RECORD: Wallis, Samuel. 1773. An account of a voyage round the world in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768. Pp. 363-522 in Hawkesworth, John. 1773. An account of the voyages undertaken for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow and the Endeavour drawn from the journals which were kept by the several commanders and from the papers of Joseph Banks, volune 1. London, W. Strahan; and T. Cadell,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by AEL Data 5.2013. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


[page 361]

AN

ACCOUNT

OF A

VOYAGE round the WORLD,

IN THE YEARS

MDCCLXVI, MDCCLXVII, and MDCCLXVIII.

By SAMUEL WALLIS, Efq;

Commander of his Majesty's Ship the DOLPHIN.

VOL. I. A a a

[page break]

[page 363]

CHAP. I.

The Passage to the coast of Patagonia, with some account of the Natives.

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian of London.]

1766. June 19.

HAVING received my commission, which was dated the 19th of June 1766, I went on board the same day, hoisted the pendant, and began to enter seamen, but, according to my orders, took no boys either for myself or any of the officers.

Sat. July 26.

Sat. Aug. 16.

The ship was fitted for the sea with all possible expedition, during which the articles of war, and the act of parliament were read to the ship's company: on the 26th of July we failed down the river, and on the 16th of August, at eight o'clock in the morning, anchored in Plymouth Sound.

Tuesday 19.

On the 19th I received my failing orders, with directions to take the Swallow sloop, and the Prince Frederick store-ship under my command: and this day I took on board, among other things, three thousand weight of portable soup, and a bale of cork jackets. Every part of the ship was filled with stores and necessaries of various kinds, even to the steerage and state-room, which were allotted to the slops and portable soup. The surgeon offered to purchase an extraordinary quantity of medicines, and medical necessaries, which, as the ship's company might become sickly,

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he said would in that case be of great service, if room could be found to stow them in; I therefore gave him leave to put them into my cabbin, the only place in the ship where they could be received, as they consisted of three large boxes.

Friday 22.

On the 22d, at four o'clock in the morning, I weighed and made sail in company with the Swallow and Prince Frederick, and had soon the mortification to find that the Swallow was a very bad sailer.

September.

Sunday 7.

We proceeded in our voyage, without any remarkable incident, till Sunday the seventh of September, when, about eight o'clock in the morning, we saw the island of Porto Santo, bearing west; and about noon saw the east-end of the island of Madeira.

About five o'clock we ran between this end of the island and the Deserters. On the side next the Deserters is a low flat island, and near it a needle rock; the side next to Madeira is full of broken rocks, and for that reason it is not safe to come within less than two miles of it.

Monday 8.

At six in the evening we anchored in Madeira Road, about two-thirds of a mile from the shore, in 24 fathom with a muddy bottom: about eight the Swallow and Prince Frederick also came to an anchor; and I sent an officer on shore to the Governor, to let him know that I would salute him, if he would return an equal number of guns, which he promised to do; the next morning therefore, at fix o'clock, I saluted him with thirteen guns, and he returned thirteen as he had promised.

Friday 12.

Having taken in a proper quantity of water at this place, with four pipes and ten puncheons of wine, some fresh beef, and a large quantity of onions, we weighed anchor on the 12th, and continued our voyage.

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1766. September.

Tuesday 16.

At six o'clock in the morning, of Tuesday the 16th, we saw the island of Palma, and found the ship 15 miles to the southward of her reckoning. As we were sailing along this island, at the rate of no less than eight miles an hour, with the wind at east, it died away at once; so that within less than two minutes the ship had no motion, though we were at least four leagues distant from the shore. Palma lies in lat. 28° 40′N. long. 17° 48′W.

Saturday 20.

On the 20th we tried the current, and found it set S. W. by W. one mile an hour: this day we saw two herons flying to the eastward, and a great number of bonettos about the ship, of which we caught eight.

Sunday 21.

Monday 22.

Tuesday 23.

In the night between the 21st and 22d we lost our companion the Swallow, and about eight in the morning we saw the island of Sal, bearing S. ½ W.; at noon it bore S. ¾ W. distant 8 leagues; and at noon on the 23d, the nearest land of the island of Bonavista bore from S. to W. S. W. distant seven or eight miles, the east-end, at the same time, bearing W. distant two leagues. In this situation we founded, and had only 15 fathom, with rocky ground; at the same time we saw a very great rippling, which we supposed to be caused by a reef, stretching off the point about E. S. E. three miles, and breakers without us, distant also about three miles in the direction of S. E. We steered between the rippling and the breakers, but after hauling the ship off about half a mile, we had no soundings. The Prince Frederick passed very near the breakers, in the S. E. but had no soundings; yet these breakers are supposed to be dangerous. The middle of the isle of Sal is in lat. 16° 55′N. long. 21° 59° W.; the middle of Bonavista is in lat. 16° 10′long. 23° W.

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1766. September.

Wedn. 24.

On the next day, at six in the morning, the isle of May bore from W. to S. W. six leagues; and soon after the Swallow again joined company. At half an hour after 10 the west-end of the isle of May bore north at the distance of five miles, and we found a current here, setting to the south-ward at the rate of twenty miles in four and twenty hours. The latitude of this island is 15° 10′N. longitude 22° 25′W.

Thurs. 25.

At noon the south-end of the island St. Iago bore S. W. by W. distant four leagues; and the north-end N. W. distant five leagues. At half an hour after three we anchored in Port Praya, in that island, in company with the Swallow and Prince Frederick, in eight fathom water, upon sandy ground. We had much rain and lightning in the night, and early in the morning I sent to the commanding-officer at the fort, for leave to get off some water, and other refreshments, which he granted.

We soon learnt that this was the sickly season, and that the rains were so great as to render it extremely difficult to get any thing down from the country to the ships: it happened also, unfortunately, that the small-pox, which is extremely fatal here, was at this time epidemic; so that I permitted no man to go ashore who had not had that distemper, and I would not suffer even those that had to go into any house.

We procured, however, a supply of water and some cattle from the shore, and caught abundance of fish with the seine, which was hauled twice every day: we found also in the valley where we got our water, a kind of large purslain, growing wild in amazing quantities: this was a most welcome refreshment both raw as a sallad, and boiled with the

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broth and pease; and when we left the place we carried away enough of it to serve us a week.

Sunday 28.

On the 28th, at half an hour after twelve we weighed and put to sea; at half an hour after six in the evening the peak of Fuego bore W. N. W. distant 12 leagues, and in the night the burning mountain was very visible.

This day I ordered hooks and lines to be served to all the ship's company, that they might catch fish for themselves; but at the same time I also ordered that no man should keep his fish more than four and twenty hours before it was eaten, for I had observed that stale, and even dried fish, had made the people sickly, and tainted the air in the ship.

October.

Wednes. 1.

Friday 3.

Tuesday 7.

On the first of October, in lat. 10° 37′N. we lost the true trade-wind, and had only light and variable gales; and this day we found that the ship was set twelve miles to the northward by a current; on the third we found a current run S. by E. at the rate of six fathom an hour, or about twenty miles and a half a day: on the seventh we found the ship 19 miles to the southward of her reckoning.

Monday 20.

On the 20th, our butter and cheese being all expended, we began to serve the ship's company with oil, and I gave orders that they should also be served with mustard and vinegar once a fortnight during the rest of the voyage.

Wednes. 22.

On the 22d we saw an incredible number of birds, and among the rest a man of war bird, which inclined us to think that some land was not more than 60 leagues distant: this day we crossed the equator in longitude 23° 40′W.

Friday 24.

Sunday 26.

On the 24th I ordered the ship's company to be served with brandy, and reserved the wine for the sick and convalescent. On the 26th the Prince Frederick made signals of distress, upon which we bore down to her, and found than she had

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1766. October.

carried away her fore-top-sail-yard. To supply this loss we gave her our sprit-sail-top-sail-yard, which we could spare, and she hoisted it immediately.

Monday 27.

On the 27th the again made signals of distress, upon which I brought to, and sent the carpenter on board her, who returned with an account that she had sprung a leak under the larboard cheek forward, and that it was impossible to do any thing to it till we had better weather. Upon speaking with Lieutenant Brine, who commanded her, he informed me that his crew were sickly; that the fatigue of working the pumps, and constantly standing by the sails, had worn them down; that their provisions were not good, that they had nothing to drink but water, and that he feared it would be impossible for him to keep company with me except I could spare him some assistance. For the badness of their provision I had no remedy, but I sent on board a carpenter and fix seamen to assist in pumping and working the ship.

November.

Saturday 8.

On the eighth of November, being in latitude 25° 52′S. longitude 39° 38′we sounded with 160 fathom, but had no ground: on the ninth, having seen a great number of birds, called albatrosses, we founded again with 180 fathom, but had no ground.

Tuesday 11.

On the 11th, having by signal brought the store-ship under our stern, I sent the carpenter, with proper assistants, on board to stop the leak; but they found that very little could be done: we then compleated our provisions, and those of the Swallow, from her stores, and put on board her all our staves, iron hoops, and empty oil jars. The next day I sent a carpenter and six seamen to relieve the men that had been sent to assist her on the 27th of October, who, by this time, began to suffer much by their fatigue. Several of her crew having the appearance of the scurvy, I sent

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the surgeon on board her with some medicines for the sick. This day, having seen some albatrosses, turtles, and weeds, we founded, but had no ground with 180 fathom.

Wednes. 12.

On the 12th, being now in latitude 30 south, we began to find it very cold; we therefore got up our quarter cloths, and fitted them to their proper places, and the seamen put on their thick jackets. This day we saw a turtle, and several albatrosses, but still had no ground with 180 fathom.

Tuesday 18.

We continued to see weeds and birds on board the ship, but had no ground till the 18th, when we found a soft muddy bottom at the depth of 54 fathom. We were now in lat. 35° 40′S. long. 49° 54′W.; and this was the first sounding we had after our coming upon the coast of Brazil.

Wednes. 19.

Thursday 20.

On the 19th, about eight o'clock in the evening, we saw a meteor of a very extraordinary appearance in the northeast, which, soon after we had observed it, flew off in a horizontal line to the south-west, with amazing rapidity: it was near a minute in its progress, and it left a train of light behind it so strong, that the deck was not less illuminated than at noon-day. This day we saw a great number of seals about the ship, and had soundings at 55 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The next day the seals continued, and we had soundings at 53 fathom, with a dark coloured sand; upon which we bent our cables.

Friday 21.

On the 21st we had no ground with 150 fathom. Our lat. at noon was 37° 40′S. long. 51° 24′W.

Saturday 22.

On the 22d we had soundings again at 70 fathom, with a dark brown sand, and saw many whales and seals about the ship, with a great number of butterflies, and birds, among which were snipes and plover. Our lat. at noon was 38° 55′long. 56° 47′W.

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1766. December.

Monday 8.

Tuesday 9.

Our soundings continued from 40 to 70 fathom, till the eighth of December, when, about six o'clock in the morning, we saw land bearing from S. W. to W. by S. and appearing like many small islands. At noon it bore from W. by S. to S. S. W. distant 8 leagues; our latitude then being 47° 16′S. long. 64° 58′W. About three o'clock Cape Blanco bore W. N. W. distant six leagues, and a remarkable double saddle W. S. W. distant about three leagues. We had now soundings from 20 to 16 fathom, sometimes with coarse sand and gravel, sometimes with small black stones and shells. At eight in the evening the Tower rock at Port Desire bore S. W. by W. distant about three leagues; and the extreams of the land from S. by E. to N. W. by N. At nine, Penguin Island bore S. W. by W. ½ W. distant two leagues; and at four o'clock in the morning of the ninth, the land seen from the masthead bore from S. W. to W. by N.

At noon Penguin island bore S. by E. distant 57 miles; our latitude being 48° 56′S. longitude 65° 6′W. This day we saw such a quantity of red shrimps about the ship, that the sea was coloured with them.

Wednes. 10.

At noon the next day, Wednesday the 10th, the extreams of the land bore from S. W. to N. W. and Wood's Mount, near the entrance of Saint Julian's, bore S. W. by W. distant three or four leagues. Our latitude was 49° 16′S. our longitude 66° 48′W.; and our soundings were from 40 to 45 fathom, sometimes sine sand, sometimes soft mud.

Tuesday 11.

At noon, on Thursday the 11th, Penguin island bore N. N. E. distant 58 leagues. Our latitude was 50° 48′S. our longitude 67° 10′W.

Saturday 13.

We continued our course till Saturday the 13th, when our latitude being 50° 34′S. and our longitude 68° 15′W.

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1766. December.

the extreams of the land bore from N. ½ E. to S. S. W. ½ W. and the ship was about five or six miles distant from the shore. Cape Beachy-head, the northermost cape, was found to lie in latitude 50° 16′S. and Cape Fairweather, the southermost cape, in latitude 50° 50′S.

Sunday 14.

On Sunday the 14th, at four in the morning, Cape Beachy-head bore N. W. ½ N. distant about eight leagues; and at noon, our latitude being 50° 52′S. and longitude 68° 10′W. Penguin island bore N. 35° E. distant 68 leagues. We were six leagues from the shore, and the extreams of the land were from N. W. to W. S. W.

Monday 15.

Tuesday 16.

At eight o'clock in the morning, of Monday the 15th, being about six miles from the shore, the extreams of the land bore from S. by E. to N. by E. and the entrance of the river Saint Croix S. W. ½ W. We had 20 fathom quite cross the opening, the distance from point to point being about seven miles, and afterwards keeping at the distance of about four miles from each cape, we had from 22 to 24 fathom. The land on the north shore is high, and appears in three capes; that on the south shore is low and flat. At seven in the evening, Cape Fairweather bore S. W. ½ S. distant about four leagues, a low point running out from it S.S.W. ¾ W. We stood off and on all night, and had from 30 to 22 fathom water, with a bottom of sand and mud. At seven the next morning, Tuesday the 16th, we shoaled gradually into 12 fathom, with a bottom of sine sand, and soon after into six: we then hauled off S. E. by S. somewhat more than a mile; then steered east five miles, then E. by N. and deepened into 12 fathom. Cape Fairweather at this time bore W. ½ S. distant four leagues, and the northermost extremity of the land W. N. W. When we first came into shoal water, Cape Fairweather bore W. ½ N. and a low point without it W. S. W.

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1766. December.

distant about four miles. At noon Cape Fairweather bore W. N. W. ½ W. distant six leagues, and a large hummock S. W. ½ W. distant seven leagues. At this time our lat. was 51° 52′S. long. 68° W.

At one o'clock, being about two leagues distant from the shore the extreams of three remarkable round hills bore from S. W. by W. to W. S. W. At four, Cape Virgin Mary bore S. E. by S. distant about four leagues. At eight, we were very near the Cape, and upon the point of it saw several men riding, who made signs for us to come on shore. In about half an hour we anchored in a bay, close under the south side of the Cape, in ten fathom water, with a gravelly bottom. The Swallow and store-ship anchored soon after between us and the Cape, which then bore N. by W. ½ W. and a low sandy point like Dungeness S. by W. From the Cape there runs a shoal, to the distance of about half a league, which may be easily known by the weeds that are upon it. We found it high water at half an hour after eleven, and the tide rose twenty foot.

Wednes. 17.

The natives continued abreast of the ship all night, making several great fires, and frequently shouting very loud. As soon as it was light, on Wednesday morning the 17th, we saw great numbers of them in motion, who made signs for us to land. About five o'clock I made the signal for the boats belonging to the Swallow and the Prince Frederick to come on board, and in the mean time hoisted out our own. These boats being all manned and armed, I took a party of marines, and rowed towards the shore, having left orders with the master to bring the ship's broad-side to bear upon the landing place, and to keep the guns loaded with round shot. We reached the beach about six o'clock, and before we went from the boat, I made signs to the natives to retire

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1766. December.

Wednes. 17.

to some distance: they immediately complied, and I then landed with the captain of the Swallow, and several of the officers: the marines were drawn up, and the boats were brought to a grappling near the shore. I then made signs to the natives to come near, and directed them to sit down in a semicircle, which they did with great order and chearfulness. When this was done, I distributed among them several knives, scissars, buttons, beads, combs, and other toys, particularly some ribands to the women, which they received with a very becoming mixture of pleasure and respect. Having distributed my presents, I endeavoured to make them understand that I had other things which I would part with, but for which I expected somewhat in return. I shewed them some hatchets and bill-hooks, and pointed to some guanicoes, which happened to be near, and some ostriches which I saw dead among them; making signs at the same time that I wanted to eat; but they either could not, or would not understand me: for though they seemed very desirous of the hatchets and the bill-hooks, they did not give the least intimation that they would part with any previsions; no traffick therefore was carried on between us.

Each of these people, both men and women, had a horse, with a decent saddle, stirrups, and bridle. The men had wooden spurs, except one, who had a large pair of such as are worn in Spain, brass stirrups, and a Spanish cimeter, without a scabbard; but notwithstanding these distinctions, he did not appear to have any authority over the rest: the women had no spurs. The horses appeared to be well made, and nimble, and were about 14 hands high. The people had also many dogs with them, which, as well as the horses, appeared to be of a Spanish breed.

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1766. December.

Wednes. 17.

As I had two measuring rods with me, we went round and measured those that appeared to be tallest among them. One of these was six feet seven inches high, several more were six feet five, and six feet six inches; but the stature of the greater part of them was from five feet ten to six feet. Their complexion is a dark copper colour, like that of the Indians in North America; their hair is strait, and nearly as harsh as hog's bristles: it is tied back with a cotton string, but neither sex wears any head-dress. They are well made, robust, and boney; but their hands and feet are remarkably small. They are cloathed with the skins of the guanico, sewed together into pieces about six foot long, and five wide: these are wrapped round the body, and fastened with a girdle, with the hairy side inwards; some of them had also what the Spaniards have called a puncho, a square piece of cloth made of the downy hair of the guanico, through which a hole being cut for the head, the rest hangs round them about as low as the knee. The guanico is an animal that in size, make, and colour, resembles a deer, but it has a hump on its back, and no horns. These people wear also a kind of drawers, which they pull up very tight, and buskins, which reach from the mid-leg to the instep before, and behind are brought under the heel; the rest of the foot is without any covering. We observed that several of the men had a red circle painted round the left eye, and that others were painted on their arms, and on different parts of the face; the eye-lids of all the young women were painted black. They talked much, and some of them called out Ca-pi-ta-ne; but when they were spoken to in Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Dutch, they made no reply. Of their own language we could distinguish only one word, which was chevoro: we supposed it to be a salutation, as they always

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Wednes. 17.

pronounced it when they shook hands with us, and when, by signs, they asked us to give them any thing. When they were spoken to in English, they repeated the words after us as plainly as we could do; and they soon got by heart the words "Englishmen come on shore." Every one had a missile weapon of a singular kind, tucked into the girdle. It consisted of two round stones, covered with leather, each weighing about a pound, which were fastened to the two ends of a string about eight feet long. This is used as a sling, one stone being kept in the hand, and the other whirled round the head till it is supposed to have acquired sufficient force, and then discharged at the object. They are so expert in the management of this double-headed shot, that they will hit a mark, not bigger than a shilling, with both the stones, at the distance of fifteen yards; it is not their custom, however, to strike either the guanico or the ostrich with them in the chace, but they discharge them so that the cord comes against the legs of the ostrich, or two of the legs of the guanico, and is twisted round them by the force and swing of the balls, so that the animal being unable to run, becomes an easy prey to the hunter.

While we stayed on shore, we saw them eat some of their flesh meat raw, particularly the paunch of an ostrich, without any other preparation or cleaning than just turning it inside out, and shaking it. We observed among them several beads, such as I gave them, and two pieces of red baize, which we supposed had been left there, or in the neighbouring country, by Commodore Byron.

After I had spent about four hours with these people, I made signs to them that I was going on board, and that I would take some of them with me if they were desirous to go. As soon as I had made myself understood, above an hundred

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Wednes. 17.

eagerly offered to visit the ship; but I did not chuse to indulge more than eight of the number. They jumped into the boats with the joy and alacrity of children going to a fair, and having no intention of mischief against us, had not the least suspicion that we intended any mischief against them. They sung several of their country songs while they were in the boat, and when they came on board did not express either the curiosity or wonder which the multiplicity of objects, to them equally strange and stupendous, that at once presented themselves, might be supposed to excite. I took them down into the cabbin, where they looked about them with an unaccountable indifference, till one of them happened to cast his eyes upon a looking-glass: this however excited no more astonishment than the prodigies which offer themselves to our imagination in a dream, when we converse with the dead, fly in the air, and walk upon the sea, without reflecting that the laws of nature are violated; but it afforded them infinite diversion: they advanced, retreated, and played a thousand tricks before it, laughing violently, and talking with great emphasis to each other. I gave them some beef, pork, biscuit, and other articles of the ship's provisions: they eat, indiscriminately, whatever was offered to them, but they would drink nothing but water. From the cabbin I carried them all over the ship, but they looked at nothing with much attention, except the animals which we had on board as live stock: they examined the hogs and sheep with some curiosity, and were exceedingly delighted with the Guinea hens and turkies; they did not seem to desire any thing that they saw except our apparel, and only one of them, an old man, asked for that: we gratified him with a pair of shoes and buckles, and to each of the others I gave a canvas bag, in which I put some needles ready threaded, a few slips of cloth, a knife, a pair of scissars, some twine, a

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Wednes. 17.

few beads, a comb, and a looking-glass, with some new sixpences and halfpence, through which a hole had been drilled, that was fitted with a riband to hang round the neck. We offered them some leaves of tobacco, rolled up into what are called segars, and they smoked a little, but did not seem fond of it. I showed them the great guns, but they did not appear to have any notion of their use. After I had carried them through the ship, I ordered the marines to be drawn up, and go through part of their exercise. When the first volley was fired, they were struck with astonishment and terror; the old man in particular, threw himself down upon the deck, pointed to the muskets, and then striking his breast with his hand, lay some time motionless, with his eyes shut: by this we supposed he intended to shew us that he was not unacquainted with fire-arms, and their fatal effect. The rest seeing our people merry, and finding themselves unhurt, soon resumed their cheerfulness and good humour, and heard the second and third volley fired without much emotion; but the old man continued prostrate upon the deck some time, and never recovered his spirits till the siring was over. About noon, the tide being out, I acquainted them by signs that the ship was proceeding farther, and that they must go on shore: this I soon perceived they were very unwilling to do; all however, except the old man and one more, were got into the boat without much difficulty; but these stopped at the gang-way, where the old man turned about, and went aft to the companion ladder, where he stood some time without speaking a word; lie then uttered what we supposed to be a prayer; for he many times lifted up his hands and his eyes to the heavens, and spoke in a manner and tone very different from what we had observed in their conversation: his oraison seemed to be rather sung than said, so that we found it impossible to distinguish one

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Wednes. 17.

word from another. When I again intimated that it was proper for him to go into the boat, he pointed to the fun, and then moving his hand round to the west, he paused, looked in my face, laughed, and pointed to the shore: by this it was easy to understand that he wished to stay on board till fun-set, and I took no little pains to convince him that we could not stay so long upon that part of the coast, before he could be prevailed upon to go into the boat; at length however he went over the ship's side with his companion, and when the boat put off they all began to sing, and continued their merriment till they got on shore. When they landed, great numbers of those on shore pressed eagerly to get into the boat; but the officer on board, having positive orders to bring none of them off, prevented them, though not without great difficulty, and apparently to their extream mortification and disappointment.

When the boat returned on board, I sent her off again with the master, to found the shoal that runs off from the point: he found it about three miles broad from north to south, and that to avoid it, it was necessary to keep four miles off the Cape, in twelve or thirteen fathom water.

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CHAP. II.

The Passage through the Streight of Magellan, with some further account of the Patagonians, and a description of the Coast on each side, and its Inhabitants.

1766. December.

Wednes. 17.

ABOUT one o'clock, on Wednesday the 17th of December, I made the signal and weighed, ordering the Swallow to go a-head, and the store-ship to bring up the rear. The wind was right against us, and blew fresh, so that we were obliged to turn into the Streight of Magellan with the flood-tide, between Cape Virgin Mary and the Sandy Point that resembles Dungeness. When we got a-breast of this Point, we stood close into the shore, where we saw two guanicoes, and many of the natives on horseback, who seemed to be in pursuit of them: when the horsemen came near, they ran up the country at a great rate, and were pursued by the hunters, with their slings in their hands ready for the cast; but neither of them was taken while they were within the reach of our sight.

When we got about two leagues to the west of Dungeness, and were standing off shore, we fell in with a shoal upon which we had but seven fathom water at half flood: this obliged us to make short tacks, and keep continually heaving the lead. At half an hour after eight in the evening, we anchored about three miles from the shore, in 20 fathom, with a muddy bottom: Cape Virgin Mary then bearing N. E. by E. ½ E.; Point Possession W. ½ S. at the distance of about five leagues.

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Wednes. 17.

Thursday 18.

About half an hour after we had cast anchor, the natives made several large fires a-breast of the ship, and at break of day we saw about four hundred of them encamped in a fine green valley, between two hills, with their horses feeding beside them. About six o'clock in the morning, the tide being done, we got again under sail: it's course here is from east to west; it rises and falls thirty feet, and its strength is equal to about three knots an hour. About noon there being little wind, and the ebb running with great force, the Swallow, who was a-head, made the signal and came to an anchor; upon which I did the same, and so did the store-ship, that was a-stern.

As we saw great numbers of the natives on horseback a-breast of the ship, and as Captain Carteret informed me that this was the place where Commodore Byron had the conference with the tall men, I sent the lieutenants of the Swallow and the store-ship to the shore, but with orders not to land, as the ships were at too great a distance to protect them. When these gentlemen returned, they told me that the boat having lain upon her oars very near the beach, the natives came down in great numbers, whom they knew to be the same persons they had seen the day before, with many others, particularly women and children; that when they perceived our people had no design to land, they seemed to be greatly disappointed, and those who had been on board the ship waded off to the boat, making signs for it to advance, and pronouncing the words they had been taught, "Englishmen come on shore," very loud, many times; that when they found they could not get the people to land, they would fain have got into the boat, and that it was with great difficulty they were prevented. That they presented them

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with some bread, tobacco, and a few toys, pointing at the same time to some guanicoes and ostriches, and making signs that they wanted them as provisions, but that they could not make themselves understood; that finding they could obtain no refreshment, they rowed along the shore in search of fresh water, but that seeing no appearance of a rivulet, they returned on board.

Friday 19.

At six o'clock the next morning, we weighed, the Swallow being still a-head, and at noon we anchored in Possession bay, having twelve fathom, with a clean sandy bottom. Point Possession at this time bore East, distant three leagues; the Asses Ears west, and the entrance of the Narrows S. W. ½ W.: the bottom of the bay, which was the nearest land to the ship, was distant about three miles. We saw a great number of Indians upon the Point, and at night, large fires on the Terra del Fuego shore.

Monday 22.

From this time, to the 22d, we had strong gales and heavy seas, so that we got on but slowly; and we now anchored in 18 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The Asses Ears bore N. W. by W. ½ W. Point Possession N. E. by E. and the point of the Narrows, on the south side, S. S. W. distant between three and four leagues. In this situation, our longitude, by observation, was 70° 20′W. latitude 52° 30′S. The tide here sets S.E. by S. and N.E. by N. at the rate of about three knots an hour; the water rises four and twenty feet, and at this time it was high water at four in the morning.

Tuesday 23.

In the morning of the 23d, we made sail, turning to windward, but the tide was so strong, that the Swallow was set one way, the Dolphin another, and the store-ship a third: there was a fresh breeze, but not one of the vessels would answer her helm. We had various soundings, and saw the rippling in the middle ground: in these circumstances,

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Tuesday 23.

Wednes. 24.

sometimes backing, sometimes filling, we entered the first Narrows. About six o'clock in the evening, the tide being done, we anchored on the south shore, in 40 fathom, with a sandy bottom; the Swallow anchored on the north shore, and the store-ship not a cable's length from a sand bank, about two miles to the eastward. The streight here is only three miles wide, and at midnight, the tide being slack, we weighed and towed the ship through. A breeze sprung up soon afterwards, which continued till seven in the morning, and then died away. We steered from the first Narrows to the second S. W. and had 19 fathom, with a muddy bottom. At eight we anchored two leagues from the shore, in 24 fathom, Cape Gregory bearing W. ½ N. and Sweepstakes Foreland S. W. ½ W. The tide here ran seven knots an hour, and such bores sometimes came down, with immense quantities of weeds, that we expected every moment to be adrift.

Thursday 25.

