avant-Couriers, I was admitted to, all reasonable

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accommodations. I found, indeed, no luxuries, but comforts in abunbance, and quite free from that formality and suspicion which abound in the neighbourhood of Rio, and are too prevalent in some other parts of Brazil. The master of the house was from home, having gone toward the heads of the Rio Doce, to seek in the forest a more retired situation. Here he possessed half a square league of land, and not only thought the farm too small, but complained, although the Province contains only five persons to a square mile, that the country was becoming too populous. He belongs, it seems, to a numerous class of people in Brazil, who are ever dissatisfied with a settled life; they love to wander, and would never cease. This spirit showed itself at the early settlement of the country, and has been cherished by a restless and never ending search after Gold. In going Eastward, however, and toward the coast, he had shown more judgment than the greater part of this migrating tribe, who usually proceed in a contrary direction.

Close by the house is a considerable stream, which, in rainy periods, must become an impetuous torrent. Here it runs South, but taking a long sweep round to the West, passes through St. John D' El Rey. In its bed we found some quartzose sand-stone reduced to rounded masses, and a quantity of the spar in detached nodules. On the brink was a space of peaty earth, cut by the stream, and chipped by the heat into cubes. Among other natural phenomena it was observed that, as we passed Westward over these Downs, the coating of clay became thinner; and that the South side of the hills is better clothed with verdure than the Northern one, owing probably to the rays of the sun falling less directly upon the soil, and therefore scorching it in a lower degree. Iron-stone was occasionally seen, and twice in one day the compass appeared to lose its polarity, without my being able to account for the circumstance. About two o'clock in the afternoon something like a water-spout was seen in the air, formed, however, only of vapour, instead of that solid and black aqueous pillar which is sometimes observed at sea, and there was no mass of cloud above it. At night, on one occasion, we perceived, in the absence of the moon, a thin red aura,

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attended with a slight flashing, so transparent that the stars were seen through it with almost undiminished lustre. I was inclined to persuade myself that it might be the Aurora Australis, but that our latitude was too low to warrant the expectation of such a phenomenon; it existed only about the zenith, without any particular brightness being discernible on the Southern verge of the horizon; and luminous appearances in the atmosphere are very common in the warmer regions. The heat of the day, under the influence of a sun almost directly over our heads, had been very oppressive, although the thermometer never rose above 65°. in the shade.

Among the Birds which we noticed, were the Bustard, the Plover, Partridge, and Owl, a bird like the Wheatear, and several species unknown to any of our party. Some of these, in different degrees, bore some resemblance to the Stock-Dove, and it was remarked that few of them, or any other species, had been seen on the wing. During the heat of the day they hide themselves among the long grass, but in the cool hours of the morning appear upon the road, and the spots of ground destitute of herbage, in great variety and abundance. It is reported that when the Milho is ripe, they arrive in such vast flocks as to destroy, sometimes the whole of the crop. Along some of the bottoms, and in sheltered situations, we found occasionally coppices composed of brush-wood and stunted timber, which are here called Tiras do Mato; they contained the Orange, Laurels, Myrtles, and several other species of trees and shrubs common upon the coast, but the Cajú alone was seen scattered singly over wide open spaces, to endure, though not to flourish under, the climate of the Downs. We had travelled to-day twenty miles in a direction West North West, or West and by North; had been eight hours on horseback, and descended three hundred feet.

Approaching so near to St. John, it was natural to inquire respecting those Gentlemen to whom I had been favoured with letters of introduction. I requested also some account of the Estalagems or Inns of the place, and was assured, that with letters so addressed, it was impossible for me to make my abode at one of them; that it was not the custom of

3 L

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the place, and would not be permitted. My hostess also told me that she was sister to one of the Gentlemen whose name I had mentioned, and knew that I was expected at the house of Senhor Auriliano Baptista d' Araujo Magelhaens. Connecting what I now heard with the uniform declaration of my Guide, that he was under engagement to deliver me at a particular house, and with the mystery which appeared about my late fellow travellers, when they refused to admit of my company to the Villa, I began to suspect that though the whole might proceed from the most hospitable and kind intentions on the part of my friends, it would lead to some restraint upon that freedom which I love to possess in every place; and therefore determined when my promise was fulfilled, by riding directly to the house pointed out to me, to remove as soon as possible to a hotel, or to private lodgings. Accordingly having given orders to the people who attended me to be ready to proceed at two o'clock in the morning, I committed myself to rest in a well furnished bed room.

The morning air was unpleasantly cold as we proceeded over some rough ground, by the light of a feeble moon, then in her last quarter, round whose disk was a singularly bright and broad Halo. Again I suffered extremely from thirst, and earnestly wished for the return of day-light, to show us some means of relief, h