The next day, being Christmas day, we sailed through the second Narrows. In turning through this part of the Streight we had 12 fathom within half a mile of the shore on each side, and in the middle 17 fathom, 22 fathom, and no ground. At five o'clock in the evening, the ship suddenly shoaled from 17 fathom to 5, St. Bartholomew's island then bearing S. ½ W. distant between three and four miles, and Elizabeth island S. S. W. ½ W. distant five or six miles. About half an hour after eight o'clock, the weather being rainy and tempestuous, we anchored under Elizabeth island in 24 fathom, with hard gravelly ground. Upon this island we found great quantities of celery, which, by the direction of the surgeon, was given to the people, with boiled wheat and portable soup, for breakfast every morning. Some of the officers who went ashore with their guns, saw two small dogs, and several places where fires had been recently

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made, with many fresh shells of muscles and limpets lying about them: they saw also several wigwams or huts, consisting of young trees, which, being sharpened at one end, and thrust into the ground in a circular form, the other ends were brought to meet, and fastened together at the top; but they saw none of the natives.

From this place we saw many high mountains, bearing from S. to W. S. W.; several parts of the summits were covered with snow, though it was the midst of summer in this part of the world: they were clothed with wood about three parts of their height, and above with herbage, except where the snow was not yet melted. This was the first place where we had seen wood in all South America.

Friday 26.

At two o'clock in the morning of the 26th, we weighed, and having a fair wind, were a-breast of the north end of Elizabeth's island at three: at half an hour after five, being about mid-way between Elizabeth's island and St. George's island, we suddenly shoaled our water from 17 fathom to six: we struck the ground once, but the next cast had no bottom with 20 fathom. When we were upon this shoal, Cape Porpoise bore W.S.W. ½ W. the south-end of Elizabeth's island W. N. W. ½ W. distant three leagues, and the south-end of Saint George's island N. E. distant four leagues. The store-ship, which was about half a league to the southward of us, had once no more than four fathom, and for a considerable time not seven; the Swallow, which was three or four miles to the southward, had deep water, for she kept near to St. George's island. In my opinion it is safest to run down from the north-end of Elizabeth's island, about two or three miles from the shore, and so on all the way to Port Famine. At noon, a low point bore E. ½ N. Fresh-water Bay S. W. ½ W. At this time we were about three miles distant

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Friday 26.

from the north shore, and had no ground with 80 fathom. Our longitude, by observation, which was made over the shoal, was 71° 20′W. our latitude 53° 12′S.

About four o'clock we anchored in Port Famine Bay, in 13 fathom, and there being little wind, sent all the boats, and towed in the Swallow and Prince Frederick.

Saturday 27.

The next morning, the weather being squally, we warped the ship farther into the harbour, and moored her with a cable each way in nine fathom. I then sent a party of men to pitch two large tents in the bottom of the bay, for the sick, the wooders, and the sail-makers, who were soon after sent on shore with the surgeon, the gunner, and some midshipmen. Cape St. Anne now bore N. E. by E. distant three quarters of a mile, and Sedger River S.½ W.

Sunday 28.

On the 28th we unbent all the sails, and sent them on shore to be repaired, erected tents upon the banks of Sedger River, and sent all the empty casks on shore, with the coopers to trim them, and a mate and ten men to wash and fill them. We also hauled the seine, and caught fish in great plenty: some of them resembled a mullet, but the flesh was very soft; and among them were a few smelts, some of which were twenty inches long, and weighed four and twenty ounces.

During our whole stay in this place, we caught fish enough to furnish one meal a day both for the sick and the well: we found also great plenty of celery and pea-tops, which were boiled with the pease and portable soup: besides these, we gathered great quantities of fruit that resembled the cranberry, and the leaves of a shrub somewhat like our thorn, which were remarkably four. When we arrived, all our people began to look pale and meagre; many had the scurvy to a great degree, and upon others there were manifest signs of its approach; yet in a fortnight there was not

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a scorbutic person in either of the ships. Their recovery was effected by their being on shore, eating plenty of vegetables, being obliged to wash their apparel, and keep their persons clean by daily bathing in the sea.

Monday 29.

The next day we set up the forge on shore; and from this time, the armourers, carpenters, and the rest of the people were employed in refitting the ship, and making her ready for the sea.

In the mean time, a considerable quantity of wood was cut, and put on board the store-ship, to be sent to Falkland's island; and as I well knew there was no wood growing there, I caused some thousands of young trees to be carefully taken up with their roots, and a proper quantity of earth; and packing them in the best manner I could, I put them also on board the store-ship, with orders to deliver them to the commanding officer at Port Egmont, and to sail for that place with the first fair wind, putting on board two of my seamen, who being in an ill state of health when they first came on board, were now altogether unfit to proceed in the voyage.

1767. January.

Wednes. 14.

On Wednesday the 14th of January, we got all our people and tents on board; having taken in seventy-five tons of water from the shore, and twelve months provisions of all kinds, at whole allowance, for ourselves, and ten months for the Swallow, from on board the store-ship, I sent the master in the cutter, which was victualed for a week, to look out for anchoring places on the north shore of the Streight.

Saturday 17.

After several attempts to fail, the weather obliged us to continue in our old station till Saturday the 17th, when the Prince Frederick Victualer sailed for Falkland's island, and

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the master returned from his expedition. The master reported that he had found four places, in which there was good anchorage, between the place where we lay and Cape Froward: that he had been on shore at several places, where he had found plenty of wood and water close to the beach, with abundance of cranberries and wild celery. He reported also, that he had seen a great number of currant bushes full of fruit, though none of it was ripe, and a great variety of beautiful shrubs in full blossom, bearing flowers of different colours, particularly red, purple, yellow, and white, besides great plenty of the winter's bark, a grateful spice which is well known to the botanists of Europe. He shot several wild ducks, geese, gulls, a hawk, and two or three of the birds which the sailors call a Race-Horse.

Sunday 18.

At five o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 18th, we made sail, and at noon, being about two miles from the shore, Cape Froward bore N. by E. a bluff point N. N. W. and Cape Holland W. ½ S. Our latitude at this place, by observation, was 54° 3′S. and we found the Streight to be about six miles wide. Soon after I sent a boat into Snug bay, to lie at the anchoring place, but the wind coming from the land, I stood off again all night; and at a mile from the shore, we had no ground with 140 fathom.

Monday 19.

In the morning of Monday the 19th, the Swallow having made the signal for anchoring under Cape Holland, we ran in, and anchored in 10 fathom, with a clear sandy bottom. Upon sending the boats out to found, we discovered that we were very near a reef of rocks; we therefore tripped the anchor, and dropped farther out, where we had 12 fathom, and were about half a mile from the shore, just opposite to a large stream of water which falls with great rapidity from

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the mountains, for the land here is of a stupendous height. Cape Holland bore W. S. W. ½ W. distant two miles, and Cape Froward E. Our latitude, by observation, was 53° 58′S.

Tuesday 20.

The next morning we got off some water, and great plenty of wild celery, but could get no fish, except a few muscles. I sent off the boats to sound, and found that there was good anchorage at about half a mile from the shore, quite from the Cape to four miles below it; and close by the Cape a good harbour, where a ship might refresh with more safety than at Port Famine, and avail herself of a large river of fresh water, with plenty of wood, celery, and berries; though the place affords no fish except muscles.

Thurs. 22.

Having completed our wood and water, we sailed from this place on the 22d, about three o'clock in the afternoon. At nine in the evening, the ship being about two miles distant from the shore, Cape Gallant bore W. ½ N. distant two leagues, Cape Holland E. by N. distant six leagues; Cape Gallant and Cape Holland being nearly in one: a white patch in Monmouth's island bore S.S.W. ¾ W. Rupert's island W.S. W. At this place the Streight is not more than five miles over; and we found a tide which produced a very unusual effect, for it became impossible to keep the ship's head upon any point.

Friday 23.

At six the next morning, the Swallow made the signal for having found anchorage; and at eight we anchored in a bay under Cape Gallant, in 10 fathom, with a muddy bottom. The east point of Cape Gallant bore S. W. by W. ¼ W. the extream point of the eastermost land E. by S. a point making the mouth of a river N. by W. and the white patch on Charles's island S. W. The boats being sent out to found, found good anchorage every where, except within two cables length S. W. of the ship, where it was coral, and

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deepened to 16 fathom. In the afternoon I sent out the master to examine the bay and a large lagoon; and he reported that the lagoon was the most commodious harbour we had yet seen in the Streight, having five fathom at the entrance, and from four to five in the middle; that it was capable of receiving a great number of vessels, had three large fresh water rivers, and plenty of wood and celery. We had here the misfortune to have a seine spoiled, by being entangled with the wood that lies sunk at the mouth of these rivers; but though we caught but little fish, we had an incredible number of wild ducks, which we found a very good succedaneum.

The mountains are here very lofty, and the master of the Swallow climbed one of the highest, hoping that from the summit he should obtain a fight of the South Sea; but he found his view intercepted by mountains still higher on the southern shore: before he descended, however, he erected a pyramid, within which he deposited a bottle containing a shilling, and a paper on which was written the ship's name and the date of the year; a memorial which possibly may remain there as long as the world endures.

Saturday 24.

In the morning of the 24th we took two boats and examined Cordes bay, which we found very much inferior to that in which the ship lay; it had indeed a larger lagoon, but the entrance of it was very narrow, and barred by a shoal, on which there was not sufficient depth of water for a ship of burden to float: the entrance of the bay also was rocky, and within it the ground was foul.

In this place we saw an animal that resembled an ass, but it had a cloven hoof, as we discovered afterwards by tracking it, and was as swift as a deer. This was the first animal we had seen in the Streight, except at the entrance, where we

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found the guanicoes that we would fain have trafficked for with the Indians. We shot at this creature, but we could not hit it; probably it is altogether unknown to the naturalists of Europe.

The country about this place has the most dreary and forlorn appearance that can be imagined; the mountains on each side the Streight are of an immense height: about one fourth of the ascent is covered with trees of a considerable size; in the space from thence to the middle of the mountain there is nothing but withered shrubs; above these are patches of snow, and fragments of broken rock; and the summit is altogether rude and naked, towering above the clouds in vast crags that are piled upon each other, and look like the ruins of Nature devoted to everlasting sterility and desolation.

We went over in two boats to the Royal Islands, and sounded, but found no bottom: a very rapid tide set through wherever there was an opening; and they cannot be approached by shipping without the most imminent danger. Whoever navigates this part of the Streight, should keep the north shore close on board all the way, and not venture more than a mile from it till the Royal Islands are passed. The current sets easterly through the whole four and twenty hours, and the indraught should by all means be avoided. The latitude of Cape Gallant road is 53° 50′S.

Tuesday 27.

Wednes. 28.

We continued in this station, taking in wood and water, and gathering muscles and herbs, till the morning of the 27th, when a boat that had been sent to try the current, returned with an account that it set nearly at the rate of two miles an hour, but that the wind being northerly, we might probably get round to Elizabeth bay or York road before night; we therefore weighed with all expedition. At noon on the 28th, the west point of Cape Gallant bore W. N. W.

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distant half a mile, and the white patch on Charles's island S. E. by S. We had fresh gales and heavy flaws off the land; and at two o'clock the west point of Cape Gallant bore E. distant three leagues, and York Point W. N. W. distant five leagues. At five, we opened York road, the Point bearing N. W. at the distance of half a mile: at this time the ship was taken a-back, and a strong current with a heavy squall drove us so far to leeward, that it was with great difficulty we got into Elizabeth bay, and anchored in 12 fathom near a river. The Swallow being at anchor off the point of the bay, and very near the rocks, I sent all the boats with anchors and hausers to her assistance, and at last she was happily warped to windward into good anchorage. York Point now bore W. by N. a shoal with weeds upon it W. N. W. at the distance of a cable's length, Point Passage S. E. ½ E. distant half a mile, a rock near Rupert's isle S. ½ E. and a rivulet on the bay N. E. by E. distant about three cable's length. Soon after sun-set we saw a great smoke on the southern shore, and another on Prince Rupert's island.

Thursday 29.

Early in the morning I sent the boats on shore for water, and soon after our people landed, three canoes put off from the south shore, and landed sixteen of the natives on the east point of the bay. When they came within about a hundred yards of our people they stopt, called out, and made signs of friendship; our people did the same, shewing them some beads and other toys. At this they seemed pleased, and began to shout; our people imitated the noise they made, and shouted in return: the Indians then advanced, still shouting and laughing very loud. When the parties met they shook hands, and our men presented the Indians with several of the toys which they had shewn them at a distance. They were covered with seal skins, which stunk abominably, and some of them were eating the rotten flesh and blubber raw,

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Thursday 29.

with a keen appetite and great seeming satisfaction. Their complexion was the same as that of the people we had seen before, but they were low of stature, the tallest of them not being more than five foot six: they appeared to be perishing with cold, and immediately kindled several fires. How they subsist in winter, it is not perhaps easy to guess, for the weather was at this time so severe, that we had frequent falls of snow. They were armed with bows, arrows, and javelins: the arrows and javelins were pointed with flint, which was wrought into the shape of a serpent's tongue; and they discharged both with great force and dexterity, scarce ever failing to hit a mark at a considerable distance. To kindle a fire they strike a pebble against a piece of mundic, holding under it, to catch the sparks, some moss or down, mixed with a whitish earth, which takes fire like tinder: they then take some dry grass, of which there is every where plenty, and putting the lighted moss into it, wave it to and fro, and in about a minute it blazes.

When the boat returned she brought three of them on board the ship, but they seemed to regard nothing with any degree of curiosity except our cloaths and a looking-glass; the looking-glass afforded them as much diversion as it had done the Patagonians, and it seemed to surprize them more: when they first peeped into it they started back, first looking at us, and then at each other; they then took another peep, as it were by stealth, starting back as before, and then eagerly looking behind it: when by degrees they became familiar with it, they smiled, and seeing the image smile in return, they were exceedingly delighted, and burst into sits of the most violent laughter. They left this however, and every thing else, with perfect indifference, the little they possessed being to all appearance equal to their desires. They

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eat whatever was given them, but would drink nothing but water.

When they left the ship I went on shore with them, and by this time several of their wives and children were come to the watering-place. I distributed some trinkets among them, with which they seemed pleased for a moment, and they gave us some of their arms in return; they gave us also several pieces of mundic, such as is found in the tin mines of Cornwall: they made us understand that they found it in the mountains, where there are probably mines of tin, and perhaps of more valuable metal. As this seems to be the most dreary and inhospitable country in the world, not excepting the worst parts of Sweden and Norway, the people seem to be the lowest and most deplorable of all human beings. Their perfect indifference to every thing they saw, which marked the disparity between our state and their own, though it may preserve them from the regret and anguish of unsatisfied desires, seems, notwithstanding, to imply a defect in their nature; for those who are satisfied with the gratifications of a brute, can have little pretension to the prerogatives of men. When they left us and embarked in their canoes, they hoisted a seal skin for a sail, and steered for the southern shore, where we saw many of their hovels; and we remarked that not one of them looked behind, either at us or at the ship, so little impression had the wonders they had seen made upon their minds, and so much did they appear to be absorbed in the present, without any habitual exercise of their power to reflect upon the past.

Tuesday 3.

In this station we continued till Tuesday the 3d of February. At about half an hour past twelve we weighed, and in a sudden squall were taken a-back, so as that both ships were in the most imminent danger of being driven ashore

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Tuesday 3.

on a reef of rocks; the wind however suddenly shifted, and we happily got off without damage. At five o'clock in the afternoon, the tide being done, and the wind coming about to the west, we bore away for York road, and at length anchored in it: the Swallow at the same time being very near Island bay, under Cape Quod, endeavoured to get in there, but was by the tide obliged to return to York road. In this situation Cape Quod bore W. ½ S. distant 19 miles, York Point E. S. E. distant one mile, Bachelor's River N. N. W. three quarters of a mile, the entrance of Jerom's Sound N. W. by W. and a small island on the south shore W. by S. We found the tide here very rapid and uncertain; in the stream it generally set to the eastward, but it sometimes, though rarely, set westward six hours together. This evening we saw five Indian canoes come out of Bachelor's River, and go up Jerom's Sound.

Wednes. 4.

In the morning, the boats which I had sent out to found both the shores of the Streight and all parts of the bay, returned with an account that there was good anchorage within Jerom's Sound, and all the way thither from the ship's station at the distance of about half a mile from the shore; also between Elizabeth and York Point, near York Point, at the distance of a cable and a half's length from the weeds, in 16 fathom with a muddy bottom. There were also several places under the islands on the south shore where a ship might anchor; but the force and uncertainty of the tides, and the heavy gusts of wind that came off the high lands, by which these situations were surrounded, rendered them unsafe. Soon after the boats returned, I put fresh hands into them and went myself up Bachelor's River: we found a bar at the entrance, which at certain times of the tide must be dangerous. We hauled the seine, and should have caught plenty of fish if it had not been for the weeds and

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stumps of trees at the bottom of the river. We then went ashore, where we saw many wigwams of the natives, and several of their dogs, who, as soon as we came in sight, ran away. We also saw some ostriches, but they were beyond the reach of our pieces: we gathered muscles, limpets, sea-eggs, celery, and nettles in great abundance. About three miles up this river, on the west side, between Mount Misery and another mountain of a stupendous height, there is a cataract which has a very striking appearance: it is precipitated from an elevation of above four hundred yards; half the way it rolls over a very steep declivity, and the other half is a perpendicular fall. The found of this cataract is not less awful than the sight.

Saturday 14.

In this place, contrary winds detained us till 10 o'clock in the morning of Saturday the 14th, when we weighed, and in half an hour the current set the ship towards Bachelor's River: we then put her in stays, and while she was coming about, which she was long in doing, we drove over a shoal where we had little more than 16 feet water with rocky ground; so that our danger was very great, for the ship drew 16 feet 9 inches aft, and 15 feet one inch forward: as soon as the ship gathered way, we happily deepened into three fathom; within two cables' length we had five, and in a very short time we got into deep water. We continued plying to windward till four o'clock in the afternoon, and then finding that we had lost ground, we returned to our station, and again anchored in York road.

Tuesday 17.

Here we remained till five o'clock in the morning of the 17th, when we weighed, and towed out of the road. At nine, though we had a sine breeze at west, the ship was carried with great violence by a current towards the south shore: the boats were all towing a-head, and the fails asleep, yet we

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Tuesday 17.

drove so close to the rock, that the oars of the boats were entangled in the weeds. In this manner we were hurried along near three quarters of an hour, expecting every moment to be dashed to pieces against the cliff, from which we were seldom farther than a ship's length, and very often not half so much. We founded on both sides, and found that next the shore we had from 14 to 20 fathom, and on the other side of the ship no bottom: as all our efforts were ineffectual, we resigned ourselves to our fate, and waited the event in a state of suspense very little different from despair. At length, however, we opened Saint David's Sound, and a current that rushed out of it set us into the mid-channel. During all this time the Swallow was on the north shore, and consequently could know nothing of our danger till it was past. We now sent the boats out to look for an anchoring place; and at noon Cape Quod bore N. N. E. and Saint David's head S. E.

About one o'clock the boats returned, having found an anchoring place in a small bay, to which we gave the name of Butler's bay, it having been discovered by Mr. Butler one of the mates. It lies to the west of Rider's bay on the south shore of the Streight, which is here about two miles wide. We ran in with the tide which set fast to the westward, and anchored in 16 fathom water. The extreams of the bay from W. by N. to N. ½ W. are about a quarter of a mile asunder; a small rivulet, at the distance of somewhat less than two cables' length, bore S. ½ W. and Cape Quod N. at the distance of four miles. At this time the Swallow was at anchor in Island bay on the north shore, at about six miles distance.

I now sent all the boats out to sound round the ship and in the neighbouring bays; and they returned with an ac-

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count that they could find no place fit to receive the ship, neither could any such place be found between Cape Quod and Cape Notch.

Friday 20.

Saturday 21.

In this place we remained till Friday the 20th, when about noon the clouds gathered very thick to the westward, and before one it blew a storm, with such rain and hail as we had scarcely ever seen. We immediately struck the yards and top-masts, and having run out two hausers to a rock, we hove the ship up to it: we then let go the small bower; and veered away, and brought both cables a-head; at the same time we carried out two more hausers, and made them fast to two other rocks, making use of every expedient in our power to keep the ship steady. The gale continued to increase till six o'clock in the evening, and to our great astonishment the sea broke quite over the fore-castle in upon the quarter-deck, which, considering the narrowness of the Streight, and the smallness of the bay in which we were stationed, might well have been thought impossible. Our danger here was very great, for if the cables had parted, as we could not run out with a sail, and as we had not room to bring the ship up with any other anchor, we must have been dashed to pieces in a few minutes, and in such a situation it is highly probable that every soul would immediately have perished; however, by eight o'clock the gale was become somewhat more moderate, and gradually decreasing during the night, we had tolerable weather the next morning. Upon heaving the anchor, we had the satisfaction to find that our cable was found, though our hausers were much rubbed by the rocks, notwithstanding they were parcelled with old hammacocs, and other things. The first thing I did after performing the necessary operations about the ship, was to send a boat to the Swallow to enquire how she had fared during the gale: the boat returned with an account that she had felt but

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Saturday 21.

little of the gale, but that she had been very near being lost, in pushing through the Islands two days before, by the rapidity of the tide: that notwithstanding an alteration which had been made in her rudder, she steered and worked so ill, that every time they got under way they were apprehensive that she could never safely be brought to an anchor again; I was therefore requested, in the name of the captain, to consider that she could be of very little service to the expedition, and to direct what I thought would be best for the service. I answered, that as the Lords of the Admiralty had appointed her to accompany the Dolphin, she must continue to do it as long as it was possible; that as her condition rendered her a bad sailer, I would wait her time, and attend her motions, and that if any disaster should happen to either of us, the other should be ready to afford such assistance as might be in her power.

We continued here eight days, during which time we completed our wood and water, dried our fails, and sent great part of the ship's company on shore, to wash their cloathes and stretch their legs, which was the more necessary, as the cold, snowy, and tempestuous weather had confined them too much below. We caught muscles and limpets, and gathered celery and nettles in great abundance. The muscles were the largest we had ever seen, many of them being from five to six inches long: we caught also great plenty of a fine, firm, red fish, not unlike a gurnet, most of which, were from four to five pounds weight. At the same time, we made it part of the employment of every day to try the current, which we found constantly setting to the eastward.

The master having been sent out to look for anchoring places, returned with an account that he could find no shelter, except near the shore, where it should not be fought but in

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cases of the most pressing necessity. He landed upon a large island on the north side of Snow Sound, and being almost perished with cold, the first thing he did was to make a large fire, with some small trees which he found upon the spot. He then climbed one of the rocky mountains, with Mr. Pickersgill, a midshipman, and one of the seamen, to take a view of the Streight, and the dismal regions that surround it. He found the entrance of the Sound to be full as broad as several parts of the Streight, and to grow but very little narrower, for several miles in land on the Terra del Fuego side. The country on the south of it was still more dreary and horrid than any he had yet seen: it consisted of craggy mountains, much higher than the clouds, that were altogether naked from the base to the summit, there not being a single shrub, nor even a blade of grass to be seen upon them; nor were the vallies between them less desolate, being intirely covered with deep beds of snow, except here and there where it had been washed away, or converted into ice, by the torrents which were precipitated from the fissures and crags of the mountain above, where the snow had been dissolved; and even these vallies, in the patches that were tree from snow, were as destitute of verdure as the rocks between which they lay.

March.

Sunday 1.

On Sunday the first of March, at half an hour after four o'clock in the morning, we saw the Swallow under sail, on the north shore of Cape Quod. At seven we weighed, and stood out of Butler's bay, but it falling calm soon afterwards, the boats were obliged to take the vessel in tow, having with much difficulty kept clear of the rocks: the passage being very narrow, we sent the boats, about noon, to seek for anchorage on the north shore. At this time, Cape Notch bore W. by N. ½ N. distant between three and four leagues, and Cape Quod E. ½ N. distant three leagues.

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About three o'clock in the afternoon, there being little wind, we anchored, with the Swallow, under the north shore, in a small bay, where there is a high, steep, rocky mountain, the top of which resembles the head of a lion, for which reason we called the bay Lion's Cove. We had here 40 fathom, with deep water close to the shore, and at half a cable's length without the ship, no ground. We sent the boats to the westward in search of anchoring places, and at midnight they returned with an account that there was an indifferent bay at the distance of about four miles, and that Goodluck bay was three leagues to the westward.

Monday 2.

At half an hour after 12 the next day, the wind being northerly, we made sail from Lion's Cove, and at five anchored in Good Luck bay, at the distance of about half a cable's length from the rocks, in 28 fathom water. A rocky island at the west extremity of the bay bore N.W. by W. distant about a cable's length and a half, and a low point, which makes the eastern extremity of the bay, bore E. S. E. distant about a mile. Between this point and the ship, there were many shoals, and in the bottom of the bay two rocks, the largest of which bore N. E. by N. the smallest N. by E. From these rocks, shoals run out to the S. E. which may be known by the weeds that are upon them; the ship was within a cable's length of them: when she swung with her stern in shore, we had 16 fathom, with coral rock; when she swung off, we had 50 fathom, with sandy ground. Cape Notch bore from us W. by S. ½ W. distant about one league; and in the intermediate space there was a large lagoon which we could not found, the wind blowing too hard all the while we lay here. After we had moored the ship, we sent two boats to assist the Swallow, and one to look out for anchorage beyond Cape Notch. The boats that were sent to assist the Swallow, towed her into a small bay, where,

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as the wind was southerly, and blew fresh, she was in great danger, for the Cove was not only small, but full of rocks, and open to the south-easterly winds.

Tuesday 3.

Wednes. 4.

Saturday 7.

Sunday 8.

All the day following, and all the night, we had hard gales, with a great sea, and much hail and rain. The next morning we had gusts so violent, that it was impossible to stand the deck; they brought whole sheets of water all the way from Cape Notch, which was a league distant, quite over the deck. They did not last more than a minute, but were so frequent, that the cables were kept in a constant strain, and there was the greatest reason to fear that they would give way. It was a general opinion that the Swallow could not possibly ride it out, and some of the men were so strongly prepossessed with the notion of her being lost, that they fancied they saw some of her people coming over the rocks towards our ship. The weather continued so bad, till Saturday the seventh, that we could send no boat to enquire after her; but the gale being then more moderate, a boat was dispatched about four o'clock in the morning, which, about the same hour in the afternoon, returned with an account that the ship was safe, but that the fatigue of the people had been incredible, the whole crew having been upon the deck near three days and three nights. At midnight the gusts returned, though not with equal violence, with hail, sleet and snow. The weather being now extremely cold, and the people never dry, I got up, the next morning, eleven bales of thick woollen stuff, called Fearnought, which is provided by the government, and set all the taylors to work to make them into jackets, of which every man in the ship had one.

I ordered these jackets to be made very large, allowing, one with another, two yards and thirty-four inches of the cloth

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to each jacket. I sent also seven bales of the same cloth to the Swallow, which made every man on board a jacket of the same kind; and I cut up three bales of finer cloth, and made jackets for the officers of both ships, which I had the pleasure to find were very acceptable.

In this situation we were obliged to continue a week, during which time, I put both my own ship, and the Swallow, upon two-thirds allowance, except brandy; but continued the breakfast as long as greens and water were plenty.

Sunday 15.

On Sunday the 15th, about noon, we saw the Swallow under sail, and it being calm, we sent our launch to assist her. In the evening the launch returned, having towed her into a very good harbour on the south shore, opposite to where we lay. The account that we received of this harbour, determined us to get into it as soon as possible; the next morning therefore, at eight o'clock, we sailed from Good Luck bay, and thought ourselves happy to get safe out of it. When we got a-breast of the harbour where the Swallow lay, we fired several guns, as signals for her boats to assist us in getting in; and in a short time the master came on board us, and piloted us to a very commodious station, where we anchored in 28 fathom, with a muddy bottom. This harbour, which is sheltered from all winds, and excellent in every respect, we called SWALLOW HARBOUR. There are two channels into it, which are both narrow, but not dangerous, as the rocks are easily discovered by the weeds that grow upon them.

Monday 16.

At nine o'clock the next morning, the wind coming easterly, we weighed, and failed from Swallow harbour. At noon we took the Swallow in tow, but at five there being little wind, we cast off the tow. At eight in the evening, the boats which had been sent out to look for anchorage,

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returned with an account that they could find none: at nine we had fresh gales, and at midnight Cape Upright bore S. S. W ½ W.

Tuesday 17.

At seven the next morning, we took the Swallow again in tow, but was again obliged to cast her off and tack, as the weather became very thick, with a great swell, and we saw land close under our lee. As no place for anchorage could be found, Captain Carteret advised me to bear away for Upright bay, to which I consented; and as he was acquainted with the place, he went a-head: the boats were ordered to go between him and the shore, and we followed. At eleven o'clock, there being little wind, we opened a large lagoon, and a current setting strongly into it, the Swallow was driven among the breakers close upon the lee shore: to aggravate the misfortune, the weather was very hazey, there was no anchorage, and the surf ran very high. In this dreadful situation she made signals of distress, and we immediately sent our launch, and other boats, to her assistance: the boats took her in tow, but their utmost efforts to save her would have been ineffectual, if a breeze had not suddenly come down from a mountain, and wasted her off.

As a great swell came on about noon, we hauled over to the north shore. We soon found ourselves surrounded with islands, but the fog was so thick, that we knew not where we were, nor which way to steer. Among these islands the boats were sent to cast the lead, but no anchorage was to be found; we then conjectured that we were in the bay of islands, and that we had no chance to escape shipwreck, but by hauling directly out: this, however, was no easy task, for I was obliged to tack, almost continually, to weather some island or rock. At four o'clock in the afternoon, it happily cleared up for a minute, just to shew us Cape Up-

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right, for which we directly steered, and at half an hour after five anchored, with the Swallow, in the bay. When we dropped the anchor, we were in 24 fathom, and after we had veered away a whole cable, in 46, with a muddy bottom. In this situation, a high bluff on the north shore bore N. W. ½ N. distant five leagues, and a small island within us S. by E. ½ E. Soon after we had anchored, the Swallow drove to leeward, notwithstanding she had two anchors a-head, but was at last brought up, in 70 fathom, about a cable's length a-stern of us. At four o'clock in the morning I sent the boats, with a considerable number of men, and some hausers and anchors, on board her, to weigh her anchors, and warp her up to windward. When her best bower anchor was weighed, it was found entangled with the small one; I therefore found it necessary to send the stream cable on board, and the ship was hung up by it. To clear her anchors, and warp her into a proper birth, cost us the whole day, and was not at last effected without the utmost difficulty and labour.

Wednes. 18.

On the 18th we had fresh breezes, and sent the boats to sound cross the Streight. Within half a mile of the ship, they had 40, 45, 50, 70, 100 fathom, and then had no ground, till within a cable's length of the lee shore, where they had 90 fathom. We now moored the ship in 78 fathom, with the stream anchor.

Thursday 19

The next morning, while our people were employed in getting wood and water, and gathering celery and muscles, two canoes, full of Indians, came along side of the ship. They had much the same appearance as the poor wretches whom we had seen before in Elizabeth's bay. They had on board some seal's flesh, blubber, and penguins, all which they eat raw. Some of our people, who were fishing with a

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Thursday 19.

hook and line, gave one of them a fish, somewhat bigger than a herring, alive, just as it came out of the water. The Indian took it hastily, as a dog would take a bone, and instantly killed it, by giving it a bite near the gills: he then proceeded to eat it, beginning with the head, and going on to the tail, without rejecting either the bones, fins, scales, or entrails. They eat every thing that was given them, indifferently, whether salt or fresh, dressed or raw, but would drink nothing but water. They shivered with cold, yet had nothing to cover them but a seal skin; thrown loosely over their shoulders, which did not reach to their middle; and we observed, that when they were rowing, they threw even this by, and fat stark naked. They had with them some javelins, rudely pointed with bone, which they used to strike seals, fish, and penguins, and we observed that one of them had a piece of iron, about the size of a common chissel, which was fastened to a piece of wood, and seemed to be intended rather for a tool than a weapon. They had all sore eyes, which we imputed to their sitting over the smoke of their fires, and they smelt more offensively than a fox, which perhaps was in part owing to their diet, and in part to their nastiness. Their canoes were about fifteen foot long, three broad, and nearly three deep: they were made of the bark of trees, sewn together, either with the sinews of some beast, or thongs cut out of a hide. Some kind of rush was laid into the seams, and the outside was smeared with a resin, or gum, which prevented the water from soaking into the bark. Fifteen slender branches, bent into an arch, were sewed transversely to the bottom and sides, and some strait pieces were placed cross the top, from gunwale to gunwale, and securely lashed at each end: upon the whole, however, it was poorly made, nor had these people any thing among them in which there was the least appearance of ingenuity.

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Thursday 19.

I gave them a hatchet or two, with some beads, and a few other toys, with which they went away to the southward, and we saw no more of them.

While we lay here, we sent out the boats, as usual, in search of anchoring places, and having been 10 leagues to the westward, they found but two: one was to the westward of Cape Upright, in the Bay of Islands, but was very difficult to enter and get out of; the other was called Dolphin bay, at 10 leagues distance, which was a good harbour, with even ground in all parts. They saw several small coves, which were all dangerous, as in them it would be necessary to let go the anchor within half a cable's length of a lee shore, and steady the ship with halsers fastened to the rocks. The people belonging to one of the boats, spent a night upon an island, upon which, while they were there, six canoes landed about thirty Indians. The Indians ran immediately to the boat, and were carrying away every thing they found in her: our people discovered what they were doing, just time enough to prevent them. As soon as they found themselves opposed, they went to their canoes, and armed themselves with long poles, and javelins pointed with the bones of fish. They did not begin an attack, but stood in a threatening manner: our people, who were two and twenty in number, acted only on the defensive, and by parting with a few trifles to them, they became friends, and behaved peaceably the rest of the time they staid.

For many days, we had hail, lightning, rain, and hard gales, with a heavy sea, so that we thought it impossible for the ship to hold, though she had two anchors a-head, and two cables an end. The men, however, were sent frequently on shore for exercise, which contributed greatly to

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their health, and procured an almost constant supply of muscles and greens. Among other damages that we had sustained, our fire-place was broken to pieces, we therefore found it necessary to set up the forge, and employ the armourers to make a new back; we also made lime of burnt shells, and once more put it into a useful condition.

Monday 30.

Tuesday 31.

On Monday the 30th, we had the first interval of moderate weather, and we improved it in drying the sails, which, though much mildewed, we had not before been able to loose, for fear of setting the ship adrift: we also aired the spare fails, which we found much injured by the rats, and employed the fail-makers to mend them. Captain Carteret having represented that his fire-place, as well as ours, had been broken to pieces, our armourers made him also a new back, and set it up with lime that we made upon the spot, in the same manner as had been done on board our own ship. This day we saw several canoes, full of Indians, put to shore on the east side of the bay, and the next morning several of them came on board, and proved to be the same that our people, who were out in the boat, had met with on shore. They behaved very peaceably, and we dismissed them with a few toys, as usual.

April.

Wednes. 1.

The day following, several other Indians came off to the ship, and brought with them some of the birds called Race-Horses. Our people purchased the birds for a few trisles, and I made them a present of several hatchets and knives.

Thursday 2.

On Thursday, the second of April, the master of the Swallow, who had been sent out to seek for anchoring places, returned, and reported that he had found three on the north shore, which were very good; one about four miles to the castward of Cape Providence, another under the east side of

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Thursday 2.

Cape Tamer, and the third about four miles to the eastward of it; but he said that he found no place to anchor in under Cape Providence, the ground being rocky.

This day two canoes came on board, with four men and three young children in each. The men were somewhat more decently dressed than those that we had seen before, but the children were stark naked. They were somewhat fairer than the men, who seemed to pay a very tender attention to them, especially in lifting them in and out of the canoes. To these young visitors I gave necklaces and bracelets, with which they seemed mightily pleased. It happened that while some of these people were on board, and the rest waiting in their canoes by the ship's side, the boat was sent on shore for wood and water. The Indians who were in the canoes, kept their eyes fixed upon the boat while she was manning, and the moment she put off from the ship, they called out with great vociferation to those that were on board, who seemed to be much alarmed, and hastily handing down the children, leaped into their canoes, without uttering a word. None of us could guess at the cause of this sudden emotion, but we saw the men in the canoes pull after the boat with all their might, hallooing and shouting with great appearance of perturbation and distress. The boat outrowed them, and when she came near the shore, the people on board discovered some women gathering muscles among the rocks. This at once explained the mystery; the poor Indians were afraid that the strangers, either by force or favour, should violate the prerogative of a husband, of which they seemed to be more jealous than the natives of some other countries, who in their appearance are less savage and sordid. Our people, to make them easy, immediately lay upon their oars, and suffered the canoes to pass them. The Indians, however, still continued to call

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out to their women, till they took the alarm and ran out of sight, and as soon as they got to land, drew their canoes upon the beach, and followed them with the utmost expedition.

Sunday 5.

We continued daily to gather muscles till the 5th, when several of the people being seized with fluxes, the surgeon desired that no more muscles might be brought into the ship.

Friday 10.

Saturday 11.

The weather being still tempestuous and unsettled, we remained at anchor till 10 o'clock in the morning of Friday the 10th, and then, in company with the Swallow, we made sail. At noon, Cape Providence bore N. N. W. distant four or five miles; at four in the afternoon Cape Tamer bore N. W. by W. ½ W. distant three leagues, Cape Upright E. S. E. ½ S. distant three leagues, and Cape Pillar W. distant 10 leagues. We steered about W. ½ N. all night, and at six o'clock in the morning, had run eight and thirty miles by the log. At this time Cape Pillar bore S. W. distant half a mile, and the Swallow was about three miles a-stern of us. At this time there being but little wind, we were obliged to make all the sail we could, to get without the Streight's mouth. At 11 o'clock I would have shortened sail for the Swallow, but it was not in my power, for as a current set us strongly down upon the Isles of Direction, and the wind came to the west, it became absolutely necessary for me to carry sail, that I might clear them. Soon after we lost sight of the Swallow, and never saw her afterwards. At first I was inclined to have gone back into the Streight, but a fog coming on, and the sea rising very fast, we were all of opinion that it was indispensibly necessary to get an offing as soon as possible; for except we pressed the ship with sail, before the sea rose too high, it would be impracticable either to weather Terra del Fuego on one tack, or Cape Victory on

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Saturday 11.

the other. At noon, the Islands of Direction bore N. 21′W. distant three leagues, Saint Paul's cupola and Cape Victory in one, N. distant seven leagues, and Cape Pillar E. distant six leagues.

Our latitude, by observation, was 52° 38′and we computed our longitude to be 76° W.

Thus we quitted a dreary and inhospitable region, where we were in almost perpetual danger of shipwreck for near four months, having entered the Streight on the 17th of December 1766, and quitted it on the 11th of April 1767; a region where, in the midst of summer, the weather was cold, gloomy, and tempestuous, where the prospects had more the appearance of a chaos than of Nature, and where, for the most part, the vallies were without herbage, and the hills without wood.

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CHAP. III.

A particular Account of the Places in which we anchored during our Passage through the Streight, and of the Shoals and Rocks that lie near them.

HAVING cleared the Streight, we steered a western course. But before I continue the narrative of our voyage, I shall give a more particular account of the several places where we anchored, plans of which are deposited in the Admiralty Office for the use of future navigators, with the shoals and rocks that lie near them, the latitude, longitude, tides, and variation of the compass.

I. CAPE VIRGIN MARY. The bay under this Cape is a good harbour, when the wind is westerly. There is a shoal lying off the Cape, but that may easily be known by the rock weed that grows upon it: the Cape is a steep white cliff, not unlike the South Foreland. Its latitude, by observation, is 52° 24′S. and its longitude, by account, 68° 22′W. The variation of the needle, by the medium of five azimuths and one amplitude, was 24° 30′E. In this place we saw no appearance either of wood or water. We anchored in 10 fathom, with coarse sandy ground, about a mile from the shore, Cape Virgin Mary bearing N. by W. ½ W. distant about two miles, and Dungeness Point S. S. W. distant four miles. We anchored here on the 17th of December, and sailed the next day. There is good landing, on a fine sandy beach, all along the shore.

II. POSSESSION BAY. In sailing into this bay, it is necessary to give the point a good birth, because there is a reef

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that runs right off it about a short mile. The soundings are very irregular all over the bay, but the ground is every where a fine soft mud and clay, so that the cables can come to no damage. The Point lies in latitude 52° 23′S. longitude, by account, 68° 57′W.: the variation is two points easterly. In the bay the tide rises and falls between four and five fathom, and runs at the rate of about a mile an hour; in the mid-channel without the bay, it runs nearly three miles an hour. In this place we saw no appearance either of wood or water. The landing appeared to be good, but we did not go on shore. We anchored here on the 19th of December, and sailed again on the 22d.

III. PORT FAMINE. At this place, the Spaniards, in the year 1581, built a town, which they called Phillippeville, and left in it a colony, consisting of 400 persons. When our celebrated navigator, Cavendish, arrived here in 1587, he found one of these unhappy wretches, the only one that remained, upon the beach: they had all perished for want of subsistence, except twenty-four; twenty-three of these set out for the river Plata, and were never afterwards heard of. This man, whose name was Hernando, was brought to England by Cavendish, who called the place where he had taken him up, Port Famine. It is a very sine bay, in which there is room and conveniency for many ships to moor in great safety. We moored in nine fathom, having brought Cape St. Anne N. E. by E. and Sedger River S. ½ W. which perhaps is the best situation, though the whole bay is good ground. In this place there is very good wooding and watering; we caught many fine small fish with a hook and line off the ship's side, and hauled the seine with great success, in a fine sandy bay, a little to the southward of Sedger River: we also shot a great number of birds, of various kinds, particularly geese, ducks, teal, snipes, plover, and race-horses, and we

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found wild celery in great plenty. The latitude of this place is 53° 42′S. longitude, by observation, 71° 28′W.; the variation is two points easterly. We anchored here the 27th of December 1766, and sailed again the 18th of January 1767.

IV. CAPE HOLLAND BAY. There is no danger in sailing into this bay, and there is good anchoring ground in every part of it. We lay at about three cables' length from the shore, in 10 fathom, the ground coarse sand and shells, Cape Holland bearing W. S. W. ½ W. distant three miles, Cape Froward a little to the N. of the E. Right a-breast of the ship there was a very fine rivulet, and close under Cape Holland a large river, navigable for boats many miles: the shore also affords fire wood in great plenty. We found abundance of wild celery and cranberries, muscles and limpets, but caught very little fish, either with hook and line, or the seine. We killed some geese, ducks, teal, and race-horses, but they were not plenty. This bay lies in latitude 53° 57′S. longitude, by account, 72° 34′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rose about eight feet; we found, however, no regular tide, but for the most part a strong current setting to the eastward. We anchored here on the 19th of January, and sailed again on the 23d.

V. CAPE GALLLANT BAY. In this bay, which may be entered with great safety, there is a sine large lagoon, where a fleet of ships may moor in perfect security. There is a depth of four fathom in every part of it, with a soft muddy ground. In the bay, the best anchoring is on the east side, where there is from six to ten fathom. Here is good watering from two rivers, and plenty of wood. The lagoon abounded with wild fowl, and we found wild celery, muscles, and limpets in plenty. We did not haul the seine, having torn one to pieces, and the other being unpacked,

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but if we had, there is reason to believe that we should have been well supplied with fish. The landing is good. The latitude of the bay and lagoon is 53° 50′S. longitude, by account, 73° 9′W.; the variation is two points easterly. I observed the water to rise and fall about nine feet, but the tide was very irregular. We anchored here the 23d of January, and sailed again the 28th.

VI. ELIZABETH's BAY. At the entrance of this bay there are two small reefs, which appear above water. The most dangerous lies off the east point of the bay, but this may easily be avoided, by keeping at the distance of about two cables' length from the point. There is good landing all round the bay, but it is much exposed to the westerly winds. The best place for anchoring is Passage Point, at half a mile distance, bearing S. E. and the river bearing N. E. by E. distant three cables' length; in this situation, a bank or shoal, which may be known by the weeds, bears W. N. W. distant a cable's length: the ground is coarse sand, with shells. Sufficient wood is to be procured here for the use of ships, and there is good watering at a small river. We found a little celery and a few cranberries, but neither fish nor fowl. The latitude of this place is 53° 43′S. the longitude, by account, 73° 24′W.; the variation is two points easterly. We anchored here the 29th of January, and sailed the 4th of February.

VII. YORK ROAD. The only danger of sailing into the bay, that is formed by two points in this road, arises from a reef that runs off to about a cable's length from the western point, which once known, may be easily avoided. To anchor in this bay, it is safest to bring York Point E. S. E. Bachelor's River N. by W. ½ W. the west point of the bay or reef N. W. ½ W. and St. Jerom's Sound W. N. W. at the distance of

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half a mile from the shore. There is good watering about a mile up Bachelor's River, and good wooding all round the bay, where the landing also is, in all parts, very good. We found plenty of celery, cranberries, muscles, and limpets, many wild fowl, and some fish, but not enough to supply the ship's company with a fresh meal. The latitude here is 53° 39′S. longitude, by account, 73° 52′W.; the variation two points easterly. The water rises and falls about eight feet, but the tide is irregular. The master, who crossed the Streight many times to examine the bays, frequently found the current setting in three different directions. We anchored here on the 4th of February, and sailed again the 11th.

VIII. BUTLER's BAY. This is a small bay, intirely surrounded by rocks, so that no ship should anchor here if she can possibly avoid it. We found, however, sufficient wood and water to keep up our stock, muscles and limpets in plenty, some good rock-fish, and a few wild fowl, but celery and cranberries were very scarce. This bay lies in latitude 53° 37′S. longitude, by account, 74° 9′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rises and falls here about four feet, but the current always sets to the eastward. We anchored here the 18th of February, and sailed the 1st of March.

IX. LION COVE. This is a small bay, and surrounded by rocks. The water is deep, but the ground is good. It is not a bad place for one ship, nor a good one for two. Here is good watering up a small creek, but no wood. There is good landing at the watering-place, but no where else. We found no refreshment but a few muscles, limpets, and rock-fish, with a little celery. The latitude is 35° 26′S. longitude, by account, 74° 25′W.; the variation was two points easterly. The water, as far as we could judge by the appearance of

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the rocks, rises and falls about five feet, and the current sets at the rate of about two knots an hour. We anchored here on the 2d of March, and sailed the next day.

X. GOOD-LUCK BAY. This is a small bay, and like several others in this Streight, intirely surrounded by rocks. The ground is very coarse, and the cable of our best bower anchor was so much rubbed, that we were obliged to condemn it, and bend a new one. At this place there is a little wood, and plenty of good water, but the rocks render it very difficult of access. No man that sees this part of the coast, can expect to find any kind of refreshment upon it; and indeed we caught nothing except a few rock-fish, with hook and line. There may be circumstances in which it may be good luck to get into this bay, but we thought it very good luck to get out of it. It lies in latitude 53° 23′S. longitude, by account, 74° 33′W.; the variation is two points easterly. The water rises and falls between three and four feet, though whenever we had an opportunity of trying the current, we found it run easterly. We anchored here the 3d of March, and sailed the 15th.

XI. SWALLOW HARBOUR. This harbour, when once entered, is very safe, being sheltered from all winds, but the entrance is narrow and rocky; the rocks, however, may be easily avoided by keeping a good look-out, as there are large bunches of rock-weed upon them all. We found here a sufficient supply of wood and water, the wood however was very small. As the water is constantly smooth here, the landing is every where good; but we found no supply of provisions, except a few muscles and rock-fish. The mountains round it have the most horrid appearance, and seem to be altogether deserted by every thing that has life. The latitude is 53° 29′S. the longitude, by account, 74° 35′W.; the

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variation is two points easterly, and the tide rises and falls between four and five feet. We anchored here the 15th of March, and left the place the next day.

XII. UPRIGHT BAY. This bay may be safely entered, as there is no obstruction but what is above water. The wood here is very small, but we found sufficient to keep up our stock. The water is excellent, and in great plenty. As to provisions, we got only a few wild fowl, rock-fishes, and muscles. The landing is bad. The latitude of this place, is 53° 8′S. longitude 75° 35′W.; the variation two points easterly. The water rises and falls about five feet, but the tide or current is very irregular. We anchored here on the 18th of March, and sailed again on the 10th of April.

There are three very good bays a little beyond Cape Shutup, which we called RIVER BAY, LODGING BAY, and WALLIS's BAY. Wallis's bay is the best.

About half way between Elizabeth's bay and York road; lies Muscle bay, where there is very good anchorage with a westerly wind. There is also a bay, with good anchorage, opposite to York road, and another to the eastward of Cape Cross-tide, but this will hold only a single ship. Between Cape Cross and Saint David's Head, lies Saint David's Sound, on the south side of which we found a bank of coarse sand and shells, with a depth of water from 19 to 30 fathom, where a ship might anchor in case of necessity; and the Master of the Swallow found a very good small bay a little to the eastward of Saint David's Head. A little to the eastward of Cape Quod, lies Island bay, where the Swallow lay some time, but it is by no means an eligible situation. The ground of Chance bay is very rocky and uneven, and for that reason should be avoided.

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As all the violent gales by which we suffered in this navigation, blew from the westward, it is proper to stand about a hundred leagues or more to the westward, after sailing out of the Streight, that the ship may not be endangered on a lee shore, which at present is wholly unknown.

The following table shews the courses and distances, from point to point, in the Streight of Magellan, by compass.

Courses and Distances from Point to Point, in the Streight of Magellan, by Compass.

Cape Virgin Mary lies in latitude 52° 24′S. and longitude 68° 22′W.

From Courses Miles Latitude Long.
Cape Virgin Mary to Dungeness Point S. by W. 5 52° 28′ 68° 28′
Dungeness Point to Point Possession W. ¾ S. 18 52 23 68 57
Point Possession to the S. side of the 1st Narrows S. W. ¼ S. 27 52 35 69 38
The N. to the S. end of the Narrows S. S. W. 9
The S. end of the Narrows to Cape Gregory W. S. W. ¼ W. 25 52 39 70 31
Cape Gregory to Sweepstakes Foreland S. 30° W. 12⅓
Cape Gregory to Dolphin's Foreland S. W. ½ W. 14 52 43 70 53
Dolphin's Foreland to the N. end of Elizabeth's island S. ½ W. 14⅔ 52 56 71 6
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to St. Bartholomew's island E. N. E. 52 56 71 4
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to St. George's island S. E. 8
The N. end of Elizabeth's island to Porpuss Point S. by W. 12 53 6 71 17
Porpuss Point to Fresh-water bay S. ½ E. 22⅔
Fresh-water bay to Cape St. Ann, or Port Famine S. S. E. ¼ E. 13⅔ 53 42 71 28
Cape St. Ann to the entry of a great sound on the south shore N. E.
Cape St. Ann to Cape Shut-up S. by E. 12 53 54 71 32
Cape Shut-up to Dolphin's island S. S. W. 7 53 59 71 41
Dolphin's island to Cape Froward, the souther-most in all America S. 47 W. 11 54 3 71 59
Cape Froward to Snug bay Point W. ½ N. 8
Snug bay Point to Cape Holland W. by S. 13½ 53 57 72 34

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From Courses Miles Latitude Long.
Cape Holland to Cape Gallant W. ¼ S. 21½ 53° 50′ 73° 9′
Cape Gallant to Elizabeth bay W. N. W. ½ W. 11⅔ 53 43 73 24
Elizabeth's bay to York Point W. N. W. ½ W. 6⅓ 53 39 73 32
York road to Cape Cross-tide W. ¾ S. 10
York road to Cape Quod W. ½ S. 21 53 33 74 6
Cape Quod to St. David's Head S. E.
Cape Quod to Butler's bay S. ¼ W. 4 53 37 74 9
Cape Quod to Chance bay S. S. W. 5
Cape Quod to Great Mussel bay S. W. ½ S. 6
Cape Quod to Snow Sound W. S. W. ½ W. 10
Cape Quod to Lion's Cove W. N. W. ¾ W. 12 53 26 74 25
Lion's Cove to Good-Luck bay W. N. W. ¾ W. 6 53 23 74 33
Cape Quod to Cape Notch W. N. W. ¾ W. 21 53 22 74 36
Cape Notch to Swallow harbour S. S. E. 7 53 29 74 36
Cape Notch to Piss-pot bay W. ¼ S. 23
Cape Notch to Cape Monday W. 28 53 12 75 20
Cape Monday to Cape Upright W. by N. 13 53 6 75 38
Cape Monday to a great Sound on the N. shore N. 7
Cape Upright to Cape Providence N. by W. ½ W. 9 52 57 75 37
Cape Upright to Cape Tamer N. W. by W. ½ W. 18
Cape Upright to Cape Pillar W. ½ N. 50 52 43 76 52
Cape Pillar to Westminster island N. E. ½ N. 15
Cape Pillar to Cape Victory N. W. ½ N. 28
Cape Pillar to the Islds of Direction W. N. W. 23 52 27 77 19

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CHAP. IV.

The Passage from the Streight of Magellan, to King George the Third's Island, called Otaheite, in the South Sea, with an account of the Discovery of several other Islands, and a description of their Inhabitants.

1767. April.

Sunday 12.

AS we continued our course to the westward, after having cleared the Streight, we saw a great number of gannets, sheerwaters, pintado birds, and many others, about the ship, and had for the most part strong gales, hazy weather, and heavy seas, so that we were frequently brought under our courses, and there was not a dry place in the ship for some weeks together.

Wednes. 22.

At eight in the morning of the 22d, we had an observation, by which we found our longitude to be 95° 46′W. and at noon, our latitude was 42° 24′S. and the variation, by azimuth, 11° 6′E.

Friday 24.

By the 24th, the men began to fall down very fast in colds and fevers, in consequence of the upper works being open, and their cloaths and beds continually wet.

Sunday 26.

Monday 27.

On the 26th, at four in the afternoon, the variation, by azimuth, was 10° 20′E. and at six in the morning of the next day, it was 9° 8′E. Our latitude, on the 27th at noon, was 36° 54′S. our longitude, by account, 100° W. This day, the weather being moderate and fair, we dried all the people's cloaths, and got the sick upon deck, to whom we gave salop,

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and wheat boiled with portable soup, every morning for breakfast, and all the ship's company had as much vinegar and mustard as they could use; portable soup was also constantly boiled in their pease and oatmeal.

The hard gales, with frequent and violent squalls, and a heavy sea, soon returned, and continued with very little intermission. The ship pitched so much, that we were afraid she would carry away her masts, and the men were again wet in their beds.

Thursday 30.

On the 30th, the variation, by azimuth, was 8° 30′E. our latitude was 32° 50′; longitude, by account, 100′W. I began now to keep the ship to the northward, as we had no chance of getting westing in this latitude; and the surgeon was of opinion, that in a little time the sick would so much increase, that we should want hands to work the ship, if we could not get into better weather.

May.

Sunday 3.

Monday 4.

Tuesday 5.

On the third of May, about four in the afternoon, we had an observation of the sun and moon, by which we found our longitude to be 96° 26′W. the variation by the azimuth was 5° 44′E. at six in the evening, and at six the next morning, it was 5° 58′E. Our latitude, this day at noon, was 28° 20′S. At four in the afternoon we had several observations for the longitude, and found it to be 96° 21′W.; at seven in the evening, the variation was 6° 40′E. by the azimuth, and the next morning at 10 it was, by amplitude, 5° 48′E.; at three in the afternoon, the variation, by amplitude, was 7° 40′E. This day we saw a tropic bird.

Friday 8.

Saturday 9.

At six o'clock in the morning, of Friday the eighth of May, the variation of the needle, by amplitude, was 7° 11′E. In the afternoon we saw several sheerwaters and sea swallows. At eight in the morning of the 9th, the variation by

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1767. May.

Monday 11.

Tuesday 12.

azimuth was 6° 34′E. and in the morning of the 11th, by azimuth and amplitude, it was 4° 40′E. Our latitude was 27° 28′S. longitude, by account, 106° W. This day, and the next, we saw several sea swallows, sheerwaters, and porpoises, about the ship.

Thursday 14.

On the 14th of May, the variation, by four azimuths, was 2° E. About four o'clock in the afternoon, we saw a large flock of brown birds, flying to the eastward, and something which had the appearance of high land, in the same quarter. We bore away for it till sun-set, and it still having the same appearance, we continued our course; but at two in the morning, having run 18 leagues without making it, we hauled the wind, and at day-light nothing was to be seen. We had now the satisfaction to find our ailing people mend apace. Our latitude was 24° 50′S. our longitude, by account, 106° W. During all this time, we were looking out for the Swallow.

Saturday 16.

At four in the afternoon of the 16th, the variation, by azimuth and amplitude, was 6° E. and at six the next morning, by four azimuths, it was 3° 20′.

Monday 18.

The carpenters were now employed in caulking the upper works of the ship, and repairing and painting the boats, and on the 18th, I gave a sheep among the people that were sick and recovering.

Wednes. 20.

Thursday 21.

On Wednesday the 20th, we found our longitude, by observation, to be 106° 47′W. and our latitude 20° 52′S. The next day we saw several flying fish, which were the first we had seen in these seas.

Friday 22.

On the 22d, our longitude, by observation, was 111° W. and our latitude 20° 18′S. and this day we saw some bonettoes, dolphins, and tropic birds.

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1767. May.

The people who had been recovering from colds and fevers, now began to fall down in the scurvy, upon which, at the surgeon's representation, wine was served to them: wort was also made for them of malt, and each man had half a pint of pickled cabbage every day. The variation from 4 to 5 E.

Tuesday 26.

Thursday 28.

Friday 29.

On the 26th we saw two grampuses; on the 28th we saw another, and the next day several birds, among which was one about the size of a swallow, which some of us thought was a land bird.

Our men now began to look very pale and sickly, and to fall down very fast in the scurvy, notwithstanding all our care and attention to prevent it. They had vinegar and mustard without limitation, wine instead of spirits, sweet wort and salop. Portable soup was still constantly boiled in their peas and oatmeal; their birth and cloaths were kept perfectly clean; the hammocks were constantly brought upon the deck at eight o'clock in the morning, and carried down at four in the afternoon. Some of the beds and hammocks were washed every day; the water was rendered wholesome by ventilation, and every part between decks frequently washed with vinegar.

Sunday 31.

On Sunday the 31st of May, our longitude, by observation, was 127° 45′W. our latitude 29° 38′S. and the variation, by azimuth and amplitude, 5° 9′E.

June.

Monday 1.

The next day, at three in the afternoon, our longitude, by observation, was 129° 15′W. and our latitude 19° 34′S. We had squally weather, with much lightning and rain, and saw several men of war birds.

Wednes. 3.

On the 3d, we saw several gannets, which, with the uncertainty of the weather, inclined us to hope that land was not

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1767. June.

Thursday 4.

Friday 5.

Saturday 6.

very far distant. The next day a turtle swam close by the ship; on the 5th we saw many birds, which confirmed our hope that some place of refreshment was near, and at 11 o'clock in the forenoon of the 6th, Jonathan Puller, a sea-man, called out from the mast-head, "Land in the W. N. W." At noon it was seen plainly from the deck, and found to be a low island, at about five or six leagues distance. The joy which every one on board felt at this discovery, can be conceived by those only who have experienced the danger, sickness, and fatigue of such a voyage as we had performed.

Whitsunday 7.

When we were within about five miles of this island, we saw another, bearing N. W. by W. About three o'clock in the afternoon, being very near the island that was first discovered, we brought to, and I sent Mr. Furneaux, my second lieutenant, my first lieutenant being very ill, with the boats manned and armed, to the shore. As he approached it, we saw two canoes put off, and paddle away with great expedition towards the island that lay to leeward. At seven in the evening the boats returned, and brought with them several cocoa nuts, and a considerable quantity of scurvy-grass; they brought also some fish hooks, that were made of oyster-shells, and some of the shells of which they were made. They reported that they had seen none of the inhabitants, but had visited three huts, or rather sheds, consisting only of a roof, neatly thatched with cocoa nut and palm leaves, supported upon posts, and open all round. They saw also several canoes building, but found no fresh water, nor any fruit but cocoa nuts. They sounded, but found no anchorage, and it was with great difficulty that they got on shore, as the surf ran very high. Having received this account, I stood off and on all night, and early the next morning I sent the boats out again to sound, with orders, if possible, to find a place where the ship might come to an

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1767. June.

Whitsunday 7.

Whitsun-island.

anchor; but at 11 o'clock they returned, with no better success than before. The people told me that the whole island was surrounded by a reef, and that although on the weather side of the island there was an opening through it, into a large bason, that extended to the middle of the island, yet they found it so full of breakers, that they could not venture in; neither indeed had they been able to land on any part of the island, the surf running still higher than it had done the day before. As it would therefore answer no purpose to continue here, I hoisted the boats in, and stood away for the other island, which bore S. 22° E. distant about four leagues. The island which I now quitted, having been discovered on Whitsun-eve, I called it WHITSUN ISLAND. It is about four miles long, and three wide. Its latitude is 19° 26′S. and its longitude, by observation, 137° 56′W.

When we came under the lee of the other island, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux, with the boats manned and armed, to the shore, where I saw about fifty of the natives armed with long pikes, and several of them running about with fire-brands in their hands. I ordered Mr. Furneaux to go to that part of the beach where we saw the people, and endeavour to traffick with them for fruit and water, or whatever else might be useful; at the same time, being particularly careful to give them no offence. I ordered him also to employ the boats in sounding for anchorage. About seven o'clock he returned, and told me that he could find no ground with the line, till he came within half a cable's length of the shore, and that there it consisted of sharp rocks, and lay very deep.

As the boat approached the shore, the Indians thronged down towards the beach, and put themselves upon their guard with their long pikes, as if to dispute the landing. Our men then lay upon their oars, and made signs of friend-

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1767. June.

Whitsunday 7.

ship, shewing at the same time several strings of beads, ribands, knives, and other trinkets. The Indians still made signs to our people that they should depart, but at the same time eyed the trinkets with a kind of wishful curiosity. Soon after some of them advanced a few steps into the sea, and our people making signs that they wanted cocoa nuts and water, some of them brought down a small quantity of both, and ventured to hand them into the boat: the water was in cocoa nut-shells, and the fruit was stripped of its outward covering, which is probably used for various purposes. For this supply they were paid with the trinkets that had been shewed them, and some nails, upon which they seemed to set a much greater value. During this traffick, one of the Indians found means to steal a silk handkerchief, in which some of our small merchandize was wrapped up, and carried it clear off, with its contents, so dexterously, that no body observed him. Our people made signs that a handkerchief had been stolen, but they either could not, or would not understand them. The boat continued about the beach, sounding for anchorage, till it was dark; and having many times endeavoured to persuade the natives to bring down some scurvy-grass, without success, she returned on board.

Monday 8.

I stood off and on with the ship all night, and as soon as the day broke, I sent the boats again, with orders to make a landing, but without giving any offence to the natives, that could possibly be avoided. When our boats came near the shore, the officer was greatly surprised to see seven large canoes, with two stout masts in each, lying just in the surf, with all the inhabitants upon the beach, ready to embark. They made signs to our people to go higher up; they readily complied, and as soon as they went ashore, all the Indians embarked, and sailed away to the westward, being joined

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1767. June.

Monday 8.

by two other canoes at the west end of the island. About noon, the boats returned, laden with cocoa nuts, palm nuts, and scurvy-grass. Mr. Furneaux, who commanded the expedition, told me that the Indians had left nothing behind them but four or five canoes. He found a well of very good water, and described the island as being sandy and level, full of trees, but without underwood, and abounding with scurvy-grass. The canoes, which steered about W. S. W. as long as they could be seen from the mast-head, appeared to be about thirty feet long, four feet broad, and three and an half deep. Two of these being brought along fide of each other, were fastened together, at the distance of about three feet asunder, by cross beams, passing from the larboard gunwale of one, to the starboard gunwale of the other, in the middle and near to each end.

The inhabitants of this island were of a middle stature, and dark complexion, with long black hair, which hung loose over their shoulders. The men were well made, and the women handsome. Their cloathing was a kind of coarse cloth or matting, which was fastened about their middle, and seemed capable of being brought up round their shoulders.

Queen Charlotte's Island.

In the afternoon, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux with the boats again on shore. He had with him a mate and twenty men, who were to make a rolling way for getting the casks down to the beach from the well. I gave orders that he should take possession of the island, in the name of King George the Third, and give it the name of QUEEN CHARLOTTE's ISLAND, in honour of her Majesty. The boats returned freighted with cocoa nuts and scurvy-grass, and the officer told me that he had found two more wells of good water, not far from the beach. I was at this time very ill, yet I went ashore with the Surgeon, and several of the people,

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1767. June.

Monday 8.

who were enfeebled by the scurvy, to take a walk. I found the wells so convenient, that I left the mate and twenty men on shore to fill water, and ordered a week's provisions to be sent them from the ship, they being already furnished with arms and ammunition. In the evening I returned on board, with the Surgeon and the sick, leaving only the waterers on shore. As we had not been able to find any anchorage, I stood off and on all night.

Tuesday 9.

Wednes. 10.

In the morning, I sent all the empty water casks on shore: the Surgeon and the sick were also sent for the benefit of another airing, but I gave them strict orders that they should keep near the water-side, and in the shade; that they should not pull down or injure any of the houses, nor, for the sake of the fruit, destroy the cocoa trees, which I appointed proper persons to climb. At noon, the rolling-way being made, the cutter returned laden with water, but it was with great difficulty got off the beach, as it is all rock, and the surf that breaks upon it, is often very great. At four, I received another boat-load of water, and a fresh supply of cocoa nuts, palm nuts, and scurvy-grass; the Surgeon also returned with the sick men, who received much benefit from their walk. The next morning, as soon as it was light, I dispatched orders to the mate, to send all the water that was filled on board, and to be ready to come off with his people when the boats should return again, bringing with them as many cocoa nuts, and as much scurvy-grass as they could procure. About eight o'clock, all the boats and people came on board, with the water and refreshments, but the cutter, in coming off, shipped a sea, which almost filled her with water: the barge was happily near enough to assist her, by taking great part of her crew on board, while the rest freed her, without any other damage than the loss of the cocoa nuts, and greens that were on

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1767. June.

Wednes. 10.

board. At noon, I hoisted the boats in, and there being a great sea, with a dreadful surf rolling in upon the shore, and no anchorage, I thought it prudent to leave this place, with such refreshments as we had got. The people who had resided on shore, saw no appearance of metal of any kind, but several tools, which were made of shells and stones, sharpened and fitted into handles, like adzes, chissels, and awls. They saw several canoes building, which are formed of planks, sewed together, and fastened to several small timbers, that pass transversely along the bottom and up the sides. They saw several repositories of the dead, in which the body was left to putrefy under a canopy, and not put into the ground.

When we failed, we left a union jack flying upon the island, with the ship's name, the time of our being here, and an account of our taking possession of this place, and Whitsun Island, in the name of his Britannic Majesty, cut on a piece of wood, and in the bark of several trees. We also left some hatchets, nails, glass bottles, beads, shillings, sixpences, and halfpence, as presents to the natives, and an atonement for the disturbance we had given them. Queen Charlotte's Island is about six miles long, and one mile wide; lies in latitude 19° 18′S. longitude, by observation, 138° 4′W. and we found the variation here to be 4° 46′E.

We made sail with a fine breeze, and about one o'clock, saw an island W. by S. Queen Charlotte's Island, at this time bearing E. by N. distant 15 miles. At half an hour after three, we were within about three quarters of a mile of the east end of the island, and ran close along the shore, but had no soundings. The east and west ends are joined to each other by a reef of rocks, over which the sea breaks into a lagoon, in the middle of the island, which, therefore, had

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1767. June.

Wednes. 10.

Egmont Island.

the appearance of two islands, and seemed to be about six miles long, and four broad. The whole of it is low land, full of trees, but we saw not a single cocoa nut, nor any huts: we found, however, at the westermost end, all the canoes and people who had fled, at our approach, from Queen Charlotte's Island, and some more. We counted eight double canoes, and about fourscore people, men, women, and children. The canoes were drawn upon the beach, the women and children were placed near them, and the men advanced with their pikes and firebrands, making a great noise, and dancing in a strange manner. We observed that this island was sandy, and that under the trees there was no verdure. As the shore was every where rocky, as there was no anchorage, and as we had no prospect of obtaining any refreshment here, I set sail at six o'clock in the evening, from this island, to which I gave the name of EGMONT ISLAND, in honour of the Earl of Egmont, who was then first Lord of the Admiralty. It lies in latitude 19° 20′S. longitude, by observation, 138° 30′W.

Thursday 11.

At one o'clock, on the 11th, we saw an island in the W. S. W. and stood for it. At four in the afternoon, we were within a quarter of a mile of the shore, and ran along it, sounding continually, but could get no ground. It is surrounded on every side by rocks, on which the sea breaks very high. It is full of trees, but not one cocoa nut, and has much the same appearance with Egmont island, but is much narrower. Among the rocks, at the west end, we saw about sixteen of the natives, but no canoes: they carried long pikes or poles in their hands, and seemed to be, in every respect, the same kind of people that we had seen before. As nothing was to be had here, and it blew very hard, I made sail till eight in the evening, and then brought to. To this island, which is about six miles long, and from

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1766. June.

Gloucester Island.

one mile to one quarter of a mile broad, I gave the name of GLOUCESTER ISLAND, in honour of his Royal Highness the Duke. It lies in latitude 19° 11′S. and longitude, by observation, 140° 4′W.

Friday 12.

Cumberland Island.

At five o'clock in the morning, we made sail, and soon after saw another island. At 10 o'clock, the weather being tempestuous, with much rain, we saw a long reef, with breakers on each side of the island, and therefore brought the ship to, with her head off the shore. To this island, which lies in latitude 19° 18′S. longitude, by observation, 140° 36′W. I gave the name of CUMBERLAND ISLAND, in honour of his Royal Highness the Duke. It lies low, and is about the same size as Queen Charlotte's Island. We found the variation of the needle here to be 7° 10′E. As I had no hope of finding any refreshment here, I stood on to the westward.

Saturday 13.

Prince William Henry's Island.

At day-break, on Saturday the 13th, we saw another small low island, in the N. N. W. right to windward. It had the appearance of small slat keys. This place I called PRINCE WILLIAM HENRY'S ISLAND, in honour of his Majesty's third son. It lies in latitude 19° S. longitude, by observation, 141° 6′W. I made no stay here, hoping, that to the westward I should find higher land, where the ship might come to an anchor, and such refreshments as we wanted be procured.

Wednes. 17.

Soon after day-light, on the 17th, we saw land bearing W. by N. and making in a small round hummock. At noon, when it bore N. 64 W. distant about five leagues, its appearance greatly resembled the Mewstone in Plymouth Sound, but it seemed to be much larger. We found the ship this day, 20 miles to the northward of her reckoning, which I imputed to a great S. W. swell.

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1767. June.

Wednes. 17.

At five in the evening, this island bore N. W. distant about eight miles. I then hauled the wind, and stood on and off all night. At ten, we saw a light upon the shore, which, though the island was small, proved that it was inhabited, and gave us hopes that we should find anchorage near it. We observed with great pleasure, that the land was very high, and covered with cocoa trees; a sure sign that there was water.

Thursday 18.

The next morning, I sent Lieutenant Furneaux to the shore, with the boats manned and armed, and all kinds of trinkets, to establish a traffick with the natives, for such refreshment as the place would afford. I gave him orders also to find, if possible, an anchoring place for the ship. While we were getting out the boats, several canoes put off from the island, but as soon as the people on board saw them make towards the shore, they put back. At noon, the boats returned, and brought with them a pig and a cock, with a few plantains and cocoa nuts. Mr. Furneaux reported, that he had seen at least an hundred of the inhabitants, and believed there were many more upon the island; but that having been all round it, he could find no anchorage, nor scarcely a landing-place for the boat. When he reached the shore, he came to a grapling, and threw a warp to the Indians upon the beach, who caught it and held it fast. He then began to converse with them by signs, and observed that they had no weapon among them, but that some of them had white sticks, which seemed to be ensigns of authority, as the people who bore them kept the rest of the natives back. In return for the pig and the cock, he gave them some beads, a looking-glass, a few combs, with several other trinkets, and a hatchet. The women, who had been kept at a distance, as soon as they saw the trinkets, ran down in a croud to the beach, with great eagerness, but were soon driven away by

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1767. June.

Thursday 18.

Osnaburgh Island.

the men, at which they expressed much disappointment and vexation. While this traffick was carrying on, a man came secretly round a rock, and diving down, took up the boat's grappling, and at the same time, the people on shore who held the warp, made an effort to draw her into the surf. As soon as this was perceived by the people on board, they fired a musket over the man's head who had taken up the grappling, upon which he instantly let it go, with marks of great terror and astonishment; the people on shore also let go the rope. The boats after this, lay some time upon their oars, but the officer finding that he could get nothing more, returned on board. Mr. Furneaux told me that both the men and women were cloathed, and he brought a piece of their cloth away with him. The inhabitants appeared to him to be more numerous than the island could support, and for this reason, especially as he saw some large double canoes upon the beach, he imagined there were islands of larger extent, not far distant, where refreshments in greater plenty might be procured, and hoped that they might be less difficult of access. As I thought this a reasonable conjecture, I hoisted in the boats, and determined to run farther to the westward. To this place, which is nearly circular, and about two miles over, I gave the name of OSNABURGH ISLAND, in honour of Prince Frederick, who is bishop of that fee. It lies in latitude 17° 51′S. and longitude 147° 30′W.; the variation here was 7° 10′E.

[page] 433

CHAP. V.

An Account of the Discovery of King George the Third's Island, or Otaheite, and of several Incidents which happened both on board the Ship, and on Shore.

1767. June.

Thursday 18.

Friday 19.

AT two o'clock, the same day, we bore away, and in about half an hour, discovered very high land in the W. S. W. At seven in the evening, Osnaburgh Island bore E. N. E. and the new discovered land, from W. N. W. to W. by S. As the weather was thick and squally, we brought to for the night, or at least till the fog should break away. At two in the morning, it being very clear, we made sail again; at day-break we saw the land, at about five leagues distance, and steered directly for it; but at eight o'clock, when we were close under it, the fog obliged us again to lie to, and when it cleared away, we were much surprised to find ourselves surrounded by some hundreds of canoes. They were of different sizes, and had on board different numbers, from one to ten, so that in all of them together, there could not be less than eight hundred people. When they came within pistol shot of the ship, they lay by, gazing at us with great astonishment, and by turns conferring with each other. In the mean time we shewed them trinkets of various kinds, and invited them on board. Soon after, they drew together, and held a kind of council, to determine what should be done: then they all paddled round the ship, making signs of friendship, and one of them holding up a branch of the plantain tree, made a speech that lasted near a quarter of an

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Friday 19.

hour, and then threw it into the sea. Soon after, as we continued to make signs of invitation, a sine, stout, lively young man ventured on board: he came up by the mizen chains, and jumped out of the shrouds upon the top of the awning. We made signs to him to come down upon the quarter-deck, and handed up some trinkets to him: he looked pleased, but would accept of nothing till some of the Indians came along side, and after much talk, threw a few branches of plantain tree on board the ship. He then accepted our presents, and several others very soon came on board, at different parts of the ship, not knowing the proper entrance. As one of these Indians was standing near the gang-way, on the larboard side of the quarter-deck, one of our goats butted him upon the haunches: being surprised at the blow, he turned hastily about, and saw the goat raised upon his hind-legs, ready to repeat the blow. The appearance of this animal, so different from any he had ever seen, struck him with such terror, that he instantly leaped over board; and all the rest, upon seeing what had happened, followed his example with the utmost precipitation: they recovered however, in a short time, from their fright, and returned on board. After having a little reconciled them to our goats and sheep, I shewed them our hogs and poultry, and they immediately made signs that they had such animals as these. I then distributed trinkets and nails among them, and made signs that they should go on shore and bring us some of their hogs, fowls and fruit, but they did not seem to understand my meaning: they were, in the mean time, watching an opportunity to steal some of the things that happened to lie in their way, but we generally detected them in the attempt. At last, however, one of the midshipmen happened to come where they were standing, with a new laced hat upon his head, and began to talk to

[page] 435

1767. June.

Friday 19.

one of them by signs: while he was thus engaged, another of them came behind him, and suddenly snatching off the hat, leaped over the taffarel into the sea, and swam away with it.

As we had no anchorage here, we stood along the shore, sending the boats at the same time to sound at a less distance. As none of these canoes had sails, they could not keep up with us, and therefore soon paddled back towards the shore. The country has the most delightful and romantic appearance that can be imagined: towards the sea it is level, and is covered with fruit trees of various kinds, particularly the cocoa nut. Among these are the houses of the inhabitants, consisting only of a roof, and at a distance having greatly the appearance of a long barn. The country within, at about the distance of three miles, rises into lofty hills, that are crowned with wood, and terminate in peaks, from which large rivers are precipitated into the sea. We saw no shoals, but found the island skirted by a reef of rocks, through which there are several openings into deep water. About three o'clock in the afternoon, we brought to, a-breast of a large bay, where there was an appearance of anchorage. The boats were immediately sent to sound it, and while they were thus employed, I observed a great number of canoes gather round them. I suspected that the Indians had a design to attack them, and as I was very desirous to prevent mischief, I made the signal for the boats to come aboard, and at the same time, to intimidate the Indians, I fired a nine pounder over their heads. As soon as the cutter began to stand towards the ship, the Indians in their canoes, though they had been startled by the thunder of our nine pounder, endeavoured to cut her off. The boat, however, sailing faster than the canoes could paddle, soon got clear of those that were about her; but some others, that

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1767. June.

Friday 19.

were full of men, way-laid her in her course, and threw several stones into her, which wounded some of the people. Upon this, the officer on board fired a musquet, loaded with buck-shot, at the man who threw the first stone, and wounded him in the shoulder. The rest of the people in the canoes, as soon as they perceived their companion wounded, leapt into the sea, and the other canoes paddled away, in great terror and confusion. As soon as the boats reached the ship, they were hoisted on board, and just as she was about to stand on, we observed a large canoe, under fail, making after us. As I thought she might have some Chief on board, or might have been dispatched to bring me a message from some Chief, I determined to wait for her. She sailed very fast, and was soon along side of the ship, but we did not observe among those on board, any one that seemed to have an authority over the rest. One of them, however, stood up, and having made a speech, which continued about five minutes, threw on board a branch of the plantain tree. We understood this to be a token of peace, and we returned it, by handing over one of the branches of plantain that had been left on board by our first visitors: with this and some toys, that were afterwards presented to him, he appeared to be much gratified, and after a short time, went away.

The officers who had been sent out with the boats, informed me that they had sounded close to the reef, and found as great a depth of water as at the other islands: however, as I was now on the weather side of the island, I had reason to expect anchorage in running to leeward. I therefore took this course, but finding breakers that ran off to a great distance from the south-end of the island, I hauled the wind, and continued turning to windward all night, in order to run down on the east side of the island.

[page] 437

1767. June.

Saturday 20.

Sunday 21.

At five o'clock in the morning, we made sail, the land bearing N. W. by W. distant 10 leagues; and there seemed to be land five leagues beyond it, to the N. E.; a remarkable peak, like a sugar loaf, bore N. N. E. when we were about two leagues from the shore, which afforded a most delightful prospect, and was full of houses and inhabitants. We saw several large canoes near the shore, under fail, but they did not steer towards the ship. At noon, we were within two or three miles of the island, and it then bore from S. ¾ W. to N. W. by W. We continued our course along the shore, sometimes at the distance of half a mile, and sometimes at the distance of four or five miles, but hitherto had got no soundings. At six o'clock in the evening, we were a-breast of a fine river, and the coast having a better appearance here than in any other part that we had seen, I determined to stand off and on all night, and try for anchorage in the morning. As soon as it was dark, we saw a great number of lights all along the shore. At day-break, we sent out the boats to sound, and soon after, they made the signal for 20 fathom. This produced an universal joy, which it is not easy to describe, and we immediately ran in, and came to an anchor in 17 fathom, with a clear sandy bottom. We lay about a mile distant from the shore, opposite to a fine run of water; the extreams of the land bearing from E. S. E. to N. W. by W. As soon as we had secured the ship, I sent the boats to sound along the coast, and look at the place where we saw the water. At this time, a considerable number of canoes came off to the ship, and brought with them hogs, fowls, and fruit in great plenty, which we purchased for trinkets and nails. But when the boats made towards the shore, the canoes, most of which were double, and very large, sailed after them. At first they kept at a distance, but as the boats approached the

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1767. June.

Sunday 21.

shore, they grew bolder, and at last three of the largest ran at the cutter, staved in her quarter, and carried away her out-rigger, the Indians preparing at the same time to board her, with their clubs and paddles in their hands. Our people being thus pressed, were obliged to fire, by which one of the assailants was killed, and another much wounded. Upon receiving the shot, they both fell overboard, and all the people who were in the same canoe, instantly leaped into the sea after them: the other two canoes dropped a-stern, and our boats went on without any farther interruption. As soon as the Indians, who were in the water, saw that the boats stood on without attempting to do them any farther hurt, they recovered their canoe, and hauled in their wounded companions. They set them both upon their feet to see if they could stand, and finding they could not, they tried whether they could sit upright: one of them could, and him they supported in that posture, but perceiving that the other was quite dead, they laid the body along at the bottom of the canoe. After this some of the canoes went ashore, and others returned again to the ship to traffick, which is a proof that our conduct had convinced them that while they behaved peaceably they had nothing to fear and that they were conscious they had brought the mischief which had just happened upon themselves.

The boats continued sounding till noon, when they returned with an account that the ground was very clear; that it was at the depth of five fathom, within a quarter of a mile of the shore, but that there was a very great surf where we had seen the water. The officers told me, that the inhabitants swarmed upon the beach, and that many of them swam off to the boat with fruit, and bamboos filled with water. They said that they were very importunate with them to come on shore, particularly the women, who came down to the

[page] 439

1767. June.

Sunday 21.

beach, and stripping themselves naked, endeavoured to allure them by many wanton gestures, the meaning of which could not possibly be mistaken. At this time, however, our people resisted the temptation.

In the afternoon, I sent the boats again to the shore, with some barecas, or small casks, which are filled at the head, and have a handle by which they are carried, to endeavour to procure some water, of which we began to be in great want. In the mean time, many of the canoes continued about the ship, but the Indians had been guilty of so many thefts, that I would not suffer any more of them to come on board.

At five in the evening, the boats returned with only two barecas of water, which the natives had filled for them; and as a compensation for their trouble, they thought fit to detain all the rest. Our people, who did not leave their boat, tried every expedient they could think of to induce the Indians to return their water vessels, but without success; and the Indians, in their turn, were very pressing for our people to come on shore, which they thought it prudent to decline. There were many thousands of the inhabitants of both sexes, and a great number of children on the beach, when our boats came away.

Monday 22.

The next morning, I sent the boats on shore again for water, with nails, hatchets, and such other things as I thought most likely to gain the friendship of the inhabitants. In the mean time, a great number of canoes came off to the ship, with bread-fruit*, plantains, a fruit resembling an apple only better, fowls, and hogs, which we purchased with beads, nails, knives, and other articles of the like kind, so

* See a description of this fruit in the Account of the Voyage of the Endeavour.

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[page] 440

1767. June.

Monday 22.

that we procured pork enough to serve the ship's company two days, at a pound a man.

When the boats returned, they brought us only a few calibashes of water, for the number of people on the beach was so great, that they would not venture to land, though the young women repeated the allurements which they had practised the day before, with still more wanton, and, if possible, less equivocal gestures. Fruit and provisions of various kinds were brought down and ranged upon the beach, of which our people were also invited to partake, as an additional inducement for them to leave the boat. They continued, however, inexorable, and shewing the Indians the barecas on board, made signs that they should bring down those which had been detained the day before: to this the Indians were inexorable in their turn, and our people therefore weighed their grapplings, and sounded all round the place, to see whether the ship could come in near enough to cover the waterers, in which case they might venture on shore, in defiance of the whole island. When they put off, the women pelted them with apples and bananas, shouting, and shewing every mark of derision and contempt that they could devise. They reported, that the ship might ride in four fathom water, with sandy ground, at two cables' length from the shore, and in five fathom water at three cables' length. The wind here blew right along the shore, raising a great surf on the side of the vessel, and on the beach.

Tuesday 23.

At day-break, the next morning, we weighed, with a design to anchor off the watering-place. As we were standing off, to get farther to windward, we discovered a bay about six or eight miles to leeward, over the land, from the

[page] 441

1767. June.

Tuesday 23.

mast-head, and immediately bore away for it, sending the boats a-head to sound. At nine o'clock, the boats making the signal for 12 fathom, we hauled round a reef, and stood in, with a design to come to an anchor; but when we came near the boats, one of which was on each bow, the ship struck. Her head continued immoveable, but her stern was free; and, upon casting the lead, we found the depth of water, upon the reef or shoal, to be from 17 fathom to two and a half: we clewed all up as fast as possible, and cleared the ship of what lumber there happened to be upon the deck, at the same time getting out the long-boat, with the stream and kedge anchors, the stream cable and hauser, in order to carry them without the reef, that when they had taken ground, the ship might be drawn off towards them, by applying a great force to the capstern, but unhappily without the reef we had no bottom. Our condition was now very alarming, the ship continued beating against the rock with great force, and we were surrounded by many hundred canoes, full of men: they did not, however, attempt to come on board us, but seemed to wait in expectation of our shipwreck. In the anxiety and terror of such a situation we continued near an hour, without being able to do any thing for our deliverance, except staving some water casks in the fore-hold, when a breeze happily springing up from the shore, the ship's head swung off. We immediately pressed her with all the sail we could make; upon which she began to move, and was very soon once more in deep water.

We now stood off, and the boats being sent to leeward, found that the reef ran down to the westward about a mile and a half, and that beyond it there was a very good harbour. The master, after having placed a boat at the end of the reef, and furnished the long-boat with anchor and hausers,

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[page] 442

1767. June.

Tuesday 23.

and a guard to defend her from an attack of the Indians, came on board, and piloted the ship round the reef into the harbour, where, about twelve o'clock, she came to an anchor in 17 fathom water, with a fine bottom of black sand.

The place where the ship struck appeared, upon farther examination, to be a reef of sharp coral rock, with very unequal soundings, from six fathom to two; and it happened unfortunately to lie between the two boats that were placed as a direction to the ship, the weathermost boat having 12 fathom, and the leewardmost nine. The wind freshened almost as soon as we got off, and though it soon became calm again, the surf ran so high, and broke with such violence upon the rock, that if the ship had continued fast half an hour longer, she must inevitably have been beaten to pieces. Upon examining her bottom, we could not discover that she had received any damage, except that a small piece was beaten off the bottom of the rudder. She did not appear to admit any water, but the trussle-trees, at the head of all the masts, were broken short, which we supposed to have happened while she was beating against the rock. Our boats lost their grapplings upon the reef, but as we had reason to hope that the ship was found, they gave us very little concern. As soon as the ship was secured, I sent the master, with all the boats manned and armed, to sound the upper part of the bay, that if he found good anchorage we might warp the ship up within the reef, and anchor her in safety. The weather was now very pleasant, a great number of canoes were upon the reef, and the shore was crouded with people.

About four in the afternoon the master returned, and reported, that there was every where good anchorage; I therefore determined to warp the ship up the bay early in

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[page break]

[page] 443

1767. June.

Tuesday 23.

the morning, and in the mean time, I put the people at four watches, one watch to be always under arms; loaded and primed all the guns, fixed musquetoons in all the boats, and ordered all the people who were not upon the watch, to repair to the quarters assigned them, at a moment's warning there being a great number of canoes, some of them very large, and full of men, hovering upon the shore, and many smaller venturing to the ship, with hogs, fowls, and fruit, which we purchased of them, much to the satisfaction of both parties; and at sun-set, all the canoes rowed in to the shore.

Wednes. 14.

At six o'clock the next morning, we began to warp the ship up the harbour, and soon after, a great number of canoes came under her stern. As I perceived that they had hogs, fowls, and fruit on board, I ordered the gunner, and two midshipmen, to purchase them for knives, nails, beads, and other trinkets, at the same time prohibiting the trade to all other persons on board. By eight o'clock, the number of canoes was greatly increased, and those that came last up were double, of a very large size, with twelve or fifteen stout men in each. I observed, with some concern, that they appeared to be furnished rather for war than trade, having very little on board except round pebble stones; I therefore sent for Mr. Furneaux, my first lieutenant being still very ill, and ordered him to keep the fourth watch constantly at their arms, while the rest of the people were warping the ship. In the mean time more canoes were continually coming off from the shore, which were freighted very differently from the rest, for they had on board a number of women who were placed in a row, and who, when they came near the ship, made all the wanton gestures that can be conceived. While these ladies were practising their allurements, the large canoes, which were freighted with

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[page] 444

1767. June.

Wednes. 24.

stones, drew together very close round the ship, some of the men on board singing in a hoarse voice, some blowing conchs, and some playing on a flute. After some time, a man who sat upon a canopy that was fixed on one of the large double canoes, made signs that he wished to come up to the ship's side; I immediately intimated my consent, and when he came along side, he gave one of the men a bunch of red and yellow feathers, making signs that he should carry it to me. I received it with expressions of amity, and immediately got some trinkets to present him in return, but to my great surprise he had put off to a little distance from the ship, and upon his throwing up the branch of a cocoa-nut tree, there was an universal shout from all the canoes, which at once moved towards the ship, and a shower of stones was poured into her on every side. As an attack was now begun, in which our arms only could render us superior to the multitude that assailed us, especially as great part of the ship's company was in a sick and feeble condition, I ordered the guard to fire; two of the quarter-deck guns, which I had loaded with small shot, were also fired nearly at the same time, and the Indians appeared to be thrown into some confusion: in a few minutes, however, they renewed the attack, and all our people that were able to come upon deck, having by this time got to their quarters, I ordered them to fire the great guns, and to play some of them constantly at a place on shore, where a great number of canoes were still taking in men, and pushing off towards the ship with the utmost expedition. When the great guns began to fire, there were not less than three hundred canoes about the ship, having on board at least two thousand men; many thousands were also upon the shore, and more canoes coming from every quarter: the firing, however, soon drove away the canoes that were about the ship, and put a stop to the

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[page] 445

1767. June.

Wednes. 24.

coming off of others. As soon as I saw some of them retreating, and the rest quiet, I ordered the firing to cease, hoping that they were sufficiently convinced of our superiority, not to renew the contest. In this, however, I was unhappily mistaken: a great number of the canoes that had been dispersed, soon drew together again, and lay some time on their paddles, looking at the ship from the distance of about a quarter of a mile, and then suddenly hoisting white streamers, pulled towards the ship's stern, and began again to throw stones, with great force and dexterity, by the help of slings, from a considerable distance: each of these stones weighed about two pounds, and many of them wounded the people on board, who would have suffered much more, if an awning had not been spread over the whole deck to keep out the sun, and the hammocks placed in the nettings. At the same time several canoes, well manned, were making towards the ship's bow, having probably taken notice that no shot had been fired from this part: I therefore ordered some guns forward, to be well pointed and fired at these canoes; at the same time running out two guns abaft, and pointing them well at the canoes that were making the attack. Among the canoes that were coming toward the bow, there was one which appeared to have some Chief on board, as it was by signals made from her, that the others had been called together: it happened that a shot, fired from the guns forward, hit this canoe so full as to cut it asunder. As soon as this was observed by the rest, they dispersed with such haste that in half an hour there was not a single canoe to be seen; the people also who had crouded the shore, immediately sled over the hills with the utmost precipitation.

Having now no reason to fear any further interruption, we warped the ship up the harbour, and by noon, we were

[page] 446

1767. June.

Wednes. 21.

Thursday 25.

not more than half a mile from the upper part of the bay, within less than two cables' length of a fine river, and about two and a half of the reef. We had here nine fathom water, and close to the shore there were five. We moored the ship, and carried out the stream-anchor, with the two shroud hausers, for a spring, to keep the ship's broad-side a-breast of the river; we also got up and mounted the eight guns which had been put into the hold. As soon as this was done, the boats were employed in sounding all round the bay, and in examining the shore where any of the inhabitants appeared, in order to discover, whether it was probable that they would give us any further disturbance. All the afternoon, and part of the next morning, was spent in this service; and about noon, the master returned, with a tolerable survey of the place, and reported, that there were no canoes in sight; that there was good landing on every part of the beach; that there was nothing in the bay from which danger could be apprehended, except the reef, and some rocks at the upper end, which appeared above water; and that the river, though it emptied itself on the other side of the point, was fresh water.

Soon after the master had brought me this account, I sent Mr. Furneaux again, with all the boats manned and armed, the marines being also put on board, with orders to land opposite to our station, and secure himself, under cover of the boats and the ship, in the clearest ground he could find. About two o'clock the boats landed without any opposition, and Mr. Furneaux stuck up a staff, upon which he hoisted a pendant, turned a turf, and took possession of the island in his Majesty's name, in honour of whom he called it KING GEORGE THE THIRD's ISLAND: he then went to the river, and tasted the water, which he found excellent, and mixing some of it with rum, every man drank his Majesty's health.

[page] 447

1767. June.

Thursday 25.

While he was at the river, which was about twelve yards wide, and fordable, he saw two old men on the opposite side of it, who perceiving that they were discovered, put themselves in a supplicatory posture, and seemed to be in great terror and confusion. Mr. Furneaux made signs that they should come over the river, and one of them complied. When he landed, he came forward, creeping upon his hands and knees, but Mr. Furneaux raised him up, and while he stood trembling, shewed him some of the stones that were thrown at the ship, and endeavoured to make him apprehend that if the natives attempted no mischief against us, we should do no harm to them. He ordered two of the water casks to be filled, to shew the Indian that we wanted water, and produced some hatchets, and other things, to intimate that he wished to trade for provisions. The old man, during this pantomimical conversation, in some degree recovered his spirits; and Mr. Furneaux, to confirm his professions of friendship, gave him a hatchet, some nails, beads, and other trifles; after which he reimbarked on board the boats, and left the pendant flying. As soon as the boats were put off, the old man went up to the pendant, and danced round it a considerable time: he then retired, but soon after returned with some green boughs, which he threw down, and retired a second time: it was not long, however, before he appeared again, with about a dozen of the inhabitants, and putting themselves in a supplicating posture, they all approached the pendant in a slow pace, but the wind happening to move it, when they were got close to it, they suddenly retreated with the greatest precipitation. After standing some time at a distance, and gazing at it, they went away, but in a short time came back, with two large hogs alive, which they laid down at the foot of the staff, and at length taking courage, they began to dance. When they had per-

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1767. June.

Thursday 25.

formed this ceremony, they brought the hogs down to the water side, launched a canoe, and put them on board. The old man, who had a large white beard, then embarked with them alone, and brought them to the ship: when he came along side, he made a set speech, and afterwards handed in several green plantain leaves, one by one, uttering a sentence, in a solemn slow tone, with each of them as he delivered it; after this he sent on board the two hogs, and then turning round, pointed to the land. I ordered some presents to be given him, but he would accept of nothing; and soon after put off his canoe, and went on shore.

Friday 26.

At night, soon after it was dark, we heard the noise of many drums, with conchs, and other wind instruments, and saw a multitude of lights all along the coast. At six in the morning, seeing none of the natives on shore, and observing that the pendant was taken away, which probably they had learnt to despise, as the frogs in the fable did King Log, I ordered the lieutenant to take a guard on shore, and if all was well, to send off, that we might begin watering: in a short time I had the satisfaction to find that he had sent off for water casks, and by eight o'clock, we had four tons of water on board. While our people were employed in silling the casks, several of the natives appeared on the opposite side of the river, with the old man whom the officer had seen the day before; and soon after he came over, and brought with him a little fruit, and a few fowls, which were also sent off to the ship. At this time, having been very ill for near a fortnight, I was so weak that I could scarcely crawl about; however, I employed my glasses to see what was doing on shore. At near half an hour after eight o'clock, I perceived a multitude of the natives coming over a hill at about the distance of a mile, and at the same time a great number of canoes making round the western point, and

[page] 449

1767. June.

Friday 26.

keeping close along the shore. I then looked at the watering-place, and saw at the back of it, where it was clear, a very numerous party of the natives creeping along behind the bushes; I saw also many thousands in the woods, pushing along towards the watering-place, and canoes coming very fast round the other point of the bay to the eastward. Being alarmed at these appearances, I dispatched a boat, to acquaint the officer on shore with what I had seen, and order him immediately to come on board with his men, and leave the casks behind him: he had, however, discovered his danger, and embarked before the boat reached him. Having perceived the Indians that were creeping towards him under shelter of the wood, he immediately dispatched the old man to them, making signs that they should keep at a distance, and that he wanted nothing but water. As soon as they perceived that they were discovered, they began to shout, and advanced with greater speed. The officer immediately repaired to the boats with his people, and the Indians, in the mean time having crossed the river, took possession of the water casks, with great appearance of exultation and joy. The canoes now pulled along the shore, towards the place, with the utmost expedition, all the people on land keeping pace with them, except a multitude of women and children, who seated themselves upon a hill which overlooked the bay and the beach. The canoes from each point of the bay, as they drew nearer to that part of it where the ship was at anchor, put on shore, and took in more men, who had great bags in their hands, which afterwards appeared to be filled with stones. All the canoes that had come round the points, and many others that had put off from the shore within the bay, now made towards the ship, so that I had no doubt but that they intended to try

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1767. June.

Friday 26.

their fortune in a second attack. As to shorten the contest would certainly lessen the mischief, I determined to make this action decisive, and put an end to hostilities at once; I therefore ordered the people, who were all at their quarters, to fire first upon the canoes which were drawn together in groups: this was immediately done so effectually, that those which were to the westward made towards the shore as fast as possible, and those to the eastward, getting round the reef, were soon beyond the reach of our guns. I then directed the fire into the wood in different parts, which soon drove the Indians out of it, who ran up the hill where the women and children had seated themselves to see the battle. Upon this hill there were now several thousands who thought themselves in perfect security; but to convince them of the contrary, and hoping that when they saw the shot fall much farther than they could think possible, they would suppose it could reach them at any distance, I ordered some of the guns to be let down as low as they would admit, and fired four shot towards them. Two of the balls fell close by a tree where a great number of these people were sitting, and struck them with such terror and consternation, that in less than two minutes not one of them was to be seen. Having thus cleared the coast, I manned and armed the boats, and putting a strong guard on board, I sent all the carpenters with their axes, and ordered them to destroy every canoe that had been run ashore. Before noon, this service was effectually performed, and more than fifty canoes, many of which were sixty feet long, and three broad, and lashed together, were cut to pieces. Nothing was found in them but stones and slings, except a little fruit, and a few fowls and hogs, which were on board two or three canoes of a much smaller size.

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1767. June.

Friday 26.

At two o'clock in the afternoon, about ten of the natives came out of the wood with green boughs in their hands, which they stuck up near the water side, and retired. After a short time, they appeared again, and brought with them several hogs, with their legs tied, which they placed near the green boughs, and retired a second time. After this they brought down several more hogs, and some dogs, with their fore legs tied over their heads, and going again into the woods, brought back several bundles of the cloth which they use for apparel, and which has some resemblance to Indian paper. These they placed upon the beach, and called to us on board to fetch them away. As we were at the distance of about three cables' length, we could not then perfectly discover of what this peace-offering consisted: we guessed at the hogs and the cloth, but seeing the dogs, with their fore legs appearing over the hinder part of the neck, rise up several times, and run a little way in an erect posture, we took them for some strange unknown animal, and were very impatient to have a nearer view of them. The boat was therefore sent on shore with all expedition, and our wonder was soon at an end. Our people found nine good hogs, besides the dogs and the cloth: the hogs were brought off, but the dogs were turned loose, and with the cloth left behind. In return for the hogs, our people left upon the shore some hatchets, nails, and other things, making signs to some of the Indians who were in sight, to take them away with their cloth. Soon after the boat had come on board, the Indians brought down two more hogs, and called to us to fetch them; the boat therefore returned, and fetched off the two hogs, but still left the cloth, though the Indians made signs that we should take it. Our people reported, that they had not touched any of the things which

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they had left upon the beach for them, and somebody suggesting that they would not take our offering because we had not accepted their cloth, I gave orders that it should be fetched away. The event proved that the conjecture was true, for the moment the boat had taken the cloth on board, the Indians came down, and with every possible demonstration of joy, carried away all I had sent them into the wood. Our boats then went to the watering-place, and filled and brought off all the casks, to the amount of about six tons. We found that they had suffered no injury while they had been in the possession of the Indians, but some leathern buckets and funnels which had been taken away with the casks, were not returned.

Saturday 27.

The next morning I sent the boats on shore, with a guard, to fill some more casks with water, and soon after the people were on shore, the same old man who had come over the river to them the first day, came again to the farther side of it, where he made a long speech, and then crossed the water. When he came up to the waterers, the officer shewed him the stones that were piled up like cannon balls upon the shore, and had been brought thither since our first landing, and some of the bags that had been taken out of the canoes which I had ordered to be destroyed, filled with stones, and endeavoured to make him understand that the Indians had been the aggressors, and that the mischief we had done them was in our own defence. The old man seemed to apprehend his meaning, but not to admit it: he immediately made a speech to the people, pointing to the stones, slings, and bags, with great emotion, and sometimes his looks, gestures, and voice were so furious as to be frightful. His passions, however, subsided by degrees, and the officer, who to his great regret could not understand one

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Saturday 27.

word of all that he had said, endeavoured to convince him, by all the signs he could devise, that we wished to live in friendship with them, and were disposed to shew them every mark of kindness in our power. He then shook hands with him, and embraced him, giving him at the same time several such trinkets as he thought would be most acceptable. He contrived also to make the old man understand that we wished to traffick for provisions, that the Indians should not come down in great numbers, and that they should keep on one side of the river and we on the other. After this the old man went away with great appearance of satisfaction, and before noon a trade was established, which furnished us with hogs, fowls, and fruit in great abundance, so that all the ship's company, whether sick or well, had as much as they could use.

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CHAP. VI.

The Sick sent on Shore, and a regular Trade established with the Natives; some Account of their Character and Manners, of their Visits on board the Ship, and a Variety of Incidents that happened during this Intercourse.

1767. June.

Saturday 27.

MATTERS being thus happily settled, I sent the Surgeon, with the Second Lieutenant, to examine the country, and fix upon some place where the sick might take up their residence on shore. When they returned, they said, that with respect to health and convenience, all the places that they had seen upon the island seemed to be equally proper; but that with respect to safety, they could recommend none but the watering-place, as they would be there under the protection of the ship and the guard, and would easily be prevented from straggling into the country, and brought off to their meals. To the watering place therefore I sent them, with those that were employed in filling the casks, and appointed the gunner to command the party that was to be their guard. A tent was erected for them as a shelter both from the sun and the rain, and the Surgeon was sent to superintend their conduct, and give his advice if it should be wanted. It happened that walking out with his gun, after he had seen the sick properly disposed of in the tent, a wild duck flew over his head, which he shot, and it fell dead among some of the natives who were on the other side of the river. This threw them into a panic, and

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Saturday 27.

they all ran away: when they got to some distance they stopped, and he made signs to them to bring the duck over: this one of them at last ventured to do, and, pale and trembling, laid it down at his feet. Several other ducks happening at the instant to fly over the spot where they were standing, he fired again, and fortunately brought down three more. This incident gave the natives such a dread of a gun, that if a musquet was pointed at a thousand of them, they would all run away like a flock of sheep; and probably the ease with which they were afterwards kept at a distance, and their orderly behaviour in their traffick, was in a great measure owing to their having upon this occasion seen the instrument of which before they had only felt the effects.

As I foresaw that a private traffick would probably commence between such of our people as were on shore, and the natives, and that if it was left to their own caprice, perpetual quarrels and mischief would ensue, I ordered that all matters of traffick should be tranfacted by the gunner, on behalf of both parties, and I directed him to see that no injury was done to the natives, either by violence or fraud, and by all possible means to attach the old man to his interest. This service he performed with great diligence and fidelity, nor did he neglect to complain of those who transgressed my orders, which was of infinite advantage to all parties; for as I punished the first offenders with a necessary severity, many irregularities, that would otherwise have produced the most disagreeable consequences, were prevented: we were also indebted for many advantages to the old man, whose caution kept our people perpetually upon their guard, and soon brought back those who straggled from the party. The natives would indeed sometimes pilfer, but by the terror of a gun, without using it, he always found means to make them bring back what was stolen. A fellow had one day the

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Saturday 27.

dexterity and address to cross the river unperceived, and steal a hatchet; the gunner, as soon as he missed it, made the old man understand what had happened, and got his party ready, as if he would have gone into the woods after the thief: the old man, however, made signs that he would save him the trouble, and immediately setting off, returned in a very short time with the hatchet. The gunner then insisted that the offender should be delivered up, and with this also the old man, though not without great reluctance, complied. When the fellow was brought down, the gunner knew him to be an old offender, and therefore sent him prisoner on board. I had no intention to punish him otherwise, than by the fear of punishment, and therefore, after great entreaty and intercession, I gave him his liberty, and sent him on shore. When the natives saw him return in safety, it is hard to say whether their astonishment or joy was greatest; they received him with universal acclamations, and immediately carried him off into the woods: the next day, however, he returned, and as a propitiation to the gunner, he brought him a considerable quantity of bread-fruit, and a large hog, ready roasted.

At this time, the people on board were employed in caulking and painting the weather-work, over-hauling the rigging, stowing the hold, and doing other necessary business, but my disorder, which was a bilious cholic, increased so much, that this day I was obliged to take to my bed; my First Lieutenant also still continued very ill, and the Purser was incapable of his duty. The whole command devolved upon Mr. Furneaux, the Second Lieutenant, to whom I gave general directions, and recommended a particular attention to the people on shore. I also ordered that fruit and fresh provisions should be served to the ship's company as long as they could be procured, and that the boats should never be

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Saturday 27.

absent from the ship after sun-set. These directions were fulfilled with such prudence and punctuality, that during all my sickness I was not troubled with any business, nor had the mortification to hear a single complaint or appeal. The men were constantly served with fresh pork, fowls, and fruit, in such plenty, that when I left my bed, after having been confined to it near a fortnight, my ship's company looked so fresh and healthy, that I could scarcely believe them to be the same people.

Sunday 28.

Monday 29.

Sunday the 28th was marked by no incident; but on Monday the 29th, one of the gunner's party found a piece of saltpetre near as big as an egg. As this was an object of equal curiosity and importance, diligent enquiry was immediately made from whence it came. The surgeon asked every one of the people on shore, separately, whether he had brought it from the ship; every one on board also was asked whether he had carried it on shore, but all declared that they had never had such a thing in their possession. Application was then made to the natives, but the meaning of both parties was so imperfectly conveyed by signs, that nothing could be learnt of them about it: during our whole stay here, however, we saw no more than this one piece.

While the gunner was trafficking for provisions on shore, we sometimes hauled the seine, but we caught no fish; we also frequently trawled, but with no better success: the disappointment, however, was not felt, for the produce of the island enabled our people to "fare sumptuously every day."

July.

Thursday .

All matters continued in the same situation till the 2d of July, when our old man being absent, the supply of fresh provisions and fruit fell short; we had, however, enough to

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serve most of the messes, reserving plenty for the sick and convalescent.

Friday 3.

On the 3d, we heeled the ship, and looked at her bottom, which we found as clean as when she came out of dock, and to our great satisfaction, as sound. During all this time, none of the natives came near our boats, or the ship, in their canoes. This day, about noon, we caught a very large shark, and when the boats went to fetch the people on board to dinner, we sent it on shore. When the boats were putting off again, the gunner seeing some of the natives on the other side of the river, beckoned them to come over; they immediately complied, and he gave them the shark, which they soon cut to pieces, and carried away with great appearance of satisfaction.

Sunday 5.

On Sunday the 5th, the old man returned to the market-tent, and made the gunner understand that he had been up the country, to prevail upon the people to bring down their hogs, poultry, and fruit, of which the parts near the watering-place were now nearly exhausted. The good effects of his expedition soon appeared, for several Indians, whom our people had never seen before, came in with some hogs that were larger than any that had been yet brought to market. In the mean time, the old man ventured off in his canoe, to the ship, and brought with him, as a present to me, a hog ready roasted. I was much pleased with his attention and liberality, and gave him, in return for his hog, an iron pot, a looking-glass, a drinking-glass, and several other things, which no man in the island was in possession of but himself.

While our people were on shore, several young women were permitted to cross the river, who, though they were not averse to the granting of personal favours, knew the

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Sunday 5.

value of them too well not to stipulate for a consideration: the price, indeed, was not great, yet it was such as our men were not always able to pay, and under this temptation they stole nails and other iron from the ship. The nails that we brought for traffick, were not always in their reach, and therefore they drew several out of different parts of the vessel, particularly those that fastened the cleats to the ship's side. This was productive of a double mischief; damage to the ship, and a considerable rise at market. When the gunner offered, as usual, small nails for hogs of a middling size, the natives refused to take them, and produced large spikes, intimating that they expected such nails as these. A most diligent enquiry was set on foot to discover the offenders, but all to no purpose; and though a large reward was offered to procure intelligence, none was obtained. I was mortified at the disappointment, but I was still more mortified at a fraud which I found some of our people had practised upon the natives. When no nails were to be procured, they had stolen lead, and cut it up in the shape of nails. Many of the natives who had been paid with this base money, brought their leaden nails, with great simplicity, to the gunner, and requested him to give them iron in their stead. With this request, however reasonable, he could not comply; because, by rendering lead current, it would have encouraged the stealing it, and the market would have been as effectually spoiled by those who could not procure nails, as by those who could; it was therefore necessary, upon every account, to render this leaden currency of no value, though for our honour I should have been glad to have called it in.

Tuesday 7.

On Tuesday the 7th, I sent one of the mates, with thirty men, to a village at a little distance from the market, hoping

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Tuesday 7.

that refreshments might there be bought at the original price; but here they were obliged to give still more than at the water-side. In the mean time, being this day able to get up for the first time, and the weather being fine, I went into a boat, and rowed about four miles down the coast. I found the country populous, and pleasant in the highest degree, and saw many canoes on the shore; but not one came off to us, nor did the people seem to take the least notice of us as we passed along. About noon I returned to the ship.

The commerce which our men had found means to establish with the women of the island, rendered them much less obedient to the orders that had been given for the regulation of their conduct on shore, than they were at first. I found it necessary therefore, to read the articles of war, and I punished James Proctor, the corporal of marines, who had not only quitted his station, and insulted the officer, but struck the Master at Arms such a blow as brought him to the ground.

Wednes. 8.

The next day, I sent a party up the country to cut wood, and they met with some of the natives, who treated them with great kindness and hospitality. Several of these friendly Indians came on board in our boat, and seemed, both by their dress and behaviour, to be of a superior rank. To these people I paid a particular attention, and to discover what present would most gratify them, I laid down before them a Johannes, a guinea, a crown piece, a Spanish dollar, a few shillings, some new halfpence, and two large nails, making signs that they should take what they liked best. The nails were first seized, with great eagerness, and then a few of the halfpence, but the silver and gold lay neglected. Having presented them, therefore, with some nails and halfpence, I sent them on shore superlatively happy.

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1767. July.

Wednes. 8.

From this time, our market was very ill supplied, the Indians refusing to sell provisions at the usual price, and making signs for large nails. It was now thought necessary to look more diligently about the ship, to discover what nails had been drawn; and it was soon found that all the belaying cleats had been ripped off, and that there was scarcely one of the hammock nails left. All hands were now ordered up, and I practised every artifice I could think of to discover the thieves, but without success. I then told them that till the thieves were discovered, not a single man should go on shore: this however produced no effect, except that Proctor, the corporal, behaved in a mutinous manner, for which he was instantly punished.

Saturday 11.

On Saturday the 11th, in the afternoon, the gunner came on board with a tall woman, who seemed to be about five and forty years of age, of a pleasing countenance and majestic deportment. He told me that she was but just come into that part of the country, and that seeing great respect paid her by the rest of the natives, he had made her some presents; in return for which she had invited him to her house, which was about two miles up the valley, and given him some large hogs; after which she returned with him to the watering-place, and expressed a desire to go on board the ship, in which he had thought it proper, on all accounts, that she should be gratified. She seemed to be under no restraint, either from diffidence or fear, when she first came into the ship; and she behaved, all the while she was on board, with an easy freedom, that always distinguishes conscious superiority and habitual command. I gave her a large blue mantle, that reached from her shoulders to her feet, which I threw over her, and tied on with ribands; I gave her also a looking-glass, beads of several sorts, and many other things, of which she accepted with a very good

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Saturday 11.

grace, and much pleasure. She took notice that I had been ill, and pointed to the shore. I understood that she meant I should go thither to perfect my recovery, and I made signs that I would go thither the next morning. When she intimated an inclination to return, I ordered the gunner to go with her, who, having set her on shore, attended her to her habitation, which he described as being very large and well built. He said, that in this house she had many guards and domesticks, and that she had another at a little distance, which was enclosed in lattice-work.

Sunday 12.

The next morning I went on shore for the first time, and my princess, or rather queen, for such by her authority she appeared to be, soon after came to me, followed by many of her attendants. As she perceived that my disorder had left me very weak, she ordered her people to take me in their arms, and carry me not only over the river, but all the way to her house; and observing that some of the people who were with me, particularly the First Lieutenant and Purser, had also been sick, she caused them also to be carried in the same manner, and a guard, which I had ordered out upon the occasion, followed. In our way, a vast multitude crouded about us, but upon her waving her hand, without speaking a word, they withdrew, and left us a free passage. When we approached near her house, a great number of both sexes came out to meet her: these she presented to me, after having intimated by signs that they were her relations, and taking hold of my hand, she made them kiss it. We then entered the house, which covered a piece of ground 327 feet long, and 42 feet broad. It consisted of a roof, thatched with palm leaves, and raised upon 39 pillars on each side, and 14 in the middle. The ridge of the thatch, on the inside, was 30 feet high, and the sides of the house, to the edge of the roof, were 12 feet high; all below the

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Sunday 12.

roof being open. As soon as we entered the house, she made us sit down, and then calling four young girls, she assisted them to take off my shoes, draw down my stockings, and pull off my coat, and then directed them to smooth down the skin, and gently chafe it with their hands: the same operation was also performed upon the First Lieutenant and the Purser, but upon none of those who appeared to be in health. While this was doing, our Surgeon, who had walked till he was very warm, took off his wig to cool and refresh himself: a sudden exclamation of one of the Indians who saw it, drew the attention of the rest, and in a moment every eye was fixed upon the prodigy, and every operation was suspended: the whole assembly stood some time motionless, in silent astonishment, which could not have been more strongly expressed if they had discovered that our friend's limbs had been screwed on to the trunk; in a short time, however, the young women who were chasing us, resumed their employment, and having continued it for about half an hour, they dressed us again, but in this they were, as may easily be imagined, very aukward; I found great benefit, however, from the chafing, and so did the Lieutenant and Purser. After a little time, our generous benefactress ordered some bales of Indian cloth to be brought out, with which she clothed me, and all that were with me, according to the fashion of the country. At first I declined the acceptance of this favour, but being unwilling not to seem pleased with what was intended to please me, I acquiesced. When we went away, she ordered a very large sow, big with young, to be taken down to the boat, and accompanied us thither herself. She had given directions to her people to carry me, as they had done when I came, but as I chose rather to walk, she took me by the arm, and whenever we came to a plash of water or dirt, she lifted me over with as

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little trouble as it would have cost me to have lifted over a child if I had been well.

Monday 13.

The next morning I sent her by the gunner, six hatchets, six bill-hooks, and several other things; and when he returned, he told me that he found her giving an entertainment to a great number of people, which, he supposed, could not be less than a thousand. The messes were all brought to her by the servants that prepared them, the meat being put into the shells of cocoa nuts, and the shells into wooden trays, somewhat like those used by our butchers, and she distributed them with her own hands to the guests, who were seated in rows round the great house. When this was done, she sat down herself, upon a place somewhat elevated above the rest, and two women, placing themselves one on each side of her, fed her, she opening her mouth as they brought their hands up with the food. When she saw the gunner, she ordered a mess for him; he could not certainly tell what it was, but he believed it to be fowl picked small, with apples cut among it, and seasoned with salt water; it was, however, very well tasted. She accepted the things that I sent her, and seemed to be much pleased with them. After this correspondence was established with the queen, provisions of every kind became much more plenty at market; but though fowls and hogs were every day brought in, we were still obliged to pay more for them than at the first, the market having been spoiled by the nails which our men had stolen and given to the women; I therefore gave orders that every man should be searched before he went on shore, and that no woman should be suffered to cross the river.

Tuesday 14.

On the 14th, the gunner being on shore to trade, perceived an old woman on the other side of the river, weeping

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Tuesday 14.

bitterly: when she saw that she had drawn his attention upon her, she sent a young man, who stood by her, over the river to him, with a branch of the plantain tree in his hand. When he came up, he made a long speech, and then laid down his bough at the gunner's feet: after this he went back and brought over the old woman, another man at the same time bringing over two large fat hogs. The woman looked round upon our people with great attention, fixing her eyes sometimes upon one, and sometimes upon another, and at last burst into tears. The young man who brought her over the river, perceiving the gunner's concern and astonishment, made another speech, longer than the first: still, however, the woman's distress was a mystery, but at length she made him understand that her husband, and three of her sons, had been killed in the attack of the ship. During this explanation, she was so affected that at last she sunk down unable to speak, and the two young men, who endeavoured to support her, appeared to be nearly in the same condition: they were probably two more of her sons, or some very near relations. The gunner did all in his power to sooth and comfort her, and when she had in some measure recovered her recollection, she ordered the two hogs to be delivered to him, and gave him her hand in token of friendship, but would accept nothing in return, though he offered her ten times as much as would have purchased the hogs at market.

Wednes. 15.

The next morning, I sent the Second Lieutenant, with all the boats, and sixty men, to the westward, to look at the country, and try what was to be got. About noon he returned, having marched along the shore near fix miles. He found the country very pleasant and populous, and abounding as well with hogs and fowls, as fruit, and other vegetables of various kinds. The inhabitants offered him no molestation,

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Wednes. 15.

but did not seem willing to part with any of the provisions which our people were most desirous to purchase: they gave them, however, a few cocoa-nuts and plantains, and at length sold them nine hogs and a few fowls. The Lieutenant was of opinion, that they might be brought to trade freely by degrees, but the distance from the ship was so great, that too many men would be necessary for a guard. He saw a great number of very large canoes upon the beach, and some that were building. He observed that all their tools were made of stone, shells, and bone, and very justly inferred, that they had no metal of any kind. He found no quadrupeds among them, besides hogs and dogs, nor any earthen vessel, so that all their food is either baked or roasted. Having no vessel in which water could be subjected to the action of fire, they had no more idea that it could be made hot, than that it could be made solid. As the queen was one morning at breakfast with us on board the ship, one of her attendants, a man of some note, and one of those that we thought were priests, saw the Surgeon fill the tea-pot by turning the cock of an urn that stood upon the table: having remarked this with great curiosity and attention, he presently turned the cock, and received the water upon his hand: as soon as he felt himself sealded, he roared out, and began to dance about the cabbin with the most extravagant and ridiculous expressions of pain and astonishment: the other Indians, not being able to conceive what was the matter with him, stood staring at him in amaze, and not without some mixture of terror. The Surgeon, however, who had innocently been the cause of the mischief, applied a remedy, though it was some time before the poor fellow was easy.

Thursday 16.

On Thursday the 16th, Mr. Furneaux, my Second Lieutenant, was taken very ill, which distressed me greatly, as

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Thursday 16.

the First Lieutenant was not yet recovered, and I was still in a very weak state myself: I was this day also obliged once more to punish Proctor, the corporal of marines, for mutinous behaviour. The queen had now been absent several days, but the natives made us understand, by signs, that the next day she would be with us again.

Friday 17.

Accordingly the next morning she came down to the beach, and soon after a great number of people, whom we had never seen before, brought to market provisions of every kind; and the gunner sent off fourteen hogs, and fruit in great plenty.

Saturday 18.

In the afternoon of the next day, the queen came on board, with a present of two large hogs, for she never condescended to barter, and in the evening she returned on shore. I sent a present with her, by the Master, and as soon as they landed, she took him by the hand, and having made a long speech to the people that flocked round them, she led him to her house, where she clothed him, as she had before done me, according to the fashion of the country.

Sunday 19.

The next morning, he sent off a greater quantity of stock than we had ever procured in one day before; it consisted of forty-eight hogs and pigs, four dozen of fowls, with bread-fruit, bananas, apples, and cocoa-nuts, almost without number.

Monday 20.

On the 20th, we continued to trade with good success, but in the afternoon it was discovered that Francis Pinckney, one of the seamen, had drawn the cleats to which the main sheet was belayed, and, after stealing the spikes, thrown them over board. Having secured the offender, I called all the people together upon the deck, and after taking some pains to explain his crime, with all its aggravations, I ordered that he should be whipped with nettles while he ran

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Monday 20.

the gauntlet thrice round the deck: my rhetoric, however, had very little effect, for most of the crew being equally criminal with himself, he was handled so tenderly, that others were rather encouraged to repeat the offence by the hope of impunity, than deterred by the fear of punishment. To preserve the ship, therefore, from being pulled to pieces, and the price of refreshments from being raised so high as soon to exhaust our articles of trade, I ordered that no man, except the wooders and waterers, with their guard, should be permitted to go on shore.

Tuesday 21.

On the 21st, the queen came again on board, and brought several large hogs as a present, for which, as usual, she would accept of no return. When she was about to leave the ship, she expressed a desire that I should go on shore with her, to which I consented, taking several of the officers with me. When we arrived at her house, she made us all sit down, and taking off my hat, she tied to it a bunch or tuft of feathers of various colours, such as I had seen no person on shore wear but herself, which produced by no means a disagreeable effect. She also tied round my hat, and the hats of those who were with me, wreaths of braided or plaited hair, and gave us to understand that both the hair and workmanship were her own: she also presented us with some matts, that were very curiously wrought. In the evening she accompanied us back to the beach, and when we were getting into the boat, she put on board a fine large sow, big with young, and a great quantity of fruit. As we were parting, I made signs that I should quit the island in seven days: she immediately comprehended my meaning, and made signs that I should stay twenty days; that I should go two days journey into the country, stay there a few days, bring down plenty of hogs and poultry, and after that leave the island. I again made signs that I must go in seven days;

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Wednes. 22.

upon which she burst into tears, and it was not without great difficulty that she was pacified.

The next morning, the gunner sent off no less than twenty hogs, with great plenty of fruit. Our decks were now quite full of hogs and poultry, of which we killed only the small ones, and kept the others for sea stores; we found, however, to our great mortification, that neither the fowls nor the hogs could, without great difficulty, be brought to eat any thing but fruit, which made it necessary to kill them faster than we should otherwise have done: two, however, a boar and a sow, were brought alive to England, of which I made a present to Mr. Stephens, Secretary to the Admiralty; the sow afterwards died in pigging, but the boar is still alive.

Thursday 23.

On the 23d, we had very heavy rain, with a storm of wind that blew down several trees on shore, though very little of it was felt where the ship lay.

Friday 24.

The next day, I sent the old man, who had been of great service to the gunner at the market-tent, another iron pot, some hatchets and bills, and a piece of cloth. I also sent the queen two turkies, two geese, three Guinea hens, a cat big with kitten, some china, looking-glasses, glass bottles, shirts, needles, thread, cloth, ribands, peas, some small white kidney beans, called callivances, and about sixteen different sorts of garden seeds, and a shovel, besides a considerable quantity of cutlery wares, consisting of knives, scissars, bill-hooks, and other things. We had already planted several sorts of the garden seeds, and some peas in several places, and had the pleasure to see them come up in a very flourishing state, yet there were no remains of them when Captain Cook left the island. I sent her also two iron pots, and a few spoons. In return for these things, the gunner brought off eighteen hogs, and some fruit.

[page] 470

1767. July.

Saturday 25.

In the morning of the 25th, I ordered Mr. Gore, one of the mates, with all the marines, forty seamen, and four midshipmen, to go up the valley by the river as high as they could, and examine the soil and produce of the country, noting the trees and plants which they should find, and when they saw any stream from the mountains, to trace it to its source, and observe whether it was tinctured with any mineral or ore. I cautioned them also to keep continually upon their guard against the natives, and directed them to make a sire, as a signal, if they should be attacked. At the same time, I took a guard on shore, and erected a tent on a point of land, to observe an eclipse of the sun, which, the morning being very clear, was done with great accuracy.

Hours. Min. Seconds.
The immersion began, by true time, at 6 51 50
The emersion, by true time, was at 8 1 0
The duration of the eclipse was 1 9 10

The latitude of the point, on which the observation was made, was 17° 30′S. the sun's declination was 19° 40′N. and the variation of the needle 5° 36′E.

After the observation was taken, I went to the queen's house, and shewed her the telescope, which was a reflector. After she had admired its structure, I endeavoured to make her comprehend its use, and fixing it so as to command several distant objects, with which she was well acquainted, but which could not be distinguished with the naked eye, I made her look through it. As soon as she saw them, she started back with astonishment, and directing her eye as the glass was pointed, stood some time motionless and silent; she then looked through the glass again, and again sought in vain, with the naked eye, for the objects which it discovered. As they by turns vanished and re-appeared, her

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Saturday 25.

countenance and gestures expressed a mixture of wonder and delight which no language can describe. When the glass was removed, I invited her, and several of the Chiefs that were with her, to go with me on board the ship, in which I had a view to the security of the party that I had sent out; for I thought that while the queen, and the principal people were known to be in my power, nothing would be attempted against any person belonging to the ship on shore. When we got on board, I ordered a good dinner for their entertainment, but the queen would neither eat nor drink; the people that were with her eat very heartily of whatever was set before them, but would drink only plain water.

In the evening our people returned from their excursion, and came down to the beach, upon which I put the queen and her attendants into the boats, and sent them on shore. As she was going over the ship's side, she asked, by signs, whether I still persisted in my resolution of leaving the island at the time I had fixed; and when I made her understand that it was impossible I should stay longer, she expressed her regret by a flood of tears, which for a while took away her speech. As soon as her passion subsided, she told me that she would come on board again the next day; and thus we parted.

[page] 472

CHAP. VII.

An Account of an Expedition to discover the inland Part of the Country, and our other Transactions, till we quitted the Island to continue our Voyage.

1767. July.

Saturday 25.

AFTER the mate came on board, he gave me a written account of his expedition, to the following effect:

"At four o'clock in the morning, of Saturday the 25th of June, I landed, with four midshipmen, a serjeant and twelve marines, and twenty-four seamen, all armed, besides four who carried hatchets and other articles of traffick, and four who were loaded with ammunition and provisions, the rest being left with the boat: every man had his day's allowance of brandy, and the hatchet men two small kegs, to give out when I should think proper.

"As soon as I got on shore, I called upon our old man, and took him with us: we then followed the course of the river in two parties, one marching on each side. For the first two miles it flowed through a valley of considerable width, in which were many habitations, with gardens walled in, and abundance of hogs, poultry, and fruit; the soil here seemed to be a rich fat earth, and was of a blackish colour. After this the valley became very narrow, and the ground rising abruptly on one side of the river, we were all obliged to march on the other. Where the stream was precipitated from the hills, channels had been cut to lead the water into gardens and plantations of fruit trees: in these gardens we found an herb which had never been brought down to the

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Saturday 25.

water-side, and which we perceived the inhabitants eat raw. I tasted it, and found it pleasant, its flavour somewhat resembling that of the West Indian spinnage, called Calleloor, though its leaf was very different. The ground was fenced off so as to make a very pretty appearance; the bread-fruit and apple trees were planted in rows on the declivity of the hills, and the cocoa nut and plantain, which require more moisture, on the level ground: under the trees, both on the sides and at the foot of the hills, there was very good grass, but no underwood. As we advanced, the windings of the stream became innumerable, the hills on each side swelled into mountains, and vast crags every where projected over our heads. Travelling now became difficult, and when we had proceeded about four miles, the road for the last mile having been very bad, we sat down to rest ourselves, and take the refreshment of our breakfast; we ranged ourselves upon the ground under a large apple tree, in a very pleasant spot; but just as we were about to begin our repast, we were suddenly alarmed by a confused sound of many voices, and a great shouting, and presently afterwards saw a multitude of men, women, and children upon the hill above us; our old man seeing us rise hastily, and look to our arms, beckoned to us to sit still, and immediately went up to the people that had surprised us. As soon as he joined them they were silent, and soon after disappeared; in a short time, however, they returned, and brought with them a large hog ready roasted, with plenty of bread-fruit, yams, and other refreshments, which they gave to the old man, who distributed them among our people. In return for this treat, I gave them some nails, buttons, and other things, with which they were greatly delighted. After this we proceeded up the valley as far as we could, searching all the runs of water, and all the places where water had run, for

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appearances of metal or ore, but could find none, except what I have brought back with me. I shewed all the people that we met with, the piece of saltpetre which had been picked up in the island, and which I had taken with me for that purpose, but none of them took any notice of it, nor could I learn from them any thing about it. The old man began now to be weary, and there being a mountain before us, he made signs that he would go home: before he left us, however, he made the people who had so liberally supplied us with provisions, take the baggage, with the fruit that had not been eaten, and some cocoa nut-shells full of fresh water, and made signs that they should follow us up the side of the mountain. As soon as he was gone, they gathered green branches from the neighbouring trees, and with many ceremonies, of which we did not know the meaning, laid them down before us: after this they took some small berries with which they painted themselves red, and the bark of a tree that contained a yellow juice, with which they stained their garments in different parts. We began to climb the mountain while our old man was still in sight, and he, perceiving that we made our way with difficulty through the weeds and brush-wood, which grew very thick, turned back, and said something to the natives in a firm loud tone; upon which twenty or thirty of the men went before us, and cleared us a very good path; they also refreshed us with water and fruit as we went along, and assisted us to climb the most difficult places, which we should otherwise have found altogether impracticable. We began to ascend this hill at the distance of about six miles from the place where we landed, and I reckoned the top of it to be near a mile above the river that runs through the valley below. When we arrived at the summit, we again sat down to rest and refresh ourselves. While we were

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climbing we flattered ourselves that from the top we should command the whole island, but we now saw mountains before us so much higher than our situation, that with respect to them we appeared to be in a valley; towards the ship indeed the view was enchanting: the sides of the hills were beautifully clothed with wood, villages were every where interspersed, and the vallies between them afforded a still richer prospect; the houses stood thicker, and the verdure was more luxuriant. We saw very few habitations above us, but discovered smoke in many places ascending from between the highest hills that were in sight, and therefore I conjecture that the most elevated parts of the country are by no means without inhabitants. As we ascended the mountain, we saw many springs gush from fissures on the side of it, and when we had reached the summit, we found many houses that we did not discover as we passed them. No part of these mountains is naked; the summits of the highest that we could see were crowned with wood, but of what kind I know not: those that were of the same height with that which we had climbed, were woody on the sides, but on the summit were rocky and covered with fern. Upon the flats that appeared below these, there grew a sedgy kind of grass and weeds: in general the soil here, as well as in the valley, seemed to be rich. We saw several bushes of sugar-cane, which was very large and very good, growing wild, without the least culture. I likewise found ginger and turmerick, and have brought samples of both, but could not procure seeds of any tree, most of them being in blossom. After traversing the top of this mountain to a good distance, I found a tree exactly like a fern, except that it was 14 or 15 feet high. This tree I cut down, and found the inside of it also like a fern: I would have brought a piece of it with me, but found it too cumbersome, and I knew not

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Saturday 25.

what difficulties we might meet with before we got back to the ship, which we judged to be now at a great distance. After having again recruited our strength by refreshment and rest, we began to descend the mountain, being still attended by the people to whose care we had been recommended by our old man. We kept our general direction towards the ship, but sometimes deviated a little to the right and left in the plains and vallies, when we saw any houses that were pleasantly situated, the inhabitants being every where ready to accommodate us with whatever they had. We saw no beast, except a few hogs, nor any birds, except parrots, parroquets, and green doves; by the river, however, there was plenty of ducks, and every place that was planted and cultivated, appeared to flourish with great luxuriance, though in the midst of what had the appearance of barren ground. I planted the stones of peaches, cherries, and plums, with a great variety of garden seeds, where I thought it was most probable that they would thrive, and limes, lemons, and oranges, in situations which resembled those in which they are found in the West Indies. In the afternoon, we arrived at a very pleasant spot, within about three miles of the ship, where we procured two hogs and some fowls, which the natives dressed for us very well, and with great expedition. Here we continued till the cool of the evening, and then made the best of our way for the ship, having liberally rewarded our guides, and the people who had provided us so good a dinner. Our men behaved through the whole day with the greatest decency and order, and we parted with our Indian friends in perfect good-humour with each other."

Sunday 26.

About 10 o'clock, the next morning, the queen came on board according to her promise, with a present of hogs and sowls, but went on shore again soon afterwards. This day,

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Sunday 26.

the Gunner sent off near thirty hogs, with great plenty of fowls and fruit. We completed our wood and water, and got all ready for sea. More inhabitants came down to the beach, from the inland country, than we had seen before, and many of them appeared, by the respect that was paid them, to be of a superior rank. About three o'clock in the afternoon, the queen came again down to the beach, very well dressed, and followed by a great number of people. Having crossed the river with her attendants and our old man, she came once more on board the ship. She brought with her some very fine fruit, and renewed her solicitation, that I would stay ten days longer, with great earnestness, intimating that she would go into the country, and bring me plenty of hogs, fowls, and fruit. I endeavoured to express a proper sense of her kindness and bounty, but assured her that I should certainly sail the next morning. This, as usual, threw her into tears, and after she recovered, she enquired by signs when I should return: I endeavoured to express fifty days, and she made signs for thirty: but the sign for fifty being constantly repeated, she seemed satisfied. She stayed on board till night, and it was then with the greatest difficulty that she could be prevailed upon to go on shore. When she was told that the boat was ready, she threw herself down upon the arm-chest, and wept a long time with an excess of passion that could not be pacified; at last, however, though with the greatest reluctance, she went into the boat, and was followed by her attendants and the old man. The old man had often intimated that his son, a lad about fourteen years of age, should go with us, and the boy seemed to be willing: he had, however, now disappeared for two days; I enquired after him when I first missed him, and the old man gave me to understand that he was gone into the country to see his friends, and would return time

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Sunday 26.

enough to go with us; but I have reason to think that, when the time drew near, the father's courage failed, and that to keep his child he secreted him till the ship was gone, for we never saw him afterwards.

Monday 27.

At break of day, on Monday the 27th, we unmoored, and at the same time I sent the barge and cutter to fill the few water-casks that were now empty. When they came near the shore, they saw, to their great surprise, the whole beach covered with inhabitants, and having some doubt whether it would be prudent to venture themselves among such a multitude, they were about to pull back again for the ship. As soon as this was perceived from the shore, the queen came forward, and beckoned them; at the same time guessing the reason of what had happened, she made the natives retire to the other side of the river: the boats then proceeded to the shore, and filled the casks, in the mean time she put some hogs and fruit on board, and when they were putting off would fain have returned with them to the ship. The officer, however, who had received orders to bring off none of the natives, would not permit her; upon which she presently launched a double canoe, and was rowed off by her own people. Her canoe was immediately followed by fifteen or sixteen more, and all of them came up to the ship. The queen came on board, but not being able to speak, she sat down and gave vent to her passion by weeping. After she had been on board about an hour, a breeze springing up, we weighed anchor and made sail. Finding it now necessary to return into her canoe, she embraced us all in the most affectionate manner, and with many tears; all her attendants also expressed great sorrow at our departure. Soon after it fell calm, and I sent the boats a-head to tow, upon which all the canoes returned to the ship, and that which had the queen on board came up to the gun-room port, where her

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Monday 27.

people made it fast. In a few minutes she came into the bow of her canoe, where she sat weeping with inconsolable sorrow. I gave her many things which I thought would be of great use to her, and some for ornament; she silently accepted of all, but took little notice of any thing. About 10 o'clock we were got without the reef, and a fresh breeze springing up, our Indian friends, and particularly the queen, once more bade us farewel, with such tenderness of affection and grief, as filled both my heart and my eyes.

At noon, the harbour from which we sailed bore S. E. ½E. distant about twelve miles. It lies in latitude 17° 30′S. longitude 150° W. and I gave it the name of Port Royal Harbour.

[page] 480

CHAP. VIII.

A more particular Account of the Inhabitants of Otaheite, and of their domestic Life, Manners, and Arts.

1767. July.

Monday 27.

HAVING lain off this island from the 24th of June to the 27th of July, I shall now give the best account of its inhabitants, with their manners and arts, that I can; but having been in a very bad state of health the whole time, and for great part of it consined to my bed, it will of necessity be much less accurate and particular than I might otherwise have made it.

The inhabitants of this island are a stout, well-made, active, and comely people. The stature of the men, in general, is from five feet seven to five feet ten inches, though a few individuals are taller, and a few shorter; that of the women from five feet to five feet six. The complexion of the men is tawney, but those that go upon the water are much redder than those who live on shore. Their hair in general is black, but in some it is brown, in some red, and in others flaxen, which is remarkable, because the hair of all other natives of Asia, Africa, and America, is black, without a single exception. It is generally tied up, either in one bunch, in the middle of the head, or in two, one on each side, but some wear it loose, and it then curls very strongly: in the children of both sexes it is generally flaxen. They have no combs, yet their hair is very neatly dressed, and those who had combs from us, made good use of them. It is a universal custom to anoint the head with cocoa-nut oil, in

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which a root has been scraped that smells something like roses. The women are all handsome, and some of them extremely beautiful. Chastity does not seem to be considered as a virtue among them, for they not only readily and openly trafficked with our people for personal favours, but were brought down by their fathers and brothers for that purpose: they were, however, conscious of the value of beauty, and the size of the nail that was demanded for the enjoyment of the lady, was always in proportion to her charms. The men who came down to the side of the river, at the same time that they presented the girl, shewed a stick of the size of the nail that was to be her price, and if our people agreed, she was sent over to them, for the men were not permitted to cross the river. This commerce was carried on a considerable time before the officers discovered it, for while some straggled a little way to receive the lady, the others kept a look-out. When I was acquainted with it, I no longer wondered that the ship was in danger of being pulled to pieces for the nails and iron that held her together, which I had before puzzled myself to account for in vain, the whole ship's company having daily as much fresh provision and fruit as they could eat. Both men and women are not only decently but gracefully clothed, in a kind of white cloth, that is made of the bark of a shrub, and very much resembles coarse China paper. Their dress consists of two pieces of this cloth: one of them, a hole having been made in the middle to put the head through, hangs down from the shoulders to the mid-leg before and behind; another piece, which is between four and five yards long, and about one yard broad, they wrap round the body in a very easy manner. This cloth is not woven, but is made, like paper, of the macerated fibres of an inner bark, spread out and beaten together. Their ornaments are feathers, flowers,

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pieces of shells, and pearls: the pearls are worn chiefly by the women, from whom I purchased about two dozen of a small size: they were of a good colour, but were all spoiled by boring. Mr. Furneaux saw several in his excursion to the west, but he could purchase none with any thing he had to offer. I observed, that it was here a universal custom both for men and women to have the hinder part of their thighs and loins marked very thick with black lines in various forms. These marks were made by striking the teeth of an instrument, somewhat like a comb, just through the skin, and rubbing into the punctures a kind of paste made of soot and oil, which leaves an indelible stain. The boys and girls under twelve years of age, are not marked; but we observed a few of the men whose legs were marked in chequers by the same method, and they appeared to be persons of superior rank and authority. One of the principal attendants upon the queen, appeared much more disposed to imitate our manners than the rest; and our people, with whom he soon became a favourite, distinguished him by the name of Jonathan. This man, Mr. Furneaux clothed completely in an English dress, and it sat very easy upon him. Our officers were always carried on shore, it being shoal water where we landed, and Jonathan, assuming new state with his new finery, made some of his people carry him on shore in the same manner. He very soon attempted to use a knife and fork at his meals, but at first, when he had stuck a morsel upon his fork, and tried to feed himself with that instrument, he could not guide it, but by the mere force of habit his hand came to his mouth, and the victuals at the end of the fork went away to his car.

Their food consists of pork, poultry, dog's flesh, and fish, bread-fruit, bananas, plantains, yams, apples, and a sour fruit which, though not pleasant by itself, gives an agree-

[page] 483

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able relish to roasted bread-fruit, with which it is frequently beaten up. They have abundance of rats, but, as far as I could discover, these make no part of their food. The river affords them good mullet, but they are neither large nor in plenty. They find conchs, muscles, and other shell-fish on the reef, which they gather at low water, and eat raw with bread-fruit before they come on shore. They have also very fine cray-fish, and they catch with lines, and hooks of mother of pearl, at a little distance from the shore, parrot-fish, groopers, and many other sorts, of which they are so fond that we could seldom prevail upon them to sell us a few at any price. They have also nets of an enormous size, with very small meshes, and with these they catch abundance of small fish about the size of sardines; but while they were using both nets and lines with great success, we could not catch a single fish with either. We procured some of their hooks and lines, but for want of their art we were still disappointed.

The manner in which they dress their food is this: they kindle a fire by rubbing the end of one piece of dry wood upon the side of another, in the same manner as our carpenters whet a chissel; then they dig a pit about half a foot deep, and two or three yards in circumference: they pave the bottom with large pebble stones, which they lay down very smooth and even, and then kindle a fire in it with dry wood, leaves, and the husks of the cocoa-nut. When the stones are sufficiently heated, they take out the embers, and rake up the ashes on every side; then they cover the stones with a layer of green cocoa-nut-tree leaves, and wrap up the animal that is to be dressed in the leaves of the plantain; if it is a small hog they wrap it up whole, if a large one they split it. When it is placed in the pit, they cover it with the hot embers, and lay upon them bread-fruit and yams, which are

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also wrapped up in the leaves of the plantain; over these they spread the remainder of the embers, mixing among them some of the hot stones, with more cocoa-nut-tree leaves upon them, and then close all up with earth, so that the heat is kept in. After a time proportioned to the size of what is dressing, the oven is opened, and the meat taken out, which is tender, full of gravy, and, in my opinion, better in every respect than when it is dressed any other way. Excepting the fruit, they have no sauce but salt water, nor any knives but shells, with which they carve very dexterously, always cutting from them. It is impossible to describe the astonishment they expressed when they saw the Gunner, who, while he kept the market, used to dine on shore, dress his pork and poultry by boiling them in a pot, having, as I have before observed, no vessel that would bear the fire, they had no idea of hot water or its effects: but from the time that the old man was in possession of an iron pot, he and his friends eat boiled meat every day. The iron pots which I afterwards gave to the queen, and several of the Chiefs, were also in constant use, and brought as many people together, as a monster or a puppet-show in a country fair. They appeared to have no liquor for drinking but water, and to be happily ignorant of the art of fermenting the juice of any vegetable, so as to give it an intoxicating quality: they have, as has been already observed, the sugar-cane, but they seemed to make no other use of it than to chew, which they do not do habitually, but only break a piece off when they happen to pass by a place where it is growing.

Of their domestic life and amusements, we had not sufficient opportunity to obtain much knowlege, but they appear sometimes to have wars with each other, not only from their weapons, but the scars with which many of them were

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marked, and some of which appeared to be the remains of very considerable wounds, made with stones, bludgeons, or some other obtuse weapon: by these scars also they appear to be no inconsiderable proficients in surgery, of which indeed we happened to have more direct evidence. One of our seamen, when he was on shore, run a large splinter into his foot, and the Surgeon being on board, one of his comrades endeavoured to take it out with a penknife; but after putting the poor fellow to a good deal of pain, was obliged to give it over. Our good old Indian, who happened to be present, then called over one of his countrymen that was standing on the opposite side of the river, who having looked at the seaman's foot, went immediately down to the beach, and taking up a shell, broke it to a point with his teeth; with this instrument, in little more than a minute, he laid open the place, and extracted the splinter; in the mean time the old man, who, as soon as he had called the other over, went a little way into the wood, returned with some gum, which he applied to the wound upon a piece of the cloth that was wrapped round him, and in two days time it was perfectly healed. We afterwards learned that this gum was produced by the apple tree, and our Surgeon procured some of it, and used it as a vulnerary balsam with great success.

The habitations of these happy people I have described already; and besides these, we saw several sheds inclosed within a wall, on the outside of which there were several uncouth figures of men, women, hogs, and dogs, carved on posts, that were driven into the ground. Several of the natives were from time to time seen to enter these places, with a slow pace and dejected countenance, from which we conjectured that they were repositories of the dead. The area within the walls of these places, was generally well paved

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with large round stones, but it appeared not to be much trodden, for the grass every where grew up between them. I endeavoured, with particular attention, to discover whether they had a religious worship among them, but never could find the least traces of any.

The boats or canoes of these people, are of three different sorts. Some are made out of a single tree, and carry from two to six men: these are used chiefly for fishing, and we constantly saw many of them busy upon the reef: some were constructed of planks, very dexterously sewed together: these were of different sizes, and would carry from ten to forty men. Two of them were generally lashed together, and two masts set up between them; if they were single, they had an out-rigger on one side, and only one mast in the middle. With these vessels they sail far beyond the sight of land, probably to other islands, and bring home plantains, bananas, and yams, which seem also to be more plenty upon other parts of this island, than that off which the ship lay. A third sort seem to be intended principally for pleasure and show: they are very large, but have no sail, and in shape resemble the gondolas of Venice: the middle is covered with a large awning, and some of the people sit upon it, some under it. None of these vessels came near the ship, except on the first and second day after our arrival; but we saw, three or four times a week, a procession of eight or ten of them passing at a distance, with streamers flying, and a great number of small canoes attending them, while many hundreds of people ran abreast of them along the shore. They generally rowed to the outward point of a reef which lay about four miles to the westward of us, where they stayed about an hour, and then returned. These processions, however, are never made but in fine weather, and all

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the people on board are dressed; though in the other canoes they have only a piece of cloth wrapped round their middle. Those who rowed and steered were dressed in white; those who sat upon the awning and under it in white and red, and two men who were mounted on the prow of each vessel, were dressed in red only. We sometimes went out to observe them in our boats, and though we were never nearer than a mile, we saw them with our glasses as distinctly as if we had been upon the spot.

The plank of which these vessels are constructed, is made by splitting a tree, with the grain, into as many thin pieces as they can. They first fell the tree with a kind of hatchet, or adze, made of a tough greenish kind of stone, very dexterously fitted into a handle; it is then cut into such lengths as are required for the plank, one end of which is heated till it begins to crack, and then with wedges of hard wood they split it down: some of these planks are two feet broad, and from 15 to 20 feet long. The sides are smoothed with adzes of the same materials and construction, but of a smaller size. Six or eight men are sometimes at work upon the same plank together, and, as their tools presently lose their edge, every man has by him a cocoa nut-shell filled with water, and a flat stone, with which he sharpens his adze almost every minute. These planks are generally brought to the thickness of about an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with the same exactness that would be expected from an expert joiner. To fasten these planks together, holes are bored with a piece of bone that is fixed into a stick for that purpose, a use to which our nails were afterwards applied with great advantage, and through these holes a kind of plaited cordage is passed, so as to hold the planks strongly together: the seams are caulked with dried rushes, and the whole outside of the vessel is paid with a

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gummy juice, which some of their trees produce in great plenty, and which is a very good succedaneum for pitch.

The wood which they use for their large canoes, is that of the apple tree, which grows very tall and strait. Several of them that we measured, were near eight feet in the girth, and from 20 to 40 to the branches, with very little diminution in the size. Our carpenter said, that in other respects it was not a good wood for the purpose, being very light. The small canoes are nothing more than the hollowed trunk of the bread-fruit tree, which is still more light and spongy. The trunk of the bread-fruit tree is six feet in girth, and about 20 feet to the branches.

Their principal weapons are stones, thrown either with the hand or sling, and bludgeons; for though they have bows and arrows, the arrows are only fit to knock down a bird, none of them being pointed, but headed only with a round stone.

I did not see one turtle all the while I lay off this island, but upon shewing some small ones which I brought from Queen Charlotte's Island, to the inhabitants, they made signs that they had them of a much larger size. I very much regretted my having lost our he-goat, which died soon after we left Saint Iago, and that neither of our she-goats, of which we had two, were with kid. If the he-goat had lived, I would have put them all on shore at this place, and I would have left a she-goat here if either of them had been with kid; and I doubt not, but that in a few years they would have stocked the island.

The climate here appears to be very good, and the island to be one of the most healthy as well as delightful spots in the world. We saw no appearance of disease among the inhabitants. The hills are covered with wood, and the vallies

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1767. July.

with herbage; and the air in general is so pure, that, notwithstanding the heat, our flesh meat kept very well two days, and our fish one. We met with no frog, toad, scorpion, centipied, or serpent of any kind: and the only trouble-some insects that we saw were ants, of which there were but few.

The south-east part of the island seems to be better cultivated and inhabited than where we lay, for we saw every day boats come round from thence laden with plantains and other fruit, and we always found greater plenty, and a lower price, soon after their arrival, than before.

The tide rises and falls very little, and being governed by the winds, is very uncertain; though they generally blow from the E. to the S.S.E. and for the most part a pleasant breeze.

The benefit that we received while we lay off this island, with respect to the health of the ship's company, was beyond our most sanguine expectations, for we had not now an invalid on board, except the two Lieutenants and myself, and we were recovering, though still in a very feeble condition.

It is certain that none of our people contracted the venereal disease here, and therefore, as they had free commerce with great numbers of the women, there is the greatest probability that it was not then known in the country. It was however, found here by Captain Cook, in the Endeavour, and as no European vessel is known to have visited this island before Captain Cook's arrival, but the Dolphin, and the Boudeuse and Etoil, commanded by M. Bougainville, the reproach of having contaminated with that dreadful pest, a race of happy people, to whom its miseries had till then been unknown, must be due either to him or to me, to England or to France; and I think myself happy to be able to exculpate myself and my country beyond the possibility of doubt.

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1767. July.

It is well known, that the Surgeon on board his Majesty's ships keeps a list of the persons who are sick on board, specifying their diseases, and the times when they came under his care, and when they were discharged. It happened that I was once at the pay-table on board a ship, when several sailors objected to the payment of the Surgeon, alleging, that although he had discharged them from the list, and reported them to be cured, yet their cure was incomplete. From this time, it has been my constant practice when the Surgeon reported a man to be cured, who had been upon the sick list, to call the man before me, and ask him whether the report was true: if he alleged that any symptoms of his complaint remained, I continued him upon the list; if not, I required him, as a confirmation of the Surgeon's report, to sign the book, which was always done in my presence. A copy of the sick list on board the Dolphin, during this voyage, signed by every man in my presence, when he was discharged well, in confirmation of the Surgeon's report, written in my own hand, and confirmed by my affidavit, I have deposited in the Admiralty; by which it appears, that the last man on board the ship, in her voyage outward, who was upon the sick list for the venereal disease, except one who was sent to England in the Store ship, was discharged cured, and signed the book on the 27th of December 1766, near six months before our arrival at Otaheite, which was on the 19th of June 1767; and that the first man who was upon the list for that disease, in our return home, was entered on the 26th of February 1768, six months after we left the island, which was on the 26th of July 1767, so that the ship's company was intirely free fourteen months within one day, the very middle of which time we spent at Otaheite; and the man who was first entered as a venereal patient, on our return home, was known to have contracted the disease at the Cape of Good Hope, where we then lay.

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CHAP. IX.

Passage from Otaheite to Tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were discovered in the South Seas.

1767. July.

Monday 27.

HAVING made sail from King George the Third's Island, we proceeded along the shore of the Duke of York's Island, at the distance of about two miles. There appeared to be good bays in every part of it, and in the middle a fine harbour; but I did not think it worth while to go on shore. The middle and west end is very mountainous, the east end is lower, and the coast just within the beach is covered with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, apple, and plantain trees.

Tuesday 28.

Sir Charles Saunders's Island.

At day-light, the next morning, we saw land, for which we made sail, and ran along the lee-side of it. On the weather-side there were very great breakers, and the lee-side was rocky, but in many places there appeared to be good anchorage. We saw but few inhabitants, and they appeared to live in a manner very different from those of King George's Island, their habitations being only small huts. We saw many cocoa-nut and other trees upon the shore; but all of them had their heads blown away, probably in a hurricane. This island is about six miles long, and has a mountain of considerable height in the middle, which seems to be fertile. It lies in latitude 17° 28′S. and longitude, by our last observation, 151° 4′W. and I called it SIR CHARLES SAUNDER'S ISLAND.

Wednes. 29.

Thursday 30.

On the 29th, the variation of the compass, by azimuth, was 7° 52′E.; and early the next morning, at day-break, we saw land bearing from N. by E. to N. W. We stood for it, but could find no anchorage, the whole island being sur-

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1767. July.

Thursday 30.

Lord How's Island.

rounded by breakers. We saw smoke in two places, but no inhabitants. A few cocoa-nut trees were growing on the lee-part of it, and I called it LORD HOW'S ISLAND. It is about ten miles long, and four broad, and lies in latitude 16° 46′S. longitude, by observation, 154° 13′W.

In the afternoon, we saw land bearing W. by N. and stood for it. At five o'clock, we saw breakers running a great way out to the southward, and soon after, low land to the S. W. and breakers all about it in every direction.

Scilly Islands.

We turned to windward all night, and as soon as it was light, crowded sail to get round these shoals. At nine we got round them, and named them SCILLY ISLANDS. They are a group of islands or shoals extremely dangerous; for in the night, however clear the weather, and by day, if it is hazey, a ship may run upon them without seeing land. They lie in latitude 16° 28′S. longitude 155° 30′W.

August.

Thursday 13.

Boscawen's Island.

Keppel's Isle.

We continued to steer our course westward, till day-break on the 13th of August, when we saw land bearing W. by S. and hauled towards it. At 11 o'clock in the forenoon, we saw more land in the W. S. W. At noon, the first land that we saw, which proved to be an island, bore W.½ S. distant about five leagues, and had the appearance of a sugar loaf; the middle of the other land, which was also an island, and appeared in a peak, bore W. S. W. distant six leagues. To the first, which is nearly circular, and three miles over, I gave the name of BOSCAWEN'S ISLAND; and the other, which is three miles and a half long, and two broad, I called KEPPEL'S ISLE. Port Royal at this time bore E. 4° 10′S. distant 478 leagues.

At two o'clock, being about two miles distant from Boscawen's Island, we saw several of the inhabitants; but Keppel's Isle being to windward, and appearing more likely to assord us anchorage, we hauled up for it. At six, it was not

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1767. August.

Thursday 13.

more than a mile and an half distant, and, with our glasses, we saw many of the inhabitants upon the beach; but there being breakers at a considerable distance from the shore, we stood off and on all night.

Friday 14.

At four o'clock the next morning, we sent off the boats to sound, and visit the island; and as soon as it was light, we ran down and lay over-against the middle of it. At noon, the boats returned, and reported that they had run within a cable's length of the island, but could find no ground: that seeing a reef of rocks lie off it, they had hauled round it, and got into a large deep bay which was full of rocks: that they then sounded without the bay, and found anchorage from 14 to 20 fathom, with a bottom of sand and coral: that afterwards they went again into the bay, and found a rivulet of water, but the shore being rocky, went in search of a better landing-place, which they found about half a mile farther, and went ashore. They reported also, that from the water to this landing-place, a good rolling-way might be made for supplying the ship, but that a strong guard would be necessary, to prevent molestation from the inhabitants. They saw no hogs, but brought off two fowls and some cocoa-nuts, plantains and bananas. While the boats were on shore, two canoes came up to them with six men: they seemed to be peaceably inclined, and were much the same kind of people as the inhabitants of King George's Island, but they were clothed in a kind of matting, and the first joint of their little fingers had been taken off; at the same time about fifty more came down from the country, to within about an hundred yards of them, but would advance no farther. When our people had made what observations they could, they put off, and three of the natives from the canoes came into one of the boats, but when she got about half a mile from the shore, they all suddenly jumped overboard and swam back again.

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1767. August.

Friday 14.

Having received this account, I considered that the watering here would be tedious, and attended with great fatigue: that it was now the depth of winter in the southern hemisphere, that the ship was leaky, that the rudder shook the stern very much, and that what other damage she might have received in her bottom could not be known. That for these reasons, she was very unfit for the bad weather which she would certainly meet with either in going round Cape Horn, or through the Streight of Magellan: that if she should get safely through the Streight, or round the Cape, it would be absolutely necessary for her to refresh in some port, but in that case no port would be in her reach; I therefore determined to make the best of my way to Tinian, Batavia, and so to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope. By this rout, as far as we could judge, we should sooner be at home; and if the ship should prove not to be in a condition to make the whole voyage, we should still save our lives, as from this place to Batavia we should probably have a calm sea, and be not far from a port.

In consequence of this resolution, at noon I bore away, and passed Boscawen's Island without visiting it. It is a high round island, abounding in wood, and full of people; but Keppel's Isle is by far the largest and the best of the two.

Boscawen's Island lies in latitude 15° 50′S. longitude 175° W. and Keppel's Isle in latitude 15° 55′S. longitude 175° 3′W.

Sunday 16.

We continued a W.N.W. course till 10 o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 16th, when we saw land bearing N. by E. and hauled up for it. At noon, we were within three leagues of it: the land within shore appeared to be high, but at the water-side it was low, and had a pleasant appearance; the whole seemed to be surrounded by reefs, that ran two or three miles into the sea. As we failed along the shore, which was covered with cocoa-nut trees,

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1767. August.

Sunday 16.

we saw a few huts, and smoke in several parts up the country. Soon after we hauled without a reef of rocks, to get round the lee-side of the island, and at the same time sent out the boats to sound, and examine the coast.

The boats rowed close along the shore, and found it rocky, with trees growing close down to the water-side. These trees were of different sorts, many of them very large, but had no fruit: on the lee-side, however, there were a few cocoa-nuts, but not a single habitation was to be seen. They discovered several small rills of water, which, by clearing, might have been made to run in a larger stream. Soon after they had got close to the shore, several canoes came up to them, each having six or eight men on board. They appeared to be a robust, active people, and were quite naked, except a kind of mat that was wrapped round their middle. They were armed with large maces or clubs, such as Hercules is represented with, two of which they sold to the Master for a nail or two, and some trinkets. As our people had seen no animal, either bird or beast, except sea-fowl, they were very desirous to learn of the natives whether they had either, but could not make themselves understood. It appears that during this conference, a design was formed to seize our cutter, for one of the Indians suddenly laid hold of her painter, and hauled her upon the rocks. Our people endeavoured, in vain, to make them desist, till they fired a musket cross the nose of the man that was most active in the mischief. No hurt was done; but the fire and report so affrighted them, that they made off with great precipitation. Both our boats then put off, but the water had fallen so suddenly that they found it very difficult to get back to the ship; for when they came into deep water they found the points of rocks standing up, and the whole reef, except in one part, was now dry, and a great sea broke over it. The Indians probably perceived their distress, for they turned back, and

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1767. August.

Sunday 16.

followed them in their canoes all along the reef till they got to the breach, and then seeing them clear, and making way fast towards the ship, they returned.

About six in the evening, it being then dark, the boats returned, and the Master told me, that all within the reef was rocky, but that in two or three places, at about two cables' length without it, there was anchorage in 18, 14, and 12 fathom, upon sand and coral. The breach in the reef he found to be about 60 fathom broad, and here, if pressed by necessity, he said a ship might anchor or moor in 8 fathom; but that it would not be safe to moor with a greater length than half a cable.

Wallis's Island.

When I had hoisted the boats in, I ran down four miles to leeward, where we lay till the morning; and then, finding that the current had set us out of sight of the island, I made fail. The officers did me the honour to call this island after my name. WALLIS'S ISLAND lies in latitude 13° 18′S. longitude 177° W.

As the latitudes and longitudes of all these islands are accurately laid down, and plans of them delivered in to the Admiralty, it will be easy for any ship, that shall hereafter navigate these seas, to find any of them, either to refresh or to make farther discoveries of their produce.

I thought it very remarkable, that although we found no kind of metal in any of these islands, yet the inhabitants of all of them, the moment they got a piece of iron in their possession, began to sharpen it, but made no such attempt on brass or copper.

Friday 28.

We continued to steer N. westerly, and many birds were from time to time seen about the ship till the 28th, when her longitude being, by observation, 187° 24′W. we crossed the line into North latitude. Among the birds that came about the ship, one which we caught exactly resembled a dove in size, shape, and colour. It had red legs,

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1767. August.

and was web-footed. We also saw several plantain leaves, and cocoa-nuts, pass by the ship.

Saturday 29.

On Saturday the 29th, about two o'clock in the afternoon, being in latitude 2° 50′N. longitude 188° W. we crossed a great rippling, which stretched from the N. E. to the S. W. as far as the eye could reach from the mast-head. We sounded, but had no bottom with a line of two hundred fathoms.

September.

Thursday 3.

On Thursday the 3d of September, at five o'clock in the morning, we saw land bearing E. N. E. distant about five miles: in about half an hour we saw more land in the N. W. and at six, saw in the N. E. an Indian proa, such as is described in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. Perceiving that she stood towards us, we hoisted Spanish colours; but when she came within about two miles of us, she tacked, and stood from us to the N. N. W. and in a short time was out of sight.

At eight o'clock, the islands which I judged to be two of the Piscadores, bore from S. W. by W. to W. and to windward, from N. by E. to N. E. and had the appearance of small flat keys. They were distant about three leagues; but many others, much farther off, were in sight. The latitude of one of those islands is 11° N. longitude 192° 30′W.; and the other 11° 20′N. longitude 192° 58′W.

Monday 7.

On the 7th, we saw a curlieu and a pewit, and on the 9th we caught a land-bird, very much resembling a starling.

Thursday 17.

Friday 18.

On the 17th, we saw two gannets, and judged the island of Tinian to bear West, at about one and thirty leagues distance; our latitude being 15° N. and our longitude 212° 30′W. At six o'clock, the next morning, we saw the island of Saypan, bearing W. by N. distant about ten leagues. In

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1767. September.

Saturday 19.

the afternoon, we saw Tinian, and made sail for the road; where, at nine o'clock in the morning, of Saturday the 19th, we came to an anchor in two and twenty fathom, sandy ground, at about a mile distant from the shore, and half a mile from the reef.

CHAP. XI.

Some Account of the present State of the Island of Tinian, and our Employment there; with what happened in the Run from thence to Batavia.

AS soon as the ship was secured, I sent the boats on shore to erect tents, and bring off some refreshments; and about noon they returned, with some cocoa-nuts, limes, and oranges.

In the evening, the tents being erected, I sent the Surgeon, and all the invalids on shore, with two months provisions, of every kind, for forty men, the smith's forge, and a chest of carpenter's tools. I then landed myself, with the First Lieutenant, both of us being in a very sickly condition, taking with us also a mate, and twelve men, to go up the country and hunt for cattle.

Sunday 20.

When we first came to an anchor, the North part of the bay bore N. 39° W. Cocoa Point N. 7° W. the landing-place N.E. by N. and the south end of the island S. 28° E.; but next morning, the Master having sounded all the bay, and being of opinion that there was a better situation to the southward, we warped the ship a little way up, and moored with a cable each way.

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1767. September.

Sunday 20.

At six in the evening, the hunters brought in a fine young bull, of near four hundred weight: part of it we kept on shore, and sent the rest on board, with bread-fruit, limes, and oranges.

Monday 21.

Early the next morning, the carpenters were set at work to caulk the ship all over, and put every thing in repair as far as possible. All the sails were also got on shore, and the sail-makers employed to mend them: the armourers at the same time were busy in repairing the iron-work, and making new chains for the rudder. The number of people now on shore, sick and well, was fifty-three.

In this place we got beef, pork, poultry, papaw apples, bread-fruit, limes, oranges, and every refreshment that is mentioned in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. The sick began to recover from the day they first went on shore: the air, however, was so different here from what we found it in King George's Island, that flesh meat, which there kept sweet two days, could here be scarcely kept sweet one. There had been many cocoa-nut trees near the landing-place, but they had been all wastefully cut down for the fruit, and none being grown up in their stead, we were forced to go three miles into the country before a single nut could be procured. The hunters also suffered incredible fatigue, for they were frequently obliged to go ten or twelve miles through one continued thicket, and the cattle were so wild that it was very difficult to come near them, so that I was obliged to relieve one party by another; and it being reported that cattle were more plenty at the North end of the island, but that the hunters being quite exhausted with fatigue when they got thither, were not able to kill them, much less to bring them down, I sent Mr. Gore, with fourteen men, to establish themselves in that part of the island, and ordered that a boat should go every morning, at day-break, to bring in what

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1767. September.

Monday 21.

October.

Thursday 15.

they should kill. In the mean time, the ship was laid by the stern to get at some of the copper sheathing which had been much torn; and in repairing the copper, the carpenter discovered and stopped a large leak under the lining of the knee of the head, by which we had reason to hope most of the water that the vessel had lately admitted in bad weather, came in. During our stay here, I ordered all the people on shore by turns, and by the 15th of October, all the sick being recovered, our wood and water completed, and the ship made fit for the sea, we got every thing off the shore, and embarked all our men from the watering-place, each having, at least, five hundred limes, and there being several tubs full on the quarter-deck, for every one to squeeze into his water as he should think fit.

Friday 16.

At break of day, on Friday the 16th, we weighed, and sailed out of the bay, sending the boats at the same time to the North end of the island, to bring off Mr. Gore and his hunters. At noon, we received them and their tents on board, with a fine large bull which they had just killed.

While we lay at anchor in this place, we had many observations for the latitude and longitude, from which we drew up the following table:

Latitude of the ship, as she lay at anchor 14° 55′ N.long. 214° 15′W.
Latitude of the watering-place 14 59 N.
Longitude of the body of Tinian 214 W.
Longitude of Tinian Road 214 8 W.
Medium of longitude, observed at Tinian 214 7

Wednes. 21.

Thursday 22.

We continued a westerly course, inclining somewhat to the North, till the 21st, when, Tinian bearing S. 71° 40′E. distant 277 leagues, we saw many birds; and the next day, saw three resembling gannets, of the same kind that we had seen when we were within about thirty leagues of Tinian.

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1767. October.

Friday 23.

Saturday 24.

Sunday 25.

On the 23d, we had much thunder, lightning, and rain, with strong gales and a great sea. The ship laboured very much, and the rudder being loose again, shook the stern as much as ever. The next day, we saw several small land birds, and the gales continuing, we split the gib and main-top-mast-stay-sail; the wind increased all the remainder of the day, and all night, and on Sunday it blew a storm. The fore-sail and mizen-sail were torn to pieces, and lost; and having bent others, we wore and stood under a reefed fore-sail, and balanced mizen. We had the mortification to find the ship admit more water than usual. We got the top-gallant masts down upon the deck, and took the gib-boom in; soon after which a sea struck the ship upon the bow, and washed away the round-houses, with all the rails of the head, and every thing that was upon the fore-castle: we were, however, obliged to carry as much sail as the ship would bear, being, by Lord Anson's account, very near the Bashee Islands, and, by Mr. Byron's, not more than thirty leagues, with a lee-shore.

Monday 26.

The next morning, we saw several ducks and shags, some small land birds, and a great number of horse-flies about the ship; but had no ground with 160 fathom. The incessant and heavy rain had kept every man on board constantly wet to the skin for more than two days and two nights; the weather was still very dark, and the sea was continually breaking over the ship.

Tuesday 27.

On the 27th, the darkness, rain, and tempest continuing, a mountainous sea that broke over us, staved all the half-ports to pieces on the starboard-side, broke all the iron stanchions on the gunwale, washed the boat off the skids, and carried many things overboard. We had, however, this day, a gleam of sunshine, sufficient to determine our lati-

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1767. October.

tude, which we found to be 20° 50′N. and the ship appeared to be fifty minutes North of her reckoning.

Wednes. 28.

The weather now became more moderate. At noon, on the 28th, we altered our course, steering S. by W.; and at half an hour after one, we saw the Bashee Islands bearing from S. by E. to S. S. E. distant about six leagues. These islands are all high, but the northermost is higher than the rest. By an observation made this day, we found Grafton Island to lie in the longitude of 239° W. and in latitude of 21° 4′N. At midnight, the weather being very dark, with sudden gusts of wind, we missed Edmund Morgan, a marine taylor, whom we supposed to have fallen overboard, having reason to fear that he had drunk more than his allowance.

November.

Tuesday 3.

From this time, to the 3d of November, we found the ship every day from ten to fifteen miles North of her reckoning. The day before we had seen several gannets; but upon sounding many times during the day and the next night, we had no ground with 160 fathom. This morning, at seven o'clock, we saw a ledge of breakers bearing S. W. at the distance of about three miles: we hauled off from them, and at eleven saw more breakers bearing S. W. by S. distant about five miles. At noon, we hauled off the east end of them, from which we were not distant more than a quarter of a mile.

The first shoal lies in latitude 11° 8′N.; longitude, from Bashee Islands, 8° W.

The second shoal lies in latitude 10° 46′N.; longitude of the N. E. end, from Bashee Islands, 8° 13′W.

We saw much foul ground to the S. and S. S. E. but had no bottom with 150 fathom. Before one, however, we saw shoal water on the larboard bow, and standing from it, passed

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1767. November.

Tuesday 3.

Sandy Isle.

Small Key.

Long Island.

another ledge at two. At three, we saw a low sandy point, which I called SANDY ISLE, bearing N. ½ E. distant about two miles. At five, we saw a small island, which I called SMALL KEY, bearing N. by E. distant about five miles; and soon after, another larger, which I called LONG ISLAND, beyond it. At six in the evening, the largest island being distant between two and three leagues, we brought to, and stood off and on from mid-night till break of day, continually sounding, but having no ground.

Wednes. 4.

New Island.

At seven in the morning, of Wednesday the 4th, we saw another island, which I called NEW ISLAND, bearing S. E. by E. and a large reef of rocks bearing S. ½ W. distant six miles. At ten, we saw breakers from W. S. W. to W. by N. At noon, the North end of the great reef bore S. E. by E. distant two leagues, and another reef bore W. N. W. at about the same distance.

The latitudes and longitudes of these islands and shoals, appear by the following table:

Lat. N. Long. W.
Sandy Isle 10° 40′ 247° 12′
Small Key 10 37 247 16
Long Island 10 20 247 24
New Island 10 10 247 40
First Shoal 10 14 247 36
Second Shoal 10 4 247 45
Third Shoal 10 5 247 50

Soon after we saw another reef in latitude 10° 15′, longitude 248°.

Thursday 5.

The next day, we found the ship, which had for some time been to the northward of her reckoning, eight miles to the southward.

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1767. November.

Saturday 7.

We continued our course, often sounding, but finding no bottom. On the 7th, we passed through several ripplings of a current, and saw great quantities of drift-wood, cocoa-nut leaves, things like cones of firs, and weed, which swam in a stream N. E. and S. W. We had now soundings at sixty-five fathom, with brown sand, small shells, and stones; and at noon, found the ship again to the northward of her reckoning ten miles, and had decreased our soundings to twenty-eight fathom, with the same ground. Our latitude was 8° 36′N. longitude 253° W. At two o'clock, we saw the island of Condore, from the mast-head, bearing W. ½ N. At four, we had ground with twenty fathom; the island bearing from W. to N. W. by W. distant about thirteen leagues, and having the appearance of high hummocks. The latitude of this island is 8° 40′N.; longitude, by our reckoning, 254° 15′.

Sunday 8.

We now altered our course; and the next morning, I took from the petty officers and seamen, all the log and journal books relative to the voyage.

Tuesday 10.

Friday 13.

On the 10th, being in latitude 5° 20′N. longitude 255° W. we found a current setting four fathom an hour S. by W.; and during our course to the islands Timoun, Aros, and Pesang, which we saw about six in the afternoon of the 13th, we were every day from ten to twenty miles southward of our reckoning.

Monday 16.

On the 16th, at ten in the morning, we crossed the line again into South latitude, in longitude 255°; and soon after we saw two islands, one bearing S. by E. distant five leagues, the other S. by W. distant seven leagues.

Tuesday 17.

The next morning, the weather became very dark and tempestuous, with heavy rain; we therefore clewed all up,

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1767. November.

Wednes. 18.

and lay by till we could see about us. The two islands proved to be Pulo Toté, and Pulo Weste; and having made sail till one o'clock, we saw the Seven Islands. We continued our course till two the next morning, the weather being very dark, with heavy squalls of wind, and much lightning and rain. While one of these blasts was blowing with all its violence, and the darkness was so thick that we could not see from one part of the ship to the other, we suddenly discovered, by a flash of lightning, a large vessel close aboard of us. The steersman instantly put the helm a-lec, and the ship answering her rudder, we just cleared each other. This was the first ship we had seen since we parted with the Swallow; and it blew so hard, that not being able to understand any thing that was said, we could not learn to what nation she belonged.

At six, the weather having cleared up, we saw a sail at anchor in the E. S. E.; and at noon, we saw land in the W. N. W. which proved to be Pulo Taya, Pulo Toté bearing S.35°E. Pulo Weste S. 13° E. At six in the evening, we anchored in fifteen fathom, with sandy ground; and observed a current running E. N. E. at the rate of five fathom an hour.

Thursday 19.

At six in the morning, we weighed and made sail, and soon after saw two vessels a-head; but at six in the evening, finding that we lost much ground, we came again to an anchor in fifteen fathom, with a fine sandy bottom.

Friday 20.

At six o'clock the next morning, the current being slack, we hove short on the small bower, which soon after parted at a third from the clench. We immediately took in the cable, and perceived that, although we had sounded with great care before we anchored, and found the bottom clear, it had been cut through by the rocks. After some time, the cur-

VOL. I. T t t

[page] 506

1767. November.

Friday 20.

rent becoming strong, a fresh gale springing up, and the ship being a great way to the leeward, I made sail, in hopes to get up and recover the anchor; but I found at last that it was impossible, without anchoring again; and being afraid of the consequences of doing that in foul ground, I determined to stand on, especially as the weather was become squally.

Saturday 21.

Sunday 22.

Monday 30.

We were, however, able to make very little way till the next day, when, about three in the afternoon, we saw Monopin Hill bearing S. ¾ E. and advancing very little, saw the coast of Sumatra at half an hour after six the next morning. We continued to suffer great delay by currents and calms, but on Monday the 30th of November, we anchored in Batavia Road.

[page] 507

CHAP. XII.

Transactions at Batavia, and an Account of the Passage from thence to the Cape of Good Hope.

1767. December.

WE found here fourteen sail of Dutch East India ships, a great number of small vessels, and his Majesty's ship the Falmouth, lying upon the mud in a rotten condition.

Tuesday 1.

I sent an officer on shore, to acquaint the Governor of our arrival, to obtain his permission to purchase refreshments, and to tell him that I would salute him, if he would engage to return an equal number of guns. The Governor readily agreed; and at sun-rise, on Tuesday the 1st of December, I saluted him with thirteen guns, which he returned with fourteen from the fort. Soon after, the Purser sent off some fresh beef, and plenty of vegetables, which I ordered to be served immediately; at the same time I called the ship's company together, and told them that I would not suffer any liquor to come on board, and would severely punish those who should attempt to bring any: and I took some pains to reconcile them to this regulation, by affuring them that in this country intemperance would inevitably destroy them. As a further preservative, I suffered not a man to go on shore, except those who were upon duty; and took care that none even of these straggled into the town.

Wednes. 2.

On the 2d, I sent the boatswain and the carpenter, with the carpenter of the Falmouth, to look at such of her stores as had been landed at Onrust, with orders, that if any were

T t t 2

[page] 508

1767. December.

Wednes. 2.

fit for our use they should be bought. At their return, they informed me that all the stores they had seen were rotten, and unfit for use, except one pair of tacks, which they brought with them: the masts, yards, and cables were all dropping to pieces, and even the iron work was so rusty that it was worth nothing. They also went on board the Falmouth to examine her hulk, and found her in so shattered a condition, that in their opinion she could not be kept together during the next monsoon. Many of her ports were washed into one, the stern-post was quite decayed, and there was no place in her where a man could be sheltered from the weather. The few people who belonged to her were in as bad a state as their vessel, being quite broken and worn down, and expecting to be drowned as soon as the monsoon should set in.

Saturday 5.

Among other necessaries, we were in want of an anchor, having lost two, and of three inch rope for rounding the cables; but the officers whom I had sent to procure these articles, reported, that the price which had been demanded for them was so exorbitant, that they had not agreed to give it. On Saturday the 5th, therefore, I went on shore myself, for the first time, and visited the different storehouses and arsenals, but found it impossible to make a better bargain than my officers. I suspected that the dealers took advantage of our apparent necessity, and supposing that we could not sail without what we had offered to purchase, determined to extort from us more than four times its value. I was, however, resolved to make any shift rather than submit to what I thought a shameful imposition, and therefore told them that I should certainly sail on the next Tuesday; that if they would agree to my terms in the mean time, I would take the things I had treated for; if not, that I would sail without them.

[page] 509

1767. December.

Saturday 5.

Soon after I returned on board, I received a petition from the Warrant-Officers of the Falmouth, representing, that there was nothing for them to look after: that the Gunner had been long dead, and his stores spoiled, particularly the powder, which, by order of the Dutch, had been thrown into the sea: that the boatswain, by vexation and distress, had lost his senses, and was then a deplorable object in a Dutch hospital: that all his stores had been long spoiled and rotten, the roof of the storehouse having fallen in during a wet monsoon, and left them exposed many months, all endeavours to procure another place to put them in being ineffectual: that the carpenter was in a dying condition, and the cook a wounded cripple. For these reasons, they requested that I would take them home, or at least dismiss them from their charge. It was with the greatest regret and compassion that I told these unhappy people it was not in my power to relieve them, and that as they had received charge of stores, they must wait orders from home. They replied, that they had never received a single order from England since they had been left here, and earnestly intreated that I would make their distress known, that it might be relieved. They had, they said, ten years pay due, in the expectation of which they were grown old, and which now they would be content to forfeit, and go home sweepers, rather than continue to suffer the miseries of their present situation, which were indeed very great. They were not suffered to spend a single night on shore, whatever was their condition, and when they were sick, no one visited them on board; they were, besides, robbed by the Malays, and in perpetual dread of being destroyed by them, as they had a short time before burnt the Siam prize. I assured them that I would do my utmost to procure them relief, and they left me with tears in their eyes.

5

[page] 510

1767. December.

Saturday 5.

Tuesday 8.

As I heard nothing more of the anchor and rope for which I had been in treaty, I made all ready for sea. The ship's company had continued healthy and sober, and been served with fresh beef every day, from the time of our first coming to an anchor in the Road; we had also some beef, and a live ox, to carry out with us. We had now only one man upon the sick list, except a seaman, who had been afflicted with rheumatic pains ever since our leaving the Streight of Magellan: and at six o'clock in the morning, of Tuesday the 8th of December, after a stay of just one week, we set sail.

Friday 11.

Saturday 12.

On the 11th, at noon, we were off a small island called the Cap, between the coasts of Sumatra and Java, and several of our people fell down with colds and fluxes. The next day, a Dutch boat came on board, and sold us some turtle, which was served to the ship's company. At night, being at the distance of about two miles from the Java shore, we saw an incredible number of lights upon the beach, which we supposed were intended to draw the fish near it, as we had seen the same appearence at other places.

Monday 14.

Tuesday 5.

Saturday 19.

Sunday 20.

On Monday the 14th, we anchored off Prince's Island, and began to take in wood and water. The next morning, the natives came in with turtle, poultry, and hog-deer, which we bought at a reasonable price. We continued here, fitting the ship for the sea, till the 19th, during which time many of the people began to complain of intermitting disorders, something like an ague. At six o'clock the next morning, having completed our wood, and taken on board seventy-six tons of water, we made sail.

While we lay here, one of the seamen fell from the main yard into the barge, which lay along side the ship. His body was dreadfully bruised, and many of his bones were broken: it happened also, that in his fall he struck two other

7

[page] 511

1767. December.

Thursday 24.

January.

Friday 1.

men, one of whom was so much hurt that he continued speechless till the 24th, and then died, though the other had only one of his toes broken. We had now no less than sixteen upon the sick list, and by the 1st of January, the number was increased to forty; we had buried three, among whom was the Quarter-Master, George Lewis, who was a diligent, sober man, and the more useful, as he spoke both the Spanish and Portuguese languages. The diseases by which we suffered, were fluxes, and fevers of the putrid kind, which are always contagious, and, for that reason alone, would be more fatal on board a ship than any other. The Surgeon's mate was very soon laid up, and those who were appointed to attend the sick, were always taken ill in a day or two after they had been upon that service. To remedy this evil, as much as it was in my power, I made a very large birth for the sick, by removing a great number of people from below to the half deck, which I hung with painted canvass, keeping it constantly clean, and directing it to be washed with vinegar, and fumigated once or twice a day. Our water was well tasted, and was kept constantly ventilated; a large piece of iron also, used for the melting of tar, and called a loggerhead, was heated red hot, and quenched in it before it was given out to be drank. The sick had also wine instead of grog, and salep or sago every morning for breakfast: two days in a week they had mutton broth, and had a fowl or two given them on the intermediate days; they had, besides, plenty of rice and sugar, and frequently malt meshed; so that perhaps people in a sickly ship had never so many refreshments before: the Surgeon also was indefatigable; yet, with all these advantages, the sickness on board gained ground. In the mean time, to aggravate our misfortune, the ship made more than three

[page] 512

1768. January.

feet water in a watch; and all her upper works were very open and loose.

Sunday 10.

By the 10th of January, the sickness began, in some degree, to abate, but more than half the company were so feeble, that they could scarcely crawl about. On this day, being in latitude 22° 41′S. longitude, by account, 300° 47′W. we saw many tropic birds about the ship.

Sunday 17.

On the 17th, being in latitude 27° 32′S. longitude 310° 36′W. we saw several all atrosses, and caught some bonettas. The ship was this day ten miles to the southward of her account.

Sunday 24.

On the 24th, in latitude 33° 40′S. longitude, by account, 328° 17′W. we met with a violent gale, which split the main-top-sail and the main-top mast-stay-sail all to pieces. The sea broke over the ship in a dreadful manner, the starboard rudder-chain was broken, and many of the booms were washed overboard. During the storm we saw several birds and butterflies; and our first attention, after it subsided, was to dry the bedding of the sick: at the same time, every one on board who could handle a needle was employed in repairing the sails, which were now in a shattered condition.

Tuesday 26.

Wednes. 27.

On the 26th and 27th, being in latitude 34° 16′, and becalmed, we had several observations, by which we determined the longitude of the ship to be 323° 30′; and it appeared that we were several degrees to the Eastward of our reckoning.

Saturday 30.

February.

Thursday 4

At six in the evening, of the 30th of January, we saw land, and on the 4th of February, we anchored in Table Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope.

Our run from Prince's Island to the Cape was, by our reckoning, 89 degrees longitude, which makes the longitude

[page] 513

1768. February.

of the Cape 345° W.; but the longitude of the Cape being, by observation, 342° 4′, it appeared that the ship was three degrees to the Eastward of her reckoning.

CHAP. XIII.

An Account of our Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Return of the Dolphin to England.

AS soon as the ship was at anchor, I sent an officer on shore, with the usual compliments to the Governor, who received him with great civility, telling him that we were welcome to all the refreshments and assistance that the Cape afforded, and that he would return our salute with the same number of guns.

We found riding here a Dutch Commodore, with sixteen sail of Dutch East Indiamen, a French East India ship, and the Admiral Watson, Captain Griffin, an East India packet boat, for Bengal. We saluted the Governor with thirteen guns, and he returned the same number; the Admiral Watson saluted us with eleven guns, and we returned nine; the French ship afterwards saluted us with nine guns, and we returned seven.

Having got off some mutton for the ship's company, with plenty of greens, I sent the Surgeon on shore to hire quarters for the sick, but he could procure none for less than two shillings a day, and a stipulation to pay more, if any of them should take the small-pox, which was then in almost every house, in proportion to the malignity of the disease.

VOL. I. U u u

[page] 514

1768. February.

The first expence being great, and it appearing, upon enquiry, that many of our people had never had the small-pox, so that the increase was likely to be considerable, besides the danger, I requested the Governor's permission to erect a tent upon a spacious plain, at about two miles distance from the town, called Green Point, and to send my people on shore thither during the day, under the care of an officer, to prevent their straggling. This permission the Governor immediately granted, and gave orders that they should suffer no molestation.

In this place, therefore, I ordered tents to be erected, and the Surgeon and his mate, with proper officers, to attend; at the same time strictly charging that no man should be suffered to go into the town, and that no liquor should be brought to the tents. All the sick, except two, left the ship early in the morning, with their provisions and firing; and for those that were reduced to great weakness, I ordered the Surgeon to procure such extraordinary provisions as he should think proper, particularly milk, though it was sold at an excessive price. About six in the evening, they returned on board, and seemed to be greatly refreshed. At the same time, being extremely ill myself, I was obliged to be put on shore, and carried about eight miles up the country, where I continued all the time the ship lay here; and when she was ready to sail, returned on board without having received the least benefit.

No time, however, was lost in refitting the vessel: the sails were all unbent, the yards and top-masts struck, the forge was set up, the carpenters were employed in caulking, the sail makers in mending the sails, the cooper in repairing the casks, the people in over-hauling the rigging, and the boats in filling water.

2

[page] 515

1768. February.

Wednes. 10.

By the 10th of February, the heavy work being nearly dispatched, twenty of the men who had had the small-pox, were permitted to go ashore at the town, and others, who were still liable to the distemper, were landed at some distance, with orders to go into the country, and return in the evening, which they punctually obeyed: this liberty, therefore, was continued to them all the while the vessel lay at this port, which produced so good an effect, that the ship's company, except the sick, who recovered very fast, had a more healthy and vigorous appearance than when they left England. We purchased here the necessaries that we endeavoured to procure at Batavia, at a reasonable price, besides canvas and other stores; we also procured fresh water by distillation, principally to shew the captains of the India-men, and their officers, that, upon an emergency, wholesome water might be procured at sea. At five o'clock in the morning, we put fifty-six gallons of salt water into the still, at seven it began to run, and in about five hours and a quarter afforded us six and thirty gallons of fresh water, at an expence of nine pounds of wood, and sixty-nine pounds of coals. Thirteen gallons and two quarts remained in the still, and that which came off had no ill taste, nor, as we had often experienced, any hurtful quality. I thought the shewing this experiment of the more consequence, as the being able to allow plenty of water not only for drink, but for boiling any kind of provision, and even for making tea and coffee, especially during long voyages, and in hot climates, conduces greatly to health, and is the means of saving many lives. I never once put my people to an allowance of water during this whole voyage, always using the still when we were reduced to five and forty tons, and preserving the rain water with the utmost diligence. I did not, however, allow water to be fetched away at pleasure, but the officer of

U u u 2

[page] 516

1768. February.

the watch had orders to give such as brought provisions of any kind, water sufficient to dress it, and a proper quantity also to such as brought tea and coffee.

Thursday 25.

Friday 26.

Saturday 27.

March.

Thursday 3.

On the 25th, the wood and water being nearly completed, and the ship almost ready for the sea, I ordered every body to go on board, and the sick tents to be brought off; the people being so well recovered, that in the whole ship's company there were but three men unable to do duty, and happily, since our leaving Batavia, we had lost but three. The next day, and the day following, the carpenters finished caulking all the out-works, the fore-castle, and the main-deck; we got all our bread on board from the shore, with a considerable quantity of straw, and thirty-four sheep for sea-stores. In the mean time I came on board, and having unmoored, lay waiting for a wind till the evening of Thursday the 3d of March, when a breeze springing up, we got under sail. While we were on shore at Green Point, we had an opportunity of making many celestial observations, by which, we determined Table Bay to lie in latitude 34° 2′S. longitude, from Greenwich, 18° 8′E. The variation of the needle, at this place, was 19° 30′W.

Monday 7.

On the 7th, being in latitude 29° 33′S. longitude, by account, 347° 38′the ship was eight miles to the Northward of her dead reckoning.

Sunday 13.

On the 13th, having sailed westward 360 degrees from the meridian of London, we had lost a day; I therefore called the latter part of this day Monday, March 14th.

Wednes. 16.

Thursday 17.

At six o'clock in the evening, of Wednesday the 16th, we saw the Island of Saint Helena, at the distance of about fourteen leagues; and at one the next morning, brought to. At break of day, we made sail for the island, and at nine, anchored in the bay. The fort saluted us with thirteen guns,

[page] 517

1768. March.

Thursday 17.

and we returned the same number. We found riding here the Northumberland Indiaman, Captain Milford, who saluted us with eleven guns, and we returned nine. We got out all the boats as soon as possible, and sent the empty casks to be filled with water; at the same time several of the people were employed to gather purslain, which grows here in great plenty. About two o'clock, I went on shore myself, and was saluted by the fort with thirteen guns, which I returned. The Governor and the principal gentlemen of the island did me the honour to meet me at the water-side, and having conducted me to the fort, told me, that it was expected I should make it my home during my stay.

Friday 18.

By noon the next day, our water was completed, and the ship was made ready for sea; soon after, she was unmoored, to take advantage of the first breeze, and at five in the afternoon, I returned on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was saluted with thirteen guns, and soon after, upon getting under way, I was saluted with thirteen more, both which I returned; the Northumberland Indiaman then saluted me with thirteen guns, so did the Osterly, which arrived here the evening before I made sail, and I returned the compliment with the same number.

Monday 21.

Tuesday 22.

Wednes. 23.

On the 21st, in the evening, we saw several men of war birds; and at midnight, heard many birds about the ship. At five o'clock in the morning of the 23d, we saw the Island of Ascension; and at eight, discovered a ship to the Eastward, who brought to, and hoisted a jack at her main-topmast-head, upon which we shewed our colours, and she then stood in for the land again. We ran down close along the north-east side of the island, and looked into the bay, but seeing no ship there, and it blowing a stiff gale, I made the best of my way.

Monday 28.

On Monday the 28th, we crossed the equator, and got again into North latitude.

6

[page] 518

1768. April.

Wednes. 13.

Sunday 17.

Tuesday 19.

On Wednesday, the 13th of April, we passed a great quantity of gulph weed; and on the 17th, we passed a great deal more. On the 19th, we saw two flocks of birds, and observing the water to be discoloured, we thought the ground might be reached, but, upon sounding, could find no bottom.

Sunday 24.

At five o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 24th, we saw the peak of the Island of Pico bearing N. N. E. at the distance of about eighteen leagues. We found, by observation, that Fyal lies in latitude 38° 20′N. longitude 28° 30′W. from London.

May. Wednes. 11.

No incident worth recording happened till about noon on the 11th of May, when, being in latitude 48° 44′N. longitude 7° 16′W. we saw a ship in chace of a floop, at which she fired several guns. We bore away, and at three, fired a gun at the chace, and brought her to; the ship to windward, being near the chace, immediately sent a boat on board her, and soon after, Captain Hammond, of his Majesty's sloop the Savage, came on board of me, and told me that the vessel he had chaced, when he first saw her, was in company with an Irish wherry, and that as soon as they discovered him to be a man of war, they took different ways; the wherry hauled the wind, and the other vessel bore away. That he at first hauled the wind, and stood after the wherry, but finding that he gained no ground, he bore away after the other vessel, which probably would also have escaped, if I had not stopped her, for that he gained very little ground in the chace. She appeared to be laden with tea, brandy, and other goods, from Roscoe in France; and though she was steering a south-west course, pretended to be bound to Bergen in Norway. She belonged to Liverpool, was called the Jenny, and commanded by one Robert Christian. Her brandy and tea were in small kegs and bags; and all ap-

[page] 519

1768. May.

pearances being strongly against her, I detained her, in order to be sent to England.

Friday 13.

Thursday 19.

Friday 20.

At half an hour after five, on the 13th, we saw the Islands of Scilly; on the 19th, I landed at Hastings in Sussex; and at four the next morning, the ship anchored safely in the Downs, it being just 637 days since her weighing anchor in Plymouth Sound. To this narrative, I have only to add, that the object of the voyage being discovery, it was my constant practice, during the whole time of my navigating those parts of the sea which are not perfectly known, to lie to every night, and make sail only in the day, that nothing might escape me.

[page] 520

A

TABLE

OF THE

LATITUDES and the LONGITUDES West of LONDON, with the Variation of the Needle, at several Ports, and Situations at Sea, from Observations made on board his Majesty's Ship the DOLPHIN; and her Nautical Reckoning during the Voyage which she made round the World in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768, under the Command of Captain SAMUEL WALLIS.

NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1766.
Lizard August 22. 50° 0′N. 5° 14′W. 21° 0′W.
Funchall Road, Madeira Sept. 8. 32 35 N. 18 0 W. 16° 40′W. 14 10 W.
Port Praja, St. Jaga Sept. 24. 14 53 N. 23 50 W. 8 20 W.
Port Desire Dec. 8. 47 56 S. 67 20 W. 66 24 W. 23 15 E.
Cape Virgin Mary Dec. 17. 52 24 S. 70 4 W. 69 6 W. 23 0 E.
Point Possession Dec. 23. 52 30 S. 70 11 W. 69 50 W. 22 40 E.
Point Porpass Dec. 26. 53 8 S. 71 0 W. 71 30 W. 22 50 E.
Port Famine Dec. 27. 53 43 S. 71 0 W. 71 32 W. 22 30 E.
1767.
Cape Froward Jan. 19. 54 3 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Holland Jan. 20. 53 58 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Gallant Jan. 23. 53 50 S. 22 40 E.
York Road Feb. 4. 53 40 S. 22 30 E.
Cape Quod Feb. 17. 53 33 S. 32 35 E.
Cape Notch March 4. 53 22 S. 23 0 E.
Cape Upright March 18. 53 5 S. 22 40 E.
Cape Pillar April 11. 52 46 S. 76 0 W. 23 0 E.
At Sea April 21. 42 30 S. 96 30 W. 95 46 W. 12 0 E.
At Sea May 4. 28 12 S. 99 0 W. 96 30 W. 6 0 E.
At Sea May 20. 21 0 S. 110 0 W. 106 47 W. 5 0 E.
At Sea May 23. 20 20 S. 116 54 W. 112 6 W. 5 0 E.
At Sea June 1. 20 38 S. 132 0 W. 127 45 W. 5 9 E.

[page] 521

TABLE of the LATITUDES and LONGITUDEs, &c continued.
NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1767.
At Sea June 3. 19° 30′S. 132° 30′W. 129° 50′W. 5° 40′E.
Whitsunday Island June 7. 19 26 S. 141 0 W. 137 56 W. 6 0 E.
Queen Charlotte's Island June 8. 19 18 S. 141 4 W. 138 4 W. 5 20 E.
Egmont Island June 11. 19 20 S. 141 27 W. 138 30 W. 6 0 E.
D. of Glocester's Island June 12. 19 11 S. 143 8 W. 140 6 W. 7 10 E.
D. of Cumberland's Island June 13. 19 18 S. 143 44 W. 140 34 W. 7 0 E.
Prince William Henry's Isl. June 13. 19 0 S. 144 4 W. 141 6 W. 7 0 E.
Osnaburgh Island June 17. 17 51 S. 150 27 W. 147 30 W. 6 0 E.
King George IIId's Island S. E. End June 19. 17 48 S. 151 30 W. 149 15 W. 6 0 E.
July 4. 17 30 S. 152 0 W. 150 0 W. 5 30 E.
Duke of York's Island July 27. 17 28 S. 152 12 W. 150 16 W. 6 0 E.
Sir C. Saunders's Island July 28. 17 28 S. 153 2 W. 151 4 W. 6 30 E.
Lord Howe's Island July 30. 16 46 S. 156 38 W. 154 13 W. 7 40 E.
Scilly Island July 31. 16 28 S. 157 22 W. 155 30 W. 8 0 E.
Boscawen's Island August 13. 15 50 S. 177 20 W. 175 10 W. 9 0 E.
Augustus Keppel's Island August 13. 15 53 S. 177 23 W. 175 13 W. 10 0 E.
Wallis's Island August 17. 13 18 S. 180 0 W. 177 0 W. 10 0 E.
Piscadores Islands South End Sept. 3. 11 0 N. 195 0 W. 192 30 W. 10 0 E.
11 20 N. 195 35 W. 193 0 W. 10 0
Tinian Sept. 30. 14 58 N. 215 40 W. 214 10 W. 6 20 E.
At Sea Oct. 17. 16 10 N. 218 0 W. 216 25 W. 5 15 E.
Grafton's Island Oct. 29. 21 4 N. 241 0 W. 239 0 W. 1 3 W.
Pulo Aroe Nov. 15. 2 28 N. 258 0 W. 255 0 W. 1 0 W.
Lucipara Nov. 26. 4 10 S. 254 46 W. None.
Batavia Dec. 1. 6 8 S. 254 30 W. 1 25 W.
Prince's Island Dec. 16. 1768. 6 41 S. 256 0 W. 256 30 W. 1 0 W.
1768.
At Sea Jan. 26. 34 24 S. 328 0 W. 323 30 W. 24 0 W.
At Sea Jan. 27. 34 14 S. 324 0 W. 323 13 W. 24 0 W.
Cape of Good Hope Feb. 11. 34 0 S. 345 0 W. 342 0 W. 19 30 W.
At Sea March 15. 16 44 S. 3 0 W. 2 0 W. 13 0 W.

VOL. I. X x x

[page] 522

TABLE of the LATITUDES and LONGITUDES, &c. concluded.
NAMES of PLACES. Time when. Latitude in. Longitude supposed. Longitude observed by Dr. Masculine's Method. Variation.
1768.
At Sea March 15. 16° 36′S. 2° 0′W. 2° 5′W. 12° 50′W.
St. Helena March 19. 15 57 S. 5 49 W. 5 40 W. 12 47 W.
Ascension March 23. 7 58 S. 14 18 W. 14 4 W. 9 53 W.
At Sea March 24. 7 28 S. 14 30 W. 14 38 W. 10 0 W.
At Sea April 8. 15 4 N. 30 0 W. 34 30 W. 4 48 W.
At Sea April 11. 21 28 N. 36 0 W. 36 37 W. 4 30 W.
At Sea April 21. 33 55 N. 32 0 W. 33 0 W. 11 34 W.
At Sea April 23. 36 15 N. 30 0 W. 29 31 W. 14 30 W.
At Sea May 10. 49 43 N. 6 0 W. 7 52 W. 22 30 W.
At Sea May 11. 48 48 N. 7 30 W. 8 19 W.
St. Agnus's Light-house May 13. 49 58 N. 7 14 W. 7 8 W. 20 0 W.

 


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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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